Sample records for broadband strong motions

  1. SCEC Broadband Platform Strong Ground Motion Simulations (United States)

    Kumar, S.; Callaghan, S.; Maechling, P. J.; Olsen, K. B.; Archuleta, R. J.; Somerville, P. G.; Graves, R. W.; Jordan, T. H.; Broadband Platform Working Group


    The Southern California Earthquake Center (SCEC) Broadband Platform is a collaborative software development project involving SCEC researchers, graduate students, and the SCEC Community Modeling Environment. The goal of the SCEC Broadband Simulation Platform is to generate broadband (0-10 Hz) ground motions for earthquakes using deterministic low-frequency and stochastic high-frequency simulations. SCEC developers have integrated complex scientific modules for rupture generation, low-frequency deterministic seismogram synthesis, high-frequency stochastic seismogram synthesis, and non-linear site effects calculation into a system that supports easy on-demand computation of broadband seismograms. The SCEC Broadband platform has two primary modes of operation, validation mode, and scenario mode. In validation mode, the earthquake modeling software calculates broadband seismograms for one of three earthquakes, Northridge, Loma Prieta, or Landers at sites with observed strong motion data. Then, the platform calculates goodness of fit measurements that quantify how well the model-based broadband seismograms match the observed seismograms for each event. In scenario mode, the user can specify a scenario earthquake and a list of sites and calculate ground motions at each site for the scenario event. In February 2011, SCEC released Broadband Platform 11.2 as an open-source scientific software distribution. Since that time, we have continued development of the platform by adding a new site response module and new goodness of fit measures by Mayhew and Olsen. Along with a source code distribution of the Broadband Platform, we now offer a virtual software image distribution of the platform to support its use on a variety of computing hardware and operating systems.

  2. Broadband strong motion simulation in layered half-space using stochastic Green's function technique (United States)

    Hisada, Y.


    The stochastic Green’s function method, which simulates one component of the far-field S-waves from an extended fault plane at high frequencies (Kamae et al., J Struct Constr Eng Trans AIJ, 430:1 9, 1991), is extended to simulate the three components of the full waveform in layered half-spaces for broadband frequency range. The method firstly computes ground motions from small earthquakes, which correspond to the ruptures of sub-faults on a fault plane of a large earthquake, and secondly constructs the strong motions of the large earthquake by superposing the small ground motions using the empirical Green’s function technique (e.g., Irikura, Proc 7th Japan Earthq Eng Symp, 151 156, 1986). The broadband stochastic omega-square model is proposed as the moment rate functions of the small earthquakes, in which random and zero phases are used at higher and lower frequencies, respectively. The zero phases are introduced to simulate a smooth ramp function of the moment function with the duration of 1/fc s (fc: the corner frequency) and to reproduce coherent strong motions at low frequencies (i.e., the directivity pulse). As for the radiation coefficients, the theoretical values of double couple sources for lower frequencies and the theoretical isotropic values for the P-, SV-, and SH-waves (Onishi and Horike, J Struct Constr Eng Trans AIJ, 586:37 44, 2004) for high frequencies are used. The proposed method uses the theoretical Green’s functions of layered half-spaces instead of the far-field S-waves, which reproduce the complete waves including the direct and reflected P- and S-waves and surface waves at broadband frequencies. Finally, the proposed method is applied to the 1994 Northridge earthquake, and results show excellent agreement with the observation records at broadband frequencies. At the same time, the method still needs improvements especially because it underestimates the high-frequency vertical components in the near fault range. Nonetheless, the method

  3. Running On-Demand Strong Ground Motion Simulations with the Second-Generation Broadband Platform (United States)

    Callaghan, S.; Maechling, P. J.; Graves, R. W.; Somerville, P. G.; Collins, N.; Olsen, K. B.; Imperatori, W.; Jones, M.; Archuleta, R. J.; Schmedes, J.; Jordan, T. H.; Broadband Platform Working Group


    We have developed the second-generation Southern California Earthquake Center (SCEC) Broadband Platform by integrating scientific modeling codes into a system capable of computing broadband seismograms (0-10 Hz) for historical and scenario earthquakes in California. The SCEC Broadband Platform is a collaborative software development project involving SCEC researchers, graduate students, and the SCEC Community Modeling Environment (SCEC/CME) software development group. SCEC scientific groups have contributed software modules to the Broadband Platform including rupture generation, low-frequency deterministic seismogram synthesis, high-frequency stochastic seismogram synthesis, and non-linear site effects. These complex scientific codes have been integrated into a system that supports easy on-demand computation of broadband seismograms. The SCEC Broadband Platform is designed to be used by both scientific and engineering researchers familiar with ground motion simulations. Users may calculate broadband seismograms for both historical earthquakes (validation events including Northridge, Loma Prieta, and Landers) and user-defined earthquakes. Users may select among various codebases for rupture generation, low-frequency synthesis, high-frequency synthesis, and incorporation of site effects, with the option of running a goodness-of-fit comparison against observed or simulated seismograms. The platform produces a variety of data products, including broadband seismograms, rupture visualizations, and goodness-of-fit plots. The Broadband Platform was implemented using software development best practices that support software accuracy, reliability, and ease of use, including version control, user documentation, acceptance tests, and formal software releases. Users can install the platform on their own machine, verify that it is installed correctly, and run their own simulations on demand. The Broadband Platform enables users to run complex ground motion modeling codes without

  4. The SCEC Broadband Platform: Open-Source Software for Strong Ground Motion Simulation and Validation (United States)

    Goulet, C.; Silva, F.; Maechling, P. J.; Callaghan, S.; Jordan, T. H.


    The Southern California Earthquake Center (SCEC) Broadband Platform (BBP) is a carefully integrated collection of open-source scientific software programs that can simulate broadband (0-100Hz) ground motions for earthquakes at regional scales. The BBP scientific software modules implement kinematic rupture generation, low and high-frequency seismogram synthesis using wave propagation through 1D layered velocity structures, seismogram ground motion amplitude calculations, and goodness of fit measurements. These modules are integrated into a software system that provides user-defined, repeatable, calculation of ground motion seismograms, using multiple alternative ground motion simulation methods, and software utilities that can generate plots, charts, and maps. The BBP has been developed over the last five years in a collaborative scientific, engineering, and software development project involving geoscientists, earthquake engineers, graduate students, and SCEC scientific software developers. The BBP can run earthquake rupture and wave propagation modeling software to simulate ground motions for well-observed historical earthquakes and to quantify how well the simulated broadband seismograms match the observed seismograms. The BBP can also run simulations for hypothetical earthquakes. In this case, users input an earthquake location and magnitude description, a list of station locations, and a 1D velocity model for the region of interest, and the BBP software then calculates ground motions for the specified stations. The SCEC BBP software released in 2015 can be compiled and run on recent Linux systems with GNU compilers. It includes 5 simulation methods, 7 simulation regions covering California, Japan, and Eastern North America, the ability to compare simulation results against GMPEs, updated ground motion simulation methods, and a simplified command line user interface.

  5. The SCEC Broadband Platform: A Collaborative Open-Source Software Package for Strong Ground Motion Simulation and Validation (United States)

    Silva, F.; Maechling, P. J.; Goulet, C. A.; Somerville, P.; Jordan, T. H.


    The Southern California Earthquake Center (SCEC) Broadband Platform is a collaborative software development project involving geoscientists, earthquake engineers, graduate students, and the SCEC Community Modeling Environment. The SCEC Broadband Platform (BBP) is open-source scientific software that can generate broadband (0-100Hz) ground motions for earthquakes, integrating complex scientific modules that implement rupture generation, low and high-frequency seismogram synthesis, non-linear site effects calculation, and visualization into a software system that supports easy on-demand computation of seismograms. The Broadband Platform operates in two primary modes: validation simulations and scenario simulations. In validation mode, the Platform runs earthquake rupture and wave propagation modeling software to calculate seismograms for a well-observed historical earthquake. Then, the BBP calculates a number of goodness of fit measurements that quantify how well the model-based broadband seismograms match the observed seismograms for a certain event. Based on these results, the Platform can be used to tune and validate different numerical modeling techniques. In scenario mode, the Broadband Platform can run simulations for hypothetical (scenario) earthquakes. In this mode, users input an earthquake description, a list of station names and locations, and a 1D velocity model for their region of interest, and the Broadband Platform software then calculates ground motions for the specified stations. Working in close collaboration with scientists and research engineers, the SCEC software development group continues to add new capabilities to the Broadband Platform and to release new versions as open-source scientific software distributions that can be compiled and run on many Linux computer systems. Our latest release includes 5 simulation methods, 7 simulation regions covering California, Japan, and Eastern North America, the ability to compare simulation results

  6. Calculation of broadband time histories of ground motion: Comparison of methods and validation using strong-ground motion from the 1994 Northridge earthquake (United States)

    Hartzell, S.; Harmsen, S.; Frankel, A.; Larsen, S.


    This article compares techniques for calculating broadband time histories of ground motion in the near field of a finite fault by comparing synthetics with the strong-motion data set for the 1994 Northridge earthquake. Based on this comparison, a preferred methodology is presented. Ground-motion-simulation techniques are divided into two general methods: kinematic- and composite-fault models. Green's functions of three types are evaluated: stochastic, empirical, and theoretical. A hybrid scheme is found to give the best fit to the Northridge data. Low frequencies ( 1 Hz) are calculated using a composite-fault model with a fractal subevent size distribution and stochastic, bandlimited, white-noise Green's functions. At frequencies below 1 Hz, theoretical elastic-wave-propagation synthetics introduce proper seismic-phase arrivals of body waves and surface waves. The 3D velocity structure more accurately reproduces record durations for the deep sedimentary basin structures found in the Los Angeles region. At frequencies above 1 Hz, scattering effects become important and wave propagation is more accurately represented by stochastic Green's functions. A fractal subevent size distribution for the composite fault model ensures an ??-2 spectral shape over the entire frequency band considered (0.1-20 Hz).

  7. Simulation of strong ground motion for the 25 April 2015 Nepal (Gorkha) Mw 7.8 earthquake using the SCEC broadband platform (United States)

    M. C., Raghucharan; Somala, Surendra Nadh


    The 25th April 2015 Nepal (Gorkha) earthquake has been introduced into the SCEC BBP v15.3, and validation simulations are run using EXSIM methodology with the strong ground motion data of the earthquake. Synthetic seismograms are generated along with the response spectra for engineering applications. Goodness-of-fit metrics have been computed from response spectra for 14 stations located in the Central Indo-Gangetic Plains (CIGP). Plots of residuals are made as a function of hypocentral distance for various time periods. Spatial distribution of residuals as well as average residuals for all stations for the horizontal components are computed. The results demonstrate that there was a good match between the actual data and synthetics generated by the broadband platform. Finally, four of the widely used ground motion prediction equations around the world are chosen to compare how they predict the synthetics for Gorkha earthquake in CIGP.

  8. Broadband Strong Ground Motion Simulation For a Potential Mw 7.1 Earthquake on The Enriquillo Fault in Haiti (United States)

    Douilly, R.; Mavroeidis, G. P.; Calais, E.


    The devastating 2010 Haiti earthquake showed the need to be more vigilant toward mitigation for future earthquakes in the region. Previous studies have shown that this earthquake did not occur on the Enriquillo Fault, the main plate boundary fault running through the heavily populated Port-au-Prince region, but on the nearby and previously unknown Léogâne transpressional fault. Slip on that fault has increased stresses on the Enriquillo Fault mostly in the region closer to Port-au-Prince, the most populated city of the country. Here we investigate the ground shaking level in this region if a rupture similar to the Mw 7.0 2010 Haiti earthquake occurred on the Enriquillo fault. We use a finite element method and assumptions on regional stress to simulate low frequency dynamic rupture propagation for a 53 km long segment. We introduce some heterogeneity by creating two slip patches with shear traction 10% greater than the initial shear traction on the fault. The final slip distribution is similar in distribution and magnitude to previous finite fault inversions for the 2010 Haiti earthquake. The high-frequency ground motion components are calculated using the specific barrier model, and the hybrid synthetics are obtained by combining the low-frequencies (f 1Hz) from the stochastic simulation using matched filtering at a crossover frequency of 1 Hz. The average horizontal peak ground acceleration, computed at several sites of interest through Port-au-Prince, has a value of 0.35g. We also compute response spectra at those sites and compare them to the spectra from the microzonation study.

  9. Broad-band strong motion simulations coupling k-square kinematic source models with empirical Green's functions: the 2009 L'Aquila earthquake (United States)

    Del Gaudio, Sergio; Causse, Mathieu; Festa, Gaetano


    The use of simulated accelerograms may improve the evaluation of the seismic hazard when an accurate modelling of both source and propagation is performed. In this paper, we performed broad-band simulations of the 2009, M 6.3 L'Aquila earthquake, coupling a k-2 kinematic model for the seismic source with empirical Green's functions (EGFs) as propagators. We extracted 10 EGFs candidates from a database of aftershocks satisfying quality criteria based on signal-to-noise ratio, fault proximity, small magnitude, similar focal mechanism and stress drop. For comparison with real observations, we also derived a low-frequency kinematic model, based on inversion of ground displacement as integrated from strong motion data. Kinematic properties of the inverted model (rupture velocity, position of the rupture nucleation, low-frequency slip and roughness degree of slip heterogeneity) were used as constraints in the k-2 model, to test the use of a single specific EGF against the use of the whole set of EGFs. Comparison to real observations based on spectral and peak ground acceleration shows that the use of all available EGFs improves the fit of simulations to real data. Moreover the epistemic variability related to the selection of a specific EGF is significantly larger (two to three times) than recent observations of between event variability, that is the variability associated with the randomness of the rupture process. We finally performed `blind' simulations releasing all the information on source kinematics and only considering the fault geometry and the magnitude of the target event as known features. We computed peak ground acceleration, acceleration Fourier and response spectra. Simulations follow the same trend with distance as real observations. In most cases these latter fall within one sigma from predictions. Predictions with source parameters constrained at low frequency do not perform better than `blind' simulations, showing that extrapolation of the low

  10. Seismic source study of the 1989, October 29, Chenoua (Algeria earthquake from aftershocks, broad-band and strong ground motion records

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Rivera


    Full Text Available The broad-band teleseismics records of the earthquake of October 29,1989 in Algeria (MW = 6.0 allow a detailed study of the rupture process of this earthquake. The focal mechanism obtained by P and SH modeling corresponds to reverse faulting with a small amount of left-lateral movement along a fault striking 246° and dipping 56°. The rupture is found to be complex with two sub-events separated in time but occurring on the same plane. The lowfrequency records of an accelerometer located some 25 km to the west of the main shock are also better fi tted when the rupture is composed of a double pulse. In the two cases, there is strong evidence for the rupture to propagate from south-west towards north-east.The relocalisation of the main shock by using a master-event technique and the data from Italian and Spanish stations led to the same conclusions. Soon after the main event, a temporary seimic network was installed in the epicentral area. The aftershock clouds defi ne a SW-NE fault dipping to the NW compatible with the results of the modelisations of the teleseismic body-waves and the accelerogram. The focal mechanisms correspond mainly to reverse faulting. The maximum principal direction of the stress tensor obtained from the inversion is about N-S and the minimum is vertical, typical of a compressive regime. The Chenoua earthquake took place on a fault which was not recognized as active. Repeated comparable seismic events on this fault and on the fault that borders the massif to the south explain this intriguing topographic feature.

  11. Broadband Ground Motion Simulations for the Puente Hills Fault System (United States)

    Graves, R. W.


    Recent geologic studies have identified the seismic potential of the Puente Hills fault system. This system is comprised of multiple blind thrust segments, a portion of which ruptured in the Mw 5.9 Whittier-Narrows earthquake. Rupture of the entire system could generate a Mw 7.2 (or larger) earthquake. To assess the potential hazard posed by the fault system, we have simulated the response for several earthquake scenarios. These simulations are unprecedented in scope and scale. Broadband (0-10 Hz) ground motions are computed at 66,000 sites, covering most of the LA metropolitan region. Low frequency (f 1 Hz) motions are calculated using a stochastic approach. We consider scenarios ranging from Mw 6.7 to Mw 7.2, including both high and low stress drop events. Finite-fault rupture models for these scenarios are generated following a wavenumber filtering technique (K-2 model) that has been calibrated against recent earthquakes. In all scenarios, strong rupture directivity channels large amplitude pulses of motion directly into the Los Angeles basin, which then propagate southward as basin surface waves. Typically, the waveforms near downtown Los Angeles are dominated by a strong, concentrated pulse of motion. At Long Beach (across the LA basin from the rupture) the waveforms are dominated by late arriving longer period surface waves. The great density of sites used in the calculation allows the construction of detailed maps of various ground motion parameters (PGA, PGV, SA), as well as full animations of the propagating broadband wave field. Additionally, the broadband time histories are available for use in non-linear response analyses of built structures.

  12. Modeling and synthesis of strong ground motion

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S T G Raghu Kanth


    Success of earthquake resistant design practices critically depends on how accurately the future ground motion can be determined at a desired site. But very limited recorded data are available about ground motion in India for engineers to rely upon. To identify the needs of engineers, under such circumstances, in estimating ground motion time histories, this article presents a detailed review of literature on modeling and synthesis of strong ground motion data. In particular, modeling of seismic sources and earth medium, analytical and empirical Green’s functions approaches for ground motion simulation, stochastic models for strong motion and ground motion relations are covered. These models can be used to generate realistic near-field and far-field ground motion in regions lacking strong motion data. Numerical examples are shown for illustration by taking Kutch earthquake-2001 as a case study.

  13. Towards Integrated Marmara Strong Motion Network (United States)

    Durukal, E.; Erdik, M.; Safak, E.; Ansal, A.; Ozel, O.; Alcik, H.; Mert, A.; Kafadar, N.; Korkmaz, A.; Kurtulus, A.


    Array (72 ch. dense accelerometric array to be installed in 2010) - Gemlik Array (a dense basin array of 8 stations, to be installed in 2010) The objectives of these systems and networks are: (1) to produce rapid earthquake intensity, damage and loss assessment information after an earthquake (in the case of IERREWS), (2) to monitor conditions of structural systems, (3) to develop real-time data processing, analysis, and damage detection and location tools (in the case of structural networks) after an extreme event, (4) to assess spatial properties of strong ground motion and ground strain, and to characterise basin response (in the case of special arrays), (5) to investigate site response and wave propagation (in the case of vertical array). Ground motion data obtained from these strong motion networks have and are being used for investigations of attenuation, spatial variation (coherence), simulation benchmarking, source modeling, site response, seismic microzonation, system identification and structural model verification and structural health control. In addition to the systems and networks outlined above there are two temporary networks: KIMNET - a dense urban noise and microtremor network consisting of 50 broadband stations expected to be operational in mid 2009, and SOSEWIN - a 20-station, self-organizing structural integrated array at Ataköy in Istanbul.

  14. Modeling Broadband motions from the Tohoku earthquake (United States)

    Li, D.; Chu, R.; Graves, R. W.; Helmberger, D. V.; Clayton, R. W.


    The 2011 M9 Tohoku earthquake produced an extraordinary dataset of over 2000 broadband regional and teleseismic records. While considerable progress has been made in modeling the longer period (>3 s) waveforms, the shorter periods (1-3 s) prove more difficult. Since modeling high frequency waveforms in 3D is computationally expensive, we follow the approach proposed by Helmberger and Vidale (1988), which interfaces the Cagniard-de Hoop analytical source description with a 2D numerical code to account for earthquake radiation patterns. We extend this method to a staggered grid finite difference code, which is stable in the presence of water. The code adapts the Convolutional PML boundary condition, and uses the "following the wavefront" technique and multiple GPUs, which significantly reduces computing time. We test our method against existing 1D and 3D codes, and examine the effects of slab structure, ocean bathymetry and local basins in an attempt to better explain the observed shorter period response.

  15. Strong Motion Earthquake Data Values of Digitized Strong-Motion Accelerograms, 1933-1994 (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Strong Motion Earthquake Data Values of Digitized Strong-Motion Accelerograms is a database of over 15,000 digitized and processed accelerograph records from...

  16. Engineering applications of strong ground motion simulation (United States)

    Somerville, Paul


    The formulation, validation and application of a procedure for simulating strong ground motions for use in engineering practice are described. The procedure uses empirical source functions (derived from near-source strong motion recordings of small earthquakes) to provide a realistic representation of effects such as source radiation that are difficult to model at high frequencies due to their partly stochastic behavior. Wave propagation effects are modeled using simplified Green's functions that are designed to transfer empirical source functions from their recording sites to those required for use in simulations at a specific site. The procedure has been validated against strong motion recordings of both crustal and subduction earthquakes. For the validation process we choose earthquakes whose source models (including a spatially heterogeneous distribution of the slip of the fault) are independently known and which have abundant strong motion recordings. A quantitative measurement of the fit between the simulated and recorded motion in this validation process is used to estimate the modeling and random uncertainty associated with the simulation procedure. This modeling and random uncertainty is one part of the overall uncertainty in estimates of ground motions of future earthquakes at a specific site derived using the simulation procedure. The other contribution to uncertainty is that due to uncertainty in the source parameters of future earthquakes that affect the site, which is estimated from a suite of simulations generated by varying the source parameters over their ranges of uncertainty. In this paper, we describe the validation of the simulation procedure for crustal earthquakes against strong motion recordings of the 1989 Loma Prieta, California, earthquake, and for subduction earthquakes against the 1985 Michoacán, Mexico, and Valparaiso, Chile, earthquakes. We then show examples of the application of the simulation procedure to the estimatation of the

  17. Strong ground motion prediction using virtual earthquakes. (United States)

    Denolle, M A; Dunham, E M; Prieto, G A; Beroza, G C


    Sedimentary basins increase the damaging effects of earthquakes by trapping and amplifying seismic waves. Simulations of seismic wave propagation in sedimentary basins capture this effect; however, there exists no method to validate these results for earthquakes that have not yet occurred. We present a new approach for ground motion prediction that uses the ambient seismic field. We apply our method to a suite of magnitude 7 scenario earthquakes on the southern San Andreas fault and compare our ground motion predictions with simulations. Both methods find strong amplification and coupling of source and structure effects, but they predict substantially different shaking patterns across the Los Angeles Basin. The virtual earthquake approach provides a new approach for predicting long-period strong ground motion.

  18. Ground motion modeling of Hayward fault scenario earthquakes II:Simulation of long-period and broadband ground motions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aagaard, B T; Graves, R W; Rodgers, A; Brocher, T M; Simpson, R W; Dreger, D; Petersson, N A; Larsen, S C; Ma, S; Jachens, R C


    We simulate long-period (T > 1.0-2.0 s) and broadband (T > 0.1 s) ground motions for 39 scenarios earthquakes (Mw 6.7-7.2) involving the Hayward, Calaveras, and Rodgers Creek faults. For rupture on the Hayward fault we consider the effects of creep on coseismic slip using two different approaches, both of which reduce the ground motions compared with neglecting the influence of creep. Nevertheless, the scenario earthquakes generate strong shaking throughout the San Francisco Bay area with about 50% of the urban area experiencing MMI VII or greater for the magnitude 7.0 scenario events. Long-period simulations of the 2007 Mw 4.18 Oakland and 2007 Mw 4.5 Alum Rock earthquakes show that the USGS Bay Area Velocity Model version 08.3.0 permits simulation of the amplitude and duration of shaking throughout the San Francisco Bay area, with the greatest accuracy in the Santa Clara Valley (San Jose area). The ground motions exhibit a strong sensitivity to the rupture length (or magnitude), hypocenter (or rupture directivity), and slip distribution. The ground motions display a much weaker sensitivity to the rise time and rupture speed. Peak velocities, peak accelerations, and spectral accelerations from the synthetic broadband ground motions are, on average, slightly higher than the Next Generation Attenuation (NGA) ground-motion prediction equations. We attribute at least some of this difference to the relatively narrow width of the Hayward fault ruptures. The simulations suggest that the Spudich and Chiou (2008) directivity corrections to the NGA relations could be improved by including a dependence on the rupture speed and increasing the areal extent of rupture directivity with period. The simulations also indicate that the NGA relations may under-predict amplification in shallow sedimentary basins.

  19. Motional narrowing of broadband absorption of solvatochromic indicator Betaine 30

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Renge, Indrek [Institute of Physics, University of Tartu, Riia Street 142, EE51014 Tartu (Estonia)], E-mail:


    Temperature dependence of the absorption spectra of Betaine 30 (2,6-diphenyl-4-(2,4,6-triphenylpyridinio)-phenolate, widely known as Reichardt's dye) is compared with that of the broadband spectra of other dyes. The double value of the half-width (2 hwhm) of Betaine 30 absorption band between 10 and 293 K in a polymer decreases by 130{+-}20 cm{sup -1}, from 4220 to 4090 cm{sup -1}. This unprecedented narrowing with increasing temperature is ascribed to hydrogen bond symmetrization due to thermally activated proton tunneling in a pigment-solvent complex. The averaging of charge distribution along the proton coordinate causes motional narrowing of inhomogeneous width.

  20. Broadband Ground Motion Estimates for Scenario Earthquakes in the San Francisco Bay Region (United States)

    Graves, R. W.


    Using broadband (0-10 Hz) simulation procedures, we are assessing the ground motions that could be generated by different earthquake scenarios occurring on major strike-slip faults of the San Francisco Bay region. These simulations explicitly account for several important ground motion features, including rupture directivity, 3D basin response, and the depletion of high frequency ground motions that occurs for surface rupturing events. This work compliments ongoing USGS efforts to quantify the ground shaking hazards throughout the San Francisco Bay region. These efforts involve development and testing of a 3D velocity model for northern California (USGS Bay Area Velocity Model, version 05.1.0) using observations from the 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake, characterization of 1906 rupture scenarios and ground motions, and the development and analysis of rupture scenarios on other Bay Area faults. The adequacy of the simulation model has been tested using ground motion data recorded during the 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake and by comparison with the reported intensity data from the 1906 earthquake. Comparisons of the simulated broadband (0-10 Hz) ground motions with the recorded motions for the 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake demonstrate that the modeling procedure matches the observations without significant bias over a broad range of frequencies, site types, and propagation distances. The Loma Prieta rupture model is based on a wavenumber-squared refinement of the Wald et al (1991) slip distribution, with the rupture velocity set at 75 percent of the local shear wave velocity and a Kostrov-type slip function having a rise time of about 1.4 sec. Simulations of 1906 scenario ruptures indicate very strong directivity effects to the north and south of the assumed epicenter, adjacent to San Francisco. We are currently analyzing additional earthquake scenarios on the Hayward-Rodgers Creek and San Andreas faults in order to provide a more comprehensive framework for assessing

  1. Bodrum Strong Motion Network, Mugla, Turkey (United States)

    Alcik, H. A.; Tanircan, G.; Korkmaz, A.


    The Gulf of Gökova is located in southwestern Turkey near the Aegean Sea and surrounded by Datça Peninsula to the south, the island of Kos to the west and Bodrum Peninsula to the north. The Bodrum peninsula with a population of one million in summer season is one of the most populated touristic centers of Turkey. This region is also surrounded by numerous active seismic entities such as Ula-Ören Fault Zone, Gökova Graben etc.. and demonstrates high seismic hazard. In the past, many destructive earthquakes have occurred in southwestern Turkey. One of the destructive historical earthquakes is 1493 Kos event (Mw=6.9) caused heavy damage in Bodrum. In the instrumental period seismic activity in the Gökova region includes the Ms>6.0 earthquakes of 23 April 1933 (Ms=6.4), 23 May 1941 (Ms=6.0), 13 December 1941 (Ms=6.5) events. Intense earthquake activity (Mw5+) occurred in Gulf of Gökova in August 2004 and January 2005. Considering the high seismicity and population of this region, a strong ground motion monitoring system stationed in dense settlements in the Bodrum Peninsula: Bodrum, Turgutreis, Yalıkavak, Çiftlik and Ortakent was deployed on June 2015. The network consists of 5 strong motion recorders, has been set up with the aim of monitoring of regional earthquakes, collecting accurate and reliable data for engineering and scientific research purposes, in particular to provide input for future earthquake rapid reporting and early warning implementation projects on urban environments in the Bodrum peninsula and the surrounding areas. In this poster presentation, we briefly introduce the Bodrum Network and discuss our future plans for further developments.

  2. Hybrid Simulations of the Broadband Ground Motions for the 2008 MS8.0 Wenchuan, China, Earthquake (United States)

    Yu, X.; Zhang, W.


    The Ms8.0 Wenchuan earthquake occurred on 12 May 2008 at 14:28 Beijing Time. It is the largest event happened in the mainland of China since the 1976, Mw7.6, Tangshan earthquake. Due to occur in the mountainous area, this great earthquake and the following thousands aftershocks also caused many other geological disasters, such as landslide, mud-rock flow and "quake lakes" which formed by landslide-induced reservoirs. These resulted in tremendous losses of life and property. Casualties numbered more than 80,000 people, and there were major economic losses. However, this earthquake is the first Ms 8 intraplate earthquake with good close fault strong motion coverage. Over four hundred strong motion stations of the National Strong Motion Observation Network System (NSMONS) recorded the mainshock. Twelve of them located within 20 km of the fault traces and another 33 stations located within 100 km. These observations, accompanying with the hundreds of GPS vectors and multiple ALOS INSAR images, provide an unprecedented opportunity to study the rupture process of such a great intraplate earthquake. In this study, we calculate broadband near-field ground motion synthetic waveforms of this great earthquake using a hybrid broadband ground-motion simulation methodology, which combines a deterministic approach at low frequencies (f Green's function calculation approach at high frequency ( ~ 10.0 Hz). The fault rupture is represented kinematically and incorporates spatial heterogeneity in slip, rupture speed, and rise time that were obtained by an inversion kinematic source model. At the same time, based on the aftershock data, we analyze the site effects for the near-field stations. Frequency-dependent site-amplification values for each station are calculated using genetic algorithms. For the calculation of the synthetic waveforms, at first, we carry out simulations using the hybrid methodology for the frequency up to 10.0 Hz. Then, we consider for the soil site simulations

  3. The strong ground motion observation for the Wenchuan aftershock

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ruizhi Wen; Zhenghua Zhou; Xiaojun Li; Cheng Yang; Yuhuan Wang; Quan Liu; Xiaotao Yin; Mindu Zhou; Jianwen Cui


    In this paper, the mobile strong ground motion observation for the destructive earthquake is introduced. Considering the characteristics and its spatial distributions of aftershock, 59 strong ground motion instruments were installed along the Longmenshan fault area, and more than 2 000 records have been accumulated. It shows that it is necessary to perform the mobile strong ground motion observation after the destructive earthquake, and the precious collected data could be applied for further research.

  4. The Commercial TREMOR Strong-Motion Seismograph (United States)

    Evans, J. R.; Hamstra, R. H.; Kuendig, C.; Camina, P.


    The emergence of major seismological and earthquake-engineering problems requiring large, dense instrument arrays led several of us to investigate alternate solutions. Evans and Rogers (USGS Open File Report 95-555, 1995) and Evans (USGS Open File Report 98-109, 1998) demonstrated the efficacy of low-cost robust silicon accelerometers in strong-motion seismology, making possible a vast increase in the spatial density of such arrays. The 1998 design displays true 16-bit performance and excellent robustness and linearity---13 of these prototype near-real-time instruments are deployed in Oakland, California, and have recorded data from seven small events (up to 5.7 %g). Since this technology is a radical departure from past efforts, it was necessary for the USGS to develop the sensor and demonstrate its efficacy thoroughly. Since it is neither practical nor appropriate for the USGS to produce instrumentation beyond a demonstration phase, the US Geological Survey and GeoSIG Ltd undertook a collaborative effort (a ``CRAD'') to commercialize the new technology. This effort has resulted in a fully temperature-compensated 16-bit system, the GeoSIG GT-316, announced in April, 2001, combining the ICS-3028 TM-based USGS sensor, temperature compensation technique, and peak ground velocity (PGV) computation with a highly customized 16-bit GeoSIG recorder. The price has not been set but is likely to be around \\2000 in large quantities. The result is a near-real-time instrument telemetering peak ground acceleration (PGA) and PGV about 90 s after onset of the P wave, then minutes later transmitting the waveform. The receiving software, ``HomeBase()'', also computes spectral acceleration, S_{a}. PGA, PGV, S_{a}, and waveforms are forwarded immediately by HomeBase() for ShakeMap generation and other uses. Shaking metrics from the prototypes in Oakland are consistently among the first to arrive for the northern California ShakeMap. For telemetry we use a low-cost always

  5. Analysis of strong-motion data of the 1990 Eastern Sicily earthquake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Boschi


    Full Text Available The strong motion accelerograms recorded during the 1990 Eastern Sicily earthquake have been analyzed to investigate source and attenuation parameters. Peak ground motions (peak acceleration, velocity and displacement overestimate the values predicted by the empirical scaling law proposed for other Italian earthquakes, suggesting that local site response and propagation path effects play an important role in interpreting the observed time histories. The local magnitude, computed from the strong motion accelerograms by synthesizing the Wood-Anderson response, is ML = 5.9, that is sensibly larger than the local magnitude estimated at regional distances from broad-band seismograms (ML = 5.4. The standard omega-square source spectral model seems to be inadequate to describe the observed spectra over the entire frequency band from 0.2 to 20 Hz. The seismic moment estimated from the strong motion accelerogram recorded at the closest rock site (Sortino is Mo = 0.8 x 1024, that is roughly 4.5 times lower than the value estimated at regional distances (Mo = 3.7 x 1024 from broad-band seismograms. The corner frequency estimated from the accelera- tion spectra i.5 J; = 1.3 Hz, that is close to the inverse of the dUl.ation of displacement pulses at the two closest recording sites. This value of corner tì.equency and the two values of seismic moment yield a Brune stress drop larger than 500 bars. However, a corner frequency value off; = 0.6 Hz and the seismic moment resulting from regional data allows the acceleration spectra to be reproduced on the entire available frequency band yielding to a Brune stress drop of 210 bars. The ambiguity on the corner frequency value associated to this earthquake is due to the limited frequency bandwidth available on the strong motion recordil1gs. Assuming the seismic moment estimated at regional distances from broad-band data, the moment magnitude for this earthquake is 5.7. The higher local magnitude (5

  6. All-Optical Broadband Excitation of the Motional State of Trapped Ions

    CERN Document Server

    Sheridan, Kevin; Gardner, Amy; Keller, Matthias


    We have developed a novel all-optical broadband scheme for exciting, amplifying and measuring the secular motion of ions in a radio frequency trap. Oscillation induced by yocto-Newton optical excitations have been coherently amplified to precisely control and measure the ion's secular motion. Requiring only laser line-of-sight, we have shown that the ion's oscillation amplitude can be precisely controlled. Our broadband excitation scheme generates coherent motion which is robust against variations in the secular frequency. Therefore, our scheme is ideal to excite the desired level of oscillatory motion under conditions where the secular frequency is evolving in time. Measuring the oscillation amplitude through Doppler velocimetry, we have characterized the experimental parameters and compared them with a molecular dynamics simulation which provides a complete description of the system.

  7. Local site effects on weak and strong ground motion (United States)

    Aki, Keiiti


    This is a review of the current state of the art in characterizing effects of local geology on ground motion. A new horizon is clear in this aspect of strong motion studies. Non-linear amplification at sediment sites appears to be more pervasive than seismologists used to think. Several recent observations about the weak motion and the strong motion suggest that the non-linear amplification at sediment sites may be very common. First, on average, the amplification is always greater at the younger sediment sites for all frequencies up to 12 Hz, in the case of weak motion; while the relation is reversed for frequencies higher than 5 Hz, in the case of strong motion. Secondly, the application of the amplification factor determined from weak motion overestimates significantly the strong motion at sediment sites observed during the Loma Prieta earthquake within the epicentral distance of about 50 km. Thirdly, the variance of peak ground acceleration around the mean curve decreases with the increasing earthquake magnitude. Finally, the above non-linear effects are expected from geotechnical studies both in the magnitude of departure from the linear prediction and in the threshold acceleration level beyond which the non-linearity begins.

  8. Strong-Motion Program report, January-December 1985 (United States)

    Porcella, R. L.


    This Program Report contains preliminary information on the nature and availability of strong-motion data recorded by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). The Strong-Motion Program is operated by the USGS in cooperation with numerous Federal, State, and local agencies and private organizations. Major objective of this program are to record both strong ground motion and the response of various types of engineered structures during earthquakes, and to disseminate this information and data to the international earthquake-engineering research and design community. This volume contains a summary of the accelerograms recovered from the USGS National Strong-Motion Instrumentation Network during 1985, summaries of recent strong-motion publications, notes on the availability of digitized data, and general information related to the USGS and other strong-motion programs. The data summary in table 1 contains information on all USGS accelerograms recovered (though not necessarily recorded) during 1985; event data are taken from "Preliminary Determination of Epicenters," published by the USGS.

  9. Prediction of broadband ground-motion time histories: Hybrid low/high-frequency method with correlated random source parameters (United States)

    Liu, P.; Archuleta, R.J.; Hartzell, S.H.


    We present a new method for calculating broadband time histories of ground motion based on a hybrid low-frequency/high-frequency approach with correlated source parameters. Using a finite-difference method we calculate low- frequency synthetics (3D velocity structure. We also compute broadband synthetics in a 1D velocity model using a frequency-wavenumber method. The low frequencies from the 3D calculation are combined with the high frequencies from the 1D calculation by using matched filtering at a crossover frequency of 1 Hz. The source description, common to both the 1D and 3D synthetics, is based on correlated random distributions for the slip amplitude, rupture velocity, and rise time on the fault. This source description allows for the specification of source parameters independent of any a priori inversion results. In our broadband modeling we include correlation between slip amplitude, rupture velocity, and rise time, as suggested by dynamic fault modeling. The method of using correlated random source parameters is flexible and can be easily modified to adjust to our changing understanding of earthquake ruptures. A realistic attenuation model is common to both the 3D and 1D calculations that form the low- and high-frequency components of the broadband synthetics. The value of Q is a function of the local shear-wave velocity. To produce more accurate high-frequency amplitudes and durations, the 1D synthetics are corrected with a randomized, frequency-dependent radiation pattern. The 1D synthetics are further corrected for local site and nonlinear soil effects by using a 1D nonlinear propagation code and generic velocity structure appropriate for the site’s National Earthquake Hazards Reduction Program (NEHRP) site classification. The entire procedure is validated by comparison with the 1994 Northridge, California, strong ground motion data set. The bias and error found here for response spectral acceleration are similar to the best results that have been

  10. Validation of Broadband Ground Motion Simulations for Japanese Crustal Earthquakes by the Recipe (United States)

    Iwaki, A.; Maeda, T.; Morikawa, N.; Miyake, H.; Fujiwara, H.


    The Headquarters for Earthquake Research Promotion (HERP) of Japan has organized the broadband ground motion simulation method into a standard procedure called the "recipe" (HERP, 2009). In the recipe, the source rupture is represented by the characterized source model (Irikura and Miyake, 2011). The broadband ground motion time histories are computed by a hybrid approach: the 3-D finite-difference method (Aoi et al. 2004) and the stochastic Green's function method (Dan and Sato, 1998; Dan et al. 2000) for the long- (> 1 s) and short-period (structure model. As the engineering significance of scenario earthquake ground motion prediction is increasing, thorough verification and validation are required for the simulation methods. This study presents the self-validation of the recipe for two MW6.6 crustal events in Japan, the 2000 Tottori and 2004 Chuetsu (Niigata) earthquakes. We first compare the simulated velocity time series with the observation. Main features of the velocity waveforms, such as the near-fault pulses and the large later phases on deep sediment sites are well reproduced by the simulations. Then we evaluate 5% damped pseudo acceleration spectra (PSA) in the framework of the SCEC Broadband Platform (BBP) validation (Dreger et al. 2015). The validation results are generally acceptable in the period range 0.1 - 10 s, whereas those in the shortest period range (0.01-0.1 s) are less satisfactory. We also evaluate the simulations with the 1-D velocity structure models used in the SCEC BBP validation exercise. Although the goodness-of-fit parameters for PSA do not significantly differ from those for the 3-D velocity structure model, noticeable differences in velocity waveforms are observed. Our results suggest the importance of 1) well-constrained 3-D velocity structure model for broadband ground motion simulations and 2) evaluation of time series of ground motion as well as response spectra.

  11. Study on simulating strong ground motion by fractal stochastic method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Meng-qiu; WANG Bin; XU Zhao-yong


    @@ The time history of strong ground motion can be synthesized by empirical Green's function (EGF) method.Firstly a large seismic event is discretized into a series of subevents; secondly recordings of earthquakes with proper size and spatial distribution are chosen as time history (EGF) of those subevents; finally the EGFs are summated to get the time history of ground motion caused by the large event.

  12. Broad-band near-field ground motion simulations in 3-dimensional scattering media

    KAUST Repository

    Imperatori, W.


    The heterogeneous nature of Earth\\'s crust is manifested in the scattering of propagating seismic waves. In recent years, different techniques have been developed to include such phenomenon in broad-band ground-motion calculations, either considering scattering as a semi-stochastic or purely stochastic process. In this study, we simulate broad-band (0–10 Hz) ground motions with a 3-D finite-difference wave propagation solver using several 3-D media characterized by von Karman correlation functions with different correlation lengths and standard deviation values. Our goal is to investigate scattering characteristics and its influence on the seismic wavefield at short and intermediate distances from the source in terms of ground motion parameters. We also examine scattering phenomena, related to the loss of radiation pattern and the directivity breakdown. We first simulate broad-band ground motions for a point-source characterized by a classic ω2 spectrum model. Fault finiteness is then introduced by means of a Haskell-type source model presenting both subshear and super-shear rupture speed. Results indicate that scattering plays an important role in ground motion even at short distances from the source, where source effects are thought to be dominating. In particular, peak ground motion parameters can be affected even at relatively low frequencies, implying that earthquake ground-motion simulations should include scattering also for peak ground velocity (PGV) calculations. At the same time, we find a gradual loss of the source signature in the 2–5 Hz frequency range, together with a distortion of the Mach cones in case of super-shear rupture. For more complex source models and truly heterogeneous Earth, these effects may occur even at lower frequencies. Our simulations suggests that von Karman correlation functions with correlation length between several hundred metres and few kilometres, Hurst exponent around 0.3 and standard deviation in the 5–10 per cent

  13. Hybrid Broadband Ground-Motion Simulations: Combining Long-Period Deterministic Synthetics with High-Frequency Multiple S-to-S Backscattering

    KAUST Repository

    Mai, Paul Martin


    We present a new approach for computing broadband (0-10 Hz) synthetic seismograms by combining high-frequency (HF) scattering with low-frequency (LF) deterministic seismograms, considering finite-fault earthquake rupture models embedded in 3D earth structure. Site-specific HF-scattering Green\\'s functions for a heterogeneous medium with uniformly distributed random isotropic scatterers are convolved with a source-time function that characterizes the temporal evolution of the rupture process. These scatterograms are then reconciled with the LF-deterministic waveforms using a frequency-domain optimization to match both amplitude and phase spectra around the target intersection frequency. The scattering parameters of the medium, scattering attenuation ηs, intrinsic attenuation ηi, and site-kappa, as well as frequency-dependent attenuation, determine waveform and spectral character of the HF-synthetics and thus affect the hybrid broadband seismograms. Applying our methodology to the 1994 Northridge earthquake and validating against near-field recordings at 24 sites, we find that our technique provides realistic broadband waveforms and consistently reproduces LF ground-motion intensities for two independent source descriptions. The least biased results, compared to recorded strong-motion data, are obtained after applying a frequency-dependent site-amplification factor to the broadband simulations. This innovative hybrid ground-motion simulation approach, applicable to any arbitrarily complex earthquake source model, is well suited for seismic hazard analysis and ground-motion estimation.

  14. A simple model for strong ground motions and response spectra (United States)

    Safak, Erdal; Mueller, Charles; Boatwright, John


    A simple model for the description of strong ground motions is introduced. The model shows that response spectra can be estimated by using only four parameters of the ground motion, the RMS acceleration, effective duration and two corner frequencies that characterize the effective frequency band of the motion. The model is windowed band-limited white noise, and is developed by studying the properties of two functions, cumulative squared acceleration in the time domain, and cumulative squared amplitude spectrum in the frequency domain. Applying the methods of random vibration theory, the model leads to a simple analytical expression for the response spectra. The accuracy of the model is checked by using the ground motion recordings from the aftershock sequences of two different earthquakes and simulated accelerograms. The results show that the model gives a satisfactory estimate of the response spectra.

  15. Catalog of strong motion stations in Eastern North America (United States)

    Busby, R. W.


    The catalog contains information on all strong motion stations operating in Eastern North America known to the National Center for Earthquake Engineering Research (NCEER). The location, coordinates, installation dates, type of instrument, operator, structure type and size, and site geology are listed for each station. The format of the catalog is patterned after the United States Geological Survey (USGS) Open-File Report 81-664, 'Western Hemisphere Strong-Motion Accelerograph Station List-1980' but the entries have been updated as of January 1990. There are 237 stations listed in the catalog which include 414 recording instruments. One third of these stations are intended to record free-field ground motion while the rest are associated with large engineered structures. The relationship of station location to seismicity is shown in a series of figures and a method is described to predict peak acceleration levels from an earthquake where the magnitude and distance to station are known.

  16. Strong Ground Motion Database System for the Mexican Seismic Network (United States)

    Perez-Yanez, C.; Ramirez-Guzman, L.; Ruiz, A. L.; Delgado, R.; Macías, M. A.; Sandoval, H.; Alcántara, L.; Quiroz, A.


    A web-based system for strong Mexican ground motion records dissemination and archival is presented. More than 50 years of continuous strong ground motion instrumentation and monitoring in Mexico have provided a fundamental resource -several thousands of accelerograms- for better understanding earthquakes and their effects in the region. Lead by the Institute of Engineering (IE) of the National Autonomous University of Mexico (UNAM), the engineering strong ground motion monitoring program at IE relies on a continuously growing network, that at present includes more than 100 free-field stations and provides coverage to the seismic zones in the country. Among the stations, approximately 25% send the observed acceleration to a processing center in Mexico City in real-time, and the rest require manual access, remote or in situ, for later processing and cataloguing. As part of a collaboration agreement between UNAM and the National Center for Disaster Prevention, regarding the construction and operation of a unified seismic network, a web system was developed to allow access to UNAM's engineering strong motion archive and host data from other institutions. The system allows data searches under a relational database schema, following a general structure relying on four databases containing the: 1) free-field stations, 2) epicentral location associated with the strong motion records available, 3) strong motion catalogue, and 4) acceleration files -the core of the system. In order to locate and easily access one or several records of the data bank, the web system presents a variety of parameters that can be involved in a query (seismic event, region boundary, station name or ID, radial distance to source or peak acceleration). This homogeneous platform has been designed to facilitate dissemination and processing of the information worldwide. Each file, in a standard format, contains information regarding the recording instrument, the station, the corresponding earthquake

  17. Strong Coupling Between Single-Electron Tunneling and Nanomechanical Motion (United States)

    Steele, G. A.; Hüttel, A. K.; Witkamp, B.; Poot, M.; Meerwaldt, H. B.; Kouwenhoven, L. P.; van der Zant, H. S. J.


    Nanoscale resonators that oscillate at high frequencies are useful in many measurement applications. We studied a high-quality mechanical resonator made from a suspended carbon nanotube driven into motion by applying a periodic radio frequency potential using a nearby antenna. Single-electron charge fluctuations created periodic modulations of the mechanical resonance frequency. A quality factor exceeding 105 allows the detection of a shift in resonance frequency caused by the addition of a single-electron charge on the nanotube. Additional evidence for the strong coupling of mechanical motion and electron tunneling is provided by an energy transfer to the electrons causing mechanical damping and unusual nonlinear behavior. We also discovered that a direct current through the nanotube spontaneously drives the mechanical resonator, exerting a force that is coherent with the high-frequency resonant mechanical motion.

  18. Strong coupling between single-electron tunneling and nanomechanical motion. (United States)

    Steele, G A; Hüttel, A K; Witkamp, B; Poot, M; Meerwaldt, H B; Kouwenhoven, L P; van der Zant, H S J


    Nanoscale resonators that oscillate at high frequencies are useful in many measurement applications. We studied a high-quality mechanical resonator made from a suspended carbon nanotube driven into motion by applying a periodic radio frequency potential using a nearby antenna. Single-electron charge fluctuations created periodic modulations of the mechanical resonance frequency. A quality factor exceeding 10(5) allows the detection of a shift in resonance frequency caused by the addition of a single-electron charge on the nanotube. Additional evidence for the strong coupling of mechanical motion and electron tunneling is provided by an energy transfer to the electrons causing mechanical damping and unusual nonlinear behavior. We also discovered that a direct current through the nanotube spontaneously drives the mechanical resonator, exerting a force that is coherent with the high-frequency resonant mechanical motion.

  19. Strong Motion Studies in the Mines of Kolar Gold Fields (United States)


    Soil Dyn. And Earthq.Eng. 10: (8), 423–428. Uhrhammer, R.A. and Bolt, B.A. (1991). “ the Seismic magnitude of the 1989 Loma Prieta Main Shock...rockburst is its Richter’s local magnitude. It was not possible from the records of geophone due to saturation effect . A strong-motion accelerograph has...magnitude. However, it has not been possible from the records of conventional seismographs due to saturation effect . The rockbursts had been

  20. Enhancement of the national strong-motion network in Turkey (United States)

    Gulkan, Polat; Ceken, U.; Colakoglu, Z.; Ugras, T.; Kuru, T.; Apak, A.; Anderson, J.G.; Sucuoglu, H.; Celebi, M.; Akkar, D.S.; Yazgan, U.; Denizlioglu, A.Z.


    Two arrays comprising 20 strong-motion sensors were established in western Turkey. The 14 stations of BYTNet follow a N-S trending line about 65 km in length, normal to strands of the North Anatolian fault that runs between the cities of Bursa and Yalova. Here the dominant character of the potential fault movement is a right-lateral transform slip. The DATNet array, comprising a total of eight stations, is arranged along a 110-km-long E-W trending direction along the Menderes River valley between Denizli and Aydin. (Two stations in this array were incorporated from the existing Turkish national strong-motion network.) This is an extensional tectonic environment, and the network mornitors potential large normal-faulting earthquakes on the faults in the valley. The installation of the arrays was supported by the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) under its Science for Peace Program. Maintenance and calibration is performed by the General Directorate of Disaster Affairs (GDDA) according to a protocol between Middle East Technical University (METU) and GDDA. Many young engineers and scientists have been trained in network operation and evaluation during the course of the project, and an international workshop dealing with strong-motion instrumentation has been organized as part of the project activities.

  1. Explosion source strong ground motions in the Mississippi embayment (United States)

    Langston, C.A.; Bodin, P.; Powell, C.; Withers, M.; Horton, S.; Mooney, W.


    Two strong-motion arrays were deployed for the October 2002 Embayment Seismic Excitation Experiment to study the spatial variation of strong ground motions in the deep, unconsolidated sediments of the Mississippi embayment because there are no comparable strong-motion data from natural earthquakes in the area. Each linear array consisted of eight three-component K2 accelerographs spaced 15 m apart situated 1.2 and 2.5 kin from 2268-kg and 1134-kg borehole explosion sources, respectively. The array data show distinct body-wave and surface-wave arrivals that propagate within the thick, unconsolidated sedimentary column, the high-velocity basement rocks, and small-scale structure near the surface. Time-domain coherence of body-wave and surface-wave arrivals is computed for acceleration, velocity, and displacement time windows. Coherence is high for relatively low-frequency verticalcomponent Rayleigh waves and high-frequency P waves propagating across the array. Prominent high-frequency PS conversions seen on radial components, a proxy for the direct S wave from earthquake sources, lose coherence quickly over the 105-m length of the array. Transverse component signals are least coherent for any ground motion and appear to be highly scattered. Horizontal phase velocity is computed by using the ratio of particle velocity to estimates of the strain based on a plane-wave-propagation model. The resulting time-dependent phase-velocity map is a useful way to infer the propagation mechanisms of individual seismic phases and time windows of three-component waveforms. Displacement gradient analysis is a complementary technique for processing general spatial-array data to obtain horizontal slowness information.

  2. Self-noise models of five commercial strong-motion accelerometers (United States)

    Ringler, Adam; Evans, John R.; Hutt, Charles R.


    Strong‐motion accelerometers provide onscale seismic recordings during moderate‐to‐large ground motions (e.g., up to tens of m/s2 peak). Such instruments have played a fundamental role in improving our understanding of earthquake source physics (Bocketal., 2011), earthquake engineering (Youdet al., 2004), and regional seismology (Zollo et al., 2010). Although strong‐motion accelerometers tend to have higher noise levels than high‐quality broadband velocity seismometers, their higher clip‐levels provide linear recordings at near‐field sites even for the largest of events where a collocated broadband sensor would no longer be able to provide onscale recordings (Clinton and Heaton, 2002).

  3. Hybrid Broadband Ground-Motion Simulation Using Scenario Earthquakes for the Istanbul Area

    KAUST Repository

    Reshi, Owais A.


    Seismic design, analysis and retrofitting of structures demand an intensive assessment of potential ground motions in seismically active regions. Peak ground motions and frequency content of seismic excitations effectively influence the behavior of structures. In regions of sparse ground motion records, ground-motion simulations provide the synthetic seismic records, which not only provide insight into the mechanisms of earthquakes but also help in improving some aspects of earthquake engineering. Broadband ground-motion simulation methods typically utilize physics-based modeling of source and path effects at low frequencies coupled with high frequency semi-stochastic methods. I apply the hybrid simulation method by Mai et al. (2010) to model several scenario earthquakes in the Marmara Sea, an area of high seismic hazard. Simulated ground motions were generated at 75 stations using systematically calibrated model parameters. The region-specific source, path and site model parameters were calibrated by simulating a w4.1 Marmara Sea earthquake that occurred on November 16, 2015 on the fault segment in the vicinity of Istanbul. The calibrated parameters were then used to simulate the scenario earthquakes with magnitudes w6.0, w6.25, w6.5 and w6.75 over the Marmara Sea fault. Effects of fault geometry, hypocenter location, slip distribution and rupture propagation were thoroughly studied to understand variability in ground motions. A rigorous analysis of waveforms reveal that these parameters are critical for determining the behavior of ground motions especially in the near-field. Comparison of simulated ground motion intensities with ground-motion prediction quations indicates the need of development of the region-specific ground-motion prediction equation for Istanbul area. Peak ground motion maps are presented to illustrate the shaking in the Istanbul area due to the scenario earthquakes. The southern part of Istanbul including Princes Islands show high amplitudes

  4. New Evidence for Nonlinearity in Strong Ground Motion (United States)

    Beroza, G. C.; Schaff, D. P.


    Dynamic strains associated with the strong ground motion of large earthquakes are well within the regime found to show nonlinearity in the laboratory; however, evidence for nonlinearity in recorded seismic waves is often ambiguous and controversial. We present new and independent evidence that nonlinearity in strong ground motion may be widespread. The evidence consists of velocity changes measured by repeating microearthquakes in the aftermath of the 1984 M=6.2 Morgan Hill and 1989 M=6.9 Loma Prieta events. We have identified over 20 sets of repeating earthquakes in the aftershock zones of these mainshocks that contain up to 40 repeats of the same event. Waveform analysis reveals clearly detectable delays of arrivals from events after the Loma Prieta earthquake, compared with events before, of as much as 3.5% in the early S-wave coda. Source array analysis and waveform similarity over a wide range of source-receiver distances both suggest that the early coda is generated by scattering in the shallow crust near the receiver. We find that the magnitude of the velocity change decreases logarithmically in time following the Loma Prieta mainshock. We have not yet recovered repeating earthquake seismograms from before the Morgan Hill earthquake; however, we observe a clear post-seismic increase in velocity, again with a logarithmic time dependence, suggesting that the same effect accompanied both events. Recent experiments indicate that velocity decreases followed by logarithmic recovery in time accompany recoverable nonlinearity in laboratory samples at ambient conditions [Ten Cate et al., 2000]. Thus, we believe that we have detected the lingering effects of nonlinear mainshock strong ground motion in the time-varying wave propagation characteristics of the Earth's crust. The changes are strongly concentrated near the rupture zones of the two mainshocks; however, the effect is also observed at more distant stations. We use our observations to illuminate the possible

  5. Can mobile phones used in strong motion seismology? (United States)

    D'Alessandro, Antonino; D'Anna, Giuseppe


    Micro Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS) accelerometers are electromechanical devices able to measure static or dynamic accelerations. In the 1990s MEMS accelerometers revolutionized the automotive-airbag system industry and are currently widely used in laptops, game controllers and mobile phones. Nowadays MEMS accelerometers seems provide adequate sensitivity, noise level and dynamic range to be applicable to earthquake strong motion acquisition. The current use of 3 axes MEMS accelerometers in mobile phone maybe provide a new means to easy increase the number of observations when a strong earthquake occurs. However, before utilize the signals recorded by a mobile phone equipped with a 3 axes MEMS accelerometer for any scientific porpoise, it is fundamental to verify that the signal collected provide reliable records of ground motion. For this reason we have investigated the suitability of the iPhone 5 mobile phone (one of the most popular mobile phone in the world) for strong motion acquisition. It is provided by several MEMS devise like a three-axis gyroscope, a three-axis electronic compass and a the LIS331DLH three-axis accelerometer. The LIS331DLH sensor is a low-cost high performance three axes linear accelerometer, with 16 bit digital output, produced by STMicroelectronics Inc. We have tested the LIS331DLH MEMS accelerometer using a vibrating table and the EpiSensor FBA ES-T as reference sensor. In our experiments the reference sensor was rigidly co-mounted with the LIS331DHL MEMS sensor on the vibrating table. We assessment the MEMS accelerometer in the frequency range 0.2-20 Hz, typical range of interesting in strong motion seismology and earthquake engineering. We generate both constant and damped sine waves with central frequency starting from 0.2 Hz until 20 Hz with step of 0.2 Hz. For each frequency analyzed we generate sine waves with mean amplitude 50, 100, 200, 400, 800 and 1600 mg0. For damped sine waves we generate waveforms with initial amplitude

  6. Database for earthquake strong motion studies in Italy (United States)

    Scasserra, G.; Stewart, J.P.; Kayen, R.E.; Lanzo, G.


    We describe an Italian database of strong ground motion recordings and databanks delineating conditions at the instrument sites and characteristics of the seismic sources. The strong motion database consists of 247 corrected recordings from 89 earthquakes and 101 recording stations. Uncorrected recordings were drawn from public web sites and processed on a record-by-record basis using a procedure utilized in the Next-Generation Attenuation (NGA) project to remove instrument resonances, minimize noise effects through low- and high-pass filtering, and baseline correction. The number of available uncorrected recordings was reduced by 52% (mostly because of s-triggers) to arrive at the 247 recordings in the database. The site databank includes for every recording site the surface geology, a measurement or estimate of average shear wave velocity in the upper 30 m (Vs30), and information on instrument housing. Of the 89 sites, 39 have on-site velocity measurements (17 of which were performed as part of this study using SASW techniques). For remaining sites, we estimate Vs30 based on measurements on similar geologic conditions where available. Where no local velocity measurements are available, correlations with surface geology are used. Source parameters are drawn from databanks maintained (and recently updated) by Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia and include hypocenter location and magnitude for small events (M< ??? 5.5) and finite source parameters for larger events. ?? 2009 A.S. Elnashai & N.N. Ambraseys.

  7. Quantitative prediction of strong motion for a potential earthquake fault

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shamita Das


    Full Text Available This paper describes a new method for calculating strong motion records for a given seismic region on the basis of the laws of physics using information on the tectonics and physical properties of the earthquake fault. Our method is based on a earthquake model, called a «barrier model», which is characterized by five source parameters: fault length, width, maximum slip, rupture velocity, and barrier interval. The first three parameters may be constrained from plate tectonics, and the fourth parameter is roughly a constant. The most important parameter controlling the earthquake strong motion is the last parameter, «barrier interval». There are three methods to estimate the barrier interval for a given seismic region: 1 surface measurement of slip across fault breaks, 2 model fitting with observed near and far-field seismograms, and 3 scaling law data for small earthquakes in the region. The barrier intervals were estimated for a dozen earthquakes and four seismic regions by the above three methods. Our preliminary results for California suggest that the barrier interval may be determined if the maximum slip is given. The relation between the barrier interval and maximum slip varies from one seismic region to another. For example, the interval appears to be unusually long for Kilauea, Hawaii, which may explain why only scattered evidence of strong ground shaking was observed in the epicentral area of the Island of Hawaii earthquake of November 29, 1975. The stress drop associated with an individual fault segment estimated from the barrier interval and maximum slip lies between 100 and 1000 bars. These values are about one order of magnitude greater than those estimated earlier by the use of crack models without barriers. Thus, the barrier model can resolve, at least partially, the well known discrepancy between the stress-drops measured in the laboratory and those estimated for earthquakes.

  8. On pads and filters: Processing strong-motion data (United States)

    Boore, D.M.


    Processing of strong-motion data in many cases can be as straightforward as filtering the acceleration time series and integrating to obtain velocity and displacement. To avoid the introduction of spurious low-frequency noise in quantities derived from the filtered accelerations, however, care must be taken to append zero pads of adequate length to the beginning and end of the segment of recorded data. These padded sections of the filtered acceleration need to be retained when deriving velocities, displacements, Fourier spectra, and response spectra. In addition, these padded and filtered sections should also be included in the time series used in the dynamic analysis of structures and soils to ensure compatibility with the filtered accelerations.

  9. Probabilistic Motion Planning of Balloons in Strong, Uncertain Wind Fields (United States)

    Wolf, Michael T.; Blackmore, Lars; Kuwata, Yoshiaki; Fathpour, Nanaz; Elfes, Alberto; Newman, Claire


    This paper introduces a new algorithm for probabilistic motion planning in arbitrary, uncertain vector fields, with emphasis on high-level planning for Montgolfiere balloons in the atmosphere of Titan. The goal of the algorithm is to determine what altitude--and what horizontal actuation, if any is available on the vehicle--to use to reach a goal location in the fastest expected time. The winds can vary greatly at different altitudes and are strong relative to any feasible horizontal actuation, so the incorporation of the winds is critical for guidance plans. This paper focuses on how to integrate the uncertainty of the wind field into the wind model and how to reach a goal location through the uncertain wind field, using a Markov decision process (MDP). The resulting probabilistic solutions enable more robust guidance plans and more thorough analysis of potential paths than existing methods.

  10. A photoelastic-modulator-based motional Stark effect polarimeter for ITER that is insensitive to polarized broadband background reflections (United States)

    Thorman, A.; Michael, C.; De Bock, M.; Howard, J.


    A motional Stark effect polarimeter insensitive to polarized broadband light is proposed. Partially polarized background light is anticipated to be a significant source of systematic error for the ITER polarimeter. The proposed polarimeter is based on the standard dual photoelastic modulator approach, but with the introduction of a birefringent delay plate, it generates a sinusoidal spectral filter instead of the usual narrowband filter. The period of the filter is chosen to match the spacing of the orthogonally polarized Stark effect components, thereby increasing the effective signal level, but resulting in the destructive interference of the broadband polarized light. The theoretical response of the system to an ITER like spectrum is calculated and the broadband polarization tolerance is verified experimentally.

  11. Perceptual Training Strongly Improves Visual Motion Perception in Schizophrenia (United States)

    Norton, Daniel J.; McBain, Ryan K.; Ongur, Dost; Chen, Yue


    Schizophrenia patients exhibit perceptual and cognitive deficits, including in visual motion processing. Given that cognitive systems depend upon perceptual inputs, improving patients' perceptual abilities may be an effective means of cognitive intervention. In healthy people, motion perception can be enhanced through perceptual learning, but it…

  12. Equations of motion for charged particles in strong laser fields

    CERN Document Server

    Ruhl, Hartmut


    Starting from the Dirac equation coupled to a classical radiation field a set of equations of motion for charged quasi-particles in the classical limit for slowly varying radiation and matter fields is derived. The radiation reaction term derived in the paper is the Abraham-Lorentz-Dirac term.

  13. SM-ROM-GL (Strong Motion Romania Ground Level Database

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioan Sorin BORCIA


    Full Text Available The SM-ROM-GL database includes data obtained by the processing of records performed at ground level by the Romanian seismic networks, namely INCERC, NIEP, NCSRR and ISPH-GEOTEC, during recent seismic events with moment magnitude Mw ≥ 5 and epicenters located in Romania. All the available seismic records were re-processed using the same basic software and the same procedures and options (filtering and baseline correction, in order to obtain a consistent dataset. The database stores computed parameters of seismic motions, i.e. peak values: PGA, PGV, PGD, effective peak values: EPA, EPV, EPD, control periods, spectral values of absolute acceleration, relative velocity and relative displacement, as well as of instrumental intensity (as defined bz Sandi and Borcia in 2011. The fields in the database include: coding of seismic events, stations and records, a number of associated fields (seismic event source parameters, geographical coordinates of seismic stations, links to the corresponding ground motion records, charts of the response spectra of absolute acceleration, relative velocity, relative displacement and instrumental intensity, as well as some other representative parameters of seismic motions. The conception of the SM-ROM-GL database allows for an easy maintenance; such that elementary knowledge of Microsoft Access 2000 is sufficient for its operation.

  14. The study of baseline shift error in strong-motion and ground tilting during co-seismic period with collocated GPS and strong-motion observations (United States)

    Tu, Rui; Zhang, Pengfei; Zhang, Rui; Liu, Jinhai; Lu, Xiaochun


    Strong-motion's baseline shift error is very difficult to process precisely; it is mainly caused by the tilting, rotation of the ground and environment noises during the co-seismic period. In the study, we first studied how to effectively extract the strong-motion's baseline shift error with GPS observation; this also provides a new way of correcting the baseline shift errors. Then we studied how to retrieve the ground tilting information of the station point with the collocated GPS and strong-motion observations, the information is an important input parameter of rotational seismology. In addition, both experimental result and seismic data show that the baseline shift error is mainly caused by the ground tiling and rotation during the co-seismic period. Also, there is a strong directly proportional relationship between the baseline shift error and ground tilting, of which the proportionality constant is approximately equal to the value of gravitational acceleration of the station.

  15. Rupture process of the 2009 L'Aquila, Italy, earthquake inferred from inversions of teleseismic and strong motion datasets (United States)

    Poiata, Natalia; Koketsu, Kazuki; Vuan, Alessandro; Miyake, Hiroe


    The L'Aquila, Central Italy earthquake, occurred on April 6, 2009 at 01:32:40 UTC time. This Mw 6.3 (Global CMT) event caused large damages to the city of L'Aquila and surrounding villages of the Abruzzi region. A detailed study of the source process of this event is essential in understanding the observed macrosesmic effects and the relation between the causative fault and the aftershock activity. The use of the seismological datasets recorded at different distance range is expected to give supplementary information on the rupture process offering a more stable and detailed image of the source area, while each of the teleseismic and strong motion data carries information on different period ranges of the process at the source. In this study we developed a rupture model for the L'Aquila event by analyzing the teleseismic waveform data of IRIS-DMC and near-field strong motion records from the Italian Strong Motion Network (RAN). We also examined what details of the rupture history can be deduced from the teleseismic data alone, the strong motion data alone, and the combined teleseismic and strong motion data sets. At first, we estimated the general pattern of the source rupture area and determined the hypocentral depth, by performing the moment tensor analysis as well as the source inversion of broadband teleseismic records using the methods developed by Kikuchi and Kanamori (1982, 1991), Kikuchi et al. (2003) and Yoshida et al. (1996). Based on the aftershock study (Chiarabba et al., 2009) we assumed that the rupture occurred on the SW dipping fault plane with the dimensions of 25 km in length by 15 km in width. We also assumed strike = 148 deg. and dip = 44 deg., based on the residuals of the point source analysis and the aftershock distribution. The optimal depth that maximizes the waveform fit was found to be 6 km. The total seismic moment corresponds to Mo = 3.10 x 10**18 Nm. The inverted slip model shows one main asperity located in the upper shallow part of

  16. Holographic Brownian motion and time scales in strongly coupled plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atmaja, Ardian Nata [Research Center for Physics, Indonesian Institute of Sciences (LIPI), Kompleks PUSPITEK Serpong, Tangerang 15310 (Indonesia); Indonesia Center for Theoretical and Mathematical Physics (ICTMP), Bandung 40132 (Indonesia); Boer, Jan de [Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of Amsterdam, Valckenierstraat 65, 1018 XE Amsterdam (Netherlands); Shigemori, Masaki [Yukawa Institute for Theoretical Physics (YITP), Kyoto University, Kitashirakawa Oiwakecho, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Hakubi Center, Kyoto University, Yoshida-Ushinomiyacho, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8501 (Japan)


    We study Brownian motion of a heavy quark in field theory plasma in the AdS/CFT setup and discuss the time scales characterizing the interaction between the Brownian particle and plasma constituents. Based on a simple kinetic theory, we first argue that the mean-free-path time is related to the connected 4-point function of the random force felt by the Brownian particle. Then, by holographically computing the 4-point function and regularizing the IR divergence appearing in the computation, we write down a general formula for the mean-free-path time, and apply it to the STU black hole which corresponds to plasma charged under three U(1)R-charges. The result indicates that the Brownian particle collides with many plasma constituents simultaneously.

  17. Strong and broadband terahertz absorber using SiO2-based metamaterial structure (United States)

    Mo, Man-Man; Wen, Qi-Ye; Chen, Zhi; Yang, Qing-Hui; Qiu, Dong-Hong; Li, Sheng; Jing, Yu-Lan; Zhang, Huai-Wu


    We design and experimentally demonstrate a broadband metamaterial absorber in the terahertz (THz) band based on a periodic array of aluminum (Al) squares with two different sizes. A thin silicon dioxide (SiO2) film rather than a conventional polyimide (PI) layer is used as a dielectric spacer to separate Al squares from the platinum (Pt) ground plane in our design, which significantly improves the design precision and the feasibility of the device fabrication. The combination of different sizes of Al squares gives rise to an absorption bandwidth of over 210 GHz with an absorption of over 90%. Our results also show that our device is almost polarization-insensitive. It works very well for all azimuthal angles with an absorption of beyond 80%.

  18. Modeling of Strong Ground Motion in "The Geysers" Geothermal Area (United States)

    Sharma, N.; Convertito, V.; Maercklin, N.; Zollo, A.


    The Geysers is a vapor-dominated geothermal field located about 120 km north of San Francisco, California. The field is actively exploited since the 1960s, and it is now perhaps the most important and most productive geothermal field in the USA. The continuous injection of fluids and the stress perturbations of this area has resulted in induced seismicity which is clearly felt in the surrounding villages. Thus, based on these considerations, in the present work Ground Motion Prediction Equations (GMPEs) are derived, as they play key role in seismic hazard analysis control and for monitoring the effects of the seismicity rate levels. The GMPEs are derived through the mixed non-linear regression technique for both Peak Ground Velocity (PGV) and Peak Ground Acceleration (PGA). This technique includes both fixed effects and random effects and allows to account for both inter-event and intra-event dependencies in the data. In order to account for site/station effects, a two steps approach has been used. In the first step, regression analysis is performed without station corrections and thus providing a reference model. In the second step, based on the residual distribution at each station and the results of a Z-test, station correction coefficients are introduced to get final correct model. The data from earthquakes recorded at 29 stations for the period September 2007 through November 2010 have been used. The magnitude range is (1.0 geothermal fields with respect to those obtained from natural seismic events. The residual analysis is performed at individual stations to check the reliability of the station corrections and for evaluating the fitting reliability of the retrieved model. The best model has been chosen on the basis of inter-event standard error and R-square test. After the introduction of the site/station correction factor, an improvement in the fit is observed, which resulted in total standard error reduction and increased R-square values.

  19. Ground Motions at a Network of Strong Motion Accelerometers on the Hanford Site, Southeastern Washington, From the 28 February 2001 Nisqually Earthquake (United States)

    Rohay, A.; Reidel, S.; Hartshorn, D.; Valenta, M.


    We have been operating five free-field strong motion accelerometers (SMA) at locations near the facilities on the Hanford Site since November 1998. The 28 February 2001 Nisqually earthquake was the first earthquake to be recorded by these instruments. The USGS and Caltech each operate one additional SMA/broadband seismometer site at Hanford (stations HAWA and LTH). Taken together, the elements of this network have an inter-station spacing of 8-12 km. The distance range of the instruments from the epicenter is 245-277 km. Peak ground accelerations ranged from 0.0016 to 0.0035 g (vertical), from 0.0017 to 0.0057 g (radial), and from 0.0022 to 0.0064 g (transverse). The lowest accelerations were observed at the bedrock site HAWA, but accelerations at another station on soil (H300A) were not significantly larger. The other stations on soil show significant amplification across the frequency spectrum and also within variable, narrow frequency ranges. For example, Fourier spectra from the station H100K, the furthest north of these stations, shows nearly a factor of 10 amplification of the transverse ground acceleration in the frequency range 0.5 to 1.0 Hz relative to the bedrock station. We are investigating the differences in soil geology beneath the network of SMA stations to understand these effects. The ground motions recorded from this earthquake are significantly lower than those predicted by intra-slab earthquake ground motion attenuation relationships that were used for Hanford's probabilistic seismic hazard assessment. Although these relationships include statistical variation in ground motion, they do not predict the range of amplification determined at the soil sites for this earthquake. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is operated by Battelle for the U.S. Department of Energy under contract DE-AC06-76RL01830.

  20. Sensitivity of broad-band ground-motion simulations to earthquake source and Earth structure variations: an application to the Messina Straits (Italy)

    KAUST Repository

    Imperatori, W.


    In this paper, we investigate ground-motion variability due to different faulting approximations and crustal-model parametrizations in the Messina Straits area (Southern Italy). Considering three 1-D velocity models proposed for this region and a total of 72 different source realizations, we compute broad-band (0-10 Hz) synthetics for Mw 7.0 events using a fault plane geometry recently proposed. We explore source complexity in terms of classic kinematic (constant rise-time and rupture speed) and pseudo-dynamic models (variable rise-time and rupture speed). Heterogeneous slip distributions are generated using a Von Karman autocorrelation function. Rise-time variability is related to slip, whereas rupture speed variations are connected to static stress drop. Boxcar, triangle and modified Yoffe are the adopted source time functions. We find that ground-motion variability associated to differences in crustal models is constant and becomes important at intermediate and long periods. On the other hand, source-induced ground-motion variability is negligible at long periods and strong at intermediate-short periods. Using our source-modelling approach and the three different 1-D structural models, we investigate shaking levels for the 1908 Mw 7.1 Messina earthquake adopting a recently proposed model for fault geometry and final slip. Our simulations suggest that peak levels in Messina and Reggio Calabria must have reached 0.6-0.7 g during this earthquake.

  1. A Versatile Setup for Ultrafast Broadband Optical Spectroscopy of Coherent Collective Modes in Strongly Correlated Quantum Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Baldini, Edoardo; Borroni, Simone; Arrell, Christopher; van Mourik, Frank; Carbone, Fabrizio


    A femtosecond pump-probe setup is described that is optimised for broadband transient reflectivity experiments on solid samples over a wide range of temperatures. By combining a temporal resolution of 45 fs and a broad detection range between 1.75 and 2.85 eV, this apparatus can provide insightful information on the interplay between coherent collective modes and high-energy electronic excitations, which is one of the distinctive characteristics of strongly interacting and correlated quantum systems. The use of a single-shot readout CMOS array detector at frame rates up to 10 kHz allows to resolve coherent oscillations with amplitudes below 10$^{-4}$ in $\\Delta$R/R. We demonstrate the operation of this setup on the prototypical charge-transfer insulator La$_2$CuO$_4$, revealing the presence of coherent optical phonons with frequencies as high as 13 THz.

  2. PG&E's Seismic Network Goes Digital With Strong Motion: Successes and Challenges (United States)

    Stanton, M. A.; Cullen, J.; McLaren, M. K.


    Pacific Gas and Electric Company (PG&E) is in year 3 of a 5-year project to upgrade the Central Coast Seismic Network (CCSN) from analog to digital. Located along the south-central California coast, the CCSN began operation in 1987, with 20 analog stations; 15 vertical component and 5 dual gain 3-component S-13 sensors. The analog signals travel over FM radio telemetry links and voice channels via PG&E's microwave network to our facility in San Francisco (SF), where the A/D conversion is performed on a computer running Earthworm v7.1, which also transmits the data to the USGS in Menlo Park. At the conversion point the dynamic ranges of the vertical and dual-gain sensors are 40-50dB and 60-70dB, respectively. Dynamic range exceedance (data clipping) generally occurs for a M2.5 or greater event within about 40 km of a station. The motivations to upgrade the seismic network were the need for higher dynamic range and to retire obsolete analog transmission equipment. The upgraded digital stations consist of the existing velocity sensors, a 131A-02/3 accelerometer and a Reftek 130-01 Broadband Seismic Recorder for digital data recording and transmission to SF. Vertical only stations have one component of velocity and 3 components of acceleration. Dual gain sites have 3 components of velocity and 3 of acceleration. To date we have successfully upgraded 6 sites; 3 more will be installed by the end of 2008. Some of the advantages of going digital are 1) data is recorded at each site and in SF, 2) substantially increased dynamic range of the velocity sensors to 120dB, as observed by on scale, close-by recordings from a M3.9 San Simeon aftershock on 04/29/2008, 3) accelerometers for on scale recording of large earthquakes, and 4) ability to contribute our strong motion data to USGS ShakeMaps. A significant challenge has been consistent radio communications. To resolve this issue we are installing point-to-multipoint Motorola Canopy spread spectrum radios at the stations and

  3. Low-cost auxiliary system for broadband NMR on strongly magnetic systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nevald, Rolf; Hansen, Poul Erik


    A low cost auxiliary system consisting of He cryostat, superconducting magnet, and sample holder assembly with field probe has been constructed. The system meets the requirements of NMR on strongly paramagnetic or ordered magnetic materials, which are accurate temperature settings over a wide range...

  4. Far-field subwavelength imaging from a single broadband antenna in combined with strongly disordered medium

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Lianlin; Cui, Tie Jun


    The far-field subwavlength imaging is a challenging issue. In this letter we demonstrate numerically that the far-field subwavelength imaging of weakly scattering objects can be obtained by processing the data acquired by a single antenna, which benefits from the use of the strongly disordered medium. A mathematical model has been proposed for solving such problem based on the idea of sparse reconstruction. Moreover, this study leads to an important conclusion that the strongly disordered medium can serves as an efficient apparatus for the single-antenna compressive measurement, which shifts the complexity of devising compressive sensing (CS) hardware from the design, fabrication and electronic control. The proposed method and associated results can find applications in several imaging disciplines, such as optics, THz, RF or ultrasound imaging.

  5. Strong-motion data from the two Pingtung, Taiwan, earthquakes of 26 December 2006 (United States)

    Wu, C.-F.; Lee, W.H.K.; Boore, D.M.


    1016 strong-motion records at 527 free-field stations and 131 records at 42 strong-motion arrays at buildings and bridges were obtained for the Pingtung earthquake doublet from the Taiwan Central Weather Bureau's dense, digital strong-motion network. We carried out standard processing of these strong-motion records at free-field stations. A data set, including the originally recorded files, processed data files, and supporting software and information, is archived online http:// We have not yet completed the processing of the strong-motion array data at buildings and bridges. However, some preliminary results and the strong-motion array data recorded at the second nearest instrumented building to the Pingtung earthquake doublet are shown. This paper is intended to document our data processing procedures and the online archived data files, so that researchers can efficiently use the data. We also include two preliminary analyses: (1) a comparison of ground motions recorded by multiple accelerographs at a common site, the TAP 117 station in Taipei, and (2) attenuation of the horizontal ground motions (peak acceleration and response spectra at periods of 0.2, 1.0, and 3.0 s) with respect to distance. Our comparison study of multiple recordings at TAP 117 indicates that waveform coherence among 20- and 24-bit accelerograph records is much higher as compared to records from 16-bit or 12-bit accelerographs, suggesting that the former are of better quality. For the 20- and 24-bit accelerographs, waveform coherence is nearly 1 over the frequency range 1 to 8 Hz for all components, and is greater than about 0.9 from 8 to 20 Hz for the horizontal component, but only from 8 to 12 Hz for the vertical component. Plots of pseudo-acceleration response spectra (PSA) as a function of distance, however, show no clear indication for a difference related to the performance level of the accelerographs. The ground-motions of the first

  6. Calculation of broadband time histories of ground motion, Part II: Kinematic and dynamic modeling using theoretical Green's functions and comparison with the 1994 northridge earthquake (United States)

    Hartzell, S.; Guatteri, Mariagiovanna; Mai, P.M.; Liu, P.-C.; Fisk, M. R.


    In the evolution of methods for calculating synthetic time histories of ground motion for postulated earthquakes, kinematic source models have dominated to date because of their ease of application. Dynamic models, however, which incorporate a physical relationship between important faulting parameters of stress drop, slip, rupture velocity, and rise time, are becoming more accessible. This article compares a class of kinematic models based on the summation of a fractal distribution of subevent sizes with a dynamic model based on the slip-weakening friction law. Kinematic modeling is done for the frequency band 0.2 to 10.0. Hz, dynamic models are calculated from 0.2 to 2.0. Hz. The strong motion data set for the 1994 Northridge earthquake is used to evaluate and compare the synthetic time histories. Source models are propagated to the far field by convolution with 1D and 3D theoretical Green’s functions. In addition, the kinematic model is used to evaluate the importance of propagation path effects: velocity structure, scattering, and nonlinearity. At present, the kinematic model gives a better broadband fit to the Northridge ground motion than the simple slip-weakening dynamic model. In general, the dynamic model overpredicts rise times and produces insufficient shorter-period energy. Within the context of the slip-weakening model, the Northridge ground motion requires a short slip-weakening distance, on the order of 0.15 m or less. A more complex dynamic model including rate weakening or one that allows shorter rise times near the hypocenter may fit the data better.

  7. Simulation of near-fault bedrock strong ground-motion field by explicit finite element method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Xiao-zhi; HU Jin-jun; XIE Li-li; WANG Hai-yun


    Based on presumed active fault and corresponding model, this paper predicted the near-fault ground motion filed of a scenario earthquake (Mw=6 3/4 ) in an active fault by the explicit finite element method in combination with the source time function with improved transmitting artificial boundary and with high-frequency vibration contained.The results indicate that the improved artificial boundary is stable in numerical computation and the predicted strong ground motion has a consistent characteristic with the observed motion.

  8. Topographic gradient based site characterization in India complemented by strong ground-motion spectral attributes

    KAUST Repository

    Nath, Sankar Kumar


    We appraise topographic-gradient approach for site classification that employs correlations between 30. m column averaged shear-wave velocity and topographic gradients. Assessments based on site classifications reported from cities across India indicate that the approach is reasonably viable at regional level. Additionally, we experiment three techniques for site classification based on strong ground-motion recordings, namely Horizontal-to-Vertical Spectral Ratio (HVSR), Response Spectra Shape (RSS), and Horizontal-to-Vertical Response Spectral Ratio (HVRSR) at the strong motion stations located across the Himalayas and northeast India. Statistical tests on the results indicate that these three techniques broadly differentiate soil and rock sites while RSS and HVRSR yield better signatures. The results also support the implemented site classification in the light of strong ground-motion spectral attributes observed in different parts of the globe. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

  9. RAIS: a real time strong-motion network in northern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Marzorati


    Full Text Available When compared to more seismically active regions, damaging earthquakes occur only occasionally in the central part of northern Italy. Nevertheless, the lack of a dense strong-motion network in this area was highlighted by the occurrence of the November 24, 2004, ML 5.2, Salò earthquake. In 2006, the Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV section of Milano-Pavia began the installation of new strong-motion stations in central-northern Italy. At present, the Strong-Motion Network of Northern Italy (RAIS; Rete Accelerometrica Italia Settentrionale includes 22 stations with an average inter-distance of about 20 km. All of the stations are equipped with Kinemetrics Episensor FBA ES-T sensors coupled with 24-bit digital recorders. Starting from 2009, 14 strong-motion stations have been sending data to the INGV acquisition center in Milan, in real time using TCP/IP over wi-fi links. Another eight stations still work in dial-up mode and send data through GSM modems. The real-time connections allow the use of strong-motion data recorded by RAIS for the generation of shake maps for Italy, the implementation of which represents one of the main tasks of the last agreement between INGV and the Italian Civil Protection Department. The RAIS data is stored directly at the INGV section of Milano-Pavia, which was realized using the MiniSEED format: the data management and exchange are carried out by the SeisComP package with the SeedLink protocol. Metadata dissemination is achieved through the website, where the strong-motion parameters related to each recorded and processed waveform are made available.

  10. The motion of charged particles in strong plane waves including radiation reaction (United States)

    Leinemann, R.; Herold, H.; Ruder, H.; Kegel, W. H.

    The Lorentz-Dirac equation in the Landau approximation is used to study the motion of charged particles in strong plane vacuum waves. It is shown that integration for circularly polarized waves can be used to determine analytically the curves of the particle trajectories. The solution is used to investigate the particle trajectories and energy evolution for various strong waves. The initial conditions for the motion are chosen so that the particles start from a radiation-free path and the growing effect of the radiation reaction on the particle trajectory is highlighted.

  11. Source parameters of the 2013, Ms 7.0, Lushan earthquake and the characteristics of the near-fault strong ground motion (United States)

    Zhao, Fengfan; Meng, Lingyuan


    The April 20, 2013 Ms 7.0, earthquake in Lushan city, Sichuan province of China occurred as the result of east-west oriented reverse-type motion on a north-south striking fault. The source location suggests the event occurred on the Southern part of Longmenshan fault at a depth of 13km. The maximum intensity is up to VIII to IX at Boxing and Lushan city, which are located in the meizoseismal area. In this study, we analyzed the dynamic source process with the source mechanism and empirical relationships, estimated the strong ground motion in the near-fault field based on the Brune's circle model. A dynamical composite source model (DCSM) has been developed to simulate the near-fault strong ground motion with associated fault rupture properties at Boxing and Lushan city, respectively. The results indicate that the frictional undershoot behavior in the dynamic source process of Lushan earthquake, which is actually different from the overshoot activity of the Wenchuan earthquake. Moreover, we discussed the characteristics of the strong ground motion in the near-fault field, that the broadband synthetic seismogram ground motion predictions for Boxing and Lushan city produced larger peak values, shorter durations and higher frequency contents. It indicates that the factors in near-fault strong ground motion was under the influence of higher effect stress drop and asperity slip distributions on the fault plane. This work is financially supported by the Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 41404045) and by Science for Earthquake Resilience of CEA (XH14055Y).

  12. Strong Earthquake Motion Estimates for the UCSB Campus, and Related Response of the Engineering 1 Building

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Archuleta, R.; Bonilla, F.; Doroudian, M.; Elgamal, A.; Hueze, F.


    This is the second report on the UC/CLC Campus Earthquake Program (CEP), concerning the estimation of exposure of the U.C. Santa Barbara campus to strong earthquake motions (Phase 2 study). The main results of Phase 1 are summarized in the current report. This document describes the studies which resulted in site-specific strong motion estimates for the Engineering I site, and discusses the potential impact of these motions on the building. The main elements of Phase 2 are: (1) determining that a M 6.8 earthquake on the North Channel-Pitas Point (NCPP) fault is the largest threat to the campus. Its recurrence interval is estimated at 350 to 525 years; (2) recording earthquakes from that fault on March 23, 1998 (M 3.2) and May 14, 1999 (M 3.2) at the new UCSB seismic station; (3) using these recordings as empirical Green's functions (EGF) in scenario earthquake simulations which provided strong motion estimates (seismic syntheses) at a depth of 74 m under the Engineering I site; 240 such simulations were performed, each with the same seismic moment, but giving a broad range of motions that were analyzed for their mean and standard deviation; (4) laboratory testing, at U.C. Berkeley and U.C. Los Angeles, of soil samples obtained from drilling at the UCSB station site, to determine their response to earthquake-type loading; (5) performing nonlinear soil dynamic calculations, using the soil properties determined in-situ and in the laboratory, to calculate the surface strong motions resulting from the seismic syntheses at depth; (6) comparing these CEP-generated strong motion estimates to acceleration spectra based on the application of state-of-practice methods - the IBC 2000 code, UBC 97 code and Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Analysis (PSHA), this comparison will be used to formulate design-basis spectra for future buildings and retrofits at UCSB; and (7) comparing the response of the Engineering I building to the CEP ground motion estimates and to the design

  13. Strong Ground Motion in the 2011 Tohoku Earthquake: a 1Directional - 3Component Modeling

    CERN Document Server

    D'Avila, Maria Paola Santisi; Lenti, Luca


    Local wave amplification due to strong seismic motions in surficial multilayered soil is influenced by several parameters such as the wavefield polarization and the dynamic properties and impedance contrast between soil layers. The present research aims at investigating seismic motion amplification in the 2011 Tohoku earthquake through a one-directional three-component (1D-3C) wave propagation model. A 3D nonlinear constitutive relation for dry soils under cyclic loading is implemented in a quadratic line finite element model. The soil rheology is modeled by mean of a multi-surface cyclic plasticity model of the Masing-Prandtl-Ishlinskii-Iwan (MPII) type. Its major advantage is that the rheology is characterized by few commonly measured parameters. Ground motions are computed at the surface of soil profiles in the Tohoku area (Japan) by propagating 3C signals recorded at rock outcrops, during the 2011 Tohoku earthquake. Computed surface ground motions are compared to the Tohoku earthquake records at alluvial ...

  14. Strong Ground Motions Generated by the February 11, 2014 Tatunshan Earthquake in the Taipei Metropolitan Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kou-Cheng Chen


    Full Text Available Strong-motion seismograms from the 11 February, 2014 Tatunshan earthquake were recorded at stations around the source area. These recordings were used to analyze the strong-motion characteristics in the area. The largest peak ground acceleration (PGA values of 100.7, 93.4, and 66.6 cm sec-2 in the vertical, EW, and NS directions, respectively, were recorded at station TAP056, about 4.9 km to the northwest of the epicenter. The PGA decays fast with distance, indicating high attenuation in the Tatun volcanic area. The PGA ratio of vertical to horizontal ground motions decreases with increasing epicenter distance. The PGA values in the EW component are larger than those in the NS component. This might be associated with the focal mechanism of the earthquake. The spectral accelerations decrease rapidly with increasing period.

  15. Near fault broadband ground motion simulation with empirical Green's functions: the Upper Rhine Graben case study (United States)

    Del Gaudio, Sergio; Hok, Sébastian; Causse, Mathieu; Festa, Gaetano; Lancieri, Maria


    A fundamental stage in seismic hazard assessment is the prediction of realistic ground motion for potential future earthquakes. To do so, one of the steps is to make an estimation of the expected ground motion level and this is commonly done by the use of ground motion prediction equations (GMPEs). Nevertheless GMPEs do not represent the whole variety of source processes and this can lead to incorrect estimates for some specific case studies, such as in the near-fault range because of the lack of records of large earthquakes at short distances. In such cases, ground motion simulations can be a valid tool to complement prediction equations for scenario studies, provided that both source and propagation are accurately described and uncertainties properly addressed. Such simulations, usually referred to as "blind", require the generation of a population of ground motion records that represent the natural variability of the source process for the target earthquake scenario. In this study we performed simulations using the empirical Green's function technique, which consists in using records of small earthquakes as the medium transfer function provided the availability of small earthquakes located close to the target fault and recorded at the target site. The main advantage of this technique is that it does not require a detailed knowledge of the propagation medium, which is not always possible, but requires availability of high quality records of small earthquakes in the target area. We couple this empirical approach with a k-2 kinematic source model, which naturally let us to introduce high frequency in the source description. Here we present an application of our technique to the Upper Rhine Graben. This is an active seismic region with a moderate rate of seismicity and for which it is interesting to provide ground motion estimation in the vicinity of the faults to be compared with estimations traditionally provided by GMPEs in a seismic hazard evaluation study. We

  16. Strong ground-motion prediction from Stochastic-dynamic source models (United States)

    Guatteri, Mariagiovanna; Mai, P.M.; Beroza, G.C.; Boatwright, J.


    In the absence of sufficient data in the very near source, predictions of the intensity and variability of ground motions from future large earthquakes depend strongly on our ability to develop realistic models of the earthquake source. In this article we simulate near-fault strong ground motion using dynamic source models. We use a boundary integral method to simulate dynamic rupture of earthquakes by specifying dynamic source parameters (fracture energy and stress drop) as spatial random fields. We choose these quantities such that they are consistent with the statistical properties of slip heterogeneity found in finite-source models of past earthquakes. From these rupture models we compute theoretical strong-motion seismograms up to a frequency of 2 Hz for several realizations of a scenario strike-slip Mw 7.0 earthquake and compare empirical response spectra, spectra obtained from our dynamic models, and spectra determined from corresponding kinematic simulations. We find that spatial and temporal variations in slip, slip rise time, and rupture propagation consistent with dynamic rupture models exert a strong influence on near-source ground motion. Our results lead to a feasible approach to specify the variability in the rupture time distribution in kinematic models through a generalization of Andrews' (1976) result relating rupture speed to apparent fracture energy, stress drop, and crack length to 3D dynamic models. This suggests that a simplified representation of dynamic rupture may be obtained to approximate the effects of dynamic rupture without having to do full dynamic simulations.

  17. Strong earthquake motion estimates for three sites on the U.C. San Diego campus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Day, S; Doroudian, M; Elgamal, A; Gonzales, S; Heuze, F; Lai, T; Minster, B; Oglesby, D; Riemer, M; Vernon, F; Vucetic, M; Wagoner, J; Yang, Z


    The approach of the Campus Earthquake Program (CEP) is to combine the substantial expertise that exists within the UC system in geology, seismology, and geotechnical engineering, to estimate the earthquake strong motion exposure of UC facilities. These estimates draw upon recent advances in hazard assessment, seismic wave propagation modeling in rocks and soils, and dynamic soil testing. The UC campuses currently chosen for application of our integrated methodology are Riverside, San Diego, and Santa Barbara. The procedure starts with the identification of possible earthquake sources in the region and the determination of the most critical fault(s) related to earthquake exposure of the campus. Combined geological, geophysical, and geotechnical studies are then conducted to characterize each campus with specific focus on the location of particular target buildings of special interest to the campus administrators. We drill, sample, and geophysically log deep boreholes next to the target structure, to provide direct in-situ measurements of subsurface material properties, and to install uphole and downhole 3-component seismic sensors capable of recording both weak and strong motions. The boreholes provide access below the soil layers, to deeper materials that have relatively high seismic shear-wave velocities. Analyses of conjugate downhole and uphole records provide a basis for optimizing the representation of the low-strain response of the sites. Earthquake rupture scenarios of identified causative faults are combined with the earthquake records and with nonlinear soil models to provide site-specific estimates of strong motions at the selected target locations. The predicted ground motions are shared with the UC consultants, so that they can be used as input to the dynamic analysis of the buildings. Thus, for each campus targeted by the CEP project, the strong motion studies consist of two phases, Phase 1--initial source and site characterization, drilling

  18. Strong Earthquake Motion Estimates for Three Sites on the U.C. Riverside Campus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Archuleta, R.; Elgamal, A.; Heuze, F.; Lai, T.; Lavalle, D.; Lawrence, B.; Liu, P.C.; Matesic, L.; Park, S.; Riemar, M.; Steidl, J.; Vucetic, M.; Wagoner, J.; Yang, Z.


    The approach of the Campus Earthquake Program (CEP) is to combine the substantial expertise that exists within the UC system in geology, seismology, and geotechnical engineering, to estimate the earthquake strong motion exposure of UC facilities. These estimates draw upon recent advances in hazard assessment, seismic wave propagation modeling in rocks and soils, and dynamic soil testing. The UC campuses currently chosen for application of our integrated methodology are Riverside, San Diego, and Santa Barbara. The procedure starts with the identification of possible earthquake sources in the region and the determination of the most critical fault(s) related to earthquake exposure of the campus. Combined geological, geophysical, and geotechnical studies are then conducted to characterize each campus with specific focus on the location of particular target buildings of special interest to the campus administrators. We drill and geophysically log deep boreholes next to the target structure, to provide direct in-situ measurements of subsurface material properties, and to install uphole and downhole 3-component seismic sensors capable of recording both weak and strong motions. The boreholes provide access below the soil layers, to deeper materials that have relatively high seismic shear-wave velocities. Analyses of conjugate downhole and uphole records provide a basis for optimizing the representation of the low-strain response of the sites. Earthquake rupture scenarios of identified causative faults are combined with the earthquake records and with nonlinear soil models to provide site-specific estimates of strong motions at the selected target locations. The predicted ground motions are shared with the UC consultants, so that they can be used as input to the dynamic analysis of the buildings. Thus, for each campus targeted by the CEP project, the strong motion studies consist of two phases, Phase 1--initial source and site characterization, drilling, geophysical

  19. Orbital motion in strongly perturbed environments applications to asteroid, comet and planetary satellite orbiters

    CERN Document Server

    Scheeres, Daniel J


    The proposed book will provide a detailed, technical introduction to the analysis of orbital motion in strongly perturbed environments, focusing on motion about small Solar System bodies, such as comets and asteroids. The author shows why such small bodies are of interest and why they can be used as a motivation for the general analysis of orbital mechanics. He shows how it is possible to model the small body environment, including specialised cases such as those of binary asteroids, comets and ‘rubble piles’, and how the fundamental equations of motion are derived. The properties of the various solutions to the equations of motion are described and the methods of analysis and their application are discussed. Both ballistic motion and powered motion on and about small bodies are considered and case studies for different small body missions are presented. The author concludes his comprehensive treatment with a discussion of the mechanics of multi-body small body systems and a review of advanced topics and ...

  20. Designed microtremor array based actual measurement and analysis of strong ground motion at Palu city, Indonesia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thein, Pyi Soe, E-mail: [Geology Department, Yangon University (Myanmar); Pramumijoyo, Subagyo; Wilopo, Wahyu; Setianto, Agung [Geological Engineering Department, Gadjah Mada University (Indonesia); Brotopuspito, Kirbani Sri [Physics Department, Gadjah Mada University (Indonesia); Kiyono, Junji; Putra, Rusnardi Rahmat [Graduate School of Global Environmental Studies, Kyoto University (Japan)


    In this study, we investigated the strong ground motion characteristics under Palu City, Indonesia. The shear wave velocity structures evaluated by eight microtremors measurement are the most applicable to determine the thickness of sediments and average shear wave velocity with Vs ≤ 300 m/s. Based on subsurface underground structure models identified, earthquake ground motion was estimated in the future Palu-Koro earthquake by using statistical green’s function method. The seismic microzonation parameters were carried out by considering several significant controlling factors on ground response at January 23, 2005 earthquake.

  1. Strong Coupling of the Cyclotron Motion of Surface Electrons on Liquid Helium to a Microwave Cavity (United States)

    Abdurakhimov, L. V.; Yamashiro, R.; Badrutdinov, A. O.; Konstantinov, D.


    The strong coupling regime is observed in a system of two-dimensional electrons whose cyclotron motion is coupled to an electromagnetic mode in a Fabry-Perot cavity resonator. Rabi splitting of eigenfrequencies of the coupled motion is observed both in the cavity reflection spectrum and ac current of the electrons, the latter probed by measuring their bolometric photoresponse. Despite the fact that similar observations of Rabi splitting in many-particle systems have been described as a quantum-mechanical effect, we show that the observed splitting can be explained completely by a model based on classical electrodynamics.

  2. Validation and modeling of earthquake strong ground motion using a composite source model (United States)

    Zeng, Y.


    Zeng et al. (1994) have proposed a composite source model for synthetic strong ground motion prediction. In that model, the source is taken as a superposition of circular subevents with a constant stress drop. The number of subevents and their radius follows a power law distribution equivalent to the Gutenberg and Richter's magnitude-frequency relation for seismicity. The heterogeneous nature of the composite source model is characterized by its maximum subevent size and subevent stress drop. As rupture propagates through each subevent, it radiates a Brune's pulse or a Sato and Hirasawa's circular crack pulse. The method has been proved to be successful in generating realistic strong motion seismograms in comparison with observations from earthquakes in California, eastern US, Guerrero of Mexico, Turkey and India. The model has since been improved by including scattering waves from small scale heterogeneity structure of the earth, site specific ground motion prediction using weak motion site amplification, and nonlinear soil response using geotechnical engineering models. Last year, I have introduced an asymmetric circular rupture to improve the subevent source radiation and to provide a consistent rupture model between overall fault rupture process and its subevents. In this study, I revisit the Landers, Loma Prieta, Northridge, Imperial Valley and Kobe earthquakes using the improved source model. The results show that the improved subevent ruptures provide an improved effect of rupture directivity compared to our previous studies. Additional validation includes comparison of synthetic strong ground motions to the observed ground accelerations from the Chi-Chi, Taiwan and Izmit, Turkey earthquakes. Since the method has evolved considerably when it was first proposed, I will also compare results between each major modification of the model and demonstrate its backward compatibility to any of its early simulation procedures.

  3. Development of an Earthquake Early Warning System Using Real-Time Strong Motion Signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroo Kanamori


    Full Text Available As urbanization progresses worldwide, earthquakes pose serious threat to livesand properties for urban areas near major active faults on land or subduction zonesoffshore. Earthquake Early Warning (EEW can be a useful tool for reducing earthquakehazards, if the spatial relation between cities and earthquake sources is favorable for suchwarning and their citizens are properly trained to respond to earthquake warning messages.An EEW system forewarns an urban area of forthcoming strong shaking, normally with afew sec to a few tens of sec of warning time, i.e., before the arrival of the destructive Swavepart of the strong ground motion. Even a few second of advanced warning time willbe useful for pre-programmed emergency measures for various critical facilities, such asrapid-transit vehicles and high-speed trains to avoid potential derailment; it will be alsouseful for orderly shutoff of gas pipelines to minimize fire hazards, controlled shutdown ofhigh-technological manufacturing operations to reduce potential losses, and safe-guardingof computer facilities to avoid loss of vital databases. We explored a practical approach toEEW with the use of a ground-motion period parameter τc and a high-pass filtered verticaldisplacement amplitude parameter Pd from the initial 3 sec of the P waveforms. At a givensite, an earthquake magnitude could be determined from τc and the peak ground-motionvelocity (PGV could be estimated from Pd. In this method, incoming strong motion acceleration signals are recursively converted to ground velocity and displacement. A Pwavetrigger is constantly monitored. When a trigger occurs, τc and Pd are computed. Theearthquake magnitude and the on-site ground-motion intensity could be estimated and thewarning could be issued. In an ideal situation, such warnings would be available within 10sec of the origin time of a large earthquake whose subsequent ground motion may last fortens of seconds.

  4. Chapter A. The Loma Prieta, California, Earthquake of October 17, 1989 - Strong Ground Motion (United States)

    Borcherdt, Roger D.


    Strong ground motion generated by the Loma Prieta, Calif., earthquake (MS~7.1) of October 17, 1989, resulted in at least 63 deaths, more than 3,757 injuries, and damage estimated to exceed $5.9 billion. Strong ground motion severely damaged critical lifelines (freeway overpasses, bridges, and pipelines), caused severe damage to poorly constructed buildings, and induced a significant number of ground failures associated with liquefaction and landsliding. It also caused a significant proportion of the damage and loss of life at distances as far as 100 km from the epicenter. Consequently, understanding the characteristics of the strong ground motion associated with the earthquake is fundamental to understanding the earthquake's devastating impact on society. The papers assembled in this chapter address this problem. Damage to vulnerable structures from the earthquake varied substantially with the distance from the causative fault and the type of underlying geologic deposits. Most of the damage and loss of life occurred in areas underlain by 'soft soil'. Quantifying these effects is important for understanding the tragic concentrations of damage in such areas as Santa Cruz and the Marina and Embarcadero Districts of San Francisco, and the failures of the San Francisco-Oakland Bay Bridge and the Interstate Highway 880 overpass. Most importantly, understanding these effects is a necessary prerequisite for improving mitigation measures for larger earthquakes likely to occur much closer to densely urbanized areas in the San Francisco Bay region. The earthquake generated an especially important data set for understanding variations in the severity of strong ground motion. Instrumental strong-motion recordings were obtained at 131 sites located from about 6 to 175 km from the rupture zone. This set of recordings, the largest yet collected for an event of this size, was obtained from sites on various geologic deposits, including a unique set on 'soft soil' deposits

  5. Before and after retrofit - response of a building during ambient and strong motions (United States)

    Celebi, M.; Liu, Huaibao P.; ,


    This paper presents results obtained from ambient vibration and strong-motion responses of a thirteen-story, moment-resisting steel framed Santa Clara County Office Building (SCCOB) before being retrofitted by visco-elastic dampers and from ambient vibration response following the retrofit. Understanding the cumulative structural and site characteristics that affect the response of SCCOB before and after the retrofit is important in assessing earthquake hazards to other similar buildings and decision making in retrofitting them. The results emphasize the need to better evaluate structural and site characteristics in developing earthquake resisting designs that avoid resonating effects. Various studies of the strong-motion response records from the SCCOB during the 24 April 1984 (MHE) Morgan Hill (MS = 6.1), the 31 March 1986 (MLE) Mt. Lewis (MS = 6.1) and the 17 October 1989 (LPE) Loma Prieta (MS = 7.1) earthquakes show that the dynamic characteristics of the building are such that it (a) resonated (b) responded with a beating effect due to close-coupling of its translational and torsional frequencies, and (c) had a long-duration response due to low-damping. During each of these earthquakes, there was considerable contents damage and the occupants felt the rigorous vibration of the building. Ambient tests of SCCOB performed following LPE showed that both translational and torsional periods of the building are smaller than those derived from strong motions. Ambient tests performed following the retrofit of the building with visco-elastic dampers show that the structural fundamental mode frequency of the building has increased. The increased frequency implies a stiffer structure. Strong-motion response of the building during future earthquakes will ultimately validate the effectiveness of the retrofit method.This paper presents results obtained from ambient vibration and strong-motion responses of a thirteen-story, moment-resisting steel framed Santa Clara County

  6. Vision for the Future of the US National Strong-Motion Program (United States)



    This document provides the requested vision for the future of the National Strong-Motion Program operated by the US Geological Survey. Options for operation of the program are presented in a companion document. Each of the three major charges of the EHRP, program council pertaining to the vision document is addressed here. The 'Vision Summary' through a series of answers to specific questions is intended to provide a complete synopsis of the committees response to program council charges. The Vision for the Future of the NSMP is presented as section III of the Summary. Analysis and detailed discussion supporting the answers in the summary are presented as sections organized according to the charges of the program council. The mission for the program is adopted from that developed at the national workshop entitled 'Research Needs for Strong Motion Data to Support Earthquake Engineering' sponsored by the National Science Foundation.

  7. Receiver Function Analysis of Strong-motion Stations in Kaohsiung-Pingtung area, Taiwan (United States)

    Lin, Che-Min; Wen, Kuo-Liang; Kuo, Chun-Hsiang; Huang, Jyun-Yan


    The Kaohsiung City and Pingtung County are located in southern Taiwan and bounded on the west side by several active faults. The shallow velocity structure of thick alluvium basin in this area should be delineated to understand the seismic site effect of strong ground motion. Receiver Function (RF) is a conventional technique for studying the structure of the crust and upper mantle beneath the seismometer. But, the RF analysis of high-frequency acceleration seismograms is also proved to be feasible for estimating shallow structures recently. This study applied the RF technique on the Strong-motion records of almost one-hundred TSMIP stations in Kaohsiung-Pingtung area to estimate the shallow shear-wave velocity structures. The averaged RFs of all stations exhibit the obvious variation because of the different geologies and site conditions. After the forward modeling of RFs based on the Genetic Algorithms (GA) searching, the shallow shear-wave velocity structures beneath all the strong-motion stations in the Kaohsiung-Pingtung area were estimated to delineate the iso-depth contour maps of the main formation interfaces and a preliminary shallow 3D velocity model.

  8. The Engineering Strong Ground Motion Network of the National Autonomous University of Mexico (United States)

    Velasco Miranda, J. M.; Ramirez-Guzman, L.; Aguilar Calderon, L. A.; Almora Mata, D.; Ayala Hernandez, M.; Castro Parra, G.; Molina Avila, I.; Mora, A.; Torres Noguez, M.; Vazquez Larquet, R.


    The coverage, design, operation and monitoring capabilities of the strong ground motion program at the Institute of Engineering (IE) of the National Autonomous University of Mexico (UNAM) is presented. Started in 1952, the seismic instrumentation intended initially to bolster earthquake engineering projects in Mexico City has evolved into the largest strong ground motion monitoring system in the region. Today, it provides information not only to engineering projects, but also to the near real-time risk mitigation systems of the country, and enhances the general understanding of the effects and causes of earthquakes in Mexico. The IE network includes more than 100 free-field stations and several buildings, covering the largest urban centers and zones of significant seismicity in Central Mexico. Of those stations, approximately one-fourth send the observed acceleration to a processing center in Mexico City continuously, and the rest require either periodic visits for the manual recovery of the data or remote interrogation, for later processing and cataloging. In this research, we document the procedures and telecommunications systems used systematically to recover information. Additionally, we analyze the spatial distribution of the free-field accelerographs, the quality of the instrumentation, and the recorded ground motions. The evaluation criteria are based on the: 1) uncertainty in the generation of ground motion parameter maps due to the spatial distribution of the stations, 2) potential of the array to provide localization and magnitude estimates for earthquakes with magnitudes greater than Mw 5, and 3) adequacy of the network for the development of Ground Motion Prediction Equations due to intra-plate and intra-slab earthquakes. We conclude that the monitoring system requires a new redistribution, additional stations, and a substantial improvement in the instrumentation and telecommunications. Finally, we present an integral plan to improve the current network

  9. Recent development of the earthquake strong motion-intensity catalog and intensity prediction equations for Iran (United States)

    Zare, Mehdi


    This study aims to develop a new earthquake strong motion-intensity catalog as well as intensity prediction equations for Iran based on the available data. For this purpose, all the sites which had both recorded strong motion and intensity values throughout the region were first searched. Then, the data belonging to the 306 identified sites were processed, and the results were compiled as a new strong motion-intensity catalog. Based on this new catalog, two empirical equations between the values of intensity and the ground motion parameters (GMPs) for the Iranian earthquakes were calculated. At the first step, earthquake "intensity" was considered as a function of five independent GMPs including "Log (PHA)," "moment magnitude (MW)," "distance to epicenter," "site type," and "duration," and a multiple stepwise regression was calculated. Regarding the correlations between the parameters and the effectiveness coefficients of the predictors, the Log (PHA) was recognized as the most effective parameter on the earthquake "intensity," while the parameter "site type" was removed from the equations since it was determines as the least significant variable. Then, at the second step, a simple ordinary least squares (OLS) regression was fitted only between the parameters intensity and the Log (PHA) which resulted in more over/underestimated intensity values comparing to the results of the multiple intensity-GMPs regression. However, for rapid response purposes, the simple OLS regression may be more useful comparing to the multiple regression due to its data availability and simplicity. In addition, according to 50 selected earthquakes, an empirical relation between the macroseismic intensity (I0) and MW was developed.

  10. Numerical simulation analysis on Wenchuan seismic strong motion in Hanyuan region (United States)

    Chen, X.; Gao, M.; Guo, J.; Li, Z.; Li, T.


    69227 deaths, 374643 injured, 17923 people missing, direct economic losses 845.1 billion, and a large number houses collapse were caused by Wenchuan Ms8 earthquake in Sichuan Province on May 12, 2008, how to reproduce characteristics of its strong ground motion and predict its intensity distribution, which have important role to mitigate disaster of similar giant earthquake in the future. Taking Yunnan-Sichuan Province, Wenchuan town, Chengdu city, Chengdu basin and its vicinity as the research area, on the basis of the available three-dimensional velocity structure model and newly topography data results from ChinaArray of Institute of Geophysics, China Earthquake Administration, 2 type complex source rupture process models with the global and local source parameters are established, we simulated the seismic wave propagation of Wenchuan Ms8 earthquake throughout the whole three-dimensional region by the GMS discrete grid finite-difference techniques with Cerjan absorbing boundary conditions, and obtained the seismic intensity distribution in this region through analyzing 50×50 stations data (simulated ground motion output station). The simulated results indicated that: (1)Simulated Wenchuan earthquake ground motion (PGA) response and the main characteristics of the response spectrum are very similar to those of the real Wenchuan earthquake records. (2)Wenchuan earthquake ground motion (PGA) and the response spectra of the Plain are much greater than that of the left Mountain area because of the low velocity of the shallow surface media and the basin effect of the Chengdu basin structure. Simultaneously, (3) the source rupture process (inversion) with far-field P-wave, GPS data and InSAR information and the Longmenshan Front Fault (source rupture process) are taken into consideration in GMS numerical simulation, significantly different waveform and frequency component of the ground motion are obtained, though the strong motion waveform is distinct asymmetric

  11. A Diffusion Approximation Based on Renewal Processes with Applications to Strongly Biased Run-Tumble Motion. (United States)

    Thygesen, Uffe Høgsbro


    We consider organisms which use a renewal strategy such as run-tumble when moving in space, for example to perform chemotaxis in chemical gradients. We derive a diffusion approximation for the motion, applying a central limit theorem due to Anscombe for renewal-reward processes; this theorem has not previously been applied in this context. Our results extend previous work, which has established the mean drift but not the diffusivity. For a classical model of tumble rates applied to chemotaxis, we find that the resulting chemotactic drift saturates to the swimming velocity of the organism when the chemical gradients grow increasingly steep. The dispersal becomes anisotropic in steep gradients, with larger dispersal across the gradient than along the gradient. In contrast to one-dimensional settings, strong bias increases dispersal. We next include Brownian rotation in the model and find that, in limit of high chemotactic sensitivity, the chemotactic drift is 64% of the swimming velocity, independent of the magnitude of the Brownian rotation. We finally derive characteristic timescales of the motion that can be used to assess whether the diffusion limit is justified in a given situation. The proposed technique for obtaining diffusion approximations is conceptually and computationally simple, and applicable also when statistics of the motion is obtained empirically or through Monte Carlo simulation of the motion.

  12. Source complexity of the 1987 Whittier Narrows, California, earthquake from the inversion of strong motion records (United States)

    Hartzell, S.; Iida, M.


    Strong motion records for the Whittier Narrows earthquake are inverted to obtain the history of slip. Both constant rupture velocity models and variable rupture velocity models are considered. The results show a complex rupture process within a relatively small source volume, with at least four separate concentrations of slip. Two sources are associated with the hypocenter, the larger having a slip of 55-90 cm, depending on the rupture model. These sources have a radius of approximately 2-3 km and are ringed by a region of reduced slip. The aftershocks fall within this low slip annulus. Other sources with slips from 40 to 70 cm each ring the central source region and the aftershock pattern. All the sources are predominantly thrust, although some minor right-lateral strike-slip motion is seen. The overall dimensions of the Whittier earthquake from the strong motion inversions is 10 km long (along the strike) and 6 km wide (down the dip). The preferred dip is 30?? and the preferred average rupture velocity is 2.5 km/s. Moment estimates range from 7.4 to 10.0 ?? 1024 dyn cm, depending on the rupture model. -Authors

  13. Strong Ground Motion Evaluation for an Active Fault System by the Empirical Green Function Method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, In Kil; Choun, Young Sun [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Shiba, Yoshiaki; Ohtori, Yasuki [Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry, Chiba (Japan)


    In an area with a high seismic activity, a design earthquake ground motion is generally determined empirically by investigating the historical records concerning damaging events. But it is difficult in Korea to obtain such seismic records that reflect the local characteristics because of the low seismic activity. A geological survey on the active faults near the sites of nuclear power plants has been carried out recently, and the segmentation, slip rate and the latest activity of the fault system are partly revealed. It will be significant for the advanced seismic design of nuclear facilities to utilize the information derived from these geological investigations and evaluate the strong ground motions. In this study, the empirical Green's function method (EFGM) was used to simulate strong ground motions from an active fault system in Korea. The source models are assumed by using the information obtained from the geological survey and the trench investigation on the fault system. Finally, the applicability of this approach to Korea was estimated.

  14. Geodetic, teleseismic, and strong motion constraints on slip from recent southern Peru subduction zone earthquakes (United States)

    Pritchard, M. E.; Norabuena, E. O.; Ji, C.; Boroschek, R.; Comte, D.; Simons, M.; Dixon, T. H.; Rosen, P. A.


    We use seismic and geodetic data both jointly and separately to constrain coseismic slip from the 12 November 1996 Mw 7.7 and 23 June 2001 Mw 8.5 southern Peru subduction zone earthquakes, as well as two large aftershocks following the 2001 earthquake on 26 June and 7 July 2001. We use all available data in our inversions: GPS, interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) from the ERS-1, ERS-2, JERS, and RADARSAT-1 satellites, and seismic data from teleseismic and strong motion stations. Our two-dimensional slip models derived from only teleseismic body waves from South American subduction zone earthquakes with Mw > 7.5 do not reliably predict available geodetic data. In particular, we find significant differences in the distribution of slip for the 2001 earthquake from models that use only seismic (teleseismic and two strong motion stations) or geodetic (InSAR and GPS) data. The differences might be related to postseismic deformation or, more likely, the different sensitivities of the teleseismic and geodetic data to coseismic rupture properties. The earthquakes studied here follow the pattern of earthquake directivity along the coast of western South America, north of 5°S, earthquakes rupture to the north; south of about 12°S, directivity is southerly; and in between, earthquakes are bilateral. The predicted deformation at the Arequipa GPS station from the seismic-only slip model for the 7 July 2001 aftershock is not consistent with significant preseismic motion.

  15. A comparison of two methods for earthquake source inversion using strong motion seismograms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. C. Beroza


    Full Text Available In this paper we compare two time-domain inversion methods that have been widely applied to the problem of modeling earthquake rupture using strong-motion seismograms. In the multi-window method, each point on the fault is allowed to rupture multiple times. This allows flexibility in the rupture time and hence the rupture velocity. Variations in the slip-velocity function are accommodated by variations in the slip amplitude in each time-window. The single-window method assumes that each point on the fault ruptures only once, when the rupture front passes. Variations in slip amplitude are allowed and variations in rupture velocity are accommodated by allowing the rupture time to vary. Because the multi-window method allows greater flexibility, it has the potential to describe a wider range of faulting behavior; however, with this increased flexibility comes an increase in the degrees of freedom and the solutions are comparatively less stable. We demonstrate this effect using synthetic data for a test model of the Mw 7.3 1992 Landers, California earthquake, and then apply both inversion methods to the actual recordings. The two approaches yield similar fits to the strong-motion data with different seismic moments indicating that the moment is not well constrained by strong-motion data alone. The slip amplitude distribution is similar using either approach, but important differences exist in the rupture propagation models. The single-window method does a better job of recovering the true seismic moment and the average rupture velocity. The multi-window method is preferable when rise time is strongly variable, but tends to overestimate the seismic moment. Both methods work well when the rise time is constant or short compared to the periods modeled. Neither approach can recover the temporal details of rupture propagation unless the distribution of slip amplitude is constrained by independent data.

  16. Strong light scattering and broadband (UV to IR) photoabsorption in stretchable 3D hybrid architectures based on Aerographite decorated by ZnO nanocrystallites (United States)

    Tiginyanu, Ion; Ghimpu, Lidia; Gröttrup, Jorit; Postolache, Vitalie; Mecklenburg, Matthias; Stevens-Kalceff, Marion A.; Ursaki, Veaceslav; Payami, Nader; Feidenhansl, Robert; Schulte, Karl; Adelung, Rainer; Mishra, Yogendra Kumar


    In present work, the nano- and microscale tetrapods from zinc oxide were integrated on the surface of Aerographite material (as backbone) in carbon-metal oxide hybrid hierarchical network via a simple and single step magnetron sputtering process. The fabricated hybrid networks are characterized for morphology, microstructural and optical properties. The cathodoluminescence investigations revealed interesting luminescence features related to carbon impurities and inherent host defects in zinc oxide. Because of the wide bandgap of zinc oxide and its intrinsic defects, the hybrid network absorbs light in the UV and visible regions, however, this broadband photoabsorption behavior extends to the infrared (IR) region due to the dependence of the optical properties of ZnO architectures upon size and shape of constituent nanostructures and their doping by carbon impurities. Such a phenomenon of broadband photoabsorption ranging from UV to IR for zinc oxide based hybrid materials is novel. Additionally, the fabricated network exhibits strong visible light scattering behavior. The developed Aerographite/nanocrystalline ZnO hybrid network materials, equipped with broadband photoabsorption and strong light scattering, are very promising candidates for optoelectronic technologies.

  17. Strong Role of Non-stationary Accretion in Spectral Transitions of X-ray Binaries and Implications for Revealing the Accretion Geometry and Broadband Radiation Mechanisms (United States)

    Yu, Wenfei; Yan, Zhen; Tang, Jing; Wu, Yuxiang

    Observations of spectral transitions from the hard state to the soft state in bright X-ray binaries show strong evidence that the rate-of-change of the mass accretion rate plays a dominant role in determining the luminosity at which the spectral transition occurs. This indicates that in many cases, especially accretion in transients during outbursts, the rate-of-change of the mass accretion rate is the primary parameter driving high energy phenomena. Although this goes beyond the scope of current stationary model of disk and jet, it tells us that it is the rate-of-change of the mass accretion rate that we need to trace observationally. Since state transition is a broadband phenomenon, multi-wavelength observations of spectral transitions of different rate-of-changes of mass accretion rate are expect to reveal the accretion geometry and broadband radiation mechanisms.

  18. Prediction of near-field strong ground motions for scenario earthquakes on active fault

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Haiyun; Xie Lili; Tao Xiaxin; Li Jie


    A method to predict near-field strong ground motions for scenario earthquakes on active faults is proposed. First,macro-source parameters characterizing the entire source area, i.e., global source parameters, including fault length, fault width,rupture area, average slip on the fault plane, etc., are estimated by seismogeology survey, seismicity and seismic scaling laws.Second, slip distributions characterizing heterogeneity or roughness on the fault plane, i.e., local source parameters, are reproduced/evaluated by the hybrid slip model. Finally, the finite fault source model, developed from both the global and local source parameters, is combined with the stochastically synthetic technique of ground motion using the dynamic corner frequency based on seismology. The proposed method is applied to simulate the acceleration time histories on three base-rock stations during the 1994 Northridge earthquake. Comparisons between the predicted and recorded acceleration time histories show that the method is feasible and practicable.

  19. Effects and implications of fault zone heterogeneity and anisotropy on earthquake strong ground motion (United States)

    Su, Wei-Jou

    This thesis consists of two parts. Part one is concerned with the effect of fault zone heterogeneity on the strong ground motion of the Loma Preita earthquake. Part two is concerned with the effect of the effective hexagonal anisotropy of a fault zone on strong ground motion. A superposition of Gaussian beams is used to analyze these problems because it can account for both the rupture history of the fault plane and the fault zone heterogeneity. We also extend this method to investigate the combined effects of the rupture process on a fault plane and medium anisotropy on the synthetic seismograms. The strong ground motion of the Loma Prieta Earthquake is synthesized using a known three-dimensional crustal model of the region, a rupture model determined under the assumption of laterally homogeneous structure, and Green's functions computed by superposition of Gaussian beams. Compared to results obtained assuming a laterally homogeneous crust, stations lying to the northeast of the rupture zone are predicted to be defocused, while stations lying to the west of the fault trace are predicted to be focused. The defocusing is caused by a zone of high velocity material between the San Andreas and Sargent faults, and the focusing is caused by a region of low velocity lying between the Zayantes and San Andreas faults. If lateral homogeneity is assumed, the net effect of the predicted focusing and defocusing is to bias estimates of the relative slip of two high slip regions found in inversions of local and teleseismic body waves. These biases are similar in magnitude to those estimated for waveform inversions from the effects of using different subsets of data and/or different misfit functions and are similar in magnitude to the effects predicted for non-linear site responses.

  20. Attenuation Characteristics of Strong Ground Motions during the Mw 6.1 South Napa Earthquake (United States)

    Si, H.; Koketsu, K.; Miyake, H.; Ibrahim, R.


    The 2014 South Napa earthquake (Mw 6.1, GCMT) occurred near the American Canyon, California, at 3:20 on 24 August 2014. The earthquake is the largest damaging earthquakes in the area since the 1989 Mw 6.9 Loma Prieta earthquake. A large number of strong ground motions were recorded during this earthquake. We discuss the attenuation characteristics of the strong ground motions of the earthquake.The data used in this study are PGAs compiled by the Center for Engineering Strong Motion Data (CESMD), while the records derived at the stations located in a building were excluded. PGA is defined as the larger one among the PGAs of two horizontal components. We use a source model derived based on the waveform inversion by Dreger (2014). Based on the source model, we calculated the fault distance (FD) and the median distance (MED) which defined as the closest distance from a station to the middle line of the fault plane. We compared the observed PGAs with the GMPEs developed both in US (Boore et al., 2014) and Japan (Si and Midorikawa, 1999; Koketsu et al., 2013), as shown in Figure 1 (left, and center). The predictions by the GMPEs are generally consistent with the observations in near-field area, but overestimated at stations farther than about 10 km in fault distance. The reasons of the overestimates are assumed as follows: (1) the backward propagation effects since many far stations are located in bay area, (2) the energy loss when the seismic waves pass through the sharp discontinuities in the shear wave velocity structure. The second reason are taken into account for the case using MED based on the methods used in Si et al. (2012, 15WCEE). The corrected predictions are significantly improved (Figure 1, right).

  1. Geodetic, teleseismic, and strong motion constraints on slip from recent southern Peru subduction zone earthquakes


    Pritchard, M. E.; Norabuena, E. O.; Jillings, C.; Boroschek, R.; Comte, D.; Simons, M.; T. H. Dixon; Rosen, P. A.


    We use seismic and geodetic data both jointly and separately to constrain coseismic slip from the 12 November 1996 M_w 7.7 and 23 June 2001 M_w 8.5 southern Peru subduction zone earthquakes, as well as two large aftershocks following the 2001 earthquake on 26 June and 7 July 2001. We use all available data in our inversions: GPS, interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) from the ERS-1, ERS-2, JERS, and RADARSAT-1 satellites, and seismic data from teleseismic and strong motion stations...

  2. Characterizing the Kathmandu Valley sediment response through strong motion recordings of the 2015 Gorkha earthquake sequence (United States)

    Rajaure, S.; Asimaki, Domniki; Thompson, Eric; Hough, Susan E.; Martin, Stacey; Ampuero, J.P.; Dhital, M.R.; Inbal, A; Takai, N; Shigefuji, M.; Bijukchhen, S; Ichiyanagi, M; Sasatani, T; Paudel, L


    We analyze strong motion records and high-rate GPS measurements of the M 7.8 Gorkha mainshock, M 7.3 Dolakha, and two moderate aftershock events recorded at four stations on the Kathmandu basin sediments, and one on rock-outcrop. Recordings on soil from all four events show systematic amplification relative to the rock site at multiple frequencies in the 0.1–2.5 Hz frequency range, and de-amplification of higher frequencies ( >2.5–10 Hz). The soil-to-rock amplification ratios for the M 7.8 and M 7.3 events have lower amplitude and frequency peaks relative to the ratios of the two moderate events, effects that could be suggestive of nonlinear site response. Further, comparisons to ground motion prediction equations show that 1) both soil and rock mainshock recordings were severely depleted of high frequencies, and 2) the depletion at high frequencies is not present in the aftershocks. These observations indicate that the high frequency deamplification is additionally related to characteristics of the source that are not captured by simplified ground motion prediction equations, and allude to seismic hazard analysis models being revised – possibly by treating isolated high frequency radiation sources separately from long period components to capture large magnitude near-source events such as the 2015 Gorkha mainshock.

  3. Weak Broadband Electromagnetic Fields are More Disruptive to Magnetic Compass Orientation in a Night-Migratory Songbird (Erithacus rubecula) than Strong Narrow-Band Fields. (United States)

    Schwarze, Susanne; Schneider, Nils-Lasse; Reichl, Thomas; Dreyer, David; Lefeldt, Nele; Engels, Svenja; Baker, Neville; Hore, P J; Mouritsen, Henrik


    Magnetic compass orientation in night-migratory songbirds is embedded in the visual system and seems to be based on a light-dependent radical pair mechanism. Recent findings suggest that both broadband electromagnetic fields ranging from ~2 kHz to ~9 MHz and narrow-band fields at the so-called Larmor frequency for a free electron in the Earth's magnetic field can disrupt this mechanism. However, due to local magnetic fields generated by nuclear spins, effects specific to the Larmor frequency are difficult to understand considering that the primary sensory molecule should be organic and probably a protein. We therefore constructed a purpose-built laboratory and tested the orientation capabilities of European robins in an electromagnetically silent environment, under the specific influence of four different oscillating narrow-band electromagnetic fields, at the Larmor frequency, double the Larmor frequency, 1.315 MHz or 50 Hz, and in the presence of broadband electromagnetic noise covering the range from ~2 kHz to ~9 MHz. Our results indicated that the magnetic compass orientation of European robins could not be disrupted by any of the relatively strong narrow-band electromagnetic fields employed here, but that the weak broadband field very efficiently disrupted their orientation.

  4. Source effects on the simulation of the strong groud motion of the 2011 Lorca earthquake (United States)

    Saraò, Angela; Moratto, Luca; Vuan, Alessandro; Mucciarelli, Marco; Jimenez, Maria Jose; Garcia Fernandez, Mariano


    On May 11, 2011 a moderate seismic event (Mw=5.2) struck the city of Lorca (South-East Spain) causing nine casualties, a large number of injured people and damages at the civil buildings. The largest PGA value (360 cm/s2) ever recorded so far in Spain, was observed at the accelerometric station located in Lorca (LOR), and it was explained as due to the source directivity, rather than to local site effects. During the last years different source models, retrieved from the inversions of geodetic or seismological data, or a combination of the two, have been published. To investigate the variability that equivalent source models of an average earthquake can introduce in the computation of strong motion, we calculated seismograms (up to 1 Hz), using an approach based on the wavenumber integration and, as input, four different source models taken from the literature. The source models differ mainly for the slip distribution on the fault. Our results show that, as effect of the different sources, the ground motion variability, in terms of pseudo-spectral velocity (1s), can reach one order of magnitude for near source receivers or for sites influenced by the forward-directivity effect. Finally, we compute the strong motion at frequencies higher than 1 Hz using the Empirical Green Functions and the source model parameters that better reproduce the recorded shaking up to 1 Hz: the computed seismograms fit satisfactorily the signals recorded at LOR station as well as at the other stations close to the source.

  5. Regional Characterization of Metropolitan Areas in Japan for Strong Ground Motion Evaluation (United States)

    Hirata, N.; Sato, H.; Koketsu, K.; Umeda, Y.; Iwata, T.; Kasahara, K.; Okaya, D.


    Introduction After the 1995 Kobe earthquake, the Japanese government increased its focus and funding of earthquake hazards evaluation, studies of man-made structures integrity, and emergency response planning in the major urban centers. A new agency, the Headquarters for Earthquake Research Promotion, was formed to oversee appropriate research in the earth sciences and civil engineering. This agency distributes research funds of \\$130 million per year. Projects include these topics: 1) Densification of seismic and GPS networks, 2) Paleoseismological investigation of major active faults, 3) Research on the geometry and physical properties of basins under the cities, 4) Probablistic strong ground motion estimation, and 5) Regional characterization of faults and physical parameters. Regional Characterization Study A long-term goal is to produce map of reliable estimations of strong ground motion. This requires accurate determination of: Source, Propagation path, Near surface and Ground motion response.A new five year project starts this year to characterize the "source" and "propagation path" in the Kanto (Tokyo) region and Kinki (Osaka) region. The proximity of the Pacific and Philippine Sea subducting plates requires study of the relationship between earthquakes and regional tectonics. This projects focuses on identification and geometry of: 1) Source faults, 2) Subducting plates and mega-thrust faults, 3)Crustal structure, 4) Seismogenic zone, 5) Sedimentary basins, 6) 3D velocity properties Reconstruction of source fault and velocity models allow for more realistic 3D EQ wave simulations. All of these information will be synthesized and provided to communities involved in probablistic hazards analysis, risk assessment and societal response. In 2002, we have started to deploy seismic profiling lines in the Boso Peninsula (112 km) and the Sagami bay area( 75 km) to image the subducting Philippine Sea plate

  6. Strong ground motion simulation of the 2016 Kumamoto earthquake of April 16 using multiple point sources (United States)

    Nagasaka, Yosuke; Nozu, Atsushi


    The pseudo point-source model approximates the rupture process on faults with multiple point sources for simulating strong ground motions. A simulation with this point-source model is conducted by combining a simple source spectrum following the omega-square model with a path spectrum, an empirical site amplification factor, and phase characteristics. Realistic waveforms can be synthesized using the empirical site amplification factor and phase models even though the source model is simple. The Kumamoto earthquake occurred on April 16, 2016, with M JMA 7.3. Many strong motions were recorded at stations around the source region. Some records were considered to be affected by the rupture directivity effect. This earthquake was suitable for investigating the applicability of the pseudo point-source model, the current version of which does not consider the rupture directivity effect. Three subevents (point sources) were located on the fault plane, and the parameters of the simulation were determined. The simulated results were compared with the observed records at K-NET and KiK-net stations. It was found that the synthetic Fourier spectra and velocity waveforms generally explained the characteristics of the observed records, except for underestimation in the low frequency range. Troughs in the observed Fourier spectra were also well reproduced by placing multiple subevents near the hypocenter. The underestimation is presumably due to the following two reasons. The first is that the pseudo point-source model targets subevents that generate strong ground motions and does not consider the shallow large slip. The second reason is that the current version of the pseudo point-source model does not consider the rupture directivity effect. Consequently, strong pulses were not reproduced enough at stations northeast of Subevent 3 such as KMM004, where the effect of rupture directivity was significant, while the amplitude was well reproduced at most of the other stations. This

  7. Strong ground motion in the Taipei basin from the 1999 Chi-Chi, Taiwan, earthquake (United States)

    Fletcher, Joe B.; Wen, K.-L.


    The Taipei basin, located in northwest Taiwan about 160 km from the epicenter of the Chi-Chi earthquake, is a shallow, triangular-shaped basin filled with low-velocity fluvial deposits. There is a strong velocity contrast across the basement interface of about 600 m/sec at a depth of about 600-700 m in the deeper section of the basin, suggesting that ground motion should be amplified at sites in the basin. In this article, the ground-motion recordings are analyzed to determine the effect of the basin both in terms of amplifications expected from a 1D model of the sediments in the basin and in terms of the 3D structure of the basin. Residuals determined for peak acceleration from attenuation curves are more positive (amplified) in the basin (average of 5.3 cm/ sec2 compared to - 24.2 cm/sec2 for those stations outside the basin and between 75 and 110 km from the surface projection of the faulted area, a 40% increase in peak ground acceleration). Residuals for peak velocity are also significantly more positive at stations in the basin (31.8 cm/sec compared to 20.0 cm/sec out). The correlation of peak motion with depth to basement, while minor in peak acceleration, is stronger in the peak velocities. Record sections of ground motion from stations in and around the Taipei basin show that the largest long-period arrival, which is coherent across the region, is strongest on the vertical component and has a period of about 10-12 sec. This phase appears to be a Rayleigh wave, probably associated with rupture at the north end of the Chelungpu fault. Records of strong motion from stations in and near the basin have an additional, higher frequency signal: nearest the deepest point in the basin, the signal is characterized by frequencies of about 0.3 - 0.4 Hz. These frequencies are close to simple predictions using horizontal layers and the velocity structure of the basin. Polarizations of the S wave are mostly coherent across the array, although there are significant

  8. Motion Compensation for Broadband LFM Signal in Airborne PD Radar%机载PD雷达宽带线性调频信号运动补偿

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹书华; 汪凌艳; 赵鹏; 张建凌; 吴磊


    Broadband linearly frequency modulated signal is taken as a common method to promote range resolution and anti-interference performance of radar. However,the relative motion between radar and target consumes partial target echo coherent integration energy,influences the target range and frequency resolution. To solve these problems,a motion compensation method based on the improved match filter is found. This method achieves Broadband LFM signal target motion compensation based on compensating target echo phase error. Experimental and simulation results show the effectiveness of the algorithm.%采用宽带线性调频信号能够显著地提高雷达的距离分辨率和抗干扰能力,然而雷达与目标间的相对运动损耗了部分目标回波相参积累能量,影响目标频率向和距离向分辨力。针对以上问题,提出了一种基于改进匹配滤波函数的运动补偿方法,补偿信号回波中的相位误差,实现宽带线性调频信号目标运动运动补偿。实验与仿真结果证明了该算法的有效性。

  9. Assessment of potential strong ground motions in the city of Rome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Malagnini


    Full Text Available A methodology is used which combines stochastic generation of random series with a finite-difference technique to estimate the expected horizontal ground motion for the city of Rome as induced by a large earthquake in the Central Apennines. In this approach, source properties and long-path propagation are modelled through observed spectra of ground motion in the region, while the effects of the near-surface geology in the city are simulated by means of a finite-difference technique applied to 2-D models including elastic and anelastic properties of geologic materials and topographic variations. The parameters commonly used for earthquake engineering purposes are estimated from the simulated time histories of horizontal ground motion. We focus our attention on peak ground acceleration and velocity, and on the integral of the squared acceleration and velocity (that are proportional to the Arias intensity and seismic energy flux, respectively. Response spectra are analyzed as well. Parameter variations along 2-D profiles visualize the effects of the small-scale geological heterogeneities and topography irregularities on ground motion in the case of a strong earthquake. Interestingly, the largest amplification of peak ground acceleration and Arias intensity does not necessarily occur at the same sites where peak ground velocity and flux of seismic energy reach their highest values, depending on the frequency band of amplification. A magnitude 7 earthquake at a distance of 100 km results in peak ground accelerations ranging from 30 to 70 gals while peak ground velocities are estimated to vary from 5 to 7 cm/s; moreover, simulated time histories of horizontal ground motion yield amplitudes of 5% damped pseudovelocity response spectra as large as 15-20 cm/s for frequencies from 1to 3 Hz. In this frequency band, the mean value is 7 cm/s for firm sites and ranges from 10 to 13 cm/s for soil sites. All these results are in good agreement with predictions

  10. The study of key issues about integration of GNSS and strong-motion records for real-time earthquake monitoring (United States)

    Tu, Rui; Zhang, Pengfei; Zhang, Rui; Liu, Jinhai


    This paper has studied the key issues about integration of GNSS and strong-motion records for real-time earthquake monitoring. The validations show that the consistence of the coordinate system must be considered firstly to exclude the system bias between GNSS and strong-motion. The GNSS sampling rate is suggested about 1-5 Hz, and we should give the strong-motion's baseline shift with a larger dynamic noise as its variation is very swift. The initialization time of solving the baseline shift is less than one minute, and ambiguity resolution strategy is not greatly improved the solution. The data quality is very important for the solution, we advised to use multi-frequency and multi-system observations. These ideas give an important guide for real-time earthquake monitoring and early warning by the tight integration of GNSS and strong-motion records.

  11. NetQuakes - A new approach to urban strong-motion seismology (United States)

    Luetgert, J. H.; Evans, J. R.; Hamilton, J.; Hutt, C. R.; Jensen, E. G.; Oppenheimer, D. H.


    There is a recognized need for more densely sampled strong ground motion recordings in urban areas to provide more accurate ShakeMaps for post-earthquake disaster assessment and to provide data for structural engineers to improve design standards. Ideally, the San Francisco Bay area would have a strong ground motion recorder every 1-2 km to adequately sample the region’s varied geology and built environment. This would require the addition of thousands of instruments to the existing network. There are several fiscal and logistical constraints that prevent us from doing this with traditional strong motion instrumentation and telemetry. In addition to the initial expense of instruments and their installation, there are the continuing costs of telemetry and maintenance. To address these issues, the USGS implemented the NetQuakes project to deploy small, relatively inexpensive seismographs for installation in 1-2 story homes and businesses that utilize the host’s existing Internet connection. The recorder has 18 bit resolution with ±3g internal tri-axial MEMS accelerometers. Data is continuously recorded at 200 sps into a 1-2 week ringbuffer. When triggered, a miniSEED file is sent to USGS servers via the Internet. Data can also be recovered from the ringbuffer by a remote request through the servers. Following a power failure, the instrument can run for 36 hours using its internal battery. All client-server interactions are initiated by the instrument, so it safely resides behind a host’s firewall. Instrument and battery replacement can be performed by hosts to reduce maintenance costs. A connection to the host’s LAN, and thence to the public Internet, can be made using WiFi to minimize cabling. Although timing via a cable to an external GPS antenna is possible, it is simpler to use the Network Time Protocol (NTP) to synchronize the internal clock. NTP achieves timing accuracy generally better than a sample interval. Since February, 2009, we have installed

  12. Earthquake source model using strong motion displacement as response of finite elastic media

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R N Iyengar; Shailesh K R Agrawal


    The strong motion displacement records available during an earthquake can be treated as the response of the earth as the a structural system to unknown forces acting at unknown locations. Thus, if the part of the earth participating in ground motion is modelled as a known finite elastic medium, one can attempt to model the source location and forces generated during an earthquake as an inverse problem in structural dynamics. Based on this analogy, a simple model for the basic earthquake source is proposed. The unknown source is assumed to be a sequence of impulses acting at locations yet to be found. These unknown impulses and their locations are found using the normal mode expansion along with a minimization of mean square error. The medium is assumed to be finite, elastic, homogeneous, layered and horizontal with a specific set of boundary conditions. Detailed results are obtained for Uttarkashi earthquake. The impulse locations exhibit a linear structure closely associated with the causative fault. The results obtained are shown to be in good agreement with reported values. The proposed engineering model is then used to simulate the acceleration time histories at a few recording stations. The earthquake source in terms of a sequence of impulses acting at different locations is applied on a 2D finite elastic medium and acceleration time histories are found using finite element methods. The synthetic accelerations obtained are in close match with the recorded accelerations.

  13. Modelling strong seismic ground motion: three-dimensional loading path versus wavefield polarization

    CERN Document Server

    D'Avila, Maria Paola Santisi; Semblat, Jean-François


    Seismic waves due to strong earthquakes propagating in surficial soil layers may both reduce soil stiffness and increase the energy dissipation into the soil. To investigate seismic wave amplification in such cases, past studies have been devoted to one-directional shear wave propagation in a soil column (1D-propagation) considering one motion component only (1C-polarization). Three independent purely 1C computations may be performed ('1D-1C' approach) and directly superimposed in the case of weak motions (linear behaviour). This research aims at studying local site effects by considering seismic wave propagation in a 1-D soil profile accounting for the influence of the 3-D loading path and non-linear hysteretic behaviour of the soil. In the proposed '1D-3C' approach, the three components (3C-polarization) of the incident wave are simultaneously propagated into a horizontal multilayered soil. A 3-D non-linear constitutive relation for the soil is implemented in the framework of the Finite Element Method in th...

  14. Update of Earthquake Strong-Motion Instrumentation at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murray, Robert C. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)


    Following the January 1980 earthquake that was felt at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), a network of strong-motion accelerographs was installed at LLNL. Prior to the 1980 earthquake, there were no accelerographs installed. The ground motion from the 1980 earthquake was estimated from USGS instruments around the Laboratory to be between 0.2 – 0.3 g horizontal peak ground acceleration. These instruments were located at the Veterans Hospital, 5 miles southwest of LLNL, and in San Ramon, about 12 miles west of LLNL. In 2011, the Department of Energy (DOE) requested to know the status of our seismic instruments. We conducted a survey of our instrumentation systems and responded to DOE in a letter. During this survey, it was found that the recorders in Buildings 111 and 332 were not operational. The instruments on Nova had been removed, and only three of the 10 NIF instruments installed in 2005 were operational (two were damaged and five had been removed from operation at the request of the program). After the survey, it was clear that the site seismic instrumentation had degraded substantially and would benefit from an overhaul and more attention to ongoing maintenance. LLNL management decided to update the LLNL seismic instrumentation system. The updated system is documented in this report.

  15. Aftershock activity of the 2015 Gorkha, Nepal, earthquake determined using the Kathmandu strong motion seismographic array (United States)

    Ichiyanagi, Masayoshi; Takai, Nobuo; Shigefuji, Michiko; Bijukchhen, Subeg; Sasatani, Tsutomu; Rajaure, Sudhir; Dhital, Megh Raj; Takahashi, Hiroaki


    The characteristics of aftershock activity of the 2015 Gorkha, Nepal, earthquake (Mw 7.8) were evaluated. The mainshock and aftershocks were recorded continuously by the international Kathmandu strong motion seismographic array operated by Hokkaido University and Tribhuvan University. Full waveform data without saturation for all events enabled us to clarify aftershock locations and decay characteristics. The aftershock distribution was determined using the estimated local velocity structure. The hypocenter distribution in the Kathmandu metropolitan region was well determined and indicated earthquakes located shallower than 12 km depth, suggesting that aftershocks occurred at depths shallower than the Himalayan main thrust fault. Although numerical investigation suggested less resolution for the depth component, the regional aftershock epicentral distribution of the entire focal region clearly indicated earthquakes concentrated in the eastern margin of the major slip region of the mainshock. The calculated modified Omori law's p value of 1.35 suggests rapid aftershock decay and a possible high temperature structure in the aftershock region.

  16. Strong-motion earthquake accelerograms digitization and analysis records from Lima, Peru, 1951 to 1974 (United States)

    Brady, A. Gerald; Perez, Virgilio


    This is the second of a series of reports planned to include the results of digitization and routine analyses of strong-motion earthquake accelerograms published by the U.S. Geological Survey. Serving as a model for this effort is the collection of data reports published by the Earthquake Engineering Research Laboratory of the California Institute of Technology during the years 1969 - 1975 and covering the significant records of the period from 1933 up to the San Fernando earthquake of February 9, 1971. The first of the present series of reports, Open File Report No. 76-609, covered the significant records of 1971 subsequent to the San Fernando earthquake. The present report includes the results of some ongoing work on Peru records.

  17. Deterministic earthquake scenario for the Basel area: Simulating strong motions and site effects for Basel, Switzerland (United States)

    OpršAl, Ivo; FäH, Donat; Mai, P. Martin; Giardini, Domenico


    The Basel earthquake of 18 October 1356 is considered one of the most serious earthquakes in Europe in recent centuries (I0 = IX, M ≈ 6.5-6.9). In this paper we present ground motion simulations for earthquake scenarios for the city of Basel and its vicinity. The numerical modeling combines the finite extent pseudodynamic and kinematic source models with complex local structure in a two-step hybrid three-dimensional (3-D) finite difference (FD) method. The synthetic seismograms are accurate in the frequency band 0-2.2 Hz. The 3-D FD is a linear explicit displacement formulation using an irregular rectangular grid including topography. The finite extent rupture model is adjacent to the free surface because the fault has been recognized through trenching on the Reinach fault. We test two source models reminiscent of past earthquakes (the 1999 Athens and the 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake) to represent Mw ≈ 5.9 and Mw ≈ 6.5 events that occur approximately to the south of Basel. To compare the effect of the same wave field arriving at the site from other directions, we considered the same sources placed east and west of the city. The local structural model is determined from the area's recently established P and S wave velocity structure and includes topography. The selected earthquake scenarios show strong ground motion amplification with respect to a bedrock site, which is in contrast to previous 2-D simulations for the same area. In particular, we found that the edge effects from the 3-D structural model depend strongly on the position of the earthquake source within the modeling domain.

  18. A study on the characteristics of strong ground motions in southern Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bang, Chang Eob; Lee, Kie Hwa; Kang, Tae Seob [Seoul National Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    Ground motion characteristics in southern Korea are analyzed such as the variations of ground motion durations depending on the hypocentral distance, the earthquake magnitude and the frequency contents of the motion, and the predominant frequency of the maximum ground motion, the ratio of the horizontal to the vertical component amplitudes, the frequency dependence of the Coda Q values, the local distribution of Lg Q values using recorded data sets.

  19. Deep Borehole Instrumentation Along San Francisco Bay Bridges: 1996 - 2003 and Strong Ground Motion Systhesis Along the San Francisco/Oakland Bay Bridge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hutchings, L; Foxall, W; Kasameyer, P; larsen, S; Hayek, C; Tyler-Turpin, C; Aquilino, J; Long, L


    As a result of collaboration between the Berkeley Seismographic Station, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, and Caltrans, instrument packages have been placed in bedrock in six boreholes and two surface sites along the San Francisco/Oakland Bay Bridge. Since 1996 over 200 local earthquakes have been recorded. Prior to this study few seismic recording instruments existed in bed-rock in San Francisco Bay. We utilized the data to perform analysis of ground motion variability, wave passage, site response, and up-and down-hole wave propagation along the Bay Bridge. We also synthesized strong ground motion at nine locations along the Bay Bridge. Key to these studies is LLNL's effort to exploit the information available in weak ground motions (generally from earthquakes < M=4.0) to enhance predictions of seismic hazards. We found that Yerba Island has no apparent site response at the surface relative to a borehole site. The horizontal to vertical spectral ratio method best revealed no site response, while the complex signal spectral ratio method had the lowest variance for spectral ratios and best predicted surface recordings when the borehole recording was used as input. Both methods identified resonances at about the same frequencies. Regional attenuation results in a significant loss of high frequencies in both surface and borehole recordings. Records are band limited at near 3 Hz. Therefore a traditional rock outcrop site response, flat to high frequency in displacement, is not available. We applied a methodology to predict and synthesize strong ground motion along the San Francisco/Oakland Bay Bridge from a M=7.25 earthquake along the Hayward fault, about12 km distant. We synthesized for three-components and broad-band (0.0-25.0 Hz) ground motion accelerations, velocities, and displacements. We examined two different possible rupture scenarios, a ''mean'' and ''one standard deviation'' model. We combined the high

  20. Variability in wood-frame building damage using broad-band synthetic ground motions: a comparative numerical study with recorded motions (United States)

    Pei, Shiling; van de Lindt, John W.; Hartzell, Stephen; Luco, Nicolas


    Earthquake damage to light-frame wood buildings is a major concern for North America because of the volume of this construction type. In order to estimate wood building damage using synthetic ground motions, we need to verify the ability of synthetically generated ground motions to simulate realistic damage for this structure type. Through a calibrated damage potential indicator, four different synthetic ground motion models are compared with the historically recorded ground motions at corresponding sites. We conclude that damage for sites farther from the fault (>20 km) is under-predicted on average and damage at closer sites is sometimes over-predicted.

  1. Surface wave site characterization at 27 locations near Boston, Massachusetts, including 2 strong-motion stations (United States)

    Thompson, Eric M.; Carkin, Bradley A.; Baise, Laurie G.; Kayen, Robert E.


    The geotechnical properties of the soils in and around Boston, Massachusetts, have been extensively studied. This is partly due to the importance of the Boston Blue Clay and the extent of landfill in the Boston area. Although New England is not a region that is typically associated with seismic hazards, there have been several historical earthquakes that have caused significant ground shaking (for example, see Street and Lacroix, 1979; Ebel, 1996; Ebel, 2006). The possibility of strong ground shaking, along with heightened vulnerability from unreinforced masonry buildings, motivates further investigation of seismic hazards throughout New England. Important studies that are pertinent to seismic hazards in New England include source-parameter studies (Somerville and others, 1987; Boore and others, 2010), wave-propagation studies (Frankel, 1991; Viegas and others, 2010), empirical ground-motion prediction equations (GMPE) for computing ground-motion intensity (Tavakoli and Pezeshk, 2005; Atkinson and Boore, 2006), site-response studies (Hayles and others, 2001; Ebel and Kim, 2006), and liquefaction studies (Brankman and Baise, 2008). The shear-wave velocity (VS) profiles collected for this report are pertinent to the GMPE, site response, and liquefaction aspects of seismic hazards in the greater Boston area. Besides the application of these data for the Boston region, the data may be applicable throughout New England, through correlations with geologic units (similar to Ebel and Kim, 2006) or correlations with topographic slope (Wald and Allen, 2007), because few VS measurements are available in stable tectonic regions.Ebel and Hart (2001) used felt earthquake reports to infer amplification patterns throughout the greater Boston region and noted spatial correspondence with the dominant period and amplification factors obtained from ambient noise (horizontal-to-vertical ratios) by Kummer (1998). Britton (2003) compiled geotechnical borings in the area and produced a

  2. City of Bingöl in May 2003: Assessment of strong ground motion records

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    U Çeken; G Beyhan; H H Selim


    The main shock of Bingöl earthquake ( = 6.4) recorded by six accelerometers in the area occurred at 03:27 local time on May 1, 2003. The largest acceleration value of north–south component was recorded as 545.5 cm/s2 at the nearest station which is 12 km away from the epicenter of earthquake. Especially, 0.15 s short period was observed when high spectral acceleration value occurred. An acceleration value greater than 50 gal was recorded at the BNG (Bingöl) station and structural damage occurred within 6.5 s was very important for the near source and strong ground motion seismology. The recorded peak acceleration values were greater than the estimated empirical acceleration values. However, the structural damage was not as high and widespread as expected. This occurrence was explained by considering the factors of earthquake source, frequency content, effective duration, effective acceleration value, local soil conditions, rupture direction and attenuation.

  3. Experimental study of permanent displacement estimate method based on strong-motion earthquake accelerograms (United States)

    Lu, Tao; Hu, Guorui


    In the engineering seismology studies, the seismic permanent displacement of the near-fault site is often obtained by the process of the ground motion accelerogram recorded by the instrument on the station. Because of the selection differences of the estimate methods and the algorithm parameters, the strongly different results of the permanent displacement is gotten often. And the reliability of the methods has not only been proved in fact, but also the selection of the algorithm parameters has to be carefully considered. In order to solve this problem, the experimental study on the permanent displacement according to the accelerogram was carried out with the experiment program of using the large shaking table and the sliding mechanism in the earthquake engineering laboratory. In the experiments,the large shaking table genarated the dynamincs excitation without the permanent displacement,the sliding mechanism fixed on the shaking table genarated the permanent displacement, and the accelerogram including the permant information had been recorded by the instrument on the sliding mechanism.Then the permanent displacement value had been obtained according to the accelerogram, and been compared with the displacement value gotten by the displacement meter and the digital close range photogrammetry. The experimental study showed that the reliable permanent displacement could be obtained by the existing processing method under the simple laboratory conditions with the preconditions of the algorithm parameters selection carefully.

  4. Strong Interference Cancellation Technique for Broadband Satellite Communication Systems%宽带卫星通信系统中强干扰抵消方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨恒; 党军宏; 潘亚汉


    In a strong interference environment,considering the data spilling of the Analog to Digital Con-verter( ADC) in satellite digital channelizer will severely degrades the system performance. This paper pro-poses a method of strong interference suppression for broadband satellite communication. Firstly,strong in-terference detection,extrication,and phase amplitude adjustment techniques are adopted in digital field. Then,the strong interference cancellation is performed in the analog field. Finally,the cancellation effect is confirmed by employing detection feedback. The design approaches and implementation procedures for the extraction filter in digital field are provided. Moreover,according to engineering practice,a filtering method based on mathematical morphology is presented to eliminate the effects caused by noise floor fluctuation in broadband satellite communication. Theoretical investigation and simulation results demonstrate that the proposed method can suppress the strong interference effectively.%在强干扰环境下,星上信道化器的关键部件模数转换器( ADC )会发生数据溢出,严重影响星上载荷转发性能。为此,提出了一种基于抵消思路的宽带卫星通信系统中强干扰抑制方法。该方法首先在数字域对强干扰进行检测、提取和相位幅度调整,然后在模拟域进行强干扰抵消,最后通过检测反馈保证抵消效果。给出了数字域提取滤波器的基本设计方法和实现步骤,并且结合工程实际,采用数学形态学滤波方法消除卫星宽频带噪底起伏带来的影响。研究与仿真结果表明,该方法能对强干扰进行有效抑制。

  5. Survey of strong motion earthquake effects on thermal power plants in California with emphasis on piping systems. Volume 2, Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stevenson, J.D. [Stevenson and Associates, Cleveland, OH (United States)


    Volume 2 of the ``Survey of Strong Motion Earthquake Effects on Thermal Power Plants in California with Emphasis on Piping Systems`` contains Appendices which detail the detail design and seismic response of several power plants subjected to strong motion earthquakes. The particular plants considered include the Ormond Beach, Long Beach and Seal Beach, Burbank, El Centro, Glendale, Humboldt Bay, Kem Valley, Pasadena and Valley power plants. Included is a typical power plant piping specification and photographs of typical power plant piping specification and photographs of typical piping and support installations for the plants surveyed. Detailed piping support spacing data are also included.

  6. Three Dimensional Simulations of Strong Motions for Great Earthquakes on the Cascadia Subduction Zone (United States)

    Delorey, A. A.; Frankel, A. D.; Stephenson, W. J.; Liu, P.


    earthquakes on the Cascadia subduction zone is about 500 years and the last margin-wide event occurred in 1700. The estimate of the recurrence interval for events that rupture only part of the subduction zone is more controversial, but the recurrence time is thought to be somewhere around 300 years. If a large event were to occur today, the cities of Portland, Oregon, Seattle, Washington, and Vancouver, British Columbia and other inhabited areas in the forearc basin and on the coast would be subjected to strong and long duration shaking and coastal areas would likely be subjected to a tsunami. Observations from the Maule, Chile and Tohoku-Oki, Japan earthquakes will be used to guide the specification of rupture time histories for the Cascadia 3D simulations. We are particularly interested in producing realistic ground motions at periods of 2 to 6 s that affect high-rise buildings. The amplitude and duration of these motions are strongly affected by the rise time of slip on the fault, the coherence of rupture propagation, and the presence of deep sedimentary basins such as the Seattle and Tacoma basins.

  7. Estimation of site effects using strong motion data of BYTNet array in Turkey (United States)

    Özmen, Ö. T.; Yamanaka, H.; Zaineh, H. E.; Alkan, M. A.


    Simultaneous estimation of effects of source, propagation path, and local site amplification was carried out using observed strong motion records in a frequency range from 0.8 to 20 Hz for the purpose of empirical evaluation of the local site effects in different geological conditions in the northwestern part of Turkey. The analyzed data are S-wave portions of 162 accelerograms from 39 shallow events observed at 14 sites of BYTNet array. A spectral separation method was applied to the observed S-wave spectra. The solutions for source spectra, inelasticity factor of propagation path for S-waves ( Q s-value), and factor of site amplification at each site were obtained in a least squares sense. In the analysis, we assumed that the factor of the site amplification at a reference site is the same as that of theoretical amplification of S-waves to the soil model whose bottom layer has an S-wave velocity around 2.15 km/s. The estimated Q s-value of the propagation path is modeled as Q s( f) = 87.4f0.78. The estimated site amplifications are characterized into three groups. The sites in the first group belong to rock site with no dominant peaks at a frequency range of 2 to 10 Hz. The second group of hard soil sites is characterized with moderately dominant peaks at a frequency of 5 Hz. The last group for soft soil sites has common peaks at a frequency of 4 Hz with larger amplitudes than those in the hard soil group. We, then, compare the amplifications with average S-wave velocity in top 30 m of the shallow S-wave profiles and proposed linear empirical formula between them at each frequency. We, furthermore, inverted the observed amplification factors into S-wave velocity and Q s-value profiles of the deep soil over the basement.

  8. Source rupture processes of the 2016 Kumamoto, Japan, earthquakes estimated from strong-motion waveforms (United States)

    Kubo, Hisahiko; Suzuki, Wataru; Aoi, Shin; Sekiguchi, Haruko


    The detailed source rupture process of the M 7.3 event (April 16, 2016, 01:25, JST) of the 2016 Kumamoto, Japan, earthquakes was derived from strong-motion waveforms using multiple-time-window linear waveform inversion. Based on the observations of surface ruptures, the spatial distribution of aftershocks, and the geodetic data, a realistic curved fault model was developed for source-process analysis of this event. The seismic moment and maximum slip were estimated as 5.5 × 1019 Nm ( M w 7.1) and 3.8 m, respectively. The source model of the M 7.3 event had two significant ruptures. One rupture propagated toward the northeastern shallow region at 4 s after rupture initiation and continued with large slips to approximately 16 s. This rupture caused a large slip region 10-30 km northeast of the hypocenter that reached the caldera of Mt. Aso. Another rupture propagated toward the surface from the hypocenter at 2-6 s and then propagated toward the northeast along the near surface at 6-10 s. A comparison with the result of using a single fault plane model demonstrated that the use of the curved fault model led to improved waveform fit at the stations south of the fault. The source process of the M 6.5 event (April 14, 2016, 21:26, JST) was also estimated. In the source model obtained for the M 6.5 event, the seismic moment was 1.7 × 1018 Nm ( M w 6.1), and the rupture with large slips propagated from the hypocenter to the surface along the north-northeast direction at 1-6 s. The results in this study are consistent with observations of the surface ruptures. [Figure not available: see fulltext. Caption: .

  9. Estimation of site effects using strong motion data of BYTNet array in Turkey (United States)

    Özmen, Ö. T.; Yamanaka, H.; Zaineh, H. E.; Alkan, M. A.


    Simultaneous estimation of effects of source, propagation path, and local site amplification was carried out using observed strong motion records in a frequency range from 0.8 to 20 Hz for the purpose of empirical evaluation of the local site effects in different geological conditions in the northwestern part of Turkey. The analyzed data are S-wave portions of 162 accelerograms from 39 shallow events observed at 14 sites of BYTNet array. A spectral separation method was applied to the observed S-wave spectra. The solutions for source spectra, inelasticity factor of propagation path for S-waves (Q s-value), and factor of site amplification at each site were obtained in a least squares sense. In the analysis, we assumed that the factor of the site amplification at a reference site is the same as that of theoretical amplification of S-waves to the soil model whose bottom layer has an S-wave velocity around 2.15 km/s. The estimated Q s-value of the propagation path is modeled as Q s(f) = 87.4f0.78. The estimated site amplifications are characterized into three groups. The sites in the first group belong to rock site with no dominant peaks at a frequency range of 2 to 10 Hz. The second group of hard soil sites is characterized with moderately dominant peaks at a frequency of 5 Hz. The last group for soft soil sites has common peaks at a frequency of 4 Hz with larger amplitudes than those in the hard soil group. We, then, compare the amplifications with average S-wave velocity in top 30 m of the shallow S-wave profiles and proposed linear empirical formula between them at each frequency. We, furthermore, inverted the observed amplification factors into S-wave velocity and Q s-value profiles of the deep soil over the basement.

  10. Observing Structure and Motion in Molecules with Ultrafast Strong Field and Short Wavelength Laser Radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bucksbaum, Philip H


    The term "molecular movie" has come to describe efforts to track and record Angstrom-scale coherent atomic and electronic motion in a molecule. The relevant time scales for this range cover several orders of magnitude, from sub-femtosecond motion associated with electron-electron correlations, to 100-fs internal vibrations, to multi-picosecond motion associated with the dispersion and quantum revivals of molecular reorientation. Conventional methods of cinematography do not work well in this ultrafast and ultrasmall regime, but stroboscopic "pump and probe" techniques can reveal this motion with high fidelity. This talk will describe some of the methods and recent progress in exciting and controlling this motion, using both laboratory lasers and the SLAC Linac Coherent Light Source x-ray free electron laser, and will further try to relate the date to the goal of molecular movies.

  11. Strong Ground-Motion Prediction in Seismic Hazard Analysis: PEGASOS and Beyond (United States)

    Scherbaum, F.; Bommer, J. J.; Cotton, F.; Bungum, H.; Sabetta, F.


    The SSHAC Level 4 approach to probabilistic seismic hazard analysis (PSHA), which could be considered to define the state-of-the-art in PSHA using multiple expert opinions, has been fully applied only twice, firstly in the multi-year Yucca Mountain study and subsequently (2002-2004) in the PEGASOS project. The authors of this paper participated as ground-motion experts in this latter project, the objective of which was comprehensive seismic hazard analysis for four nuclear power plant sites in Switzerland, considering annual exceedance frequencies down to 1/10000000. Following SSHAC procedure, particular emphasis was put on capturing both the aleatory and epistemic uncertainties. As a consequence, ground motion prediction was performed by combining several empirical ground motion models within a logic tree framework with the weights on each logic tree branch expressing the personal degree-of-belief of each ground-motion expert. In the present paper, we critically review the current state of ground motion prediction methodology in PSHA in particular for regions of low seismicity. One of the toughest lessons from PEGASOS was that in systematically and rigorously applying the laws of uncertainty propagation to all of the required conversions and adjustments of ground motion models, a huge price has to be paid in an ever-growing aleatory variability. Once this path has been followed, these large sigma values will drive the hazard, particularly for low annual frequencies of exceedance. Therefore, from a post-PEGASOS perspective, the key issues in the context of ground-motion prediction for PSHA for the near future are to better understand the aleatory variability of ground motion and to develop suites of ground-motion prediction equations that employ the same parameter definitions. The latter is a global rather than a regional challenge which might be a desirable long-term goal for projects similar to the PEER NGA (Pacific Earthquake Engineering Research Center, Next

  12. The strong ground motion in Mexico City: array and borehole data analysis. (United States)

    Roullé, A.; Chávez-García, F. J.


    1994 by a temporal dense network installed in the firm rock zone of Mexico City were analysed using the same techniques. The results confirm the presence of a diffracting zone south of the valley. These results confirm the hypothesis of a possible interaction between the soft clay layers resonance and diffracted wavetrains of Rayleigh waves to explain both the amplification and the long duration of strong ground motion in Mexico City.

  13. Strong motions observed by K-NET and KiK-net during the 2016 Kumamoto earthquake sequence (United States)

    Suzuki, Wataru; Aoi, Shin; Kunugi, Takashi; Kubo, Hisahiko; Morikawa, Nobuyuki; Nakamura, Hiromitsu; Kimura, Takeshi; Fujiwara, Hiroyuki


    The nationwide strong-motion seismograph network of K-NET and KiK-net in Japan successfully recorded the strong ground motions of the 2016 Kumamoto earthquake sequence, which show the several notable characteristics. For the first large earthquake with a JMA magnitude of 6.5 (21:26, April 14, 2016, JST), the large strong motions are concentrated near the epicenter and the strong-motion attenuations are well predicted by the empirical relation for crustal earthquakes with a moment magnitude of 6.1. For the largest earthquake of the sequence with a JMA magnitude of 7.3 (01:25, April 16, 2016, JST), the large peak ground accelerations and velocities extend from the epicentral area to the northeast direction. The attenuation feature of peak ground accelerations generally follows the empirical relation, whereas that for velocities deviates from the empirical relation for stations with the epicentral distance of greater than 200 km, which can be attributed to the large Love wave having a dominant period around 10 s. The large accelerations were observed at stations even in Oita region, more than 70 km northeast from the epicenter. They are attributed to the local induced earthquake in Oita region, whose moment magnitude is estimated to be 5.5 by matching the amplitudes of the corresponding phases with the empirical attenuation relation. The real-time strong-motion observation has a potential for contributing to the mitigation of the ongoing earthquake disasters. We test a methodology to forecast the regions to be exposed to the large shaking in real time, which has been developed based on the fact that the neighboring stations are already shaken, for the largest event of the Kumamoto earthquakes, and demonstrate that it is simple but effective to quickly make warning. We also shows that the interpolation of the strong motions in real time is feasible, which will be utilized for the real-time forecast of ground motions based on the observed shakings.[Figure not available

  14. On the modeling of strong motion parameters and correlation with historical macroseismic data: an application to the 1915 Avezzano earthquake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Longhi


    Full Text Available This article describes the results of a ground motion modeling study of the 1915 Avezzano earthquake. The goal was to test assuinptions regarding the rupture process of this earthquake by attempting to model the damage to historical monuments and populated habitats during the earthquake. The methodology used combines stochastic and deterministic modeling techniques to synthesize strong ground motion, starting from a simple characterization of the earthquake source on an extended fault plane. The stochastic component of the methodology is used to simulate high-frequency ground motion oscillations. The envelopes of these synthetic waveforms, however, are simulated in a deterministic way based on the isochron formulation for the calculation of radiated seismic energy. Synthetic acceleration time histories representative of ground motion experienced at the towns of Avezzano, Celano, Ortucchio, and Sora are then analyzed in terms of the damage to historical buildings at these sites. The article also discusses how the same methodology can be adapted to efficiently evaluate various strong motion parameters such as duration and amplitude of ground shaking, at several hundreds of surface sites and as a function of rupture process. The usefulness of such a technique is illustrated through the inodeling of intensity data from the Avezzano earthquake. One of the most interesting results is that it is possible to distinguish between different rupture scenarios for the 1915 earthquake based on the goodness of fit of theoretical intensities to observed values.

  15. Modeling strong motions produced by earthquakes with two-dimensional numerical codes


    Helmberger, Donald V.; Vidale, John E.


    We present a scheme for generating synthetic point-source seismograms for shear dislocation sources using line source (two-dimensional) theory. It is based on expanding the complete three-dimensional solution of the wave equation expressed in cylindrical coordinates in an asymptotic form which provides for the separation of the motions into SH and P-SV systems. We evaluate the equations of motion with the aid of the Cagniard-de Hoop technique and derive close-formed expressions appropriate fo...

  16. Radiation from relativistic particles in nongeodesic motion in a strong gravitational field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aliev, A.N. (AN Gruzinskoj SSR, Abastumani. Abastumanskaya Astrofizicheskaya Observatoriya); Galtsov, D.V. (Moskovskij Gosudarstvennyj Univ. (USSR). Kafedra Teoreticheskoj Fiziki)


    The scalar and electromagnetic radiation emitted by relativistic particles moving along the stable nongeodesic trajectories in the Kerr gravitational field are described. Two particular models of the nongeodesic motion are developed involving a slightly charged rotating black hole and a rotating black hole immersed in an external magnetic field.

  17. Detailed site effect estimation in the presence of strong velocity reversals within a small-aperture strong-motion array in Iceland

    KAUST Repository

    Rahpeyma, Sahar


    The rock site characterization for earthquake engineering applications in Iceland is common due to the easily exposed older bedrock and more recent volcanic lava rock. The corresponding site amplification is generally assumed to be low but has not been comprehensively quantified, especially for volcanic rock. The earthquake strong-motion of the Mw6.3 Ölfus earthquake on 29 May 2008 and 1705 of its aftershocks recorded on the first small-aperture strong-motion array (ICEARRAY I) in Iceland showed consistent and significant variations in ground motion amplitudes over short distances (<2 km) in an urban area located mostly on lava rock. This study analyses the aftershock recordings to quantify the local site effects using the Horizontal to Vertical Spectral Ratio (HVSR) and Standard Spectral Ratio (SSR) methods. Additionally, microseismic data has been collected at array stations and analyzed using the HVSR method. The results between the methods are consistent and show that while the amplification levels remain relatively low, the predominant frequency varies systematically between stations and is found to correlate with the geological units. In particular, for stations on lava rock the underlying geologic structure is characterized by repeated lava-soil stratigraphy characterized by reversals in the shear wave velocity with depth. As a result, standard modeling of HVSR using vertically incident body waves does not apply. Instead, modeling the soil structure as a two-degree-of-freedom dynamic system is found to capture the observed predominant frequencies of site amplification. The results have important implications for earthquake resistant design of structures on rock sites characterized by velocity reversals. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd

  18. Equation of motion for relativistic compact binaries with the strong field point particle limit: Third post-Newtonian order

    CERN Document Server

    Itoh, Y


    An equation of motion for relativistic compact binaries is derived through the third post-Newtonian (3 PN) approximation of general relativity. The strong field point particle limit and multipole expansion of the stars are used to solve iteratively the harmonically relaxed Einstein equations. We take into account the Lorentz contraction on the multipole moments defined in our previous works. We then derive a 3 PN acceleration of the binary orbital motion of the two spherical compact stars based on a surface integral approach which is a direct consequence of local energy momentum conservation. Our resulting equation of motion admits a conserved energy (neglecting the 2.5 PN radiation reaction effect), is Lorentz invariant and is unambiguous: there exist no undetermined parameter reported in the previous works. We shall show that our 3 PN equation of motion agrees physically with the Blanchet and Faye 3 PN equation of motion if $\\lambda = - 1987/3080$, where $\\lambda$ is the parameter which is undetermined with...

  19. Procedure to predict the storey where plastic drift dominates in two-storey building under strong ground motion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hibino, Y.; Ichinose, T.; Costa, J.L.D.


    A procedure is presented to predict the storey where plastic drift dominates in two-storey buildings under strong ground motion. The procedure utilizes the yield strength and the mass of each storey as well as the peak ground acceleration. The procedure is based on two different assumptions: (1....... The efficiency of the procedure is verified by dynamic response analyses using elasto-plastic model....

  20. Characterized Fault Model of Scenario Earthquake Caused by the Itoigawa-Shizuoka Tectonic Line Fault Zone in Central Japan and Strong Ground Motion Prediction (United States)

    Sato, T.; Dan, K.; Irikura, K.; Furumura, M.


    Based on the existing ideas on characterizing complex fault rupture process, we constructed four different characterized fault models for predicting strong motions from the most likely scenario earthquake along the active fault zone of the Itoigawa-Shizuoka Tectonic Line in central Japan. The Headquarters for Earthquake Research Promotion in Japanese government (2001) estimated that the earthquake (8 +/- 0.5) has the total fault length of 112 km with four segments. We assumed that the characterized fault model consisted of two regions: asperity and background (Somerville et al., 1999; Irikura, 2000; Dan et al., 2000). The main differences in the four fault models were 1) how to determine a seismic moment Mo from a fault rupture area S, 2) number of asperities N, 3) how to determine a stress parameter σ , and 4) fmax. We calculated broadband strong motions at three stations near the fault by a hybrid method of the semi-empirical and theoretical approaches. A comparison between the results from the hybrid method and those from empirical attenuation relations showed that the hybrid method using the characterized fault model could evaluate near-fault rupture directivity effects more reliably than the empirical attenuation relations. We also discussed the characterized fault models and the strong motion characteristics. The Mo extrapolated from the empirical Mo-S relation by Somerville et al. (1999) was a half of that determined from the mean value of the Wells and Coppersmith (1994) data. The latter Mo was consistent with that for the 1891 Nobi, Japan, earthquake whose fault length was almost the same as the length of the target earthquake. In addition, the fault model using the latter Mo produced a slip amount of about 6 m on the largest asperity, which was consistent with the displacement of 6 m to 9 m per event obtained from a trench survey. High-frequency strong motions were greatly influenced by the σ for the asperities (188 bars, 246 bars, 108 bars, and 134

  1. Nonstationary Stochastic Simulation of Strong Ground-Motion Time Histories : Application to the Japanese Database

    CERN Document Server

    Laurendeau, Aurore; Bonilla, Luis Fabian


    For earthquake-resistant design, engineering seismologists employ time-history analysis for nonlinear simulations. The nonstationary stochastic method previously developed by Pousse et al. (2006) has been updated. This method has the advantage of being both simple, fast and taking into account the basic concepts of seismology (Brune's source, realistic time envelope function, nonstationarity and ground-motion variability). Time-domain simulations are derived from the signal spectrogram and depend on few ground-motion parameters: Arias intensity, significant relative duration and central frequency. These indicators are obtained from empirical attenuation equations that relate them to the magnitude of the event, the source-receiver distance, and the site conditions. We improve the nonstationary stochastic method by using new functional forms (new surface rock dataset, analysis of both intra-event and inter-event residuals, consideration of the scaling relations and VS30), by assessing the central frequency with...

  2. Exact equations of motion for natural orbitals of strongly driven two-electron systems

    CERN Document Server

    Rapp, J; Bauer, D


    Natural orbital theory is a computationally useful approach to the few and many-body quantum problem. While natural orbitals are known and applied since many years in electronic structure applications, their potential for time-dependent problems is being investigated only since recently. Correlated two-particle systems are of particular importance because the structure of the two-body reduced density matrix expanded in natural orbitals is known exactly in this case. However, in the time-dependent case the natural orbitals carry time-dependent phases that allow for certain time-dependent gauge transformations of the first kind. Different phase conventions will, in general, lead to different equations of motion for the natural orbitals. A particular phase choice allows us to derive the exact equations of motion for the natural orbitals of any (laser-) driven two-electron system explicitly, i.e., without any dependence on quantities that, in practice, require further approximations. For illustration, we solve th...

  3. A diffusion approximation based on renewal processes with applications to strongly biased run–tumble motion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thygesen, Uffe Høgsbro


    not previously been applied in this context. Our results extend previous work, which has established the mean drift but not the diffusivity. For a classical model of tumble rates applied to chemotaxis, we find that the resulting chemotactic drift saturates to the swimming velocity of the organism when......We consider organisms which use a renewal strategy such as run–tumble when moving in space, for example to perform chemotaxis in chemical gradients. We derive a diffusion approximation for the motion, applying a central limit theorem due to Anscombe for renewal-reward processes; this theorem has......, in limit of high chemotactic sensitivity, the chemotactic drift is 64 % of the swimming velocity, independent of the magnitude of the Brownian rotation. We finally derive characteristic timescales of the motion that can be used to assess whether the diffusion limit is justified in a given situation...

  4. Prediction of strong acceleration motion depended on focal mechanism; Shingen mechanism wo koryoshita jishindo yosoku ni tsuite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaneda, Y.; Ejiri, J. [Obayashi Corp., Tokyo (Japan)


    This paper describes simulation results of strong acceleration motion with varying uncertain fault parameters mainly for a fault model of Hyogo-ken Nanbu earthquake. For the analysis, based on the fault parameters, the strong acceleration motion was simulated using the radiation patterns and the breaking time difference of composite faults as parameters. A statistic waveform composition method was used for the simulation. For the theoretical radiation patterns, directivity was emphasized which depended on the strike of faults, and the maximum acceleration was more than 220 gal. While, for the homogeneous radiation patterns, the maximum accelerations were isotopically distributed around the fault as a center. For variations in the maximum acceleration and the predominant frequency due to the breaking time difference of three faults, the response spectral value of maximum/minimum was about 1.7 times. From the viewpoint of seismic disaster prevention, underground structures including potential faults and non-arranging properties can be grasped using this simulation. Significance of the prediction of strong acceleration motion was also provided through this simulation using uncertain factors, such as breaking time of composite faults, as parameters. 4 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  5. Illusory movement of stationary stimuli in the visual periphery: evidence for a strong centrifugal prior in motion processing. (United States)

    Zhang, Ruyuan; Kwon, Oh-Sang; Tadin, Duje


    Visual input is remarkably diverse. Certain sensory inputs are more probable than others, mirroring statistical regularities of the visual environment. The visual system exploits many of these regularities, resulting, on average, in better inferences about visual stimuli. However, by incorporating prior knowledge into perceptual decisions, visual processing can also result in perceptions that do not match sensory inputs. Such perceptual biases can often reveal unique insights into underlying mechanisms and computations. For example, a prior assumption that objects move slowly can explain a wide range of motion phenomena. The prior on slow speed is usually rationalized by its match with visual input, which typically includes stationary or slow moving objects. However, this only holds for foveal and parafoveal stimulation. The visual periphery tends to be exposed to faster motions, which are biased toward centrifugal directions. Thus, if prior assumptions derive from experience, peripheral motion processing should be biased toward centrifugal speeds. Here, in experiments with human participants, we support this hypothesis and report a novel visual illusion where stationary objects in the visual periphery are perceived as moving centrifugally, while objects moving as fast as 7°/s toward fovea are perceived as stationary. These behavioral results were quantitatively explained by a Bayesian observer that has a strong centrifugal prior. This prior is consistent with both the prevalence of centrifugal motions in the visual periphery and a centrifugal bias of direction tuning in cortical area MT, supporting the notion that visual processing mirrors its input statistics.

  6. Strong Erosion-Driven Nongravitational Effects in Orbital Motions of the Kreutz Sungrazing System's Dwarf Comets

    CERN Document Server

    Sekanina, Zdenek


    We investigate the relationship among the angular orbital elements --- the longitude of the ascending node, Omega, the inclination, i, and the argument of perihelion, omega --- of dwarf sungrazing comets of the Kreutz system, whose catalogued orbits were derived using a parabolic gravitational approximation. While in a plot of omega against Omega the major and dwarf sungrazers follow a similar law, in a plot of i against Omega they behave differently. The major sungrazers fit a curve of invariable (reference) apsidal orientation, whereas the dwarf comets lie along a curve that makes with it 15 deg. While the perihelion longitude of dwarf sungrazers is statistically constant, the perihelion latitude increases systematically with Omega. A perturbation analysis indicates that this is due to an acceleration normal to the orbit plane. The culprit is neglect of an erosion-driven acceleration in the motions of the dwarf sungrazers, as illustrated by computing, for several test SOHO/STEREO sungrazers, orbital solutio...

  7. Motion

    CERN Document Server

    Graybill, George


    Take the mystery out of motion. Our resource gives you everything you need to teach young scientists about motion. Students will learn about linear, accelerating, rotating and oscillating motion, and how these relate to everyday life - and even the solar system. Measuring and graphing motion is easy, and the concepts of speed, velocity and acceleration are clearly explained. Reading passages, comprehension questions, color mini posters and lots of hands-on activities all help teach and reinforce key concepts. Vocabulary and language are simplified in our resource to make them accessible to str

  8. Theoretical design and field deployment of a dense strong motion instrument network for the Alpine Fault, South Island, New Zealand. (United States)

    Francois, C.; Berril, J.; Pettinga, J.


    A dense network of strong motion seismometers is being developed in order to investigate the complexities of the upper crustal rupture process and propagation of major seismogenic sources such as the Alpine Fault and strands of the Marlborough Fault System defining the South Island sector of the Australia-Pacific plate boundary zone. The proposed network is designed as a dense array of approximately 20 accelerographs using the University of Canterbury 12-bit CUSP instrument, now nearing development completion. It will be deployed straddling the Alpine Fault in the central West Coast region of the South Island, and coverage will extend across the region at the Alpine-Hope Fault junction also. The array layout is being designed utilizing the frequency-analysis MUSIC method (Multiple Signal Characterization) developed by Goldstein and Archuleta (1991a&b). Synthetic strong-motion records were computed using an empirical Green's function synthetic seismogram program EMPSYN (Hutchings, 1987). The process of finding an optimal network configuration is dependent on the geometry of the array (study of the frequency analysis performance of the modelled earthquake data for various proposed array configurations), and on the instrument site conditions (geology, communications, accessibility, isolation etc). References Goldstein, P. and R. J. Archuleta (1991a). "Deterministic frequency-wavenumber methods and direct measurements of rupture propagation during earthquakes using a dense array; data analysis." Journal of Geophysical Research, B, Solid Earth and Planets 96(4): 6187-6198. Goldstein, P. and R. J. Archuleta (1991b). "Deterministic frequency-wavenumber methods and direct measurements of rupture propagation during earthquakes using a dense array; theory and methods." Journal of Geophysical Research, B, Solid Earth and Planets 96(4): 6173-6185. Hutchings, L. J. (1987). "Modelling strong earthquake ground motion with empirical Green's function", Ph.D. thesis, Department of

  9. Equation of motion for relativistic compact binaries with the strong field point particle limit the second and half post-Newtonian order

    CERN Document Server

    Itoh, Y; Asada, H; Itoh, Yousuke; Futamase, Toshifumi; Asada, Hideki


    We study the equation of motion appropriate to an inspiralling binary star system whose constituent stars have strong internal gravity. We use the post-Newtonian approximation with the strong field point particle limit by which we can introduce into general relativity a notion of a point-like particle with strong internal gravity without using Dirac delta distribution. Besides this limit, to deal with strong internal gravity we express the equation of motion in surface integral forms and calculate these integrals explicitly. As a result we obtain the equation of motion for a binary of compact bodies accurate through the second and half post-Newtonian (2.5 PN) order. This equation is derived in the harmonic coordinate. Our resulting equation perfectly agrees with Damour and Deruelle 2.5 PN equation of motion. Hence it is found that the 2.5 PN equation of motion is applicable to a relativistic compact binary.

  10. Imaging of the umbrella motion and tunneling in the ammonia molecule by strong-field ionization

    CERN Document Server

    Förster, Johann; Magana, Alvaro; Saenz, Alejandro


    The geometry-dependent ionization behavior of the ammonia molecule is investigated. Different theoretical approaches for obtaining the ionization yield are compared, all of them showing a strong dependence of the ionization yield on the inversion coordinate at long wavelengths ($\\geq$ 800 nm). It is shown how this effect can be exploited to create and probe nuclear wave packets in neutral ammonia using Lochfra{\\ss}. Furthermore, imaging of a wave packet tunneling through the barrier of a double-well potential in real time is discussed.

  11. Strong ground motion inferred from liquefaction caused by the 1811-1812 New Madrid, Missouri, earthquakes (United States)

    Holzer, Thomas L.; Noce, Thomas E.; Bennett, Michael J.


    Peak ground accelerations (PGAs) in the epicentral region of the 1811–1812 New Madrid, Missouri, earthquakes are inferred from liquefaction to have been no greater than ∼0.35g. PGA is inferred in an 11,380  km2 area in the Lower Mississippi Valley in Arkansas and Missouri where liquefaction was extensive in 1811–1812. PGA was inferred by applying liquefaction probability curves, which were originally developed for liquefaction hazard mapping, to detailed maps of liquefaction by Obermeier (1989). The low PGA is inferred because both a shallow (1.5 m deep) water table and a large moment magnitude (M 7.7) earthquake were assumed in the analysis. If a deep (5.0 m) water table and a small magnitude (M 6.8) earthquake are assumed, the maximum inferred PGA is 1.10g. Both inferred PGA values are based on an assumed and poorly constrained correction for sand aging. If an aging correction is not assumed, then the inferred PGA is no greater than 0.22g. A low PGA value may be explained by nonlinear site response. Soils in the study area have an averageVS30 of 220±15  m/s. A low inferred PGA is consistent with PGA values estimated from ground‐motion prediction equations that have been proposed for the New Madrid seismic zone when these estimates are corrected for nonlinear soil site effects. This application of liquefaction probability curves demonstrates their potential usefulness in paleoseismology.

  12. 3D simulation of near-fault strong ground motion:comparison between surface rupture fault and buried fault

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Qifang; Yuan Yifan; Jin Xing


    In this paper,near-fault strong ground motions caused by a surface rupture fault(SRF)and a buried fault(BF) are numerically simulated and compared by using a time-space-decoupled,explicit finite element method combined with a multi-transmitting formula(MTF) of an artificial boundary.Prior to the comparison,verification of the explicit element method and the MTF is conducted.The comparison results show that the final dislocation of the SRF is larger than the BF for the same stress drop on the fault plane.The maximum final dislocation occurs on the fault upper line for the SRF;however,for the BF,the maximum final dislocation is located on the fault central part.Meanwhile,the PGA,PGV and PGD of long period ground motions(≤1 Hz)generated by the SRF are much higher than those of the BF in the near-fault region.The peak value of the velocity pulse generated by the SRF is also higher than the BF.Furthermore,it is found that in a very narrow region along the fault trace,ground motions caused by the SRF are much higher than by the BF.These results may explain why SRFs almost always cause heavy damage in near-fault regions compared to buried faults.

  13. Numerical modelling of shaking effects due to strong motions on the tiber alluvial deposits in Rome (Italy)

    CERN Document Server

    Bonilla, Fabian; Gelis, Céline; Giacomi, Anna Chiara; Lenti, Luca; Martino, Salvatore; d'Avila, Maria Paola Santisi; Semblat, Jean-François


    A multidisciplinary approach is proposed for evaluating the effects of shaking due to strong motions on the Tiber river alluvial deposits in Rome's historical centre. At this aim, a detailed 3D geological model of the Tiber river alluvial deposit has been constructed and a numerical analysis of site response was performed along two geological sections across the historical centre of Rome. The numerical models were performed in both 1D and 2D configurations assuming linear and nonlinear conditions, by applying a three component seismic input. The results show that the maximum shear strains are strongly conditioned by the layer geometries (i.e. 2D or 1D conditions) and by the soil heterogeneity. Moreover, the reliability of the maximum strains obtained by numerical modeling is discussed comparing these values respect to both the volumetric and the degradation dynamic thresholds of the considered soils.

  14. Seismic Strong Motion Array Project (SSMAP) to Record Future Large Earthquakes in the Nicoya Peninsula area, Costa Rica (United States)

    Simila, G.; Lafromboise, E.; McNally, K.; Quintereo, R.; Segura, J.


    The seismic strong motion array project (SSMAP) for the Nicoya Peninsula in northwestern Costa Rica is composed of 10 - 13 sites including Geotech A900/A800 accelerographs (three-component), Ref-Teks (three- component velocity), and Kinemetric Episensors. The main objectives of the array are to: 1) record and locate strong subduction zone mainshocks [and foreshocks, "early aftershocks", and preshocks] in Nicoya Peninsula, at the entrance of the Nicoya Gulf, and in the Papagayo Gulf regions of Costa Rica, and 2) record and locate any moderate to strong upper plate earthquakes triggered by a large subduction zone earthquake in the above regions. Our digital accelerograph array has been deployed as part of our ongoing research on large earthquakes in conjunction with the Earthquake and Volcano Observatory (OVSICORI) at the Universidad Nacional in Costa Rica. The country wide seismographic network has been operating continuously since the 1980's, with the first earthquake bulletin published more than 20 years ago, in 1984. The recording of seismicity and strong motion data for large earthquakes along the Middle America Trench (MAT) has been a major research project priority over these years, and this network spans nearly half the time of a "repeat cycle" (~ 50 years) for large (Ms ~ 7.5- 7.7) earthquakes beneath the Nicoya Peninsula, with the last event in 1950. Our long time co- collaborators include the seismology group OVSICORI, with coordination for this project by Dr. Ronnie Quintero and Mr. Juan Segura. The major goal of our project is to contribute unique scientific information pertaining to a large subduction zone earthquake and its related seismic activity when the next large earthquake occurs in Nicoya. We are now collecting a database of strong motion records for moderate sized events to document this last stage prior to the next large earthquake. A recent event (08/18/06; M=4.3) located 20 km northwest of Samara was recorded by two stations (Playa Carrillo

  15. A Test of a Strong Ground Motion Prediction Methodology for the 7 September 1999, Mw=6.0 Athens Earthquake

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hutchings, L; Ioannidou, E; Voulgaris, N; Kalogeras, I; Savy, J; Foxall, W; Stavrakakis, G


    We test a methodology to predict the range of ground-motion hazard for a fixed magnitude earthquake along a specific fault or within a specific source volume, and we demonstrate how to incorporate this into probabilistic seismic hazard analyses (PSHA). We modeled ground motion with empirical Green's functions. We tested our methodology with the 7 September 1999, Mw=6.0 Athens earthquake, we: (1) developed constraints on rupture parameters based on prior knowledge of earthquake rupture processes and sources in the region; (2) generated impulsive point shear source empirical Green's functions by deconvolving out the source contribution of M < 4.0 aftershocks; (3) used aftershocks that occurred throughout the area and not necessarily along the fault to be modeled; (4) ran a sufficient number of scenario earthquakes to span the full variability of ground motion possible; (5) found that our distribution of synthesized ground motions span what actually occurred and their distribution is realistically narrow; (6) determined that one of our source models generates records that match observed time histories well; (7) found that certain combinations of rupture parameters produced ''extreme'' ground motions at some stations; (8) identified that the ''best fitting'' rupture models occurred in the vicinity of 38.05{sup o} N 23.60{sup o} W with center of rupture near 12 km, and near unilateral rupture towards the areas of high damage, and this is consistent with independent investigations; and (9) synthesized strong motion records in high damage areas for which records from the earthquake were not recorded. We then developed a demonstration PSHA for a source region near Athens utilizing synthesized ground motion rather that traditional attenuation. We synthesized 500 earthquakes distributed throughout the source zone likely to have Mw=6.0 earthquakes near Athens. We assumed an average return period of 1000 years for this

  16. The Loma Prieta, California, Earthquake of October 17, 1989: Strong Ground Motion and Ground Failure (United States)

    Coordinated by Holzer, Thomas L.


    Professional Paper 1551 describes the effects at the land surface caused by the Loma Prieta earthquake. These effects: include the pattern and characteristics of strong ground shaking, liquefaction of both floodplain deposits along the Pajaro and Salinas Rivers in the Monterey Bay region and sandy artificial fills along the margins of San Francisco Bay, landslides in the epicentral region, and increased stream flow. Some significant findings and their impacts were: * Strong shaking that was amplified by a factor of about two by soft soils caused damage at up to 100 kilometers (60 miles) from the epicenter. * Instrumental recordings of the ground shaking have been used to improve how building codes consider site amplification effects from soft soils. * Liquefaction at 134 locations caused $99.2 million of the total earthquake loss of $5.9 billion. Liquefaction of floodplain deposits and sandy artificial fills was similar in nature to that which occurred in the 1906 San Francisco earthquake and indicated that many areas remain susceptible to liquefaction damage in the San Francisco and Monterey Bay regions. * Landslides caused $30 million in earthquake losses, damaging at least 200 residences. Many landslides showed evidence of movement in previous earthquakes. * Recognition of the similarities between liquefaction and landslides in 1906 and 1989 and research in intervening years that established methodologies to map liquefaction and landslide hazards prompted the California legislature to pass in 1990 the Seismic Hazards Mapping Act that required the California Geological Survey to delineate regulatory zones of areas potentially susceptible to these hazards. * The earthquake caused the flow of many streams in the epicentral region to increase. Effects were noted up to 88 km from the epicenter. * Post-earthquake studies of the Marina District of San Francisco provide perhaps the most comprehensive case history of earthquake effects at a specific site developed for

  17. Curved ducts with strong secondary motion - Velocity measurements of developing laminar and turbulent flow (United States)

    Taylor, A. M. K. P.; Whitelaw, J. H.; Yianneskis, M.


    Two orthogonal components of velocity and associated Reynolds stresses are determined in a square-sectioned, 90 degree bend of 2.3 radius ratio by utilizing laser-Doppler velocimetry for Reynolds numbers of 790 and 40,000. Results show that boundary layers at the bend inlet of 0.25 and 0.15 of the hydraulic diameter create secondary velocity maxima of 0.6 and 0.4 of the bulk flow velocity, respectively. It is concluded that the boundary layer thickness is important to the flow development, mainly in the first half of the bend, especially when it is reduced to 0.15 of the hydraulic diameter. Smaller secondary velocities are found for turbulent flow in an identical duct with a radius ratio of 7.0 than in the strongly curved bend, although their effect is more important to the streamwise flow development because of the smaller pressure gradients. In addition, the detail and accuracy of the measurements make them suitable for evaluation of numerical techniques and turbulence models.

  18. NCEER strong-motion data base: A user manual for the geobase release (version 1.0 for the SUN3) (United States)

    Friberg, P.; Jacob, K.


    The purpose of the report is to describe the initial implementation of a strong-motion data base developed by Lamont-Doherty Geological Observatory (Lamont) under the auspices of the National Center for Earthquake Engineering Research (NCEER). The report details how to install Lamont's data base access tool, GeoBase, and how to obtain strong-motion data. NCEER's strong-motion data base combines features never before available for a single strong-motion database. These are: (1) both parametric and time-series data are accessible over a computer network; (2) the parametric data are maintained in a relational format; (3) the time-series data are stored on-line; and (4) the time-series are stored in a consistent format.

  19. The April 6, 2009, Mw 6.3, L'Aquila sequence: weak-motion and strong-motion data recorded by the RAIS temporary stations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Augliera


    Full Text Available The aim of this study is the sharing of waveforms recorded by several Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV temporary stations (managed by the Milan-Pavia section; INGV MI-PV. These stations were installed after the April 6, 2009, Mw 6.3, L'Aquila earthquake (central Italy. The work synthesizes the activities conducted in the field by the INGV MI-PV working group over the three months following the mainshock. The field activities were developed in four different phases that were defined according to their time periods. Starting from April 7, 2009, for the first phase, the temporary stations were installed in correspondence with the more damaged areas. The scope was to record the strongest aftershocks in the days that followed the mainshock. In this phase, the stations were composed of a six-component acquisition system that was coupled with both a weak-motion and a strong-motion sensor. After the first month, the last three phases of installation investigated the seismic responses of sites located in the epicentral area, involving villages within a radius of about 20 km from the epicenter of the April 6 mainshock. In this way, over four specific time-period phases, the stations were installed in sites with different lithological and geomorphological conditions. The instruments worked from April 7 to July 14, 2009; in this period, 9,155 aftershocks (134,262 accelerometric waveforms and 133,242 velocimetric waveforms, with ML ≤5.3 were recorded. This study describes the dataset of these earthquake waveforms recorded with both velocity and acceleration transducers. Selected waveforms are available through, with their corresponding information concerning instrumental characteristics, installation sites, and earthquakes recorded.

  20. Numerical simulation of strong ground motion for the Ms8.0 Wenchuan earthquake of 12 May 2008

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Wei; SHEN Yang; CHEN XiaoFei


    The Wenchuan earthquake of 12 May 2008 is the most destructive earthquake in China in the past 30 years in terms of property damage and human losses. In order to understand the earthquake process and the geo-morphological factors affecting the seismic hazard, we simulated the strong ground motion caused by the earthquake, incorporating three-dimensional (3D) earth structure, finite-fault rupture,and realistic surface topography. The simulated ground motions reveal that the fault rupture and basin structure control the overall pattern of the peak ground shaking. Large peak ground velocity (PGV) is distributed in two narrow areas: one with the largest PGV values is above the hanging wall of the fault and attributed to the locations of fault asperities and rupture directivity; the other is along the northwestern margin of the Sichuan Basin and caused by both the directivity of fault rupture and the amplification in the thick sediment basin. Rough topography above the rupture fault causes wave scattering,resulting in significantly larger peak ground motion on the apex of topographic relief than in the valley.Topography and scattering also reduce the wave energy in the forward direction of fault rupture but increase the PGV in other parts of the basin. These results suggest the need for a localized hazard assessment in places of rough topography that takes the topographic effects into account. Finally, had the earthquake started at the northeast end of the fault zone and ruptured to the southwest, Chengdu would have suffered a much stronger shaking than it experienced on 12 May, 2008.

  1. Numerical simulation of strong ground motion for the M_s8.0 Wenchuan earthquake of 12 May 2008

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The Wenchuan earthquake of 12 May 2008 is the most destructive earthquake in China in the past 30 years in terms of property damage and human losses. In order to understand the earthquake process and the geo-morphological factors affecting the seismic hazard, we simulated the strong ground mo-tion caused by the earthquake, incorporating three-dimensional (3D) earth structure, finite-fault rupture, and realistic surface topography. The simulated ground motions reveal that the fault rupture and basin structure control the overall pattern of the peak ground shaking. Large peak ground velocity (PGV) is distributed in two narrow areas: one with the largest PGV values is above the hanging wall of the fault and attributed to the locations of fault asperities and rupture directivity; the other is along the north-western margin of the Sichuan Basin and caused by both the directivity of fault rupture and the ampli-fication in the thick sediment basin. Rough topography above the rupture fault causes wave scattering, resulting in significantly larger peak ground motion on the apex of topographic relief than in the valley. Topography and scattering also reduce the wave energy in the forward direction of fault rupture but increase the PGV in other parts of the basin. These results suggest the need for a localized hazard as-sessment in places of rough topography that takes the topographic effects into account. Finally, had the earthquake started at the northeast end of the fault zone and ruptured to the southwest, Chengdu would have suffered a much stronger shaking than it experienced on 12 May, 2008.

  2. Source Rupture Process of the 2008 Iwate-Miyagi Nairiku, Japan, Earthquake Revealed from Near Fault Strong Motion Records (United States)

    Suzuki, W.; Aoi, S.; Sekiguchi, H.


    We reveal the source rupture process of the 2008 Iwate-Miyagi Nairiku earthquake through the waveform inversion of the near fault strong motion records. At 8:43, June 14, 2008 (JST), a M7.2 shallow inland crustal earthquake struck Iwate and Miyagi Prefectures, northeast Japan. This earthquake, the 2008 Iwate-Miyagi Nairiku earthquake, is a reverse fault event, whose fault plane strikes to the southwest and dips to the northwest according to moment tensor solutions, aftershock distribution, and surface fault break. Strong motion networks, K-NET and KiK-net, operated by the National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Prevention (NIED) obtained lots of the strong motion records at the near source region, which provide the information of the detailed source rupture process. We employ the multi-time-window linear waveform inversion method (Hartzell and Heaton, 1983). S-wave portion of the velocity waveforms (0.1-1 Hz) are used for the inversion. We use mainly borehole data at KiK- net stations. Green's functions are calculated using the discrete wavenumber method (Bouchon, 1981) and reflection/transmission coefficient matrix method (Kennett and Kerry, 1979) on the assumption of 1-D layered velocity structure. The rupture propagation effect within the subfault is included in the Green's function following Sekiguchi et al. (2002). Some stations are located on thick sediment. In order to take into account their effect on the observed waveforms, we construct the velocity structure model for each station referring to a 3-D subsurface structure model compiled for strong motion evaluation of whole Japan (Fujiwara et al., 2006). Validity of the assumed velocity structure is confirmed by simulating the aftershock records. The rupture starting point is set on the hypocenter relocated by Sekine et al. (2008) using double-difference method (Waldhauser and Ellsworth, 2000). Assumed fault plane covers a space of 40 km × 18 km. Its strike angle is 209° referring to F

  3. Simulations of strong ground motion in SW Iberia for the 1969 February 28 (Ms = 8.0) and the 1755 November 1 (M ~ 8.5) earthquakes - II. Strong ground motion simulations (United States)

    Grandin, Raphaël; Borges, José Fernando; Bezzeghoud, Mourad; Caldeira, Bento; Carrilho, Fernando


    This is the second paper of a series of two concerning strong ground motion in SW Iberia due to earthquakes originating from the adjacent Atlantic area. The aim of this paper is to use the velocity model that was proposed and validated in the companion paper for seismic intensity modelling of the 1969 (Ms = 8.0) and 1755 (M = 8.5-8.7) earthquakes. First, we propose a regression to convert simulated values of Peak Ground Velocity (PGV) into Modified Mercalli Intensity (MMI) in SW Iberia, and using this regression, we build synthetic isoseismal maps for a large (Ms = 8.0) earthquake that occurred in 1969. Based on information on the seismic source provided by various authors, we show that the velocity model effectively reproduces macroseismic observations in the whole region. We also confirm that seismic intensity distribution is very sensitive to a small number of source parameters: rupture directivity, fault strike and fault dimensions. Then, we extrapolate the method to the case of the great (M = 8.5-8.7) 1755 earthquake, for a series of hypotheses recently proposed by three authors about the location of the epicentral region. The model involving a subduction-related rupture in the Gulf of Cádiz results in excessive ground motion in northern Morocco, suggesting that the source of the 1755 earthquake should be located further west. A rupture along the western coast of Portugal, compatible with an activation of the passive western Iberian margin, would imply a relatively low average slip, which, alone, would could not account for the large tsunami observed in the whole northern Atlantic ocean. A seismic source located below the Gorringe Bank seems the most likely since it is more efficient in reproducing the distribution of high intensities in SW Iberia due to the 1755 earthquake.

  4. Analytical investigations of seismic responses for reinforced concrete bridge columns subjected to strong near-fault ground motion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chin-Kuo Su; Yu-Chi Sung; Shuenn-Yih Chang; Chao-Hsun Huang


    Strong near-fault ground motion, usually caused by the fault-rupture and characterized by a pulse-like velocitywave form, often causes dramatic instantaneous seismic energy (Jadhav and Jangid 2006). Some reinforced concrete (RC)bridge columns, even those built according to ductile design principles, were damaged in the 1999 Chi-Chi earthquake.Thus, it is very important to evaluate the seismic response of a RC bridge column to improve its seismic design and prevent future damage. Nonlinear time history analysis using step-by-step integration is capable of tracing the dynamic response of a structure during the entire vibration period and is able to accommodate the pulsing wave form. However; the accuracy of the numerical results is very sensitive to the modeling of the nonlinear load-deformation relationship of the structural member.FEMA 273 and ATC-40 provide the modeling parameters for structural nonlinear analyses of RC beams and RC columns.They use three parameters to define the plastic rotation angles and a residual strength ratio to describe the nonlinear loaddeformation relationship of an RC member. Structural nonlinear analyses are performed based on these parameters. This method provides a convenient way to obtain the nonlinear seismic responses of RC structures. However, the accuracy of the numerical solutions might be further improved. For this purpose, results from a previous study on modeling of the static pushover analyses for RC bridge columns (Sung et al. 2005) is adopted for the nonlinear time history analysis presented herein to evaluate the structural responses excited by a near-fault ground motion. To ensure the reliability of this approach,the numerical results were compared to experimental results. The results confirm that the proposed approach is valid.

  5. The influence of critical Moho Reflections on strong ground motions recorded in San Francisco and Oakland during the 1989 Loma Prieta Earthquake (United States)

    Somerville, Paul; Yoshimura, Joanne


    The amplitudes of strong ground motions from the Loma Prieta earthquake recorded in the San Francisco and Oakland areas exceeded the levels predicted by standard empirical attenuation relations. Preliminary analysis of accelerograms having known trigger times strongly suggests that the elevation of ground motion amplitudes in the distance range of approximately 40 to 100 km was due to critical reflections from the base of the crust. These reflections, which are identified on the basis of their arrival times and phase velocity, and by comparison with simulated accelerograms, were large and occurred at relatively close range because of the deep focal depth of the earthquake and the strong velocity gradient at the base of the crust. These motions were further amplified, presumably by impedance contrast effects, at soft soil sites in San Francisco and Oakland. The effect of the critical reflections in amplifying peak accelerations of the Loma Prieta earthquake in the San Francisco and Oakland regions was as large as the effect of soft soil site conditions. Focal depth has an important influence on strong motion attenuation at distances beyond about 40 km, and empirical attenuation relations derived from shallow crustal earthquakes may underpredict the ground motions of deeper crustal events in this distance range. Further analyses using an expanded data base that includes recordings of aftershocks are required to rigorously test the proposed explanation of the ground motions recorded in San Francisco and Oakland, and the conclusions drawn from that explanation.

  6. Processing and review interface for strong motion data (PRISM) software, version 1.0.0—Methodology and automated processing (United States)

    Jones, Jeanne; Kalkan, Erol; Stephens, Christopher


    A continually increasing number of high-quality digital strong-motion records from stations of the National Strong-Motion Project (NSMP) of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), as well as data from regional seismic networks within the United States, call for automated processing of strong-motion records with human review limited to selected significant or flagged records. The NSMP has developed the Processing and Review Interface for Strong Motion data (PRISM) software to meet this need. In combination with the Advanced National Seismic System Quake Monitoring System (AQMS), PRISM automates the processing of strong-motion records. When used without AQMS, PRISM provides batch-processing capabilities. The PRISM version 1.0.0 is platform independent (coded in Java), open source, and does not depend on any closed-source or proprietary software. The software consists of two major components: a record processing engine and a review tool that has a graphical user interface (GUI) to manually review, edit, and process records. To facilitate use by non-NSMP earthquake engineers and scientists, PRISM (both its processing engine and review tool) is easy to install and run as a stand-alone system on common operating systems such as Linux, OS X, and Windows. PRISM was designed to be flexible and extensible in order to accommodate new processing techniques. This report provides a thorough description and examples of the record processing features supported by PRISM. All the computing features of PRISM have been thoroughly tested.

  7. Third-and-a-half order post-Newtonian equations of motion for relativistic compact binaries using the strong field point particle limit

    CERN Document Server

    Itoh, Yousuke


    We report our rederivation of the equations of motion for relativistic compact binaries through the third-and-a-half post-Newtonian (3.5 PN) order approximation to general relativity using the strong field point particle limit to describe self-gravitating stars instead of the Dirac delta functional. The computation is done in harmonic coordinates. Our equations of motion describe the orbital motion of the binary consisting of spherically symmetric non-rotating stars. The resulting equations of motion fully agree with the 3.5 PN equations of motion derived in the previous works. We also show that the locally defined energy of the star has a simple relation with its mass up to the 3.5 PN order.

  8. The SCEC-USGS Dynamic Earthquake Rupture Code Comparison Exercise - Simulations of Large Earthquakes and Strong Ground Motions (United States)

    Harris, R.


    I summarize the progress by the Southern California Earthquake Center (SCEC) and U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Dynamic Rupture Code Comparison Group, that examines if the results produced by multiple researchers' earthquake simulation codes agree with each other when computing benchmark scenarios of dynamically propagating earthquake ruptures. These types of computer simulations have no analytical solutions with which to compare, so we use qualitative and quantitative inter-code comparisons to check if they are operating satisfactorily. To date we have tested the codes against benchmark exercises that incorporate a range of features, including single and multiple planar faults, single rough faults, slip-weakening, rate-state, and thermal pressurization friction, elastic and visco-plastic off-fault behavior, complete stress drops that lead to extreme ground motion, heterogeneous initial stresses, and heterogeneous material (rock) structure. Our goal is reproducibility, and we focus on the types of earthquake-simulation assumptions that have been or will be used in basic studies of earthquake physics, or in direct applications to specific earthquake hazard problems. Our group's goals are to make sure that when our earthquake-simulation codes simulate these types of earthquake scenarios along with the resulting simulated strong ground shaking, that the codes are operating as expected. For more introductory information about our group and our work, please see our group's overview papers, Harris et al., Seismological Research Letters, 2009, and Harris et al., Seismological Research Letters, 2011, along with our website,

  9. Estimation on site-amplification from dif-ferent methods using strong motion data ob-tained in Tangshan, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    A seismic observation array for strong motions was deployed to estimate seismic source, propagation path and local site effects in Tangshan, China. We compared site response from the S-wave inversion and those from other tech-niques, such as traditional direct spectral ratios of S waves and receiver-function of S waves. From the inversion, we found that S-wave quality factor, i.e. QS-value, is approximately satisfied with the relation of QS=67f 1.1 in the range of frequency from 0.5 Hz to 32 Hz and that the source spectra follow the w-2 model of seismic source for low frequencies less than about 12 Hz. From the comparison of site responses estimated by the different methods for each soil site, we found that all the methods can extract the same predominant peaks from the responses, the amplifica-tions from direct S-wave spectral ratios are well correlated with those from the S-wave inversion within a factor of 2 to 3, while the correlation between the amplifications from S-wave receiver-function and those from the S-wave inversion is not good, especially for high frequencies more than 8 Hz.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sekanina, Zdenek [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Kracht, Rainer, E-mail:, E-mail: [Ostlandring 53, D-25335 Elmshorn, Schleswig-Holstein (Germany)


    We investigate the relationships among the angular orbital elements—the longitude of the ascending node Ω, the inclination i, and the argument of perihelion ω—of the Kreutz system’s faint, dwarf sungrazers observed only with the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory/STEREO coronagraphs; their published orbits were derived using a parabolic, purely gravitational approximation. In a plot of i against Ω the bright Kreutz sungrazers (such as C/1843 D1, C/1882 R1, C/1963 R1, etc.) fit a curve of fixed apsidal orientation, whereas the dwarf members are distributed along a curve that makes with the apsidal curve an angle of 15°. The dwarf sungrazers’ perihelion longitude is statistically invariable, but their perihelion latitude increases systematically with Ω. We find that this trend can be explained by a strong erosion-driven nongravitational acceleration normal to the orbit plane, confirmed for several test dwarf Kreutz sungrazers by orbital solutions with nongravitational terms incorporated directly in the equations of motion on a condition of fixed apsidal orientation. Proceeding in three steps, we first apply Marsden et al.'s standard formalism, solving for the normal acceleration only, and eventually relax additional constraints on the nongravitational law and the acceleration’s radial and transverse components. The resulting nongravitational accelerations on the dwarf sungrazers exceed the maximum for cataloged comets in nearly parabolic orbits by up to three orders of magnitude, topping in exceptional cases the Sun’s gravitational acceleration! A mass-loss model suggests that the dwarf sungrazers’ nuclei fragment copiously and their dimensions diminish rapidly near the Sun, implying the objects’ imminent demise shortly before they reach perihelion.

  11. Strong ground motion synthesis for a M=7.2 earthquake in the Gulf of Corinth, Greece using Empirical Green`s functions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hutchings, L.; Stavrakakis, G.N.; Ioannidou, E.; Wu, F.T.; Jarpe, S.; Kasameyer, P.


    We synthesize strong ground motion at three sites from a M=7.2 earthquake along the MW-trending Gulf of Cornith seismic zone. We model rupture along an 80 segment of the zone. The entire length of the fault, if activated at one time, can lead to an event comparable to that of the 1995 Kobe earthquake. With the improved digital data now routinely available, it becomes possible to use recordings of small earthquakes as empirical Green`s functions to synthesize potential ground motion for future large earthquakes. We developed a suite of 100 rupture scenarios for the earthquake and computed the commensurate strong ground motion time histories. We synthesized strong ground motion with physics-based solutions of earthquake rupture and applied physical bounds on rupture parameters. The synthesized ground motions obtained are source and site specific. By having a suite of rupture scenarios of hazardous earthquakes for a fixed magnitude and identifying the hazard to a site from the statistical distribution of engineering parameters, we have introduced a probabilistic component to the deterministic hazard calculation. The time histories suggested for engineering design are the ones that most closely match either the average or one standard deviation absolute accelerations response values.

  12. Visualization of strong around motion calculated from the numerical simulation of Hyogo-ken Nanbu earthquake; Suchi simulation de miru Hyogoken nanbu jishin no kyoshindo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furumura, T. [Hokkaido Univ. of Education, Sapporo (Japan); Koketsu, K. [The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan). Earthquake Research Institute


    Hyogo-ken Nanbu earthquake with a focus in the Akashi straits has given huge earthquake damages in and around Awaji Island and Kobe City in 1995. It is clear that the basement structure, which is steeply deepened at Kobe City from Rokko Mountains towards the coast, and the focus under this related closely to the local generation of strong ground motion. Generation process of the strong ground motion was discussed using 2D and 3D numerical simulation methods. The 3D pseudospectral method was used for the calculation. Space of 51.2km{times}25.6km{times}25.6km was selected for the calculation. This space was discretized with the lattice interval of 200m. Consequently, it was found that the basement structure with a steeply deepened basement, soft and weak geological structure thickly deposited on the basement, and earthquake faults running under the boundary of base rock and sediments related greatly to the generation of strong ground motion. Numerical simulation can be expected to predict the strong ground motion by shallow earthquakes. 9 refs., 7 figs.

  13. Survey of strong motion earthquake effects on thermal power plants in California with emphasis on piping systems. Volume 1, Main report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stevenson, J.D. [Stevenson and Associates, Cleveland, OH (United States)


    Since 1982, there has been a major effort expended to evaluate the susceptibility of nuclear Power plant equipment to failure and significant damage during seismic events. This was done by making use of data on the performance of electrical and mechanical equipment in conventional power plants and other similar industrial facilities during strong motion earthquakes. This report is intended as an extension of the seismic experience data collection effort and a compilation of experience data specific to power plant piping and supports designed and constructed US power piping code requirements which have experienced strong motion earthquakes. Eight damaging (Richter Magnitude 7.7 to 5.5) California earthquakes and their effects on 8 power generating facilities in use natural gas and California were reviewed. All of these facilities were visited and evaluated. Seven fossel-fueled (dual use natural gas and oil) and one nuclear fueled plants consisting of a total of 36 individual boiler or reactor units were investigated. Peak horizontal ground accelerations that either had been recorded on site at these facilities or were considered applicable to these power plants on the basis of nearby recordings ranged between 0.20g and 0.5lg with strong motion durations which varied from 3.5 to 15 seconds. Most US nuclear power plants are designed for a safe shutdown earthquake peak ground acceleration equal to 0.20g or less with strong motion durations which vary from 10 to 15 seconds.

  14. Microtremor Array Measurement Survey and Strong Ground Motion observation activities of The SATREPS, MarDiM project -Part 2- (United States)

    Citak, Seckin; Karagoz, Ozlem; Chimoto, Kosuke; Ozel, Oguz; Yamanaka, Hiroaki; Arslan, Safa; Aksahin, Bengi; Hatayama, Ken; Ohori, Michihiro; Hori, Muneo


    Since 1939, devastating earthquakes with magnitude greater than seven ruptured North Anatolian Fault (NAF) westward, starting from 1939 Erzincan (Ms=7.9) at the eastern Turkey and including the latest 1999 Izmit-Golcuk (Ms=7.4) and the Duzce (Ms=7.2) earthquakes in the eastern Marmara region, Turkey. On the other hand, the west of the Sea of Marmara an Mw7.4 earthquake ruptured the NAF' s Ganos segment in 1912. The only un-ruptured segments of the NAF in the last century are within the Sea of Marmara, and are identified as a "seismic gap" zone that its rupture may cause a devastating earthquake. In order to unravel the seismic risks of the Marmara region a comprehensive multidisciplinary research project The MarDiM project "Earthquake And Tsunami Disaster Mitigation in The Marmara Region and Disaster Education in Turkey", has already been started since 2003. The project is conducted in the framework of "Science and Technology Research Partnership for Sustainable Development (SATREPS)" sponsored by Japan Science and Technology Agency (JST) and Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA). One of the main research field of the project is "Seismic characterization and damage prediction" which aims to improve the prediction accuracy of the estimation of the damages induced by strong ground motions and tsunamis based on reliable source parameters, detailed deep and shallow velocity structure and building data. As for detailed deep and shallow velocity structure microtremor array measurement surveys were conducted in Zeytinburnu district of Istanbul, Tekirdag, Canakkale and Edirne provinces at about 109 sites on October 2013, September 2014 and 2015. Also in September 2014, 11 accelerometer units were installed mainly in public buildings in both Zeytinburnu and Tekirdag area and are currently in operation. Each accelerometer unit compose of a Network Sensor (CV-374A) by Tokyo Sokushin, post processing PC for data storage and power supply unit. The Network Sensor (CV-374

  15. Microtremor Array Measurement Survey and Strong Ground Motion Observation Activities of The MarDiM (SATREPS) Project (United States)

    Ozgur Citak, Seckin; Karagoz, Ozlem; Chimoto, Kosuke; Ozel, Oguz; Yamanaka, Hiroaki; Aksahin, Bengi; Arslan, Safa; Hatayama, Ken; Ohori, Michihiro; Hori, Muneo


    Since 1939, devastating earthquakes with magnitude greater than seven ruptured North Anatolian Fault (NAF) westward, starting from 1939 Erzincan (Ms=7.9) at the eastern Turkey and including the latest 1999 Izmit-Golcuk (Ms=7.4) and the Duzce (Ms=7.2) earthquakes in the eastern Marmara region, Turkey. On the other hand, the west of the Sea of Marmara an Mw7.4 earthquake ruptured the NAF' s Ganos segment in 1912. The only un-ruptured segments of the NAF in the last century are within the Sea of Marmara, and are identified as a "seismic gap" zone that its rupture may cause a devastating earthquake. In order to unravel the seismic risks of the Marmara region a comprehensive multidisciplinary research project The MarDiM project "Earthquake And Tsunami Disaster Mitigation in The Marmara Region and Disaster Education in Turkey", has already been started since 2003. The project is conducted in the framework of "Science and Technology Research Partnership for Sustainable Development (SATREPS)" sponsored by Japan Science and Technology Agency (JST) and Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA). One of the main research field of the project is "Seismic characterization and damage prediction" which aims to improve the prediction accuracy of the estimation of the damages induced by strong ground motions and tsunamis based on reliable source parameters, detailed deep and shallow velocity structure and building data. As for detailed deep and shallow velocity structure microtremor array measurement surveys were conducted in Zeytinburnu district of Istanbul and Tekirdag province at about 81 sites on October 2013 and September 2014. Also in September 2014, 11 accelerometer units were installed mainly in public buildings in both Zeytinburnu and Tekirdag area and are currently in operation. Each accelerometer unit compose of a Network Sensor (CV-374A2) by Tokyo Sokushin, post processing PC for data storage and power supply unit. The Network Sensor (CV-374A2) consist of three servo

  16. Geophysical exploration of sedimentary layers for estimation of strong ground motion; Jishindo hyoka no tame no chika kozo tansa to sono katsuyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamanaka, H.; Kurita, K. [Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo (Japan)


    This paper introduces the result of a case study in the Kanto Plain, Japan on estimation of strong ground motion taking underground structure into account and exploration of the underground structures. Methods for estimating the strong ground motion may be classified into the following three methods: an empirical method represented by the distance attenuation expression, a semi-empirical method, in which small to medium earthquakes occurred in the vicinity of a focus fault of the subject earthquake are conceived as a Green function, and superposed according to the analogy of the earthquakes, and an analytic method. These three approaches are used respectively in the present situation. Micro motion array observation is being carried at a large number of points in the Kanto Plain to explore S-wave velocity structures. Seven seismograph arrays have observed micro motions with slightly long cycles, phase velocities of Raleigh waves were derived, and then S-wave velocity distribution down to the seismic base was estimated from reverse analysis therefrom. S-wave amplification characteristics were calculated by using one-dimensional duplicate reflection on the prepared ground bed model. The result well explains the observation values, indicating that the ground bed model is reasonable for estimating the seismic motion amplifying characteristics. 33 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab.

  17. Broadband pendulum energy harvester (United States)

    Liang, Changwei; Wu, You; Zuo, Lei


    A novel electromagnetic pendulum energy harvester with mechanical motion rectifier (MMR) is proposed and investigated in this paper. MMR is a mechanism which rectifies the bidirectional swing motion of the pendulum into unidirectional rotation of the generator by using two one-way clutches in the gear system. In this paper, two prototypes of pendulum energy harvester with MMR and without MMR are designed and fabricated. The dynamic model of the proposed MMR pendulum energy harvester is established by considering the engagement and disengagement of the one way clutches. The simulation results show that the proposed MMR pendulum energy harvester has a larger output power at high frequencies comparing with non-MMR pendulum energy harvester which benefits from the disengagement of one-way clutch during pendulum vibration. Moreover, the proposed MMR pendulum energy harvester is broadband compare with non-MMR pendulum energy harvester, especially when the equivalent inertia is large. An experiment is also conducted to compare the energy harvesting performance of these two prototypes. A flywheel is attached at the end of the generator to make the disengagement more significant. The experiment results also verify that MMR pendulum energy harvester is broadband and has a larger output power at high frequency over the non-MMR pendulum energy harvester.

  18. The advantage of linear viscoelastic material behavior in passive damper design-with application in broad-banded resonance dampers for industrial high-precision motion stages (United States)

    Verbaan, Cornelis A. M.; Peters, Gerrit W. M.; Steinbuch, Maarten


    In this paper we demonstrate the advantage of applying viscoelastic materials instead of purely viscous materials as damping medium in mechanical dampers. Although the loss modulus decreases as function of frequency in case of viscoelastic behavior, which can be interpreted as a decrease of damping, the viscoelastic behavior still leads to an increased modal damping for mechanical structures. This advantage holds for inertial-mass-type dampers that are tuned for broad-banded resonance damping. It turns out that an increase of the storage modulus as function of frequency contributes to the effectiveness of mechanical dampers with respect to energy dissipation at different mechanical resonance frequencies. It is shown that this phenomenon is medium specific and is independent of the amount of damper mass.

  19. Application of bounding spectra to seismic design of piping based on the performance of above ground piping in power plants subjected to strong motion earthquakes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stevenson, J.D. [Stevenson and Associates, Cleveland, OH (United States)


    This report extends the potential application of Bounding Spectra evaluation procedures, developed as part of the A-46 Unresolved Safety Issue applicable to seismic verification of in-situ electrical and mechanical equipment, to in-situ safety related piping in nuclear power plants. The report presents a summary of earthquake experience data which define the behavior of typical U.S. power plant piping subject to strong motion earthquakes. The report defines those piping system caveats which would assure the seismic adequacy of the piping systems which meet those caveats and whose seismic demand are within the bounding spectra input. Based on the observed behavior of piping in strong motion earthquakes, the report describes the capabilities of the piping system to carry seismic loads as a function of the type of connection (i.e. threaded versus welded). This report also discusses in some detail the basic causes and mechanisms for earthquake damages and failures to power plant piping systems.

  20. A comparative study of a stochastic and deterministic simulation of strong ground motion applied to the Kozani-Grevena (NW Greece 1995 sequence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Papaioannou


    Full Text Available We present the results of a comparative study of two intrinsically different methodologies, a stochastic one and a deterministic one, performed to simulate strong ground motion in the Kozani area (NW Greece. Source parameters were calculated from empirical relations in order to check their reliability, in combination with the applied methodologies, to simulate future events. Strong ground motion from the Kozani mainshock (13 May, 1995, M w = 6.5 was synthesized by using both the stochastic method for finite-fault cases and the empirical Green’s function method. The latter method was also applied to simulate a Mw = 5.1 aftershock (19 May, 1995. The results of the two simulations computed for the mainshock are quite satisfactory for both methodologies at the frequencies of engineering interest (> ~ 2 Hz. This strengthens the idea of incorporating proper empirical relations for the estimation of source parameters in a priori simulations of strong ground motion from future earthquakes. Nevertheless, the results of the simulation of the smaller earthquake point out the need for further investigation of regional or local, if possible, relations for estimating source parameters at smaller magnitude ranges

  1. Estimation of shallow S-wave velocity structure using microtremor array exploration at temporary strong motion observation stations for aftershocks of the 2016 Kumamoto earthquake (United States)

    Chimoto, Kosuke; Yamanaka, Hiroaki; Tsuno, Seiji; Miyake, Hiroe; Yamada, Nobuyuki


    Shallow S-wave velocity V S profiles were estimated for 26 temporary strong motion observation sites surrounding the epicenters of a sequence of the 2016 Kumamoto earthquake. The microtremor array method was used to gather the dispersion characteristics of Rayleigh waves. V S profiles were obtained by inverting the dispersion curves for each site and those of three permanent strong motion stations that recorded the sequence of seismic events. The shallow V S profiles near two of the permanent strong motion stations in the town of Mashiki were almost identical. However, the V S profiles at other stations varied. The V S profiles were found to have the common feature of the uppermost low-velocity layer being widely distributed from Mashiki to the village of Minami-Aso, and it was especially thick in the areas that suffered heavy damage. This low-velocity layer was a major contributor to the site amplification. The horizontal-to-vertical spectral ratios of the microtremors indicate that both the shallow soil and deep sedimentary layers may control the site response characteristics over a broad frequency range.[Figure not available: see fulltext.

  2. Analysis of strong ground motions and site effects at Kantipath, Kathmandu, from 2015 Mw 7.8 Gorkha, Nepal, earthquake and its aftershocks (United States)

    Dhakal, Yadab P.; Kubo, Hisahiko; Suzuki, Wataru; Kunugi, Takashi; Aoi, Shin; Fujiwara, Hiroyuki


    Strong ground motions from the 2015 Mw 7.8 Gorkha, Nepal, earthquake and its eight aftershocks recorded by a strong-motion seismograph at Kantipath (KATNP), Kathmandu, were analyzed to assess the ground-motion characteristics and site effects at this location. Remarkably large elastic pseudo-velocity responses exceeding 300 cm/s at 5 % critical damping were calculated for the horizontal components of the mainshock recordings at peak periods of 4-5 s. Conversely, the short-period ground motions of the mainshock were relatively weak despite the proximity of the site to the source fault. The horizontal components of all large-magnitude (Mw ≥ 6.3) aftershock recordings showed peak pseudo-velocity responses at periods of 3-4 s. Ground-motion prediction equations (GMPEs) describing the Nepal Himalaya region have not yet been developed. A comparison of the observational data with GMPEs for Japan showed that with the exception of the peak ground acceleration (PGA) of the mainshock, the observed PGAs and peak ground velocities at the KATNP site are generally well described by the GMPEs for crustal and plate interface events. A comparison of the horizontal-to-vertical ( H/ V) spectral ratios for the S-waves of the mainshock and aftershock recordings suggested that the KATNP site experienced a considerable nonlinear site response, which resulted in the reduced amplitudes of short-period ground motions. The GMPEs were found to underestimate the response values at the peak periods (approximately 4-5 s) of the large-magnitude events. The deep subsurface velocity model of the Kathmandu basin has not been well investigated. Therefore, a one-dimensional velocity model was constructed for the deep sediments beneath the recording station based on an analysis of the H/ V spectral ratios for S-wave coda from aftershock recordings, and it was revealed that the basin sediments strongly amplified the long-period components of the ground motions of the mainshock and large

  3. English speakers attend more strongly than Spanish speakers to manner of motion when classifying novel objects and events. (United States)

    Kersten, Alan W; Meissner, Christian A; Lechuga, Julia; Schwartz, Bennett L; Albrechtsen, Justin S; Iglesias, Adam


    Three experiments provide evidence that the conceptualization of moving objects and events is influenced by one's native language, consistent with linguistic relativity theory. Monolingual English speakers and bilingual Spanish/English speakers tested in an English-speaking context performed better than monolingual Spanish speakers and bilingual Spanish/English speakers tested in a Spanish-speaking context at sorting novel, animated objects and events into categories on the basis of manner of motion, an attribute that is prominently marked in English but not in Spanish. In contrast, English and Spanish speakers performed similarly at classifying on the basis of path, an attribute that is prominently marked in both languages. Similar results were obtained regardless of whether categories were labeled by novel words or numbered, suggesting that an English-speaking tendency to focus on manner of motion is a general phenomenon and not limited to word learning. Effects of age of acquisition of English were also observed on the performance of bilinguals, with early bilinguals performing similarly in the 2 language contexts and later bilinguals showing greater contextual variation.

  4. Strong seismic motions estimated from a one direction-three components ("1d-3c") approach, application to the city of rome, italy

    CERN Document Server

    D'Avila, Maria Paola Santisi; Semblat, Jean-François; Gandomzadeh, Ali; Martino, Salvatore; Bonilla, Luis Fabian


    Strong seismic motions in soils generally lead to both a stiffness reduction and an increase of the energy dissipation in the surficial layers. In order to study such phenomena, several nonlinear constitutive models were proposed and were generally implemented for 1D soil columns. However, one of the main difficulties of complex rheologies is the large number of parameters needed to describe the model. In this sense, the multi-surface cyclic plasticity approach, developed by Iwan in 1967 but linked to Prandtl or Preisach theoretical work, is an interesting choice: the only data needed is the modulus reduction curve. Past studies have generally implemented such models for one-directional shear wave propagation in a "1D" soil column considering one motion component only ("1C"). Conversely, this work aims at studying strong motion amplification by considering seismic wave propagation in a "1D" soil column accounting for the influence of the 3D loading path on the nonlinear behavior of each soil layer. In the "1D...

  5. Strong ground motion generated by controlled blasting experiments and mining induced seismic events recorded underground at deep level mines in South Africa (United States)

    Milev, A.; Selllers, E.; Skorpen, L.; Scheepers, L.; Murphy, S.; Spottiswoode, S. M.


    A number of simulated rockbursts were conducted underground at deep level gold mines in South Africa in order to estimate the rock mass response when subjected to strong ground motion. The rockbursts were simulated by means of large blasts detonated in solid rock close to the sidewall of a tunnel. The simulated rockbursts involved the design of the seismic source, seismic observations in the near and far field, high-speed video filming, a study of rock mass conditions such as fractures, joints, rock strength etc. Knowledge of the site conditions before and after the simulated rockbursts was also gained. The numerical models used in the design of the simulated rockbursts were calibrated by small blasts taking place at each experimental site. A dense array of shock type accelerometers was installed along the blasting wall to monitor the attenuation of the strong ground motion as a function of the distance from the source. The attenuation of peak particle velocities, was found to be proportional to R^-1.7. Special investigations were carried out to evaluate the mechanism and the magnitude of damage, as well as the support behaviour under excessive dynamic loading. The strong ground motion generated by mining induced seismic events was studied, as part of this work, not only to characterize the rock mass response, but also to estimate the site effect on the surface of the underground excavations. A stand-alone instrument especially designed for recording strong ground motions was used to create a large database of peak particle velocities measured on stope hangingwalls. A total number of 58 sites located in stopes where the Carbon Leader Reef, Ventersdorp Contact Reef, Vaal Reef and Basal Reef are mined, were monitored. The peak particle velocities were measured at the surface of the excavations to identify the effect of the free surface and the fractures surrounding the underground mining. Based on these measurements the generally accepted velocity criterion of 3 m

  6. Radiation Emission and Its Influence on the Motion of Multi-GeV Electrons and Positrons in Strong Crystalline Fields (United States)

    Baurichter, A.; Kirsebom, K.; Kononets, Yu. V.; Medenwaldt, R.; Mikkelsen, U.; Møller, S. P.; Uggerhøj, E.; Worm, T.; Elsener, K.; Ballestrero, S.; Sona, P.; Romano, J.; Connell, S. H.; Sellschop, J. P.; Avakian, R. O.; Avetisian, A. E.; Taroian, S. P.


    Presented is the first experimental demonstration of a dramatic radiative redistribution in transverse states for multi-GeV electrons/positrons, interacting with strong crystalline fields. Detailed analysis of energy loss, photon multiplicities, and scattering distributions leads to new physical insight into open questions such as radiative cooling/heating of the beams in aligned crystals, validity of the constant-field approximation, radiative capture of random particles (``feed in'') into channeled states, and the Landau-Pomeranchuk effect in multiphoton radiation spectra.

  7. Respiratory motion compensation for simultaneous PET/MR based on a 3D-2D registration of strongly undersampled radial MR data: a simulation study (United States)

    Rank, Christopher M.; Heußer, Thorsten; Flach, Barbara; Brehm, Marcus; Kachelrieß, Marc


    We propose a new method for PET/MR respiratory motion compensation, which is based on a 3D-2D registration of strongly undersampled MR data and a) runs in parallel with the PET acquisition, b) can be interlaced with clinical MR sequences, and c) requires less than one minute of the total MR acquisition time per bed position. In our simulation study, we applied a 3D encoded radial stack-of-stars sampling scheme with 160 radial spokes per slice and an acquisition time of 38 s. Gated 4D MR images were reconstructed using a 4D iterative reconstruction algorithm. Based on these images, motion vector fields were estimated using our newly-developed 3D-2D registration framework. A 4D PET volume of a patient with eight hot lesions in the lungs and upper abdomen was simulated and MoCo 4D PET images were reconstructed based on the motion vector fields derived from MR. For evaluation, average SUVmean values of the artificial lesions were determined for a 3D, a gated 4D, a MoCo 4D and a reference (with ten-fold measurement time) gated 4D reconstruction. Compared to the reference, 3D reconstructions yielded an underestimation of SUVmean values due to motion blurring. In contrast, gated 4D reconstructions showed the highest variation of SUVmean due to low statistics. MoCo 4D reconstructions were only slightly affected by these two sources of uncertainty resulting in a significant visual and quantitative improvement in terms of SUVmean values. Whereas temporal resolution was comparable to the gated 4D images, signal-to-noise ratio and contrast-to-noise ratio were close to the 3D reconstructions.

  8. Analysis of the strong motion records obtained from the 2007 Niigataken Chuetsuoki earthquake and determination of the design basis ground motions at the Kashiwazaki Kariwa Nuclear Power Plant. Part 1. Outline of the strong motion records and estimation of factors in large amplification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tokumitsu, Ryoichi; Kikuchi, Masatomo; Nishimura, Isao (Nuclear Asset Management Dept., Tokyo Electric Power Company, Tokyo (Japan)), e-mail:; Shiba, Yoshiaki (Earthquake Engineering Sector, Central Research Inst. of Electric Power Industry, Chiba (Japan)), e-mail:; Tanaka, Shinya (Architectural Dept., Tokyo Electric Power Services CO., LTD.,Tokyo (Japan)), e-mail:


    In order to investigate the primary factor of the large ground motion observed at the Kashiwazaki Kariwa Nuclear Power Plant in the Niigataken Chuetsu-Oki Earthquake, the source, propagation and site effect of the Niigataken Chuetsu-Oki Earthquake, with the analysis and ground motion simulation analysis of observation record was examined

  9. Three-dimensional crustal structure influences on wave propagation and generation of strong ground motion in the greater San Francisco Bay region (United States)

    Stidham, Christiane Wilson

    Recent development of three-dimensional finite-difference codes allows simulation of earthquakes using realistic three-dimensional earth models. These and other developments have shifted emphasis in seismology from earthquake prediction to estimation of location and magnitude of damage in future earthquakes. The accurate calculation of ground motions for future large earthquakes depends upon detailed knowledge of three-dimensional (3D) geologic structure and the earthquake source process, as well as sufficient computational resources. Knowledge of subsurface geologic structure in the San Francisco Bay Area is quite good relative to many areas, and this knowledge has been incorporated into a 3D velocity model of the Bay Area. With access to a 3D finite-difference code (E3D) developed by Shawn Larsen at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and use of super-computing resources at Livermore, we are able to complete calculations for simulations of a number of San Francisco Bay Area earthquakes. These include a small 1993 Rodgers Creek event recorded at Berkeley Seismological Laboratory, the 1989 Loma Prieta event recorded on the U.S. Geological Survey and Calif. Div. of Mines and Geology network of strong motion stations, and a number of small South Bay events (including the 8/12/98 San Juan Bautista EQ) recorded on a temporary USGS/UCB/PASSCAL Santa Clara array. In each of these cases, comparison of synthetic results (synthetic seismograms and plots of maximum horizontal ground velocity) from E3D to recorded data from the event gives an excellent opportunity to both judge the usefulness and the constraints necessary in using finite-difference modeling and the validity of the velocity model as it is now constructed. Results show that 3D finite-difference modeling produces waveforms that are often quite comparable to recorded data, and that fit the data considerably better than synthetics waveforms derived with a 1D velocity model. It is also possible to explore the

  10. Adoption of Broadband Services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Falch, Morten


    successful markets for broadband. This is done through analysis of national policies in three European countries-Denmark, Sweden, and Germany-and the U.S., Japan, and South Korea. We concluded that successful implementation of broadband depends on the kind of policy measures to be taken at the national level....... Many countries have provided active support for stimulating diffusion of broadband and national variants of this type of policies in different countries are important for an explanation of national differences in adoption of broadband....

  11. The Response of Long-Span Bridges to Low Frequency, Near-Fault Earthquake Ground Motions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCallen, David; Astaneh-Asl, A.; Larsen, S.C.; Hutchings, Larry


    Historical seismic hazard characterizations did not include earthquake ground motion waveforms at frequencies below approximately 0.2 Hz (5 seconds period). This resulted from limitations in early strong motion instrumentation and signal processing techniques, a lack of measurements in the near-field of major earthquakes and therefore no observational awareness, and a delayed understanding in the engineering community of the potential significance of these types of motions. In recent years, there is a growing recognition of the relevance of near-fault, low frequency motions, particularly for long-period structures such as large bridges. This paper describes a computationally based study of the effects of low frequency (long-period) near-fault motions on long-span bridge response. The importance of inclusion of these types of motions for long span cable supported bridges is demonstrated using actual measured broad-band, near-fault motions from large earthquakes.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈军; 宋和平; 赵伯明


    The paper introduced the strong ground motion prediction results based on seismo-tectonic model of Urumqi active fault. During detecting active fault and assessing earthquake risk in Urumqi, two seismo-tectonics models were set. They were thrust nappe structure in front of northern Tienshan Mountain and in west side of Bogeda arcuate structure respectively. The possible max-magnitude of the former was about 7.5 and that of the latter was about 7.0, so the analytical or computational model was established. According to analysis result of microtremor observation, combined with shallow seismic exploration, geological map, topographic map and borehole data, the underground three dimensional speed model was founded. The statistical Green function, 3D finite-difference and hybrid computation methods were used to research ground motion in target area. The prediction result showed the structure of fault, mode of fault failure and three dimensional speed model influenced the distribution of ground motion obviously. The ground motion was evident along fault front, basin margin, in the area with thicker covering layer and front of fault failure.%介绍了基于乌鲁木齐活断层发震构造模型的强地面运动的预测结果.该项工作是在乌鲁木齐城区开展的活断层探测与地震危险性评价的基础上,设定了两个发震构造,分别为北天山山前逆冲推覆构造和博格达弧西翼逆冲推覆构造,前者可能最大地震震级为7.5级,后者为7.0级,据此建立了分析计算模型.根据地脉动观测分析结果,结合浅层地震勘探、地质图、地形图和钻孔资料,建立了地下三维速度模型,采用统计学的格林函数法、三维有限差分法和混合计算方法,对目标区的地震动进行了预测研究.预测结果表明,断层的结构、破裂方式和三维速度模型对地震动的分布具有显著的影响.沿断层前缘、盆地边缘、覆盖层较厚的地区,以及断层破裂的前方地震动比较显著.

  13. The 2009 L’Aquila earthquake coseismic rupture: open issues and new insights from 3D finite element inversion of GPS, InSAR and strong motion data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuela Volpe


    Full Text Available We present a Finite Element inverse analysis of the static deformation field for the Mw= 6.3, 2009 L’Aquila earthquake, in order to infer the rupture slip distribution on the fault plane. An univocal solution for the rupture slip distribution has not been reached yet with negative impact for reliable hazard scenarios in a densely populated area. In this study, Finite Element computed Green’s functions were implemented in a linear joint inversion scheme of geodetic (GPS and InSAR and seismological (strong motion coseismic deformation data. In order to fully exploit the informative power of our dense dataset and to honor the complexities of the real Earth, we implemented an optimized source model, represented by a fault plane subdivided in variable size patches, embedded in a high-resolution realistic three-dimensional model of the Apenninic seismo-tectonic setting, accounting for topographic reliefs and rheological heterogeneities deduced from local tomography. We infer that the investigated inversion domain contains two minima configurations in the solution space, i.e. a single- and a double-patch slip distribution, which are almost equivalent, so that the available datasets and numerical models are not able to univocally discriminate between them. Nevertheless our findings suggest that a two high-slip patch pattern is slightly favoured.

  14. The 2014 Pisagua-Iquique earthquakes: high-resolution kinematic source models by joint inversion of the strong-motion and GPS data (United States)

    Wang, Rongjiang; Zhang, Yong; Schurr, Bernd; Dahm, Torsten


    By combining the complementary advantages of conventional inversion and back-projection methods, we have developed an iterative deconvolution and stacking (IDS) approach for imaging earthquake rupture processes with near-field complete waveform data. This new approach does not need any manual adjustment of the physical (empirical) constraints, such as restricting the rupture time and duration, smoothing the spatiotemporal slip distribution, etc., and therefore has the ability to image complex multiple ruptures automatically. A high-resolution (ca.  10 km) source imaging is achieved for the 2014 Pisagua-Iquique earthquakes by applying the IDS approach to the regional strong-motion and GPS data jointly. It reveals more physical insights into the rupture process. For such large earthquakes, there exists generally a clear rupture front propagating with a finite velocity, but no clear healing front following the rupture front, implying that single rupturing is special, multiple rupturing is general. Each of the two earthquakes consists of several major sub-events and numerous coseismic early aftershocks, which can trigger each other statically and/or dynamically. The peak fault slip is generally not formed by a single rise-time, but through a cumulative process that can last as long as the whole earthquake duration. The rupture plane of large earthquakes might not be a simple smooth surface, but a rough surface or even a rupture zone with certain thickness (a few km?) consistent with the aftershock clustering around the fault.

  15. Investigating source directivity for the 2012 Ml5.9 Emilia (Northern Italy) earthquake by jointly using High-rate GPS and Strong motion data (United States)

    Avallone, A.; Herrero, A.; Latorre, D.; Rovelli, A.; D'Anastasio, E.


    On May, 20th 2012, the Ferrara and Modena provinces (Emilia Romagna, Northern Italy) were struck by a moderate magnitude earthquake (Ml 5.9). The focal mechanism is consistent with a ~E-W-striking thrust fault. The mainshock was recorded by 29 high-rate sampling (1-Hz) continuous GPS (HRGPS) stations belonging to scientific or commercial networks and by 55 strong motion (SM) stations belonging to INGV (Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia) and RAN (Rete Accelerometrica Nazionale) networks, respectively. The spatial distribution of both HRGPS and SM stations with respect to the mainshock location allows a satisfactory azimuthal coverage of the area. To investigate directivity effects during the mainshock occurrence, we analyze the spatial variation of the peak ground displacement (PGD) measured either for HRGPS or SM sites, using different methods. For each HRGPS and SM site, we rotated the horizontal time series to the azimuth direction and we estimated the GPS-related and the SM-related peak ground displacement (G-PGD and S-PGD, respectively) retrieved by transverse component. However, in contrast to GPS displacements, the double integration of the SM data can be affected by the presence of drifts and, thus, they have to be corrected by quasi-manual procedures. To more properly compare the G-PGDs to the S-PGDs, we used the response spectrum. A response spectrum is simply the response of a series of oscillators of varying natural frequency, that are forced into motion by the same input. The asymptotic value of the displacement response spectrum is the peak ground displacement. Thus, for each HRGPS and SM site, we computed the value of this asymptotic trend (G-PGDrs and S-PGDrs, respectively). This method allows simple automatic procedures. The consistency of the PGDs derived from HRGPS and SM is also evaluated for sites where the two instruments are collocated. The PGDs obtained by the two different methods and the two different data types suggest a

  16. Broadband synthetic aperture geoacoustic inversion. (United States)

    Tan, Bien Aik; Gerstoft, Peter; Yardim, Caglar; Hodgkiss, William S


    A typical geoacoustic inversion procedure involves powerful source transmissions received on a large-aperture receiver array. A more practical approach is to use a single moving source and/or receiver in a low signal to noise ratio (SNR) setting. This paper uses single-receiver, broadband, frequency coherent matched-field inversion and exploits coherently repeated transmissions to improve estimation of the geoacoustic parameters. The long observation time creates a synthetic aperture due to relative source-receiver motion. This approach is illustrated by studying the transmission of multiple linear frequency modulated (LFM) pulses which results in a multi-tonal comb spectrum that is Doppler sensitive. To correlate well with the measured field across a receiver trajectory and to incorporate transmission from a source trajectory, waveguide Doppler and normal mode theory is applied. The method is demonstrated with low SNR, 100-900 Hz LFM pulse data from the Shallow Water 2006 experiment.

  17. Rock mass response to strong ground motion generated by mining induced seismic events and blasting observed at the surface of the excavations in deep level gold mines in South Africa (United States)

    Milev, Alexander; Durrheim, Ray; Ogasawara, Hiroshi


    The strong ground motion generated by mining induced seismic events was studied to characterize the rock mass response and to estimate the site effect on the surface of the underground excavations. A stand-alone instruments, especially designed for recording strong ground motions, were installed underground at a number of deep level gold mines in South Africa. The instruments were recording data at the surface of the stope hangingwalls. A maximum value of 3 m/s was measured. Therefore data were compared to the data recorded in the solid rock by the mine seismic networks to determine the site response. The site response was defined as the ratio of the peak ground velocity measured at the surface of the excavations to the peak ground velocity inferred from the mine seismic data measured in the solid rocks. The site response measured at all mines studied was found to be 9 ± 3 times larger on average. A number of simulated rockbursts were conducted underground in order to estimate the rock mass response when subjected to extreme ground motion and derive the attenuation factors in near field. The rockbursts were simulated by means of large blasts detonated in solid rock close to the sidewall of a tunnel. The numerical models used in the design of the simulated rockbursts were calibrated by small blasts taking place at each experimental site. A dense array of shock type accelerometers was installed along the blasting wall to monitor the attenuation of the strong ground motion as a function of the distance from the source. The attenuation of the ground motion was found to be proportional to the distance from the source following R^-1.1 & R^-1.7 for compact rock and R^-3.1 & R^-3.4 for more fractured rock close to the surface of the tunnel. In addition the ground motion was compared to the quasi-static deformations taking place around the underground excavations. The quasi-static deformations were measured by means of strain, tilt and closure. A good correspondence

  18. 汶川地震强震动地面倾斜研究%Study of ground surface tilts from strong motion records of the Wenchuan earthquake

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭小波; 李小军


    根据三分量强震动传感器水平摆和竖向摆对倾斜的动力响应差异,利用谱比法计算出汶川Ms8.0地震中近断层强震动的断层法线方向和平行方向的同震地面倾斜.结果表明,本次地震中强震动观测台处地面倾斜一般小于1°,影响频段主要在0.1 Hz以下,发生较大倾斜的台站主要在距地表破裂迹线30 km以内,在100 km之外或水平向加速度幅值均方根在200 cm/s2以下时很少发生0.01°以上的同震地面倾斜.总体上看,上盘区域的倾斜值普遍小于下盘区域,法线方向倾斜值一般大于平行线方向倾斜值.位于前山断裂与中央断裂之间区域的绵竹清平台谱比较低但平缓且频带较宽,可能反应了该区域的运动特殊性,而汶川卧龙台则显示了上盘边缘区域地面倾斜较大.逆冲段与走滑段台站倾斜对比显示,地面倾斜可能受局部场地条件影响较大.%Based on the difference of dynamic response to tilts between horizontal pendulums and vertical pendulum, spectral ratio method was applied to estimate the coseismic surface tilts deduced from strong motion records of the Wen-chuan earthquake. The result shows that the ground surface tilts are generally less than 1 degree and mainly appears within 30 km to fault rupture surface traces, while rarely discovered in the area outside 100 km or root-mean-squared horizontal peak accelerations are less than 200 cm/s2. The frequency band influenced by tilts is less than 0. 1 Hz. In general, tilts in hanging wall is greater than that in footwall in near fault areas, and tilts in normal direction of fault is less than those in parallel direction. The spectral ratio of Qingping station located between central fault and front mount fault is relatively low and stable, which may imply ae special movement feature of the area. The tilts of Wolong station may be controlled by deformation transition from the hanging wall to laterally stationary area. Comparison of tilts

  19. Passive broadband acoustic thermometry (United States)

    Anosov, A. A.; Belyaev, R. V.; Klin'shov, V. V.; Mansfel'd, A. D.; Subochev, P. V.


    The 1D internal (core) temperature profiles for the model object (plasticine) and the human hand are reconstructed using the passive acoustothermometric broadband probing data. Thermal acoustic radiation is detected by a broadband (0.8-3.5 MHz) acoustic radiometer. The temperature distribution is reconstructed using a priori information corresponding to the experimental conditions. The temperature distribution for the heated model object is assumed to be monotonic. For the hand, we assume that the temperature distribution satisfies the heat-conduction equation taking into account the blood flow. The average error of reconstruction determined for plasticine from the results of independent temperature measurements is 0.6 K for a measuring time of 25 s. The reconstructed value of the core temperature of the hand (36°C) generally corresponds to physiological data. The obtained results make it possible to use passive broadband acoustic probing for measuring the core temperatures in medical procedures associated with heating of human organism tissues.

  20. Off-equatorial orbits in strong gravitational fields near compact objects -- II: halo motion around magnetic compact stars and magnetized black holes

    CERN Document Server

    Kovar, Jiri; Karas, Vladimir; Stuchlik, Zdenek; 10.1088/0264-9381/27/13/135006


    Off-equatorial circular orbits with constant latitudes (halo orbits) of electrically charged particles exist near compact objects. In the previous paper, we discussed this kind of motion and demonstrated the existence of minima of the two-dimensional effective potential which correspond to the stable halo orbits. Here, we relax previous assumptions of the pseudo-Newtonian approach for the gravitational field of the central body and study properties of the halo orbits in detail. Within the general relativistic approach, we carry out our calculations in two cases. Firstly, we examine the case of a rotating magnetic compact star. Assuming that the magnetic field axis and the rotation axis are aligned with each other, we study the orientation of motion along the stable halo orbits. In the poloidal plane, we also discuss shapes of the related effective potential halo lobes where the general off-equatorial motion can be bound. Then we focus on the halo orbits near a Kerr black hole immersed in an asymptotically uni...

  1. Significant technical advances in broadband seismic stations in the Lesser Antilles (United States)

    Anglade, A.; Lemarchand, A.; Saurel, J.-M.; Clouard, V.; Bouin, M.-P.; De Chabalier, J.-B.; Tait, S.; Brunet, C.; Nercessian, A.; Beauducel, F.; Robertson, R.; Lynch, L.; Higgins, M.; Latchman, J.


    In the last few years, French West Indies observatories from the Institut de Physique du Globe de Paris (IPGP), in collaboration with The UWI Seismic Research Centre (SRC, University of West Indies), have modernized the Lesser Antilles Arc seismic and deformation monitoring network. 15 new, permanent stations have been installed that strengthen and expand its detection capabilities. The global network of the IPGP-SRC consortium is now composed of 20 modernized stations, all equipped with broadband seismometers, strong motion sensors, Global Positioning System (GPS) sensors and satellite communication for real-time data transfer. To enhance the sensitivity and reduce ambient noise, special efforts were made to improve the design of the seismic vault and the original Stuttgart shielding of the broadband seismometers (240 and 120s corner period). Tests were conducted for several months, involving different types of countermeasures, to achieve the highest performance level of the seismometers. GPS data, realtime and validated seismic data (only broadband) are now available from the IPGP data centre ( This upgraded network feeds the Caribbean Tsunami Warning System supported by UNESCO and establishes a monitoring tool that produces high quality data for studying subduction and volcanic processes in the Lesser Antilles arc.

  2. Seismic rupture modelling, strong motion prediction and seismic hazard assessment: fundamental and applied approaches; Modelisation de la rupture sismique, prediction du mouvement fort, et evaluation de l'alea sismique: approches fondamentale et appliquee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berge-Thierry, C


    The defence to obtain the 'Habilitation a Diriger des Recherches' is a synthesis of the research work performed since the end of my Ph D. thesis in 1997. This synthesis covers the two years as post doctoral researcher at the Bureau d'Evaluation des Risques Sismiques at the Institut de Protection (BERSSIN), and the seven consecutive years as seismologist and head of the BERSSIN team. This work and the research project are presented in the framework of the seismic risk topic, and particularly with respect to the seismic hazard assessment. Seismic risk combines seismic hazard and vulnerability. Vulnerability combines the strength of building structures and the human and economical consequences in case of structural failure. Seismic hazard is usually defined in terms of plausible seismic motion (soil acceleration or velocity) in a site for a given time period. Either for the regulatory context or the structural specificity (conventional structure or high risk construction), seismic hazard assessment needs: to identify and locate the seismic sources (zones or faults), to characterize their activity, to evaluate the seismic motion to which the structure has to resist (including the site effects). I specialized in the field of numerical strong-motion prediction using high frequency seismic sources modelling and forming part of the IRSN allowed me to rapidly working on the different tasks of seismic hazard assessment. Thanks to the expertise practice and the participation to the regulation evolution (nuclear power plants, conventional and chemical structures), I have been able to work on empirical strong-motion prediction, including site effects. Specific questions related to the interface between seismologists and structural engineers are also presented, especially the quantification of uncertainties. This is part of the research work initiated to improve the selection of the input ground motion in designing or verifying the stability of structures. (author)

  3. Inverse Doppler Effects in Broadband Acoustic Metamaterials (United States)

    Zhai, S. L.; Zhao, X. P.; Liu, S.; Shen, F. L.; Li, L. L.; Luo, C. R.


    The Doppler effect refers to the change in frequency of a wave source as a consequence of the relative motion between the source and an observer. Veselago theoretically predicted that materials with negative refractions can induce inverse Doppler effects. With the development of metamaterials, inverse Doppler effects have been extensively investigated. However, the ideal material parameters prescribed by these metamaterial design approaches are complex and also challenging to obtain experimentally. Here, we demonstrated a method of designing and experimentally characterising arbitrary broadband acoustic metamaterials. These omni-directional, double-negative, acoustic metamaterials are constructed with ‘flute-like’ acoustic meta-cluster sets with seven double meta-molecules; these metamaterials also overcome the limitations of broadband negative bulk modulus and mass density to provide a region of negative refraction and inverse Doppler effects. It was also shown that inverse Doppler effects can be detected in a flute, which has been popular for thousands of years in Asia and Europe.

  4. Inverse Doppler Effects in Broadband Acoustic Metamaterials. (United States)

    Zhai, S L; Zhao, X P; Liu, S; Shen, F L; Li, L L; Luo, C R


    The Doppler effect refers to the change in frequency of a wave source as a consequence of the relative motion between the source and an observer. Veselago theoretically predicted that materials with negative refractions can induce inverse Doppler effects. With the development of metamaterials, inverse Doppler effects have been extensively investigated. However, the ideal material parameters prescribed by these metamaterial design approaches are complex and also challenging to obtain experimentally. Here, we demonstrated a method of designing and experimentally characterising arbitrary broadband acoustic metamaterials. These omni-directional, double-negative, acoustic metamaterials are constructed with 'flute-like' acoustic meta-cluster sets with seven double meta-molecules; these metamaterials also overcome the limitations of broadband negative bulk modulus and mass density to provide a region of negative refraction and inverse Doppler effects. It was also shown that inverse Doppler effects can be detected in a flute, which has been popular for thousands of years in Asia and Europe.

  5. A study on characteristics of tectonic block motion and tectonic setting of strong earthquakes in northern part of the Shanxi fault depression zone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    This paper makes a systematical study on characteristics of structure and motion of the tectonic blocks in northern part of the Shanxi fault depression zone by means of geometrical and kinematical analysis of the blocks. The kinetic behavior of the blocks is discussed by comparing associated geomorphic features of fault movement. All analyses and studies are based on a Domino model. The block movement, fault basin extension and their regional distribution are systematically investigated. The result shows: (a) The studied region is divided into sub-regions by NW striking faults: the western, middle and eastern sub-region with crustal extension being 4.46 km, 2.80 km and 1.86 km, respectively. The extensional amount of each block in the region is estimated being generally about 1 km. The calculated result using the block motion model approximately fits the data of geologic survey. (b) Block kinematical features are obviously different between the northern and southern part, with the Hengshan block in between, of the studied region. Moreover, the magnitude of the largest historical earthquake in the northern part is about 6, while that in the southern is 7. The faulted blocks in the northern sub-region show northwestward extension, indicating a feature of extensional graben, while the blocks in the southern part manifest tilt motion, extending southeastward, in the opposite sense of fault dipping. Additional tectonic stress generated by block rotation may be one of major factors affecting seismogenic process in the region. It is responsible for the difference in the movement of the block boundary faults and seismic activities between the two sub-regions.

  6. Auditory Motion Elicits a Visual Motion Aftereffect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher C. Berger


    Full Text Available The visual motion aftereffect is a visual illusion in which exposure to continuous motion in one direction leads to a subsequent illusion of visual motion in the opposite direction. Previous findings have been mixed with regard to whether this visual illusion can be induced cross-modally by auditory stimuli. Based on research on multisensory perception demonstrating the profound influence auditory perception can have on the interpretation and perceived motion of visual stimuli, we hypothesized that exposure to auditory stimuli with strong directional motion cues should induce a visual motion aftereffect. Here, we demonstrate that horizontally moving auditory stimuli induced a significant visual motion aftereffect—an effect that was driven primarily by a change in visual motion perception following exposure to leftward moving auditory stimuli. This finding is consistent with the notion that visual and auditory motion perception rely on at least partially overlapping neural substrates.

  7. Earthquake Source and Ground Motion Characteristics of Great Kanto Earthquakes (United States)

    Somerville, P. G.; Sato, T.; Wald, D. J.; Graves, R. W.; Dan, K.


    produce large-amplitude late-arriving pulses in the ground motions. At station Hongo, which is the only site having digitized and restored near-fault strong-motion records for this event, our 3D simulations compare quite well with the ground motions of the restored Imamura seismogram. For the restored Ewing record, our 3D simulations reproduce the phase and amplitude of the initial pulses of motion, but the dominant period of the large-amplitude later phases is noticeably shorter in the simulations (about 5 to 6 sec) than in the observation (13 sec). The level of simulated broadband strong ground motion is consistent with reported seismic intensities.

  8. Seismic Safety Margins Research Program, Phase I. Project II: seismic input. Compilation, assessment and expansion of the strong earthquake ground motion data base

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crouse, C B; Hileman, J A; Turner, B E; Martin, G R


    A catalog has been prepared which contains information for: (1) world-wide, ground-motion accelerograms, (2) the accelerograph sites where these records were obtained, and (3) the seismological parameters of the causative earthquakes. The catalog is limited to data for those accelerograms which have been digitized and published. In addition, the quality and completeness of these data are assessed. This catalog is unique because it is the only publication which contains comprehensive information on the recording conditions of all known digitized accelerograms. However, information for many accelerograms is missing. Although some literature may have been overlooked, most of the missing data has not been published. Nevertheless, the catalog provides a convenient reference and useful tool for earthquake engineering research and applications.

  9. Broadband terahertz spectroscopy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wenhui Fan


    1.Introduction Spanning the frequency range between the infrared (IR) radiation and microwaves,terahertz (THz) waves are,also known as T-rays,T-lux,or simply called THz,assigned to cover the electromagnetic spectrum typically from 100 GHz (1011 Hz) to 10 THz (1013 Hz),namely,from 3 mm to 30 μm in wavelength,although slightly different definitions have been quoted by different authors.For a very long time,THz region is an almost unexplored field due to its rather unique location in the electromagnetic spectrum.Well-known techniques in optical or microwave region can not be directly employed in the THz range because optical wavelengths are too short and microwave wavelengths are too long compared to THz wavelengths.%An overview of the major techniques to generate and detect THz radiation so far, especially the major approaches to generate and detect coherent ultra-short THz pulses using ultra-short pulsed laser, has been presented. And also, this paper, in particularly, focuses on broadband THz spectroscopy and addresses on a number of issues relevant to generation and detection of broadband pulsed THz radiation as well as broadband time-domain THz spectroscopy (THz-TDS) with the help of ultra-short pulsed laser. The time-domain waveforms of coherent ultra-short THz pulses from photoconductive antenna excited by femtosecond laser with different pulse durations and their corresponding Fourier-transformed spectra have been obtained via the numerical simulation of ultrafast dynamics between femtosecond laser pulse and photoconductive material. The origins of fringes modulated on the top of broadband amplitude spectrum, which is measured by electric-optic detector based on thin nonlinear crystal and extracted by fast Fourier transformation, have been analyzed and the major solutions to get rid of these fringes are discussed.

  10. Broadband Radio Service (BRS) and Educational Broadband Service (EBS) Transmitters (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The Broadband Radio Service (BRS), formerly known as the Multipoint Distribution Service (MDS)/Multichannel Multipoint Distribution Service (MMDS), is a commercial...

  11. Shear Wave Structure of Umbria and Marche, Italy, Strong Motion Seismometer Sites Affected by the 1997-98 Umbria-Marche, Italy, Earthquake Sequence (United States)

    Kayen, Robert; Scasserra, Giuseppe; Stewart, Jonathan P.; Lanzo, Giuseppe


    A long sequence of earthquakes, eight with magnitudes between 5 and 6, struck the Umbria and Marche regions of central Italy between September 26, 1997 and July 1998. The earthquake swarm caused severe structural damage, particularly to masonry buildings, and resulted in the loss of twelve lives and about 150 injuries. The source of the events was a single seismogenic structure that consists of several faults with a prevailing northwest-southeast strike and crosses the Umbria-Marche border. The focal mechanism of the largest shocks indicates that the events were the product of shallow extensional normal faulting along a NE-SW extension perpendicular to the trend of the Apennines. The network of analog seismometer stations in the Umbria and Marche regions recorded motions of the main September and October 1997 events and a dense array of mobile digital stations, installed since September 29, recorded most of the swarm. The permanent national network Rete Accelerometrica Nazionale (RAN) is administered and maintained by Dipartimento delle Protezione Civile (DPC: Civil Protection Department); the temporary array was managed by Servizio Sismico Nazionale (SSN) in cooperation with small agencies and Universities. ENEA, the operator of many seismometer stations in Umbria, is the public Italian National Agency for New Technologies, Energy and the Environment. Many of the temporary and permanent stations in the Italian seismic network have little or no characterization of seismic velocities. In this study, we investigated 17 Italian sites using an active-source approach that employs low frequency harmonic waves to measure the dispersive nature of surface waves in the ground. We used the Spectral Analysis of Surface Wave (SASW) approach, coupled with an array of harmonic-wave electro-mechanical sources that are driven in-phase to excite the ground. An inversion algorithm using a non-linear least-squares best-fit method is used to compute shear wave velocities for up to 100

  12. Near-fault strong ground motion simulation of the May 12, 2008, Mw7.9 Wenchuan Earthquake by dynamical composite source model%应用动态复合震源模型模拟汶川Mw7.9地震强地面运动

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟令媛; 史保平


    The great Wenchuan Earthquake of May 12, 2008, Mw7. 9 occurred in Sichuan province of western China with the epicenter at longitude 103.4°E and latitude 31.0°N. The main fault ruptured more than 300 km in length with a striking direction from southwest toward northeast along the Longmenshan Central Fault. The geological and geophysical investigations also revealed significant fault segmentation during the earthquake faulting. The Wenchuan-Yingxiu segment of the fault is dominated by pure thrusting with a dip angle about 40°, while the Beichuan-Anxian segment of the fault in the central part of the main fault underwent both thrusting and strike-slipping with a dip angle of 70°, and the remained segment of the fault, a part of the Qingchuan fault, underwent an almost pure strike slip motion with a dip angle of 80°. In this study, a modified composite source model, named as dynamical composite source model (DCSM), has been developed to simulate near-fault strong ground motion with associated fault rupture properties from a kinematic point of view. For the Wenchuan event, a specific finite fault model with a length of 320 km and a width of 20 km is constructed for simulation purpose. Moreover,the fault model consists of three major segments in which each segment could has a specific geometry related to the dip angle and strike direction. In addition, the rakes related to the slip direction on the fault plane of each segment could be assigned dynamically based on the focal mechanism solution. For comparing purpose, we conduct broadband ground motion predictions for three typical near-fault strong motion stations of Wolong, Pixian-Zoushishan and Mianzhu-Qingping. In general, the synthetic seismograms produced for these stations have good agreement with the observations in time histories, waveforms, peak values and frequency contents, which indicate that the numerical technique of current source model could reproduce the main characteristics of strong ground motion

  13. A closer examination of the coupling between ionic hydrogen bond (IHB) stretching and flanking group motions in (CH3OH)2H(+): the strong isotope effects. (United States)

    Tan, Jake A; Kuo, Jer-Lai


    The intermode coupling between shared proton (O-H(+)-O) fundamental stretching and flanking modes in (CH3OH)2H(+) was revisited in the following contexts: (1) evaluation of Hamiltonian matrix elements represented in a "pure state" (PS) basis and (2) tuning of coupling strengths using H/D isotopic substitution. We considered four experimentally accessible isotopologues for this study. These are: (CH3OH)2H(+), (CD3OH)2H(+), (CH3OD)2D(+), and (CD3OD)2D(+). Potential energy surfaces (PESs), as well as dipole moment surfaces (DMSs), were constructed at the MP2/aug-cc-pVDZ level. Multidimensional vibrational calculations were conducted by solving a reduced dimensional Schrödinger equation using a discrete variable representation (DVR). We found that vibrational states in (CH3OH)2H(+) and (CD3OH)2H(+) are much more heavily mixed than those in (CH3OD)2D(+) and (CD3OD)2D(+). Furthermore, each isotopologue chooses to strongly couple between out-of-phase in-plane CH3 rocking and its out-of-plane counterpart. Lastly, the interaction between O-O stretching and O-H(+)-O stretching was explored. We found that between the first overtone of O-O stretching and its combination tone with O-H(+)-O fundamental stretching, only the second couples with O-H(+)-O fundamental stretching. We hope that our isotopologue calculations would motivate experimentalists to measure them in the future.

  14. Random Lasers for Broadband Directional Emission

    CERN Document Server

    Schönhuber, Sebastian; Hisch, Thomas; Deutsch, Christoph; Krall, Michael; Detz, Hermann; Strasser, Gottfried; Rotter, Stefan; Unterrainer, Karl


    Broadband coherent light sources are becoming increasingly important for sensing and spectroscopic applications, especially in the mid-infrared and terahertz (THz) spectral regions, where the unique absorption characteristics of a whole host of molecules are located. The desire to miniaturize such light emitters has recently lead to spectacular advances with compact on-chip lasers that cover both of these spectral regions. The long wavelength and the small size of the sources result in a strongly diverging laser beam that is difficult to focus on the target that one aims to perform spectroscopy with. Here, we introduce an unconventional solution to this vexing problem relying on a random laser to produce coherent broadband THz radiation as well as an almost diffraction limited far-field emission profile. Our random lasers do not require any fine-tuning and thus constitute a promising example of practical device applications for random lasing.

  15. Broadband Phase Spectroscopy over Turbulent Air Paths. (United States)

    Giorgetta, Fabrizio R; Rieker, Gregory B; Baumann, Esther; Swann, William C; Sinclair, Laura C; Kofler, Jon; Coddington, Ian; Newbury, Nathan R


    Broadband atmospheric phase spectra are acquired with a phase-sensitive dual-frequency-comb spectrometer by implementing adaptive compensation for the strong decoherence from atmospheric turbulence. The compensation is possible due to the pistonlike behavior of turbulence across a single spatial-mode path combined with the intrinsic frequency stability and high sampling speed associated with dual-comb spectroscopy. The atmospheric phase spectrum is measured across 2 km of air at each of the 70,000 comb teeth spanning 233  cm(-1) across hundreds of near-infrared rovibrational resonances of CO(2), CH(4), and H(2)O with submilliradian uncertainty, corresponding to a 10(-13) refractive index sensitivity. Trace gas concentrations extracted directly from the phase spectrum reach 0.7 ppm uncertainty, demonstrated here for CO(2). While conventional broadband spectroscopy only measures intensity absorption, this approach enables measurement of the full complex susceptibility even in practical open path sensing.

  16. Broadband terahertz fiber directional coupler

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kristian; Rasmussen, Henrik K.; Jepsen, Peter Uhd;


    We present the design of a short broadband fiber directional coupler for terahertz (THz) radiation and demonstrate a 3 dB coupler with a bandwidth of 0:6 THz centered at 1:4 THz. The broadband coupling is achieved by mechanically downdoping the cores of a dual-core photonic crystal fiber...

  17. Metasurface Broadband Solar Absorber

    CERN Document Server

    Azad, A K; Sykora, M; Weisse-Bernstein, N R; Luk, T S; Taylor, A J; Dalvit, D A R; Chen, H -T


    We demonstrate a broadband, polarization independent, omnidirectional absorber based on a metallic metasurface architecture, which accomplishes greater than 90% absorptance in the visible and near-infrared range of the solar spectrum, and exhibits low emissivity at mid- and far-infrared wavelengths. The complex unit cell of the metasurface solar absorber consists of eight pairs of gold nano-resonators that are separated from a gold ground plane by a thin silicon dioxide spacer. Our experimental measurements reveal high-performance absorption over a wide range of incidence angles for both s- and p-polarizations. We also investigate numerically the frequency-dependent field and current distributions to elucidate how the absorption occurs within the metasurface structure. Furthermore, we discuss the potential use of our metasurface absorber design in solar thermophotovoltaics by exploiting refractory plasmonic materials.

  18. Ground Motion in Central Mexico: A Comprehensive Analysis (United States)

    Ramirez-Guzman, L.; Juarez, A.; Rábade, S.; Aguirre, J.; Bielak, J.


    This study presents a detailed analysis of the ground motion in Central Mexico based on numerical simulations, as well as broadband and strong ground motion records. We describe and evaluate a velocity model for Central Mexico derived from noise and regional earthquake cross-correlations, which is used throughout this research to estimate the ground motion in the region. The 3D crustal model includes a geotechnical structure of the Valley of Mexico (VM), subduction zone geometry, and 3D velocity distributions. The latter are based on more than 200 low magnitude (Mw Valley of Mexico originating from intra-slab deep events and temblors located along the Pacific coast. Also, we quantify the effects Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt (TMVB) and the low-velocity deposits on the ground motion. The 3D octree-based finite element wave propagation computations, valid up to 1 Hz, reveal that the inclusion of a basin with a structure as complex as the Valley of Mexico dramatically enhances the regional effects induced by the TMVB. Moreover, the basin not only produces ground motion amplification and anomalous duration, but it also favors the energy focusing into zones of Mexico City where structures typically undergo high levels of damage.

  19. Broadband Advanced Spectral System Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NovaSol proposes to develop an advanced hyperspectral imaging system for earth science missions named BRASS (Broadband Advanced Spectral System). BRASS combines...

  20. Broadband transmission EPR spectroscopy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilfred R Hagen

    Full Text Available EPR spectroscopy employs a resonator operating at a single microwave frequency and phase-sensitive detection using modulation of the magnetic field. The X-band spectrometer is the general standard with a frequency in the 9-10 GHz range. Most (biomolecular EPR spectra are determined by a combination of the frequency-dependent electronic Zeeman interaction and a number of frequency-independent interactions, notably, electron spin - nuclear spin interactions and electron spin - electron spin interactions, and unambiguous analysis requires data collection at different frequencies. Extant and long-standing practice is to use a different spectrometer for each frequency. We explore the alternative of replacing the narrow-band source plus single-mode resonator with a continuously tunable microwave source plus a non-resonant coaxial transmission cell in an unmodulated external field. Our source is an arbitrary wave digital signal generator producing an amplitude-modulated sinusoidal microwave in combination with a broadband amplifier for 0.8-2.7 GHz. Theory is developed for coaxial transmission with EPR detection as a function of cell dimensions and materials. We explore examples of a doublet system, a high-spin system, and an integer-spin system. Long, straigth, helical, and helico-toroidal cells are developed and tested with dilute aqueous solutions of spin label hydroxy-tempo. A detection limit of circa 5 µM HO-tempo in water at 800 MHz is obtained for the present setup, and possibilities for future improvement are discussed.

  1. Broadband Coherent Enhancement of Transmission and Absorption in Disordered Media

    CERN Document Server

    Hsu, Chia Wei; Bromberg, Yaron; Stone, A Douglas; Cao, Hui


    We study the optimal diffusive transmission and absorption of broadband or polychromatic light in a disordered medium. By introducing matrices describing broadband transmission and reflection, we formulate an extremal eigenvalue problem where the optimal input wavefront is given by the corresponding eigenvector. We show analytically that a single wavefront can exhibit strongly enhanced total transmission or total absorption across a bandwidth that is orders of magnitude broader than the spectral correlation width of the medium, due to long-range correlations in coherent diffusion. We find excellent agreement between the analytic theory and numerical simulations.

  2. Broadband Rotational Spectroscopy (United States)

    Pate, Brooks


    The past decade has seen several major technology advances in electronics operating at microwave frequencies making it possible to develop a new generation of spectrometers for molecular rotational spectroscopy. High-speed digital electronics, both arbitrary waveform generators and digitizers, continue on a Moore's Law-like development cycle that started around 1993 with device bandwidth doubling about every 36 months. These enabling technologies were the key to designing chirped-pulse Fourier transform microwave (CP-FTMW) spectrometers which offer significant sensitivity enhancements for broadband spectrum acquisition in molecular rotational spectroscopy. A special feature of the chirped-pulse spectrometer design is that it is easily implemented at low frequency (below 8 GHz) where Balle-Flygare type spectrometers with Fabry-Perot cavity designs become technologically challenging due to the mirror size requirements. The capabilities of CP-FTMW spectrometers for studies of molecular structure will be illustrated by the collaborative research effort we have been a part of to determine the structures of water clusters - a project which has identified clusters up to the pentadecamer. A second technology trend that impacts molecular rotational spectroscopy is the development of high power, solid state sources in the mm-wave/THz regions. Results from the field of mm-wave chirped-pulse Fourier transform spectroscopy will be described with an emphasis on new problems in chemical dynamics and analytical chemistry that these methods can tackle. The third (and potentially most important) technological trend is the reduction of microwave components to chip level using monolithic microwave integrated circuits (MMIC) - a technology driven by an enormous mass market in communications. Some recent advances in rotational spectrometer designs that incorporate low-cost components will be highlighted. The challenge to the high-resolution spectroscopy community - as posed by Frank De

  3. Driving demand for broadband networks and services

    CERN Document Server

    Katz, Raul L


    This book examines the reasons why various groups around the world choose not to adopt broadband services and evaluates strategies to stimulate the demand that will lead to increased broadband use. It introduces readers to the benefits of higher adoption rates while examining the progress that developed and emerging countries have made in stimulating broadband demand. By relying on concepts such as a supply and demand gap, broadband price elasticity, and demand promotion, this book explains differences between the fixed and mobile broadband demand gap, introducing the notions of substitution and complementarity between both platforms. Building on these concepts, ‘Driving Demand for Broadband Networks and Services’ offers a set of best practices and recommendations aimed at promoting broadband demand.  The broadband demand gap is defined as individuals and households that could buy a broadband subscription because they live in areas served by telecommunications carriers but do not do so because of either ...

  4. Broadband enhancement of infrared absorption in microbolometers using Ag nanocrystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hyun, Jerome K. [Department of Chemistry and Nano Science, Ewha Womans University, Seoul 120-750 (Korea, Republic of); Ahn, Chi Won; Kim, Woo Choong; Kim, Tae Hyun; Hyun, Moon Seop; Kim, Hee Yeoun, E-mail:, E-mail:; Park, Jae Hong, E-mail:, E-mail: [National Nano-Fab Center, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Won-Oh [S-Package Solution Co., Ltd., Daegu 702-701 (Korea, Republic of)


    High performance microbolometers are widely sought for thermal imaging applications. In order to increase the performance limits of microbolometers, the responsivity of the device to broadband infrared (IR) radiation needs to be improved. In this work, we report a simple, quick, and cost-effective approach to modestly enhance the broadband IR response of the device by evaporating Ag nanocrystals onto the light entrance surface of the device. When irradiated with IR light, strong fields are built up within the gaps between adjacent Ag nanocrystals. These fields resistively generate heat in the nanocrystals and underlying substrate, which is transduced into an electrical signal via a resistive sensing element in the device. Through this method, we are able to enhance the IR absorption over a broadband spectrum and improve the responsivity of the device by ∼11%.

  5. Probabilistic point source inversion of strong-motion data in 3-D media using pattern recognition: A case study for the 2008 Mw 5.4 Chino Hills earthquake (United States)

    Käufl, Paul; Valentine, Andrew P.; Trampert, Jeannot


    Despite the ever increasing availability of computational power, real-time source inversions based on physical modeling of wave propagation in realistic media remain challenging. We investigate how a nonlinear Bayesian approach based on pattern recognition and synthetic 3-D Green's functions can be used to rapidly invert strong-motion data for point source parameters by means of a case study for a fault system in the Los Angeles Basin. The probabilistic inverse mapping is represented in compact form by a neural network which yields probability distributions over source parameters. It can therefore be evaluated rapidly and with very moderate CPU and memory requirements. We present a simulated real-time inversion of data for the 2008 Mw 5.4 Chino Hills event. Initial estimates of epicentral location and magnitude are available ˜14 s after origin time. The estimate can be refined as more data arrive: by ˜40 s, fault strike and source depth can also be determined with relatively high certainty.

  6. Broad-Band Molecular Polarization in White Dwarfs (United States)

    Berdyugina, S. V.; Berdyugin, A. V.; Piirola, V.; Shapiro, A.


    We present novel calculations of broad-band polarization due to the molecular Paschen--Back effect in a strong magnetic field. Based on that, we analyze new spectropolarimetric observations of the cool magnetic helium-rich white dwarf G 99-37 which shows strongly polarized molecular bands in its spectrum. Combining the polarimetric observations with our model calculations for the CH bands at 4300 Å, we deduce a magnetic field of 8 MG on this unique magnetic white dwarf.

  7. Validation and Comparison of One-Dimensional Graound Motion Methodologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    B. Darragh; W. Silva; N. Gregor


    Both point- and finite-source stochastic one-dimensional ground motion models, coupled to vertically propagating equivalent-linear shear-wave site response models are validated using an extensive set of strong motion data as part of the Yucca Mountain Project. The validation and comparison exercises are presented entirely in terms of 5% damped pseudo absolute response spectra. The study consists of a quantitative analyses involving modeling nineteen well-recorded earthquakes, M 5.6 to 7.4 at over 600 sites. The sites range in distance from about 1 to about 200 km in the western US (460 km for central-eastern US). In general, this validation demonstrates that the stochastic point- and finite-source models produce accurate predictions of strong ground motions over the range of 0 to 100 km and for magnitudes M 5.0 to 7.4. The stochastic finite-source model appears to be broadband, producing near zero bias from about 0.3 Hz (low frequency limit of the analyses) to the high frequency limit of the data (100 and 25 Hz for response and Fourier amplitude spectra, respectively).

  8. Stochastic ground motion simulation (United States)

    Rezaeian, Sanaz; Xiaodan, Sun; Beer, Michael; Kougioumtzoglou, Ioannis A.; Patelli, Edoardo; Siu-Kui Au, Ivan


    Strong earthquake ground motion records are fundamental in engineering applications. Ground motion time series are used in response-history dynamic analysis of structural or geotechnical systems. In such analysis, the validity of predicted responses depends on the validity of the input excitations. Ground motion records are also used to develop ground motion prediction equations(GMPEs) for intensity measures such as spectral accelerations that are used in response-spectrum dynamic analysis. Despite the thousands of available strong ground motion records, there remains a shortage of records for large-magnitude earthquakes at short distances or in specific regions, as well as records that sample specific combinations of source, path, and site characteristics.

  9. Observations involving broadband impedance modelling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berg, J.S. [Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, Menlo Park, CA (United States)


    Results for single- and multi-bunch instabilities can be significantly affected by the precise model that is used for the broadband impedance. This paper discusses three aspects of broadband impedance modelling. The first is an observation of the effect that a seemingly minor change in an impedance model has on the single-bunch mode coupling threshold. The second is a successful attempt to construct a model for the high-frequency tails of an r.f. cavity. The last is a discussion of requirements for the mathematical form of an impedance which follow from the general properties of impedances. (author)

  10. Observations involving broadband impedance modelling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berg, J.S.


    Results for single- and multi-bunch instabilities can be significantly affected by the precise model that is used for the broadband impendance. This paper discusses three aspects of broadband impendance modeling. The first is an observation of the effect that a seemingly minor change in an impedance model has on the single-bunch mode coupling threshold. The second is a successful attempt to construct a model for the high-frequency tails of an r.f cavity. The last is a discussion of requirements for the mathematical form of an impendance which follow from the general properties of impendances.

  11. Locating Local Earthquakes Using Single 3-Component Broadband Seismological Data (United States)

    Das, S. B.; Mitra, S.


    We devised a technique to locate local earthquakes using single 3-component broadband seismograph and analyze the factors governing the accuracy of our result. The need for devising such a technique arises in regions of sparse seismic network. In state-of-the-art location algorithms, a minimum of three station recordings are required for obtaining well resolved locations. However, the problem arises when an event is recorded by less than three stations. This may be because of the following reasons: (a) down time of stations in a sparse network; (b) geographically isolated regions with limited logistic support to setup large network; (c) regions of insufficient economy for financing multi-station network and (d) poor signal-to-noise ratio for smaller events at most stations, except the one in its closest vicinity. Our technique provides a workable solution to the above problematic scenarios. However, our methodology is strongly dependent on the velocity model of the region. Our method uses a three step processing: (a) ascertain the back-azimuth of the event from the P-wave particle motion recorded on the horizontal components; (b) estimate the hypocentral distance using the S-P time; and (c) ascertain the emergent angle from the vertical and radial components. Once this is obtained, one can ray-trace through the 1-D velocity model to estimate the hypocentral location. We test our method on synthetic data, which produces results with 99% precision. With observed data, the accuracy of our results are very encouraging. The precision of our results depend on the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and choice of the right band-pass filter to isolate the P-wave signal. We used our method on minor aftershocks (3 < mb < 4) of the 2011 Sikkim earthquake using data from the Sikkim Himalayan network. Location of these events highlight the transverse strike-slip structure within the Indian plate, which was observed from source mechanism study of the mainshock and larger aftershocks.

  12. Strong decoherence

    CERN Document Server

    Gell-Mann, Murray; Gell-Mann, Murray; Hartle, James B


    We introduce a condition for the strong decoherence of a set of alternative histories of a closed quantum-mechanical system such as the universe. The condition applies, for a pure initial state, to sets of homogeneous histories that are chains of projections, generally branch-dependent. Strong decoherence implies the consistency of probability sum rules but not every set of consistent or even medium decoherent histories is strongly decoherent. Two conditions characterize a strongly decoherent set of histories: (1) At any time the operators that effectively commute with generalized records of history up to that moment provide the pool from which --- with suitable adjustment for elapsed time --- the chains of projections extending history to the future may be drawn. (2) Under the adjustment process, generalized record operators acting on the initial state of the universe are approximately unchanged. This expresses the permanence of generalized records. The strong decoherence conditions (1) and (2) guarantee wha...

  13. Broadband surface-wave transformation cloak (United States)

    Xu, Su; Xu, Hongyi; Gao, Hanhong; Jiang, Yuyu; Yu, Faxin; Joannopoulos, John D.; Soljačić, Marin; Chen, Hongsheng; Sun, Handong; Zhang, Baile


    Guiding surface electromagnetic waves around disorder without disturbing the wave amplitude or phase is in great demand for modern photonic and plasmonic devices, but is fundamentally difficult to realize because light momentum must be conserved in a scattering event. A partial realization has been achieved by exploiting topological electromagnetic surface states, but this approach is limited to narrow-band light transmission and subject to phase disturbances in the presence of disorder. Recent advances in transformation optics apply principles of general relativity to curve the space for light, allowing one to match the momentum and phase of light around any disorder as if that disorder were not there. This feature has been exploited in the development of invisibility cloaks. An ideal invisibility cloak, however, would require the phase velocity of light being guided around the cloaked object to exceed the vacuum speed of light—a feat potentially achievable only over an extremely narrow band. In this work, we theoretically and experimentally show that the bottlenecks encountered in previous studies can be overcome. We introduce a class of cloaks capable of remarkable broadband surface electromagnetic waves guidance around ultrasharp corners and bumps with no perceptible changes in amplitude and phase. These cloaks consist of specifically designed nonmagnetic metamaterials and achieve nearly ideal transmission efficiency over a broadband frequency range from 0+ to 6 GHz. This work provides strong support for the application of transformation optics to plasmonic circuits and could pave the way toward high-performance, large-scale integrated photonic circuits. PMID:26056299

  14. Achieving universal access to broadband

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Falch, Morten; Henten, Anders


    The paper discusses appropriate policy measures for achieving universal access to broadband services in Europe. Access can be delivered by means of many different technology solutions described in the paper. This means a greater degree of competition and affects the kind of policy measures...

  15. Strong Force

    CERN Document Server

    Without the strong force, there could be no life. The carbon in living matter is synthesised in stars via the strong force. Lighter atomic nuclei become bound together in a process called nuclear fusion. A minor change in this interaction would make life impossible. As its name suggests, the strong force is the most powerful of the 4 forces, yet its sphere of influence is limited to within the atomic nucleus. Indeed it is the strong force that holds together the quarks inside the positively charged protons. Without this glue, the quarks would fly apart repulsed by electromagnetism. In fact, it is impossible to separate 2 quarks : so much energy is needed, that a second pair of quarks is produced. Text for the interactive: Can you pull apart the quarks inside a proton?

  16. Techniques in Broadband Interferometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erskine, D J


    This is a compilation of my patents issued from 1997 to 2002, generally describing interferometer techniques that modify the coherence properties of broad-bandwidth light and other waves, with applications to Doppler velocimetry, range finding, imaging and spectroscopy. Patents are tedious to read in their original form. In an effort to improve their readability I have embedded the Figures throughout the manuscript, put the Figure captions underneath the Figures, and added section headings. Otherwise I have resisted the temptation to modify the words, though I found many places which could use healthy editing. There may be minor differences with the official versions issued by the US Patent and Trademark Office, particularly in the claims sections. In my shock physics work I measured the velocities of targets impacted by flyer plates by illuminating them with laser light and analyzing the reflected light with an interferometer. Small wavelength changes caused by the target motion (Doppler effect) were converted into fringe shifts by the interferometer. Lasers having long coherence lengths were required for the illumination. While lasers are certainly bright sources, and their collimated beams are convenient to work with, they are expensive. Particularly if one needs to illuminate a wide surface area, then large amounts of power are needed. Orders of magnitude more power per dollar can be obtained from a simple flashlamp, or for that matter, a 50 cent light bulb. Yet these inexpensive sources cannot practically be used for Doppler velocimetry because their coherence length is extremely short, i.e. their bandwidth is much too wide. Hence the motivation for patents 1 & 2 is a method (White Light Velocimetry) for allowing use of these powerful but incoherent lamps for interferometry. The coherence of the illumination is modified by passing it through a preparatory interferometer.

  17. The improved broadband Real-Time Seismic Network in Romania (United States)

    Neagoe, C.; Ionescu, C.


    Starting with 2002 the National Institute for Earth Physics (NIEP) has developed its real-time digital seismic network. This network consists of 96 seismic stations of which 48 broad band and short period stations and two seismic arrays are transmitted in real-time. The real time seismic stations are equipped with Quanterra Q330 and K2 digitizers, broadband seismometers (STS2, CMG40T, CMG 3ESP, CMG3T) and strong motions sensors Kinemetrics episensors (+/- 2g). SeedLink and AntelopeTM (installed on MARMOT) program packages are used for real-time (RT) data acquisition and exchange. The communication from digital seismic stations to the National Data Center in Bucharest is assured by 5 providers (GPRS, VPN, satellite communication, radio lease line and internet), which will assure the back-up communications lines. The processing centre runs BRTT's AntelopeTM 4.10 data acquisition and processing software on 2 workstations for real-time processing and post processing. The Antelope Real-Time System is also providing automatic event detection, arrival picking, event location and magnitude calculation. It provides graphical display and reporting within near-real-time after a local or regional event occurred. Also at the data center was implemented a system to collect macroseismic information using the internet on which macro seismic intensity maps are generated. In the near future at the data center will be install Seiscomp 3 data acquisition processing software on a workstation. The software will run in parallel with Antelope software as a back-up. The present network will be expanded in the near future. In the first half of 2009 NIEP will install 8 additional broad band stations in Romanian territory, which also will be transmitted to the data center in real time. The Romanian Seismic Network is permanently exchanging real -time waveform data with IRIS, ORFEUS and different European countries through internet. In Romania, magnitude and location of an earthquake are now

  18. Broadband Dielectric Spectroscopy on Human Blood

    CERN Document Server

    Wolf, M; Lunkenheimer, P; Loidl, A


    Dielectric spectra of human blood reveal a rich variety of dynamic processes. Achieving a better characterization and understanding of these processes not only is of academic interest but also of high relevance for medical applications as, e.g., the determination of absorption rates of electromagnetic radiation by the human body. The dielectric properties of human blood are studied using broadband dielectric spectroscopy, systematically investigating the dependence on temperature and hematocrit value. By covering a frequency range from 1 Hz to 40 GHz, information on all the typical dispersion regions of biological matter is obtained. We find no evidence for a low-frequency relaxation (alpha-relaxation) caused, e.g., by counterion diffusion effects as reported for some types of biological matter. The analysis of a strong Maxwell-Wagner relaxation arising from the polarization of the cell membranes in the 1-100 MHz region (beta-relaxation) allows for the test of model predictions and the determination of variou...

  19. Broadband local dielectric spectroscopy (United States)

    Labardi, M.; Lucchesi, M.; Prevosto, D.; Capaccioli, S.


    A route to extend the measurement bandwidth of local dielectric spectroscopy up to the MHz range has been devised. The method is based on a slow amplitude modulation at a frequency Ω of the excitation field oscillating at a frequency ω and the coherent detection of the modulated average electric force or force gradient at Ω. The cantilever mechanical response does not affect the measurement if Ω is well below its resonant frequency; therefore, limitations on the excitation field frequency are strongly reduced. Demonstration on a thin poly(vinyl acetate) film is provided, showing its structural relaxation spectrum on the local scale up to 45 °C higher than glass temperature, and nanoscale resolution dielectric relaxation imaging near conductive nanowires embedded in the polymer matrix was obtained up to 5 MHz frequency, with no physical reason to hinder further bandwidth extension.

  20. Transonic Tones and Excess Broadband Noise in Overexpanded Supersonic Jets (United States)

    Zaman, Khairul B. M. Q.


    Noise characteristics of convergent-divergent (C-D) nozzles in the overexpanded regime are the focus of this paper. The flow regime is encountered during takeoff and landing of certain airplanes and also with rocket nozzles in launch-pad environment. Experimental results from laboratory-scale single nozzles are discussed. The flow often undergoes a resonance accompanied by emission of tones (referred to as transonic tones). The phenomenon is different from the well-known screech tones. Unlike screech, the frequency increases with increasing supply pressure. There is a staging behavior odd harmonic stages occur at lower pressures while the fundamental occurs in a range of relatively higher pressures. A striking feature is that tripping of the nozzle s internal boundary layer tends to suppress the resonance. However, even in the absence of tones the broadband levels are found to be high. That is, relative to a convergent case and at same pressure ratio, the C-D nozzles are found to be noisier, often by more than 10dB. This excess broadband noise (referred to as EBBN) is further explored. Its characteristics are found to be different from the well-known broadband shockassociated noise ( BBSN ). For example, while the frequency of the BBSN peak varies with observation angle no such variation is noted with EBBN. The mechanisms of the transonic tone and the EBBN are not completely understood yet. They appear to be due to unsteady shock motion inside the nozzle. The shock drives the flow downstream like a vibrating diaphragm, and resonance takes place similarly as with acoustic resonance of a conical section having one end closed and the other end open. When the boundary layer is tripped, apparently a breakdown of azimuthal coherence suppresses the resonance. However, there is still unsteady shock motion albeit with superimposed randomness. Such random motion of the internal shock and its interaction with the separated boundary layer produces the EBBN.

  1. 一种有效的基于宽带功率放大器强记忆效应特性的PMEC预失真方法%An Effective PMEC Predistortion Method Based on the Strong Memory Effect Characteristics of Broadband Power Amplifier

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    都天骄; 于翠屏; 刘元安; 高锦春; 黎淑兰


    According to the strong memory effect characteristics of the broadband RF power amplifier, this paper presents a new predistortion method, and it is termed as Parallel MP-EMP-CIMT (PMEC). The new predistorter is constructed of three parts, Memory Polynomial (MP), Envelope Memory Polynomial (EMP) and Cross Items between Memory Times (CIMT). Compared with the traditional Hybrid MP-EMP (HME) method, PMEC method increases the cross items between different memory times, in order to solve the problem of high system complexity, the EMP predistorter is simplified and the high order nonlinear terms of CIMT predistorter are cut off. The measure results show that PMEC method can acquire better linear effect than the MP method and the HME method. Compared with the MP method, PMEC method reduces the third-order ACPR of output signal by 1.07 dB/1.32 dB, and cut down 18.75% of the predistortion coefficient; Compared with the HME method, PMEC method reduces the third-order ACPR of output signal by 0.2 dB/0.99 dB, using 79.59% of the predistortion coefficients.%针对宽带功率放大器的强记忆效应特性,论文提出了一种新的预失真方法-PMEC (Parallel MP-EMP-CIMT),该方法基于记忆多项式(MP),包络记忆多项式(EMP)及记忆时刻信号交叉项(CIMT)3个基函数构造预失真器.与传统混合记忆多项式(HME)方法相比,PMEC方法增加了记忆时刻信号间的交叉相乘项,此外,为了解决系统复杂度高的问题,对EMP子预失真器进行了简化并截断了CIMT子预失真器的高阶非线性项.实际测试结果表明,PMEC方法比MP方法和HME方法能带来更好的线性化效果,与MP方法相比,PMEC方法将输出信号的三阶邻信道功率比(ACPR)降低了1.07 dB/1.32 dB,预失真系数量节省了18.75%;与HME方法相比,PMEC方法利用79.59%的预失真系数将输出信号的三阶ACPR降低了0.2 dB/0.99 dB.

  2. Integrated Broadband Quantum Cascade Laser (United States)

    Mansour, Kamjou (Inventor); Soibel, Alexander (Inventor)


    A broadband, integrated quantum cascade laser is disclosed, comprising ridge waveguide quantum cascade lasers formed by applying standard semiconductor process techniques to a monolithic structure of alternating layers of claddings and active region layers. The resulting ridge waveguide quantum cascade lasers may be individually controlled by independent voltage potentials, resulting in control of the overall spectrum of the integrated quantum cascade laser source. Other embodiments are described and claimed.

  3. A Bayesian model of stereopsis depth and motion direction discrimination. (United States)

    Read, J C A


    The extraction of stereoscopic depth from retinal disparity, and motion direction from two-frame kinematograms, requires the solution of a correspondence problem. In previous psychophysical work [Read and Eagle (2000) Vision Res 40: 3345-3358], we compared the performance of the human stereopsis and motion systems with correlated and anti-correlated stimuli. We found that, although the two systems performed similarly for narrow-band stimuli, broadband anti-correlated kinematograms produced a strong perception of reversed motion, whereas the stereograms appeared merely rivalrous. I now model these psychophysical data with a computational model of the correspondence problem based on the known properties of visual cortical cells. Noisy retinal images are filtered through a set of Fourier channels tuned to different spatial frequencies and orientations. Within each channel, a Bayesian analysis incorporating a prior preference for small disparities is used to assess the probability of each possible match. Finally, information from the different channels is combined to arrive at a judgement of stimulus disparity. Each model system--stereopsis and motion--has two free parameters: the amount of noise they are subject to, and the strength of their preference for small disparities. By adjusting these parameters independently for each system, qualitative matches are produced to psychophysical data, for both correlated and anti-correlated stimuli, across a range of spatial frequency and orientation bandwidths. The motion model is found to require much higher noise levels and a weaker preference for small disparities. This makes the motion model more tolerant of poor-quality reverse-direction false matches encountered with anti-correlated stimuli, matching the strong perception of reversed motion that humans experience with these stimuli. In contrast, the lower noise level and tighter prior preference used with the stereopsis model means that it performs close to chance with

  4. The broadband spectrum of Centaurus X-3 (United States)

    Gottlieb, Amy; Pottschmidt, Katja; Marcu, Diana; Wolff, Michael Thomas; Kühnel, Matthias; Falkner, Sebastian; Britton Hemphill, Paul; Suchy, Slawomir; Becker, Peter A.; Wood, Kent S.; Wilms, Joern


    We present an analysis of a Suzaku observation of the accreting pulsar and high mass X-ray binary Centaurus X-3. The observation was performed in 2008 and covers one 2.1 day binary orbit. Strong flux and hardness variability is present in the energy range from 0.8 to 60 keV. We selected a part of the observation covering ~40% of the first half of the orbit during which the spectral shape was stable and less absorbed than during other parts of the observation. We confirm earlier results that the broadband spectrum can be modeled with acutoff power law modified by a partial absorber, three iron lines -- from near-neutral, helium-like, and hydrogen-like iron --, and a cyclotron resonant scattering line at 30 keV. The pulse profile shows a shift above the cyclotron line energy which is qualitatively consistent with recent theoretical predictions. In addition we findthat the presence of the so-called ``13 keV'' bump is model dependent and that there are indications for further line-like spectral components at 1 keV and 6 keV and a broader residual around 2 keV. We also apply the newly implemented radiation dominated radiative shock model for luminous accretion pulsars by Becker and Wolff (2007, ApJ 654, 435) to model the broadband spectrum. Replacing the cutoff power law with the physical continuum while retaining all other components we obtain a similar goodness of fit as before. From the physical continuum model we determine a mass accretion rate of ~2.17 x 10^17 g/s, an accretion column radius of 65 (+12, -4) m, and a temperature of the accreted plasma of 3.1 (+0.4, -0.1) keV.

  5. Fractional motions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eliazar, Iddo I., E-mail: [Holon Institute of Technology, P.O. Box 305, Holon 58102 (Israel); Shlesinger, Michael F., E-mail: [Office of Naval Research, Code 30, 875 N. Randolph St., Arlington, VA 22203 (United States)


    Brownian motion is the archetypal model for random transport processes in science and engineering. Brownian motion displays neither wild fluctuations (the “Noah effect”), nor long-range correlations (the “Joseph effect”). The quintessential model for processes displaying the Noah effect is Lévy motion, the quintessential model for processes displaying the Joseph effect is fractional Brownian motion, and the prototypical model for processes displaying both the Noah and Joseph effects is fractional Lévy motion. In this paper we review these four random-motion models–henceforth termed “fractional motions” –via a unified physical setting that is based on Langevin’s equation, the Einstein–Smoluchowski paradigm, and stochastic scaling limits. The unified setting explains the universal macroscopic emergence of fractional motions, and predicts–according to microscopic-level details–which of the four fractional motions will emerge on the macroscopic level. The statistical properties of fractional motions are classified and parametrized by two exponents—a “Noah exponent” governing their fluctuations, and a “Joseph exponent” governing their dispersions and correlations. This self-contained review provides a concise and cohesive introduction to fractional motions.

  6. 江苏高邮-宝应MS 4.9地震强震动观测与记录分析%Strong Motion Observation and Records of the Gaoyou-Baoying MS4.9 Earthquake in Jiangsu Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王恒知; 李稳; 詹小艳; 朱升初; 何斌; 薛莹莹


    The strong motion of the Gaoyou-Baoying MS4. 9 earthquake occurring on July 20, 2012, was recorded by 43 of 50 strong motion stations in Jiangsu Province. The observation system of every strong earthquake station includes the Etna strong motion recorder produced by the KMI Company in addition to a domestic force balance accelerometer(FBA)sensor. These instruments effectively recorded the earthquake ground motion that occurred in Jiangsu Province by setting the appropriate threshold and transmitting the strong motion events through PSTN or CDMA wireless networks to the digital strong motion network center of Jiangsu Province. During this earthquake, the recorded maximum acceleration was 33. 76 cm/s2 . The earthquake epicenter was located at 33. 04°N, 119. 57°E, and the focal depth was approximately 6 km. The microcosmic-epi-center was located in Shuanggou Village, Gaoyou City, where strong earthquake motion was felt. Tremors were felt throughout Jiangsu Province, as well parts of Anhui Province at its junction with Jiangsu Province. Fourier spectral analysis was used to determine that the seismic accelera-tion included abundant frequency components mainly between 2 Hz and 4 Hz. The acceleration time history and Fourier spectrum records from several strong ground motion stations are also given in this paper. Moreover, this study gives a brief introduction of the American ShakeMap system, which is the primary method used to calculate instrument intensity, and a recommended intensity scale provided. We collected recent strong earthquake records of Jiangsu Province and fit the instrumental intensity calculation formula (below intensity of VI)with these strong earth-quake records. Due to the limited earthquake records in this region, however, we were unable to give a complete intensity calculation formula. Finally, two methods of producing an intensity con-tour map are given in addition to comparisons between approaches and conclusions. The character-istics of the

  7. Application of multimedia services in the broadband environment to improve logistic needs of the army

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radiša R. Stefanović


    Full Text Available The paper analyzes the flow of some multimedia services, and points to the possibility of applying some of the services in the broadband environment to improve the logistic needs of the army. The need to convey information in different forms (from text, data, graphics, still pictures to video motion pictures is increasing continually. Requests for information transfer in high resolution require increasing the flow to several dozens of Mb/s. Broadband represents the platform for a wide range of multimedia services. Each multimedia service requires a certain flow which can be partially decreased with advanced coding techniques.

  8. Broadband source of polarization entangled photons. (United States)

    Fraine, A; Minaeva, O; Simon, D S; Egorov, R; Sergienko, A V


    A broadband source of polarization entangled photons based on type-II spontaneous parametric down conversion from a chirped PPKTP crystal is presented. With numerical simulation and experimental evaluation, we report a source of broadband polarization entangled states with a bandwidth of approximately 125 nm for use in quantum interferometry. The technique has the potential to become a basis for the development of flexible broadband sources with designed spectral properties.

  9. Charles Ferguson and the "Broadband Problem"



    Charles Ferguson has published a book that advocates a major increase in government intervention in the U.S. market for high-speed, "broadband" Internet services. His proposals are based on a faulty understanding of the effects of current telecommunications regulation and unsubstantiated claims that current participants in the broadband marketplace are exercising monopoly power. His policy recommendations would not only fail to accelerate the pace of broadband diffusion in the United States, ...

  10. Principles of broadband switching and networking

    CERN Document Server

    Liew, Soung C


    An authoritative introduction to the roles of switching and transmission in broadband integrated services networks Principles of Broadband Switching and Networking explains the design and analysis of switch architectures suitable for broadband integrated services networks, emphasizing packet-switched interconnection networks with distributed routing algorithms. The text examines the mathematical properties of these networks, rather than specific implementation technologies. Although the pedagogical explanations in this book are in the context of switches, many of the fundamenta

  11. No fragile-to-strong crossover in LiCl-H2O solution (United States)

    Nakanishi, Masahiro; Griffin, Philip; Mamontov, Eugene; Sokolov, Alexei P.


    Dynamics of water, especially in the temperature range of the "no man's land", remain a mystery. We present detailed study of dynamics in aqueous LiCl solution that is often considered as a model for bulk water. We employ broadband dielectric and light scattering spectroscopy in a broad frequency and temperature range. Our analysis reveals no sign of the fragile-to-strong crossover (FSC) neither in structural relaxation nor in translational motions. Our experimental results combined with a large selection of literature data lead to the clear conclusion-there is no FSC in dynamics of aqueous solutions at T ˜ 200-230 K. Instead, our analysis reveals appearance of the so-called excess wing at the high frequency tail of the structural relaxation peak. We discuss the localized nature of the relaxation process that contributes to the excess wing.

  12. Achieving Universal Access to Broadband

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morten FALCH


    Full Text Available The paper discusses appropriate policy measures for achieving universal access to broadband services in Europe. Access can be delivered by means of many different technology solutions described in the paper. This means a greater degree of competition and affects the kind of policy measures to be applied. The paper concludes that other policy measure than the classical universal service obligation are in play, and discusses various policy measures taking the Lisbon process as a point of departure. Available policy measures listed in the paper include, universal service obligation, harmonization, demand stimulation, public support for extending the infrastructure, public private partnerships (PPP, and others.

  13. Understanding broadband over power line

    CERN Document Server

    Held, Gilbert


    Understanding Broadband over Power Line explores all aspects of the emerging technology that enables electric utilities to provide support for high-speed data communications via their power infrastructure. This book examines the two methods used to connect consumers and businesses to the Internet through the utility infrastructure: the existing electrical wiring of a home or office; and a wireless local area network (WLAN) access point.Written in a practical style that can be understood by network engineers and non-technologists alike, this volume offers tutorials on electric utility infrastru

  14. Broadband infrared absorption enhancement by electroless-deposited silver nanoparticles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gritti, Claudia; Raza, Søren; Kadkhodazadeh, Shima


    Decorating semiconductor surfaces with plasmonic nanoparticles (NPs) is considered a viable solution for enhancing the absorptive properties of photovoltaic and photodetecting devices. We propose to deposit silver NPs on top of a semiconductor wafer by a cheap and fast electroless plating technique....... Optical characterization confirms that the random array of electroless-deposited NPs improves absorption by up to 20% in a broadband of nearinfrared frequencies from the bandgap edge to 2000 nm. Due to the small filling fraction of particles, the reflection in the visible range is practically unchanged......, which points to the possible applications of such deposition method for harvesting photons in nanophotonics and photovoltaics. The broadband absorption is a consequence of the resonant behavior of particles with different shapes and sizes, which strongly localize the incident light at the interface...

  15. Broadband Wireline Provider Service Summary; BBRI_wirelineSum12 (United States)

    University of Rhode Island Geospatial Extension Program — This dataset represents the availability of broadband Internet access in Rhode Island via all wireline technologies assessed by Broadband Rhode Island. Broadband...

  16. 75 FR 10464 - Broadband Technology Opportunities Program (United States)


    ... National Telecommunications and Information Administration RIN 0660-ZA28 Broadband Technology Opportunities... Technology Opportunities Program (BTOP) is extended until 5:00 p.m. Eastern Daylight Time (EDT) on March 26... Sustainable Broadband Adoption (SBA) projects. DATES: All applications for funding CCI projects must...

  17. Broadband Helps Bridge the Achievement Gap (United States)

    Simmons, Jamal


    In education, technology is giving new meaning to the phrase "equal opportunity." Teachers and students in schools across America--urban, rural, wealthy, and impoverished--are gaining access to online learning and all of its benefits through broadband technology. What is broadband? According to the Federal Communications Commission (FCC), it is…

  18. Spectral Analysis of Broadband Seismic Array Data, Tien Shan (United States)

    Shamshy, S.; Pavlis, G. L.


    We used a spectral analysis method to examine amplitude variations of body waves recorded in the Tien Shan region of central Asia. We used broadband data from the Kyrgyz Network (KNET), Kazakhstan Network (KZNET), and from a set of temporary, PASSCAL stations operated from 1997-2000 we refer to as the Ghengis array. A spectral ratio method similar to that used by Wilson and Pavlis (2000) was employed, but with station AAK used as a reference instead of the array median. Spectral ratios were estimated for all teleseismic events and a larger, intermediate depth events from the Hindu-Kush region for all three-components of ground motion and total signal strength on all components. Results are visualized by maps of amplitude for various frequency bands and through the 4-D animation method introduced by Wilson and Pavlis (2000). Data from Hindu-Kush events showed amplitude variations as much as a factor of 100 across the study area with a strong frequency dependence. The largest variations were at the highest frequencies observed near 15 Hz. Stations in the northwestern part of the Tien Shan array show little variation in amplitude relative to the reference station, AAK. In the central and eastern part of the array, the amplitude estimates are significantly smaller at all frequencies. In contrast, for stations in the western Tien Shan near the Talas-Fergana Fault, and the southern Tien Shan near the Tarim Basin, the amplitude values become much larger than the reference site. The teleseismic data show a different pattern and show a somewhat smaller, overall amplitude variation at comparable frequencies. The northern part of the array again shows small variations relative to the reference stations. There are some amplifications in the southern stations of the array, especially in the Tarim Basin. The higher frequency observations that show large amplifications at stations in the Tarim Basin are readily explained by site effects due to the thick deposits of sediments

  19. The 2001 Mw7.7 Bhuj, India Earthquake and Eastern North American Ground-Motion Attenuation Relations: Seismic Hazard Implications (United States)

    Cramer, C. H.; Bhattacharya, S. N.; Kumar, A.


    It has been suggested that the Mw7.7 2001 Bhuj, India earthquake occurred in a stable continental region with ground-motion attenuation properties similar to eastern North America (ENA). No strong motion recordings for M7 or greater earthquakes have been recorded in ENA, so, if the two regions share similar properties, then observations from the Bhuj earthquake provide important information for hazard assessments in ENA as well as India. This thesis can be tested using seismic data for the Bhuj mainshock. The Indian Meteorological Department recorded accelerograph and broadband seismograph data at distances of 500 to 1800 km. Accelerograph and engineering seismoscope data were recorded at distances of 40 to 1100 km by the Department of Earthquake Engineering at the Indian Institute of Technology, Roorkee. We have processed the accelerograph and broadband data for response spectral accelerations and corrected them to a common NEHRP site class using Joyner and Boore (2000) site factors. The geologic conditions at each recording site were determined using the geologic map of India and categorized as Quaternary sediments, Tertiary sediments, or hard rock. Comparisons were then made to available ENA ground-motion attenuation relations. For peak ground acceleration (PGA) and 1.0 s spectral acceleration (Sa), the geologically-corrected Bhuj data generally fall among the ENA ground-motion attenuation relations. The Bhuj mainshock ground-motion data agree with the collective predictions of the ENA relations given the random uncertainty in ground-motion measurements of a factor of two or more plus the ground-motion attenuation relation modeling uncertainty. From an engineering perspective, this comparison supports the thesis that seismic-wave attenuation in stable continental India is similar to eastern North America.

  20. The GEOSCOPE broadband seismic observatory (United States)

    Douet, Vincent; Vallée, Martin; Zigone, Dimitri; Bonaimé, Sébastien; Stutzmann, Eléonore; Maggi, Alessia; Pardo, Constanza; Bernard, Armelle; Leroy, Nicolas; Pesqueira, Frédéric; Lévêque, Jean-Jacques; Thoré, Jean-Yves; Bes de Berc, Maxime; Sayadi, Jihane


    The GEOSCOPE observatory has provided continuous broadband data to the scientific community for the past 34 years. The 31 operational GEOSCOPE stations are installed in 17 countries, across all continents and on islands throughout the oceans. They are equipped with three component very broadband seismometers (STS1, T240 or STS2) and 24 or 26 bit digitizers (Q330HR). Seismometers are installed with warpless base plates, which decrease long period noise on horizontal components by up to 15dB. All stations send data in real time to the IPGP data center, which transmits them automatically to other data centers (FDSN/IRIS-DMC and RESIF) and tsunami warning centers. In 2016, three stations are expected to be installed or re-installed: in Western China (WUS station), in Saint Pierre and Miquelon Island (off the East coast of Canada) and in Walis and Futuna (SouthWest Pacific Ocean). The waveform data are technically validated by IPGP (25 stations) or EOST (6 stations) in order to check their continuity and integrity. Scientific data validation is also performed by analyzing seismic noise level of the continuous data and by comparing real and synthetic earthquake waveforms (body waves). After these validations, data are archived by the IPGP data center in Paris. They are made available to the international scientific community through different interfaces (see details on Data are duplicated at the FDSN/IRIS-DMC data center and a similar duplication at the French national data center RESIF will be operational in 2016. The GEOSCOPE broadband seismic observatory also provides near-real time information on global moderate-to-large seismicity (above magnitude 5.5-6) through the automated application of the SCARDEC method (Vallée et al., 2011). By using global data from the FDSN - in particular from GEOSCOPE and IRIS/USGS stations -, earthquake source parameters (depth, moment magnitude, focal mechanism, source time function) are determined about 45

  1. Ground-motion signature of dynamic ruptures on rough faults (United States)

    Mai, P. Martin; Galis, Martin; Thingbaijam, Kiran K. S.; Vyas, Jagdish C.


    Natural earthquakes occur on faults characterized by large-scale segmentation and small-scale roughness. This multi-scale geometrical complexity controls the dynamic rupture process, and hence strongly affects the radiated seismic waves and near-field shaking. For a fault system with given segmentation, the question arises what are the conditions for producing large-magnitude multi-segment ruptures, as opposed to smaller single-segment events. Similarly, for variable degrees of roughness, ruptures may be arrested prematurely or may break the entire fault. In addition, fault roughness induces rupture incoherence that determines the level of high-frequency radiation. Using HPC-enabled dynamic-rupture simulations, we generate physically self-consistent rough-fault earthquake scenarios (M~6.8) and their associated near-source seismic radiation. Because these computations are too expensive to be conducted routinely for simulation-based seismic hazard assessment, we thrive to develop an effective pseudo-dynamic source characterization that produces (almost) the same ground-motion characteristics. Therefore, we examine how variable degrees of fault roughness affect rupture properties and the seismic wavefield, and develop a planar-fault kinematic source representation that emulates the observed dynamic behaviour. We propose an effective workflow for improved pseudo-dynamic source modelling that incorporates rough-fault effects and its associated high-frequency radiation in broadband ground-motion computation for simulation-based seismic hazard assessment.

  2. Origin of Broadband Electrostatic Waves in Earth's Magnetotail (United States)

    Grabbe, Crockett


    Since the discovery on Geotail of spiky pulses on broadband electrostatic "noise" (BEN) in the plasma sheet boundary layer (PSBL), the principle theoretical model pursued involves solitary waves associated with Bernstein-Greene-Kruskal (BGK) modes. That model was set forth because of evidence for nonlinear signatures in the waves, and implicitly assumes BEN for all frequencies and locations occurs well past the linear stage of growth. However, simulations using various versions of this model have been idealized, ignoring physical parameters such as the background magnetic field until recently. A new theory has been proposed by the author in which the strong trapping nonlinearities (so that BGK modes can evolve) are limited to the highest frequencies (near the plasma frequency), whereas the broadband bulk of the lower frequency spectrum (up to 0.1-0.2 ω_pe arises from wide-angle beam instabilities where the magnetic field plays a crucial role and where trapping is too weak for BGK-type modes. Broadband electrostatic Wave data from ISEE-1, ISEE-3 and Polar are presented that support the new model.

  3. Broadband cloaking for flexural waves

    CERN Document Server

    Zareei, Ahmad


    The governing equation for elastic waves in flexural plates is not form invariant, and hence designing a cloak for such waves faces a major challenge. Here, we present the design of a perfect broadband cloak for flexural waves through the use of a nonlinear transformation, and by matching term-by-term the original and transformed equations. For a readily achievable flexural cloak in a physical setting, we further present an approximate adoption of our perfect cloak under more restrictive physical constraints. Through direct simulation of the governing equations, we show that this cloak, as well, maintains a consistently high cloaking efficiency over a broad range of frequencies. The methodology developed here may be used for steering waves and designing cloaks in other physical systems with non form-invariant governing equations.

  4. Interpreting Flux from Broadband Photometry

    CERN Document Server

    Brown, Peter J; Roming, Peter W A; Siegel, Michael


    We discuss the transformation of observed photometry into flux for the creation of spectral energy distributions and the computation of bolometric luminosities. We do this in the context of supernova studies, particularly as observed with the Swift spacecraft, but the concepts and techniques should be applicable to many other types of sources and wavelength regimes. Traditional methods of converting observed magnitudes to flux densities are not very accurate when applied to UV photometry. Common methods for extinction and the integration of pseudo-bolometric fluxes can also lead to inaccurate results. The sources of inaccuracy, though, also apply to other wavelengths. Because of the complicated nature of translating broad-band photometry into monochromatic flux densities, comparison between observed photometry and a spectroscopic model is best done by comparing in the natural units of the observations. We recommend that integrated flux measurements be made using a spectrum or spectral energy distribution whic...

  5. Broadband fast semiconductor saturable absorber. (United States)

    Jacobovitz-Veselka, G R; Kellerm, U; Asom, T


    Kerr lens mode-locked (KLM) solid-state lasers are typically not self-starting. We address this problem by introducing a broadband semiconductor saturable absorber that could be used as a tunable, all-solid-state, passive starting mechanism. We extend the wavelength tunability of a semiconductor saturable absorber to more than 100 nm using a band-gap-engineered low-temperature molecular-beam-epitaxy (MBE)-grown bulk AlGaAs semiconductor saturable absorber in which the absorption edge of the saturable absorber has been artificially broadened by continuously reducing the Al concentration during the MBE growth. We demonstrate its tunability and its feasibility as a starting mechanism for KLM with a picosecond resonant passive mode-locked Ti:sapphire laser. The extension to femtosecond KLM lasers has been discussed previously.

  6. Tuchola County Broadband Network (TCBN)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zabludowski, Antoni; Dubalski, B.; Zabludowski, Lukasz


    In the paper the designing project (plan) of Tuchola City broadband IP optical network has been presented. The extended version of network plan constitute technical part of network Feasibility Study, that it is expected to be implemented in Tuchola and be financed from European Regional Development...... Funds. The network plan presented in the paper contains both topological structure of fiber optic network as well as the active equipment for the network. In the project described in the paper it has been suggested to use Modular Cable System - MCS for passive infrastructure and Metro Ethernet...... technology for active equipment. The presented solution provides low cost of construction (CAPEX), ease of implementation of the network and low operating cost (OPEX). Moreover the parameters of installed Metro Ethernet switches in the network guarantee the scalability of the network for at least 10 years....

  7. AIRTV: Broadband Direct to Aircraft (United States)

    Sorbello, R.; Stone, R.; Bennett, S. B.; Bertenyi, E.


    Airlines have been continuously upgrading their wide-body, long-haul aircraft with IFE (in-flight entertainment) systems that can support from 12 to 24 channels of video entertainment as well as provide the infrastructure to enable in-seat delivery of email and internet services. This is a direct consequence of increased passenger demands for improved in-flight services along with the expectations that broadband delivery systems capable of providing live entertainment (news, sports, financial information, etc.) and high speed data delivery will soon be available. The recent events of Sept. 11 have slowed the airline's upgrade of their IFE systems, but have also highlighted the compelling need for broadband aeronautical delivery systems to include operational and safety information. Despite the impact of these events, it is estimated that by 2005 more than 3000 long haul aircraft (servicing approximately 1 billion passengers annually) will be fully equipped with modern IFE systems. Current aircraft data delivery systems, which use either Inmarsat or NATS, are lacking in bandwidth and consequently are unsuitable to satisfy passenger demands for broadband email/internet services or the airlines' burgeoning data requirements. Present live video delivery services are limited to regional coverage and are not readily expandable to global or multiregional service. Faced with a compelling market demand for high data transport to aircraft, AirTV has been developing a broadband delivery system that will meet both passengers' and airlines' needs. AirTV is a global content delivery system designed to provide a range of video programming and data services to commercial airlines. When AirTV is operational in 2004, it will provide a broadband connection directly to the aircraft, delivering live video entertainment, internet/email service and essential operational and safety data. The system has been designed to provide seamless global service to all airline routes except for those

  8. Simulation of Broadband Time Histories Combining Deterministic and Stochastic Methodologies (United States)

    Graves, R. W.; Pitarka, A.


    We present a methodology for generating broadband (0 - 10 Hz) ground motion time histories using a hybrid technique that combines a stochastic approach at high frequencies with a deterministic approach at low frequencies. Currently, the methodology is being developed for moderate and larger crustal earthquakes, although the technique can theoretically be applied to other classes of events as well. The broadband response is obtained by summing the separate responses in the time domain using matched butterworth filters centered at 1 Hz. We use a kinematic description of fault rupture, incorporating spatial heterogeneity in slip, rupture velocity and rise time by discretizing an extended finite-fault into a number of smaller subfaults. The stochastic approach sums the response for each subfault assuming a random phase, an omega-squared source spectrum and simplified Green's functions (Boore, 1983). Gross impedance effects are incorporated using quarter wavelength theory (Boore and Joyner, 1997) to bring the response to a generic baserock level (e.g., Vs = 1000 m/s). The deterministic approach sums the response for many point sources distributed across each subfault. Wave propagation is modeled using a 3D viscoelastic finite difference algorithm with the minimum shear wave velocity set at 620 m/s. Short- and mid-period amplification factors provided by Borcherdt (1994) are used to develop frequency dependent site amplification functions. The amplification functions are applied to the stochastic and determinsitic responses separately since these may have different (computational) reference site velocities. The site velocity is taken as the measured or estimated value of {Vs}30. The use of these amplification factors is attractive because they account for non-linear response by considering the input acceleration level. We note that although these design factors are strictly defined for response spectra, we have applied them to the Fourier amplitude spectra of our

  9. Ground Motion Prediction Trends For Eastern North America Based on the Next Generation Attenuation East Ground Motion Database (United States)

    Cramer, C. H.; Kutliroff, J.; Dangkua, D.


    A five-year Next Generation Attenuation (NGA) East project to develop new ground motion prediction equations for stable continental regions (SCRs), including eastern North America (ENA), has begun at the Pacific Earthquake Engineering Research (PEER) Center funded by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), and the Department of Energy (DOE). The initial effort focused on database design and collection of appropriate M>4 ENA broadband and accelerograph records to populate the database. Ongoing work has focused on adding records from smaller ENA earthquakes and from other SCRs such as Europe, Australia, and India. Currently, over 6500 horizontal and vertical component records from 60 ENA earthquakes have been collected and prepared (instrument response removed, filtering to acceptable-signal band, determining peak and spectral parameter values, quality assurance, etc.) for the database. Geologic Survey of Canada (GSC) strong motion recordings, previously not available, have also been added to the NGA East database. The additional earthquakes increase the number of ground motion recordings in the 10 - 100 km range, particularly from the 2008 M5.2 Mt. Carmel, IL event, and the 2005 M4.7 Riviere du Loup and 2010 M5.0 Val des Bois earthquakes in Quebec, Canada. The goal is to complete the ENA database and make it available in 2011 followed by a SCR database in 2012. Comparisons of ground motion observations from four recent M5 ENA earthquakes with current ENA ground motion prediction equations (GMPEs) suggest that current GMPEs, as a group, reasonably agree with M5 observations at short periods, particularly at distances less than 200 km. However, at one second, current GMPEs over predict M5 ground motion observations. The 2001 M7.6 Bhuj, India, earthquake provides some constraint at large magnitudes, as geology and regional attenuation is analogous to ENA. Cramer and Kumar, 2003, have

  10. Designing broadband plasmonic nanoantennas for ultrasensing (United States)

    Yi, Zhenhuan; Wang, Kai; Voronine, Dmitri V.; Traverso, Andrew; Sokolov, Alexei


    Various designs of broadband plasmonic nanoantennas made of gold and silver nanospheres are considered and optimized for ultrasensitive spectroscopic applications. The simulated nanostructures show a broadband optical response which may be tuned by varying the size, position and composition of nanospheres. Near-field enhancement in nanoantenna hot spots is analyzed and compared with previous literature results in the case of a fractal plasmonic nanolens. Broadband plasmonic nanoantennas may allow detecting ultrasmall concentrations of toxic materials and may be used for decoding DNA and for ultrafast nanophotonics applications.

  11. 47 CFR 90.1405 - Shared wireless broadband network. (United States)


    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Shared wireless broadband network. 90.1405... broadband network. The Shared Wireless Broadband Network developed by the 700 MHz Public/Private Partnership must be designed to meet requirements associated with a nationwide, public safety broadband network....

  12. Motion sickness: a negative reinforcement model. (United States)

    Bowins, Brad


    Theories pertaining to the "why" of motion sickness are in short supply relative to those detailing the "how." Considering the profoundly disturbing and dysfunctional symptoms of motion sickness, it is difficult to conceive of why this condition is so strongly biologically based in humans and most other mammalian and primate species. It is posited that motion sickness evolved as a potent negative reinforcement system designed to terminate motion involving sensory conflict or postural instability. During our evolution and that of many other species, motion of this type would have impaired evolutionary fitness via injury and/or signaling weakness and vulnerability to predators. The symptoms of motion sickness strongly motivate the individual to terminate the offending motion by early avoidance, cessation of movement, or removal of oneself from the source. The motion sickness negative reinforcement mechanism functions much like pain to strongly motivate evolutionary fitness preserving behavior. Alternative why theories focusing on the elimination of neurotoxins and the discouragement of motion programs yielding vestibular conflict suffer from several problems, foremost that neither can account for the rarity of motion sickness in infants and toddlers. The negative reinforcement model proposed here readily accounts for the absence of motion sickness in infants and toddlers, in that providing strong motivation to terminate aberrant motion does not make sense until a child is old enough to act on this motivation.

  13. Car-parrinello simulation of the vibrational spectrum of a medium strong hydrogen bond by two-dimensional quantization of the nuclear motion: application to 2-hydroxy-5-ntrobenzamide


    Brela, Mateusz Zbigniew; Stare, Jernej; Boczar, Marek; Mavri, Janez; Pirc, Gordana; Wojcik, Marek Janusz; Sollner Dolenc, Marija


    The nature of medium-strong intra- and intermolecular hydrogen bondingin 2-hydroxy-5- nitrobenzamide in the crystal phase was examined by infrared spectroscopy and Car- Parrinello molecular dynamics simulation. The focal point of our study was the part of the infrared spectra associated with the OŽH and NŽH stretching modes that are very sensitive to the strength of hydrogen bonding. For spectra calculations we used an isolated dimer and the fully periodic crystal environment. We calculated t...

  14. 基于Java的桥梁强震动实时监测及警报系统开发与应用%Development and Application of Strong Motion Real-time Monitoring and Alarm System for Bridges Based on Java

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵贤任; 王立新; 郭德顺; 严琨; 杨芳; 朱嘉健


    Strong motion monitoring arrays have been built on Queshi Bridge in Shantou, Jiujiang Bridge in Fokai highway, Huangpu Bridge over Zhujiang River and Humen Bridge in Dongguan. The amount of structural real-time vibration data of long-span bridges collected by the strong motion monitoring arrays are huge, and the timeliness requirement of earthquake, collision and other events is high. Therefore, it is necessary to establish a rapid response monitoring data processing and alarm system. This paper develops the strong motion real-time monitoring and alarm system based on Client/Server ( C/S) mode for bridges by using Java language and combining with Socket and multi-threading technology based on JOPENS. The system comprises configuration module, data acquisition module, data storage module, monitoring module, data browsing module, alarm module and data analysis module. The system can be installed across different platform, and the interface is simple and easy to operate. The system has been running steadily for 2 to 6 years on several bridges, and it can be applied to the strong motion monitoring and alerts of other major engineering structures.%本文使用Java语言,在测震台网《数据采集与常规处理》区域版(JOPENS)的基础上结合Socket、多线程等技术,开发出基于Client/Server (C/S)模式的桥梁强震动实时监测及警报系统,系统包括配置模块、数据采集模块、数据存储模块、监测模块、数据浏览模块、警报模块和数据分析模块,可跨平台安装。该系统已在多座大桥上稳定运行,可将其推广到其他重大工程结构的强震动监测及事件警报。

  15. Analysis of the Proposed Ghana Broadband Strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Williams, Idongesit; Botwe, Yvonne

    This project studied the Ghana Broadband Strategy with the aim of evaluating the recommendations in the strategy side by side the broadband development in Ghana. The researchers conducted interviews both officially and unofficially with ICT stakeholders, made observations, studied Government...... publications and sourced information from the internet in order to find out the extent of broadband development in Ghana. A SWOT analysis is carried out to determine the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threat to the development of broadband market in Ghana. The facilitation, regulatory and market...... the market. It is the hope of the researchers that this academic exercise will be useful to anyone who wishes to study the policy effect on the Ghanaian telecommunications market and the Ghanaian approach to Universal Access and Service....

  16. Analyzing Broadband Divide in the Farming Sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Michael; Gutierrez Lopez, Jose Manuel; Pedersen, Jens Myrup


    Agriculture industry has been evolving for centuries. Currently, the technological development of Internet oriented farming tools allows to increase the productivity and efficiency of this sector. Many of the already available tools and applications require high bandwidth in both directions......, upstream and downstream connection. The main constraint is that farms are naturally located in rural areas where the required access broadband data rates are not available. This paper studies the broadband divide in relation to the Danish agricultural sector. Results show how there is an important...... difference between the broadband availability for farms and the rest of the households/buildings the country. This divide may be slowing down the potential technological development of the farming industry, in order to keep their competitiveness in the market. Therefore, broadband development in rural areas...

  17. Wireless Broadband Access and Accounting Schemes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    In this paper, we propose two wireless broadband access and accounting schemes. In both schemes, the accounting system adopts RADIUS protocol, but the access system adopts SSH and SSL protocols respectively.

  18. Nanophotonic Design for Broadband Light Management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kosten, Emily; Callahan, Dennis; Horowitz, Kelsey; Pala, Ragip; Atwater, Harry


    We describe nanophotonic design approaches for broadband light management including i) crossed-trapezoidal Si structures ii) Si photonic crystal superlattices, and iii) tapered and inhomogeneous diameter III-V/Si nanowire arrays.

  19. Broadband unidirectional cloak designed by eikonal theory. (United States)

    Liu, Xuan; Wu, Xiaojia; Zhang, Luoning; Zhou, Jing


    A method for designing optical device is derived based on the eikonal theory, which could obtain the eikonal distribution on a curved surface according to the propagation characteristics of the subsequent light wave. Then combining with the phase matching condition, we designed a broadband unidirectional cloak. Different from the reported unidirectional cloaks, the proposed one could be used for coherent wave and has continuous broadband performance. Moreover, it has three cloaked regions. Full-wave simulation results verify the properties of the cloak.

  20. Multi-Mode Broadband Patch Antenna (United States)

    Romanofsky, Robert R. (Inventor)


    A multi-mode broad band patch antenna is provided that allows for the same aperture to be used at independent frequencies such as reception at 19 GHz and transmission at 29 GHz. Furthermore, the multi-mode broadband patch antenna provides a ferroelectric film that allows for tuning capability of the multi-mode broadband patch antenna over a relatively large tuning range. The alternative use of a semiconductor substrate permits reduced control voltages since the semiconductor functions as a counter electrode.

  1. Is European Broadband Ready for Smart Grid?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balachandran, Kartheepan; Pedersen, Jens Myrup


    In this short paper we compare the communication requirements for three Smart Grid scenarios with the availability of broadband and mobile communication networks in Europe. We show that only in the most demanding case - where data is collected and transmitted every second - a standard GSM....../GPRS connection is not enough. Whereas in the less demanding scenarios it is almost all of the European households that can be covered by a standard broadband technology for use with Smart Grid....

  2. Broadband mode conversion via gradient index metamaterials. (United States)

    Wang, HaiXiao; Xu, YaDong; Genevet, Patrice; Jiang, Jian-Hua; Chen, HuanYang


    We propose a design for broadband waveguide mode conversion based on gradient index metamaterials (GIMs). Numerical simulations demonstrate that the zeroth order of transverse magnetic mode or the first order of transverse electric mode (TM0/TE1) can be converted into the first order of transverse magnetic mode or the second order of transverse electric mode (TM1/TE2) for a broadband of frequencies. As an application, an asymmetric propagation is achieved by integrating zero index metamaterials inside the GIM waveguide.

  3. Development of attenuation relation for the near fault ground motion from the characteristic earthquake

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHI Bao-ping; LIU Bo-yan; ZHANG Jian


    A composite source model has been used to simulate a broadband strong ground motion with an associated fault rupture process. A scenario earthquake fault model has been used to generate 1 000 earthquake events with a magnitude of Mw8.0. The simulated results show that, for the characteristic event with a strike-slip faulting, the characteristics of near fault ground motion is strongly dependent on the rupture directivity. If the distance between the sites and fault was given, the ground motion in the forward direction (Site A) is much larger than that in the backward direction (Site C) and that close to the fault (Site B). The SH waves radiated from the fault, which corresponds to the fault-normal component plays a key role in the ground motion amplification. Corresponding to the sites A, B, and C, the statistical analysis shows that the ratio of their aPG is 2.15:1.5:1 and their standard deviations are about 0.12, 0.11, and 0.13, respectively. If these results are applied in the current probabilistic seismic hazard analysis (PSHA), then, for the lower annual frequency of exceedance of peak ground acceleration, the predicted aPG from the hazard curve could reduce by 30% or more compared with the current PSHA model used in the developing of seismic hazard map in the USA. Therefore, with a consideration of near fault ground motion caused by the rupture directivity, the regression model used in the development of the regional attenuation relation should be modified accordingly.

  4. Gap-plasmon based broadband absorbers for enhanced hot-electron and photocurrent generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lu, Yuhua; Dong, Wen; Chen, Zhuo;


    within the whole visible region. We show that the Au-NPs/TiO2/Au-film device can take advantage of such strong and broadband light absorption to enhance the generation of hot electrons and thus the photocurrent under visible irradiation. As compared to conventional plasmonic photocatalysts such as Au...

  5. Broadband direct RF digitization receivers

    CERN Document Server

    Jamin, Olivier


    This book discusses the trade-offs involved in designing direct RF digitization receivers for the radio frequency and digital signal processing domains.  A system-level framework is developed, quantifying the relevant impairments of the signal processing chain, through a comprehensive system-level analysis.  Special focus is given to noise analysis (thermal noise, quantization noise, saturation noise, signal-dependent noise), broadband non-linear distortion analysis, including the impact of the sampling strategy (low-pass, band-pass), analysis of time-interleaved ADC channel mismatches, sampling clock purity and digital channel selection. The system-level framework described is applied to the design of a cable multi-channel RF direct digitization receiver. An optimum RF signal conditioning, and some algorithms (automatic gain control loop, RF front-end amplitude equalization control loop) are used to relax the requirements of a 2.7GHz 11-bit ADC. A two-chip implementation is presented, using BiCMOS and 65nm...

  6. Interpreting Flux from Broadband Photometry (United States)

    Brown, Peter J.; Breeveld, Alice; Roming, Peter W. A.; Siegel, Michael


    We discuss the transformation of observed photometry into flux for the creation of spectral energy distributions (SED) and the computation of bolometric luminosities. We do this in the context of supernova studies, particularly as observed with the Swift spacecraft, but the concepts and techniques should be applicable to many other types of sources and wavelength regimes. Traditional methods of converting observed magnitudes to flux densities are not very accurate when applied to UV photometry. Common methods for extinction and the integration of pseudo-bolometric fluxes can also lead to inaccurate results. The sources of inaccuracy, though, also apply to other wavelengths. Because of the complicated nature of translating broadband photometry into monochromatic flux densities, comparison between observed photometry and a spectroscopic model is best done by forward modeling the spectrum into the count rates or magnitudes of the observations. We recommend that integrated flux measurements be made using a spectrum or SED which is consistent with the multi-band photometry rather than converting individual photometric measurements to flux densities, linearly interpolating between the points, and integrating. We also highlight some specific areas where the UV flux can be mischaracterized.

  7. Ground-Motion Simulations of Scenario Earthquakes on the Hayward Fault

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aagaard, B; Graves, R; Larsen, S; Ma, S; Rodgers, A; Ponce, D; Schwartz, D; Simpson, R; Graymer, R


    We compute ground motions in the San Francisco Bay area for 35 Mw 6.7-7.2 scenario earthquake ruptures involving the Hayward fault. The modeled scenarios vary in rupture length, hypocenter, slip distribution, rupture speed, and rise time. This collaborative effort involves five modeling groups, using different wave propagation codes and domains of various sizes and resolutions, computing long-period (T > 1-2 s) or broadband (T > 0.1 s) synthetic ground motions for overlapping subsets of the suite of scenarios. The simulations incorporate 3-D geologic structure and illustrate the dramatic increase in intensity of shaking for Mw 7.05 ruptures of the entire Hayward fault compared with Mw 6.76 ruptures of the southern two-thirds of the fault. The area subjected to shaking stronger than MMI VII increases from about 10% of the San Francisco Bay urban area in the Mw 6.76 events to more than 40% of the urban area for the Mw 7.05 events. Similarly, combined rupture of the Hayward and Rodgers Creek faults in a Mw 7.2 event extends shaking stronger than MMI VII to nearly 50% of the urban area. For a given rupture length, the synthetic ground motions exhibit the greatest sensitivity to the slip distribution and location inside or near the edge of sedimentary basins. The hypocenter also exerts a strong influence on the amplitude of the shaking due to rupture directivity. The synthetic waveforms exhibit a weaker sensitivity to the rupture speed and are relatively insensitive to the rise time. The ground motions from the simulations are generally consistent with Next Generation Attenuation ground-motion prediction models but contain long-period effects, such as rupture directivity and amplification in shallow sedimentary basins that are not fully captured by the ground-motion prediction models.

  8. The TIMED Doppler Interferometer (TIDI) Neutral Wind Data From The O2 P Branch Broadband Filter (United States)

    Killeen, T. L.; Wu, Q.; Gablehouse, R. D.; Johnson, R. J.; Solomon, S. C.; Skinner, W. R.; Ortland, D. A.; Niciejewski, R. J.; Gell, D. A.


    A new operational mode for the instrument has been designed to incorporate a broadband filter, which allows most of the O2 (0-0) P branch to pass through. The broadband filter data increases the signal level by an order of magnitude, which greatly increases the accuracy of the neutral wind allowing more detailed analysis of the migrating and non-migrating tide in the MLT region. Already the new wind data have shown strong non-migrating tide component. Comparisons with ground-based radar measurements show a much better consistency. We will report these new data and tidal analysis results.

  9. Broadband angle- and permittivity-insensitive nondispersive optical activity based on chiral metamaterials

    CERN Document Server

    Song, Kun; Su, Zhaoxian; Ding, Changlin; Liu, Yahong; Luo, Chunrong; Zhao, Xiaopeng; Bhattarai, Khagendra; Zhou, Jiangfeng


    Because of the strong inherent resonances, the giant optical activity obtained via chiral metamaterials generally suffers from high dispersion, which has been a big stumbling block to broadband applications. In this paper, we propose a type of chiral metamaterial consisting of interconnected metal helix structures with four-fold symmetry, which exhibits nonresonant Drude-like response and can therefore avoid the highly dispersive optical activity resulting from resonances. It shows that the well-designed chiral metamaterial can achieve nondispersive and pure optical activity with high transmittance in a broadband frequency range. And the optical activity of multi-layer chiral metamaterials is proportional to the layer numbers of single-layer chiral metamaterial. Most remarkably, the broadband behaviors of nondispersive optical activity and high transmission are insensitive to the incident angles of electromagnetic waves and permittivity of dielectric substrate, thereby enabling more flexibility in polarizatio...

  10. Delivery of satellite based broadband services (United States)

    Chandrasekhar, M. G.; Venugopal, D.


    Availability of speedy communication links to individuals and organizations is essential to keep pace with the business and social requirements of this modern age. While the PCs have been continuously growing in processing speed and memory capabilities, the availability of broadband communication links still has not been satisfactory in many parts of the world. Recognizing the need to give fillip to the growth of broadband services and improve the broadband penetration, the telecom policies of different counties have placed special emphasis on the same. While emphasis is on the use of fiber optic and copper in local loop, satellite communications systems will play an important role in quickly establishing these services in areas where fiber and other communication systems are not available and are not likely to be available for a long time to come. To make satellite communication systems attractive for the wide spread of these services in a cost effective way special emphasis has to be given on factors affecting the cost of the bandwidth and the equipment. As broadband services are bandwidth demanding, use of bandwidth efficient modulation technique and suitable system architecture are some of the important aspects that need to be examined. Further there is a need to re-look on how information services are provided keeping in view the user requirements and broadcast capability of satellite systems over wide areas. This paper addresses some of the aspects of delivering broadband services via satellite taking Indian requirement as an example.

  11. Acoustic Environment of Admiralty Inlet: Broadband Noise Measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Jinshan; Deng, Zhiqun; Martinez, Jayson J.; Carlson, Thomas J.; Myers, Joshua R.; Weiland, Mark A.; Jones, Mark E.


    Admiralty Inlet has been selected as a potential tidal energy site. It is located near shipping lanes, is a highly variable acoustic environment, and is frequented by the highly endangered southern resident killer whale (SRKW). Resolving environmental impacts is the first step to receiving approval to deploy tidal turbines at Admiralty Inlet. Of particular concern is the potential for blade strike or other negative interactions between the SRKW and the tidal turbine. A variety of technologies including passive and active monitoring systems are being considered as potential tools to determine the presence of SRKW in the vicinity of the turbines. Broadband noise level measurements are critical for the determination of design and operation specifications of all marine and hydrokinetic energy capture technologies. Acoustic environment data at the proposed site was acquired at different depths using a cabled vertical line array (VLA) with four calibrated hydrophones. The sound pressure level (SPL) power spectrum density was estimated based on the fast Fourier transform. This study describes the first broadband SPL measurements for this site at different depths with frequency ranging from 10 kHz to 480 kHz in combination with other information. To understand the SPL caused by this bedload transport, three different pressure sensors with temperature and conductivity were also assembled on the VLA to measure the conditions at the hydrophone deployment depth. The broadband SPL levels at frequency ranges of 3 kHz to 7 kHz as a function of depth were estimated. Only the hydrophone at an average depth of 40 m showed the strong dependence of SPL with distance from the bottom, which was possibly caused by the cobbles shifting on the seabed. Automatic Identification System data were also studied to understand the SPL measurements.

  12. Standardization of broadband radio access networks (United States)

    Kruys, Jan; Haine, John


    This paper introduces the ETSI Project on Broadband Radio Access Networks (EP-BRAN). BRAN systems will be used for local area applications with limited mobility (HIPERLAN/2); fixed access with area coverage in urban and rural areas (HIPERACCESS); and short range high-speed point-to-point links (HIPERLINK). They will support transport of either IP or ATM protocols, supporting managed quality of service. Such systems are needed to provide access to the future broadband core networks supporting multi-media applications. The paper addresses the motivation and market demand for broadband radio access networks, the objectives and scope of the Project, the operational and technical requirements, the types of networks to be standardized, the scope of the standards, the issue of spectrum and the Project schedule.

  13. Magnetically levitated autoparametric broadband vibration energy harvesting (United States)

    Kurmann, L.; Jia, Y.; Manoli, Y.; Woias, P.


    Some of the lingering challenges within the current paradigm of vibration energy harvesting (VEH) involve narrow operational frequency range and the inevitable non-resonant response from broadband noise excitations. Such VEHs are only suitable for limited applications with fixed sinusoidal vibration, and fail to capture a large spectrum of the real world vibration. Various arraying designs, frequency tuning schemes and nonlinear vibratory approaches have only yielded modest enhancements. To fundamentally address this, the paper proposes and explores the potentials in using highly nonlinear magnetic spring force to activate an autoparametric oscillator, in order to realize an inherently broadband resonant system. Analytical and numerical modelling illustrate that high spring nonlinearity derived from magnetic levitation helps to promote the 2:1 internal frequency matching required to activate parametric resonance. At the right internal parameters, the resulting system can intrinsically exhibit semi-resonant response regardless of the bandwidth of the input vibration, including broadband white noise excitation.

  14. Service Differentiation in Residential Broadband Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sigurdsson, Halldór Matthias


    As broadband gains widespread adoption with residential users, revenue generating voice- and video-services have not yet taken off. This slow uptake is often attributed to lack of Quality of Service management in residential broadband networks. To resolve this and induce service variety, network...... access providers are implementing service differentiation in their networks where voice and video gets prioritised before data. This paper discusses the role of network access providers in multipurpose packet based networks and the available migration strategies for supporting multimedia services...... in digital subscriber line (DSL) based residential broadband networks. Four possible implementation scenarios and their technical characteristics and effects are described. To conclude, the paper discusses how network access providers can be induced to open their networks for third party service providers....

  15. ClassSTRONG: Classical simulations of Strong Field processes

    CERN Document Server

    Ciappina, M F; Lewenstein, M


    A set of Mathematica functions is presented to model classically two of the most important processes in strong field physics, namely high-order harmonic generation (HHG) and above-threshold ionization (ATI). Our approach is based on the numerical solution of the Newton-Lorentz equation of an electron moving on an electric field and takes advantage of the symbolic languages features and graphical power of Mathematica. Similarly as in the Strong Field Approximation (SFA), the effects of atomic potential on the motion of electron in the laser field are neglected. The SFA has proven to be an essential tool in strong field physics in the sense that it is able to predict with great precision the harmonic (in the HHG) and energy (in the ATI) limits. We have extended substantially the conventional classical simulations, where the electric field is only dependent on time, including spatial nonhomogeneous fields and spatial and temporal synthesized fields. Spatial nonhomogeneous fields appear when metal nanosystems int...

  16. Participation in the broadband society in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Falch, Morten; Henten, Anders; Skouby, Knud Erik


    The purpose of the paper is to provide an empirical overview of broadband developments in Denmark. The overview includes sections on coverage and penetration, connection speeds, retail prices, competition, interconnection prices, and residential access to Internet. The documentation shows that De...... explanation is not that they cannot afford it but that they don't need it. Still, there is an issue with respect to the participation in the broadband society, when an increasing part of communications in society is based on the Internet....

  17. Broadband Polarizers Based on Graphene Metasurfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Guo, Tianjing


    We present terahertz (THz) metasurfaces based on aligned rectangular graphene patches placed on top of a dielectric layer to convert the transmitted linearly polarized waves to circular or elliptical polarized radiation. Our results lead to the design of an ultrathin broadband THz quarter-wave plate. In addition, ultrathin metasurfaces based on arrays of L-shaped graphene periodic patches are demonstrated to achieve broadband cross-polarization transformation in reflection and transmission. The proposed metasurface designs have tunable responses and are envisioned to become the building blocks of several integrated THz systems.

  18. A polarization-independent broadband terahertz absorber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi, Cheng; Zang, XiaoFei, E-mail:, E-mail:; Wang, YiQiao; Chen, Lin; Cai, Bin; Zhu, YiMing, E-mail:, E-mail: [Shanghai Key Laboratory of Modern Optical System and Engineering Research Center of Optical Instrument and System, Ministry of Education, University of Shanghai for Science and Technology, Shanghai 200093 (China)


    A highly efficient broadband terahertz absorber is designed, fabricated, and experimentally as well as theoretically evaluated. The absorber comprises a heavily doped silicon substrate and a well-designed two-dimensional grating. Due to the destructive interference of waves and diffraction, the absorber can achieve over 95% absorption in a broad frequency range from 1 to 2 THz and for angles of incidence from 0° to 60°. Such a terahertz absorber is also polarization-independent due to its symmetrical structure. This omnidirectional and broadband absorber have potential applications in anti-reflection coatings, imaging systems, and so on.

  19. Noise radar with broadband microwave ring correlator (United States)

    Susek, Waldemar; Stec, Bronislaw


    A principle of quadrature correlation detection of noise signals using an analog broadband microwave correlator is presented in the paper. Measurement results for the correlation function of noise signals are shown and application of such solution in the noise radar for precise determination of distance changes and velocity of these changes is also presented. Results for short range noise radar operation are presented both for static and moving objects. Experimental results using 2,6 - 3,6 GHz noise like waveform for the signal from a breathing human is presented. Conclusions and future plans for applications of presented detection technique in broadband noise radars bring the paper to an end.

  20. Broadband Waveform Modeling to Evaluate the USGS Seismic Velocity Model for the San Francisco Bay Area (United States)

    Rodgers, A.; Petersson, A.; Nilsson, S.; Sjogreen, B.; McCandless, K.


    As part of the 1906 San Francisco earthquake centenary, the USGS developed a three-dimensional seismic velocity and attenuation model for Northern California based on detailed geologic and geophysical constraints. The model was used to predict ground motions for the 1906 rupture. In this study we evaluate the model to assess its ability to accurately predict ground motions from moderate earthquakes recorded on broadband stations. Satisfactory prediction of ground motions from these events will provide hope for accurate modeling of future scenario earthquakes. Simulations were performed on large parallel computer(s) with a new elastic finite difference code developed at LLNL. We simulated broadband ground motions (0-0.25 Hz) for several moderate (magnitude 3.5-5.0) earthquakes in the region observed at Berkeley Digital Seismic Network (BDSN) broadband stations. These events are well located and can be modeled with simple point moment tensor sources (taken from the Berkeley Seismological Laboratory catalog), helping to isolate the effects of structure on the waveforms. These data sample the region's diverse tectonic structures, such as the bay muds, sedimentary basins and hard rock complexes. Preliminary results indicate that the simulations reproduce many important features in the data. For example, observed long duration surface waves are often predicted for complex paths (traveling across contrasting structures) and through sedimentary basins. Excellent waveform fits were frequently obtained for long-period comparisons (0.02-0.1) and good fits were often obtained for shorter periods. We will attempt higher frequency simulations to test the ability of the model to match the high frequency response. Finally, we performed large scenario earthquake simulations for the Hayward Fault. These simulations predict large amplifications across the Santa Clara and San Ramon/Livermore Valley sedimentary basins and with the Sacramento/San Joaquin River Delta.

  1. VT Total Broadband Availability by Census Block - 06-2013 (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) The VTBB201306 VT Broadband Availability Dataset represents wireline and wireless 'broadband service' availability in VT as of 6/30/2013. This...

  2. VT Public Locations of Broadband Data - 06-2011 (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) The VTBB201106 VT Broadband Availability Dataset represents wireline and wireless 'broadband service' availability in VT as of 6/30/2011. This...

  3. VT Public Locations of Broadband Data - 06-2010 (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) The VTBB201006 VT Broadband Availability Dataset represents wireline and wireless 'broadband service' availability in VT as of 6/30/2010. This...

  4. VT Total Broadband Availability by Census Block - 06-2011 (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) The VTBB201106 VT Broadband Availability Dataset represents wireline and wireless 'broadband service' availability in VT as of 6/30/2011. This...

  5. VT Cable Broadband Availability by Census Block - 06-2010 (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) The VTBB201006 VT Broadband Availability Dataset represents wireline and wireless 'broadband service' availability in VT as of 6/30/2010. This...

  6. VT Cable Broadband Availability by Census Block - 12-2012 (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) The VTBB201212 VT Broadband Availability Dataset represents wireline and wireless 'broadband service' availability in VT as of 12/31/2012. This...

  7. VT Wireless Broadband Availability by Census Block - 06-2010 (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) The VTBB201006 VT Broadband Availability Dataset represents wireline and wireless 'broadband service' availability in VT as of 6/30/2010. This...

  8. VT Total Broadband Availability by Census Block - 06-2010 (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) The VTBB201006 VT Broadband Availability Dataset represents wireline and wireless 'broadband service' availability in VT as of 6/30/2010. This...

  9. VT Wireline Broadband Availability by Census Block - 06-2010 (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) The VTBB201006 VT Broadband Availability Dataset represents wireline and wireless 'broadband service' availability in VT as of 6/30/2010. This...

  10. VT Detailed Broadband Availability by Census Block -12-2012 (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) The VTBB201212 VT Broadband Availability Dataset represents wireline and wireless 'broadband service' availability in VT as of 12/31/2012. This...

  11. VT DSL Broadband Availability by Census Block - 06-2011 (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) The VTBB201106 VT Broadband Availability Dataset represents wireline and wireless 'broadband service' availability in VT as of 6/30/2011. This...

  12. VT Detailed Broadband Availability by Census Block -12-2011 (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) The VTBB201112 VT Broadband Availability Dataset represents wireline and wireless 'broadband service' availability in VT as of 12/31/2011. This...

  13. VT Wireline Broadband Availability by Census Block - 12-2012 (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) The VTBB201212 VT Broadband Availability Dataset represents wireline and wireless 'broadband service' availability in VT as of 12/31/2012. This...

  14. VT Cable Broadband Availability by Census Block - 12-2011 (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) The VTBB201112 VT Broadband Availability Dataset represents wireline and wireless 'broadband service' availability in VT as of 12/31/2011. This...

  15. VT Detailed Broadband Availability by Census Block - 06-2010 (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) The VTBB201006 VT Broadband Availability Dataset represents wireline and wireless 'broadband service' availability in VT as of 6/30/2010. This...

  16. VT Detailed Broadband Availability by Census Block - 06-2011 (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) The VTBB201106 VT Broadband Availability Dataset represents wireline and wireless 'broadband service' availability in VT as of 6/30/2011. This...

  17. VT DSL Broadband Availability by Census Block - 12-2012 (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) The VTBB201212 VT Broadband Availability Dataset represents wireline and wireless 'broadband service' availability in VT as of 12/31/2012. This...

  18. VT Total Broadband Availability by Census Block - 12-2011 (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) The VTBB201112 VT Broadband Availability Dataset represents wireline and wireless 'broadband service' availability in VT as of 12/31/2011. This...

  19. VT Wireline Broadband Availability by Census Block - 12-2011 (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) The VTBB201112 VT Broadband Availability Dataset represents wireline and wireless 'broadband service' availability in VT as of 12/31/2011. This...

  20. VT Public Locations of Broadband Data - 12-2010 (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) The VTBB201012 VT Broadband Availability Dataset represents wireline and wireless 'broadband service' availability in VT as of 12/31/2010. This...

  1. VT Wireless Broadband Availability by Census Block - 12-2010 (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) The VTBB201012 VT Broadband Availability Dataset represents wireline and wireless 'broadband service' availability in VT as of 12/31/2010. This...

  2. VT DSL Broadband Availability by Census Block - 12-2010 (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) The VTBB201012 VT Broadband Availability Dataset represents wireline and wireless 'broadband service' availability in VT as of 12/31/2010. This...

  3. VT Detailed Broadband Availability by Census Block - 12-2010 (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) The VTBB201012 VT Broadband Availability Dataset represents wireline and wireless 'broadband service' availability in VT as of 12/31/2010. This...

  4. VT Wireline Broadband Availability by Census Block - 06-2011 (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) The VTBB201106 VT Broadband Availability Dataset represents wireline and wireless 'broadband service' availability in VT as of 6/30/2011. This...

  5. VT Cable Broadband Availability by Census Block - 12-2010 (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) The VTBB201012 VT Broadband Availability Dataset represents wireline and wireless 'broadband service' availability in VT as of 12/31/2010. This...

  6. VT Wireless Broadband Availability by Census Block - 12-2011 (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) The VTBB201112 VT Broadband Availability Dataset represents wireline and wireless 'broadband service' availability in VT as of 12/31/2011. This...

  7. VT Wireless Broadband Availability by Census Block - 12-2012 (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) The VTBB201212 VT Broadband Availability Dataset represents wireline and wireless 'broadband service' availability in VT as of 12/31/2012. This...

  8. VT Public Locations of Broadband Data - 12-2012 (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) The VTBB201212 VT Broadband Availability Dataset represents wireline and wireless 'broadband service' availability in VT as of 12/31/2012. This...

  9. VT Wireline Broadband Availability by Census Block - 12-2010 (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) The VTBB201012 VT Broadband Availability Dataset represents wireline and wireless 'broadband service' availability in VT as of 12/31/2010. This...

  10. VT Cable Broadband Availability by Census Block - 06-2011 (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) The VTBB201106 VT Broadband Availability Dataset represents wireline and wireless 'broadband service' availability in VT as of 6/30/2011. This...

  11. VT DSL Broadband Availability by Census Block - 12-2011 (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) The VTBB201112 VT Broadband Availability Dataset represents wireline and wireless 'broadband service' availability in VT as of 12/31/2011. This...

  12. VT Total Broadband Availability by Census Block - 12-2012 (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) The VTBB201212 VT Broadband Availability Dataset represents wireline and wireless 'broadband service' availability in VT as of 12/31/2012. This...

  13. VT DSL Broadband Availability by Census Block - 06-2010 (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) The VTBB201006 VT Broadband Availability Dataset represents wireline and wireless 'broadband service' availability in VT as of 6/30/2010. This...

  14. VT Total Broadband Availability by Census Block - 12-2010 (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) The VTBB201012 VT Broadband Availability Dataset represents wireline and wireless 'broadband service' availability in VT as of 12/31/2010. This...

  15. VT Public Locations of Broadband Data - 12-2011 (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) The VTBB201112 VT Broadband Availability Dataset represents wireline and wireless 'broadband service' availability in VT as of 12/31/2011. This...

  16. VT Wireless Broadband Availability by Census Block - 06-2011 (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) The VTBB201106 VT Broadband Availability Dataset represents wireline and wireless 'broadband service' availability in VT as of 6/30/2011. This...

  17. Broadband infrared absorption enhancement by electroless-deposited silver nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gritti Claudia


    Full Text Available Decorating semiconductor surfaces with plasmonic nanoparticles (NPs is considered a viable solution for enhancing the absorptive properties of photovoltaic and photodetecting devices. We propose to deposit silver NPs on top of a semiconductor wafer by a cheap and fast electroless plating technique. Optical characterization confirms that the random array of electroless-deposited NPs improves absorption by up to 20% in a broadband of near-infrared frequencies from the bandgap edge to 2000 nm. Due to the small filling fraction of particles, the reflection in the visible range is practically unchanged, which points to the possible applications of such deposition method for harvesting photons in nanophotonics and photovoltaics. The broadband absorption is a consequence of the resonant behavior of particles with different shapes and sizes, which strongly localize the incident light at the interface of a high-index semiconductor substrate. Our hypothesis is substantiated by examining the plasmonic response of the electroless-deposited NPs using both electron energy loss spectroscopy and numerical calculations.

  18. Ultra-broadband achromatic imaging with diffractive photon sieves (United States)

    Zhao, Xiaonan; Hu, Jingpei; Lin, Yu; Xu, Feng; Zhu, Xiaojun; Pu, Donglin; Chen, Linsen; Wang, Chinhua


    Diffractive optical elements suffer from large chromatic aberration due to the strong wavelength-dependent nature in diffraction phenomena, and therefore, diffractive elements can work only at a single designed wavelength, which significantly limits the applications of diffractive elements in imaging. Here, we report on a demonstration of a wavefront coded broadband achromatic imaging with diffractive photon sieves. The broadband diffraction imaging is implemented with a wavefront coded pinhole pattern that generates equal focusing power for a wide range of operating wavelength in a single thin-film element without complicated auxiliary optical system. Experimental validation was performed using an UV-lithography fabricated wavefront coded photon sieves. Results show that the working bandwidth of the wavefront coded photon sieves reaches 28 nm compared with 0.32 nm of the conventional one. Further demonstration of the achromatic imaging with a bandwidth of 300 nm is also performed with a wavefront coded photon sieves integrated with a refractive element.

  19. Broadband infrared absorption enhancement by electroless-deposited silver nanoparticles (United States)

    Gritti, Claudia; Raza, Søren; Kadkhodazadeh, Shima; Kardynal, Beata; Malureanu, Radu; Mortensen, N. Asger; Lavrinenko, Andrei V.


    Decorating semiconductor surfaces with plasmonic nanoparticles (NPs) is considered a viable solution for enhancing the absorptive properties of photovoltaic and photodetecting devices. We propose to deposit silver NPs on top of a semiconductor wafer by a cheap and fast electroless plating technique. Optical characterization confirms that the random array of electroless-deposited NPs improves absorption by up to 20% in a broadband of near-infrared frequencies from the bandgap edge to 2000 nm. Due to the small filling fraction of particles, the reflection in the visible range is practically unchanged, which points to the possible applications of such deposition method for harvesting photons in nanophotonics and photovoltaics. The broadband absorption is a consequence of the resonant behavior of particles with different shapes and sizes, which strongly localize the incident light at the interface of a high-index semiconductor substrate. Our hypothesis is substantiated by examining the plasmonic response of the electroless-deposited NPs using both electron energy loss spectroscopy and numerical calculations.

  20. Effects of strong disorder in strongly correlated superconductors (United States)

    Chakraborty, Debmalya; Sensarma, Rajdeep; Ghosal, Amit


    We investigate the effect of strong disorder on a system with strong electronic repulsion. In the absence of disorder, the system has a d-wave superconducting ground state with strong non-BCS features due to its proximity to a Mott insulator. We find that while strong correlations make superconductivity in this system immune to weak disorder, superconductivity is destroyed efficiently when disorder strength is comparable to the effective bandwidth. The suppression of charge motion in regions of strong potential fluctuation leads to the formation of Mott insulating patches, which anchor a larger nonsuperconducting region around them. The system thus breaks into islands of Mott insulating and superconducting regions, with Anderson insulating regions occurring along the boundary of these regions. Thus, electronic correlation and disorder, when both are strong, aid each other in destroying superconductivity, in contrast to their competition at weak disorder. Our results shed light on why zinc impurities are efficient in destroying superconductivity in cuprates, even though it is robust to weaker impurities.

  1. Change in triple play requirements and evolving broadband networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolfswinkel, R.N. van


    In the current broadband market there are many new developments regarding both services and the broadband infrastructures carrying those services. This paper will address what the requirements of services are towards broadband networks and how this will evolve over time. The focus will be on the req

  2. Requirements of triple play services towards broadband access networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolfswinkel, R.N. van


    In the current broadband market there are many new developments regarding both services and the broadband infrastructures carrying those services. This paper will address what the requirements of services are towards broadband networks. The focus will be on the requirements of triple play related se

  3. Broadband antenna with frequency scanning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Shekaturin


    Full Text Available Relevance of this study. The main advantage of frequency scanning is simplicity of implementation. At this point, multifunctional usage of microwave modules is an urgent task, as well as their maximum simpler and cheaper. Antenna design and operation. The study is aimed at providing electric antenna with frequency scanning. It was based on the log-periodic antenna due to its wideband and negotiation capability over the entire operating frequency range. For this distribution line is bent in an arc of a circle in a plane blade while vibrators are arranged along the radius. Computer modeling of antennas with frequency scanning. Modeled with a non-mechanical motion antenna beam emitters representing system for receiving a radio frequency signal on mobile objects calculated for 1.8 GHz ... 4.2 GHz. The simulation was performed in a software environment for numerical modeling of electromagnetic «Feko 5.5». Analysis of the interaction of radiation is based on the method of moments. Findings. The result of this work is to propose a new design of the antenna with a frequency scanning method as agreed in a wide frequency range. In the studied technical solution provided by the rotation of NAM in the frequency range, and the matching of the antenna to the feed line is maintained. Application of this type of antennas on the proposed technical solution in communication systems will improve the communication reliability by maintaining coordination in the frequency range


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rama K. Raju


    Full Text Available Now-a-days there is high demand for broadband mobile services. Traditional high-speed broadband solutions depend on wired technologies namely digital subscriber line (DSL. Wifi and Wimax are useful in providing any type of connectivity such as the fixed or portable or nomadic connectivity without the requirement of LoS (Line of Sight of the base station. Mobile Broadband Wireless Network (MBWN is a flexible and economical solution for remote areas where wired technology and also terminal mobility cannot be provided. The IEEE Wi-Fi and Wi-Max/802.16 are the most promising technologies for broadband wireless metropolitan area networks (WMANs and these are capable of providing high throughput even on long distances with varied QoS. These technologies ensure a wireless network that enables high speed Internet access to residential, small and medium business customers, as well as Internet access for WiFi hot spots and cellular base stations. These offer support to both point-to-multipoint (P2MP and multipoint-to-multipoint (mesh nodes and offers high speed data (voice, video service to the customers. In this paper, we study the issues related to, benefits and deployment of these technologies.


    design and synthesis of broadband varactor parametric amplifiers. The circuit considered in this thesis is that of linear variable capacitors embedded...second and more important inherent property is that, due to the frequency-coupling action of the variable capacitor , the scattering coefficient at the

  6. Broadband Satellite Technologies and Markets Assessed (United States)

    Wallett, Thomas M.


    The current usage of broadband (data rate greater than 64 kilobits per second (kbs)) for multimedia network computer applications is increasing, and the need for network communications technologies and systems to support this use is also growing. Satellite technology will likely be an important part of the National Information Infrastructure (NII) and the Global Information Infrastructure (GII) in the next decade. Several candidate communications technologies that may be used to carry a portion of the increased data traffic have been reviewed, and estimates of the future demand for satellite capacity have been made. A study was conducted by the NASA Lewis Research Center to assess the satellite addressable markets for broadband applications. This study effort included four specific milestones: (1) assess the changing nature of broadband applications and their usage, (2) assess broadband satellite and terrestrial technologies, (3) estimate the size of the global satellite addressable market from 2000 to 2010, and (4) identify how the impact of future technology developments could increase the utility of satellite-based transport to serve this market.

  7. The GREGOR Broad-Band Imager (United States)

    von der Lühe, O.; Volkmer, R.; Kentischer, T. J.; Geißler, R.


    The design and characteristics of the Broad-Band Imager (BBI) of GREGOR are described. BBI covers the visible spectral range with two cameras simultaneously for a large field and with critical sampling at 390 nm, and it includes a mode for observing the pupil in a Foucault configuration. Samples of first-light observations are shown.

  8. FMCW Radar with Broadband Communication Capability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barrenechea, P.; Elferink, F.H.; Janssen, J.A.A.J.


    The use of amplitude modulation to encode information onto an FMCW radar signal is proposed in this paper. This new technique, that has been named AM-FMCW communicating radar, provides a new channel for broadband communication by reusing the radar frequencies and without introducing any distortion i


    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)


    Broadband travelling wave semiconductor optical amplifier (100, 200, 300, 400, 800) for amplification of light, wherein the amplifier (100, 200, 300, 400, 800) comprises a waveguide region (101, 201, 301, 401, 801) for providing confinement of the light in transverse directions and adapted...

  10. Motion Simulator (United States)


    MOOG, Inc. supplies hydraulic actuators for the Space Shuttle. When MOOG learned NASA was interested in electric actuators for possible future use, the company designed them with assistance from Marshall Space Flight Center. They also decided to pursue the system's commercial potential. This led to partnership with InterActive Simulation, Inc. for production of cabin flight simulators for museums, expositions, etc. The resulting products, the Magic Motion Simulator 30 Series, are the first electric powered simulators. Movements are computer-guided, including free fall to heighten the sense of moving through space. A projection system provides visual effects, and the 11 speakers of a digital laser based sound system add to the realism. The electric actuators are easier to install, have lower operating costs, noise, heat and staff requirements. The U.S. Space & Rocket Center and several other organizations have purchased the simulators.

  11. Analisis Efektivitas Perangkat pada Program Desa Broadband Terpadu [Analysis of Device Effectiveness in Integrated Broadband Village Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilarion Hamjen


    Full Text Available Pemerintah berkomitmen mendukung pertumbuhan e-commerce dan ekonomi digital di Indonesia untuk mencapai visi Indonesia 2020 sebagai negara ekonomi digital terbesar di Asia Tenggara. Secara fundamental diperlukan dukungan konektivitas nasional dari tingkat pusat sampai ke tingkat lokal, salah satunya melalui program KPU/USO yaitu program DBT (Desa Broadband Terpadu. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui efektivitas perangkat pada program DBT phase 1 dan keterkaitannya dengan konektivitas, dengan menggunakan metode analisis kepentingan kinerja dan uji statistik Chi square. Berdasarkan hasil penelitian diketahui bahwa efektivitas perangkat meliputi variabel kondisi, fungsi, pemeliharaan dan pemanfaatan rata-rata adalah 84,5 persen. Dengan nilai efektivitas tersebut diketahui bahwa keseluruhan variabel kondisi perangkat, fungsi dan pemanfaatannya tidak mempengaruhi konektivitas.  *****The Indonesian government has a strong commitment in supporting the growth of e-commerce and Digital Economy in Indonesia to attain Indonesia’s vision by 2020 as the largest digital economy nation in Southeast Asia. Fundamentally, the national connectivity supports from central level to local level are needed, where one of them comes from Integrated Broadband Village program. This research determines the effectiveness of devices in the DBT program and its correlation to the connectivity, by using importance-performance analysis method and Chi-square statistical test. It is known from the result that the effectiveness of devices, including condition, function, maintenance, and utilization variables, achieves 84.5 percent on average. The value shows that all mentioned variables have insignificant correlations to the connectivity.

  12. Strong motions and engineering structure performances in recent major earthquakes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaojun Li


    @@ In recent years, a series of major earthquakes occurred, which resulted in considerable engineering damage and collapse, triggered heavy geological hazards, and caused extremely high casualties and huge property and economic loss. The earthquakes include the 1994 Northridge earthquake (M6.8), the 1995 Kobe earthquake (M6.8), the 1999 Izmit earthquake (M7.6), the 1999 Jiji (Chi-Chi) earthquake (M7.6), the 2005 northern Pakistan earthquake (M7.6), the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake (M8.0) and the 2010 Haiti earthquake (M7.0). Some villages, towns and even cities were devastated in the earthquakes, especially in the 2005 northern Pakistan earthquake, the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake and the 2010 Haiti earthquake.

  13. Management of broadband technology and innovation policy, deployment, and use

    CERN Document Server

    Choudrie, Jyoti


    When one considers broadband, the Internet immediately springs to mind. However, broadband is impacting society in many ways. For instance, broadband networks can be used to deliver healthcare or community related services to individuals who don't have computers, have distance as an issue to contend with, or don't use the internet. Broadband can support better management of scarce energy resources with the advent of smart grids, enables improved teleworking capacity and opens up a world of new entertainment possibilities. Yet scholarly examinations of broadband technology have so far examin

  14. Broadband sum frequency generation via chirped quasi-phase-matching

    CERN Document Server

    Rangelov, A A


    An efficient broadband sum frequency generation (SFG) technique using the two collinear optical parametric processes \\omega 3=\\omega 1+\\omega 2 and \\omega 4=\\omega 1+\\omega 3 is proposed. The technique uses chirped quasi-phase-matched gratings, which, in the undepleted pump approximation, make SFG analogous to adiabatic population transfer in three-state systems with crossing energies in quantum physics. If the local modulation period %for aperiodically poled quasi-phase-matching first makes the phase match occur for \\omega 3 and then for \\omega 4 SFG processes then the energy is converted adiabatically to the \\omega 4 field. Efficient SFG of the \\omega 4 field is also possible by the opposite direction of the local modulation sweep; then transient SFG of the \\omega 3 field is strongly reduced. Most of these features remain valid in the nonlinear regime of depleted pump.

  15. Broadband dielectric response of AlN ceramic composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iryna V. Brodnikovska


    Full Text Available Aluminium nitride (AlN is considered as a substrate material for microelectronic applications. AlN ceramic composites with different amount of TiO2 (up to 4 vol.% were obtained using hot pressing at different sintering temperature from 1700 to 1900 °C. It was shown that milling of the raw AlN powder has strongly influence on sintering and improves densification. Broadband dielectric spectroscopy was used as a nondestructive method for monitoring of the ceramic microstructures. TiO2 additive affects the key properties of AlN ceramics. Thus, porosity of 0.1 %, dielectric permeability of σ = 9.7 and dielectric loss tangent of tanδ = 1.3·10-3 can be achieved if up to 2 vol.% TiO2 is added.

  16. Broadband Meter-Wavelength Observations of Ionospheric Scintillation

    CERN Document Server

    Fallows, R A; McKay, D; Vierinen, J; Virtanen, I I; Postila, M; Ulich, Th; Enell, C-F; Kero, A; Iinatti, T; Lehtinen, M; Orispää, M; Raita, T; Roininen, L; Turunen, E; Brentjens, M; Ebbendorf, N; Gerbers, M; Grit, T; Gruppen, P; Meulman, H; Norden, M; de Reijer, J-P; Schoenmakers, A; Stuurwold, K


    Intensity scintillations of cosmic radio sources are used to study astrophysical plasmas like the ionosphere, the solar wind, and the interstellar medium. Normally these observations are relatively narrow band. With Low Frequency Array (LOFAR) technology at the Kilpisj\\"arvi Atmospheric Imaging Receiver Array (KAIRA) station in northern Finland we have observed scintillations over a 3 octave bandwidth. ``Parabolic arcs'', which were discovered in interstellar scintillations of pulsars, can provide precise estimates of the distance and velocity of the scattering plasma. Here we report the first observations of such arcs in the ionosphere and the first broad-band observations of arcs anywhere, raising hopes that study of the phenomenon may similarly improve the analysis of ionospheric scintillations. These observations were made of the strong natural radio source Cygnus-A and covered the entire 30-250\\,MHz band of KAIRA. Well-defined parabolic arcs were seen early in the observations, before transit, and disapp...

  17. Integrated Broadband Bowtie Antenna on Transparent Silica Substrate

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Xingyu; Wang, Shiyi; Subbaraman, Harish; Pan, Zeyu; Zhan, Qiwen; Chen, Ray T


    The bowtie antenna is a topic of growing interest in recent years. In this paper, we design, fabricate, and characterize a modified gold bowtie antenna integrated on a transparent silica substrate. The bowtie antenna is designed with broad RF bandwidth to cover the X-band in the electromagnetic spectrum. We numerically investigate the antenna characteristics, specifically its resonant frequency and enhancement factor. Our designed bowtie antenna provides a strong broadband electric field enhancement in its feed gap. Taking advantage of the low-k silica substrate, high enhancement factor can be achieved without the unwanted reflection and scattering from the backside silicon handle which is the issue of using an SOI substrate. We simulate the dependence of resonance frequency on bowtie geometry, and verify the simulation results through experimental investigation, by fabricating different sets of bowtie antennas on silica substrates and then measuring their resonance frequencies. In addition, the far-field rad...

  18. Local government broadband policies for areas with limited Internet access

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshio Arai


    Full Text Available Despite their wide diffusion in developed countries, broadband services are still limited in areas where providing them is not profitable for private telecom carriers. To address this, many local governments in Japan have implemented broadband deployment projects subsidized by the national government. In this paper, we discuss local government broadband policies based on survey data collected from municipalities throughout the country. With the support of national promotion policies, broadband services were rapidly introduced to most local municipalities in Japan during the 2000s. Local government deployment policies helped to reduce the number of areas with no broadband access. A business model based on the Indefeasible Right of Use (IRU contract between a private telecom carrier and a local government has been developed in recent years. Even local governments without the technical capacity to operate a broadband business can introduce broadband services into their territory using the IRU business model.

  19. Ground motion input in seismic evaluation studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sewell, R.T.; Wu, S.C.


    This report documents research pertaining to conservatism and variability in seismic risk estimates. Specifically, it examines whether or not artificial motions produce unrealistic evaluation demands, i.e., demands significantly inconsistent with those expected from real earthquake motions. To study these issues, two types of artificial motions are considered: (a) motions with smooth response spectra, and (b) motions with realistic variations in spectral amplitude across vibration frequency. For both types of artificial motion, time histories are generated to match target spectral shapes. For comparison, empirical motions representative of those that might result from strong earthquakes in the Eastern U.S. are also considered. The study findings suggest that artificial motions resulting from typical simulation approaches (aimed at matching a given target spectrum) are generally adequate and appropriate in representing the peak-response demands that may be induced in linear structures and equipment responding to real earthquake motions. Also, given similar input Fourier energies at high-frequencies, levels of input Fourier energy at low frequencies observed for artificial motions are substantially similar to those levels noted in real earthquake motions. In addition, the study reveals specific problems resulting from the application of Western U.S. type motions for seismic evaluation of Eastern U.S. nuclear power plants.

  20. Collective motion (United States)

    Vicsek, Tamás; Zafeiris, Anna


    We review the observations and the basic laws describing the essential aspects of collective motion - being one of the most common and spectacular manifestation of coordinated behavior. Our aim is to provide a balanced discussion of the various facets of this highly multidisciplinary field, including experiments, mathematical methods and models for simulations, so that readers with a variety of background could get both the basics and a broader, more detailed picture of the field. The observations we report on include systems consisting of units ranging from macromolecules through metallic rods and robots to groups of animals and people. Some emphasis is put on models that are simple and realistic enough to reproduce the numerous related observations and are useful for developing concepts for a better understanding of the complexity of systems consisting of many simultaneously moving entities. As such, these models allow the establishing of a few fundamental principles of flocking. In particular, it is demonstrated, that in spite of considerable differences, a number of deep analogies exist between equilibrium statistical physics systems and those made of self-propelled (in most cases living) units. In both cases only a few well defined macroscopic/collective states occur and the transitions between these states follow a similar scenario, involving discontinuity and algebraic divergences.

  1. Motion control report

    CERN Document Server


    Please note this is a short discount publication. In today's manufacturing environment, Motion Control plays a major role in virtually every project.The Motion Control Report provides a comprehensive overview of the technology of Motion Control:* Design Considerations* Technologies* Methods to Control Motion* Examples of Motion Control in Systems* A Detailed Vendors List

  2. Strongly nonlinear oscillators analytical solutions

    CERN Document Server

    Cveticanin, Livija


    This book provides the presentation of the motion of pure nonlinear oscillatory systems and various solution procedures which give the approximate solutions of the strong nonlinear oscillator equations. The book presents the original author’s method for the analytical solution procedure of the pure nonlinear oscillator system. After an introduction, the physical explanation of the pure nonlinearity and of the pure nonlinear oscillator is given. The analytical solution for free and forced vibrations of the one-degree-of-freedom strong nonlinear system with constant and time variable parameter is considered. Special attention is given to the one and two mass oscillatory systems with two-degrees-of-freedom. The criteria for the deterministic chaos in ideal and non-ideal pure nonlinear oscillators are derived analytically. The method for suppressing chaos is developed. Important problems are discussed in didactic exercises. The book is self-consistent and suitable as a textbook for students and also for profess...

  3. Spectrally engineered broadband photon source for two-photon quantum interferometry

    CERN Document Server

    Thomas, Abu; Minaeva, Olga; Simon, David; Sergienko, Alexander V


    We present a new approach to engineering broadband sources of entangled photon pairs for quantum interferometry. The source is based on quasi-phase-matched spontaneous parametric down conversion in a titanium diffused periodically poled lithium niobate waveguide with a strongly-chirped poling period. The proposed non-standard asymmetric poling mitigates phase distortions associated with the process of chirping. Asymmetric poling significantly broadens the entangled source bandwidth while preserving high visibility quantum interferometric sensing.


    Romanowicz, B. A.; Taira, T.; Dolenc, D.; McGill, P. R.; Neuhauser, D. S.


    The Monterey Ocean Bottom Broadband (MOBB) observatory has been acquiring broadband seismic data and auxiliary channels (differential pressure and current meter) since its installation on the ocean floor in Monterey Bay, at 1000 m water depth and 40 km off-shore. Operating autonomously for almost 7 years, the system was successfully connected to the MARS cable ( on February 26th, 2009, via a 3.6 km extension cable from the MARS science node. The system works as designed and is currently streaming data from seismic, pressure, and water-current sensors to the Berkeley Seismological Laboratory, where it joins data from other broadband stations on land and is archived at the Northern California Earthquake Data Center. The availability of real-time MOBB broadband seismic data provides an opportunity for improving earthquake-monitoring capability in central California, particularly near the Santa Cruz Mountains segment of the San Andreas fault, and the San Gregorio fault. While buried in the mud, MOBB is affected by oceanic sources of noise, which are particularly strong in the infragravity wave band, and care must be taken to reduce this background noise in post-processing. We present examples of data analysis and illustrate how MOBB contributes to the determination of source parameters and regional structure.

  5. Sensitivity Limits of Deep Average Broadband Microwave and Mm-Wave Spectra (United States)

    Muckle, Matt T.; Zaleski, Daniel P.; Steber, Amanda; Harris, Brent; Pate, Brooks H.


    High-speed digitizers have enabled the field of broadband molecular rotational spectroscopy at microwave-to-THz frequencies. Improvements in data throughput from these digitizers makes it feasible to perform deep averages (often more than 1 million time-domain averages of the free induction decay) to increase the measurement sensitivity. The use of broadband signal detection introduces new issues that are key for determining the practical sensitivity limits of these spectrometers. The practical limit on spectrometer sensitivity is often set by the number of spurious signals that are generated by the molecular signals themselves. For example, in cases where the molecular signals are down converted prior to digitization, the spectral purity of the local oscillator is crucial with spurious frequencies introducing spectral images. It is also possible to generate new local oscillator frequencies within the broadband mixers typically used in the broadband down conversion. A second issue it the potential for a vast number of intermodulation (IM) spurious signals resulting from the beating of two strong molecular transitions. This beat frequency can subsequently modulate all other molecular signals adding sidebands to all transitions at the beat frequency of the transition pair. This talk will summarize our experience with the spurious signal levels coming from these effects and the strategies we have adopted to minimize spurious signals in spectra where high sensitivity is necessary.

  6. Broadband DOA Estimation Based on Nested Arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-bo Shen


    Full Text Available Direction of arrival (DOA estimation is a crucial problem in electronic reconnaissance. A novel broadband DOA estimation method utilizing nested arrays is devised in this paper, which is capable of estimating the frequencies and DOAs of multiple narrowband signals in broadbands, even though they may have different carrier frequencies. The proposed method converts the DOA estimation of multiple signals with different frequencies into the spatial frequency estimation. Then, the DOAs and frequencies are pair matched by sparse recovery. It is possible to significantly increase the degrees of freedom (DOF with the nested arrays and the number of sources can be more than that of sensor array. In addition, the method can achieve high estimation precision without the two-dimensional search process in frequency and angle domain. The validity of the proposed method is verified by theoretic analysis and simulation results.

  7. Broadband Visible Light Induced NO Formation (United States)

    Lubart, Rachel; Eichler, Maor; Friedmann, Harry; Savion, N.; Breitbart, Haim; Ankri, Rinat


    Nitric oxide formation is a potential mechanism for photobiomodulation because it is synthesized in cells by nitric oxide synthase (NOS), which contains both flavin and heme, and thus absorbs visible light. The purpose of this work was to study broadband visible light induced NO formation in various cells. Cardiac, endothelial, sperm cells and RAW 264.7 macrophages were illuminated with broadband visible light, 40-130 mW/cm2, 2.4-39 J/cm2, and nitric oxide production was quantified by using the Griess reagent. The results showed that visible light illumination increased NO concentration both in sperm and endothelial cells, but not in cardiac cells. Activation of RAW 264.7 macrophages was very small. It thus appears that NO is involved in photobiomodulation, though different light parameters and illumination protocols are needed to induce NO in various cells.

  8. Broad-band acoustic hyperbolic metamaterial

    CERN Document Server

    Shen, Chen; Sui, Ni; Wang, Wenqi; Cummer, Steven A; Jing, Yun


    Acoustic metamaterials (AMMs) are engineered materials, made from subwavelength structures, that exhibit useful or unusual constitutive properties. There has been intense research interest in AMMs since its first realization in 2000 by Liu et al. A number of functionalities and applications have been proposed and achieved using AMMs. Hyperbolic metamaterials are one of the most important types of metamaterials due to their extreme anisotropy and numerous possible applications, including negative refraction, backward waves, spatial filtering, and subwavelength imaging. Although the importance of acoustic hyperbolic metamaterials (AHMMs) as a tool for achieving full control of acoustic waves is substantial, the realization of a broad-band and truly hyperbolic AMM has not been reported so far. Here, we demonstrate the design and experimental characterization of a broadband AHMM that operates between 1.0 kHz and 2.5 kHz.

  9. An ultra-broadband multilayered graphene absorber

    KAUST Repository

    Amin, Muhammad


    An ultra-broadband multilayered graphene absorber operating at terahertz (THz) frequencies is proposed. The absorber design makes use of three mechanisms: (i) The graphene layers are asymmetrically patterned to support higher order surface plasmon modes that destructively interfere with the dipolar mode and generate electromagnetically induced absorption. (ii) The patterned graphene layers biased at different gate voltages backedup with dielectric substrates are stacked on top of each other. The resulting absorber is polarization dependent but has an ultra-broadband of operation. (iii) Graphene\\'s damping factor is increased by lowering its electron mobility to 1000cm 2=Vs. Indeed, numerical experiments demonstrate that with only three layers, bandwidth of 90% absorption can be extended upto 7THz, which is drastically larger than only few THz of bandwidth that can be achieved with existing metallic/graphene absorbers. © 2013 Optical Society of America.

  10. A 12 GHz broadband latching circulator (United States)

    Katoh, Y.; Konishi, H.; Sakamoto, K.

    The two kinds of latching circulators, external return path and internal return path, are defined, noting the advantages (faster switching speed, lower switching energy, less complicated fabrication) offered by the internal configuration. It is noted, however, that this kind of circulator is difficult to make broadband because the return paths do not seem to act as part of the ferrite junction. The development of a 12-GHz broadband, internal return path circulator with impedance matching transformer and in-phase adjustment screws designed using eigenvalue measurement is described. In describing the operating characteristics, it is noted that more than 25 dB isolation over 11 GHz to 13.5 GHz and 0.25 dB insertion loss is obtained.

  11. Broadband S-band class E HPA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wanum, van M.; Dijk, van R.; Hek, de A.P.; Vliet, van F.E.


    A broadband class E High Power Amplifier (HPA) is presented. This HPA is designed to operate at S-band (2.75 to 3.75 GHz). A power added efficiency of 50% is obtained for the two stage amplifier with an output power of 35.5 dBm on a chip area of 5.25 times 2.8 mm2.

  12. Broadband S-band Class E HPA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wanum, M. van; Dijk, R. van; Hek, A.P. de; Vliet, F.E. van


    A broadband class E High Power Amplifier (HPA) is presented. This HPA is designed to operate at S-band (2.75 to 3.75 GHz). A power added efficiency of 50% is obtained for the two stage amplifier with an output power of 35.5 dBm on a chip area of 5.25 × 2.8 mm2.

  13. Broadband luminescence in liquid-solid transition

    CERN Document Server

    Achilov, M F; Trunilina, O V


    Broadband luminescence (BBL) intensity behavior in liquid-solid transition in polyethyleneglycol-600 has been established. Oscillation of BBL intensity observed in liquid-polycrystal transition are not found to observed in liquid-amorphous solid transition. It is shown that application of the theory of electron state tails to interpretation of BBL spectral properties in liquids demands restriction. BBL spectroscopy may be applied for optimization of preparation of polymers with determined properties. (author)

  14. Enhanced broadband optical transmission in metallized woodpiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malureanu, Radu; Alabastri, A.; Cheng, W.;


    We present an optimized isotropic metal deposition technique used for covering three-dimensional polymer structures with a 50 nm smooth silver layer. The technology allows fast and isotropic coating of complex 3D dielectric structures with thin silver layers. Transmission measurements of 3D...... metallized woodpiles reveal a new phenomenon of enhanced optical transmission in broadband range (up to 300 nm) in the near IR....

  15. Metamaterial Coatings for Broadband Asymmetric Mirrors

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, A; Hasegawa, K; Podolskiy, V A; Chen, Aiqing; Deutsch, Miriam; Hasegawa, Keisuke; Podolskiy, Viktor A.


    We report on design and fabrication of nano-composite metal-dielectric thin film coatings with high reflectance asymmetries. Applying basic dispersion engineering principles to model a broadband and large reflectance asymmetry, we obtain a model dielectric function for the metamaterial film, closely resembling the effective permittivity of disordered metal-dielectric nano-composites. Coatings realized using disordered nanocrystalline silver films deposited on glass substrates confirm the theoretical predictions, exhibiting symmetric transmittance, large reflectance asymmetries and a unique flat reflectance asymmetry.

  16. Broadband Spectroscopy of Nanoporous-Gold Promoter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. K. Nakatani


    Full Text Available The efficiency of UV photocatalysis on TiO2 particles was increased by mixing TiO2 particles with nanoporous gold (NPG with pore diameters of 10–40 nm. This means that NPG acts as a promoter in the photocatalytic reaction of TiO2. Broadband spectroscopic results from millimeter wave to ultra violet of NPG membrane are discussed to estimate plasmonic effect on the catalysis.

  17. Diagonalizing sensing matrix of broadband RSE (United States)

    Sato, Shuichi; Kokeyama, Keiko; Kawazoe, Fumiko; Somiya, Kentaro; Kawamura, Seiji


    For a broadband-operated RSE interferometer, a simple and smart length sensing and control scheme was newly proposed. The sensing matrix could be diagonal, owing to a simple allocation of two RF modulations and to a macroscopic displacement of cavity mirrors, which cause a detuning of the RF modulation sidebands. In this article, the idea of the sensing scheme and an optimization of the relevant parameters will be described.

  18. Design and fabrication of broadband rugate filter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhaug Jun-Chao; Fang Ming; Shao Yu-Chuan; Jin Yun-Xia; He Hong-Bo


    The design and the deposition of a rugate filter for broadband applications are discussed.The bandwidth is extended by increasing the rugate period continuously with depth.The width and the smoothness of the reflection band with the distribution of the periods are investigated.The improvement of the steepness of the stopband edges and the suppression of the side lobes in the transmission zone are realized by adding two apodized rugate structures with fixed periods at the external broadband rngate filter interfaces.The rapidly alternating deposition technology is used to fabricate a rugate filter sample.The measured transmission spectrum with a reflection bandwidth of approximately 505 nm is close to that of the designed broadband rugate filter except a transmittance peak in the stopband.Based on the analysis of the cross-sectional scanning electron microscopic image of the sample,it is found that the transmission peak is most likely to be caused by the instability of the deposition rate.

  19. Broadband electromagnetic analysis of compacted kaolin (United States)

    Bore, Thierry; Wagner, Norman; Cai, Caifang; Scheuermann, Alexander


    The mechanical compaction of soil influences not only the mechanical strength and compressibility but also the hydraulic behavior in terms of hydraulic conductivity and soil suction. At the same time, electric and dielectric parameters are increasingly used to characterize soil and to relate them with mechanic and hydraulic parameters. In the presented study electromagnetic soil properties and suction were measured under defined conditions of standardized compaction tests. The impact of external mechanical stress conditions of nearly pure kaolinite was analyzed on soil suction and broadband electromagnetic soil properties. An experimental procedure was developed and validated to simultaneously determine mechanical, hydraulic and broadband (1 MHz-3 GHz) electromagnetic properties of the porous material. The frequency dependent electromagnetic properties were modeled with a classical mixture equation (advanced Lichtenecker and Rother model, ALRM) and a hydraulic-mechanical-electromagnetic coupling approach was introduced considering water saturation, soil structure (bulk density, porosity), soil suction (pore size distribution, water sorption) as well as electrical conductivity of the aqueous pore solution. Moreover, the relaxation behavior was analyzed with a generalized fractional relaxation model concerning a high-frequency water process and two interface processes extended with an apparent direct current conductivity contribution. The different modeling approaches provide a satisfactory agreement with experimental data for the real part. These results show the potential of broadband electromagnetic approaches for quantitative estimation of the hydraulic state of the soil during densification.

  20. Pacific Array (Transportable Broadband Ocean Floor Array) (United States)

    Kawakatsu, Hitoshi; Ekstrom, Goran; Evans, Rob; Forsyth, Don; Gaherty, Jim; Kennett, Brian; Montagner, Jean-Paul; Utada, Hisashi


    Based on recent developments on broadband ocean bottom seismometry, we propose a next generation large-scale array experiment in the ocean. Recent advances in ocean bottom broadband seismometry1, together with advances in the seismic analysis methodology, have enabled us to resolve the regional 1-D structure of the entire lithosphere/asthenosphere system, including seismic anisotropy (azimuthal, and hopefully radial), with deployments of ~15 broadband ocean bottom seismometers (BBOBSs). Having ~15 BBOBSs as an array unit for a 2-year deployment, and repeating such deployments in a leap-frog way or concurrently (an array of arrays) for a decade or so would enable us to cover a large portion of the Pacific basin. Such efforts, not only by giving regional constraints on the 1-D structure beneath Pacific ocean, but also by sharing waveform data for global scale waveform tomography, would drastically increase our knowledge of how plate tectonics works on this planet, as well as how it worked for the past 150 million years. International collaborations is essential: if three countries/institutions participate this endeavor together, Pacific Array may be accomplished within five-or-so years.

  1. A broadband two axis flux-gate magnetometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Palangio


    Full Text Available A broadband two axis flux-gate magnetometer was developed to obtain high sensitivity in magnetotelluric measurements. In magnetotelluric sounding, natural low frequency electromagnetic fields are used to estimate the conductivity of the Earth's interior. Because variations in the natural magnetic field have small amplitude(10-100 pT in the frequency range 1 Hz to 100 Hz, highly sensitive magnetic sensors are required. In magnetotelluric measurements two long and heavy solenoids, which must be installed, in the field station, perpendicular to each other (north-south and east-west and levelled in the horizontal plane are used. The coil is a critical component in magnetotelluric measurements because very slight motions create noise voltages, particularly troublesome in wooded areas; generally the installation takes place in a shallow trench. Moreover the coil records the derivative of the variations rather than the magnetic field variations, consequently the transfer function (amplitude and phase of this sensor is not constant throughout the frequency range 0.001-100 Hz. The instrument, developed at L'Aquila Geomagnetic Observatory, has a flat response in both amplitude and phase in the frequency band DC-100 Hz, in addition it has low weight, low power, small volume and it is easier to install in the field than induction magnetometers. The sensivity of this magnetometer is 10 pT rms.

  2. Broadband measurements of aerosol extinction in the ultraviolet spectral region (United States)

    Washenfelder, R. A.; Flores, J. M.; Brock, C. A.; Brown, S. S.; Rudich, Y.


    Aerosols influence the Earth's radiative budget by scattering and absorbing incoming solar radiation. The optical properties of aerosols vary as a function of wavelength, but few measurements have reported the wavelength dependence of aerosol extinction cross sections and complex refractive indices. We describe a new laboratory instrument to measure aerosol optical extinction as a function of wavelength, using cavity enhanced spectroscopy with a broadband light source. The instrument consists of two broadband channels which span the 360-390 and 385-420 nm spectral regions using two light emitting diodes (LED) and a grating spectrometer with charge-coupled device (CCD) detector. We determined aerosol extinction cross sections and directly observed Mie scattering resonances for aerosols that are purely scattering (polystyrene latex spheres and ammonium sulfate), slightly absorbing (Suwannee River fulvic acid), and strongly absorbing (nigrosin dye). We describe an approach for retrieving refractive indices as a function of wavelength from the measured extinction cross sections over the 360-420 nm wavelength region. The retrieved refractive indices for PSL and ammonium sulfate agree within uncertainty with the literature values for this spectral region. The refractive index determined for nigrosin is 1.78 (± 0.03) + 0.19 (± 0.08)i at 360 nm and 1.63 (± 0.03) + 0.21 (± 0.05)i at 420 nm. The refractive index determined for Suwannee River fulvic acid is 1.71 (± 0.02) + 0.07 (± 0.06)i at 360 nm and 1.66 (± 0.02) + 0.06 (± 0.04)i at 420 nm. These laboratory results support the potential for a field instrument capable of determining ambient aerosol optical extinction, average aerosol extinction cross section, and complex refractive index as a function of wavelength.

  3. Tunable Dielectric Materials and Devices for Broadband Wireless Communications (United States)

    Mueller, Carl H.; Miranda, Felix A.; Dayton, James A. (Technical Monitor)


    Wireless and satellite communications are a rapidly growing industries which are slated for explosive growth into emerging countries as well as countries with advanced economies. The dominant trend in wireless communication systems is towards broadband applications such as multimedia file transfer, video transmission and Internet access. These applications require much higher data transmission rates than those currently used for voice transmission applications. To achieve these higher data rates, substantially larger bandwidths and higher carrier frequencies are required. A key roadblock to implementing these systems at K-band (18-26.5 GHz) and Ka-band (26.5-40 GHz) is the need to develop hardware which meets the requirements for high data rate transmission in a cost effective manner. In this chapter, we report on the status of tunable dielectric thin films for devices, such as resonators, filters, phased array antennas, and tunable oscillators, which utilize nonlinear tuning in the control elements. Paraelectric materials such as Barium Strontium Titanate ((Ba, Sr)TiO3) have dielectric constants which can be tuned by varying the magnitude of the electric field across the material. Therefore, these materials can be used to control the frequency and/or phase response of various devices such as electronically steerable phased array antennas, oscillators, and filters. Currently, tunable dielectric devices are being developed for applications which require high tunability, low loss, and good RF power-handling capabilities at microwave and millimeter-wave frequencies. These properties are strongly impacted by film microstructure and device design, and considerable developmental work is still required. However, in the last several years enormous progress has occurred in this field, validating the potential of tunable dielectric technology for broadband wireless communication applications. In this chapter we summarize how film processing techniques, microwave test

  4. Bright broadband coherent fiber sources emitting strongly blue-shifted resonant dispersive wave pulses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tu, Haohua; Lægsgaard, Jesper; Zhang, Rui;


    We predict and realize the targeted wavelength conversion from the 1550-nm band of a fs Er:fiber laser to an isolated band inside 370-850 nm, corresponding to a blue-shift of 700-1180 nm. The conversion utilizes resonant dispersive wave generation in widely available optical fibers with good...

  5. Incoherent broadband optical pulse generation using an optical gate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Biao Chen; Qiong Jiang


    In two-dimensional (2D) time-spreading/wavelength-hopping optical code division multiple access (OCDMA) systems, employing less coherent broadband optical pulse sources allows lower electrical operating rate and better system performance. An optical gate based scheme for generating weakly coherent(approximately incoherent) broadband optical pulses was proposed and experimentally demonstrated. Inthis scheme, the terahertz optical asymmetric demultiplexer, together with a coherent narrowband controlpulse source, turns an incoherent broadband continuous-wave (CW) light source into the required pulse source.

  6. Broadband tonpilz underwater acoustic transducers based on multimode optimization


    Yao, Qingshan; Jensen, Leif Bjørnø


    Head flapping has often been considered to be deleterious for obtaining a tonpilz transducer with broadband, high power performance. In the present work, broadband, high power tonpilz transducers have been designed using the finite element (FE) method. Optimized vibrational modes including the flapping mode of the head are effectively used to achieve the broadband performance. The behavior of the transducer in its longitudinal piston mode and in its flapping mode is analysed for in-air and in...

  7. A multievent study of broadband electrons observed by the DMSP satellites and their relation to red aurora observed at midlatitude stations (United States)

    Shiokawa, K.; Meng, C.-I.; Reeves, G. D.; Rich, F. J.; Yumoto, K.


    Broadband electrons during magnetic storms are characterized by an unusually intense flux of precipitating electrons in the broadband energy range from 30 eV to 30 keV near the equatorward edge of the auroral oval (47°-66° magnetic latitude). Broadband electrons were first reported by Shiokawa et al. [1996]. In this paper, we report a multievent study of broadband electrons, using particle data obtained by the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) satellites during 23 magnetic storms from January 1989 through May 1992. Twelve broadband electron events are identified. Most of them are observed in the night sector, but some are observed in the morning sector. Particle data for successive polar passes of the DMSP multisatellites are used to show that broadband electrons generally last for less than 30 min and that for some events, they precipitate over a wide range of local times simultaneously. On the basis of a quantitative calculation of optical emissions from electrons in the neutral atmosphere, we conclude that broadband electrons are a possible cause of red auroras observed at midlatitude ground stations. We suggest that broadband electrons are associated with certain substorms during the main phase of magnetic storms. This conjecture comes from observations of H component positive bays and Pi 2 pulsations observed at low-latitude magnetic stations and from magnetic field variations observed at geosynchronous satellites. We conclude that the magnetospheric source of broadband electrons lies within the inner part of the plasma sheet. This conclusion is based on the facts that broadband electrons appear in latitudes where plasma sheet particles were observed before the event and that broadband electrons are observed poleward of the subauroral ion drifts, a position that corresponds to the inner edge of the injected particle layer during storms. High-energy particle data obtained at geosynchronous satellites show that both strong magnetopause

  8. The "motion silencing" illusion results from global motion and crowding. (United States)

    Turi, Marco; Burr, David


    Suchow and Alvarez (2011) recently devised a striking illusion, where objects changing in color, luminance, size, or shape appear to stop changing when they move. They refer to the illusion as "motion silencing of awareness to visual change." Here we present evidence that the illusion results from two perceptual processes: global motion and crowding. We adapted Suchow and Alvarez's stimulus to three concentric rings of dots, a central ring of "target dots" flanked on either side by similarly moving flanker dots. Subjects had to identify in which of two presentations the target dots were continuously changing (sinusoidally) in size, as distinct from the other interval in which size was constant. The results show: (a) Motion silencing depends on target speed, with a threshold around 0.2 rotations per second (corresponding to about 10°/s linear motion). (b) Silencing depends on both target-flanker spacing and eccentricity, with critical spacing about half eccentricity, consistent with Bouma's law. (c) The critical spacing was independent of stimulus size, again consistent with Bouma's law. (d) Critical spacing depended strongly on contrast polarity. All results imply that the "motion silencing" illusion may result from crowding.

  9. Ground motion-simulations of 1811-1812 New Madrid earthquakes, central United States (United States)

    Ramirez-Guzman, L.; Graves, Robert; Olsen, Kim B.; Boyd, Oliver; Cramer, Chris H.; Hartzell, Stephen; Ni, Sidao; Somerville, Paul G.; Williams, Robert; Zhong, Jinquan


    We performed a suite of numerical simulations based on the 1811–1812 New Madrid seismic zone (NMSZ) earthquakes, which demonstrate the importance of 3D geologic structure and rupture directivity on the ground‐motion response throughout a broad region of the central United States (CUS) for these events. Our simulation set consists of 20 hypothetical earthquakes located along two faults associated with the current seismicity trends in the NMSZ. The hypothetical scenarios range in magnitude from M 7.0 to 7.7 and consider various epicenters, slip distributions, and rupture characterization approaches. The low‐frequency component of our simulations was computed deterministically up to a frequency of 1 Hz using a regional 3D seismic velocity model and was combined with higher‐frequency motions calculated for a 1D medium to generate broadband synthetics (0–40 Hz in some cases). For strike‐slip earthquakes located on the southwest–northeast‐striking NMSZ axial arm of seismicity, our simulations show 2–10 s period energy channeling along the trend of the Reelfoot rift and focusing strong shaking northeast toward Paducah, Kentucky, and Evansville, Indiana, and southwest toward Little Rock, Arkansas. These waveguide effects are further accentuated by rupture directivity such that an event with a western epicenter creates strong amplification toward the northeast, whereas an eastern epicenter creates strong amplification toward the southwest. These effects are not as prevalent for simulations on the reverse‐mechanism Reelfoot fault, and large peak ground velocities (>40  cm/s) are typically confined to the near‐source region along the up‐dip projection of the fault. Nonetheless, these basin response and rupture directivity effects have a significant impact on the pattern and level of the estimated intensities, which leads to additional uncertainty not previously considered in magnitude estimates of the 1811–1812 sequence based only on historical

  10. Motion in radiotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korreman, Stine Sofia


    This review considers the management of motion in photon radiation therapy. An overview is given of magnitudes and variability of motion of various structures and organs, and how the motion affects images by producing artifacts and blurring. Imaging of motion is described, including 4DCT and 4DPET...

  11. Classification and characterization of multi-pulse near-fault strong ground motion in Taiwan Chi-Chi earthquake event%台湾集集地震近断层多脉冲地震动分类及特性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柳春光; 夏春旭


    提出一种基于小波方法的考虑近断层多个脉冲地震动的分析方法(multiple pulse analysis,MPA),选取 COSMOS 地震动数据库台湾集集地震事件中断层距小于30 km 的83组水平向地震动的数据,阐述了 MPA 方法的原理与实现,并利用 MPA方法识别与分析了63组属于脉冲波的地震动速度时程。结果表明,考虑多个脉冲波对分析近断层脉冲型地震动特性的必要性,并讨论了断层距对近断层脉冲震动最强方向与理论方向差值,以及显著小波个数的影响关系。%A multiple pulse analysis (MPA)method is proposed to classify and characterize the near-fault earthquake characteri-zing multiple pulses based on wavelets method.83 sets of horizontal strong ground motions whose closest distance to fault are all kept within 30 km from Taiwan Chi-Chi earthquake are selected from the COSMOS virtual data center for analysis.The principle of MPA is depicted in details,and 63 sets of earthquake records chosen previously are classified as pulse-like ground motion by MPA method.The results indicate that the MPA method provides a better representation and classification performanle for near-fault earthquake records characterizing multiple pulses.The influences of the closest distance to fault on the difference between the strongest direction and the theoretical strongest direction as well as the number of pulse are also discussed.

  12. Investigation of broadband digital predistortion for broadband radio over fiber transmission systems (United States)

    Zhang, Xiupu; Liu, Taijun; Shen, Dongya


    In future broadband cloud radio access networks (C-RAN), front-haul transmission systems play a significant role in performance and cost of C-RAN. Broadband and high linearity radio over fiber (RoF) transmission systems are considered a promising solution for the front-haul. Digital linearization is one possible solution for RoF front-haul. In this paper, we investigate RF domain digital predistortion (DPD) linearization for broadband RoF front-haul. The implemented DPD is first investigated in 2.4 GHz WiFi over fiber transmission systems at 36 Mb/s, and more than 8-dB and 5.6-dB improvements of error vector magnitude (EVM) are achieved in back to back (BTB) and after 10 km single mode fiber (SMF) transmission. Further, both WiFi and ultra wide band (UWB) wireless signals are transmitted together, in which the DPD has linearization bandwidth of 2.4 GHz. It is shown that the implemented DPD leads to EVM improvements of 4.5-dB (BTB) and 3.1-dB (10 km SMF) for the WiFi signal, and 4.6-dB (BTB) and 4-dB (10 km SMF) for the broadband UWB signal.

  13. A novel broadband waterborne acoustic absorber (United States)

    Wang, Changxian; Wen, Weibin; Huang, Yixing; Chen, Mingji; Lei, Hongshuai; Fang, Daining


    In this paper, we extended the ray tracing theory in polar coordinate system, and originally proposed the Snell-Descartes law in polar coordinates. Based on these theories, a novel broadband waterborne acoustic absorber device was proposed. This device is designed with gradient-distributing materials along radius, which makes the incidence acoustic wave ray warps. The echo reduction effects of this device were investigated by finite element analysis, and the numerical results show that the reflectivity of acoustic wave for the new device is lower than that of homogenous and Alberich layers in almost all frequency 0-30 kHz at the same loss factor.

  14. Source of broadband Jovian Kilometric radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, D.; Leblanc, Y.


    Broadband Jovian Kilometric radiation was observed by Voyagers 1 and 2 to be beamed away from the zenomagnetic equatorial plane. Two theories were proposed for the equatorial shadow zone. One suggested that Io plasma torus forms an obstacle to radiation produced on auroral field lines. The other theory proposed that the source is located on the outer flanks of the torus, the beaming being inherent to the emission mechanism. Results are presented which indicate that the latter is consistent with the observations and it would appear that the emission is produced by linear mode conversion of electrostatic upper hybrid to electromagnetic waves in plasma density gradients.

  15. Optical broadband monitoring of thin film growth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    H.Ehlers; T.Groβ; M.Lappschies; D.Ristau


    This contribution is focused on applications of spectroscopic methods for the precise control of deposition processes. In this context, the present study gives a review on selected combinations of conventional and ion deposition techniques with different broadband online spectrophotometric systems. Besides two systems operating in the VIS- and NIR-spectral range in combination with ion processes, also a monochromator system developed for conventional deposition processes in the DUV/VUV-spectral range will be discussed. The considerations will be concluded by a comparison of the major advantages of the specific combinations of processes with online monitoring concepts and by a brief outlook concerning future challenges.

  16. Fibre laser based broadband THz imaging systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eichhorn, Finn

    State-of-the-art optical fiber technology can contribute towards complex multi-element broadband terahertz imaging systems. Classical table-top terahertz imaging systems are generally limited to a single emitter/receiver pair, which constrains their imaging capability to tedious raster scanning...... imaging techniques. This thesis exhibits that fiber technology can improve the robustness and the flexibility of terahertz imaging systems both by the use of fiber-optic light sources and the employment of optical fibers as light distribution medium. The main focus is placed on multi-element terahertz...

  17. Strong vector valued integrals

    CERN Document Server

    Beckmann, Ralf


    Strong Bochner type integrals with values in locally convex spaces are introduced. It is shown that the strong integral exists in the same cases as the weak (Gelfand-Pettis) integral is known to exist. The strong integral has better continuity properties that the weak integral.

  18. Mid-infrared broadband absorber of full semiconductor epi-layers (United States)

    Wang, Shaohua; Wang, Yufei; Zhang, Siriguleng; Zheng, Wanhua


    We demonstrate mid-infrared dual channel near-perfect absorbers based on full semiconductor epi-layers theoretically. Strong absorption (>99.9%) is observed at 25.04 THz. Through introducing composite grating and controlling the thickness of the dielectric layer, we can get a broadband absorption with absorptivity above 80% at the range from 8 μm to 12 μm with a good incidence angle tolerance. The structure investigated in this paper shows a broadband, all-semiconductor, plasmonic architecture, which is of great importance for many applications such as bolometers, cloaking, imaging devices and also can be used in enhancing interaction of mid-infrared radiation with integrated semiconductor optoelectronic elements.

  19. Broadband light scattering spectroscopy utilizing an ultra-narrowband holographic notch filter (United States)

    Fujii, Yasuhiro; Katayama, Daisuke; Koreeda, Akitoshi


    The broadband spectroscopic analysis over Brillouin, quasi-elastic, and Raman regions arising from the same position of the sample has been achieved by employing an ultra-narrowband holographic notch filter (HNF) and an optical isolator. Recently, HNFs are often employed to reject strong elastic scattering in low-frequency Raman experiments. Meanwhile, the rejected spectral component agrees with the frequency range that can be observed by a triple-pass tandem Fabry-Pérot interferometer. Thus the broadband spectroscopy can be accomplished by introducing the rejected light to the interferometer. This system, in combination with the local symmetry analysis by polarization-direction-resolved Raman spectroscopy, is particularly advantageous for the investigation of spatially inhomogeneous systems.

  20. Azimuthal Dependence of the Ground Motion Variability from Scenario Modeling of the 2014 Mw6.0 South Napa, California, Earthquake Using an Advanced Kinematic Source Model (United States)

    Gallovič, F.


    Strong ground motion simulations require physically plausible earthquake source model. Here, I present the application of such a kinematic model introduced originally by Ruiz et al. (Geophys J Int 186:226-244, 2011). The model is constructed to inherently provide synthetics with the desired omega-squared spectral decay in the full frequency range. The source is composed of randomly distributed overlapping subsources with fractal number-size distribution. The position of the subsources can be constrained by prior knowledge of major asperities (stemming, e.g., from slip inversions), or can be completely random. From earthquake physics point of view, the model includes positive correlation between slip and rise time as found in dynamic source simulations. Rupture velocity and rise time follows local S-wave velocity profile, so that the rupture slows down and rise times increase close to the surface, avoiding unrealistically strong ground motions. Rupture velocity can also have random variations, which result in irregular rupture front while satisfying the causality principle. This advanced kinematic broadband source model is freely available and can be easily incorporated into any numerical wave propagation code, as the source is described by spatially distributed slip rate functions, not requiring any stochastic Green's functions. The source model has been previously validated against the observed data due to the very shallow unilateral 2014 Mw6 South Napa, California, earthquake; the model reproduces well the observed data including the near-fault directivity (Seism Res Lett 87:2-14, 2016). The performance of the source model is shown here on the scenario simulations for the same event. In particular, synthetics are compared with existing ground motion prediction equations (GMPEs), emphasizing the azimuthal dependence of the between-event ground motion variability. I propose a simple model reproducing the azimuthal variations of the between-event ground motion

  1. Broadband acoustic properties of a murine skull. (United States)

    Estrada, Héctor; Rebling, Johannes; Turner, Jake; Razansky, Daniel


    It has been well recognized that the presence of a skull imposes harsh restrictions on the use of ultrasound and optoacoustic techniques in the study, treatment and modulation of the brain function. We propose a rigorous modeling and experimental methodology for estimating the insertion loss and the elastic constants of the skull over a wide range of frequencies and incidence angles. A point-source-like excitation of ultrawideband acoustic radiation was induced via the absorption of nanosecond duration laser pulses by a 20 μm diameter microsphere. The acoustic waves transmitted through the skull are recorded by a broadband, spherically focused ultrasound transducer. A coregistered pulse-echo ultrasound scan is subsequently performed to provide accurate skull geometry to be fed into an acoustic transmission model represented in an angular spectrum domain. The modeling predictions were validated by measurements taken from a glass cover-slip and ex vivo adult mouse skulls. The flexible semi-analytical formulation of the model allows for seamless extension to other transducer geometries and diverse experimental scenarios involving broadband acoustic transmission through locally flat solid structures. It is anticipated that accurate quantification and modeling of the skull transmission effects would ultimately allow for skull aberration correction in a broad variety of applications employing transcranial detection or transmission of high frequency ultrasound.

  2. A Design of Double Broadband MIMO Antenna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanfeng Geng


    Full Text Available The MIMO antenna applied to LTE mobile system should be miniaturization and can work in the current communication frequency band; isolation between each antenna unit also should be good so as to reduce loss of radio wave energy and improve the antenna performance of the MIMO system. This paper puts forward the design scheme of a broadband MIMO double antenna. And the design of antenna unit and debugging and related technical measures, such as bending antenna bracket, are both presented; the integration design of high isolation of ultra broadband MIMO antenna is realized on the plate with the volume of 100 × 52 × 0.8 mm3; antenna working bands are 698 MHz~960 MHz and 1710 MHz~2700 MHz; in the whole spectrum, the 10 dB of port isolation can be basically achieved; in low frequency band, the isolation degree of antenna port can reach 12 dB.

  3. Evaluation of arctic broadband surface radiation measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Matsui


    Full Text Available The Arctic is a challenging environment for making in-situ radiation measurements. A standard suite of radiation sensors is typically designed to measure the total, direct and diffuse components of incoming and outgoing broadband shortwave (SW and broadband thermal infrared, or longwave (LW radiation. Enhancements can include various sensors for measuring irradiance in various narrower bandwidths. Many solar radiation/thermal infrared flux sensors utilize protective glass domes and some are mounted on complex mechanical platforms (solar trackers that rotate sensors and shading devices that track the sun. High quality measurements require striking a balance between locating sensors in a pristine undisturbed location free of artificial blockage (such as buildings and towers and providing accessibility to allow operators to clean and maintain the instruments. Three significant sources of erroneous data include solar tracker malfunctions, rime/frost/snow deposition on the instruments and operational problems due to limited operator access in extreme weather conditions. In this study, a comparison is made between the global and component sum (direct [vertical component] + diffuse shortwave measurements. The difference between these two quantities (that theoretically should be zero is used to illustrate the magnitude and seasonality of radiation flux measurement problems. The problem of rime/frost/snow deposition is investigated in more detail for one case study utilizing both shortwave and longwave measurements. Solutions to these operational problems are proposed that utilize measurement redundancy, more sophisticated heating and ventilation strategies and a more systematic program of operational support and subsequent data quality protocols.

  4. Strong environmental coupling in a Josephson parametric amplifier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mutus, J. Y.; White, T. C.; Barends, R.; Chen, Yu; Chen, Z.; Chiaro, B.; Dunsworth, A.; Jeffrey, E.; Kelly, J.; Neill, C.; O' Malley, P. J. J.; Roushan, P.; Sank, D.; Vainsencher, A.; Wenner, J.; Cleland, A. N.; Martinis, John M., E-mail: [Department of Physics, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106-9530 (United States); Megrant, A. [Department of Physics, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106-9530 (United States); Department of Materials, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106 (United States); Sundqvist, K. M. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Texas A and M University, College Station, Texas 77843 (United States)


    We present a lumped-element Josephson parametric amplifier designed to operate with strong coupling to the environment. In this regime, we observe broadband frequency dependent amplification with multi-peaked gain profiles. We account for this behavior using the “pumpistor” model which allows for frequency dependent variation of the external impedance. Using this understanding, we demonstrate control over the complexity of gain profiles through added variation in the environment impedance at a given frequency. With strong coupling to a suitable external impedance, we observe a significant increase in dynamic range, and large amplification bandwidth up to 700 MHz giving near quantum-limited performance.

  5. A spine-sheath model for strong-line blazars



    We have developed a quasi-analytical model for the production of radiation in strong-line blazars, assuming a spine-sheath jet structure. The model allows us to study how the spine and sheath spectral components depend on parameters describing the geometrical and physical structure of "the blazar zone". We show that typical broad-band spectra of strong-line blazars can be reproduced by assuming the magnetization parameter to be of order unity and reconnection to be the dominant dissipation me...

  6. Broadband matched-field inversion for shallow water environment parameters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Kunde; MA Yuanliang


    In this paper, broadband multi-frequencies matched-field inversion method is used to determine the environmental parameters in shallow water. According to different conditions, several broadband objective functions are presented. Using ASIAEX2001 experiment data and genetic algorithms, environmental parameters are obtained, especially in sediment.

  7. Broadband Liner Optimization for the Source Diagnostic Test Fan (United States)

    Nark, Douglas M.; Jones, Michael G.


    The broadband component of fan noise has grown in relevance with the utilization of increased bypass ratio and advanced fan designs. Thus, while the attenuation of fan tones remains paramount, the ability to simultaneously reduce broadband fan noise levels has become more appealing. This paper describes a broadband acoustic liner optimization study for the scale model Source Diagnostic Test fan. Specifically, in-duct attenuation predictions with a statistical fan source model are used to obtain optimum impedance spectra over a number of flow conditions for three liner locations in the bypass duct. The predicted optimum impedance information is then used with acoustic liner modeling tools to design liners aimed at producing impedance spectra that most closely match the predicted optimum values. Design selection is based on an acceptance criterion that provides the ability to apply increased weighting to specific frequencies and/or operating conditions. Typical tonal liner designs targeting single frequencies at one operating condition are first produced to provide baseline performance information. These are followed by multiple broadband design approaches culminating in a broadband liner targeting the full range of frequencies and operating conditions. The broadband liner is found to satisfy the optimum impedance objectives much better than the tonal liner designs. In addition, the broadband liner is found to provide better attenuation than the tonal designs over the full range of frequencies and operating conditions considered. Thus, the current study successfully establishes a process for the initial design and evaluation of novel broadband liner concepts for complex engine configurations.

  8. The role of public initiatives facilitating investments in broadband infrastructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Falch, Morten; Tadayoni, Reza; Henten, Anders


    This paper discusses the role of a developmental approach to broadband policy. The policy approaches made in Denmark and Sweden are compared, and the scope for public intervention at the broadband market is discussed. The paper includes a case study on public intervention in the rural areas...

  9. Silicon graphene waveguide tunable broadband microwave photonics phase shifter

    CERN Document Server

    Capmany, Jose; Muñoz, Pascual


    We propose the use of silicon graphene waveguides to implement a tunable broadband microwave photonics phase shifte based on integrated ring cavities. Numerical computation results show the feasibility for broadband operation over 40 GHz bandwidth and full 360 degree radiofrequency phase-shift with a modest voltage excursion of 0.12 volt.

  10. Techno-economic evaluation of broadband access technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sigurdsson, Halldór Matthias; Skouby, Knud Erik


    Broadband for all is an essential element in the EU policy concerning the future of ICT-based society. The overall purpose of this paper is to present a model for evaluation of different broadband access technologies and to present some preliminary results based on the model that has been carried...

  11. Funding Public Computing Centers: Balancing Broadband Availability and Expected Demand (United States)

    Jayakar, Krishna; Park, Eun-A


    The National Broadband Plan (NBP) recently announced by the Federal Communication Commission visualizes a significantly enhanced commitment to public computing centers (PCCs) as an element of the Commission's plans for promoting broadband availability. In parallel, the National Telecommunications and Information Administration (NTIA) has…

  12. Municipal Broadband in Wilson, North Carolina: A Study (United States)

    O'Boyle, Timothy


    Relatively little empirical attention has been paid to the political economy of publicly-retailed fiber-optic broadband internet service. To address this gap in the literature, this dissertation examines the history, dynamics and trends in the municipal broadband movement. In specific, Wilson, North Carolina's Greenlight service is examined in…

  13. OFDM Towards Fixed and Mobile Broadband Wireless Access

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shanker Jha, Uma; Prasad, Ramjee

    of mobile broadband wireless access and the standards developed by the IEEE 802.16 standards organization. The book gives practitioners a solid understaning of: Basic requirements of fixed and mobile broadband access technologies. Fundamentals of orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM...

  14. Strongly Gorenstein Flat Dimensions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chun Xia ZHANG; Li Min WANG


    This article is concerned with the strongly Gorenstein flat dimensions of modules and rings.We show this dimension has nice properties when the ring is coherent,and extend the well-known Hilbert's syzygy theorem to the strongly Gorenstein flat dimensions of rings.Also,we investigate the strongly Gorenstein flat dimensions of direct products of rings and (almost)excellent extensions of rings.

  15. The perception of object versus objectless motion. (United States)

    Hock, Howard S; Nichols, David F


    Wertheimer, M. (Zeitschrift für Psychologie und Physiologie der Sinnesorgane, 61:161-265, 1912) classical distinction between beta (object) and phi (objectless) motion is elaborated here in a series of experiments concerning competition between two qualitatively different motion percepts, induced by sequential changes in luminance for two-dimensional geometric objects composed of rectangular surfaces. One of these percepts is of spreading-luminance motion that continuously sweeps across the entire object; it exhibits shape invariance and is perceived most strongly for fast speeds. Significantly for the characterization of phi as objectless motion, the spreading luminance does not involve surface boundaries or any other feature; the percept is driven solely by spatiotemporal changes in luminance. Alternatively, and for relatively slow speeds, a discrete series of edge motions can be perceived in the direction opposite to spreading-luminance motion. Akin to beta motion, the edges appear to move through intermediate positions within the object's changing surfaces. Significantly for the characterization of beta as object motion, edge motion exhibits shape dependence and is based on the detection of oppositely signed changes in contrast (i.e., counterchange) for features essential to the determination of an object's shape, the boundaries separating its surfaces. These results are consistent with area MT neurons that differ with respect to speed preference Newsome et al (Journal of Neurophysiology, 55:1340-1351, 1986) and shape dependence Zeki (Journal of Physiology, 236:549-573, 1974).

  16. Recording Tilt with Broadband Seismic Sensors at Erupting Volcanoes (United States)

    Young, B. E.; Lees, J. M.; Lyons, J. J.


    The horizontal components of broadband seismometers are known to be susceptible to gravitational acceleration due to slow tilting, and this has been successfully exploited to assess ground deformation at many volcanoes, including Anatahan (Mariana Islands), Meakan-dake (Japan), Santiaguito (Guatemala) and Stromboli (Italy). Tilt can be estimated from seismic velocity by differentiating, scaling to remove gravity, and applying an instrument correction. The fundamental assumption in estimating tilt from broadband data is that the signal recorded is the result of tilt and not translation, thus analysis of tilt require filtering below corner frequencies of seismic instruments, where the response to tilt should be flat. However, processing techniques for deriving tilt are not uniform among researchers. Filter type and passband allowance for the processing of data sets differs from case to case, and the dominant periods of tilt signals may vary from tens to hundreds of seconds. For instance, data from Santiaguito was filtered in the 600-30s passband, while at Anatahan filters spanned 13 hours to 8 minutes. In our study, we investigate tilt from seismic data sets at Karymsky (Kamchatka, Russia), Fuego (Guatemala), Yasur (Vanuatu), and Tungurahua (Ecuador) to understand implementation and limitations of this tool. We examine the importance of filter-type distortion related to filtering on the seismic signal. For example, a comparison of time domain versus frequency domain implementation is explored using a variety of lowpass and bandpass filters. We also investigate the advantages and drawbacks of causal versus acausal filters. In a few cases tiltmeters have been co-located with broadband seismic sensors for direct comparison. Signals at Mt. St. Helens, Stromboli, Sakurajima, and Semeru show a correlation of tilt and seismic records, although records at Karymsky volcano suggest that no tilt is recorded on either instrument. We speculate that strong vent explosions exhibit

  17. Mammoth Mountain, California broadband seismic experiment (United States)

    Dawson, P. B.; Pitt, A. M.; Wilkinson, S. K.; Chouet, B. A.; Hill, D. P.; Mangan, M.; Prejean, S. G.; Read, C.; Shelly, D. R.


    Mammoth Mountain is a young cumulo-volcano located on the southwest rim of Long Valley caldera, California. Current volcanic processes beneath Mammoth Mountain are manifested in a wide range of seismic signals, including swarms of shallow volcano-tectonic earthquakes, upper and mid-crustal long-period earthquakes, swarms of brittle-failure earthquakes in the lower crust, and shallow (3-km depth) very-long-period earthquakes. Diffuse emissions of C02 began after a magmatic dike injection beneath the volcano in 1989, and continue to present time. These indications of volcanic unrest drive an extensive monitoring effort of the volcano by the USGS Volcano Hazards Program. As part of this effort, eleven broadband seismometers were deployed on Mammoth Mountain in November 2011. This temporary deployment is expected to run through the fall of 2013. These stations supplement the local short-period and broadband seismic stations of the Northern California Seismic Network (NCSN) and provide a combined network of eighteen broadband stations operating within 4 km of the summit of Mammoth Mountain. Data from the temporary stations are not available in real-time, requiring the merging of the data from the temporary and permanent networks, timing of phases, and relocation of seismic events to be accomplished outside of the standard NCSN processing scheme. The timing of phases is accomplished through an interactive Java-based phase-picking routine, and the relocation of seismicity is achieved using the probabilistic non-linear software package NonLinLoc, distributed under the GNU General Public License by Alomax Scientific. Several swarms of shallow volcano-tectonic earthquakes, spasmodic bursts of high-frequency earthquakes, a few long-period events located within or below the edifice of Mammoth Mountain and numerous mid-crustal long-period events have been recorded by the network. To date, about 900 of the ~2400 events occurring beneath Mammoth Mountain since November 2011 have

  18. Abortion: Strong's counterexamples fail

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Di Nucci, Ezio


    This paper shows that the counterexamples proposed by Strong in 2008 in the Journal of Medical Ethics to Marquis's argument against abortion fail. Strong's basic idea is that there are cases--for example, terminally ill patients--where killing an adult human being is prima facie seriously morally...

  19. Dizziness and Motion Sickness (United States)

    ... ENTCareers Marketplace Find an ENT Doctor Near You Dizziness and Motion Sickness Dizziness and Motion Sickness Patient ... vision or speech, or hearing loss. What is dizziness? Dizziness can be described in many ways, such ...

  20. Broadband Optical Access Technologies to Converge towards a Broadband Society in Europe (United States)

    Coudreuse, Jean-Pierre; Pautonnier, Sophie; Lavillonnière, Eric; Didierjean, Sylvain; Hilt, Benoît; Kida, Toshimichi; Oshima, Kazuyoshi

    This paper provides insights on the status of broadband optical access market and technologies in Europe and on the expected trends for the next generation optical access networks. The final target for most operators, cities or any other player is of course FTTH (Fibre To The Home) deployment although we can expect intermediate steps with copper or wireless technologies. Among the two candidate architectures for FTTH, PON (Passive Optical Network) is by far the most attractive and cost effective solution. We also demonstrate that Ethernet based optical access network is very adequate to all-IP networks without any incidence on the level of quality of service. Finally, we provide feedback from a FTTH pilot network in Colmar (France) based on Gigabit Ethernet PON technology. The interest of this pilot lies on the level of functionality required for broadband optical access networks but also on the development of new home network configurations.

  1. Chaotic motion and collective nuclear rotation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seligman, T.H.; Verbaarschot, J.J.M.; Weidenmueller, H.A.


    The regular and chaotic motion in the classical and quantal versions of a model Hamiltonian with two degrees of freedom are investigated. This model contains a parameter which is identified with a conserved quantum number, the total spin. In particular, transition between states differing in spin by one unit are studied. The transition is strongly collective for regular motion, and collectivity is destroyed with increasing stochasticity of the model. (orig.).

  2. Semiperiodicity versus periodicity for ultra broadband optical absorption in thin-film solar cells (United States)

    Jalali, Mandana; Nadgaran, Hamid; Erni, Daniel


    We propose the use of one-dimensional semiperiodic front and back gratings based on Thue-Morse, Fibonacci, and Rudin-Shapiro (RS) binary sequences as promising photon management techniques for enhancing ultra-broadband optical absorption in thin-film solar cells. The semiperiodicity allows an aggregate light in-coupling into the active layer within the range of the solar spectrum that is less weak compared to an inherently broadband random grating, but has a much larger bandwidth than the strong in-coupling via a periodic grating configuration. The proper design procedure proposed here deviates from a canonical double grating synthesis as it adheres to an ultra-broadband design where the spectrally integrated absorption in the active material is the proper subject to optimization, leaving the grating perturbations just a measure to perturb and mold the trapped light field in the active layer accordingly. It is shown that by using a well-defined RS double grating in a 400-nm thick crystalline silicon solar cell, a 110.2% enhancement of the spectrally integrated optical absorption can be achieved relative to the reference case without grating.

  3. Optical nanostructures in 2D for wide-diameter and broadband beam collimation (United States)

    Clark, James; Anguita, José V.; Chen, Ying; Silva, S. Ravi P.


    Eliminating curved refracting lensing components used in conventional projection, imaging and sensing optical assemblies, is critical to enable compactness and miniaturisation of optical devices. A suitable means is replacing refracting lenses with two-dimensional optical media in flat-slab form, to achieve an equivalent optical result. One approach, which has been the focus of intense research, uses a Veselago lens which features a negative-index metamaterial. However, practical implementations rely on resonance techniques, thus broadband operation at optical frequencies imposes significant technical challenges that have been difficult to overcome. Here, we demonstrate a highly-collimated, broadband, wide-diameter beam from a compact source in flat-slab form, based on light collimation using nanomaterials ordered in patterns and embedded into flexible polymers. These provide a highly anisotropic absorption coefficient due to patterns created by vertical carbon nanotube structures grown on glass, and the anisotropic electrical conductivity of the nanotubes. We show this nanostructure strongly absorbs unwanted off-axis light rays, whilst transmitting the desired on-axis rays, to achieve the required optical effect over broadband, from visible to short-infrared, thus circumventing some technical limitations of negative-index metamaterials. We further show a low substrate-temperature system for nanotube growth, allowing direct implementation into heat-sensitive large-area devices.

  4. Modeling the broadband persistent emission of magnetars

    CERN Document Server

    Zane, Silvia; Nobili, Luciano; Rea, Nanda


    In this paper, we discuss our first attempts to model the broadband persistent emission of magnetars within a self consistent, physical scenario. We present the predictions of a synthetic model that we calculated with a new Monte Carlo 3-D radiative code. The basic idea is that soft thermal photons (e.g. emitted by the star surface) can experience resonant cyclotron upscattering by a population of relativistic electrons threated in the twisted magnetosphere. Our code is specifically tailored to work in the ultra-magnetized regime; polarization and QED effects are consistently accounted for, as well different configurations for the magnetosphere. We discuss the predicted spectral properties in the 0.1-1000 keV range, the polarization properties, and we present the model application to a sample of magnetars soft X-ray spectra.

  5. Resource Management in Broadband Communication Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Mads Stenhuus


    This thesis - Resource Management in Broadband Communication Networks - deals with different ways of optimizing the available resources of data- or telecommunication networks. Especially topics like optimal routing, load balancing and fast recovery of routes in case of link failures are covered...... in communication networks. For instance, the results show that a network controlled by simulated ants can balance the load quickly and efficiently, thereby postponing local hot-spots or in some cases even avoid hot-spots. Furthermore, the results clearly demonstrate, that systems using simulated ants obtain...... a virtually unprecedented robustness. A network with failing components typically return to a fully operational state within seconds or even faster. Hopefully these results of the investigation of simulated ants - along with other results from the literature - can contribute to make the big manufacturers...

  6. Tunable Broadband Printed Carbon Transparent Conductor (United States)

    Xu, Yue; Wan, Jiayu

    Transparent conductors have been widely applied in solar cells, transparent smart skins, and sensing/imaging antennas, etc. Carbon-based transparent conductor has attracted great attention for its low cost and broad range transparency. Ion intercalation has been known to highly dope graphitic materials, thereby tuning materials' optoelectronic properties. For the first time, we successfully tune the optical transmittance of a reduced graphene oxide (RGO)/CNT network from mid-IR range to visible range by means of Li-ion intercalation/deintercalation. We also observed a simultaneous increase of the electrical conductivity with the Li-ion intercalation. This printed carbon hybrid thin film was prepared through all solution processes and was easily scalable. This study demonstrates the possibility of using ion intercalation for low cost, tunable broadband transparent conductors.

  7. Broadband interferometer observations of a triggered lightning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The development of positive leader of an artificially triggered lightning has been analyzed based on the data of electric field change, location of radiation source and frequency spectrum obtained by using the broadband interferometer system. The results indicate that radiation from positive leader could be detected within close distance in spite of the relatively weak radiation, while the radiation from negative breakdown processes was relatively stronger.Positive leader developed with few branches, and the initial progression velocity was of the order of 10s m/s. The distribution of power spectrum by 25 MHz high pass filter indicated that the radiation frequency from positive leader maximized at 25-30 MHz, while that from negative breakdown processes maximized at 60-70 MHz.

  8. Hot Carrier extraction with plasmonic broadband absorbers

    CERN Document Server

    Ng, Charlene; Dligatch, Svetlana; Roberts, Ann; Davis, Timothy J; Mulvaney, Paul; Gomez, Daniel E


    Hot charge carrier extraction from metallic nanostructures is a very promising approach for applications in photo-catalysis, photovoltaics and photodetection. One limitation is that many metallic nanostructures support a single plasmon resonance thus restricting the light-to-charge-carrier activity to a spectral band. Here we demonstrate that a monolayer of plasmonic nanoparticles can be assembled on a multi-stack layered configuration to achieve broad-band, near-unit light absorption, which is spatially localised on the nanoparticle layer. We show that this enhanced light absorbance leads to $\\sim$ 40-fold increases in the photon-to-electron conversion efficiency by the plasmonic nanostructures. We developed a model that successfully captures the essential physics of the plasmonic hot-electron charge generation and separation in these structures. This model also allowed us to establish that efficient hot carrier extraction is limited to spectral regions where the photons possessing energies higher than the S...

  9. Broadband Spectral Study of Magnetar Bursts (United States)

    Kirmizibayrak, Demet; Gogus, Ersin; Sasmaz Mus, Sinem; Kaneko, Yuki


    Magnetar bursts occur sporadically on random occasions, and every burst-active episode carries unique information about the bursting magnetar. Therefore, in-depth spectral and temporal analyses of each of the magnetar bursts provide new insights into the bursting and radiation mechanisms. There have been a number of studies over the last decade, investigating the spectral and temporal properties of magnetar bursts. The spectra of typical magnetar bursts were generally described with the Comptonized model or the sum of two blackbody functions. However, it was recently shown that the actual spectral nature of these bursts can be conclusively determined if the spectral analysis is performed on a wide energy coverage. We present the results of in-depth systematic broadband (2 - 250 keV) spectral analysis of a large number of bursts originated from three magnetars: SGR 1806-20, SGR 1900+14, and SGR J1550-5418, observed with the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer.

  10. Superconducting Quantum Arrays for Broadband RF Systems (United States)

    Kornev, V.; Sharafiev, A.; Soloviev, I.; Kolotinskiy, N.; Mukhanov, O.


    Superconducting Quantum Arrays (SQAs), homogenous arrays of Superconducting Quantum Cells, are developed for implementation of broadband radio frequency (RF) systems capable of providing highly linear magnetic signal to voltage transfer with high dynamic range, including active electrically small antennas (ESAs). Among the proposed quantum cells which are bi-SQUID and Differential Quantum Cell (DQC), the latter delivered better performance for SQAs. A prototype of the transformer-less active ESA based on a 2D SQA with nonsuperconducting electric connection of the DQCs was fabricated using HYPRES niobium process with critical current density 4.5 kA/cm2. The measured voltage response is characterized by a peak-to-peak swing of ~100 mV and steepness of ~6500 μV/μT.

  11. Broadband phase-preserved optical elevator

    CERN Document Server

    Luo, Yuan; Zhang, Baile; Qiu, Cheng-Wei; Barbastathis, George


    Phase-preserved optical elevator is an optical device to lift up an entire plane virtually without distortion in light path or phase. Using transformation optics, we have predicted and observed the realization of such a broadband phase-preserved optical elevator, made of a natural homogeneous birefringent crystal without resorting to absorptive and narrowband metamaterials involving time-consuming nano-fabrication. In our demonstration, the optical elevator is designed to lift a sheet upwards, and the phase is verified to be preserved always. The camouflage capability is also demonstrated in the presence of adjacent objects of the same scale at will. The elevating device functions in different surrounding media over the wavelength range of 400-700 nm. Our work opens up prospects for studies of light trapping, solar energy, illusion optics, communication, and imaging.

  12. Broadband optical cooling of molecular rotors

    CERN Document Server

    Lien, Chien-Yu; Odom, Brian C


    Contrary to intuition, resonant laser excitation of bound electrons can decrease the temperature of a system, with electronic relaxation times as fast as nanoseconds allowing for rapid cooling to far below ambient temperature. Although laser cooling of atoms is routine owing to their relatively simple internal structure, laser cooling of molecular translational speeds, vibrations, or rotations is challenging because a different laser frequency is required to electronically excite each populated vibrational and rotational state. Here, we show that molecules with decoupled vibrational and electronic modes can be rotationally cooled using a single spectrally filtered broadband laser to simultaneously address many rotational states. We optically cool AlH$^+$ ions held in a room-temperature radiofrequency Paul trap to collect 96% of the population in the ground quantum state, corresponding to a rotational temperature of 4 K. In our current implementation, parity-preserving electronic cycling cools to the two lowes...

  13. Broadband acoustic cloak for ultrasound waves. (United States)

    Zhang, Shu; Xia, Chunguang; Fang, Nicholas


    Invisibility devices based on coordinate transformation have opened up a new field of considerable interest. We present here the first practical realization of a low-loss and broadband acoustic cloak for underwater ultrasound. This metamaterial cloak is constructed with a network of acoustic circuit elements, namely, serial inductors and shunt capacitors. Our experiment clearly shows that the acoustic cloak can effectively bend the ultrasound waves around the hidden object, with reduced scattering and shadow. Because of the nonresonant nature of the building elements, this low-loss (∼6  dB/m) cylindrical cloak exhibits invisibility over a broad frequency range from 52 to 64 kHz. Furthermore, our experimental study indicates that this design approach should be scalable to different acoustic frequencies and offers the possibility for a variety of devices based on coordinate transformation.

  14. Future large broadband switched satellite communications networks (United States)

    Staelin, D. H.; Harvey, R. R.


    Critical technical, market, and policy issues relevant to future large broadband switched satellite networks are summarized. Our market projections for the period 1980 to 2000 are compared. Clusters of switched satellites, in lieu of large platforms, etc., are shown to have significant advantages. Analysis of an optimum terrestrial network architecture suggests the proper densities of ground stations and that link reliabilities 99.99% may entail less than a 10% cost premium for diversity protection at 20/30 GHz. These analyses suggest that system costs increase as the 0.6 power of traffic. Cost estimates for nominal 20/30 GHz satellite and ground facilities suggest optimum system configurations might employ satellites with 285 beams, multiple TDMA bands each carrying 256 Mbps, and 16 ft ground station antennas. A nominal development program is outlined.

  15. Frequency Doubling Broadband Light in Multiple Crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The authors compare frequency doubling of broadband light in a single nonlinear crystal with doubling in five crystals with intercrystal temporal walk off compensation, and with doubling in five crystals adjusted for offset phase matching frequencies. Using a plane-wave, dispersive numerical model of frequency doubling they study the bandwidth of the second harmonic and the conversion efficiency as functions of crystal length and fundamental irradiance. For low irradiance the offset phase matching arrangement has lower efficiency than a single crystal of the same total length but gives a broader second harmonic bandwidth. The walk off compensated arrangement gives both higher conversion efficiency and broader bandwidth than a single crystal. At high irradiance, both multicrystal arrangements improve on the single crystal efficiency while maintaining broad bandwidth.

  16. Broadband plasmon induced transparency in terahertz metamaterials

    KAUST Repository

    Zhu, Zhihua


    Plasmon induced transparency (PIT) could be realized in metamaterials via interference between different resonance modes. Within the sharp transparency window, the high dispersion of the medium may lead to remarkable slow light phenomena and an enhanced nonlinear effect. However, the transparency mode is normally localized in a narrow frequency band, which thus restricts many of its applications. Here we present the simulation, implementation, and measurement of a broadband PIT metamaterial functioning in the terahertz regime. By integrating four U-shape resonators around a central bar resonator, a broad transparency window across a frequency range greater than 0.40 THz is obtained, with a central resonance frequency located at 1.01 THz. Such PIT metamaterials are promising candidates for designing slow light devices, highly sensitive sensors, and nonlinear elements operating over a broad frequency range. © 2013 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  17. Policy factors affecting broadband development in Poland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henten, Anders; Windekilde, Iwona Maria


    is to reduce the gap between Poland and other EU Member Countries in the area of the development and implementation of information and communication technologies. However, Poland’s accession to the European Union and the implementation of EU regulation mechanisms accelerate the integration of Poland...... – with the ‘lightest’forms of intervention first and the ‘strongest’at the end. Furthermore, empirical evidence on the developments in access technologies and the policy initiatives taken by the Polish government are presented. Finally, there is a conclusion regarding the importance of the different types of public......Poland joined the EU in 2004 and still has one of the Europe’s least developed information societies. Broadband penetration in Poland is still amongst the lowest in the EU and significantly below the EU average. Considering the present state of information technology, the key challenge for Poland...

  18. Hollow glass waveguides for broadband infrared transmission. (United States)

    Abel, T; Hirsch, J; Harrington, J A


    Broadband hollow glass waveguides have been fabricated with losses as low as 0.15 dB/m at 10.6 microm. We make these hollow glass waveguides by coating the inside of polyimide-coated silica-glass tubing with a metallic layer followed by a thin dielectric coating of a metal halide. The bore sizes of the guides range from 320 to 700 microm, and we have made lengths as long as 3 m. The bending radii of the waveguides are less than 5 cm for bore sizes less than 500 microm. We have used these waveguides to deliver greater than 80 W of CO(2) laser power and 5 W of Er:YAG laser power. The hollow glass guides are inexpensive, robust, and quite flexible and therefore a good infrared fiber for power and sensor applications.

  19. QR Factorization for the Cell Broadband Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakub Kurzak


    Full Text Available The QR factorization is one of the most important operations in dense linear algebra, offering a numerically stable method for solving linear systems of equations including overdetermined and underdetermined systems. Modern implementations of the QR factorization, such as the one in the LAPACK library, suffer from performance limitations due to the use of matrix–vector type operations in the phase of panel factorization. These limitations can be remedied by using the idea of updating of QR factorization, rendering an algorithm, which is much more scalable and much more suitable for implementation on a multi-core processor. It is demonstrated how the potential of the cell broadband engine can be utilized to the fullest by employing the new algorithmic approach and successfully exploiting the capabilities of the chip in terms of single instruction multiple data parallelism, instruction level parallelism and thread-level parallelism.

  20. Techno-Economics of Residential Broadband Deployment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sigurdsson, Halldor Matthias


    on account of their existing telecom network (”the raw copper”), and typically they will prefer an xDSL-based strategy (various types of Digital Subscriber Line-technology: ADSL, VDSL, etc.), where the rate of speed of data connections are increased gradually to 10-50 Mbit/s or even more, in order to gain...... as much profit as possible from their previous investments. However, the operators are not restricted by these considerations, and they will often choose a fiber-to-the home solution (FTTH, Fiber-to-the-Home), which will offer a far more substantial data capacity in the long run. The choice of the proper...... broadband deployment strategy is depending on a complexed set of parameters, and there is a demand for precise techno-economic cost models estimating financial feasibility. The existing cost models do not consider the dynamic developments in the market caused by competition. The PhD thesis has a profound...

  1. Energy Efficient Evolution of Mobile Broadband Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Micallef, Gilbert

    costs, which, based on increasing energy prices and necessary network upgrades are likely to increase. Since base station sites make up for about 75% of the power consumption in mobile networks, studies are focused on this specific network element. A number of factors believed to play a role...... the v impact of replacing old equipment. Results show that an aggressive replacement strategy and the upgrade of sites to remote radio head can restrain the increase in power consumption of the network to just 17%. In addition to upgrading equipment, mobile network operators can further reduce power...... network capacity evolution path, replacing old and less efficient equipment, and enabling power saving features, can all considerably reduce the power consumption of future mobile broadband networks. Studies and recommendations presented within this thesis demonstrate that it is realistic for mobile...

  2. Broadband Nonlinear Signal Processing in Silicon Nanowires

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yvind, Kresten; Pu, Minhao; Hvam, Jørn Märcher;

    The fast non-linearity of silicon allows Tbit/s optical signal processing. By choosing suitable dimensions of silicon nanowires their dispersion can be tailored to ensure a high nonlinearity at power levels low enough to avoid significant two-photon abso We have fabricated low insertion and propa......The fast non-linearity of silicon allows Tbit/s optical signal processing. By choosing suitable dimensions of silicon nanowires their dispersion can be tailored to ensure a high nonlinearity at power levels low enough to avoid significant two-photon abso We have fabricated low insertion...... and propagation loss silicon nanowires and use them to demonstrate the broadband capabilities of silicon....

  3. Broadband Multifocal Conic-Shaped Metalens

    CERN Document Server

    Bao, Yanjun; Fang, Zheyu


    Compared with lens with one focal point,multifocal lens has a lower focusing quality with high background noise. This is arisen from the construction of multifocal lens, which is usually divided into several zones, with each corresponds to one focal point.Light passing through different zones cannot constructively interfere at the foci, resulting in a decreased optical performance. Here, we propose two multifocal metalenses with nanoslits arranged in an ellipse and a hyperbola, with both are able to focus incident light at their multifoci constructively, giving a better focusing properties than that designed by conventional methods.We theoretically and experimentally demonstrate that, within a broadband wavelength range (600-900 nm), the ellipse-shaped metalens (ESM) can focus the lights with opposite circular polarizations (CP) at its two focal points, respectively,while a hyperbola-shaped metalens (HSM) can only focus one particular CP light at its both foci, simultaneously.This types of conic-shaped metale...

  4. Objects in Motion (United States)

    Damonte, Kathleen


    One thing scientists study is how objects move. A famous scientist named Sir Isaac Newton (1642-1727) spent a lot of time observing objects in motion and came up with three laws that describe how things move. This explanation only deals with the first of his three laws of motion. Newton's First Law of Motion says that moving objects will continue…

  5. Broadband midinfrared frequency comb with tooth scanning (United States)

    Lee, Kevin F.; Masłowski, P.; Mills, A.; Mohr, C.; Jiang, Jie; Schunemann, Peter G.; Fermann, M. E.


    Frequency combs are a massively parallel source of extremely accurate optical frequencies. Frequency combs generally operate at the visible or near-infrared wavelengths, but fundamental molecular vibrations occur at midinfrared wavelengths. We demonstrate an optically-referenced, broadband midinfrared frequency comb based on a doublyresonant optical parametric oscillator (OPO). By tuning the wavelength of the reference laser, the comb line frequencies are tuned as well. By scanning the reference wavelength, any frequency can be accessed, not just the frequencies of the base comb. Combined with our comb-resolving Fourier transform spectrometer, we can measure 200 wavenumber wide broadband absorption spectra with 200 kHz linewidth comb teeth. Our OPO is pumped by an amplified Tm fiber frequency comb, with phase-locked carrier envelope offset frequency, and repetition rate fixed by phase-locking a frequency comb line to a narrow linewidth diode laser at a telecom channel. The frequency comb is referenced to GPS by long-term stabilization of the repetition rate to a selected value using the temperature of the reference laser as the control. The resulting pump comb is about 3W of 100 fs pulses at 418 MHz repetition rate at 1950 nm. Part of the comb is used for supercontinuum generation for frequency stabilization, and the rest pumps an orientation-patterned gallium arsenide (OP-GaAs) crystal in a doubly-resonant optical parametric oscillator cavity, yielding collinear signal and idler beams from about 3 to 5.5 μm. We verify comb scanning by resolving the 200 MHz wide absorption lines of the entire fundamental CO vibrational manifold at 11 Torr pressure.

  6. Broadband fitting approach for the application of supercontinuum broadband laser absorption spectroscopy to combustion environments (United States)

    Göran Blume, Niels; Ebert, Volker; Dreizler, Andreas; Wagner, Steven


    In this work, a novel broadband fitting approach for quantitative in-flame measurements using supercontinuum broadband laser absorption spectroscopy (SCLAS) is presented. The application and verification of this approach in an atmospheric, laminar, non-premixed CH4/air flame (Wolfhard-Parker burner, WHP) is discussed. The developed fitting scheme allows for an automatic recognition and fitting of a B-spline curve reference intensity for SCLAS broadband measurements while automatically removing the influence of absorption peaks. This approach improves the fitting residual locally (in between absorption lines) and globally by 23% and 13% respectively, while improving the in-flame SNR by a factor of 2. Additionally, the approach inherently improves the time-wavelength-correlation based on recorded in-flame measurements itself in combination with a theoretical spectrum of the analyte. These improvements have allowed for the recording of complete spatially resolved methane concentration profiles in the WHP burner. Comparison of the measured absolute mole fraction profile for methane with previously measured reference data shows excellent agreement in position, shape and absolute values. These improvements are a prerequisite for the application of SCLAS in high-pressure combustion systems.

  7. Broadband Lg Attenuation Modeling in the Middle East

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pasyanos, M E; Matzel, E M; Walter, W R; Rodgers, A J


    We present a broadband tomographic model of Lg attenuation in the Middle East derived from source- and site-corrected amplitudes. Absolute amplitude measurements are made on hand-selected and carefully windowed seismograms for tens of stations and thousands of crustal earthquakes resulting in excellent coverage of the region. A conjugate gradient method is used to tomographically invert the amplitude dataset of over 8000 paths over a 45{sup o} x 40{sup o} region of the Middle East. We solve for Q variation, as well as site and source terms, for a wide range of frequencies ranging from 0.5-10 Hz. We have modified the standard attenuation tomography technique to more explicitly define the earthquake source expression in terms of the seismic moment. This facilitates the use of the model to predict the expected amplitudes of new events, an important consideration for earthquake hazard or explosion monitoring applications. The attenuation results have a strong correlation to tectonics. Shields have low attenuation, while tectonic regions have high attenuation, with the highest attenuation at 1 Hz is found in eastern Turkey. The results also compare favorably to other studies in the region made using Lg propagation efficiency, Lg/Pg amplitude ratios and two-station methods. We tomographically invert the amplitude measurements for each frequency independently. In doing so, it appears the frequency-dependence of attenuation is not compatible with the power law representation of Q(f), an assumption that is often made.

  8. A prism based magnifying hyperlens with broad-band imaging (United States)

    Habib, Md. Samiul; Stefani, Alessio; Atakaramians, Shaghik; Fleming, Simon C.; Argyros, Alexander; Kuhlmey, Boris T.


    Magnification in metamaterial hyperlenses has been demonstrated using curved geometries or tapered devices, at frequencies ranging from the microwave to the ultraviolet spectrum. One of the main issues of such hyperlenses is the difficulty in manufacturing. In this letter, we numerically and experimentally study a wire medium prism as an imaging device at THz frequencies. We characterize the transmission of the image of two sub-wavelength apertures, observing that our device is capable of resolving the apertures and producing a two-fold magnified image at the output. The hyperlens shows strong frequency dependent artefacts, a priori limiting the use of the device for broad-band imaging. We identify the main source of image aberration as the reflections supported by the wire medium and also show that even the weaker reflections severely affect the imaging quality. In order to correct for the reflections, we devise a filtering technique equivalent to spatially variable time gating so that ultra-broad band imaging is achieved.

  9. Global characterization of seismic noise with broadband seismometers

    CERN Document Server

    Coughlin, Michael William


    In this paper, we present an analysis of seismic spectra that were calculated from all broadband channels (BH?) made available through IRIS, NIED F-net and Orfeus servers covering the past five years and beyond. A general characterization of the data is given in terms of spectral histograms and data-availability plots. We show that the spectral information can easily be categorized in time and regions. Spectral histograms indicate that seismic stations exist in Africa, Australia and Antarctica that measure spectra significantly below the global low-noise models above 1 Hz. We investigate world-wide coherence between the seismic spectra and other data sets like proximity to cities, station elevation, earthquake frequency, and wind speeds. Elevation of seismic stations in the US is strongly anti-correlated with seismic noise near 0.2 Hz and again above 1.5 Hz. Urban settlements are shown to produce excess noise above 1 Hz, but correlation curves look very different depending on the region. It is shown that wind...

  10. Broadband infrared imaging spectroscopy for standoff detection of trace explosives (United States)

    Kendziora, Christopher A.; Furstenberg, Robert; Papantonakis, Michael; Nguyen, Viet; McGill, R. Andrew


    This manuscript describes advancements toward a mobile platform for standoff detection of trace explosives on relevant substrates using broadband infrared spectroscopic imaging. In conjunction with this, we are developing a technology for detection based on photo-thermal infrared (IR) imaging spectroscopy (PT-IRIS). PT-IRIS leverages one or more IR quantum cascade lasers (QCL), tuned to strong absorption bands in the analytes and directed to illuminate an area on a surface of interest. An IR focal plane array is used to image the surface thermal emission upon laser illumination. The PT-IRIS signal is processed as a hyperspectral image cube comprised of spatial, spectral and temporal dimensions as vectors within a detection algorithm. Here we describe methods to increase both sensitivity to trace explosives and selectivity between different analyte types by exploiting a broader spectral range than in previous configurations. Previously we demonstrated PT-IRIS at several meters of standoff distance indoors and in field tests, while operating the lasers below the infrared eye-safe intensity limit (100 mW/cm2). Sensitivity to explosive traces as small as a single 10 μm diameter particle (~1 ng) has been demonstrated.

  11. Metro Access Convergence for Broadband Future Low Energy Consumption Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. M.T. Beleffi


    Full Text Available Problem statement: In study the impact of the optical technologies and infrastructures on the reduction of the carbon footprint maintaining high level of broadband to the end user is discussed. Approach: Authors analyze the main energy consumers in Core, Metro and Access Networks as well as the topology and the performaces of the EU FP7 SARDANA Project, a long reach full optical metro access convergent network. This permit to have a clear and innovative view on the topic of the green networks comparing commercial and on the edge solutions for the critical access segment. Three scenarios have been assumed with different uplink bandwidths: unlimited uplink in the CO, limited uplink of 400 Gbit sec-1 and strong limitation of 100 Gbit sec-1. Additionally, three different sizes of the access network with 100, 1,000 and 10,000 subscribers connected to a single CO have been considered. Results: Increasing the number of users and reducing the uplink bandwidth, the difference in energy efficiency between TDM and PONs and P-t-P FTTH networks increases. Conclusion: Authors conclude that in general, a SARDANA like network provides very good energy efficiency for both limited and unlimited uplink and for small and large networks.

  12. Strong Field, Noncommutative QED

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anton Ilderton


    Full Text Available We review the effects of strong background fields in noncommutative QED. Beginning with the noncommutative Maxwell and Dirac equations, we describe how combined noncommutative and strong field effects modify the propagation of fermions and photons. We extend these studies beyond the case of constant backgrounds by giving a new and revealing interpretation of the photon dispersion relation. Considering scattering in background fields, we then show that the noncommutative photon is primarily responsible for generating deviations from strong field QED results. Finally, we propose a new method for constructing gauge invariant variables in noncommutative QED, and use it to analyse the physics of our null background fields.

  13. Strong-Field Resonant Dynamics in Semiconductors. (United States)

    Wismer, Michael S; Kruchinin, Stanislav Yu; Ciappina, Marcelo; Stockman, Mark I; Yakovlev, Vladislav S


    We predict that a direct band gap semiconductor (GaAs) resonantly excited by a strong ultrashort laser pulse exhibits a novel regime: kicked anharmonic Rabi oscillations. In this regime, Rabi oscillations are strongly coupled to intraband motion, and interband transitions mainly take place when electrons pass near the Brillouin zone center where electron populations undergo very rapid changes. The asymmetry of the residual population distribution induces an electric current controlled by the carrier-envelope phase of the driving pulse. The predicted effects are experimentally observable using photoemission and terahertz spectroscopies.

  14. Hyperon Stars in Strong Magnetic Fields

    CERN Document Server

    Gomes, R O; Vasconcellos, C A Z


    We investigate the effects of strong magnetic fields on the properties of hyperon stars. The matter is described by a hadronic model with parametric coupling. The matter is considered to be at zero temperature, charge neutral, beta-equilibrated, containing the baryonic octet, electrons and muons. The charged particles have their orbital motions Landau-quantized in the presence of strong magnetic fields (SMF). Two parametrisations of a chemical potential dependent static magnetic field are considered, reaching $1-2 \\times 10^{18}\\,G$ in the center of the star. Finally, the Tolman-Oppenheimer-Volkov (TOV) equations are solved to obtain the mass-radius relation and population of the stars.

  15. Broadband Mid-Infrared Comb-Resolved Fourier Transform Spectroscopy (United States)

    Lee, Kevin; Mills, Andrew; Mohr, Christian; Jiang, Jie; Fermann, Martin; Maslowski, Piotr


    We report on a comb-resolved, broadband, direct-comb spectroscopy system in the mid-IR and its application to the detection of trace gases and molecular line shape analysis. By coupling an optical parametric oscillator (OPO), a 100 m multipass cell, and a high-resolution Fourier transform spectrometer (FTS), sensitive, comb-resolved broadband spectroscopy of dilute gases is possible. The OPO has radiation output at 3.1-3.7 and 4.5-5.5 μm. The laser repetition rate is scanned to arbitrary values with 1 Hz accuracy around 417 MHz. The comb-resolved spectrum is produced with an absolute frequency axis depending only on the RF reference (in this case a GPS disciplined oscillator), stable to 1 part in 10^9. The minimum detectable absorption is 1.6x10-6 wn Hz-1/2. The operating range of the experimental setup enables access to strong fundamental transitions of numerous molecular species for applications based on trace gas detection such as environmental monitoring, industrial gas calibration or medical application of human breath analysis. In addition to these capabilities, we show the application for careful line shape analysis of argon-broadened CO band spectra around 4.7 μm. Fits of the obtained spectra clearly illustrate the discrepancy between the measured spectra and the Voigt profile (VP), indicating the need to include effects such as Dicke narrowing and the speed-dependence of the collisional width and shift in the line shape model, as was shown in previous cw-laser studies. In contrast to cw-laser based experiments, in this case the entire spectrum (˜ 250 wn) covering the whole P and R branches can be measured in 16 s with 417 MHz resolution, decreasing the acquisition time by orders of magnitude. The parallel acquisition allows collection of multiple lines simultaneously, removing the correlation of possible temperature and pressure drifts. While cw-systems are capable of measuring spectra with higher precision, this demonstration opens the door for fast

  16. Rolling Shutter Motion Deblurring

    KAUST Repository

    Su, Shuochen


    Although motion blur and rolling shutter deformations are closely coupled artifacts in images taken with CMOS image sensors, the two phenomena have so far mostly been treated separately, with deblurring algorithms being unable to handle rolling shutter wobble, and rolling shutter algorithms being incapable of dealing with motion blur. We propose an approach that delivers sharp and undis torted output given a single rolling shutter motion blurred image. The key to achieving this is a global modeling of the camera motion trajectory, which enables each scanline of the image to be deblurred with the corresponding motion segment. We show the results of the proposed framework through experiments on synthetic and real data.

  17. How strong is the strong interaction?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blomgren, J.; Bergenwall, B.; Hildebrand, A.; Johansson, C.; Klug, J.; Mermod, P.; Nilsson, L.; Pomp, S.; Oesterlund, M. [Dept. of Neutron Research, Uppsala Univ., Uppsala (Sweden); Tippawan, U. [Dept. of Neutron Research, Uppsala Univ., Uppsala (Sweden)]|[Fast Neutron Research Facility, Dept. of Physics, Chiang Mai Univ. (Thailand); Jonsson, O.; Prokofiev, A.V. [The Svedberg Lab., Uppsala Univ., Uppsala (Sweden); Nadel-Turonski, P. [Dept. of Radiation Sciences, Uppsala Univ., Uppsala (Sweden); Olsson, N. [Dept. of Neutron Research, Uppsala Univ., Uppsala (Sweden)]|[Swedish Defence Research Agency, Stockholm (Sweden); Dangtip, S. [Fast Neutron Research Facility, Dept. of Physics, Chiang Mai Univ. (Thailand)


    Elastic neutron scattering plays a key role in establishing the neutron-nucleus potential, i.e., the interaction strength between a neutron and a nucleus. In ADS applications, this information is useful in many different ways. Elastic scattering data are needed when determining the neutron intensity profile in and ADS system. In addition, the optical potentials derived from elastic neutron scattering data are used as input in every model calculation with a neutron in the incident or exit channel. Recently, there has been intense international debate on the neutron-proton scattering cross section. In the global data base, the backward cross section differs by 10% or even more at energies above 100 MeV. It is difficult to overemphasize the importance of this issue. The np scattering cross section is used as cross section reference in essentially all measurements of neutron-induced cross sections. Thus, for many applied cross sections the absolute scale is uncertain by the same amount. Moreover, the np scattering cross section has been used to derive the pion-nucleon coupling constant, i.e., the absolute strength of the strong interaction. It is annoying to have such a large uncertainty for such a fundamental parameter. We are presenting new data on elastic neutron scattering at 96 MeV from {sup 12}C and {sup 208}Pb, where the latter is part of the HINDAS project. In addition, new data on np scattering at 190 MeV will be presented. The impact on ADS and fundamental physics will be discussed. (orig.)

  18. Source Process of the 2003 Bam, Iran, Earthquake: Subsurface Rupture that Generated Extreme Ground Motion (United States)

    Poiata, N.; Miyake, H.; Koketsu, K.; Hikima, K.


    The Bam earthquake occurred on December 26, 2003 in southeast Iran. This moderate size event (Mw 6.5) caused heavy damage in the city of Bam and killed about 26,000 people. According to previous studies of geodetic data (e.g., Talebian et al., 2004; Wang et al., 2004) and aftershock distribution (Nakamura et al., 2005), the earthquake was caused by a rupture on a previously unknown strike-slip fault. The strong-motion station located inside the heavily damaged area of the city of Bam in vicinity of the fault recorded a PGA of 988 gal in the UD component and two pulses with a dominant frequency of 1 Hz in the horizontal components. This large PGA and the proportion of damage due to this event might be explained by the combination of source directivity effect and large speed of the rupture front over the fault (Bouchon et al., 2005). To estimate the slip pattern in the source rupture area, precise hypocentral depth, and rupture velocity along the fault, we applied the moment tensor analysis as well as the source inversion method developed by Kikuchi and Kanamori (1991) and Kikuchi et al. (2003) to the IRIS broadband teleseismic data. The result of the source inversion shows the slip distribution that confirms a single asperity, as suggested by Yamanaka (2003), with the rupture propagating in S-N direction along an almost vertical strike-slip fault with dimensions of 25 km in length by 20 km in width. The hypocentral depth for the best fit model is estimated to be 8 km. The maximum slip occurred around the hypocenter at depths of 4-10 km; no slip is associated at a shallower depth. This agrees with the result of subsurface rupture and 'shallow slip deficit' obtained from geodetic data by Fialko et al. (2005) and might explain the extreme ground motion observed at the Bam station as being the result of the subsurface faulting on the immature fault. We also determined the rupture velocity that minimizes the residuals between observed and synthetic waveforms to be 2.8 km

  19. Strong Cosmic Censorship (United States)

    Isenberg, James


    The Hawking-Penrose theorems tell us that solutions of Einstein's equations are generally singular, in the sense of the incompleteness of causal geodesics (the paths of physical observers). These singularities might be marked by the blowup of curvature and therefore crushing tidal forces, or by the breakdown of physical determinism. Penrose has conjectured (in his `Strong Cosmic Censorship Conjecture`) that it is generically unbounded curvature that causes singularities, rather than causal breakdown. The verification that ``AVTD behavior'' (marked by the domination of time derivatives over space derivatives) is generically present in a family of solutions has proven to be a useful tool for studying model versions of Strong Cosmic Censorship in that family. I discuss some of the history of Strong Cosmic Censorship, and then discuss what is known about AVTD behavior and Strong Cosmic Censorship in families of solutions defined by varying degrees of isometry, and discuss recent results which we believe will extend this knowledge and provide new support for Strong Cosmic Censorship. I also comment on some of the recent work on ``Weak Null Singularities'', and how this relates to Strong Cosmic Censorship.

  20. Broadband tonpilz underwater acoustic transducers based on multimode optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yao, Qingshan; Jensen, Leif Bjørnø


    Head flapping has often been considered to be deleterious for obtaining a tonpilz transducer with broadband, high power performance. In the present work, broadband, high power tonpilz transducers have been designed using the finite element (FE) method. Optimized vibrational modes including...... the flapping mode of the head are effectively used to achieve the broadband performance. The behavior of the transducer in its longitudinal piston mode and in its flapping mode is analysed for in-air and in-water situations. For the 37.8% bandwidth of the center frequency from 28.5 to 41.8 kHz, the amplitude...

  1. Structural motion engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Connor, Jerome


    This innovative volume provides a systematic treatment of the basic concepts and computational procedures for structural motion design and engineering for civil installations. The authors illustrate the application of motion control to a wide spectrum of buildings through many examples. Topics covered include optimal stiffness distributions for building-type structures, the role of damping in controlling motion, tuned mass dampers, base isolation systems, linear control, and nonlinear control. The book's primary objective is the satisfaction of motion-related design requirements, such as restrictions on displacement and acceleration. The book is ideal for practicing engineers and graduate students. This book also: ·         Broadens practitioners' understanding of structural motion control, the enabling technology for motion-based design ·         Provides readers the tools to satisfy requirements of modern, ultra-high strength materials that lack corresponding stiffness, where the motion re...

  2. Broadband ferromagnetic resonance characterization of anisotropies and relaxation in exchange-biased IrMn/CoFe bilayers (United States)

    Beik Mohammadi, Jamileh; Jones, Joshua Michael; Paul, Soumalya; Khodadadi, Behrouz; Mewes, Claudia K. A.; Mewes, Tim; Kaiser, Christian


    The magnetization dynamics of exchange-biased IrMn/CoFe bilayers have been investigated using broadband and in-plane angle-dependent ferromagnetic resonance spectroscopy. The interface energy of the exchange bias effect in these bilayers exceeds values previously reported for metallic antiferromagnets. A strong perpendicular magnetic anisotropy and a small in-plane uniaxial anisotropy are also observed in these films. The magnetization relaxation of the bilayers has a strong unidirectional contribution, which is in part caused by two-magnon scattering. However, a detailed analysis of in-plane angle- and thickness-dependent linewidth data strongly suggests the presence of a previously undescribed unidirectional relaxation mechanism.

  3. Broadband light-trapping in ultra-thin nano-structured solar cells (United States)

    Colin, Clément; Massiot, Inès.; Cattoni, Andrea; Vandamme, Nicolas; Dupuis, Christophe; Bardou, Nathalie; Gerard, Isabelle; Naghavi, Negar; Guillemoles, Jean-François; Pelouard, Jean-Luc; Collin, Stéphane


    Conventional light trapping techniques are inefficient at the sub-wavelength scale. This is the main limitation for the thickness reduction of thin-film solar cells below 500nm. We propose a novel architecture for broadband light absorption in ultra-thin active layers based on plasmonic nano-cavities and multi-resonant mechanism. Strong light enhancement will be shown numerically for photovoltaic materials such as CIGSe and GaAs. First experiments on ultrathin nano-patterned CIGSe solar cells will be presented.

  4. Absorption spectroscopy measurements in optically dense explosive fireballs using a modeless broadband dye laser. (United States)

    Glumac, Nick


    A modeless broadband dye laser is applied to probe inside optically dense fireballs generated by high explosives using single-shot, high resolution absorption spectroscopy. Despite attenuation of the main beam by 98%, high signal-to-noise ratio absorption spectra of Al, Ti, and AlO are readily obtained at resolutions of 0.007 nm, and luminosity from the fireball is strongly rejected. Detection limits for atomic species are less than 200 ppb. The method offers good time resolution of chemistry within the fireball, and scaling laws suggest that this technique should be valid in explosives tests at least up to the gram scale.

  5. Subwavelength imaging of sparse broadband sources surrounded by an open disordered medium from a single antenna

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Lianlin; Cui, Tie Jun


    In this letter we study the subwavelength imaging of sparse broadband sources inside a disordered medium by processing the data acquired by a single antenna. A mathematical model has been developed for solving such problem based on the idea of sparse reconstruction. We show that the strongly disordered medium can serves as an efficient apparatus for compressive measurement, which shifts the complexity of devising compressive sensing (CS) hardware from the design, fabrication and electronic control. The proposed method and associated results can find applications in several imaging disciplines, such as optics, THz, RF or ultrasound imaging.

  6. Ambiguity in Tactile Apparent Motion Perception.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuela Liaci

    Full Text Available In von Schiller's Stroboscopic Alternative Motion (SAM stimulus two visually presented diagonal dot pairs, located on the corners of an imaginary rectangle, alternate with each other and induce either horizontal, vertical or, rarely, rotational motion percepts. SAM motion perception can be described by a psychometric function of the dot aspect ratio ("AR", i.e. the relation between vertical and horizontal dot distances. Further, with equal horizontal and vertical dot distances (AR = 1 perception is biased towards vertical motion. In a series of five experiments, we presented tactile SAM versions and studied the role of AR and of different reference frames for the perception of tactile apparent motion.We presented tactile SAM stimuli and varied the ARs, while participants reported the perceived motion directions. Pairs of vibration stimulators were attached to the participants' forearms and stimulator distances were varied within and between forearms. We compared straight and rotated forearm conditions with each other in order to disentangle the roles of exogenous and endogenous reference frames.Increasing the tactile SAM's AR biased perception towards vertical motion, but the effect was weak compared to the visual modality. We found no horizontal disambiguation, even for very small tactile ARs. A forearm rotation by 90° kept the vertical bias, even though it was now coupled with small ARs. A 45° rotation condition with crossed forearms, however, evoked a strong horizontal motion bias.Existing approaches to explain the visual SAM bias fail to explain the current tactile results. Particularly puzzling is the strong horizontal bias in the crossed-forearm conditions. In the case of tactile apparent motion, there seem to be no fixed priority rule for perceptual disambiguation. Rather the weighting of available evidence seems to depend on the degree of stimulus ambiguity, the current situation and on the perceptual strategy of the individual

  7. Broadband and high-efficient terahertz wave deflection based on C-shaped complex metamaterials with phase discontinuities

    KAUST Repository

    Tian, Zhen


    A terahertz metamaterial comprised of C-shaped SRRs was experimentally devised and demonstrated to exhibit high-efficient and broadband anomalous refraction with strong phase discontinuities. The generalized refraction properties of the proposed metamaterial, including the effect of various incident angles and polarizations were investigated at broad terahertz frequencies. By employing such metasurface, we demonstrated a simple method to tailor transmission and phase of terahertz wave. © 2013 IEEE.

  8. Interrelationship Between Broadband NIRS Measurements of Cerebral Cytochrome C Oxidase and Systemic Changes Indicates Injury Severity in Neonatal Encephalopathy. (United States)

    Bale, Gemma; Mitra, Subhabrata; de Roever, Isabel; Chan, Marcus; Caicedo-Dorado, Alexander; Meek, Judith; Robertson, Nicola; Tachtsidis, Ilias


    Perinatal hypoxic ischaemic encephalopathy (HIE) is associated with severe neurodevelopmental problems and mortality. There is a clinical need for techniques to provide cotside assessment of the injury extent. This study aims to use non-invasive cerebral broadband near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) in combination with systemic physiology to assess the severity of HIE injury. Broadband NIRS is used to measure the changes in haemodynamics, oxygenation and the oxidation state of cytochrome c oxidase (oxCCO). We used canonical correlation analysis (CCA), a multivariate statistical technique, to measure the relationship between cerebral broadband NIRS measurements and systemic physiology. A strong relationship between the metabolic marker, oxCCO, and systemic changes indicated severe brain injury; if more than 60 % of the oxCCO signal could be explained by the systemic variations, then the neurodevelopmental outcome was poor. This boundary has high sensitivity and specificity (100 and 83 %, respectively). Broadband NIRS measured concentration changes of the oxidation state of cytochrome c oxidase has the potential to become a useful cotside tool for assessment of injury severity following hypoxic ischaemic brain injury.

  9. Broadband back grating design for thin film solar cells

    KAUST Repository

    Janjua, Bilal


    In this paper, design based on tapered circular grating structure was studied, to provide broadband enhancement in thin film amorphous silicon solar cells. In comparison to planar structure an absorption enhancement of ~ 7% was realized.

  10. Multicarrier Block-Spread CDMA for Broadband Cellular Downlink

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Petré, F.; Leus, G.; Moonen, M.; De Man, H.


    Effective suppression of multiuser interference (MUI) and mitigation of frequency-selective fading effects within the complexity constraints of the mobile constitute major challenges for broadband cellular downlink transceiver design. Existing wideband direct-sequence (DS) code division multiple acc

  11. Exploiting Narrowband Efficiency for Broadband Convolutive Blind Source Separation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aichner Robert


    Full Text Available Based on a recently presented generic broadband blind source separation (BSS algorithm for convolutive mixtures, we propose in this paper a novel algorithm combining advantages of broadband algorithms with the computational efficiency of narrowband techniques. By selective application of the Szegö theorem which relates properties of Toeplitz and circulant matrices, a new normalization is derived as a special case of the generic broadband algorithm. This results in a computationally efficient and fast converging algorithm without introducing typical narrowband problems such as the internal permutation problem or circularity effects. Moreover, a novel regularization method for the generic broadband algorithm is proposed and subsequently also derived for the proposed algorithm. Experimental results in realistic acoustic environments show improved performance of the novel algorithm compared to previous approximations.

  12. Twisted optical metamaterials for planarized ultrathin broadband circular polarizers. (United States)

    Zhao, Y; Belkin, M A; Alù, A


    Optical metamaterials are usually based on planarized, complex-shaped, resonant nano-inclusions. Three-dimensional geometries may provide a wider set of functionalities, including broadband chirality to manipulate circular polarization at the nanoscale, but their fabrication becomes challenging as their dimensions get smaller. Here we introduce a new paradigm for the realization of optical metamaterials, showing that three-dimensional effects may be obtained without complicated inclusions, but instead by tailoring the relative orientation within the lattice. We apply this concept to realize planarized, broadband bianisotropic metamaterials as stacked nanorod arrays with a tailored rotational twist. Because of the coupling among closely spaced twisted plasmonic metasurfaces, metamaterials realized with conventional lithography may effectively operate as three-dimensional helical structures with broadband bianisotropic optical response. The proposed concept is also shown to relax alignment requirements common in three-dimensional metamaterial designs. The realized sample constitutes an ultrathin, broadband circular polarizer that may be directly integrated within nanophotonic systems.

  13. Broadband Reflective Coating Process for Large FUVOIR Mirrors Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ZeCoat Corporation will develop and demonstrate a set of revolutionary coating processes for making broadband reflective coatings suitable for very large mirrors (4+...

  14. Broadband Wireless Data Acquisition and Control Device Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Mobitrum is proposing to develop a broadband wireless device for real-time data acquisition and monitoring applicable to the field instrumentation and control...

  15. Strongly correlated Bose gases (United States)

    Chevy, F.; Salomon, C.


    The strongly interacting Bose gas is one of the most fundamental paradigms of quantum many-body physics and the subject of many experimental and theoretical investigations. We review recent progress on strongly correlated Bose gases, starting with a description of beyond mean-field corrections. We show that the Efimov effect leads to non universal phenomena and to a metastability of the low temperature Bose gas through three-body recombination to deeply bound molecular states. We outline differences and similarities with ultracold Fermi gases, discuss recent experiments on the unitary Bose gas, and finally present a few perspectives for future research.

  16. Economic evaluation of broadband distribution networks to the home (United States)

    Merk, Charles A.


    Economic wideband, linear fiber optic transmitters and receivers pave the way for broadband to the home. The diamond network architecture (DNA) delivers 1 GHz bandwidth. This provides standard video, HDTV, and switched two-way broadband digital services to the home. An economic model is presented using the DNA that considers the impact of digital TV, HDTV, and the evolution of switched voice and data services on a CATV system.

  17. NREL Spectral Standards Development and Broadband Radiometric Calibrations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myers, D. R.; Andreas, A.; Stoffel, T.; Reda, I.; Wilcox, S.; Gotseff, P.; Kay, B.; Gueymard, C.


    We describe a final version of revisions to current ASTM reference standard spectral distributions used to evaluate photovoltaic device performance. An NREL-developed graphical user interface for working with the SMARTS2 spectral model has been developed and is being tested. A proposed ASTM reference Ultraviolet (UV) spectra for materials durability is presented. Improvements in broadband outdoor radiometer calibration, characterization, and reporting software reduce uncertainties in broadband radiometer calibrations.

  18. Peer to peer networking in Ethernet broadband access networks


    Damola, Ayodele


    The use of peer-to-peer (P2P) applications is growing dramatically, particularly for sharing content such as video, audio, and software. The traffic generated by these applications represents a large proportion of Internet traffic. For the broadband access network providers P2P traffic presents several problems. This thesis identifies the performance and business issues that P2P traffic has on broadband access networks employing the McCircuit separation technique. A mechanism for managing P2P...

  19. Wide Field-of-view and Broadband Terahertz Beam Steering Based on Gap Plasmon Geodesic Antennas. (United States)

    Liu, Kaipeng; Guo, Yinghui; Pu, Mingbo; Ma, Xiaoliang; Li, Xiong; Luo, Xiangang


    Despite a plethora of applications ranging from wireless communications to sensing and spectroscopy, the current terahertz beam steering technologies suffer from tremendous insert loss, stringent control of electric bias, limited scanning angle, relatively complicated configuration and narrow operation bandwidth, preventing further practical application. We propose and demonstrate a conceptually new approach for terahertz beam steering by virtue of gap plasmon geodesic antennas. By adjusting the geometric dimension of the gap plasmon geodesic antennas, all gap plasmon modes add coherently along a peculiar direction that depends on the geodesic mean surface. Consequently, high directive beams are generated through the antenna, whose direction could be changed within a wide-angle range spanning ±45° by lateral motion of the feed. Furthermore, an assembled antenna structure consisting of four-element geodesic antennas array is proposed for full 360° beam steering, which can operate in a broadband range from 0.8 THz to 1.2 THz.

  20. Wide Field-of-view and Broadband Terahertz Beam Steering Based on Gap Plasmon Geodesic Antennas (United States)

    Liu, Kaipeng; Guo, Yinghui; Pu, Mingbo; Ma, Xiaoliang; Li, Xiong; Luo, Xiangang


    Despite a plethora of applications ranging from wireless communications to sensing and spectroscopy, the current terahertz beam steering technologies suffer from tremendous insert loss, stringent control of electric bias, limited scanning angle, relatively complicated configuration and narrow operation bandwidth, preventing further practical application. We propose and demonstrate a conceptually new approach for terahertz beam steering by virtue of gap plasmon geodesic antennas. By adjusting the geometric dimension of the gap plasmon geodesic antennas, all gap plasmon modes add coherently along a peculiar direction that depends on the geodesic mean surface. Consequently, high directive beams are generated through the antenna, whose direction could be changed within a wide-angle range spanning ±45° by lateral motion of the feed. Furthermore, an assembled antenna structure consisting of four-element geodesic antennas array is proposed for full 360° beam steering, which can operate in a broadband range from 0.8 THz to 1.2 THz.

  1. Estimation of broadband surface emissivity from narrowband emissivities. (United States)

    Tang, Bo-Hui; Wu, Hua; Li, Chuanrong; Li, Zhao-Liang


    This work analyzed and addressed the estimate of the broadband emissivities for the spectral domains 3-14μm (ε(3-14)) and 3-∞μm (ε(3-∞). Two linear narrow-to-broadband conversion models were proposed to estimate broadband emissivities ε(3-14) and ε(3-∞) using the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) derived emissivities in three thermal infrared channels 29 (8.4-8.7μm), 31 (10.78-11.28μm) and 32 (11.77-12.27μm). Two independent spectral libraries, the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) spectral library and the MODIS UCSB (University of California, Santa Barbara) emissivity library, were used to calibrate and validate the proposed models. Comparisons of the estimated broadband emissivities using the proposed models and the calculated values from the spectral libraries, showed that the proposed method of estimation of broadband emissivity has potential accuracy and the Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) between estimated and calculated broadband emissivities is less than 0.01 for both ε(3-14) and ε(3-∞).

  2. Strong Little Magnets (United States)

    Moloney, Michael J.


    Did you know that some strong little cylindrical magnets available in local hardware stores can have an effective circumferential current of 2500 A? This intriguing information can be obtained by hanging a pair of magnets at the center of a coil, as shown in Fig. 1, and measuring the oscillation frequency as a function of coil current.

  3. Strongly interacting Fermi gases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bakr W.


    Full Text Available Strongly interacting gases of ultracold fermions have become an amazingly rich test-bed for many-body theories of fermionic matter. Here we present our recent experiments on these systems. Firstly, we discuss high-precision measurements on the thermodynamics of a strongly interacting Fermi gas across the superfluid transition. The onset of superfluidity is directly observed in the compressibility, the chemical potential, the entropy, and the heat capacity. Our measurements provide benchmarks for current many-body theories on strongly interacting fermions. Secondly, we have studied the evolution of fermion pairing from three to two dimensions in these gases, relating to the physics of layered superconductors. In the presence of p-wave interactions, Fermi gases are predicted to display toplogical superfluidity carrying Majorana edge states. Two possible avenues in this direction are discussed, our creation and direct observation of spin-orbit coupling in Fermi gases and the creation of fermionic molecules of 23Na 40K that will feature strong dipolar interactions in their absolute ground state.

  4. Broadband monitoring simulation with massively parallel processors (United States)

    Trubetskov, Mikhail; Amotchkina, Tatiana; Tikhonravov, Alexander


    Modern efficient optimization techniques, namely needle optimization and gradual evolution, enable one to design optical coatings of any type. Even more, these techniques allow obtaining multiple solutions with close spectral characteristics. It is important, therefore, to develop software tools that can allow one to choose a practically optimal solution from a wide variety of possible theoretical designs. A practically optimal solution provides the highest production yield when optical coating is manufactured. Computational manufacturing is a low-cost tool for choosing a practically optimal solution. The theory of probability predicts that reliable production yield estimations require many hundreds or even thousands of computational manufacturing experiments. As a result reliable estimation of the production yield may require too much computational time. The most time-consuming operation is calculation of the discrepancy function used by a broadband monitoring algorithm. This function is formed by a sum of terms over wavelength grid. These terms can be computed simultaneously in different threads of computations which opens great opportunities for parallelization of computations. Multi-core and multi-processor systems can provide accelerations up to several times. Additional potential for further acceleration of computations is connected with using Graphics Processing Units (GPU). A modern GPU consists of hundreds of massively parallel processors and is capable to perform floating-point operations efficiently.

  5. Broadband Spectral Analysis of Aql X-1

    CERN Document Server

    Raichur, H; Dewangan, G


    We present the results of a broadband spectral study of the transient Low Mass X-ray Binary Aql X-1 observed by Suzaku and Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer satellites. The source was observed during its 2007 outburst in the High/Soft (Banana) state and in the Low/Hard (Extreme Island) state. Both the Banana state and the Extreme Island state spectra are best described by a two component model consisting of a soft multi-colour blackbody emission likely originating from the accretion disk and a harder Comptonized emission from the boundary layer. Evidence for a hard tail (extending to ~50 keV) is found during the Banana state; this further (transient) component, accounting for atleast ~1.5% of the source luminosity, is modeled by a power-law. Aql X-1 is the second Atoll source after GX 13+1 to show a high energy tail. The presence of a weak but broad Fe line provides further support for a standard accretion disk extending nearly to the neutron star surface. The input photons for the Comptonizing boundary layer could...

  6. Hollow plasmonic antennas for broadband SERS spectroscopy. (United States)

    Messina, Gabriele C; Malerba, Mario; Zilio, Pierfrancesco; Miele, Ermanno; Dipalo, Michele; Ferrara, Lorenzo; De Angelis, Francesco


    The chemical environment of cells is an extremely complex and multifaceted system that includes many types of proteins, lipids, nucleic acids and various other components. With the final aim of studying these components in detail, we have developed multiband plasmonic antennas, which are suitable for highly sensitive surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) and are activated by a wide range of excitation wavelengths. The three-dimensional hollow nanoantennas were produced on an optical resist by a secondary electron lithography approach, generated by fast ion-beam milling on the polymer and then covered with silver in order to obtain plasmonic functionalities. The optical properties of these structures have been studied through finite element analysis simulations that demonstrated the presence of broadband absorption and multiband enhancement due to the unusual geometry of the antennas. The enhancement was confirmed by SERS measurements, which showed a large enhancement of the vibrational features both in the case of resonant excitation and out-of-resonance excitation. Such characteristics indicate that these structures are potential candidates for plasmonic enhancers in multifunctional opto-electronic biosensors.

  7. Broadband Acoustic Cloak for Ultrasound Waves

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Shu; Fang, Nicholas


    Invisibility devices based on coordinate transformation have opened up a new field of considerable interest. Such a device is proposed to render the hidden object undetectable under the flow of light or sound, by guiding and controlling the wave path through an engineered space surrounding the object. We present here the first practical realization of a low-loss and broadband acoustic cloak for underwater ultrasound. This metamaterial cloak is constructed with a network of acoustic circuit elements, namely serial inductors and shunt capacitors. Our experiment clearly shows that the acoustic cloak can effectively bend the ultrasound waves around the hidden object, with reduced scattering and shadow. Due to the non-resonant nature of the building elements, this low loss (~6dB/m) cylindrical cloak exhibits excellent invisibility over a broad frequency range from 52 to 64 kHz in the measurements. The low visibility of the cloaked object for underwater ultrasound shed a light on the fundamental understanding of ma...

  8. Broadband Linear Polarization of Jupiter Trojans

    CERN Document Server

    Bagnulo, S; Stinson, A; Christou, A; Borisov, G B


    Trojan asteroids orbit in the Lagrange points of the system Sun-planet-asteroid. Their dynamical stability make their physical properties important proxies for the early evolution of our solar system. To study their origin, we want to characterize the surfaces of Jupiter Trojan asteroids and check possible similarities with objects of the main belt and of the Kuiper Belt. We have obtained high-accuracy broad-band linear polarization measurements of six Jupiter Trojans of the L4 population and tried to estimate the main features of their polarimetric behaviour. We have compared the polarimetric properties of our targets among themselves, and with those of other atmosphere-less bodies of our solar system. Our sample show approximately homogeneous polarimetric behaviour, although some distinct features are found between them. In general, the polarimetric properties of Trojan asteroids are similar to those of D- and P-type main-belt asteroids. No sign of coma activity is detected in any of the observed objects. A...

  9. Silver conical helix broadband plasmonic nanoantenna (United States)

    Sobhkhiz, Nader; Moshaii, Ahmad


    The discrete dipole approximation method is used to investigate the optical extinction spectra and the electric field enhancement of Ag conical helix (CH) nanostructures. Based on an expected similarity between the radio frequency response of the antenna with the infrared and the visible response of the nanoantenna, the Ag CH nanostructures were designed as a broadband nanoantenna. It is shown that with engineering the structure parameters of the CH nanostructure the plasmonic response of the nanostructure can be designed for a desirable application. In addition, the change of the substrate material for the nanohelix growth is shown to have infinitesimal effect on the resonance peaks of the conical nanohelix. However, varying the surrounding medium can lead to considerable red-shifting of the plasmonic resonance peaks (up to 230 nm). Calculations of the near field around the helical nanoantenna show that the smaller and the larger sides of the CH are related to the plasmonic resonance peaks at low and high wavelengths, respectively. The calculation result for the extinction spectrum has also been compared with similar experimental data for a 2-pitch Ag conical nanohelix and a relatively good agreement between the numerical calculation and the experiment has been obtained.

  10. Broadband Observations of High Redshift Blazars

    CERN Document Server

    Paliya, Vaidehi S; Fabian, A C; Stalin, C S


    We present a multi-wavelength study of four high redshift blazars, S5 0014+81 ($z=3.37$), CGRaBS J0225+1846 ($z=2.69$), BZQ J1430+4205 ($z=4.72$), and 3FGL J1656.2$-$3303 ($z=2.40$), using the quasi-simultaneous data from {\\it Swift}, {\\it NuSTAR}, and {\\it Fermi}-Large Area Telescope (LAT) and also the archival {\\it XMM-Newton} observations. Other than 3FGL J1656.2$-$3303, none of the sources were known as $\\gamma$-ray emitters and our analysis of $\\sim$7.5 years of LAT data reveals the first time detection of the statistically significant $\\gamma$-ray emission from CGRaBS J0225+1846. We generate the broadband spectral energy distributions (SED) of all the objects, centering at the epoch of {\\it NuSTAR} observations and reproduce them using a one zone leptonic emission model. The optical$-$UV emission in all the objects can be explained by the radiation from the accretion disk, whereas, X-ray to $\\gamma$-ray window of the SEDs are found to be dominated by the inverse Compton scattering off the broad line reg...

  11. Broadband Infrared Heterodyne Spectrometer: Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stevens, C G; Cunningham, C T; Tringe, J W


    This report summarizes the most important results of our effort to develop a new class of infrared spectrometers based on a novel broadband heterodyne design. Our results indicate that this approach could lead to a near-room temperature operation with performance limited only by quantum noise carried by the incoming signal. Using a model quantum-well infrared photodetector (QWIP), we demonstrated key performance features of our approach. For example, we directly measured the beat frequency signal generated by superimposing local oscillator (LO) light of one frequency and signal light of another through a spectrograph, by injecting the LO light at a laterally displaced input location. In parallel with the development of this novel spectrometer, we modeled a new approach to reducing detector volume though plasmonic resonance effects. Since dark current scales directly with detector volume, this ''photon compression'' can directly lead to lower currents. Our calculations indicate that dark current can be reduced by up to two orders of magnitude in an optimized ''superlens'' structure. Taken together, our spectrometer and dark current reduction strategies provide a promising path toward room temperature operation of a mid-wave and possibly long-wave infrared spectrometer.

  12. Broadband access technology for passive optical network (United States)

    Chi, Sien; Yeh, Chien-Hung; Chow, Chi-Wai


    We will introduce four related topics about fiber access network technologies for PONs. First, an upstream signal powerequalizer is proposed and designed using a FP-LD in optical line terminal applied to the TDM-PON, and a 20dB dynamic upstream power range from -5 to -25dBm having a 1.7dB maximal power variation is retrieved. The fiber-fault protection is also an important issue for PON. We investigate a simple and cost-effective TDM/WDM PON system with self-protected function. Next, using RSOA-based colorless WDM-PON is also demonstrated. We propose a costeffective CW light source into RSOA for 2.5Gb/s upstream in WDM-PON together with self-healing mechanism against fiber fault. Finally, we investigate a 4Gb/s OFDM-QAM for both upstream and downstream traffic in long-reach WDM/TDM PON system under 100km transmission without dispersion compensation. As a result, we believe that these key access technologies are emerging and useful for the next generation broadband FTTH networks.

  13. Silicon Micromachined Sensor for Broadband Vibration Analysis (United States)

    Gutierrez, Adolfo; Edmans, Daniel; Cormeau, Chris; Seidler, Gernot; Deangelis, Dave; Maby, Edward


    The development of a family of silicon based integrated vibration sensors capable of sensing mechanical resonances over a broad range of frequencies with minimal signal processing requirements is presented. Two basic general embodiments of the concept were designed and fabricated. The first design was structured around an array of cantilever beams and fabricated using the ARPA sponsored multi-user MEMS processing system (MUMPS) process at the Microelectronics Center of North Carolina (MCNC). As part of the design process for this first sensor, a comprehensive finite elements analysis of the resonant modes and stress distribution was performed using PATRAN. The dependence of strain distribution and resonant frequency response as a function of Young's modulus in the Poly-Si structural material was studied. Analytical models were also studied. In-house experimental characterization using optical interferometry techniques were performed under controlled low pressure conditions. A second design, intended to operate in a non-resonant mode and capable of broadband frequency response, was proposed and developed around the concept of a cantilever beam integrated with a feedback control loop to produce a null mode vibration sensor. A proprietary process was used to integrat a metal-oxide semiconductor (MOS) sensing device, with actuators and a cantilever beam, as part of a compatible process. Both devices, once incorporated as part of multifunction data acquisition and telemetry systems will constitute a useful system for NASA launch vibration monitoring operations. Satellite and other space structures can benefit from the sensor for mechanical condition monitoring functions.

  14. The neural basis of tactile motion perception. (United States)

    Pei, Yu-Cheng; Bensmaia, Sliman J


    The manipulation of objects commonly involves motion between object and skin. In this review, we discuss the neural basis of tactile motion perception and its similarities with its visual counterpart. First, much like in vision, the perception of tactile motion relies on the processing of spatiotemporal patterns of activation across populations of sensory receptors. Second, many neurons in primary somatosensory cortex are highly sensitive to motion direction, and the response properties of these neurons draw strong analogies to those of direction-selective neurons in visual cortex. Third, tactile speed may be encoded in the strength of the response of cutaneous mechanoreceptive afferents and of a subpopulation of speed-sensitive neurons in cortex. However, both afferent and cortical responses are strongly dependent on texture as well, so it is unclear how texture and speed signals are disambiguated. Fourth, motion signals from multiple fingers must often be integrated during the exploration of objects, but the way these signals are combined is complex and remains to be elucidated. Finally, visual and tactile motion perception interact powerfully, an integration process that is likely mediated by visual association cortex.

  15. A Motion Planning Approach to Studying Molecular Motions

    KAUST Repository

    Amato, Nancy M.


    While structurally very different, protein and RNA molecules share an important attribute. The motions they undergo are strongly related to the function they perform. For example, many diseases such as Mad Cow disease or Alzheimer\\'s disease are associated with protein misfolding and aggregation. Similarly, RNA folding velocity may regulate the plasmid copy number, and RNA folding kinetics can regulate gene expression at the translational level. Knowledge of the stability, folding, kinetics and detailed mechanics of the folding process may help provide insight into how proteins and RNAs fold. In this paper, we present an overview of our work with a computational method we have adapted from robotic motion planning to study molecular motions. We have validated against experimental data and have demonstrated that our method can capture biological results such as stochastic folding pathways, population kinetics of various conformations, and relative folding rates. Thus, our method provides both a detailed view (e.g., individual pathways) and a global view (e.g., population kinetics, relative folding rates, and reaction coordinates) of energy landscapes of both proteins and RNAs. We have validated these techniques by showing that we observe the same relative folding rates as shown in experiments for structurally similar protein molecules that exhibit different folding behaviors. Our analysis has also been able to predict the same relative gene expression rate for wild-type MS2 phage RNA and three of its mutants.

  16. Brain Image Motion Correction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Rasmus Ramsbøl; Benjaminsen, Claus; Larsen, Rasmus


    The application of motion tracking is wide, including: industrial production lines, motion interaction in gaming, computer-aided surgery and motion correction in medical brain imaging. Several devices for motion tracking exist using a variety of different methodologies. In order to use such devices...... offset and tracking noise in medical brain imaging. The data are generated from a phantom mounted on a rotary stage and have been collected using a Siemens High Resolution Research Tomograph for positron emission tomography. During acquisition the phantom was tracked with our latest tracking prototype...

  17. Observations Using the Taipei Basin Broadband Downhole Seismic Network: The 26 December 2006, Pingtung Earthquake Doublet, Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Win-Gee Huang


    Full Text Available To monitor the fault activity in the Taipei area, a new broadband downhole seismic network comprised of three stations was established in the Taipei Basin over a period of three years, 2005 - 2007. The network geometry is a triangle with a station spacing of about 12 km covering the entire Taipei Basin. Each station has two holes of different depths containing modern instruments, including a low-gain broadband seismometer. The largest depth is 150 m. We report our first experience on the installation and operation of the broadband downhole seismic network in the Taipei Basin. Some representative records from the Pingtung earthquake doublet in December 2006 are shown here. Ground displacement during the Pingtung earthquake doublet can be recovered from the velocity records without the baseline corrections that are required for the acceleration records. Our network offers excellent data for accurate and effective characterization of seismic motion in the study area. Seismic data from this network will be shared with other research institutions in Taiwan and abroad for further research.

  18. Topological fluid mechanics of point vortex motions

    CERN Document Server

    Boyland, P; Aref, H; Boyland, Philip; Stremler, Mark; Aref, Hassan


    Topological techniques are used to study the motions of systems of point vortices in the infinite plane, in singly-periodic arrays, and in doubly-periodic lattices. The reduction of each system using its symmetries is described in detail. Restricting to three vortices with zero net circulation, each reduced system is described by a one degree of freedom Hamiltonian. The phase portrait of this reduced system is subdivided into regimes using the separatrix motions, and a braid representing the topology of all vortex motions in each regime is computed. This braid also describes the isotopy class of the advection homeomorphism induced by the vortex motion. The Thurston-Nielsen theory is then used to analyse these isotopy classes, and in certain cases strong conclusions about the dynamics of the advection can be made.

  19. Global gyrokinetic simulations with strong flows (United States)

    Collier, J. D.; McMillan, B. F.; Robinson, J. R.


    We report on the investigation of strong toroidal rotation effects in a global tokamak code, ORB5. This includes the implementation of a strong flow gyrokinetic Lagrangian, allowing a complete treatment of centrifugal and Coriolis effects in the laboratory frame. In order to consistently perform the linear analysis in this system, an axisymmetric gyrokinetic equilibrium distribution function is defined using the constants of motion: we show it corresponds to the standard choice in the local limit and is close to the neoclassical solution in the banana regime. The energy and momentum transport equations are presented in an analogous form to those for the weak flow system. Linear studies of Ion Temperature Gradient (ITG) modes in rotating plasmas are performed to determine how the global effects interact with the effects of strong rotation. We also determine the geodesic acoustic mode dispersion with respect to plasma rotation rate in this gyrokinetic model and compare it to MHD theory.

  20. Strong Field Spherical Dynamos

    CERN Document Server

    Dormy, Emmanuel


    Numerical models of the geodynamo are usually classified in two categories: those denominated dipolar modes, observed when the inertial term is small enough, and multipolar fluctuating dynamos, for stronger forcing. I show that a third dynamo branch corresponding to a dominant force balance between the Coriolis force and the Lorentz force can be produced numerically. This force balance is usually referred to as the strong field limit. This solution co-exists with the often described viscous branch. Direct numerical simulations exhibit a transition from a weak-field dynamo branch, in which viscous effects set the dominant length scale, and the strong field branch in which viscous and inertial effects are largely negligible. These results indicate that a distinguished limit needs to be sought to produce numerical models relevant to the geodynamo and that the usual approach of minimizing the magnetic Prandtl number (ratio of the fluid kinematic viscosity to its magnetic diffusivity) at a given Ekman number is mi...