Sample records for broadband seismic station

  1. The New Very Broadband Seismic Station TROLL, Antarctica (United States)

    Kvaerna, Tormod; Schweitzer, Johannes; Pirli, Myrto; Roth, Michael


    Troll is the name of the Norwegian permanent research station in Dronning Maud Land, Antarctica. The research base is located inside the continent, at an elevation of about 1300 m and at a distance of about 230 km from the shelf ice border. In the first week of February 2012, a new very broadband seismic station was installed at TROLL. Contrary to many other seismic stations inside the Antarctic continent, the new seismic sensor could be installed on bedrock (migmatite), on a hill at about 300 m distance from the main buildings of the Troll research base. A bedrock installation has the advantage that seismic signals are not disturbed by multiples due to the thick Antarctic ice sheet. The equipment consists of a Streckeisen STS-2.5 broadband sensor and a Quanterra Q330HR 26 bit digitizer. All data are transferred in real time via a satellite link to NORSAR for analysis and further distribution. During the first year, the new seismic station and corresponding data transmission has been running very stably. Initial analysis of the station's event detection capability shows that the performance is comparable to, and sometimes better than, the best performing three-component stations of the International Monitoring System (IMS). We will present examples of diurnal and seasonal variations in the background noise level of the station, the observed global, regional and local seismicity, and the very exciting monitoring capabilities of icebergs drifting along the coast of Dronning Maud Land.

  2. Autonomous, continuously recording broadband seismic stations at high-latitude (United States)

    Beaudoin, B.; Parker, T.; Bonnett, B.; Tytgat, G.; Anderson, K.; Fowler, J.


    IRIS PASSCAL is in the third year of an NSF funded development and acquisition effort to establish a pool of cold-hardened seismic stations specifically for high-latitude broadband deployments. We have two complete years of field trials and have successfully recorded continuous seismic data during both years with data recovery rates of ~90%. Our design is premised on a 2W autonomous system recording to local media, capable of lasting two years without service. The system is composed of four new design elements: a heavily insulated station enclosure; a state-of-health (SOH) Iridium modem; a light weight, easily deployed solar panel mount; and a power system that includes power switching between primary (Lithium Thionyl Chloride) and secondary batteries. The station enclosures have proved most critical in keeping our data acquisition systems operating within manufacturer specifications and primary batteries within a 50-70% efficiency range. Enclosures with 2.5cm-thick vacuum panels and 5cm of foam insulation have kept interior enclosure temperatures 25-30°C above background (typically below -50°C). This austral summer we are deploying version three of our enclosures. Significant changes in the design include thicker vacuum panels (5cm), more robust construction, and simplified cable routing. An important aspect of our station design is easy installation and minimal weight. To simplify installation our station enclosures are packed with datalogger, SOH communications and batteries in the lab or base camp, so that access to the internal components is not necessary at the remote site. Bulkhead connectors allow a user to fully interact with the system without ever having to open the enclosure. Solar panel mounts are also fully constructed prior to deployment. Once on site, digging two large holes (one for the enclosure and one for the broadband seismometer) and constructing the site takes roughly 2 hours. A station designed to record continuously for 12-14 months is

  3. Swiss-AlpArray temporary broadband seismic stations deployment and noise characterization (United States)

    Molinari, Irene; Clinton, John; Kissling, Edi; Hetényi, György; Giardini, Domenico; Stipčević, Josip; Dasović, Iva; Herak, Marijan; Šipka, Vesna; Wéber, Zoltán; Gráczer, Zoltán; Solarino, Stefano; Swiss-AlpArray Field Team; AlpArray Working Group


    AlpArray is a large collaborative seismological project in Europe that includes more than 50 research institutes and seismological observatories. At the heart of the project is the collection of top-quality seismological data from a dense network of broadband temporary seismic stations, in compliment to the existing permanent networks, that ensures a homogeneous station coverage of the greater Alpine region. This Alp Array Seismic Network (AASN) began operation in January 2016 and will have a duration of at least 2 years. In this work we report the Swiss contribution to the AASN, we concentrate on the site selection process, our methods for stations installation, data quality and data management. We deployed 27 temporary broadband stations equipped with STS-2 and Trillium Compact 120 s sensors. The deployment and maintenance of the temporary stations across 5 countries is managed by ETH Zurich and it is the result of a fruitful collaboration between five institutes in Europe.

  4. Significant technical advances in broadband seismic stations in the Lesser Antilles (United States)

    Anglade, A.; Lemarchand, A.; Saurel, J.-M.; Clouard, V.; Bouin, M.-P.; De Chabalier, J.-B.; Tait, S.; Brunet, C.; Nercessian, A.; Beauducel, F.; Robertson, R.; Lynch, L.; Higgins, M.; Latchman, J.


    In the last few years, French West Indies observatories from the Institut de Physique du Globe de Paris (IPGP), in collaboration with The UWI Seismic Research Centre (SRC, University of West Indies), have modernized the Lesser Antilles Arc seismic and deformation monitoring network. 15 new, permanent stations have been installed that strengthen and expand its detection capabilities. The global network of the IPGP-SRC consortium is now composed of 20 modernized stations, all equipped with broadband seismometers, strong motion sensors, Global Positioning System (GPS) sensors and satellite communication for real-time data transfer. To enhance the sensitivity and reduce ambient noise, special efforts were made to improve the design of the seismic vault and the original Stuttgart shielding of the broadband seismometers (240 and 120s corner period). Tests were conducted for several months, involving different types of countermeasures, to achieve the highest performance level of the seismometers. GPS data, realtime and validated seismic data (only broadband) are now available from the IPGP data centre ( This upgraded network feeds the Caribbean Tsunami Warning System supported by UNESCO and establishes a monitoring tool that produces high quality data for studying subduction and volcanic processes in the Lesser Antilles arc.


    Dolenc, D.; Romanowicz, B. A.


    Ocean-bottom broadband seismic stations (OBSs) are installed at the interface of the solid earth and the ocean. As such, they are sensitive to the processes that originate in the solid earth (e.g., earthquakes), ocean (e.g., tsunamis), and even atmosphere (e.g., cyclones). Observations of ground motions at the OBSs can therefore be used to study and monitor processes that contribute to hazards in the coastal zones. These processes include earthquakes, underwater landslides, underwater volcanoes, and tsunamis. Numerous offshore faults are located too far from the shore for their background seismicity to be studied by land seismic stations alone, yet they are capable of generating large earthquakes that can threaten coastal communities. OBSs can record offshore seismicity that would be missed by relying only on the land stations. OBS data can also significantly improve locations and source mechanism determination for stronger offshore events that are observed on the land stations as they can significantly improve azimuthal coverage. As such, OBSs are essential for identifying seismic hazard from offshore faults. In addition, nearshore OBSs can improve studies of earthquakes on the land faults, in particular when the faults are located close to the ocean, resulting in limited azimuthal coverage provided by land stations alone. OBSs can also provide information about the offshore subsurface velocity structure, which can significantly affect the amount of shaking in the coastal regions. Velocity structure can be determined by compliance analysis that takes advantage of the seafloor deformation due to infragravity waves (long-period ocean surface waves). Reliable offshore velocity models are needed for modeling seismic wave propagation and for subsequent modeling of the amount of shaking expected in the coastal regions due to strong local and regional offshore earthquakes. We will present examples from the permanent ocean-bottom broadband seismic station MOBB located at

  6. Weather-related Ground Motions Recorded by Taiwan Broadband Seismic Network Stations (United States)

    Yang, C. F.; Chi, W. C.; Lai, Y. J.


    Broadband seismometers record ground motions, which can be induced by weather-related processes. Analyzing such signals might help to better understand those natural processes. Here, we used continuous seismic data, meteorological data and stream data to analyze the weather-related ground motions during typhoon cases and rainy season case in Taiwan. We detected some long period seismic signals at the station Mahsi (MASB) during three meteorological cases (Typhoon Kalmaegi in 2008, Typhoon Morakot in 2009 and the East Asian rainy season in 2012). The amplitude of the seismic waveform correlated with the amount of the precipitation and the derivative of water level and discharge in the nearby river. According to the relationships of waveforms in main and minor rainfall events, we derived apparent source time functions (ASTFs) and used the ASTFs to estimate and quantify the precipitation of main rainfall events in the cases. The estimated precipitation has high correlation coefficients (> 0.82) with the observation. It shows that the long period seismic data may be applied to rainfall monitoring.

  7. A deployment of broadband seismic stations in two deep gold mines, South Africa (United States)

    McGarr, Arthur F.; Boettcher, Margaret S.; Fletcher, Jon Peter B.; Johnston, Malcolm J.; Durrheim, R.; Spottiswoode, S.; Milev, A.


    In-mine seismic networks throughout the TauTona and Mponeng gold mines provide precise locations and seismic source parameters of earthquakes. They also support small-scale experimental projects, including NELSAM (Natural Earthquake Laboratory in South African Mines), which is intended to record, at close hand, seismic rupture of a geologic fault that traverses the project region near the deepest part of TauTona. To resolve some questions regarding the in-mine and NELSAM networks, we deployed four portable broadband seismic stations at deep sites within TauTona and Mponeng for one week during September 2007 and recorded ground acceleration. Moderately large earthquakes within our temporary network were recorded with sufficiently high signal-to-noise that we were able to integrate the acceleration to ground velocity and displacement, from which moment tensors could be determined. We resolved the questions concerning the NELSAM and in-mine networks by using these moment tensors to calculate synthetic seismograms at various network recording sites for comparison with the ground motion recorded at the same locations. We also used the peak velocity of the S wave pulse, corrected for attenuation with distance, to estimate the maximum slip within the rupture zone of an earthquake. We then combined the maximum slip and seismic moment with results from laboratory friction experiments to estimate maximum slip rates within the same high-slip patches of the rupture zone. For the four largest earthquakes recorded within our network, all with magnitudes near 2, these inferred maximum slips range from 4 to 27 mm and the corresponding maximum slip rates range from 1 to 6 m/s. These results, in conjunction with information from previous ground motion studies, indicate that underground support should be capable of withstanding peak ground velocities of at least 5 m/s.

  8. Five Years of Data at the Monterey Ocean Bottom Broadband Seismic Station (MOBB) (United States)

    Dolenc, D.; Romanowicz, B.; McGill, P.; Neuhauser, D.; Uhrhammer, R.


    We present an overview of the results obtained at MOBB in the past 5.5 years of its continuous operation. In particular we focus on the observations of the long-period ocean surface gravity waves (infragravity waves; 0.002 to 0.05 Hz) and different methods to remove the long-period background and signal-generated noise from the seismic observations. MOBB was installed 40 km offshore in the Monterey Bay at a water depth of 1000 m in April 2002 in collaboration between Berkeley Seismological Laboratory and Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute (MBARI). It is located west of the San Gregorio Fault and represents the first step towards extending the onshore broadband seismic network in northern California westward of the Pacific-North America plate boundary. MOBB comprises a three- component broadband seismometer Guralp CMG-1T, sensitive over a wide frequency range, from 50 Hz to 2.8 mHz (360 s), a water current meter measuring current speed and direction, and a differential pressure gauge. At present, the station is autonomous and the data are on average retrieved every 4 months using MBARI's remotely operated vehicle Ventana. Work is under way to connect it to the MARS (Monterey Accelerated Research System) cable so that it will contribute continuous real time data to the northern California earthquake monitoring system. Lessons learned from the MOBB deployment as well as noise removal techniques that are specific to the ocean bottom installation will provide us reference for future installations of broadband seismic stations in the oceans. When compared to the quiet land stations, ocean bottom seismic station MOBB shows increased background noise in the band pass of interest for the study of regional and teleseismic signals. This is mainly due to deformation of the seafloor under the pressure forcing by infragravity waves. Also observed is additional signal- generated noise which is due to the reverberations in the shallow sedimentary layers as well as in the

  9. Observations of Infragravity Waves at the Ocean-Bottom Broadband Seismic Stations Endeavour (KEBB) and Explorer (KXBB) (United States)

    Dolenc, D.; Romanowicz, B.; McGill, P.; Wilcock, W.


    The long-period background noise observed at ocean-bottom seismic stations is mainly due to deformation of the seafloor under the pressure forcing by long-period ocean surface gravity waves (infragravity waves; 0.002 to 0.05 Hz). Understanding the nature and characteristics of the coupling between the infragravity waves and the solid earth is important for the study of the infragravity wave generation and dissipation as well as for the study of the earth's hum and structure using non-seismic sources. Ocean-bottom broadband stations KEBB and KXBB were deployed as part of a three-year multidisciplinary experiment funded by the W. M. Keck foundation to monitor the linkages between seismic deformation and hydrothermal fluxes on the northern Juan de Fuca plate. The seismic component of the project was a collaboration between the University of Washington, the University of Oregon, and the Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute. Station KEBB was installed 247 km west of Vancouver Island (VI) at a water depth of 2376 m in August 2003. A year later station KXBB was installed 105 km offshore VI at a water depth of 2370 m. Each station comprised a Guralp CMG-1T three-component broadband seismometer, sensitive over a wide frequency range from 50 Hz to 2.8 mHz (360 sec), connected to a recording and battery package. Both seismometers were completely buried in the ocean floor sediments. The two stations recorded data continuously and stored them locally until retrieval once per year. Infragravity waves can be observed at KEBB and KXBB on stormy as well as quiet days in the period band from 30 to 400 sec. When compared to the energy of short-period ocean waves recorded at local buoys, the low- frequency seismic noise is found to be mainly generated when the short-period ocean waves reach the coast, and not when the storm passes directly above the stations. Two types of modulation of the infragravity signal are observed. First, a longer-period modulation of the infragravity

  10. The GEOSCOPE broadband seismic observatory (United States)

    Douet, Vincent; Vallée, Martin; Zigone, Dimitri; Bonaimé, Sébastien; Stutzmann, Eléonore; Maggi, Alessia; Pardo, Constanza; Bernard, Armelle; Leroy, Nicolas; Pesqueira, Frédéric; Lévêque, Jean-Jacques; Thoré, Jean-Yves; Bes de Berc, Maxime; Sayadi, Jihane


    The GEOSCOPE observatory has provided continuous broadband data to the scientific community for the past 34 years. The 31 operational GEOSCOPE stations are installed in 17 countries, across all continents and on islands throughout the oceans. They are equipped with three component very broadband seismometers (STS1, T240 or STS2) and 24 or 26 bit digitizers (Q330HR). Seismometers are installed with warpless base plates, which decrease long period noise on horizontal components by up to 15dB. All stations send data in real time to the IPGP data center, which transmits them automatically to other data centers (FDSN/IRIS-DMC and RESIF) and tsunami warning centers. In 2016, three stations are expected to be installed or re-installed: in Western China (WUS station), in Saint Pierre and Miquelon Island (off the East coast of Canada) and in Walis and Futuna (SouthWest Pacific Ocean). The waveform data are technically validated by IPGP (25 stations) or EOST (6 stations) in order to check their continuity and integrity. Scientific data validation is also performed by analyzing seismic noise level of the continuous data and by comparing real and synthetic earthquake waveforms (body waves). After these validations, data are archived by the IPGP data center in Paris. They are made available to the international scientific community through different interfaces (see details on Data are duplicated at the FDSN/IRIS-DMC data center and a similar duplication at the French national data center RESIF will be operational in 2016. The GEOSCOPE broadband seismic observatory also provides near-real time information on global moderate-to-large seismicity (above magnitude 5.5-6) through the automated application of the SCARDEC method (Vallée et al., 2011). By using global data from the FDSN - in particular from GEOSCOPE and IRIS/USGS stations -, earthquake source parameters (depth, moment magnitude, focal mechanism, source time function) are determined about 45

  11. The 2007 eruptions and caldera collapse of the Piton de la Fournaise volcano (La Réunion Island) from tilt analysis at a single very broadband seismic station (United States)

    Fontaine, Fabrice R.; Roult, Geneviève; Michon, Laurent; Barruol, Guilhem; Muro, Andrea Di


    Seismic records from La Réunion Island very broadband Geoscope station are investigated to constrain the link between the 2007 eruptive sequence and the related caldera collapse of the Piton de la Fournaise volcano. Tilt estimated from seismic records reveals that the three 2007 eruptions belong to a single inflation-deflation cycle. Tilt trend indicates that the small-volume summit eruption of 18 February occurred during a phase of continuous inflation that started in January 2007. Inflation decelerated 24 days before a second short-lived, small-volume eruption on 30 March, almost simultaneous with a sudden, large-scale deflation of the volcano. Deflation rate, which had stabilized at relatively low level, increased anew on 1 April while no magma was erupted, followed on 2 April by a major distal eruption and on 5 April by a summit caldera collapse. Long-term tilt variation suggests that the 2007 eruptive succession was triggered by a deep magma input.

  12. Mammoth Mountain, California broadband seismic experiment (United States)

    Dawson, P. B.; Pitt, A. M.; Wilkinson, S. K.; Chouet, B. A.; Hill, D. P.; Mangan, M.; Prejean, S. G.; Read, C.; Shelly, D. R.


    Mammoth Mountain is a young cumulo-volcano located on the southwest rim of Long Valley caldera, California. Current volcanic processes beneath Mammoth Mountain are manifested in a wide range of seismic signals, including swarms of shallow volcano-tectonic earthquakes, upper and mid-crustal long-period earthquakes, swarms of brittle-failure earthquakes in the lower crust, and shallow (3-km depth) very-long-period earthquakes. Diffuse emissions of C02 began after a magmatic dike injection beneath the volcano in 1989, and continue to present time. These indications of volcanic unrest drive an extensive monitoring effort of the volcano by the USGS Volcano Hazards Program. As part of this effort, eleven broadband seismometers were deployed on Mammoth Mountain in November 2011. This temporary deployment is expected to run through the fall of 2013. These stations supplement the local short-period and broadband seismic stations of the Northern California Seismic Network (NCSN) and provide a combined network of eighteen broadband stations operating within 4 km of the summit of Mammoth Mountain. Data from the temporary stations are not available in real-time, requiring the merging of the data from the temporary and permanent networks, timing of phases, and relocation of seismic events to be accomplished outside of the standard NCSN processing scheme. The timing of phases is accomplished through an interactive Java-based phase-picking routine, and the relocation of seismicity is achieved using the probabilistic non-linear software package NonLinLoc, distributed under the GNU General Public License by Alomax Scientific. Several swarms of shallow volcano-tectonic earthquakes, spasmodic bursts of high-frequency earthquakes, a few long-period events located within or below the edifice of Mammoth Mountain and numerous mid-crustal long-period events have been recorded by the network. To date, about 900 of the ~2400 events occurring beneath Mammoth Mountain since November 2011 have

  13. Broadband seismic effects from train vibrations (United States)

    Fuchs, Florian; Bokelmann, Götz


    Seismologists rarely study train induced vibrations which are mainly regarded an unwanted source of noise for classical seismological applications such as earthquake monitoring. A few seismological studies try to utilize train vibrations however as active sources, e.g. for subsurface imaging, but they do not focus on the characteristics of the train signal itself. Most available studies on train induced vibrations take an engineering approach and aim at better understanding the generation and short-distance propagation of train induced vibrations, mainly for mitigation and construction purposes. They mostly rely on numerical simulations and/or short-period or accelerometer recordings obtained directly on the train track or up to few hundred meters away and almost no studies exist with seismic recordings further away from the track. In some of these previous studies sharp and equidistant peaks are present in the vibration spectrum of heavy freight trains, but they do not attempt to explain them. Here we show and analyze various train vibration signals obtained from a set of seismic broadband stations installed in the context of the temporary, large-scale regional seismic network AlpArray. The geometrical restrictions of this seismic network combined with budget and safety considerations resulted in a number of broad-band instruments deployed in the vicinity of busy railway lines. On these stations we observe very characteristic seismic signals associated with different types of trains, typically showing pronounced equidistant spectral lines over a wide frequency range. In this study we analyze the nature of such signals and discuss if they are generated by a source effect or by wave propagation effects in near-surface soil layers.

  14. Dynamics of the 2007 Eruptions of Piton de la Fournaise and the Related Caldera Collapse from a Single Very Broad-band Seismic Station (United States)

    Fontaine, Fabrice R.; Roult, Geneviève; Michon, Laurent; Barruol, Guilhem; Ferrazzini, Valérie; Di Muro, Andrea; Reymond, Dominique; Peltier, Aline; Staudacher, Thomas


    Seismic records from the RER very broad-band seismic station (La Réunion Island) belonging to the GEOSCOPE network are investigated to understand the eruptive succession (February to May) of Piton de la Fournaise and the caldera collapse episode of April 2007. Data first indicate that the short-lived, small volume, summit eruption of February 18 occurred during a phase of continuous inflation initiated in January 2007. Inflation decelerated around 2 weeks before a second short-lived small volume eruption on March 30-31 on the SE flank, almost simultaneous with a sudden, large deflation of the edifice. Deflation rate, which had stabilized at a relatively low level, increased anew on April 1 while no magma was emitted, followed on April 2 by a more distant and one of the most voluminous eruptions of the last two centuries at La Réunion Island. The RER station shows that very long period (VLP) and ultra long period (ULP) events developed during this period. Seven ULP events preceded the caldera collapse and 48 ones occurred during the caldera collapse over 9 days, most of which during the first 30 hours. A thorough examination of the seismic signals corrected for tide effects shows that each collapse event was coeval with VLP and ULP signals. Each individual collapse showed similar ULP and VLP signals characterized by periods of ~ 500 s and ~ 7 s, respectively. The back-azimuth of most ULP signals related to the caldera collapse points clearly toward the Dolomieu caldera. The strikingly constant duration of the VLP signals (around 20 s) related to the collapse events and their occurrence before the collapse initiation suggest a physical control of the volcanic edifice. Waveforms and spectrograms of the various caldera collapse events show very homogeneous patterns, suggesting a similar and repeating volcano-tectonic process for the formation of the VLP signals events. Although tilt may be responsible of part of the ULP signals observed during the collapse events, we

  15. The monterey bay broadband ocean bottom seismic observatory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Uhrhammer


    Full Text Available We report on the installation of a long-term buried ocean-floor broadband seismic station (MOBB in Monterey Bay, California (USA, 40km off-shore, at a water depth of 1000 m. The station was installed in April 2002 using a ship and ROV, in a collaborative effort between the Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute (MBARI and the Berkeley Seismological Laboratory (BSL. The station is located on the western side of the San Gregorio Fault, a major fault in the San Andreas plate boundary fault system. In addition to a 3-component CMG-1T seismometer package, the station comprises a current meter and Differential Pressure Gauge, both sampled at high-enough frequency (1 Hz to allow the study of relations between background noise on the seismometers and ocean waves and currents. The proximity of several land-based broadband seismic stations of the Berkeley Digital Seismic Network allows insightful comparisons of land/ocean background seismic noise at periods relevant to regional and teleseismic studies. The station is currently autonomous. Recording and battery packages are exchanged every 3 months during scheduled one day dives. Ultimately, this station will be linked to shore using continuous telemetry (cable and/or buoy and will contribute to the earthquake notification system in Northern California. We present examples of earthquake and noise data recorded during the first 6 months of operation of MOBB. Lessons learned from these and continued recordings will help understand the nature and character of background noise in regional off-shore environments and provide a reference for the installation of future off-shore temporary and permanent broadband seismic stations.

  16. Global characterization of seismic noise with broadband seismometers

    CERN Document Server

    Coughlin, Michael William


    In this paper, we present an analysis of seismic spectra that were calculated from all broadband channels (BH?) made available through IRIS, NIED F-net and Orfeus servers covering the past five years and beyond. A general characterization of the data is given in terms of spectral histograms and data-availability plots. We show that the spectral information can easily be categorized in time and regions. Spectral histograms indicate that seismic stations exist in Africa, Australia and Antarctica that measure spectra significantly below the global low-noise models above 1 Hz. We investigate world-wide coherence between the seismic spectra and other data sets like proximity to cities, station elevation, earthquake frequency, and wind speeds. Elevation of seismic stations in the US is strongly anti-correlated with seismic noise near 0.2 Hz and again above 1.5 Hz. Urban settlements are shown to produce excess noise above 1 Hz, but correlation curves look very different depending on the region. It is shown that wind...

  17. Recent evolutions of the GEOSCOPE broadband seismic observatory (United States)

    Vallée, Martin; Zigone, Dimitri; Bonaimé, Sébastien; Thoré, Jean-Yves; Pesqueira, Frédéric; Pardo, Constanza; Bernard, Armelle; Stutzmann, Eléonore; Maggi, Alessia; Douet, Vincent; Sayadi, Jihane; Lévêque, Jean-Jacques


    The GEOSCOPE observatory provides 35 years of continuous broadband data to the scientific community. The 32 operational GEOSCOPE stations are installed in 17 countries, across all continents and on islands throughout the oceans. They are equipped with three component very broadband seismometers (STS1 or STS2) and 24 or 26 bit digitizers (Q330HR). Seismometers are installed with warpless base plates, which decrease long period noise on horizontal components by up to 15dB. All stations send data in real time to the GEOSCOPE data center and are automatically transmitted to other data centers (IRIS-DMC and RESIF) and tsunami warning centers. In 2016, a new station has been installed in Wallis and Futuna (FUTU, South-Western Pacific Ocean), and WUS station has been reinstalled in Western China. Data of the stations are technically validated by IPGP (25 stations) or EOST (6 stations) in order to check their continuity and integrity. A scientific data validation is also performed by analyzing seismic noise level of the continuous data and by comparing real and synthetic earthquake waveforms (body waves). After these validations, data are archived by the GEOSCOPE data center in Paris. They are made available to the international scientific community through different interfaces (see details on An important technical work is done to homogenize the data formats of the whole GEOSCOPE database, in order to make easier the data duplication at the IRIS-DMC and RESIF data centers. The GEOSCOPE broadband seismic observatory also provides near-real time information on the World large seismicity (above magnitude 5.5-6) through the automated application of the SCARDEC method. By using global data from the FDSN - in particular from GEOSCOPE and IRIS/USGS stations -, earthquake source parameters (depth, moment magnitude, focal mechanism, source time function) are determined about 45 minutes after the occurrence of the event. A specific webpage is then

  18. Multi-Use Seismic Stations for Earthquake Early Warning (United States)

    Parker, T.; Townsend, B.; Moores, A. O.; Bainbridge, G. S.; Easton, D.


    Earthquake Early Warning network performance improves with the number and density of sensing stations, quality of the sites, quality of strong-motion instrumentation, degree of coverage near at-risk populated areas and potential fault zones, and minimizing latency of signal processing and transmission. Seismic research tends to emphasize competing requirements: low-noise sites, high-performance broadband seismic instrumentation, and high-quality signal processing without regard for latency. Recent advances in instrumentation and processing techniques have made feasible the concept of a multi-use seismic station in which strong-motion and weak-motion seismometry are both cost-effectively served without compromising the performance demands of either. We present a concept for a multi-use seismic station that cost-effectively meets the needs of both earthquake early warning and high-quality seismic research. One significant enabler is a 6-channel dual-sensor instrument that combines a 120s broadband seismometer and a class A accelerometer in a single ultra-compact sonde suitable for direct burial. Combining two sensors into one effectively adds broadband capability to a station without increasing the already optimized site footprint, preparation and management costs associated with shallow direct-burial installations. The combined sensors also complement each other, simplifying and speeding installation (for example, the accelerometer provides real-time tilt readings useful to leveling the seismometer). Integration simplifies alignment to North, as there is only one instrument to orient. A dual-use 6-channel digitizer simultaneously provides two sets of independently processed streams from both sensors, one set optimized for low-latency earthquake warning, and the other set for high quality seismic research purposes. Such a dual-use seismic station can serve both seismic research and civil warning infrastructure objectives without adding significantly to the cost of a

  19. The improved broadband Real-Time Seismic Network in Romania (United States)

    Neagoe, C.; Ionescu, C.


    Starting with 2002 the National Institute for Earth Physics (NIEP) has developed its real-time digital seismic network. This network consists of 96 seismic stations of which 48 broad band and short period stations and two seismic arrays are transmitted in real-time. The real time seismic stations are equipped with Quanterra Q330 and K2 digitizers, broadband seismometers (STS2, CMG40T, CMG 3ESP, CMG3T) and strong motions sensors Kinemetrics episensors (+/- 2g). SeedLink and AntelopeTM (installed on MARMOT) program packages are used for real-time (RT) data acquisition and exchange. The communication from digital seismic stations to the National Data Center in Bucharest is assured by 5 providers (GPRS, VPN, satellite communication, radio lease line and internet), which will assure the back-up communications lines. The processing centre runs BRTT's AntelopeTM 4.10 data acquisition and processing software on 2 workstations for real-time processing and post processing. The Antelope Real-Time System is also providing automatic event detection, arrival picking, event location and magnitude calculation. It provides graphical display and reporting within near-real-time after a local or regional event occurred. Also at the data center was implemented a system to collect macroseismic information using the internet on which macro seismic intensity maps are generated. In the near future at the data center will be install Seiscomp 3 data acquisition processing software on a workstation. The software will run in parallel with Antelope software as a back-up. The present network will be expanded in the near future. In the first half of 2009 NIEP will install 8 additional broad band stations in Romanian territory, which also will be transmitted to the data center in real time. The Romanian Seismic Network is permanently exchanging real -time waveform data with IRIS, ORFEUS and different European countries through internet. In Romania, magnitude and location of an earthquake are now

  20. Background noise model development for seismic stations of KMA (United States)

    Jeon, Youngsoo


    The background noise recorded at seismometer is exist at any seismic signal due to the natural phenomena of the medium which the signal passed through. Reducing the seismic noise is very important to improve the data quality in seismic studies. But, the most important aspect of reducing seismic noise is to find the appropriate place before installing the seismometer. For this reason, NIMR(National Institution of Meteorological Researches) starts to develop a model of standard background noise for the broadband seismic stations of the KMA(Korea Meteorological Administration) using a continuous data set obtained from 13 broadband stations during the period of 2007 and 2008. We also developed the model using short period seismic data from 10 stations at the year of 2009. The method of Mcmara and Buland(2004) is applied to analyse background noise of Korean Peninsula. The fact that borehole seismometer records show low noise level at frequency range greater than 1 Hz compared with that of records at the surface indicate that the cultural noise of inland Korean Peninsula should be considered to process the seismic data set. Reducing Double Frequency peak also should be regarded because the Korean Peninsula surrounded by the seas from eastern, western and southern part. The development of KMA background model shows that the Peterson model(1993) is not applicable to fit the background noise signal generated from Korean Peninsula.

  1. Continuous broadband seismic observation on the Greenland Ice Sheet under Greenland Ice Sheet monitoring Network (United States)

    Tsuboi, Seiji; Kanao, Masaki; Tono, Yoko; Himeno, Tetsuto; Toyokuni, Genti; Childs, Dean; Dahl-Jensen, Trine; anderson, Kent


    We have installed the ice sheet broadband seismograph station, called ICE-S (DK.ICESG) in June 2011, in collaboration with IRIS Polar Services under the GreenLand Ice Sheet monitoring Network (GLISN), which is a new, international, broadband seismic capability for Greenland being implemented through the collaboration between Denmark, Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, Norway, Poland, Switzerland, and the USA. The primary purpose of GLISN project is to define the fine structure and detailed mechanisms of glacial earthquakes within the Greenland Ice Sheet. These glacial earthquakes in the magnitude range 4.6-5.1 may be modeled as a large glacial ice mass sliding downhill several meters on its basal surface over duration of 30 to 60 seconds. Glacial earthquakes have been observed at seismic stations within Greenland (Larsen et al, 2006), but the coverage was very sparse and a broadband, real-time seismic network was needed to be installed throughout Greenland's Ice Sheet and perimeter. The National Institute for Polar Research and Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology are members of GLISN project and we have started to operate ICESG station since 2011. The station is equipped with a CMG-3T broadband seismometer and a Quanterra Q330 data logger. We have visited the station again in May, 2012 and successfully retrieved one year of continuous records from the broadband seismometer and updated the telemetry system to eventually allow real time monitoring of the station. ICESG station is now daily sending 1 Hz continuous data over the iridium satellite system using RUDICS. The observed three component seismograms demonstrate that the quality of this ice sheet station is good enough to record not only local earthquakes around Greeland but also teleseismic earthquakes. We could record three component broadband seismograms for April 11, 2012 Off the west coast of Northern Sumatra earthquake (Mw8.6). These seismograms show high signal to noise ratio

  2. MOBB: Data Analysis from an Ocean Floor Broadband Seismic Observatory (United States)

    Uhrhammer, R. A.; Dolenc, D.; Romanowicz, B.; Stakes, D.; McGill, P.; Neuhauser, D.; Ramirez, T.


    MOBB (Monterey bay Ocean floor Broad Band project) is a collaborative project between the Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute (MBARI) and the Berkeley Seismological Laboratory (BSL). Its goal is to install and operate a permanent seafloor broadband station as a first step towards extending the on-shore broadband seismic network in northern California, to the seaside of the North-America/Pacific plate boundary, providing improved azimuthal coverage for regional earthquake and structure studies. The MOBB station was installed on the seafloor in Monterey Bay, 40 km offshore, and at a depth of 1000m from the sea surface, in April 2002, and is completely buried under the seafloor level. The installation made use of MBARI's Point Lobos ship and ROV Ventana and the station currently records data autonomously. Dives are scheduled regularly (about every three months) to recover and replace the recording and battery packages. Some data were lost in the first half of 2003 due to hardware and software problems in the recording system. The ocean-bottom MOBB station currently comprises a three-component seismometer package (Guralp CMG-1T), a current-meter, a digital pressure gauge (DPG), and recording and battery packages. The seismometer package is mounted on a cylindrical titanium pressure vessel 54cm in height and 41 cm in diameter, custom built by the MBARI team and outfitted for underwater connection. Since the background noise in the near-shore ocean floor environment is high in the band pass of interest, for the study of regional and teleseismic signals, an important focus of this project is to develop methods to a posteriori increase signal to noise ratios, by deconvolving contributions from various sources of noise. We present results involving analysis of correlation of background noise with tide, ocean current and pressure records, combining data from MOBB and regional land based stations of the Berkeley Digital Seismic Network (BDSN). We also present preliminary

  3. Geyser's Eruptive Activity in Broadband Seismic Records (United States)

    Kugaenko, Yulia; Saltykov, Vadim


    A geyser is a spring characterized by intermittent discharge of water ejected turbulently and accompanied by a vapor phase (steam). The formation of geysers is due to particular hydrogeological conditions, which exist in only a few places on Earth, so they are a fairly rare phenomenon. The reasons of geyser periodicity and specifics of the activity for every particular geyser are not completely clear yet. So almost for all known geysers it is necessary to develop the personal model. In given study we first use seismic method for detection of possible hidden feature of geyser's eruptive activity in Kamchatkan Valley of the Geysers. Broadband seismic records of geyser generated signals were obtained in hydrothermal field. The Valley of the Geysers belongs to Kronotskiy State Natural Biosphere Reserve and the UNESCO World Natural Heritage Site "Volcanoes of Kamchatka". Neither seismological nor geophysical investigations were carried out here earlier. In September, 2009 seismic observation was organized in geyser's field by 24-bit digital output broadband seismometers (GURALP CMG-6TD flat velocity response 0.033-50 Hz). Four geysers were surveyed: the fountain type Big and Giant geysers; the cone type Pearl geyser and the short-period Gap geyser. Seismometers were set as possible close to the geyser's surface vent (usually at the distance near 3-5 m). Main parameters of the eruptions for the investigated geysers: - The Giant geyser is the most powerful among the regular active geysers in Kamchatkan Valley of the Geysers. The height of the fountain reaches 30 meters, the mass of water erupted is about 40-60 tons. The main cycle of activity varies significantly: in 1945 the intervals between eruptions was near 3 hours, nowadays it is 5-6 hours. As a geyser of fountain type, the Giant geyser erupts from the 2*3 m2 pool of water. - The Big geyser was flooded by the lake after the natural catastrophe (giant mud-stone avalanche, formed by landslide, bed into Geiyzernaya

  4. Optimization of Broadband Seismic Network in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

    KAUST Repository

    Alshuhail, Abdulrahman


    Saudi Arabia covers a large portion of the Arabian plate, a region characterized by seismic activity, along complex divergent and convergent plate boundaries. In order to understand these plate boundaries it is essential to optimize the design of the broadband seismic station network to accurately locate earthquakes. In my study, I apply an optimization method to design the broadband station distribution in Saudi Arabia. This method is based on so called D-optimal planning criterion that optimizes the station distribution for locating the hypocenters of earthquakes. Two additional adjustments were implemented: to preferentially acquire direct and refracted wave, and to account for geometric spreading of seismic waves (and thus increases the signal to noise ratio). The method developed in this study for optimizing the geographical location of broadband stations uses the probability of earthquake occurrence and a 1-D velocity model of the region, and minimizes the ellipsoid volume of the earthquake location errors. The algorithm was applied to the current seismic network, operated by the Saudi Geologic Survey (SGS). Based on the results, I am able to make recommendations on, how to expand the existing network. Furthermore, I quantify the efficiency of our method by computing the standard error of epicenter and depth before and after adding the proposed stations.

  5. Estimation of seismic moments from local magnitudes and coda durations for the Cairo earthquake aftershocks recorded at Kottamyia (KEG Broadband station

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. F. Abdelwahed


    Full Text Available The spectral analysis of fifty-five KEG VBB records from the October 12, 1992 Cairo earthquake source region was performed to obtain the seismic moment. We obtained this parameter in turn to develop empirical local magnitude (ML, seismic moment (Mo, coda duration (D relations for that region. In this study the data consist of Lg-waves on the vertical component seismograms for the recorded earthquakes with ML ranging from 1.7 to 4.7. The derived empirical relation between the seismic moment (Mo and magnitude ML for the aftershocks sequence with 1.7 = ML < 3.5 is Log (Mo = (0.96 ± 0.05 ML + (17.88 ± 0.13. We found a correlation between the coda duration (D and Log of the moment (Log (Mo as follows: Log (Mo = (2.35 ± 0.27 Log (D + (16.33 ± 0.48.

  6. Single-station monitoring of volcanoes using seismic ambient noise (United States)

    De Plaen, Raphael S. M.; Lecocq, Thomas; Caudron, Corentin; Ferrazzini, Valérie; Francis, Olivier


    Seismic ambient noise cross correlation is increasingly used to monitor volcanic activity. However, this method is usually limited to volcanoes equipped with large and dense networks of broadband stations. The single-station approach may provide a powerful and reliable alternative to the classical "cross-station" approach when measuring variation of seismic velocities. We implemented it on the Piton de la Fournaise in Reunion Island, a very active volcano with a remarkable multidisciplinary continuous monitoring. Over the past decade, this volcano has been increasingly studied using the traditional cross-correlation technique and therefore represents a unique laboratory to validate our approach. Our results, tested on stations located up to 3.5 km from the eruptive site, performed as well as the classical approach to detect the volcanic eruption in the 1-2 Hz frequency band. This opens new perspectives to successfully forecast volcanic activity at volcanoes equipped with a single three-component seismometer.

  7. Seismicity in West Iberia: small scale seismicity recording from a Dense Seismic Broadband Deployment in Portugal (WILAS Project) (United States)

    Afonso Dias, Nuno; Custódio, Susana; Silveira, Graça; Carrilho, Fernando; Haberland, Christian; Lima, Vânia; Rio, Inês; Góngora, Eva; Marreiros, Célia; Morais, Iolanda; Vales, Dina; Fonseca, João; Caldeira, Bento; Villaseñor, Antonio


    Over the last years several projects targeted the lithospheric structure and its correlation with the surface topography, e.g. EarthSCOPE/USArray or TOPO-EUROPE. Two projects focused on the Iberian Peninsula, one giving particular attention to the southern collision margin (TOPO-MED) and the other to the central cratonic Massif (TOPO-IBERIA/IBERArray). These projects mostly rely on deployed dense seismic broadband (BB) networks with an average inter-station spacing of 60km, which strongly increases the available network spatial coverage. The seismicity recording in such networks is critical to access current rates of lithospheric deformation. Within the scope of project WILAS - West Iberia Lithosphere and Astenosphere Structure (PTDC/CTE-GIX/097946/2008), a 3-year project funded by the Portuguese Science & Technology Foundation (FCT), we deployed a temporary network of 30 BB stations in Portugal between 2010 and 2012, doubling the total number of operating BB stations. Together with the permanent and TOPO-IBERIA stations, the resulting networks provided a full and dense coverage of the Iberian Peninsula. The majority of the permanent stations in Portugal, aimed at the seismic surveillance, are located in the southern part of the country in result of the active tectonic convergence between Iberia and Africa. Therefore, the temporary stations were mainly deployed in the north of Portugal. These temporary stations allowed an improvement of the earthquake detection threshold. The detection of seismic events was based on the analysis of daily spectrograms of the entire network, the new events detected being analysed and included in the catalogue. The new detected events are located mainly in the north, with magnitudes as low as 0.5 ML and in the offshore in the Estremadura Spur. Some additional events were also located south of Portugal, between the Gorringe Bank and the Gulf of Cadiz, in this case the lower magnitudes being ~2.0ML. Focal mechanisms will also be

  8. Broadband seismic by means of dispersed source arrays

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caporal, M.; Blacquiere, G.


    Seismic sources deployed during a particular survey are historically chosen to be equal. However, from a physical point of view the constraint of using only identical source units is not required. We suggest to abandon this constraint and to replace, or reinforce, traditional broadband sources with

  9. Digitized seismic station for colliery use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Proskuryakov, V.M.; Blyakhman, A.S.


    Seismic tests used to investigate the stress conditions in rock and conducted in different deposits throughout the USSR, have made it possible to determine the optimum variants for the application of such tests. The VNIMI Institute has developed a seismic station for mines which features a 7-channel numerical control and undertakes measurements via three operating systems: determination of the propagation speed of artifically-emitted seismic waves; measurement of the co-ordinates for the seismic-wave emission sources; and recording the number of natural seismic signals in a given area of solid rock. The Institute a plan of the station together with operational data. The feed voltage is 5 V and the power consumption 500 mA. (In Russian)

  10. Dynamics of the Wulong landslide revealed by broadband seismic records (United States)

    Li, Zhengyuan; Huang, Xinghui; Xu, Qiang; Yu, Dan; Fan, Junyi; Qiao, Xuejun


    The catastrophic Wulong landslide occurred at 14:51 (Beijing time, UTC+8) on 5 June 2009, in Wulong Prefecture, Southwest China. This rockslide occurred in a complex topographic environment. Seismic signals generated by this event were recorded by the seismic network deployed in the surrounding area, and long-period signals were extracted from 8 broadband seismic stations within 250 km to obtain source time functions by inversion. The location of this event was simultaneously acquired using a stepwise refined grid search approach, with an error of 2.2 km. The estimated source time functions reveal that, according to the movement parameters, this landslide could be divided into three stages with different movement directions, velocities, and increasing inertial forces. The sliding mass moved northward, northeastward and northward in the three stages, with average velocities of 6.5, 20.3, and 13.8 m/s, respectively. The maximum movement velocity of the mass reached 35 m/s before the end of the second stage. The basal friction coefficients were relatively small in the first stage and gradually increasing; large in the second stage, accompanied by the largest variability; and oscillating and gradually decreasing to a stable value, in the third stage. Analysis shows that the movement characteristics of these three stages are consistent with the topography of the sliding zone, corresponding to the northward initiation, eastward sliding after being stopped by the west wall, and northward debris flowing after collision with the east slope of the Tiejianggou valley. The maximum movement velocity of the sliding mass results from the largest height difference of the west slope of the Tiejianggou valley. The basal friction coefficients of the three stages represent the thin weak layer in the source zone, the dramatically varying topography of the west slope of the Tiejianggou valley, and characteristics of the debris flow along the Tiejianggou valley. Based on the above

  11. Broadband Seismic Studies In Southern Asia (United States)


    the granulite terrain, the crust is both thicker (44 1 km deep) and more complicated, with a mid-crustal discontinuity at approximately 25-km depth...the granulite terrain (KOD, Fig. 1) the crust is 43 km thick. Thus, there are significant differences in Moho depth over southern India, but the...Moho there is about 5 km deeper, a result also noted in the Deep Seismic Soundings from the region. To the south of the shield in the granulite terrain

  12. Broadband seismic deployments in East Antarctica: IPY contribution to monitoring the Earth’s interiors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masaki Kanao


    Full Text Available “Deployment of broadband seismic stations on the Antarctica continent” is an ambitious project to improve the spatial resolution of seismic data across the Antarctic Plate and surrounding regions. Several international collaborative programs for the purpose of geomonitoring were conducted in Antarctica during the International Polar Year (IPY 2007-2008. The Antarctica’s GAmburtsev Province (AGAP; IPY #147, the GAmburtsev Mountain SEISmic experiment (GAMSEIS, a part of AGAP, and the Polar Earth Observing Network (POLENET; IPY #185 were major contributions in establishing a geophysical network in Antarctica. The AGAP/GAMSEIS project was an internationally coordinated deployment of more than 30 broadband seismographs over the crest of the Gambursev Mountains (Dome-A, Dome-C and Dome-F area. The investigations provide detailed information on crustal thickness and mantle structure; provide key constraints on the origin of the Gamburtsev Mountains; and more broadly on the structure and evolution of the East Antarctic craton and subglacial environment. From GAMSEIS and POLENET data obtained, local and regional seismic signals associated with ice movements, oceanic loading, and local meteorological variations were recorded together with a significant number of teleseismic events. In this chapter, in addition to the Earth’s interiors, we will demonstrate some of the remarkable seismic signals detected during IPY that illustrate the capabilities of broadband seismometers to study the sub-glacial environment, particularly at the margins of Antarctica. Additionally, the AGAP and POLENET stations have an important role in the Federation of Digital Seismographic Network (FDSN in southern high latitude.

  13. Background noise spectra of global seismic stations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wada, M.M.; Claassen, J.P.


    Over an extended period of time station noise spectra were collected from various sources for use in estimating the detection and location performance of global networks of seismic stations. As the database of noise spectra enlarged and duplicate entries became available, an effort was mounted to more carefully select station noise spectra while discarding others. This report discusses the methodology and criteria by which the noise spectra were selected. It also identifies and illustrates the station noise spectra which survived the selection process and which currently contribute to the modeling efforts. The resulting catalog of noise statistics not only benefits those who model network performance but also those who wish to select stations on the basis of their noise level as may occur in designing networks or in selecting seismological data for analysis on the basis of station noise level. In view of the various ways by which station noise were estimated by the different contributors, it is advisable that future efforts which predict network performance have available station noise data and spectral estimation methods which are compatible with the statistics underlying seismic noise. This appropriately requires (1) averaging noise over seasonal and/or diurnal cycles, (2) averaging noise over time intervals comparable to those employed by actual detectors, and (3) using logarithmic measures of the noise.

  14. Sensor Emplacement Techniques and Seismic Noise Analysis for USArray Transportable Array Seismic Stations (United States)

    Frassetto, A.; Busby, R. W.; Hafner, K.; Woodward, R.; Sauter, A.


    In preparation for the upcoming deployment of EarthScope's USArray Transportable Array (TA) in Alaska, the National Science Foundation (NSF) has supported exploratory work on seismic station design, sensor emplacement, and communication concepts appropriate for this challenging high-latitude environment. IRIS has installed several experimental stations to evaluate different sensor emplacement schemes both in Alaska and in the lower-48 of the U.S. The goal of these tests is to maintain or enhance a station's noise performance while minimizing its footprint and the weight of the equipment, materials, and overall expense required for its construction. Motivating this approach are recent developments in posthole broadband seismometer design and the unique conditions for operating in Alaska, where there are few roads, cellular communications are scarce, most areas are only accessible by small plane or helicopter, and permafrost underlies much of the state. We will review the methods used for directly emplacing broadband seismometers in comparison to the current methods used for the lower-48 TA. These new methods primarily focus on using a portable drill to make a bored hole three to five meters, beneath the active layer of the permafrost, or by coring 1-2 meters deep into surface bedrock. Both methods are logistically effective in preliminary trials. Subsequent station performance has been assessed quantitatively using probability density functions summed from power spectral density estimates. These are calculated for the continuous time series of seismic data recorded for each channel of the seismometer. There are five test stations currently operating in Alaska. One was deployed in August 2011 and the remaining four in October 2012. Our results show that the performance of seismometers in Alaska with auger-hole or core-hole installations can sometimes exceed that of the quietest TA stations in the lower-48, particularly horizontal components at long periods. A

  15. Influence of high-latitude geomagnetic pulsations on recordings of broadband force-balanced seismic sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Kozlovskaya


    Full Text Available Seismic broadband sensors with electromagnetic feedback are sensitive to variations of surrounding magnetic field, including variations of geomagnetic field. Usually, the influence of the geomagnetic field on recordings of such seismometers is ignored. It might be justified for seismic observations at middle and low latitudes. The problem is of high importance, however, for observations in Polar Regions (above 60° geomagnetic latitude, where magnitudes of natural magnetic disturbances may be two or even three orders larger. In our study we investigate the effect of ultra-low frequency (ULF magnetic disturbances, known as geomagnetic pulsations, on the STS-2 seismic broadband sensors. The pulsations have their sources and, respectively, maximal amplitudes in the region of the auroral ovals, which surround the magnetic poles in both hemispheres at geomagnetic latitude (GMLAT between 60° and 80°. To investigate sensitivity of the STS-2 seismometer to geomagnetic pulsations, we compared the recordings of permanent seismic stations in northern Finland to the data of the magnetometers of the IMAGE network located in the same area. Our results show that temporary variations of magnetic field with periods of 40–150 s corresponding to regular Pc4 and irregular Pi2 pulsations are seen very well in recordings of the STS-2 seismometers. Therefore, these pulsations may create a serious problem for interpretation of seismic observations in the vicinity of the auroral oval. Moreover, the shape of Pi2 magnetic disturbances and their periods resemble the waveforms of glacial seismic events reported originally by Ekström (2003. The problem may be treated, however, if combined analysis of recordings of co-located seismic and magnetic instruments is used.

  16. Broadband Seismic Investigations of the Upper Mantle Beneath the Vienna and Pannonian Basins (United States)

    Dando, B. D.; Stuart, G. W.; Houseman, G. A.; Team, C.


    The Carpathian Basins Project (CBP) aims to understand the origin of the Miocene-age extensional basins contained within the compressional arc of the Alpine-Carpathian system. To test competing models for the recent geological evolution of the Carpathian-Pannonian lithosphere and upper mantle, we present a new determination of P-wave velocity structure to depths of 700 km beneath this region. This model is based on inversion of seismic travel-time residuals from 97 broadband seismic stations. We include CBP data from a 15-month deployment of a high resolution network of 46 stations deployed NW-SE across the Vienna and western Pannonian basins through Austria, Hungary and Serbia, together with 10 broadband stations spread across the Pannonian basin and a further 41 permanent broadband stations. We use P-wave arrival times from approximately 341 teleseismic events. The 3-D velocity variation obtained by tomographic inversion of the P-wave travel-time residuals shows an approximately linear belt of fast material of width about 100 km, orientated WNW-ESE beneath the western Pannonian Basin at sub-lithospheric depths. This feature is apparently continuous with structure beneath the Eastern Alps, but becomes more diffuse into the transition zone. Our initial interpretation of these fast velocities is in terms of mantle downwelling related to the early collision of Adria and Europe. We use receiver functions to assess crustal structure variations. We also determine SKS anisotropy; regionally SKS varies systematically in direction, with a delay time of about 1.0s. E-W fast directions above the fast tomographic anomaly change to NW-SE across the Great Hungarian Plane and the Vienna Basin.

  17. Observations Using the Taipei Basin Broadband Downhole Seismic Network: The 26 December 2006, Pingtung Earthquake Doublet, Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Win-Gee Huang


    Full Text Available To monitor the fault activity in the Taipei area, a new broadband downhole seismic network comprised of three stations was established in the Taipei Basin over a period of three years, 2005 - 2007. The network geometry is a triangle with a station spacing of about 12 km covering the entire Taipei Basin. Each station has two holes of different depths containing modern instruments, including a low-gain broadband seismometer. The largest depth is 150 m. We report our first experience on the installation and operation of the broadband downhole seismic network in the Taipei Basin. Some representative records from the Pingtung earthquake doublet in December 2006 are shown here. Ground displacement during the Pingtung earthquake doublet can be recovered from the velocity records without the baseline corrections that are required for the acceleration records. Our network offers excellent data for accurate and effective characterization of seismic motion in the study area. Seismic data from this network will be shared with other research institutions in Taiwan and abroad for further research.

  18. Seismic interferometry with antipodal station pairs (United States)

    Lin, Fan-Chi; Tsai, Victor C.


    In this study, we analyze continuous data from all Global Seismographic Network stations between year 2000 and 2009 and demonstrate that several body wave phases (e.g., PP, PcPPKP, SKSP, and PPS) propagating between nearly antipodal station pairs can be clearly observed without array stacking using the noise/coda cross-correlation method. Based on temporal correlations with global seismicity, we show that the observed body waves are clearly earthquake related. Moreover, based on single-earthquake analysis, we show that the earthquake coda energy observed between ~10,000 and 30,000 s after a large earthquake contributes the majority of the signal. We refine our method based on these observations and show that the signal can be significantly improved by selecting only earthquake coda times. With our improved processing, the PKIKP phase, which does not benefit from the focusing effect near the antipode, can now also clearly be observed for long-distance station pairs.

  19. Surface Wave Tomography of South China Sea from Ambient Seismic Noise and Two-station Measurements (United States)

    Liang, W.-T.; Gung, Y.-C.


    We have taken the cross-correlation of seismic ambient noise technique as well as the two-station method to analyze the velocity structure in the South China Sea region. The dataset used in this study includes broadband waveforms recorded at the Taiwan BATS (Broadband Array in Taiwan for Seismology), Japan OHP (Ocean Hemisphere Project), Malaysia and Vietnam seismic networks. We remove the instrument response from daily data and filter the waveform with various frequency bands according to the length of each station-pair. Then we apply the commonly used 1-bit normalization to minimize the effect of earthquakes, instrumental irregularities, and non-stationary noise sources near to the stations. With the derived daily cross correlation function (CCF), we are able to examine the timing quality for each station-pair. We then obtain the surface Rayleigh wave dispersion curves from the stacked CCF for each station-pair. To cover the longer period band in the dispersion curves, we adopt the two-station method to compute both the group and phase velocities of surface waves. A new surface wave tomography based on ambient seismic noise study and traditional two-station technique has been achieved in this study. Raypaths that travel through the Central basin present higher velocity, which is in agreement with the idea of thin crust. On the other hand, the slower velocity between Taiwan and Northern Luzon, Philippine is mainly due to a thick accretionary prism above the Manila trench.

  20. Extracting the Group Velocity of Rayleigh Waves from the Cross Correlation of the Ambient Seismic Noise Between Two Seismic Stations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jin Xing; Li Jun; Lin Shu; Zhou Zhengrong; Kang Lanchi; Ou Yiping


    This paper uses the 8 broad-band stations' microseism data recorded by the Seismic Monitoring Network of Fujian Province to calculate the vertical correlation coefficient between two stationsat intervals of 5 minutes. According to the time intervals technique we obtain the different coefficients and then add the correlative coefficients. Depending on this, we extract the group velocity of Rayleigh waves from the cross correlation of the ambient seismic noise between two seismic stations and figure out the group velocity' spatial distribution. The results show that the signal noise ratio (SNR) increases proportionally to the superposition times, but the results from different days are similar to one another. Synchronously, the arrival-time is also stable and there is no obvious change when coming across typhoons. It is found the velocity of the surface wave is 2.9~3. 1km/s in Fujian Province, which is close to the observationally attained value.

  1. Broadband Waveform Modeling to Evaluate the USGS Seismic Velocity Model for the San Francisco Bay Area (United States)

    Rodgers, A.; Petersson, A.; Nilsson, S.; Sjogreen, B.; McCandless, K.


    As part of the 1906 San Francisco earthquake centenary, the USGS developed a three-dimensional seismic velocity and attenuation model for Northern California based on detailed geologic and geophysical constraints. The model was used to predict ground motions for the 1906 rupture. In this study we evaluate the model to assess its ability to accurately predict ground motions from moderate earthquakes recorded on broadband stations. Satisfactory prediction of ground motions from these events will provide hope for accurate modeling of future scenario earthquakes. Simulations were performed on large parallel computer(s) with a new elastic finite difference code developed at LLNL. We simulated broadband ground motions (0-0.25 Hz) for several moderate (magnitude 3.5-5.0) earthquakes in the region observed at Berkeley Digital Seismic Network (BDSN) broadband stations. These events are well located and can be modeled with simple point moment tensor sources (taken from the Berkeley Seismological Laboratory catalog), helping to isolate the effects of structure on the waveforms. These data sample the region's diverse tectonic structures, such as the bay muds, sedimentary basins and hard rock complexes. Preliminary results indicate that the simulations reproduce many important features in the data. For example, observed long duration surface waves are often predicted for complex paths (traveling across contrasting structures) and through sedimentary basins. Excellent waveform fits were frequently obtained for long-period comparisons (0.02-0.1) and good fits were often obtained for shorter periods. We will attempt higher frequency simulations to test the ability of the model to match the high frequency response. Finally, we performed large scenario earthquake simulations for the Hayward Fault. These simulations predict large amplifications across the Santa Clara and San Ramon/Livermore Valley sedimentary basins and with the Sacramento/San Joaquin River Delta.

  2. Recording Tilt with Broadband Seismic Sensors at Erupting Volcanoes (United States)

    Young, B. E.; Lees, J. M.; Lyons, J. J.


    The horizontal components of broadband seismometers are known to be susceptible to gravitational acceleration due to slow tilting, and this has been successfully exploited to assess ground deformation at many volcanoes, including Anatahan (Mariana Islands), Meakan-dake (Japan), Santiaguito (Guatemala) and Stromboli (Italy). Tilt can be estimated from seismic velocity by differentiating, scaling to remove gravity, and applying an instrument correction. The fundamental assumption in estimating tilt from broadband data is that the signal recorded is the result of tilt and not translation, thus analysis of tilt require filtering below corner frequencies of seismic instruments, where the response to tilt should be flat. However, processing techniques for deriving tilt are not uniform among researchers. Filter type and passband allowance for the processing of data sets differs from case to case, and the dominant periods of tilt signals may vary from tens to hundreds of seconds. For instance, data from Santiaguito was filtered in the 600-30s passband, while at Anatahan filters spanned 13 hours to 8 minutes. In our study, we investigate tilt from seismic data sets at Karymsky (Kamchatka, Russia), Fuego (Guatemala), Yasur (Vanuatu), and Tungurahua (Ecuador) to understand implementation and limitations of this tool. We examine the importance of filter-type distortion related to filtering on the seismic signal. For example, a comparison of time domain versus frequency domain implementation is explored using a variety of lowpass and bandpass filters. We also investigate the advantages and drawbacks of causal versus acausal filters. In a few cases tiltmeters have been co-located with broadband seismic sensors for direct comparison. Signals at Mt. St. Helens, Stromboli, Sakurajima, and Semeru show a correlation of tilt and seismic records, although records at Karymsky volcano suggest that no tilt is recorded on either instrument. We speculate that strong vent explosions exhibit

  3. MOBB: a permanent ocean floor broadband seismic observatory in Monterey Bay, California (United States)

    Uhrhammer, R.; Romanowicz, B.; Stakes, D.; Neuhauser, D.; McGill, P.; Ramirez, T.


    The Monterey ocean bottom broadband station (MOBB) was installed on the seafloor in Monterey Bay, 40 km offshore, and at a depth of 1000m from the sea surface, on April 9-11, 2002. Its success capitalizes on the experience gained in the 1997 International MOISE experiment, conducted under similar conditions. The deployment took place during 3 dives on consecutive days and made use of MBARI's Point Lobos ship and ROV Ventana. The station is currently recording data autonomously. Eventually, it will be linked to the planned (and recently funded) MARS (Monterey Accelerated Research System; \\url {}) cable and provide real-time, continuous seismic data to be merged with the rest of the northern California real-time seismic system. The data are archived at the NCEDC for on-line availability, as part of the Berkeley Digital Seismic Network (BDSN). The ocean-bottom MOBB station currently comprises a three-component seismometer package, a current-meter, a DPG, and recording and battery packages. The seismic package contains a low-power (2.2W), three-component CMG-1T broadband seismometer system, built by Guralp, Inc., with a three-component 24-bit digitizer, a leveling system, and a precision clock. The seismometer package is mounted on a cylindrical titanium pressure vessel 54cm in height and 41 cm in diameter, custom built by the MBARI team and outfitted for underwater connection. Data recovery dives, during which the recording and battery package will be exchanged are planned every three months for the next 3 years. Three such dives have already taken place, on 06/27/02, 09/20/02 and on 01/07/03. Due to a software problem, data were lost during the time period 07/01/02 and 09/20/02. Many regional and teleseismic earthquakes have been well recorded and the mass position signals indicate that the instruments have progressively settled. Preliminary analysis of data retrieved during the 2002 summer and winter dives will be presented. In particular

  4. Spectral Analysis of Broadband Seismic Array Data, Tien Shan (United States)

    Shamshy, S.; Pavlis, G. L.


    We used a spectral analysis method to examine amplitude variations of body waves recorded in the Tien Shan region of central Asia. We used broadband data from the Kyrgyz Network (KNET), Kazakhstan Network (KZNET), and from a set of temporary, PASSCAL stations operated from 1997-2000 we refer to as the Ghengis array. A spectral ratio method similar to that used by Wilson and Pavlis (2000) was employed, but with station AAK used as a reference instead of the array median. Spectral ratios were estimated for all teleseismic events and a larger, intermediate depth events from the Hindu-Kush region for all three-components of ground motion and total signal strength on all components. Results are visualized by maps of amplitude for various frequency bands and through the 4-D animation method introduced by Wilson and Pavlis (2000). Data from Hindu-Kush events showed amplitude variations as much as a factor of 100 across the study area with a strong frequency dependence. The largest variations were at the highest frequencies observed near 15 Hz. Stations in the northwestern part of the Tien Shan array show little variation in amplitude relative to the reference station, AAK. In the central and eastern part of the array, the amplitude estimates are significantly smaller at all frequencies. In contrast, for stations in the western Tien Shan near the Talas-Fergana Fault, and the southern Tien Shan near the Tarim Basin, the amplitude values become much larger than the reference site. The teleseismic data show a different pattern and show a somewhat smaller, overall amplitude variation at comparable frequencies. The northern part of the array again shows small variations relative to the reference stations. There are some amplifications in the southern stations of the array, especially in the Tarim Basin. The higher frequency observations that show large amplifications at stations in the Tarim Basin are readily explained by site effects due to the thick deposits of sediments

  5. Crustal thickness in central Europe from single-station seismic noise autocorrelation analysis (United States)

    Becker, Gesa; Knapmeyer-Endrun, Brigitte


    The InSight mission to Mars will place a single three-component seismometer on the planet's surface, requiring the application of single-station methods. In addition, seismicity on Mars is likely less abundant than on Earth, making it important to also use the available seismic noise. For these reasons different approaches of seismic noise autocorrelation have been tested with broadband three-component datasets from 12 stations across central Europe. These stations cover varying Moho depths of ca. 25-50 km depth. With the help of the autocorrelations, reflected body waves are extracted in order to estimate the crustal thickness at each station. This is of special relevance for Mars, where average crustal thickness is uncertain by a factor of two. The different approaches used are waterlevel normalized autocorrelation, with and without application of a short-term and long-term average filter to the spectrum of the data prior to autocorrelation, and phase autocorrelation. These approaches are compared and analyzed. Estimates for the Moho depths are made from the lag times of the reflected P-waves and compared to available Moho depth values at the stations. Due to the availability of three-component data these estimates can be cross-validated and in some cases not only P-wave reflections, but also possible S-wave and multiple reflections can be identified. The estimates compare well with the general trend of Moho depth expected for these stations. The consistency of results is further investigated by comparing different stations of the GERES array (aperture 2 km), which also allows to examine results for closely located broad-band and short-period stations side by side.

  6. Comparison Analysis of Waveform Observation between JCZ-1 and JCZ-1T Ultra Broadband Seismometers in Chengdu Seismic Station%地震台JCZ-1与JCZ-1T甚宽频带地震仪对比观测分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田文德; 叶建庆; 胡俊明


    The power spectral densities of earth pulse noise of local,near and distant earthquakes recorded by JCZ-1 and JCZ-1T ultra broadband digital seismometers at the same time in Chengdu Seismic Station are analyzed.The results show that the response degree of JCZ-1 and JCZ-1 T ultra broadband digital seismometers on the earth pulse noise in main frequency band is consistent.However,the resolution of JCZ-1 seismometer is higher than that of JCZ-1 seismometer in the high and low frequency end,and the signal-noise ratio of JCZ-1 seis-mometer is higher,which is about 10 ~20 dB.On the influence of material aging being in long-term use,environmental temperature or flow trace changes,the noise of JCZ-1 seismometer is high,and its effect on the amplitude recorded by seismic wave is about 5 %.In the installation process of JCZ-1T seismometer,taking preventive measures which are insulation and preventing flow disturbance etc.are reliable.%采用成都基准地震台JCZ-1型和JCZ-1T甚宽频带数字地震仪同一时间段记录的地方震、近震和远震的地脉动噪声做功率谱分析.结果表明,JCZ-1和JCZ-1T型甚宽频带地震仪在主要频带内对地噪声的响应程度是一致的.在高频端和低频端JCZ-1T型地震计分辨率更高,且信噪比更高,高出10 ~ 20 dB.JCZ-1型地震计由于长期使用导致材料老化以及受环境温度或气流微量变化的影响,地震计的噪声较高,可能对地震波记录的幅值产生5%左右的影响.JCZ-1T型地震计在安装过程中所采取的保温、防气流扰动等各种防护措施是可靠的.

  7. Rapid characterisation of large earthquakes by multiple seismic broadband arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Roessler


    Full Text Available An automatic procedure is presented to retrieve rupture parameters for large earthquakes along the Sunda arc subduction zone. The method is based on standard array analysis and broadband seismograms registered within 30°–100° epicentral distance. No assumptions on source mechanism are required. By means of semblance the coherency of P waveforms is analysed at separate large-aperture arrays. Waveforms are migrated to a 10°×10° wide source region to study the spatio-temporal evolution of earthquakes at each array. The multiplication of the semblance source maps resulting at each array increases resolution. Start, duration, extent, direction, and propagation velocity are obtained and published within 25 min after the onset of the event. First preliminary results can be obtained even within 16 min. Their rapid determination may improve the mitigation of the earthquake and tsunami hazard. Real-time application will provide rupture parameters to the GITEWS project (German Indonesian Tsunami Early Warning System. The method is applied to the two M8.0 Sumatra earthquakes on 12 September 2007, to the M7.4 Java earthquake on 2 September 2009, and to major subduction earthquakes that have occurred along Sumatra and Java since 2000. Obtained rupture parameters are most robust for the largest earthquakes with magnitudes M≥8. The results indicate that almost the entire seismogenic part of the subduction zone off the coast of Sumatra has been ruptured. Only the great Sumatra event in 2004 and the M7.7 Java event on 17 July 2006 could reach to or close to the surface at the trench. Otherwise, the rupturing was apparently confined to depths below 25 km. Major seismic gaps seem to remain off the coast of Padang and the southern tip of Sumatra.

  8. Swiss AlpArray: deployment of the Swiss AlpArray temporary broad-band stations and their noise characterization (United States)

    Molinari, Irene; Kissling, Edi; Clinton, John; Hetényi, György; Šipka, Vesna; Stipćević, Josip; Dasović, Iva; Solarino, Stefano; Wéber, Zoltán; Gráczer, Zoltán; Electronics Lab, SED


    One of the main actions of the AlpArray European initiative is the deployment of a dense seismic broad-band network, that complements the existing permanent stations. This will ensure a spatially homogeneous seismic coverage of the greater Alpine area for at least two years, allowing a great number of innovative scientific works to be carried out. Our contribution to the AlpArray Seismic Network consists in the deployment of 24 temporary broad-band stations: three in Switzerland, twelve in Italy, three in Croatia, three in Bosnia and Herzegovina and three in Hungary. This deployment is lead by ETH Zurich and founded by the Swiss-AlpArray Sinergia programme by SNSF, and is the result of a fruitful collaboration between five research institutes. Stations were installed between Autumn and Winter 2015. Our installations are both free field and in-house and consist of 21 STS-2 and 3 Trillium Compact sensors equipped with Taurus digitizers and 3G telemetry sending data in real time to the ETH EIDA node. In this work, we present sites and stations setting and we discuss in details the characteristics in terms of site effects and noise level of each station. In particular we analyse the power spectral density estimates investigating the major source of noise and the background noise related to seasons, time of the day, human activities and type of installation. In addition we will show examples of data usage - i.e. earthquake locations, noise cross correlations, measures of surface wave dispersion curves. We thanks the Swiss AlpArray Field Team: Blanchard A., Erlanger E. D., Jarić D., Herak D., M. Herak, Hermann M., Koelemeijer P. J., Markušić S., Obermann A., Sager K., Šikman S., Singer J., Winterberg S. SED Electronic Lab: Barman S., Graf P., Hansemann R., Haslinger F., Hiemer S., Racine R., Tanner R., Weber F.

  9. Seismic Location Station for Detection of Unobserved Moving Military Machineries


    Bayramov, Azad; Hashimov, Elshan


    The main purpose of this paper is to develop a seismic location station that can detect unobserved, moving military objects, and heavy military machineries behind a forest or a mountain at a distance of 1-2 kilometers from the determined location. Seismic location station includes specific 3D seismic detectors based on the very sensible piezoelectric sensors. The proposed piezoelectric detectors are based on the PVDF+BaTiO3+PZT polymer hybrid composite fabricated based on nano sized BaTiO3 (o...

  10. Direct Burial Broadband Seismic Instrumentation that are Rugged and Tilt Tolerant for Polar Environments (United States)

    Parker, Tim; Winberry, Paul; Huerta, Audrey; Bainbridge, Geoff; Devanney, Peter


    The integrated broadband Meridian Posthole and Compact seismic systems have been engineered and tested for extreme polar environments. Ten percent of the Earth's surface is covered in glacial ice and the dynamics of these environments is a strategic concern for all. The development for these systems was driven by researchers needing to densify observations in ice covered regions with difficult and limited logistics. Funding from an NSF MRI award, GEOICE and investment from the vendor enabled researchers to write the specifications for a hybrid family of instruments that can operate at -55C autonomously with very little power, 1 watt for the Meridian Compact system and 1.5 watts for the Meridian 120PH. Tilt tolerance in unstable ice conditions was a concern and these instruments have a range of up to +/-5 degrees. The form factor, extreme temperature tolerance and power load of the instruments has reduced the bulk of a complete station by 1/2 and simplified installation greatly allowing more instruments to be deployed with limited support and a lighter logistical load. These systems are being tested in the Antarctic at SouthPole Station and McMurdo for the second year and the investment has encouraged other instrument and power system vendors to offer polar rated equipment including telemetry for ancillary support.

  11. Site characterization of the Romanian Seismic Network stations: a national initiative and its first preliminary results (United States)

    Grecu, Bogdan; Zahria, Bogdan; Manea, Elena; Neagoe, Cristian; Borleanu, Felix; Diaconescu, Mihai; Constantinescu, Eduard; Bala, Andrei


    The seismic activity in Romania is dominated by the intermediate-depth earthquakes occurring in Vrancea region, although weak to moderate crustal earthquakes are produced regularly in different areas of the country. The National Institute for Earth Physics (NIEP) built in the last years an impressive infrastructure for monitoring this activity, known as the Romanian Seismic Network (RSN). At present, RSN consists of 122 seismic stations, of which 70 have broadband velocity sensors and 42 short period sensors. One hundred and eleven stations out of 122 have accelerometer sensors collocated with velocity sensors and only 10 stations have only accelerometers. All the stations record continuously the ground motion and the data are transmitted in real-time to the Romanian National Data Center (RoNDC), in Magurele. Last year, NIEP has started a national project that addresses the characterization of all real-time seismic stations that constitute the RSN. We present here the steps that were undertaken and the preliminary results obtained since the beginning the project. The first two activities consisted of collecting all the existent technical and geological data, with emphasize on the latter. Then, we performed station noise investigations and analyses in order to characterize the noise level and estimate the resonances of the sites. The computed H/V ratios showed clear resonant peaks at different frequencies which correlate relatively well with the thickness of the sedimentary package beneath the stations. The polarization analysis of the H/V ratios indicates for some stations a strong directivity of the resonance peak which suggests possible topographic effects at the stations. At the same time, special attention was given to the estimation of the site amplification from earthquake data. The spectral ratios obtained from the analysis of more than 50 earthquakes with magnitudes (Mw) larger than 4.1 are characterized by similar resonance peaks as those obtained from

  12. Probabilistic seismic hazard assessment for Point Lepreau Generating Station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mullin, D. [New Brunswick Power Corp., Point Lepreau Generating Station, Lepreau, New Brunswick (Canada); Lavine, A. [AMEC Foster Wheeler Environment and Infrastructure Americas, Oakland, California (United States); Egan, J. [SAGE Engineers, Oakland, California (United States)


    A Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Assessment (PSHA) has been performed for the Point Lepreau Generating Station (PLGS). The objective is to provide characterization of the earthquake ground shaking that will be used to evaluate seismic safety. The assessment is based on the current state of knowledge of the informed scientific and engineering community regarding earthquake hazards in the site region, and includes two primary components-a seismic source model and a ground motion model. This paper provides the methodology and results of the PLGS PSHA. The implications of the updated hazard information for site safety are discussed in a separate paper. (author)

  13. The seismic station and data of GEOSCOPE%GEOSCOPE地震台站与数据

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Following the investigation on the seismic network in the United States,Ger-many and other countries with high level quality on the seismic network construction that we should learn,this paper introduces the French global broadband seismic network construc-tion of stations and seismic data.It could give us the experience on the construction of the global seismic network in China,and improve the level of earthquake monitoring.%随着对美国、德国等国家地震台网的调查研究,本文就法国全球宽频带地震台网的台站建设及数据资料进行相关介绍。吸取国外全球台网建设的经验,致力于建设我国全球地震台网,进一步提高地震监测水平。

  14. Seismic noise study for a new seismic station at King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals in Saudi Arabia (United States)

    Kaka, S. I.


    We have carried out a seismic noise study in order to understand the noise level at three selected locations at King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals (KFUPM), Dhahran, Saudi Arabia. The main purpose is to select a suitable site with low seismic noise and good signal-to-noise ratio for our new broadband seismic station. There are several factors involved in the selection of a site location for a new station. Most importantly, we need to strike a balance between a logistically convenient site versus a technically suitable site. As a starting point, we selected six potential sites due to accessibility and proximity to the seismic processing center laboratory in the Department of Earth Sciences (ESD) at KFUPM. We then eliminated two sites that are relatively close to possible low-frequency noise sources. We have considered many possible noise sources which include: vehicle traffic / heavy machinery, the direct path of air flowing from air conditioning vent, tall trees / power poles and metal doorways. One more site was eliminated because the site was located in the open where it experiences maximum wind speed which is considered a major source of noise. All three potential sites are situated within the Dammam Dome where both lower middle and upper Rus Formations are exposed. The upper Rus is mainly made up of fine grained chalky limestone and the lower Rus is made up of alternation of marls and thin dolomitic limestone. The area is not known for any major faults and considered very low seismicity and hence the identification of seismoteconic features is not required. Before conducting the noise study, we calibrated and tested the seismic recording system, which was recently acquired by the ESD at KFUPM. The system includes a seismic recorder and a sensor with a GPS device. We deployed the system in order to measure the low-frequency background noise. Knowing the low frequency noise will help in predicting the high-frequency noise. The recording systems were

  15. A Design of 45-Degree Dual-Polarization Broadband Plane Station Antenna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianming Zhou


    Full Text Available A new broadband planar dual-polarization base station antenna is proposed, the antenna consists of two broadband plane coplanar base station antenna units, and so it has features of plane antenna. Two broadband plane station antenna units can, respectively, form double polarization in the direction. We analyzed the relative positions between the two antenna units and their effects on the performances of the antenna, especially for the influence of isolation. Broadband antenna has the characteristics of the broadband station antenna, and bandwidth is also guaranteed. The measured results show that the antenna can obtain 45% relative bandwidth, and 30 dB isolation degree also can be got, and the radiation performance is also good. Measurement results confirmed that the antenna gain can be guaranteed among 48% relative bandwidth, 15 dB of gain is got among bandwidth of 1.69–2.78 GHz, the isolation degree of different polarization method can reach 30 dB, and the measurement gain of two polarization methods of antenna both can reach 8.5 dBi.

  16. Engineering challenges of operating year-round portable seismic stations at high-latitude (United States)

    Beaudoin, Bruce; Carpenter, Paul; Hebert, Jason; Childs, Dean; Anderson, Kent


    Remote portable seismic stations are, in most cases, constrained by logistics and cost. High latitude operations introduce environmental, technical and logistical challenges that require substantially more engineering work to ensure robust, high quality data return. Since 2006, IRIS PASSCAL has been funded by NSF to develop, deploy, and maintain a pool of polar specific seismic stations. Here, we describe our latest advancements to mitigate the challenges of high-latitude, year-round station operation. The IRIS PASSCAL program has supported high-latitude deployments since the late 1980s. These early deployments were largely controlled source, summer only experiments. In early 2000 PASSCAL users began proposing year-round deployments of broadband stations in some of the harshest environments on the planet. These early year-round deployments were stand-alone (no telemetry) stations largely designed to operate during summer months and then run as long as possible during the winter with hopes the stations would revive come following summer. In 2006 and in collaboration with UNAVCO, we began developing communications, power systems, and enclosures to extend recording to year-round. Since this initial effort, PASSCAL continued refinement to power systems, enclosure design and manufacturability, and real-time data communications. Several sensor and data logger manufacturers have made advances in cold weather performance and delivered newly designed instruments that have furthered our ability to successfully run portable stations at high-latitude with minimal logistics - reducing size and weight of instruments and infrastructure. All PASSCAL polar engineering work is openly shared through our website:

  17. Site response and station performance of the newly-upgraded Myanmar National Seismic Network (United States)

    Wolin, E.; Thiam, H. N.; MIN Htwe, Y. M.; Kyaw, T. L.; Tun, P. P.; Min, Z.; Htwe, S. H.; Aung, T. M.; Lin, K. K.; Aung, M. M.; De Cristofaro, J. L.; Franke, M.; Hough, S. E.


    Myanmar is in a tectonically complex region between the eastern edge of the Himalayan collision zone and the northern end of the Sunda megathrust. Faults accommodating the oblique motion between India and Southeast Asia pose a hazard to the population of Myanmar, with few Mw>7 events in recent decades, but a number of Mw7-8 events documented in the historical record. A primary concern is the right-lateral Sagaing fault stretching more than 1000 km through the center of Myanmar in proximity to large cities such as Yangon, Mandalay, and the capital Nay Pyi Taw. Until recently, earthquake monitoring and research efforts have been hampered by a lack of modern instrumentation and communication infrastructure. In January of 2016, a major upgrade of the Myanmar National Seismic Network (MNSN; network code MM) was undertaken to improve earthquake monitoring capability. We installed five permanent broadband/strong-motion seismic stations and real-time data telemetry using newly improved cellular networks. Data are telemetered to the MNSN hub in Nay Pyi Taw and archived at the Incorporated Research Institutions for Seismology Data Management Center. We analyzed station performance and site response using noise and events recorded over the first six months of station operation. Background noise characteristics vary across the array, but indicate that the new stations are performing well. With data from the upgraded stations, the MNSN is able to lower the event detection threshold relative to the threshold provided by the global network, improving the ability of the MNSN to report on locally felt events, and improving significantly the monitoring of ground motions within the country. MM stations have recorded more than 20 earthquakes of M≥4.5 within Myanmar and its immediate surroundings, including a M6.8 earthquake located northwest of Mandalay on 13 April 2016. We use this new dataset to calculate horizontal-to-vertical spectral ratios and evaluate the site response of MM

  18. Tornillo seismic events at Galeras volcano, Colombia: a summary and new information from broadband three-component measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Hellweg


    Full Text Available Long-duration events have been recorded at several active, andesitic volcanoes. Their main characteristics are a single, sharp frequency peak, and an exceptionally long coda. Because their seismograms resemble a screw, these signals are called "tornillos" in Colombia. These events have been recorded during different stages of volcanic activity at various volcanoes worldwide. Tornillos have occurred for example, as a short-term precursor to eruptions at Galeras volcano, Colombia (1992-1993; and at Asama volcano, Japan, (1983. At Tokachi volcano, Japan, they were recorded after an eruption (1989. The Tornillo's dominant frequency appears to be related to the time of occurrence during an eruption cycle. It is independent of epicentral distance, azimuth, travel time, and lapse time, indicating that it is a source characteristic. Damping coefficients for the tornillo's coda range between 0.002 and 0.02. In contrast, damping coefficients for normal long-period events lies between 0.010 and 0.025 and for volcano-tectonic events between 0.010 and 0.040. In March 1996, the Galeras seismic network, which consists of short period, single-component seismometers, was augmented with a broadband, three-component station. This station, installed 1.5 km south of Galeras active cone, recorded a series of six tornillos. Narrowband and broadband tornillo records have similar characteristics in the time and frequency domains.

  19. A comparison of broadband source spectra, seismic energies, and stress drops of the 1989 Loma Prieta and 1988 Armenian earthquakes (United States)

    Houston, Heidi

    Broadband source spectra of the 1989 Loma Prieta (MW = 6.9) and 1988 Armenian (MW = 6.7) earthquakes are computed at periods from 1 to 50 sec using digitally-recorded teleseismic P body waves. The effects of attenuation, geometrical spreading, and radiation pattern are removed from the spectra of individual stations, which are then averaged. The source spectra of the Loma Prieta and Armenian earthquakes are higher for their seismic moments than the spectra of 11 intraplate earthquakes studied by Zhuo and Kanamori [1987], which in turn are 2 to 4 times larger than average spectra of interplate subduction zone earthquakes.The seismically radiated energy can be computed from the source spectrum using Haskell's [1964] formulation assuming a point source with no directivity. An Orowan stress drop can be obtained from the seismic energy and moment. The Orowan stress drops for the Loma Prieta and Armenian earthquakes are both about 20 bars, significantly higher than Orowan stress drops of recent large interplate earthquakes. There is a positive correlation between the Orowan stress drops and the estimated repeat times, consistent with the notion that mechanical fault strength increases with increasing interseismic period.

  20. Broadband seismic measurements of degassing activity associated with lava effusion at Popocatépetl Volcano, Mexico (United States)

    Arciniega-Ceballos, Alejandra; Chouet, Bernard; Dawson, Phillip; Asch, Guenter


    From November 1999 through July 2000, a broadband seismic experiment was carried out at Popocatépetl Volcano to record seismic activity over a wide period range (0.04-100 s). We present an overview of the seismicity recorded during this experiment and discuss results of analyses of long-period (LP) and very-long-period (VLP) seismic signals recorded at stations nearest to the crater over a four-month interval December 1999-March 2000. Three families of LP signals (Types-I, II, and III) are identified based on distinctive waveform features observed periods shorter than 1 s, periods longer than 15 s, and within the period range 0.5-2.5 s. Type-I LP events have impulsive first arrivals and exhibit a characteristic harmonic wave train with dominant periods in the 1.4-1.9 s range during the first 10 s of signal. These events are also associated with a remarkable VLP wavelet with period near 30 s. Type-II LP events represent pairs of events occurring in rapid succession and whose signatures are superimposed. These are typically marked by slowly emergent first arrivals and by a characteristic VLP wave train with dominant period near 30 s, made of two successive wavelets whose shapes are quasi-identical to those of the VLP wavelets associated with Type-I events. Type-III LP events represent the most energetic signals observed during our experiment. These have an emergent first arrival and display a harmonic signature with dominant period near 1.1 s. They are dominated by periods in the 0.25-0.35 s band and contain no significant energy at periods longer than 15 s. Hypocentral locations of the three types of LP events obtained from phase picks point to shallow seismic sources clustered at depths shallower than 2 km below the crater floor. Observed variations in volcanic eruptive activity correlate with defined LP families. Most of the observed seismicity consists of Type-I events that occur in association with 1-3-min-long degassing bursts ("exhalations"). Eruptive

  1. Citizen Science Seismic Stations for Monitoring Regional and Local Events (United States)

    Zucca, J. J.; Myers, S.; Srikrishna, D.


    The earth has tens of thousands of seismometers installed on its surface or in boreholes that are operated by many organizations for many purposes including the study of earthquakes, volcanos, and nuclear explosions. Although global networks such as the Global Seismic Network and the International Monitoring System do an excellent job of monitoring nuclear test explosions and other seismic events, their thresholds could be lowered with the addition of more stations. In recent years there has been interest in citizen-science approaches to augment government-sponsored monitoring networks (see, for example, Stubbs and Drell, 2013). A modestly-priced seismic station that could be purchased by citizen scientists could enhance regional and local coverage of the GSN, IMS, and other networks if those stations are of high enough quality and distributed optimally. In this paper we present a minimum set of hardware and software specifications that a citizen seismograph station would need in order to add value to global networks. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  2. A preliminary survey of the broadband seismic wavefield at Puu Oo, the active vent of Kilauea volcano, Hawaii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Okubo


    Full Text Available The seismic wavefield near an active volcanic vent consists of superimposed signals in a wide range of frequency bands from sources inside and outside the volcano. To characterize the broadband wavefield near Puu Oo, we deployed a profile of three three-component broadband sensors in a 200 m long line about 1.5 km WSW of the active vent. During this period, Puu Oo maintained a constant, but very low level of activity. The digital data logger recorded the wavefield continuously in the frequency band between 0.01 and 40 Hz between June 25 and July 9, 1994. At the same time, local wind conditions along with air temperature and pressure were monitored by a portable digital weather station. On the basis of characteristic elements, such as waveform, spatial coherence between stations, particle motion and power spectra, the wavefield can be divided into three bands. The dominant signals in the frequency band between 0.01 and 0.1 Hz are not coherent among the stations. Their ground velocities correlate with the wind speed. The signals in the 0.1 to 0.5 Hz band are coherent across the profile and most probably represent a superposition of volcanic tremor and microseisms from the Pacific Ocean. Much of the energy above 0.5 Hz can be attributed to activity at the vent. Power spectra from recordings of the transverse components show complex peaks between 0.5 and 3 Hz which vary in amplitude due to site effects and distance. On the other hand, power spectra calculated from the radial components show a clearly periodic pattern of peaks at 1 Hz intervals for some time segments. A further remarkable feature of the power spectra is that they are highly stationary.

  3. Estimating station noise thresholds for seismic magnitude bias elimination (United States)

    Peacock, Sheila


    To eliminate the upward bias of seismic magnitude caused by censoring of signal hidden by noise, noise level at each station in a network must be estimated. Where noise levels are not measured directly, the method of Kelly and Lacoss (1969) has been used to infer them from bulletin data (Lilwall and Douglas 1984). To verify this estimate of noise level, noise thresholds of International Monitoring System (IMS) stations inferred from the International Data Centre (IDC) Reviewed Event Bulletin (REB) by the Kelly and Lacoss method for 2005-2013 are compared with direct measurements on (i) noise preceding first arrivals in filtered (0.8-4.5 Hz) IMS seismic data, and (ii) noise preceding the expected time of arrival of signals from events, where signal was not actually seen (values gathered by the IDC for maximum-likelihood magnitude calculation). For most stations the direct pre-signal noise measurements are ~0.25 units of log A/T lower than the Kelly&Lacoss thresholds; because the IDC automatic system declares a detection only when the short-term-average-to-long-term-average ratio threshold, which varies with station and frequency band between ~3-6, is exceeded. The noise values at expected times of non-observed signal arrival are ~0.15 units lower than the Kelly and Lacoss thresholds. Exceptions are caused by faulty channels being used for the direct noise or body-wave magnitude (mb) measurements or, for station ARCES and possibly FINES, SPITS and HFS, the wider filter used for signal amplitude than for signal detection admitting noise that swamped the signal. Abrupt changes in thresholds might show mis-documented sensor sensitivity changes at individual stations.

  4. Estimation of background noise level on seismic station using statistical analysis for improved analysis accuracy (United States)

    Han, S. M.; Hahm, I.


    We evaluated the background noise level of seismic stations in order to collect the observation data of high quality and produce accurate seismic information. Determining of the background noise level was used PSD (Power Spectral Density) method by McNamara and Buland (2004) in this study. This method that used long-term data is influenced by not only innate electronic noise of sensor and a pulse wave resulting from stabilizing but also missing data and controlled by the specified frequency which is affected by the irregular signals without site characteristics. It is hard and inefficient to implement process that filters out the abnormal signal within the automated system. To solve these problems, we devised a method for extracting the data which normally distributed with 90 to 99% confidence intervals at each period. The availability of the method was verified using 62-seismic stations with broadband and short-period sensors operated by the KMA (Korea Meteorological Administration). Evaluation standards were NHNM (New High Noise Model) and NLNM (New Low Noise Model) published by the USGS (United States Geological Survey). It was designed based on the western United States. However, Korean Peninsula surrounded by the ocean on three sides has a complicated geological structure and a high population density. So, we re-designed an appropriate model in Korean peninsula by statistically combined result. The important feature is that secondary-microseism peak appeared at a higher frequency band. Acknowledgements: This research was carried out as a part of "Research for the Meteorological and Earthquake Observation Technology and Its Application" supported by the 2015 National Institute of Meteorological Research (NIMR) in the Korea Meteorological Administration.

  5. The AlpArray-CASE project: temporary broadband seismic network deployment and characterization (United States)

    Dasović, Iva; Molinari, Irene; Stipčević, Josip; Šipka, Vesna; Salimbeni, Simone; Jarić, Dejan; Prevolnik, Snježan; Kissling, Eduard; Clinton, John; Giardini, Domenico


    While the northern part of the Adriatic microplate will be accurately imaged within the AlpArray project, its central and southern parts deserve detailed studies to obtain a complete picture of its structure and evolution. The Adriatic microplate forms the upper plate in the Western and Central Alps whereas it forms the lower plate in the Apennines and the Dinarides. However, the tectonics of Adriatic microplate is not well constrained and remains controversial, especially with regard to its contact with the Dinarides. The primary goal of the Central Adriatic Seismic Experiment (CASE) is to provide high quality seismological data and to shed light on seismicity and 3D lithospheric structure of the central Adriatic microplate and its boundaries. The CASE project is an international AlpArray Complementary Experiment carried out by four institutions: Department of Earth Sciences and Swiss Seismological Service of ETH Zürich (CH), Department of Geophysics and Croatian Seismological Service of Faculty of Science at University of Zagreb (HR), Republic Hydrometeorological Service of Republic of Srpska (BIH) and Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (I). It establishes a temporary seismic network, expected to be operational at least for one year, composed by existing permanent and temporary seismic stations operated by the institutions involved and newly deployed temporary seismic stations, installed in November and December 2016, provided by ETH Zürich and INGV: five in Croatia, four in Bosnia and Herzegovina and two in Italy. In this work, we present stations sites and settings and discuss their characteristics in terms of site-effects and noise level of each station. In particular, we analyse the power spectral density estimates in order to investigate major sources of noise and background noise.

  6. The ANSS Station Information System: A Centralized Station Metadata Repository for Populating, Managing and Distributing Seismic Station Metadata (United States)

    Thomas, V. I.; Yu, E.; Acharya, P.; Jaramillo, J.; Chowdhury, F.


    Maintaining and archiving accurate site metadata is critical for seismic network operations. The Advanced National Seismic System (ANSS) Station Information System (SIS) is a repository of seismic network field equipment, equipment response, and other site information. Currently, there are 187 different sensor models and 114 data-logger models in SIS. SIS has a web-based user interface that allows network operators to enter information about seismic equipment and assign response parameters to it. It allows users to log entries for sites, equipment, and data streams. Users can also track when equipment is installed, updated, and/or removed from sites. When seismic equipment configurations change for a site, SIS computes the overall gain of a data channel by combining the response parameters of the underlying hardware components. Users can then distribute this metadata in standardized formats such as FDSN StationXML or dataless SEED. One powerful advantage of SIS is that existing data in the repository can be leveraged: e.g., new instruments can be assigned response parameters from the Incorporated Research Institutions for Seismology (IRIS) Nominal Response Library (NRL), or from a similar instrument already in the inventory, thereby reducing the amount of time needed to determine parameters when new equipment (or models) are introduced into a network. SIS is also useful for managing field equipment that does not produce seismic data (eg power systems, telemetry devices or GPS receivers) and gives the network operator a comprehensive view of site field work. SIS allows users to generate field logs to document activities and inventory at sites. Thus, operators can also use SIS reporting capabilities to improve planning and maintenance of the network. Queries such as how many sensors of a certain model are installed or what pieces of equipment have active problem reports are just a few examples of the type of information that is available to SIS users.

  7. Broadband seismic measurements of degassing activity associated with lava effusion at Popocatépetl Volcano, Mexico (United States)

    Arciniega-Ceballos, Alejandra; Chouet, Bernard A.; Dawson, Phillip; Asch, Guenter


    From November 1999 through July 2000, a broadband seismic experiment was carried out at Popocatépetl Volcano to record seismic activity over a wide period range (0.04–100 s). We present an overview of the seismicity recorded during this experiment and discuss results of analyses of long-period (LP) and very-long-period (VLP) seismic signals recorded at stations nearest to the crater over a four-month interval December 1999–March 2000. Three families of LP signals (Types-I, II, and III) are identified based on distinctive waveform features observed periods shorter than 1 s, periods longer than 15 s, and within the period range 0.5–2.5 s. Type-I LP events have impulsive first arrivals and exhibit a characteristic harmonic wave train with dominant periods in the 1.4–1.9 s range during the first 10 s of signal. These events are also associated with a remarkable VLP wavelet with period near 30 s. Type-II LP events represent pairs of events occurring in rapid succession and whose signatures are superimposed. These are typically marked by slowly emergent first arrivals and by a characteristic VLP wave train with dominant period near 30 s, made of two successive wavelets whose shapes are quasi-identical to those of the VLP wavelets associated with Type-I events. Type-III LP events represent the most energetic signals observed during our experiment. These have an emergent first arrival and display a harmonic signature with dominant period near 1.1 s. They are dominated by periods in the 0.25–0.35 s band and contain no significant energy at periods longer than 15 s. Hypocentral locations of the three types of LP events obtained from phase picks point to shallow seismic sources clustered at depths shallower than 2 km below the crater floor. Observed variations in volcanic eruptive activity correlate with defined LP families. Most of the observed seismicity consists of Type-I events that occur in association with 1–3-min-long degassing bursts (

  8. OGS improvements in 2012 in running the Northeastern Italy Seismic Network: the Ferrara VBB borehole seismic station (United States)

    Pesaresi, Damiano; Romanelli, Marco; Barnaba, Carla; Bragato, Pier Luigi; Durì, Giorgio


    The Centro di Ricerche Sismologiche (CRS, Seismological Research Center) of the Istituto Nazionale di Oceanografia e di Geofisica Sperimentale (OGS, Italian National Institute for Oceanography and Experimental Geophysics) in Udine (Italy) after the strong earthquake of magnitude M=6.4 occurred in 1976 in the Italian Friuli-Venezia Giulia region, started to operate the Northeastern Italy Seismic Network: it currently consists of 17 very sensitive broad band and 18 simpler short period seismic stations, all telemetered to and acquired in real time at the OGS-CRS data center in Udine. Real time data exchange agreements in place with other Italian, Slovenian, Austrian and Swiss seismological institutes lead to a total number of about 100 seismic stations acquired in real time, which makes the OGS the reference institute for seismic monitoring of Northeastern Italy. The southwestern edge of the OGS seismic network stands on the Po alluvial basin: earthquake localization and characterization in this area is affected by the presence of soft alluvial deposits. OGS ha already experience in running a local seismic network in high noise conditions making use of borehole installations in the case of the micro-seismicity monitoring of a local gas storage site for a private company. Following the ML=5.9 earthquake that struck the Emilia region around Ferrara in Northern Italy on May 20, 2012 at 02:03:53 UTC, a cooperation of Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, OGS, the Comune di Ferrara and the University of Ferrara lead to the reinstallation of a previously existing very broad band (VBB) borehole seismic station in Ferrara. The aim of the OGS intervention was on one hand to extend its real time seismic monitoring capabilities toward South-West, including Ferrara and its surroundings, and on the other hand to evaluate the seismic response at the site. We will describe improvements in running the Northeastern Italy Seismic Network, including details of the Ferrara VBB

  9. A new dataset of Wood Anderson magnitude from the Trieste (Italy) seismic station (United States)

    Sandron, Denis; Gentile, G. Francesco; Gentili, Stefania; Rebez, Alessandro; Santulin, Marco; Slejko, Dario


    The standard torsion Wood Anderson (WA) seismograph owes its fame to the fact that historically it has been used for the definition of the magnitude of an earthquake (Richter, 1935). With the progress of the technology, digital broadband (BB) seismographs replaced it. However, for historical consistency and homogeneity with the old seismic catalogues, it is still important continuing to compute the so called Wood Anderson magnitude. In order to evaluate WA magnitude, the synthetic seismograms WA equivalent are simulated convolving the waveforms recorded by a BB instrument with a suitable transfer function. The value of static magnification that should be applied in order to simulate correctly the WA instrument is debated. The original WA instrument in Trieste operated from 1971 to 1992 and the WA magnitude (MAW) estimates were regularly reported in the seismic station bulletins. The calculation of the local magnitude was performed following the Richter's formula (Richter, 1935), using the table of corrections factor unmodified from those calibrated for California and without station correction applied (Finetti, 1972). However, the WA amplitudes were computed as vector sum rather than arithmetic average of the horizontal components, resulting in a systematic overestimation of approximately 0.25, depending on the azimuth. In this work, we have retrieved the E-W and N-S components of the original recordings and re-computed MAW according to the original Richter (1935) formula. In 1992, the WA recording were stopped, due to the long time required for the daily development of the photographic paper, the costs of the photographic paper and the progress of the technology. After a decade of interruption, the WA was recovered and modernized by replacing the recording on photographic paper with an electronic device and it continues presently to record earthquakes. The E-W and N-S components records were memorized, but not published till now. Since 2004, next to the WA (few

  10. Potential improvements in horizontal very broadband seismic data in the IRIS/USGS component of the Global Seismic Network (United States)

    Ringler, Adam; Steim, J.M.; Zandt, T; Hutt, Charles R.; Wilson, David; Storm, Tyler


    The Streckeisen STS‐1 has been the primary vault‐type seismometer used in the over‐150‐station Global Seismographic Network (GSN). This sensor has long been known for its outstanding vertical, very long‐period (e.g., >100  s period), and low‐noise performance, although the horizontal long‐period noise performance is less well known. The STS‐1 is a limited, important resource, because it is no longer made or supported by the original manufacturer. We investigate the incoherent noise of horizontal‐component sensors, where coherent signals among sensors have been removed, giving an upper bound on the self‐noise of both the STS‐1 and STS‐2 horizontal components. Our findings suggest that a well‐installed STS‐2 could potentially produce data with similar or better incoherent noise levels to that of a horizontal‐component STS‐1. Along with our experimental investigation, we compare background noise levels for a calendar year at Incorporated Research Institutions for Seismology/U.S. Geological Survey network stations, which comprise approximately two‐thirds of the GSN, with collocated STS‐1 and STS‐2 seismometers. The use of an STS‐2‐class of sensor (flat to velocity to 120 s period) to acquire low‐frequency data in surface‐vault installations would allow network operators to focus more attention on improving vertical data. In order to deal with the difference in instrument response shapes between the two instruments, we detail two different time‐domain filters that would allow users to convert broadband STS‐2 data into very broadband data with a response similar to that of an STS‐1 (flat to velocity to 360 s period). We conclude that the complexity of the current primary horizontal vault sensors in the GSN may not be necessary until we are better able to isolate surface horizontal sensors from various noise sources.

  11. An Application of the Coda Methodology for Moment-Rate Spectra Using Broadband Stations in Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eken, T; Mayeda, K; Hofstetter, A; Gok, R; Orgulu, G; Turkelli, N


    A recently developed coda magnitude methodology was applied to selected broadband stations in Turkey for the purpose of testing the coda method in a large, laterally complex region. As found in other, albeit smaller regions, coda envelope amplitude measurements are significantly less variable than distance-corrected direct wave measurements (i.e., L{sub g} and surface waves) by roughly a factor 3-to-4. Despite strong lateral crustal heterogeneity in Turkey, we found that the region could be adequately modeled assuming a simple 1-D, radially symmetric path correction for 10 narrow frequency bands ranging between 0.02 to 2.0 Hz. For higher frequencies however, 2-D path corrections will be necessary and will be the subject of a future study. After calibrating the stations ISP, ISKB, and MALT for local and regional distances, single-station moment-magnitude estimates (M{sub w}) derived from the coda spectra were in excellent agreement with those determined from multi-station waveform modeling inversions of long-period data, exhibiting a data standard deviation of 0.17. Though the calibration was validated using large events, the results of the calibration will extend M{sub w} estimates to significantly smaller events which could not otherwise be waveform modeled due to poor signal-to-noise ratio at long periods and sparse station coverage. The successful application of the method is remarkable considering the significant lateral complexity in Turkey and the simple assumptions used in the coda method.

  12. Structure of the crust and uppermost mantle from broadband seismic array in the western Dabie Mountains, east central China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Hua; WANG LiangShu; LI Cheng; LIU FuTian; HU DeZhao; YU DaYong


    A broadband seismic array of 7 stations was set up in the western Dabie Mountains (31°20′-31°50′N, 114°30′-115°E). Teleseismic events from May 2001 to November 2001 were collected and analyzed by radial receiver function to determine the S-wave velocity structure of the crust and uppermost mantle. The crustal thickness is 32-38 km beneath the array. The crust-mantle boundary appears as a gently north-dipping velocity discontinuity, but turns to be a velocity gradient beneath a station near the Qiliping shear zone in the south of the array. In the north of the array, a large offset of 4-6 km exists in the Moho along the Tongbai-Tongcheng shear zone, suggesting a suture zone formed by the northward subduction of the Yangtze plate beneath the North China plate. Along the Tongbai-Tongcheng shear zone, a north-dipping, EW-striking low-velocity zone was observed in the upper mantle, which may be related to the collision boundary between the Yangtze and the North China plates in the Triassic. Therefore the Tongbai-Tongcheng shear zone is the southern boundary of suture zone between the Yangtze and the North China plates. In the south of the array, a high-velocity body in the lower crust near the Qiliping shear zone probably results from the underpiate of mafic magma into the lower crust, which is generally associated with large-scale extension triggered by delamination of the thickened crust.

  13. Structure of the crust and uppermost mantle from broadband seismic array in the western Dabie Mountains, east central China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    A broadband seismic array of 7 stations was set up in the western Dabie Mountains (31°20′-31°50′N, 114°30′-115°E). Teleseismic events from May 2001 to November 2001 were collected and analyzed by radial receiver function to determine the S-wave velocity structure of the crust and uppermost mantle. The crustal thickness is 32-38 km beneath the array. The crust-mantle boundary appears as a gently north-dipping velocity discontinuity, but turns to be a velocity gradient beneath a station near the Qiliping shear zone in the south of the array. In the north of the array, a large offset of 4-6 km exists in the Moho along the Tongbai-Tongcheng shear zone, suggesting a suture zone formed by the northward subduction of the Yangtze plate beneath the North China plate. Along the Tongbai-Tongcheng shear zone, a north-dipping, EW-striking low-velocity zone was observed in the upper mantle, which may be related to the collision boundary between the Yangtze and the North China plates in the Triassic. Therefore the Tongbai-Tongcheng shear zone is the southern boundary of suture zone between the Yangtze and the North China plates. In the south of the array, a high-velocity body in the lower crust near the Qiliping shear zone probably results from the underplate of mafic magma into the lower crust, which is generally associated with large-scale extension triggered by delamination of the thickened crust.

  14. NX-2G : autonomous BBOBS-NX for a highly mobile broadband seismic observation at the seafloor (United States)

    Shiobara, Hajime; Sugioka, Hiroko; Ito, Aki; Shinohara, Masanao


    We had developed the broadband ocean bottom seismometer (BBOBS) and its new generation system (BBOBS-NX), and, with them, several practical observations have been performed to create and establish a new category of the ocean floor broadband seismology, since 1999. Now, our BBOBS and BBOBS-NX data is proved to be at acceptable level for broadband seismic analyses. Especially, the BBOBS-NX is able to obtain the low noise horizontal data comparable to the land station in periods longer than 10 s, which is adequate for modern analyses of the mantle structure. Moreover, the BBOBS(T)-NX is under practical evaluation for the mobile tilt observation at the seafloor, which will enable dense geodetic monitoring. The BBOBS-NX system must be a powerful tool, although, the current system has intrinsic limitation in opportunity of observations due to the necessary use of the submersible vehicle for the deployment and recovery. If we can use this system with almost any kind of vessels, like as the BBOBS (self pop-up system), it should lead us a true breakthrough of seafloor observations in geodynamics. Hereafter, we call the new autonomous BBOBS-NX as NX-2G in short. There are two main problems to be cleared to realize the NX-2G system. The first one is a tilt of the sensor unit on landing, which is larger than the acceptable limit of the sensor (±8°) in 47 % after our 15 free-fall deployments of the BBOBS-NX. As we had no evidence at which moment the tilt occurred, so it was observed during the BBOBS-NX deployment in the last year by attaching a video camera and an acceleration logger those were originally developed for this purpose. The only one result shows that the tilt on landing seemed determined by the final posture of the BBOBS-NX system just before the penetration into the sediment. The second problem is a required force to extract the sensor unit from the sticky clay sediment, which was about 80 kgf in maximum with the current BBOBS-NX system from in-situ measurements

  15. An Application of the Coda Methodology for Moment-Rate Spectra Using Broadband Stations in Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eken Tuna, Kevin Mayeda, Abraham Hofstetter, Rengin Gok, Gonca Orgulu, Niyazi Turkelli


    A recently developed coda magnitude methodology was applied to selected broadband stations in Turkey for the purpose of testing the coda method in a large, laterally complex region. As found in other, albeit smaller regions, coda envelope amplitude measurements are significantly less variable than distance-corrected direct wave measurements (i.e., L{sub g} and surface waves) by roughly a factor 3-to-4. Despite strong lateral crustal heterogeneity in Turkey, they found that the region could be adequately modeled assuming a simple 1-D, radially symmetric path correction. After calibrating the stations ISP, ISKB and MALT for local and regional distances, single-station moment-magnitude estimates (M{sub W}) derived from the coda spectra were in excellent agreement with those determined from multistation waveform modeling inversions, exhibiting a data standard deviation of 0.17. Though the calibration was validated using large events, the results of the calibration will extend M{sub W} estimates to significantly smaller events which could not otherwise be waveform modeled. The successful application of the method is remarkable considering the significant lateral complexity in Turkey and the simple assumptions used in the coda method.

  16. Calculating Skempton constant of aquifer from volume strain and water level response to seismic waves at Changping seismic station

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN Rui; CHEN Yong; GAO Fu-wang; HUANG Fu-qiong


    Based on linear poroelastic theory of ideal poroelastic media, we apply the mathematic expression between pore pressure and volume strain for well-aquifer system to analyzing the observed data of water level and volume strain changes aroused by Sumatra Ms8.7 (determined by China Seismic Networks Center) seismic waves at Changping, Beijing, station on December 26, 2004 from both time and frequency domain. The response coefficients of water level fluctuation to volume strain are also calculated when seismic waves were passing through confined aquifer. A method for estimating Skempton constant B is put forward, which provide an approach for understanding of the characteristics of aquifer.

  17. Seismic margin review of the Maine Yankee Atomic Power Station: Fragility analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ravindra, M. K.; Hardy, G. S.; Hashimoto, P. S.; Griffin, M. J.


    This Fragility Analysis is the third of three volumes for the Seismic Margin Review of the Maine Yankee Atomic Power Station. Volume 1 is the Summary Report of the first trial seismic margin review. Volume 2, Systems Analysis, documents the results of the systems screening for the review. The three volumes are part of the Seismic Margins Program initiated in 1984 by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) to quantify seismic margins at nuclear power plants. The overall objectives of the trial review are to assess the seismic margins of a particular pressurized water reactor, and to test the adequacy of this review approach, quantification techniques, and guidelines for performing the review. Results from the trial review will be used to revise the seismic margin methodology and guidelines so that the NRC and industry can readily apply them to assess the inherent quantitative seismic capacity of nuclear power plants.

  18. OGS improvements in 2012 in running the North-eastern Italy Seismic Network: the Ferrara VBB borehole seismic station (United States)

    Pesaresi, D.; Romanelli, M.; Barnaba, C.; Bragato, P. L.; Durì, G.


    The Centro di Ricerche Sismologiche (CRS, Seismological Research Centre) of the Istituto Nazionale di Oceanografia e di Geofisica Sperimentale (OGS, Italian National Institute for Oceanography and Experimental Geophysics) in Udine (Italy) after the strong earthquake of magnitude M=6.4 occurred in 1976 in the Italian Friuli-Venezia Giulia region, started to operate the North-eastern Italy Seismic Network: it currently consists of 17 very sensitive broad band and 18 simpler short period seismic stations, all telemetered to and acquired in real time at the OGS-CRS data centre in Udine. Real time data exchange agreements in place with other Italian, Slovenian, Austrian and Swiss seismological institutes lead to a total number of about 100 seismic stations acquired in real time, which makes the OGS the reference institute for seismic monitoring of North-eastern Italy. The south-western edge of the OGS seismic network (Fig. 1) stands on the Po alluvial basin: earthquake localization and characterization in this area is affected by the presence of soft alluvial deposits. OGS ha already experience in running a local seismic network in high noise conditions making use of borehole installations in the case of the micro-seismicity monitoring of a local gas storage site for a private company. Following the ML = 5.9 earthquake that struck the Emilia region around Ferrara in Northern Italy on 20 May 2012 at 02:03:53 UTC, a cooperation of Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, OGS, the Comune di Ferrara and the University of Ferrara lead to the reinstallation of a previously existing very broad band (VBB) borehole seismic station in Ferrara. The aim of the OGS intervention was on one hand to extend its real time seismic monitoring capabilities toward South-West, including Ferrara and its surroundings, and on the other hand to evaluate the seismic response at the site. We will describe improvements in running the North-eastern Italy Seismic Network, including details of

  19. Complex force history of a calving-generated glacial earthquake derived from broadband seismic inversion (United States)

    Sergeant, Amandine; Mangeney, Anne; Stutzmann, Eléonore; Montagner, Jean-Paul; Walter, Fabian; Moretti, Laurent; Castelnau, Olivier


    The force applied to the Earth by the calving of two icebergs at Jakobshavn Isbrae, Greenland, has been quantified. The source force history was recovered by inversion of regional broadband seismograms without any a priori constraint on the source time function, in contrast with previous studies. For periods 10-100 s, the three-component force can be obtained from distant stations alone and is proportional to the closest station seismograms. This inversion makes it possible to quantify changes of the source force direction and amplitude as a function of time and frequency. A detailed comparison with a video of the event was used to identify four forces associated with collision, then bottom-out and top-out rotation of the first and second icebergs, and ice mélange motion. Only the two iceberg rotations were identified in previous studies. All four processes are found here to contribute to the force amplitude and variability. Such a complete time-frequency force history provides unique dynamical constraints for mechanical calving models.

  20. Seismic Station Installation Orientation Errors at ANSS and IRIS/USGS Stations (United States)

    Ringler, Adam T.; Hutt, Charles R.; Persfield, K.; Gee, Lind S.


    Many seismological studies depend on the published orientations of sensitive axes of seismic instruments relative to north (e.g., Li et al., 2011). For example, studies of the anisotropic structure of the Earth’s mantle through SKS‐splitting measurements (Long et al., 2009), constraints on core–mantle electromagnetic coupling from torsional normal‐mode measurements (Dumberry and Mound, 2008), and models of three‐dimensional (3D) velocity variations from surface waves (Ekström et al., 1997) rely on accurate sensor orientation. Unfortunately, numerous results indicate that this critical parameter is often subject to significant error (Laske, 1995; Laske and Masters, 1996; Yoshizawa et al., 1999; Schulte‐Pelkum et al., 2001; Larson and Ekström, 2002). For the Advanced National Seismic System (ANSS; ANSS Technical Integration Committee, 2002), the Global Seismographic Network (GSN; Butler et al., 2004), and many other networks, sensor orientation is typically determined by a field engineer during installation. Successful emplacement of a seismic instrument requires identifying true north, transferring a reference line, and measuring the orientation of the instrument relative to the reference line. Such an exercise is simple in theory, but there are many complications in practice. There are four commonly used methods for determining true north at the ANSS and GSN stations operated by the USGS Albuquerque Seismological Laboratory (ASL), including gyroscopic, astronomical, Global Positioning System (GPS), and magnetic field techniques. A particular method is selected based on site conditions (above ground, below ground, availability of astronomical observations, and so on) and in the case of gyroscopic methods, export restrictions. Once a north line has been determined, it must be translated to the sensor location. For installations in mines or deep vaults, this step can include tracking angles through the one or more turns in the access tunnel leading to

  1. A broadband multicomponent seismic landstreamer for underground infrastructure planning projects - An example from the Varberg tunnel, southwest Sweden (United States)

    Malehmir, Alireza; Zhang, Fengjiao; Lundberg, Emil; Dehgahnnejad, Mahdieh; Friberg, Olof; Brodic, Bojan; Dose, Christin; Place, Joachim; Svensson, Mats; Moller, Henrik


    Over the past few years, demand for infrastructures has continuously increased in Sweden. The authorities are expected to invest significantly on infrastructures especially those that are environmentally friendly and aim at reducing CO2 emission. Due to limited surface accessibility, the country will particularly move towards developing more and more subways, train tunnels, underground highways and bypasses. The focus will then obviously be in major cities where the underground infrastructures have to be constantly developed or expanded to facilitate the daily life and transportation. The degree to which we can understand geological conditions where these structures are going to be constructed also has great economical and environmental effects. What, however, makes urban environment challenging target for geophysical investigations is the various sources of noise and restriction both in time and space, which require the equipment to be versatile and to produce minimal disruption as well as fast to set up and pack. As a part of a nation-wide, an academia-industry partnership, project (TRUST, TRansparent Underground STructure), we have developed a multicomponent broadband digital-based sensor seismic landstreamer system that is particularly geared for noisy environments and areas where high-resolution images of the subsurface are needed. The streamer has been tested for its reliability in various locations (e.g., part of the Stockholm Bypass) and for various targets one which was a planned underground train tunnel in the city of Varberg, southwest Sweden that is the focus of this presentation. Potential targets were bedrock surface, fracture zones, weak and shear zones. During nearly three weeks, totally about 7.5 km long, comprising 25 seismic profiles using a source and receiver spacing of 2-4 m, was acquired. A novel approach in the data acquisition was to combine the landstreamer with wireless sensors in areas where accessibility was restricted and, to provide

  2. A very low-cost and adaptable DIY seismic station (United States)

    Mendez Chazara, Nahum; Castiñeiras, Pedro


    different configurations to fit different needs: From horizontal geophones, to the use of accelerometers to substitute the geophone and miniaturize even less the size of the seismic station. Also, the data can be gathered only by an Arduino board, but then it needs a card reader/writer and a real-time clock (RTC) circuit in order to correctly timestamp the data. In the first semester of 2016, we plan to build several units and deploy them in the field over the Bajo Segura Fault (Spain) and test them over different conditions to better assess the quality of the data.

  3. Imaging and Analyzing the Upper Lithosphere Beneath the Southern Appalachians using Global Seismic Phases Recorded by the SESAME Broadband Array (United States)

    Alberts, E.; Verellen, D.; Parker, H., Jr.; Hawman, R. B.; Fischer, K. M.; Wagner, L. S.


    Global-phase seismic interferometry (GloPSI) is a seismic method that allows for the extraction of zero-offset reflections. We use the global seismic phase PKIKP as a virtual source to generate reflection profiles along three survey lines of the Southeastern Suture of the Appalachian Margin Experiment (SESAME). The broadband recordings provide constraints on long-wavelength structure that complement the higher-frequency images obtained along Consortium for Continental Reflection Profiling (COCORP) lines. Targets include structures associated with Paleozoic collision and Mesozoic extension. We focus in particular on the nature of the Southern Appalachian detachment, the Alleghanian suture and its possible relation to a zone of prominent south-dipping reflections observed on COCORP profiles, and estimating the volume of mafic intrusions added to the basement beneath the Coastal Plain. The broadband profiles also provide additional constraints on the thickness and lateral extent of Triassic sediments. Relative reflection amplitudes are used to estimate impedance contrasts to constrain the nature of major discontinuities. Over the Coastal Plain, we experiment with a number of approaches for suppressing multiple reflections generated by very low-velocity, unconsolidated sediments and poorly consolidated sedimentary rocks. The resulting improvement in image quality should allow us to better evaluate the continuity of the detachment and other orogen-wide structures.

  4. Application of seismic isolation technology to computer system in nuclear power stations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gunyasu, Kenzou; Takamatsu, Naotaka; Fujimoto, Shigeru; Fukui, Hidehiro (Toshiba Corp., Kawasaki, Kanagawa (Japan))


    In the current aseismatic design, the rigid structures that withstand earthquakes by own strength have been adopted. However recently, seismically isolated structures were devised, and begin to be applied to buildings and others. It is characterized by that the basic structures as the object of seismic isolation are not changed, and by using special seismic isolators, the structures are made flexible to avoid the resonance with the eminent period of earthquakes and reduce the earthquake force acting on the structures. As the concrete example of seismic isolation, in Japan, seismically isolated floors have been introduced for the computer centers of banks. Also in nuclear power stations, the application of seismic isolation to computer systems has been considered. The function, constitution, structure and the method of increasing the aseismatic capability of computer system are explained. The function required for seismic isolation floors, the seismic isolation structure of rolling type composed of coil springs, dampers and ball bearings, its principle of action, and the vibration test on the seismic isolation floor are reported. (K.I.).

  5. Seismicity around the source areas of the 1946 Nankai and the 1944 Tonankai earthquakes detected from data recorded at DONET stations (United States)

    Suzuki, K.; Kamiya, S.; Takahashi, N.


    The Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology (JAMSTEC) installed DONET (Dense Oceanfloor Network System for Earthquakes and Tsunamis) off the Kii Peninsula, southwest of Japan, to monitor earthquakes and tsunamis. Stations of DONET1, which are distributed in Kumano-nada, and DONET2, which are distributed off Muroto, were installed by August 2011 and April 2016, respectively. After the installation of all of the 51 stations, DONET was transferred to National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Resilience (NIED). NIED and JAMSTEC have now corroborated in the operation of DONET since April 2016. To investigate the seismicity around the source areas of the 1946 Nankai and the 1944 Tonankai earthquakes, we detected earthquakes from the records of the broadband seismometers installed to DONET. Because DONET stations are apart from land stations, we can detect smaller earthquakes than by using only land stations. It is important for understanding the stress state and seismogenic mechanism to monitoring the spatial-temporal seismicity change. In this study we purpose to evaluate to the seismicity around the source areas of the Nankai and the Tonankai earthquakes by using our earthquake catalogue. The frequency-magnitude relationships of earthquakes in the areas of DONET1&2 had an almost constant slope of about -1 for earthquakes of ML larger than 1.5 and 2.5, satisfying the Gutenberg-Richter law, and the slope of smaller earthquakes approached 0, reflecting the detection limits. While the most of the earthquakes occurred in the aftershock area of the 2004 off the Kii Peninsula earthquakes, very limited activity was detected in the source region of the Nankai and Tonankai earthquake except for the large earthquake (MJMA = 6.5) on 1st April 2016 and its aftershocks. We will evaluate the detection limit of the earthquake in more detail and investigate the spatial-temporal seismicity change with waiting the data store.

  6. Some Signals of Seismic Origin Received at Pacific Sofar Stations. (United States)


    none have ever approached this one in duration. dough compi~tation.indicate that the sound energy in the 20—500 cpa frequency bane released to the water...the sour cesof theni are still undcterr~iined since it has not been possible to correlate them ~4th any reported seismic or explosive disturbances. It

  7. The "Jerk" Method for Predicting Intrusions and Eruptions of Piton De La Fournaise (La Réunion Island) from the Analysis of the Broadband Seismological Rer Station (United States)

    Roult, G. C.; Beauducel, F.; Ferrazzini, V.; Boissier, P.; Villeneuve, N.


    The predictability of volcanic eruptions remains a challenging problem and forecast of volcano behavior (intrusion versus eruption) is a difficult task. Since 1979, the Volcano Observatory of Piton de la Fournaise (OVPF) maintains SP and BB seismic stations, tiltmeters, extensometers and GPS stations. In addition, the RER GEOSCOPE broadband station was installed in 1986, 8.5 km north of the summit crater. The analysis of 83 seismic crises from December 1985 to December 2010 (preceding 54 eruptions, 26 intrusions, 2 summit pit craters,1 caldera collapse) allowed us to identify short-term long period seismic transients (period > 100 s) for most events (Roult et al., 2012). These precursors observed on the horizontal components are tilt signals induced by the inflation/deflation of the volcano. We analyzed 17 eruptions and 7 intrusions spanning the 2005-2010 period with the aim of distinguishing whether an injection of magma will stop or if it can evolve towards an eruption. Transient signature is an acceleration step that can be large or not, with slopes more or less steep according to the acceleration rate. We show a clear differentiation between the acceleration rate of the intrusions (low rate) and the acceleration rate of the eruptions (high rate). With a ratio estimated to 7, the acceleration rate allows to determine a threshold value and to discriminate between intrusive and eruptive events. The real-time calculation of the ground acceleration of the horizontal components of the RER station after removal of the theoretical tide effect is integrated since April 2014 to the Piton de la Fournaise volcano monitoring. In June 2014, the "JERK"method predicted an eruption 50 minutes before the eruption onset. We applied the "material failure prediction" of Voight and Cornelius (1991) with the aim to predict the onset time of the eruptions. Preliminary tests on the 17 eruptions of the 2005-2010 period have shown that the summit eruptions were relatively well predicted

  8. The Europa Seismic Package (ESP): 1. Selecting a Broadband Microseismometer for Ocean Worlds. (United States)

    Pike, W. T.; Standley, I. M.; Calcutt, S. B.; Kedar, S.; Vance, S. D.; Bills, B. G.


    We summarize the requirements that would enable a seismic system to provide a probe of the habitability of Europa and introduce a candidate microseismometer for a Europa Seismic Package, comparing to potential competitor technologies.

  9. Seismic Tomography of Siyazan - Shabran Oil and Gas Region Of Azerbaijan by Data of The Seismic Stations (United States)

    Yetirmishli, Gurban; Guliyev, Ibrahim; Mammadov, Nazim; Kazimova, Sabina; Ismailova, Saida


    The main purpose of the research was to build a reliable 3D model of the structure of seismic velocities in the earth crust on the territory of Siyazan-Shabran region of Azerbaijan, using the data of seismic telemetry stations spanning Siyazan-Shabran region (Siyazan, Altiagaj, Pirgulu, Guba, Khinalig, Gusar), including 7 mobile telemetry seismic stations. Interest to the problem of research seismic tomography caused by applied environmental objectives, such as the assessment of geological risks, engineering evaluation (stability and safety of wells), the task of exploration and mining operations. In the study region are being actively developed oil fields, and therefore, there is a risk of technogenic earthquakes. It was performed the calculation of first arrival travel times of P and S waves and the corresponding ray paths. Calculate 1D velocity model which is the initial model as a set of horizontal layers (velocity may be constant or changed linearly with depth on each layer, gaps are possible only at the boundaries between the layers). Have been constructed and analyzed the horizontal sections of the three-dimensional velocity model at different depths of the investigated region. By the empirical method was proposed density model of the sedimentary rocks at depths of 0-8 km.

  10. Teleseismic SKS splitting beneath East Antarctica using broad-band stations around Soya Coast (United States)

    Usui, Y.; Kanao, M.


    We observed shear wave splitting of SKS waves from digital seismographs that are recorded at 5 stations around Soya Coast in the Lutzow-Holm Bay, East Antarctica. Their recording systems are composed of a three-component broadband seismometer (CMG-40T), a digital recording unit and a solar power battery supply. The events used were selected from 1999 to 2004 and phase arrival times were calculated using the IASPEI91 earth model (Kennet, 1995). In general, we chose the data from earthquakes with m>6.0 and a distance range 85° < Δ < 130° for the most prominent SKS waves We used the methods of Silver and Chan (1991) for the inversion of anisotropy parameters and estimated the splitting parameters φ (fast polarization direction) and δt (delay time between split waves) assuming a single layer of hexagonal symmetry with a horizontal symmetry axis. The weighted averages of all splitting parameters (φ, δt) for each station are AKR (30±4, 1.30±0.2), LNG (58±6, 1.27±0.2), SKL (67±10, 0.94±0.2), SKV (40±6, 1.28±0.3) and TOT (52±8, 1.26±0.3), where the weights are inversely proportional to the standard deviations for each solution. As compared to typical delay times of SKS waves which show 1.2s (Silver and Chan 1991; Vinnik et al., 1992), the result shows generally the same value. In previous study, Kubo and Hiramatsu (1998) estimate the splitting parameter for Syowa station (SYO), where is located near our using stations in East Antarctica, and the results are (49±3, 0.70±0.1). Although it is consistent with our results for fast polarization direction, δt for our results are large relatively to those of SYO. The difference may be due to either different incident angle or more complex anisotropic structure. We found that fast polarization direction is systematically parallel to coast line in the Lutzow-Holm Bay, East Antarctica, which is consistent with NE-SW paleo compressional stress. The absolute plate motion based on the HS2-NUVEL1 (Gripp and Gordon

  11. Investigation of the Seismic Nucleation Phase of Large Earthquakes Using Broadband Teleseismic Data (United States)

    Burkhart, Eryn Therese

    The dynamic motion of an earthquake begins abruptly, but is often initiated by a short interval of weak motion called the seismic nucleation phase (SNP). Ellsworth and Beroza [1995, 1996] concluded that the SNP was detectable in near-source records of 48 earthquakes with moment magnitude (Mw), ranging from 1.1 to 8.1. They found that the SNP accounted for approximately 0.5% of the total moment and 1/6 of the duration of the earthquake. Ji et al [2010] investigated the SNP of 19 earthquakes with Mw greater than 8.0 using teleseismic broadband data. This study concluded that roughly half of the earthquakes had detectable SNPs, inconsistent with the findings of Ellsworth and Beroza [1995]. Here 69 earthquakes of Mw 7.5-8.0 from 1994 to 2011 are further examined. The SNP is clearly detectable using teleseismic data in 32 events, with 35 events showing no nucleation phase, and 2 events had insufficient data to perform stacking, consistent with the previous analysis. Our study also reveals that the percentage of the SNP events is correlated with the focal mechanism and hypocenter depths. Strike-slip earthquakes are more likely to exhibit a clear SNP than normal or thrust earthquakes. Eleven of 14 strike-slip earthquakes (78.6%) have detectable NSPs. In contrast, only 16 of 40 (40%) thrust earthquakes have detectable SNPs. This percentage also became smaller for deep events (33% for events with hypocenter depth>250 km). To understand why certain thrust earthquakes have a visible SNP, we examined the sediment thickness, age, and angle of the subducting plate of all thrust earthquakes in the study. We found that thrust events with shallow (600 m) on the subducting plate tend to have clear SNPs. If the SNP can be better understood in the future, it may help seismologists better understand the rupture dynamics of large earthquakes. Potential applications of this work could attempt to predict the magnitude of an earthquake seconds before it begins by measuring the SNP, vastly

  12. Electromagnetic Abnormity Observed at Sujiatun Seismic Station and Its Relation to Earthquake

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Mei; Cheng Wenhai; Hou Wankai; Yin Shipeng


    The Sujiatun seismic station is a local professional seismic observation station in the city of Shenyang, Liaoning province. Electromagnetic radiations observation apparatus, of the type EMAOS-L, are used there. In this paper, four years observation data and observed earthquakes with Ms ≥ 4.0 were collected in the Sujiatun observation station. The characteristics of electromagnetic radiation abnormities and earthquakes are analyzed from such aspects as capabilities of the apparatus used, tectonic structure, origins of electromagnetic radiations and so on. By analysis, precursor abnormities observed at this observation station are remarkable. The electric and magnetic abnormities are with good synchronism and the abnormities can respond better to the earthquakes with the epicenter distance being less than 20km and taking place in the upper crust. At the same time, for earthquakes with large magnitudes, the variation of precursor abnormities shows a periodic diurnal variation.

  13. Prediction of the seismic behavior of an underground railway station and a tunnel in Napoli (Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Fabozzi


    Overall, the results of the study demonstrated that the seismic increments of internal forces in the diaphragm walls of the station and in the segmented lining of the tunnel were quite significant. The case study encourages improving the reliability of simplified methods based on the more advanced dynamic approaches.

  14. Vertical dipoles to detect self potential signals in a seismic area of southern Italy: Tito station

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Colangelo


    Full Text Available Since 2000 the Institute of Methodologies for the Environmental Analysis (National Council of Research, Tito, Italy installed a geophysical monitoring network able to detect geoelectric, geochemic and seismometric parameters in seismic areas of southern Italy. During this period a very large data-base of geophysical time series has been organized and it is actually available to assess robust statistical methodologies to identify geophysical anomalous patterns linked with local seismicity. To better understand the influence of rain and cultural noise on geoelectrical signals (Self Potential, during May 2004 we drilled in Tito station a 20 m-depth hole to measure the SP vertical component. The array is characterized by five Pb-PbCl2 electrodes put at different depths. The common electrode is fixed at 20 m. In this work we present some electrical anomalies probably correlated with local seismic activity on vertical dipoles recorded in Tito station.  

  15. Seismic response analysis of NAGRA-Net stations using advanced geophysical techniques (United States)

    Poggi, Valerio; Edwards, Benjamin; Dal Moro, Giancarlo; Keller, Lorenz; Fäh, Donat


    In cooperation with the National Cooperative for the Disposal of Radioactive Waste (Nagra), the Swiss Seismological Service (SED) has recently completed the installation of ten new seismological observation stations, three of them including a co-located borehole sensor. The ultimate goal of the project is to densify the existing Swiss Digital Seismic Network (SDSNet) in northern Switzerland, in order to improve the detection of very-low magnitude events and to improve the accuracy of future location solutions. This is strategic for unbiased monitoring of micro seismicity at the locations of proposed nuclear waste repositories. To further improve the quality and usability of the recordings, a seismic characterization of the area surrounding the installation area was performed at each site. The investigation consisted of a preliminary geological and geotechnical study, followed by a seismic site response analysis by means of state-of-the-art geophysical techniques. For the borehole stations, in particular, the characterization was performed by combining different types of active seismic methods (P-S refraction tomography, surface wave analysis, Vertical Seismic Profiling - VSP) with ambient vibration based approaches (wavelet decomposition, H/V spectral ratio, polarization analysis, three-component f-k analysis). The results of all analyses converged to the definition of a mean velocity profile for the site, which was later used for the computation of engineering parameters (travel time average velocity and quarter-wavelength parameters) and the analytical SH-wave transfer function. Empirical site-amplification functions are automatically determined for any station connected to the Swiss seismic networks. They are determined based on building statistical models of systematic site-specific effects in recordings of small earthquakes when compared to the Swiss stochastic ground-motion model. Computed site response is validated through comparison with these empirical

  16. Optimizing Multi-Station Template Matching to Identify and Characterize Induced Seismicity in Ohio (United States)

    Brudzinski, M. R.; Skoumal, R.; Currie, B. S.


    As oil and gas well completions utilizing multi-stage hydraulic fracturing have become more commonplace, the potential for seismicity induced by the deep disposal of frac-related flowback waters and the hydraulic fracturing process itself has become increasingly important. While it is rare for these processes to induce felt seismicity, the recent increase in the number of deep injection wells and volumes injected have been suspected to have contributed to a substantial increase of events = M 3 in the continental U.S. over the past decade. Earthquake template matching using multi-station waveform cross-correlation is an adept tool for investigating potentially induced sequences due to its proficiency at identifying similar/repeating seismic events. We have sought to refine this approach by investigating a variety of seismic sequences and determining the optimal parameters (station combinations, template lengths and offsets, filter frequencies, data access method, etc.) for identifying induced seismicity. When applied to a sequence near a wastewater injection well in Youngstown, Ohio, our optimized template matching routine yielded 566 events while other template matching studies found ~100-200 events. We also identified 77 events on 4-12 March 2014 that are temporally and spatially correlated with active hydraulic fracturing in Poland Township, Ohio. We find similar improvement in characterizing sequences in Washington and Harrison Counties, which appear to be related to wastewater injection and hydraulic fracturing, respectively. In the Youngstown and Poland Township cases, focal mechanisms and double difference relocation using the cross-correlation matrix finds left-lateral faults striking roughly east-west near the top of the basement. We have also used template matching to determine isolated earthquakes near several other wastewater injection wells are unlikely to be induced based on a lack of similar/repeating sequences. Optimized template matching utilizes

  17. Real-time forecast of aftershocks from a single seismic station signal (United States)

    Lippiello, E.; Cirillo, A.; Godano, G.; Papadimitriou, E.; Karakostas, V.


    The evaluation of seismic hazard in the hours following large earthquakes is strongly affected by biases due to difficulties in determining earthquake location. This leads to the huge incompleteness of instrumental catalogs. Here we show that if, on the one hand, the overlap of aftershock coda waves hides many small events, on the other hand, it leads to a well-determined empirical law controlling the decay of the amplitude of the seismic signal at a given site. The fitting parameters of this law can be related to those controlling the temporal decay of the aftershock number, and it is then possible to obtain short-term postseismic occurrence probability from a single recorded seismic signal. We therefore present a novel procedure which, without requiring earthquake location, produces more accurate and almost real-time forecast, in a site of interest, directly from the signal of a seismic station installed at that site.

  18. Placement of Base Stations in Broadband Power Line Communications Access Networks by Means of Multi-criteria Optimization (United States)

    Haidine, Abdelfatteh; Lehnert, Ralf

    Broadband Power Line Communications (B-PLC) technology is an alternative for broadband access networks, allowing bit rates up to currently 200Mbps. This technique uses the wiring of the low-voltage grid in order to offer to the users the telecommunications services, such as Internet, VoIP, VoD, etc. The B-PLC design process is sub-divided into two parts: the Generalized Base Station Placement (GBSP) problem and the PLC Channel Allocation Problem (P-CAP). This paper focuses on GBSP that is modeled as multi-criteria combinatorial optimization problem. Based on our published mathematical modeling, this paper supplies more numerical experiments for the evaluation of Multi-Objective Evolutionary Algorithms (MOEAs) in solving GBSP. Their performance is compared with the single-objective optimization.

  19. Influence of wind turbines on seismic stations in the upper rhine graben, SW Germany (United States)

    Zieger, Toni; Ritter, Joachim R. R.


    By analysing long- and short-term seismological measurements at wind farms close to the town of Landau, SW Germany, we present new insights into ground motion signals from wind turbines (WTs) at local seismic stations. Because of their need to be located in similar regions with sparsely anthropogenic activities, wind turbines impact seismic stations and their recordings in a way that is not yet fully understood by researchers. To ensure the undisturbed recording tasks of a regional seismic array or a single station by a protected area around those endangered stations, it is very important to investigate the behavior of WTs as a seismic source. For that reason, we calculate averaged one-hour long spectra of the power spectral density (PSD) before and after the installation of a new wind farm within the investigated area. These PSD are ordered according to the rotation speed. We observe a clear increase of the PSD level after the WT installation in a frequency range of 0.5 to 10 Hz up to a distance of 5.5 km away from the WT. By analysing seismic borehole data, we also observe a decrease of the PSD of wind dependent signals with depth. The impact of wind-dependent signals is found to be much more pronounced for the shallower station (150 m depth) than for the deeper one (305 m depth). Using short-term profile measurements, we fit a power-law decay proportional to 1/r b to the main WT-induced PSD peaks and differentiate between near-field and far-field effects of ground motions. For low frequencies in the range from 1 to 4 Hz, we determine a b value of 0.78 to 0.85 for the far field, which is consistent with surface waves. The b value increases (up to 1.59) with increasing frequencies (up to 5.5 Hz), which is obviously due to attenuating effects like scattering or anelasticity. These results give a better understanding of the seismic wavefield interactions between wind turbines (or wind farms) with nearby seismic stations, including borehole installations, in a

  20. Shallow crustal velocities and volcanism suggested from ambient noise studies using a dense broadband seismic network in the Tatun Volcano Group of Taiwan (United States)

    Huang, Yu-Chih; Lin, Cheng-Horng; Kagiyama, Tsuneomi


    The Tatun Volcano Group (TVG) is situated adjacent to the Taipei metropolis and was active predominantly around 0.8-0.2 Ma (Pleistocene). Various recent lines of evidence suggest that the TVG is a potentially active volcano and that future volcanic eruptions cannot be ruled out. Geothermal activities are largely constrained to faults, but the relationship between volcanism and detailed velocity structures is not well understood. We analyzed ambient seismic noise of daily vertical components from 2014 using a dense seismic network of 40 broadband stations. We selected a 0.02° grid spacing to construct 2D and 3D shallow crustal phase velocity maps in the 0.5-3 s period band. Two S-wave velocity profiles transect Chishingshan (Mt. CS) in the shallow 3 km crust are further derived. The footwall of the Shanchiao Fault is dominated by low velocity, which may relate to Tertiary bedrock buried under andesitic lava flows dozens to hundreds of meters thick. The hanging wall of the Shanchiao Fault is the location of recent major volcanic activities. Low velocity zones in the southeast of Dayoukeng (DYK) may be interpreted as hydrothermal reservoirs or water-saturated Tertiary bedrock related to Cenozoic structures in the shallow crust. High velocities conspicuously dominate the east of the TVG, where the earliest stages of volcanism in the TVG are located, but where surface hydro-geothermal activities were absent in recent times. Between the Shanchiao Fault and Kanchiao Fault high velocities were detected, which converge below Mt. CS and may be related to early stages of magma conduits that gradually consolidated. These two faults may play a significant role with the TVG. The submarine volcanism adjacent to the Keelung coastline also requires further attention.

  1. Engineering for Autonomous Seismic Stations at the IRIS PASSCAL Instrument Center (United States)

    Anderson, K. R.; Carpenter, P.; Beaudoin, B. C.; Parker, T.; Hebert, J.; Childs, D.; Chung, P.; Reusch, A. M.


    The NSF funded Incorporated Research Institutions for Seismology (IRIS) through New Mexico Tech operates the PASSCAL Instrument Center (PIC) in Socorro New Mexico. The engineering effort at the PIC seeks to optimize seismic station operations for all portable experiments, include those in extremely remote and harsh polar environments. Recent advances have resulted in improved station design, allowing improved operational efficiencies, data quality return and reduction in station logistics associated with installation, maintenance and decommissioning of stations. These include: Battery and power system designs. Incorporating primary Lithium Thionyl Chloride (LTC) technology with rechargeable Lithium Iron Phosphate (LiFePO4) batteries allows systems to operate in areas with long-term solar autonomy (high latitudes). Development includes charge controller systems to switch between primary and secondary technologies efficiently. Enclosures: Engineered solutions to efficiently manage waste heat, maintain operational environment and provide light-weight and durable housing for seismic instrumentation. Communications: In collaboration with Xeos Technologies Inc., we deliver Iridium-based SOH/Command and Control telemetry as well as full bandwidth seismic data communications in high latitude environments at low power requirements. Smaller-lighter-instrumentation: Through the GEOICE MRI, we are working with Nanometrics on next generation "all-in-one" seismic systems that can be deployed in polar environments - easing logistics, minimizing installation time and improving data quality return for these expensive deployments. All autonomous station designs are openly and freely available at the IRIS PASSCAL webpage ( More information on GEOICE and data quality from various seismometer emplacements will be presented in other posters at this AGU meeting.

  2. A probabilistic framework for single-station location of seismicity on Earth and Mars (United States)

    Böse, M.; Clinton, J. F.; Ceylan, S.; Euchner, F.; van Driel, M.; Khan, A.; Giardini, D.; Lognonné, P.; Banerdt, W. B.


    Locating the source of seismic energy from a single three-component seismic station is associated with large uncertainties, originating from challenges in identifying seismic phases, as well as inevitable pick and model uncertainties. The challenge is even higher for planets such as Mars, where interior structure is a priori largely unknown. In this study, we address the single-station location problem by developing a probabilistic framework that combines location estimates from multiple algorithms to estimate the probability density function (PDF) for epicentral distance, back azimuth, and origin time. Each algorithm uses independent and complementary information in the seismic signals. Together, the algorithms allow locating seismicity ranging from local to teleseismic quakes. Distances and origin times of large regional and teleseismic events (M > 5.5) are estimated from observed and theoretical body- and multi-orbit surface-wave travel times. The latter are picked from the maxima in the waveform envelopes in various frequency bands. For smaller events at local and regional distances, only first arrival picks of body waves are used, possibly in combination with fundamental Rayleigh R1 waveform maxima where detectable; depth phases, such as pP or PmP, help constrain source depth and improve distance estimates. Back azimuth is determined from the polarization of the Rayleigh- and/or P-wave phases. When seismic signals are good enough for multiple approaches to be used, estimates from the various methods are combined through the product of their PDFs, resulting in an improved event location and reduced uncertainty range estimate compared to the results obtained from each algorithm independently. To verify our approach, we use both earthquake recordings from existing Earth stations and synthetic Martian seismograms. The Mars synthetics are generated with a full-waveform scheme (AxiSEM) using spherically-symmetric seismic velocity, density and attenuation models of

  3. Optimization of measurement methods for a multi-frequency electromagnetic field from mobile phone base station using broadband EMF meter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paweł Bieńkowski


    Full Text Available Background: This paper presents the characteristics of the mobile phone base station (BS as an electromagnetic field (EMF source. The most common system configurations with their construction are described. The parameters of radiated EMF in the context of the access to methods and other parameters of the radio transmission are discussed. Attention was also paid to antennas that are used in this technology. Material and Methods: The influence of individual components of a multi-frequency EMF, most commonly found in the BS surroundings, on the resultant EMF strength value indicated by popular broadband EMF meters was analyzed. The examples of metrological characteristics of the most common EMF probes and 2 measurement scenarios of the multisystem base station, with and without microwave relays, are shown. Results: The presented method for measuring the multi-frequency EMF using 2 broadband probes allows for the significant minimization of measurement uncertainty. Equations and formulas that can be used to calculate the actual EMF intensity from multi-frequency sources are shown. They have been verified in the laboratory conditions on a specific standard setup as well as in real conditions in a survey of the existing base station with microwave relays. Conclusions: Presented measurement methodology of multi-frequency EMF from BS with microwave relays, validated both in laboratory and real conditions. It has been proven that the described measurement methodology is the optimal approach to the evaluation of EMF exposure in BS surrounding. Alternative approaches with much greater uncertainty (precaution method or more complex measuring procedure (sources exclusion method are also presented. Med Pr 2015;66(5:701–712

  4. A High-Sensitivity Broad-Band Seismic Sensor for Shallow Seismic Sounding of the Lunar Regolith (United States)

    Pike, W. Thomas; Standley, Ian M.; Banerdt, W. Bruce


    The recently undertaken Space Exploration Initiative has prompted a renewed interest in techniques for characterizing the surface and shallow subsurface (0-10s of meters depth) of the Moon. There are several reasons for this: First, there is an intrinsic scientific interest in the subsurface structure. For example the stratigraphy, depth to bedrock, density/porosity, and block size distribution all have implications for the formation of, and geological processes affecting the surface, such as sequential crater ejecta deposition, impact gardening, and seismic settling. In some permanently shadowed craters there may be ice deposits just below the surface. Second, the geotechnical properties of the lunar surface layers are of keen interest to future mission planners. Regolith thickness, strength, density, grain size and compaction will affect construction of exploration infrastructure in terms of foundation strength and stability, ease of excavation, radiation shielding effectiveness, as well as raw material handling and processing techniques for resource extraction.

  5. Seismic Site Survey for New Regional Seismic Array Station in Morocco (United States)


    Moroccan seismic array followed this process. I Morocco Noise Survey Report Pre-Survey Studies The initial step in selecting candidate sites was to gather...32’W 5ŗU’W rn 4 Figre13 Hghresluio tporapicma o sme re, it crcl a te ppoxiat lcaioof~~~~ th0rooe ary Mooco oseSuve eprt1 5൰’W 5•35’W 5൦’W ,d...cooperative from the main Moroccan power grid, and that the power was reliable. 21 Morocco Noise Survey Report Land Owner. The land is state-owned. i’ý5oIW 5 45

  6. A multievent study of broadband electrons observed by the DMSP satellites and their relation to red aurora observed at midlatitude stations (United States)

    Shiokawa, K.; Meng, C.-I.; Reeves, G. D.; Rich, F. J.; Yumoto, K.


    Broadband electrons during magnetic storms are characterized by an unusually intense flux of precipitating electrons in the broadband energy range from 30 eV to 30 keV near the equatorward edge of the auroral oval (47°-66° magnetic latitude). Broadband electrons were first reported by Shiokawa et al. [1996]. In this paper, we report a multievent study of broadband electrons, using particle data obtained by the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) satellites during 23 magnetic storms from January 1989 through May 1992. Twelve broadband electron events are identified. Most of them are observed in the night sector, but some are observed in the morning sector. Particle data for successive polar passes of the DMSP multisatellites are used to show that broadband electrons generally last for less than 30 min and that for some events, they precipitate over a wide range of local times simultaneously. On the basis of a quantitative calculation of optical emissions from electrons in the neutral atmosphere, we conclude that broadband electrons are a possible cause of red auroras observed at midlatitude ground stations. We suggest that broadband electrons are associated with certain substorms during the main phase of magnetic storms. This conjecture comes from observations of H component positive bays and Pi 2 pulsations observed at low-latitude magnetic stations and from magnetic field variations observed at geosynchronous satellites. We conclude that the magnetospheric source of broadband electrons lies within the inner part of the plasma sheet. This conclusion is based on the facts that broadband electrons appear in latitudes where plasma sheet particles were observed before the event and that broadband electrons are observed poleward of the subauroral ion drifts, a position that corresponds to the inner edge of the injected particle layer during storms. High-energy particle data obtained at geosynchronous satellites show that both strong magnetopause

  7. Long range transmission loss of broadband seismic pulses in the Arctic under ice-free conditions. (United States)

    Thode, Aaron; Kim, Katherine H; Greene, Charles R; Roth, Ethan


    In 2008 the Louis S. St-Laurent (LSSL) surveyed deep Arctic waters using a three-airgun seismic source. Signals from the seismic survey were detected between 400 km and 1300 km range on a directional autonomous acoustic recorder deployed in water 53 m deep off the Alaskan North Slope. Observations of received signal levels between 10-450 Hz versus LSSL range roughly fit a cylindrical transmission loss model plus 0.01 dB/km attenuation in deep ice-free waters, and fit previous empirical models in ice-covered waters. The transition between ice-free and ice-covered propagation conditions shifted 200 km closer to the recorder during the survey.

  8. AxiSEM: broadband 3-D seismic wavefields in axisymmetric media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Nissen-Meyer


    Full Text Available We present a methodology to compute 3-D global seismic wavefields for realistic earthquake sources in visco-elastic anisotropic media, covering applications across the observable seismic frequency band with moderate computational resources. This is accommodated by mandating axisymmetric background models which allow for a multipole expansion such that only a 2-D computational domain is needed, whereas the azimuthal third dimension is computed analytically on-the-fly. This dimensional collapse opens doors for storing space-time wavefields on disk which can be used to compute Fréchet sensitivity kernels for waveform tomography. We use the corresponding publicly available open-source spectral-element code AxiSEM (, demonstrate its excellent scalability on supercomputers, a diverse range of applications ranging from normal modes to small-scale lowermost mantle structures, tomographic models, comparison to observed data, and discuss further avenues to pursue with this methodology.

  9. Seasonal changes in H/V spectral ratio at high-latitude seismic stations (United States)

    Lee, R. F.; Abbott, R. E.; Knox, H. A.; Pancha, A.


    We present results demonstrating seasonal variations in the Horizontal-to-Vertical Spectral Ratio (HVSR) at high-latitude seismic stations. We analyze data from two sites at Poker Flat Research Range, near Fairbanks, Alaska. From the first site, we analyze 3 stations installed by Sandia National Labs (SNL) in a valley with marshy summer conditions. We also analyze the PASSCAL Instrument Center station PIC2, which is installed on rock approximately 3.2 km from the SNL stations. These stations continuously record data at 125 (SNL) and 200 (PIC2) samples per second. Seasonal changes in HVSR at high frequencies (> 20 Hz) appear to be caused by impedance contrasts between frozen and thawed ground. Thawed active layers are known to have slower shear-wave velocities than frozen layers or bedrock. An estimate of active layer thickness at each station is obtained from the quarter-wavelength approximation. We verify the accuracy of this technique by obtaining ground-truth measurements at the sites for both thickness and shear-wave velocity. We use physical probing for the thickness measurements and active-source Refraction-Microtremor (ReMi) surveys for the shear-wave velocities. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000

  10. Analysis of the ULF electromagnetic emission related to seismic activity, Teoloyucan geomagnetic station, 1998-2001

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Kotsarenko


    Full Text Available Results of ULF geomagnetic measurements at station Teoloyucan (Central Mexico, 99.11'35.735''W, 19.44'45.100''N, 2280m height in relation to seismic activity in the period 1998-2001 and their analysis are presented. Variations of spectral densities for horizontal and vertical components, polarization densities and spectrograms of magnetic field, their derivatives are analyzed as a part of traditional analysis in this study. Values of spectral density were calculated for 6 fixed frequencies f=1, 3, 10, 30, 100 and 300mHz. Fractal characteristics of spectra were analyzed in the conception of SOC (Self-Organized Criticality. 2 nighttime intervals, 0-3 and 3-6h by local time have been used to decrease the noise interference in row data. In order to exclude the intervals with a high geomagnetic activity from analysis we referred to Ap indices, calculated for corresponding time intervals. The contribution of seismic events to geomagnetic emission was estimated by seismic index ks=100.75Ms/10D, where Ms is the amplitude of the earthquake and D is the distance from its epicenter to the station.

  11. Broad-band Seismology for Understanding Earthquake Physics and Developing a Modern Practice for Seismic Damage Mitigation (United States)

    Kanamori, H.; Heaton, T. H.


    In 1987, immediately after the 1987 Whittier Narrows earthquake, the Caltech broad-band regional seismic network project, TERRAscope, was launched under the direction of Don Anderson. At the time, UC Berkeley had also embarked on such a project. The objectives included: 1) Collect high-quality seismic data for developing theories of Earth's interior and exterior, 2) Develop a physics-based earthquake damage mitigation method, 3) Provide a test-bed for novel approaches in real-time seismology, 4) Provide an infrastructure for cultivating new directions in seismology. The data from TERRAscope, combined with those from other networks such as GDSN, IDA, IRIS, GeoScope networks were used to study various seismological problems, some of which had not been commonly investigated. We focus on three areas. The interaction between the solid earth and atmosphere had been the subject of considerable interest. The broadband networks detected interesting atmospheric waves from a few Hz (N waves from space shuttles) to 0.001 Hz (Morning-glory waves. At the time it was not recognized as such). Also, it recorded monochromatic (period ˜ 230 sec) Rayleigh waves which were generated by the near source atmospheric oscillations excited by the 1991 Pinatubo eruption. These waves were not immediately recognized as such, because they had not been observed yet. This represents one of few cases in which significant energy transfer occurred from the atmosphere to the solid earth. These observations eventually led to the more ambitious ongoing projects for detecting ionospheric signature of acoustic and internal gravity waves in the atmosphere that couple into the solid earth. Gutenberg, together with Richter, published a series of papers on the energy of earthquakes in the 1940's to 1950's. The intent of these studies was to determine the most important quantity necessary for understanding the fundamental physics of earthquakes. Unfortunately, because of the overwhelming observational

  12. Micro-earthquakes"Justunderneath"Seismic Stations as Ground Truth Events1 Application to the 2008 Wenchuan Aftershock Sequence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Chun; Wu Zhongliang; Jiang Changsheng


    Analyzing the aftershock sequence of the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake,we considered 26 microearthquakes"just underneath"seismic stations.Making use of such special station-event configurations to determine the depth of these micro-earthquakes provided accurate relocation of aftershocks with a reference set of"ground truth (GT) events".

  13. 3D crustal velocity structure beneath the broadband seismic array in the Gyeongju area of Korea by receiver function analyses (United States)

    Lee, Dong Hun; Lee, Jung Mo; Cho, Hyun-Moo; Kang, Tae-Seob


    A temporary seismic array was in operation between October 2010 and March 2013 in the Gyeongju area of Korea. Teleseismic records of the seismic array appropriate for receiver function analysis were collected, and selected seismograms were split into five groups based on epicenters-the Banda-Molucca, Sumatra, Iran, Aleutian, and Vanuatu groups. 1D velocity structures beneath each seismic station were estimated by inverting the stacked receiver functions for possible groups. The inversion was done by applying a genetic algorithm, whereas surface wave dispersion data were used as constraints to avoid non-uniqueness in the inversion. The composite velocity structure was constructed by averaging the velocity structures weighted by the number of receiver functions used in stacking. The uncertainty analysis for the velocity structures showed that the average of 95% confidence intervals was ± 0.1 km/s. The 3D velocity structure was modeled through interpolation of 1D composite velocity structures. Moho depths were determined in each composite velocity structure based on the AK135-F S-wave velocity model, and the depths were similar to the H-κ analysis results. The deepest Moho depth in the study area was found to be 31.9 km, and the shallowest, was 25.9 km. The Moho discontinuity dips in a southwestward direction beneath the area. A low velocity layer was also detected between 4 and 14 km depth. Adakitic intrusions and/or a high geothermal gradient appear to be the causes of this low velocity layer. The 3D velocity structure can be used to reliably assess seismic hazards in this area.

  14. Modernization of the Slovenian National Seismic Network (United States)

    Vidrih, R.; Godec, M.; Gosar, A.; Sincic, P.; Tasic, I.; Zivcic, M.


    The Environmental Agency of the Republic of Slovenia, the Seismology Office is responsible for the fast and reliable information about earthquakes, originating in the area of Slovenia and nearby. In the year 2000 the project Modernization of the Slovenian National Seismic Network started. The purpose of a modernized seismic network is to enable fast and accurate automatic location of earthquakes, to determine earthquake parameters and to collect data of local, regional and global earthquakes. The modernized network will be finished in the year 2004 and will consist of 25 Q730 remote broadband data loggers based seismic station subsystems transmitting in real-time data to the Data Center in Ljubljana, where the Seismology Office is located. The remote broadband station subsystems include 16 surface broadband seismometers CMG-40T, 5 broadband seismometers CMG-40T with strong motion accelerographs EpiSensor, 4 borehole broadband seismometers CMG-40T, all with accurate timing provided by GPS receivers. The seismic network will cover the entire Slovenian territory, involving an area of 20,256 km2. The network is planned in this way; more seismic stations will be around bigger urban centres and in regions with greater vulnerability (NW Slovenia, Krsko Brezice region). By the end of the year 2002, three old seismic stations were modernized and ten new seismic stations were built. All seismic stations transmit data to UNIX-based computers running Antelope system software. The data is transmitted in real time using TCP/IP protocols over the Goverment Wide Area Network . Real-time data is also exchanged with seismic networks in the neighbouring countries, where the data are collected from the seismic stations, close to the Slovenian border. A typical seismic station consists of the seismic shaft with the sensor and the data acquisition system and, the service shaft with communication equipment (modem, router) and power supply with a battery box. which provides energy in case

  15. Seismic source study of the 1989, October 29, Chenoua (Algeria earthquake from aftershocks, broad-band and strong ground motion records

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Rivera


    Full Text Available The broad-band teleseismics records of the earthquake of October 29,1989 in Algeria (MW = 6.0 allow a detailed study of the rupture process of this earthquake. The focal mechanism obtained by P and SH modeling corresponds to reverse faulting with a small amount of left-lateral movement along a fault striking 246° and dipping 56°. The rupture is found to be complex with two sub-events separated in time but occurring on the same plane. The lowfrequency records of an accelerometer located some 25 km to the west of the main shock are also better fi tted when the rupture is composed of a double pulse. In the two cases, there is strong evidence for the rupture to propagate from south-west towards north-east.The relocalisation of the main shock by using a master-event technique and the data from Italian and Spanish stations led to the same conclusions. Soon after the main event, a temporary seimic network was installed in the epicentral area. The aftershock clouds defi ne a SW-NE fault dipping to the NW compatible with the results of the modelisations of the teleseismic body-waves and the accelerogram. The focal mechanisms correspond mainly to reverse faulting. The maximum principal direction of the stress tensor obtained from the inversion is about N-S and the minimum is vertical, typical of a compressive regime. The Chenoua earthquake took place on a fault which was not recognized as active. Repeated comparable seismic events on this fault and on the fault that borders the massif to the south explain this intriguing topographic feature.

  16. Crustal deformation in the south-central Andes backarc terranes as viewed from regional broad-band seismic waveform modelling (United States)

    Alvarado, Patricia; Beck, Susan; Zandt, George; Araujo, Mario; Triep, Enrique


    The convergence between the Nazca and South America tectonic plates generates a seismically active backarc region near 31°S. Earthquake locations define the subhorizontal subducted oceanic Nazca plate at depths of 90-120 km. Another seismic region is located within the continental upper plate with events at depths Sierras Pampeanas and is responsible for the large earthquakes that have caused major human and economic losses in Argentina. South of 33°S, the intense shallow continental seismicity is more restricted to the main cordillera over a region where the subducted Nazca plate starts to incline more steeply, and there is an active volcanic arc. We operated a portable broad-band seismic network as part of the Chile-Argentina Geophysical Experiment (CHARGE) from 2000 December to 2002 May. We have studied crustal earthquakes that occurred in the back arc and under the main cordillera in the south-central Andes (29°S-36°S) recorded by the CHARGE network. We obtained the focal mechanisms and source depths for 27 (3.5 Sierras Pampeanas, over the flat-slab segment is dominated by reverse and thrust fault-plane solutions located at an average source depth of 20 km. One moderate-sized earthquake (event 02-117) is very likely related to the northern part of the Precordillera and the Sierras Pampeanas terrane boundary. Another event located near Mendoza at a greater depth (~26 km) (event 02-005) could also be associated with the same ancient suture. We found strike-slip focal mechanisms in the eastern Sierras Pampeanas and under the main cordillera with shallower focal depths of ~5-7 km. Overall, the western part of the entire region is more seismically active than the eastern part. We postulate that this is related to the presence of different pre-Andean geological terranes. We also find evidence for different average crustal models for those terranes. Better-fitting synthetic seismograms result using a higher P-wave velocity, a smaller average S-wave velocity and a

  17. Improving the Accuracy of Automatic Detections at Seismic Stations via Machine Learning (United States)

    Riggelsen, Carsten; Ohrnberger, Matthias


    We present a Machine Learning approach aiming for improving the accuracy of automatic detections of noise and signal at 3-component seismic stations. Using supervised learning in conjunction with the multivariate framework of Dynamic Bayesian Networks (DBNs) we make use of historical data obtained from the LEB bulletin to train a classifier to capture the intrinsic characteristics of signal and noise patterns appearing in seismic data streams. On a per station basis this yields generative statistical models that essentially summarize and generalize the information implicitly contained in the LEB allowing for classifying future an previously unseen seismic data of the same kind. Also, the system provides a numerical value reflecting the classification confidence potentially aiding the analyst is correcting or identifying events that are non-typical. The system has the potential for being implemented in real time: both feature computation/extraction as well as classification work on data segments/windows and seismic patterns of varying length, e.g., 12 sec. Various features are considered including spectral features, polarization information and statistical moments and moment ratios. All features are derived from a time-frequency-(amplitude) decomposition of the raw waveform data for each component, taking the 6 frequency bands currently in use at IDC into account. These different feature sets give rise to different DBN structures (model-feature scenarios) that probabilistically relate the features to each other depending on empirical observations and physical knowledge available. 1 week of waveform data is considered for training both the signal and noise classes. The performance of the classifier is measured on a separate test set from the same week of data but also on a 1-month data set, where 4 weeks of data is distributed over a one year period. In the system evaluation both a static approach as well as a sliding-window approach is taken. Binary classification

  18. Passive seismic experiment - A summary of current status. [Apollo-initiated lunar surface station data (United States)

    Latham, G. V.; Dorman, H. J.; Horvath, P.; Ibrahim, A. K.; Koyama, J.; Nakamura, Y.


    The data set obtained from the four-station Apollo seismic network including signals from approximately 11,800 events, is surveyed. Some refinement of the lunar model will result, but its gross features remain the same. Attention is given to the question of a small, molten lunar core, the answer to which remains dependent on analysis of signals from a far side impact. Seventy three sources of repeating, deep moonquakes have been identified, thirty nine of which have been accurately located. Concentrated at depths from 800 to 1000 km, the periodicities of these events have led to the hypothesis that they are generated by tidal stresses. Lunar seismic data has also indicated that the meteoroid population is ten times lower than originally determined from earth based observations. Lunar seismic activity is much lower and mountainous masses show no sign of sinking, in contrast to earth, as a result of the lunar crust being four times thicker. While much work remains to be done, significant correlation between terrestrial and lunar observations can be seen.

  19. Very broadband seismic analysis of the 1992 Flores, Indonesia, earthquake (Mw = 7.9) (United States)

    Beckers, Jos; Lay, Thorne


    The December 12, 1992, Flores Island earthquake (Mw = 7.9), which caused a destructive tsunami, is located in the back arc of the transition zone between the Sunda and Banda arcs, a region in active collision with the Australian continental margin. We study the earthquake using four seismological techniques spanning a period range of 1-1000 s and infer that the Flores event may be characterized as a shallow back arc thrust with fault plane strike 70°±30°, dip 28°±10° and rake 80° to 140° (linear trade-off with strike), a rupture consisting of three discrete pulses with a total duration of 70 s (centroid time 26.3 s) and an estimated moment release between 7.5×1020 and 8.0×1020 N m. From the slip vector we infer that compressional forces play an important role in the deformation mechanism of the back arc north of Flores Island. Body waves constrain the hypocentral depth to be 16 km with rupture mainly propagating updip to shallow depth and bilaterally along strike with most subevents located toward the northeast. Evidence for rupture directivity from surface wave deconvolutions is inconclusive, but the overall source function is consistent with body wave results. Our body wave finite fault model is in rough agreement with two models proposed to explain tsunami run-up observations. Normal mode modeling of W phase observations at periods longer than 70 s shows that slow slip is negligible. From this and the slip distribution determined from the body wave analysis we infer that the seismic source is an unlikely candidate to explain anomalously high tsunami run-ups measured on northeastern Flores Island.

  20. Basin-scale Green's functions from the ambient seismic field recorded by MeSO-net stations (United States)

    Viens, Loïc.; Koketsu, Kazuki; Miyake, Hiroe; Sakai, Shin'ichi; Nakagawa, Shigeki


    Seismic waves propagating through the Earth can be significantly affected by velocity structures such as sedimentary basins. We investigate the propagation characteristics of seismic waves across the Kanto basin, Japan, using Green's functions extracted from the ambient seismic field. We use two stations situated on the eastern and southern edges of the basin as virtual sources, and approximately 420 stations, which are mainly a part of the Metropolitan Seismic Observation network (MeSO-net), as receivers. Using seismometers aligned along two straight lines with the virtual sources, we find that several types of waves can be recovered, each with different sensitivities to the layers that compose the basin. We also show that after amplitude calibration, the extracted Green's functions can accurately simulate the seismic waves of two moderate Mw 4-5 shallow earthquakes that occurred close to the virtual sources. Furthermore, we find that the distribution of the 5% damped pseudovelocity response at a period of 6 s computed from the records of each event and the Green's function waveforms have similar amplification patterns. This study supports the fact that dense networks recording continuously the ambient seismic field in metropolitan areas can be used to accurately assess seismic hazard at high spatial resolution.

  1. Chances and limits of single-station seismic event clustering by unsupervised pattern recognition (United States)

    Sick, Benjamin; Guggenmos, Matthias; Joswig, Manfred


    Automatic classification of local seismic events which are only recorded at single stations poses great challenges because of weak hypocentre constraints. This study investigates how single-station event clusters relate to geographic hypocentre regions and common source processes. Typical applications arise in local seismic networks where reliable ground truth by a dense temporal network precedes or follows a sparse (permanent) installation. The seismic signals for this study comprise a 3-month subset from a field campaign to map subduction below northern Chile (PISCO '94). Due to favourable ground noise conditions in the Atacama desert, the data set contains an abundance of shallow and deeper earthquakes, and many quarry explosions. Often event signatures overlap, posing a challenge to any signal processing scheme. Pattern recognition must work on reduced seismograms to restrict parameter dimensionality. Continuous parameter extraction based on noise-adapted spectrograms was chosen instead of discrete representation by, for example, amplitudes, onset times or spectral ratios to ensure consideration of potentially hidden features. Visualization of the derived feature vectors for human inspection and template matching algorithms was hereby possible. Because event classes shall comprise earthquake regions regardless of magnitude, clustering based on amplitudes is prevented by proper normalization of feature vectors. Principal component analysis is applied to further reduce the number of features used to train a self-organizing map (SOM). The SOM will topologically arrange prototypes of each event class in a 2-D map. Overcoming the restrictions of this black-box approach, the arranged prototypes could be transformed back to spectrograms to allow for visualization and interpretation of event classes. The final step relates prototypes to ground-truth information, confirming the potential of automated, coarse-grain hypocentre clustering based on single-station

  2. Analysis of the displacement of geodetic stations during the Emilia seismic sequence of May 2012

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    Alessandro Caporali


    Full Text Available The two events of Mw 6.11 and 5.96 [EMERGEO Working Group 2012, this volume] that took place on May 20 and 29, 2012, respectively, in the Po Plain, and the associated seismic sequence, represent the response of the brittle upper crust (hypocentral depth ca. 10 km to the compressive stress in the outer Apennine Arc. Kinematically, the motion of the Apennines that has led to a compressional regime in the Po Plain can be represented as a counterclockwise rotation, as demonstrated by the shortening of the transalpine baselines, with a rate that decreases going west [Caporali and Martin 2000]. The compressive stress field is known from borehole breakout data [Pierdominici and Heidbach 2012] and it agrees with the principal directions of the strain rate derived from global positioning system (GPS data. The geodetic strain rate for seismic zone 912 (Dorsale Ferrarese, according to Meletti et al. [2008] is 92.86 ±0.04 nstrain/yr, which is a relatively high value [Caporali et al. 2011]. On a more local scale, the Mirandola fault is described in the Database of Individual Seismic Sources (DISS; under the ID ITIS107 as a possible individual source, and it has a position, strike, dip, size and expected maximum magnitude [Burrato et al. 2003, Carminati et al. 2010, Scrocca et al. 2007] that are very close to the main events of the 2012 sequence. Several permanent GPS stations were in activity in the area. Using ultrarapid international Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS Service (IGS orbits and the Bernese BSW 5.0 software [Dach et al. 2007] at our computing facility, a fast solution for the coseismic displacement was published on the May 21, 2012, and on the May 30, 2012, for the events of May 20 and 29, 2012, respectively. The largest signal was about 2 cm in the North direction at the station SGIP (San Giovanni in Persiceto, which was relatively consistent with the fault-plane solution [Devoti 2012, this volume]. In this

  3. Analysis of the Seismicity Associated to the Subduction of the Rivera Plate using OBS and Onland Stations. (United States)

    Nuñez-Cornu, F. J.; Barba, D. C., Sr.; Danobeitia, J.; Bandy, W. L.; Zamora-Camacho, A.; Marquez-Ramirez, V. H.; Ambros, M.; Gomez, A.; Sandoval, J. M.; Mortera-Gutierrez, C. A.


    The second stage of TsuJal Project includes the study of passive seismic activity in the region of the plate Rivera and Jalisco block by anchoring OBS and densifying the network of seismic stations on land for at least four months. This stage began in April 2016 with the deployment of 25 Obsidian stations with sensor Le-3D MkIII from the northern part of Nayarit state to the south of Colima state, including the Marias Islands. This temporal seismic network complements the Jalisco Seismic Network (RESAJ) for a total of 50 stations. Offshore, ten OBS type LCHEAPO 2000 with 4 channel (3 seismic short period and 1 pressure) were deployed, in the period from 19 to 30 April 2016 using the BO El Puma from UNAM. The OBS were deployed in an array from the Marias Islands to offcoast of the border of Colima and Michoacan states. On May 4, an earthquake with Ml = 4.2 took place in the contact area of the Rivera Plate, Cocos Plate and the Middle America Trench, subsequently occurred a seismic swarm with over 200 earthquakes until May 16, including an earthquake with Ml = 5.0 on May 7. A second swarm took place between May 28 and Jun 4 including an earthquake with Ml = 4.8 on Jun 1. An analysis of the quality of different location methods is presented: automatic preliminary RESAJ location using Antelope; location with revised RESAJ phases in Antelope; relocation of RESAJ data with hypo and a regional velocity model; relocation of RESAJ data with hypo adding data from the temporal seismic network stations; and finally the relocation adding the data from the OBS network. Moreover, the tectonic implications of these earthquakes are discussed.

  4. Seismic reflection exploration of geothermal reservoir at Naval Air Station (NAS) Fallon, Nevada (United States)

    Alay G., Gebregiorgis

    The Primary objective of this study is to increase geologic and tectonic understanding of the geothermal resources at the Naval Air Station (NAS) Fallon, Nevada. The seismic reflection method is employed to study faults, fractures and other tectonic structures in the subsurface in order to identify geothermal drill targets. The efficiency of geothermal systems is strongly dependent on water circulation. Discrete faults may be permeable and provide pathways for water flow depending on the fracture density. It is therefore desirable to detect and map faults and fracture zones and characterize their physical properties when evaluating a geothermal prospect. The seismic data for this project were provided by the NAS environmental research program in Ridgecrest, CA. However, the data collection information was not available so the work includes determining the line geometry and mapping shot points to field files in order to process the data. ProMAX 2D(TM) is the software used to determine the geometry and to process the data. Data processing includes eliminating noise, datum and refraction statics, trace muting, bandpass filter, automatic gain control, amplitude recovery, CMP sorting, velocity analysis and NMO correction, stacking and migration. The results of this study indicate the presence of thick basin fill including Tertiary and Quaternary sediments underlain by Tertiary basalts which are interpreted to be capping rocks for the geothermal reservoirs. This seismic reflection study also reveals the presence of strongly fractured pre-Tertiary basement complex with their top at about 1500m on the north and west and about 900 m on the eastern and southern part of the study area.

  5. Broadband Printed Cross-Dipole Element with Four Polarization Reconfigurations for Mobile Base Station Array Antenna Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soon-Young Eom


    Full Text Available This paper describes a broadband printed cross-dipole element with four polarization reconfigurations (BPCDE_PR. The BPCDE_PR can configure two linear and two circular polarizations in the operating band of 1.7–2.5 GHz. To implement the broadband polarization reconfigurations, switched network type broadband phase shifters are proposed and designed. The fabricated BPCDE_PR prototype with switched network including broadband phase shifters shows good electrical performances and the desired polarization reconfigurable functions in the operating band.

  6. Seismic structural fragility investigation for the San Onofre Nuclear Generating Station, Unit 1 (Project I); SONGS-1 AFWS Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wesley, D.A.; Hashimoto, P.S.


    An evaluation of the seismic capacities of several of the San Onofre Nuclear Generating Station, Unit 1 (SONGS-1) structures was conducted to determine input to the overall probabilistic methodology developed by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. Seismic structural fragilities to be used as input consist of median seismic capacities and their variabilities due to randomness and uncertainty. Potential failure modes were identified for each of the SONGS-1 structures included in this study by establishing the seismic load-paths and comparing expected load distributions to available capacities for the elements of each load-path. Particular attention was given to possible weak links and details. The more likely failure modes were screened for more detailed investigation.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodgers, A; Al-Amri, A


    We report results from the third and final year of our project (ROA0101-35) to collect seismic event and waveform data recorded in and around the Arabian Peninsula. This effort involves several elements. We are working with King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology to collect data from the Saudi National Seismic Network, that consists of 38 digital three-component stations (27 broadband and 11 short-period). We have an ongoing collaboration with the Kuwait Institute for Scientific Research, which runs the eight station Kuwait National Seismic Network. We installed two temporary broadband stations in the United Arab Emirates (funded by NNSA NA-24 Office of Non-Proliferation & International Security). In this paper we present a summary of data collected under these efforts including integration of the raw data into LLNL's Seismic Research Database and preliminary analysis of souce parameters and earth structure.

  8. Study of the TEC data obtained from the DORIS stations in relation to seismic activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Parrot


    Full Text Available Ionospheric data obtained from the DORIS system are used in this paper. The DORIS system is composed of several ground-based beacons which emit at two frequencies (400 MHz and 2 GHz and of receivers on board several satellites (currently SPOT2, SPOT4, SPOT5, Topex-Poseidon, Jason1 and Envisat. Thanks to the density of its network coverage (?50 stations, DORIS provides information on the ionosphere. The TEC (Total Electron Content parameter which is the electron density integrated over the vertical could be obtained from DORIS measurements. In a first step, the paper describes the way to obtain the TEC data from the DORIS ionospheric measurements, and comparisons of the results are done with the IRI2001 model. In a second step, TEC values are used to search for correlation between ionospheric perturbations and seismic activity. Earthquakes of magnitude larger than 5 are chosen close to the ground-based DORIS stations. Among other results, the statistics show that, during the night time and at geomagnetic latitude close to the equator (<10°, TEC amplitude fluctuates at the time of the earthquakes as it is expected, but also 2 days and 5 days before.

  9. A broadband laboratory study of the seismic properties of cracked and fluid-saturated synthetic glass media (United States)

    Li, Yang; David, Emmanuel; Nakagawa, Seiji; Kneafsey, Timothy; Schmitt, Douglas; Jackson, Ian


    In order to better understand the frequency dependence or dispersion of seismic-wave speeds and associated strain-energy dissipation in cracked and fluid-saturated crustal rocks, we have conducted a broadband laboratory study of synthetic glass media. The glass materials were prepared either from dense soda-lime-silica glass rod or by sintering glass beads of similar chemical composition. Along with sub-equant pores contributing either 2 or 5% porosity for the sintered-bead specimens, quantifiable densities of cracks, generally of very low aspect ratio, were introduced by controlled thermal cracking. Permeability was measured under selected conditions of confining and pore pressure either by transient decay with argon pore fluid or with the steady-flow method and water pore fluid. The water permeability of the cracked glass-rod specimen decreased strongly with increasing differential pressure Pd to 10-18 m2 near 10 MPa. Further increase of differential pressure towards 100 MPa resulted in modest reductions of permeability to specimen-specific values in the range (0.5 - 2) × 10-19 m2. The characteristic frequencies for the draining of cylindrical specimens of such low permeability are estimated to be tests. The same or similarly prepared glass specimens were mechanically tested with sub-Hz forced-oscillation methods, a kHz-frequency resonant bar technique, and MHz-frequency ultrasonic wave propagation, before and after thermal cracking. The cracked specimens were successively measured under dry, argon- (or nitrogen-) saturated and water-saturated conditions. The shear and Young's moduli measured on the cracked materials typically increase strongly with increasing differential pressure below a threshold of 30 MPa beyond which the pressure sensitivity becomes substantially milder. This behaviour is quantitatively interpreted in terms of pressure-induced crack closure, inferred also from in situ X-ray tomography, through differential effective medium theory. In this

  10. Sources of high frequency seismic noise: insights from a dense network of ~250 stations in northern Alsace (France) (United States)

    Vergne, Jerome; Blachet, Antoine; Lehujeur, Maximilien


    Monitoring local or regional seismic activity requires stations having a low level of background seismic noise at frequencies higher than few tenths of Hertz. Network operators are well aware that the seismic quality of a site depends on several aspects, among them its geological setting and the proximity of roads, railways, industries or trees. Often, the impact of each noise source is only qualitatively known which precludes estimating the quality of potential future sites before they are tested or installed. Here, we want to take advantage of a very dense temporary network deployed in Northern Alsace (France) to assess the effect of various kinds of potential sources on the level of seismic noise observed in the frequency range 0.2-50 Hz. In September 2014, more than 250 seismic stations (FairfieldNodal@ Zland nodes with 10Hz vertical geophone) have been installed every 1.5 km over a ~25km diameter disc centred on the deep geothermal sites of Soultz-sous-Forêts and Rittershoffen. This region exhibits variable degrees of human imprints from quite remote areas to sectors with high traffic roads and big villages. It also encompasses both the deep sedimentary basin of the Rhine graben and the piedmont of the Vosges massif with exposed bedrock. For each site we processed the continuous data to estimate probability density functions of the power spectral densities. At frequencies higher than 1 Hz most sites show a clear temporal modulation of seismic noise related to human activity with the well-known variations between day and night and between weekdays and weekends. Moreover we observe a clear evolution of the spatial distribution of seismic noise levels with frequency. Basically, between 0.5 and 4 Hz the geological setting modulates the level of seismic noise. At higher frequencies, the amplitude of seismic noise appears mostly related to the distance to nearby roads. Based on road maps and traffic estimation, a forward approach is performed to model the induced

  11. Seismic noise level variation in South Korea (United States)

    Sheen, D.; Shin, J.


    The variations of seismic background noise in South Korea have been investigated by means of power spectral analysis. The Korea Institute of Geoscience and Mineral Resources (KIGAM) and the Korea Meteorological Administation (KMA) have national wide seismic networks in South Korea, and, in the end of 2007, there are 30 broadband stations which have been operating for more than a year. In this study, we have estimated the power spectral density of seismic noise for 30 broadband stations from 2005 to 2007. Since we estimate PSDs from a large dataset of continuous waveform in this study, a robust PSD estimate of McNamara and Buland (2004) is used. In the frequency range 1-5 Hz, the diurnal variations of noise are observed at most of stations, which are especially larger at coastal stations and at insular than at inland. Some stations shows daily difference of diurnal variations, which represents that cultural activities contribute to the noise level of a station. The variation of number of triggered stations, however, shows that cultural noise has little influence on the detection capability of seismic network in South Korea. Seasonal variations are observed well in the range 0.1-0.5 Hz, while much less found in the frequency range 1-5 Hz. We observed that strong peaks in the range 0.1-0.5 Hz occur at the summer when Pacific typhoons are close to the Korean Peninsula.

  12. Imaging P-to-S conversions with broad-band seismic arrays using multichannel time-domain deconvolution (United States)

    Neal, Scott L.; Pavlis, Gary L.


    This paper describes a series of innovations in the problem of deconvolving forward scattered P-to-S conversions. We introduce a theoretical foundation for a recently developed multichannel stacking technique and show that this process is equivalent to a spatial convolution of the incident wavefield with the discretely sampled set of station locations. We then show that deconvolution of the stacked data is a form of multichannel deconvolution with a spatially variable set of weights equal to those used in stacking. This result is independent of the particular deconvolution method that is used. A second innovation focuses on the design of deconvolution operators that correctly account for the loss of high frequency components of P-to-S conversions caused by differential attenuation of P and S waves. We describe two complimentary methods to implement this: (1) through the use of a regularization operator that penalizes high frequencies and increases with P-to-S lag time, or (2) through the use of a quelling operator. For the latter, we introduce the use of a t* operator that is applied to the deconvolution matrix operator. The t* operator progressively filters the vertical component seismogram with increasing P-to-S lag time and is based on an earth model of body wave attenuation. Both techniques produce progressively smoother solutions for increasing P-to-S lag times. The quelling approach has two advantages: (1) it is based on the physical principle that this solution is designed to address, and (2) it provides a unified inversion framework for the combination of stacking and deconvolution. This combination may be interpreted as a three-dimensional quelling (smoothing) operator that is applied to the full wavefield to stabilize the inversion. Application of this procedure to synthetic data shows that while the addition of a time dependent component to the deconvolution tends to decrease the frequency content of the solution, the amplitude of background ringing is

  13. Discussion on the Relationship between Different Earthquake Magnitude Scales and the Effect of Seismic Station Sites on Magnitude Estimation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Hongzhi; Diao Guiling; Zhao Mingchun; Wang Qincai; Zhang Xiao; Huang Yuan


    Based on the earthquake catalog reported by the Chinese digital seismic network in recent years, we select the earthquakes with both surface wave magnitude and local magnitude and fit them into a relationship between the two magnitudes. The systematic difference is found from the formula which has been used for 30 years. Because of a large dynamic range and wide frequency range of the current digital observation system, in addition to a larger number of stations and earthquakes being used compared to before, the relation obtained in this paper seems more reliable. Our calculation shows that there is no significant difference before and after magnitude conversion so we suggest the abandonment of magnitude conversion. The site response of a station consists of amplification at different frequencies. The amplification is equal to about 1 and changes little with frequency at stations located on basement rock, and it is greater than 1 at low frequency ranges and less than 1 at high frequency ranges at stations located on sediment layers. The difference between magnitudes from single station located on sediment layer and the average magnitude from the whole network increases from negative to positive with period. It seems that there is no fixed station correction factor and the station correction method does not work to improve the accuracy and magnitude estimates.

  14. Seismic azimuthal anisotropy in the oceanic lithosphere and asthenosphere from broadband surface wave analysis of OBS array records at 60 Ma seafloor (United States)

    Takeo, A.; Kawakatsu, H.; Isse, T.; Nishida, K.; Sugioka, H.; Ito, A.; Shiobara, H.; Suetsugu, D.


    We analyzed seismic ambient noise and teleseismic waveforms of nine broadband ocean bottom seismometers deployed at a 60 Ma seafloor in the southeastward of Tahiti island, the South Pacific, by the Tomographic Investigation by seafloor ARray Experiment for the Society hotspot project. We first obtained one-dimensional shear wave velocity model beneath the array from average phase velocities of Rayleigh waves at a broadband period range of 5-200 s. The obtained model shows a large velocity reduction at depths between 40 and 80 km, where the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary might exist. We then estimated shear wave azimuthal anisotropy at depths of 20-100 km by measuring azimuthal dependence of phase velocities of Rayleigh waves. The obtained model shows peak-to-peak intensity of the azimuthal anisotropy of 2%-4% with the fastest azimuth of NW-SE direction both in the lithosphere and asthenosphere. This result suggests that the ancient flow frozen in the lithosphere is not perpendicular to the strike of the ancient mid-ocean ridge but is roughly parallel to the ancient plate motion at depths of 20-60 km. The fastest azimuths in the current asthenosphere are subparallel to current plate motion at depths of 60-100 km. Additional shear wave splitting analysis revealed possible perturbations of flow in the mantle by the hot spot activities and implied the presence of azimuthal anisotropy in the asthenosphere down to a depth of 190-210 km.

  15. Seismic Catalogue and Seismic Network in Haiti (United States)

    Belizaire, D.; Benito, B.; Carreño, E.; Meneses, C.; Huerfano, V.; Polanco, E.; McCormack, D.


    with ONEV and BME, installed 4 seismic stations with financial support from the Inter-American Development Bank and the Haitian Government. The 4 stations include strong motion and broad-band sensors, complementing the 8 sensors initially installed. The stations communicate via SATMEX5 with the Canadian HUB, which sends the data back to Haiti with minimum delay. In the immediate future, data transfer will be improved with the installation of a main antenna for data reception and the Seismic Warning Center of Port-au-Prince. A bidirectional satellite communication is considered of fundamental importance for robust real-time data transmission that is not affected in the case of a catastrophic event.

  16. National Seismic Network of Georgia (United States)

    Tumanova, N.; Kakhoberashvili, S.; Omarashvili, V.; Tserodze, M.; Akubardia, D.


    Georgia, as a part of the Southern Caucasus, is tectonically active and structurally complex region. It is one of the most active segments of the Alpine-Himalayan collision belt. The deformation and the associated seismicity are due to the continent-continent collision between the Arabian and Eurasian plates. Seismic Monitoring of country and the quality of seismic data is the major tool for the rapid response policy, population safety, basic scientific research and in the end for the sustainable development of the country. National Seismic Network of Georgia has been developing since the end of 19th century. Digital era of the network started from 2003. Recently continuous data streams from 25 stations acquired and analyzed in the real time. Data is combined to calculate rapid location and magnitude for the earthquake. Information for the bigger events (Ml>=3.5) is simultaneously transferred to the website of the monitoring center and to the related governmental agencies. To improve rapid earthquake location and magnitude estimation the seismic network was enhanced by installing additional 7 new stations. Each new station is equipped with coupled Broadband and Strong Motion seismometers and permanent GPS system as well. To select the sites for the 7 new base stations, we used standard network optimization techniques. To choose the optimal sites for new stations we've taken into account geometry of the existed seismic network, topographic conditions of the site. For each site we studied local geology (Vs30 was mandatory for each site), local noise level and seismic vault construction parameters. Due to the country elevation, stations were installed in the high mountains, no accessible in winter due to the heavy snow conditions. To secure online data transmission we used satellite data transmission as well as cell data network coverage from the different local companies. As a result we've already have the improved earthquake location and event magnitudes. We

  17. Ionosperic anomaly due to seismic activities – Part 1: Calibration of the VLF signal of VTX 18.2 KHz station from Kolkata and deviation during seismic events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Sasmal


    Full Text Available VLF signals are long thought to give away important information about the lithosphere-ionosphere coupling. In order to establish co-relations, if any, between the ionospheric activities and the earthquakes, we need to understand what the reference signals are, throughout the year. The best opportunity to do this is during the period of solar minimum where the number of flares and sunspots are negligible and the data would be primarily affected by the sun and variation would be due to normal sunset and sunrise effects. In this paper, we present the result of the sunrise and sunset terminators as a function of the day of the year for a period of four years, viz, 2005–2008 when the solar activity was very low. The terminators are for the 18.2 KHz VTX signal of the Indian Navy as observed from Indian Centre for Space Physics receiving station located in Kolkata. A total of 624 days of data have been used to obtain the mean plot. Any deviation of observations from this so-called the standardized calibration curve would point to influences by terrestrial (such as earthquakes and extra-terrestrial events (such as solar activities. We present examples of deviations which occur in a period of 16 months and show that the correlation with seismic events is significant and typically the highest deviation takes place up to a couple of days prior to the seismic event. Simultaneous observations of such deviations from more than one station could improve the predictability of earthquakes.

  18. Ionosperic anomaly due to seismic activities - Part 1: Calibration of the VLF signal of VTX 18.2 KHz station from Kolkata and deviation during seismic events (United States)

    Sasmal, S.; Chakrabarti, S. K.


    VLF signals are long thought to give away important information about the lithosphere-ionosphere coupling. In order to establish co-relations, if any, between the ionospheric activities and the earthquakes, we need to understand what the reference signals are, throughout the year. The best opportunity to do this is during the period of solar minimum where the number of flares and sunspots are negligible and the data would be primarily affected by the sun and variation would be due to normal sunset and sunrise effects. In this paper, we present the result of the sunrise and sunset terminators as a function of the day of the year for a period of four years, viz, 2005-2008 when the solar activity was very low. The terminators are for the 18.2 KHz VTX signal of the Indian Navy as observed from Indian Centre for Space Physics receiving station located in Kolkata. A total of 624 days of data have been used to obtain the mean plot. Any deviation of observations from this so-called the standardized calibration curve would point to influences by terrestrial (such as earthquakes) and extra-terrestrial events (such as solar activities). We present examples of deviations which occur in a period of 16 months and show that the correlation with seismic events is significant and typically the highest deviation takes place up to a couple of days prior to the seismic event. Simultaneous observations of such deviations from more than one station could improve the predictability of earthquakes.

  19. Preliminary Study of m(b) Bias at Selected Soviet Seismic Stations. (United States)


    8217-R66 395 PRELIMINARY STUDY OF M(B) BIRS AT SELECTED SOVIET 1/1 SEISMIC STRTIONS(U) SCIENCE APPLICATIONS INTERNATIONAL CORP ARLINGTON VR A S RYRLL...earthquakes in each source region was not given in the ,.t 1980 paper, but in the earlier work it ranged from 35 events for Asia and the Mediter - ranean to

  20. Broadband hydroseismograms observed by closed borehole wells in the Kamioka mine, central Japan: Response of pore pressure to seismic waves from 0.05 to 2 Hz (United States)

    Kano, Yasuyuki; Yanagidani, Takashi


    We obtained broadband hydroseismograms by monitoring the pore pressure changes of a rock mass in the Kamioka mine, using borehole wells. The wellhead was sealed to maintain an undrained condition, under which there is no flow of water through the interface between the well and the rock mass. This reduces the wellbore storage effect, which can cause a high-frequency cutoff response for systems of conventional open wells and rock mass. Using these closed borehole wells, 16 hydroseismograms were recorded for earthquakes in a range of magnitudes of 4.5-7.9 and epicentral distances of 1.0°-71.6°. Direct P waves, SV waves converted to P, and Rayleigh phases are clearly observed on the hydroseismograms. The similarity between hydroseismograms and seismograms reveals a clear relationship between radial ground velocity and pore pressure. The relationship is expressed as a zero-order system, which is characterized by no distortion or time lag between the input and output, and the pore pressure has no coupling with shear deformation. These results are consistent with an undrained constitutive relation of linear poroelastic theory and confirm that the relation is valid for the seismic frequency range. We determined in situ values of pore pressure sensitivity to volumetric change of the rock mass, which were then used to estimate in situ Skempton coefficients with values of 0.70-0.85.

  1. Base station MAC with APRMA protocol for broadband multimedia ATM in micro/pico-cellular mobile networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Le, Khanh Hoang; Nielsen, Søren Nørskov; Dittmann, Lars


    The concept for a wireless ATM access system that enables seamless mobile connectivity to the B-ISDN is presented. It is based on small, low cost and intelligent base stations running a medium access control (MAC) protocol using adaptive packet reservation multiple access (APRMA). Both the princi...

  2. Landslide seismic magnitude (United States)

    Lin, C. H.; Jan, J. C.; Pu, H. C.; Tu, Y.; Chen, C. C.; Wu, Y. M.


    Landslides have become one of the most deadly natural disasters on earth, not only due to a significant increase in extreme climate change caused by global warming, but also rapid economic development in topographic relief areas. How to detect landslides using a real-time system has become an important question for reducing possible landslide impacts on human society. However, traditional detection of landslides, either through direct surveys in the field or remote sensing images obtained via aircraft or satellites, is highly time consuming. Here we analyze very long period seismic signals (20-50 s) generated by large landslides such as Typhoon Morakot, which passed though Taiwan in August 2009. In addition to successfully locating 109 large landslides, we define landslide seismic magnitude based on an empirical formula: Lm = log ⁡ (A) + 0.55 log ⁡ (Δ) + 2.44, where A is the maximum displacement (μm) recorded at one seismic station and Δ is its distance (km) from the landslide. We conclude that both the location and seismic magnitude of large landslides can be rapidly estimated from broadband seismic networks for both academic and applied purposes, similar to earthquake monitoring. We suggest a real-time algorithm be set up for routine monitoring of landslides in places where they pose a frequent threat.

  3. Analysis of Broadband GSM Base Station in Rural Areas%农村地区GSM基站宽带化改造浅析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    文章从GSM-HI技术原理入手,分析农村区域GSM基站进行宽带化改造的要求和演进升级工作,探讨GSM基站升级改造的难度和适用场景,并给出在速率提升、网络覆盖、现网影响等方面的测试对比情况。然后,分析了WLAN、TD-LTE(F频段)和GSM-HI等三种农村地区常用无线宽带接入方式的对比,最后,总结了GSM-HI技术方案的优势。%The thesis analyzes from the principle of GSM-HI technology analysis of GSM base station in rural areas the broadband transformation and upgrade work, investigate the upgrading transformation of the dififculty and application scenarios of GSM base station, and gives the rate increase, network coverage, network effects comparison test. Then, the comparison of three kinds of WLAN, TD-LTE (F) and GSM-HI is analyzed, and the advantages of GSM-HI technology are summarized.

  4. The development of the Moldova digital seismic network (United States)

    Ilies, I.; Ionescu, C.; Grigore, A. G.


    The Republic of Moldova is located in the seismically active region, about 70% of its area is predisposed to shaking intensity 7 - 8 points MSK. Focal zones of the primary seismic danger to the territory of the Republic of Moldova are: Vrancea zone - for the whole of its territory and Dobrogea zone - for the southern part. Monitoring of seismic instrumentation in the republic is provided by the Center of Experimental Seismology, Institute of Geology and Seismology, Academy of Sciences of Moldova. According to the seismic zoning map of the Republic of Moldova, seismic stations "Cahul, Leova" and "Giurgiulesti" located in 8 - degree zone, the central regional station "Chisinau" - in 7 - degree, a station "Soroca" - in 6 - degree zone MSK scale. The development of seismic network since 2004, going through a transition to a modern digital recording, improving working conditions for staff and the construction of new buildings for seismic stations, equipping the new network equipment and improve the methods of collecting and processing seismic data. The works to modernize the network of seismic stations in Moldova were initiated in 2003 with the acquisition of the first three axial digital accelerometer. The device was installed initially in Chisinau, and from it we received the first digital recordings of earthquakes from September 27 and October 27, 2004. In joint efforts with National Institute of Research and Development for Earth Physics from Bucharest, Romania, four seismic stations from Republic of Moldavia was upgraded by broadband and strong motion sensors connected at Q 330 digital recorders that issue continuous recording and real time data stream. Starting from spring of 2008, real time seismic data exchange between IGG Republic of Moldavia and NIEP Romania is running using internet connection.

  5. Broadband seismological observations at The Geysers geothermal area, California, USA (United States)

    Jousset, Philippe; Gritto, Roland; Haberland, Christian; Hartline, Craig


    The understanding of structure and dynamics of geothermal reservoirs for geothermal exploration and sustainable use of the resource requires an assessment using a multidisciplinary approach. The Geysers geothermal reservoir in northern California is the largest producing geothermal field in the world and has been exploited for over 50 years. Among other geophysical surveys, numerous seismic studies have been conducted based on data acquired by the LBNL seismic monitoring network over the past 20 years. However, thus far, no continuous seismic data have been recorded at the Geysers, which prevents detailed continuous monitoring in relation to reservoir operation. In February 2012, we deployed a temporary network of 33 broadband seismic stations, including Guralp and Trillium sensors (0.008 - 100 Hz). At present the network is still in operation. Twenty-six stations are located within the perimeter of the geothermal reservoir, while 7 are located on a perimeter around the reservoir at greater distances. While the recordings of larger magnitude events (M>3.5) may be saturated on the local stations, the outer stations are intended to record these events without interruption. We present analyses of a larger magnitude event (M~3.5) as well as correlations of continuous observations to geothermal operations. Thanks to the high density of instrumentation and the high dynamic range of the broadband sensors, smaller events (microseismicity) can be detected more easily, allowing for better precision in locations and more accuracy in the determination of magnitudes. The increased dynamic range offers an important improvement in the analysis of seismicity as the majority of events at The Geysers have magnitudes of M<2.0.

  6. Efforts toward enhancing seismic safety at Kashiwazaki Kariwa nuclear power station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamashita, Kazuhiko


    Kashiwazaki-Kariwa Nuclear Power Station, 8212MW, was struck by M6.8 quakes in July 2007. TEPCO has steadily been conducting restoration and post-earthquake equipment integrity assessment, aiming to make it a disaster-resistant power station. 2 units among 7 resumed commercial operation by June 2010. This earthquake has provided a great deal of knowledge and information useful for nuclear safety improvement. It has also served as a valuable reference for the IAEA in developing earthquake-related guidelines. TEPCO would like to share the knowledge and information thereby contributing to improving the safety of nuclear power generation. We will introduce some of our activities.

  7. Systematic Site Characterization at Seismic Stations combined with Empirical Spectral Modeling: critical data for local hazard analysis (United States)

    Michel, Clotaire; Hobiger, Manuel; Edwards, Benjamin; Poggi, Valerio; Burjanek, Jan; Cauzzi, Carlo; Kästli, Philipp; Fäh, Donat


    The Swiss Seismological Service operates one of the densest national seismic networks in the world, still rapidly expanding (see Since 2009, every newly instrumented site is characterized following an established procedure to derive realistic 1D VS velocity profiles. In addition, empirical Fourier spectral modeling is performed on the whole network for each recorded event with sufficient signal-to-noise ratio. Besides the source characteristics of the earthquakes, statistical real time analyses of the residuals of the spectral modeling provide a seamlessly updated amplification function w.r. to Swiss rock conditions at every station. Our site characterization procedure is mainly based on the analysis of surface waves from passive experiments and includes cross-checks of the derived amplification functions with those obtained through spectral modeling. The systematic use of three component surface-wave analysis, allowing the derivation of both Rayleigh and Love waves dispersion curves, also contributes to the improved quality of the retrieved profiles. The results of site characterisation activities at recently installed strong-motion stations depict the large variety of possible effects of surface geology on ground motion in the Alpine context. Such effects range from de-amplification at hard-rock sites to amplification up to a factor of 15 in lacustrine sediments with respect to the Swiss reference rock velocity model. The derived velocity profiles are shown to reproduce observed amplification functions from empirical spectral modeling. Although many sites are found to exhibit 1D behavior, our procedure allows the detection and qualification of 2D and 3D effects. All data collected during the site characterization procedures in the last 20 years are gathered in a database, implementing a data model proposed for community use at the European scale through NERA and EPOS ( A web stationbook derived from it

  8. Pre-instrumental seismicity in Central Africa using felt seisms recorded mainly at the meteorological stations of DRC, Rwanda and Burundi during the colonial period (United States)

    Mulumba, J.-L.; Delvaux, D.


    Seismic hazard assessment and mitigation of catastrophes are primarily based on the identification and characterization of seismically active zones. These tasks still rely heavily on the existing knowledge of the seismic activity over the longest possible time period. The first seismic network in Equatorial Africa (IRSAC network) was operated from the Lwiro scientific base on the western shores of Lake Kivu between 1953 and 1963. Before this installation, the historical record of seismic activity in Central Africa is sparse. Even for the relatively short period concerned, spanning only 50-60 years, the historical record is far from being complete. A first attempt has been made by Herrinckx (1959) who compiled a list 960 felt seisms recorded at the meteorological stations between 1915 and 1954 in Congo, Rwanda and Burundi. They were used to draw a density map of felt seisms per square degree. We completed this data base by exploiting the meteorological archives and any available historical report to enlarge the database which now reaches 1513 entries between 1900 and 1959. These entries have been exanimate in order to identify possible historical seismic events. Those are defined by 3 or more quasi-simultaneous records observed over a relatively short distance (a few degrees of latitude/longitude) within a short time difference (few hours). A preliminary list of 115 possible historical seisms has been obtained, identified by 3 to 15 different stations. The proposed location is taken as the average latitude and longitude of the stations where the felt seisms were recorded. Some of the most important ones are associated to aftershocks that have been felt at some stations after the main shocks. The most recent felt seisms have been also recorded instrumentally, which helps to validate the procedure followed. The main difficulties are the magnitude estimation and the possible spatial incompleteness of the recording of felt seism evidence at the margin of the observation

  9. Improved characterization of local seismicity using the Dubai Seismic Network, United Arab Emirates (United States)

    Al Khatibi, Eman; Abou Elenean, K. M.; Megahed, A. S.; El-Hussain, I.


    In April 2006, Dubai Municipality established a broadband seismological network in Dubai Emirate, United Arab Emirates (UAE). This network was the first seismic network in UAE and consists of four remote seismic stations to observe local and regional seismic activity that may have an effect on Dubai Emirate and the surrounding areas. The network exchanges real-time data with the National Center of Meteorology and Seismology in Abu Dhabi, the Earthquake Monitoring Center in Oman and imports in real-time data from few Global Seismic Network stations, which increases the aperture of the network. In April 2012, Dubai Municipality installed an additional five free-field strong motion stations inside the urban area to estimate and publish real-time ShakeMaps for public and decision makers. Although the local seismic activity from April 2006 to June 2013 reflects low seismic activity with the Emirate, it indicates active tectonics in the relatively aseismic northern Oman Mountains region. A few inland clusters of micro-to-small earthquakes have been identified with the new network. A clear cluster of small-to-moderate earthquakes took place in the eastern part of UAE to the east of Masafi, while two clusters of micro-to-small earthquakes took place at Wadi Nazwa and northern Huwaylat. Focal mechanisms of few well recorded earthquakes in this region indicate normal faulting, generally trending NE in parallel to the transition shear zone between the collision at Zagros and the subduction at the Makran zone.

  10. Low frequency signals analysis from broadband seismometers records (United States)

    Hsu, Po-Chin


    Broadband seismometers record signals over a wide frequency band, in which the high-frequency background noise is usually associated with human activities, such as cars, trains and factory-related activities. Meanwhile, the low-frequency signals are generally linked to the microseisms, atmospheric phenomena and oceanic wave movement. In this study, we selected the broadband seismometer data recorded during the pass of the typhoons with different moving paths, such as Doksuri in 2012, Trami and Kong-Rey in 2013, Hagibis and Matmo in 2014. By comparing the broadband seismic data, the meteorological information, and the marine conditions, we attempt to understand the effect of the meteorological conditions on the low-frequency noise. The result shows that the broadband station located along the southwestern coast of Taiwan usually have relatively higher background noise value, while the inland stations were characterized by lower noise energy. This rapid decay of the noise energy with distance from the coastline suggest that the low frequency noise could be correlated with the oceanic waves. In addition, the noise energy level increases when the distance from the typhoon and the station decreases. The enhanced frequency range is between 0.1~0.3 Hz, which is consistent with the effect caused by the interference of oceanic waves as suggested by the previous studies. This observation indicates that when the pass of typhoon may reinforce the interaction of oceanic waves and caused some influence on the seismic records. The positive correlation between the significant wave height and the noise energy could also give evidence to this observation. However, we found that the noise energy is not necessarily the strongest when the distance from typhoon and the station is the shortest. This phenomenon seems to be related to the typhoon path. When the typhoon track is perpendicular to the coastline, the change of noise energy is generally more significantly; whereas less energy

  11. Quantifying Similarity in Seismic Polarizations (United States)

    Eaton, D. W. S.; Jones, J. P.; Caffagni, E.


    Measuring similarity in seismic attributes can help identify tremor, low S/N signals, and converted or reflected phases, in addition to diagnosing site noise and sensor misalignment in arrays. Polarization analysis is a widely accepted method for studying the orientation and directional characteristics of seismic phases via. computed attributes, but similarity is ordinarily discussed using qualitative comparisons with reference values. Here we introduce a technique for quantitative polarization similarity that uses weighted histograms computed in short, overlapping time windows, drawing on methods adapted from the image processing and computer vision literature. Our method accounts for ambiguity in azimuth and incidence angle and variations in signal-to-noise (S/N) ratio. Using records of the Mw=8.3 Sea of Okhotsk earthquake from CNSN broadband sensors in British Columbia and Yukon Territory, Canada, and vertical borehole array data from a monitoring experiment at Hoadley gas field, central Alberta, Canada, we demonstrate that our method is robust to station spacing. Discrete wavelet analysis extends polarization similarity to the time-frequency domain in a straightforward way. Because histogram distance metrics are bounded by [0 1], clustering allows empirical time-frequency separation of seismic phase arrivals on single-station three-component records. Array processing for automatic seismic phase classification may be possible using subspace clustering of polarization similarity, but efficient algorithms are required to reduce the dimensionality.

  12. 基于单片机的地震台站远程监控%Remote monitor and control system for seismic station based on MCU

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李小军; 李冬圣; 毛国良; 常亮


    针对当前地震台站的特点,提出一种基于TCP/IP通信的远程监控系统,介绍该装置的设计与实现方法,给出系统构成图、主要硬件电路及程序代码.通过样机试制与反复试验,该系统可以完成对地震台站设备工作环境的监测并能远程对数采等设备实现断电和重启等操作,可以为地震专业设备的可靠运行和及时维护提供保障和依据.%In allusion to the characteristic of the seismic station, this paper proposes a remote monitor and control system based on the TCP/IP communication protocol, and introduces the design and implementation of the system. It gives out system structure diagram, main hardware circuit and program code. It has been proved that this system can monitor the status of seismic-station working environment and can reset the seismic data processing system etc. remotely through trial-produce model machine and repeated testing. This system can guarantee the seismic-equipments reliable running and gives a good reference for the maintenance by continuous improvement.

  13. Ceboruco Volcano Seismicity Study using a 3D Single Digital Station (United States)

    Rodriguez-Uribe, M. C.; Nunez-Cornu, F. J.; Nava Pichardo, F. A.; Suarez-Plascencia, C.; Escudero Ayala, C. R.


    The Ceboruco stratovolcano (2,280 m.a.s.l.) is located in Nayarit, Mexico, at the west of the Mexican volcanic belt and towards the Sierra de San Pedro southeast. It last eruptive activity was in 1875, and during the following five years it presents superficial activity such as vapor emissions, ash falls and riodacític composition lava flows along the southeast side. We use data recorded from March 2003 to July 2008 at the CEBN triaxial short period digital station located at the southwest side of the volcano. Our final data set consist of 139 volcanic earthquakes. We classified them according waveform characteristics of the east-west horizontal component. We obtained four groups: impulsive arrivals, extended coda, bobbin form, and wave package amplitude modulation earthquakes. The extended coda is the group with more earthquakes and present durations of 50 seconds. Using the moving particle technique, we read the P and S wave arrival times and estimate azimuth arrivals. A P-wave velocity of 3.0 km/s was used to locate the earthquakes, the hypocenters are below the volcanic building within a circular perimeter of 5 km of radius and its depths are calculated relative to the CEBN elevation as follows. The impulsive arrivals earthquakes present hypocenters between 0 and 1 km while the other groups between 0 and 4 km. The epicenters show similar directions as the tectonic structures of the area (Tepic-Zacoalco Graben and regional faults). Results suggest fluid activity inside the volcanic building that could be related to fumes on the volcano. We conclude that the Ceboruco volcano is active. Therefore, it should be continuously monitored due to the risk that represent to the surrounding communities and economic activities.


    Romanowicz, B. A.; Taira, T.; Dolenc, D.; McGill, P. R.; Neuhauser, D. S.


    The Monterey Ocean Bottom Broadband (MOBB) observatory has been acquiring broadband seismic data and auxiliary channels (differential pressure and current meter) since its installation on the ocean floor in Monterey Bay, at 1000 m water depth and 40 km off-shore. Operating autonomously for almost 7 years, the system was successfully connected to the MARS cable ( on February 26th, 2009, via a 3.6 km extension cable from the MARS science node. The system works as designed and is currently streaming data from seismic, pressure, and water-current sensors to the Berkeley Seismological Laboratory, where it joins data from other broadband stations on land and is archived at the Northern California Earthquake Data Center. The availability of real-time MOBB broadband seismic data provides an opportunity for improving earthquake-monitoring capability in central California, particularly near the Santa Cruz Mountains segment of the San Andreas fault, and the San Gregorio fault. While buried in the mud, MOBB is affected by oceanic sources of noise, which are particularly strong in the infragravity wave band, and care must be taken to reduce this background noise in post-processing. We present examples of data analysis and illustrate how MOBB contributes to the determination of source parameters and regional structure.

  15. Earth Analog Seismic Deployment for InSight's Mars seismic installation (United States)

    Kedar, S.; Bradford, S. C.; Clayton, R. W.; Davis, P. M.; Ervin, J.; Kawamura, T.; Lognonne, P. H.; Lorenz, R. D.; Mimoun, D.; Murdoch, N.; Roberson, T.; Stubailo, I.; Van Buren, D.


    InSight (Interior Exploration using Seismic Investigations, Geodesy and Heat Transport) is a NASA Discovery Program mission that will place a single geophysical lander on Mars to study its deep interior. InSight's main experiment is the Seismic Experiment for Interior Structure (SEIS), which will robotically place a broadband seismometer provided by the French Space Agency (CNES) on the Martian surface. SEIS will operate on the surface for a full Mars year. Installing and operating a seismometer on Mars imposes constraints rarely considered in terrestrial seismic installations. The InSight project has therefore conducted a terrestrial analog field deployment exercise to better understand and prepare for the distinctive challenges that placing a broadband seismometer in a Mars-like configuration and environment would pose. The exercise was conducted in two phases at NASA's Goldstone facility in the Southern California Mojave desert. In the first phase we have installed a surface geophysical station including a broadband seismometer, a microbarometer, anemometer, and thermal sensors in a configuration resembling the InSight's geophysical station. The site was located in an exposed location with rough surface and subsurface terrain. It was in close proximity to Goldstone permanent seismic station (GSC) that provided a ground-truth measurement. In the second phase, the installation was moved to a dry lakebed where the geophysical conditions mimic the expected geophysical environment of InSight's target landing site on Mars. We will present a summary of lessons learned so far from our analog deployment exercise. The data analysis emphasizes several aspects of key importance to the InSight mission: (1) Exploring strategies to mitigate environmental noise sources; (2) Recognizing noise sources that might be introduced by the InSight lander (solar panel flutter); (3) Identifying weak geophysical signals with low SNR above the environmental noise; (4) Using non tectonic

  16. Geologic interpretations of seismic data Route 128 (Northern Circumferential Highway) cut, and Hopkins Street grade separation stations 1-18 in Wakefield, Mass. (United States)

    May, James E.; Lineham, Rev. Daniel


    The completion of a segment of the Northern Circumferential Highway, Route 126, in Wakefield, Mass., requires an underpass bridge at Hopkins Street, Station 5+50. The plan of the project shows approximately 1800 feet if approach cuts between stations 1 and 18. In October 1945 a preliminary seismic study was made of a segment of this cut between stations 6+50 and 13+30. Four profiles were made at this time and a report was submitted by Newton E. Chute and Rev. Daniel Linhan (file report of January 15). This work showed a relatively shallow (in general, 6 to 12 feet in depth) somewhat irregular bedrock surface between stations 6+50 and 13+50. That data indicated that much of this segment of the cut will be in bedrock. In order to obtain more complete data for the preparation of detailed estimates on the amount of bedrock to be excavated for this segment of the cut, and also to obtain sufficient data for the unexplored segment of the cut, 21 additional seismic traverses were made in September 1949. The present report contains only the results obtained from this later work. The work was performed as a part of a cooperative program of the Massachusetts Department of Public Works and the United States Geological Survey.

  17. Planning the improvement of a seismic network for monitoring active volcanic areas: the experience on Mt. Etna (United States)

    D'Alessandro, A.; Scarfì, L.; Scaltrito, A.; Di Prima, S.; Rapisarda, S.


    Seismology and geodesy are generally seen as the most reliable diagnostic tools for monitoring highly active or erupting volcanoes, like Mt. Etna. From the early 1980's, seismic activity was monitored at Mt. Etna by a permanent seismic network, progressively improved in the following years. This network has been considerably enhanced since 2005 by 24-bit digital stations equipped with broad-band (40 s) sensors. Today, thanks to a configuration of 33 broad-band and 12 short-period stations, we have a good coverage of the volcanic area as well as a high quality of the collected data. In the framework of the VULCAMED project a workgroup of Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia has taken on the task of developing the seismic monitoring system, through the installation of other seismic stations. The choice of optimal sites must be clearly made through a careful analysis of the geometry of the existing seismic network. In this paper, we applied the Seismic Network Evaluation through Simulation in order to evaluate the performance of the Etna Seismic Network before and after the addition of the stations in the candidate sites. The main advantage of the adopted method is that we can evaluate the improvement of the network before the actual installation of the stations. Our analysis has permitted to identify some critical issues of the current permanent seismic network related to the lack of stations in the southern sector of the volcano, which is nevertheless affected by a number of seismogenic structures. We have showed that the addition of stations at the candidate sites would greatly extend the coverage of the network to the south by significantly reducing the errors in the hypocenter parameters estimation.

  18. Monitoring seismic velocity changes caused by the 2014 Northern Aegean earthquake using continuous ambient noise records (United States)

    Evangelidis, Christos; Daskalakis, Emmanouil; Tsogka, Chrysoula


    The 24 May 2014 Northern Aegean earthquake (6.9 Mw), an event on the Northern Aegean Trough (NAT), ruptured on two different fault segments with a total ruptured length of ~100 km. For the second delayed segment, rupture propagated eastward from the hypocenter for ˜65 km with a supershear velocity (5.5 km/s). Low-aftershock seismicity on the supershear segment implies a simple and linear fault geometry there. An effort to monitor temporal seismic velocity changes across the ruptured area of the Northern Aegean earthquake is underway. In recent years, neighboring seismic broadband stations near active faults have been successfully used to detect such changes. The crosscorrelation functions (CCF) of ambient noise records between stations yields the corresponding traveltimes for those inter-station paths. Moreover, the auto-correlation functions (ACF) at each station produce the seismic responce for a coincident source and receiver position. Possible temporal changes of the measured traveltimes from CCFs and ACFs correspond to seismic velocity changes. Initially, we investigate the characteristics and sources of the ambient seismic noise as recorded at permanent seismic stations installed around NAT at the surrounding islands and in mainland Greece and Turkey. The microseismic noise levels show a clear seasonal variation at all stations. The noise levels across the double frequency band (DF; period range 4-8 s) reflect the local sea-weather conditions within a range of a few hundred kilometers. Three years of continuous seismic records framing the main shock have been analysed from ~15 stations within a radius of 100 km from the epicentre. We observe a clear decrease of seismic velocities most likely corresponding to the co-seismic shaking. The spatial variation of this velocity drop is imaged from all inter-station paths that correspond to CCF measurements and for station sites that correspond to ACF measurements. Thus, we explore a possible correlation between co-seismic

  19. Seismic source study of the Racha-Dzhava (Georgia) earthquake from aftershocks and broad-band teleseismic body-wave records: An example of active nappe tectonics (United States)

    Fuenzalida, H.; Rivera, L.; Haessler, H.; Legrand, D.; Philip, H.; Dorbath, L.; McCormack, D.; Arefiev, S.; Langer, C.; Cisternas, A.


    The Racha-Dzhava earthquake (Ms = 7.0) that occurred on 1991 April 29 at 09:12:48.1 GMT in the southern border of the Great Caucasus is the biggest event ever recorded in the region, stronger than the Spitak earthquake (Ms = 6.9) of 1988. A field expedition to the epicentral area was organised and a temporary seismic network of 37 stations was deployed to record the aftershock activity. A very precise image of the aftershock distribution is obtained, showing an elongated cloud oriented N105??, with one branch trending N310?? in the western part. The southernmost part extends over 80 km, with the depth ranging from 0 to 15 km, and dips north. The northern branch, which is about 30 km long, shows activity that ranges in depth from 5 to 15 km. The complex thrust dips northwards. A stress-tensor inversion from P-wave first-motion polarities shows a state of triaxial compression, with the major principal axis oriented roughly N-S, the minor principal axis being vertical. Body-waveform inversion of teleseismic seismograms was performed for the main shock, which can be divided into four subevents with a total rupture-time duration of 22 s. The most important part of the seismic moment was released by a gentle northerly dipping thrust. The model is consistent with the compressive tectonics of the region and is in agreement with the aftershock distribution and the stress tensor deduced from the aftershocks. The focal mechanisms of the three largest aftershocks were also inverted from body-wave records. The April 29th (Ms = 6.1) and May 5th (Ms = 5.4) aftershocks have thrust mechanisms on roughly E-W-oriented planes, similar to the main shock. Surprisingly, the June 15th (Ms = 6.2) aftershock shows a thrust fault striking N-S. This mechanism is explained by the structural control of the rupture along the east-dipping geometry of the Dzirula Massif close to the Borzhomi-Kazbeg strike-slip fault. In fact, the orientation and shape of the stress tensor produce a thrust on a N

  20. 鹤岗地震台地震观测干扰分析%The analysis of observation interference at Hegang Seismic Station

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜博; 常金龙; 胡宝慧; 李大伟; 张震; 张浩


    The surrounding environment of Hegang Seismic Station is analyzed. The sources of interference are determined and their frequency ranges are determined with fast Fourier transforms. Depending on the frequencies of blasting, noise and earthquakes, using Matlab language, the appropriate high-pass and low-pass filter are designed for interference signal filtering process and the real information of seismic wave extraction. Thereby, the veracity of seismic theoretical study and seismic data analysis is improved.%对鹤岗地震台周边环境进行分析,确定干扰源,进行快速傅里叶变换,确定其频率范围.根据爆破、噪声干扰和地震频率的不同,运用 Matlab语言,设计相应高通和低通滤波器,对干扰信号进行滤波处理,得出地震波的真实信息,从而提高台站地震资料分析和地震波基础理论研究的准确性.

  1. Seismic Noise Characterization in the Northern Mississippi Embayment (United States)

    Wiley, S.; Deshon, H. R.; Boyd, O. S.


    We present a study of seismic noise sources present within the northern Mississippi embayment near the New Madrid Seismic Zone (NMSZ). The northern embayment contains up to 1 km of unconsolidated coastal plain sediments overlying bedrock, making it an inherently noisy environment for seismic stations. The area is known to display high levels of cultural noise caused by agricultural activity, passing cars, trains, etc. We characterize continuous broadband seismic noise data recorded for the months of March through June 2009 at six stations operated by the Cooperative New Madrid Seismic Network. We looked at a single horizontal component of data during nighttime hours, defined as 6:15PM to 5:45AM Central Standard Time, which we determined to be the lowest amplitude period of noise for the region. Hourly median amplitudes were compared to daily average wind speeds downloaded from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. We find a correlation between time periods of increased noise and days with high wind speeds, suggesting that wind is likely a prevalent source of seismic noise in the area. The effects of wind on seismic recordings may result from wind induced tree root movement which causes ground motion to be recorded at the vaults located ~3m below ground. Automated studies utilizing the local network or the EarthScope Transportable Array, scheduled to arrive in the area in 2010-11, should expect to encounter wind induced noise fluctuations and must account for this in their analysis.

  2. 张江台地表与深井地震观测对比分析%Comparative Analysis of Zhangjiang Station Surface and Deep Seismic Observation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    裴晓; 尹继尧; 杨庭春


    张江深井综合地震观测站是上海市规则建设的深井地震综合观测系统中首先建成并投入运行的站点,深井中安装了地磁仪、应变仪、倾斜仪、测震仪、孔隙压仪、地温仪、水温仪和水位仪,地表还安装了强震仪和GPS,总计十种测项,同时地表还配备气压计和气温计等辅助观测手段.张江台在2006年就建立了地表台,本文将地表台和新建的深井台数据进行了分析对比,从而得出土层背景噪声的干扰情况;同时参照上海台网其他深井的资料分析综合深井系统对测震单分项系统是否有干扰.结果显示,深井台的背景噪声RMS数值比地表台小个数量级,可以更精确的记录到地脉动数据;深井台的有效动态范围比地表台超出30%;深井台不仅在低频,在高频段25 Hz附近也有噪声影响;深井台比地表台受环境噪声影响要小很多,特别是在低频段优势更明显.同时,对比张江综合深井台的地噪声、动态范围和上海台网其他深井台资料,认为综合深井测震分项数据未受到整体综合系统的噪音影响.%Twenty-seven deep seismic observation stations are planned for construction in the administrative area of Shanghai to provide a comprehensive observation system of deep earthquakes,and two deep seismic observation stations will be constructed in Zhangjiang,Pudong district,and the Yangtze River farm,Chongming district,in accordance with China's Eleventh Five-Year Plan.The deep well station in Zhangjiang has been completed and has passed the acceptance stage.Ten test items have been installed including a magnetometer; strain gauge; inclinometer;seismometers; pore pressure,temperature,and water temperature instruments; a water meter installation site in a deep well,a surface-installed strong motion seismograph,and a global positioning system(GPS).In addition,the surface is equipped with a pressure gauge,a temperature gauge,and other auxiliary observation

  3. Full Wavefield Recordings of Oklahoma Seismicity from an IRIS-led Community Experiment (United States)

    Anderson, K. R.; Woodward, R.; Sweet, J. R.; Bilek, S. L.; Brudzinski, M.; Chen, X.; DeShon, H. R.; Karplus, M. S.; Keranen, K. M.; Langston, C. A.; Lin, F. C.; Magnani, M. B.; Stump, B. W.


    In June 2016, a field crew of students, faculty, industry personnel and IRIS staff deployed several hundred stations above an active seismic lineament in north-central Oklahoma, with the goal to advance our understanding of general seismicity and earthquake source processes using arrays designed to capture full wavefield seismic data. In addition, we used this as an educational opportunity to extend the experience with nodal type experiment planning and execution. IRIS selected 30 graduate students from 18 different US and foreign based institutions to participate in the deployment. In addition, IRIS was pleased to have the assistance of several individuals from the Oklahoma Geological Survey. The crew deployed 363 3C 5Hz Generation 2 Fairfield Z-Land nodes along three seismic lines and in a seven-layer nested gradiometer array. The seismic lines spanned a region 13 km long by 5 km wide. The nested gradiometer was designed to measure the full seismic wavefield using standard frequency-wavenumber techniques and spatial wave gradients. A broadband, 18 station "Golay 3x6" array was deployed around the gradiometer and seismic lines with an aperture of approximately 5 km to collect waveform data from local and regional events. In addition, 9 infrasound stations were deployed in order to capture and identify acoustic events that might be recorded by the seismic arrays and to quantify the wind acoustic noise effect on co-located broadband stations. The variety of instrumentation used in this deployment was chosen to capture the full seismic wavefield generated by the local and regional seismicity beneath the array and the surrounding region. A demobilization team returned to the sites in mid-July to recover the nodes, after a full month of deployment. The broadband and infrasound stations will remain in place through September to capture any additional local and regional seismicity. This experiment was designed by and for the seismological community. The experiment was

  4. Design and application of wind-solar hybrid power system for unattended seismic stations in Shandong Province%风光发电系统在无人值守地震台站的设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曲利; 董晓娜; 胡旭辉; 李永红; 蔡伟光


    风光互补发电技术在边防、通信、公路等已得到广泛应用,能否将这一绿色、清洁、可再生能源应用于地震无人值守台站,山东省在龙口地震台已做先期试点,通过一年试运行,风光互补发电系统能够满足地震无人值守台站的工作要求.%The wind-solar hybrid power technology is gradually matured in China. It is now widely used in military border post, telecommunications relay stations, roads and railway signal stations, geological exploration and field inspection stations and other remote areas. How to use this green, clean, renewable energy in unmanned seismic stations is a new problem. In Shandong Province, we took Longkou Seismic Station as an example first. Through running test of one year, it is found that the wind-solar hybrid power wind system can be fully applied in unmanned seismic stations. In this article, the application of the wind-solar hybrid power wind system in Longkou Seismic Station, where is far away from the city and lack of electricity supply systemi is introduced. This application achieved very good results.

  5. The Italian National Seismic Network (United States)

    Michelini, Alberto


    The Italian National Seismic Network is composed by about 400 stations, mainly broadband, installed in the Country and in the surrounding regions. About 110 stations feature also collocated strong motion instruments. The Centro Nazionale Terremoti, (National Earthquake Center), CNT, has installed and operates most of these stations, although a considerable number of stations contributing to the INGV surveillance has been installed and is maintained by other INGV sections (Napoli, Catania, Bologna, Milano) or even other Italian or European Institutions. The important technological upgrades carried out in the last years has allowed for significant improvements of the seismic monitoring of Italy and of the Euro-Mediterranean Countries. The adopted data transmission systems include satellite, wireless connections and wired lines. The Seedlink protocol has been adopted for data transmission. INGV is a primary node of EIDA (European Integrated Data Archive) for archiving and distributing, continuous, quality checked data. The data acquisition system was designed to accomplish, in near-real-time, automatic earthquake detection and hypocenter and magnitude determination (moment tensors, shake maps, etc.). Database archiving of all parametric results are closely linked to the existing procedures of the INGV seismic monitoring environment. Overall, the Italian earthquake surveillance service provides, in quasi real-time, hypocenter parameters which are then revised routinely by the analysts of the Bollettino Sismico Nazionale. The results are published on the web page and are publicly available to both the scientific community and the the general public. This presentation will describe the various activities and resulting products of the Centro Nazionale Terremoti. spanning from data acquisition to archiving, distribution and specialised products.

  6. 新丰江中心地震台日常数据处理软件%Daily Data Processing Software of Xinfengjiang Center Seismic Station

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李敬; 郭德顺; 赖细华; 李志军


    According to the needs of the Xinfengjiang center seismic practical work, in the Visual C++6.0 platform, by using ActiveX Data Objects (ADO) technology, the client / server (C/S) mode to access MySQL database table, and based on MFC (Microsoft basic class library, Microsoft Foundation Classes) OLE(object linking and embedding, Object Linking and Embedding) programming method of EXcellreport file,the author developed a set of seismic data processing software, which can complete station data entry, query,modify, conversion and report output work, realize the seismic station, the paperless network office, and improve work efficiency.%根据新丰江中心地震台实际业务工作的需要,在Visual C++6.0平台上,使用ActiveX Data Objects(ADO)技术,通过客户/服务器(C/S)模式访问MySQL数据库表,并基于MFC(微软基本类库,Microsoft Foundation Classes)的OLE(对象链接嵌入,Object Linking and Embedding)编程方法操作EXCEL报表文件,开发出一套地震数据处理软件,完成台站日常数据的录入、查询、修改、转换和报表输出等工作,实现地震台站的无纸化、网络化办公,提高工作效率。

  7. Crustal structure beneath two seismic stations in the Sunda-Banda arc transition zone derived from receiver function analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Syuhada, E-mail: [Graduate Research on Earthquake and Active Tectonics (GREAT), Bandung Institute of Technology, Jalan Ganesha 10, Bandung 40132 (Indonesia); Research Centre for Physics - Indonesian Institute of Sciences (LIPI), Kompleks Puspiptek Serpong, Tangsel 15314, Banten Indonesia (Indonesia); Hananto, Nugroho D.; Handayani, Lina [Research Centre for Geotechnology - Indonesian Institute of Sciences (LIPI), Jl. Sangkuriang (Kompleks LIPI) Bandung 40135 (Indonesia); Puspito, Nanang T; Yudistira, Tedi [Faculty of Mining and Petroleum Engineering ITB, Jalan Ganesha 10, Bandung 40132 (Indonesia); Anggono, Titi [Research Centre for Physics - Indonesian Institute of Sciences (LIPI), Kompleks Puspiptek Serpong, Tangsel 15314, Banten Indonesia (Indonesia)


    We analyzed receiver functions to estimate the crustal thickness and velocity structure beneath two stations of Geofon (GE) network in the Sunda-Banda arc transition zone. The stations are located in two different tectonic regimes: Sumbawa Island (station PLAI) and Timor Island (station SOEI) representing the oceanic and continental characters, respectively. We analyzed teleseismic events of 80 earthquakes to calculate the receiver functions using the time-domain iterative deconvolution technique. We employed 2D grid search (H-κ) algorithm based on the Moho interaction phases to estimate crustal thickness and Vp/Vs ratio. We also derived the S-wave velocity variation with depth beneath both stations by inverting the receiver functions. We obtained that beneath station PLAI the crustal thickness is about 27.8 km with Vp/Vs ratio 2.01. As station SOEI is covered by very thick low-velocity sediment causing unstable solution for the inversion, we modified the initial velocity model by adding the sediment thickness estimated using high frequency content of receiver functions in H-κ stacking process. We obtained the crustal thickness is about 37 km with VP/Vs ratio 2.2 beneath station SOEI. We suggest that the high Vp/Vs in station PLAI may indicate the presence of fluid ascending from the subducted plate to the volcanic arc, whereas the high Vp/Vs in station SOEI could be due to the presence of sediment and rich mafic composition in the upper crust and possibly related to the serpentinization process in the lower crust. We also suggest that the difference in velocity models and crustal thicknesses between stations PLAI and SOEI are consistent with their contrasting tectonic environments.

  8. Crustal structure beneath two seismic stations in the Sunda-Banda arc transition zone derived from receiver function analysis (United States)

    Syuhada, Hananto, Nugroho D.; Puspito, Nanang T.; Anggono, Titi; Handayani, Lina; Yudistira, Tedi


    We analyzed receiver functions to estimate the crustal thickness and velocity structure beneath two stations of Geofon (GE) network in the Sunda-Banda arc transition zone. The stations are located in two different tectonic regimes: Sumbawa Island (station PLAI) and Timor Island (station SOEI) representing the oceanic and continental characters, respectively. We analyzed teleseismic events of 80 earthquakes to calculate the receiver functions using the time-domain iterative deconvolution technique. We employed 2D grid search (H-κ) algorithm based on the Moho interaction phases to estimate crustal thickness and Vp/Vs ratio. We also derived the S-wave velocity variation with depth beneath both stations by inverting the receiver functions. We obtained that beneath station PLAI the crustal thickness is about 27.8 km with Vp/Vs ratio 2.01. As station SOEI is covered by very thick low-velocity sediment causing unstable solution for the inversion, we modified the initial velocity model by adding the sediment thickness estimated using high frequency content of receiver functions in H-κ stacking process. We obtained the crustal thickness is about 37 km with VP/Vs ratio 2.2 beneath station SOEI. We suggest that the high Vp/Vs in station PLAI may indicate the presence of fluid ascending from the subducted plate to the volcanic arc, whereas the high Vp/Vs in station SOEI could be due to the presence of sediment and rich mafic composition in the upper crust and possibly related to the serpentinization process in the lower crust. We also suggest that the difference in velocity models and crustal thicknesses between stations PLAI and SOEI are consistent with their contrasting tectonic environments.

  9. Determination of Rayleigh wave ellipticity across the Earthscope Transportable Array using single-station and array-based processing of ambient seismic noise (United States)

    Workman, Eli; Lin, Fan-Chi; Koper, Keith D.


    We present a single station method for the determination of Rayleigh wave ellipticity, or Rayleigh wave horizontal to vertical amplitude ratio (H/V) using Frequency Dependent Polarization Analysis (FDPA). This procedure uses singular value decomposition of 3-by-3 spectral covariance matrices over 1-hr time windows to determine properties of the ambient seismic noise field such as particle motion and dominant wave-type. In FPDA, if the noise is mostly dominated by a primary singular value and the phase difference is roughly 90° between the major horizontal axis and the vertical axis of the corresponding singular vector, we infer that Rayleigh waves are dominant and measure an H/V ratio for that hour and frequency bin. We perform this analysis for all available data from the Earthscope Transportable Array between 2004 and 2014. We compare the observed Rayleigh wave H/V ratios with those previously measured by multicomponent, multistation noise cross-correlation (NCC), as well as classical noise spectrum H/V ratio analysis (NSHV). At 8 s the results from all three methods agree, suggesting that the ambient seismic noise field is Rayleigh wave dominated. Between 10 and 30 s, while the general pattern agrees well, the results from FDPA and NSHV are persistently slightly higher (˜2 per cent) and significantly higher (>20 per cent), respectively, than results from the array-based NCC. This is likely caused by contamination from other wave types (i.e. Love waves, body waves, and tilt noise) in the single station methods, but it could also reflect a small, persistent error in NCC. Additionally, we find that the single station method has difficulty retrieving robust Rayleigh wave H/V ratios within major sedimentary basins, such as the Williston Basin and Mississippi Embayment, where the noise field is likely dominated by reverberating Love waves and tilt noise.

  10. A Study Of Fluid Pressure Migration Within The North-Central Oklahoma Seismic Gap (United States)

    Lambert, C.; Keranen, K. M.; Sickbert, T.


    The rise in seismicity in Oklahoma since 2008 provides an unusual opportunity to study fluid migration and the interaction of fluids with faults. One unique area in north-central Oklahoma is a current seismic gap between large clusters in northern and central Oklahoma, providing a window into the temporal evolution of local seismicity. The gap in seismicity occurs across the NNE-SSW trending Nemaha uplift, with long faults relatively well-oriented in the regional stress field. Wastewater disposal occurs both within and on either side of the gap, and seismicity approached both sides of the uplift in 2014. To record seismicity and seismic migration through time within the uplift and along the bounding faults on either side, we deployed a ten station array of broadband sensors in April 2015. Our goal is to detect possible seismic signals related to fluid pressure migration and to ultimately increase our understanding of the fault response to perturbations in fluid pressure. Here we present local earthquake locations from the first months of data and initial focal mechanisms. We detect higher numbers of earthquakes happening within the Nemaha uplift than recorded in existing catalogs. The seismicity is typically events. This pattern of seismicity may represent deformation on small faults as the pressure perturbation migrates into the Nemaha uplift from either side and away from wells within the uplift.

  11. Detection and characterization of pulses in broadband seismometers (United States)

    Wilson, David; Ringler, Adam; Hutt, Charles R.


    Pulsing - caused either by mechanical or electrical glitches, or by microtilt local to a seismometer - can significantly compromise the long‐period noise performance of broadband seismometers. High‐fidelity long‐period recordings are needed for accurate calculation of quantities such as moment tensors, fault‐slip models, and normal‐mode measurements. Such pulses have long been recognized in accelerometers, and methods have been developed to correct these acceleration steps, but considerable work remains to be done in order to detect and correct similar pulses in broadband seismic data. We present a method for detecting and characterizing the pulses using data from a range of broadband sensor types installed in the Global Seismographic Network. The technique relies on accurate instrument response removal and employs a moving‐window approach looking for acceleration baseline shifts. We find that pulses are present at varying levels in all sensor types studied. Pulse‐detection results compared with average daily station noise values are consistent with predicted noise levels of acceleration steps. This indicates that we can calculate maximum pulse amplitude allowed per time window that would be acceptable without compromising long‐period data analysis.

  12. Deep-sea borehole seismological observatories in the western Pacific: temporal variation of seismic noise level and event detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Kaiho


    Full Text Available Seismological networks provide critical data for better understanding the dynamics of the Earth; however, a great limitation on existing networks is the uneven distribution of stations. In order to achieve a more uniform distribution of seismic stations, observatories must be constructed in marine areas. The best configuration for oceanic seismic observatories is thought to be placement of seismometers in deep boreholes. Two deep-sea borehole seismological observatories (WP-1 and WP-2 were constructed in the western Pacific and form the initial installations of a 1000 km span network. At present, seismic records of more than 400 total days were retrieved from both the WP-1 and WP-2. Long-term variations in broadband seismic noise spectra (3mHz - 10 Hz in the western Pacific were revealed from these records, and the data showed that ambient seismic noise levels in borehole observatories are comparable to those of the quietest land seismic stations. In addition, there is little temporal variation of noise levels in periods greater than 10 seconds. Due to this low seismic noise environment, many teleseismic events with magnitudes greater than 5 were recorded. It is confirmed that seismic observation in deep-sea borehole gives the best environment for earthquake observation in marine areas.

  13. Temporal variations of the fractal properties of seismicity in the western part of the north Anatolian fault zone: possible artifacts due to improvements in station coverage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. O. Öncel


    Full Text Available Seismically-active fault zones are complex natural systems exhibiting scale-invariant or fractal correlation between earthquakes in space and time, and a power-law scaling of fault length or earthquake source dimension consistent with the exponent b of the Gutenberg-Richter frequency-magnitude relation. The fractal dimension of seismicity is a measure of the degree of both the heterogeneity of the process (whether fixed or self-generated and the clustering of seismic activity. Temporal variations of the b-value and the two-point fractal (correlation dimension Dc have been related to the preparation process for natural earthquakes and rock fracture in the laboratory These statistical scaling properties of seismicity may therefore have the potential at least to be sensitive short- term predictors of major earthquakes. The North Anatolian Fault Zone (NAFZ is a seismicallyactive dextral strike slip fault zone which forms the northern boundary of the westward moving Anatolian plate. It is splayed into three branches at about 31oE and continues westward toward the northern Aegean sea. In this study, we investigate the temporal variation of Dc and the Gutenberg-Richter b-value for seismicity in the western part of the NAFZ (including the northern Aegean sea for earthquakes of Ms > 4.5 occurring in the period between 1900 and 1992. b ranges from 0.6-1.6 and Dc from 0.6 to 1.4. The b-value is found to be weakly negatively correlated with Dc (r=-0.56. However the (log of event rate N is positively correlated with b, with a similar degree of statistical significance (r=0.42, and negatively correlated with Dc (r=-0.48. Since N increases dramatically with improved station coverage since 1970, the observed negative correlation between b and Dc is therefore more likely to be due to this effect than any underlying physical process in this case. We present this as an example of how man-made artefacts of recording can have similar statistical effects to

  14. Development of Ultra-Broadband Base Station Antenna for All Mainstream LTE 700/800/900 MHz Frequency Bands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doudou Samb


    Full Text Available LTE deployment is being accelerated due to its improved radio access structure meeting the requirements of current and next generation of wireless networks. Its low band application presents useful aspects such as low density of base station while providing good in-building penetration. In this work, we design and develop a dual-polarized base station antenna supporting 698 MHz to 960 MHz with an azimuth-plan half-power beam width of 90° covering all mainstream LTE 700/800/900 MHz frequency bands representing the widest low frequency range being actively used in the current mobile communication industry. In the design process, rigorous algorithm based on swarm method is developed to tune the electrical performances under strict base station antenna requirements. Experimental results from pattern tests demonstrate the design analysis and the significant advantages of using swarm method in the antenna development process.

  15. Discriminating non-seismic long-period pulses and noise to improve earthquake source inversion (United States)

    Sakai, Takahide; Kumagai, Hiroyuki; Pulido, Nelson; Bonita, Jun; Nakano, Masaru


    Broadband seismometers produce artifacts resembling long-period pulses (non-seismic pulses) that degrade centroid moment tensor (CMT) estimations based on waveform inversion of broadband seismic records in long-period bands (50-200 s). We propose a method to discriminate non-seismic pulses and long-period noise from seismic signals, which can be applied to automatic CMT inversion analysis. In this method, we calculate source amplitudes as peak-to-peak displacement amplitudes in individual long-period seismic records after each event has been corrected for medium attenuation and geometric spreading and then estimate the ratios of individual source amplitudes to the minimum source amplitude. Because source amplitude ratios for non-seismic pulses tend to be greater than those of the seismic signals, we use seismic records in CMT estimations only if their source amplitude ratios are lower than a threshold value ( R). We tested this method using broadband seismic data from the Philippines and found that reprocessed inversion solutions using this method showed a clear improvement when using R = 11, although focal mechanism estimations were not entirely stable. To investigate the general applicability of this method, we analyzed broadband seismic data from F-net in Japan. Our analysis indicated that source amplitude ratios in F-net data ranged up to about 20, indicating that the threshold value may be dependent on station density. Given that F-net is one of the highest density networks in the world, we may assume that a threshold value between 10 and 20 is appropriate for application of our method for most regional broadband networks. Our synthetic tests indicated that source amplitude ratios can be as high as 103, although observed ratios are only within the range 10-20. This suggests that we happened to observe only events having focal mechanisms with source amplitude ratios of 10-20. Alternatively, these high source amplitude ratios can be explained by distortion of

  16. Near-Real-Time Sismo-acoustic Submarine Station for offshore monitoring (United States)

    D'Anna, Giuseppe; D'Alessandro, Antonino; Fertitta, Gioacchino; Fraticelli, Nicola; Calore, Daniele


    From the early 1980's, Italian seismicity is monitored by the National Seismic Network (NSN). The network has been considerably enhanced by INGV since 2005 by 24-bit digital stations equipped with broad-band sensors. The NSN is nowadays constituted by about 300 on-land seismic station able to detect and locate also small magnitude earthquake in the whole Italian peninsula. However, the lack of offshore seismic stations does not allow the accurate estimation of hypocentral and focal parameters of small magnitude earthquakes occurring in offshore areas. As in the Mediterranean area there is an intense offshore seismic activity, an extension of the seismic monitoring to the sea would be beneficial. There are two types of stations that could be used to extend the network towards the sea: the first type is connected to the coast though a cable, the second type is isolated (or stand alone) and works autonomously. Both solutions have serious limitations: the first one, for several technical and economic problems, linked to the indispensable transmission/alimentation cable, cannot be installed far from the coast; the second one, allows access to the recorded data, only after they are recovered from the seabed. It is clear that these technical solutions are not suitable for the real time monitoring of the offshore seismicity or for the realization of a tsunami warning system. For this reason, in early 2010, the OBSLab of Gibilmanna begins the design of a submarine station able to overcome the limitations of the two systems above. The station isbuilt under the project EMSO-MedIT. The two stations built have already been tested in dock and ready for installation. One of this station will be installed, in few time, in the southern Tyrrhenian Sea, near the epicentre of the Palermo 2002 main shock. The sea bottom station will be equipped with 2 very broadband 3C seismometers, a broad band hydrophone, a differential and an absolute pressure gauge. The station includes a submarine

  17. 地铁地下车站抗震性能分析方法%Analysis Method of Seismic Behavior for Metro Underground Station

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周灿朗; 龙喜安


    以佛山地铁三号线荔村站实际工程为背景,讨论了反应位移法和时程分析法两种地下车站结构抗震性能分析方法。反应位移法以一维土层地震反应计算为前提,以结构周围土体在地震作用下的变形值为基础,建立了地铁车站二维结构模型,利用变形值计算出等效地震作用力,以静荷载的形式加载于结构模型中,并将地震响应结果与静力法计算结果进行了对比,总结了地铁车站在地震作用下的内力变化规律。时程分析法以动力有限元理论为基础,从半无限空间选取有限土体,采用了粘弹性人工边界,对选用的地震波记录值进行了合理调整,采用了计算方便、节约内存且其计算精度较高的瑞利振型阻尼,基于Midas GTS NX软件,建立了结构和周围土层作为整体计算模型,通过模态分析求解了结构体系各阶的自振频率和各阶振型,模拟了地下结构在地震荷载下的动态特性,揭示了地铁车站在地震作用下的位移时程反应及变形规律;最终通过两种抗震性能分析方法为地铁车站结构的抗震设计提供了依据。%The two analysis methods of structural seismic (response displacement method and time history analysis method) are discussed in this paper for the underground station based on the actual project of Li Cun Station in Metro line No.3 in Foshan. The response displacement method is on the premise of seismic response calculation of one-dimensional soil layer, and is on the basis of deformation value of the surrounding soils under earthquake action. Two-dimensional structure model is established for the subway station and the equivalent earthquake force is calculated by using the deformation value, which is loaded in the structural model in static form. The re-sults of seismic response and static method are compared and the change law of internal force is summarized. Be-sides, the time history

  18. Seismic imaging of esker structures from a combination of high-resolution broadband multicomponent streamer and wireless sensors, Turku-Finland (United States)

    Maries, Georgiana; Ahokangas, Elina; Mäkinen, Joni; Pasanen, Antti; Malehmir, Alireza


    Eskers and glaciofluvial interlobate formations, mainly composed of sands and gravels and deposited in winding ridges, define the locations of glacial melt-water streams. These sediments, porous and permeable, form the most important aquifers in Finland and are often used as aggregates or for artificial aquifer recharge. The Virttaankangas interlobate suite and artificial aquifer recharge plant provides the entire water supply for the city of Turku and therefore an accurate delineation of the aquifer is critical for long term planning and sustainable use of these natural resources. The study area is part of the Säkylänharju-Virttaankangas Glaciofluvial esker-chain complex and lies on an igneous, crystalline basement rocks. To provide complementary information to existing boreholes and GPR studies at the site, such as identification of potential esker cores, planning for a water extraction, fractured bedrock and possible kettle holes, a new seismic investigation was designed and carried out during summer 2014. Two seismic profiles each about 1 km long were acquired using a newly developed 200 m long prototype, comprising of 80-3C MEMs-based, landstreamer system. To provide velocity information at larger depths (and longer offsets), fifty-two 10-Hz 1C wireless sensors spaced at about every 20 m were used. A Bobcat mounted drop-hammer source, generating three hits per source location, was used as the seismic source. This proved to be a good choice given the attenuative nature of the dry sediments down to about 20 m depth. One of the seismic lines overlaps an existing streamer survey and thus allows a comparison between the system used in this study and the one employed before. Except at a few places where the loose sands mixed with leaves affected the coupling, the data quality is excellent with several reflections identifiable in the raw shot gathers. First arrivals were easily identifiable in almost all the traces and shots and this allowed obtaining velocity

  19. Studying propagation of seismic waves across the Valley of Mexico from correlations of seismic noise (United States)

    Rivet, D. N.; Campillo, M.; Shapiro, N. M.; Singh, S.; Cruz Atienza, V. M.; Quintanar, L.; Valdés, C.


    We reconstruct Rayleigh and Love waves from cross-correlations of ambient seismic noise recorded at 22 broad-band stations of the MesoAmerica Seismic Experiment (MASE) and Valley of Mexico Experiment (VMEX). The cross-correlations are computed over 2 years of noise data for the 9 MASE stations and over 1 year for the 13 VMEX stations. Surface waves with sufficient signal-to-noise ratio are then used in the group velocity dispersion analysis. We use the reconstructed waveforms to measure group velocity dispersion curves at period of 0.5 to 5 seconds. For traveling path inside the lake-bed zone, the maximum energy is observed at velocity higher than expected for the fundamental mode. This indicates that the propagation within the Mexico basin is dominated by higher modes of surface waves that propagate deeper in the basin. We identify the propagation modes by comparing observations with theoretical dispersion curves and eigenfunctions calculated for Rayleigh and Loves waves associated with a given model of the upper crust. The fundamental mode shows a very low group velocity, <100m/s, which is consistent with previous studies. The domination of the higher modes in the Valley of Mexico may be a determining factor in the long duration of the seismic signal. A better velocity constraint on the deeper structure of the basin is thus needed to fully understand this phenomenon.

  20. An Analysis of the Seismic Source Characteristics of Explosions in Low-Coupling Dry Porous Media (Postprint) (United States)


    tectonic source region, explosions in dry, porous media are typically observed to have, at a given yield, mb values lower than those in hard rock by...mb/yield relation for any fixed tectonic source region, explosions in dry, porous media, such as the dry tuffs and alluvium found above the water...broadband digital data recorded from NNSS explosions at the four near-regional stations of the LLNL seismic network. Because the available data sample

  1. Retrieval of P wave Basin Response from Autocorrelation of Seismic Noise-Jakarta, Indonesia (United States)

    Saygin, E.; Cummins, P. R.; Lumley, D. E.


    Indonesia's capital city, Jakarta, is home to a very large (over 10 million), vulnerable population and is proximate to known active faults, as well as to the subduction of Australian plate, which has a megathrust at abut 300 km distance, as well as intraslab seismicity extending to directly beneath the city. It is also located in a basin filled with a thick layer of unconsolidated and poorly consolidated sediment, which increases the seismic hazard the city is facing. Therefore, the information on the seismic velocity structure of the basin is crucial for increasing our knowledge of the seismic risk. We undertook a passive deployment of broadband seismographs throughout the city over a 3-month interval in 2013-2014, recording ambient seismic noise at over 90 sites for intervals of 1 month or more. Here we consider autocorrelations of the vertical component of the continuously recorded seismic wavefield across this dense network to image the shallow P wave velocity structure of Jakarta, Indonesia. Unlike the surface wave Green's functions used in ambient noise tomography, the vertical-component autocorrelograms are dominated by body wave energy that is potentially sensitive to sharp velocity contrasts, which makes them useful in seismic imaging. Results show autocorrelograms at different seismic stations with travel time variations that largely reflect changes in sediment thickness across the basin. We also confirm the validity our interpretation of the observed autocorrelation waveforms by conducting 2D finite difference full waveform numerical modeling for randomly distributed seismic sources to retrieve the reflection response through autocorrelation.

  2. The Central and Eastern U.S. Seismic Network: Legacy of USArray (United States)

    Eakins, J. A.; Astiz, L.; Benz, H.; Busby, R. W.; Hafner, K.; Reyes, J. C.; Sharer, G.; Vernon, F.; Woodward, R.


    As the USArray Transportable Array entered the central and eastern United States, several Federal agencies (National Science Foundation, U.S. Geological Survey, U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, and Department of Energy) recognized the unique opportunity to retain TA stations beyond the original timeline. The mission of the CEUSN is to produce data that enables researchers and Federal agencies alike to better understand the basic geologic questions, background earthquake rates and distribution, seismic hazard potential, and associated societal risks of this region. The selected long-term sub-array from Transportable Array (TA) stations includes nearly 200 sites, complemented by 100 broadband stations from the existing regional seismic networks to form the Central and Eastern United States Network (CEUSN). Multiple criteria for site selection were weighed by an inter-agency TA Station Selection (TASS) Working Group: seismic noise characteristics, data availability in real time, proximity to nuclear power plants, and homogeneous distribution throughout the region. The Array Network Facility (ANF) started collecting data for CEUSN network stations since late 2013, with all stations collected since May 2014. Regional seismic data streams are collected in real-time from the IRIS Data Management Center (DMC). TA stations selected to be part of CEUSN, retain the broadband sensor to which a 100 sps channel is added, the infrasound and environmental channels, and, at some stations, accelerometers are deployed. The upgraded sites become part of the N4 network for which ANF provides metadata and can issue remote commands to the station equipment. Stations still operated by TA, but planned for CEUSN, are included in the virtual network so all stations are currently available now. By the end of 2015, the remaining TA stations will be upgraded. Data quality control procedures developed for TA stations at ANF and at the DMC are currently performed on N4 data. However

  3. Microearthquakes at Valles Caldera, New Mexico: Improved Detection and Location with Two Additional Caldera Stations (United States)

    Roberts, P. M.; House, L. S.; Ten Cate, J. A.


    The Los Alamos Seismic Network (LASN) has operated for 43 years, providing data to locate more than 2,500 earthquakes in north-central New Mexico. Roughly 1-2 earthquakes are detected and located per month within about 150 km of Los Alamos, a total of over 900 from 1973 to present. LASN's primary purpose is to monitor seismicity close to the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) for seismic hazards; monitoring seismicity associated with the nearby Valles Caldera is secondary. Until 2010 the network was focused on monitoring seismic hazards and comprised only 7 stations, all near LANL or in the nearby Jemez Mountains. Just one station—PER, installed in 1998—was close enough to Valles Caldera to be able to detect microearthquakes located in or near the caldera. An initial study of the data from station PER between 1998 and 2002 identified and located 13 events with magnitudes less than 0.5 using the single-station hodogram technique. Those events were all located south of the caldera within a few kilometers of PER. Recently, two new digital broadband stations were installed inside the caldera, one on a northeastern ring-fracture dome, station CDAB, and the other on a northwestern dome, station SAMT. Also, station PER was upgraded with digital broadband instrumentation. Thus, LASN now can detect and record microearthquakes as small as magnitude -1.5 near the caldera, and they can be located using multiple arrival times. Several recent events located near station SAMT on the caldera's ring fracture are the first that have been seen in that area. Additional events were recorded (by all three stations) and located in the area south of the caldera where the earlier hodogram-only events were located. These new multi-station event recordings allow a more quantitative assessment of the uncertainties in the initial single-station hodogram locations. Each event is located using multiple arrival times as well as the hodogram method at as many as three stations. Thus

  4. Seismic site-response characterization of high-velocity sites using advanced geophysical techniques: application to the NAGRA-Net (United States)

    Poggi, V.; Burjanek, J.; Michel, C.; Fäh, D.


    The Swiss Seismological Service (SED) has recently finalised the installation of ten new seismological broadband stations in northern Switzerland. The project was led in cooperation with the National Cooperative for the Disposal of Radioactive Waste (Nagra) and Swissnuclear to monitor micro seismicity at potential locations of nuclear-waste repositories. To further improve the quality and usability of the seismic recordings, an extensive characterization of the sites surrounding the installation area was performed following a standardised investigation protocol. State-of-the-art geophysical techniques have been used, including advanced active and passive seismic methods. The results of all analyses converged to the definition of a set of best-representative 1-D velocity profiles for each site, which are the input for the computation of engineering soil proxies (traveltime averaged velocity and quarter-wavelength parameters) and numerical amplification models. Computed site response is then validated through comparison with empirical site amplification, which is currently available for any station connected to the Swiss seismic networks. With the goal of a high-sensitivity network, most of the NAGRA stations have been installed on stiff-soil sites of rather high seismic velocity. Seismic characterization of such sites has always been considered challenging, due to lack of relevant velocity contrast and the large wavelengths required to investigate the frequency range of engineering interest. We describe how ambient vibration techniques can successfully be applied in these particular conditions, providing practical recommendations for best practice in seismic site characterization of high-velocity sites.

  5. The seismic project of the National Tsunami Hazard Mitigation Program (United States)

    Oppenheimer, D.H.; Bittenbinder, A.N.; Bogaert, B.M.; Buland, R.P.; Dietz, L.D.; Hansen, R.A.; Malone, S.D.; McCreery, C.S.; Sokolowski, T.J.; Whitmore, P.M.; Weaver, C.S.


    In 1997, the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), and the five western States of Alaska, California, Hawaii, Oregon, and Washington joined in a partnership called the National Tsunami Hazard Mitigation Program (NTHMP) to enhance the quality and quantity of seismic data provided to the NOAA tsunami warning centers in Alaska and Hawaii. The NTHMP funded a seismic project that now provides the warning centers with real-time seismic data over dedicated communication links and the Internet from regional seismic networks monitoring earthquakes in the five western states, the U.S. National Seismic Network in Colorado, and from domestic and global seismic stations operated by other agencies. The goal of the project is to reduce the time needed to issue a tsunami warning by providing the warning centers with high-dynamic range, broadband waveforms in near real time. An additional goal is to reduce the likelihood of issuing false tsunami warnings by rapidly providing to the warning centers parametric information on earthquakes that could indicate their tsunamigenic potential, such as hypocenters, magnitudes, moment tensors, and shake distribution maps. New or upgraded field instrumentation was installed over a 5-year period at 53 seismic stations in the five western states. Data from these instruments has been integrated into the seismic network utilizing Earthworm software. This network has significantly reduced the time needed to respond to teleseismic and regional earthquakes. Notably, the West Coast/Alaska Tsunami Warning Center responded to the 28 February 2001 Mw 6.8 Nisqually earthquake beneath Olympia, Washington within 2 minutes compared to an average response time of over 10 minutes for the previous 18 years. ?? Springer 2005.

  6. Measurement of the Parameter Kappa, and Reevaluation of Kappa for Small to Moderate Earthquakes at Seismic Stations in the Vicinity of Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biasi, Glenn; Anderson, John G


    The parameter kappa was defined by Anderson and Hough (1984) to describe the high-frequency spectral roll-off of the strong motion seismic spectrum. In the work of Su et al., (1996) the numerical value of kappa estimated for sites near Yucca Mountain was small (~20 ms). The estimate obtained from these events has been applied through a rigorous methodology to develop design earthquake spectra with magnitude over 5.0. Smaller values of kappa lead to higher estimated ground motions in the methodology used by the Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Analysis (PSHA) for Yucca Mountain. An increase of 10 ms in kappa could result in a substantial decrease in the high frequency level of the predicted ground motions. Any parameter that plays such a critical role deserves close examination. Here, we study kappa and its associated uncertainties. The data set used by Su et al (1996) consisted of 12 M 2.8 to 4.5 earthquakes recorded at temporary stations deployed after the June 1992 Little Skull Mountain earthquake. The kappa elements of that study were revisited by Anderson and Su (MOL.20071203.0134) and substantially confirmed. One weakness of those studies is the limited data used. Few of these stations were on tuff or on Yucca Mountain itself. A decade of Southern Great Basin Digital Seismic Network (SGBDSN) recording has now yielded a larger body of on-scale, well calibrated digital ground motion records suitable for investigating kappa. We use the SGBDSN data to check some of the original assumptions, improve the statistical confidence of the conclusions, and determine values of kappa for stations on or near Yucca Mountain. The outstanding issues in kappa analysis, as they apply to Yucca Mountain, include: 1. The number itself. The kappa estimate near 20 msec from Su et al. (1996) and Anderson and Su (MOL.20071203.0134) is markedly smaller than is considered typical in California (Silva, 1995). The low kappa value has engineering consequences because when it is applied in ground

  7. Valles Caldera, New Mexico Microearthquakes: Improved Detection and Location with Expanded Caldera Station Coverage (United States)

    House, L. S.; Roberts, P. M.; Ten Cate, J. A.


    The Los Alamos Seismic Network (LASN) has operated for 44 years, providing data to locate more than 2,500 earthquakes in north-central New Mexico. Roughly 1-2 earthquakes are detected and located per month within about 150 km of Los Alamos, a total of over 900 from 1973 to present. LASN's primary purpose is to monitor seismicity close to the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) for seismic hazards; monitoring seismicity associated with the nearby Valles Caldera is secondary. Until 2010 the network comprised only 7 stations, all near LANL or in the nearby Jemez Mountains. Just one station (PER, installed in 1998) was close enough to Valles Caldera to be able to detect microearthquakes located in or near the caldera. An initial study of the data from station PER between 1998 and 2002 identified and located 13 events with magnitudes less than 0.5 using the single-station hodogram technique. Those events were all located south of the caldera within a few kilometers of PER. Recently, two new digital broadband stations were installed inside the caldera, one on a northeastern ring-fracture dome, station CDAB, and the other on a northwestern dome, station SAMT. Also, station PER was upgraded with digital broadband instrumentation. Thus, LASN now can detect and record microearthquakes as small as magnitude -1.5 near the caldera, and they can be located using arrival times at multiple stations. Several recent events located near station SAMT on the caldera's ring fracture are the first that have been seen in that area. Additional events were recorded (by all three stations) and located in the area south of the caldera where the earlier hodogram-only events were located. These new multi-station event recordings allow a more quantitative assessment of the uncertainties in the initial single-station hodogram locations. Each event is located using multiple arrival times as well as the hodogram method at as many as three stations. Thus, improvements can be made to the

  8. High altitude clouds impacts on the design of optical feeder link and optical ground station network for future broadband satellite services (United States)

    Poulenard, S.; Ruellan, M.; Roy, B.; Riédi, J.; Parol, F.; Rissons, A.


    Optical links at 1.55μm are envisaged to cope with the increasing capacity demand from geostationary telecom satellite operators without the need of Radio Frequency (RF) coordination. Due to clouds blockages, site diversity techniques based on a network of Optical Ground Stations (OGS) are necessary to reach the commonly required link availability (e.g. 99.9% over the year). Evaluation of the N Optical Ground Station Network (N-OGSN) availability is based on Clouds Masks (CMs) and depends on the clouds attenuation taken in the optical communication budget link. In particular, low attenuation of high semitransparent clouds (i.e. cirrus) could be incorporated into the budget link at the price of larger or more powerful optical terminals. In this paper, we present a method for the calibration of the attenuation at 1.55 μm of high semitransparent clouds. We perform OGS localization optimization in Europe and we find that the incorporation of thin cirrus attenuation in the budget link reduces by 20% the number of handover (i.e. switches OGS) and the handover rate. It is also shown that the minimum number of station required in Europe to reach 99.9% link availability is 10 to 11. When the zone of research is enlarged the Africa, this number is reduced to 3 to 4.

  9. Broadband network on-line data acquisition system with web based interface for control and basic analysis (United States)

    Polkowski, Marcin; Grad, Marek


    Passive seismic experiment "13BB Star" is operated since mid 2013 in northern Poland and consists of 13 broadband seismic stations. One of the elements of this experiment is dedicated on-line data acquisition system comprised of both client (station) side and server side modules with web based interface that allows monitoring of network status and provides tools for preliminary data analysis. Station side is controlled by ARM Linux board that is programmed to maintain 3G/EDGE internet connection, receive data from digitizer, send data do central server among with additional auxiliary parameters like temperatures, voltages and electric current measurements. Station side is controlled by set of easy to install PHP scripts. Data is transmitted securely over SSH protocol to central server. Central server is a dedicated Linux based machine. Its duty is receiving and processing all data from all stations including auxiliary parameters. Server side software is written in PHP and Python. Additionally, it allows remote station configuration and provides web based interface for user friendly interaction. All collected data can be displayed for each day and station. It also allows manual creation of event oriented plots with different filtering abilities and provides numerous status and statistic information. Our solution is very flexible and easy to modify. In this presentation we would like to share our solution and experience. National Science Centre Poland provided financial support for this work via NCN grant DEC-2011/02/A/ST10/00284.

  10. Dynamic Bayesian filtering for real-time seismic analyses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blough, D.K.; Rohay, A.C.; Anderson, K.K.; Nicholson, W.L.


    State space modeling, which includes techniques such as the Kalman filter, has been used to analyze many non-stationary time series. The ability of these dynamic models to adapt and track changes in the underlying process makes them attractive for application to the real-time analysis of three-component seismic waveforms. The authors are investigating the application of state space models formulated as Bayesian time series models to phase detection, polarization, and spectrogram estimation of seismograms. This approach removes the need to specify data windows in the time series for time averaging estimation (e.g., spectrum estimation). They are using this model to isolate particular seismic phases based on polarization parameters that are determined at a spectrum of frequencies. They plan to use polarization parameters, frequency spectra, and magnitudes to discriminate between different types of seismic sources. They present the application of this technique to artificial time series and to several real seismic events including the Non-Proliferation Experiment (NPE) two nuclear tests and three earthquakes from the Nevada Test site, as recorded on several regional broadband seismic stations. A preliminary result of this analysis indicates that earthquakes and explosions can potentially be discriminated on the bass of the polarization characteristics of scattered seismic phases. However, the chemical (NPE) and nuclear explosions appear to have very similar polarization characteristics.

  11. Deployment of a Long-Term Broadband Seafloor Observatory in Monterey Bay (United States)

    McGill, P.; Neuhauser, D.; Stakes, D.; Romanowicz, B.; Ramirez, T.; Uhrhammer, R.


    MOBB (Monterey bay Ocean floor Broad Band project) is a collaborative project between the Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute (MBARI) and the Berkeley Seismological Laboratory (BSL). Its goal is to install and operate a permanent seafloor broadband seismic station as a first step towards extending the on-shore broadband seismic network in northern California to the seaside of the North-America/Pacific plate boundary, providing better azimuthal coverage for regional earthquake and structure studies. The successful MOBB deployment took place 40km off shore at a water depth of 1000m during three dives on April 9-11, 2002. The seismometer was buried in a 60-cm deep caisson, which was later back filled with glass beads to stabilize the instrument. New tools, including a high-pressure water-jet excavator, were developed for the ROV Ventana to accomplish these tasks. The ocean-bottom MOBB station currently comprises a three-component seismometer package, a current-meter, and a recording and battery package. Data recovery dives, during which the recording and battery package will be exchanged, are planned every three months for the next three years. A differential pressure gauge (DPG) (Cox et al., 1984) will be deployed as part of the recording package during the next data recovery dive in September 2002. The station is currently recording data autonomously. Eventually, it will be linked to the planned (and recently funded) MARS (Monterey Accelerated Research System; rl {}) cable and provide real-time, continuous seismic data to be merged with the rest of the northern California real-time seismic system. The data are archived at the NCEDC for on-line availability, as part of the Berkeley Digital Seismic Network (BDSN). This project follows the 1997 MOISE experiment, in which a three-component broadband system was deployed for a period of three months, 40km off shore in Monterey Bay. MOISE was a cooperative program sponsored by MBARI, UC

  12. Stress distribution and seismicity patterns of the 2011 seismic swarm in the Messinia basin, (South-Western Peloponnesus, Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Chouliaras


    Full Text Available In this investigation we examine the local stress field and the seismicity patterns associated with the 2011–2012 seismicity swarm in the Messinia basin, south-western Peloponnesus, Greece, using the seismological data of the National Observatory of Athens (NOA. During this swarm more than 2000 events were recorded in a 12 month period by the Hellenic Unified Seismological Network (HUSN and also by the additional local installation of four portable broadband seismographic stations by NOA.

    The results indicate a Gaussian distribution of swarm activity and the development of a seismicity cluster in a pre-existing seismic gap within the Messinia basin. Centroid Moment Tensor solutions demonstrate a normal fault trending northwest–southeast and dipping to the southwest primarily due to an extensional stress field. During this seismicity swarm an epicentre migration of the three largest shocks is observed, from one end of the rupture zone in the north-western part of the cluster, towards the other edge of the rupture in the south-eastern part of the cluster. This migration is found to follow the Coulomb failure criterion that predicts the advancement and retardation of the stress field and the patterns of increases and decreases of the seismicity rate (b-value of the frequency–magnitude relation.

  13. Adoption of Broadband Services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Falch, Morten


    Broadband is seen as a key infrastructure for developing the information society. For this reason many Governments are actively engaged in stimulating investments in broadband infrastructures and use of broadband services. This chapter compares a wide range of broadband strategies in the most suc....... Many countries have provided active support for stimulating diffusion of broadband and national variants of this type of policies in different countries are important for an explanation of national differences in adoption of broadband....

  14. The new Algerian Digital Seismic Network (ADSN): towards an earthquake early-warning system (United States)

    Yelles-Chaouche, A.; Allili, T.; Alili, A.; Messemen, W.; Beldjoudi, H.; Semmane, F.; Kherroubi, A.; Djellit, H.; Larbes, Y.; Haned, S.; Deramchi, A.; Amrani, A.; Chouiref, A.; Chaoui, F.; Khellaf, K.; Nait Sidi Said, C.


    Seismic monitoring in Algeria has seen great changes since the Boumerdes earthquake of 21 May 2003. Indeed, the installation of a new digital seismic network has resulted in a significant upgrade of the previous analog telemetry network. During the last four years, the number of stations in operation has increased substantially from 25 to 69, and 20 of these are broadband, 2 are very broadband, 47 are short period. 21 are equipped with accelerometers. They are all managed by Antelope software from Kinemetrics (US Cie), and they are all connected in real time and use various modes of transmission (e.g., satellite, internet, mobile phone). The spatial repartition of the stations now cover most of northern Algeria. In addition, 70 GPS stations have recently been added to this seismological network, most of them collocated with the seismological stations. Since the installation of the network, the records of local or distant events have improved significantly. The automatic processing of the data in a few minutes allows alert messages to be distributed to Civil Defense and other national authorities to react promptly to any emergency. The current strategy is to improve the data quality, to increase the density of the network by adding about 50 new stations, to reduce the processing time, and to reduce the time needed to send out an alert message. The result should be greatly improved network performance, which will lead to an effective early-warning system.

  15. Seismic anisotropy and mantle dynamics beneath the central and western United States (United States)

    Yang, Bin

    Various tectonic features and the recent availability of high-quality broadband seismic data from the USArray and other seismic stations in the central and western United States (CWUS) provide a distinct opportunity to test different anisotropy-forming mechanisms. For the first part of the study, a total of 4138 pairs of well-defined shear wave splitting (SWS) parameters observed at 445 stations on the northern Great Plains show systematic spatial variations of anisotropic characteristics. Azimuthally invariant fast orientations subparallel to the absolute plate motion (APM) direction are observed at most of the stations on the Superior Craton and the southern Yavapai province, indicating that a single layer of anisotropy with a horizontal axis of symmetry is sufficient to explain the anisotropic structure. Based on the splitting measurements and previous results from seismic tomography and geodynamic modeling, we propose a model involving deflecting of asthenosphere flow by the bottom of the lithosphere and channeling flow by a zone of thinned lithosphere approximately along the northern boundary of the Yavapai province. The second part of the study created an up-to-date SWS database for CWUS in the area of 125° W to 90° W, 26° N to 52° N to upgrade a previous database [Liu et al., 2014]. A total of 7452 pairs of high-quality measurements recorded by 1202 digital broadband seismic stations (both permanent and portable seismic networks) over the period of 1989-2014 is obtained. The current version includes 23448 pairs of well-defined splitting parameters in three phases, i.e. PKS, SKKS and SKS. The dissertation is a combination of two journal papers published in 2014 and 2016, respectively.

  16. Crustal Structure of the Pakistan Himalayas from Ambient Noise and Seismic Rayleigh Wave Inversion (United States)

    Li, A.


    The western Himalayan syntaxi is a unique feature resulted from the India-Asia collision and its formation remains poorly understood. To image crustal structure in the western syntaxi, we analyze Rayleigh waves from ambient seismic noise and earthquake data recorded during the Pakistan Broadband Seismic Experiment. The Pakistan experiment included 9 broadband stations with an aperture of ~200 km and operated from September to December in 1992. We compute cross-correlations of ambient noise data on an hourly base and stack all the cross-correlations for 70 days to produce the estimated Green functions. Power spectrum analysis shows that the dominant energy is from 0.15 to 0.25 Hz and from 0.05 to 0.07 Hz, consistent with the well-know background seismic noise. A phase with large amplitude appears at near zero time on almost all stacked cross- correlations and its origin is not clear to us at this moment. Rayleigh waves can be clearly observed for station pairs at the distance of 80 km and larger but are contaminated by the near zero time phase at shorter station spacing. Rayleigh wave phase velocities at periods of 4 to 15 s will be produced from the ambient noise data. Using regional and teleseismic earthquakes, we expect to obtain Rayleigh wave dispersions at periods from 15 to 50 s. The phase velocities from both datasets will be inverted for crustal thickness and shear-wave structure beneath the Pakistan Himalayas.

  17. Seismic moment tensors and regional stress in the area of the December 2013-January 2014, Matese earthquake sequence (Italy) (United States)

    D'Amico, Sebastiano; Cammarata, Laura; Cangemi, Marianna; Cavallaro, Danilo; Di Martino, Roberto Maria; Firetto Carlino, Marco


    The main goal of this study is to provide moment tensor solutions for small and moderate earthquakes of the Matese seismic sequence in southern Italy for the period of December 2013-January 2014. We estimate the focal mechanisms of 31 earthquakes with local magnitudes related to the Matese earthquake seismic sequence (December 2013-January 2014) in Southern-Central Italy which are recorded by the broadband stations of the Italian National Seismic Network and the Mediterranean Very Broadband Seismographic Network (MedNet) run by the Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV). The solutions show that normal faulting is the prevailing style of seismic deformation in agreement with the local faults mapped out in the area. Comparisons with already published solutions and with seismological and geological information available allowed us to properly interpret the moment tensor solutions in the frame of the seismic sequence evolution and also to furnish additional information about less energetic seismic phases. Focal data were inverted to obtain the seismogenic stress in the study area. The results are compatible with the major tectonic domain of the area.

  18. Adoption of Broadband Services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Falch, Morten


    Broadband is seen as a key infrastructure for developing the information society. For this reason many Governments are actively engaged in stimulating investments in broadband infrastructures and use of broadband services. This chapter compares a wide range of broadband strategies in the most...

  19. 物联网技术在浙江省地震台站设备管理中的应用%Application of the internet of things technology in the equipment management of the seismic stations in Zhejiang Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈吉锋; 陈军辉; 张帆


    According to the status that seismic stations have increased while the shortage is existed in equipment management, we designed an intelligent management system, which was based on the technology of radio frequency identifi cation (RFID) and modern communication technology, to achieve the real-time monitoring and inventory of seismic equipment. Compared with the traditional management situation,this system can ensure the equipment management accurate and effi cient operation of seismic stations, at the same time, it helps to provide evidence for the analysis of the seismic equipment failure.%针对目前浙江省地震监测台站不断增多,地震设备管理存在严重不足的现状,设计一种基于射频识别(RFID)技术及现代通信技术的地震设备物联网化智能管理系统,实现对台站设备从采购、仓储、安装、维修、报废等整个生命周期的实时监控与盘点。与传统资产管理模式相比,该系统能确保地震台站设备管理精确和高效运行,并可为地震台站设备故障原因分析提供依据。

  20. Utah's Regional/Urban ANSS Seismic Network---Strategies and Tools for Quality Performance (United States)

    Burlacu, R.; Arabasz, W. J.; Pankow, K. L.; Pechmann, J. C.; Drobeck, D. L.; Moeinvaziri, A.; Roberson, P. M.; Rusho, J. A.


    The University of Utah's regional/urban seismic network (224 stations recorded: 39 broadband, 87 strong-motion, 98 short-period) has become a model for locally implementing the Advanced National Seismic System (ANSS) because of successes in integrating weak- and strong-motion recording and in developing an effective real-time earthquake information system. Early achievements included implementing ShakeMap, ShakeCast, point-to- multipoint digital telemetry, and an Earthworm Oracle database, as well as in-situ calibration of all broadband and strong-motion stations and submission of all data and metadata into the IRIS DMC. Regarding quality performance, our experience as a medium-size regional network affirms the fundamental importance of basics such as the following: for data acquisition, deliberate attention to high-quality field installations, signal quality, and computer operations; for operational efficiency, a consistent focus on professional project management and human resources; and for customer service, healthy partnerships---including constant interactions with emergency managers, engineers, public policy-makers, and other stakeholders as part of an effective state earthquake program. (Operational cost efficiencies almost invariably involve trade-offs between personnel costs and the quality of hardware and software.) Software tools that we currently rely on for quality performance include those developed by UUSS (e.g., SAC and shell scripts for estimating local magnitudes) and software developed by other organizations such as: USGS (Earthworm), University of Washington (interactive analysis software), ISTI (SeisNetWatch), and IRIS (PDCC, BUD tools). Although there are many pieces, there is little integration. One of the main challenges we face is the availability of a complete and coherent set of tools for automatic and post-processing to assist in achieving the goals/requirements set forth by ANSS. Taking our own network---and ANSS---to the next level

  1. Basin and Crustal Structure of Jakarta and Bandung, Indonesia from Two Seismic Campaigns (United States)

    Saygin, E.; Cummins, P. R.; Cipta, A.; Irsam, M.; Masturyono, M.; Murjaya, J.; Nugraha, A. D.; Pandhu, R.; Widiyantoro, S.; Zulhan, Z.


    Between October 2013 and February 2014, a dense portable seismic broadband network was operated by The Australian National University (ANU) and Indonesian Agency for Meteorology, Climatology and Geophysics (BMKG) in Jakarta, Indonesia. Jakarta is located in Java Island, Indonesia, with a population over 10 million. Overall 96 points were sampled through the successive deployments of 52 seismic broadband sensors at different parts of the city. After recording continuous seismic data for 5 months, the network was shifted to Bandung, another city to the south-east of Jakarta on March 2014. Bandung is situated on a old lake deposit surrounded by volcanic provinces. The configuration of the seismic network at Bandung encompasses the whole city as well as an active volcano-Tangkuban Perahu and Lembang Fault both located just outside of the city.In both of the experiments, oceanic and anthropogenic noise were recorded as well as local and regional earthquakes. We apply regularized deconvolution to the recorded data of the vertical components of available station pairs, and over 4000 Green's functions were retrieved in total. Waveforms from stacked interstation deconvolutions show clear arrivals of Rayleigh and body waves. The traveltimes that were extracted from the group velocity filtering of Rayleigh wave arrivals, are used in a Transdimensional Bayesian seismic tomography method to map the velocity perturbations across cities. The constructed images at Jakarta mark the very low group velocities of Rayleigh waves, as low as 150 m/s at 1 Hz showing influence of a very low velocity basin. Low seismic velocity regions imaged through seismic noise tomography beneath both cities potentially posses a large risk of causing seismic amplification during a large earthquake close to the cities.

  2. Seismic monitoring at Cascade Volcanic Centers, 2004?status and recommendations (United States)

    Moran, Seth C.


    The purpose of this report is to assess the current (May, 2004) status of seismic monitoring networks at the 13 major Cascade volcanic centers. Included in this assessment are descriptions of each network, analyses of the ability of each network to detect and to locate seismic activity, identification of specific weaknesses in each network, and a prioritized list of those networks that are most in need of additional seismic stations. At the outset it should be recognized that no Cascade volcanic center currently has an adequate seismic network relative to modern-day networks at Usu Volcano (Japan) or Etna and Stromboli volcanoes (Italy). For a system the size of Three Sisters, for example, a modern-day, cutting-edge seismic network would ideally consist of a minimum of 10 to 12 short-period three-component seismometers (for determining particle motions, reliable S-wave picks, moment tensor inversions, fault-plane solutions, and other important seismic parameters) and 7 to 10 broadband sensors (which, amongst other considerations, enable detection and location of very long period (VLP) and other low-frequency events, moment tensor inversions, and, because of their wide dynamic range, on-scale recording of large-amplitude events). Such a dense, multi component seismic network would give the ability to, for example, detect in near-real-time earthquake migrations over a distance of ~0.5km or less, locate tremor sources, determine the nature of a seismic source (that is, pure shear, implosive, explosive), provide on-scale recordings of very small and very large-amplitude seismic signals, and detect localized changes in seismic stress tensor orientations caused by movement of magma bodies. However, given that programmatic resources are currently limited, installation of such networks at this time is unrealistic. Instead, this report focuses on identifying what additional stations are needed to guarantee that anomalous seismicity associated with volcanic unrest will be

  3. Project of a Near-Real-Time Sismo-acoustic Submarine Station for offshore monitoring (NRTSSS) (United States)

    D'Anna, G.; Calore, D.; Mangano, G.; D'Alessandro, A.; Favali, P.


    The INGV seismic network ensures reliable and continuous monitoring of the Italian territory. However, the peculiarity of the Italian peninsula, characterised by an intense offshore geodynamic and seismic activity, requires the extension of the seismic monitoring to the sea. The aim of this project is: - to identify bottleneck is related to the construction, installation and use of underwater seismic station; - to define the most appropriate and low-cost architecture to guarantee the minimum functionality required for a seismic station. In order to obtain reliable seafloor seismic signals integrated to land-based network, the requirements to be fulfill are: - an acceptable coupling with the seabed; - the orientation of the components with respect to the magnetic North and to the verticality; - the correct time stamp of the data; - the data transfer to the land for the integration. Currently, the optimal solution for offshore seismic station is a cable connection to power and real-time data transfer, like the case of Western Ionian Sea cabled observatory, one of the operative node of the EMSO research infrastructure (European Multidisciplinary Seafloor and water column Observatory, But in the Mediterranean many seismic areas are located a few tens-hundreds of miles from the coast and cabled solutions are not feasible essentially for economic reasons. For this kind of installations EMSO research infrastructure foresees no-cabled solution, that requires a surface buoy deployed in the vicinity seafloor modules.This project plans to develop a surface buoy equipped with autonomous power supply system to power also the seafloor platforms and two-way communication system enabling the data transfer through latest generation of broadband radio communication or satellite link (Fig. 1). All the components of the prototype system are described.

  4. Triggered Seismicity in Utah from the November 3, 2002, Denali Fault Earthquake (United States)

    Pankow, K. L.; Nava, S. J.; Pechmann, J. C.; Arabasz, W. J.


    Coincident with the arrival of the surface waves from the November 3, 2002, Mw 7.9 Denali Fault, Alaska earthquake (DFE), the University of Utah Seismograph Stations (UUSS) regional seismic network detected a marked increase in seismicity along the Intermountain Seismic Belt (ISB) in central and north-central Utah. The number of earthquakes per day in Utah located automatically by the UUSS's Earthworm system in the week following the DFE was approximately double the long-term average during the preceding nine months. From these preliminary data, the increased seismicity appears to be characterized by small magnitude events (M = 3.2) and concentrated in five distinct spatial clusters within the ISB between 38.75°and 42.0° N. The first of these earthquakes was an M 2.2 event located ~20 km east of Salt Lake City, Utah, which occurred during the arrival of the Love waves from the DFE. The increase in Utah earthquake activity at the time of the arrival of the surface waves from the DFE suggests that these surface waves triggered earthquakes in Utah at distances of more than 3,000 km from the source. We estimated the peak dynamic shear stress caused by these surface waves from measurements of their peak vector velocities at 43 recording sites: 37 strong-motion stations of the Advanced National Seismic System and six broadband stations. (The records from six other broadband instruments in the region of interest were clipped.) The estimated peak stresses ranged from 1.2 bars to 3.5 bars with a mean of 2.3 bars, and generally occurred during the arrival of Love waves of ~15 sec period. These peak dynamic shear stress estimates are comparable to those obtained from recordings of the 1992 Mw 7.3 Landers, California, earthquake in regions where the Landers earthquake triggered increased seismicity. We plan to present more complete analyses of UUSS seismic network data, further testing our hypothesis that the DFE remotely triggered seismicity in Utah. This hypothesis is

  5. Development and experiment of a broadband seismograph for deep exploration (United States)

    Zhang, H.; Lin, J.; Yang, H.; Zheng, F.; Zhang, L.; Chen, Z.


    Seismic surveying is the most important type of deep exploration and oil-gas exploration. In order to obtain the high-quality deeper strata information in the deep exploration, large amount of drugs, large group interval and the low-frequency detector must be used, the length of the measuring line is usually tens of kilometers or even hundreds of kilometers. Conventional seismic exploration instrument generally do not have site storage function or limited storage capacity, due to the shackles of the transmission cable, the system bulky and difficult to handle, inefficient construction, high labor costs, collection capabilities and accuracy are the drawbacks of restrictions. This article describes a deep exploration of high-performance broadband seismograph. To ensure the quality of data acquisition, the 24-bit ADCs applied and the low noise analog front end circuit designed carefully, which enable the instrument noise level less than 1.5uV and the dynamic range over 120dB. Integrate dual-frequency GPS OEM board with the acquisition station. As a result, the acquisition station itself can make a static self-positioning and the horizontal accuracy can reach to centimeter-level. Furthermore, it can provide high accuracy position data to subsequent seismic data processing. Combine the precise timing system of GPS with digital clock that has high precision oven-controlled crystal oscillator (OCXO). It enables the accuracy of clock synchronization to reach 0.01ms and the stability of OCXO frequency reach 3e-8, which could solve the problems of synchronous triggering of the data acquisition unit of multiple recording units in the instrument and real-time calibration of the inaccuracy of system clock. The instrument uses a high-capacity (large than 16GB/station), high reliability of the seismic data storage solutions, which enables the instrument to record continuously for more than 138 hours at the sampling rate of 2000sps. Using low-power design techniques for power

  6. Seismic structure of the lithosphere beneath the ocean islands near the mid-oceanic ridges (United States)

    Haldar, C.; Kumar, P.; Kumar, M. Ravi


    Deciphering the seismic character of the young lithosphere near the mid-oceanic ridges (MOR) is a challenging endeavor. In this study, we determine the seismic structure of the oceanic plate near the MORs, using the P-to-s conversions isolated from good quality data recorded at 5 broadband seismological stations situated on the ocean Islands in their vicinity. Estimates of the crustal and lithospheric thickness values from waveform modeling of the P receiver function stacks reveal that the crustal thickness varies between 6 and 8 km with the corresponding depths to the lithosphere asthenosphere boundary (LAB) varying between 43 and 68 km. However, the depth to the LAB at Macquire Island is intriguing in view of the observation of a thick (~ 87 km) lithosphere beneath a relatively young crust. At three other stations i.e., Ascension Island, Sao Jorge and Easter Island, we find evidence for an additional deeper low velocity layer probably related to the presence of a hotspot.

  7. Site Assessment of a New State-Wide Seismic Network in Texas (TexNet), USA. (United States)

    Savvaidis, Alexandros; Young, Bissett; Hennings, Peter; Rathje, Ellen; Zalachoris, George; Young, Michael H.; Walter, Jacob I.; DeShon, Heather R.; Frohlich, Cliff


    Earthquake activity has recently increased in the southern mid-continent of the U.S., including Texas. To monitor seismicity activity in the state of Texas, a new seismicity monitoring program known as TexNet, was funded by the Texas State Legislature in 2015. TexNet consists of 22 new permanent broadband (120s post-hole) seismic stations that will complement the 17 stations currently operating in the State. These permanent stations will provide the baseline seismicity of the state. In addition, 36 portable stations (incorporating both a 20s post-hole seismometer and a post-hole accelerometer) will be used to densify the network in specific areas, of the State, depending on measured seismicity level, proximity to infrastructure, or other scientific investigations. One goal for TexNet is to provide authenticated data needed to evaluate the location, and frequency of earthquakes. To minimize the uncertainties in earthquake locations and increase detectability of the network, an extensive site assessment survey was conducted. The initial station positions were chosen based on Earthscope, Transportable Array (TA) site positions, while ensuring that the stations were relatively evenly-spaced across the State. We then analyzed the noise and earthquake data from the TA seismometers, and added new locations based on geology, topography, and absence of nearby human activities. A 30-min noise test was conducted at each site to identify the site amplification using HVSR information. A 24-hr survey then followed, where the noise level during day and night was identified, analyzed using power spectral density and compared to the NHNM and NLNM (Peterson, 1993; USGS Open File Report, 322). Based on these survey results nearby alternative sites were evaluated to improve final site position. Deployment and data streaming started on September 2016, and will be discussed during this presentation.

  8. Locating Local Earthquakes Using Single 3-Component Broadband Seismological Data (United States)

    Das, S. B.; Mitra, S.


    We devised a technique to locate local earthquakes using single 3-component broadband seismograph and analyze the factors governing the accuracy of our result. The need for devising such a technique arises in regions of sparse seismic network. In state-of-the-art location algorithms, a minimum of three station recordings are required for obtaining well resolved locations. However, the problem arises when an event is recorded by less than three stations. This may be because of the following reasons: (a) down time of stations in a sparse network; (b) geographically isolated regions with limited logistic support to setup large network; (c) regions of insufficient economy for financing multi-station network and (d) poor signal-to-noise ratio for smaller events at most stations, except the one in its closest vicinity. Our technique provides a workable solution to the above problematic scenarios. However, our methodology is strongly dependent on the velocity model of the region. Our method uses a three step processing: (a) ascertain the back-azimuth of the event from the P-wave particle motion recorded on the horizontal components; (b) estimate the hypocentral distance using the S-P time; and (c) ascertain the emergent angle from the vertical and radial components. Once this is obtained, one can ray-trace through the 1-D velocity model to estimate the hypocentral location. We test our method on synthetic data, which produces results with 99% precision. With observed data, the accuracy of our results are very encouraging. The precision of our results depend on the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and choice of the right band-pass filter to isolate the P-wave signal. We used our method on minor aftershocks (3 < mb < 4) of the 2011 Sikkim earthquake using data from the Sikkim Himalayan network. Location of these events highlight the transverse strike-slip structure within the Indian plate, which was observed from source mechanism study of the mainshock and larger aftershocks.

  9. 泰安地震台伸缩仪运行分析%Operation status analysis of extensometer at Taian Fiducial Seismic Station

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢双苓; 林秀娜; 邢伟伟; 于庆民; 王强; 钟普浴; 郝军丽


    A quality assess of continuity, stability, error and relative noise level of tide factor and so on was carried on to the data of SS-Y extensometer during 2009-2010 at Taian Fiducial Seismic Station(TFSS). After the comparison of the fore mentioned data and data from 2000 to 2008, the following three aspects was concluded. 1) Basically, the continuity and stability of the observation data stratify the deformation observation standard; 2) The mean-square difference of factor of M2 wave which represent the inner quality of solid tide and the noise level M1 of the observation data satisfy the deformation observation standard, the precision (Weighted average) is 0. 0098; 3) The diurnal change, annual change and disturbance is analyzed. Certain problems appears during the operation process is discovered and solved.%对泰安地震台2009-2010年伸缩仪运行现状进行分析,对运行故障进行排查.从资料连续率、稳定性、潮汐因子中误差和相对噪声水平等方面进行评定,与2000-2008年“九五”数据进行对比和分析.结果表明:①观测资料的连续性和稳定性基本满足形变观测要求;②表征固体潮内在质量的M2波潮汐因子均方差及观测资料噪声水平M1完全满足形变规范要求,精度(加权平均)达到0.0098;③对资料的日变、年变、干扰等进行分析.

  10. 嘉山台地电阻率各类变化的判定与分析%Analysis of the Authenticity of the Data of Geo-electric Resistivity at Jiashan Seismic Station

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程鑫; 何康; 赵桂宝; 王远; 洪德全; 于磊


    本文以嘉山台地电阻率数字化改造后的观测资料为基础,在台址条件、资料质量、干扰因素等方面进行了较为系统的整理,总结了地电阻率观测中的非震现象、典型干扰的变化及影响观测精度的因素,对干扰机制也进行了必要的判断,同时对嘉山台地电阻率的映震效能进行了尝试性的分析,为同类型地电台有效地识别和排除干扰提供参考和借鉴。%Based on the geo-electric resistivity observation data collected after the digitalization of Jiashan Seismic Station, this paper systematically discusses aspects such as the geological situation of the station, quality of the collected data, interference factor, etc. It also summarizes the non-seismic phenomena in the geo-electric resistivity observation, changes of typical interferences and factors that may affect the observation accuracy, makes some necessary criticism of the interference mechanism, and attempts to analyze the earthquake reflecting ability of Jiashan Seismic Station's geo-electric resistivity, which can be taken as reference by similar seismic stations to effectively detect and suppress interference.

  11. Source mechanisms and near-source wave propagation from broadband seismograms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Perrot


    Full Text Available Recording seismic events at teleseismic distances with broadband and high dynamic range instruments provides new high-quality data that allow us to interpret in more detail the complexity of seismic rupture as well as the heterogeneous structure of the medium surrounding the source where waves are initially propagating. Wave propagation analysis is performed by ray tracing in a local cartesian coordinate system near the source and in a global spherical coordinate system when waves enter the mantle. Seismograms are constructed at each station for a propagation in a 2.5-D medium. Many phases can be included and separately analyzed; this is one of the major advantages of ray tracing compared to other wave propagation techniques. We have studied four earthquakes, the 1988 Spitak Armenia Earthquake (Ms = 6.9, the 1990 Iran earthquake (Ms = 7.7, the 1990 romanian earthquake (Ms = 5.8 and the 1992 Erzincan, Turkey earthquake (Ms = 6.8. These earthquakes exhibit in different ways the complexity of the rupture and the signature of the medium surrounding the source. The use of velocity seismograms, the time derivative of displacement, increases the difficulty of the fit between synthetic seismograms and real seismograms but provides clear evidence for a need of careful time delay estimations of the different converted phases. We find that understanding of the seismic rupture as well as the influence of the medium surrounding the source for teleseismically recorded earthquakes requires a multi-stop procedure: starting with ground displacement seismograms, one is able to give a first description of the rupture as well as of the first-order influence of the medium. Then, considering the ground velocity seismograms makes the fit more difficult to obtain but increases our sensitivity to the rupture process and early converted phases. With increasing number of worldwide broadband stations, a complex rupture description is possible independently of field

  12. Broadband waveform inversion of moderate earthquakes in the Messina Straits, southern Italy (United States)

    D'Amico, Sebastiano; Orecchio, Barbara; Presti, Debora; Zhu, Lupei; Herrmann, Robert B.; Neri, Giancarlo


    We report the first application of the Cut and Paste (CAP) method to compute earthquake focal mechanisms in the Messina Straits area by waveform inversion of Pnl and surface wave segments. This application of CAP has furnished new knowledge about low-magnitude earthquake mechanics that will be useful for improved understanding of the local geodynamics. This is possible because the CAP inversion technique can be applied to small earthquakes, for which traditional moment tensor inversion methods are not appropriate and P-onset focal mechanisms in the study area fail because of a lack of sufficient observations. We estimate the focal mechanisms of 23 earthquakes with local magnitudes in the range of 3-4 occurring in the 2004-2008 time period, and recorded by the broadband stations of the Italian National Seismic Network and the Mediterranean Very Broadband Seismographic Network (MedNet) run by the Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV). The solutions show that normal faulting is the prevailing style of seismic deformation in the northern part of the study area while co-existence of normal faulting and strike-slip has been detected in the southern part. In the whole area of investigation the T-axes of focal mechanisms display a preferential northwest-southeast direction of extension. Combined with the findings of previous investigations, this improved database of focal mechanisms allows us to better detail the transitional area between the extensional domain related to subduction trench retreat (southern Calabria) and the compressional one associated with continental collision (western-central Sicily). The observed spatial change of seismic deformation regime offers new data to current seismotectonic and seismic hazard investigations in the area of Messina Straits where a magnitude 7.2 earthquake caused more than 60,000 casualties on 28 December 1908.

  13. Crustal and upper mantle seismic structure of the Svalbard Archipelago from the receiver function analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilde−Piórko Monika


    Full Text Available Receiver function provides the signature of sharp seismic discontinuities and the information about the shear wave (S−wave velocity distribution beneath the seismic station. This information is very valuable in areas where any or few reflection and/or refraction studies are available and global and/or regional models give only rough information about the seismic velocities. The data recorded by broadband seismic stations have been analysed to investigate the crustal and upper mantle structure of the Svalbard Archipelago. Svalbard Archipelago is a group of islands located in Arctic, at the north−western part of the Barents Sea continental platform, which is bordered to the west and to the north by passive continental margins. The new procedure of parameterization and selection of receiver functions (RFs has been proposed. The back−azimuthal sections of RF show a strong variation for the HSPB and KBS stations. Significant amplitudes of transversal component of RF (T−RF for the HSPB station indicate a shallow dipping layer towards the southwest. The structure of the crust beneath the SPITS array seems to be less heterogeneous, with very low amplitudes of converted phase comparing to the KBS and HSPB stations. Forward modelling by trial−and−error method shows a division of the crust into 3-4 layers beneath all stations and layering of the uppermost mantle beneath the SPITS array and the HSPB stations. The thickness of the mantle transition zone is larger for western part of archipelago and smaller for eastern part comparing to iasp91 model.

  14. Study on the Monitoring Capability of the Seismic Network at the Dagangshan Hydropower Station%大岗山水电站地震台网的地震监测能力研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    景晟; 康昊天


    Located at the northern section of the NS-trending seismic tectonic zone at the border between Sichuan and Yunnan,the reservoir of the Dagangshan hydropower station is at the intersection of three seismic belts,Xianshuihe, Longmenshan,and Anninghe,which present a complex geological environment.The earthquake seismic network at the Dagangshan hydropower station is a dedicated small diameter minor earthquake monitoring network for hydro-power station projects and consists of eight stationary monitoring sites located across the Luding county of Ganzi and the Shimian county of Yaan,Sichuan province.The monitoring sites are located at both sides of the Dadu river,a-round the dam,at the main reservoir area,and at the fault zones,in accordance with the identified key fault zones to monitor reservoir induced earthquakes,increase the precision of locating seismic events,and decrease the lower limit of seismic magnitudes detectable in the area.The theoretical minimum monitoring capability of the designed seismic network in the focused monitoring area is M L 0.5.Based on the velocity records,the displacements recorded by the W-A short period seismometer are emulated,and then the max.P-P and the corresponding period on the displacement waveform emulated are substituted into the formula for near earthquake magnitude to calculate the earthquake mag-nitude.For validation of the background noise of earth motion,the PSD per hour at each station and the RMS values in the range of 1~20 Hz are calculated based on the noise data randomly selected from the background noise of earth motion recorded in a 48-hr interval at the Dagangshan earthquake monitoring network and the mean RMS value is taken as the average background noise of earth motion.Taking the ratio of the maximum magnitude of the S wave to the background noise as the minimum lower limit for seismic velocity detection by the system,the calibration func-tion value R (Δ)is calculated using the earthquake magnitude formula

  15. First results of an ambient seismic noise analysis in western Corinth Gulf (Greece) (United States)

    Giannopoulos, Dimitrios; Paraskevopoulos, Paraskevas; Sokos, Efthimios; Tselentis, G.-Akis


    We present the preliminary results of an ambient seismic noise analysis performed in the western Corinth Gulf, Greece. The Corinth Gulf is a continental rift which separates the central Greek mainland from Peloponnese. The rift is approximately 120 km long and 10-20 km wide, with a WNW-ESE orientation, extending from the Gulf of Patras in the west, to the Gulf of Alkionides in the east. It is considered as one of the most active extensional intra-continental rifts in the world, with the geodetically measured rates of extension varying from ~5 mm/yr at the eastern part, to ~15 mm/yr at the western part. We used data from three-component broad-band seismic stations operated under the framework of the Hellenic Unified Seismological Network (HUSN) and the Corinth Rift Laboratory (CRL). After the classical processing of continuous ambient seismic noise recordings, we used both auto-correlation and cross-correlation functions of single stations and station pairs, respectively, in order to retrieve empirical Green's functions (EGFs) of surface waves and estimate relative velocity changes. For estimating the relative velocity changes we used the moving-window cross spectrum analysis (MWCS) technique. This is the first attempt to characterize the ambient seismic noise properties in the area and study the possible relation between the detected relative velocity changes and the occurrence of moderate or strong earthquakes in the study area.

  16. Seismic detections of the 15 February 2013 Chelyabinsk meteor from the dense ChinArray (United States)

    Li, Lu; Wang, Baoshan; Peng, Zhigang; Wang, Weitao


    ChinArray is a dense portable broadband seismic network to cover the entire continental China, and the Phase I is deployed along the north-south seismic belt in southwest China. In this study, we analyze seismic data recorded on the ChinArray following the February 15, 2013 Chelyabinsk (Russia) meteor. This was the largest known object entering the Earth's atmosphere since the 1908 Tunguska meteor. The seismic energy radiated from this event was recorded by seismic stations worldwide including the dense ChinArray that are more than 4000 km away. The weak signal from the meteor event was contaminated by a magnitude 5.8 Tonga earthquake occurred ~20 min earlier. To test the feasibility of detecting the weak seismic signals from the meteor event, we compute vespagram and perform F-K analysis to the surface-wave data. We identify a seismic phase with back azimuth (BAZ) of 329.7° and slowness of 34.73 s/deg, corresponding to the surface wave from the Russian meteor event (BAZ ~325.97°). The surface magnitude ( M S) of the meteor event is 3.94 ± 0.18. We also perform similar analysis on the data from the broadband array F-net in Japan, and find the BAZ of the surface waves to be 316.61°. With the different BAZs of ChinArray and F-net, we locate the Russian meteor event at 58.80°N, 58.72°E. The relatively large mislocation (~438 km as compared with 55.15°N, 61.41°E by others) may be a result of the bending propagation path of surface waves, which deviates from the great circle path. Our results suggest that the dense ChinArray and its subarrays could be used to detect weak signals at teleseismic distances.

  17. Long-Period seismic events at Ubinas Volcano (Peru): their implications and potentiality as monitoring tool (United States)

    Zandomeneghi, D.; Inza, A.; Metaxian, J.-P.; Macedo, O.


    Ubinas volcano (Southern Peru) is an active andesitic stratovolcano, located 75 km East of Arequipa City, with an average occurrence of 6-7 eruptions per century and persistent fumarolic and phreatic activity. The most recent eruption, accompanied by explosions and by the extrusion of a lava dome, started on March 2006 with an increase of seismicity and observed fumarole occurrence followed in April by more intense explosions, recorded until May 2009. To monitor the volcanic activity, the Geophysical Institute of Peru and the Institut de Recherche pour le Développment (France), built up a seismic network around the volcano, installing 4 permanent stations and deploying 8 supplementary temporary broadband seismometers. In addition, in the period May to July 2009, a seismic experiment was carried out on the volcano flanks with 2 cross-shaped dense antennas with broadband seismometers. As the seismic activity was characterized by recurring low-frequency waveforms, we identify their pattern of occurrence through waveform cross-correlation technique, with respect to major eruptive phases and other observations (as volcano ground deformation from tiltmeters, volcanic product composition, etc). Once established their likely association with the eruptive sequence, we utilize both local network and dense-array data and analyze their location, changes in location, spectral content variations and possible physical explanation. The final aim is to introduce this kind of analysis as quantitative tool to understand ongoing eruptive phases at andesitic volcanoes and possibly to forecast magma/fluid significant movements.

  18. Broadband Lg Attenuation Modeling in the Middle East

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pasyanos, M E; Matzel, E M; Walter, W R; Rodgers, A J


    We present a broadband tomographic model of Lg attenuation in the Middle East derived from source- and site-corrected amplitudes. Absolute amplitude measurements are made on hand-selected and carefully windowed seismograms for tens of stations and thousands of crustal earthquakes resulting in excellent coverage of the region. A conjugate gradient method is used to tomographically invert the amplitude dataset of over 8000 paths over a 45{sup o} x 40{sup o} region of the Middle East. We solve for Q variation, as well as site and source terms, for a wide range of frequencies ranging from 0.5-10 Hz. We have modified the standard attenuation tomography technique to more explicitly define the earthquake source expression in terms of the seismic moment. This facilitates the use of the model to predict the expected amplitudes of new events, an important consideration for earthquake hazard or explosion monitoring applications. The attenuation results have a strong correlation to tectonics. Shields have low attenuation, while tectonic regions have high attenuation, with the highest attenuation at 1 Hz is found in eastern Turkey. The results also compare favorably to other studies in the region made using Lg propagation efficiency, Lg/Pg amplitude ratios and two-station methods. We tomographically invert the amplitude measurements for each frequency independently. In doing so, it appears the frequency-dependence of attenuation is not compatible with the power law representation of Q(f), an assumption that is often made.

  19. Broadband regional waveform modeling to investigate crustal structure and tectonics of the central Andes (United States)

    Swenson, Jennifer Lyn

    We use broadband regional waveform modeling of earthquakes in the central Andes to determine seismic properties of the Altiplano crust. Properties of the shear-coupled P-wavetrain (SPL ) from intermediate-depth events provide particularly important information about the structure of the crust. We utilize broadband seismic data recorded at the BANJO and SEDA stations, and synthetic seismograms computed with a reflectivity technique to study the sensitivity of SPL to crustal and upper mantle parameters at regional distances. We find that the long-period SPL-wavetrain is most sensitive to crustal and mantle Poisson's ratios, average crustal velocity, and crustal thickness. A comprehensive grid search method developed to investigate these four parameters suggests that although trade-offs exist between model parameters, models of the Altiplano which provide the best fit between the data and synthetic seismograms are characterized by low Poisson's ratios, low average crustal velocity and thick crust. We apply our grid search technique and sensitivity analysis results to model the full waveforms from 6 intermediate-depth and 2 shallow-focus earthquakes recorded at regional distances by BANJO and SEDA stations. Results suggest that the Altiplano crust is much thicker (55--65 km) and slower (5.75--6.25 km/s) than global average values. Low crustal and mantle Poisson's ratios together with the lack of evidence for a high-velocity lower crust suggests a bulk felsic crustal composition, resulting in an overall weak crust. Our results favor a model of crustal thickening involving large-scale tectonic shortening of a predominantly felsic crust. To better understand the mechanics of earthquake rupture along the South American subduction zone, we have analyzed broadband teleseismic P-waves and utilize single- and multi-station inversion techniques to constrain source characteristics for the 12 November 1996 Peru subduction zone earthquake. Aftershock locations, intensity reports

  20. Seismic Tomography of the South Carpathian System (United States)

    Stuart, G. W.; Ren, Y.; Dando, B. D.; Houseman, G.; Ionescu, C.; Hegedus, E.; Radovanovic, S.; South Carpathian Project Working Group


    The South Carpathian Mountain Range is an enigmatic system, which includes one of the most seismically active regions in Europe today. That region, Vrancea in the SE Carpathians, is well studied and its deep structure may be geologically unique, but the mantle structures beneath the western part of the South Carpathian Range are not well resolved by previous tomographic studies. The South Carpathian Project (SCP) is a major temporary deployment (2009-2011) of seismic broadband systems extending across the eastern Pannonian Basin and the South Carpathian Mountains. In this project we aim to map the upper mantle structure in central Europe with the objective of testing geodynamic models of the process that produced extension in the Pannonian, synchronous with convergence and uplift in the Carpathians. Here, we describe initial results of finite-frequency tomography using body waves to image the mantle of the region. We have selected teleseismic earthquakes with magnitude greater than 5.9, which occurred between 2005 and 2010. The data were recorded on 57 temporary stations deployed in the South Carpathian Project, 56 temporary stations deployed in the earlier Carpathian Basins Project (CBP), and 41 permanent broadband stations. The differential travel times are measured in high, intermediate and low frequencies (0.5-2.0 Hz, 0.1-0.5 Hz and 0.03-0.1 Hz for both P-wave, 0.1-0.5 Hz, 0.05-0.1 Hz and 0.02-0.05 Hz for S-wave), and are inverted to produce P and S-wave velocity maps at different depths in the mantle. An extensive zone of high seismic velocities is located in the Mantle Transition zone beneath the Pannonian Basin, and is related to down-welling associated with an earlier phase of continental convergence in the Pannonian region. These results will be used in conjunction with 3D geodynamical modelling to help understand the geological evolution of this region. SCP working group: G. Houseman, G. Stuart, Y. Ren, B. Dando, P. Lorinczi, School of Earth and

  1. Seismicity within the Irpinia Fault System As Monitored By Isnet (Irpinia Seismic Network) and Its Possible Relation with Fluid Storage (United States)

    Festa, G.; Zollo, A.; Amoroso, O.; Ascione, A.; Colombelli, S.; Elia, L.; Emolo, A.; Martino, C.; Mazzoli, S.; Orefice, A.; Russo, G.


    ISNet ( is deployed in Southern Apennines along the active fault system responsible for the 1980, M 6.9 Irpinia earthquake. ISNet consists of 32 seismic stations equipped with both strong motion and velocimetric instruments (either broadband or short-period), with the aim of capture a broad set of seismic signals, from ambient noise to strong motion. Real time and near real time procedures run at ISNet with the goal of monitoring the seismicity, check possible space-time anomalies, detect seismic sequences and launch an earthquake early warning in the case of potential significant ground shaking in the area. To understand the role of fluids on the seismicity of the area, we investigated velocity and attenuation models. The former is built from accurate cross-correlation picking and S wave detection based onto polarization analysis. Joint inversion of both P and S arrival times is then based on a linearized multi-scale tomographic approach. Attenuation is instead obtained from inversion of displacement spectra, deconvolving for the source effect. High VP/VS and QS/QP >1 were found within a ~15 km wide rock volume where intense microseismicity is located. This indicates that concentration of seismicity is possibly controlled by high pore fluid pressure. This earthquake reservoir may come from a positive feedback between the seismic pumping that controls the fluid transmission through the fractured damage zone and the low permeability of cross fault barrier, increasing the fluid pore pressure within the fault bounded block. In this picture, sequences mostly occur at the base of this fluid rich layer. They show an anomalous pattern in the earthquake occurrence per magnitude classes; main events evolve with a complex source kinematics, as obtained from backprojection of apparent source time functions, indicating possible directivity effects. In this area sequences might be the key for understanding the transition between the deep

  2. Detection of precursory slips on a fault by the quiescence and activation of seismicity relative to the ETAS model and by the anomalous trend of the geodetic time series of distances between GPS stations around the fault (United States)

    Ogata, Y.


    This paper is concerned with the detection of precursory slip on a rupturing fault, supported by both seismic and geodetic records. Basically, the detection relies on the principle that, assuming precursory slip on the rupturing fault, the seismic activity around the fault should be enhanced or reduced in the zones where increment of the Coulomb failure stress (CFS) is positive or negative, respectively. However, any occurring event also affects the stress changes in neighboring regions, which can trigger further aftershock clusters. Whereas such stress transfers are too difficult to be computed precisely, due to the unknown complex fault system, the ordinary short-term occurrence rate of earthquakes in a region is easily predicted using the ETAS model of triggering seismicity; and any anomalous seismic activity, such as quiescence and activation, can be quantified by identifying a significant deviation from the predicted rate. Such anomalies are revealed to have occurred during several years leading up to the 2004 Chuetsu Earthquake of M6.8, central Honshu, and also the 2005 Western Fukuoka-Ken-Oki Earthquake of M7.0, Kyushu, Japan. Quiescence and activation in the regions coincided with negative and positive increments of the CFS, respectively, and were probably transferred from possible aseismic slips on the focal fault plane. Such slips are further supported by transient crustal movement around the source preceding the rupture. Time series records of the baseline distances between the permanent GPS stations deviated from the predicted trends, with the deviations consistent with the coseismic horizontal displacements of the stations due to these earthquakes. References Ogata, Y. (2006) Report of the Coordinating Committee for Earthquake Prediction, 76 (to appear, in Japanese).

  3. 地铁地下车站在非一致性地震输入下的动力响应%Dynamic response analysis of an underground station subjected to non-uniform seismic action

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何伟; 陈健云


    由于近年来城市地下空间的开发,修建了一大批地铁车站,这些大尺度地下结构的出现,为工程抗震提出了新的课题.首先详细阐述了基于设计反应谱合成空间相关多点地震波的方法,合成的地震波不仅具有地震动的空间相关性,同时还具有强度和频率含量的双重非平稳性;再分别建立了位于三种场地中的地铁车站三维有限元模型,用无限单元来模拟无限域的影响,在此基础上分析了一致与非一致地震动输入情况下该地铁车站的地震响应特征.结果表明:在软土场地中,地震动的非一致性使车站轴向各中柱位移产生了较大的相位差,同时对侧墙的动应力影响较大;在中等和硬土场地中,地震动的非一致性对结构的动力响应影响较小,一般可以忽略.建议在对软土场地中的大尺度车站结构进行地震反应分析时,应考虑地震动的非一致性影响.%Because of exploitation of urban underground space recently, a lot of large-scale subway stations were built. So, a new issue appeared for engineering design. The procedures for artificial simulation of multi-point seismic waves based on the code response spectrum were presented here. The generated seismic waves were spatially correlated to the ground motion, and had the double non-stationary properties of strength and frequency. The three-dimensional numerical models of a subway station were established under three different site conditions, and the infinite domain of soil was simulated with an infinite element. On this basis, the seismic responses of the subway station under non-uniform ground motion were analyzed compared with those under uniform seismic excitation. The results showed that horizontally relative displacements between top and bottom at different axial sections of the subway station have a great phase difference in soft sites because of non-uniform seismic action, and the effect on the dynamic stress of the side

  4. Seismic Characterization of Coal-Mining Seismicity in Utah for CTBT Monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arabasz, W J; Pechmann, J C


    Underground coal mining (down to {approx}0.75 km depth) in the contiguous Wasatch Plateau (WP) and Book Cliffs (BC) mining districts of east-central Utah induces abundant seismicity that is monitored by the University of Utah regional seismic network. This report presents the results of a systematic characterization of mining seismicity (magnitude {le} 4.2) in the WP-BC region from January 1978 to June 2000-together with an evaluation of three seismic events (magnitude {le} 4.3) associated with underground trona mining in southwestern Wyoming during January-August 2000. (Unless specified otherwise, magnitude implies Richter local magnitude, M{sub L}.) The University of Utah Seismograph Stations (UUSS) undertook this cooperative project to assist the University of California Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) in research and development relating to monitoring the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT). The project, which formally began February 28, 1998, and ended September 1, 2000, had three basic objectives: (1) Strategically install a three-component broadband digital seismic station in the WP-BC region to ensure the continuous recording of high-quality waveform data to meet the long-term needs of LLNL, UUSS, and other interested parties, including the international CTBT community. (2) Determine source mechanisms--to the extent that available source data and resources allowed--for comparative seismic characterization of stress release in mines versus earthquakes in the WP-BC study region. (3) Gather and report to LLNL local information on mine operations and associated seismicity, including ''ground truth'' for significant events. Following guidance from LLNL's Technical Representative, the focus of Objective 2 was changed slightly to place emphasis on three mining-related events that occurred in and near the study area after the original work plan had been made, thus posing new targets of opportunity. These included: a magnitude

  5. Upper crustal structures beneath Yogyakarta imaged by ambient seismic noise tomography (United States)

    Zulfakriza, Saygin, E.; Cummins, P.; Widiyantoro, S.; Nugraha, Andri Dian


    Delineating the upper crustal structures beneath Yogyakarta is necessary for understanding its tectonic setting. The presence of Mt. Merapi, fault line and the alluvial deposits contributes to the complex geology of Yogyakarta. Recently, ambient seismic noise tomography can be used to image the subsurface structure. The cross correlations of ambient seismic noise of pair stations were applied to extract the Green's function. The total of 27 stations from 134 seismic stations available in MERapi Amphibious EXperiment (MERAMEX) covering Yogyakarta region were selected to conduct cross correlation. More than 500 Rayleigh waves of Green's functions could be extracted by cross-correlating available the station pairs of short-period and broad-band seismometers. The group velocities were obtained by filtering the extracted Green's function between 0.5 and 20 s. 2-D inversion was applied to the retrieved travel times. Features in the derived tomographic images correlate with the surface geology of Yogyakarta. The Merapi active volcanoes and alluvial deposit in Yogyakarta are clearly described by lower group velocities. The high velocity anomaly contrasts which are visible in the images obtained from the period range between 1 and 5 s, correspond to subsurface imprints of fault that could be the Opak Fault.

  6. An improved real-time seismic network in the Central Mediterranean (United States)

    Agius, Matthew; Galea, Pauline; D'Amico, Sebastiano


    The Central Mediterranean is a region of active tectonics characterised by the interaction of a number of varied and sometimes poorly understood processes. Superimposed on the convergent scenario of the African plate pushing northwestward, a NE-SW directed extensional regime is active in the Sicily Channel, expressed in the form of a seismically active east-west trending system of strike-slip lineaments and a series of pull-apart grabens. The offshore seismicity of the Sicily channel, generally limited to magnitudes below 4.5, is normally difficult to quantify precisely, due to poor station coverage, yet it is believed that its analysis will considerably improve our understanding of the processes affecting the region. We present recent improvements to real and virtual seismic networking in the Central Mediterranean, based at the Seismic Monitoring and Research Unit (SMRU), University of Malta. Within the project SIMIT (B1-2.19/11) funded by the Italia-Malta Operational Programme 2007-2013, earthquake monitoring on the Maltese Islands is being upgraded through the installation of a further two broadband stations, one of which will be on the smaller island of Gozo. A new network, ML (Malta Seismic Network), has been internationally registered with the FDSN. At the same time, the installation and implementation of SeisComP3 has enabled the setting up of a virtual, real-time Central Mediterranean network, made up of 18 stations in Southern Italy (including Sicily, Lampedusa and Pantelleria) belonging to the Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, 3 stations in Tunisia (National Institute of Meteorology of Tunisia) and the 3 stations on the Maltese Islands. This will allow us to rapidly perform more accurate hypocentral locations in the region. The virtual network, which also incorporates a number of more distant stations, has been tuned to issue SMS alerts for potentially felt events in the Sicily Channel detected by the network, and for strong earthquakes

  7. Earthquake Activity, Operation of State Seismic Network with 5 stations, 3-Piedmont 2-Coastal Plane, Published in 1970, Delaware Geological Survey. (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Earthquake Activity dataset, was produced all or in part from Field Observation information as of 1970. It is described as 'Operation of State Seismic Network...

  8. Seismic ambient noise study at Bouillante geothermal system, French Antilles (United States)

    Jousset, Philippe; Bitri, Adnan; Loiseau, Justine; Bouchot, Vincent


    Seismic ambient noise analyses have been shown to be able to image structural features of the crust and to monitor underground changes of seismic wave ground velocity. We present results of cross-correlation techniques at Bouillante geothermal field, French Antilles, the largest French high-enthalpy geothermal system exploited for electrical power from 3 collocated productive wells. Two power plants generate electricity and fluid extraction rate varies with time and wells are sometimes closed for equipment maintenance. Under the support of the French Environment and Energy Management Agency (ADEME) and the French Research Agency (ANR), BRGM has been analyzing seismic data from a network comprising 5 broadband seismological stations set-up at Bouillante area since 2004. Amongst the large number of earthquakes recorded, we show that no single earthquake could be related to the fluid exploitation. Instead, they are due to the intense regional seismicity. Despite the small number of stations, surface wave travel times computed from ambient noise cross-correlation for about a year suggest that the velocity structure is consistent with the conceptual model of hot (250°C) and permeable (fractured) geothermal reservoir of Bouillante. We show at several instances that changes of the fluid extraction rate have spatial and temporal slight perturbations on medium wave velocity. For example, when the production stops for maintenance, velocity increases by several percent and with larger amplitude at stations within 1 km distance from the production wells and lower amplitudes (by more than 50 %) at stations further than 2 km from the production wells. In addition, we note that velocity perturbations have a delay of at most 1 day at further stations. We discuss several mechanisms to explain those observations like pressure and stress variations in the geothermal system. The results suggest that the inferred velocity changes, owing the fine sensibility of the inter

  9. Comparative Tests Between Shallow Downhole Installation and Classical Seismic Vaults (United States)

    Charade, Olivier; Vergne, Jérôme; Bonaimé, Sébastien; Bonnin, Mickaël; Louis-Xavier, Thierry; Beucler, Eric; Manhaval, Bertrand; Arnold, Benoît


    The French permanent broadband network is engaged in a major evolution with the installation of a hundred of new stations within the forthcoming years. Since most of them will be located in open field environments, we are looking for a standardized installation method able to provide good noise level performance at a reasonable cost. Nowadays, the use of posthole seismometers that can be deployed at the bottom of shallow boreholes appears to be an affordable and alternative solution to more traditional installation methods such as seismic vaults or dedicated underground cellars. Here we present some comparative tests performed at different sites (including two GEOSCOPE stations), spanning various geological conditions. On each site, posthole sensors were deployed for several weeks to months at various depths from 1.5m up to 20m. We compare the seismic noise levels measured in the different boreholes with the one for a reference sensor either directly buried or installed in a tunnel, a cellar or a seismic vault. Apart from the microseism frequency band, seismic noise level in most of the boreholes equals or outperforms the one obtained for the reference sensors. At periods higher than 20s we observe a strong reduction of the seismic noise on the horizontal components in the deepest boreholes compared to near surface installations. This improvement can reach up to 30dB and appears to be mostly due to a reduction in tilt noise induced by wind or local pressure variations. However, the absolute noise level that can be achieved strongly depends on the local geology.

  10. Cooperative Development of the Pakistan Seismic Network System (PSNS) (United States)

    Detweiler, S.; Mooney, W.; McDonald, S.


    We propose to cooperate with the Pakistan Meteorological Department for the design and construction of the new Pakistan Seismic Network System (PSNS) that has been funded by the government of Pakistan. The PSNS will consist of 12-15 broadband stations, 50 short-period stations, and 50 accelerometers. Our role will be to provide technical assistance in site selection, to prepare the Request for Proposals (RFP) from industry, and to evaluate performance. The relative importance of tsunami warnings, national earthquake and landslide hazards, and whether a largely urban or truly national network is envisioned will be determined early in the program. Final placement of stations will take many factors into consideration including proximity to faults and seismic activity, geographic accessibility, the consistency of bedrock, and various cultural or social effects. This cooperation has the potential to lead to the development of a desperately needed tsunami early warning network that could protect the Pakistani coastal population in the event of a natural disaster such as the Dec. 26, 2004 Sumatra earthquake and tsunami. The seismic hazard off the coast of Pakistan is high due to the proximity of the Makran and Sumatra subduction zones, the former of which could trigger tsunamis in Pakistan with heights of 12m within minutes. In addition to monitoring earthquake activity, the PSNS will provide seismic data of interest to the world-wide scientific community for a region in which there is little understanding of the upper crust and mantle. It will furthermore address educational outreach and diplomacy issues by providing training to Pakistani scientists in routine network operation and data processing.

  11. The seismicity of Marapi volcano, West Sumatra. (United States)

    D'Auria, L.


    Marapi is one of the active volcanoes in West Sumatra. It is a stratovolcano with an edifice that is elongated in the ENE-WSW direction. Its elevation is about 2,900 m a.s.l. The summit area is characterized by a caldera that contains some active craters aligned along the ENE-WSW direction. The Marapi volcano is an attractive region for tourists and hosts many small communities its surrounding areas. The recent history of Mt. Marapi is characterized by explosive activity at the summit craters. No lava flows have passed the rim of the summit caldera in recent times. The last eruption occurred on August 5, 2004, and consisted of moderate explosive activity from the central crater. In 1975 an eruption with magmatic and phreatic explosive phases and mudflows and lahars occurred that caused fatalities in the surrounding areas. Since 1980 other eruptions have occurred at Marapi volcano. Even if the explosive intensities of those eruptions have been small to moderate, in some cases, there were fatalities. A cooperation project started between Italy and Indonesia (COVIN) for the monitoring of volcanoes in West Sumatra. In the context of this project a monitoring centre has been set up at the Bukittinggi Observatory and a seismological monitoring system for Marapi volcano has been realized. This system is based on a broadband seismic network including 4 three-component stations. The data acquired by the broadband network of Marapi volcano are continuous recordings of the seismic signals starting from 19/10/2006. Volcano-Tectonic and Long Period events of Marapi volcano together with regional and teleseismic earthquakes are recorded. Several events of high magnitude located at short distances from the network were also recorded such as on March 6, 2007, when two events of Magnitudes Mw 6.4 and 6.3 were recorded with the epicentres near the Marapi volcano. During the following days, there was a sequence of hundreds of aftershocks. The preliminary analysis of the seismicity of

  12. Analysis of Green functions obtained by cross-correlations for MASE stations (United States)

    Padilla, G. V. Vera


    We used continuous records of broadband seismic stations of the MASE experiment to obtain observed Green's functions using the method of ambient noise cross-correlations. The experiment consisted of 100 stations distributed along a perpendicular line to the Mesoamerican trench across the Valley of Mexico. The stations recorded continuously at 100 sps for more than two years. The geometry of the array provide a good opportunity to study the attenuation effects along the coast-perpendicular structure. The method we used to compute Green functions involves a strong data pre-processing (temporal normalization and spectral whitening). However, our results show that the amplitude of the cross-correlations still contains information about the surface waves attenuation and probably local amplification effects. Records from two regional earthquakes located close to Acapulco were used for comparison.

  13. The California Integrated Seismic Network (United States)

    Hellweg, M.; Given, D.; Hauksson, E.; Neuhauser, D.; Oppenheimer, D.; Shakal, A.


    The mission of the California Integrated Seismic Network (CISN) is to operate a reliable, modern system to monitor earthquakes throughout the state; to generate and distribute information in real-time for emergency response, for the benefit of public safety, and for loss mitigation; and to collect and archive data for seismological and earthquake engineering research. To meet these needs, the CISN operates data processing and archiving centers, as well as more than 3000 seismic stations. Furthermore, the CISN is actively developing and enhancing its infrastructure, including its automated processing and archival systems. The CISN integrates seismic and strong motion networks operated by the University of California Berkeley (UCB), the California Institute of Technology (Caltech), and the United States Geological Survey (USGS) offices in Menlo Park and Pasadena, as well as the USGS National Strong Motion Program (NSMP), and the California Geological Survey (CGS). The CISN operates two earthquake management centers (the NCEMC and SCEMC) where statewide, real-time earthquake monitoring takes place, and an engineering data center (EDC) for processing strong motion data and making it available in near real-time to the engineering community. These centers employ redundant hardware to minimize disruptions to the earthquake detection and processing systems. At the same time, dual feeds of data from a subset of broadband and strong motion stations are telemetered in real- time directly to both the NCEMC and the SCEMC to ensure the availability of statewide data in the event of a catastrophic failure at one of these two centers. The CISN uses a backbone T1 ring (with automatic backup over the internet) to interconnect the centers and the California Office of Emergency Services. The T1 ring enables real-time exchange of selected waveforms, derived ground motion data, phase arrivals, earthquake parameters, and ShakeMaps. With the goal of operating similar and redundant

  14. The data quality analyzer: A quality control program for seismic data (United States)

    Ringler, A. T.; Hagerty, M. T.; Holland, J.; Gonzales, A.; Gee, L. S.; Edwards, J. D.; Wilson, D.; Baker, A. M.


    The U.S. Geological Survey's Albuquerque Seismological Laboratory (ASL) has several initiatives underway to enhance and track the quality of data produced from ASL seismic stations and to improve communication about data problems to the user community. The Data Quality Analyzer (DQA) is one such development and is designed to characterize seismic station data quality in a quantitative and automated manner. The DQA consists of a metric calculator, a PostgreSQL database, and a Web interface: The metric calculator, SEEDscan, is a Java application that reads and processes miniSEED data and generates metrics based on a configuration file. SEEDscan compares hashes of metadata and data to detect changes in either and performs subsequent recalculations as needed. This ensures that the metric values are up to date and accurate. SEEDscan can be run as a scheduled task or on demand. The PostgreSQL database acts as a central hub where metric values and limited station descriptions are stored at the channel level with one-day granularity. The Web interface dynamically loads station data from the database and allows the user to make requests for time periods of interest, review specific networks and stations, plot metrics as a function of time, and adjust the contribution of various metrics to the overall quality grade of the station. The quantification of data quality is based on the evaluation of various metrics (e.g., timing quality, daily noise levels relative to long-term noise models, and comparisons between broadband data and event synthetics). Users may select which metrics contribute to the assessment and those metrics are aggregated into a "grade" for each station. The DQA is being actively used for station diagnostics and evaluation based on the completed metrics (availability, gap count, timing quality, deviation from a global noise model, deviation from a station noise model, coherence between co-located sensors, and comparison between broadband data and synthetics

  15. Data Quality Control of the French Permanent Broadband Network in the RESIF Framework. (United States)

    Grunberg, M.; Lambotte, S.; Engels, F.


    In the framework of the RESIF (Réseau Sismologique et géodésique Français) project, a new information system is setting up, allowing the improvement of the management and the distribution of high quality data from the different elements of RESIF. Within this information system, EOST (in Strasbourg) is in charge of collecting real-time permanent broadband seismic waveform, and performing Quality Control on these data. The real-time and validated data set are pushed to the French National Distribution Center (Isterre/Grenoble) to make them publicly available. Furthermore EOST hosts the BCSF-ReNaSS, in charge of the French metropolitan seismic bulletin. This allows to benefit from some high-end quality control based on the national and world-wide seismicity. Here we present the real-time seismic data flow from the stations of the French National Broad Band Network to EOST, and then, the data Quality Control procedures that were recently installed, including some new developments.The data Quality Control consists in applying a variety of processes to check the consistency of the whole system from the stations to the data center. This allows us to verify that instruments and data transmission are operating correctly. Moreover, time quality is critical for most of the scientific data applications. To face this challenge and check the consistency of polarities and amplitudes, we deployed several high-end processes including a noise correlation procedure to check for timing accuracy (intrumental time errors result in a time-shift of the whole cross-correlation, clearly distinct from those due to change in medium physical properties), and a systematic comparison of synthetic and real data for teleseismic earthquakes of magnitude larger than 6.5 to detect timing errors as well as polarity and amplitude problems.

  16. Local Ambient Seismic Noise Survey in Dixie Valley, NV for Engineered Geothermal System Favorability Assessment (United States)

    Tibuleac, I. M.; Iovenitti, J. L.; von Seggern, D. H.; Sainsbury, J.


    The primary objective of this study is to develop and test the seismic component of a calibrated exploration method that integrated geological, geophysical, and geochemical data to identify potential drilling targets for Engineered Geothermal Systems (EGS). In exploring for EGS sites, the selection criteria identified by the AltaRock Energy, Inc. (AltaRock) and University of Nevada, Reno teams are, in order of importance, (1) temperature greater than 200C at 1.5 km depth, (2) rock type at the depth of interest (porous rocks at 1-3 km); and (3) favorable stress regime (tensional environment). To improve spatial resolution, a dense seismic array (21 three-component, broadband sensors, with an overall array aperture of 45km) was installed in two deployments in Dixie Valley, NV, each deployment having a three-month duration Ambient seismic noise and signal were used to retrieve inter-station and same-station Green's Functions (GFs), to be used for subsurface imaging. We used ambient seismic noise interferometry to extract GFs from crosscorrelation of continuous records. An innovative aspect of the seismic work was estimating the receiver functions beneath the stations using noise auto-correlation which was used to image the substructure. We report results of applying the technique to estimate a P/S velocity model from the GF surface wave components and from the GF body-wave reflection component, retrieved from ambient noise and signal cross-correlation and auto-correlation beams. We interpret our results in terms of temperature, pressure and rock composition. The estimated seismic velocity model capability to infer temperature is statistically assessed, in combination with other geophysical technique results.

  17. 武汉九峰地震台超导重力仪观测分析研究%Observation of superconducting gravimeter at Jiufeng seismic station

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韦进; 李辉; 刘子维; 康开轩; 郝洪涛


    The relationship between the mass transfer beneath the earth surface and the vertical deformation could be studied using continuous relative gravimetry and continuous GPS observation. Compared to mobile relative gravimetry and absolute gravimetry, continuous relative gravimetry could be used to monitor the whole process of gravity changes and mass transfer, avoiding low measurement precision and temporal resolution. In this paper, more than 13000 hours gravity data recorded at Jiufeng seismic station using superconducting gravimetry (SGC053) are analyzed along with co-located absolute gravimetry data, air pressure, vertical displacement of surrounding GPS stations, WUHN IGS site and WHJF site, GRACE monthly time-variable gravity and two global continental water storage models (GLDAS, CPC). Gravity variations induced by solid earth tide, air pressure, pole tide and continental water loading are corrected using harmonic analysis method, atmospheric pressure admittance model, pole tide model and the correlation analysis with GRACE results and/or water storage models, then instrument drift is also corrected using co-located absolute gravity measurements. Based on the above processing, the relationship between the residual gravity time series and GPS vertical deformation is addressed. The harmonic analysis result for SGC053 gravity records, spanning about one and half years, shows that the white noise is about 1. 14~1. 40 × 10~8m· s-z and the tidal factor errors of dominant tidal groups reach about 0. l%o. Compared to ocean tide loading (3×10-8m·s-2) , the gravity due to air pressure (12×10-8m·s-2) and pole tide (10×lCT8m·s-2) is much larger. The drift of SGC053, about 2. 18X l(T8(m ?s"2)/a, is estimated using 4 absolute gravity co-located records of FG5-232. The result shows that the residual gravity caused by continental water loading in summer and autumn is about (6~8)×10~8m·s~2, by comparing residual gravity variations with both GARCE result and global

  18. Ground motion prediction for the Vienna Basin area using the ambient seismic field (United States)

    Schippkus, Sven; Zigone, Dimitri; Bokelmann, Götz; AlpArray Working Group


    The Vienna Basin is one of the most seismically active regions in Austria. Because of the population density and sensitive infrastructure, seismic hazard assessment in this area is of critical importance. An important part of seismic hazard analysis is ground motion prediction, which can in principle be done using either empirical studies to derive ground motion prediction equations (GMPEs) or using a physics-based approach to simulate ground motion by modelling surface wave propagation. Recently a new method has been presented that is based on the emergence of the inter-station Green's function from ambient noise cross-correlations (Denolle et al. 2013), which provides the impulse response of the Earth from a point source at the surface (from the site of one of the two receivers to the other). These impulse responses are dominated by surface waves, which would, in the case of a real earthquake, cause the major damages. The Green's function can in principle be modified to simulate a double couple dislocation at depth, i.e., a virtual earthquake. Using an adapted pre-processing method, the relative amplitudes of the ambient noise records of different inter-station paths are preserved in the correlation functions, and effects like attenuation and amplification of surface waves in sedimentary basins can be studied. This provides more precise information that will help improve seismic hazard evaluations. Here we present a preliminary study of such ground motion prediction for the Vienna Basin using about two dozen broadband stations from available networks in the area, e.g., stations from the University of Vienna (AlpArray) and Vienna Technical University. References Denolle, M. A., E. M. Dunham, G. A. Prieto, and G. C. Beroza (2013), Ground motion prediction of realistic earthquake sources using the ambient seismic field, J. Geophys. Res. Solid Earth, 118, 2102-2118, doi:10.1029/2012JB009603.

  19. Time functions of deep earthquakes from broadband and short-period stacks (United States)

    Houston, H.; Benz, H.M.; Vidale, J.E.


    To constrain dynamic source properties of deep earthquakes, we have systematically constructed broadband time functions of deep earthquakes by stacking and scaling teleseismic P waves from U.S. National Seismic Network, TERRAscope, and Berkeley Digital Seismic Network broadband stations. We examined 42 earthquakes with depths from 100 to 660 km that occurred between July 1, 1992 and July 31, 1995. To directly compare time functions, or to group them by size, depth, or region, it is essential to scale them to remove the effect of moment, which varies by more than 3 orders of magnitude for these events. For each event we also computed short-period stacks of P waves recorded by west coast regional arrays. The comparison of broadband with short-period stacks yields a considerable advantage, enabling more reliable measurement of event duration. A more accurate estimate of the duration better constrains the scaling procedure to remove the effect of moment, producing scaled time functions with both correct timing and amplitude. We find only subtle differences in the broadband time-function shape with moment, indicating successful scaling and minimal effects of attenuation at the periods considered here. The average shape of the envelopes of the short-period stacks is very similar to the average broadband time function. The main variations seen with depth are (1) a mild decrease in duration with increasing depth, (2) greater asymmetry in the time functions of intermediate events compared to deep ones, and (3) unexpected complexity and late moment release for events between 350 and 550 km, with seven of the eight events in that depth interval displaying markedly more complicated time functions with more moment release late in the rupture than most events above or below. The first two results are broadly consistent with our previous studies, while the third is reported here for the first time. The greater complexity between 350 and 550 km suggests greater heterogeneity in

  20. ORFEUS, a European initiative in broadband seismology: status and future plans (United States)

    van Eck, Torild; Dost, Bernard


    Observatories and Research Facilities for European Seismology (ORFEUS) is the European initiative for the coordination of broadband seismology in Europe and the Mediterranean area. The organization is unique in its field, because it does not operate any stations, but acts as an intermediate between data users and data producers. The core activity of ORFEUS is the operation of a data center, which archives seismic waveform data of large seismic events and offers both off-line (CD-ROM) and on-line (Internet, WWW) access to both the archived data and global near real time Spyder® data. ORFEUS coordination function is largely realized through its working groups and web site, which presently provide, among others, station siting and equipment overviews, technical information and support and a Seismological Software Library (SSL). Cooperation with other centers, for example, on data formats, is coordinated through the Federation of Digital Seismograph Networks (FDSN). Future developments emphasize improved data access through the Internet (WWW, Automatic Data Request Manager, NetDC protocol) and a regional version of the Global Spyder®: EuroSpyder. Regularly, work meetings and workshops are organized to discuss future developments and its impact on ORFEUS.

  1. Single-station seismic noise measures, microgravity, and 3D electrical tomographies to assess the sinkhole susceptibility: the "Il Piano" area (Elba Island - Italy) case study (United States)

    Pazzi, Veronica; Di Filippo, Michele; Di Nezza, Maria; Carlà, Tommaso; Bardi, Federica; Marini, Federico; Fontanelli, Katia; Intrieri, Emanuele; Fanti, Riccardo


    Sudden subsurface collapse, cavities, and surface depressions, regardless of shape and origin, as well as doline are currently indicate by means of the term "sinkhole". This phenomenon can be classified according to a large variety of different schemes, depending on the dominant formation processes (soluble rocks karstic processes, acidic groundwater circulation, anthropogenic caves, bedrock poor geomechanical properties), and on the geological scenario behind the development of the phenomenon. Considering that generally sinkholes are densely clustered in "sinkhole prone areas", detection, forecasting, early warning, and effective monitoring are key aspects in sinkhole susceptibility assessment and risk mitigation. Nevertheless, techniques developed specifically for sinkhole detection, forecasting and monitoring are missing, probably because of a general lack of sinkhole risk awareness, and an intrinsic difficulties involved in detecting precursory sinkhole deformations before collapse. In this framework, integration of different indirect/non-invasive geophysical methods is the best practice approach. In this paper we present the results of an integrated geophysical survey at "Il Piano" (Elba Island - Italy), where at least nine sinkholes occurred between 2008 and 2014. 120 single-station seismic noise measures, 17 3D electrical tomographies (min area 140.3 m2, max area 10,188.9 m2; min electrode spacing 2 m, max electrode spacing 5 m), 964 measurement of microgravity spaced in a grid of 6 m to 8 m were carried out at the study area. The most likely origin for these sinkholes was considered related to sediment net erosion from the alluvium, caused by downward water circulation between aquifers. Therefore, the goals of the study were: i) obtaining a suitable geological and hydrogeological model of the area; ii) detecting possible cavities which could evolve in sinkholes, and finally iii) assess the sinkhole susceptibility of the area. Among the results of the

  2. Local Seismic Events in the Area of Poland Based on Data from the PASSEQ 2006-2008 Experiment (United States)

    Polkowski, Marcin; Plesiewicz, Beata; Wiszniowski, Jan; Wilde-Piórko, Monika


    PASSEQ 2006-2008 (Passive Seismic Experiment in TESZ; Wilde-Piórko et al. 2008) was the biggest passive seismic experiment carried out so far in the area of Central Europe (Poland, Germany, the Czech Republic and Lithuania). 196 seismic stations (including 49 broadband seismometers) worked simultaneously for over two years. During the experiment, multiple types of data recorders and seismometers were used, making the analysis more complex and time consuming. The dataset was unified and repaired to start the detection of local seismic events. Two different approaches for detection were applied for stations located in Poland. The first one used standard STA/LTA triggers (Carl Johnson's STA/LTA algorithm) and grid search to classify and locate the events. The result was manually verified. The second approach used Real Time Recurrent Network (RTRN) detection (Wiszniowski et al. 2014). Both methods gave similar results, showing four previously unknown seismic events located in the Gulf of Gdańsk area, situated in the southern Baltic Sea. In this paper we discuss both detection methods with their pros and cons (accuracy, efficiency, manual work required, scalability). We also show details of all detected and previously unknown events in the discussed area.

  3. A Dramatic Increase in Seismic Observations in the Central and Eastern US (United States)

    Woodward, R.; Busby, R.; Simpson, D.; Alvarez, M.; Vernon, F.


    The USArray Transportable Array (TA) is a network of 400 seismograph stations that is systematically moving west-to-east across the contiguous United States. The TA is part of the National Science Foundation's multi- disciplinary EarthScope program. The TA has already occupied over 700 stations in the western US, and is continuing its multi-year migration towards the Atlantic coast before heading for Alaska. The stations use a grid-like deployment with 70 km separation between stations. At any given time there are approximately 400 stations operational, occupying a nominal 800 km by 2000 km "footprint." Each station is operated for two years. TA stations consist of three component broadband seismometers, with a few sites in the westernmost United States also including three component strong motion instruments. The instruments are installed about two meters below the surface, in thermally stable vaults. All stations transmit continuous data in near-real-time, and the data are freely distributed through the IRIS Data Management Center. TA stations can be upgraded to incorporate high frequency or strong motion instrument. Organizations can also "adopt" stations after installation by reimbursing the cost of the hardware, so that the stations become permanent. The TA is presently operating in the swath of the country extending from Texas to Montana. From 2010 to 2013 the TA will occupy ~800 sites in the central and eastern US. The array will be centered on the New Madrid, MO region during the bicentennial of the 1811-1812 earthquakes. During the TA deployment every existing or planned nuclear plant in the eastern US will be within 70 km of at least four new seismic stations. Thus, this station deployment in the eastern half of the US presents an unprecedented opportunity for improving source characterization, modeling the regional velocity and attenuation structure, and mapping seismic zones down to low magnitude thresholds. We will provide an overview of TA

  4. Surface Dynamic Deformation Estimates From Seismicity Near the Itoiz Reservoir, Northern Spain

    CERN Document Server

    Santoyo, Miguel A; García-Jerez, Antonio; Luzón, Francisco


    We analyzed the ground motion time histories due to the local seismicity near the Itoiz reservoir, in order to estimate the surface 3D displacement-gradients and dynamic deformations. The seismic data were obtained by a semi-permanent broadband and accelerometric network installed by the University of Almeria during 2008 and 2009. Seismic sensors were located on surface and at underground sites in the vicinity of the dam. The dynamic deformation field was calculated by two different methods. On one hand, by the Seismo-Geodetic method using the data from a three-station micro-array. On the other hand, by Single-Station estimates of displacement gradients, assuming the incidence of body wave fields propagating through the recording site. The dynamic deformations obtained from both methods were compared and analyzed in the context of the local effects near the dam. The shallow 1D velocity structure was estimated from seismic data by modeling the body-wave travel times. After the comparison of the dynamic displac...

  5. Advances in Rotational Seismic Measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pierson, Robert [Applied Technology Associates, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Laughlin, Darren [Applied Technology Associates, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Brune, Robert [Applied Technology Associates, Albuquerque, NM (United States)


    Rotational motion is increasingly understood to be a significant part of seismic wave motion. Rotations can be important in earthquake strong motion and in Induced Seismicity Monitoring. Rotational seismic data can also enable shear selectivity and improve wavefield sampling for vertical geophones in 3D surveys, among other applications. However, sensor technology has been a limiting factor to date. The US Department of Energy (DOE) and Applied Technology Associates (ATA) are funding a multi-year project that is now entering Phase 2 to develop and deploy a new generation of rotational sensors for validation of rotational seismic applications. Initial focus is on induced seismicity monitoring, particularly for Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS) with fracturing. The sensors employ Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) principles with broadband response, improved noise floors, robustness, and repeatability. This paper presents a summary of Phase 1 results and Phase 2 status.

  6. Hybrid Simulations of the Broadband Ground Motions for the 2008 MS8.0 Wenchuan, China, Earthquake (United States)

    Yu, X.; Zhang, W.


    The Ms8.0 Wenchuan earthquake occurred on 12 May 2008 at 14:28 Beijing Time. It is the largest event happened in the mainland of China since the 1976, Mw7.6, Tangshan earthquake. Due to occur in the mountainous area, this great earthquake and the following thousands aftershocks also caused many other geological disasters, such as landslide, mud-rock flow and "quake lakes" which formed by landslide-induced reservoirs. These resulted in tremendous losses of life and property. Casualties numbered more than 80,000 people, and there were major economic losses. However, this earthquake is the first Ms 8 intraplate earthquake with good close fault strong motion coverage. Over four hundred strong motion stations of the National Strong Motion Observation Network System (NSMONS) recorded the mainshock. Twelve of them located within 20 km of the fault traces and another 33 stations located within 100 km. These observations, accompanying with the hundreds of GPS vectors and multiple ALOS INSAR images, provide an unprecedented opportunity to study the rupture process of such a great intraplate earthquake. In this study, we calculate broadband near-field ground motion synthetic waveforms of this great earthquake using a hybrid broadband ground-motion simulation methodology, which combines a deterministic approach at low frequencies (f Green's function calculation approach at high frequency ( ~ 10.0 Hz). The fault rupture is represented kinematically and incorporates spatial heterogeneity in slip, rupture speed, and rise time that were obtained by an inversion kinematic source model. At the same time, based on the aftershock data, we analyze the site effects for the near-field stations. Frequency-dependent site-amplification values for each station are calculated using genetic algorithms. For the calculation of the synthetic waveforms, at first, we carry out simulations using the hybrid methodology for the frequency up to 10.0 Hz. Then, we consider for the soil site simulations

  7. Surface-wave array tomography in SE Tibet from ambient seismic noise and two-station analysis: I - Phase velocity maps

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yao, H.; Hilst, R.D. van der; Hoop, M.V. de


    Empirical Green’s functions (EGFs) between pairs of seismographs can be estimated from the time derivative of the long-time cross-correlation of ambient seismic noise. These EGFs reveal velocity dispersion at relatively short periods, which can be used to resolve structures in the crust and uppermos

  8. A seismic network to investigate the sedimentary hosted hydrothermal Lusi system (United States)

    Javad Fallahi, Mohammad; Mazzini, Adriano; Lupi, Matteo; Obermann, Anne; Karyono, Karyono


    The 29th of May 2006 marked the beginning of the sedimentary hosted hydrothermal Lusi system. During the last 10 years we witnessed numerous alterations of the Lusi system behavior that coincide with the frequent seismic and volcanic activity occurring in the region. In order to monitor the effect that the seismicity and the activity of the volcanic arc have on Lusi, we deployed a ad hoc seismic network. This temporary network consist of 10 broadband and 21 short period stations and is currently operating around the Arjuno-Welirang volcanic complex, along the Watukosek fault system and around Lusi, in the East Java basin since January 2015. We exploit this dataset to investigate surface wave and shear wave velocity structure of the upper-crust beneath the Arjuno-Welirang-Lusi complex in the framework of the Lusi Lab project (ERC grant n° 308126). Rayleigh and Love waves travelling between each station-pair are extracted by cross-correlating long time series of ambient noise data recorded at the stations. Group and phase velocity dispersion curves are obtained by time-frequency analysis of cross-correlation functions, and are tomographically inverted to provide 2D velocity maps corresponding to different sampling depths. 3D shear wave velocity structure is then acquired by inverting the group velocity maps.

  9. Detecting and Monitoring for Induced Seismicity without a Local Seismic Network: Application to the Youngstown, Ohio Induced Seismic Sequence (United States)

    Holtkamp, S. G.; Brudzinski, M. R.; Currie, B. S.


    From March to December 2011, the Ohio Department of Natural Resources Ohio Seismic Network (ODNR OSN) recorded 11 earthquakes in Youngstown, OH. Pumping stopped after a local seismic network was installed in December and showed the earthquakes were nucleating near a nearby wastewater injection well. Unfortunately, 11 events identified by ODNR plus the local data represent a limited characterization of the sequence, making it difficult to confirm a causal relationship between injection and the earthquakes. This is a limitation of traditional seismic techniques, which required an earthquake to be M>~2.0 to be identified by ODNR before the local deployment. While local seismic deployments can provide adequate resolution to test triggering hypotheses, they suffer from two disadvantages: (1) these deployments are costly and scientifically focused, and (2) they only monitor seismicity after they are installed, and so are unable to characterize the beginning of the seismic sequence. Since there are over 200,000 wells associated with energy technologies in the US, it is not reasonable to install or expect local seismic observational capabilities with each potential case of induced seismicity. To address this limitation, we have developed a multiple station template matching (waveform cross correlation) algorithm, which is able to detect events ~10x smaller than traditional techniques, utilizing regional broadband seismometers located within 200km of the earthquakes. With this technique, we detect ~280 earthquakes in the Youngstown earthquake sequence, allowing us to test the correlation between seismicity and injection. We find that the earthquakes started two weeks after injection began and ended 2 weeks after injection ended. Our improved catalog shows that the rate of earthquakes closely follows the injection history, with a gradual rate increase at the beginning of the sequence and an abrupt reduction in earthquake rate after injection ceased. A combination of relative

  10. Automated inter-station phase velocity measurements across the eastern Mediterranean and Middle East (United States)

    El-Sharkawy, Amr; Weidle, Christian; Christiano, Luigia; Soomro, Riaz; Lebedev, Sergi; Meier, Thomas


    The structure of the lithosphere in northeastern Africa, eastern Mediterranean and the Middle East is highly variable. It ranges from young oceanic lithosphere in the Red Sea to what is considered the oldest oceanic lithosphere on Earth in the Mediterranean Sea north of Libya, and from highly deformed continental lithosphere at the east-Mediterranean margins to more stable continental lithosphere of Phanerozoic origin and to cratonic lithosphere beneath the Arabian Peninsula. Details of the lithospheric structure are, however, poorly known. Surface waves are ideally suited for studies of the lithosphere and the sublithospheric mantle. Our goal is to better define the 3D lithospheric shear-wave velocity structure within this region by surface wave tomography. Using regional to teleseismic Rayleigh and Love waves that traverse the area we can obtain information about its seismic structure by examining phase velocities as a function of frequency. A newly developed algorithm for automated inter-station phase velocity measurements (Soomro et al. 2016) is applied here to obtain both Rayleigh and Love fundamental mode phase velocities. We utilize a database consisting of more than 3800 regional and teleseismic earthquakes recorded by more than 1850 broadband seismic stations within the area, provided by the European Integrated Data Archive (WebDc/EIDA) and IRIS. Moreover, for the first time, data from the Egyptian National Seismological Network (ENSN), recorded by up to 25 broad band seismic stations, is also included in the analysis. For each station pair approximately located on the same great circle path, the recorded waveforms are cross correlated and the dispersion curves of fundamental modes are calculated from the phase of the weighted cross correlation functions. Path average dispersion curves are obtained by averaging the smooth parts of single-event dispersion curves. Parameters tests and preliminary results of automatically measured phase velocities are

  11. Romanian Complex Data Center for Dense Seismic network (United States)

    Neagoe, Cristian; Ionescu, Constantin; Marius Manea, Liviu


    Since 2002 the National Institute for Earth Physics (NIEP) developed its own real-time digital seismic network: consisting of 96 seismic stations of which 35 are broadband sensors and 24 stations equipped with short period sensors and two arrays earthquakes that transmit data in real time at the National Data Center (NDC) and Eforie Nord (EFOR) Seismic Observatory. EFOR is the back-up for the NDC and also a monitoring center for Black Sea tsunamis. Seismic stations are equipped with Quanterra Q330 and K2 digitizers, broadband seismometers (STS2, CMG40T, CMG 3ESP, CMG3T) and acceleration sensors Episensor Kinemetrics (+ / - 2G). SeedLink who is a part of Seiscomp2.5 and Antelope are software packages used for acquisition in real time (RT) and for data exchange. Communication of digital seismic stations to the National Data Center in Bucharest and Seismic Observatory Eforie Nord is assured by 5 providers (GPRS, VPN, satellite radio and Internet communication). For acquisition and data processing at the two centers of reception and processing is used AntelopeTM 4.11 running on 2 workstations: one for real-time and other for offline processing and also a Seiscomp 3 server that works as back-up for Antelope 4.11 Both acquisition and analysis of seismic data systems produced information about local and global parameters of earthquakes, in addition Antelope is used for manual processing (association events, the calculation of magnitude, creating a database, sending seismic bulletins, calculation of PGA and PGV , etc.), generating ShakeMap products and interacts with global data centers. In order to make all this information easily available across the Web and also lay the grounds for a more modular and flexible development environment the National Data Center developed tools to enable centralizing of data from software such as Antelope which is using a dedicated database system ( Datascope, a database system based on text files ) to a more general-purpose database, My

  12. Crustal structure of the Altiplano from broadband regional waveform modeling: Implications for the composition of thick continental crust (United States)

    Swenson, Jennifer L.; Beck, Susan L.; Zandt, George


    We have modeled the full waveforms from six intermediate-depth and two shallow earthquakes recorded at regional distances by the BANJO Broadband Andean Joint Experiment (BANJO) and Seismic Exploration of the Deep Altiplano (SEDA) portable seismic networks in the central Andes. In this study we utilize data from those BANJO and SEDA stations located within the Altiplano and Eastern Cordillera. We used reflectivity synthetic seismograms and a grid search to constrain four parameters of the Altiplano-Eastern Cordillera lithosphere: crustal thickness, average crustal velocity (Vp), and crustal and upper mantle Poisson's ratios (σcrust and σmantle). Using our grid search, we investigated the crustal and upper mantle structure along 36 individual event station paths and applied forward modeling to 56 event station paths. Robust models for the Altiplano that provide the best overall fit between the data and synthetic seismograms are characterized by an average Vp of 5.75-6.25 km/s, crustal thicknesses of 60-65 km, σcrust = 0.25, and σmantle = 0.27-0.29. We find a north-south variation in the structure of the Altiplano, with the crust south of the BANJO transect characterized by either lower than average crustal P wave velocities or a slightly higher σcrust relative to crust north of the BANJO transect. These results are consistent with a model of crustal thickening caused predominantly by tectonic shortening of felsic crust, rather than by underplating or magmatic intrusion from the mantle.

  13. Use of an Educational Seismic Network for Monitoring Intraplate Seismicity in the Central United States (United States)

    Webb, S. M.; Bailey, L.; Lindsey, J.; Pavlis, G. L.; Hamburger, M. W.; Bauer, M.


    The Indiana PEPP seismic network is a 21-station broadband, digital seismic network operated as a collaboration between Indiana University and area high schools, colleges, and museums. Since 1999 the network has used internet data transmission to provide real-time network recording and archiving at the IRIS Data Management Center. The network provides expanded coverage of intraplate seismicity, quarry and mining explosion, and teleseismic earthquakes. We analyzed the signal-to-noise ratio for 11 local events tabulated in the ANSS catalog and used this to project the detection threshold for the network. We define a detection threshold for these events as the minimum projected equivalent event with 5 phases having a signal to noise ration of 3 or larger. We found that the detection threshold for events in southern Indiana, which is the approximate center of the network, varied from 1.7 to 2.3. For events outside this area the estimated detection floor ranges from 2.5 to 3.3. We also examined 264 regional earthquakes (300 to 1500 km) tabulated in the ANSS catalog during 2002. We found events larger than approximately 2.5 in the New Madrid region were consistently detectable. Regional events larger than 3.0 in the 700 to 1500 km distance range were consistently recorded. To further clarify detection capabilities we carefully scanned all data from a 114- day period, from day 51 through 164 of 2002. During this test period we observed 3520 mining explosions (29 events/day), all teleseismic events larger than about 5.0, and only 2 unambiguous earthquakes (the June 18, M_L = 5.0, Evansville (Caborn) mainshock and a single aftershock). This result illustrates an important practical issue in appraising seismicity levels in this area: less than 0.1% of the detected signals were local earthquakes. We extended this review period to include the remaining 251 days of 2002, but examining only the nighttime hours (0000-1200 UTC), when the levels of noise and blasting are minimal

  14. Pacific Array (Transportable Broadband Ocean Floor Array) (United States)

    Kawakatsu, Hitoshi; Ekstrom, Goran; Evans, Rob; Forsyth, Don; Gaherty, Jim; Kennett, Brian; Montagner, Jean-Paul; Utada, Hisashi


    Based on recent developments on broadband ocean bottom seismometry, we propose a next generation large-scale array experiment in the ocean. Recent advances in ocean bottom broadband seismometry1, together with advances in the seismic analysis methodology, have enabled us to resolve the regional 1-D structure of the entire lithosphere/asthenosphere system, including seismic anisotropy (azimuthal, and hopefully radial), with deployments of ~15 broadband ocean bottom seismometers (BBOBSs). Having ~15 BBOBSs as an array unit for a 2-year deployment, and repeating such deployments in a leap-frog way or concurrently (an array of arrays) for a decade or so would enable us to cover a large portion of the Pacific basin. Such efforts, not only by giving regional constraints on the 1-D structure beneath Pacific ocean, but also by sharing waveform data for global scale waveform tomography, would drastically increase our knowledge of how plate tectonics works on this planet, as well as how it worked for the past 150 million years. International collaborations is essential: if three countries/institutions participate this endeavor together, Pacific Array may be accomplished within five-or-so years.

  15. Regional passive seismic monitoring reveals dynamic glacier activity on Spitsbergen, Svalbard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Köhler


    Full Text Available Dynamic glacier activity is increasingly observed through passive seismic monitoring. We analysed near-regional-scale seismicity on the Arctic archipelago of Svalbard to identify seismic icequake signals and to study their spatial–temporal distribution within the 14-year period from 2000 until 2013. This is the first study that uses seismic data recorded on permanent broadband stations to detect and locate icequakes in different regions of Spitsbergen, the main island of the archipelago. A temporary local seismic network and direct observations of glacier calving and surging were used to identify icequake sources. We observed a high number of icequakes with clear spectral peaks between 1 and 8 Hz in different parts of Spitsbergen. Spatial clusters of icequakes could be associated with individual grounded tidewater glaciers and exhibited clear seasonal variability each year with more signals observed during the melt season. Locations at the termini of glaciers, and correlation with visual calving observations in situ at Kronebreen, a glacier in the Kongsfjorden region, show that these icequakes were caused dominantly by calving. Indirect evidence for glacier surging through increased calving seismicity was found in 2003 at Tunabreen, a glacier in central Spitsbergen. Another type of icequake was observed in the area of the Nathorstbreen glacier system. Seismic events occurred upstream of the glacier within a short time period between January and May 2009 during the initial phase of a major glacier surge. This study is the first step towards the generation and implementation of an operational seismic monitoring strategy for glacier dynamics in Svalbard.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rama K. Raju


    Full Text Available Now-a-days there is high demand for broadband mobile services. Traditional high-speed broadband solutions depend on wired technologies namely digital subscriber line (DSL. Wifi and Wimax are useful in providing any type of connectivity such as the fixed or portable or nomadic connectivity without the requirement of LoS (Line of Sight of the base station. Mobile Broadband Wireless Network (MBWN is a flexible and economical solution for remote areas where wired technology and also terminal mobility cannot be provided. The IEEE Wi-Fi and Wi-Max/802.16 are the most promising technologies for broadband wireless metropolitan area networks (WMANs and these are capable of providing high throughput even on long distances with varied QoS. These technologies ensure a wireless network that enables high speed Internet access to residential, small and medium business customers, as well as Internet access for WiFi hot spots and cellular base stations. These offer support to both point-to-multipoint (P2MP and multipoint-to-multipoint (mesh nodes and offers high speed data (voice, video service to the customers. In this paper, we study the issues related to, benefits and deployment of these technologies.

  17. The AlpArray Seismic Network: status and operation (United States)

    Hetényi, György; Molinari, Irene; Clinton, John; Kissling, Edi


    The AlpArray initiative ( is a large-scale European collaboration to study the entire Alpine orogen at high resolution and in 3D with a large variety of geoscientific methods. The core element of the initiative is an extensive and dense broadband seismological network, the AlpArray Seismic Network (AASN). Over 300 temporary stations complement the permanent seismological stations to ensure homogeneous coverage of the greater Alpine area. The AASN has officially started operation in January 2016 and is now complete on land. It is operated in a joint effort by a number of institutions from Austria, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Croatia, Czech Republic, France, Germany, Hungary, Italy, Slovakia and Switzerland. In the Ligurian Sea, a 32-station OBS campaign is planned from June 2017 until March 2018. This will complete the coverage of the greater Alpine area at an unprecedented resolution. In this poster we present the actual status of the deployment, the effort undertaken by the contributing groups, station performance, best practices, data management as well as often encountered challenges, and provide a meeting and discussion point during the conference.

  18. Inversion of single-station teleseismic P-wave polarization-data for the velocity structure of Beijing area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Broadband three-component seismic data recorded by Beijingstation (BJI) of CDSN were used to calculate P-wave polarization of teleseismic events. These polarization data were then used in the inversion for the underground structure around the Beijing station, especially for the details of velocity discontinuities. The result shows that a conspicuous low velocity zone exists in the crust on the west of the station, which is in good agreement with previous studies. It proves the theory that polarization data could be applied to inversion for velocity structures, especially for boundaries with large velocity gradient. It also demonstrates the feasibility of velocity structure inversion with polarization data from high-quality broadband data recorded by a single station. Therefore, travel-times and polarization data can be jointly used to study velocity structure. Polarization data are more suitable for delineating the boundary of velocity anomalies. Moreover, if the polarization method is combined with receiver function method to fully exploit their complementarity, it is possible to obtain the lateral velocity variation around the station as well as the detailed vertical variation below the station.

  19. Seismic tomography and dynamics of geothermal and natural hydrothermal systems in the south of Bandung, Indonesia (United States)

    Jousset, Philippe; Sule, Rachmat; Diningrat, Wahyuddin; Syahbana, Devy; Schuck, Nicole; Akbar, Fanini; Kusnadi, Yosep; Hendryana, Andri; Nugraha, Andri; Ryannugroho, Riskiray; Jaya, Makki; Erbas, Kemal; Bruhn, David; Pratomo, Bambang


    The structure and the dynamics of geothermal reservoirs and hydrothermal systems allows us to better assess geothermal resources in the south of Bandung. A large variety of intense surface manifestations like geysers, hot-steaming grounds, hot water pools, and active volcanoes suggest an intimate coupling between volcanic, tectonic and hydrothermal processes in this area. We deployed a geophysical network around geothermal areas starting with a network of 30 seismic stations including high-dynamic broadband Güralp and Trillium sensors (0.008 - 100 Hz) and 4 short-period (1 Hz) sensors from October 2012 to December 2013. We extended the network in June 2013 with 16 short-period seismometers. Finally, we deployed a geodetic network including a continuously recording gravity meter, a GPS station and tilt-meters. We describe the set-up of the seismic and geodetic networks and we discuss observations and results. The earthquakes locations were estimated using a non-linear algorithm, and revealed at least 3 seismic clusters. We perform joint inversion of hypo-center and velocity tomography and we look at seismic focal mechanisms. We develop seismic ambient noise tomography. We discuss the resulting seismic pattern within the area and relate the structure to the distribution of hydrothermal systems. We aim at searching possible structural and dynamical links between different hydrothermal systems. In addition, we discuss possible dynamical implications of this complex volcanic systems from temporal variations of inferred parameters. The integration of those results allows us achieving a better understanding of the structures and the dynamics of those geothermal reservoirs. This approach contributes to the sustainable and optimal exploitation of the geothermal resource in Indonesia.

  20. A microseismic study in a low seismicity area of Italy: the Città di Castello 2000-2001 experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Augliera


    Full Text Available Recent seismological studies contribute to better understand the first order characteristics of earthquake occurrence in Italy, identifying the potential sites for moderate to large size earthquakes. Ad hoc passive seismic experiments performed in these areas provide information to focus on the location and geometry of the active faults more closely. This information is relevant for assessing seismic hazard and for accurately constraining possible ground shaking scenarios. The area around the Città di Castello Basin, in the Northern Apennines (Central Italy, is characterized by the absence of instrumental seismicity (M > 2.5, it is adjacent to faults ruptured by recent and historical earthquakes. To better understand the tectonics of the area, we installed a dense network of seismic stations equipped with broadband and short period seismometers collecting data continuously for 8 months (October 2000-May 2001. The processing of ~ 900 Gbyte of data revealed a consistent background seismicity consisting of very low magnitude earthquakes (ML < 3.2. Preliminary locations of about 2200 local earthquakes show that the area can be divided into two regions with different seismic behaviour: an area to the NW, in between Sansepolcro and Città di Castello, where seismicity is not present. An area toward the SE, in between Città di Castello, Umbertide and Gubbio, where we detected a high microseismicity activity. These findings suggest a probable different mechanical behaviour of the two regions. In the latter area, the seismicity is confined between 0 and 8 km of depth revealing a rather well defined east-dipping, low angle fault 35 km wide that cuts through the entire upper crust down to 12-15 km depth. Beside an apparent structural complexity, fault plane solutions of background seismicity reveal a homogeneous pattern of deformation with a clear NE-SW extension.

  1. The AlpArray Seismic Network: current status and next steps (United States)

    Hetényi, György; Molinari, Irene; Clinton, John; Kissling, Edi


    The AlpArray initiative ( is a large-scale European collaboration to study the entire Alpine orogen at high resolution and in 3D with a large variety of geoscientific methods. The core element of the initiative is an extensive and dense broadband seismological network, the AlpArray Seismic Network (AASN), which complements the permanent seismological stations to ensure homogeneous coverage of the greater Alpine area. The some 260 temporary stations of the AlpArray Seismic Network are operated as a joint effort by a number of institutions from Austria, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Croatia, Czech Republic, France, Germany, Hungary, Italy, Slovakia and Switzerland. The first stations were installed in Spring 2015 and the full AASN is planned to be operational by early Summer 2016. In this poster we present the actual status of the deployment, the effort undertaken by the contributing groups, station performance, typical noise levels, best practices in installation as well as in data management, often encountered challenges, and planned next steps including the deployment of ocean bottom seismometers in the Ligurian Sea.

  2. Preliminary analysis of eclipses phenomenon influence on body strain observationat Korla Seismic Station%日月食现象对库尔勒体应变观测的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐长银; 孙海军; 杨绍富; 苏萍; 江崇崑; 罗宏江


    Through analyzing the distortion phenomenon of body strain observation in Korla Seismic Station, there is marked influence of eclipses phenomenon on body strain and auxiliary air pressure observation. The influence of solar and lunar eclipses is different because of the special position of the Sun, Moon and Earth. The special position changes the tide generating force on the Earth. Proper recognition of Eclipses phenomenon influence on body strain is very significant to identify earthquake precursor anomalies.%通过对库尔勒体应变观测的畸变现象分析,认为日、月食现象对体应变及辅助气压观测有显著影响,且产生的影响不同,正确认识日、月食现象对体应变观测的影响,对于识别地震前兆异常具有一定意义.

  3. Acquiring, archiving, analyzing and exchanging seismic data in real time at the Seismological Research Center of the OGS in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milton Percy Plasencia Linares


    Full Text Available After the 1976 Friuli earthquake (Ms = 6.5 in north-eastern Italy that caused about 1,000 casualties and widespread destruction in the Friuli area, the Italian government established the Centro di Ricerche Sismologiche (CRS. This is now a department of the Istituto Nazionale di Oceanografia e di Geofisica Sperimentale (OGS, and it is specifically devoted to the monitoring of the seismicity of north-eastern Italy. Since its inception, the North-East Italy Seismic Network has grown enormously. Currently, it consists of 14 broad-band and 20 short-period seismic stations, all of which are telemetered to and acquired in real time at the OGS-CRS data center in Udine. Data exchange agreements in place with other Italian, Slovenian, Austrian and Swiss seismological institutes lead to a total number of 94 seismic stations acquired in real time, which confirms that the OGS is the reference institute for seismic monitoring of north-eastern Italy. Since 2002, CRS has been using the Antelope software suite as the main tool for collecting, analyzing, archiving and exchanging seismic data. SeisComP is also used as a real-time data exchange server tool. A customized web-accessible server is used to manually relocate earthquakes, and automatic procedures have been set-up for moment-tensor determination, shaking-map computation, web publishing of earthquake parametric data, waveform drumplots, state-of-health parameters, and quality checks of the station by spectra analysis. Scripts for email/SMS/fax alerting to public institutions have also been customized. Recently, a real-time seismology website was designed and set-up (

  4. A Review of Seismicity in 2008

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Gang; Liu Jie; Yu Surong


    @@ 1 SURVEY OF GLOBE SEISMICITY IN 2008 A total of 19 strong earthquakes with Ms≥7.0 occurred in the world in 2008 according to the Chinese Seismic Station Network (Table 1 ). The strongest earthquake was the Wenchuan earthquake with Ms8.0 on May 12,2008 (Fig.1). Earthquake frequency was apparently lower and the energy release remarkably attenuated in 2008, compared to seismicity in 2007. The characteristics of seismicity are as follows:

  5. Seismic detection of meteorite impacts on Mars


    Teanby, N.A.; Wookey, J.


    Abstract Meteorite impacts provide a potentially important seismic source for probing Mars? interior. It has recently been shown that new craters can be detected from orbit using high resolution imaging, which means the location of any impact-related seismic event could be accurately determined thus improving the constraints that could be placed on internal structure using a single seismic station. This is not true of other seismic sources on Mars such as sub-surface faulting, whic...

  6. Automatic procedure for quasi-real time seismic data processing at Campi Flegrei (Italy) (United States)

    Capuano, Paolo; Ciaramella, Angelo; De Lauro, Enza; De Martino, Salvatore; Falanga, Mariarosaria; Petrosino, Simona


    The accuracy of automatic procedures for detecting seismic events and locating their sources is influenced by several factors such as errors in picking seismic phases often buried in the high-level ambient noise, network geometry and modelling errors. fundamental objective is the improvement of these procedures by developing accurate algorithms for quasi-real time seismic data processing, easily managed in observatory practice. Recently a robust automatic procedure has been implemented for detecting, onset picking and identifying signal phases in continuous seismic signal with an application at the seismicity recorded at Campi Flegrei Caldera (Italy) during the 2006 ground uplift (Ciaramella et al. 2011). An Independent Component Analysis based approach for the Blind Source Separation of convolutive mixtures (CICA) has been adopted to obtain a clear separation of low-energy Long Period events (LPs) from the high-level ambient noise allowing to compile a complete seismic catalogue and better quantify the seismic energy release. In this work, we apply CICA at the seismic signal continuously recorded during the entire 2006 at Campi Flegrei. First, we have performed tests on synthetic data in order to improve the reliability and the accuracy of the procedure. The performance test using very noisy synthetic data shows that the method works even in case of very poor quality data characterized by very low signal to noise ratio (SNR). Second, we have improved CICA automatic procedure recovering the information on the amplitudes of the extracted independent components. This is crucial for further analysis, starting from a prompt estimate of magnitude/energy of the highlighted events. Data used for the present analysis were collected by four broadband three-component seismic stations (ASB2, AMS2, TAGG, BGNG) belonging to the Campi Flegrei seismic monitoring network, managed by the 'Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia-Osservatorio Vesuviano (INGV-OV)' (see for

  7. Seismicity of the Jalisco Block (United States)

    Nunez-Cornu, F. J.; Rutz, M.; Camarena-Garcia, M.; Trejo-Gomez, E.; Reyes-Davila, G.; Suarez-Plascencia, C.


    In April 2002 began to transmit the stations of the first phase of Jalisco Telemetric Network located at the northwest of Jalisco Block and at the area of Volcan de Fuego (Colima Volcano), in June were deployed four additional MarsLite portable stations in the Bahia de Banderas area, and by the end of August one more portable station at Ceboruco Volcano. The data of these stations jointly with the data from RESCO (Colima Telemetric Network) give us the minimum seismic stations coverage to initiate in a systematic and permanent way the study of the seismicity in this very complex tectonic region. A preliminary analysis of seismicity based on the events registered by the networks using a shutter algorithm, confirms several important features proposed by microseismicity studies carried out between 1996 and 1998. A high level of seismicity inside and below of Rivera plate is observed, this fact suggest a very complex stress pattern acting on this plate. Shallow seismicity at south and east of Bahia de Banderas also suggest a complex stress pattern in this region of the Jalisco Block, events at more than 30 km depth are located under the mouth of the bay and in face of it, a feature denominated Banderas Boundary mark the change of the seismic regime at north of this latitude (20.75°N), however some shallow events were located at the region of Nayarit.

  8. Seismic databases and earthquake catalogue of the Caucasus (United States)

    Godoladze, Tea; Javakhishvili, Zurab; Tvaradze, Nino; Tumanova, Nino; Jorjiashvili, Nato; Gok, Rengen


    The Caucasus has a documented historical catalog stretching back to the beginning of the Christian era. Most of the largest historical earthquakes prior to the 19th century are assumed to have occurred on active faults of the Greater Caucasus. Important earthquakes include the Samtskhe earthquake of 1283, Ms~7.0, Io=9; Lechkhumi-Svaneti earthquake of 1350, Ms~7.0, Io=9; and the Alaverdi(earthquake of 1742, Ms~6.8, Io=9. Two significant historical earthquakes that may have occurred within the Javakheti plateau in the Lesser Caucasus are the Tmogvi earthquake of 1088, Ms~6.5, Io=9 and the Akhalkalaki earthquake of 1899, Ms~6.3, Io =8-9. Large earthquakes that occurred in the Caucasus within the period of instrumental observation are: Gori 1920; Tabatskuri 1940; Chkhalta 1963; 1991 Ms=7.0 Racha earthquake, the largest event ever recorded in the region; the 1992 M=6.5 Barisakho earthquake; Ms=6.9 Spitak, Armenia earthquake (100 km south of Tbilisi), which killed over 50,000 people in Armenia. Recently, permanent broadband stations have been deployed across the region as part of various national networks (Georgia (~25 stations), Azerbaijan (~35 stations), Armenia (~14 stations)). The data from the last 10 years of observation provides an opportunity to perform modern, fundamental scientific investigations. A catalog of all instrumentally recorded earthquakes has been compiled by the IES (Institute of Earth Sciences, Ilia State University). The catalog consists of more then 80,000 events. Together with our colleagues from Armenia, Azerbaijan and Turkey the database for the Caucasus seismic events was compiled. We tried to improve locations of the events and calculate Moment magnitudes for the events more than magnitude 4 estimate in order to obtain unified magnitude catalogue of the region. The results will serve as the input for the Seismic hazard assessment for the region.

  9. EMERALD: A Flexible Framework for Managing Seismic Data (United States)

    West, J. D.; Fouch, M. J.; Arrowsmith, R.


    The seismological community is challenged by the vast quantity of new broadband seismic data provided by large-scale seismic arrays such as EarthScope’s USArray. While this bonanza of new data enables transformative scientific studies of the Earth’s interior, it also illuminates limitations in the methods used to prepare and preprocess those data. At a recent seismic data processing focus group workshop, many participants expressed the need for better systems to minimize the time and tedium spent on data preparation in order to increase the efficiency of scientific research. Another challenge related to data from all large-scale transportable seismic experiments is that there currently exists no system for discovering and tracking changes in station metadata. This critical information, such as station location, sensor orientation, instrument response, and clock timing data, may change over the life of an experiment and/or be subject to post-experiment correction. Yet nearly all researchers utilize metadata acquired with the downloaded data, even though subsequent metadata updates might alter or invalidate results produced with older metadata. A third long-standing issue for the seismic community is the lack of easily exchangeable seismic processing codes. This problem stems directly from the storage of seismic data as individual time series files, and the history of each researcher developing his or her preferred data file naming convention and directory organization. Because most processing codes rely on the underlying data organization structure, such codes are not easily exchanged between investigators. To address these issues, we are developing EMERALD (Explore, Manage, Edit, Reduce, & Analyze Large Datasets). The goal of the EMERALD project is to provide seismic researchers with a unified, user-friendly, extensible system for managing seismic event data, thereby increasing the efficiency of scientific enquiry. EMERALD stores seismic data and metadata in a

  10. Structure of Suasselkä Postglacial Fault in northern Finland obtained by analysis of ambient seismic noise (United States)

    Afonin, Nikita; Kozlovskaya, Elena


    Understanding inner structure of seismogenic faults and their ability to reactivate is particularly important in investigating the continental intraplate seismicity regime. In our study we address this problem using analysis of ambient seismic noise recorded by the temporary DAFNE array in northern Fennoscandian Shield. The main purpose of the DAFNE/FINLAND passive seismic array experiment was to characterize the present-day seismicity of the Suasselkä post-glacial fault (SPGF) that was proposed as one potential target for the DAFNE (Drilling Active Faults in Northern Europe) project. The DAFNE/FINLAND array comprised the area of about 20 to 100 km and consisted of 8 short-period and 4 broad-band 3-component autonomous seismic stations installed in the close vicinity of the fault area. The array recorded continuous seismic data during September, 2011-May, 2013. Recordings of the array have being analyzed in order to identify and locate natural earthquakes from the fault area and to discriminate them from the blasts in the Kittilä Gold Mine. As a result, we found several dozens of natural seismic events originating from the fault area, which proves that the fault is still seismically active. In order to study the inner structure of the SPGF we use cross-correlation of ambient seismic noise recorded by the array. Analysis of azimuthal distribution of noise sources demonstrated that that during the time interval under consideration the distribution of noise sources is close to the uniform one. The continuous data were processed in several steps including single station data analysis, instrument response removal and time-domain stacking. The data were used to estimate empirical Green's functions between pairs of stations in the frequency band of 0.1-1 Hz and to calculate correspondent surface wave dispersion curves. After that S-wave velocity models were obtained as a result of dispersion curves inversion using Geopsy software. The results suggest that the area of

  11. Numerical modeling of the Mount Meager landslide constrained by its force history derived from seismic data (United States)

    Moretti, L.; Allstadt, K.; Mangeney, A.; Capdeville, Y.; Stutzmann, E.; Bouchut, F.


    We focus on the 6 August 2010 Mount Meager landslide that occurred in Southwest British Columbia, Canada. This 48.5 Mm3 rockslide that rapidly changed into a debris flow was recorded by over 25 broadband seismic stations. We showed that the waveform inversion of the seismic signal making it possible to calculate the time history of the force applied by the landslide to the ground is very robust and stable, even when using only data from a single station. By comparing this force with the force calculated through numerical modeling of the landslide, we are able to support the interpretation of seismic data made using a simple block model. However, our study gives different values of the friction coefficients involved and more details about the volumes and orientation of the subevents and the flow trajectory and velocity. Our sensitivity analysis shows that the characteristics of the released mass and the friction coefficients all contribute to the amplitude and the phase of the force. Despite this complexity, our study makes it possible to discriminate the best values of all these parameters. Our results suggest that comparing simulated and inverted forces helps to identify appropriate rheological laws for natural flows. We also show that except for the initial collapse, peaks in the low-frequency force related to bends and runup over topography changes are associated with high-frequency generation, possibly due to an increased agitation of the granular material involved.

  12. Planning the improvement of seismic monitoring in a volcanic supersite: experience on Mt. Etna (United States)

    D'Alessandro, Antonino; Scarfi, Luciano; Scaltrito, Antonio; Aiesi, Giampiero; Di Prima, Sergio; Ferrari, Ferruccio; Rapisarda, Salvatore


    Etna is one of the most active volcanoes in the world and one of the most intriguing natural laboratories for the understanding of eruptive processes and lava uprising in basalt-type volcanic environments; indeed, it is considered, by the scientific international community, together with the Vesuvius and the Hawaiian Islands, as a volcanic supersite. Its activity is continuously monitored by the Osservatorio Etneo of the Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV), by means of an array of integrated multidisciplinary techniques. In particular, Etna seismicity is recorded by a dense local seismic network (ESN- Etna Seismic Network), which, nowadays, consists of about 40 real-time seismic stations, many of which equipped with broadband velocity and accelerometer sensors. The data are analyzed routinely in detail by the Osservatorio Etneo staff, producing daily and periodic reports and bulletins of the earthquakes located in the whole Sicily and southern Calabria region. In the last decades, seismological observations provided important information on both the dynamics and internal structure of the volcano, in addition to their interaction with the regional tectonic structures. In the last year, in the framework of the VULCAMED project, an INGV workgroup has taken on the task of developing the existing seismic network through the installation of new measurement stations. By considering the spatial distribution of earthquakes in the area, the presence of structures known as seismically active and through extensive geological-geophysical surveys, ten potential new sites were identified. In the following months, some of these sites will complement the existing network. The choice of optimal sites must clearly be made through a careful analysis of environmental noise, of the possible logistics, technical and broadcast problems, but must also take into account the geometry of the existing seismic network. For this purpose, we applied the Seismic Network

  13. Development of Alaska Volcano Observatory Seismic Networks, 1988-2008 (United States)

    Tytgat, G.; Paskievitch, J. F.; McNutt, S. R.; Power, J. A.


    The number and quality of seismic stations and networks on Alaskan volcanoes have increased dramatically in the 20 years from 1988 to 2008. Starting with 28 stations on six volcanoes in 1988, the Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO) now operates 194 stations in networks on 33 volcanoes spanning the 2000 km Aleutian Arc. All data are telemetered in real time to laboratory facilities in Fairbanks and Anchorage and recorded on digital acquisition systems. Data are used for both monitoring and research. The basic and standard network designs are driven by practical considerations including geography and terrain, access to commercial telecommunications services, and environmental vulnerability. Typical networks consist of 6 to 8 analog stations, whose data can be telemetered to fit on a single analog telephone circuit terminated ultimately in either Fairbanks or Anchorage. Towns provide access to commercial telecommunications and signals are often consolidated for telemetry by remote computer systems. Most AVO stations consist of custom made fiberglass huts that house the batteries, electronics, and antennae. Solar panels are bolted to the south facing side of the huts and the seismometers are buried nearby. The huts are rugged and have allowed for good station survivability and performance reliability. However, damage has occurred from wind, wind-blown pumice, volcanic ejecta, lightning, icing, and bears. Power is provided by multiple isolated banks of storage batteries charged by solar panels. Primary cells are used to provide backup power should the rechargable system fail or fall short of meeting the requirement. In the worst cases, snow loading blocks the solar panels for 7 months, so sufficient power storage must provide power for at least this long. Although primarily seismic stations, the huts and overall design allow additional instruments to be added, such as infrasound sensors, webcams, electric field meters, etc. Yearly maintenance visits are desirable, but some

  14. The Irpinia Seismic Network (ISN): a new Monitoring Infrastructure for Seismic Alert Management in Campania Region, Southern Italy (United States)

    Iannaccone, G.; Satriano, C.; Weber, E.; Cantore, L.; Corciulo, M.; Romano, L.; Martino, C.; Dicrosta, M.; Zollo, A.


    The Irpinia Seismic Network is an high dynamics, high density seismographic network under development in the Southern Apenninic chain. It is deployed in the area stroken by several destructive earthquakes during last centuries. In its final configuration the network will consist of more than fourty high dynamic seismic stations subdivided in physical subnetworks inter-connected by a robust data transmission system. The system is being designed with two primary targets: -Monitoring and analysis of background seismic activity produced by the active fault system which is the cause for large earthquakes in the past, included the 1980, Irpinia earthquake (Ms=6.9) - Development and experimentation of a prototype system for seismic early and post-event warning to be used for protecting public infrastructures and buildings of strategic relevance of the Regione Campania The seismic network will be completed in two stages: 1 - Deployment of 30 seismic stations along the Campania-Lucania Apenninic chain (to date almost completed) 2 - Setting up radio communication system for data transmission. Installation of 12 additional seismic stations (end of year 2006) To ensure an high dynamic recording range each site is equipped with two type of sensors: 30 force-balance accelerometer (model Guralp CMG5-T) and a velocimeter. In particular, 25 sites with short period three components instrument (model Geotech S13-J) and 5 with broad-band sensor (Nanometrics Trillium, with frequency response in the 0.033-50 Hz band). The used data logger is the Osiris-6 model produced by Agecodagis whose main features are: six channels, O/N 24 bit A/D converter, ARM processor with embedded Linux and open source software, two PCMCIA slots (used for two 5GB microdrive or one disk and wi-fi card), Ethernet, wi-fi and serial communication, low power cosumption (~1 W). Power is ensured by two 120 W solar panels and two 130 Ah gel batteries. Each recording site is equipped with a control/alarm system through

  15. VOLOBSIS: An Infrastructure for Open Access to Seismic and GNSS Data from the Volcanological and Seismological French Observatories (United States)

    Satriano, C.; Lemarchand, A.; Saurel, J. M. M.; Pardo, C.; Vincent, D.; de Chabalier, J. B.; Beauducel, F.; Shapiro, N.; Cyril, G.


    The three Volcanological and Seismological Observatories of the Institut de Physique du Globe de Paris (IPGP) are situated in the overseas French territories: Martinique and Guadeloupe observatories in the Lesser Antilles and La Réunion Island in the Indian Ocean. The main missions of IPGP observatories is to monitor French active volcanoes and seismic activity associated with regional tectonics and to foster scientific research on the Lesser Antilles arc and La Réunion hotspot. For that, the observatories operate, among others, permanent seismological and geodetic networks and process and analyze continuously acquired data.IPGP observatories have a long story of seismic and geodetic monitoring: the first seismograph in Martinique was installed in 1902; starting from the early '80 the three observatories begun deploying permanent networks of analog sensors. During the years 2010, seismic and geodetic monitoring at the three observatories saw a significant breakthrough with the advent of broadband seismic sensors, digital recording and continuous GNSS receivers.This wealth of data is constituted today by 81 seismological stations (broad-band and short period, networks GL, MQ, PF and WI) and 48 permanent GNSS stations. Data of both type is continuously recorded and acquired at the three observatories, as well as at the IPGP Data Center in Paris. Real-time streams for seismic data are available through a SeedLink server. Seismic and GNSS data are further validated and completed at IPGP, and distributed through the VOLOBSIS web portal (, which provides download links as well a web service interface.Seismic data is further available through IRIS, the European Integrated Data Archive (EIDA) and the French RESIF portal ( we discuss the different steps of data recording, quality-control and distribution behind VOLOBSIS, which provides an open data infrastructure for advancing the understanding of volcanic and

  16. Comparison of the bedrock depth from array measurements of Rayleigh waves associated with microtremor and seismic profile obtained the Seismic Reflection Data, Eskisehir Basin, Turkey (United States)

    Tün, Muammer; Karabulut, Savaş; Özel, Oğuz


    Ground motion estimation for future earthquakes is one of the most challenging problems in seismology and earthquake engineering. The bedrock depth has a considerable seismic risk for the urban area of Eskişehir. In this study, multiple station microtremor measurement methods which are more practical, non-distructive, fast and economical compared to seismic reflection method were implemented. These method using microtremor recordings have become a very useful data for microzonation studies because of their simple acquisition and analysis. Extensive ambient noise measurements were performed in the basin of Eskisehir from June 2010 to spring 2012. We use data recorded by a broadband seismometer and digitizer CMG-6TD, Guralp seismometer. Some of the measurement locations, the CMG-6TD sensor was located into 30 cm-deep holes in the ground to avoid strongly wind-generated, long-period noise. Dominant frequency (f), bed-rock depth (h) and shear-wave velocity (Vs) were determined from Spatial Autocorrelation (SPAC) methods. With the SPAC Method, it is possible to constrain the velocity structure underlying the site using microtremor array measurements. The results obtained were compared to the 96-channel seismic reflection data with explosive energy source. Several seismic reflection surveys with P-Gun seismic source have been performed on the same place with array measurements. We used two types of seismic sources: 36 cartridge Gun. Shot interval was 10 meters, group interval (one geophone per group, 48 geophones in total) was 10 meters, near offset was 10 meters, far offset was 480 meters, CDP interval was 5 meters. We adapted the 'Off-End Spread' technique while using the Gun. Reflection images within the sedimentary section correlate well with the velocity structure obtained from SPAC.

  17. Micro-seismic earthquakes characteristics at natural and exploited hydrothermal systems in West Java, Indonesia (United States)

    Jousset, P. G.; Jaya, M. S.; Sule, R.; Diningrat, W.; Gassner, A.; Akbar, F.; Ryannugroho, R.; Hendryana, A.; Kusnadi, Y.; Syahbana, D.; Nugraha, A. D.; Umar, M.; Indrinanto, Y.; Erbas, K.


    The assessment of geothermal resources requires the understanding of the structure and the dynamics of geothermal reservoirs. We deployed a multidisciplinary geophysical network around geothermal areas in the south of Bandung, West Java, Indonesia. The first deployment included a network of 30 broadband and 4 short-period seismic stations with Güralp and Trillium sensors (0.008 - 100 Hz) since October 2012. In a second step, we extended the network in June 2013 with 16 short-period (1 Hz) seismometers. We describe the set-up of the seismic networks and discuss first observations and results. The co-existence of a large variety of intense surface manifestations like geysers, hot-steaming grounds, hot water pools, and active volcanoes suggest an intimate coupling between volcanic, tectonic and hydrothermal processes in this area. Preliminary location of earthquakes is performed using a non-linear algorithm, which allows us to define at least 3 seismic clusters. We discuss this seismic pattern within the geothermal fields.

  18. Use of passive seismic data to characterize sedimentary basins, an example from the Vienna Basin, Austria. (United States)

    Piana Agostinetti, N.; Bianchi, I.


    The analysis of passive seismic data leads a deeper understanding of the basin features in those areas that have been less explored via direct drilling. In this study, we use the Receiver Functions technique that constrain the presence of impedance contrasts at depth, caused by lithology changes, and seismic anisotropy, possibly related to fluid-filled cracks or alignment of orientated mineral grains. We present some examples from broadband seismic stations located in the Vienna basin, on the horst structures and in the deep depocenters, which characterize the sedimentary basin. Preliminary analysis of the high frequency (4Hz) RF data-set, show the presence of two close impedance contrasts, which presumably are related to the occurence of a thick sedimentary layer overlying a thinner limestone layer. Seismic anisotropy is recognized around the interface between sediments and limestones; the anisotropy is NE directed reflecting the NE alignment of the strike-slip fault system, which characterizes the area. The comparison of passive seismology with direct exploration improves the knowledge of the subsurface and adds new constraints on its geodynamical interpretation.

  19. 提高台站地震资料信噪比的自适应极化滤波%Adaptive Polarization Filtering for Improving the S/N of Station Seismic Data

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马见青; 李庆春


    length window do not have time-varying characteristics.The filtering results of the SCM are relatively stable,insensitive to disturbance,and unable to determine the polarization parameters in the beginning and end of the seismic record.Thus,the filtering effect is not ideal and will inevitably appear glossy in interpretation.For this reason,the present study in-troduces a new polarization method based on the adaptive covariance matrix(ACM).We use an approximate formula to compute the adaptive window function,in which the length is adapted to the instantaneous frequency of three-component seismic data.In particular,the window length of the covariance matrix adjusts to the minimum cycle of the desired signal,which reduces the facti-tious impact of the window length selection.In addition,there is no need to interpolate processing because the polarization parameters are computed in every time sampling point of the three-com-ponent seismic records,except for one-half of the time window of the start and end points.Due to the above advantages,ACM greatly improves the filtering accuracy.The processing results of the model and actual three-component station seismic data show that the SCM represents a smoothed version of the instantaneous attributes from the ACM.Furthermore,because the time window is fixed for the standard method,it is not possible to characterize the polarization attributes of a seis-mic event with a period lower than that of the time window used for the analysis.The polarization curves computed by SCM and ACM agree quite well in the region in which the period of the domi-nant signal is close to the time window selected for the covariance analysis,which greatly reduces the effective signal waveform differences before and after filtering.With ACM,a comparison of the original signal and that after filtering reveals that almost no high-frequency interference exists near the effective signal.In general,the significantly different regions in which the two curves from

  20. Nucleation of the 2014 Pisagua, N. Chile earthquake : seismic analysis of the foreshock sequence. (United States)

    Fuenzalida, A.; Tavera, H.; Ruiz, S.; Ryder, I. M. A.; Fernandez, E.; Garth, T.; Neto, O. D. L.; Metois, M.; De Angelis, S.; Rietbrock, A.


    The April 2014 Mw 8.1 Pisagua earthquake occurred in the Northern Chile seismic gap. This part of the subduction zone was believed to have not experienced a large earthquake since 1877. As part of an international collaboration the "The Integrated Plate boundary Observatory Chile (IPOC)" network was installed in 2007 to monitor this region. As well as recording the 2014 Pisagua mainshock, the IPOC network was able to record the full foreshock and aftershock sequences, providing a unique opportunity to study the nucleation and rupture process of large megathrust earthquakes. As most seismic activity occurred ~100 km offshore of the coastline, the onshore nature of the network only covers the rupture area to the east resulting in poor azimuthal coverage and hindering accurate depth estimation of seismic events. To improve the location accuracy of the Pisagua seismic sequences, we installed a temporary seismic network that was operative from 1 May 2014. The network comprised 12 short-period stations located in the coastal area between Moquegua and Tacna and three stations at the slopes of Ticsiani volcano to monitor any possible change in volcanic activity following the Pisagua earthquake.Our study focuses on the nucleation area, where part of the precursory sequence and a slow slip event occurred (Ruiz et al., 2014). This region became significantly stronger in the two weeks preceding the Pisagua mainshock. On 16 March 2014 the strongest foreshock (Mw 6.7) occurred offshore of Pisagua with a centroid depth of 10 km, shallower than the estimated subduction interface.In this study aftershock locations are further constrained using observations from the new network installed in Peru. We carefully estimate event locations and we compute regional moment tensor solutions by 1-D full waveform inversion of the broadband data. To improve our solutions, we are currently relocating aftershocks, to correct for foreshock mislocations by using the double-difference earthquake

  1. Explore Seismic Velocity Change Associated with the 2010 Kaohsiung Earthquake by Ambient Noise Tomography (United States)

    Ku, Chin-Shang; Wu, Yih-Min; Huang, Bor-Shouh; Huang, Win-Gee; Liu, Chun-Chi


    A ML 6.4 earthquake occurred on 4 March 2010 in Kaohsiung, the southern part of Taiwan, this shallow earthquake is the largest one of that area in the past few years. Some damages occurred on buildings and bridges after the earthquake, obvious surface deformation up to few cm was observed and the transportation including road and train traffic was also affected near the source area. Some studies about monitoring the velocity change induced by the big earthquake were carried out recently, most of studies used cross-correlation of the ambient noise-based method and indicated velocity drop was observed immediately after the big earthquake. However, this method is not able to constrain the depth of velocity change, and need to assume a homogeneous seismic velocity change during the earthquake. In this study, we selected 25 broadband seismic stations in the southern Taiwan and time period is from 2009/03 to 2011/03. Then we explored the velocity change associated with the 2010 Kaohsiung earthquake by applying ambient noise tomography (ANT) method. ANT is a way of using interferometry to image subsurface seismic velocity variations by using surface wave dispersions extracted from the ambient noise cross-correlation of seismic station-pairs, then the 2-D group velocity map with different periods could be extracted. Compare to ambient noise-based cross-correlation analysis, we estimated sensitivity kernel of dispersion curves and converted 2-D group velocity map from "with the period" to "with the depth" to have more constraints on the depth of velocity change. By subtracting shear velocity between "before" and "after" the earthquake, we could explore velocity change associated with the earthquake. Our result shows velocity reduction about 5-10% around the focal depth after the 2010 Kaohsiung earthquake and the post-seismic velocity recovery was observed with time period increasing, which may suggest a healing process of damaged rocks.

  2. Tectonic tremor and brittle seismic events triggered along the Eastern Denali Fault in northwest Canada (United States)

    Zimmerman, J. P.; Aiken, C.; Peng, Z.


    Deep tectonic tremor has been observed in a number of plate-bounding tectonic environments around the world. It can occur both spontaneously (i.e. ambient) and as a result of small stress perturbations from passing seismic waves (i.e. triggered). Because tremor occurs beneath the seismogenic zone (> 15 km), it is important to understand where and how tremor occurs to discern its relationship with shallower earthquakes. In this study, we search for triggered tremor and brittle seismic events along the Eastern Denali Fault (EDF) in northwest Canada, an intraplate strike-slip region where previously tremor has not been observed. We retrieve seismic data for 19 distant earthquakes from 9 broadband stations monitored by the Canadian National Seismograph Network (CNSN). We apply high-pass or band-pass filters to the seismic data to suppress signals from distant events and search for local sources. Triggered tremor signals exhibit high-frequency contents, have long duration (> 15 s), are coincident with passing surface waves of the distant earthquakes, and are observable among nearby stations. Using this simple approach, we have identified 4 mainshocks that triggered tremor in our study region: the 2011/03/11 Mw9.1 Tohoku, 2012/04/11 Mw8.6 Sumatra, 2012/10/28 Mw7.7 Haida Gwaii, and 2013/01/05 Mw7.5 Craige earthquakes. Our initial locations indicate that the tremor source occurs on or near the southeastern portion of the EDF near the fault trace. In addition to the triggered tremor sources, we also identified many 'brittle' events with very short durations triggered by the Rayleigh waves of the 2012/10/28 Mw7.7 Haida Gwaii earthquake. While we were unable to locate these brittle events, they appear to be seismically similar to triggered icequakes observed in Antarctica (Peng et al., 2013) and occur during the dilatational strain changes caused by the Rayleigh waves.

  3. Integration of onshore and offshore seismological data to study the seismicity of the Calabrian Region (United States)

    D'Alessandro, Antonino; Guerra, Ignazio; D'Anna, Giuseppe; Gervasi, Anna; Harabaglia, Paolo; Luzio, Dario; Stellato, Gilda


    -land seismic stations. The lack of offshore stations prevents accurate determination of the hypocentral parameters also for moderate-strong earthquakes that occur in the Calabria offshore. With the aim of investigate the near shore seismicity in the Sibari Gulf and its eventual relationship with the Pollino activity, in the early 2014 will start a project for the improvement of the Calabrian Seismic Network in monitoring the Sibari Gulf area by deploying several Ocean Bottom Seismometers with Hydrophone (OBS/H). For this experiment, each OBS/H is equipped with a broad-band seismometer housed in a glass sphere designed to operate at a depth of up to 6000 m and with an autolevelling sensor system. The OBS/Hs are also equipped with an hydrophone. Analogical signals are recorded with a sampling frequency of 200 Hz by a four-channel 21 bits datalogger. In this work, we plan to present the preliminary results of the monitoring campaign showing the largest improvement in hypocenter locations derived from the integration of the onshore and offshore seismic stations.

  4. 核电站工业水池的地震反应分析%Seismic Response Analysis of Industry Pool Building on a Nuclear Power Station

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛志成; 裴强; 赵杰


    目的 探索核电站工业水池作为抗震物项进行动力计算时的内力分布规律及其危险工况,为工业水池合理截面设计及配筋方案提供技术支持.方法 基于大型有限元商业软件开发了工业水池构筑物进行地震反应分析的编码程序,该程序考虑了土-结构动力相互作用,并以黏弹性边界模拟无限地基的影响.结果 依据材料力学平截面假定实现了ANSYS三维实体单元应力到内力转化,得到了各种荷载工况作用下工业水池后墙弯矩最大值为101.8 kN·m,相对于反应位移法的计算结果小17%,并通过统计最大内力包络确定了工业水池的危险工况为空水状态与SL2地震波共同作用.结论 笔者确定出危险工况下最不利内力的方法比较准确且简单明了,易于工程设计应用.%As a seismic item,internal force distribution and risk case of industry pool in the nuclear power plant is explored while calculating the earthquake responses.The results can provide technical support for the design plan of sectional dimensions and reinforcement.The finite element program of seismic response analysis for industrial pool structures is developed based on commercial software.And soil-structure interaction is simulated by means of adding a viscoelastic boundary in the sides of the model.Based on the plane section assumes of materials mechanics,the transformation between the stress and internal force of three-dimensional solid elements is accomplished.Internal forces distribution and envelope of industrial pools are obtained from the simulation results,the value of the maximum bending moment is 101.8 that is 17% smaller than the calculation results of response displacement method,and then it is determined that the most dangerous case is the combined effects of SL2 seismic waves and empty pool.Based on the calculation results,it can be concluded that the method of determining the worst intemal force in the most dangerous case is

  5. Seismic Activity at tres Virgenes Volcanic and Geothermal Field (United States)

    Antayhua, Y. T.; Lermo, J.; Quintanar, L.; Campos-Enriquez, J. O.


    The volcanic and geothermal field Tres Virgenes is in the NE portion of Baja California Sur State, Mexico, between -112°20'and -112°40' longitudes, and 27°25' to 27°36' latitudes. Since 2003 Power Federal Commission and the Engineering Institute of the National Autonomous University of Mexico (UNAM) initiated a seismic monitoring program. The seismograph network installed inside and around the geothermal field consisted, at the beginning, of Kinemetrics K2 accelerometers; since 2009 the network is composed by Guralp CMG-6TD broadband seismometers. The seismic data used in this study covered the period from September 2003 - November 2011. We relocated 118 earthquakes with epicenter in the zone of study recorded in most of the seismic stations. The events analysed have shallow depths (≤10 km), coda Magnitude Mc≤2.4, with epicentral and hypocentral location errors geothermal explotation zone where there is a system NW-SE, N-S and W-E of extensional faults. Also we obtained focal mechanisms for 38 events using the Focmec, Hash, and FPFIT methods. The results show normal mechanisms which correlate with La Virgen, El Azufre, El Cimarron and Bonfil fault systems, whereas inverse and strike-slip solutions correlate with Las Viboras fault. Additionally, the Qc value was obtained for 118 events. This value was calculated using the Single Back Scattering model, taking the coda-waves train with window lengths of 5 sec. Seismograms were filtered at 4 frequency bands centered at 2, 4, 8 and 16 Hz respectively. The estimates of Qc vary from 62 at 2 Hz, up to 220 at 16 Hz. The frequency-Qc relationship obtained is Qc=40±2f(0.62±0.02), representing the average attenuation characteristics of seismic waves at Tres Virgenes volcanic and geothermal field. This value correlated with those observed at other geothermal and volcanic fields.

  6. Receiver Function Analysis of the Eastern Tennessee Seismic Zone (United States)

    Graw, J. H.; Powell, C. A.; Langston, C. A.


    We present receiver/transfer functions determined for a seismic network associated with an active, intraplate seismic zone. Basement studies within eastern Tennessee are sparse despite the fact that these rocks host the eastern Tennessee seismic zone (ETSZ) and are associated with an extensive aeromagnetic lineament called the New York-Alabama (NY-AL) lineament. The NY-AL lineament is prominent in eastern Tennessee, with a SW-NE trend, and is characterized by a lateral change in magnetic and gravity anomalies in a NW to SE direction; high magnetic and low gravity anomalies lie west of the lineament, while low magnetic and high gravity anomalies are located east of the lineament. The NY-AL lineament is thought to be an ancient strike-slip fault that is reactivating in the present day stress field. A better understanding of the basement structure within the ETSZ will aid in the assessment of its seismic hazard potential. A network maintained by the Center for Earthquake Research and Information (CERI) at the University of Memphis is located within the study area and consists of 23 short-period and three broadband seismometers. An additional station (TZTN) is maintained by IRIS and is included in our dataset. Receiver functions are computed using teleseismic earthquakes within a 30°-90° epicentral distance, at hypocentral depths greater than 30 km, and with magnitudes greater than Mw 6.0. A vertical component stack is used to obtain the best source function. A spectral waterlevel deconvolution is then used to calculate the receiver functions. Results indicate a thickening of the crust west of the NY-AL lineament and show vertical variation within the crust and upper mantle with abrupt polarity changes and strong positive and negative amplitude values. Crustal structure west of the NY-AL lineament appears to be much more complex than that east of the NY-AL lineament.

  7. Passive broadband acoustic thermometry (United States)

    Anosov, A. A.; Belyaev, R. V.; Klin'shov, V. V.; Mansfel'd, A. D.; Subochev, P. V.


    The 1D internal (core) temperature profiles for the model object (plasticine) and the human hand are reconstructed using the passive acoustothermometric broadband probing data. Thermal acoustic radiation is detected by a broadband (0.8-3.5 MHz) acoustic radiometer. The temperature distribution is reconstructed using a priori information corresponding to the experimental conditions. The temperature distribution for the heated model object is assumed to be monotonic. For the hand, we assume that the temperature distribution satisfies the heat-conduction equation taking into account the blood flow. The average error of reconstruction determined for plasticine from the results of independent temperature measurements is 0.6 K for a measuring time of 25 s. The reconstructed value of the core temperature of the hand (36°C) generally corresponds to physiological data. The obtained results make it possible to use passive broadband acoustic probing for measuring the core temperatures in medical procedures associated with heating of human organism tissues.

  8. 太钢地震台避雷设施的布设及效果%Installation and Effect of Lightning Arrester in Seismic Station of Taiyuan Iron and Steel Corporation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白建仁; 刘润生


    The seismic observation instruments are injured by the thunderbolt during the strong thunderbolt activity season.In order to avoid the problem,the Seismic Station of Taiyuan Iron and Steel Corporation adopted the measure of the lightning arrester in the systematic region which set up the netted lightning rod tower in the observation region,set up the multigrade lightning arrester protected the thunderstroke of the electromagnetic induction in the power supply system of the observation equipments,and series connected the lightning arrester to the observational signal system.The run situation of 1a suggested that the arrester set played best lightning protect role in the thunderstrokes,and ensured the norma l running of the observation instruments.%在强雷电活动季节,地震观测仪器常受到雷电的侵害,太原钢铁(集团)有限公司地震台为解决这一问题采取了系统区域避雷的措施——在观测区域架设网状式避雷针塔,在观测设备的供电系统进行防电磁感应雷击的多级避雷,在观测信号系统串接避雷器等,避雷装置运行1 a的结果表明,在遭受多次雷电时,该装置发挥了很好的避雷作用,保证了仪器的正常运转,得出该装置避雷效果较好的结论。

  9. A Real-Time Discrimination System of Earthquakes and Explosions for the Mainland Spanish Seismic Network (United States)

    García Vargas, Marta; Rueda, Juan; García Blanco, Rosa María; Mezcua, Julio


    Different waveform-based discrimination parameters were tested using multivariate statistical analysis to develop a real-time procedure for discriminating explosions from earthquakes at regional distances in the Iberian Peninsula. This work enabled a purge of the Spanish National Seismic Catalogue for the period 2003-2014. The training data consisted of waveform-based signal properties in the time and frequency domain for events (earthquakes and explosions) recorded during the selected time period by the Spanish Broadband National Network and Sonseca short-period Array of the Instituto Geográfico Nacional (IGN). For each station and its associated training dataset, a discriminant function was defined as a linear combination of the measured variables. All station-specific discriminant functions were then combined with a weighting scheme to test the training events, revealing that 86 % of the events were consistent with the analysts' judgement. The application of this method to the whole of the IGN's seismic database for the studied period gave an 83 % success rate; however, a 91 % success rate is reached if events are classified using at least three stations and 100 % confidence levels.

  10. 3D Nonlinear Damage Analysis of Metro-station Structures Under Strong Seismic Loading%强震作用下地铁车站结构损伤破坏的三维非线性动力分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    还毅; 方秦; 陈力; 柳锦春


    In order to investigate the dynamic response and the failure mechanism of metro-station structures under strong seismic loading, a two-dimensional (2D) and a three-dimensional (3D) nonlinear finite element models of the Daikai subway station during Kobe earthquake were established based on damaged plasticity model for concrete, extended Drucker-Prager model for soil, soil-underground structure interaction theory and artificial boundary theory. The 3 D nonlinear responses of the Daikai subway station with isolators fixed at the column ends subjected to seismic loading were also analyzed. The results show that: ( 1 ) the finite element models established in this paper can describe the dynamic properties of the reinforced concrete structure and the dynamic interaction of soil-underground structure properly; (2) the 3D numerical results agree well with the in situ observations by comparison of the numerical results of the 2D and 3D models, and the failure mode of the column in the metrostation structure under seismic loading can not be predicted precisely by the 2D analysis; (3) the 3D shock isolator, composed of dish spring and lead rubber beading, has a rather large vertical stiffness and good resistance to lateral deformation, and consequently can markedly reduce the deformation and damage of the column when fixed at the ends of the column.%为了研究地铁车站结构在强震作用下的动力响应及破坏机理,基于混凝土损伤塑性模型、岩土扩展的Drucker-Prager模型、土-结构相互作用以及人工边界等相关理论,利用ABAQUS软件建立了强震作用下地铁车站的动态响应与损伤破坏的二维、三维精细化非线性有限元分析模型,并对柱端设置隔震器的地铁车站结构进行了三维非线性动力分析.分析结果表明:所建立的有限元分析模型能较好地反映强震荷载作用下钢筋混凝土结构的动力特性以及土-地下结构之间相互作用,适用于地下结构抗震分

  11. Seismic SMHD -- Rotational Sensor Development and Deployment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laughlin, Darren [Applied Technology Associates; Pierson, Bob [Applied Technology Associates; Brune, Bob [Consultant


    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and Applied Technology Associates (ATA) are funding development and deployment of a new generation of rotational sensors for validation of rotational seismic applications. The sensors employ Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) principles with broadband response, high dynamic range, low noise floor, proven ruggedness, and high repeatability. This paper presents current status of sensor development and deployment opportunities.

  12. Seismic structure of the lithosphere and upper mantle beneath the ocean islands near mid-oceanic ridges (United States)

    Haldar, C.; Kumar, P.; Kumar, M. Ravi


    Deciphering the seismic character of the young lithosphere near mid-oceanic ridges (MORs) is a challenging endeavor. In this study, we determine the seismic structure of the oceanic plate near the MORs using the P-to-S conversions isolated from quality data recorded at five broadband seismological stations situated on ocean islands in their vicinity. Estimates of the crustal and lithospheric thickness values from waveform inversion of the P-receiver function stacks at individual stations reveal that the Moho depth varies between ~ 10 ± 1 km and ~ 20 ± 1 km with the depths of the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary (LAB) varying between ~ 40 ± 4 and ~ 65 ± 7 km. We found evidence for an additional low-velocity layer below the expected LAB depths at stations on Ascension, São Jorge and Easter islands. The layer probably relates to the presence of a hot spot corresponding to a magma chamber. Further, thinning of the upper mantle transition zone suggests a hotter mantle transition zone due to the possible presence of plumes in the mantle beneath the stations.

  13. The Acoustic Signal of a Helicopter can be Used to Track it With Seismic Arrays (United States)

    Eibl, Eva P. S.; Lokmer, Ivan; Bean, Christopher J.; Akerlie, Eggert


    We apply traditional frequency domain methods usually applied to volcanic tremor on seismic recordings of a helicopter. On a volcano the source can be repeating, closely spaced earthquakes whereas for a helicopter the source are repeating pressure pulses from the rotor blades that are converted through acoustic-to-seismic coupling. In both cases the seismic signal is referred to as tremor. As frequency gliding is in this case merely caused by the Doppler effect, not a change in the source, we can use its shape to deduce properties of the helicopter. We show in this analysis that the amount of rotor blades, rotor revolutions per minute (RPM), flight direction, height and location can be deduced. The signal was recorded by a seven station broadband array with an aperture of 1.6 km. Our spacing is close enough to record the signal at all stations and far enough to observe traveltime differences. We perform a detailed spectral and location analysis of the signal, and compare our results with the known information on the helicopter's speed, location, height, the frequency of the blades rotation and the amount of blades. This analysis is based on the characteristic shape of the curve i.e. speed of the gliding, minimum and maximum fundamental frequency, amplitudes at the inflection points at different stations and traveltimes deduced from the inflection points at different stations. The helicopter GPS track gives us a robust way of testing the method. This observation has an educative value, because the same principles can be applied to signals in different disciplines.

  14. Operating a global seismic network - perspectives from the USGS GSN (United States)

    Gee, L. S.; Derr, J. S.; Hutt, C. R.; Bolton, H.; Ford, D.; Gyure, G. S.; Storm, T.; Leith, W.


    The Global Seismographic Network (GSN) is a permanent digital network of state-of-the-art seismological and geophysical sensors connected by a global telecommunications network, serving as a multi-use scientific facility used for seismic monitoring for response applications, basic and applied research in solid earthquake geophysics, and earth science education. A joint program of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), the National Science Foundation, and Incorporated Research Institutions in Seismology (IRIS), the GSN provides near- uniform, worldwide monitoring of the Earth through 144 modern, globally distributed seismic stations. The USGS currently operates 90 GSN or GSN-affiliate stations. As a US government program, the USGS GSN is evaluated on several performance measures including data availability, data latency, and cost effectiveness. The USGS-component of the GSN, like the GSN as a whole, is in transition from a period of rapid growth to steady- state operations. The program faces challenges of aging equipment and increased operating costs at the same time that national and international earthquake and tsunami monitoring agencies place an increased reliance on GSN data. Data acquisition of the USGS GSN is based on the Quanterra Q680 datalogger, a workhorse system that is approaching twenty years in the field, often in harsh environments. An IRIS instrumentation committee recently selected the Quanterra Q330 HR as the "next generation" GSN data acquisition system, and the USGS will begin deploying the new equipment in the middle of 2007. These new systems will address many of the issues associated with the ageing Q680 while providing a platform for interoperability across the GSN.. In order to address the challenge of increasing operational costs, the USGS employs several tools. First, the USGS benefits from the contributions of local host institutions. The station operators are the first line of defense when a station experiences problems, changing boards

  15. Tilt prior to explosions and the effect of topography on ultra-long-period seismic records at Fuego volcano, Guatemala (United States)

    Lyons, John J.; Waite, Gregory P.; Ichihara, Mie; Lees, Jonathan M.


    Ground tilt is measured from broadband seismic records prior to frequent explosions at Fuego volcano, Guatemala. We are able to resolve tilt beginning 20-30 minutes prior to explosions, followed by a rapid reversal in deformation coincident with explosion onsets. The tilt amplitude and polarity recorded on the horizontal channels vary from station to station such that the steep and unusual topography of the upper cone of Fuego appears to affect the ultra-long-period signals. We account for the effect of topography and attempt to constrain the tilt source depth and geometry through finite-difference modeling. The results indicate a shallow spherical pressure source, and that topography must be considered when attempting to model tilt sources at volcanoes with steep topography. The tilt signals are interpreted as pressurization of the shallow conduit beneath a crystallized plug followed by elastic deflation concurrent with explosive pressure release.

  16. Temporal Evolution of a Seismic Swarm at Chiles - Cerro Negro volcanic complex (United States)

    Ruiz, Mario


    The increasing seismic activity in the area of the Chiles - Cerro Negro volcanic complex, located on the Ecuador-Colombian border, has been jointly monitored by the Instituto Geofisico - Ecuador and the Observatorio Vulcanologico y Sismologico de Pasto (OVSP), a division of the Servicio Geologico Colombiano. Since April 2013, three seismic swarms have been detected in this area, and more than 400.000 events have been recorded since November 2013. The largest and most recent swarm has a daily average of 3894 events between March and the 12th of December 2014. Currently a seismic network of 13 short- and broad-band stations (5 Colombian, 8 Ecuadorian) was deployed in this area. High quality epicenters of seismic events with magnitudes Ml>2.0, RMSChiles volcano with shallow depths (up to 14 km). Most events have magnitudes between 1.0 to 4.0. Fifteen events have magnitudes larger than 4.0 including an event that occurred on October 20, 2014. This event had a local magnitude of 5.7 and an oblique (strike-slip with some thrusting) focal mechanism. Waveforms and spectral patterns define these events as volcano-tectonic. However, events with moderate to large magnitudes (above 3.0) contain pronounced very-long-period components. Position time series recorded by a dual-frequency GPS receiver at the SE flank of Chiles show a slight departure from the normal tectonic trend beginning with the appearance of the last seismic swarm on or around September 30, 2014. This trend is subsequently punctuated by a sharp deformation transient related to the coseismic displacement of the October 20 event. After more than a year of very anomalous seismic activity and concurrent minor deformation, no evidence of surficial volcanic activity has been documented.

  17. Characterization of large mass movements occurred in the Italian Alps using seismic monitoring networks (United States)

    Coviello, Velio; De Santis, Francesca; Chiarle, Marta; Arattano, Massimo; Godio, Alberto


    Passive seismic monitoring techniques have been profusely adopted to detect seismic sources induced by slope deformation and landslide propagation. Seismic signal processing can provide relevant information on the dynamics of unstable slopes, and may allow the identification of collapse precursors. Otherwise, seismic sensors have been used to characterize the volume and propagation velocity of rock-slides and debris-flows. For these purposes, geophone arrays are usually installed in specific monitoring sites. However, also a broadband seismic network can be used to identify signals originated by the detachment and movements of large masses. One advantage of using these networks would be the ability to detect remote events that might otherwise go unnoticed for weeks or months. Furthermore, even if often recorded at a distance, the spectral analysis of the low frequency content of the recorded signal may allow a preliminary characterization of the phenomenon. We selected five well known large mass movements occurred in the Italian Alps with volumes between 300.000 cubic meter (Monte Rosa rock avalanche, 2007) and 34.000.000 cubic meter (Val Pola rock avalanche, 1987). On average, seismic stations located up to 40 km far from these events were able to detect them, except for the Val Pola rock avalanche which was recorded at a distance greater than 100 km. As already observed by other authors, for these phenomena common signal characteristics include emergent onsets on all channels, slowly decaying tails and a triangular spectrogram shape. For this study we used different ground velocity sensors and considering the event magnitude, the distance source-receiver and to ensure a flat frequency response we focused on the 1-40 Hz frequency band. In this work these five large slope instabilities are described and the associated seismograms are presented and analyzed together with a first discussion of their spectral characteristics.

  18. Crustal Seismic Attenuation in Germany Measured with Acoustic Radiative Transfer Theory (United States)

    Gaebler, Peter J.; Eulenfeld, Tom; Wegler, Ulrich


    This work is carried out in the context of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT). As part of this treaty a verification regime was introduced to detect, locate and characterize nuclear explosion testings. The study of seismology can provide essential information in the form of broadband waveform recordings for the identification and verification of these critical events. A profound knowledge of the Earth's subsurface between source and receiver is required for a detailed description of the seismic wave field. In addition to underground parameters such as seismic velocity or anisotropy, information about seismic attenuation values of the medium are required. Goal of this study is the creation of a comprehensive model of crustal seismic attenuation in Germany and adjacent areas. Over 20 years of earthquake data from the German Central Seismological Observatory data archive is used to estimate the spatial dependent distribution of seismic intrinsic and scattering attenuation of S-waves for frequencies between 0.5 and 20 Hz. The attenuation models are estimated by fitting synthetic seismogram envelopes calculated with acoustic radiative transfer theory to observed seismogram envelopes. This theory describes the propagation of seismic S-energy under the assumption of multiple isotropic scattering, the crustal structure of the scattering medium is hereby represented by a half-space model. We present preliminary results of the spatial distribution of intrinsic attenuation represented by the absorption path length, as well as of scattering attenuation in terms of the mean free path and compare the outcomes to results from previous studies. Furthermore catalog magnitudes are compared to moment magnitudes estimated during the inversion process. Additionally site amplification factors of the stations are presented.

  19. TOMO-ETNA Experiment -Etna volcano, Sicily, investigated with active and passive seismic methods (United States)

    Luehr, Birger-G.; Ibanez, Jesus M.; Díaz-Moreno, Alejandro; Prudencio, Janire; Patane, Domenico; Zieger, Toni; Cocina, Ornella; Zuccarello, Luciano; Koulakov, Ivan; Roessler, Dirk; Dahm, Torsten


    The TOMO-ETNA experiment, as part of the European Union project "MEDiterranean SUpersite Volcanoes (MED-SUV)", was devised to image the crustal structure beneath Etna by using state of the art passive and active seismic methods. Activities on-land and offshore are aiming to obtain new high-resolution seismic images to improve the knowledge of crustal structures existing beneath the Etna volcano and northeast Sicily up to the Aeolian Islands. In a first phase (June 15 - July 24, 2014) at Etna volcano and surrounding areas two removable seismic networks were installed composed by 80 Short Period and 20 Broadband stations, additionally to the existing network belonging to the "Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia" (INGV). So in total air-gun shots could be recorded by 168 stations onshore plus 27 ocean bottom instruments offshore in the Tyrrhenian and Ionian Seas. Offshore activities were performed by Spanish and Italian research vessels. In a second phase the broadband seismic network remained operative until October 28, 2014, as well as offshore surveys during November 19 -27, 2014. Active seismic sources were generated by an array of air-guns mounted in the Spanish Oceanographic vessel "Sarmiento de Gamboa" with a power capacity of up to 5.200 cubic inches. In total more than 26.000 shots were fired and more than 450 local and regional earthquakes could be recorded and will be analyzed. For resolving a volcanic structure the investigation of attenuation and scattering of seismic waves is important. In contrast to existing studies that are almost exclusively based on S-wave signals emitted by local earthquakes, here air-gun signals were investigated by applying a new methodology based on the coda energy ratio defined as the ratio between the energy of the direct P-wave and the energy in a later coda window. It is based on the assumption that scattering caused by heterogeneities removes energy from direct P-waves that constitutes the earliest possible

  20. Temporal changes in seismic waves during the October 2010 seismic crisis at Piton de la Fournaise volcano (United States)

    Savage, M. K.; Schmid, A.; Battaglia, J.; Ferrazzini, V.; Brenguier, F.; Peltier, A.


    Piton de la Fournaise, an active basaltic volcano on the hotspot-derived island of Réunion in the Indian Ocean, provides a natural laboratory to develop new tools for monitoring changes in the earth. It has frequent eruptions, which are preceded by seismic swarms of repeating earthquakes. Here we examine the crisis of Oct. 14, 2010, during which 684 similar earthquakes were recorded by a portable seismic network of 15 broadband and six permanent 3-component seismometers. We determine shear wave splitting and its relationship to other geophysical measurements. 2031 measurements were ranked as high (A or B) quality with automatic shear wave splitting algorithm (MFAST). Shear wave splitting fast polarisations (Φ) align with cracks and hence with the compressive stress field. Delay times (dt) are a product of the density of the cracks and the length of the path. For the sequence as a whole, Φ are radial from the central cone of the caldera. This may be due to stress-controlled cracks in a regime with a central magma chamber in an area with small regional horizontal differential stress. However, the average field is punctuated by strong changes in Φ, dt and Vp/Vs ratios, which correlate to tilt changes that are interpreted to be evidence of dike propagation. The sequence was separated into two main families of events, which evolved with slightly different timing at the different stations, interpreted to be due to movement of the dyke closer or further from the stations. Family 02 disappeared before the changes in tilt and Vp/Vs ratio were observed. Using only the twelve best measurements from Family 01 at station UV11, the first six earthquakes all have positive P wave polarities and visual inspection of their waveforms suggests the S arrivals are not identical (Figure). Φ averages 45° and dt blue, color coded to waveforms at right). Red bar corresponds to the dyke initiation time. Red rose diagrams summarize Φ.

  1. Borehole Tiltmeter and CGPS Response to VLP Seismic Events under Cotopaxi Volcano, Ecuador (United States)

    Mothes, P. A.; Lisowski, M.; Ruiz, M. C.; Ruiz, A.; Palacios Palacios, P. B.


    VLP (Very Long Period) (period > 2s) seismic events have been recorded at Cotopaxi volcano irregularly since a major seismic crisis occurred in 2001-2002, when a small magma volume was emplaced under the cone’s NE flank (Molina et al., 2008) and an accompanying inflationary deformation signal was detected. In 2006 a broadband seismic network of 5 stations (collaboration JICA & IG) made detection of subsequent seismic activity more accurate. Later, 3 surface tiltmeters, 6 CGPS and 3 borehole tiltmeters were added to the instrumentation array to constrain the deformation response. VLP signals associated with eruptions have been observed at Tungurahua, Popocatépetl and Mount St. Helens volcanoes-- their sources were characterized by volumetric changes interpreted to be the result of degassing processes in magma or signifying a major slug movement of fluids (magma) from depth to shallow levels. Since VLP events may be precursors to future eruptive activity at Cotopaxi, their continual monitoring with robust seismic and geodetic arrays is important, as is the integrated evaluation of the data. At Cotopaxi one such VLP/LP event, registered on 14 January, 2009, had its source mechanism and location constrained using a waveform inversion method on data from the 5 BB stations (Kumagai, et. al., 2010). Its waveform registered a strong oscillating deformation pattern related to the VLP’s shallow location in an inclined crack under the NE flank of the volcano. The 3 borehole tiltmeters recorded strong inflationary tilt starting two days before the 14 January VLP event, with tilt strongest at station CAME located about 10 km from the VLP’s source. At CAME the radial component of tilt totaled 10 microradians, but another 5 microradians accumulated in the tangential component of tilt. The displacements of CGPS stations are more subtle and difficult to interpret. In 2009 and 2010 about 25 VLP’s with magnitudes > Mw 2.0 were recorded by our Cotopaxi monitoring network. For

  2. Broadband waveguided light sources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pollnau, Markus

    In recent years, broadband fiber interferometers have become very popular as basic instruments used in optical low-coherence reflectometry for diagnostics of fiber and integrated optics devices or in optical coherence tomography (OCT) for imaging applications in the biomedical field. The

  3. EMERALD: Coping with the Explosion of Seismic Data (United States)

    West, J. D.; Fouch, M. J.; Arrowsmith, R.


    The geosciences are currently generating an unparalleled quantity of new public broadband seismic data with the establishment of large-scale seismic arrays such as the EarthScope USArray, which are enabling new and transformative scientific discoveries of the structure and dynamics of the Earth’s interior. Much of this explosion of data is a direct result of the formation of the IRIS consortium, which has enabled an unparalleled level of open exchange of seismic instrumentation, data, and methods. The production of these massive volumes of data has generated new and serious data management challenges for the seismological community. A significant challenge is the maintenance and updating of seismic metadata, which includes information such as station location, sensor orientation, instrument response, and clock timing data. This key information changes at unknown intervals, and the changes are not generally communicated to data users who have already downloaded and processed data. Another basic challenge is the ability to handle massive seismic datasets when waveform file volumes exceed the fundamental limitations of a computer’s operating system. A third, long-standing challenge is the difficulty of exchanging seismic processing codes between researchers; each scientist typically develops his or her own unique directory structure and file naming convention, requiring that codes developed by another researcher be rewritten before they can be used. To address these challenges, we are developing EMERALD (Explore, Manage, Edit, Reduce, & Analyze Large Datasets). The overarching goal of the EMERALD project is to enable more efficient and effective use of seismic datasets ranging from just a few hundred to millions of waveforms with a complete database-driven system, leading to higher quality seismic datasets for scientific analysis and enabling faster, more efficient scientific research. We will present a preliminary (beta) version of EMERALD, an integrated

  4. Constraining attenuation with ambient noise correlations of reservoir scale seismic data (United States)

    Weemstra, C.; Goertz, A.; Boschi, L.


    Surface waves extracted from the ambient seismic wave field via interferometry can be used for velocity inversion. Bussat & Kugler (2009) adapted this approach to Scholte waves at frequencies up to 1 Hz, extracted from comparatively short broad band Ocean Bottom Seismometer (BBOBS) recordings. Shear wave velocities were obtained by De Ridder and Biondi (2010) for seismic land data at the reservoir scale. By fitting a modified Bessel function to the real part of the stacked cross spectra Prieto et al. (2009) obtained a 1-Dimensional Q profile for Southern California. We applied this approach to two passive seismic data sets and compare the results. The first recorded on land, the second being BBOBS recordings. The survey characteristics are roughly the same considering scale and length of the recordings. The data characteristics however are quite different. The main energy in the OBS data below ˜2 Hz stems from swell noise and ocean microseisms. This energy is expressed as Scholte waves traveling along the seabed. The land passive data set is the result of a survey over a gas storage facility in Central France and the main energy corresponds to microseisms and anthropogenic noise. The land seismic survey was carried out twice. Once for a filled reservoir and once for an empty reservoir. The subsurface geology is well-known. About 200 three-component broadband particle velocity sensors were deployed. Data was recorded for 24-48 hours at 610 surface locations. Station spacing is nominally 500m. The data is cut into time windows of 60 seconds and whitened. Stacked cross spectra are obtained for all station couples. The stability of the cross spectra is examined with respect to (1) the power of the cross correlated wave field and (2) the azimuth of the station couples. In the presence of anisotropy of the noise source geographic distribution, we can average the calculated cross spectra over station-station azimuth. Theory derived for an isotropic source distribution

  5. 泾阳地磁台数字化与模拟资料的对比分析%Comparative Analysis between at Jingyang Digital Data and Simulating Data Seismic Station

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄英; 张世民; 张创军


    本文选取泾阳地磁台2007年FHD-1核旋磁力仪和CB3磁变仪观测数据采用日变幅形态、日均值年变形态、总场21点值年变形态等方法做对比分析。结果表明:两种观测一致性较好,说明数字化仪器观测的数据是可靠的,但是数字化仪器还存在易受外界环境干扰,稳定性不好的问题,需要工作人员按规范调试仪器,认真维护与管理。%This article selects observation data of FHD-I nuclear precession magnetometer and CB3 geomagnetic variometer at Jingyang Geomagnetic Seismic Station in 2007, and makes comparative analysis in terms of the daily amplitude, mean annual change shape, and total intensity magnetic field. The results show that two kinds of observation have good consistency, and digital instrument observation data are reliable, but the digital instrument is vulnerable to external environment interference and is not stable enough, and needs careful maintenance and management.

  6. The analysis of reference background noise of f luxgate magnetometer GM4 at Hongshan Seismic Station%红山地震台磁通门磁力仪GM4参考背景噪声分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王静; 胡秀娟; 罗娜; 李细顺; 王利兵; 宋昭; 畅国平


    This article analyzes preliminarily the data of reference background noise,which is chosen from GM4-1 fluxgate magnetometer instrument and GM4-2 fluxgate magnetometer instrument during the year of 2009 to 2013 at Hongshan Seismic Station. The result shows that the reference background noise of two instruments annual variation trend is consistent,and magnetic declination component changes with the seasons obviously,horizontal component and vertical component is not obvious. In addition,the background noise GM4-2 fluxgate magnetometer′s each component is more than that of GM4-1 fluxgate magnetometer instrument,which is caused by itself through the analysis by comparison.%选取红山地震台2009—2013年磁通门磁力仪 GM4-1和 GM4-2的参考背景噪声数据进行分析。结果显示:两套仪器背景噪声年变化趋势一致,其中 D 分量背景噪声随季节变化明显,H 分量、Z 分量不明显。另外,GM4-2仪各分量背景噪声值较高,认为是其自身原因引起的。


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白占孝; 罗自浩


    对湟源地震台周边各种因素所致的地震记录干扰情况进行了分析,认为干扰源主要有采石场爆破、灌溉水渠、小河、车辆干扰及各种天气及固有干扰等。根据这些干扰源的频谱特性,采用MATLAB语言,设计、编制了不同类型的滤波器,在震相识别上发挥了很大作用。%The interferes caused by various factors around Huangyuan seismic station are analyzed,and the sources are explosion in the quarry, water channels,rivers,vibration due to traffic,fluctuation of climate and others.According to their spectral features,the authors use MATLAB language to design different filters which play an important role to phase identification.

  8. SKS anisotropy on a dense broadband array over the Ruby Mountains Metamorphic Core Complex, Nevada (United States)

    Golos, E. M.; Litherland, M.; Klemperer, S. L.


    The Ruby Mountains metamorphic core complex (RMCC), located in the Basin-and-Range Province in northeastern Nevada, is thought to have formed by some combination of low-angle detachment faulting, lateral crustal flow, and vertical diapirism. We deployed a 50-station densely-spaced passive seismic array from June 2010 through June 2012, as part of the Earthscope Flexible Array campaign. We were particularly interested in determining whether two layers of anisotropy are distinguishable, as this could imply the existence of discrete crustal and mantle strain fabrics, and potentially provide insight into local flow involved in the formation of the RMCC. We analyzed SKS splitting using the SplitLab program (Wüstefeld et al., 2008, Comp. Geosci. 34, 515) to calculate fast-axis direction, Φ, and time delay, δt, of events with magnitude ≥ 5.50 at distances of 90 to 130 degrees on 35 of our broadband seismic stations. Approximately ten such events were used per station. The mean delay time found was 0.8 s with a standard deviation of 0.28 s, and the mean fast-axis azimuthal direction was -70.1 degrees with a standard deviation of 19 degrees. We did not find evidence of two-layer anisotropy beneath the Ruby Mountains: mean splitting times within and beyond the RMCC are well within one standard deviation of each other, and average fast directions show no obvious trend within the RMCC. Either there is no significant additional crustal strain associated with the RMCC formation; or, the strain direction is identical to that of regional mantle flow; or, most likely, our data quality is insufficient to resolve crustal anisotropy superimposed on mantle anisotropy with a potentially similar fast direction. However, a systematic counterclockwise rotation of fast-axis direction across our array—the four easternmost stations (D03, D02, B17, and C18) have a mean Φ = -40.5 degrees, whereas the four westernmost stations (D05, B01, B02, and C02) have a mean Φ = -79.5 degrees

  9. Caucasus Seismic Information Network: Data and Analysis Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Randolph Martin; Mary Krasovec; Spring Romer; Timothy O' Connor; Emanuel G. Bombolakis; Youshun Sun; Nafi Toksoz


    The geology and tectonics of the Caucasus region (Armenia, Azerbaijan, and Georgia) are highly variable. Consequently, generating a structural model and characterizing seismic wave propagation in the region require data from local seismic networks. As of eight years ago, there was only one broadband digital station operating in the region – an IRIS station at Garni, Armenia – and few analog stations. The Caucasus Seismic Information Network (CauSIN) project is part of a nulti-national effort to build a knowledge base of seismicity and tectonics in the region. During this project, three major tasks were completed: 1) collection of seismic data, both in event catalogus and phase arrival time picks; 2) development of a 3-D P-wave velocity model of the region obtained through crustal tomography; 3) advances in geological and tectonic models of the region. The first two tasks are interrelated. A large suite of historical and recent seismic data were collected for the Caucasus. These data were mainly analog prior to 2000, and more recently, in Georgia and Azerbaijan, the data are digital. Based on the most reliable data from regional networks, a crustal model was developed using 3-D tomographic inversion. The results of the inversion are presented, and the supporting seismic data are reported. The third task was carried out on several fronts. Geologically, the goal of obtaining an integrated geological map of the Caucasus on a scale of 1:500,000 was initiated. The map for Georgia has been completed. This map serves as a guide for the final incorporation of the data from Armenia and Azerbaijan. Description of the geological units across borders has been worked out and formation boundaries across borders have been agreed upon. Currently, Armenia and Azerbaijan are working with scientists in Georgia to complete this task. The successful integration of the geologic data also required addressing and mapping active faults throughout the greater Caucasus. Each of the major

  10. Fault Orientation Determination for the 4 March 2008 Taoyuan Earthquake from Dense Near-Source Seismic Observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min-Hung Shih


    Full Text Available On 4 March 2008, a moderate earthquake (ML = 5.2 occurred in southern Taiwan and named as the Taoyuan earthquake, preceded by foreshocks and followed by numerous aftershocks. This earthquake sequence occurred during the TAIGER (TAiwan Integrated GEodynamics Research controlled-source seismic experiment. Consequently, several seismic networks were deployed in the Taiwan area at this time and many stations recorded this earthquake sequence in the near-source region. We archived and processed near-source observations to determine the fault orientation. To locate the events more accurately, station corrections, waveform cross-correlation to pick seismic phases, and a double-difference earthquake location algorithm were used to compute earthquake hypocenters. Over a 50-hour recording period, beginning half an hour before the start of the main shock, 2340 events were identified within the earthquake sequence. The identified aftershocks reveal a clear fault plane with a strike of N37°EN37°E and a dip of 45°SE.45°SE. This plane corresponds to one of the focal mechanism nodal planes determined by the Broadband Array in Taiwan for Seismology (BATS (strike = 37°,37°, dip = 48°,48°, and rake = 96°.96°. Based on the main shock focal mechanism, the aftershock distribution, and the regional geological reports, we suggest that faulting on the northern extension of the major regional active fault, the Chishan Fault, caused the Taoyuan earthquake sequence.

  11. New insights of seismic disturbances due to wind turbines - long and short term measurements in SW Germany (United States)

    Zieger, Toni; Ritter, Joachim


    Within the scope of the project "TremAc", we present new insights of ground motion disturbances due to wind turbines (WTs) in the vicinity of the town of Landau, SW Germany. The main goal of this project, which is funded by the German Federal Ministry for Economic Affairs and Energy, is the detection of influences from WTs on human health and buildings in an interdisciplinary way. The interaction between WTs, humans, infrastructure (incl.seismic stations) becomes more and more an important role with the increase of installed WTs. We present averaged one hour long PSD-spectra in a frequency range from 0.5 Hz to 7 Hz depending on the wind speed before and after the installation of characteristic WTs, especially for seismic borehole stations, during one month measurements. The results show a clear increase of the ground motion and a related disturbance of the seismic recordings. The station threshold for signal detection below 2 Hz is reduced after the installation of a new wind farm in the area around Landau. This effect occurs even up to distances to the WTs of more than 5 kilometers. The increasing noise level depends also clearly on wind speed, which indicate also the WT origin related with the signals. Using short-term measurements during few hours, we are able to determine the maximum of the PSD values for different discrete frequencies as function of distance to the next WT and to fit a power-law decay curve proportional to 1/rb to the data. In this way we can differentiate between near- and far-field effects of the seismic wave propagation of WTs. A clear frequency dependent decay can be observed, for which high frequencies are more attenuated than lower frequencies, probably due to scattering processes. The new results will help for a better understanding of WTs as a seismic noise source and their interaction with nearby seismic stations and other infrastructure. Seismic data were provided by "Erdbebendienst Südwest", "Federal Institute for Geosciences and

  12. Watching the wind: seismic data contamination at long-periods due to atmospheric pressure-field-induced tilting (United States)

    de Angelis, S.; Bodin, P.; Hagel, K.; Fletcher, D.


    Long-period noise generated by the elastic response of the Earth to atmospheric pressure fluctuations has long been recognized as a limiting factor for seismic investigations. The quality of seismic data recorded by sensitive, near-surface broadband seismometers can be severely corrupted by this effect. During the recent installation of a new broadband site on the Olympic Peninsula in Washington, the Pacific Northwest Seismic Network recorded and investigated elevated daytime noise levels at periods exceeding 30 seconds. Substantial power spectral density variations of the background noise field, 15-20 dB, were observed in the horizontal component seismograms. The pattern of the long-period noise exhibited striking correlations with local fluctuations of the air temperature and wind speed as measured nearby the seismic station by the National Weather Service Forecast Office, Seattle, Washington, and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Several past studies have demonstrated that local wind systems may lead to variations of the atmospheric pressure field that deform the ground and perturb seismograms. The rotational component of this motion is detected by horizontal-component seismometers because at periods longer than the sensor’s low corner frequency the sensor is acting essentially as a tiltmeter. We obtained a transfer function that describes the response of the broadband seismometer to a tilt step change and estimated the amplitude of tilt noise to be on the order of 10-9 - 10-8 radians. Within the seismic pass-band of the sensor, it is not possible to remove the tilt signal from the observed seismograms because the details of the tilting depend on the pressure field variations, the compliance of the near surface to pressure variations, and the design and construction of the seismometer vault itself. At longer periods, using the seismic data to recover tilts of tectonic origin is made challenging because of the needed instrument correction

  13. Seismic tomography reveals the upper-mantle structure beneath the Carpathian-Pannonian system (United States)

    Dando, B. D.; Houseman, G.; Stuart, G. W.; Hegedus, E.; Kovacs, A.; Brueckl, E. P.; Hausmann, H.; Radovanovic, S.


    The Carpathian Basins Project (CBP) aims to understand the formation of the Miocene-age extensional basins contained within the convergent arc of the Alpine-Carpathian system. To test competing models for the recent geological evolution of the Carpathian-Pannonian lithosphere and upper mantle, we present a new tomographic determination of P-wave velocity structure to depths of 700 km beneath this region. This model is based on inversion of seismic travel-time residuals from 97 broadband seismic stations. We include CBP data from a 15-month deployment of a high resolution network of 46 stations deployed NW-SE across the Vienna and western Pannonian basins through Austria, Hungary and Serbia, together with 10 broadband stations spread across the Pannonian basin and a further 41 permanent broadband stations. We use P-wave arrival times from 232 teleseismic events. To avoid contamination of our inversion results from crustal velocity variations, deterministic corrections are applied to our travel-time residuals using crustal velocity models obtained from controlled source experiments and sediment thickness maps. Our 3-D velocity model images the fast velocity structure of the eastern Alps down to ~350 km. Beneath the Pannonian basin the velocity variation at 300 km depth is dominated by a fast region which extends eastward from the Alpine anomaly and reaches down into the mantle transition zone (MTZ). This fast structure is limited on the North side by slow material beneath the North Carpathians. At depths greater than 450 km, below the eastern Pannonian basin, a slow anomaly extends to the base of the model. Beneath the same region Hetenyi et al. (submitted to GRL), used receiver functions from the CBP dataset, to show a localised depression of the 660 km discontinuity of up to ~40 km. We aim to address how the depression of the 660 km discontinuity and its associated density and velocity variations affect our tomographic images. Our results will help to provide

  14. 基于3G 无线传输的测震台站监控设备的研制%The Design and Realization of a Type of Monitoring Equipment for Seismic Stations Based on 3G Wireless Data Transmission

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙宏志; 王学成; 刘一萌; 卢山; 赵龙梅; 孙恺微


    介绍了一种基于3G(第三代移动通信技术)和 SMS(短信业务)的无线数据传输测震台监控仪的工作原理、设计和实现。可实现对相关设备进行断电、上电、重启和备用设备切换等控制;具有通过网口和串口监控数据采集器工作状态的功能;具有通过3G 无线传输测震数据的功能。%Quickly recovering the seismic signals channel or solving problems with seismic station equipment is a major challenge once they are damaged or experience sudden failure.In our study, we designed and constructed wireless data transmitting and monitoring equipment for seismic sta-tions based on the global system for mobile communication(GSM),third generation mobile com-munication technology(3G)and short message service(SMS).This equipment can control(shut down,switch on,restart,and enable the backup device)remote equipment easily,monitor the earthquake data acquisition system (EDAS)by the serial port and network,and transmit the seis-mic data by 3G.The hardware is composed of a core interfacing circuit board and a driving circuit board.The core circuit board includes one LAN port,two COM ports,and a number of I/O inter-faces.The working status of the EDAS at a local seismic station is real-time monitored through the LAN port and COM port.When abnormal data is outputted from the EDAS,the data output stops or is unable to be recognized.Abnormal information of the EDAS is sent to the earthquake monitoring center as short messages,and the center staff is able to make a judgment and take the correct action according to the messages.We designed two CPUs on the core circuit board,one a P89c668 and the other an STC12C5A60S2.The device can make data exchanges with the EDAS-24IP through the LAN chip.Meanwhile,P89c668 can monitor the real-time data flow of the EDAS-24IP,and analyze the correctness of the seismic data flow of the EDAS-24IP as well.In or-der to store parameter data,we used an electrically erasable

  15. Problems and prospects of creating a global land-ocean seismic network (United States)

    Levchenko, D. G.; Kuzin, I. P.; Lobkovsky, L. I.; Roginsky, K. A.


    The paper discussed the advantages and limitations of seismic signal detection on the ocean bottom. The need to create long-term seismic monitoring systems in areas of industrial development on the shelf and continental slope, as well as in areas with high seismic and tsunami hazards, is justified. The results of employing broadband bottom seismographs during expeditions of the Shirshov Institute of Oceanology of the Russian Academy of Sciences (IO RAS) are described. Autonomous broadband bottom seismographs with operational communication via satellite or radio channels are proposed for creating a global marine seismic network.

  16. Hybrid Broadband Ground-Motion Simulation Using Scenario Earthquakes for the Istanbul Area

    KAUST Repository

    Reshi, Owais A.


    Seismic design, analysis and retrofitting of structures demand an intensive assessment of potential ground motions in seismically active regions. Peak ground motions and frequency content of seismic excitations effectively influence the behavior of structures. In regions of sparse ground motion records, ground-motion simulations provide the synthetic seismic records, which not only provide insight into the mechanisms of earthquakes but also help in improving some aspects of earthquake engineering. Broadband ground-motion simulation methods typically utilize physics-based modeling of source and path effects at low frequencies coupled with high frequency semi-stochastic methods. I apply the hybrid simulation method by Mai et al. (2010) to model several scenario earthquakes in the Marmara Sea, an area of high seismic hazard. Simulated ground motions were generated at 75 stations using systematically calibrated model parameters. The region-specific source, path and site model parameters were calibrated by simulating a w4.1 Marmara Sea earthquake that occurred on November 16, 2015 on the fault segment in the vicinity of Istanbul. The calibrated parameters were then used to simulate the scenario earthquakes with magnitudes w6.0, w6.25, w6.5 and w6.75 over the Marmara Sea fault. Effects of fault geometry, hypocenter location, slip distribution and rupture propagation were thoroughly studied to understand variability in ground motions. A rigorous analysis of waveforms reveal that these parameters are critical for determining the behavior of ground motions especially in the near-field. Comparison of simulated ground motion intensities with ground-motion prediction quations indicates the need of development of the region-specific ground-motion prediction equation for Istanbul area. Peak ground motion maps are presented to illustrate the shaking in the Istanbul area due to the scenario earthquakes. The southern part of Istanbul including Princes Islands show high amplitudes

  17. Analysis of low-frequency seismic signals generated during a multiple-iceberg calving event at Jakobshavn Isbræ, Greenland (United States)

    Walter, Fabian; Amundson, Jason M.; O'Neel, Shad; Truffer, Martin; Fahnestock, Mark; Fricker, Helen A.


    We investigated seismic signals generated during a large-scale, multiple iceberg calving event that occurred at Jakobshavn Isbræ, Greenland, on 21 August 2009. The event was recorded by a high-rate time-lapse camera and five broadband seismic stations located within a few hundred kilometers of the terminus. During the event two full-glacier-thickness icebergs calved from the grounded (or nearly grounded) terminus and immediately capsized; the second iceberg to calve was two to three times smaller than the first. The individual calving and capsize events were well-correlated with the radiation of low-frequency seismic signals (forces acting at the glacier terminus. The signals therefore appear to be local manifestations of glacial earthquakes, although the magnitudes of the signals (twice-time integrated force histories) were considerably smaller than previously reported glacial earthquakes. We thus speculate that such earthquakes may be a common, if not pervasive, feature of all full-glacier-thickness calving events from grounded termini. Finally, a key result from our study is that waveform inversions performed on low-frequency, calving-generated seismic signals may have only limited ability to quantitatively estimate mass losses from calving. In particular, the choice of source time function has little impact on the inversion but dramatically changes the earthquake magnitude. Accordingly, in our analysis, it is unclear whether the smaller or larger of the two calving icebergs generated a larger seismic signal.

  18. Broadband terahertz spectroscopy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wenhui Fan


    1.Introduction Spanning the frequency range between the infrared (IR) radiation and microwaves,terahertz (THz) waves are,also known as T-rays,T-lux,or simply called THz,assigned to cover the electromagnetic spectrum typically from 100 GHz (1011 Hz) to 10 THz (1013 Hz),namely,from 3 mm to 30 μm in wavelength,although slightly different definitions have been quoted by different authors.For a very long time,THz region is an almost unexplored field due to its rather unique location in the electromagnetic spectrum.Well-known techniques in optical or microwave region can not be directly employed in the THz range because optical wavelengths are too short and microwave wavelengths are too long compared to THz wavelengths.%An overview of the major techniques to generate and detect THz radiation so far, especially the major approaches to generate and detect coherent ultra-short THz pulses using ultra-short pulsed laser, has been presented. And also, this paper, in particularly, focuses on broadband THz spectroscopy and addresses on a number of issues relevant to generation and detection of broadband pulsed THz radiation as well as broadband time-domain THz spectroscopy (THz-TDS) with the help of ultra-short pulsed laser. The time-domain waveforms of coherent ultra-short THz pulses from photoconductive antenna excited by femtosecond laser with different pulse durations and their corresponding Fourier-transformed spectra have been obtained via the numerical simulation of ultrafast dynamics between femtosecond laser pulse and photoconductive material. The origins of fringes modulated on the top of broadband amplitude spectrum, which is measured by electric-optic detector based on thin nonlinear crystal and extracted by fast Fourier transformation, have been analyzed and the major solutions to get rid of these fringes are discussed.

  19. Earthquake location determination using data from DOMERAPI and BMKG seismic networks: A preliminary result of DOMERAPI project (United States)

    Ramdhan, Mohamad; Nugraha, Andri Dian; Widiyantoro, Sri; Métaxian, Jean-Philippe; Valencia, Ayunda Aulia


    DOMERAPI project has been conducted to comprehensively study the internal structure of Merapi volcano, especially about deep structural features beneath the volcano. DOMERAPI earthquake monitoring network consists of 46 broad-band seismometers installed around the Merapi volcano. Earthquake hypocenter determination is a very important step for further studies, such as hypocenter relocation and seismic tomographic imaging. Ray paths from earthquake events occurring outside the Merapi region can be utilized to delineate the deep magma structure. Earthquakes occurring outside the DOMERAPI seismic network will produce an azimuthal gap greater than 1800. Owing to this situation the stations from BMKG seismic network can be used jointly to minimize the azimuthal gap. We identified earthquake events manually and carefully, and then picked arrival times of P and S waves. The data from the DOMERAPI seismic network were combined with the BMKG data catalogue to determine earthquake events outside the Merapi region. For future work, we will also use the BPPTKG (Center for Research and Development of Geological Disaster Technology) data catalogue in order to study shallow structures beneath the Merapi volcano. The application of all data catalogues will provide good information as input for further advanced studies and volcano hazards mitigation.

  20. Earthquake location determination using data from DOMERAPI and BMKG seismic networks: A preliminary result of DOMERAPI project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramdhan, Mohamad [Study Program of Earth Science, Institut Teknologi Bandung, Jl. Ganesa 10, Bandung, 40132 (Indonesia); Agency for Meteorology, Climatology and Geophysics of Indonesia (BMKG) Jl. Angkasa 1 No. 2 Kemayoran, Jakarta Pusat, 10720 (Indonesia); Nugraha, Andri Dian; Widiyantoro, Sri [Global Geophysics Research Group, Faculty of Mining and Petroleum Engineering, Institut TeknologiBandung, Jl. Ganesa 10, Bandung, 40132 (Indonesia); Métaxian, Jean-Philippe [Institut de Recherche pour le Développement (IRD) (France); Valencia, Ayunda Aulia, E-mail: [Study Program of Geophysical Engineering, Institut Teknologi Bandung, Jl. Ganesa 10, Bandung, 40132 (Indonesia)


    DOMERAPI project has been conducted to comprehensively study the internal structure of Merapi volcano, especially about deep structural features beneath the volcano. DOMERAPI earthquake monitoring network consists of 46 broad-band seismometers installed around the Merapi volcano. Earthquake hypocenter determination is a very important step for further studies, such as hypocenter relocation and seismic tomographic imaging. Ray paths from earthquake events occurring outside the Merapi region can be utilized to delineate the deep magma structure. Earthquakes occurring outside the DOMERAPI seismic network will produce an azimuthal gap greater than 180{sup 0}. Owing to this situation the stations from BMKG seismic network can be used jointly to minimize the azimuthal gap. We identified earthquake events manually and carefully, and then picked arrival times of P and S waves. The data from the DOMERAPI seismic network were combined with the BMKG data catalogue to determine earthquake events outside the Merapi region. For future work, we will also use the BPPTKG (Center for Research and Development of Geological Disaster Technology) data catalogue in order to study shallow structures beneath the Merapi volcano. The application of all data catalogues will provide good information as input for further advanced studies and volcano hazards mitigation.

  1. Seismicity in Northern Germany (United States)

    Bischoff, Monika; Gestermann, Nicolai; Plenefisch, Thomas; Bönnemann, Christian


    Northern Germany is a region of low tectonic activity, where only few and low-magnitude earthquakes occur. The driving tectonic processes are not well-understood up to now. In addition, seismic events during the last decade concentrated at the borders of the natural gas fields. The source depths of these events are shallow and in the depth range of the gas reservoirs. Based on these observations a causal relationship between seismicity near gas fields and the gas production is likely. The strongest of these earthquake had a magnitude of 4.5 and occurred near Rotenburg in 2004. Also smaller seismic events were considerably felt by the public and stimulated the discussion on the underlying processes. The latest seismic event occurred near Langwedel on 22nd November 2012 and had a magnitude of 2.8. Understanding the causes of the seismicity in Northern Germany is crucial for a thorough evaluation. Therefore the Seismological Service of Lower Saxony (NED) was established at the State Office for Mining, Energy and Geology (LBEG) of Lower Saxony in January 2013. Its main task is the monitoring and evaluation of the seismicity in Lower Saxony and adjacent areas. Scientific and technical questions are addressed in close cooperation with the Seismological Central Observatory (SZO) at the Federal Institute for Geosciences and Natural Resources (BGR). The seismological situation of Northern Germany will be presented. Possible causes of seismicity are introduced. Rare seismic events at greater depths are distributed over the whole region and probably are purely tectonic whereas events in the vicinity of natural gas fields are probably related to gas production. Improving the detection threshold of seismic events in Northern Germany is necessary for providing a better statistical basis for further analyses answering these questions. As a first step the existing seismic network will be densified over the next few years. The first borehole station was installed near Rethem by BGR

  2. The Italian National Seismic Network and the earthquake and tsunami monitoring and surveillance systems (United States)

    Michelini, Alberto; Margheriti, Lucia; Cattaneo, Marco; Cecere, Gianpaolo; D'Anna, Giuseppe; Delladio, Alberto; Moretti, Milena; Pintore, Stefano; Amato, Alessandro; Basili, Alberto; Bono, Andrea; Casale, Paolo; Danecek, Peter; Demartin, Martina; Faenza, Licia; Lauciani, Valentino; Mandiello, Alfonso Giovanni; Marchetti, Alessandro; Marcocci, Carlo; Mazza, Salvatore; Mariano Mele, Francesco; Nardi, Anna; Nostro, Concetta; Pignone, Maurizio; Quintiliani, Matteo; Rao, Sandro; Scognamiglio, Laura; Selvaggi, Giulio


    The Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV) is an Italian research institution, with focus on Earth Sciences. INGV runs the Italian National Seismic Network (Rete Sismica Nazionale, RSN) and other networks at national scale for monitoring earthquakes and tsunami as a part of the National Civil Protection System coordinated by the Italian Department of Civil Protection (Dipartimento di Protezione Civile, DPC). RSN is composed of about 400 stations, mainly broadband, installed in the Country and in the surrounding regions; about 110 stations feature also co-located strong motion instruments, and about 180 have GPS receivers and belong to the National GPS network (Rete Integrata Nazionale GPS, RING). The data acquisition system was designed to accomplish, in near-real-time, automatic earthquake detection, hypocenter and magnitude determination, moment tensors, shake maps and other products of interest for DPC. Database archiving of all parametric results are closely linked to the existing procedures of the INGV seismic monitoring environment and surveillance procedures. INGV is one of the primary nodes of ORFEUS (Observatories & Research Facilities for European Seismology) EIDA (European Integrated Data Archive) for the archiving and distribution of continuous, quality checked seismic data. The strong motion network data are archived and distributed both in EIDA and in event based archives; GPS data, from the RING network are also archived, analyzed and distributed at INGV. Overall, the Italian earthquake surveillance service provides, in quasi real-time, hypocenter parameters to the DPC. These are then revised routinely by the analysts of the Italian Seismic Bulletin (Bollettino Sismico Italiano, BSI). The results are published on the web, these are available to both the scientific community and the general public. The INGV surveillance includes a pre-operational tsunami alert service since INGV is one of the Tsunami Service providers of the North

  3. Three-dimensional seismic velocity structure and earthquake relocations at Katmai, Alaska (United States)

    Murphy, Rachel; Thurber, Clifford; Prejean, Stephanie G.; Bennington, Ninfa


    We invert arrival time data from local earthquakes occurring between September 2004 and May 2009 to determine the three-dimensional (3D) upper crustal seismic structure in the Katmai volcanic region. Waveforms for the study come from the Alaska Volcano Observatory's permanent network of 20 seismic stations in the area (predominantly single-component, short period instruments) plus a densely spaced temporary array of 11 broadband, 3-component stations. The absolute and relative arrival times are used in a double-difference seismic tomography inversion to solve for 3D P- and S-wave velocity models for an area encompassing the main volcanic centers. The relocated hypocenters provide insight into the geometry of seismogenic structures in the area, revealing clustering of events into four distinct zones associated with Martin, Mageik, Trident-Novarupta, and Mount Katmai. The seismic activity extends from about sea level to 2 km depth (all depths referenced to mean sea level) beneath Martin, is concentrated near 2 km depth beneath Mageik, and lies mainly between 2 and 4 km depth below Katmai and Trident-Novarupta. Many new features are apparent within these earthquake clusters. In particular, linear features are visible within all clusters, some associated with swarm activity, including an observation of earthquake migration near Trident in 2008. The final velocity model reveals a possible zone of magma storage beneath Mageik, but there is no clear evidence for magma beneath the Katmai-Novarupta area where the 1912 eruptive activity occurred, suggesting that the storage zone for that eruption may have largely been evacuated, or remnant magma has solidified.

  4. Using a Genetic Algorithm to Model Broadband Regional Waveforms for Crustal Structure in the Western United States (United States)

    Bhattacharyya, Joydeep; Sheehan, Anne F.; Tiampo, Kristy; Rundle, John


    In this study, we analyze regional seismograms to obtain the crustal structure in the eastern Great Basin and western Colorado plateau. Adopting a for- ward-modeling approach, we develop a genetic algorithm (GA) based parameter search technique to constrain the one-dimensional crustal structure in these regions. The data are broadband three-component seismograms recorded at the 1994-95 IRIS PASSCAL Colorado Plateau to Great Basin experiment (CPGB) stations and supplemented by data from U.S. National Seismic Network (USNSN) stations in Utah and Nevada. We use the southwestern Wyoming mine collapse event (M(sub b) = 5.2) that occurred on 3 February 1995 as the seismic source. We model the regional seismograms using a four-layer crustal model with constant layer parameters. Timing of teleseismic receiver functions at CPGB stations are added as an additional constraint in the modeling. GA allows us to efficiently search the model space. A carefully chosen fitness function and a windowing scheme are added to the algorithm to prevent search stagnation. The technique is tested with synthetic data, both with and without random Gaussian noise added to it. Several separate model searches are carried out to estimate the variability of the model parameters. The average Colorado plateau crustal structure is characterized by a 40-km-thick crust with velocity increases at depths of about 10 and 25 km and a fast lower crust while the Great Basin has approximately 35- km-thick crust and a 2.9-km-thick sedimentary layer.

  5. Automated seismic detection of landslides at regional scales: a Random Forest based detection algorithm for Alaska and the Himalaya. (United States)

    Hibert, Clement; Malet, Jean-Philippe; Provost, Floriane; Michéa, David; Geertsema, Marten


    Detection of landslide occurrences and measurement of their dynamics properties during run-out is a high research priority but a logistical and technical challenge. Seismology has started to help in several important ways. Taking advantage of the densification of global, regional and local networks of broadband seismic stations, recent advances now permit the seismic detection and location of landslides in near-real-time. This seismic detection could potentially greatly increase the spatio-temporal resolution at which we study landslides triggering, which is critical to better understand the influence of external forcings such as rainfalls and earthquakes. However, detecting automatically seismic signals generated by landslides still represents a challenge, especially for events with volumes below one millions of cubic meters. The low signal-to-noise ratio classically observed for landslide-generated seismic signals and the difficulty to discriminate these signals from those generated by regional earthquakes or anthropogenic and natural noises are some of the obstacles that have to be circumvented. We present a new method for automatically constructing instrumental landslide catalogues from continuous seismic data. We developed a robust and versatile solution, which can be implemented in any context where a seismic detection of landslides or other mass movements is relevant. The method is based on a spectral detection of the seismic signals and the identification of the sources with a Random Forest algorithm. The spectral detection allows detecting signals with low signal-to-noise ratio, while the Random Forest algorithm achieve a high rate of positive identification of the seismic signals generated by landslides and other seismic sources. We present here the preliminary results of the application of this processing chain in two contexts: i) In Himalaya with the data acquired between 2002 and 2005 by the Hi-Climb network; ii) In Alaska using data recorded by the

  6. Seismic anisotropy of upper mantle in Sichuan and adjacent regions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHANG LiJun; WANG ChunYong; DING ZhiFeng


    Based on the polarization analysis of teleseismic SKS waveform data recorded at 94 broadband seismic stations in Sichuan and adjacent regions, the SKS fast-wave direction and the delay time between the fast and slow shear waves were determined at each station using the grid searching method of minimum transverse energy and the stacking analysis method, and the image of upper mantle anisotropy was acquired. The fast-wave polarization directions are mainly NW-SE in the study area,NWW-SEE to its northeast and NS to its west. The delay time falls into the interval [0.47 s, 1.68 s]. The spatial variation of the fast-wave directions is similar to the variation of GPS velocity directions. The anisotropic image indicates that the regional tectonic stress field has resulted in deformation and flow of upper mantle material, and made the alignment of upper mantle peridotite lattice parallel to the direction of material deformation. The crust-upper mantle deformation in Sichuan and adjacent regions accords with the mode of vertically coherent deformation. In the eastern Tibetan Plateau, the crustal material was extruded to east or southeast clue to SE traction force of the upper mantle material. The extrusion might be obstructed by a rigid block under the Sichuan Basin and the crust has been deformed. After a long-term accumulation of tectonic strain energy, the accumulative energy suddenly released in Yingxiu town of the Longmenshan region, and Wenchuan Ms8.0 earthquake occurred.

  7. Understanding Extension Within a Convergent Orogen: Initial Results From the Carpathian Basins Seismic Project (United States)

    Stuart, G. W.; Houseman, G.; Dando, B.; Hegedus, E.; Brueckl, E.; Radovanovic, S.; Falus, G.; Kovacs, A.; Hausmann, H.; Brisbourne, A.


    The Carpathian Basins Project (CBP) aims to understand the origin of Miocene-age extensional basins, of which the Pannonian Basin is the largest, within the arc of the Alpine-Carpathian Mountain Ranges - a compressional structure. Analysis of the subsidence history of the Pannonian Basin shows that its mantle lithosphere has undergone a much greater degree of extension than the overlying crust. We describe the results of a temporary seismic deployment to test competing theories of how the continental lithosphere evolved in the region. We deployed a 46-element seismic network, 450 km x 80 km, oriented in a NW-SE direction, crossing the Vienna and western Pannonian Basins in Austria, Hungary and Serbia. The network ran for 14 months from early May 2006. The stations were broadband to 30s and spaced at ~30 km along 3 parallel lines, which are 40 km apart. The principal object of this network is to use P and S-wave teleseismic tomography to image the upper mantle. P- wave residuals from sources perpendicular to the tectonic grain show a ~1s variation across the Mid-Hungarian High in to the Pannonian Basin. This delay cannot be explained by sedimentary or crustal thickness variations, which are well-controlled by boreholes, deep seismic soundings and our own receiver function analyses. We must infer significant lithospheric thinning and anomalously low asthenospheric velocities underlying the Pannonian Basin to explain our observations. These travel time delays are accompanied by a dramatic change in the orientation of SKS splitting measurements from E-W to NW-SE across the Mid-Hungarian High. We have also installed a more broadly distributed regional broadband array of 10 instruments (broadband to 120 sec) for 2 years from September 2005, spaced at ~100km within Hungary, Croatia and Serbia to augment the data available from permanent broadband networks in central Europe. Preliminary interstation surface wave dispersion results from across the Pannonian Basin imply

  8. Observed inflation-deflation cycles at Popocatepetl volcano using tiltmeters and its possible correlation with regional seismic activity in Mexico (United States)

    Contreras Ruiz Esparza, M. G., Sr.; Jimenez Velazquez, J. C., Sr.; Valdes Gonzalez, C. M., Sr.; Reyes Pimentel, T. A.; Galaviz Alonso, S. A.


    Popocatepetl, the smoking mountain, is a stratovolcano located in central Mexico with an elevation of 5450 masl. The active volcano, close to some of the largest urban centers in Mexico - 60 km and 30 km far from Mexico City and Puebla, respectively - poses a high hazard to an estimated population of 500 thousand people living in the vicinity of the edifice. Accordingly, in July 1994 the Popocatepetl Volcanological Observatory (POVO) was established. The observatory is operated and supported by the National Center for Disaster Prevention of Mexico (CENAPRED), and is equipped to fully monitor different aspects of the volcanic activity. Among the instruments deployed, we use in this investigation two tiltmometers and broad-band seismometers at two sites (Chipiquixtle and Encinos), which send the information gathered continuously to Mexico City.In this research, we study the characteristics of the tiltmeters signals minutes after the occurrence of certain earthquakes. The Popocatepetl volcano starts inflation-deflation cycles due to the ground motion generated by events located at certain regions. We present the analysis of the tiltmeters and seismic signals of all the earthquakes (Mw>5) occurred from January 2013 to June 2014, recorded at Chipiquixtle and Encinos stations. First, we measured the maximum tilt variation after each earthquake. Next, we apply a band-pass filter for different frequency ranges to the seismic signals of the two seismic stations, and estimated the total energy of the strong motion phase of the seismic record. Finally, we compared both measurements and observed that the maximum tilt variations were occurring when the maximum total energy of the seismic signals were in a specific frequency range. We also observed that the earthquake records that have the maximum total energy in that frequency range were the ones with a epicentral location south-east of the volcano. We conclude that our observations can be used set the ground for an early

  9. Future large broadband switched satellite communications networks (United States)

    Staelin, D. H.; Harvey, R. R.


    Critical technical, market, and policy issues relevant to future large broadband switched satellite networks are summarized. Our market projections for the period 1980 to 2000 are compared. Clusters of switched satellites, in lieu of large platforms, etc., are shown to have significant advantages. Analysis of an optimum terrestrial network architecture suggests the proper densities of ground stations and that link reliabilities 99.99% may entail less than a 10% cost premium for diversity protection at 20/30 GHz. These analyses suggest that system costs increase as the 0.6 power of traffic. Cost estimates for nominal 20/30 GHz satellite and ground facilities suggest optimum system configurations might employ satellites with 285 beams, multiple TDMA bands each carrying 256 Mbps, and 16 ft ground station antennas. A nominal development program is outlined.

  10. Broadband Radio Service (BRS) and Educational Broadband Service (EBS) Transmitters (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The Broadband Radio Service (BRS), formerly known as the Multipoint Distribution Service (MDS)/Multichannel Multipoint Distribution Service (MMDS), is a commercial...

  11. The Ebre Observatory seismological station: past and present instrumentation and noise conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ugalde


    Full Text Available A review of the past and present instrumentation at Ebre Observatory seismological station (EBR is presented in this work. In order to assess the quality of EBR from the point of view of modern seismic instrumentation site requirements, the noise conditions at EBR are also investigated by means of velocity power spectral density analysis in the frequency band 0.01< f <15 Hz by exploiting the three component broadband and digital data processing current capability. A correlation between noise levels and meteorological conditions at the site is observed, using the data of a complete meteorological station located a few tens of meters from the seismic cave. Results show that for long periods ( f < 0.04 Hz and wind speeds ranging from 0 to 15.5 m/s, seismic noise levels may vary up to 45 dB for the horizontal components. These variations are related to tilts due to wind-generated pressure fl uctuations. Secondly, the seasonal variation of noise levels at the frequency band 0.04 < f < 0.3 Hz is characterized, obtaining that the amplitude of the seasonal variation is higher for secondary (up to 52 dB than for primary (up to 44 dB microseisms. On the other hand, a seasonal variation of the frequency of the three-component main noise peak is also suggested in this site and its variation is opposite to the velocity power spectral density amplitude evolution. Finally, a correlation between wind speed and seismic background noise is also observed at high frequencies.

  12. Analysis of the 23 June 2001 Southern Peru Earthquake Using Locally Recorded Seismic Data (United States)

    Tavera, H.; Comte, D.; Boroschek, R.; Dorbath, L.; Portugal, D.; Haessler, H.; Montes, H.; Bernal, I.; Antayhua, Y.; Salas, H.; Inza, A.; Rodriguez, S.; Glass, B.; Correa, E.; Balmaceda, I.; Meneses, C.


    The 23 June 2001, Mw=8.4 southern Peru earthquake ruptured the northern and central part of the previous large earthquake occurred on 13 August 1868, Mw ~9. A detailed analysis of the aftershock sequence was possible due to the deployment of a temporary seismic network along the coast in the Arequipa and Moquegua districts, complementing the Peruvian permanent stations. The deployed temporary network included 10 short period three component stations from the U. of Chile-IRD-France and 7 broad-band seismic stations from the Instituto Geofísico del Perú. This network operated during the first weeks after the mainshock and recorded the major aftershocks like the larger one occurred on 7 July 2001, Mw=7.5, this event defines the southern limit of the rupture area of the 2001 Peruvian earthquake. The majority of the aftershocks shows a thrusting fault focal mechanisms according with the average convergence direction of the subducting Nazca plate, however, normal faulting events are also present in the aftershock sequence like the 5 July 2001, Mw=6.6 one. The depth distribution of the events permitted a detailed definition of the Wadati-Benioff zone in the region. The segment between Ilo and Tacna did not participated in the rupture process of the 2001 southern Peru earthquake. Seismicity located near the political Peruvian-Chilean boundary was reliable determined using the data recorded by the northern Chile permanent network. Analysis of the mainshock and aftershock acelerograms recorded in Arica, northern Chile are also included. The occurrence of the 1995 Antofagasta (Mw=8.0) and the 2001 southern Peru earthquakes suggests that the probability of having a major earthquake in the northern Chile region increased, considering that the previous large earthquake in this region happened in 1877 (Mw ~9), and since that time no earthquake with magnitude Mw>8 had occurred inside of the 1877 estimated rupture area (between Arica and Antofagasta).


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许英才; 许文俊; 李鸿庭; 陈继锋


    268 pieces of digital oscillograms of 32 seismic events of form ML.2.6 to ML4.9 recorded at 20 seismologic stations located on Ningxia region and its adjacent areas occurred from May, 2009 to Oct. , 2010 were studied and the relation of inelastic attenuation Q value with media frequency in the crust of this area, the site responses of 20 stations were calculated with the genetic algorithm. The results indicate that the frequency-dependent relation of inelastic attenuation value Q in the studied area is estimated as: Q(f) = 337.67f0.4554. The Q value is close to the regional result in Shanxi and Zhejiang. It probably indicate that the geological tectonic activity is in a normal level.%利用宁夏及邻区的数字地震波资料,选取2009-05-2010-10月M_L2.6以上的20个台站32次地震事件的268条波形记录,用遗传算法反演了宁夏及邻区介质非弹性衰减系数和台站场地相应.反演得到:宁夏地区介质非弹性衰减Q值与频率的关系为Q(f)=337.67f0.4554.其Q值和山西及浙江地区的结果最相近,可能预示着该区地质构造活动处于一个正常的活动水平.

  14. Tomographic Imaging of Jakarta Area from Cross-correlation of Seismic Ambient Noise (United States)

    Pranata, B.; Saygin, E.; Cummins, P. R.; Widiyantoro, S.; Nugraha, A. D.; Harjadi, P.; Suhardjono, S.


    Seismic imaging of sediment thickness of Jakarta is crucial where Jakarta city is currently being rapidly developed with major installations and high-rise structures being constructed at a fast pace. Therefore, information of surface geology and surface sediment thickness for Jakarta city is urgently required in order to mitigate the effects of earthquake hazards in the future. Because of this need, we deployed 36 broadband and shortperiod stations across Jakarta to record seismic ambient noise. We apply cross-correlation method to the simultaneously recorded data to retrieve interstation Green's functions. We measure group velocity dispersion of the retrieved Green's functions by applying narrowband filters. Dispersion measurements are then inverted with a nonlinear tomographic technique to image the shallow structure of Jakarta and its surrounding regions. Preliminary results from tomographic maps show low velocities dominantly located in central, west and north Jakarta. While the highest rate obtained is between stations in South Jakarta. This conforms with the known geological conditions in which the structure of sedimentary cover in northern Jakarta is thicker than the southern part.

  15. Hydrocarbon Induced Seismicity in Northern Netherlands (United States)

    Dost, B.; Spetzler, J.; Kraaijpoel, D.; Caccavale, M.


    The northern Netherlands has been regarded aseismic until the first earthquakes started in 1986, after more than 25 years of gas production from the one of the largest on-shore gas-fields in the World, the Groningen field, and accompanying smaller gas fields. Due to the shallow sources, at approximately 3 km depth, even small magnitude events cause considerable damage to buildings in the region. Since the largest recorded event in the Groningen field in 2012 with ML= 3,6, more than 30.000 damage claims were received by the mining company. Since 1995 a seismic monitoring network is operational in the region, consisting of 8 200m deep boreholes with 4 levels of 3C 4,5 Hz geophones. The network was designed for a location threshold of ML=1,5 over a 40x 80 km region. Average station separation was 20 km. At the end of 2014, 245 events have been recorded with ML ≥ 1,5, out of a total of 1100. Since 2003 a new mining law is in place in the Netherlands, which requires for each gas field in production a seismic risk analysis. Initially, due to the small number of events for specific fields, a general hazard (PSHA) was calculated for all gas-fields and a maximum magnitude was estimated at ML = 3,9. Since 2003 an increase in the activity rate is observed for the Groningen field, leading to the development of new models and a re-assessment of parameters like the maximum magnitude. More recently these models are extended to seismic risk, where also the fragility of the regional buildings is taken into account. Understanding the earthquake process is essential in taking mitigation measures. Continued research is focused on reducing the uncertainties in the hazard and risk models and is accompanied by an upgrade of the monitoring network. In 2014 a new dense network was designed to monitor the Groningen gas field in this region (30*40 km) with an average separation of 4 km. This allows an improved location threshold (M>0,5) and location accuracy (50-100m). A detailed P- and S

  16. Seismic source inversion using Green's reciprocity and a 3-D structural model for the Japanese Islands (United States)

    Simutė, S.; Fichtner, A.


    We present a feasibility study for seismic source inversions using a 3-D velocity model for the Japanese Islands. The approach involves numerically calculating 3-D Green's tensors, which is made efficient by exploiting Green's reciprocity. The rationale for 3-D seismic source inversion has several aspects. For structurally complex regions, such as the Japan area, it is necessary to account for 3-D Earth heterogeneities to prevent unknown structure polluting source solutions. In addition, earthquake source characterisation can serve as a means to delineate existing faults. Source parameters obtained for more realistic Earth models can then facilitate improvements in seismic tomography and early warning systems, which are particularly important for seismically active areas, such as Japan. We have created a database of numerically computed 3-D Green's reciprocals for a 40°× 40°× 600 km size area around the Japanese Archipelago for >150 broadband stations. For this we used a regional 3-D velocity model, recently obtained from full waveform inversion. The model includes attenuation and radial anisotropy and explains seismic waveform data for periods between 10 - 80 s generally well. The aim is to perform source inversions using the database of 3-D Green's tensors. As preliminary steps, we present initial concepts to address issues that are at the basis of our approach. We first investigate to which extent Green's reciprocity works in a discrete domain. Considering substantial amounts of computed Green's tensors we address storage requirements and file formatting. We discuss the importance of the initial source model, as an intelligent choice can substantially reduce the search volume. Possibilities to perform a Bayesian inversion and ways to move to finite source inversion are also explored.

  17. Shallow seismicity patterns in the northwestern section of the Mexico Subduction Zone (United States)

    Abbott, Elizabeth R.; Brudzinski, Michael R.


    This study characterizes subduction related seismicity with local deployments along the northwestern section of the Mexico Subduction Zone where 4 portions of the plate interface have ruptured in 1973, 1985, 1995, and 2003. It has been proposed that the subducted boundary between the Cocos and Rivera plates occurs beneath this region, as indicated by inland volcanic activity, a gap in tectonic tremor, and the Manzanillo Trough and Colima Graben, which are depressions thought to be associated with the splitting of the two plates after subduction. Data from 50 broadband stations that comprised the MARS seismic array, deployed from January 2006 to June 2007, were processed with the software program Antelope and its generalized source location algorithm, genloc, to detect and locate earthquakes within the network. Slab surface depth contours from the resulting catalog indicate a change in subduction trajectory between the Rivera and Cocos plates. The earthquake locations are spatially anti-correlated with tectonic tremor, supporting the idea that they represent different types of fault slip. Hypocentral patterns also reveal areas of more intense seismic activity (clusters) that appear to be associated with the 2003 and 1973 megathrust rupture regions. Seismicity concentrated inland of the 2003 rupture is consistent with slip on a shallowly dipping trajectory for the Rivera plate interface as opposed to crustal faulting in the overriding North American plate. A prominent cluster of seismicity within the suspected 1973 rupture zone appears to be a commonly active portion of the megathrust as it has been active during three previous deployments. We support these interpretations by determining focal mechanisms and detailed relocations of the largest events within the 1973 and inland 2003 clusters, which indicate primarily thrust mechanisms near the plate interface.

  18. A Tomography Study of the Broad-band Seismic Profiling across Gangdise Block%穿越冈底斯地体的宽频地震探测研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛光琦; 吴珍汉; 赵文津; 宿和平; 史大年; 钱辉


    青藏高原是大约60 Ma以来印度次大陆与欧亚大陆直接碰撞形成的,是研究大陆碰撞过程和发展板块构造理论的最佳场所。冈底斯构造带位于印度次大陆与欧亚大陆碰撞的前沿地带,对冈底斯构造带的探测结果将直接影响到对大陆碰撞过程和整个青藏高原地壳变形过程的认识。2011年9月至2012年9月一条穿越冈底斯(GDS)地体的地震深部探测剖面始于班公怒江断裂带北缘,向南穿越了崩错—嘉黎断裂带、冈底斯地体、雅鲁藏布缝合线并跨过藏南拆离断层系(STD),终止于喜马拉雅山南坡。本文作者利用天然地震体波完成了该条剖面的二维走时残差反演,展现出了该地段深部构造格局。首先验证了冈底斯地体浅部存在大面积部分熔融层的研究结论;支持甲玛大型斑岩铜矿为大陆碰撞挤压条件下岩浆上侵的成矿模式; PKP曲线描绘出了本次研究区间内Moho界面的形态,确定地壳最厚处在雅江缝合线南北两侧约50 km区间。这些推论和发现为青藏高原深部的结构研究提供了重要信息。%As the Tibetan Plateau resulted from the direct collision between Indian and Eurasian continents which started about 60 Ma ago, it is regarded as the best stage for studying the continental collision process and perfecting the theory of plate tectonics. As the Gangdise Block (GDS) lies in the frontier of the collision zone, the research on the GDS would be greatly helpful to the understanding of the whole process of the collision and the derived crustal deformation evolution of the Tibetan Plateau. A seismic profiling stretching from the north of Bangong–Nujiang faulted zone to southern Himalayas was performed from September 2011 to September 2012. This profile ran across Bengcuo–Jiali faulted zone, Gangdise Block (GDS), Yarlung Zangbo suture zone and South Tibetan De-collaboration (STD) system. The authors conducted the 2D travel

  19. PQLX: A seismic data quality control system description, applications, and users manual (United States)

    McNamara, Daniel E.; Boaz, Richard I.


    We present a detailed description and users manual for a new tool to evaluate seismic station performance and characteristics by providing quick and easy transitions between visualizations of the frequency and time domains. The software is based on the probability density functions (PDF) of power spectral densities (PSD) (McNamara and Buland, 2004) and builds on the original development of the PDF stand-alone software system (McNamara and Boaz, 2005) and the seismological data viewer application PQL (IRIS-PASSCAL Quick Look) and PQLII (available through the IRIS PASSCAL program: With PQLX (PQL eXtended), computed PSDs are stored in a MySQL database, allowing a user to access specific time periods of PSDs (PDF subsets) and time series segments through a GUI-driven interface. The power of the method and software lies in the fact that there is no need to screen the data for system transients, earthquakes, or general data artifacts, because they map into a background probability level. In fact, examination of artifacts related to station operation and episodic cultural noise allow us to estimate both the overall station quality and a baseline level of Earth noise at each site. The output of this analysis tool is useful for both operational and scientific applications. Operationally, it is useful for characterizing the current and past performance of existing broadband stations, for conducting tests on potential new seismic station locations, for evaluating station baseline noise levels (McNamara and others, 2009), for detecting problems with the recording system or sensors, and for evaluating the overall quality of data and metadata. Scientifically, the tool allows for mining of PSDs for investigations on the evolution of seismic noise (for example, Aster and others, 2008; and Aster and others, 2010) and other phenomena. Currently, PQLX is operational at several organizations including the USGS National

  20. The ADN project : an integrated seismic monitoring of the northern Ecuadorian subduction (United States)

    Nocquet, Jean-Mathieu; Yepes, Hugo; Vallee, Martin; Mothes, Patricia; Regnier, Marc; Segovia, Monica; Font, Yvonne; Vaca, Sandro; Bethoux, Nicole; Ramos, Cristina


    The subduction of the Nazca plate beneath South America has caused one of the largest megathrust earthquake sequence during the XXth century with three M>7.7 earthquakes that followed the great 1906 (Mw = 8.8) event. Better understanding the processes leading to the occurrence of large subduction earthquakes requires to monitor the ground motion over a large range of frequencies. We present a new network (ADN) developed under a collaboration between the IRD-GeoAzur (Nice, France) and the IG-EPN (Quito, Ecuador). Each station of the ADN network includes a GPS recording at 5 Hz, an accelerometer and a broadband seismometer. CGPS data will quantify the secular deformation induced by elastic locking along the subduction interface, enabling a detailed modelling of the coupling distribution. CGPS will be used to monitor any transient deformation induced by Episodic Slip Event along the subduction, together with broadband seismometers that can detect any tremors or seismic signatures that may accompany them. In case of any significant earthquake, 5 Hz GPS and accelerometer will provide near field data for earthquake source detailed study. Finally, the broadband seismometers will be used for study of the microseismicity and structure of the subduction zone. The network includes 9 stations, operating since 2008 and covering the coastal area from latitude 1.5°S to the Colombian border. In this poster, we will present preliminary assessment of the data, first hypocenters location, magnitude and focal mechanism determination, as well as results about an episodic slip event detected in winter 2008.

  1. Newberry Seismic Deployment Fieldwork Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, J; Templeton, D C


    This report summarizes the seismic deployment of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Geotech GS-13 short-period seismometers at the Newberry Enhanced Geothermal System (EGS) Demonstration site located in Central Oregon. This Department of Energy (DOE) demonstration project is managed by AltaRock Energy Inc. AltaRock Energy had previously deployed Geospace GS-11D geophones at the Newberry EGS Demonstration site, however the quality of the seismic data was somewhat low. The purpose of the LLNL deployment was to install more sensitive sensors which would record higher quality seismic data for use in future seismic studies, such as ambient noise correlation, matched field processing earthquake detection studies, and general EGS microearthquake studies. For the LLNL deployment, seven three-component seismic stations were installed around the proposed AltaRock Energy stimulation well. The LLNL seismic sensors were connected to AltaRock Energy Gueralp CMG-DM24 digitizers, which are powered by AltaRock Energy solar panels and batteries. The deployment took four days in two phases. In phase I, the sites were identified, a cavity approximately 3 feet deep was dug and a flat concrete pad oriented to true North was made for each site. In phase II, we installed three single component GS-13 seismometers at each site, quality controlled the data to ensure that each station was recording data properly, and filled in each cavity with native soil.

  2. Mantle seismic anisotropy beneath NE China and implications for the lithospheric delamination hypothesis beneath the southern Great Xing'an range (United States)

    Chen, Haichao; Niu, Fenglin; Obayashi, Masayuki; Grand, Stephen P.; Kawakatsu, Hitoshi; John Chen, Y.; Ning, Jieyuan; Tanaka, Satoru


    We measured shear wave splitting from SKS data recorded by the transcontinental NECESSArray in NE China to constrain lithosphere deformation and sublithospheric flows beneath the area. We selected several hundreds of high quality SKS/SKKS waveforms from 32 teleseismic earthquakes occurring between 09/01/2009 and 08/31/2011 recorded by 125 broadband stations. These stations cover a variety of tectonic terranes, including the Songliao basin, the Changbaishan mountain range and Zhangguancai range in the east, the Great Xing'an range in the west and the Yanshan orogenic belt in the southwest. We assumed each station is underlaid by a single anisotropic layer and employed a signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) weighted multi-event stacking method to estimate the two splitting parameters (the fast polarization direction φ, and delay time, δt) that gives the best fit to all the SKS/SKKS waveforms recorded at each station. Overall, the measured fast polarization direction lies more or less along the NW-SE direction, which significantly differs from the absolute plate motion direction, but is roughly consistent with the regional extension direction. This suggests that lithosphere deformation is likely the general cause of the observed seismic anisotropy. The most complicated anisotropic structure is observed beneath the southern Great Xing'an range and southwest Songliao basin. The observed large variations in splitting parameters and the seismic tomographic images of the area are consistent with ongoing lithospheric delamination beneath this region.

  3. Earthquake Monitoring: SeisComp3 at the Swiss National Seismic Network (United States)

    Clinton, J. F.; Diehl, T.; Cauzzi, C.; Kaestli, P.


    The Swiss Seismological Service (SED) has an ongoing responsibility to improve the seismicity monitoring capability for Switzerland. This is a crucial issue for a country with low background seismicity but where a large M6+ earthquake is expected in the next decades. With over 30 stations with spacing of ~25km, the SED operates one of the densest broadband networks in the world, which is complimented by ~ 50 realtime strong motion stations. The strong motion network is expected to grow with an additional ~80 stations over the next few years. Furthermore, the backbone of the network is complemented by broadband data from surrounding countries and temporary sub-networks for local monitoring of microseismicity (e.g. at geothermal sites). The variety of seismic monitoring responsibilities as well as the anticipated densifications of our network demands highly flexible processing software. We are transitioning all software to the SeisComP3 (SC3) framework. SC3 is a fully featured automated real-time earthquake monitoring software developed by GeoForschungZentrum Potsdam in collaboration with commercial partner, gempa GmbH. It is in its core open source, and becoming a community standard software for earthquake detection and waveform processing for regional and global networks across the globe. SC3 was originally developed for regional and global rapid monitoring of potentially tsunamagenic earthquakes. In order to fulfill the requirements of a local network recording moderate seismicity, SED has tuned configurations and added several modules. In this contribution, we present our SC3 implementation strategy, focusing on the detection and identification of seismicity on different scales. We operate several parallel processing "pipelines" to detect and locate local, regional and global seismicity. Additional pipelines with lower detection thresholds can be defined to monitor seismicity within dense subnets of the network. To be consistent with existing processing

  4. Investigations of Passive Seismic Body-Wave Interferometry Using Noise Auto-correlations for Crustal and Upper Mantle Structure (United States)

    Oren, C.; Nowack, R. L.


    It is known that the positive lags of the auto-correlation for the seismic transmission response of a layered medium correspond to the reflection seismogram (Claerbout, 1968). In this study, we investigate the use of ambient seismic noise recorded at selected broadband USArray EarthScope Transportable Array (TA) stations to obtain effective reflection seismograms for frequencies up to 1 Hz. The goal is to determine the most suitable parameters used for the processing of ambient seismic noise for the identification of crustal and upper mantle reflections and to minimize unwanted artifacts in the noise correlations. In order to best retrieve the body-wave components of the Green's function beneath a station, a number of processing steps are required. We first remove the instrument response and apply a temporal normalization to remove the effects of the most energetic sources. Next we implement spectral whitening. We test several operators for the spectral whitening where the undulations of the power spectrum are related to the strengths of later arrivals in the auto-correlation. Different filters are then applied to the auto-correlation functions, including Gaussian and zero phase Butterworth filters, in order to reduce the effect of side lobes. Hourly auto-correlations are then stacked for up to one year. On the final stack, Automatic Gain Control (AGC) is applied to equalize the correlation amplitudes in the time domain. The robustness of the resulting ambient noise auto-correlation is first tested on selected TA stations in Nevada, where we are able to identify PmP and SmS arrivals similar to those found by Tibuleac and von Seggern (2012). We then investigate noise auto-correlations applied to selected USArray TA stations in the central US.

  5. A Review of Seismicity in 2004

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Gang; Liu Jie; Yu Surong


    @@ 1. SURVEY OF GLOBE SEISMICITY IN 2004 A total of 19 strong earthquakes with Ms≥7.0 occurred in the world according to the Chinese Seismic Station Network in 2004 (Table 1 ). The strongest earthquake was the Sumatra earthquake with Ms 8.7 near the northwest coast of Sumatra on December 26 ( Fig. 1 ). Global seismicity maintains the same patterns from recent years, being distributed mainly on the western part of the circum-Pacific seismic zone. Remarkable macroseismic activities were seen in the India-Australian plate and in the Japan region. The macroseismic activities of Ms≥7.0 in 2004 were as follows:

  6. Can riverside seismic monitoring constrain temporal and spatial variations in bedload transport during a controlled flood of the Trinity River? (United States)

    Glasgow, M. E.; Schmandt, B.; Gaeuman, D.


    To evaluate the utility of riverside seismic monitoring for constraining temporal and spatial variations in coarse bedload transport in gravel-bed rivers we collected seismic data during a dam-controlled flood of the Trinity River in northern California in May 2015. This field area was chosen because the Trinity River Restoration Project conducts extensive monitoring of water and sediment transport, and riverbed morphology to guide management of the river with the goal of improving salmon habitat. Four three component broadband seismometers were collocated with water discharge and bedload physical sampling sites along a ~30 km reach of the Trinity River downstream of the Lewiston Dam. Arrays with 10-80 cable-free vertical component geophones were also deployed at each of the four sites in order to constrain spatial variability and amplitude decay of seismic signals emanating from the river. Nominal inter-station spacing within the geophone arrays was ~30 m. The largest geophone array consisted of 83 nodes along a 700 m reach of the Trinity River with a gravel augmentation site at its upstream end. Initial analyses of the seismic data show that ground velocity power from averaged from ~7 - 90 Hz is correlated with discharge at all sites. The array at the gravel injection site shows greater high frequency (>30 Hz) power at the upstream end where gravel was injected during the release compared to ~300 m downstream, consistent with bedload transport providing a significant source of seismic energy in addition to water discharge. Declining seismic power during a ~3 day plateau at peak discharge when physical sampler data shows decreasing bedload flux provides a further indication that the seismic data are sensitive to bedload transport. We will use the array data to back-project the seismic signals in multiple frequency bands into the channel to create maps of the time-varying spatial intensity of seismic energy production. We hypothesize that the greatest seismic

  7. Broadband pendulum energy harvester (United States)

    Liang, Changwei; Wu, You; Zuo, Lei


    A novel electromagnetic pendulum energy harvester with mechanical motion rectifier (MMR) is proposed and investigated in this paper. MMR is a mechanism which rectifies the bidirectional swing motion of the pendulum into unidirectional rotation of the generator by using two one-way clutches in the gear system. In this paper, two prototypes of pendulum energy harvester with MMR and without MMR are designed and fabricated. The dynamic model of the proposed MMR pendulum energy harvester is established by considering the engagement and disengagement of the one way clutches. The simulation results show that the proposed MMR pendulum energy harvester has a larger output power at high frequencies comparing with non-MMR pendulum energy harvester which benefits from the disengagement of one-way clutch during pendulum vibration. Moreover, the proposed MMR pendulum energy harvester is broadband compare with non-MMR pendulum energy harvester, especially when the equivalent inertia is large. An experiment is also conducted to compare the energy harvesting performance of these two prototypes. A flywheel is attached at the end of the generator to make the disengagement more significant. The experiment results also verify that MMR pendulum energy harvester is broadband and has a larger output power at high frequency over the non-MMR pendulum energy harvester.

  8. Moment Magnitude Calibration for the Eastern Mediterranean Region from Broadband Regional Coda Envelopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayeda, K; Eken, T; Hofstetter, A; Turkelli, N; O' Boyle, J; Orgulu, G; Gok, R


    The following is an overview of results from ROA01-32 that focuses on an empirical method of calibrating stable seismic source moment-rate spectra derived from regional coda envelopes using broadband stations. The main goal was to develop a regional magnitude methodology that had the following properties: (1) it is tied to an absolute scale and is thus unbiased and transportable; (2) it can be tied seamlessly to the well-established teleseismic and regional catalogs; (3) it is applicable to small events using a sparse network of regional stations; (4) it is flexible enough to utilize S{sub n}-coda, L{sub g}-coda, or P-coda, whichever phase has the best signal-to-noise ratio. The results of this calibration yield source spectra and derived magnitudes that were more stable than any other direct-phase measure to date. Our empirical procedure accounted for all propagation, site, and S-to-coda transfer function effects. The resultant coda-derived moment-rate spectra were used to provide traditional band-limited magnitude (e.g., M{sub L}, m{sub b} etc.) as well as an unbiased, unsaturated magnitude (moment magnitude, M{sub w}) that is tied to a physical measure of earthquake size (i.e., seismic moment). We validated our results by comparing our coda-derived moment estimates with those obtained from long-period waveform modeling. We first tested and validated the method using events distributed along the Dead Sea Rift (e.g., Mayeda et al., 2003). Next, we tested the transportability of the method to earthquakes distributed across the entire country of Turkey and validated our results using seismic moments of over 50 events that had been previously waveform modeled using the method of Dreger and Helmberger, (1993). In both regions we demonstrated that the interstation magnitude scatter was significantly reduced when using the coda-based magnitudes (i.e., M{sub w}(coda) and m{sub b}(coda)). Once calibrated, the coda-derived source spectra provided stable, unbiased magnitude

  9. 77 FR 16175 - Station Blackout (United States)


    ... turbine trip and unavailability of the onsite emergency ac power system). Station blackout does not... plant achieves safe shutdown by relying on components that are not ac powered, such as turbine- or..., or seismic activity and that preexisting licensing requirements specified sufficient...

  10. Broadband terahertz fiber directional coupler

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kristian; Rasmussen, Henrik K.; Jepsen, Peter Uhd


    We present the design of a short broadband fiber directional coupler for terahertz (THz) radiation and demonstrate a 3 dB coupler with a bandwidth of 0:6 THz centered at 1:4 THz. The broadband coupling is achieved by mechanically downdoping the cores of a dual-core photonic crystal fiber...

  11. Induced Seismicity Monitoring System (United States)

    Taylor, S. R.; Jarpe, S.; Harben, P.


    There are many seismological aspects associated with monitoring of permanent storage of carbon dioxide (CO2) in geologic formations. Many of these include monitoring underground gas migration through detailed tomographic studies of rock properties, integrity of the cap rock and micro seismicity with time. These types of studies require expensive deployments of surface and borehole sensors in the vicinity of the CO2 injection wells. Another problem that may exist in CO2 sequestration fields is the potential for damaging induced seismicity associated with fluid injection into the geologic reservoir. Seismic hazard monitoring in CO2 sequestration fields requires a seismic network over a spatially larger region possibly having stations in remote settings. Expensive observatory-grade seismic systems are not necessary for seismic hazard deployments or small-scale tomographic studies. Hazard monitoring requires accurate location of induced seismicity to magnitude levels only slightly less than that which can be felt at the surface (e.g. magnitude 1), and the frequencies of interest for tomographic analysis are ~1 Hz and greater. We have developed a seismo/acoustic smart sensor system that can achieve the goals necessary for induced seismicity monitoring in CO2 sequestration fields. The unit is inexpensive, lightweight, easy to deploy, can operate remotely under harsh conditions and features 9 channels of recording (currently 3C 4.5 Hz geophone, MEMS accelerometer and microphone). An on-board processor allows for satellite transmission of parameter data to a processing center. Continuous or event-detected data is kept on two removable flash SD cards of up to 64+ Gbytes each. If available, data can be transmitted via cell phone modem or picked up via site visits. Low-power consumption allows for autonomous operation using only a 10 watt solar panel and a gel-cell battery. The system has been successfully tested for long-term (> 6 months) remote operations over a wide range

  12. Evaluation of the National Seismic Station (United States)


    microcomputer with MULTIBUS* external bus format and card cage. An 8-slot chassis contains 2 custom circuit boards and an off-the-shelf Z-80 single board computer with...processing. A control signal then is sent to the Z-80 single board computer where final formatting is -37- . t CE D F-BS-L11. icC. WC caU co z W6 I

  13. Adjoint tomography of the crust and upper mantle structure beneath the Kanto region using broadband seismograms

    KAUST Repository

    Miyoshi, Takayuki


    A three-dimensional seismic wave speed model in the Kanto region of Japan was developed using adjoint tomography for application in the effective reproduction of observed waveforms. Starting with a model based on previous travel time tomographic results, we inverted the waveforms obtained at seismic broadband stations from 140 local earthquakes in the Kanto region to obtain the P- and S-wave speeds Vp and Vs. Additionally, all centroid times of the source solutions were determined before the structural inversion. The synthetic displacements were calculated using the spectral-element method (SEM) in which the Kanto region was parameterized using 16 million grid points. The model parameters Vp and Vs were updated iteratively by Newton’s method using the misfit and Hessian kernels until the misfit between the observed and synthetic waveforms was minimized. Computations of the forward and adjoint simulations were conducted on the K computer in Japan. The optimized SEM code required a total of 6720 simulations using approximately 62,000 node hours to obtain the final model after 16 iterations. The proposed model reveals several anomalous areas with extremely low-Vs values in comparison with those of the initial model. These anomalies were found to correspond to geological features, earthquake sources, and volcanic regions with good data coverage and resolution. The synthetic waveforms obtained using the newly proposed model for the selected earthquakes showed better fit than the initial model to the observed waveforms in different period ranges within 5–30 s. This result indicates that the model can accurately predict actual waveforms.

  14. Recent seismicity detection increase in the Santorini volcanic island complex


    G. Chouliaras; Drakatos, G.; Makropoulos, K.; Melis, N. S.


    Santorini is the most active volcanic complex in the South Aegean Volcanic Arc. To improve the seismological network detectability of the seismicity in this region, the Institute of Geodynamics of the National Observatory of Athens (NOA) recently installed 4 portable seismological stations supplementary to the 3 permanent stations operating in the region. The addition of these stations has significantly improved the detectability and reporting of the local seismic activity in the NOA instrume...

  15. Metasurface Broadband Solar Absorber

    CERN Document Server

    Azad, A K; Sykora, M; Weisse-Bernstein, N R; Luk, T S; Taylor, A J; Dalvit, D A R; Chen, H -T


    We demonstrate a broadband, polarization independent, omnidirectional absorber based on a metallic metasurface architecture, which accomplishes greater than 90% absorptance in the visible and near-infrared range of the solar spectrum, and exhibits low emissivity at mid- and far-infrared wavelengths. The complex unit cell of the metasurface solar absorber consists of eight pairs of gold nano-resonators that are separated from a gold ground plane by a thin silicon dioxide spacer. Our experimental measurements reveal high-performance absorption over a wide range of incidence angles for both s- and p-polarizations. We also investigate numerically the frequency-dependent field and current distributions to elucidate how the absorption occurs within the metasurface structure. Furthermore, we discuss the potential use of our metasurface absorber design in solar thermophotovoltaics by exploiting refractory plasmonic materials.

  16. Seismic activity at the western Pyrenean edge (United States)

    Ruiz, M.; Gallart, J.; Díaz, J.; Olivera, C.; Pedreira, D.; López, C.; González-Cortina, J. M.; Pulgar, J. A.


    The present-day seismicity at the westernmost part of the Pyrenean domain reported from permanent networks is of low to moderate magnitude. However, it is poorly constrained due to the scarce station coverage of the area. We present new seismic data collected from a temporary network deployed there for 17 months that provides an enhanced image of the seismic activity and its tectonic implications. Our results delineate the westward continuity of the E-W Pyrenean band of seismicity, through the Variscan Basque Massifs along the Leiza Fault, ending up at the Hendaya Fault. This seismicity belt is distributed on a crustal scale, dipping northward to almost 30 km depth. Other relevant seismic events located in the area can be related to the central segment of the Pamplona fault, and to different E-W thrust structures.

  17. Seismic Creep (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Seismic creep is the constant or periodic movement on a fault as contrasted with the sudden erupture associated with an earthquake. It is a usually slow deformation...

  18. Earthquakes Sources Parameter Estimation of 20080917 and 20081114 Near Semangko Fault, Sumatra Using Three Components of Local Waveform Recorded by IA Network Station

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The 17/09/2008 22:04:80 UTC and 14/11/2008 00:27:31.70 earthquakes near Semangko fault were analyzed to identify the fault planes. The two events were relocated to assess physical insight against the hypocenter uncertainty. The datas used to determine source parameters of both earthquakes were three components of local waveform recorded by Geofon broadband IA network stations, (MDSI, LWLI, BLSI and RBSI for the event of 17/09/2008 and (MDSI, LWLI, BLSI and KSI for the event of 14/11/2008. Distance from the epicenter to all station was less than 5°. Moment tensor solution of two events was simultaneously analyzed by determination of the centroid position. Simultaneous analysis covered hypocenter position, centroid position and nodal planes of two events indicated Semangko fault planes. Considering that the Semangko fault zone is a high seismicity area, the identification of the seismic fault is important for the seismic hazard investigation in the region.

  19. Seismic seiches (United States)

    McGarr, Arthur; Gupta, Harsh K.


    Seismic seiche is a term first used by Kvale (1955) to discuss oscillations of lake levels in Norway and England caused by the Assam earthquake of August 15, 1950. This definition has since been generalized to apply to standing waves set up in closed, or partially closed, bodies of water including rivers, shipping channels, lakes, swimming pools and tanks due to the passage of seismic waves from an earthquake.

  20. The seismic signatures of the solar system (United States)

    Stähler, Simon C.; Kedar, Sharon; van Driel, Martin; Vance, Steven D.; Panning, Mark P.


    Seismology is a powerful tool to image the interior of planetary bodies. At the same time, its results are often difficult to visualize. The spectral-element solver AxiSEM (Nissen-Meyer et al. 2014) enables calculations of the broadband seismic response of terrestrial bodies with solid crusts and mantles, as well as icy moons with solid ice crusts overlying liquid oceans. In its database mode, Instaseis (van Driel et al. 2015), AxiSEM can efficiently calculate the seismic response for earthquakes at arbitrary distances and depths. We use this method to present a set of global stacks of seismograms, similar to the iconic global stack that Astiz and Shearer (1996) created for IRIS from thousands of seismograms on Earth. We present these stacks for models of Europa, Enceladus, Ganymede, Mercury, Venus, Moon and - for comparison - Earth. The results are based on thermodynamical modeling for the icy moons and orbital observations for the terrestrial planets. The results visualize how each planet and moon has its own unique seismic wavefield and which observables exist to infer its detailed structure by future lander missions. Astiz, L., P. Earle and P. Shearer, Global stacking of broadband seismograms, Seis. Res. Lett., 67, 8-18, 1996. M. van Driel, L. Krischer, S.C. Stähler, K. Hosseini, and T. Nissen-Meyer (2015), "Instaseis: instant global seismograms based on a broadband waveform database," Solid Earth, 6, 701-717, doi:10.5194/se-6-701-2015. Nissen-Meyer, T., van Driel, M., Stähler, S. C., Hosseini, K., Hempel, S., Auer, L., … Fournier, A. (2014). AxiSEM: broadband 3-D seismic wavefields in axisymmetric media. Solid Earth, 5(1), 425-445.

  1. The seismic structure of southeast Alaska (United States)

    Bauer, Mark

    The convergent motion of the Pacific and North American Plates in Alaska has produced geologic features associated with subduction zones and has transported displaced terranes along the Queen Charlotte-Fairweather fault system that forms the northeastern boundary of the Pacific Plate. These subduction features stop abruptly at the edge of the Yakutat Block displaced terrane, approximately 300 km from the Queen Charlotte-Fairweather fault. The purpose of this study was to determine the type and geometry of the boundary between the Yakutat Block and North American as well as the cause of the offset volcanic arc and missing Wadati-Benioff zone. I calculated P and S-wave receiver functions for 57 broadband seismic stations located in southeast Alaska. S-wave data was migrated using a Common Conversion Point procedure. P-wave data was imaged via a three-dimensional, pre-stack migration using plane-wave decomposition weighted by an inverse generalized Radon transform to calculate the scattering potential for each event. I also calculated the temperatures at the top of the Yakutat slab and mantle wedge using three different analytical thermal models. The 3-D images and animations I produced show that the Yakutat Block is being subducted, continuous with the Pacific slab, and extends to the Queen Charlotte-Fairweather strike-slip fault systems. The subducted slab extends north to the Wrangell Volcanic Field with a dip than increases gradually from 10° in the west to 15° in the east, stripping approximately 15 km of overlying sediments. The location of the Wrangell Volcanic Field and lack of Wadati-Benioff zone are consistent with the temperatures I calculated for the top of slab and mantle wedge after stripping 15 km of sediment.

  2. Innovations in seismic tomography, their applications and induced seismic events in carbon sequestration (United States)

    Li, Peng

    algorithm with the inclusion of full topography that is integrated from the Digital Elevation Model data. We present both synthetic and real data tests based on the compressional (P) wave arrival time data for Kilauea volcano in Hawai'i. A total of 33,768 events with 515,711 P-picks recorded by 35 stations at the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory are used in these tests. The comparison between the new and traditional methods based on the synthetic test shows that our new algorithm significantly improves the accuracy of the velocity model, especially at shallow depths. In the real data test, the P-wave velocity model of Kilauea shows some intriguing features. Velocity decrease from the surface to 2 km depth beneath Kilauea caldera indicates a state change of the basalt. Low velocity zones beneath Pu'u'O'o, Heiheiahulu and the Hilina fault system between 5 and 12 km are possible partial melting zones. High velocity anomalies are resolved below 6 km depth beneath the summit caldera, which may suggest the presence of consolidated gabbro-ultramafic cumulates. In the third work, we installed three broadband seismic stations (Test1, Test2 and Test3) in an Enhanced Oil Recovery field to monitor the potential seismic events associated with CO 2 injection. In the two years of continuous seismic data between October 2011 and October 2013, we observed a type of long duration (LD) events instead of typical micro earthquakes, with an average daily rate of 12. The LD events have the following characteristics: (1) their duration varies from ˜30 to ˜300 sec; (2) the amplitude changes smoothly from the beginning to the end of the LD event window; (3) they are local seismic events and were not recorded by regional seismic stations (e.g., ˜200 km away); (4) the waveforms are very different from those of typical earthquakes, but similar to volcanic tremors; (5) the frequency content is mainly concentrated between 0.5 and 6 Hz, which is similar to the frequency band of volcanic tremors; and (6

  3. Reevaluation of the Seismicity and seismic hazards of Northeastern Libya (United States)

    Ben Suleman, abdunnur; Aousetta, Fawzi


    Libya, located at the northern margin of the African continent, underwent many episodes of orogenic activities. These episodes of orogenic activities affected and shaped the geological setting of the country. This study represents a detailed investigation that aims to focus on the seismicity and its implications on earthquake hazards of Northeastern Libya. At the end of year 2005 the Libyan National Seismological Network starts functioning with 15 stations. The Seismicity of the area under investigation was reevaluated using data recorded by the recently established network. The Al-Maraj earthquake occurred in May 22nd 2005was analyzed. This earthquake was located in a known seismically active area. This area was the sight of the well known 1963 earthquake that kills over 200 people. Earthquakes were plotted and resulting maps were interpreted and discussed. The level of seismic activity is higher in some areas, such as the city of Al-Maraj. The offshore areas north of Al-Maraj seem to have higher seismic activity. It is highly recommended that the recent earthquake activity is considered in the seismic hazard assessments for the northeastern part of Libya.

  4. On the use of volumetric strain meters to infer additional characteristics of short-period seismic radiation (United States)

    Borcherdt, R.D.; Johnston, M.J.S.; Glassmoyer, G.


    Volumetric strain meters (Sacks-Evertson design) are installed at 15 sites along the San Andreas fault system, to monitor long-term strain changes for earthquake prediction. Deployment of portable broadband, high-resolution digital recorders (GEOS) at several of the sites extends the detection band for volumetric strain to periods shorter than 5 ?? 10-2 sec and permits the simultaneous observation of seismic radiation fields using conventional short-period pendulum seismometers. Recordings of local and regional earthquakes indicate that dilatometers respond to P energy but not direct shear energy and that straingrams can be used to resolve superimposed reflect P and S waves for inference of wave characteristics not permitted by either sensor alone. Simultaneous measurements of incident P- and S-wave amplitudes are used to introduce a technique for single-station estimates of wave field inhomogeneity, free-surface reflection coefficients and local material P velocity. -from Authors

  5. Dome/Conduit inflation-deflation at Volcan de Fuego, Colima: evidence from seismic and geodetic data (United States)

    Arciniega-Ceballos, A.; Cabral-Cano, E.; Castaneda, E.; Salazar-Tlaczani, L.; DeMets, C.; Marquez-Azua, B.


    Volcan de Fuego is a strato-volcano (3860 m high) in Colima Mexico, which has been presenting high explosive activity from small to large explosive events, occasionally accompanied by pyroclastic flows, periodic dome growth and destructive phases, intense fumarole activity and degassing, during the last decade. Since June 2011 a broadband seismic and geodetic network has been operating at radial distances ranging between 1.5 and 4 km from the crater. Five stations are equipped with a Nanometrics 120 s Trillium seismometer and Trimble NetR9 GPS receiver, from which three of them include a MiniDOAS gas detection system. During the period of study eruptive activity of Volcan de Fuego has been dominated by dome growth, degassing and occasional large explosions. These events are associated with the partial dome destruction and frequent ash emissions. Preliminary analyses of two-year continuous records of broadband seismic and geodesy data have revealed dome/conduit inflation-deflation phases related to conspicuous VLP tremor in the 1-20 s period band. VLP tremor has been detected in several periods since 2011 in all stations of the network. VLP tremor may be spasmodic or a persistent signal that fluctuates both in amplitude and time. Since in volcanic areas microseismicity may cover a period range of 5 to 20 s, we analyze and characterize the noise levels considering the relative amplitude with respect to the average amplitude of microseismic noise at each station. We evaluate temporal and frequency variations of volcanic activity with respect the microseismic levels. Our results indicate that the energy of the wave field in the 1-20 s period band is dominated by volcanic activity, especially in cases associated with large eruptive events. The presence of VLP tremor correlates well with inflation-deflation phases observed in the GPS time series, with total vertical displacements of 20-40 mm. This behavior is most evident in the COPN, COPE and COLW stations, which are

  6. Comparison of Ambient Noise From Two Station Designs, Evaluating USArray's Transportable and Flexible Arrays in the Pacific Northwest (United States)

    Pfeifer, M.; Alvarez, M.; Woodward, R.; Yang, Z.


    The USArray program within the National Science Foundation-funded Earthscope program is comprised of two portable broadband seismic projects; the Transportable Array (TA), and the Flexible Array (FA). The TA consists of 400 stations occupy locations within the United States on a nominal 70 km spacing for a period of approximately 24 months. As a network, these TA stations roll from west to east so that within 10 years the entire lower 48 states will have been occupied by the TA network. As a complementary component of USArray, the FA pool of instruments is comprised of 1200 active-source, 120 short-period and 326 broadband portable stations. These instruments are used by Principal Investigator-driven studies which focus on geologic targets within the TA footprint. Currently the TA network is transitioning from the Rocky Mountains into the Great Plains. The FA currently has four experiments installed. In this study we quantify the overall performance of these two tandem networks using a controlled set of continuous recordings in Western Washington. We compare the background noise levels between the standard deep TA and shallow FA broadband sensor vault system. We use McNamara’s probability density function (PDF) analysis as the basis of the comparison. We combine the network wide PDF’s of each network for a period of over 600 days of contemporaneous recordings. Preliminary analysis using data from 28 TA stations in western Washington and 47 nearby FA stations from the CAFE experiment (Abers, et al. Eos Trans. AGU 88(52), Fall Meet. Suppl. S43D-07), show that the TA stations are quieter at periods below 20 seconds by about 12 dB on the horizontal components. The vertical components for both the TA and FA are equivalent for periods below 5 seconds. At higher frequencies (> 2 Hz), however, the FA shallower vault is quieter by approximately 10 dB on both the vertical and horizontal components. The question addressed is, what is contributing to the difference in


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晓清; 何春晖; 张晶; 刘薇; 马震; 文勇


    Based on the digital seismic data of the aftershocks of Dachaidan Ms6. 3 earthquake in Nov. 10, 2008, using the three-component seismic data from a single-station, we calculate the focal mechanisms of af- tershocks by the method of the moment tensors inversion. We collect the epicenter parameters published of Dachaidan Ms6.3 earthquake in Nov. 10, 2008 and the digital seismic data of the seismic network in Qinghai region. Through calculated theoretical seismic wave, we can get the velocity structure model of the research ar- ea in this paper by the epicenter parameters of Dachaidan Ms6.3 earthquake. Using this model, we obtain the focal mechanisms of the ME 92.0 aftershocks. We chosed the 160 aftershocks from the digital seismic data and got some results of 85 aftershocks at last, among which, the largest event is ML 4.7, the smallest magnitude is ML 2.0. Through contrast analysis, it almost is similar that we obtain the moment tensor inversion results from a single-station and the five stations. The calculated results show that the focal mechanisms of a small to mod- erate earthquakes can be gotten using the digital seismic data from a single-station.%以2008年11月10日大柴旦Ms6.3级地震余震数字地震波观测资料为基础,运用矩张量反演方法,利用单台三分量波形资料计算余震的震源机制。收集整理大柴旦Ms6.3级地震公认的震源参数结果和青海区域地震台网数字地震波资料,以大柴旦Ms6.3级地震的震源参数作为约束,计算理论地震波来确定该区域的地壳速度模型。以此模型计算ML≥2.0级余震震源机制解。共收集160个余震资料,最后确定了85个余震震源机制解,其中最大震级为朋。4.7,最小震级为ML2.0。进行单台与多台联合矩张量反演结果对比,两种方法所确定的结果相差不大。实际计算表明,在观测资料信噪比较高的情况下,运用单台数字地震波观测资料可以较好

  8. Seismic anisotropy of Precambrian lithosphere: Insights from Rayleigh wave tomography of the eastern Superior Craton (United States)

    Petrescu, Laura; Darbyshire, Fiona; Bastow, Ian; Totten, Eoghan; Gilligan, Amy


    The thick, seismically fast lithospheric keels underlying continental cores (cratons) are thought to have formed in the Precambrian and resisted subsequent tectonic destruction. A consensus is emerging from a variety of disciplines that keels are vertically stratified, but the processes that led to their development remain uncertain. Eastern Canada is a natural laboratory to study Precambrian lithospheric formation and evolution. It comprises the largest Archean craton in the world, the Superior Craton, surrounded by multiple Proterozoic orogenic belts. To investigate its lithospheric structure, we construct a frequency-dependent anisotropic seismic model of the region using Rayleigh waves from teleseismic earthquakes recorded at broadband seismic stations across eastern Canada. The joint interpretation of phase velocity heterogeneity and azimuthal anisotropy patterns reveals a seismically fast and anisotropically complex Superior Craton. The upper lithosphere records fossilized Archean tectonic deformation: anisotropic patterns align with the orientation of the main tectonic boundaries at periods ≤110 s. This implies that cratonic blocks were strong enough to sustain plate-scale deformation during collision at 2.5 Ga. Cratonic lithosphere with fossil anisotropy partially extends beneath adjacent Proterozoic belts. At periods sensitive to the lower lithosphere, we detect fast, more homogenous, and weakly anisotropic material, documenting postassembly lithospheric growth, possibly in a slow or stagnant convection regime. A heterogeneous, anisotropic transitional zone may also be present at the base of the keel. The detection of multiple lithospheric fabrics at different periods with distinct tectonic origins supports growing evidence that cratonization processes may be episodic and are not exclusively an Archean phenomenon.

  9. Seismic velocity variations beneath central Mongolia: Evidence for upper mantle plumes? (United States)

    Zhang, Fengxue; Wu, Qingju; Grand, Stephen P.; Li, Yonghua; Gao, Mengtan; Demberel, Sodnomsambuu; Ulziibat, Munkhuu; Sukhbaatar, Usnikh


    Central Mongolia is marked by wide spread recent volcanism as well as significant topographic relief even though it is far from any plate tectonic boundaries. The cause of the recent magmatism and topography remains uncertain partially because little is known of the underlying mantle seismic structure due to the lack of seismic instrumentation in the region. From August 2011 through August 2013, 69 broadband seismic stations were deployed in central Mongolia. Teleseismic traveltime residuals were measured using waveform correlation and were inverted to image upper mantle P and S velocity variations. Significant lateral variations in seismic velocity are imaged in the deep upper mantle (100 to 800 km depth). Most significant are two continuous slow anomalies from the deep upper mantle to near the surface. One slow feature has been imaged previously and may be a zone of deep upwelling bringing warm mantle to beneath the Hangay Dome resulting in uplift and magmatism including the active Khanuy Gol and Middle Gobi volcanoes. The second, deep low velocity anomaly is seen in the east from 800 to 150 km depth. The anomaly ends beneath the Gobi Desert that is found to have fast shallow mantle indicating a relatively thick lithosphere. We interpret the second deep slow anomaly as a mantle upwelling that is deflected by the thick Gobi Desert lithosphere to surrounding regions such as the Hentay Mountains to the north. The upwellings are a means of feeding warmer than normal asthenospheric mantle over a widely distributed region beneath Mongolia resulting in distributed volcanic activity and uplift. There is no indication that the upwellings are rooted in the deep lower mantle i.e. classic plumes. We speculate the upwellings may be related to deep subduction of the Pacific and Indian plates and are thus plumes anchored in the upper mantle.

  10. Evidence for bathymetric control on the distribution of body wave microseism sources from temporary seismic arrays in Africa (United States)

    Euler, Garrett G.; Wiens, Douglas A.; Nyblade, Andrew A.


    Microseisms are the background seismic vibrations mostly driven by the interaction of ocean waves with the solid Earth. Locating the sources of microseisms improves our understanding of the range of conditions under which they are generated and has potential applications to seismic tomography and climate research. In this study, we detect persistent source locations of P-wave microseisms at periods of 5-10 s (0.1-0.2 Hz) using broad-band array noise correlation techniques and frequency-slowness analysis. Data include vertical component records from four temporary seismic arrays in equatorial and southern Africa with a total of 163 broad-band stations and deployed over a span of 13 yr (1994-2007). While none of the arrays were deployed contemporaneously, we find that the recorded microseismic P waves originate from common, distant oceanic bathymetric features with amplitudes that vary seasonally in proportion with extratropical cyclone activity. Our results show that the majority of the persistent microseismic P-wave source locations are within the 30-60º latitude belts of the Northern and Southern hemispheres while a substantially reduced number are found at lower latitudes. Variations in source location with frequency are also observed and indicate tomographic studies including microseismic body wave sources will benefit from analysing multiple frequency bands. We show that the distribution of these source regions in the North Atlantic as well as in the Southern Ocean correlate with variations in bathymetry and ocean wave heights and corroborate current theory on double-frequency microseism generation. The stability of the source locations over the 13-yr time span of our investigation suggests that the long-term body wave microseism source distribution is governed by variations in the bathymetry and ocean wave heights while the interaction of ocean waves has a less apparent influence.

  11. Designing Broadband Access Networks with Triple Redundancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jens Myrup; Riaz, Muhammad Tahir; Knudsen, Thomas Phillip


    An architecture is proposed for designing broadband access networks, which offer triple redundancy to the end users, resulting in networks providing connectivity even in case of any two independent node or line failures. Two physically independent connections are offered by fiber, and the last...... provided by some wireless solution. Based on experience with planning Fiber To The Home, the architecture is designed to meet a number of demands, making it practicable and useful in realworld network planning. The proposed wired topology is planar, and suitable for being fitted onto the road network...... without compromising line independency, and it can be implemented stepwise, the first step being based on a simple ring/tree topology. The double ring is used for the distribution network, ensuring 3-connectivity and making it feasible to use for connecting the base stations of the wireless network...

  12. Energy Efficient Evolution of Mobile Broadband Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Micallef, Gilbert

    costs, which, based on increasing energy prices and necessary network upgrades are likely to increase. Since base station sites make up for about 75% of the power consumption in mobile networks, studies are focused on this specific network element. A number of factors believed to play a role...... the v impact of replacing old equipment. Results show that an aggressive replacement strategy and the upgrade of sites to remote radio head can restrain the increase in power consumption of the network to just 17%. In addition to upgrading equipment, mobile network operators can further reduce power...... network capacity evolution path, replacing old and less efficient equipment, and enabling power saving features, can all considerably reduce the power consumption of future mobile broadband networks. Studies and recommendations presented within this thesis demonstrate that it is realistic for mobile...

  13. Broadband Advanced Spectral System Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NovaSol proposes to develop an advanced hyperspectral imaging system for earth science missions named BRASS (Broadband Advanced Spectral System). BRASS combines...

  14. Active-source seismic imaging below Lake Malawi (Nyasa) from the SEGMeNT project (United States)

    Shillington, D. J.; Scholz, C. A.; Gaherty, J. B.; Accardo, N. J.; McCartney, T.; Chindandali, P. R. N.; Kamihanda, G.; Trinhammer, P.; Wood, D. A.; Khalfan, M.; Ebinger, C. J.; Nyblade, A.; Mbogoni, G. J.; Mruma, A. H.; Salima, J.; Ferdinand-Wambura, R.


    Little is known about the controls on the initiation and development of magmatism and segmentation in young rift systems. The northern Lake Malawi (Nyasa) rift in the East African Rift System is an early stage rift exhibiting pronounced tectonic segmentation, which is defined in the upper crust by ~100-km-long border faults. Very little volcanism is associated with rifting; the only surface expression of magmatism occurs in an accommodation zone between segments to the north of the lake in the Rungwe Volcanic Province. The SEGMeNT (Study of Extension and maGmatism in Malawi aNd Tanzania) project is a multidisciplinary, multinational study that is acquiring a suite of geophysical, geological and geochemical data to characterize deformation and magmatism in the crust and mantle lithosphere along 2-3 segments of this rift. As a part of the SEGMeNT project, we acquired seismic reflection and refraction data in Lake Malawi (Nyasa) in March-April 2015. Over 2000 km of seismic reflection data were acquired with a 500 to 2580 cu in air gun array from GEUS/Aarhus and a 500- to 1500-m-long seismic streamer from Syracuse University over a grid of lines across and along the northern and central basins. Air gun shots from MCS profiles and 1000 km of additional shooting with large shot intervals were also recorded on 27 short-period and 6 broadband lake bottom seismometers from Scripps Oceanographic Institute as a part of the Ocean Bottom Seismic Instrument Pool (OBSIP) as well as the 55-station onshore seismic array. The OBS were deployed along one long strike line and two dip lines. We will present preliminary data and results from seismic reflection and refraction data acquired in the lake and their implications for crustal deformation within and between rift segments. Seismic reflection data image structures up to ~5-6 km below the lake bottom, including syntectonic sediments, intrabasinal faults and other complex horsts. Some intrabasinal faults in both the northern and

  15. PG&E's Seismic Network Goes Digital With Strong Motion: Successes and Challenges (United States)

    Stanton, M. A.; Cullen, J.; McLaren, M. K.


    Pacific Gas and Electric Company (PG&E) is in year 3 of a 5-year project to upgrade the Central Coast Seismic Network (CCSN) from analog to digital. Located along the south-central California coast, the CCSN began operation in 1987, with 20 analog stations; 15 vertical component and 5 dual gain 3-component S-13 sensors. The analog signals travel over FM radio telemetry links and voice channels via PG&E's microwave network to our facility in San Francisco (SF), where the A/D conversion is performed on a computer running Earthworm v7.1, which also transmits the data to the USGS in Menlo Park. At the conversion point the dynamic ranges of the vertical and dual-gain sensors are 40-50dB and 60-70dB, respectively. Dynamic range exceedance (data clipping) generally occurs for a M2.5 or greater event within about 40 km of a station. The motivations to upgrade the seismic network were the need for higher dynamic range and to retire obsolete analog transmission equipment. The upgraded digital stations consist of the existing velocity sensors, a 131A-02/3 accelerometer and a Reftek 130-01 Broadband Seismic Recorder for digital data recording and transmission to SF. Vertical only stations have one component of velocity and 3 components of acceleration. Dual gain sites have 3 components of velocity and 3 of acceleration. To date we have successfully upgraded 6 sites; 3 more will be installed by the end of 2008. Some of the advantages of going digital are 1) data is recorded at each site and in SF, 2) substantially increased dynamic range of the velocity sensors to 120dB, as observed by on scale, close-by recordings from a M3.9 San Simeon aftershock on 04/29/2008, 3) accelerometers for on scale recording of large earthquakes, and 4) ability to contribute our strong motion data to USGS ShakeMaps. A significant challenge has been consistent radio communications. To resolve this issue we are installing point-to-multipoint Motorola Canopy spread spectrum radios at the stations and

  16. Romanian Educational Seismic Network Project (United States)

    Tataru, Dragos; Ionescu, Constantin; Zaharia, Bogdan; Grecu, Bogdan; Tibu, Speranta; Popa, Mihaela; Borleanu, Felix; Toma, Dragos; Brisan, Nicoleta; Georgescu, Emil-Sever; Dobre, Daniela; Dragomir, Claudiu-Sorin


    Romania is one of the most active seismic countries in Europe, with more than 500 earthquakes occurring every year. The seismic hazard of Romania is relatively high and thus understanding the earthquake phenomena and their effects at the earth surface represents an important step toward the education of population in earthquake affected regions of the country and aims to raise the awareness about the earthquake risk and possible mitigation actions. In this direction, the first national educational project in the field of seismology has recently started in Romania: the ROmanian EDUcational SEISmic NETwork (ROEDUSEIS-NET) project. It involves four partners: the National Institute for Earth Physics as coordinator, the National Institute for Research and Development in Construction, Urban Planning and Sustainable Spatial Development " URBAN - INCERC" Bucharest, the Babeş-Bolyai University (Faculty of Environmental Sciences and Engineering) and the software firm "BETA Software". The project has many educational, scientific and social goals. The main educational objectives are: training students and teachers in the analysis and interpretation of seismological data, preparing of several comprehensive educational materials, designing and testing didactic activities using informatics and web-oriented tools. The scientific objective is to introduce into schools the use of advanced instruments and experimental methods that are usually restricted to research laboratories, with the main product being the creation of an earthquake waveform archive. Thus a large amount of such data will be used by students and teachers for educational purposes. For the social objectives, the project represents an effective instrument for informing and creating an awareness of the seismic risk, for experimentation into the efficacy of scientific communication, and for an increase in the direct involvement of schools and the general public. A network of nine seismic stations with SEP seismometers

  17. Broadband transmission EPR spectroscopy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilfred R Hagen

    Full Text Available EPR spectroscopy employs a resonator operating at a single microwave frequency and phase-sensitive detection using modulation of the magnetic field. The X-band spectrometer is the general standard with a frequency in the 9-10 GHz range. Most (biomolecular EPR spectra are determined by a combination of the frequency-dependent electronic Zeeman interaction and a number of frequency-independent interactions, notably, electron spin - nuclear spin interactions and electron spin - electron spin interactions, and unambiguous analysis requires data collection at different frequencies. Extant and long-standing practice is to use a different spectrometer for each frequency. We explore the alternative of replacing the narrow-band source plus single-mode resonator with a continuously tunable microwave source plus a non-resonant coaxial transmission cell in an unmodulated external field. Our source is an arbitrary wave digital signal generator producing an amplitude-modulated sinusoidal microwave in combination with a broadband amplifier for 0.8-2.7 GHz. Theory is developed for coaxial transmission with EPR detection as a function of cell dimensions and materials. We explore examples of a doublet system, a high-spin system, and an integer-spin system. Long, straigth, helical, and helico-toroidal cells are developed and tested with dilute aqueous solutions of spin label hydroxy-tempo. A detection limit of circa 5 µM HO-tempo in water at 800 MHz is obtained for the present setup, and possibilities for future improvement are discussed.

  18. Broadband access development (United States)

    Quayle, Alan; Faulkner, David W.


    In upgrading the access network to be broadband capable, re- use of existing infrastructure is essential to manage the risk associated with this development. FTTCab (fiber to the cabinet) has been proposed as an architecture that can make this development economic to provide 12 Mbit/s to the customer and 2 Mbit/s back into the network. The FTTCab architecture uses an optical fiber overlay to an active node sited at the primary cross-connect point (PCP) in the copper access network. Frequency multiplexing allows the copper pair infrastructure to be re-used without changing the existing narrowband services. FTTCab is at the mid-point of a range of access topologies with respect to the siting of the DSL (digital subscriber loop) technology. The DSL modem can be sited at the home, curb, cabinet, or in the exchange to suit a range of distance/capacity requirements. This enables a simple revolution of the current network to FTTCab, and allows the architecture to be flexed to satisfy particular business needs.

  19. Upgrading the seismic and geodetic network of the Popocatépetl volcano (Mexico). (United States)

    Calò, Marco; Iglesias Mendoza, Arturo; Legrand, Denis; Valdés González, Carlos Miguel; Perez Campos, Xyoli


    The Popocatépetl is one of the most active volcanoes in Mexico and is located only 70 km from Mexico City, populated by more than 20 millions of people, and only 35 km from the Puebla municipality with almost 1.5 millions of people living. The recent activity of the volcano is generally marked by explosions emitting ash plumes often reaching the densely populated regions. In the framework of the Mexican Fund for Prevention of Natural Disasters (FOPREDEN) we are renovating and upgrading the existing geodetic and seismic networks monitoring the volcano. In this project we are installing 10 broadband seismic stations (120s-050Hz) in shallow boreholes (3-5m depth) and 4 GPS with real time sampling rate of 1 Hz. All instruments are equipped with continuous recording systems for real time monitoring purposes and research. The Popocatépetl exceeds 5400m, and the altitude of the stations ranges from 2200 m to 4300 m making it difficult their installation and maintenance. Because of ash emissions and the hard working condition, the real-time transmission is split into two systems in order to ensure the monitoring of the volcano also during the highest expected activity. Therefore we set up a network of "first order", consisting of four stations located about 20 km from the crater and equipped with satellite transmission. These stations, being far enough from the crater, ensure the real time monitoring of the major events also during intense periods of activity of the volcano. The remaining six stations are installed near to the crater (less than 10 km) and take part of the "second order" network equipped with a telemetered radio system transmitting the data either directly to the National Center of Disaster Prevention (CENAPRED) and National Seismological Service (SSN) or to the first order stations (for the sites that have not direct visible line with the monitoring centers). The four GPS sensors are all installed in the second order sites in order to monitor the largest

  20. TranSCorBe Project: A high-resolution seismic-passive profile to study the variation of the crustal and upper mantle structures under the Betic mountain ranges (United States)

    Morales, José; Martín, Rosa; Stich, Daniel; Heit, Benjamín; Yuan, Xiaohui; Mancilla, Flor; Benito, José; Carrion, Francisco; Serrano, Inmaculada; López-Comino, Jose Angel; Abreu, Rafael; Alguacil, Gerardo; Almendros, Javier; Carmona, Enrique; Ontiveros, Alfonso; García-Quiroga, Daniel; García-Jerez, Antonio


    The goal of this project is to study the crustal and upper mantle structures under the Betic mountain ranges and their variations between the different geological domains. We deployed 50 broadband and short period seismic stations during 18 months following two profiles. We collect teleseismic events to perform a high-resolution P-to-S and S-to-P receiver function analysis. The main profile (TranSCorBe), of 160 km length, starts near the coast in Mazarrón (Murcia) and follows a NW-SE direction, crossing the Cazorla mountain range. It probes, from south to north, the Alboran domain (metamorphic rocks), the External zones (sedimentary rocks) and the Variscan terrains of the Iberian Massif. The spacing between stations is around 3-4 km. This inter-station distance allows us mapping with high accuracy the variations of the crust and upper mantle discontinuities in the Betic Range and their transition to the Iberian Massif. A second profile (HiRe II) with a larger spacing between seismic stations, is a continuation of a previously installed HiRe I profile, a NS profile starting near the Mediterranean coast in Adra (Almería) through Sierra Nevada Mountains. HiRe II profile prolongs HiRe I profile until the Variscan intersecting with TranSCorBe profile near Cazorla.

  1. New constraints on seismic anisotropy along the Dead Sea transform fault (United States)

    Kaviani, A.; Rumpker, G.; Asch, G.


    We study seismic anisotropy along the Dead Sea Transform fault (DST) by shear-wave splitting analysis of SKS and SKKS waveforms recorded at a dense network of broad-band and short-period stations of the DESIRE experiment. The DST accommodates the relative motion between Africa and Arabia through a sinistral strike-slip motion. The Dead Sea is a pull-apart basin formed along the DST as a result of stepwise fault-normal displacement. The DESIRE array of stations cover this portion of the DST. We measured the splitting parameters (delay times between the fast and slow components of the shear wave and fast polarization direction) in different period bands. We observed consistent fast polarization directions varying from N14W to N19E at different stations and delay times ranging between 1.0 and 2.5 s. Our preliminary examination reveals that the splitting parameters do not exhibit significant frequency dependence. However, we observe variations in the splitting parameters (mostly delay times) along an E-W profile crossing the DST, with smaller delay times in the middle of the profile, within the surface exposure of the DST shear zone, and with two lobes of relatively large delay times on both sides of the central region. The fast polarization directions along this profile change from a dominant NNW trend in the western side of the DST to a general N-S orientation in the central part and a dominant NNE trend to the east. Waveform modeling is required to infer the lateral and depth variations of the strength and orientation of anisotropy in the crust and upper mantle from these observations. We will also complement our results with the data from the DESERT experiment to provide an overall pattern of seismic anisotropy and structural fabric beneath the DST and surrounding regions from the north of the Dead Sea down to the Red sea.

  2. Understanding seismic heterogeneities in the lower mantle beneath the Americas from seismic tomography and plate tectonic history

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ren, Y.; Stutzmann, E.; Hilst, R.D. van der; Besse, J.


    We combine results from seismic tomography and plate motion history to investigate slabs of subducted lithosphere in the lower mantle beneath the Americas. Using broadband waveform cross correlation, we measured 37,000 differential P and S traveltimes, 2000 PcP-P and ScS-S times along a wide corrido

  3. Understanding seismic heterogeneities in the lower mantle beneath the Americas from seismic tomography and plate tectonic history

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ren, Y.; Stutzmann, E.; Hilst, R.D. van der; Besse, J.


    We combine results from seismic tomography and plate motion history to investigate slabs of subducted lithosphere in the lower mantle beneath the Americas. Using broadband waveform cross correlation, we measured 37,000 differential P and S traveltimes, 2000 PcP-P and ScS-S times along a wide corrido

  4. Seismic Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. Quittmeyer


    This technical work plan (TWP) describes the efforts to develop and confirm seismic ground motion inputs used for preclosure design and probabilistic safety 'analyses and to assess the postclosure performance of a repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. As part of the effort to develop seismic inputs, the TWP covers testing and analyses that provide the technical basis for inputs to the seismic ground-motion site-response model. The TWP also addresses preparation of a seismic methodology report for submission to the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). The activities discussed in this TWP are planned for fiscal years (FY) 2006 through 2008. Some of the work enhances the technical basis for previously developed seismic inputs and reduces uncertainties and conservatism used in previous analyses and modeling. These activities support the defense of a license application. Other activities provide new results that will support development of the preclosure, safety case; these results directly support and will be included in the license application. Table 1 indicates which activities support the license application and which support licensing defense. The activities are listed in Section 1.2; the methods and approaches used to implement them are discussed in more detail in Section 2.2. Technical and performance objectives of this work scope are: (1) For annual ground motion exceedance probabilities appropriate for preclosure design analyses, provide site-specific seismic design acceleration response spectra for a range of damping values; strain-compatible soil properties; peak motions, strains, and curvatures as a function of depth; and time histories (acceleration, velocity, and displacement). Provide seismic design inputs for the waste emplacement level and for surface sites. Results should be consistent with the probabilistic seismic hazard analysis (PSHA) for Yucca Mountain and reflect, as appropriate, available knowledge on the limits to extreme ground

  5. Updated Colombian Seismic Hazard Map (United States)

    Eraso, J.; Arcila, M.; Romero, J.; Dimate, C.; Bermúdez, M. L.; Alvarado, C.


    The Colombian seismic hazard map used by the National Building Code (NSR-98) in effect until 2009 was developed in 1996. Since then, the National Seismological Network of Colombia has improved in both coverage and technology providing fifteen years of additional seismic records. These improvements have allowed a better understanding of the regional geology and tectonics which in addition to the seismic activity in Colombia with destructive effects has motivated the interest and the need to develop a new seismic hazard assessment in this country. Taking advantage of new instrumental information sources such as new broad band stations of the National Seismological Network, new historical seismicity data, standardized global databases availability, and in general, of advances in models and techniques, a new Colombian seismic hazard map was developed. A PSHA model was applied. The use of the PSHA model is because it incorporates the effects of all seismic sources that may affect a particular site solving the uncertainties caused by the parameters and assumptions defined in this kind of studies. First, the seismic sources geometry and a complete and homogeneous seismic catalog were defined; the parameters of seismic rate of each one of the seismic sources occurrence were calculated establishing a national seismotectonic model. Several of attenuation-distance relationships were selected depending on the type of seismicity considered. The seismic hazard was estimated using the CRISIS2007 software created by the Engineering Institute of the Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México -UNAM (National Autonomous University of Mexico). A uniformly spaced grid each 0.1° was used to calculate the peak ground acceleration (PGA) and response spectral values at 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.5, 0.75, 1, 1.5, 2, 2.5 and 3.0 seconds with return periods of 75, 225, 475, 975 and 2475 years. For each site, a uniform hazard spectrum and exceedance rate curves were calculated. With the results, it is

  6. Passive Seismic Imaging of the Ruby Mountains Core Complex, Nevada (United States)

    Litherland, M.; Klemperer, S. L.


    We investigate the deep crustal structure of the Ruby Mountains Core Complex (RMCC) using data collected from the Ruby Mountains Seismic Experiment. This project, part of the Earthscope Flexible Array program, deployed 50 passive broadband stations across the RMCC from 2010 to 2012. Previous investigations of the area have included extensive surface mapping and active seismic profiles across the surrounding basins, but better imaging beneath the mountain range is needed to understand the tectonic processes that formed the RMCC. The RMCC exhibits typical core-complex structure of deep crustal rocks exhumed to the surface beneath a gently dipping detachment, with a thick mylonitic shear zone directly underlying the detachment. In the RMCC, the westward dip of the detachment, the ~1km-thick mylonite zone formed in the Paleogene, and a south-to-north increase in metamorphic grade provide targets for imaging. We used common conversion point stacking of receiver functions to produce 3 profiles of structural discontinuities beneath the RMCC: one along the axis of the RMCC, and two crossing lines, one in the northern RMCC, and one in the southern part of the range. Due to the deep sedimentary basins surrounding the RMCC, various de-multiple processes were required to reduce the effects of basin reverberations. To better constrain the velocity structure of the area, we used ambient-noise tomography, and finally, we produced a joint inversion of our receiver functions and ambient-noise data. We observe a mostly flat Moho at about 30 km depth beneath the RMCC that dips slightly to the south, with faint mid-crustal converters that also dip south at ~30°. In the southern RMCC, the Moho dips ~20° westward, but this is not observed in the northern RMCC. This suggests that much of the exhumation involved in the RMCC formation likely involved ductile flow that left a mostly flat Moho, but more recent processes also may have left observable changes in lower-crustal structure.

  7. Source Parameters and Crustal Attenuation in Interior Alaska: Estimates Using Broadband Lg-Wave Spectra Derived from the BEAAR Experiment Data. (United States)

    Marriott, D. A.; Hansen, R. A.


    Source parameters, site effects, and regional crustal attenuation in interior Alaska were estimated using displacement amplitude spectra of Lg phase arrivals derived from the Broadband Experiment Across the Alaska Range (BEAAR) seismic data. The BEAAR project consisted of 36 three component broadband seismometers temporarily installed across the Alaska Range. This array stretched across a large portion of interior Alaska, providing excellent recordings of regional events. The model parameters were estimated using a simultaneous nonlinear least squares inversion including all the spectral data. The source parameters estimated were the seismic moment, Mo, and the corner frequency, fo, for each event. The values of Mo were well constrained and yielded an empirical relationship between ML and Mo for interior Alaska. Estimates of the corner frequency for each event, along with the Mo values, yielded an estimate of stress drop for each event. For events larger then ML = 3 in Alaska, stress drop showed no significant dependence on magnitude. A frequency dependent local site amplification term was estimated for each station in the inversion as an average of the residuals for each station over many events. The inclusion of this site term reduced the total residuals of the regional attenuation model calculations. A preliminary model for regional attenuation of the Lg seismic phase averaged over all tectonic regions across continental Alaska from BEAAR data was derived to be: QLg(f) = 166f0.58. This model was estimated from 123 shallow earthquakes larger than M =3 located in continental Alaska, and more than 1,000 spectra. Because the Lg phase was trapped in the crustal wave-guide, QLg gave a good representation of attenuation in the crust, and appears to correlate with crustal structure. Estimates of attenuation for each ray path show local variation in QLg. This variation may be caused by changes in crustal structure such as faulting, deformation, or differences in

  8. The Apollo passive seismic experiment (United States)

    Latham, G. V.; Dorman, H. J.; Horvath, P.; Ibrahim, A. K.; Koyama, J.; Nakamura, Y.


    The completed data set obtained from the 4-station Apollo seismic network includes signals from approximately 11,800 events of various types. Four data sets for use by other investigators, through the NSSDC, are in preparation. Some refinement of the lunar model based on seismic data can be expected, but its gross features remain as presented two years ago. The existence of a small, molten core remains dependent upon the analysis of signals from a single, far-side impact. Analysis of secondary arrivals from other sources may eventually resolve this issue, as well as continued refinement of the magnetic field measurements. Evidence of considerable lateral heterogeneity within the moon continues to build. The mystery of the much meteoroid flux estimate derived from lunar seismic measurements, as compared with earth-based estimates, remains; although, significant correlations between terrestrial and lunar observations are beginning to emerge.

  9. Geological structure of central Java, Indonesia from ambient seismic noise tomography (United States)

    Zulhan, Z.; Saygin, E.; Cummins, P. R.; Widiyantoro, S.; Nugraha, A. D.


    Geological structure in the region of central Java is very important for understanding its tectonic setting. The presence of several active volcanoes such as Mt. Merapi, Mt. Sumbing and Mt. Lawu, as well as the Kendeng Basin and Opak fault all contribute to the complex geology of central Java. Understanding some of the characteristics of the geological structure can be improved using a geophysical approach such as seismic tomography. In this study we show the image of the subsurface in central Java obtained from ambient seismic noise tomography. We use simultaneously operated 134 short period and broadband seismometers from the Merapi Amphibious Experiment (MERAMEX) network covering a region of 150 x 200 km around central Java and Yogyakarta. More than 5000 Rayleigh wave component of the Green's function are extracted from cross-correlations of available station pairs. We filter the retrieved Green's functions with a phase-matched filter to measure Rayleigh wave group dispersion at periods between 0.5 and 20 s. We apply a 2-D nonlinear iterative tomographic method for inverting the measured travel times. The results are then used to create group velocity perturbation maps. The velocity perturbation maps show a high correlation with local tectonic features. The Kendeng basin and active volcanoes in the central part of central Java are clearly imaged with lower group velocities and the southern part has the carbonate region is marked with higher group velocities.

  10. Elastic parabolic equation solutions for oceanic T-wave generation and propagation from deep seismic sources. (United States)

    Frank, Scott D; Collis, Jon M; Odom, Robert I


    Oceanic T-waves are earthquake signals that originate when elastic waves interact with the fluid-elastic interface at the ocean bottom and are converted to acoustic waves in the ocean. These waves propagate long distances in the Sound Fixing and Ranging (SOFAR) channel and tend to be the largest observed arrivals from seismic events. Thus, an understanding of their generation is important for event detection, localization, and source-type discrimination. Recently benchmarked seismic self-starting fields are used to generate elastic parabolic equation solutions that demonstrate generation and propagation of oceanic T-waves in range-dependent underwater acoustic environments. Both downward sloping and abyssal ocean range-dependent environments are considered, and results demonstrate conversion of elastic waves into water-borne oceanic T-waves. Examples demonstrating long-range broadband T-wave propagation in range-dependent environments are shown. These results confirm that elastic parabolic equation solutions are valuable for characterization of the relationships between T-wave propagation and variations in range-dependent bathymetry or elastic material parameters, as well as for modeling T-wave receptions at hydrophone arrays or coastal receiving stations.

  11. Station Capacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Landex, Alex


    Stations are often limiting the capacity of railway networks. This is due to extra need of tracks when trains stand still, trains turning around, and conflicting train routes. Although stations are often the capacity bottlenecks, most capacity analysis methods focus on open line capacity. Therefore......, this paper presents methods to analyze station capacity. Four methods to analyze station capacity are developed. The first method is an adapted UIC 406 capacity method that can be used to analyze switch zones and platform tracks at stations that are not too complex. The second method examines the need...... the probability of conflicts and the minimum headway times into account. The last method analyzes how optimal platform tracks are used by examining the arrival and departure pattern of the trains. The developed methods can either be used separately to analyze specific characteristics of the capacity of a station...

  12. Broadband Rotational Spectroscopy (United States)

    Pate, Brooks


    The past decade has seen several major technology advances in electronics operating at microwave frequencies making it possible to develop a new generation of spectrometers for molecular rotational spectroscopy. High-speed digital electronics, both arbitrary waveform generators and digitizers, continue on a Moore's Law-like development cycle that started around 1993 with device bandwidth doubling about every 36 months. These enabling technologies were the key to designing chirped-pulse Fourier transform microwave (CP-FTMW) spectrometers which offer significant sensitivity enhancements for broadband spectrum acquisition in molecular rotational spectroscopy. A special feature of the chirped-pulse spectrometer design is that it is easily implemented at low frequency (below 8 GHz) where Balle-Flygare type spectrometers with Fabry-Perot cavity designs become technologically challenging due to the mirror size requirements. The capabilities of CP-FTMW spectrometers for studies of molecular structure will be illustrated by the collaborative research effort we have been a part of to determine the structures of water clusters - a project which has identified clusters up to the pentadecamer. A second technology trend that impacts molecular rotational spectroscopy is the development of high power, solid state sources in the mm-wave/THz regions. Results from the field of mm-wave chirped-pulse Fourier transform spectroscopy will be described with an emphasis on new problems in chemical dynamics and analytical chemistry that these methods can tackle. The third (and potentially most important) technological trend is the reduction of microwave components to chip level using monolithic microwave integrated circuits (MMIC) - a technology driven by an enormous mass market in communications. Some recent advances in rotational spectrometer designs that incorporate low-cost components will be highlighted. The challenge to the high-resolution spectroscopy community - as posed by Frank De

  13. Driving demand for broadband networks and services

    CERN Document Server

    Katz, Raul L


    This book examines the reasons why various groups around the world choose not to adopt broadband services and evaluates strategies to stimulate the demand that will lead to increased broadband use. It introduces readers to the benefits of higher adoption rates while examining the progress that developed and emerging countries have made in stimulating broadband demand. By relying on concepts such as a supply and demand gap, broadband price elasticity, and demand promotion, this book explains differences between the fixed and mobile broadband demand gap, introducing the notions of substitution and complementarity between both platforms. Building on these concepts, ‘Driving Demand for Broadband Networks and Services’ offers a set of best practices and recommendations aimed at promoting broadband demand.  The broadband demand gap is defined as individuals and households that could buy a broadband subscription because they live in areas served by telecommunications carriers but do not do so because of either ...

  14. Space Station (United States)

    Anderton, D. A.


    The official start of a bold new space program, essential to maintain the United States' leadership in space was signaled by a Presidential directive to move aggressively again into space by proceeding with the development of a space station. Development concepts for a permanently manned space station are discussed. Reasons for establishing an inhabited space station are given. Cost estimates and timetables are also cited.

  15. From high quality seismic data acquisition in remote volcanic area to fast data distribution to scientific community: The UnderVolc project on Piton de la Fournaise volcano (United States)

    Brenguier, Florent; Kowalski, Philippe; Pequegnat, Catherine; Lauret, Frédéric; Cougoulat, Glenn; Boissier, Patrice; Catherine, Philippe


    Piton de la Fournaise basaltic volcano (La Réunion island, France) is one of the most active volcano in the world with an average of one eruption every year. This volcano is thus an ideal case study for research projects focusing on studying magmatic, seismic and deformation processes occurring in volcanic areas. The UNDERVOLC (UNDERstanding VOLCanic Processes) research project main goal is to provide high quality 3-component broadband continuous seismic data to an amount of about 30 volcano-seismologists from different international research teams (including Japan and New-Zealand). This data acquisition system is moreover dedicated to the monitoring of Piton de la Fournaise volcano by providing real-time seismic data to the Piton de la Fournaise volcanological Observatory/IPGP. The network consists of 21 fully autonomous stations composed of CMG40-T seismometers associated to high dynamic digitizers and linked to wireless digital radio stations. The seismic signal is sent by UDP protocol to the observatory through a network of wireless LAN over large distances (~10 km) and possibly through the internet to the Observatory. The acquisition system at the observatory is composed of: 1-An Earthworm system (USGS - ISTI - CERI) with a Q330 to Earthworm data acquisition module (6 permanent stations from the observatory) 2-An Apollo server system (Nanometrics) for 15 stations (for which seismometers and digitizers belong to the French national pool of portable seismic instruments Sismob, INSU-CNRS) In both case, requests are sent back to the stations in case of loss of udp packets. This system allows us producing miniseed files every hour. Since September 2009, the full dataset has less then 1 % of gaps. In order to provide a fast data access to the scientific community, we synchronize our dataset every night with the SISMOB datacenter located in France (LGIT, Grenoble). After a quality check, seed data volumes are produced and distributed by standard NETDC requests from

  16. Observations of Earthquake-Generated T-Waves in the South China Sea: Possible Applications for Regional Seismic Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bor-Shouh Huang


    Full Text Available We present a detailed study of T-waves originating from earthquakes in the South China Sea region, near the Indochina Peninsula and Luzon islands which were recorded by a broadband seismic station at Nansha Island. Most of these T-waves appear to have been the source originating from earthquakes with epicentral distances greater than 600 km from this station. The T-waves in this region were identified via their apparent stable measured velocities of about 1.45 km s-1, and represent the first reported T-waves and the first T-waves observed from an island station in the South China Sea. However, during the period of analysis (November 2004 to December 2005 additional earthquakes also occurred beyond the South China Sea region, but in these instances, any associated T-waves were not picked up by the station at Nansha Island. An analysis of T-wave travel times reveals the possible locations of the P-wave to T-wave transitions at the ocean to crust interface were presumably situated near the earthquake source side. Our results indicate that the Sound Fixing and Ranging (SOFAR channel is well developed in the South China Sea region. Ultimately, developing a solid understanding of the effective transmission of T-waves through the ocean may provide new opportunities for detecting and locating small earthquakes which would be useful for both seismic monitoring and in helping to predict and reduce the damaging effects of earthquakes and tsunamis in the SouthChina Sea region.

  17. Observations of Earthquake-Generated T-Waves in the South China Sea: Possible Applications for Regional Seismic Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bor-Shouh Huang


    Full Text Available We present a detailed study of T-waves originating from earthquakes in the South China Sea region, near the Indochina Peninsula and Luzon islands which were recorded by a broadband seismic station at Nansha Island. Most of these T-waves appear to have been the source originating from earthquakes with epicentral distances greater than 600 km from this station. The T-waves in this region were identified via their apparent stable measured velocities of about 1.45 km s-1, and represent the first reported T-waves and the first T-waves observed from an island station in the South China Sea. However, during the period of analysis (November 2004 to December 2005 additional earthquakes also occurred beyond the South China Sea region, but in these instances, any associated T-waves were not picked up by the station at Nansha Island. An analysis of T-wave travel times reveals the possible locations of the P-wave to T-wave transitions at the ocean to crust interface were presumably situated near the earthquake source side. Our results indicate that the Sound Fixing and Ranging (SOFAR channel is well developed in the South China Sea region. Ultimately, developing a solid understanding of the effective transmission of T-waves through the ocean may provide new opportunities for detecting and locating small earthquakes which would be useful for both seismic monitoring and in helping to predict and reduce the damaging effects of earthquakes and tsunamis in the South China Sea region.

  18. Seismic Structure and Geodynamic Evolution of the Lithosphere and Upper Mantle in the Pannonian - Carpathian Region (United States)

    Houseman, G.; Stuart, G.; Dando, B.; Hetenyi, G.; Lorinczi, P.; Brueckl, E.; Hegedus, E.; Radovanovic, S.; Brisbourne, A.


    The Pannonian Basin is the largest of a group of Miocene-age extensional basins within the arc of the Alpine-Carpathian Mountain Ranges. These basins are extensional in origin, but the surrounding Carpathians result from sustained convergence during and since the period of active extension. A significant part of the mantle lithosphere here has been replaced, as gravitational instability caused an overturn of the upper mantle. The Carpathian Basins Project (CBP) is a major international broadband seismology experiment, supported by geodynamical modelling and designed to improve our understanding of the structure and evolution of the lithosphere and upper mantle beneath the Pannonian and Vienna Basins. Between 2005 and 2007 we deployed 56 portable broadband seismic stations in Austria, Hungary and Serbia, spanning the Vienna Basin and the western part of the Pannonian Basin. Arrival time residuals from teleseismic earthquakes are delayed by about 0.8 sec in the Vienna Basin and early by a similar amount in southwest Hungary. Tomographic inversion of the travel time residuals shows relatively fast P-wave velocities in the upper mantle beneath the western Pannonian Basin and slow P-wave velocities beneath the West Carpathians. Seismic anisotropy (SKS) measurements reveal an intriguing pattern of lithospheric anisotropy: in the north-west the fast direction is generally elongated EW, perpendicular to the shortening direction across the Alps. Across the Vienna Basin the fast direction is NW-SE, perpendicular to the major bounding fault systems. Across the Pannonian Basin the dominant fast direction is EW, but in several locations the vectors are rotated toward NW-SE. The Mid-Hungarian Line, a major strike-slip structure already clearly identified in the gravity field, also is associated with abrupt changes in the azimuth of lithospheric anisotropy. Receiver function analysis of the seismic discontinuity at 670 km shows significant structure on scales of order 100 km, and

  19. Some similar seismic characteristics of the 2014 Iquique and 2015 Illapel earthquakes in Chile (United States)

    Ruiz, Sergio; Klein, Emilie; del Campo, Francisco; Rivera, Efrain; Metois, Marianne; León, Sergio; Fuenzalida, Amaya; Poli, Piero; Vigny, Christophe; Baez, Juan Carlos; Maksymowicz, Andrei; Ruiz, Javier; Grandin, Raphael; Vargas, Gabriel; Leyton, Felipe; Madariaga, Raúl; Fleitout, Luce


    The 2014 Iquique Mw 8.2, and 2015 Illapel Mw 8.3 earthquakes occurred inside of the mega-rupture zones of 1877 in Northern Chile and 1730 in Central Chile, respectively. 1877 and 1730 are the two largest megathrust events that probably controls the seismic cycle of these two zones, recent paleo-seismological studies propose recurrence intervals between ~200 and ~650 years for these giant earthquakes. The two 2014 and 2015 events were very well recorded by large permanent broadband and strong motion networks, temporary broadband digital stations, high rate GPS instruments and InSAR images. With this large dataset we attempt to understand the processes of interaction between slow and fast deformation in these zones, which produced these events of magnitude Mw~8.0. We study the upper plate deformation before both events using the continuous time displacement of GPS antennas. Both earthquakes show precursory phases: Iquique was preceded by a slow slip event and Illapel was preceded by a deep transient slow slip produced by postseismic deformation due to the Mw 8.8 2010 Maule mega-earthquake. On the other hand, a remarkable feature of the Iquique and Illapel coseismic ruptures was their nucleation processes. Both were preceded in their first 20 seconds by small events that released a tiny fraction of the total seismic energy. The largest release of seismic energy was generated at the end of these precursory ruptures. We can interpret this process in terms of a simple asperity model, where the boundaries of the rupture are controlled by the plate interface. The areas surrounding both rupture zones were weakly coupled and a presented concentration of swarms and repeating events. Finally, we relocated and computed moment tensors of the events of magnitude Mw ≥ 4.5. Most of the fore- and after -shocks of both earthquakes are interplate events surrounding the rupture zones of the main events. However, in the Iquique earthquake these events are located in a band of about 50

  20. Seismic Symphonies (United States)

    Strinna, Elisa; Ferrari, Graziano


    The project started in 2008 as a sound installation, a collaboration between an artist, a barrel organ builder and a seismologist. The work differs from other attempts of sound transposition of seismic records. In this case seismic frequencies are not converted automatically into the "sound of the earthquake." However, it has been studied a musical translation system that, based on the organ tonal scale, generates a totally unexpected sequence of sounds which is intended to evoke the emotions aroused by the earthquake. The symphonies proposed in the project have somewhat peculiar origins: they in fact come to life from the translation of graphic tracks into a sound track. The graphic tracks in question are made up by copies of seismograms recorded during some earthquakes that have taken place around the world. Seismograms are translated into music by a sculpture-instrument, half a seismograph and half a barrel organ. The organ plays through holes practiced on paper. Adapting the documents to the instrument score, holes have been drilled on the waves' peaks. The organ covers about three tonal scales, starting from heavy and deep sounds it reaches up to high and jarring notes. The translation of the seismic records is based on a criterion that does match the highest sounds to larger amplitudes with lower ones to minors. Translating the seismogram in the organ score, the larger the amplitude of recorded waves, the more the seismogram covers the full tonal scale played by the barrel organ and the notes arouse an intense emotional response in the listener. Elisa Strinna's Seismic Symphonies installation becomes an unprecedented tool for emotional involvement, through which can be revived the memory of the greatest disasters of over a century of seismic history of the Earth. A bridge between art and science. Seismic Symphonies is also a symbolic inversion: the instrument of the organ is most commonly used in churches, and its sounds are derived from the heavens and

  1. Monitoring of low-energy seismic activity in Elbrus volcanic area with the use of underground seismic array (United States)

    Kovalevsky, V.; Sobisevitch, A.


    Results of experiment with underground seismic array for studying low-energy seismic activity in the Elbrus volcanic area are presented. Linear seismic array of 2.5 km aperture is created in the tunnel of Baksan neutrino observatory. Horizontal tunnel of 4.3 km length is drilled in the mount Andyrchi at a distance of 20 km from Elbrus volcano. Array includes 6 three-component seismic sensors with 24-byte recorders installed with 500 m interval one from another along the tunnel. Underground seismic array is the new instrument of geophysical observatory organized for studies of geophysical processes in the Elbrus volcanic area. The observatory equipped with modern geophysical instruments including broadband tri-axial seismometers, quartz tilt-meters, magnetic variometers, geo-acoustic sensors, hi-precision distributed thermal sensors and gravimeters. The initial analysis of seismic signals recorded by seismic array allows us to detect low-energy seismic activity in the Elbrus volcanic area beginning from the distance of 3-5 km (the faults in a vicinity of mount Andyrchi) up to 15-25 km (area of Elbrus volcano). The regional micro-earthquakes with magnitude 1-2 at the distances 50-100 km was also recorded. 2.5 km aperture of the underground linear seismic array make it possible to determine with high accuracy hypocenters of local seismic events associated with geodynamic of volcanic magmatic structures and to realize seismo-emission tomography of the active zones of Elbrus volcano.

  2. Seismic Monitoring and Post-Seismic Investigations following the 12 January 2010 Mw 7.0 Haiti Earthquake (Invited) (United States)

    Altidor, J.; Dieuseul, A.; Ellsworth, W. L.; Given, D. D.; Hough, S. E.; Janvier, M. G.; Maharrey, J. Z.; Meremonte, M. E.; Mildor, B. S.; Prepetit, C.; Yong, A.


    We report on ongoing efforts to establish seismic monitoring in Haiti. Following the devastating M7.0 Haiti earthquake of 12 January 2010, the Bureau des Mines et de l’Energie worked with the U.S. Geological Survey and other scientific institutions to investigate the earthquake and to better assess hazard from future earthquakes. We deployed several types of portable instruments to record aftershocks: strong-motion instruments within Port-au-Prince to investigate the variability of shaking due to local geological conditions, and a combination of weak-motion, strong-motion, and broadband instruments around the Enriquillo-Plaintain Garden fault (EPGF), primarily to improve aftershock locations and to lower the magnitude threshold of aftershock recording. A total of twenty instruments were deployed, including eight RefTek instruments and nine strong-motion (K2) accelerometers deployed in Port-au-Prince in collaboration with the USGS, and three additional broadband stations deployed in the epicentral region in collaboration with the University of Nice. Five K2s have remained in operation in Port-au-Prince since late June; in late June two instruments were installed in Cap-Haitien and Port de Paix in northern Haiti to provide monitoring of the Septentrional fault. A permanent strong-motion (NetQuakes) instrument was deployed in late June at the US Embassy. Five additional NetQuakes instruments will be deployed by the BME in late 2010/early 2011. Addionally, the BME has collaborated with other scientific institutions, including Columbia University, the Institut Géophysique du Globe, University of Nice, the University of Texas at Austin, and Purdue University, to conduct other types of investigations. These studies include, for example, sampling of uplifted corals to establish a chronology of prior events in the region of the Enriquillo-Plantain Garden fault, surveys of geotechnical properties to develop microzonation maps of metropolitan Port-au-Prince, surveys of

  3. Seismicity at Jalisco-Nayarit Border, Mexico (United States)

    Rutz, M.; Nunez-Cornu, F.; Camarena, M.; Trejo, E.; Reyes-Davila, G.; Suarez-Plasencia, C.


    Since 2002 a regional seismic network from Jalisco Civil Defense and University of Guadalalajara is monitoring seismicity at the northwest border of Jalisco block. With the installation of a seismic station on Ceboruco Volcano, by Nayarit Civil Defense, coverage of the network extends to east. Ceboruco Volcano is located on the Tepic-Zacoalco graben, the east border of Jalisco block, this allow us to begin to monitoring this area. The zone of Bahia de Banderas, between the north coast of Jalisco and south coast of Nayarit, probably on a tectonic triple point, is a region of high seismic potential. Activ tectonic structures and clusters in the zone of El Tuito and the Dam Cajon de Pe¤as have been identified. The seismicity in the north area of the bay is low, meanwhile in the south, where the bay is deeper, the seismicity level is higher with an East-West tendency. At the east, the Amatlan de Ca¤as-Ameca zone presents continue activity, here have been possible to locate events with local magnitude between 2 and 4. Tectonovolcanic events registred at Ceboruco station presents waveform with scattering. The seismic distribution of the coast of Jalisco shows parallel alignments to the trench throughout al the coast. Other perpendicular alignments to the coastline show active morphologic structures within the Jalisco block related to the subduction of the Rivera plate under the Jalisco block.

  4. Station Capacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Landex, Alex


    Stations are often limiting the capacity of railway networks. This is due to extra need of tracks when trains stand still, trains turning around, and conflicting train routes. Although stations are often the capacity bottlenecks, most capacity analysis methods focus on open line capacity. Therefore......, this paper presents methods to analyze station capacity. Four methods to analyze station capacity are developed. The first method is an adapted UIC 406 capacity method that can be used to analyze switch zones and platform tracks at stations that are not too complex. The second method examines the need...... for platform tracks and the probability that arriving trains will not get a platform track immediately at arrival. The third method is a scalable method that analyzes the conflicts in the switch zone(s). In its simplest stage, the method just analyzes the track layout while the more advanced stages also take...

  5. Seismic anisotropy of upper mantle in eastern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Based on the polarization analysis of teleseismic SKS waveform data recorded at 65 seismic stations which respectively involved in the permanent and temporary broadband seismograph networks deployed in eastern China, the SKS fast-wave direction and the delay time between the fast and slow shear waves at each station were determined by use of SC method and the stacking analysis method, and then the image of upper mantle anisotropy in eastern China was acquired. In the study region, from south to north, the fast-wave polarization directions are basically EW in South China, gradually clockwise rotate to NWW-SEE in North China, then to NW-SE in Northeast China. The delay time falls into the interval [0.41 s, 1.52 s]. Anisotropic characteristics in eastern China indicate that the upper mantle anisotropy is possibly caused by both the collision between the Indian and Eurasian Plates and the subduction from the Pacific and Philippine Sea Plates to the Eurasian Plate. The collision between two plates made the crust of western China thickening and uplifting and the material eastwards extruding, and then caused the upper mantle flow eastwards and southeastwards. The subduction of Pacific Plate and Philippine Sea Plate has resulted in the lithosphere and the asthenosphere deformation in eastern China, and made the alignment of upper mantle peridotite lattice parallel to the deformation direction. The fast-wave polarization direction is consistent with the direction of lithosphere extension and the GPS velocity direction, implying that the crust-upper mantle deformation is possibly a vertically coherent deformation.

  6. Seismic anisotropy of upper mantle in eastern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHANG LiJun; WANG ChunYong; Ding ZhiFeng


    Based on the polarization analysis of teleseismic SKS waveform data recorded at 65 seismic stations which respectively involved in the permanent and temporary broadband seismograph networks de-ployed in eastern China,the SKS fast-wave direction and the delay time between the fast and slow shear waves at each station were determined by use of SC method and the stacking analysis method,and then the image of upper mantle anisotropy in eastern China was acquired.In the study region,from south to north,the fast-wave polarization directions are basically EW in South China,gradually clock-wise rotate to NWW-SEE in North China,then to NW-SE in Northeast China.The delay time falls into the Interval [0.41 s,1.52 s].Anisotropic characteristics in eastern China indicate that the upper mantle anisotropy is possibly caused by both the collision between the Indian and Eurasian Plates and the subduction from the Pacific and Philippine Sea Plates to the Eurasian Plate.The collision between two plates made the crust of western China thickening and uplifting and the material eastwards extruding,and then caused the upper mantle flow eastwards and southeastwards.The subduction of Pacific Plate and Philippine Sea Plate has resulted in the lithosphere and the asthenosphere deformation in eastern China,and made the alignment of upper mantle peridotite lattice parallel to the deformation direction.The fast-wave polarization direction is consistent with the direction of lithosphere extension and the GPS velocity direction,implying that the crust-upper mantle deformation is possibly a vertically co-herent deformation.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Julia, J; Nyblade, A A; Gok, R; Walter, W R; Linzer, L; Durrheim, R


    In this project, we are developing and exploiting a unique seismic data set to address the characteristics of small seismic events and the associated seismic signals observed at local (< 200 km) and regional (< 2000 km) distances. The dataset is being developed using mining-induced events from 3 deep gold mines in South Africa recorded on inmine networks (< 1 km) comprised of tens of high-frequency sensors, a network of 4 broadband stations installed as part of this project at the surface around the mines (1-10 km), and a network of existing broadband seismic stations at local/regional distances (50-1000 km) from the mines. After 1 year of seismic monitoring of mine activity (2007), over 10,000 events in the range -3.4 < ML < 4.4 have been catalogued and recorded by the in-mine networks. Events with positive magnitudes are generally well recorded by the surface-mine stations, while magnitudes 3.0 and larger are seen at regional distances (up to {approx}600 km) in high-pass filtered recordings. We have analyzed in-mine recordings in detail at one of the South African mines (Savuka) to (i) improve on reported hypocentral locations, (ii) verify sensor orientations, and (iii) determine full moment tensor solutions. Hypocentral relocations on all catalogued events have been obtained from P- and S-wave travel-times reported by the mine network operator through an automated procedure that selects travel-times falling on Wadati lines with slopes in the 0.6-0.7 range; sensor orientations have been verified and, when possible, corrected by correlating P-, SV-, and SH-waveforms obtained from theoretical and empirical (polarization filter) rotation angles; full moment tensor solutions have been obtained by inverting P-, SV-, and SH- spectral amplitudes measured on the theoretically rotated waveforms with visually assigned polarities. The relocation procedure has revealed that origin times often necessitate a negative correction of a few tenths of second and that hypocentral

  8. Comprehensive Seismic Monitoring for Emergency Response and Hazards Assessment: Recent Developments at the USGS National Earthquake Information Center (United States)

    Buland, R. P.; Guy, M.; Kragness, D.; Patton, J.; Erickson, B.; Morrison, M.; Bryon, C.; Ketchum, D.; Benz, H.


    The USGS National Earthquake Information Center (NEIC) has put into operation a new generation of seismic acquisition, processing and distribution subsystems that seamlessly integrate regional, national and global seismic network data for routine monitoring of earthquake activity and response to large, damaging earthquakes. The system, Bulletin Hydra, was designed to meet Advanced National Seismic System (ANSS) design goals to handle thousands of channels of real-time seismic data, compute and distribute time-critical seismic information for emergency response applications, and manage the integration of contributed earthquake products and information, arriving from near-real-time up to six weeks after an event. Bulletin Hydra is able meet these goals due to a modular, scalable, and flexible architecture that supports on-the-fly consumption of new data, readily allows for the addition of new scientific processing modules, and provides distributed client workflow management displays. Through the Edge subsystem, Bulletin Hydra accepts waveforms in half a dozen formats. In addition, Bulletin Hydra accepts contributed seismic information including hypocenters, magnitudes, moment tensors, unassociated and associated picks, and amplitudes in a variety of formats including earthworm import/export pairs and EIDS. Bulletin Hydra has state-driven algorithms for computing all IASPEI standard magnitudes (e.g. mb, mb_BB, ML, mb_LG, Ms_20, and Ms_BB) as well as Md, Ms(VMAX), moment tensor algorithms for modeling different portions of the wave-field at different distances (e.g. teleseismic body-wave, centroid, and regional moment tensors), and broadband depth. All contributed and derived data are centrally managed in an Oracle database. To improve on single station observations, Bulletin Hydra also does continuous real-time beam forming of high-frequency arrays. Finally, workflow management displays are used to assist NEIC analysts in their day-to-day duties. All combined

  9. Seismic and infrasound monitoring at Cotopaxi volcano (United States)

    Ruiz, M.; Yepes, H.; Palacios, P.; Troncoso, L.; Mothes, P.; Kumagai, H.


    Cotopaxi is an active ice-capped volcano (5967m) located 60 km SE from Quito and is one of the largest and more hazardous volcanoes in the Northern Andes. Monitoring of Cotopaxi, using seismic and infrasound techniques has improving significantly since 1976, when three short-period stations were deployed temporarily in response to an increase of fumarolic activity. Later in May 1977, a short-period vertical seismometer was installed on the NW flank at 7 km from the crater. Since 1986 a short-period seismic station is working at the northern flank of Cotopaxi and transmitting analog data to the Instituto Geofisico. In 1993 a network of 4 short-period seismic stations were installed on all flanks of the volcano. Between March 1996 and June 1997 a temporal network of 16 stations were deployed for several months in order to study local seismicity and internal structure (Metaxian et al., 1999). Since 2006, a network of five broad band stations (0.02-60 s) and low-frequency infrasound sensors (0.01-10 s) were installed through a JICA Cooperation Project (Kumagai et al., 2007). Data is transmitted to the Instituto Geofisico via a digital radio system. Through this network, LP and VLP events have been recorded and analyzed (Molina et al., 2008). VLP events were located beneath the north and north-eastern flank using waveform inversion and amplitude distribution methods (Kumagai et al., 2010).

  10. Observations involving broadband impedance modelling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berg, J.S. [Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, Menlo Park, CA (United States)


    Results for single- and multi-bunch instabilities can be significantly affected by the precise model that is used for the broadband impedance. This paper discusses three aspects of broadband impedance modelling. The first is an observation of the effect that a seemingly minor change in an impedance model has on the single-bunch mode coupling threshold. The second is a successful attempt to construct a model for the high-frequency tails of an r.f. cavity. The last is a discussion of requirements for the mathematical form of an impedance which follow from the general properties of impedances. (author)

  11. Observations involving broadband impedance modelling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berg, J.S.


    Results for single- and multi-bunch instabilities can be significantly affected by the precise model that is used for the broadband impendance. This paper discusses three aspects of broadband impendance modeling. The first is an observation of the effect that a seemingly minor change in an impedance model has on the single-bunch mode coupling threshold. The second is a successful attempt to construct a model for the high-frequency tails of an r.f cavity. The last is a discussion of requirements for the mathematical form of an impendance which follow from the general properties of impendances.

  12. A Performance Study of Wireless Broadband Access (WiMAX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maan A. S. Al-Adwany


    Full Text Available WiMAX (worldwide interoperability for microwave access is one of the wireless broadband access technologies which supplies broadband services to clients, but it surpasses other technologies by its coverage area, where one base station can cover a small city. In this paper, WiMAX technology is studied by exploring its basic concepts, applications, and advantages / disadvantages. Also a MATLAB simulator is used to verify the operation of the WiMAX system under various channel impairments and for variety of modulation schemes. From the simulation results, we found that WiMAX system works well in both AWGN and multipath fading channels, but under certain constraints that are addressed in this paper.

  13. Running On-Demand Strong Ground Motion Simulations with the Second-Generation Broadband Platform (United States)

    Callaghan, S.; Maechling, P. J.; Graves, R. W.; Somerville, P. G.; Collins, N.; Olsen, K. B.; Imperatori, W.; Jones, M.; Archuleta, R. J.; Schmedes, J.; Jordan, T. H.; Broadband Platform Working Group


    detailed knowledge about how the codes are implemented. Users may run a validation event, supply their own simple source description, or provide a rupture description in Standard Rupture Format (SRF). Users may specify their own list of stations or use a provided list. Currently the platform supports stations and events in Southern California, the Bay Area, and the Mojave. In our poster, we will discuss the scientific capabilities of the Broadband Platform. We will describe the software engineering behind the platform development and the rigorous release procedure involved. Additionally, we will present simulations performed using the platform, including goodness-of-fit results, and discuss potential applications of on-demand broadband seismogram computation.

  14. Joint analysis of the seismic data and velocity gravity model (United States)

    Belyakov, A. S.; Lavrov, V. S.; Muchamedov, V. A.; Nikolaev, A. V.


    We performed joint analysis of the seismic noises recorded at the Japanese Ogasawara station located on Titijima Island in the Philippine Sea using the STS-2 seismograph at the OSW station in the winter period of January 1-15, 2015, over the background of a velocity gravity model. The graphs prove the existence of a cause-and-effect relation between the seismic noise and gravity and allow us to consider it as a desired signal.

  15. Seismicity related to geothermal development in Dixie Valley, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryall, A.S.; Vetter, U.R.


    A ten-station seismic network was operated in and around the Dixie Valley area from January 1980 to November 1981; three of these stations are still in operation. Data from the Dixie Valley network were analyzed through 30 Jun 1981, and results of analysis were compared with analysis of somewhat larger events for the period 1970-1979. The seismic cycle in the Western Great Basic, the geologic structural setting, and the instrumentation are also described.

  16. Double-difference adjoint seismic tomography

    CERN Document Server

    Yuan, Yanhua O; Tromp, Jeroen


    We introduce a `double-difference' method for the inversion for seismic wavespeed structure based on adjoint tomography. Differences between seismic observations and model predictions at individual stations may arise from factors other than structural heterogeneity, such as errors in the assumed source-time function, inaccurate timings, and systematic uncertainties. To alleviate the corresponding nonuniqueness in the inverse problem, we construct differential measurements between stations, thereby reducing the influence of the source signature and systematic errors. We minimize the discrepancy between observations and simulations in terms of the differential measurements made on station pairs. We show how to implement the double-difference concept in adjoint tomography, both theoretically and in practice. We compare the sensitivities of absolute and differential measurements. The former provide absolute information on structure along the ray paths between stations and sources, whereas the latter explain relat...

  17. Technical Design of Station Machine Room Layout of Seismic Monitoring System of the Middle and Lower Reaches of Yalong River%雅砻江中下游地震监测系统台站机房布设技术设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    All seismic stations of reservoir-induced earthquake monitoring system (first phase) for the middle and lower reaches of Yalong River are supplied by solar power. In the civil engineering design stage of station machine room, we make overall planning and technical design for the establishment and access mode of transmission antenna, solar panel, storage battery, seismometer and instrument equipments. When building houses, all input and output line pipes are pre -embedded and prefabricated. During the instrument installation and debugging, all operations are implemented item by item, finally the interior and exterior layout of station is rationally standard, artistic and clean.%雅砻江流域中下游水库诱发地震监测系统(一期)地震台站,全部采用太阳能供电.在台站房屋土建设计阶段,对传输天线、太阳能电池、蓄电池、地震计及仪器设备的架设与接入方式等台站机房布设内容,进行了前期的全面规划与技术设计,在房屋修建期间提前预埋预制,在台站安装调试时逐项实施,最终实现了台站室内外布设合理规范且整洁美观的整体效果.

  18. Crustal seismic anisotropy beneath Shillong plateau - Assam valley in North East India: Shear-wave splitting analysis using local earthquakes (United States)

    Sharma, Antara; Baruah, Santanu; Piccinini, Davide; Saikia, Sowrav; Phukan, Manoj K.; Chetia, Monisha; Kayal, J. R.


    We present crustal anisotropy estima