WorldWideScience

Sample records for broadband engine architecture

  1. Self-Organizing Maps on the Cell Broadband Engine Architecture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McConnell, Sabine M

    2010-01-01

    We present and evaluate novel parallel implementations of Self-Organizing Maps for the Cell Broadband Engine Architecture. Motivated by the interactive nature of the data-mining process, we evaluate the scalability of the implementations on two clusters using different network characteristics and incarnations (PS3 TM console and PowerXCell 8i) of the architecture. Our implementations use varying combinations of the Power Processing Elements (PPEs) and Synergistic Processing Elements (SPEs) found in the Cell architecture. For a single processor, our implementation scaled well with the number of SPEs regardless of the incarnation. When combining multiple PS3 TM consoles, the synchronization over the slower network resulted in poor speedups and demonstrated that the use of such a low-cost cluster may be severely restricted, even without the use of SPEs. When using multiple SPEs for the PowerXCell 8i cluster, the speedup grew linearly with increasing number of SPEs for a given number of processors, and linear up to a maximum with the number of processors for a given number of SPEs. Our implementation achieved a worst-case efficiency of 67% for the maximum number of processing elements involved in the computation, but consistently higher values for smaller numbers of processing elements with speedups of up to 70.

  2. Architectural Engineers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Rikke Premer

    engineering is addresses from two perspectives – as an educational response and an occupational constellation. Architecture and engineering are two of the traditional design professions and they frequently meet in the occupational setting, but at educational institutions they remain largely estranged....... The paper builds on a multi-sited study of an architectural engineering program at the Technical University of Denmark and an architectural engineering team within an international engineering consultancy based on Denmark. They are both responding to new tendencies within the building industry where...... the role of engineers and architects increasingly overlap during the design process, but their approaches reflect different perceptions of the consequences. The paper discusses some of the challenges that design education, not only within engineering, is facing today: young designers must be equipped...

  3. Implementation of Scientific Computing Applications on the Cell Broadband Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guochun Shi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The Cell Broadband Engine architecture is a revolutionary processor architecture well suited for many scientific codes. This paper reports on an effort to implement several traditional high-performance scientific computing applications on the Cell Broadband Engine processor, including molecular dynamics, quantum chromodynamics and quantum chemistry codes. The paper discusses data and code restructuring strategies necessary to adapt the applications to the intrinsic properties of the Cell processor and demonstrates performance improvements achieved on the Cell architecture. It concludes with the lessons learned and provides practical recommendations on optimization techniques that are believed to be most appropriate.

  4. Architecture of Environmental Engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wenzel, Henrik; Alting, Leo

    2006-01-01

    An architecture of Environmental Engineering has been developed comprising the various disciplines and tools involved. It identifies industry as the major actor and target group, and it builds on the concept of Eco-efficiency. To improve Eco-efficiency, there is a limited number of intervention......-efficiency is the aim of Environmental Engineering, the discipline of synthesis – design and creation of solutions – will form a core pillar of the architecture. Other disciplines of Environmental Engineering exist forming the necessary background and frame for the synthesis. Environmental Engineering, thus, in essence...... comprise the disciplines of: management, system description & inventory, analysis & assessment, prioritisation, synthesis, and communication, each existing at all levels of intervention. The developed architecture of Environmental Engineering, thus, consists of thirty individual disciplines, within each...

  5. Architecture of Environmental Engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wenzel, Henrik; Alting, Leo

    2004-01-01

    An architecture of Environmental Engineering has been developed comprising the various disciplines and tools involved. It identifies industry as the major actor and target group, and it builds on the concept of Eco-efficiency. To improve Eco-efficiency, there is a limited number of intervention...... of Eco-efficiency is the aim of Environmental Engineering, the discipline of synthesis – design and creation of solutions – will form a core pillar of the architecture. Other disciplines of Environmental Engineering exist forming the necessary background and frame for the synthesis. Environmental...... Engineering, thus, in essence comprise the disciplines of: management, system description & inventory, analysis & assessment, prioritisation, synthesis, and communication, each existing at all levels of intervention. The developed architecture of Environmental Engineering, thus, consists of thirty individual...

  6. Game engine architecture

    CERN Document Server

    Gregory, Jason

    2014-01-01

    ""… this book is the best of its kind, and you're lucky to have found it. It covers the huge field of game engine architecture in a succinct, clear way, and expertly balances the breadth and depth of its coverage, offering enough detail that even a beginner can easily understand the concepts it presents. The author, Jason Gregory, is not only a world expert in his field; he's a working programmer with production-quality knowledge and many shipped game projects under his belt. … Jason is also an experienced educator who has taught in the top-ranked university game program in North America. …

  7. QCD on the Cell Broadband Engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, Nils [Department of Physics, University of Regensburg, 93040 Regensburg (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    We evaluate IBM's Enhanced Cell Broadband Engine (BE) as a possible building block of a new generation of lattice QCD machines. The Enhanced Cell BE will provide full support of double precision floating-point arithmetics, including IEEE-compliant rounding. We have developed a performance model and applied it to relevant lattice QCD kernels. The performance estimates are supported by micro- and application-benchmarks that have been obtained on currently available Cell BE-based computers, such as IBM QS20 blades and PlayStation 3. The results are encouraging and show that this processor is an interesting option for lattice QCD applications. For a massively parallel machine on the basis of the Cell BE, an application-optimized network needs to be developed.

  8. QCD on the Cell Broadband Engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, Nils [Department of Physics, University of Regensburg, 93040 Regensburg (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    We evaluate IBM's Enhanced Cell Broadband Engine (BE) as a possible building block of a new generation of lattice QCD machines. The Enhanced Cell BE will provide full support of double precision floating-point arithmetics, including IEEE-compliant rounding. We have developed a performance model and applied it to relevant lattice QCD kernels. The performance estimates are supported by micro- and application-benchmarks that have been obtained on currently available Cell BE-based computers, such as IBM QS20 blades and PlayStation 3. The results are encouraging and show that this processor is an interesting option for lattice QCD applications. For a massively parallel machine on the basis of the Cell BE, an application-optimized network needs to be developed.

  9. An overview of Broadband Laser Ranging Architecture and Measurement Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daykin, Edward; La Lone, Brandon; Miller, Edward; Younk, Patrick; Bennett, Corey; Catenacci, Jared; LLNL BLR Development Group Collaboration; LANL BLR Development Group Collaboration

    2017-06-01

    Broadband Laser Ranging (BLR) is a developmental diagnostic intended to measure the position of rapidly moving surfaces in combination with optical velocimetry. Design and employment of a BLR diagnostic on dynamic experiments requires consideration for both the inherent measurement system tradeoffs as well as architectural choices appropriate to the nature of investigation. The diagnostic uses spectral interferometry to measure distance by mapping femtosecond laser pulses to the time domain via chromatic dispersion within the fiber-optic architecture. The system parameters and governing equations that describe measurement range, resolution, and Doppler sensitivity will be discussed. We will also briefly review the impact of diagnostic architectural choices including: nature of interferometer, Interferometric dispersion matching, optical amplification, integration of optical velocimetry, BLR calibration, and field operability. To summarize we will present the architectural and operational approach currently being pursued by NSTec within an on-going collaboration between NSTec, Lawrence Livermore and Los Alamos National Labs. This work was done by National Security Technologies, LLC, under Contract No. DE-AC52-06NA25946 with the U.S. Department of Energy.

  10. Speech recognition systems on the Cell Broadband Engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Y; Jones, H; Vaidya, S; Perrone, M; Tydlitat, B; Nanda, A

    2007-04-20

    In this paper we describe our design, implementation, and first results of a prototype connected-phoneme-based speech recognition system on the Cell Broadband Engine{trademark} (Cell/B.E.). Automatic speech recognition decodes speech samples into plain text (other representations are possible) and must process samples at real-time rates. Fortunately, the computational tasks involved in this pipeline are highly data-parallel and can receive significant hardware acceleration from vector-streaming architectures such as the Cell/B.E. Identifying and exploiting these parallelism opportunities is challenging, but also critical to improving system performance. We observed, from our initial performance timings, that a single Cell/B.E. processor can recognize speech from thousands of simultaneous voice channels in real time--a channel density that is orders-of-magnitude greater than the capacity of existing software speech recognizers based on CPUs (central processing units). This result emphasizes the potential for Cell/B.E.-based speech recognition and will likely lead to the future development of production speech systems using Cell/B.E. clusters.

  11. Distributed Shared Memory for the Cell Broadband Engine (DSMCBE)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Morten Nørgaard; Skovhede, Kenneth; Vinter, Brian

    2009-01-01

    in and out of non-coherent local storage blocks for each special processor element. In this paper we present a software library, namely the Distributed Shared Memory for the Cell Broadband Engine (DSMCBE). By using techniques known from distributed shared memory DSMCBE allows programmers to program the CELL...

  12. Fast elliptic-curve cryptography on the Cell Broadband Engine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Costigan, N.; Schwabe, P.; Preneel, B.

    2009-01-01

    This paper is the first to investigate the power of the Cell Broadband Engine for state-of-the-art public-key cryptography. We present a high-speed implementation of elliptic-curve Diffie-Hellman (ECDH) key exchange for this processor, which needs 697080 cycles on one Synergistic Processor Unit for

  13. Multiphase lattice Boltzmann on the Cell Broadband Engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belletti, F.; Mantovani, F.; Tripiccione, R.; Biferale, L.; Schifano, S.F.; Toschi, F.

    2009-01-01

    Computational experiments are one of the most used and flexible investigation tools in fluid dynamics. The Lattice Boltzmann Equation is a well established computational method particularly promising for multi-phase flows at micro and macro scales. Here we present preliminary results on performances of the Lbe method on the Cell Broadband Engine platform.

  14. Architectural Engineering to Super-Light Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Castberg, Niels Andreas

    The increasing global urbanisation creates a great demand for new buildings. In the aim to honour this, a new structural system, offering flexibility and variation at no extra cost appears beneficial. Super-Light Structures constitute such a system. This PhD thesis examines Super-Light Structures...... with architectural engineering as a starting point. The thesis is based on a two stringed hypothesis: Architectural engineering gives rise to better architecture and Super-Light Structures support and enables a static, challenging architecture. The aim of the thesis is to clarify architectural engineering's impact...... on the work process between architects and engineers in the design development. Using architectural engineering, Super-Light Structures are examined in an architectural context, and it is explained how digital tools can support architectural engineering and design of Super-Light Structures. The experiences...

  15. An Integrated Architecture for Engineering Problem Solving

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pisan, Yusuf

    1998-01-01

    .... This thesis describes the Integrated Problem Solving Architecture (IPSA) that combines qualitative, quantitative and diagrammatic reasoning skills to produce annotated solutions to engineering problems...

  16. Software engineering architecture-driven software development

    CERN Document Server

    Schmidt, Richard F

    2013-01-01

    Software Engineering: Architecture-driven Software Development is the first comprehensive guide to the underlying skills embodied in the IEEE's Software Engineering Body of Knowledge (SWEBOK) standard. Standards expert Richard Schmidt explains the traditional software engineering practices recognized for developing projects for government or corporate systems. Software engineering education often lacks standardization, with many institutions focusing on implementation rather than design as it impacts product architecture. Many graduates join the workforce with incomplete skil

  17. Broadband locally resonant metamaterials with graded hierarchical architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chenchen; Reina, Celia

    2018-03-01

    We investigate the effect of hierarchical designs on the bandgap structure of periodic lattice systems with inner resonators. A detailed parameter study reveals various interesting features of structures with two levels of hierarchy as compared with one level systems with identical static mass. In particular: (i) their overall bandwidth is approximately equal, yet bounded above by the bandwidth of the single-resonator system; (ii) the number of bandgaps increases with the level of hierarchy; and (iii) the spectrum of bandgap frequencies is also enlarged. Taking advantage of these features, we propose graded hierarchical structures with ultra-broadband properties. These designs are validated over analogous continuum models via finite element simulations, demonstrating their capability to overcome the bandwidth narrowness that is typical of resonant metamaterials.

  18. On the Architectural Engineering Competences in Architectural Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard, Poul Henning

    2007-01-01

    In 1997 a new education in Architecture & Design at Department of Architecture and Design, Aalborg University was started with 50 students. During the recent years this number has increased to approximately 100 new students each year, i.e. approximately 500 students are following the 3 years...... bachelor (BSc) and the 2 years master (MSc) programme. The first 5 semesters are common for all students followed by 5 semesters with specialization into Architectural Design, Urban Design, Industrial Design or Digital Design. The present paper gives a short summary of the architectural engineering...

  19. Space-Based Information Infrastructure Architecture for Broadband Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Kent M.; Inukai, Tom; Razdan, Rajendev; Lazeav, Yvonne M.

    1996-01-01

    This study addressed four tasks: (1) identify satellite-addressable information infrastructure markets; (2) perform network analysis for space-based information infrastructure; (3) develop conceptual architectures; and (4) economic assessment of architectures. The report concludes that satellites will have a major role in the national and global information infrastructure, requiring seamless integration between terrestrial and satellite networks. The proposed LEO, MEO, and GEO satellite systems have satellite characteristics that vary widely. They include delay, delay variations, poorer link quality and beam/satellite handover. The barriers against seamless interoperability between satellite and terrestrial networks are discussed. These barriers are the lack of compatible parameters, standards and protocols, which are presently being evaluated and reduced.

  20. Reconfigurable Signal Processing and Hardware Architecture for Broadband Wireless Communications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Ying-Chang

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a broadband wireless transceiver which can be reconfigured to any type of cyclic-prefix (CP -based communication systems, including orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM, single-carrier cyclic-prefix (SCCP system, multicarrier (MC code-division multiple access (MC-CDMA, MC direct-sequence CDMA (MC-DS-CDMA, CP-based CDMA (CP-CDMA, and CP-based direct-sequence CDMA (CP-DS-CDMA. A hardware platform is proposed and the reusable common blocks in such a transceiver are identified. The emphasis is on the equalizer design for mobile receivers. It is found that after block despreading operation, MC-DS-CDMA and CP-DS-CDMA have the same equalization blocks as OFDM and SCCP systems, respectively, therefore hardware and software sharing is possible for these systems. An attempt has also been made to map the functional reconfigurable transceiver onto the proposed hardware platform. The different functional entities which will be required to perform the reconfiguration and realize the transceiver are explained.

  1. Broadband PLC for Clustered Advanced Metering Infrastructure (AMI Architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Augustine Ikpehai

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Advanced metering infrastructure (AMI subsystems monitor and control energy distribution through exchange of information between smart meters and utility networks. A key challenge is how to select a cost-effective communication system without compromising the performance of the applications. Current communication technologies were developed for conventional data networks with different requirements. It is therefore necessary to investigate how much of existing communication technologies can be retrofitted into the new energy infrastructure to cost-effectively deliver acceptable level of service. This paper investigates broadband power line communications (BPLC as a backhaul solution in AMI. By applying the disparate traffic characteristics of selected AMI applications, the network performance is evaluated. This study also examines the communication network response to changes in application configurations in terms of packet sizes. In each case, the network is stress-tested and performance is assessed against acceptable thresholds documented in the literature. Results show that, like every other communication technology, BPLC has certain limitations; however, with some modifications in the network topology, it indeed can fulfill most AMI traffic requirements for flexible and time-bounded applications. These opportunities, if tapped, can significantly improve fiscal and operational efficiencies in AMI services. Simulation results also reveal that BPLC as a backhaul can support flat and clustered AMI structures with cluster size ranging from 1 to 150 smart meters.

  2. Optimizing Engineering Tools Using Modern Ground Architectures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-01

    ENGINEERING TOOLS USING MODERN GROUND ARCHITECTURES by Ryan P. McArdle December 2017 Thesis Advisor: Marc Peters Co-Advisor: I.M. Ross...Master’s thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE OPTIMIZING ENGINEERING TOOLS USING MODERN GROUND ARCHITECTURES 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 6. AUTHOR(S) Ryan P. McArdle 7... engineering tools. First, the effectiveness of MathWorks’ Parallel Computing Toolkit is assessed when performing somewhat basic computations in

  3. A Systems Engineering Approach to Architecture Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Pietro, David A.

    2015-01-01

    Architecture development is often conducted prior to system concept design when there is a need to determine the best-value mix of systems that works collectively in specific scenarios and time frames to accomplish a set of mission area objectives. While multiple architecture frameworks exist, they often require use of unique taxonomies and data structures. In contrast, this paper characterizes architecture development using terminology widely understood within the systems engineering community. Using a notional civil space architecture example, it employs a multi-tier framework to describe the enterprise level architecture and illustrates how results of lower tier, mission area architectures integrate into the enterprise architecture. It also presents practices for conducting effective mission area architecture studies, including establishing the trade space, developing functions and metrics, evaluating the ability of potential design solutions to meet the required functions, and expediting study execution through the use of iterative design cycles

  4. An efficient approach to unstructured mesh hydrodynamics on the cell broadband engine (u)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferenbaugh, Charles R [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-12-14

    Unstructured mesh physics for the Cell Broadband Engine (CBE) has received little or no attention to date, largely because the CBE architecture poses particular challenges for unstructured mesh algorithms. SPU memory management strategies such as data preloading cannot be applied to the irregular memory storage patterns of unstructured meshes; and the SPU vector instruction set does not support the indirect addressing needed by connectivity arrays. This paper presents an approach to unstructured mesh physics that addresses these challenges, by creating a new mesh data structure and reorganizing code to give efficient CBE performance. The approach is demonstrated on the FLAG production hydrodynamics code using standard test problems, and results show an average speedup of more than 5x over the original code.

  5. An efficient approach to unstructured mesh hydrodynamics on the cell broadband engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferenbaugh, Charles R [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-01-01

    Unstructured mesh physics for the Cell Broadband Engine (CBE) has received little or no attention to date, largely because the CBE architecture poses particular challenges for unstructured mesh algorithms. The most common SPU memory management strategies cannot be applied to the irregular memory access patterns of unstructured meshes, and the SPU vector instruction set does not support the indirect addressing needed by connectivity arrays. This paper presents an approach to unstructured mesh physics that addresses these challenges, by creating a new mesh data structure and reorganizing code to give efficient CBE performance. The approach is demonstrated on the FLAG production hydrodynamics code using standard test problems, and results show an average speedup of more than 5x over the original code.

  6. Parallel local search for solving Constraint Problems on the Cell Broadband Engine (Preliminary Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvator Abreu

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available We explore the use of the Cell Broadband Engine (Cell/BE for short for combinatorial optimization applications: we present a parallel version of a constraint-based local search algorithm that has been implemented on a multiprocessor BladeCenter machine with twin Cell/BE processors (total of 16 SPUs per blade. This algorithm was chosen because it fits very well the Cell/BE architecture and requires neither shared memory nor communication between processors, while retaining a compact memory footprint. We study the performance on several large optimization benchmarks and show that this achieves mostly linear time speedups, even sometimes super-linear. This is possible because the parallel implementation might explore simultaneously different parts of the search space and therefore converge faster towards the best sub-space and thus towards a solution. Besides getting speedups, the resulting times exhibit a much smaller variance, which benefits applications where a timely reply is critical.

  7. Reliability Engineering for Service Oriented Architectures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-01

    Common Object Request Broker Architecture Ecosystem In software , an ecosystem is a set of applications and/or services that grad- ually build up over time...Enterprise Service Bus Foreign In an SOA context: Any SOA, service or software which the owners of the calling software do not have control of, either...SOA Service Oriented Architecture SRE Software Reliability Engineering System Mode Many systems exhibit different modes of operation. E.g. the cockpit

  8. Enterprise architecture approach to mining companies engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilin’ Igor

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available As Russian economy is still largely oriented on commodities production, there are a lot of cities where mining and commodity-oriented enterprises are the backbone of city economy. The mentioned enterprises mostly define the life quality of citizens in such cities, thus there are high requirements for engineering of city-forming enterprises. The paper describes the enterprise architecture approach for management system engineering of the mining enterprises. The paper contains the model of the mining enterprise architecture, the approach to the development and implementation of an integrated management system based on the concept of enterprise architecture and the structure of information systems and information technology infrastructure of the mining enterprise.

  9. An architectural framework for virtual enterprise engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zwegers, Arian; Hannus, Matti; Tølle, Martin

    2001-01-01

    , especially concerning integration issues. This paper aims to lay down an architectural framework to support the set-up and operation of virtual enterprises. It supports virtual enterprise engineering. The framework might also be used to identify and position issues that play a role in the set......-up and operation of virtual enterprises. As such, it is useful to classify research projects on virtual enterprises as well.......Enterprises cooperate more extensively with other enterprises during the entire product life cycle. Temporary alliances between various enterprises emerge such as those in virtual enterprises. However, many enterprises experience difficulties in the formation and operation of virtual enterprises...

  10. Broadband metasurface holograms: toward complete phase and amplitude engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qiu; Zhang, Xueqian; Xu, Yuehong; Gu, Jianqiang; Li, Yanfeng; Tian, Zhen; Singh, Ranjan; Zhang, Shuang; Han, Jiaguang; Zhang, Weili

    2016-09-12

    As a revolutionary three-dimensional imaging technique, holography has attracted wide attention for its ability to photographically record a light field. However, traditional phase-only or amplitude-only modulation holograms have limited image quality and resolution to reappear both amplitude and phase information required of the objects. Recent advances in metasurfaces have shown tremendous opportunities for using a planar design of artificial meta-atoms to shape the wave front of light by optimal control of both its phase and amplitude. Inspired by the concept of designer metasurfaces, we demonstrate a novel amplitude-phase modulation hologram with simultaneous five-level amplitude modulation and eight-level phase modulation. Such a design approach seeks to turn the perceived disadvantages of the traditional phase or amplitude holograms, and thus enable enhanced performance in resolution, homogeneity of amplitude distribution, precision, and signal-to-noise ratio. In particular, the unique holographic approach exhibits broadband characteristics. The method introduced here delivers more degrees of freedom, and allows for encoding highly complex information into designer metasurfaces, thus having the potential to drive next-generation technological breakthroughs in holography.

  11. Topology Optimization - Engineering Contribution to Architectural Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tajs-Zielińska, Katarzyna; Bochenek, Bogdan

    2017-10-01

    The idea of the topology optimization is to find within a considered design domain the distribution of material that is optimal in some sense. Material, during optimization process, is redistributed and parts that are not necessary from objective point of view are removed. The result is a solid/void structure, for which an objective function is minimized. This paper presents an application of topology optimization to multi-material structures. The design domain defined by shape of a structure is divided into sub-regions, for which different materials are assigned. During design process material is relocated, but only within selected region. The proposed idea has been inspired by architectural designs like multi-material facades of buildings. The effectiveness of topology optimization is determined by proper choice of numerical optimization algorithm. This paper utilises very efficient heuristic method called Cellular Automata. Cellular Automata are mathematical, discrete idealization of a physical systems. Engineering implementation of Cellular Automata requires decomposition of the design domain into a uniform lattice of cells. It is assumed, that the interaction between cells takes place only within the neighbouring cells. The interaction is governed by simple, local update rules, which are based on heuristics or physical laws. The numerical studies show, that this method can be attractive alternative to traditional gradient-based algorithms. The proposed approach is evaluated by selected numerical examples of multi-material bridge structures, for which various material configurations are examined. The numerical studies demonstrated a significant influence the material sub-regions location on the final topologies. The influence of assumed volume fraction on final topologies for multi-material structures is also observed and discussed. The results of numerical calculations show, that this approach produces different results as compared with classical one

  12. IDC Re-Engineering Phase 2 Architecture Document.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burns, John F.

    2015-12-01

    This document contains a description of the system architecture for the IDC Re-Engineering Phase 2 project. This is a draft version that primarily provides background information for understanding delivered Use Case Realizations.

  13. Jacobs Engineering Group Inc. receives architectural and engineering design contract from Stanford Linear Accelerator Centre

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    "Jacobs Engineering Group Inc. announced that a subsidiary company won a contract from Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC), to provide architectural and engineering design services for the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) conventional facilities" (1/2 page)

  14. Broadband Fan Noise Prediction System for Turbofan Engines. Volume 3; Validation and Test Cases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morin, Bruce L.

    2010-01-01

    Pratt & Whitney has developed a Broadband Fan Noise Prediction System (BFaNS) for turbofan engines. This system computes the noise generated by turbulence impinging on the leading edges of the fan and fan exit guide vane, and noise generated by boundary-layer turbulence passing over the fan trailing edge. BFaNS has been validated on three fan rigs that were tested during the NASA Advanced Subsonic Technology Program (AST). The predicted noise spectra agreed well with measured data. The predicted effects of fan speed, vane count, and vane sweep also agreed well with measurements. The noise prediction system consists of two computer programs: Setup_BFaNS and BFaNS. Setup_BFaNS converts user-specified geometry and flow-field information into a BFaNS input file. From this input file, BFaNS computes the inlet and aft broadband sound power spectra generated by the fan and FEGV. The output file from BFaNS contains the inlet, aft and total sound power spectra from each noise source. This report is the third volume of a three-volume set documenting the Broadband Fan Noise Prediction System: Volume 1: Setup_BFaNS User s Manual and Developer s Guide; Volume 2: BFaNS User s Manual and Developer s Guide; and Volume 3: Validation and Test Cases. The present volume begins with an overview of the Broadband Fan Noise Prediction System, followed by validation studies that were done on three fan rigs. It concludes with recommended improvements and additional studies for BFaNS.

  15. Software architecture and engineering for patient records: current and future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Chunhua; Levine, Betty A; Mun, Seong K

    2009-05-01

    During the "The National Forum on the Future of the Defense Health Information System," a track focusing on "Systems Architecture and Software Engineering" included eight presenters. These presenters identified three key areas of interest in this field, which include the need for open enterprise architecture and a federated database design, net centrality based on service-oriented architecture, and the need for focus on software usability and reusability. The eight panelists provided recommendations related to the suitability of service-oriented architecture and the enabling technologies of grid computing and Web 2.0 for building health services research centers and federated data warehouses to facilitate large-scale collaborative health care and research. Finally, they discussed the need to leverage industry best practices for software engineering to facilitate rapid software development, testing, and deployment.

  16. Extending Wireless Broadband Network Architectures with Home Gateways, Localization, and Physical Environment Surveillance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jelling Kristoffersen, Kåre; Kjærgaard, Mikkel Baun; Chen, Jianjun

    2005-01-01

    homes. It must bridge across the most prevalent standard protocols for data, video, telephony and telemetry, and must be able to automatically discover new devices in a residence and allow over the air/wire provisioning, billing, management and aggregation of new services from multiple service providers...... is initially demonstrated in a 52 DECT base station installation covering four office buildings of total 4500 m2 . Finally the paper proposes the application of a commercial off-the-shelf wireless broadband network as a sensor network, without any additional hardware, for physical intrusion detection of e...

  17. Membrane supported scaffold architectures for tissue engineering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bettahalli Narasimha, M.S.

    2011-01-01

    Tissue engineering aims at restoring or regenerating a damaged tissue. Often the tissue recreation occurs by combining cells, derived from a patient biopsy, onto a 3D porous matrix, functioning as a scaffold. One of the current limitations of tissue engineering is the inability to provide sufficient

  18. Digital fabrication in architecture, engineering and construction

    CERN Document Server

    Caneparo, Luca

    2014-01-01

    Digital technologies are changing the relationship between design and construction: with computer models, CAD/CAM, and prototyping, designers can gain direct control of building and construction processes. The ability to digitally model designs, and thus to use those models directly in the context of production, creates a synthesis between design and construction in keeping with the tradition of the close relationship between design and craftsmanship, between the quality of the design and the rules of the craft. The evolution of the culture of design and construction is the underlying theme of this book. The aim is to discuss the direction that innovation is now taking, with a particular focus on today’s cutting-edge architectures. The method addresses the ways in which different societies have dealt with the issues of their age regarding design and construction, the different contributions provided by various techniques, and with them the meanings expressed by the architecture. As building design using dig...

  19. Optimizing engineering tools using modern ground architectures

    OpenAIRE

    McArdle, Ryan P.

    2017-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited Over the past decade, a deluge of large and complex datasets (aka big data) has overwhelmed the scientific community. Traditional computing architectures were not capable of processing the data efficiently, or in some cases, could not process the data at all. Industry was forced to reexamine the existing data processing paradigm and develop innovative solutions to address the challenges. This thesis investigates how these modern comput...

  20. Architecture independent environment for developing engineering software on MIMD computers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valimohamed, Karim A.; Lopez, L. A.

    1990-01-01

    Engineers are constantly faced with solving problems of increasing complexity and detail. Multiple Instruction stream Multiple Data stream (MIMD) computers have been developed to overcome the performance limitations of serial computers. The hardware architectures of MIMD computers vary considerably and are much more sophisticated than serial computers. Developing large scale software for a variety of MIMD computers is difficult and expensive. There is a need to provide tools that facilitate programming these machines. First, the issues that must be considered to develop those tools are examined. The two main areas of concern were architecture independence and data management. Architecture independent software facilitates software portability and improves the longevity and utility of the software product. It provides some form of insurance for the investment of time and effort that goes into developing the software. The management of data is a crucial aspect of solving large engineering problems. It must be considered in light of the new hardware organizations that are available. Second, the functional design and implementation of a software environment that facilitates developing architecture independent software for large engineering applications are described. The topics of discussion include: a description of the model that supports the development of architecture independent software; identifying and exploiting concurrency within the application program; data coherence; engineering data base and memory management.

  1. Re-engineering Nascom's network management architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, Brian C.; Messent, David

    1994-01-01

    The development of Nascom systems for ground communications began in 1958 with Project Vanguard. The low-speed systems (rates less than 9.6 Kbs) were developed following existing standards; but, there were no comparable standards for high-speed systems. As a result, these systems were developed using custom protocols and custom hardware. Technology has made enormous strides since the ground support systems were implemented. Standards for computer equipment, software, and high-speed communications exist and the performance of current workstations exceeds that of the mainframes used in the development of the ground systems. Nascom is in the process of upgrading its ground support systems and providing additional services. The Message Switching System (MSS), Communications Address Processor (CAP), and Multiplexer/Demultiplexer (MDM) Automated Control System (MACS) are all examples of Nascom systems developed using standards such as, X-windows, Motif, and Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP). Also, the Earth Observing System (EOS) Communications (Ecom) project is stressing standards as an integral part of its network. The move towards standards has produced a reduction in development, maintenance, and interoperability costs, while providing operational quality improvement. The Facility and Resource Manager (FARM) project has been established to integrate the Nascom networks and systems into a common network management architecture. The maximization of standards and implementation of computer automation in the architecture will lead to continued cost reductions and increased operational efficiency. The first step has been to derive overall Nascom requirements and identify the functionality common to all the current management systems. The identification of these common functions will enable the reuse of processes in the management architecture and promote increased use of automation throughout the Nascom network. The MSS, CAP, MACS, and Ecom projects have indicated

  2. Designing flexible engineering systems utilizing embedded architecture options

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, Jeff G.

    This dissertation develops and applies an integrated framework for embedding flexibility in an engineered system architecture. Systems are constantly faced with unpredictability in the operational environment, threats from competing systems, obsolescence of technology, and general uncertainty in future system demands. Current systems engineering and risk management practices have focused almost exclusively on mitigating or preventing the negative consequences of uncertainty. This research recognizes that high uncertainty also presents an opportunity to design systems that can flexibly respond to changing requirements and capture additional value throughout the design life. There does not exist however a formalized approach to designing appropriately flexible systems. This research develops a three stage integrated flexibility framework based on the concept of architecture options embedded in the system design. Stage One defines an eight step systems engineering process to identify candidate architecture options. This process encapsulates the operational uncertainty though scenario development, traces new functional requirements to the affected design variables, and clusters the variables most sensitive to change. The resulting clusters can generate insight into the most promising regions in the architecture to embed flexibility in the form of architecture options. Stage Two develops a quantitative option valuation technique, grounded in real options theory, which is able to value embedded architecture options that exhibit variable expiration behavior. Stage Three proposes a portfolio optimization algorithm, for both discrete and continuous options, to select the optimal subset of architecture options, subject to budget and risk constraints. Finally, the feasibility, extensibility and limitations of the framework are assessed by its application to a reconnaissance satellite system development problem. Detailed technical data, performance models, and cost estimates

  3. High Performance Protein Sequence Database Scanning on the Cell Broadband Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrianto Wirawan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The enormous growth of biological sequence databases has caused bioinformatics to be rapidly moving towards a data-intensive, computational science. As a result, the computational power needed by bioinformatics applications is growing rapidly as well. The recent emergence of low cost parallel multicore accelerator technologies has made it possible to reduce execution times of many bioinformatics applications. In this paper, we demonstrate how the Cell Broadband Engine can be used as a computational platform to accelerate two approaches for protein sequence database scanning: exhaustive and heuristic. We present efficient parallelization techniques for two representative algorithms: the dynamic programming based Smith–Waterman algorithm and the popular BLASTP heuristic. Their implementation on a Playstation®3 leads to significant runtime savings compared to corresponding sequential implementations.

  4. Establishment of professional nuclear power architectural engineering company

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Dongli; Chen Hua

    2006-01-01

    The rapid development of nuclear power industry in China requires specialized management for the nuclear power engineering projects. It is necessary to establish the nuclear power architectural engineering company to meet the increasing market needs by providing the owner with specialized nuclear engineering project management and overall contracting services. It is imperative that the purpose of establishing the corporation and enterprise core competitiveness should be clearly identified when it is established. Its organizational structure should be geared to the enterprise operation management and development to facilitate the intensified project management and control, and improve its risk-proof ability. (authors)

  5. Distributed Control Architecture for Gas Turbine Engine. Chapter 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culley, Dennis; Garg, Sanjay

    2009-01-01

    The transformation of engine control systems from centralized to distributed architecture is both necessary and enabling for future aeropropulsion applications. The continued growth of adaptive control applications and the trend to smaller, light weight cores is a counter influence on the weight and volume of control system hardware. A distributed engine control system using high temperature electronics and open systems communications will reverse the growing trend of control system weight ratio to total engine weight and also be a major factor in decreasing overall cost of ownership for aeropropulsion systems. The implementation of distributed engine control is not without significant challenges. There are the needs for high temperature electronics, development of simple, robust communications, and power supply for the on-board electronics.

  6. Streaming Model Based Volume Ray Casting Implementation for Cell Broadband Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jusub Kim

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Interactive high quality volume rendering is becoming increasingly more important as the amount of more complex volumetric data steadily grows. While a number of volumetric rendering techniques have been widely used, ray casting has been recognized as an effective approach for generating high quality visualization. However, for most users, the use of ray casting has been limited to datasets that are very small because of its high demands on computational power and memory bandwidth. However the recent introduction of the Cell Broadband Engine (Cell B.E. processor, which consists of 9 heterogeneous cores designed to handle extremely demanding computations with large streams of data, provides an opportunity to put the ray casting into practical use. In this paper, we introduce an efficient parallel implementation of volume ray casting on the Cell B.E. The implementation is designed to take full advantage of the computational power and memory bandwidth of the Cell B.E. using an intricate orchestration of the ray casting computation on the available heterogeneous resources. Specifically, we introduce streaming model based schemes and techniques to efficiently implement acceleration techniques for ray casting on Cell B.E. In addition to ensuring effective SIMD utilization, our method provides two key benefits: there is no cost for empty space skipping and there is no memory bottleneck on moving volumetric data for processing. Our experimental results show that we can interactively render practical datasets on a single Cell B.E. processor.

  7. Enhanced Engine Performance During Emergency Operation Using a Model-Based Engine Control Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csank, Jeffrey T.; Connolly, Joseph W.

    2016-01-01

    This paper discusses the design and application of model-based engine control (MBEC) for use during emergency operation of the aircraft. The MBEC methodology is applied to the Commercial Modular Aero-Propulsion System Simulation 40k (CMAPSS40k) and features an optimal tuner Kalman Filter (OTKF) to estimate unmeasured engine parameters, which can then be used for control. During an emergency scenario, normally-conservative engine operating limits may be relaxed to increase the performance of the engine and overall survivability of the aircraft; this comes at the cost of additional risk of an engine failure. The MBEC architecture offers the advantage of estimating key engine parameters that are not directly measureable. Estimating the unknown parameters allows for tighter control over these parameters, and on the level of risk the engine will operate at. This will allow the engine to achieve better performance than possible when operating to more conservative limits on a related, measurable parameter.

  8. Broadband Access

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Broadband Access. Worldwide market for broadband access $30 Billion! Over 200 million broadband subscribers worldwide! Various Competing Broadband access. Digital Subscriber line; Wireless; Optical Fiber.

  9. A Risk Assessment Architecture for Enhanced Engine Operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litt, Jonathan S.; Sharp. Lauren M.; Guo, Ten-Huei

    2010-01-01

    On very rare occasions, in-flight emergencies have occurred that required the pilot to utilize the aircraft's capabilities to the fullest extent possible, sometimes using actuators in ways for which they were not intended. For instance, when flight control has been lost due to damage to the hydraulic systems, pilots have had to use engine thrust to maneuver the plane to the ground and in for a landing. To assist the pilot in these situations, research is being performed to enhance the engine operation by making it more responsive or able to generate more thrust. Enabled by modification of the propulsion control, enhanced engine operation can increase the probability of a safe landing during an inflight emergency. However, enhanced engine operation introduces risk as the nominal control limits, such as those on shaft speed, temperature, and acceleration, are exceeded. Therefore, an on-line tool for quantifying this risk must be developed to ensure that the use of an enhanced control mode does not actually increase the overall danger to the aircraft. This paper describes an architecture for the implementation of this tool. It describes the type of data and algorithms required and the information flow, and how the risk based on engine component lifing and operability for enhanced operation is determined.

  10. Modeling the impact of scaffold architecture and mechanical loading on collagen turnover in engineered cardiovascular tissues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Argento, G.; de Jonge, N.; Söntjens, S.H.M.; Oomens, C.W.J.; Bouten, C.V.C.; Baaijens, F.P.T.

    2015-01-01

    The anisotropic collagen architecture of an engineered cardiovascular tissue has a major impact on its in vivo mechanical performance. This evolving collagen architecture is determined by initial scaffold microstructure and mechanical loading. Here, we developed and validated a theoretical and

  11. Interdisciplinary skills in architectural and engineering education programs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Niclas; Andersson, Pernille Hammar

    2006-01-01

    and requirements for reinforcement of the interdisciplinary skills within the architectural and engineering education programs as to face the challenges from industry. The study claims that the development of interdisciplinary skills should be regarded a pedagogical issue that can be accomplished by integrative...... project. Besides, new and more integrated forms of co-operation between the various actors make the prevalent professional disciplines more ambiguous and it compels into a need for trans-professional skills among the actors. In contrast to the requirements for interdisciplinary skills, the educational...... training programmes of architects and engineers are traditionally characterised by strict disciplinary boundaries. Thus, the prevailing educational system is challenged to meet the demands for trans-professional skills within industry. The purpose of this paper is to outline some pedagogical prerequisites...

  12. Hybrid Experiential-Heuristic Cognitive Radio Engine Architecture and Implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashwin Amanna

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The concept of cognitive radio (CR focuses on devices that can sense their environment, adapt configuration parameters, and learn from past behaviors. Architectures tend towards simplified decision-making algorithms inspired by human cognition. Initial works defined cognitive engines (CEs founded on heuristics, such as genetic algorithms (GAs, and case-based reasoning (CBR experiential learning algorithms. This hybrid architecture enables both long-term learning, faster decisions based on past experience, and capability to still adapt to new environments. This paper details an autonomous implementation of a hybrid CBR-GA CE architecture on a universal serial radio peripheral (USRP software-defined radio focused on link adaptation. Details include overall process flow, case base structure/retrieval method, estimation approach within the GA, and hardware-software lessons learned. Unique solutions to realizing the concept include mechanisms for combining vector distance and past fitness into an aggregate quantification of similarity. Over-the-air performance under several interference conditions is measured using signal-to-noise ratio, packet error rate, spectral efficiency, and throughput as observable metrics. Results indicate that the CE is successfully able to autonomously change transmit power, modulation/coding, and packet size to maintain the link while a non-cognitive approach loses connectivity. Solutions to existing shortcomings are proposed for improving case-base searching and performance estimation methods.

  13. Expert System Architecture for Rocket Engine Numerical Simulators: A Vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitra, D.; Babu, U.; Earla, A. K.; Hemminger, Joseph A.

    1998-01-01

    Simulation of any complex physical system like rocket engines involves modeling the behavior of their different components using mostly numerical equations. Typically a simulation package would contain a set of subroutines for these modeling purposes and some other ones for supporting jobs. A user would create an input file configuring a system (part or whole of a rocket engine to be simulated) in appropriate format understandable by the package and run it to create an executable module corresponding to the simulated system. This module would then be run on a given set of input parameters in another file. Simulation jobs are mostly done for performance measurements of a designed system, but could be utilized for failure analysis or a design job such as inverse problems. In order to use any such package the user needs to understand and learn a lot about the software architecture of the package, apart from being knowledgeable in the target domain. We are currently involved in a project in designing an intelligent executive module for the rocket engine simulation packages, which would free any user from this burden of acquiring knowledge on a particular software system. The extended abstract presented here will describe the vision, methodology and the problems encountered in the project. We are employing object-oriented technology in designing the executive module. The problem is connected to the areas like the reverse engineering of any simulation software, and the intelligent systems for simulation.

  14. Broadband Fan Noise Prediction System for Turbofan Engines. Volume 1; Setup_BFaNS User's Manual and Developer's Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morin, Bruce L.

    2010-01-01

    Pratt & Whitney has developed a Broadband Fan Noise Prediction System (BFaNS) for turbofan engines. This system computes the noise generated by turbulence impinging on the leading edges of the fan and fan exit guide vane, and noise generated by boundary-layer turbulence passing over the fan trailing edge. BFaNS has been validated on three fan rigs that were tested during the NASA Advanced Subsonic Technology Program (AST). The predicted noise spectra agreed well with measured data. The predicted effects of fan speed, vane count, and vane sweep also agreed well with measurements. The noise prediction system consists of two computer programs: Setup_BFaNS and BFaNS. Setup_BFaNS converts user-specified geometry and flow-field information into a BFaNS input file. From this input file, BFaNS computes the inlet and aft broadband sound power spectra generated by the fan and FEGV. The output file from BFaNS contains the inlet, aft and total sound power spectra from each noise source. This report is the first volume of a three-volume set documenting the Broadband Fan Noise Prediction System: Volume 1: Setup_BFaNS User s Manual and Developer s Guide; Volume 2: BFaNS User's Manual and Developer s Guide; and Volume 3: Validation and Test Cases. The present volume begins with an overview of the Broadband Fan Noise Prediction System, followed by step-by-step instructions for installing and running Setup_BFaNS. It concludes with technical documentation of the Setup_BFaNS computer program.

  15. Broadband Fan Noise Prediction System for Turbofan Engines. Volume 2; BFaNS User's Manual and Developer's Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morin, Bruce L.

    2010-01-01

    Pratt & Whitney has developed a Broadband Fan Noise Prediction System (BFaNS) for turbofan engines. This system computes the noise generated by turbulence impinging on the leading edges of the fan and fan exit guide vane, and noise generated by boundary-layer turbulence passing over the fan trailing edge. BFaNS has been validated on three fan rigs that were tested during the NASA Advanced Subsonic Technology Program (AST). The predicted noise spectra agreed well with measured data. The predicted effects of fan speed, vane count, and vane sweep also agreed well with measurements. The noise prediction system consists of two computer programs: Setup_BFaNS and BFaNS. Setup_BFaNS converts user-specified geometry and flow-field information into a BFaNS input file. From this input file, BFaNS computes the inlet and aft broadband sound power spectra generated by the fan and FEGV. The output file from BFaNS contains the inlet, aft and total sound power spectra from each noise source. This report is the second volume of a three-volume set documenting the Broadband Fan Noise Prediction System: Volume 1: Setup_BFaNS User s Manual and Developer s Guide; Volume 2: BFaNS User s Manual and Developer s Guide; and Volume 3: Validation and Test Cases. The present volume begins with an overview of the Broadband Fan Noise Prediction System, followed by step-by-step instructions for installing and running BFaNS. It concludes with technical documentation of the BFaNS computer program.

  16. System Engineering Strategy for Distributed Multi-Purpose Simulation Architectures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhula, Dlilpkumar; Kurt, Cindy Marie; Luty, Roger

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes the system engineering approach used to develop distributed multi-purpose simulations. The multi-purpose simulation architecture focuses on user needs, operations, flexibility, cost and maintenance. This approach was used to develop an International Space Station (ISS) simulator, which is called the International Space Station Integrated Simulation (ISIS)1. The ISIS runs unmodified ISS flight software, system models, and the astronaut command and control interface in an open system design that allows for rapid integration of multiple ISS models. The initial intent of ISIS was to provide a distributed system that allows access to ISS flight software and models for the creation, test, and validation of crew and ground controller procedures. This capability reduces the cost and scheduling issues associated with utilizing standalone simulators in fixed locations, and facilitates discovering unknowns and errors earlier in the development lifecycle. Since its inception, the flexible architecture of the ISIS has allowed its purpose to evolve to include ground operator system and display training, flight software modification testing, and as a realistic test bed for Exploration automation technology research and development.

  17. Computer aided design of architecture of degradable tissue engineering scaffolds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heljak, M K; Kurzydlowski, K J; Swieszkowski, W

    2017-11-01

    One important factor affecting the process of tissue regeneration is scaffold stiffness loss, which should be properly balanced with the rate of tissue regeneration. The aim of the research reported here was to develop a computer tool for designing the architecture of biodegradable scaffolds fabricated by melt-dissolution deposition systems (e.g. Fused Deposition Modeling) to provide the required scaffold stiffness at each stage of degradation/regeneration. The original idea presented in the paper is that the stiffness of a tissue engineering scaffold can be controlled during degradation by means of a proper selection of the diameter of the constituent fibers and the distances between them. This idea is based on the size-effect on degradation of aliphatic polyesters. The presented computer tool combines a genetic algorithm and a diffusion-reaction model of polymer hydrolytic degradation. In particular, we show how to design the architecture of scaffolds made of poly(DL-lactide-co-glycolide) with the required Young's modulus change during hydrolytic degradation.

  18. Green IT engineering concepts, models, complex systems architectures

    CERN Document Server

    Kondratenko, Yuriy; Kacprzyk, Janusz

    2017-01-01

    This volume provides a comprehensive state of the art overview of a series of advanced trends and concepts that have recently been proposed in the area of green information technologies engineering as well as of design and development methodologies for models and complex systems architectures and their intelligent components. The contributions included in the volume have their roots in the authors’ presentations, and vivid discussions that have followed the presentations, at a series of workshop and seminars held within the international TEMPUS-project GreenCo project in United Kingdom, Italy, Portugal, Sweden and the Ukraine, during 2013-2015 and at the 1st - 5th Workshops on Green and Safe Computing (GreenSCom) held in Russia, Slovakia and the Ukraine. The book presents a systematic exposition of research on principles, models, components and complex systems and a description of industry- and society-oriented aspects of the green IT engineering. A chapter-oriented structure has been adopted for this book ...

  19. Paper in architecture: Research by design, engineering and prototyping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerzy F. Latka

    2017-11-01

    in terms of architecture, its material properties were researched on a micro, meso and macro level. This research of the possible applications of paper in architecture was informed by two main research questions: What is paper and to what extent can it be used in architecture? What is the most suitable way to use paper in emergency architecture? To answer the first research question, fundamental and material research on paper and paper products had to be conducted. The composition of the material, production methods and properties of paper were researched. Then paper products with the potential to be used in architecture were examined. The history of the development of paper and its influence on civilisation helped the author gain a better understanding of the nature of this material, which we encounter in our lives every day. Research on objects for everyday use, furniture, pavilions and architecture realised in the last 150 years allowed the author to distinguish various types of paper design and paper architecture. Analysis of realised buildings in which paper products were used as structural elements and parts of the building envelope resulted in a wide array of possible solutions. Structural systems, types of connections between the various elements, impregnation methods and the functionalities and lifespan of different types of buildings were systematised. The knowledge thus collected allowed the author to conduct a further exploration of paper architecture in the form of designs and prototypes. To answer the second research question, the analysed case studies were translated into designs and prototypes of emergency shelters. During the research-by-design, engineering and prototyping phases, more than a dozen prototypes were built. The prototypes differed in terms of structural systems, used materials, connections between structural elements, impregnation methods, functionality and types of building. The three versions of the Transportable Emergency Cardboard

  20. Supply Chain Systems Architecture and Engineering Design: Green-field Supply Chain Integration

    OpenAIRE

    Radanliev, P

    2015-01-01

    This paper developed a new theory for supply chain architecture, and engineering design that enables integration of the business and supply chain strategies. The architecture starts with individual supply chain participants and derives insights into the complex and abstract concept of green-field integration design. The paper presented a conceptual system for depicting the interactions between business and supply chain strategy engineering. The system examines the decisions made when engineer...

  1. APPLICATION FRAMEWORK IN ENGINEERING SERVICE ORIENTED ARCHITECTURE SYSTEM SERVICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ade Hodijah

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The Service Engineering (SE is understood as a framework to create innovative services in application development of information technology approach to Service Oriented Architecture (SOA. Implementing SOA is required methodology to identify services that can be used again in the application and organization of a company. in this research, software development model used is object-oriented methodologies, SOA itself is a collection consisting of tools, technologies, frameworks, and best practices that facilitate the implementation of a service quickly. in a study this uses the tools of Business Process Management System (BPMS to support the implementation of service-oriented software. the purpose of this study is to produce a model of activities and artifacts of the application software development models of the SE with a case study Rate Loans. Validation to the design of the model is done through testing of the software produced. The results showed that the application of the SE in the development of service-oriented software can use the object-oriented methodology by providing additional value-added analysis and redesign of business processes to be implemented on a BPMS. BPMS usage of the application of the SE on the SOA has the advantage of visualization in the management of business processes.

  2. Status, Vision, and Challenges of an Intelligent Distributed Engine Control Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behbahani, Alireza; Culley, Dennis; Garg, Sanjay; Millar, Richard; Smith, Bert; Wood, Jim; Mahoney, Tim; Quinn, Ronald; Carpenter, Sheldon; Mailander, Bill; hide

    2007-01-01

    A Distributed Engine Control Working Group (DECWG) consisting of the Department of Defense (DoD), the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Glenn Research Center (GRC) and industry has been formed to examine the current and future requirements of propulsion engine systems. The scope of this study will include an assessment of the paradigm shift from centralized engine control architecture to an architecture based on distributed control utilizing open system standards. Included will be a description of the work begun in the 1990's, which continues today, followed by the identification of the remaining technical challenges which present barriers to on-engine distributed control.

  3. Introducing regenerative design and circularity into architectural and engineering curriculum

    OpenAIRE

    Attia, Shady

    2016-01-01

    Looking today to the challenges for planning and design of sustainable built environment including, carbon emissions, climate change, human health, water problems, biodiversity, scarcity of resources, depletion of fossil fuel, population growth and urbanization; sustainable architecture will play a key role for the sustainable development of society as a whole. In the context of an architectural design studio, this paper presents the experience of introducing the concept of regenerative desig...

  4. A unified architecture for biomedical search engines based on semantic web technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalali, Vahid; Matash Borujerdi, Mohammad Reza

    2011-04-01

    There is a huge growth in the volume of published biomedical research in recent years. Many medical search engines are designed and developed to address the over growing information needs of biomedical experts and curators. Significant progress has been made in utilizing the knowledge embedded in medical ontologies and controlled vocabularies to assist these engines. However, the lack of common architecture for utilized ontologies and overall retrieval process, hampers evaluating different search engines and interoperability between them under unified conditions. In this paper, a unified architecture for medical search engines is introduced. Proposed model contains standard schemas declared in semantic web languages for ontologies and documents used by search engines. Unified models for annotation and retrieval processes are other parts of introduced architecture. A sample search engine is also designed and implemented based on the proposed architecture in this paper. The search engine is evaluated using two test collections and results are reported in terms of precision vs. recall and mean average precision for different approaches used by this search engine.

  5. Business engineering. Generic Software Architecture in an Object Oriented View

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela MURESAN

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The generic software architecture offers a solution for the the information system's development and implementation. A generic software/non-software model could be developed by integrating the enterprise blueprint concept (Zachman and the object oriented paradigm (Coad's archetype concept. The standardization of the generic software architecture for various specific software components could be a direction of crucial importance, offering the guarantee of the quality of the model and increasing the efficiency of the design, development and implementation of the software. This approach is also useful for the implementation of the ERP systems designed to fit the user’s particular requirements.

  6. Reusable Rocket Engine Advanced Health Management System. Architecture and Technology Evaluation: Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettit, C. D.; Barkhoudarian, S.; Daumann, A. G., Jr.; Provan, G. M.; ElFattah, Y. M.; Glover, D. E.

    1999-01-01

    In this study, we proposed an Advanced Health Management System (AHMS) functional architecture and conducted a technology assessment for liquid propellant rocket engine lifecycle health management. The purpose of the AHMS is to improve reusable rocket engine safety and to reduce between-flight maintenance. During the study, past and current reusable rocket engine health management-related projects were reviewed, data structures and health management processes of current rocket engine programs were assessed, and in-depth interviews with rocket engine lifecycle and system experts were conducted. A generic AHMS functional architecture, with primary focus on real-time health monitoring, was developed. Fourteen categories of technology tasks and development needs for implementation of the AHMS were identified, based on the functional architecture and our assessment of current rocket engine programs. Five key technology areas were recommended for immediate development, which (1) would provide immediate benefits to current engine programs, and (2) could be implemented with minimal impact on the current Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) and Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV) engine controllers.

  7. Architecture

    OpenAIRE

    Clear, Nic

    2014-01-01

    When discussing science fiction’s relationship with architecture, the usual practice is to look at the architecture “in” science fiction—in particular, the architecture in SF films (see Kuhn 75-143) since the spaces of literary SF present obvious difficulties as they have to be imagined. In this essay, that relationship will be reversed: I will instead discuss science fiction “in” architecture, mapping out a number of architectural movements and projects that can be viewed explicitly as scien...

  8. Space architecture education for engineers and architects designing and planning beyond earth

    CERN Document Server

    Häuplik-Meusburger, Sandra

    2016-01-01

    This book considers two key educational tools for future generations of professionals with a space architecture background in the 21st century: (1) introducing the discipline of space architecture into the space system engineering curricula; and (2) developing space architecture as a distinct, complete training curriculum.  Professionals educated this way will help shift focus from solely engineering-driven transportation systems and “sortie” missions towards permanent off-world human presence. The architectural training teaches young professionals to operate at all scales from the “overall picture” down to the smallest details, to provide directive intention–not just analysis–to design opportunities, to address the relationship between human behavior and the built environment, and to interact with many diverse fields and disciplines throughout the project lifecycle. This book will benefit individuals and organizations responsible for planning transportation and habitat systems in space, while a...

  9. Evaluation of state-of-the-art hardware architectures for fast cone-beam CT reconstruction

    CERN Document Server

    Scherl, Holger

    2011-01-01

    Holger Scherl introduces the reader to the reconstruction problem in computed tomography and its major scientific challenges that range from computational efficiency to the fulfillment of Tuy's sufficiency condition. The assessed hardware architectures include multi- and many-core systems, cell broadband engine architecture, graphics processing units, and field programmable gate arrays.

  10. Mind Games: Game Engines as an Architecture for Intuitive Physics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullman, Tomer D; Spelke, Elizabeth; Battaglia, Peter; Tenenbaum, Joshua B

    2017-09-01

    We explore the hypothesis that many intuitive physical inferences are based on a mental physics engine that is analogous in many ways to the machine physics engines used in building interactive video games. We describe the key features of game physics engines and their parallels in human mental representation, focusing especially on the intuitive physics of young infants where the hypothesis helps to unify many classic and otherwise puzzling phenomena, and may provide the basis for a computational account of how the physical knowledge of infants develops. This hypothesis also explains several 'physics illusions', and helps to inform the development of artificial intelligence (AI) systems with more human-like common sense. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. 48 CFR 227.7107-1 - Architectural designs and data clauses for architect-engineer or construction contracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Architectural designs and... construction involving architect-engineer services, is to obtain a unique architectural design of a building, a... CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS PATENTS, DATA, AND COPYRIGHTS Rights in Technical Data 227.7107-1 Architectural...

  12. Product Lifecycle Management Architecture: A Model Based Systems Engineering Analysis.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noonan, Nicholas James [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-07-01

    This report is an analysis of the Product Lifecycle Management (PLM) program. The analysis is centered on a need statement generated by a Nuclear Weapons (NW) customer. The need statement captured in this report creates an opportunity for the PLM to provide a robust service as a solution. Lifecycles for both the NW and PLM are analyzed using Model Based System Engineering (MBSE).

  13. State Analysis: A Control Architecture View of Systems Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Robert D.

    2005-01-01

    A viewgraph presentation on the state analysis process is shown. The topics include: 1) Issues with growing complexity; 2) Limits of common practice; 3) Exploiting a control point of view; 4) A glimpse at the State Analysis process; 5) Synergy with model-based systems engineering; and 6) Bridging the systems to software gap.

  14. Proceedings International Workshop on Formal Engineering approaches to Software Components and Architectures

    OpenAIRE

    Kofroň, Jan; Tumova, Jana

    2017-01-01

    These are the proceedings of the 14th International Workshop on Formal Engineering approaches to Software Components and Architectures (FESCA). The workshop was held on April 22, 2017 in Uppsala (Sweden) as a satellite event to the European Joint Conference on Theory and Practice of Software (ETAPS'17). The aim of the FESCA workshop is to bring together junior researchers from formal methods, software engineering, and industry interested in the development and application of formal modelling ...

  15. Proceedings 10th International Workshop on Formal Engineering Approaches to Software Components and Architectures

    OpenAIRE

    Buhnova, Barbora; Happe, Lucia; Kofroň, Jan

    2013-01-01

    These are the proceedings of the 10th International Workshop on Formal Engineering approaches to Software Components and Architectures (FESCA). The workshop was held on March 23, 2013 in Rome (Italy) as a satellite event to the European Joint Conference on Theory and Practice of Software (ETAPS'13). The aim of the FESCA workshop is to bring together both young and senior researchers from formal methods, software engineering, and industry interested in the development and application of formal...

  16. Acceleration of Blender Cycles Path-Tracing Engine Using Intel Many Integrated Core Architecture

    OpenAIRE

    Jaroš , Milan; Říha , Lubomír; Strakoš , Petr; Karásek , Tomáš; Vašatová , Alena; Jarošová , Marta; Kozubek , Tomáš

    2015-01-01

    Part 2: Algorithms; International audience; This paper describes the acceleration of the most computationally intensive kernels of the Blender rendering engine, Blender Cycles, using Intel Many Integrated Core architecture (MIC). The proposed parallelization, which uses OpenMP technology, also improves the performance of the rendering engine when running on multi-core CPUs and multi-socket servers. Although the GPU acceleration is already implemented in Cycles, its functionality is limited. O...

  17. The ATLAS Event Index: The Architecture of the Core Engine

    CERN Document Server

    Barberis, Dario; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The global view of the ATLAS Event Index system has been presented in the 17th ACAT Conference. This article concentrates on the architecture of the system core component. This component handles the final stage of the event metadata import, it organizes its storage and provides a fast and feature-rich access to all information. A user is able to interrogate metadata in various ways, including by executing user-provided code on the data to make selections and to interpret the results. A wide spectrum of clients is available, from a set of linux-like commands to an interactive graphical Web Service. The stored event metadata contain the basic description of the related events, the references to the experiment event storage, the full trigger record and can be extended with other event characteristics. Derived collections of events can be created. Such collections can be annotated and tagged with further information.

  18. Engineering Plant Architecture via CRISPR/Cas9-mediated Alteration of Strigolactone Biosynthesis

    KAUST Repository

    Butt, Haroon; Jamil, Muhammad; Wang, Jian You; Al-Babili, Salim; Mahfouz, Magdy M.

    2018-01-01

    Precision plant genome engineering holds much promise for targeted improvement of crop traits via unprecedented single-base level control over the genetic material. Strigolactones (SLs) are a key determinant of plant architecture, known for their role in inhibiting shoot branching (tillering). Here, we used CRISPR/Cas9 in rice (Oryza sativa) for targeted disruption of CAROTENOID CLEAVAGE DIOXYGENASE 7 (CCD7), which controls a key step in SL biosynthesis. The ccd7 mutants exhibited a striking increase in tillering, combined with a dwarf phenotype, which could be rescued by application of the synthetic SL analog GR24. Striga germination assays and liquid chromatography mass spectrometry analysis showed that root exudates of ccd7 mutants were also SL deficient. Taken together, our results show the power of CRISPR/Cas9 for targeted engineering of plant architecture and for elucidating the molecular underpinnings of architecture-related traits.

  19. Connecting Requirements to Architecture and Analysis via Model-Based Systems Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Bjorn F.; Jenkins, J. Steven

    2015-01-01

    In traditional systems engineering practice, architecture, concept development, and requirements development are related but still separate activities. Concepts for operation, key technical approaches, and related proofs of concept are developed. These inform the formulation of an architecture at multiple levels, starting with the overall system composition and functionality and progressing into more detail. As this formulation is done, a parallel activity develops a set of English statements that constrain solutions. These requirements are often called "shall statements" since they are formulated to use "shall." The separation of requirements from design is exacerbated by well-meaning tools like the Dynamic Object-Oriented Requirements System (DOORS) that remained separated from engineering design tools. With the Europa Clipper project, efforts are being taken to change the requirements development approach from a separate activity to one intimately embedded in formulation effort. This paper presents a modeling approach and related tooling to generate English requirement statements from constraints embedded in architecture definition.

  20. Engineering Plant Architecture via CRISPR/Cas9-mediated Alteration of Strigolactone Biosynthesis

    KAUST Repository

    Butt, Haroon

    2018-01-28

    Precision plant genome engineering holds much promise for targeted improvement of crop traits via unprecedented single-base level control over the genetic material. Strigolactones (SLs) are a key determinant of plant architecture, known for their role in inhibiting shoot branching (tillering). Here, we used CRISPR/Cas9 in rice (Oryza sativa) for targeted disruption of CAROTENOID CLEAVAGE DIOXYGENASE 7 (CCD7), which controls a key step in SL biosynthesis. The ccd7 mutants exhibited a striking increase in tillering, combined with a dwarf phenotype, which could be rescued by application of the synthetic SL analog GR24. Striga germination assays and liquid chromatography mass spectrometry analysis showed that root exudates of ccd7 mutants were also SL deficient. Taken together, our results show the power of CRISPR/Cas9 for targeted engineering of plant architecture and for elucidating the molecular underpinnings of architecture-related traits.

  1. Using UML Modeling to Facilitate Three-Tier Architecture Projects in Software Engineering Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitra, Sandeep

    2014-01-01

    This article presents the use of a model-centric approach to facilitate software development projects conforming to the three-tier architecture in undergraduate software engineering courses. Many instructors intend that such projects create software applications for use by real-world customers. While it is important that the first version of these…

  2. Motivation for Creativity in Architectural Design and Engineering Design Students: Implications for Design Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casakin, Hernan; Kreitler, Shulamith

    2010-01-01

    The investigation reported here dealt with the study of motivation for creativity. The goals were to assess motivation for creativity in architectural design and engineering design students based on the Cognitive Orientation theory which defines motivation as a function of a set of belief types, themes, and groupings identified as relevant for the…

  3. Architectural Design Space Exploration of an FPGA-based Compressed Sampling Engine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    El-Sayed, Mohammad; Koch, Peter; Le Moullec, Yannick

    2015-01-01

    We present the architectural design space exploration of a compressed sampling engine for use in a wireless heart-rate monitoring system. We show how parallelism affects execution time at the register transfer level. Furthermore, two example solutions (modified semi-parallel and full...

  4. Early Aspects at ICSE 2007: Workshop on Aspect-Oriented Requirements Engineering and Architecture Design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chitchyan, R; Rashid, A.; Moreira, A; Araujo, J.; Clements, P.; Baniassad, E.; Tekinerdogan, B.

    2007-01-01

    The “Early Aspects @ ICSE’07��? is the 11th workshop in the series of Early Aspects workshops [1] which focuses on aspect identification during the requirements engineering and architecture derivation activities. The specific aim of the present workshop is twofold: (a) to initiate creation of an

  5. Evolutionary, Unconscious Design Support for the Architectural, Engineering and Construction Industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van de Ruitenbeek, H.K.M.

    2012-01-01

    The Architecture, Engineering and Construction (AEC) industry is a complex system in which carpenters, structural designers, architects, modellers, cost estimators, planners, politicians and many others act apart together in project-specific virtual enterprises. There is a large amount of actors, an

  6. Graphene directed architecture of fine engineered nanostructures with electrochemical applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hou, Chengyi; Zhang, Minwei; Halder, Arnab

    2017-01-01

    , and polymers has led to the possibility to create new electroactive and multifunctional nanostructures, which can serve as promising material platforms for electrochemical purposes. However, the precise control and fine-tuning of material structures and properties are still challenging and in demand...... classified nanostructures, including metallic nanostructures, self-assembled organic and supramolecular structures, and fine engineered metal oxides. In these cases, graphene templates either sacrificed during templating synthesis or retained as support for final products. We also discuss remained challenges....... In this review, we aim to highlight some recent efforts devoted to rational design, assembly and fine engineering of electrochemically active nanostructures using graphene or/and its derivatives as soft templates for controlled synthesis and directed growth. We organize the contents according to the chemically...

  7. The ATLAS Event Index: The Architecture of the Core Engine

    CERN Document Server

    Barberis, Dario; The ATLAS collaboration; Hrivnac, Julius

    2017-01-01

    The global view of the ATLAS Event Index system has been presented in the last ACAT. This talk will concentrate on the architecture of the system core component. This component handles the final stage of the event metadata import, it organizes its storage and provides a fast and feature-rich access to all information. A user is able to interrogate metadata in various ways, including by executing user-provided code on the data to make selections and to interpret the results. A wide spectrum of clients is available, from a set of linux-like commands to an interactive graphical Web Service. The stored event metadata contain the basic description of the related events, the references to the experiment event storage, the full trigger record and can be extended with other event characteristics. Derived collections of events can be created. Such collections can be annotated and tagged with further information. This talk will describe all system sub-components and their development evolution, which lead into the choi...

  8. An Architecture, System Engineering, and Acquisition Approach for Space System Software Resiliency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Dewanne Marie

    Software intensive space systems can harbor defects and vulnerabilities that may enable external adversaries or malicious insiders to disrupt or disable system functions, risking mission compromise or loss. Mitigating this risk demands a sustained focus on the security and resiliency of the system architecture including software, hardware, and other components. Robust software engineering practices contribute to the foundation of a resilient system so that the system "can take a hit to a critical component and recover in a known, bounded, and generally acceptable period of time". Software resiliency must be a priority and addressed early in the life cycle development to contribute a secure and dependable space system. Those who develop, implement, and operate software intensive space systems must determine the factors and systems engineering practices to address when investing in software resiliency. This dissertation offers methodical approaches for improving space system resiliency through software architecture design, system engineering, increased software security, thereby reducing the risk of latent software defects and vulnerabilities. By providing greater attention to the early life cycle phases of development, we can alter the engineering process to help detect, eliminate, and avoid vulnerabilities before space systems are delivered. To achieve this objective, this dissertation will identify knowledge, techniques, and tools that engineers and managers can utilize to help them recognize how vulnerabilities are produced and discovered so that they can learn to circumvent them in future efforts. We conducted a systematic review of existing architectural practices, standards, security and coding practices, various threats, defects, and vulnerabilities that impact space systems from hundreds of relevant publications and interviews of subject matter experts. We expanded on the system-level body of knowledge for resiliency and identified a new software

  9. A novel PON based UMTS broadband wireless access network architecture with an algorithm to guarantee end to end QoS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sana, Ajaz; Hussain, Shahab; Ali, Mohammed A.; Ahmed, Samir

    2007-09-01

    In this paper we proposes a novel Passive Optical Network (PON) based broadband wireless access network architecture to provide multimedia services (video telephony, video streaming, mobile TV, mobile emails etc) to mobile users. In the conventional wireless access networks, the base stations (Node B) and Radio Network Controllers (RNC) are connected by point to point T1/E1 lines (Iub interface). The T1/E1 lines are expensive and add up to operating costs. Also the resources (transceivers and T1/E1) are designed for peak hours traffic, so most of the time the dedicated resources are idle and wasted. Further more the T1/E1 lines are not capable of supporting bandwidth (BW) required by next generation wireless multimedia services proposed by High Speed Packet Access (HSPA, Rel.5) for Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS) and Evolution Data only (EV-DO) for Code Division Multiple Access 2000 (CDMA2000). The proposed PON based back haul can provide Giga bit data rates and Iub interface can be dynamically shared by Node Bs. The BW is dynamically allocated and the unused BW from lightly loaded Node Bs is assigned to heavily loaded Node Bs. We also propose a novel algorithm to provide end to end Quality of Service (QoS) (between RNC and user equipment).The algorithm provides QoS bounds in the wired domain as well as in wireless domain with compensation for wireless link errors. Because of the air interface there can be certain times when the user equipment (UE) is unable to communicate with Node B (usually referred to as link error). Since the link errors are bursty and location dependent. For a proposed approach, the scheduler at the Node B maps priorities and weights for QoS into wireless MAC. The compensations for errored links is provided by the swapping of services between the active users and the user data is divided into flows, with flows allowed to lag or lead. The algorithm guarantees (1)delay and throughput for error-free flows,(2)short term fairness

  10. Artistic and Engineering Design of Platform-Based Production Systems: A Study of Swedish Architectural Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustav Jansson

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Research on platform-based production systems for house-building has focused on production and manufacturing issues. The aim of this research is to explore how the architectural design process contributes to the industrialised house-building industry from the perspective of creative design work. It also aims to describe how constraints affect architectural design work in the engineer-to-order context, when using platform-based production systems. Architects with experience in using platform-based building systems with different degrees of constraints were interviewed regarding creative aspects of the design work. The interviews, together with documents relating to platform constraints, were then analysed from the perspective of artistic and engineering design theories. The results show the benefits and issues of using platform constraints, both with prefabrication of volumetric modules, as well as prefabricated slab and wall elements. The study highlights a major research gap by describing how architectural work, from both the creative artistic and engineering design perspectives, is affected by constraints in the building platform: (1 the architectural design work goes through a series of divergent and convergent processes where the divergent processes are explorative and the convergent processes are solution-oriented; and (2, there is a trade-off between creativity and efficiency in the design work. Open parameters for layout design are key to architectural creativity, while predefinition supports efficiency. The results also provide an understanding of the potential for creativity in artistic and engineering work tasks through different phases in design, and how they are related to constraints in the platform. The main limitation of the research is the number of interviewed architects who had different background experiences of working with different types of platform constraints. More studies are needed to confirm the observations and to

  11. Principles of broadband switching and networking

    CERN Document Server

    Liew, Soung C

    2010-01-01

    An authoritative introduction to the roles of switching and transmission in broadband integrated services networks Principles of Broadband Switching and Networking explains the design and analysis of switch architectures suitable for broadband integrated services networks, emphasizing packet-switched interconnection networks with distributed routing algorithms. The text examines the mathematical properties of these networks, rather than specific implementation technologies. Although the pedagogical explanations in this book are in the context of switches, many of the fundamenta

  12. A Web Centric Architecture for Deploying Multi-Disciplinary Engineering Design Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woyak, Scott; Kim, Hongman; Mullins, James; Sobieszczanski-Sobieski, Jaroslaw

    2004-01-01

    There are continuous needs for engineering organizations to improve their design process. Current state of the art techniques use computational simulations to predict design performance, and optimize it through advanced design methods. These tools have been used mostly by individual engineers. This paper presents an architecture for achieving results at an organization level beyond individual level. The next set of gains in process improvement will come from improving the effective use of computers and software within a whole organization, not just for an individual. The architecture takes advantage of state of the art capabilities to produce a Web based system to carry engineering design into the future. To illustrate deployment of the architecture, a case study for implementing advanced multidisciplinary design optimization processes such as Bi-Level Integrated System Synthesis is discussed. Another example for rolling-out a design process for Design for Six Sigma is also described. Each example explains how an organization can effectively infuse engineering practice with new design methods and retain the knowledge over time.

  13. Business Architecture Development at Public Administration - Insights from Government EA Method Engineering Project in Finland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valtonen, Katariina; Leppänen, Mauri

    Governments worldwide are concerned for efficient production of services to customers. To improve quality of services and to make service production more efficient, information and communication technology (ICT) is largely exploited in public administration (PA). Succeeding in this exploitation calls for large-scale planning which embraces issues from strategic to technological level. In this planning the notion of enterprise architecture (EA) is commonly applied. One of the sub-architectures of EA is business architecture (BA). BA planning is challenging in PA due to a large number of stakeholders, a wide set of customers, and solid and hierarchical structures of organizations. To support EA planning in Finland, a project to engineer a government EA (GEA) method was launched. In this chapter, we analyze the discussions and outputs of the project workshops and reflect emerged issues on current e-government literature. We bring forth insights into and suggestions for government BA and its development.

  14. New paradigms in internal architecture design and freeform fabrication of tissue engineering porous scaffolds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Dongjin

    2012-07-01

    Advanced additive manufacture (AM) techniques are now being developed to fabricate scaffolds with controlled internal pore architectures in the field of tissue engineering. In general, these techniques use a hybrid method which combines computer-aided design (CAD) with computer-aided manufacturing (CAM) tools to design and fabricate complicated three-dimensional (3D) scaffold models. The mathematical descriptions of micro-architectures along with the macro-structures of the 3D scaffold models are limited by current CAD technologies as well as by the difficulty of transferring the designed digital models to standard formats for fabrication. To overcome these difficulties, we have developed an efficient internal pore architecture design system based on triply periodic minimal surface (TPMS) unit cell libraries and associated computational methods to assemble TPMS unit cells into an entire scaffold model. In addition, we have developed a process planning technique based on TPMS internal architecture pattern of unit cells to generate tool paths for freeform fabrication of tissue engineering porous scaffolds. Copyright © 2012 IPEM. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Modeling the impact of scaffold architecture and mechanical loading on collagen turnover in engineered cardiovascular tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argento, G; de Jonge, N; Söntjens, S H M; Oomens, C W J; Bouten, C V C; Baaijens, F P T

    2015-06-01

    The anisotropic collagen architecture of an engineered cardiovascular tissue has a major impact on its in vivo mechanical performance. This evolving collagen architecture is determined by initial scaffold microstructure and mechanical loading. Here, we developed and validated a theoretical and computational microscale model to quantitatively understand the interplay between scaffold architecture and mechanical loading on collagen synthesis and degradation. Using input from experimental studies, we hypothesize that both the microstructure of the scaffold and the loading conditions influence collagen turnover. The evaluation of the mechanical and topological properties of in vitro engineered constructs reveals that the formation of extracellular matrix layers on top of the scaffold surface influences the mechanical anisotropy on the construct. Results show that the microscale model can successfully capture the collagen arrangement between the fibers of an electrospun scaffold under static and cyclic loading conditions. Contact guidance by the scaffold, and not applied load, dominates the collagen architecture. Therefore, when the collagen grows inside the pores of the scaffold, pronounced scaffold anisotropy guarantees the development of a construct that mimics the mechanical anisotropy of the native cardiovascular tissue.

  16. Evolutionary, Unconscious Design Support for the Architectural, Engineering and Construction Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Van de Ruitenbeek, H.K.M.

    2012-01-01

    The Architecture, Engineering and Construction (AEC) industry is a complex system in which carpenters, structural designers, architects, modellers, cost estimators, planners, politicians and many others act apart together in project-specific virtual enterprises. There is a large amount of actors, an overwhelming number of ongoing processes, distributed, decentralised organisations and a variety of projects. This complicates efficient communication and supply chain integration which, according...

  17. Sustainability and Built Environment: The role of Higher Education in Architecture and Building Engineering

    OpenAIRE

    Emilia Conte

    2016-01-01

    The sustainability paradigm implies a cultural shift in order to really change the world and society. Education, and specifically higher education, plays the crucial role of preparing students to be not only responsible citizens but also actors and promoters of processes and actions for a sustainable development. This is important in general and even more significant in architecture and engineering fields, as those students will be the designers of the built environment of tomorrow.This paper...

  18. Superstretchable Nacre-Mimetic Graphene/Poly(vinyl alcohol) Composite Film Based on Interfacial Architectural Engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Nifang; Yang, Miao; Zhao, Qian; Gao, Weiwei; Xie, Tao; Bai, Hao

    2017-05-23

    Through designing hierarchical structures, particularly optimizing the chemical and architectural interactions at its inorganic/organic interface, nacre has achieved an excellent combination of contradictory mechanical properties such as strength and toughness, which is highly demanded yet difficult to achieve by most synthetic materials. Most techniques applied to develop nacre-mimetic composites have been focused on mimicking the "brick-and-mortar" structure, but the interfacial architectural features, especially the asperities and mineral bridges of "bricks", have been rarely concerned, which are of equal importance for enhancing mechanical properties of nacre. Here, we used a modified bidirectional freezing method followed by uniaxial pressing and chemical reduction to assemble a nacre-mimetic graphene/poly(vinyl alcohol) composite film, with both asperities and bridges introduced in addition to the lamellar layers to mimic the interfacial architectural interactions found in nacre. As such, we have developed a composite film that is not only strong (up to ∼150.9 MPa), but also tough (up to ∼8.50 MJ/m 3 ), and highly stretchable (up to ∼10.44%), difficult to obtain by other methods. This was all achieved by only interfacial architectural engineering within the traditional "brick-and-mortar" structure, without introducing a third component or employing chemical cross-linker as in some other nacre-mimetic systems. More importantly, we believe that the design principles and processing strategies reported here can also be applied to other material systems to develop strong and stretchable materials.

  19. An Integrated Architecture for On-Board Aircraft Engine Performance Trend Monitoring and Gas Path Fault Diagnostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Donald L.

    2010-01-01

    Aircraft engine performance trend monitoring and gas path fault diagnostics are closely related technologies that assist operators in managing the health of their gas turbine engine assets. Trend monitoring is the process of monitoring the gradual performance change that an aircraft engine will naturally incur over time due to turbomachinery deterioration, while gas path diagnostics is the process of detecting and isolating the occurrence of any faults impacting engine flow-path performance. Today, performance trend monitoring and gas path fault diagnostic functions are performed by a combination of on-board and off-board strategies. On-board engine control computers contain logic that monitors for anomalous engine operation in real-time. Off-board ground stations are used to conduct fleet-wide engine trend monitoring and fault diagnostics based on data collected from each engine each flight. Continuing advances in avionics are enabling the migration of portions of the ground-based functionality on-board, giving rise to more sophisticated on-board engine health management capabilities. This paper reviews the conventional engine performance trend monitoring and gas path fault diagnostic architecture commonly applied today, and presents a proposed enhanced on-board architecture for future applications. The enhanced architecture gains real-time access to an expanded quantity of engine parameters, and provides advanced on-board model-based estimation capabilities. The benefits of the enhanced architecture include the real-time continuous monitoring of engine health, the early diagnosis of fault conditions, and the estimation of unmeasured engine performance parameters. A future vision to advance the enhanced architecture is also presented and discussed

  20. Phonon Spectrum Engineering in Rolled-up Micro- and Nano-Architectures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir M. Fomin

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available We report on a possibility of efficient engineering of the acoustic phonon energy spectrum in multishell tubular structures produced by a novel high-tech method of self-organization of micro- and nano-architectures. The strain-driven roll-up procedure paved the way for novel classes of metamaterials such as single semiconductor radial micro- and nano-crystals and multi-layer spiral micro- and nano-superlattices. The acoustic phonon dispersion is determined by solving the equations of elastodynamics for InAs and GaAs material systems. It is shown that the number of shells is an important control parameter of the phonon dispersion together with the structure dimensions and acoustic impedance mismatch between the superlattice layers. The obtained results suggest that rolled up nano-architectures are promising for thermoelectric applications owing to a possibility of significant reduction of the thermal conductivity without degradation of the electronic transport.

  1. Model-Based Engine Control Architecture with an Extended Kalman Filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csank, Jeffrey T.; Connolly, Joseph W.

    2016-01-01

    This paper discusses the design and implementation of an extended Kalman filter (EKF) for model-based engine control (MBEC). Previously proposed MBEC architectures feature an optimal tuner Kalman Filter (OTKF) to produce estimates of both unmeasured engine parameters and estimates for the health of the engine. The success of this approach relies on the accuracy of the linear model and the ability of the optimal tuner to update its tuner estimates based on only a few sensors. Advances in computer processing are making it possible to replace the piece-wise linear model, developed off-line, with an on-board nonlinear model running in real-time. This will reduce the estimation errors associated with the linearization process, and is typically referred to as an extended Kalman filter. The nonlinear extended Kalman filter approach is applied to the Commercial Modular Aero-Propulsion System Simulation 40,000 (C-MAPSS40k) and compared to the previously proposed MBEC architecture. The results show that the EKF reduces the estimation error, especially during transient operation.

  2. Mechanical stimulation to stimulate formation of a physiological collagen architecture in tissue-engineered cartilage; a numerical study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khoshgoftar, M.; Donkelaar, van C.C.; Ito, K.

    2011-01-01

    The load-bearing capacity of today's tissue-engineered (TE) cartilage is insufficient. The arcade-like collagen network in native cartilage plays an important role in its load-bearing properties. Inducing the formation of such collagen architecture in engineered cartilage can, therefore, enhance

  3. Architecture and engineering in Alcoy. 90 years of the bridge of San Jorge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. F. Picó Silvestre

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available At the end of 1925 the construction of Saint Jorge’s bridge began in Alcoy. This was one of the first large viaduct built entirely of reinforced concrete in Spain, but it also constitutes one of the unique overwhelming examples that the language of Art Deco used in its elements. The 90th anniversary of this bridge may serve to commemorate the success of a close collaboration between engineering and architecture. This viaduct had peculiar problems and important modifications during the construction that were resolved satisfactorily in a period of history where culture was heading towards modernity. In the present case, the work of the engineer and architect, duly selected by a shrewd and effective construction company in their building abilities, resulted in a magnificent forgotten structure that should be rehabilitated in the collective memory.

  4. Model-Based Systems Engineering for Capturing Mission Architecture System Processes with an Application Case Study - Orion Flight Test 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonanne, Kevin H.

    2011-01-01

    Model-based Systems Engineering (MBSE) is an emerging methodology that can be leveraged to enhance many system development processes. MBSE allows for the centralization of an architecture description that would otherwise be stored in various locations and formats, thus simplifying communication among the project stakeholders, inducing commonality in representation, and expediting report generation. This paper outlines the MBSE approach taken to capture the processes of two different, but related, architectures by employing the Systems Modeling Language (SysML) as a standard for architecture description and the modeling tool MagicDraw. The overarching goal of this study was to demonstrate the effectiveness of MBSE as a means of capturing and designing a mission systems architecture. The first portion of the project focused on capturing the necessary system engineering activities that occur when designing, developing, and deploying a mission systems architecture for a space mission. The second part applies activities from the first to an application problem - the system engineering of the Orion Flight Test 1 (OFT-1) End-to-End Information System (EEIS). By modeling the activities required to create a space mission architecture and then implementing those activities in an application problem, the utility of MBSE as an approach to systems engineering can be demonstrated.

  5. Performance Evaluation of 14 Neural Network Architectures Used for Predicting Heat Transfer Characteristics of Engine Oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Ajmi, R. M.; Abou-Ziyan, H. Z.; Mahmoud, M. A.

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports the results of a comprehensive study that aimed at identifying best neural network architecture and parameters to predict subcooled boiling characteristics of engine oils. A total of 57 different neural networks (NNs) that were derived from 14 different NN architectures were evaluated for four different prediction cases. The NNs were trained on experimental datasets performed on five engine oils of different chemical compositions. The performance of each NN was evaluated using a rigorous statistical analysis as well as careful examination of smoothness of predicted boiling curves. One NN, out of the 57 evaluated, correctly predicted the boiling curves for all cases considered either for individual oils or for all oils taken together. It was found that the pattern selection and weight update techniques strongly affect the performance of the NNs. It was also revealed that the use of descriptive statistical analysis such as R2, mean error, standard deviation, and T and slope tests, is a necessary but not sufficient condition for evaluating NN performance. The performance criteria should also include inspection of the smoothness of the predicted curves either visually or by plotting the slopes of these curves.

  6. Altering the architecture of tissue engineered hypertrophic cartilaginous grafts facilitates vascularisation and accelerates mineralisation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eamon J Sheehy

    Full Text Available Cartilaginous tissues engineered using mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs can be leveraged to generate bone in vivo by executing an endochondral program, leading to increased interest in the use of such hypertrophic grafts for the regeneration of osseous defects. During normal skeletogenesis, canals within the developing hypertrophic cartilage play a key role in facilitating endochondral ossification. Inspired by this developmental feature, the objective of this study was to promote endochondral ossification of an engineered cartilaginous construct through modification of scaffold architecture. Our hypothesis was that the introduction of channels into MSC-seeded hydrogels would firstly facilitate the in vitro development of scaled-up hypertrophic cartilaginous tissues, and secondly would accelerate vascularisation and mineralisation of the graft in vivo. MSCs were encapsulated into hydrogels containing either an array of micro-channels, or into non-channelled 'solid' controls, and maintained in culture conditions known to promote a hypertrophic cartilaginous phenotype. Solid constructs accumulated significantly more sGAG and collagen in vitro, while channelled constructs accumulated significantly more calcium. In vivo, the channels acted as conduits for vascularisation and accelerated mineralisation of the engineered graft. Cartilaginous tissue within the channels underwent endochondral ossification, producing lamellar bone surrounding a hematopoietic marrow component. This study highlights the potential of utilising engineering methodologies, inspired by developmental skeletal processes, in order to enhance endochondral bone regeneration strategies.

  7. Altering the architecture of tissue engineered hypertrophic cartilaginous grafts facilitates vascularisation and accelerates mineralisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheehy, Eamon J; Vinardell, Tatiana; Toner, Mary E; Buckley, Conor T; Kelly, Daniel J

    2014-01-01

    Cartilaginous tissues engineered using mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) can be leveraged to generate bone in vivo by executing an endochondral program, leading to increased interest in the use of such hypertrophic grafts for the regeneration of osseous defects. During normal skeletogenesis, canals within the developing hypertrophic cartilage play a key role in facilitating endochondral ossification. Inspired by this developmental feature, the objective of this study was to promote endochondral ossification of an engineered cartilaginous construct through modification of scaffold architecture. Our hypothesis was that the introduction of channels into MSC-seeded hydrogels would firstly facilitate the in vitro development of scaled-up hypertrophic cartilaginous tissues, and secondly would accelerate vascularisation and mineralisation of the graft in vivo. MSCs were encapsulated into hydrogels containing either an array of micro-channels, or into non-channelled 'solid' controls, and maintained in culture conditions known to promote a hypertrophic cartilaginous phenotype. Solid constructs accumulated significantly more sGAG and collagen in vitro, while channelled constructs accumulated significantly more calcium. In vivo, the channels acted as conduits for vascularisation and accelerated mineralisation of the engineered graft. Cartilaginous tissue within the channels underwent endochondral ossification, producing lamellar bone surrounding a hematopoietic marrow component. This study highlights the potential of utilising engineering methodologies, inspired by developmental skeletal processes, in order to enhance endochondral bone regeneration strategies.

  8. SSME to RS-25: Challenges of Adapting a Heritage Engine to a New Vehicle Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballard, Richard O.

    2015-01-01

    Following the cancellation of the Constellation program and retirement of the Space Shuttle, NASA initiated the Space Launch System (SLS) program to provide next-generation heavy lift cargo and crew access to space. A key constituent of the SLS architecture is the RS-25 engine, also known as the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME). The RS-25 was selected to serve as the main propulsion system for the SLS core stage in conjunction with the solid rocket boosters. This selection was largely based on the maturity and extensive experience gained through 135 missions, 3000+ ground tests, and over a million seconds total accumulated hot-fire time. In addition, there were also over a dozen functional flight assets remaining from the Space Shuttle program that could be leveraged to support the first four flights. However, while the RS-25 is a highly mature system, simply unbolting it from the Space Shuttle boat-tail and installing it on the new SLS vehicle is not a "plug-and-play" operation. In addition to numerous technical integration details involving changes to significant areas such as the environments, interface conditions, technical performance requirements, operational constraints and so on, there were other challenges to be overcome in the area of replacing the obsolete engine control system (ECS). While the magnitude of accomplishing this effort was less than that needed to develop and field a new clean-sheet engine system, the path to the first flight of SLS has not been without unexpected challenges.

  9. Full integrated system of real-time monitoring based on distributed architecture for the high temperature engineering test reactor (HTTR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Subekti, Muhammad; Ohno, Tomio; Kudo, Kazuhiko; Takamatsu, Kuniyoshi; Nabeshima, Kunihiko

    2005-01-01

    A new monitoring system scheme based on distributed architecture for the High Temperature Engineering Test Reactor (HTTR) is proposed to assure consistency of the real-time process of expanded system. A distributed monitoring task on client PCs as an alternative architecture maximizes the throughput and capabilities of the system even if the monitoring tasks suffer a shortage of bandwidth. The prototype of the on-line monitoring system has been developed successfully and will be tested at the actual HTTR site. (author)

  10. Adoption of Broadband Services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Falch, Morten

    2008-01-01

    Broadband is seen as a key infrastructure for developing the information society. For this reason many Governments are actively engaged in stimulating investments in broadband infrastructures and use of broadband services. This chapter compares a wide range of broadband strategies in the most suc....... Many countries have provided active support for stimulating diffusion of broadband and national variants of this type of policies in different countries are important for an explanation of national differences in adoption of broadband....

  11. High-Speed Computation of the Kleene Star in Max-Plus Algebraic System Using a Cell Broadband Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goto, Hiroyuki

    This research addresses a high-speed computation method for the Kleene star of the weighted adjacency matrix in a max-plus algebraic system. We focus on systems whose precedence constraints are represented by a directed acyclic graph and implement it on a Cell Broadband Engine™ (CBE) processor. Since the resulting matrix gives the longest travel times between two adjacent nodes, it is often utilized in scheduling problem solvers for a class of discrete event systems. This research, in particular, attempts to achieve a speedup by using two approaches: parallelization and SIMDization (Single Instruction, Multiple Data), both of which can be accomplished by a CBE processor. The former refers to a parallel computation using multiple cores, while the latter is a method whereby multiple elements are computed by a single instruction. Using the implementation on a Sony PlayStation 3™ equipped with a CBE processor, we found that the SIMDization is effective regardless of the system's size and the number of processor cores used. We also found that the scalability of using multiple cores is remarkable especially for systems with a large number of nodes. In a numerical experiment where the number of nodes is 2000, we achieved a speedup of 20 times compared with the method without the above techniques.

  12. Simulation as a tool for architectural design and evaluation. Resolved patterns from engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna Trujillo

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available La simulación como herramienta de diseño y evaluación arquitectónica. Pautas resueltas desde la ingenieríaResumenSe presenta un panorama sobre la importancia del proceso de diseño sostenible aplicado a las edificaciones. Teniendo en cuenta que el sector de la construcción es una de las áreas de más alto impacto ambiental, es importante analizar cuáles serían los nuevos procesos de diseño de las edificaciones en términos de sostenibilidad. Estos conceptos se aplicaron a un estudio de caso por medio de la simulación discreta, la cual permite una evaluación de la capacidad en un edificio junto con sus recursos, a fin de tomar decisiones de ampliación en el proceso de diseño arquitectónico. Los datos se analizaron en el programa estadístico SPSS y se simularon en ProModel. El modelo pedagógico propuesto puede llegar a ser de utilidad al momento de aplicarse en un contexto multidisciplinar, en donde interactúen estudiantes de ingeniería industrial y arquitectura. Este ejercicio puede aplicarse en las aulas de clase; con él se reducirían los tiempos de diseño, y la comunicación entre estudiantes mejoraría porque implica el trabajo multidisciplinar.Palabras clave: diseño arquitectónico, edificios industriales, educación arquitectónica, industria de la construcción, ingeniería industrial.Simulation as a tool for architectural design and evaluation. Resolved patterns from engineeringAbstractAn overview of the importance of sustainable design process applied to buildings is presented. Given that the field of construction is one of the areas with the highest environmental impact, it is important to analyze what would be the new design processes for buildings in terms of sustainability. These concepts were applied to a case study using discrete simulation, which allows an assessment of capacity building along with its resources, to make decisions expansion in the architectural design process. Data were analyzed in the SPSS

  13. Finite element study of scaffold architecture design and culture conditions for tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivares, Andy L; Marsal, Elia; Planell, Josep A; Lacroix, Damien

    2009-10-01

    Tissue engineering scaffolds provide temporary mechanical support for tissue regeneration and transfer global mechanical load to mechanical stimuli to cells through its architecture. In this study the interactions between scaffold pore morphology, mechanical stimuli developed at the cell microscopic level, and culture conditions applied at the macroscopic scale are studied on two regular scaffold structures. Gyroid and hexagonal scaffolds of 55% and 70% porosity were modeled in a finite element analysis and were submitted to an inlet fluid flow or compressive strain. A mechanoregulation theory based on scaffold shear strain and fluid shear stress was applied for determining the influence of each structures on the mechanical stimuli on initial conditions. Results indicate that the distribution of shear stress induced by fluid perfusion is very dependent on pore distribution within the scaffold. Gyroid architectures provide a better accessibility of the fluid than hexagonal structures. Based on the mechanoregulation theory, the differentiation process in these structures was more sensitive to inlet fluid flow than axial strain of the scaffold. This study provides a computational approach to determine the mechanical stimuli at the cellular level when cells are cultured in a bioreactor and to relate mechanical stimuli with cell differentiation.

  14. Procurement of Architectural and Engineering Services for Sustainable Buildings: A Guide for Federal Project Managers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2004-06-01

    This guide was prepared to be a resource for federal construction project managers and others who want to integrate the principles of sustainable design into the procurement of professional building design and consulting services. To economize on energy costs and improve the safety, comfort, and health of building occupants, building design teams can incorporate daylighting, energy efficiency, renewable energy, and passive solar design into all projects in which these elements are technically and economically feasible. The information presented here will help project leaders begin the process and manage the inclusion of sustainable design in the procurement process. The section on establishing selection criteria contains key elements to consider before selecting an architectural and engineering (A/E) firm. The section on preparing the statement of work discusses the broad spectrum of sustainable design services that an A/E firm can provide. Several helpful checklists are included.

  15. Organization of feed-forward loop motifs reveals architectural principles in natural and engineered networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorochowski, Thomas E; Grierson, Claire S; di Bernardo, Mario

    2018-03-01

    Network motifs are significantly overrepresented subgraphs that have been proposed as building blocks for natural and engineered networks. Detailed functional analysis has been performed for many types of motif in isolation, but less is known about how motifs work together to perform complex tasks. To address this issue, we measure the aggregation of network motifs via methods that extract precisely how these structures are connected. Applying this approach to a broad spectrum of networked systems and focusing on the widespread feed-forward loop motif, we uncover striking differences in motif organization. The types of connection are often highly constrained, differ between domains, and clearly capture architectural principles. We show how this information can be used to effectively predict functionally important nodes in the metabolic network of Escherichia coli . Our findings have implications for understanding how networked systems are constructed from motif parts and elucidate constraints that guide their evolution.

  16. A leadership-as-practice perspective on design in architecture, engineering and construction projects: interaction analysis of a collaborative workshop

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zerjav, Vedran; Hartmann, Timo; van Amstel, Frederick

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposes an alternative perspective on the role of leadership in the context of collaborative practices in architecture, engineering and construction design. While most of current leadership literature is focused on outstanding individuals with abilities to influence others, the aim of

  17. On the design of design processes in architecture and engineering : technological rules and the principle of minimal specification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aken, van J.E.

    2003-01-01

    As complexity and scale of design processes in architecture and in engineering increase, as well as the demands on these processes with respect to costs, throughput time and quality, traditional approaches to organise and plan these processes may no longer suffice. In this conceptual article it is

  18. Multi-Mission System Architecture Platform: Design and Verification of the Remote Engineering Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sartori, John

    2005-01-01

    The Multi-Mission System Architecture Platform (MSAP) represents an effort to bolster efficiency in the spacecraft design process. By incorporating essential spacecraft functionality into a modular, expandable system, the MSAP provides a foundation on which future spacecraft missions can be developed. Once completed, the MSAP will provide support for missions with varying objectives, while maintaining a level of standardization that will minimize redesign of general system components. One subsystem of the MSAP, the Remote Engineering Unit (REU), functions by gathering engineering telemetry from strategic points on the spacecraft and providing these measurements to the spacecraft's Command and Data Handling (C&DH) subsystem. Before the MSAP Project reaches completion, all hardware, including the REU, must be verified. However, the speed and complexity of the REU circuitry rules out the possibility of physical prototyping. Instead, the MSAP hardware is designed and verified using the Verilog Hardware Definition Language (HDL). An increasingly popular means of digital design, HDL programming provides a level of abstraction, which allows the designer to focus on functionality while logic synthesis tools take care of gate-level design and optimization. As verification of the REU proceeds, errors are quickly remedied, preventing costly changes during hardware validation. After undergoing the careful, iterative processes of verification and validation, the REU and MSAP will prove their readiness for use in a multitude of spacecraft missions.

  19. Combining cognitive engineering and information fusion architectures to build effective joint systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sliva, Amy L.; Gorman, Joe; Voshell, Martin; Tittle, James; Bowman, Christopher

    2016-05-01

    The Dual Node Decision Wheels (DNDW) architecture concept was previously described as a novel approach toward integrating analytic and decision-making processes in joint human/automation systems in highly complex sociotechnical settings. In this paper, we extend the DNDW construct with a description of components in this framework, combining structures of the Dual Node Network (DNN) for Information Fusion and Resource Management with extensions on Rasmussen's Decision Ladder (DL) to provide guidance on constructing information systems that better serve decision-making support requirements. The DNN takes a component-centered approach to system design, decomposing each asset in terms of data inputs and outputs according to their roles and interactions in a fusion network. However, to ensure relevancy to and organizational fitment within command and control (C2) processes, principles from cognitive systems engineering emphasize that system design must take a human-centered systems view, integrating information needs and decision making requirements to drive the architecture design and capabilities of network assets. In the current work, we present an approach for structuring and assessing DNDW systems that uses a unique hybrid DNN top-down system design with a human-centered process design, combining DNN node decomposition with artifacts from cognitive analysis (i.e., system abstraction decomposition models, decision ladders) to provide work domain and task-level insights at different levels in an example intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance (ISR) system setting. This DNDW structure will ensure not only that the information fusion technologies and processes are structured effectively, but that the resulting information products will align with the requirements of human decision makers and be adaptable to different work settings .

  20. Tuning electro-optic susceptibity via strain engineering in artificial PZT multilayer films for high-performance broadband modulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Minmin; Du, Zehui; Li, Hongling; Chen, Bensong; Jing, Lin; Tay, Roland Ying Jie; Lin, Jinjun; Tsang, Siu Hon; Teo, Edwin Hang Tong

    2017-12-01

    A series of Pb(Zr1-xTix)O3 multilayer films alternatively stacked by Pb(Zr0.52Ti0.48)O3 and Pb(Zr0.35Ti0.65)O3 layers have been deposited on corning glass by magnetron sputtering. The films demonstrate pure perovskite structure and good crystallinity. A large tetragonality (c/a) of ∼1.061 and a shift of ∼0.08 eV for optical bandgap were investigated at layer engineered films. In addition, these samples exhibited a wild tunable electro-optic behavior from tens to ∼250.2 pm/V, as well as fast switching time of down to a few microseconds. The giant EO coefficient was attribute the strain-polarization coupling effect and also comparable to that of epitaxial (001) single crystal PZT thin films. The combination of high transparency, large EO effect, fast switching time, and huge phase transition temperature in PZT-based thin films show the potential on electro-optics from laser to information telecommunication.

  1. SAS-6 engineering reveals interdependence between cartwheel and microtubules in determining centriole architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilbert, Manuel; Noga, Akira; Frey, Daniel; Hamel, Virginie; Guichard, Paul; Kraatz, Sebastian H W; Pfreundschuh, Moritz; Hosner, Sarah; Flückiger, Isabelle; Jaussi, Rolf; Wieser, Mara M; Thieltges, Katherine M; Deupi, Xavier; Müller, Daniel J; Kammerer, Richard A; Gönczy, Pierre; Hirono, Masafumi; Steinmetz, Michel O

    2016-04-01

    Centrioles are critical for the formation of centrosomes, cilia and flagella in eukaryotes. They are thought to assemble around a nine-fold symmetric cartwheel structure established by SAS-6 proteins. Here, we have engineered Chlamydomonas reinhardtii SAS-6-based oligomers with symmetries ranging from five- to ten-fold. Expression of a SAS-6 mutant that forms six-fold symmetric cartwheel structures in vitro resulted in cartwheels and centrioles with eight- or nine-fold symmetries in vivo. In combination with Bld10 mutants that weaken cartwheel-microtubule interactions, this SAS-6 mutant produced six- to eight-fold symmetric cartwheels. Concurrently, the microtubule wall maintained eight- and nine-fold symmetries. Expressing SAS-6 with analogous mutations in human cells resulted in nine-fold symmetric centrioles that exhibited impaired length and organization. Together, our data suggest that the self-assembly properties of SAS-6 instruct cartwheel symmetry, and lead us to propose a model in which the cartwheel and the microtubule wall assemble in an interdependent manner to establish the native architecture of centrioles.

  2. Microstructural Engineering and Architectural Design of Metal-Organic Framework Membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yi; Ban, Yujie; Yang, Weishen

    2017-08-01

    In the past decade, a huge development in rational design, synthesis, and application of molecular sieve membranes, which typically included zeolites, metal-organic frameworks (MOFs), and graphene oxides, has been witnessed. Owing to high flexibility in both pore apertures and functionality, MOFs in the form of membranes have offered unprecedented opportunities for energy-efficient gas separations. Reports on the fabrication of well-intergrown MOF membranes first appeared in 2009. Since then there has been tremendous growth in this area along with an exponential increase of MOF-membrane-related publications. In order to compete with other separation and purification technologies, like cryogenic distillation, pressure swing adsorption, and chemical absorption, separation performance (including permeability, selectivity, and long-term stability) of molecular sieve membranes must be further improved in an attempt to reach an economically attractive region. Therefore, microstructural engineering and architectural design of MOF membranes at mesoscopic and microscopic levels become indispensable. This review summarizes some intriguing research that may potentially contribute to large-scale applications of MOF membranes in the future. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. The Use of MIVES as a Sustainability Assessment MCDM Method for Architecture and Civil Engineering Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oriol Pons

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Environmental and sustainability assessment tools have an important role in moving towards a better world, bringing knowledge and raising awareness. In the architecture and civil engineering sector, these assessment tools help in moving forward to constructions that have less economic, environmental and social impacts. At present, there are numerous assessment tools and methods with different approaches and scopes that have been analyzed in numerous technical reviews. However, there is no agreement about which method should be used for each evaluation case. This research paper synthetically analyzes the main sustainability assessment methods for the construction sector, comparing their strengths and weaknesses in order to present the challenges of the Spanish Integrated Value Model for Sustainability Assessment (MIVES. MIVES is a Multi-Criteria Decision Making method based on the value function concept and the Seminars of experts. Then, this article analyzes MIVES advantages and weak points by going through its methodology and two representative applications. At the end, the area of application of MIVES is described in detail along with the general application cases of the main types of assessment tools and methods.

  4. School Climate in the Engineering and Architecture Campus of a Mexican Public University: Students’ Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María del Carmen Sandoval-Caraveo

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to identify the school climate that prevails in the students of the faculty of Engineering and Architecture in a Mexican public University. This study was conducted in response to a need to take care of the recommendations of the agencies evaluating the educational programs. It was done with a quantitative approach, of a descriptive and correlational type with non-experimental transactional design. The studied dimensions of the school climate were: organization structure, functionality, pedagogical practices, climate between peer interaction and satisfaction. The data were collected using a Likert scale questionnaire, with a reliability of .880 of Cronbach’s Alpha coefficient and validity through confirmatory factorial analysis. The results obtained from the descriptive statistics pointed the favorable school climate in peer interaction and pedagogical practices. Organizational structure, however, was the lowest rated classroom climate dimension. ANOVA results showed significant statistical differences between the school climate and educational programs, the years that the students have remained in the university, the age and the school cycle. Pearson’s correlation analysis revealed weak and negative correlation between school climate and student age.

  5. Knowledge Management Practice in Two Australian Architecture-Engineering-Construction (AEC Companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Zou

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge management (KM could be described as a management system that supports the creation, sharing and retrieving of valued information, expertise and insight within and across communities of people and related organizations using information and communication technologies and hence it is a combination of the effective application of information technlogy and management of human resources. KM is becoming a core competitive factor in construction operations. This paper presents the results of two case studies of KM practices in large AEC (architecture, engineering and construction companies through desk-top study and semi-structured interviews. The results indicate that implementing KM in AEC companies leads to competitive advantages and improved decision-making, problem solving and business performance. The results also indicateed that while technology plays an important role, top management commitment, total employee involvement, performance assessment and the culture of knowledge-learning and sharing must be considered when implementing KM. Therefore it is suggested that the implementation of KM should incorporate the company's vision, work processes, technology and culture, to improve the ability of knowledge creating, capturing, sharing, retrieving and ultimately, to improve the company's competitive advantage, decision making, problem solving and innovation.

  6. Reveal, A General Reverse Engineering Algorithm for Inference of Genetic Network Architectures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Shoudan; Fuhrman, Stefanie; Somogyi, Roland

    1998-01-01

    Given the immanent gene expression mapping covering whole genomes during development, health and disease, we seek computational methods to maximize functional inference from such large data sets. Is it possible, in principle, to completely infer a complex regulatory network architecture from input/output patterns of its variables? We investigated this possibility using binary models of genetic networks. Trajectories, or state transition tables of Boolean nets, resemble time series of gene expression. By systematically analyzing the mutual information between input states and output states, one is able to infer the sets of input elements controlling each element or gene in the network. This process is unequivocal and exact for complete state transition tables. We implemented this REVerse Engineering ALgorithm (REVEAL) in a C program, and found the problem to be tractable within the conditions tested so far. For n = 50 (elements) and k = 3 (inputs per element), the analysis of incomplete state transition tables (100 state transition pairs out of a possible 10(exp 15)) reliably produced the original rule and wiring sets. While this study is limited to synchronous Boolean networks, the algorithm is generalizable to include multi-state models, essentially allowing direct application to realistic biological data sets. The ability to adequately solve the inverse problem may enable in-depth analysis of complex dynamic systems in biology and other fields.

  7. Broadband Magnetotelluric Investigations of Crustal Resistivity Structure in North-Eastern Alberta: Implications for Engineered Geothermal Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liddell, M. V.; Unsworth, M. J.; Nieuwenhuis, G.

    2013-12-01

    Greenhouse gas emissions from hydrocarbon consumption produce profound changes in the global climate, and the implementation of alternative energy sources is needed. The oilsands industry in Alberta (Canada) is a major producer of greenhouse gases as natural gas is burnt to produce the heat required to extract and process bitumen. Geothermal energy could be utilized to provide this necessary heat and has the potential to reduce both financial costs and environmental impacts of the oilsands industry. In order to determine the geothermal potential the details of the reservoir must be understood. Conventional hydrothermal reservoirs have been detected using geophysical techniques such as magnetotellurics (MT) which measures the electrical conductivity of the Earth. However, in Northern Alberta the geothermal gradient is relatively low, and heat must be extracted from deep inside the basement rocks using Engineered Geothermal Systems (EGS) and therefore an alternative exploration technique is required. MT can be useful in this context as it can detect fracture zones and regions of elevated porosity. MT data were recorded near Fort McMurray with the goal of determining the geothermal potential by understanding the crustal resistivity structure beneath the Athabasca Oilsands. The MT data are being used to locate targets of significance for geothermal exploration such as regions of low resistivity in the basement rocks which can relate to in situ fluids or fracture zones which can facilitate efficient heat extraction or het transport. A total of 93 stations were collected ~500m apart on two profiles stretching 30 and 20km respectively. Signals were recorded using Phoenix Geophysics V5-2000 systems over frequency bands from 1000 to 0.001 Hz, corresponding to depths of penetration approximately 50m to 50km. Groom-Bailey tensor decomposition and phase tensor analysis shows a well defined geoelectric strike direction that varied along the profile from N60°E to N45

  8. Model-Based Systems Engineering With the Architecture Analysis and Design Language (AADL) Applied to NASA Mission Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munoz Fernandez, Michela Miche

    2014-01-01

    The potential of Model Model Systems Engineering (MBSE) using the Architecture Analysis and Design Language (AADL) applied to space systems will be described. AADL modeling is applicable to real-time embedded systems- the types of systems NASA builds. A case study with the Juno mission to Jupiter showcases how this work would enable future missions to benefit from using these models throughout their life cycle from design to flight operations.

  9. Study on Reverse Engineering of Historical Architecture Based on 3D Laser Scanner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, X J; Jin, W

    2006-01-01

    Repair and maintenance of historical architecture includes reinforcement of configuration, repair of figure and so on. All these need surveying information such as blueprint etc. 3D laser scanning technology is one of the important technique methods to acquire spatial data. It scans the architecture point by point quickly; registers and joints point cloud to simulate the shape by computer; reconstructs 3D model accurately finally. It also produces construction drawing including ichnography, elevation, and cutaway. In addition, detail structure and vignette can be got by close-range photogrammetry method, which produces the orthoimage and linear drawing. This method is especially fit for surveying historical architecture that lacks construction records

  10. Pricing by timing: innovating broadband data plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Sangtae; Joe-Wong, Carlee; Sen, Soumya; Chiang, Mung

    2012-01-01

    Wireless Internet usage is doubling every year. Users are using more of high bandwidth data applications, and the heavy usage concentrates on several peak hours in a day, forcing ISPs to overprovision their networks accordingly. In order to remain profitable, ISPs have been using pricing as a congestion management tool. We review many of such pricing schemes in practice today and argue that they do not solve ISPs' problem of growing data traffic. We believe that dynamic, time-dependent usage pricing, which charges users based on when they access the Internet, can incentivize users to spread out their bandwidth consumption more evenly across different times of the day, thus helping ISPs to overcome the problem of peak congestion. Congestion pricing is not a new idea in itself, but the time for its implementation in data networks has finally arrived. Our key contribution lies in developing new analysis and a fully integrated system architecture, called TUBE (Time-dependent Usage-based Broadband price Engineering) that enables ISPs to implement the proposed TDP plan. The theory, simulation, and system implementation of TUBE system is further complemented with consumer surveys conducted in India and the US, along with preparations for a field trial that is currently underway.

  11. Broadband Radiometric LED Measurements

    OpenAIRE

    Eppeldauer, G. P.; Cooksey, C. C.; Yoon, H. W.; Hanssen, L. M.; Podobedov, V. B.; Vest, R. E.; Arp, U.; Miller, C. C.

    2016-01-01

    At present, broadband radiometric measurements of LEDs with uniform and low-uncertainty results are not available. Currently, either complicated and expensive spectral radiometric measurements or broadband photometric LED measurements are used. The broadband photometric measurements are based on the CIE standardized V(��) function, which cannot be used in the UV range and leads to large errors when blue or red LEDs are measured in its wings, where the realization is always poor. Reference irr...

  12. Impact of two-stage turbocharging architectures on pumping losses of automotive engines based on an analytical model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galindo, J.; Serrano, J.R.; Climent, H.; Varnier, O.

    2010-01-01

    Present work presents an analytical study of two-stage turbocharging configuration performance. The aim of this work is to understand the influence of different two-stage-architecture parameters to optimize the use of exhaust manifold gases energy and to aid decision making process. An analytical model giving the relationship between global compression ratio and global expansion ratio is developed as a function of basic engine and turbocharging system parameters. Having an analytical solution, the influence of different variables, such as expansion ratio between HP and LP turbine, intercooler efficiency, turbochargers efficiency, cooling fluid temperature and exhaust temperature are studied independently. Engine simulations with proposed analytical model have been performed to analyze the influence of these different parameters on brake thermal efficiency and pumping mean effective pressure. The results obtained show the overall performance of the two-stage system for the whole operative range and characterize the optimum control of the elements for each operative condition. The model was also used to compare single-stage and two-stage architectures performance for the same engine operative conditions. Benefits and limits in terms of breathing capabilities and brake thermal efficiency of each type of system have been presented and analyzed.

  13. 40 CFR 35.937 - Subagreements for architectural or engineering services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... competence and qualifications for the type of professional services required and at fair and reasonable... announcement of the requirements for personal and professional services, including engineering services... engineering services. Those professional services associated with research, development, design and...

  14. Public Safety Broadband Network Architecture Description

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    could be used to add an in-app purchase to the user’s mobile phone bill. Major operators , such as AT& T , Deutsche Telekom, Orange, Telefonica and...3GPP technologies such as CDMA2000 and WiMAX networks. MME Mobility Managemen t Entity The MME is the key control-node for the LTE access-network... operator ( operator -managed small cells, etc.) or provides sufficient security (authentication, encryption, etc.). See Figure D3. Figure D3: ITU- T

  15. System engineering in the Nuclear Regulatory Commission licensing process: Program architecture process and structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romine, D.T.

    1989-01-01

    In October 1987, the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) established the Center for Nuclear Waste Regulatory Analyses at Southwest Research Institute in San Antonio, Texas. The overall mission of the center is to provide a sustained level of high-quality research and technical assistance in support of NRC regulatory responsibilities under the Nuclear Waste Policy Act (NWPA). A key part of that mission is to assist the NRC in the development of the program architecture - the systems approach to regulatory analysis for the NRC high-level waste repository licensing process - and the development and implementation of the computer-based Program Architecture Support System (PASS). This paper describes the concept of program architecture, summarizes the process and basic structure of the PASS relational data base, and describes the applications of the system

  16. Architectural and structural engineering aspects of protective design for nuclear power plants against terrorist attack

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Musacchio, J.M.; Rozen, A.

    1987-01-01

    This paper presents the results of several threat studies which have been performed, provides collective data on costs, and discusses, in a general sense, architectural/structural aspects of passive protection design measures which have been developed and utilized at several nuclear power plants. By combining relevant architectural and structural measures in the standard design, it is possible to substantially reduce the vulnerability of nuclear power plants to terrorist attack and the estimated damage to a manageable level with a minimal investment. (orig./HP)

  17. Introduction to the Special Issue on Software Architecture for Language Engineering

    OpenAIRE

    Cunningham, Hamish; Scott, Donia

    2004-01-01

    Every building, and every computer program, has an architecture: structural and organisational principles that underpin its design and construction. The garden shed\\ud once built by one of the authors had an ad hoc architecture, extracted (somewhat painfully) from the imagination during a slow and non-deterministic process that, luckily, resulted in a structure which keeps the rain on the outside and the mower on the inside (at least for the time being). As well as being ad hoc (i.e. not info...

  18. The composition of engineered cartilage at the time of implantation determines the likelihood of regenerating tissue with a normal collagen architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagel, Thomas; Kelly, Daniel J

    2013-04-01

    The biomechanical functionality of articular cartilage is derived from both its biochemical composition and the architecture of the collagen network. Failure to replicate this normal Benninghoff architecture in regenerating articular cartilage may in turn predispose the tissue to failure. In this article, the influence of the maturity (or functionality) of a tissue-engineered construct at the time of implantation into a tibial chondral defect on the likelihood of recapitulating a normal Benninghoff architecture was investigated using a computational model featuring a collagen remodeling algorithm. Such a normal tissue architecture was predicted to form in the intact tibial plateau due to the interplay between the depth-dependent extracellular matrix properties, foremost swelling pressures, and external mechanical loading. In the presence of even small empty defects in the articular surface, the collagen architecture in the surrounding cartilage was predicted to deviate significantly from the native state, indicating a possible predisposition for osteoarthritic changes. These negative alterations were alleviated by the implantation of tissue-engineered cartilage, where a mature implant was predicted to result in the formation of a more native-like collagen architecture than immature implants. The results of this study highlight the importance of cartilage graft functionality to maintain and/or re-establish joint function and suggest that engineering a tissue with a native depth-dependent composition may facilitate the establishment of a normal Benninghoff collagen architecture after implantation into load-bearing defects.

  19. Broadband Faraday isolator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berent, Michał; Rangelov, Andon A; Vitanov, Nikolay V

    2013-01-01

    Driving on an analogy with the technique of composite pulses in quantum physics, we theoretically propose a broadband Faraday rotator and thus a broadband optical isolator, which is composed of sequences of ordinary Faraday rotators and achromatic quarter-wave plates rotated at the predetermined angles.

  20. L-Band Digital Aeronautical Communications System Engineering - Concepts of Use, Systems Performance, Requirements, and Architectures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelkin, Natalie; Henriksen, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    This NASA Contractor Report summarizes and documents the work performed to develop concepts of use (ConUse) and high-level system requirements and architecture for the proposed L-band (960 to 1164 MHz) terrestrial en route communications system. This work was completed as a follow-on to the technology assessment conducted by NASA Glenn Research Center and ITT for the Future Communications Study (FCS). ITT assessed air-to-ground (A/G) communications concepts of use and operations presented in relevant NAS-level, international, and NAS-system-level documents to derive the appropriate ConUse relevant to potential A/G communications applications and services for domestic continental airspace. ITT also leveraged prior concepts of use developed during the earlier phases of the FCS. A middle-out functional architecture was adopted by merging the functional system requirements identified in the bottom-up assessment of existing requirements with those derived as a result of the top-down analysis of ConUse and higher level functional requirements. Initial end-to-end system performance requirements were derived to define system capabilities based on the functional requirements and on NAS-SR-1000 and the Operational Performance Assessment conducted as part of the COCR. A high-level notional architecture of the L-DACS supporting A/G communication was derived from the functional architecture and requirements.

  1. Engineering the Surface/Interface Structures of Titanium Dioxide Micro and Nano Architectures towards Environmental and Electrochemical Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoliang Wang

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Titanium dioxide (TiO2 materials have been intensively studied in the past years because of many varied applications. This mini review article focuses on TiO2 micro and nano architectures with the prevalent crystal structures (anatase, rutile, brookite, and TiO2(B, and summarizes the major advances in the surface and interface engineering and applications in environmental and electrochemical applications. We analyze the advantages of surface/interface engineered TiO2 micro and nano structures, and present the principles and growth mechanisms of TiO2 nanostructures via different strategies, with an emphasis on rational control of the surface and interface structures. We further discuss the applications of TiO2 micro and nano architectures in photocatalysis, lithium/sodium ion batteries, and Li–S batteries. Throughout the discussion, the relationship between the device performance and the surface/interface structures of TiO2 micro and nano structures will be highlighted. Then, we discuss the phase transitions of TiO2 nanostructures and possible strategies of improving the phase stability. The review concludes with a perspective on the current challenges and future research directions.

  2. Understanding broadband over power line

    CERN Document Server

    Held, Gilbert

    2006-01-01

    Understanding Broadband over Power Line explores all aspects of the emerging technology that enables electric utilities to provide support for high-speed data communications via their power infrastructure. This book examines the two methods used to connect consumers and businesses to the Internet through the utility infrastructure: the existing electrical wiring of a home or office; and a wireless local area network (WLAN) access point.Written in a practical style that can be understood by network engineers and non-technologists alike, this volume offers tutorials on electric utility infrastru

  3. New Architectures for Presenting Search Results Based on Web Search Engines Users Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, F. J.; Pastor, J. A.; Rodriguez, J. V.; Lopez, Rosana; Rodriguez, J. V., Jr.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: The Internet is a dynamic environment which is continuously being updated. Search engines have been, currently are and in all probability will continue to be the most popular systems in this information cosmos. Method: In this work, special attention has been paid to the series of changes made to search engines up to this point,…

  4. Designing Broadband Access Networks with Triple Redundancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jens Myrup; Riaz, Muhammad Tahir; Knudsen, Thomas Phillip

    2005-01-01

    An architecture is proposed for designing broadband access networks, which offer triple redundancy to the end users, resulting in networks providing connectivity even in case of any two independent node or line failures. Two physically independent connections are offered by fiber, and the last...... provided by some wireless solution. Based on experience with planning Fiber To The Home, the architecture is designed to meet a number of demands, making it practicable and useful in realworld network planning. The proposed wired topology is planar, and suitable for being fitted onto the road network...

  5. A federated design for a neurobiological simulation engine: the CBI federated software architecture.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo Cornelis

    Full Text Available Simulator interoperability and extensibility has become a growing requirement in computational biology. To address this, we have developed a federated software architecture. It is federated by its union of independent disparate systems under a single cohesive view, provides interoperability through its capability to communicate, execute programs, or transfer data among different independent applications, and supports extensibility by enabling simulator expansion or enhancement without the need for major changes to system infrastructure. Historically, simulator interoperability has relied on development of declarative markup languages such as the neuron modeling language NeuroML, while simulator extension typically occurred through modification of existing functionality. The software architecture we describe here allows for both these approaches. However, it is designed to support alternative paradigms of interoperability and extensibility through the provision of logical relationships and defined application programming interfaces. They allow any appropriately configured component or software application to be incorporated into a simulator. The architecture defines independent functional modules that run stand-alone. They are arranged in logical layers that naturally correspond to the occurrence of high-level data (biological concepts versus low-level data (numerical values and distinguish data from control functions. The modular nature of the architecture and its independence from a given technology facilitates communication about similar concepts and functions for both users and developers. It provides several advantages for multiple independent contributions to software development. Importantly, these include: (1 Reduction in complexity of individual simulator components when compared to the complexity of a complete simulator, (2 Documentation of individual components in terms of their inputs and outputs, (3 Easy removal or replacement of

  6. System-Level Development of Fault-Tolerant Distributed Aero-Engine Control Architecture, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA's vision for an "intelligent engine" will be realized with the development of a truly distributed control system and reliable smart transducer node components;...

  7. A Plan for Revolutionary Change in Gas Turbine Engine Control System Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culley, Dennis E.

    2011-01-01

    The implementation of Distributed Engine Control technology on the gas turbine engine has been a vexing challenge for the controls community. A successful implementation requires the resolution of multiple technical issues in areas such as network communications, power distribution, and system integration, but especially in the area of high temperature electronics. Impeding the achievement has been the lack of a clearly articulated message about the importance of the distributed control technology to future turbine engine system goals and objectives. To resolve these issues and bring the technology to fruition has, and will continue to require, a broad coalition of resources from government, industry, and academia. This presentation will describe the broad challenges facing the next generation of advanced control systems and the plan which is being put into action to successfully implement the technology on the next generation of gas turbine engine systems.

  8. Broadband Electromagnetic Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-23

    The objectives of this project are to continue the enhancements to the combined Broadband Electromagnetic and Full Encirclement Unit (BEM-FEU) technologies and to evaluate the systems capability in the laboratory and the field. The BEM instrument ...

  9. Broadband radiometric LED measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eppeldauer, G. P.; Cooksey, C. C.; Yoon, H. W.; Hanssen, L. M.; Podobedov, V. B.; Vest, R. E.; Arp, U.; Miller, C. C.

    2016-09-01

    At present, broadband radiometric LED measurements with uniform and low-uncertainty results are not available. Currently, either complicated and expensive spectral radiometric measurements or broadband photometric LED measurements are used. The broadband photometric measurements are based on the CIE standardized V(λ) function, which cannot be used in the UV range and leads to large errors when blue or red LEDs are measured in its wings, where the realization is always poor. Reference irradiance meters with spectrally constant response and high-intensity LED irradiance sources were developed here to implement the previously suggested broadband radiometric LED measurement procedure [1, 2]. Using a detector with spectrally constant response, the broadband radiometric quantities of any LEDs or LED groups can be simply measured with low uncertainty without using any source standard. The spectral flatness of filtered-Si detectors and low-noise pyroelectric radiometers are compared. Examples are given for integrated irradiance measurement of UV and blue LED sources using the here introduced reference (standard) pyroelectric irradiance meters. For validation, the broadband measured integrated irradiance of several LED-365 sources were compared with the spectrally determined integrated irradiance derived from an FEL spectral irradiance lamp-standard. Integrated responsivity transfer from the reference irradiance meter to transfer standard and field UV irradiance meters is discussed.

  10. Design of the measurements validation procedure and the expert system architecture for a cogeneration internal combustion engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barelli, L.; Bidini, G.

    2005-01-01

    A research activity has been initiated to study the development of a diagnostic methodology, for the optimization of energy efficiency and the maximization of the operational time in those conditions, based on artificial intelligence (AI) techniques such as artificial neural network (ANN) and fuzzy logic. The diagnostic procedure, developed specifically for the cogeneration plant located at the Engineering Department of the University of Perugia, must be characterized by a modular architecture to obtain a flexible architecture applicable to different systems. The first part of the study deals with the identifying the principal modules and the corresponding variables necessary to evaluate the module 'health state'. Also the consequent upgrade of the monitoring system is described in this paper. Moreover it describes the structure proposed for the diagnostic procedure, consisting of a procedure for measurement validation and a fuzzy logic-based inference system. The first reveals the presence of abnormal conditions and localizes their source distinguishing between system failure and instrumentation malfunctions. The second provides an evaluation of module health state and the classification of the failures which have possibly occurred. The procedure was implemented in C++

  11. Agent-oriented software engineering reflections on architectures, methodologies, languages, and frameworks

    CERN Document Server

    Shehory, Onn

    2014-01-01

    With this book, Onn Shehory and Arnon Sturm, together with further contributors, introduce the reader to various facets of agent-oriented software engineering (AOSE). They provide a selected collection of state-of-the-art findings, which combines research from information systems, artificial intelligence, distributed systems and software engineering and covers essential development aspects of agent-based systems. The book chapters are organized into five parts. The first part introduces the AOSE domain in general, including introduction to agents and the peculiarities of software engineerin

  12. Iron, Engineering and Architectural History in Crisis: Following the Case of the River Dee Bridge Disaster, 1847

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Max Taylor

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper establishes relations—historical, material and evidential connections—between two responses to a ‘crisis’. The first features in the history of industrialised iron construction, specifically period reporting on the spectacular collapse of the River Dee bridge in Cheshire, England, in 1847. The second response highlights a blind spot in the historiography of modern architecture. Robert Stephenson became suspect when his cast- and wrought-iron railway bridge across the River Dee failed, resulting in death and injury and continuing uncertainty as to its cause. At the time the incident sparked national furore, setting off a coroner’s inquest followed by a Royal Commission into the perilous state of Britain’s bridges. The inquest jury concluded no one was to blame; rather, it was an accident brought about by use of iron, an uncertain and “treacherous” metal. This explanation has failed to satisfy contemporary materials specialists who have reopened the case, albeit under different terms of reference.      The paper examines the initial verdict, firstly, in view of aspects of the social context of evidence and proof prevailing at the inquest and, secondly, given historical writing on iron construction whereby the inquest’s seemingly imprecise and arbitrary judgment is taken as sign of the subsequent progress of engineering as a practical and moral science. This paper adopts the leitmotif of ‘crisis’ to highlight a parallel history that challenges progressivist narratives of industrialised iron construction and modernist architecture. It invites reflection on the provenance and unstable forms of agency associated with engineering as a propositional and socially contingent enterprise.

  13. The effect of PEGT/PBT scaffold architecture on oxygen gradients in tissue engineered cartilaginous constructs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Malda, J.; Woodfield, T.B.F.; van der Vloodt, F.; Kooy, F.K.; Martens, D.E.; Tramper, J.C.; van Blitterswijk, Clemens; Riesle, J.U.

    2004-01-01

    Repair of articular cartilage defects using tissue engineered constructs composed of a scaffold and cultured autologous cells holds promise for future treatments. However, nutrient limitation (e.g. oxygen) has been suggested as a cause of the onset of chondrogenesis solely within the peripheral

  14. Similarities and Differences in the Academic Education of Software Engineering and Architectural Design Professionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazzan, Orit; Karni, Eyal

    2006-01-01

    This article focuses on the similarities and differences in the academic education of software engineers and architects. The rationale for this work stems from our observation, each from the perspective of her or his own discipline, that these two professional design and development processes share some similarities. A pilot study was performed,…

  15. Bio-inspired heterogeneous composites for broadband vibration mitigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yanyu; Wang, Lifeng

    2015-12-08

    Structural biological materials have developed heterogeneous and hierarchical architectures that are responsible for the outstanding performance to provide protection against environmental threats including static and dynamic loading. Inspired by this observation, this research aims to develop new material and structural concepts for broadband vibration mitigation. The proposed composite materials possess a two-layered heterogeneous architecture where both layers consist of high-volume platelet-shape reinforcements and low-volume matrix, similar to the well-known "brick and mortar" microstructure of biological composites. Using finite element method, we numerically demonstrated that broadband wave attenuation zones can be achieved by tailoring the geometric features of the heterogeneous architecture. We reveal that the resulting broadband attenuation zones are gained by directly superimposing the attenuation zones in each constituent layer. This mechanism is further confirmed by the investigation into the phonon dispersion relation of each layer. Importantly, the broadband wave attenuation capability will be maintained when the mineral platelet orientation is locally manipulated, yet a contrast between the mineral platelet concentrations of the two constituent layers is essential. The findings of this work will provide new opportunities to design heterogeneous composites for broadband vibration mitigation and impact resistance under mechanically challenging environmental conditions.

  16. Direct UV-written broadband directional broadband planar waveguide couplers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olivero, Massimo; Svalgaard, Mikael

    2005-01-01

    We report the fabrication of broadband directional couplers by direct UV-writing. The fabrication process is shown to be beneficial, robust and flexible. The components are compact and show superior performance in terms of loss and broadband operation.......We report the fabrication of broadband directional couplers by direct UV-writing. The fabrication process is shown to be beneficial, robust and flexible. The components are compact and show superior performance in terms of loss and broadband operation....

  17. PICNIC Architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saranummi, Niilo

    2005-01-01

    The PICNIC architecture aims at supporting inter-enterprise integration and the facilitation of collaboration between healthcare organisations. The concept of a Regional Health Economy (RHE) is introduced to illustrate the varying nature of inter-enterprise collaboration between healthcare organisations collaborating in providing health services to citizens and patients in a regional setting. The PICNIC architecture comprises a number of PICNIC IT Services, the interfaces between them and presents a way to assemble these into a functioning Regional Health Care Network meeting the needs and concerns of its stakeholders. The PICNIC architecture is presented through a number of views relevant to different stakeholder groups. The stakeholders of the first view are national and regional health authorities and policy makers. The view describes how the architecture enables the implementation of national and regional health policies, strategies and organisational structures. The stakeholders of the second view, the service viewpoint, are the care providers, health professionals, patients and citizens. The view describes how the architecture supports and enables regional care delivery and process management including continuity of care (shared care) and citizen-centred health services. The stakeholders of the third view, the engineering view, are those that design, build and implement the RHCN. The view comprises four sub views: software engineering, IT services engineering, security and data. The proposed architecture is founded into the main stream of how distributed computing environments are evolving. The architecture is realised using the web services approach. A number of well established technology platforms and generic standards exist that can be used to implement the software components. The software components that are specified in PICNIC are implemented in Open Source.

  18. On civil and architectural engineering works of the new prototype converter FUGEN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiri, Akira; Yamagata, Takayasu.

    1976-01-01

    The relatively featured engineering work of FUGEN is reviewed, and the outline of ventilation system is illustrated. Civil engineering work commenced in 1970 and almost ended after 5 years. Test grout led to the practicability of injecting about 40 kg of milky cement per 1 meter of a drilled well. Ten meter long wells around the reactor building base and 6 meter long wells inside the base were staggeredly arranged at 3 meter intervals. They were drilled with a 46 mm boring machine. The drifter drilling method could not be employed because of hard rock joint. The place and method of disposing dredged soil, the securing of time and place for setting marine pipes, and the prevention of turbid current inflow during dredging had to be solved for cooling water intake. The turbid current inflow was avoided with a large oil fence and chemical solution. The reinforcing steel for concrete was prefabricated. Dry pack method was employed in the works under the containment vessel. The ventilation system covers whole buildings except the air recirculating system for the containment vessel. For the purpose of removing radioactively contaminated dusts, cooling was performed, as a rule, by once-through ventilation system with 100% outdoor air. The air flows in the direction from clean zone to high contamination zone through low contamination zone. The iodine-removing efficiency of a filter system is 90%. (Iwakiri, K.)

  19. Broadband Liner Optimization for the Source Diagnostic Test Fan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nark, Douglas M.; Jones, Michael G.

    2012-01-01

    The broadband component of fan noise has grown in relevance with the utilization of increased bypass ratio and advanced fan designs. Thus, while the attenuation of fan tones remains paramount, the ability to simultaneously reduce broadband fan noise levels has become more appealing. This paper describes a broadband acoustic liner optimization study for the scale model Source Diagnostic Test fan. Specifically, in-duct attenuation predictions with a statistical fan source model are used to obtain optimum impedance spectra over a number of flow conditions for three liner locations in the bypass duct. The predicted optimum impedance information is then used with acoustic liner modeling tools to design liners aimed at producing impedance spectra that most closely match the predicted optimum values. Design selection is based on an acceptance criterion that provides the ability to apply increased weighting to specific frequencies and/or operating conditions. Typical tonal liner designs targeting single frequencies at one operating condition are first produced to provide baseline performance information. These are followed by multiple broadband design approaches culminating in a broadband liner targeting the full range of frequencies and operating conditions. The broadband liner is found to satisfy the optimum impedance objectives much better than the tonal liner designs. In addition, the broadband liner is found to provide better attenuation than the tonal designs over the full range of frequencies and operating conditions considered. Thus, the current study successfully establishes a process for the initial design and evaluation of novel broadband liner concepts for complex engine configurations.

  20. Visibiome: an efficient microbiome search engine based on a scalable, distributed architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azman, Syafiq Kamarul; Anwar, Muhammad Zohaib; Henschel, Andreas

    2017-07-24

    Given the current influx of 16S rRNA profiles of microbiota samples, it is conceivable that large amounts of them eventually are available for search, comparison and contextualization with respect to novel samples. This process facilitates the identification of similar compositional features in microbiota elsewhere and therefore can help to understand driving factors for microbial community assembly. We present Visibiome, a microbiome search engine that can perform exhaustive, phylogeny based similarity search and contextualization of user-provided samples against a comprehensive dataset of 16S rRNA profiles environments, while tackling several computational challenges. In order to scale to high demands, we developed a distributed system that combines web framework technology, task queueing and scheduling, cloud computing and a dedicated database server. To further ensure speed and efficiency, we have deployed Nearest Neighbor search algorithms, capable of sublinear searches in high-dimensional metric spaces in combination with an optimized Earth Mover Distance based implementation of weighted UniFrac. The search also incorporates pairwise (adaptive) rarefaction and optionally, 16S rRNA copy number correction. The result of a query microbiome sample is the contextualization against a comprehensive database of microbiome samples from a diverse range of environments, visualized through a rich set of interactive figures and diagrams, including barchart-based compositional comparisons and ranking of the closest matches in the database. Visibiome is a convenient, scalable and efficient framework to search microbiomes against a comprehensive database of environmental samples. The search engine leverages a popular but computationally expensive, phylogeny based distance metric, while providing numerous advantages over the current state of the art tool.

  1. Broadband Internet and Income Inequality

    OpenAIRE

    HOUNGBONON , Georges Vivien; Liang , Julienne

    2017-01-01

    Policy makers are aiming for a large coverage of high-speed broadband Internet. However , there is still a lack of evidence about its effects on income distribution. In this paper, we investigate the effects of fixed broadband Internet on mean income and income inequality using a unique town-level data on broadband adoption and quality in France. We find that broadband adoption and quality raise mean income and lower income inequality. These results are robust to initial conditions, and yield...

  2. Software Architecture to Support the Evolution of the ISRU RESOLVE Engineering Breadboard Unit 2 (EBU2)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, Thomas; Nurge, Mark; Perusich, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    The In-Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) Regolith & Environmental Science and Oxygen & Lunar Volatiles Extraction (RESOLVE) software provides operation of the physical plant from a remote location with a high-level interface that can access and control the data from external software applications of other subsystems. This software allows autonomous control over the entire system with manual computer control of individual system/process components. It gives non-programmer operators the capability to easily modify the high-level autonomous sequencing while the software is in operation, as well as the ability to modify the low-level, file-based sequences prior to the system operation. Local automated control in a distributed system is also enabled where component control is maintained during the loss of network connectivity with the remote workstation. This innovation also minimizes network traffic. The software architecture commands and controls the latest generation of RESOLVE processes used to obtain, process, and quantify lunar regolith. The system is grouped into six sub-processes: Drill, Crush, Reactor, Lunar Water Resource Demonstration (LWRD), Regolith Volatiles Characterization (RVC) (see example), and Regolith Oxygen Extraction (ROE). Some processes are independent, some are dependent on other processes, and some are independent but run concurrently with other processes. The first goal is to analyze the volatiles emanating from lunar regolith, such as water, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, ammonia, hydrogen, and others. This is done by heating the soil and analyzing and capturing the volatilized product. The second goal is to produce water by reducing the soil at high temperatures with hydrogen. This is done by raising the reactor temperature in the range of 800 to 900 C, causing the reaction to progress by adding hydrogen, and then capturing the water product in a desiccant bed. The software needs to run the entire unit and all sub-processes; however

  3. Broadband waveguided light sources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pollnau, Markus

    In recent years, broadband fiber interferometers have become very popular as basic instruments used in optical low-coherence reflectometry for diagnostics of fiber and integrated optics devices or in optical coherence tomography (OCT) for imaging applications in the biomedical field. The

  4. Cable-telco architectures

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrath, Carl J.

    1994-11-01

    Continued evolution of consumer broadband services such as digital video and digital multimedia has placed renewed emphasis on the need for network solutions to the broadband connectivity challenge. Although still important to architectural planners, connection oriented broadband services based on ISDN concepts must now compete with a wider array of broadcast and highly asymmetrical services for bandwidth on the network. For network operators, the business imperative is to identify and execute a network rebuild plan that will meet the capacity and flexibility needs of these services and compete with the inevitable alternate paths into the home. This paper focuses on some of the key issues facing broadband network planners as they search for the best architecture to meet the business and operations goals in their segment of the market. It will be apparent that no single optimum solution exists for all deployment scenarios, emphasizing the need for flexible and modular sources (such as servers) and network interfaces (such as set tops) which preserve the value of content, the ultimate driver in this round of network revolution.

  5. Macromolecular Engineering: New Routes Towards the Synthesis of Well-??Defined Polyethers/Polyesters Co/Terpolymers with Different Architectures

    KAUST Repository

    Alamri, Haleema

    2016-05-18

    The primary objective of this research was to develop a new and efficient pathway for well-defined multicomponent homo/co/terpolymers of cyclic esters/ethers using an organocatalytic approach with an emphasis on the macromolecular engineering aspects of the overall synthesis. Macromolecular engineering (as discussed in the first chapter) of homo/copolymers refers to the specific tailoring of these materials for achieving an easy and reproducible synthesis that results in precise molecular characteristics, i.e. molecular weight and polydispersity, as well as specific structure and end?group choices. Precise control of these molecular characteristics will provide access to new materials that can be used for pre-targeted purposes such as biomedical applications. Among the most commonly used engineering materials are polyesters (biocompatible and biodegradable) and polyethers (biocompatible), either as homopolymers or when or copolymers with linear structures. The ability to create non-linear structures, for example stars, will open new horizons in the applications of these important polymeric materials. The second part of this thesis describes the synthesis of aliphatic polyesters, particularly polycaprolactone and polylactide, using a metal-free initiator/catalyst system. A phosphazene base (t?BuP2) was used as the catalyst for the ring-opening copolymerization of ?-aprolactone (??CL) and L,Lactide (LLA) at room temperature with a variety of protic initiators in different solvents. These studies provided important information for the design of a metal-free route toward the synthesis of polyester?based (bio) materials. The third part of the thesis describes a novel route for the one?pot synthesis of polyether-b polyester block copolymers with either a linear or a specific macromolecular architecture. Poly (styrene oxide)?b?poly(caprolactone)?b?poly(L,lactide) was prepared using this method with the goal of synthesizing poly(styrene oxide)-based materials since this

  6. Effect of pore architecture and stacking direction on mechanical properties of solid freeform fabrication-based scaffold for bone tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jung-Seob; Cha, Hwang Do; Shim, Jin-Hyung; Jung, Jin Woo; Kim, Jong Young; Cho, Dong-Woo

    2012-07-01

    Fabrication of a three-dimensional (3D) scaffold with increased mechanical strength may be an essential requirement for more advanced bone tissue engineering scaffolds. Various material- and chemical-based approaches have been explored to enhance the mechanical properties of engineered bone tissue scaffolds. In this study, the effects of pore architecture and stacking direction on the mechanical and cell proliferation properties of a scaffold were investigated. The 3D scaffold was prepared using solid freeform fabrication technology with a multihead deposition system. Various types of scaffolds with different pore architectures (lattice, stagger, and triangle types) and stacking directions (horizontal and vertical directions) were fabricated with a blend of polycaprolactone and poly lactic-co-glycolic acid. In compression tests, the triangle-type scaffold was the strongest among the experimental groups. Stacking direction affected the mechanical properties of scaffolds. An in vitro cell counting kit-8 assay showed no significant differences in optical density depending on the different pore architectures and stacking directions. In conclusion, mechanical properties of scaffolds can be enhanced by controlling pore architecture and stacking direction. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. An Inventory and Evaluation of Architectural and Engineering Resources of the Big South Fork National River and Recreation Area, Tennessee and Kentucky.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-02-25

    coordinated multidisciplinary study of both the architectural and engineering resources of the National Area. Both research b1 orientation and...South Fork just north of Rugby , and traveled through the site where Jamestown, Tennessee, now stands. A third trail, the Chickamauga Path, left the...Thomas Hughes (1881), the founder of the English colony of Rugby , Tennessee, described his neighbors in the Big South Fork area as mostly poor men

  8. Advanced broadband baffle materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seals, R.D.

    1991-01-01

    In this paper broadband performance characteristics of robust, light-weight, diffuse-absorptive baffle surfaces fabricated from sputter-deposited beryllium on cross-rolled Be ingot sheet material and on Be foam, plasma sprayed beryllium, plasma sprayed boron-on-beryllium, and chemical vapor deposited boron carbide on graphite are described and compared to Martin Black. An overview of the Optics Manufacturing Operations Development and Integration Laboratory (MODIL) Advanced Optical Baffle Program will be discussed

  9. Model-based system-of-systems engineering for space-based command, control, communication, and information architecture design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sindiy, Oleg V.

    This dissertation presents a model-based system-of-systems engineering (SoSE) approach as a design philosophy for architecting in system-of-systems (SoS) problems. SoS refers to a special class of systems in which numerous systems with operational and managerial independence interact to generate new capabilities that satisfy societal needs. Design decisions are more complicated in a SoS setting. A revised Process Model for SoSE is presented to support three phases in SoS architecting: defining the scope of the design problem, abstracting key descriptors and their interrelations in a conceptual model, and implementing computer-based simulations for architectural analyses. The Process Model enables improved decision support considering multiple SoS features and develops computational models capable of highlighting configurations of organizational, policy, financial, operational, and/or technical features. Further, processes for verification and validation of SoS models and simulations are also important due to potential impact on critical decision-making and, thus, are addressed. Two research questions frame the research efforts described in this dissertation. The first concerns how the four key sources of SoS complexity---heterogeneity of systems, connectivity structure, multi-layer interactions, and the evolutionary nature---influence the formulation of SoS models and simulations, trade space, and solution performance and structure evaluation metrics. The second question pertains to the implementation of SoSE architecting processes to inform decision-making for a subset of SoS problems concerning the design of information exchange services in space-based operations domain. These questions motivate and guide the dissertation's contributions. A formal methodology for drawing relationships within a multi-dimensional trade space, forming simulation case studies from applications of candidate architecture solutions to a campaign of notional mission use cases, and

  10. Broadband Optical Access Technologies to Converge towards a Broadband Society in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coudreuse, Jean-Pierre; Pautonnier, Sophie; Lavillonnière, Eric; Didierjean, Sylvain; Hilt, Benoît; Kida, Toshimichi; Oshima, Kazuyoshi

    This paper provides insights on the status of broadband optical access market and technologies in Europe and on the expected trends for the next generation optical access networks. The final target for most operators, cities or any other player is of course FTTH (Fibre To The Home) deployment although we can expect intermediate steps with copper or wireless technologies. Among the two candidate architectures for FTTH, PON (Passive Optical Network) is by far the most attractive and cost effective solution. We also demonstrate that Ethernet based optical access network is very adequate to all-IP networks without any incidence on the level of quality of service. Finally, we provide feedback from a FTTH pilot network in Colmar (France) based on Gigabit Ethernet PON technology. The interest of this pilot lies on the level of functionality required for broadband optical access networks but also on the development of new home network configurations.

  11. Broadband Radio Service (BRS) and Educational Broadband Service (EBS) Transmitters

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The Broadband Radio Service (BRS), formerly known as the Multipoint Distribution Service (MDS)/Multichannel Multipoint Distribution Service (MMDS), is a commercial...

  12. Handheld Broadband Electromagnetic UXO Sensor

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Won, I. J; San Filipo, William A; Marqusee, Jeffrey; Andrews, Anne; Robitaille, George; Fairbanks, Jeffrey; Overbay, Larry

    2005-01-01

    The broadband electromagnetic sensor improvement and demonstration undertaken in this project took the prototype GEM-3 and evolved it into an operational sensor with increased bandwidth and dynamic...

  13. Innovation in hydroelectric power plant design in early twentieth century. Casto Fernández-Shaw's Engineering Architecture in La Jándula dam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. B. Berrocal Menárguez

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The power plant location in the first hydroelectrial dams was a relevant issue at the end of XIX century and early XX. Different solutions were tried, some of them with very interesting aesthetics results and hydraulic and structural implications. Such is the case of La Jándula dam, inaugurated in 1930, that includes the power station inside the dam. This article examines the possible national and international inspirations of this singular solution, corroborating the hypothesis of its unprecedented nature. The collaboration of the architect Casto Fernández-Shaw in the design and integration of the engine room was decisive, because it achieved a result of an aesthetic quality and formal expressiveness unprecedented in a work of hydraulic engineering, as well as the birth of a style Shaw himself defined as architectural engineering.

  14. An Architecture for On-Line Measurement of the Tip Clearance and Time of Arrival of a Bladed Disk of an Aircraft Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Miguel Gil-García

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Safety and performance of the turbo-engine in an aircraft is directly affected by the health of its blades. In recent years, several improvements to the sensors have taken place to monitor the blades in a non-intrusive way. The parameters that are usually measured are the distance between the blade tip and the casing, and the passing time at a given point. Simultaneously, several techniques have been developed that allow for the inference—from those parameters and under certain conditions—of the amplitude and frequency of the blade vibration. These measurements are carried out on engines set on a rig, before being installed in an airplane. In order to incorporate these methods during the regular operation of the engine, signal processing that allows for the monitoring of those parameters at all times should be developed. This article introduces an architecture, based on a trifurcated optic sensor and a hardware processor, that fulfills this need. The proposed architecture is scalable and allows several sensors to be simultaneously monitored at different points around a bladed disk. Furthermore, the results obtained by the electronic system will be compared with the results obtained by the validation of the optic sensor.

  15. An Assessment of Emerging Wireless Broadband Technologies

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fountanas, Leonidas

    2001-01-01

    ... technologies in providing broadband services today, emerging wireless broadband technologies are expected to significantly increase their market share over the next years, Deploying a wireless network...

  16. The U.S. Market For Broadband Over Powerline, 3. edition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-15

    The report provides a study of the potential market for BPL technology in the U.S. including a look at the past, present, and future state of Broadband Over Powerline (BPL) in the U.S. The Scope of the report includes the following topics: a description of the history of powerline communications (PLC) and broadband over powerline (BPL) technology; an analysis of key drivers of BPL within the electric utility and internet access industries; an overview of BPL technology and architecture; a comparison of BPL with alternative broadband access methods; an analysis of technological, regulatory, and business barriers to BPL's success; identification of the key applications and markets for BPL; a description of business models for BPL; an analysis of key market trends in broadband internet access; a review of the market development of cable modem broadband access; profiles of major U.S. BPL market participants; and, profiles of major U.S. BPL projects.

  17. Switched Broadband Services For The Home

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawyer, Don M.

    1990-01-01

    In considering the deployment of fiber optics to the residence, two critical questions arise: what are the leading services that could be offered to justify the required investment; and what is the nature of the business that would offer these services to the consumer ? This talk will address these two questions together with the related issue of how the "financial engine" of today's television distribution infrastructure - TV advertising - would be affected by an open access system based on fiber optics coupled with broadband switching. On the business side, the talk concludes that the potential for open ended capacity expansion, fair competition between service providers, and new interactive services inherent in an open access, switched broadband system are the critical items in differentiating it from existing video and TV distribution systems. On the question of broadband services, the talk will highlight several new opportunities together with some findings from recent market research conducted by BNR. The talk will show that there are variations on existing services plus many new services that could be offered and which have real consumer appeal. The postulated open access system discussed here is visualized as having ultimately 1,000 to 2,000 video channels available to the consumer. Although this may appear to hopelessly fragment the TV audience and destroy the current TV advertising infrastructure, the technology of open access, switched broadband will present many new advertising techniques, which have the potential to be far more effective than those available today. Some of these techniques will be described in this talk.

  18. Solar energy in building construction practice. Solar architecture and solar engineering - fundamentals and uses. Sonnenenergie in der Baupraxis. Solar-Architektur und Solar-Technik - Grundlagen und Anwendungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weik, H.; Hahn, G.; Marschall, F.; Meister, H.; Peters, W.; Ranft, F.

    1991-01-01

    This anthology presents a number of overall suggestions for modern, trend-setting building construction. Details are given about active in addition to passive solar energy utilization, i.e. combinations of solar architecture and solar engineering. In an intelligible way accessible to non-physicist readers, part one discusses the related physicotechnical and town-planning fundamentals. Parts two and three are dedicated to building construction practice. They discuss the various problems of solar energy utilization from the point of view of architects, and refer to economic aspects and thermal insulation. Numerous pictures, diagrams and tables complete the book. (BWI) With 59 figs.

  19. Broadband unidirectional ultrasound propagation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Dipen N.; Pantea, Cristian

    2017-12-12

    A passive, linear arrangement of a sonic crystal-based apparatus and method including a 1D sonic crystal, a nonlinear medium, and an acoustic low-pass filter, for permitting unidirectional broadband ultrasound propagation as a collimated beam for underwater, air or other fluid communication, are described. The signal to be transmitted is first used to modulate a high-frequency ultrasonic carrier wave which is directed into the sonic crystal side of the apparatus. The apparatus processes the modulated signal, whereby the original low-frequency signal exits the apparatus as a collimated beam on the side of the apparatus opposite the sonic crystal. The sonic crystal provides a bandpass acoustic filter through which the modulated high-frequency ultrasonic signal passes, and the nonlinear medium demodulates the modulated signal and recovers the low-frequency sound beam. The low-pass filter removes remaining high-frequency components, and contributes to the unidirectional property of the apparatus.

  20. Architectural Physics: Lighting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkinson, R. G.

    The author coordinates the many diverse branches of knowledge which have dealt with the field of lighting--physiology, psychology, engineering, physics, and architectural design. Part I, "The Elements of Architectural Physics", discusses the physiological aspects of lighting, visual performance, lighting design, calculations and measurements of…

  1. The toolbus coordination architecture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergstra, J.A.; Klint, P.

    1996-01-01

    Building large, heterogeneous, distributed software systems poses serious problems for the software engineer; achieving interoperability of software systems is still a major challenge. We describe an experiment in designing a generic software architecture for solving these problems. To get

  2. Architectural prototyping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bardram, Jakob Eyvind; Christensen, Henrik Bærbak; Hansen, Klaus Marius

    2004-01-01

    A major part of software architecture design is learning how specific architectural designs balance the concerns of stakeholders. We explore the notion of "architectural prototypes", correspondingly architectural prototyping, as a means of using executable prototypes to investigate stakeholders...

  3. Architecture on Architecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Karen

    2016-01-01

    that is not scientific or academic but is more like a latent body of data that we find embedded in existing works of architecture. This information, it is argued, is not limited by the historical context of the work. It can be thought of as a virtual capacity – a reservoir of spatial configurations that can...... correlation between the study of existing architectures and the training of competences to design for present-day realities.......This paper will discuss the challenges faced by architectural education today. It takes as its starting point the double commitment of any school of architecture: on the one hand the task of preserving the particular knowledge that belongs to the discipline of architecture, and on the other hand...

  4. Software architecture analysis tool : software architecture metrics collection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muskens, J.; Chaudron, M.R.V.; Westgeest, R.

    2002-01-01

    The Software Engineering discipline lacks the ability to evaluate software architectures. Here we describe a tool for software architecture analysis that is based on metrics. Metrics can be used to detect possible problems and bottlenecks in software architectures. Even though metrics do not give a

  5. Engineering the Surface/Interface Structures of Titanium Dioxide Micro and Nano Architectures towards Environmental and Electrochemical Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Xiaoliang; Zhao, Yanyan; Mølhave, Kristian

    2017-01-01

    advances in the surface and interface engineering and applications in environmental and electrochemical applications. We analyze the advantages of surface/interface engineered TiO₂ micro and nano structures, and present the principles and growth mechanisms of TiO₂ nanostructures via different strategies...

  6. Architecture and Stages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiib, Hans

    2009-01-01

    as "experiencescape" - a space between tourism, culture, learning and economy. Strategies related to these challenges involve new architectural concepts and art as ‘engines' for a change. New expressive architecture and old industrial buildings are often combined into hybrid narratives, linking the past...... with the future. But this is not enough. The agenda is to develop architectural spaces, where social interaction and learning are enhanced by art and fun. How can we develop new architectural designs in our inner cities and waterfronts where eventscapes, learning labs and temporal use are merged with everyday...

  7. Broadband accelerator control network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skelly, J.; Clifford, T.; Frankel, R.

    1983-01-01

    A broadband data communications network has been implemented at BNL for control of the Alternating Gradient Synchrotron (AG) proton accelerator, using commercial CATV hardware, dual coaxial cables as the communications medium, and spanning 2.0 km. A 4 MHz bandwidth Digital Control channel using CSMA-CA protocol is provided for digital data transmission, with 8 access nodes available over the length of the RELWAY. Each node consists of an rf modem and a microprocessor-based store-and-forward message handler which interfaces the RELWAY to a branch line implemented in GPIB. A gateway to the RELWAY control channel for the (preexisting) AGS Computerized Accelerator Operating system has been constructed using an LSI-11/23 microprocessor as a device in a GPIB branch line. A multilayer communications protocol has been defined for the Digital Control Channel, based on the ISO Open Systems Interconnect layered model, and a RELWAY Device Language defined as the required universal language for device control on this channel

  8. Broadband low-frequency sound isolation by lightweight adaptive metamaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Yunhong; Chen, Yangyang; Huang, Guoliang; Zhou, Xiaoming

    2018-03-01

    Blocking broadband low-frequency airborne noises is highly desirable in lots of engineering applications, while it is extremely difficult to be realized with lightweight materials and/or structures. Recently, a new class of lightweight adaptive metamaterials with hybrid shunting circuits has been proposed, demonstrating super broadband structure-borne bandgaps. In this study, we aim at examining their potentials in broadband sound isolation by establishing an analytical model that rigorously combines the piezoelectric dynamic couplings between adaptive metamaterials and acoustics. Sound transmission loss of the adaptive metamaterial is investigated with respect to both the frequency and angular spectrum to demonstrate their sound-insulation effects. We find that efficient sound isolation can indeed be pursued in the broadband bi-spectrum for not only the case of the small resonator's periodicity where only one mode relevant to the mass-spring resonance exists, but also for the large-periodicity scenario, so that the total weight can be even lighter, in which the multiple plate-resonator coupling modes appear. In the latter case, the negative spring stiffness provided by the piezoelectric stack has been utilized to suppress the resonance-induced high acoustic transmission. Such kinds of adaptive metamaterials could open a new approach for broadband noise isolation with extremely lightweight structures.

  9. Macromolecular Engineering: New Routes Towards the Synthesis of Well-??Defined Polyethers/Polyesters Co/Terpolymers with Different Architectures

    KAUST Repository

    Alamri, Haleema

    2016-01-01

    Macromolecular engineering (as discussed in the first chapter) of homo/copolymers refers to the specific tailoring of these materials for achieving an easy and reproducible synthesis that results in precise molecular

  10. Broadband Rotational Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pate, Brooks

    2014-06-01

    The past decade has seen several major technology advances in electronics operating at microwave frequencies making it possible to develop a new generation of spectrometers for molecular rotational spectroscopy. High-speed digital electronics, both arbitrary waveform generators and digitizers, continue on a Moore's Law-like development cycle that started around 1993 with device bandwidth doubling about every 36 months. These enabling technologies were the key to designing chirped-pulse Fourier transform microwave (CP-FTMW) spectrometers which offer significant sensitivity enhancements for broadband spectrum acquisition in molecular rotational spectroscopy. A special feature of the chirped-pulse spectrometer design is that it is easily implemented at low frequency (below 8 GHz) where Balle-Flygare type spectrometers with Fabry-Perot cavity designs become technologically challenging due to the mirror size requirements. The capabilities of CP-FTMW spectrometers for studies of molecular structure will be illustrated by the collaborative research effort we have been a part of to determine the structures of water clusters - a project which has identified clusters up to the pentadecamer. A second technology trend that impacts molecular rotational spectroscopy is the development of high power, solid state sources in the mm-wave/THz regions. Results from the field of mm-wave chirped-pulse Fourier transform spectroscopy will be described with an emphasis on new problems in chemical dynamics and analytical chemistry that these methods can tackle. The third (and potentially most important) technological trend is the reduction of microwave components to chip level using monolithic microwave integrated circuits (MMIC) - a technology driven by an enormous mass market in communications. Some recent advances in rotational spectrometer designs that incorporate low-cost components will be highlighted. The challenge to the high-resolution spectroscopy community - as posed by Frank De

  11. Driving demand for broadband networks and services

    CERN Document Server

    Katz, Raul L

    2014-01-01

    This book examines the reasons why various groups around the world choose not to adopt broadband services and evaluates strategies to stimulate the demand that will lead to increased broadband use. It introduces readers to the benefits of higher adoption rates while examining the progress that developed and emerging countries have made in stimulating broadband demand. By relying on concepts such as a supply and demand gap, broadband price elasticity, and demand promotion, this book explains differences between the fixed and mobile broadband demand gap, introducing the notions of substitution and complementarity between both platforms. Building on these concepts, ‘Driving Demand for Broadband Networks and Services’ offers a set of best practices and recommendations aimed at promoting broadband demand.  The broadband demand gap is defined as individuals and households that could buy a broadband subscription because they live in areas served by telecommunications carriers but do not do so because of either ...

  12. Advanced Avionics Architecture and Technology Review. Executive Summary and Volume 1, Avionics Technology. Volume 2. Avionics Systems Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-08-06

    JIAWG core avionics are described in the section below. The JIAWO architecture standard (187-01) describes an open. system architeture which provides...0.35 microns (pRm). Present technology is in the 0.8 npm to 0.5 pm range for aggressive producers. Since the area of a die is approximately proportional ...analog (D/A) converters. The I A/D converter is a device or circuit that examines an analog voltage or current and converts it to a proportional binary

  13. Economics-driven software architecture

    CERN Document Server

    Mistrik, Ivan; Kazman, Rick; Zhang, Yuanyuan

    2014-01-01

    Economics-driven Software Architecture presents a guide for engineers and architects who need to understand the economic impact of architecture design decisions: the long term and strategic viability, cost-effectiveness, and sustainability of applications and systems. Economics-driven software development can increase quality, productivity, and profitability, but comprehensive knowledge is needed to understand the architectural challenges involved in dealing with the development of large, architecturally challenging systems in an economic way. This book covers how to apply economic consider

  14. Problem-Based Project-Oriented Learning: Educating and evaluating for new disciplines emerging in the interplay between the professions of civil engineering and architecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mullins, Michael

    2006-01-01

    styles, which raises the question of how to assess the individual student’s learning where widely different strategies with widely differing results are employed. While offering many interesting possibilities, the integration of these historically separated disciplines embraces paradoxes...... and contradictions reflected in the differences inherent in two pedagogical models used by the university, problem-based learning and project-oriented learning. However, in order for this to be adequately demonstrated, suitable forms of evaluation are necessary. A case is made for the review of assessment criteria......, and uses PBL and project-oriented models for its educational form. There is a distinct difference between engineering and architecture in their evolutionary backgrounds and their varying degree of emphasis on natural science. Both present different forms of problem solving that appeal to different learning...

  15. Femtosecond Broadband Stimulated Raman Spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Soo-Y; Yoon, Sagwoon; Mathies, Richard A

    2006-01-01

    Femtosecond broadband stimulated Raman spectroscopy (FSRS) is a new technique where a narrow bandwidth picosecond Raman pump pulse and a red-shifted broadband femtosecond Stokes probe pulse (with or without time delay between the pulses) act on a sample to produce a high resolution Raman gain spectrum with high efficiency and speed, free from fluorescence background interference. It can reveal vibrational structural information and dynamics of stationary or transient states. Here, the quantum picture for femtosecond broadband stimulated Raman spectroscopy (FSRS) is used to develop the semiclassical coupled wave theory of the phenomenon and to derive an expression for the measurable Raman gain in FSRS. The semiclassical theory is applied to study the dependence of lineshapes in FSRS on the pump-probe time delay and to deduce vibrational dephasing times in cyclohexane in the ground state

  16. Distinct Polymer Architecture Mediates Switching of Complement Activation Pathways at the Nanosphere-Serum Interface: Implications for Stealth Nanoparticle Engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hamad, I.; Al-Hanbali, O.; Hunter, A.C.

    2010-01-01

    Nanoparticles with surface projected polyethyleneoxide (PEO) chains in 'mushroom-brush' and "brush" configurations display stealth properties in systemic circulation and have numerous applications in site specific targeting for controlled drug delivery and release as well as diagnostic Imaging. W...... engineering and design of immunologically safer stealth and targetable nanosystems with polymers for use in clinical medicine....

  17. Characteristics of hybrid broadcast broadband television (HbbTV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakšić Branimir

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the working principle of hybrid broadcast-broadband TV (Hybrid Broadcast Broadband TV - HbbTV. The architecture of HbbTV system is given, the principle of its operation, as well as an overview of HbbTV specification standards that are in use, with their basic characteristics. Here are described the services provided by Hybrid TV. It is also provided an overview of the distribution of HbbTV services in Europe in terms of the number of TV channels that HbbTV services offer, the number of active hybrid TV devices, HbbTV standards which are in use and models of broadcast networks used to distribute HbbTV service.

  18. Broadband Quantum Cryptography

    CERN Document Server

    Rogers, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    Quantum cryptography is a rapidly developing field that draws from a number of disciplines, from quantum optics to information theory to electrical engineering. By combining some fundamental quantum mechanical principles of single photons with various aspects of information theory, quantum cryptography represents a fundamental shift in the basis for security from numerical complexity to the fundamental physical nature of the communications channel. As such, it promises the holy grail of data security: theoretically unbreakable encryption. Of course, implementing quantum cryptography in real br

  19. Observations involving broadband impedance modelling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berg, J S [Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, Menlo Park, CA (United States)

    1996-08-01

    Results for single- and multi-bunch instabilities can be significantly affected by the precise model that is used for the broadband impedance. This paper discusses three aspects of broadband impedance modelling. The first is an observation of the effect that a seemingly minor change in an impedance model has on the single-bunch mode coupling threshold. The second is a successful attempt to construct a model for the high-frequency tails of an r.f. cavity. The last is a discussion of requirements for the mathematical form of an impedance which follow from the general properties of impedances. (author)

  20. Observations involving broadband impedance modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berg, J.S.

    1995-08-01

    Results for single- and multi-bunch instabilities can be significantly affected by the precise model that is used for the broadband impendance. This paper discusses three aspects of broadband impendance modeling. The first is an observation of the effect that a seemingly minor change in an impedance model has on the single-bunch mode coupling threshold. The second is a successful attempt to construct a model for the high-frequency tails of an r.f cavity. The last is a discussion of requirements for the mathematical form of an impendance which follow from the general properties of impendances

  1. Architectural slicing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Henrik Bærbak; Hansen, Klaus Marius

    2013-01-01

    Architectural prototyping is a widely used practice, con- cerned with taking architectural decisions through experiments with light- weight implementations. However, many architectural decisions are only taken when systems are already (partially) implemented. This is prob- lematic in the context...... of architectural prototyping since experiments with full systems are complex and expensive and thus architectural learn- ing is hindered. In this paper, we propose a novel technique for harvest- ing architectural prototypes from existing systems, \\architectural slic- ing", based on dynamic program slicing. Given...... a system and a slicing criterion, architectural slicing produces an architectural prototype that contain the elements in the architecture that are dependent on the ele- ments in the slicing criterion. Furthermore, we present an initial design and implementation of an architectural slicer for Java....

  2. Achieving universal access to broadband

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Falch, Morten; Henten, Anders

    2009-01-01

    The paper discusses appropriate policy measures for achieving universal access to broadband services in Europe. Access can be delivered by means of many different technology solutions described in the paper. This means a greater degree of competition and affects the kind of policy measures...

  3. In-body tissue-engineered aortic valve (Biovalve type VII) architecture based on 3D printer molding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakayama, Yasuhide; Takewa, Yoshiaki; Sumikura, Hirohito; Yamanami, Masashi; Matsui, Yuichi; Oie, Tomonori; Kishimoto, Yuichiro; Arakawa, Mamoru; Ohmuma, Kentaro; Tajikawa, Tsutomu; Kanda, Keiichi; Tatsumi, Eisuke

    2015-01-01

    In-body tissue architecture--a novel and practical regeneration medicine technology--can be used to prepare a completely autologous heart valve, based on the shape of a mold. In this study, a three-dimensional (3D) printer was used to produce the molds. A 3D printer can easily reproduce the 3D-shape and size of native heart valves within several processing hours. For a tri-leaflet, valved conduit with a sinus of Valsalva (Biovalve type VII), the mold was assembled using two conduit parts and three sinus parts produced by the 3D printer. Biovalves were generated from completely autologous connective tissue, containing collagen and fibroblasts, within 2 months following the subcutaneous embedding of the molds (success rate, 27/30). In vitro evaluation, using a pulsatile circulation circuit, showed excellent valvular function with a durability of at least 10 days. Interposed between two expanded polytetrafluoroethylene grafts, the Biovalves (N = 3) were implanted in goats through an apico-aortic bypass procedure. Postoperative echocardiography showed smooth movement of the leaflets with minimal regurgitation under systemic circulation. After 1 month of implantation, smooth white leaflets were observed with minimal thrombus formation. Functional, autologous, 3D-shaped heart valves with clinical application potential were formed following in-body embedding of specially designed molds that were created within several hours by 3D printer. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Comparison of sine dwell and broadband methods for modal testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jay-Chung

    1989-01-01

    The objectives of modal tests for large complex spacecraft structural systems are outlined. The comparison criteria for the modal test methods, namely, the broadband excitation and the sine dwell methods, are established. Using the Galileo spacecraft modal test and the Centaur G Prime upper stage vehicle modal test as examples, the relative advantage or disadvantage of each method is examined. The usefulness or shortcomings of the methods are given from a practical engineering viewpoint.

  5. On sine dwell or broadband methods for modal testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jay-Chung; Wada, Ben K.

    1987-01-01

    For large, complex spacecraft structural systems, the objectives of the modal test are outlined. Based on these objectives, the comparison criteria for the modal test methods, namely, the broadband excitation and the sine dwell methods are established. Using the Galileo spacecraft modal test and the Centaur G Prime upper stage vehicle modal test as examples, the relative advantages or disadvantages of each method are examined. The usefulness or shortcoming of the methods are given from a practicing engineer's view point.

  6. Architectural Knitted Surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mossé, Aurélie

    2010-01-01

    WGSN reports from the Architectural Knitted Surfaces workshop recently held at ShenkarCollege of Engineering and Design, Tel Aviv, which offered a cutting-edge insight into interactive knitted surfaces. With the increasing role of smart textiles in architecture, the Architectural Knitted Surfaces...... workshop brought together architects and interior and textile designers to highlight recent developments in intelligent knitting. The five-day workshop was led by architects Ayelet Karmon and Mette Ramsgaard Thomsen, together with Amir Cang and Eyal Sheffer from the Knitting Laboratory, in collaboration...

  7. The integration of engineering and architecture: A perspective on natural ventilation for the new San Francisco Federal Building

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McConahey, Erin; Haves, Philip; Christ, Tim

    2002-01-01

    A description of the in-progress design of a new Federal Office Building for San Francisco is used to illustrate a number of issues arising in the design of large, naturally ventilated office buildings. These issues include the need for an integrated approach to design involving the architects, mechanical and structural engineers, lighting designers and specialist simulation modelers. In particular, the use of natural ventilation, and the avoidance of air-conditioning, depends on the high degree of exposed thermal mass made possible by the structural scheme and by the minimization of solar heat gains while maintaining the good daylighting that results from optimization of the facade. Another issue was the need for a radical change in interior space planning in order to enhance the natural ventilation; all the individual enclosed offices are located along the central spine of each floorplate rather than at the perimeter. The role of integration in deterring the undermining of the design through value engineering is discussed. The comfort criteria for the building were established based on the recent extension to the ASHRAE comfort standard based on the adaptive model for naturally ventilated buildings. The building energy simulation program EnergyPlus was used to compare the performance of different natural ventilation strategies. The results indicate that, in the San Francisco climate, wind-driven ventilation provides sufficient nocturnal cooling to maintain comfortable conditions and that external chimneys do not provide significant additional ventilation at times when it when it would be beneficial

  8. Impact of cyclostationarity on fan broadband noise prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wohlbrandt, A.; Kissner, C.; Guérin, S.

    2018-04-01

    One of the dominant noise sources of modern Ultra High Bypass Ratio (UHBR) engines is the interaction of the rotor wakes with the leading edges of the stator vanes in the fan stage. While the tonal components of this noise generation mechanism are fairly well understood by now, the broadband components are not. This calls to further the understanding of the broadband noise generation in the fan stage. This article introduces a new extension to the Random Particle Mesh (RPM) method, which accommodates in-depth studies of the impact of cyclostationary wake characteristics on the broadband noise in the fan stage. The RPM method is used to synthesize a turbulence field in the stator domain using a URANS simulation characterized by time-periodic turbulence and mean flow. The rotor-stator interaction noise is predicted by a two-dimensional CAA computation of the stator cascade. The impact of cyclostationarity is decomposed into various effects, which are separately investigated. This leads to the finding that the periodic turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) and periodic flow have only a negligible effect on the radiated sound power. The impact of the periodic integral length scale (TLS) is, however, substantial. The limits of a stationary representation of the TLS are demonstrated making this new extension to the RPM method indispensable when background and wake TKE are of comparable level. Good agreement of the predictions with measurements obtained from the 2015 AIAA Fan Broadband Noise Prediction Workshop are also shown.

  9. Flexible automated systems of real time mining operation management: concepts, architecture, models of network engineering for data transmission and processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Markhasin, A.B.

    1987-11-01

    Since the mid 1960's considerable effort has been invested by the mining industry and its research institutions and by universities to create real time mining management automation systems. Some of the shortcomings which still persist in realizing the efficiency such systems can offer are due to objective and subjective factors within and outside the management systems: the creation of the component base, automation equipment, and computer technology, on the one hand, and the organization, process, engineering, and coordination of mining work on the other. This review addresses several of these shortcomings with recommendations for their solution in a primary and systematic way and suggests methods for the implementation of microprocessors and a network of flexible data transmission and processing facilities for both surface and underground mining.

  10. Release of tensile strain on engineered human tendon tissue disturbs cell adhesions, changes matrix architecture, and induces an inflammatory phenotype

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bayer, Monika L; Schjerling, Peter; Herchenhan, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Mechanical loading of tendon cells results in an upregulation of mechanotransduction signaling pathways, cell-matrix adhesion and collagen synthesis, but whether unloading removes these responses is unclear. We investigated the response to tension release, with regard to matrix proteins, pro......-inflammatory mediators and tendon phenotypic specific molecules, in an in vitro model where tendon-like tissue was engineered from human tendon cells. Tissue sampling was performed 1, 2, 4 and 6 days after surgical de-tensioning of the tendon construct. When tensile stimulus was removed, integrin type collagen receptors...... were upregulated. Stimulation with the cytokine TGF-β1 had distinct effects on some tendon-related genes in both tensioned and de-tensioned tissue. These findings indicate an important role of mechanical loading for cellular and matrix responses in tendon, including that loss of tension leads...

  11. Software Architecture Reconstruction Method, a Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Zainab Nayyar; Nazish Rafique

    2014-01-01

    Architecture reconstruction belongs to a reverse engineering process, in which we move from code to architecture level for reconstructing architecture. Software architectures are the blue prints of projects which depict the external overview of the software system. Mostly maintenance and testing cause the software to deviate from its original architecture, because sometimes for enhancing the functionality of a system the software deviates from its documented specifications, some new modules a...

  12. How Can Interdisciplinarity Of food, Design, Architecture, Engineering And Pedagogy Affect Children's Eating Habits And Food Preferences?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fisker, Anna Marie; Hermanssdottir, Sunna; Rasmussen, Mai

    Meals in day-care centers have for many children a crucial influence on the total experience of the stay. Research already suggests, that the meal situation should not be delimited to the nutritional meaning only, but has to be seen in a broad holistic perspective (Rasmussen and Smidt, 2001). In ...... and pedagogy can create solutions that positively affect eating habits and food preferences among children, and furthermore if this aspect can strengthen innovation in the food sector and create valuable solutions related to health benefits among children.......). In our research, regarding children’s eating habits and food preferences, we collaborated interdisciplinary, working holistically, involving appropriate disciplines, where knowledge from different fields was involved. The importance of working interdisciplinary in food innovation can be seen......, that affect children’s eating habits and food preferences. In order to make evidence in the field, an interdisciplinary team consisting of food specialists, designers, engineers, architects and pedagogues, created a carrot pavilion and appurtenant carrot activities. The aim was to influence the children...

  13. A broadband electromagnetic UT system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Repplinger, W.; Salzburger, H.J.

    1985-01-01

    An ultrasonic testing system based on contactless electromagnetic acoustic (E.M.A.) transduction has been developed by which broadband ultrasonic pulses are excited. This system overcomes disadvantages of usual E.M.A. transducers with meanderlike coil configuration, namely the excitation of narrowband pulses and the symmetrical radiation pattern. By dividing up a meanderlike coil into single elements and a time-delayed firing of the elements, whereby the time delay is given by the distance of the elements and the phase velocity of the wave propagating along the surface, the ultrasonic pulse radiated in one preferred direction becomes broadband by constructive interference. The signals radiated in the opposite direction do no more interfere. Its amplitude is smaller than that of the other direction, so that the transducer becomes uni-directional. This technique can be applied for the excitation of all dispersionless waves (bulk waves and guided waves)

  14. Visible light broadband perfect absorbers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jia, X. L.; Meng, Q. X.; Yuan, C. X.; Zhou, Z. X.; Wang, X. O., E-mail: wxo@hit.edu.cn [School of Science, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China)

    2016-03-15

    The visible light broadband perfect absorbers based on the silver (Ag) nano elliptical disks and holes array are studied using finite difference time domain simulations. The semiconducting indium silicon dioxide thin film is introduced as the space layer in this sandwiched structure. Utilizing the asymmetrical geometry of the structures, polarization sensitivity for transverse electric wave (TE)/transverse magnetic wave (TM) and left circular polarization wave (LCP)/right circular polarization wave (RCP) of the broadband absorption are gained. The absorbers with Ag nano disks and holes array show several peaks absorbance of 100% by numerical simulation. These simple and flexible perfect absorbers are particularly desirable for various potential applications including the solar energy absorber.

  15. Integrated Broadband Quantum Cascade Laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansour, Kamjou (Inventor); Soibel, Alexander (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    A broadband, integrated quantum cascade laser is disclosed, comprising ridge waveguide quantum cascade lasers formed by applying standard semiconductor process techniques to a monolithic structure of alternating layers of claddings and active region layers. The resulting ridge waveguide quantum cascade lasers may be individually controlled by independent voltage potentials, resulting in control of the overall spectrum of the integrated quantum cascade laser source. Other embodiments are described and claimed.

  16. Trends and Opportunities of BIM-GIS Integration in the Architecture, Engineering and Construction Industry: A Review from a Spatio-Temporal Statistical Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongze Song

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The integration of building information modelling (BIM and geographic information system (GIS in construction management is a new and fast developing trend in recent years, from research to industrial practice. BIM has advantages on rich geometric and semantic information through the building life cycle, while GIS is a broad field covering geovisualization-based decision making and geospatial modelling. However, most current studies of BIM-GIS integration focus on the integration techniques but lack theories and methods for further data analysis and mathematic modelling. This paper reviews the applications and discusses future trends of BIM-GIS integration in the architecture, engineering and construction (AEC industry based on the studies of 96 high-quality research articles from a spatio-temporal statistical perspective. The analysis of these applications helps reveal the evolution progress of BIM-GIS integration. Results show that the utilization of BIM-GIS integration in the AEC industry requires systematic theories beyond integration technologies and deep applications of mathematical modeling methods, including spatio-temporal statistical modeling in GIS and 4D/nD BIM simulation and management. Opportunities of BIM-GIS integration are outlined as three hypotheses in the AEC industry for future research on the in-depth integration of BIM and GIS. BIM-GIS integration hypotheses enable more comprehensive applications through the life cycle of AEC projects.

  17. In vitro investigation of a tissue-engineered cell-tendon complex mimicking the transitional architecture at the ligament-bone interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhibing; Zhang, Yuan; Zhu, Jie; Dong, Shiwu; Jiang, Tao; Zhou, Yue; Zhang, Xia

    2015-03-01

    Restoration of the transitional ligament-bone interface is critical for graft-bone integration. We postulated that an allogenic scaffold mimicking the fibrogenic, chondrogenic, and osteogenic transition gradients could physiologically promote ligament-bone incorporation. The aim of this study was to construct and characterize a composite tendon scaffold with a continuous and heterogeneous transition region mimicking a native ligament insertion site. Genetically modified heterogeneous cell populations were seeded within specific regions of decellularized rabbit Achilles tendons to fabricate a stratified scaffold containing three biofunctional regions supporting fibrogenesis, chondrogenesis, and osteogenesis. The observed morphology, architecture, cytocompatibility, and biomechanics of the scaffolds demonstrated their improved bio-physico-chemical properties. The formation of the transitional regions was augmented via enhanced delivery of two transcription factors, sex determining region Y-box 9 and runt-related transcription factor 2, which also triggered early up-regulated expression of cartilage- and bone-relevant markers, according to quantitative PCR and immunoblot analyses. Gradient tissue-specific matrix formation was also confirmed within the predesignated regions via histological staining and immunofluorescence assays. These results suggest that a transitional interface could be replicated on an engineered tendon through stratified tissue integration. The scaffold offers the advantages of a multitissue transition involving controlled cellular interactions and matrix heterogeneity, which can be applied for the regeneration of the ligament-bone interface. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  18. Development of tissue-engineered self-expandable aortic stent grafts (Bio stent grafts) using in-body tissue architecture technology in beagles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawajiri, Hidetake; Mizuno, Takeshi; Moriwaki, Takeshi; Ishibashi-Ueda, Hatsue; Yamanami, Masashi; Kanda, Keiichi; Yaku, Hitoshi; Nakayama, Yasuhide

    2015-02-01

    In this study, we aimed to describe the development of tissue-engineered self-expandable aortic stent grafts (Bio stent graft) using in-body tissue architecture technology in beagles and to determine its mechanical and histological properties. The preparation mold was assembled by insertion of an acryl rod (outer diameter, 8.6 mm; length, 40 mm) into a self-expanding nitinol stent (internal diameter, 9.0 mm; length, 35 mm). The molds (n = 6) were embedded into the subcutaneous pouches of three beagles for 4 weeks. After harvesting and removing each rod, the excessive fragile tissue connected around the molds was trimmed, and thus tubular autologous connective tissues with the stent were obtained for use as Bio stent grafts (outer diameter, approximately 9.3 mm in all molds). The stent strut was completely surrounded by the dense collagenous membrane (thickness, ∼150 µm). The Bio stent graft luminal surface was extremely flat and smooth. The graft wall of the Bio stent graft possessed an elastic modulus that was almost two times higher than that of the native beagle abdominal aorta. This Bio stent graft is expected to exhibit excellent biocompatibility after being implanted in the aorta, which may reduce the risk of type 1 endoleaks or migration. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Robotic architectures

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mtshali, M

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In the development of mobile robotic systems, a robotic architecture plays a crucial role in interconnecting all the sub-systems and controlling the system. The design of robotic architectures for mobile autonomous robots is a challenging...

  20. Towards A General Integrated Broadband Optical Fiber Telecommunications Network In The Subscriber Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, Manfred J. W.

    1984-03-01

    After a short description of previous optical fiber tests within the city area of Berlin (West) the reasoning that led Deutsche Bundespost to the concept of the BIGFON systems test is explained. The requirements for and the basic architecture of a local broadband network are dealt with in some detail. The scope of solutions offered by the six BIGFON contractors is demonstrated by means of block diagrams of two rather different designs. Some information on the present status of the BIGFON project is given; in closing, questions of cost, introduction procedure and need for further research are discussed as well as the problem of broadband long distance connections.

  1. Architecture & Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Mary; Delahunt, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Most art teachers would agree that architecture is an important form of visual art, but they do not always include it in their curriculums. In this article, the authors share core ideas from "Architecture and Environment," a teaching resource that they developed out of a long-term interest in teaching architecture and their fascination with the…

  2. Design management in the architectural engineering and construction sector : proceedings of the joint CIB W096 Architectural Management and CIB TG49. Architectural Engineering Conference held in conjunction with the 8th Brazilian Workshop on Building Design Management, University of Sao Paulo, 4-8 December 2008

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Melhado, S.; Prins, M.; Emmitt, S.; Bouchlaghem, D.; Otter, den A.F.H.J.

    2008-01-01

    Following the Denmark meeting, held in Lyngby 2005, the CIB W096 commission on Architectural Management merged its own meetings with two large events, the Adaptables Conference in Eindhoven 2006, and the CIB world Conference in Cape Town in 2007. Papers were invited under the theme Design Management

  3. Analysis of the Proposed Ghana Broadband Strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Williams, Idongesit; Botwe, Yvonne

    This project studied the Ghana Broadband Strategy with the aim of evaluating the recommendations in the strategy side by side the broadband development in Ghana. The researchers conducted interviews both officially and unofficially with ICT stakeholders, made observations, studied Government...... intervention policies recommended in the Ghana broadband policy is used to evaluate the broadband market to find out whether the strategy consolidates with the Strengths and opportunities of the market and whether it corrects the anomalies that necessitate the weaknesses and threats to the market....... The strategy did address some threats and weaknesses of the broadband market. It also consolidated on some strengths and opportunities of the broadband market. The researchers also discovered that a market can actually grow without a policy. But a market will grow faster if a well implemented policy is guiding...

  4. Volterra series based predistortion for broadband RF power amplifiers with memory effects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jin Zhe; Song Zhihuan; He Jiaming

    2008-01-01

    RF power amplifiers(PAs)are usually considered as memoryless devices in most existing predistortion techniques.However,in broadband communication systems,such as WCDMA,the PA memory effects are significant,and memoryless predistortion cannot linearize the PAs effectively.After analyzing the PA memory effects,a novel predistortion method based on the simplified Volterra series is proposed to linearize broadband RF PAs with memory effects.The indirect learning architecture is adopted to design the predistortion scheme and the recursive least squares algorithm with forgetting factor is applied to identify the parameters of the predistorter.Simulation results show that the proposed predistortion method can compensate the nonlinear distortion and memory effects of broadband RF PAs effectively.

  5. Tuchola County Broadband Network (TCBN)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zabludowski, Antoni; Dubalski, B.; Zabludowski, Lukasz

    2012-01-01

    In the paper the designing project (plan) of Tuchola City broadband IP optical network has been presented. The extended version of network plan constitute technical part of network Feasibility Study, that it is expected to be implemented in Tuchola and be financed from European Regional Development...... Funds. The network plan presented in the paper contains both topological structure of fiber optic network as well as the active equipment for the network. In the project described in the paper it has been suggested to use Modular Cable System - MCS for passive infrastructure and Metro Ethernet...

  6. Achieving Universal Access to Broadband

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morten FALCH

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses appropriate policy measures for achieving universal access to broadband services in Europe. Access can be delivered by means of many different technology solutions described in the paper. This means a greater degree of competition and affects the kind of policy measures to be applied. The paper concludes that other policy measure than the classical universal service obligation are in play, and discusses various policy measures taking the Lisbon process as a point of departure. Available policy measures listed in the paper include, universal service obligation, harmonization, demand stimulation, public support for extending the infrastructure, public private partnerships (PPP, and others.

  7. Service Class Resource Management For Green Wireless-Optical Broadband Access NetworksWOBAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SRUTHY.S

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract-Broadband access networks have become an essential part of worldwide communication systems because of the exponential growth of broadband services such as video on demand high definition TV internet protocol TV and video conferencing. Exponential growth in the volume of wireless data boosted by the growing popularity of mobile devices such as smartphone and tablets has forced the telecommunication industries to rethink the way networks are currently designed and to focus on the development of high-capacity mobile broadband networks. In response to this challenge researchers have been working toward the development of an integrated wireless optical broadband access network. Two major candidate technologies which are currently known for their high capacity as well as quality of service QoS for multimedia traffic are passive optical networks PON and fourth generation 4G wireless networks. PON is a wired access technology well known for its cost efficiency and high capacity whereas 4G is a wireless broadband access technology which has achieved broad market acceptance because of its ease of deployment ability to offer mobility and its cost efficiency. Integration of PON and 4G technologies in the form of wireless-optical broadband access networks offers advantages such as extension of networks in rural areas support for mobile broadband services and quick deployment of broadband networks. These two technologies however have different design architectures for handling broadband services that require quality of service. For example 4G networks use traffic classification for supporting different QoS demands whereas the PON architecture has no such mechanism to differentiate between types of traffic. These two technologies also differ in their power saving mechanisms. Propose a service class mapping for the integrated PON-4G network which is based on the MG1 queuing model and class-based power saving mechanism which significantly improves the

  8. Broadband Wireline Provider Service Summary; BBRI_wirelineSum12

    Data.gov (United States)

    University of Rhode Island Geospatial Extension Program — This dataset represents the availability of broadband Internet access in Rhode Island via all wireline technologies assessed by Broadband Rhode Island. Broadband...

  9. Jupiter Europa Orbiter Architecture Definition Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Robert; Shishko, Robert

    2011-01-01

    The proposed Jupiter Europa Orbiter mission, planned for launch in 2020, is using a new architectural process and framework tool to drive its model-based systems engineering effort. The process focuses on getting the architecture right before writing requirements and developing a point design. A new architecture framework tool provides for the structured entry and retrieval of architecture artifacts based on an emerging architecture meta-model. This paper describes the relationships among these artifacts and how they are used in the systems engineering effort. Some early lessons learned are discussed.

  10. Cartography of architectural controversies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lotz, Katrine

    2009-01-01

    on the visual materials and documents produced during the process, and interviews with architects, clients and engineers, I describe the continuous efforts to establish and strengthen architectural motives, and how they eventually gain the ability to align other motives and other actors. I suggest...... that employing the visualising methods of the recent development of Actor-Network-Theory called ‘Cartography of Controversies' might contribute to trans-disciplinary efforts to develop analytic understanding of the conflicting human purposes and power-struggles at stake in the be-coming of architecture....

  11. Lunar architecture and urbanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherwood, Brent

    1992-01-01

    Human civilization and architecture have defined each other for over 5000 years on Earth. Even in the novel environment of space, persistent issues of human urbanism will eclipse, within a historically short time, the technical challenges of space settlement that dominate our current view. By adding modern topics in space engineering, planetology, life support, human factors, material invention, and conservation to their already renaissance array of expertise, urban designers can responsibly apply ancient, proven standards to the exciting new opportunities afforded by space. Inescapable facts about the Moon set real boundaries within which tenable lunar urbanism and its component architecture must eventually develop.

  12. 75 FR 10464 - Broadband Technology Opportunities Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-08

    ... window for Public Computer Center (PCC) and Sustainable Broadband Adoption (SBA) projects. DATES: All...; Extension of Application Closing Deadline for Comprehensive Community Infrastructure (CCI) Projects. SUMMARY... Infrastructure (CCI) projects under the Broadband Technology Opportunities Program (BTOP) is extended until 5:00...

  13. Broadband for all closing the infrastructure gap

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Roux, K

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available than just addressing the infrastructure issue. The CSIR is mapping the country’s broadband infrastructure to understand where the largest gaps are, is developing models for how those gaps in broadband infrastructure can be closed. In this presentation...

  14. Customer Churn Prediction for Broadband Internet Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, B. Q.; Kechadi, M.-T.; Buckley, B.

    Although churn prediction has been an area of research in the voice branch of telecommunications services, more focused studies on the huge growth area of Broadband Internet services are limited. Therefore, this paper presents a new set of features for broadband Internet customer churn prediction, based on Henley segments, the broadband usage, dial types, the spend of dial-up, line-information, bill and payment information, account information. Then the four prediction techniques (Logistic Regressions, Decision Trees, Multilayer Perceptron Neural Networks and Support Vector Machines) are applied in customer churn, based on the new features. Finally, the evaluation of new features and a comparative analysis of the predictors are made for broadband customer churn prediction. The experimental results show that the new features with these four modelling techniques are efficient for customer churn prediction in the broadband service field.

  15. Tank waste remediation system architecture tree

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    PECK, L.G.

    1999-01-01

    The TWRS Architecture Tree presented in this document is a hierarchical breakdown to support the TWRS systems engineering analysis of the TWRS physical system, including facilities, hardware and software. The purpose for this systems engineering architecture tree is to describe and communicate the system's selected and existing architecture, to provide a common structure to improve the integration of work and resulting products, and to provide a framework as a basis for TWRS Specification Tree development

  16. Tank waste remediation system architecture tree; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    PECK, L.G.

    1999-01-01

    The TWRS Architecture Tree presented in this document is a hierarchical breakdown to support the TWRS systems engineering analysis of the TWRS physical system, including facilities, hardware and software. The purpose for this systems engineering architecture tree is to describe and communicate the system's selected and existing architecture, to provide a common structure to improve the integration of work and resulting products, and to provide a framework as a basis for TWRS Specification Tree development

  17. Architectural Contestation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Merle, J.

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation addresses the reductive reading of Georges Bataille's work done within the field of architectural criticism and theory which tends to set aside the fundamental ‘broken’ totality of Bataille's oeuvre and also to narrowly interpret it as a mere critique of architectural form,

  18. Architecture Sustainability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Avgeriou, Paris; Stal, Michael; Hilliard, Rich

    2013-01-01

    Software architecture is the foundation of software system development, encompassing a system's architects' and stakeholders' strategic decisions. A special issue of IEEE Software is intended to raise awareness of architecture sustainability issues and increase interest and work in the area. The

  19. Memory architecture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2012-01-01

    A memory architecture is presented. The memory architecture comprises a first memory and a second memory. The first memory has at least a bank with a first width addressable by a single address. The second memory has a plurality of banks of a second width, said banks being addressable by components

  20. Gain-assisted broadband ring cavity enhanced spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selim, Mahmoud A.; Adib, George A.; Sabry, Yasser M.; Khalil, Diaa

    2017-02-01

    Incoherent broadband cavity enhanced spectroscopy can significantly increase the effective path length of light-matter interaction to detect weak absorption lines over broad spectral range, for instance to detect gases in confined environments. Broadband cavity enhancement can be based on the decay time or the intensity drop technique. Decay time measurement is based on using tunable laser source that is expensive and suffers from long scan time. Intensity dependent measurement is usually reported based on broadband source using Fabry-Perot cavity, enabling short measurement time but suffers from the alignment tolerance of the cavity and the cavity insertion loss. In this work we overcome these challenges by using an alignment-free ring cavity made of an optical fiber loop and a directional coupler, while having a gain medium pumped below the lasing threshold to improve the finesse and reduce the insertion loss. Acetylene (C2H2) gas absorption is measured around 1535 nm wavelength using a semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA) gain medium. The system is analyzed for different ring resonator forward coupling coefficient and loses, including the 3-cm long gas cell insertion loss and fiber connector losses used in the experimental verification. The experimental results are obtained for a coupler ratio of 90/10 and a fiber length of 4 m. The broadband source is the amplified spontaneous emission of another SOA and the output is measured using a 70pm-resolution optical spectrum analyzer. The absorption depth and the effective interaction length are improved about an order of magnitude compared to the direct absorption of the gas cell. The presented technique provides an engineering method to improve the finesse and, consequently the effective length, while relaxing the technological constraints on the high reflectivity mirrors and free-space cavity alignment.

  1. Architectural Narratives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiib, Hans

    2010-01-01

    a functional framework for these concepts, but tries increasingly to endow the main idea of the cultural project with a spatially aesthetic expression - a shift towards “experience architecture.” A great number of these projects typically recycle and reinterpret narratives related to historical buildings......In this essay, I focus on the combination of programs and the architecture of cultural projects that have emerged within the last few years. These projects are characterized as “hybrid cultural projects,” because they intend to combine experience with entertainment, play, and learning. This essay...... and architectural heritage; another group tries to embed new performative technologies in expressive architectural representation. Finally, this essay provides a theoretical framework for the analysis of the political rationales of these projects and for the architectural representation bridges the gap between...

  2. Unbundling in Current Broadband and Next-Generation Ultra-Broadband Access Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaudino, Roberto; Giuliano, Romeo; Mazzenga, Franco; Valcarenghi, Luca; Vatalaro, Francesco

    2014-05-01

    This article overviews the methods that are currently under investigation for implementing multi-operator open-access/shared-access techniques in next-generation access ultra-broadband architectures, starting from the traditional "unbundling-of-the-local-loop" techniques implemented in legacy twisted-pair digital subscriber line access networks. A straightforward replication of these copper-based unbundling-of-the-local-loop techniques is usually not feasible on next-generation access networks, including fiber-to-the-home point-to-multipoint passive optical networks. To investigate this issue, the article first gives a concise description of traditional copper-based unbundling-of-the-local-loop solutions, then focalizes on both next-generation access hybrid fiber-copper digital subscriber line fiber-to-the-cabinet scenarios and on fiber to the home by accounting for the mix of regulatory and technological reasons driving the next-generation access migration path, focusing mostly on the European situation.

  3. Two College of Architecture and Urban Studies faculty members named most admired educators of 2008

    OpenAIRE

    Chadwick, Heather Riley

    2008-01-01

    Two School of Architecture + Design faculty, in Virginia Tech's College of Architecture and Urban Studies, have been named by the Design and Futures Council and the journal DesignIntelligence as two of 28 educators most admired and respected in the fields of interior design, interior architecture, architecture, design, architectural engineering, industrial design, and landscape architecture.

  4. AIRTV: Broadband Direct to Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorbello, R.; Stone, R.; Bennett, S. B.; Bertenyi, E.

    2002-01-01

    Airlines have been continuously upgrading their wide-body, long-haul aircraft with IFE (in-flight entertainment) systems that can support from 12 to 24 channels of video entertainment as well as provide the infrastructure to enable in-seat delivery of email and internet services. This is a direct consequence of increased passenger demands for improved in-flight services along with the expectations that broadband delivery systems capable of providing live entertainment (news, sports, financial information, etc.) and high speed data delivery will soon be available. The recent events of Sept. 11 have slowed the airline's upgrade of their IFE systems, but have also highlighted the compelling need for broadband aeronautical delivery systems to include operational and safety information. Despite the impact of these events, it is estimated that by 2005 more than 3000 long haul aircraft (servicing approximately 1 billion passengers annually) will be fully equipped with modern IFE systems. Current aircraft data delivery systems, which use either Inmarsat or NATS, are lacking in bandwidth and consequently are unsuitable to satisfy passenger demands for broadband email/internet services or the airlines' burgeoning data requirements. Present live video delivery services are limited to regional coverage and are not readily expandable to global or multiregional service. Faced with a compelling market demand for high data transport to aircraft, AirTV has been developing a broadband delivery system that will meet both passengers' and airlines' needs. AirTV is a global content delivery system designed to provide a range of video programming and data services to commercial airlines. When AirTV is operational in 2004, it will provide a broadband connection directly to the aircraft, delivering live video entertainment, internet/email service and essential operational and safety data. The system has been designed to provide seamless global service to all airline routes except for those

  5. Architectural technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2005-01-01

    The booklet offers an overall introduction to the Institute of Architectural Technology and its projects and activities, and an invitation to the reader to contact the institute or the individual researcher for further information. The research, which takes place at the Institute of Architectural...... Technology at the Roayl Danish Academy of Fine Arts, School of Architecture, reflects a spread between strategic, goal-oriented pilot projects, commissioned by a ministry, a fund or a private company, and on the other hand projects which originate from strong personal interests and enthusiasm of individual...

  6. Systemic Architecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poletto, Marco; Pasquero, Claudia

    -up or tactical design, behavioural space and the boundary of the natural and the artificial realms within the city and architecture. A new kind of "real-time world-city" is illustrated in the form of an operational design manual for the assemblage of proto-architectures, the incubation of proto-gardens...... and the coding of proto-interfaces. These prototypes of machinic architecture materialize as synthetic hybrids embedded with biological life (proto-gardens), computational power, behavioural responsiveness (cyber-gardens), spatial articulation (coMachines and fibrous structures), remote sensing (FUNclouds...

  7. Humanizing Architecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft, Tanya Søndergaard

    2015-01-01

    The article proposes the urban digital gallery as an opportunity to explore the relationship between ‘human’ and ‘technology,’ through the programming of media architecture. It takes a curatorial perspective when proposing an ontological shift from considering media facades as visual spectacles...... agency and a sense of being by way of dematerializing architecture. This is achieved by way of programming the symbolic to provide new emotional realizations and situations of enlightenment in the public audience. This reflects a greater potential to humanize the digital in media architecture....

  8. Advent of broadband public-switched communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casey, John J.

    1992-02-01

    Advances in data communications infrastructure, display technology, and man-machine interfaces have changed business applications and the requirements of public network data transport. These changes have created opportunities for a new generation of public broadband services to more efficiently extend high speed communications capabilities beyond the customer premises. This paper provides a view of the technology and market evolution of these public broadband data communications services, and suggests early customer networked applications that justify the deployment of a public switched broadband network infrastructure.

  9. 7 CFR 1724.20 - Borrowers' requirements-architectural services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ELECTRIC ENGINEERING, ARCHITECTURAL SERVICES AND DESIGN POLICIES AND PROCEDURES Architectural Services § 1724.20 Borrowers' requirements—architectural services... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Borrowers' requirements-architectural services. 1724...

  10. 47 CFR 27.1305 - Shared wireless broadband network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Shared wireless broadband network. 27.1305... broadband network. The Shared Wireless Broadband Network developed by the 700 MHz Public/Private Partnership must be designed to meet requirements associated with a nationwide, public safety broadband network. At...

  11. 47 CFR 90.1405 - Shared wireless broadband network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Shared wireless broadband network. 90.1405... broadband network. The Shared Wireless Broadband Network developed by the 700 MHz Public/Private Partnership must be designed to meet requirements associated with a nationwide, public safety broadband network. At...

  12. Architectural Theatricality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tvedebrink, Tenna Doktor Olsen

    environments and a knowledge gap therefore exists in present hospital designs. Consequently, the purpose of this thesis has been to investigate if any research-based knowledge exist supporting the hypothesis that the interior architectural qualities of eating environments influence patient food intake, health...... and well-being, as well as outline a set of basic design principles ‘predicting’ the future interior architectural qualities of patient eating environments. Methodologically the thesis is based on an explorative study employing an abductive approach and hermeneutic-interpretative strategy utilizing tactics...... and food intake, as well as a series of references exist linking the interior architectural qualities of healthcare environments with the health and wellbeing of patients. On the basis of these findings, the thesis presents the concept of Architectural Theatricality as well as a set of design principles...

  13. Information engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunt, D.N.

    1997-02-01

    The Information Engineering thrust area develops information technology to support the programmatic needs of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory`s Engineering Directorate. Progress in five programmatic areas are described in separate reports contained herein. These are entitled Three-dimensional Object Creation, Manipulation, and Transport, Zephyr:A Secure Internet-Based Process to Streamline Engineering Procurements, Subcarrier Multiplexing: Optical Network Demonstrations, Parallel Optical Interconnect Technology Demonstration, and Intelligent Automation Architecture.

  14. Executable Architecture Research at Old Dominion University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolk, Andreas; Shuman, Edwin A.; Garcia, Johnny J.

    2011-01-01

    Executable Architectures allow the evaluation of system architectures not only regarding their static, but also their dynamic behavior. However, the systems engineering community do not agree on a common formal specification of executable architectures. To close this gap and identify necessary elements of an executable architecture, a modeling language, and a modeling formalism is topic of ongoing PhD research. In addition, systems are generally defined and applied in an operational context to provide capabilities and enable missions. To maximize the benefits of executable architectures, a second PhD effort introduces the idea of creating an executable context in addition to the executable architecture. The results move the validation of architectures from the current information domain into the knowledge domain and improve the reliability of such validation efforts. The paper presents research and results of both doctoral research efforts and puts them into a common context of state-of-the-art of systems engineering methods supporting more agility.

  15. 4G Mobile Broadband Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kardaras, Georgios

    This thesis has investigated a number of methods for optimizing energy and spectrum performance for 4G commercial radio access applications. The research interest is narrowed down to distributed base station architectures and in particular the remote radio module. Designing energy efficient radio...... and a comparison with conventional base station architectures was realized. This analysis demonstrated that efficient hardware, intelligent software and self-organized subsystems can result in decreasing substantially power wastes. The advantages of optical fiber as transport medium for relaying baseband modulated...... digital predistortion block is proposed based on cartesian to polar conversion. It has been designed and implemented on a low-cost FPGA, overcoming the challenges imposed by the logical size and timing constraints....

  16. Analysis of United States' Broadband Policy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Uzarski, Joel S

    2007-01-01

    .... With every month that passes, the United States fails to close the gap in the digital divide both inside its borders as well as among the other countries that lead the world in broadband penetration...

  17. Energy efficiency in future wireless broadband networks

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Masonta, MT

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available greener economy and environment. In this research, we investigate the concept of green radio communications in wireless networks and discuss approaches for energy efficient solutions in wireless broadband network deployments. These solutions include...

  18. Analyzing Broadband Divide in the Farming Sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Michael; Gutierrez Lopez, Jose Manuel; Pedersen, Jens Myrup

    2013-01-01

    , upstream and downstream connection. The main constraint is that farms are naturally located in rural areas where the required access broadband data rates are not available. This paper studies the broadband divide in relation to the Danish agricultural sector. Results show how there is an important......Agriculture industry has been evolving for centuries. Currently, the technological development of Internet oriented farming tools allows to increase the productivity and efficiency of this sector. Many of the already available tools and applications require high bandwidth in both directions...... difference between the broadband availability for farms and the rest of the households/buildings the country. This divide may be slowing down the potential technological development of the farming industry, in order to keep their competitiveness in the market. Therefore, broadband development in rural areas...

  19. Catalyzing Broadband Internet in Africa | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ... generates a 1.4% increase in gross domestic product (GDP) in low-income countries. ... Africa offers a good example of the potential benefits and challenges of ... the policy challenges related to providing affordable broadband services; ...

  20. Nanophotonic Design for Broadband Light Management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kosten, Emily; Callahan, Dennis; Horowitz, Kelsey; Pala, Ragip; Atwater, Harry

    2014-10-13

    We describe nanophotonic design approaches for broadband light management including i) crossed-trapezoidal Si structures ii) Si photonic crystal superlattices, and iii) tapered and inhomogeneous diameter III-V/Si nanowire arrays.

  1. An ultra-broadband multilayered graphene absorber

    KAUST Repository

    Amin, Muhammad; Farhat, Mohamed; Bagci, Hakan

    2013-01-01

    An ultra-broadband multilayered graphene absorber operating at terahertz (THz) frequencies is proposed. The absorber design makes use of three mechanisms: (i) The graphene layers are asymmetrically patterned to support higher order surface plasmon

  2. Wireless Broadband Access and Accounting Schemes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, we propose two wireless broadband access and accounting schemes. In both schemes, the accounting system adopts RADIUS protocol, but the access system adopts SSH and SSL protocols respectively.

  3. Pushouts in software architecture design

    OpenAIRE

    Riché, T. L.; Gonçalves, Rui; Marker, B.; Batory, D.

    2012-01-01

    A classical approach to program derivation is to progressively extend a simple specification and then incrementally refine it to an implementation. We claim this approach is hard or impractical when reverse engineering legacy software architectures. We present a case study that shows optimizations and pushouts--in addition to refinements and extensions--are essential for practical stepwise development of complex software architectures. NSF CCF 0724979 NSF CNS 0509338 NSF CCF 0917167 ...

  4. Computer architecture a quantitative approach

    CERN Document Server

    Hennessy, John L

    2019-01-01

    Computer Architecture: A Quantitative Approach, Sixth Edition has been considered essential reading by instructors, students and practitioners of computer design for over 20 years. The sixth edition of this classic textbook is fully revised with the latest developments in processor and system architecture. It now features examples from the RISC-V (RISC Five) instruction set architecture, a modern RISC instruction set developed and designed to be a free and openly adoptable standard. It also includes a new chapter on domain-specific architectures and an updated chapter on warehouse-scale computing that features the first public information on Google's newest WSC. True to its original mission of demystifying computer architecture, this edition continues the longstanding tradition of focusing on areas where the most exciting computing innovation is happening, while always keeping an emphasis on good engineering design.

  5. Broadband and Unbundling Regulations in OECD Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Wallsten, Scott

    2006-01-01

    Broadband penetration and available speeds vary widely across OECD countries. Policymakers around the world, and especially in countries like the U.S. that lag in the rankings, are searching for policies to narrow those gaps. Relatively little empirical work tests possible reasons for these differences. In this paper I test the impacts of regulations and demographics on broadband development in a panel dataset across countries. In addition to adding to the meager empirical literature on broad...

  6. Architectural freedom and industrialized architecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Inge

    2012-01-01

    to explain that architecture can be thought as a complex and diverse design through customization, telling exactly the revitalized storey about the change to a contemporary sustainable and better performing expression in direct relation to the given context. Through the last couple of years we have...... proportions, to organize the process on site choosing either one room wall components or several rooms wall components – either horizontally or vertically. Combined with the seamless joint the playing with these possibilities the new industrialized architecture can deliver variations in choice of solutions...... for retrofit design. If we add the question of the installations e.g. ventilation to this systematic thinking of building technique we get a diverse and functional architecture, thereby creating a new and clearer story telling about new and smart system based thinking behind architectural expression....

  7. Architectural freedom and industrialized architecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Inge

    2012-01-01

    to explain that architecture can be thought as a complex and diverse design through customization, telling exactly the revitalized storey about the change to a contemporary sustainable and better performing expression in direct relation to the given context. Through the last couple of years we have...... expression in the specific housing area. It is the aim of this article to expand the different design strategies which architects can use – to give the individual project attitudes and designs with architectural quality. Through the customized component production it is possible to choose different...... for retrofit design. If we add the question of the installations e.g. ventilation to this systematic thinking of building technique we get a diverse and functional architecture, thereby creating a new and clearer story telling about new and smart system based thinking behind architectural expression....

  8. Architectural freedom and industrialised architecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Inge

    2012-01-01

    Architectural freedom and industrialized architecture. Inge Vestergaard, Associate Professor, Cand. Arch. Aarhus School of Architecture, Denmark Noerreport 20, 8000 Aarhus C Telephone +45 89 36 0000 E-mai l inge.vestergaard@aarch.dk Based on the repetitive architecture from the "building boom" 1960...... customization, telling exactly the revitalized storey about the change to a contemporary sustainable and better performed expression in direct relation to the given context. Through the last couple of years we have in Denmark been focusing a more sustainable and low energy building technique, which also include...... to the building physic problems a new industrialized period has started based on light weight elements basically made of wooden structures, faced with different suitable materials meant for individual expression for the specific housing area. It is the purpose of this article to widen up the different design...

  9. Broadband electromagnetic environments simulator (EMES)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pollard, N.

    1977-01-01

    A new test facility has been developed by Sandia Laboratories for determining the effects of electromagnetic environments on systems and components. The facility is capable of producing uniform, vertically polarized, continuous wave (CW) and pulsed fields over the frequency range of dc to 10 GHz. This broadband capability addresses the electromagnetic radiation (EMR) threat and is ideally suited to computer controlled sweeping and data acquisition. EMES is also capable of producing uniform transient fields having the wave shape and magnitude characteristic of a nuclear electromagnetic pulse (EMP) and near lightning. The design consists of a truncated, triplate, rectangular coaxial transmission line. The spacing between the flat center conductor and the ground planes is 4 meters. The line is terminated in its characteristic impedance of 50 ohms. At frequencies below the first resonance of the facility it behaves as a typical coaxial system. Above resonance, a wall of electromagnetic absorbing material provides a nonreflecting termination. Thus, EMES essentially combines the elements of a transmission line and an anechoic chamber. It will not radiate electromagnetic energy into the surrounding area because it is a shielded transmission line

  10. Broadband direct RF digitization receivers

    CERN Document Server

    Jamin, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    This book discusses the trade-offs involved in designing direct RF digitization receivers for the radio frequency and digital signal processing domains.  A system-level framework is developed, quantifying the relevant impairments of the signal processing chain, through a comprehensive system-level analysis.  Special focus is given to noise analysis (thermal noise, quantization noise, saturation noise, signal-dependent noise), broadband non-linear distortion analysis, including the impact of the sampling strategy (low-pass, band-pass), analysis of time-interleaved ADC channel mismatches, sampling clock purity and digital channel selection. The system-level framework described is applied to the design of a cable multi-channel RF direct digitization receiver. An optimum RF signal conditioning, and some algorithms (automatic gain control loop, RF front-end amplitude equalization control loop) are used to relax the requirements of a 2.7GHz 11-bit ADC. A two-chip implementation is presented, using BiCMOS and 65nm...

  11. A broadband accelerator control network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skelly, J.; Clifford, T.; Frankel, R.

    1983-01-01

    A broadband data communications network has been implemented at BNL for control of the Alternating Gradient Synchrotron (AGS) proton accelerator, using commercial CATV hardware, dual coaxial cables as the communications medium, and spanning 2.0 km. A 4 MHz bandwidth Digital Control Channel using CSMA-CA protocol is provided for digital data transmission, with 8 access nodes available over the length of the RELWAY. Each node consists of an rf modem and a microprocessor-based store-and-forward message handler which interfaces the RELWAY to a branch line implemented in GPIB. A gateway to the RELWAY control channel for the (preexisting) AGS Computerized Accelerator Operating System has been constructed using an LSI-11/23 microprocessor as a device in a GPIB branch line. A multilayer communications protocol has been defined for the Digital Control Channel, based on the ISO Open Systems Interconnect layered model, and a RELWAY Device Language defined as the required universal language for device control on this channel

  12. Ultra-broadband photonic internet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romaniuk, Ryszard S.

    2011-06-01

    In this paper, there is presented a review of our today's understanding of the ultimately broadband photonic Internet. A simple calculation is presented showing the estimate of the throughput of the core photonic network branches. Optoelectronic components, circuits, systems and signals, together with analogous electronic entities and common software layers, are building blocks of the contemporary Internet. Participation of photonics in development of the physical layer in the future Internet will probably increase. The photonics leads now to a better usage of the available bandwidth (increase of the spectral efficiency measured in Bit/s/Hz), increase in the transmission rate (from Gbps, via Tbps up to probably Pbps), increase in the transmission distance without signal regeneration (in distortion compensated active optical cables), increase in energy/power efficiency measured in W/Gbps, etc. Photonics may lead, in the future, to fully transparent optical networks and, thus, to essential increase in bandwidth and network reliability. It is expected that photonics (with biochemistry, electronics and mechatronics) may build psychological and physiological interface for humans to the future global network. The following optical signal multiplexing methods were considered, which are possible without O/E/O conversion: TDM-OTDM, FDM-CO-OFDM, OCDM-OCDMA, WDM-DWDM.

  13. Architectural freedom and industrialised architecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Inge

    2012-01-01

    to the building physic problems a new industrialized period has started based on light weight elements basically made of wooden structures, faced with different suitable materials meant for individual expression for the specific housing area. It is the purpose of this article to widen up the different design...... to this systematic thinking of the building technique we get a diverse and functional architecture. Creating a new and clearer story telling about new and smart system based thinking behind the architectural expression....

  14. A goal-oriented requirements modelling language for enterprise architecture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quartel, Dick; Engelsman, W.; Jonkers, Henk; van Sinderen, Marten J.

    2009-01-01

    Methods for enterprise architecture, such as TOGAF, acknowledge the importance of requirements engineering in the development of enterprise architectures. Modelling support is needed to specify, document, communicate and reason about goals and requirements. Current modelling techniques for

  15. Architectural geometry

    KAUST Repository

    Pottmann, Helmut; Eigensatz, Michael; Vaxman, Amir; Wallner, Johannes

    2014-01-01

    Around 2005 it became apparent in the geometry processing community that freeform architecture contains many problems of a geometric nature to be solved, and many opportunities for optimization which however require geometric understanding. This area of research, which has been called architectural geometry, meanwhile contains a great wealth of individual contributions which are relevant in various fields. For mathematicians, the relation to discrete differential geometry is significant, in particular the integrable system viewpoint. Besides, new application contexts have become available for quite some old-established concepts. Regarding graphics and geometry processing, architectural geometry yields interesting new questions but also new objects, e.g. replacing meshes by other combinatorial arrangements. Numerical optimization plays a major role but in itself would be powerless without geometric understanding. Summing up, architectural geometry has become a rewarding field of study. We here survey the main directions which have been pursued, we show real projects where geometric considerations have played a role, and we outline open problems which we think are significant for the future development of both theory and practice of architectural geometry.

  16. Architectural geometry

    KAUST Repository

    Pottmann, Helmut

    2014-11-26

    Around 2005 it became apparent in the geometry processing community that freeform architecture contains many problems of a geometric nature to be solved, and many opportunities for optimization which however require geometric understanding. This area of research, which has been called architectural geometry, meanwhile contains a great wealth of individual contributions which are relevant in various fields. For mathematicians, the relation to discrete differential geometry is significant, in particular the integrable system viewpoint. Besides, new application contexts have become available for quite some old-established concepts. Regarding graphics and geometry processing, architectural geometry yields interesting new questions but also new objects, e.g. replacing meshes by other combinatorial arrangements. Numerical optimization plays a major role but in itself would be powerless without geometric understanding. Summing up, architectural geometry has become a rewarding field of study. We here survey the main directions which have been pursued, we show real projects where geometric considerations have played a role, and we outline open problems which we think are significant for the future development of both theory and practice of architectural geometry.

  17. Relational Architecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reeh, Henrik

    2018-01-01

    in a scholarly institution (element #3), as well as the certified PhD scholar (element #4) and the architectural profession, notably its labour market (element #5). This first layer outlines the contemporary context which allows architectural research to take place in a dynamic relationship to doctoral education...... a human and institutional development going on since around 1990 when the present PhD institution was first implemented in Denmark. To be sure, the model is centred around the PhD dissertation (element #1). But it involves four more components: the PhD candidate (element #2), his or her supervisor...... and interrelated fields in which history, place, and sound come to emphasize architecture’s relational qualities rather than the apparent three-dimensional solidity of constructed space. A third layer of relational architecture is at stake in the professional experiences after the defence of the authors...

  18. Architectural Anthropology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stender, Marie

    Architecture and anthropology have always had a common focus on dwelling, housing, urban life and spatial organisation. Current developments in both disciplines make it even more relevant to explore their boundaries and overlaps. Architects are inspired by anthropological insights and methods......, while recent material and spatial turns in anthropology have also brought an increasing interest in design, architecture and the built environment. Understanding the relationship between the social and the physical is at the heart of both disciplines, and they can obviously benefit from further...... collaboration: How can qualitative anthropological approaches contribute to contemporary architecture? And just as importantly: What can anthropologists learn from architects’ understanding of spatial and material surroundings? Recent theoretical developments in anthropology stress the role of materials...

  19. Broadband in schools: towards a definition and model of broadband for South African schools

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ford, Merryl

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available South Africa is about to provide broadband internet connectivity to all schools in the country via the implementation of the national broadband policy. The challenge is to ensure a balance between the schools’ demand-side usage and supply...

  20. Broad-band beam buncher

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldberg, D.A.; Flood, W.S.; Arthur, A.A.; Voelker, F.

    1986-01-01

    This patent describes a broad-band beam buncher. This beam buncher consists of: a housing adapted to be eacuated, an electron gun in the housing for producing a beam of electrons, buncher means in the housing forming a buncher cavity which has an entrance opening for receiving the electron beam and an exit opening through which the electron beam passes out of the buncher cavity, a drift tube electrode in the buncher cavity and disposed between the entrance opening and the exit opening with first and second gaps between the drift tube electrode and the entrance and exit openings, the drift tube electrode which has a first drift space through which the electron beam passes in traveling between the entrance and exit openings, modulating means for supplying an ultrahigh frequeny modulating signal to the drift tube electrode for producing velocity modulation of the electrons in the electron beam as the electrons pass through the buncher cavity and the drift tube electrode between the entrance opening and the exit opening, drift space means in the housing forming a second drift space for receiving the velocity modulated electron beam from the exit opening, the velocity modulated electron beam being bunched as it passes along the second drift space, the drift space means has a discharge opening through which the electron beam is discharged from the second drift space after being bunched therein, the modulating means containing a signal source for producing an ultrahigh frequency signal, a transmission line connected between the signal source and the drift tube electrode, and terminating means connected to the drift tube electrode for terminating the transmission line in approximately its characteristic impedance to afford a broad response band with minimum 6 variations therein

  1. Reframing Architecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riis, Søren

    2013-01-01

    I would like to thank Prof. Stephen Read (2011) and Prof. Andrew Benjamin (2011) for both giving inspiring and elaborate comments on my article “Dwelling in-between walls: the architectural surround”. As I will try to demonstrate below, their two different responses not only supplement my article...... focuses on how the absence of an initial distinction might threaten the endeavour of my paper. In my reply to Read and Benjamin, I will discuss their suggestions and arguments, while at the same time hopefully clarifying the postphenomenological approach to architecture....

  2. Terra Harvest software architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humeniuk, Dave; Klawon, Kevin

    2012-06-01

    Under the Terra Harvest Program, the DIA has the objective of developing a universal Controller for the Unattended Ground Sensor (UGS) community. The mission is to define, implement, and thoroughly document an open architecture that universally supports UGS missions, integrating disparate systems, peripherals, etc. The Controller's inherent interoperability with numerous systems enables the integration of both legacy and future UGS System (UGSS) components, while the design's open architecture supports rapid third-party development to ensure operational readiness. The successful accomplishment of these objectives by the program's Phase 3b contractors is demonstrated via integration of the companies' respective plug-'n'-play contributions that include controllers, various peripherals, such as sensors, cameras, etc., and their associated software drivers. In order to independently validate the Terra Harvest architecture, L-3 Nova Engineering, along with its partner, the University of Dayton Research Institute, is developing the Terra Harvest Open Source Environment (THOSE), a Java Virtual Machine (JVM) running on an embedded Linux Operating System. The Use Cases on which the software is developed support the full range of UGS operational scenarios such as remote sensor triggering, image capture, and data exfiltration. The Team is additionally developing an ARM microprocessor-based evaluation platform that is both energy-efficient and operationally flexible. The paper describes the overall THOSE architecture, as well as the design decisions for some of the key software components. Development process for THOSE is discussed as well.

  3. The architecture of a modern military health information system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherji, Raj J; Egyhazy, Csaba J

    2004-06-01

    This article describes a melding of a government-sponsored architecture for complex systems with open systems engineering architecture developed by the Institute for Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE). Our experience in using these two architectures in building a complex healthcare system is described in this paper. The work described shows that it is possible to combine these two architectural frameworks in describing the systems, operational, and technical views of a complex automation system. The advantage in combining the two architectural frameworks lies in the simplicity of implementation and ease of understanding of automation system architectural elements by medical professionals.

  4. Textile Architecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heimdal, Elisabeth Jacobsen

    2010-01-01

    Textiles can be used as building skins, adding new aesthetic and functional qualities to architecture. Just like we as humans can put on a coat, buildings can also get dressed. Depending on our mood, or on the weather, we can change coat, and so can the building. But the idea of using textiles...

  5. Identifying Broadband Rotational Spectra with Neural Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaleski, Daniel P.; Prozument, Kirill

    2017-06-01

    A typical broadband rotational spectrum may contain several thousand observable transitions, spanning many species. Identifying the individual spectra, particularly when the dynamic range reaches 1,000:1 or even 10,000:1, can be challenging. One approach is to apply automated fitting routines. In this approach, combinations of 3 transitions can be created to form a "triple", which allows fitting of the A, B, and C rotational constants in a Watson-type Hamiltonian. On a standard desktop computer, with a target molecule of interest, a typical AUTOFIT routine takes 2-12 hours depending on the spectral density. A new approach is to utilize machine learning to train a computer to recognize the patterns (frequency spacing and relative intensities) inherit in rotational spectra and to identify the individual spectra in a raw broadband rotational spectrum. Here, recurrent neural networks have been trained to identify different types of rotational spectra and classify them accordingly. Furthermore, early results in applying convolutional neural networks for spectral object recognition in broadband rotational spectra appear promising. Perez et al. "Broadband Fourier transform rotational spectroscopy for structure determination: The water heptamer." Chem. Phys. Lett., 2013, 571, 1-15. Seifert et al. "AUTOFIT, an Automated Fitting Tool for Broadband Rotational Spectra, and Applications to 1-Hexanal." J. Mol. Spectrosc., 2015, 312, 13-21. Bishop. "Neural networks for pattern recognition." Oxford university press, 1995.

  6. Modeling of Broadband Liners Applied to the Advanced Noise Control Fan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nark, Douglas M.; Jones, Michael G.; Sutliff, Daniel L.

    2015-01-01

    The broadband component of fan noise has grown in relevance with an increase in bypass ratio and incorporation of advanced fan designs. Therefore, while the attenuation of fan tones remains a major factor in engine nacelle acoustic liner design, the simultaneous reduction of broadband fan noise levels has received increased interest. As such, a previous investigation focused on improvements to an established broadband acoustic liner optimization process using the Advanced Noise Control Fan (ANCF) rig as a demonstrator. Constant-depth, double-degree of freedom and variable-depth, multi-degree of freedom liner designs were carried through design, fabrication, and testing. This paper addresses a number of areas for further research identified in the initial assessment of the ANCF study. Specifically, incident source specification and uncertainty in some aspects of the predicted liner impedances are addressed. This information is incorporated in updated predictions of the liner performance and comparisons with measurement are greatly improved. Results illustrate the value of the design process in concurrently evaluating the relative costs/benefits of various liner designs. This study also provides further confidence in the integrated use of duct acoustic propagation/radiation and liner modeling tools in the design and evaluation of novel broadband liner concepts for complex engine configurations.

  7. Building evolutionary architectures support constant change

    CERN Document Server

    Ford, Neal; Kua, Patrick

    2017-01-01

    The software development ecosystem is constantly changing, providing a constant stream of new tools, frameworks, techniques, and paradigms. Over the past few years, incremental developments in core engineering practices for software development have created the foundations for rethinking how architecture changes over time, along with ways to protect important architectural characteristics as it evolves. This practical guide ties those parts together with a new way to think about architecture and time.

  8. From green architecture to architectural green

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Earon, Ofri

    2011-01-01

    that describes the architectural exclusivity of this particular architecture genre. The adjective green expresses architectural qualities differentiating green architecture from none-green architecture. Currently, adding trees and vegetation to the building’s facade is the main architectural characteristics...... they have overshadowed the architectural potential of green architecture. The paper questions how a green space should perform, look like and function. Two examples are chosen to demonstrate thorough integrations between green and space. The examples are public buildings categorized as pavilions. One......The paper investigates the topic of green architecture from an architectural point of view and not an energy point of view. The purpose of the paper is to establish a debate about the architectural language and spatial characteristics of green architecture. In this light, green becomes an adjective...

  9. Is European Broadband Ready for Smart Grid?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balachandran, Kartheepan; Pedersen, Jens Myrup

    2014-01-01

    In this short paper we compare the communication requirements for three Smart Grid scenarios with the availability of broadband and mobile communication networks in Europe. We show that only in the most demanding case - where data is collected and transmitted every second - a standard GSM/GPRS co....../GPRS connection is not enough. Whereas in the less demanding scenarios it is almost all of the European households that can be covered by a standard broadband technology for use with Smart Grid.......In this short paper we compare the communication requirements for three Smart Grid scenarios with the availability of broadband and mobile communication networks in Europe. We show that only in the most demanding case - where data is collected and transmitted every second - a standard GSM...

  10. Magnetically levitated autoparametric broadband vibration energy harvesting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurmann, L.; Jia, Y.; Manoli, Y.; Woias, P.

    2016-01-01

    Some of the lingering challenges within the current paradigm of vibration energy harvesting (VEH) involve narrow operational frequency range and the inevitable non-resonant response from broadband noise excitations. Such VEHs are only suitable for limited applications with fixed sinusoidal vibration, and fail to capture a large spectrum of the real world vibration. Various arraying designs, frequency tuning schemes and nonlinear vibratory approaches have only yielded modest enhancements. To fundamentally address this, the paper proposes and explores the potentials in using highly nonlinear magnetic spring force to activate an autoparametric oscillator, in order to realize an inherently broadband resonant system. Analytical and numerical modelling illustrate that high spring nonlinearity derived from magnetic levitation helps to promote the 2:1 internal frequency matching required to activate parametric resonance. At the right internal parameters, the resulting system can intrinsically exhibit semi-resonant response regardless of the bandwidth of the input vibration, including broadband white noise excitation. (paper)

  11. Service Differentiation in Residential Broadband Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sigurdsson, Halldór Matthias

    2004-01-01

    As broadband gains widespread adoption with residential users, revenue generating voice- and video-services have not yet taken off. This slow uptake is often attributed to lack of Quality of Service management in residential broadband networks. To resolve this and induce service variety, network...... access providers are implementing service differentiation in their networks where voice and video gets prioritised before data. This paper discusses the role of network access providers in multipurpose packet based networks and the available migration strategies for supporting multimedia services...... in digital subscriber line (DSL) based residential broadband networks. Four possible implementation scenarios and their technical characteristics and effects are described. To conclude, the paper discusses how network access providers can be induced to open their networks for third party service providers....

  12. Policy factors affecting broadband development in Poland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henten, Anders; Windekilde, Iwona Maria

    2014-01-01

    of telecommunications network development in Poland than other countries in the European Union is the reason that the circumstances and also the effects of the implementation of some solutions of the EU regulation model are different in Poland than in the most developed EU countries. The aim of the paper is to examine...... and discuss broadband access development in Poland and the policy factors influencing this development as well as to examine national strategies used to stimulate service and infrastructure competition in Poland. There are, indeed, many other factors affecting broadband development such as the income level....../distribution in the country and the infrastructural point of departure. The paper, therefore, analyses the implications of the policy initiatives in light of these basic conditions and the broader context of factors influencing broadband development. In the paper, different kinds of policy initiatives are examined...

  13. Re-Architecture: Reality or Utopia?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pereira-Roders, A.R.; Post, J.M.; Erkelens, P.A.

    2008-01-01

    RE-ARCHITECTURE: lifespan rehabilitation of built heritage (2004-2007) is a doctoral research funded by the Foundation for Science and Technology, Portugal; and hosted by the Unit Architectural Design and Engineering, Eindhoven University of Technology, The Netherlands. This doctoral research is now

  14. A Microkernel Architecture for Constraint Programming

    OpenAIRE

    Michel, Laurent; Van Hentenryck, Pascal

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a microkernel architecture for constraint programming organized around a number of small number of core functionalities and minimal interfaces. The architecture contrasts with the monolithic nature of many implementations. Experimental results indicate that the software engineering benefits are not incompatible with runtime efficiency.

  15. The signs of life in architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruber, Petra

    2008-06-01

    Engineers, designers and architects often look to nature for inspiration. The research on 'natural constructions' is aiming at innovation and the improvement of architectural quality. The introduction of life sciences terminology in the context of architecture delivers new perspectives towards innovation in architecture and design. The investigation is focused on the analogies between nature and architecture. Apart from other principles that are found in living nature, an interpretation of the so-called 'signs of life', which characterize living systems, in architecture is presented. Selected architectural projects that have applied specific characteristics of life, whether on purpose or not, will show the state of development in this field and open up future challenges. The survey will include famous built architecture as well as students' design programs, which were carried out under supervision of the author at the Department of Design and Building Construction at the Vienna University of Technology.

  16. Participation in the broadband society in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Falch, Morten; Henten, Anders; Skouby, Knud Erik

    2009-01-01

    passed the threshold set by the EU with respect to the relevance of initiating a discussion on the implementation of a universal service obligation on broadband. As documented in the paper, there are groups among primarily the elderly and the unemployed who do not have Internet access. Their own......The purpose of the paper is to provide an empirical overview of broadband developments in Denmark. The overview includes sections on coverage and penetration, connection speeds, retail prices, competition, interconnection prices, and residential access to Internet. The documentation shows...

  17. MUF architecture /art London

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svenningsen Kajita, Heidi

    2009-01-01

    Om MUF architecture samt interview med Liza Fior og Katherine Clarke, partnere i muf architecture/art......Om MUF architecture samt interview med Liza Fior og Katherine Clarke, partnere i muf architecture/art...

  18. Architectural fragments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bang, Jacob Sebastian

    2018-01-01

    I have created a large collection of plaster models: a collection of Obstructions, errors and opportunities that may develop into architecture. The models are fragments of different complex shapes as well as more simple circular models with different profiling and diameters. In this contect I have....... I try to invent the ways of drawing the models - that decode and unfold them into architectural fragments- into future buildings or constructions in the landscape. [1] Luigi Moretti: Italian architect, 1907 - 1973 [2] Man Ray: American artist, 1890 - 1976. in 2015, I saw the wonderful exhibition...... "Man Ray - Human Equations" at the Glyptotek in Copenhagen, organized by the Philips Collection in Washington D.C. and the Israel Museum in Jerusalem (in 2013). See also: "Man Ray - Human Equations" catalogue published by Hatje Cantz Verlag, Germany, 2014....

  19. Kosmos = architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tine Kurent

    1985-12-01

    Full Text Available The old Greek word "kosmos" means not only "cosmos", but also "the beautiful order", "the way of building", "building", "scenography", "mankind", and, in the time of the New Testament, also "pagans". The word "arhitekton", meaning first the "master of theatrical scenography", acquired the meaning of "builder", when the words "kosmos" and ~kosmetes" became pejorative. The fear that architecture was not considered one of the arts before Renaissance, since none of the Muses supervised the art of building, results from the misunderstanding of the word "kosmos". Urania was the Goddes of the activity implied in the verb "kosmein", meaning "to put in the beautiful order" - everything, from the universe to the man-made space, i. e. the architecture.

  20. Metabolistic Architecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    Textile Spaces presents different approaches to using textile as a spatial definer and artistic medium. The publication collages images and text, art and architecture, science, philosophy and literature, process and product, past, present and future. It forms an insight into soft materials' funct......' functional and poetic potentials, linking the disciplines through fragments that aim to inspire a further look into the artists' and architects' practices, while simultaneously framing these textile visions in a wider context.......Textile Spaces presents different approaches to using textile as a spatial definer and artistic medium. The publication collages images and text, art and architecture, science, philosophy and literature, process and product, past, present and future. It forms an insight into soft materials...

  1. VT Wireline Broadband Availability by Census Block - 06-2013

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) The VTBB201306 VT Broadband Availability Dataset represents wireline and wireless 'broadband service' availability in VT as of 6/30/2013. This...

  2. VT Public Locations of Broadband Data - 06-2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) The VTBB201006 VT Broadband Availability Dataset represents wireline and wireless 'broadband service' availability in VT as of 6/30/2010. This...

  3. VT Public Locations of Broadband Data - 12-2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) The VTBB201112 VT Broadband Availability Dataset represents wireline and wireless 'broadband service' availability in VT as of 12/31/2011. This...

  4. VT Public Locations of Broadband Data - 06-2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) The VTBB201106 VT Broadband Availability Dataset represents wireline and wireless 'broadband service' availability in VT as of 6/30/2011. This...

  5. VT Cable Broadband Availability by Census Block - 06-2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) The VTBB201006 VT Broadband Availability Dataset represents wireline and wireless 'broadband service' availability in VT as of 6/30/2010. This...

  6. VT Total Broadband Availability by Census Block - 12-2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) The VTBB201212 VT Broadband Availability Dataset represents wireline and wireless 'broadband service' availability in VT as of 12/31/2012. This...

  7. VT Cable Broadband Availability by Census Block - 12-2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) The VTBB201212 VT Broadband Availability Dataset represents wireline and wireless 'broadband service' availability in VT as of 12/31/2012. This...

  8. VT Detailed Broadband Availability by Census Block -12-2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) The VTBB201212 VT Broadband Availability Dataset represents wireline and wireless 'broadband service' availability in VT as of 12/31/2012. This...

  9. VT Detailed Broadband Availability by Census Block - 06-2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) The VTBB201006 VT Broadband Availability Dataset represents wireline and wireless 'broadband service' availability in VT as of 6/30/2010. This...

  10. VT Detailed Broadband Availability by Census Block -12-2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) The VTBB201112 VT Broadband Availability Dataset represents wireline and wireless 'broadband service' availability in VT as of 12/31/2011. This...

  11. VT Detailed Broadband Availability by Census Block - 06-2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) The VTBB201106 VT Broadband Availability Dataset represents wireline and wireless 'broadband service' availability in VT as of 6/30/2011. This...

  12. VT Wireline Broadband Availability by Census Block - 12-2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) The VTBB201012 VT Broadband Availability Dataset represents wireline and wireless 'broadband service' availability in VT as of 12/31/2010. This...

  13. VT Wireless Broadband Availability by Census Block - 06-2013

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) The VTBB201306 VT Broadband Availability Dataset represents wireline and wireless 'broadband service' availability in VT as of 6/30/2013. This...

  14. VT Total Broadband Availability by Census Block - 06-2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) The VTBB201006 VT Broadband Availability Dataset represents wireline and wireless 'broadband service' availability in VT as of 6/30/2010. This...

  15. VT Wireline Broadband Availability by Census Block - 06-2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) The VTBB201006 VT Broadband Availability Dataset represents wireline and wireless 'broadband service' availability in VT as of 6/30/2010. This...

  16. VT Wireless Broadband Availability by Census Block - 12-2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) The VTBB201212 VT Broadband Availability Dataset represents wireline and wireless 'broadband service' availability in VT as of 12/31/2012. This...

  17. VT Total Broadband Availability by Census Block - 12-2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) The VTBB201112 VT Broadband Availability Dataset represents wireline and wireless 'broadband service' availability in VT as of 12/31/2011. This...

  18. VT Cable Broadband Availability by Census Block - 12-2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) The VTBB201012 VT Broadband Availability Dataset represents wireline and wireless 'broadband service' availability in VT as of 12/31/2010. This...

  19. VT Wireless Broadband Availability by Census Block - 06-2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) The VTBB201006 VT Broadband Availability Dataset represents wireline and wireless 'broadband service' availability in VT as of 6/30/2010. This...

  20. VT Detailed Broadband Availability by Census Block - 12-2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) The VTBB201012 VT Broadband Availability Dataset represents wireline and wireless 'broadband service' availability in VT as of 12/31/2010. This...

  1. VT Total Broadband Availability by Census Block - 06-2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) The VTBB201106 VT Broadband Availability Dataset represents wireline and wireless 'broadband service' availability in VT as of 6/30/2011. This...

  2. VT DSL Broadband Availability by Census Block - 06-2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) The VTBB201106 VT Broadband Availability Dataset represents wireline and wireless 'broadband service' availability in VT as of 6/30/2011. This...

  3. VT Wireline Broadband Availability by Census Block - 12-2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) The VTBB201212 VT Broadband Availability Dataset represents wireline and wireless 'broadband service' availability in VT as of 12/31/2012. This...

  4. VT DSL Broadband Availability by Census Block - 06-2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) The VTBB201006 VT Broadband Availability Dataset represents wireline and wireless 'broadband service' availability in VT as of 6/30/2010. This...

  5. VT Wireless Broadband Availability by Census Block - 06-2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) The VTBB201106 VT Broadband Availability Dataset represents wireline and wireless 'broadband service' availability in VT as of 6/30/2011. This...

  6. 7 CFR 1738.11 - Availability of broadband service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE RURAL BROADBAND ACCESS LOANS AND LOAN GUARANTEES Loan Purposes and Basic Policies... given to loans to finance service to eligible rural communities in which broadband service is not...

  7. VT Wireless Broadband Availability by Census Block - 12-2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) The VTBB201012 VT Broadband Availability Dataset represents wireline and wireless 'broadband service' availability in VT as of 12/31/2010. This...

  8. VT Public Locations of Broadband Data - 12-2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) The VTBB201212 VT Broadband Availability Dataset represents wireline and wireless 'broadband service' availability in VT as of 12/31/2012. This...

  9. VT DSL Broadband Availability by Census Block - 06-2013

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) The VTBB201306 VT Broadband Availability Dataset represents wireline and wireless 'broadband service' availability in VT as of 6/30/2013. This...

  10. VT Cable Broadband Availability by Census Block - 06-2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) The VTBB201106 VT Broadband Availability Dataset represents wireline and wireless 'broadband service' availability in VT as of 6/30/2011. This...

  11. VT Wireline Broadband Availability by Census Block - 12-2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) The VTBB201112 VT Broadband Availability Dataset represents wireline and wireless 'broadband service' availability in VT as of 12/31/2011. This...

  12. VT Cable Broadband Availability by Census Block - 06-2013

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) The VTBB201306 VT Broadband Availability Dataset represents wireline and wireless 'broadband service' availability in VT as of 6/30/2013. This...

  13. VT Wireless Broadband Availability by Census Block - 12-2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) The VTBB201112 VT Broadband Availability Dataset represents wireline and wireless 'broadband service' availability in VT as of 12/31/2011. This...

  14. VT DSL Broadband Availability by Census Block - 12-2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) The VTBB201112 VT Broadband Availability Dataset represents wireline and wireless 'broadband service' availability in VT as of 12/31/2011. This...

  15. VT Wireline Broadband Availability by Census Block - 06-2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) The VTBB201106 VT Broadband Availability Dataset represents wireline and wireless 'broadband service' availability in VT as of 6/30/2011. This...

  16. VT Public Locations of Broadband Data - 12-2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) The VTBB201012 VT Broadband Availability Dataset represents wireline and wireless 'broadband service' availability in VT as of 12/31/2010. This...

  17. VT Cable Broadband Availability by Census Block - 12-2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) The VTBB201112 VT Broadband Availability Dataset represents wireline and wireless 'broadband service' availability in VT as of 12/31/2011. This...

  18. VT Total Broadband Availability by Census Block - 12-2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) The VTBB201012 VT Broadband Availability Dataset represents wireline and wireless 'broadband service' availability in VT as of 12/31/2010. This...

  19. VT Detailed Broadband Availability by Census Block - 06-2013

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) The VTBB201306 VT Broadband Availability Dataset represents wireline and wireless 'broadband service' availability in VT as of 6/30/2013. This...

  20. VT DSL Broadband Availability by Census Block - 12-2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) The VTBB201212 VT Broadband Availability Dataset represents wireline and wireless 'broadband service' availability in VT as of 12/31/2012. This...

  1. VT DSL Broadband Availability by Census Block - 12-2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) The VTBB201012 VT Broadband Availability Dataset represents wireline and wireless 'broadband service' availability in VT as of 12/31/2010. This...

  2. VT Public Locations of Broadband Data - 06-2013

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) The VTBB201306 VT Broadband Availability Dataset represents wireline and wireless 'broadband service' availability in VT as of 6/30/2013. This...

  3. Semiconductor Quantum Dash Broadband Emitters: Modeling and Experiments

    KAUST Repository

    Khan, Mohammed Zahed Mustafa

    2013-01-01

    multi-disciplinary field applications such as biomedical imaging and sensing, general lighting and internet and mobile phone connectivity. In general, most commercial broadband light sources relies on complex systems for broadband light generation which

  4. VT Total Broadband Availability by Census Block - 06-2013

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) The VTBB201306 VT Broadband Availability Dataset represents wireline and wireless 'broadband service' availability in VT as of 6/30/2013. This...

  5. Chemical Transport Models on Accelerator Architectures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linford, J.; Sandu, A.

    2008-12-01

    Heterogeneous multicore chipsets with many layers of polymorphic parallelism are becoming increasingly common in high-performance computing systems. Homogeneous co-processors with many streaming processors also offer unprecedented peak floating-point performance. Effective use of parallelism in these new chipsets is paramount. We present optimization techniques for 3D chemical transport models to take full advantage of emerging Cell Broadband Engine and graphical processing unit (GPU) technology. Our techniques achieve 2.15x the per-node performance of an IBM BlueGene/P on the Cell Broadband Engine, and a strongly-scalable 1.75x the per-node performance of an IBM BlueGene/P on an NVIDIA GeForce 8600.

  6. Guidelines for Standardized Testing of Broadband Seismometers and Accelerometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutt, Charles R.; Evans, John R.; Followill, Fred; Nigbor, Robert L.; Wielandt, Erhard

    2010-01-01

    Testing and specification of seismic and earthquake-engineering sensors and recorders has been marked by significant variations in procedures and selected parameters. These variations cause difficulty in comparing such specifications and test results. In July 1989, and again in May 2005, the U.S. Geological Survey hosted international pub-lic/private workshops with the goal of defining widely accepted guidelines for the testing of seismological inertial sensors, seismometers, and accelerometers. The Proceedings of the 2005 workshop have been published and include as appendix 6 the report of the 1989 workshop. This document represents a collation and rationalization of a single set of formal guidelines for testing and specifying broadband seismometers and accelerometers.

  7. Broadband luminescent materials in waveguide geometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pollnau, Markus

    In recent years, broadband fiber interferometers have become very popular as basic instruments used in optical low-coherence reflectometry for diagnostics of fiber and integrated optics devices or in optical coherence tomography (OCT) for imaging applications in the biomedical field. The

  8. BROADBAND TRAVELLING WAVE SEMICONDUCTOR OPTICAL AMPLIFIER

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2010-01-01

    Broadband travelling wave semiconductor optical amplifier (100, 200, 300, 400, 800) for amplification of light, wherein the amplifier (100, 200, 300, 400, 800) comprises a waveguide region (101, 201, 301, 401, 801) for providing confinement of the light in transverse directions and adapted...

  9. WIRELESS FIDELITY (Wi-Fi) BROADBAND NETWORK ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ES Obe

    broadband speed and coverage, while Wi-Fi can be integrated with WiMAX networks to provide Internet ... Microwave Access (WiMAX), IEEE 802.11 standards. 1.0 INTRODUCTION .... These 2G systems provided circuit- switched data ...

  10. 77 FR 36903 - Accelerating Broadband Infrastructure Deployment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-20

    ... the Nation's global competitiveness in the 21st century, driving job creation, promoting innovation, and expanding markets for American businesses. Broadband access also affords public safety agencies... infrastructure has been deployed in a vast majority of communities across the country, today too many areas still...

  11. 75 FR 27984 - Broadband Technology Opportunities Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-19

    ... applications, including: streaming video (surveillance, remote monitoring); digital imaging; automatic vehicle location; computer-aided dispatching; electronic mail; mapping and GPS; remote database access; report... entities to deploy public safety broadband systems using the 700 MHz spectrum licensed to the PSST.\\13\\ The...

  12. 75 FR 29516 - Broadband Researchers' Data Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-26

    ... foundation for long-term economic stability and prosperity.\\1\\ The increased availability and use of... telecommunications policies pertaining to the Nation's economic and technological advancement. In order to achieve... stakeholders to develop and implement economic and regulatory policies that foster broadband deployment and...

  13. Electromagnetically induced transparency with broadband laser pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yavuz, D. D.

    2007-01-01

    We suggest a scheme to slow and stop broadband laser pulses inside an atomic medium using electromagnetically induced transparency. Extending the suggestion of Harris et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 552 (1993)], the key idea is to use matched Fourier components for the probe and coupling laser beams

  14. Design and implementation of interface units for high speed fiber optics local area networks and broadband integrated services digital networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobagi, Fouad A.; Dalgic, Ismail; Pang, Joseph

    1990-01-01

    The design and implementation of interface units for high speed Fiber Optic Local Area Networks and Broadband Integrated Services Digital Networks are discussed. During the last years, a number of network adapters that are designed to support high speed communications have emerged. This approach to the design of a high speed network interface unit was to implement package processing functions in hardware, using VLSI technology. The VLSI hardware implementation of a buffer management unit, which is required in such architectures, is described.

  15. Modeling and controller design architecture for cycle-by-cycle combustion control of homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) engines – A comprehensive review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fathi, Morteza; Jahanian, Omid; Shahbakhti, Mahdi

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Addressing accuracy-speed compromise of HCCI representation is very important. • Phasing, load, exhaust temperature and emissions are the most important outputs. • Separability between the effects of the inputs on the outputs is of great interest. • Existing actuation systems combining inputs are favorable. • An HCCI controller should be a fast and robust one to become a viable solution. - Abstract: Homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) combustion engines are advantageous in terms of good fuel economy and low levels of soot-nitrogen oxides (NOx) emissions. However, they are accompanied with some intrinsic challenges, the most important of which is the lack of any direct control method for ignition trigger. Thus, implementation of HCCI combustion is in fact a control problem, and an optimized control structure is required for attaining the inherent benefits of HCCI. The control structure consists of a proper representation of engine processes; a suitable selection of state variables; useful and applicable set of inputs, outputs and observers; appropriate fixed or variable set-points for controlled parameters; instrumentations including sensors and actuators; and an applicable control law implemented in a controller. The present paper aims at addressing these issues altogether by introducing HCCI engine control structure in progress and presenting highlights from literature. Research should result in appropriately controlled HCCI engines which can provide desired load at rated speed with acceptable performance and emissions characteristics.

  16. Computer-aided cartilage tissue-engineering : a numerical evaluation of the influence of inhomogeneities, collagen architecture and temporal culture effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khoshgoftar, M.

    2012-01-01

    Hyaline articular cartilage has a crucial role in the distribution of joint mechanical loads and smooth movement of bones. Because of its poor healing capacity, cartilage damage is progressive and may lead to osteoarthritis (OA). Replacing damaged cartilage with tissue engineered (TE) cartilage is

  17. Sustainable, Reliable Mission-Systems Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neil, Graham; Orr, James K.; Watson, Steve

    2007-01-01

    A mission-systems architecture, based on a highly modular infrastructure utilizing: open-standards hardware and software interfaces as the enabling technology is essential for affordable and sustainable space exploration programs. This mission-systems architecture requires (a) robust communication between heterogeneous system, (b) high reliability, (c) minimal mission-to-mission reconfiguration, (d) affordable development, system integration, and verification of systems, and (e) minimal sustaining engineering. This paper proposes such an architecture. Lessons learned from the Space Shuttle program and Earthbound complex engineered system are applied to define the model. Technology projections reaching out 5 years are mde to refine model details.

  18. Microprocessor architectures RISC, CISC and DSP

    CERN Document Server

    Heath, Steve

    1995-01-01

    'Why are there all these different processor architectures and what do they all mean? Which processor will I use? How should I choose it?' Given the task of selecting an architecture or design approach, both engineers and managers require a knowledge of the whole system and an explanation of the design tradeoffs and their effects. This is information that rarely appears in data sheets or user manuals. This book fills that knowledge gap.Section 1 provides a primer and history of the three basic microprocessor architectures. Section 2 describes the ways in which the architectures react with the

  19. Helicity multiplexed broadband metasurface holograms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Dandan; Yue, Fuyong; Li, Guixin; Zheng, Guoxing; Chan, Kinlong; Chen, Shumei; Chen, Ming; Li, King Fai; Wong, Polis Wing Han; Cheah, Kok Wai; Pun, Edwin Yue Bun; Zhang, Shuang; Chen, Xianzhong

    2015-09-10

    Metasurfaces are engineered interfaces that contain a thin layer of plasmonic or dielectric nanostructures capable of manipulating light in a desirable manner. Advances in metasurfaces have led to various practical applications ranging from lensing to holography. Metasurface holograms that can be switched by the polarization state of incident light have been demonstrated for achieving polarization multiplexed functionalities. However, practical application of these devices has been limited by their capability for achieving high efficiency and high image quality. Here we experimentally demonstrate a helicity multiplexed metasurface hologram with high efficiency and good image fidelity over a broad range of frequencies. The metasurface hologram features the combination of two sets of hologram patterns operating with opposite incident helicities. Two symmetrically distributed off-axis images are interchangeable by controlling the helicity of the input light. The demonstrated helicity multiplexed metasurface hologram with its high performance opens avenues for future applications with functionality switchable optical devices.

  20. Connecting Architecture and Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchgeher, Georg; Weinreich, Rainer

    Software architectures are still typically defined and described independently from implementation. To avoid architectural erosion and drift, architectural representation needs to be continuously updated and synchronized with system implementation. Existing approaches for architecture representation like informal architecture documentation, UML diagrams, and Architecture Description Languages (ADLs) provide only limited support for connecting architecture descriptions and implementations. Architecture management tools like Lattix, SonarJ, and Sotoarc and UML-tools tackle this problem by extracting architecture information directly from code. This approach works for low-level architectural abstractions like classes and interfaces in object-oriented systems but fails to support architectural abstractions not found in programming languages. In this paper we present an approach for linking and continuously synchronizing a formalized architecture representation to an implementation. The approach is a synthesis of functionality provided by code-centric architecture management and UML tools and higher-level architecture analysis approaches like ADLs.

  1. Future city architecture for optimal living

    CERN Document Server

    Pardalos, Panos

    2015-01-01

      This book offers a wealth of interdisciplinary approaches to urbanization strategies in architecture centered on growing concerns about the future of cities and their impacts on essential elements of architectural optimization, livability, energy consumption and sustainability. It portrays the urban condition in architectural terms, as well as the living condition in human terms, both of which can be optimized by mathematical modeling as well as mathematical calculation and assessment.   Special features include:   ·        new research on the construction of future cities and smart cities   ·        discussions of sustainability and new technologies designed to advance ideas to future city developments   Graduate students and researchers in architecture, engineering, mathematical modeling, and building physics will be engaged by the contributions written by eminent international experts from a variety of disciplines including architecture, engineering, modeling, optimization, and relat...

  2. Materials science and architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bechthold, Martin; Weaver, James C.

    2017-12-01

    Materiality — the use of various materials in architecture — has been fundamental to the design and construction of buildings, and materials science has traditionally responded to needs formulated by design, engineering and construction professionals. Material properties and processes are shaping buildings and influencing how they perform. The advent of technologies such as digital fabrication, robotics and 3D printing have not only accelerated the development of new construction solutions, but have also led to a renewed interest in materials as a catalyst for novel architectural design. In parallel, materials science has transformed from a field that explains materials to one that designs materials from the bottom up. The conflation of these two trends is giving rise to materials-based design research in which architects, engineers and materials scientists work as partners in the conception of new materials systems and their applications. This Review surveys this development for different material classes (wood, ceramics, metals, concrete, glass, synthetic composites and polymers), with an emphasis on recent trends and innovations.

  3. Management of broadband technology and innovation policy, deployment, and use

    CERN Document Server

    Choudrie, Jyoti

    2013-01-01

    When one considers broadband, the Internet immediately springs to mind. However, broadband is impacting society in many ways. For instance, broadband networks can be used to deliver healthcare or community related services to individuals who don't have computers, have distance as an issue to contend with, or don't use the internet. Broadband can support better management of scarce energy resources with the advent of smart grids, enables improved teleworking capacity and opens up a world of new entertainment possibilities. Yet scholarly examinations of broadband technology have so far examin

  4. Architecture for autonomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broten, Gregory S.; Monckton, Simon P.; Collier, Jack; Giesbrecht, Jared

    2006-05-01

    , open to public scrutiny and modification, now rival commercial frameworks in both quality and economic impact. Further, industry now realizes that open source frameworks can reduce cost and risk of systems engineering. This paper describes the Architecture for Autonomy implemented by DRDC and how this architecture meets DRDC's current needs. It also presents an argument for why this architecture should also satisfy DRDC's future requirements as well.

  5. Improved Broadband Liner Optimization Applied to the Advanced Noise Control Fan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nark, Douglas M.; Jones, Michael G.; Sutliff, Daniel L.; Ayle, Earl; Ichihashi, Fumitaka

    2014-01-01

    The broadband component of fan noise has grown in relevance with the utilization of increased bypass ratio and advanced fan designs. Thus, while the attenuation of fan tones remains paramount, the ability to simultaneously reduce broadband fan noise levels has become more desirable. This paper describes improvements to a previously established broadband acoustic liner optimization process using the Advanced Noise Control Fan rig as a demonstrator. Specifically, in-duct attenuation predictions with a statistical source model are used to obtain optimum impedance spectra over the conditions of interest. The predicted optimum impedance information is then used with acoustic liner modeling tools to design liners aimed at producing impedance spectra that most closely match the predicted optimum values. Design selection is based on an acceptance criterion that provides the ability to apply increased weighting to specific frequencies and/or operating conditions. Constant-depth, double-degree of freedom and variable-depth, multi-degree of freedom designs are carried through design, fabrication, and testing to validate the efficacy of the design process. Results illustrate the value of the design process in concurrently evaluating the relative costs/benefits of these liner designs. This study also provides an application for demonstrating the integrated use of duct acoustic propagation/radiation and liner modeling tools in the design and evaluation of novel broadband liner concepts for complex engine configurations.

  6. Local government broadband policies for areas with limited Internet access

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshio Arai

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Despite their wide diffusion in developed countries, broadband services are still limited in areas where providing them is not profitable for private telecom carriers. To address this, many local governments in Japan have implemented broadband deployment projects subsidized by the national government. In this paper, we discuss local government broadband policies based on survey data collected from municipalities throughout the country. With the support of national promotion policies, broadband services were rapidly introduced to most local municipalities in Japan during the 2000s. Local government deployment policies helped to reduce the number of areas with no broadband access. A business model based on the Indefeasible Right of Use (IRU contract between a private telecom carrier and a local government has been developed in recent years. Even local governments without the technical capacity to operate a broadband business can introduce broadband services into their territory using the IRU business model.

  7. A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF SYSTEM NETWORK ARCHITECTURE Vs DIGITAL NETWORK ARCHITECTURE

    OpenAIRE

    Seema; Mukesh Arya

    2011-01-01

    The efficient managing system of sources is mandatory for the successful running of any network. Here this paper describes the most popular network architectures one of developed by IBM, System Network Architecture (SNA) and other is Digital Network Architecture (DNA). As we know that the network standards and protocols are needed for the network developers as well as users. Some standards are The IEEE 802.3 standards (The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers 1980) (LAN), IBM Sta...

  8. Ultimate architecture

    CERN Multimedia

    Jencks, Charles

    2007-01-01

    "European physics hothouse CERN recently unveiled Atlas, the world's most powerful particle detector, which it will use to search for the fundamental building blocks of nature from May next year. Charles Jencks describes the experience of getting up clsoe to the engineering marvel that could en up creating a mini-black hole."(5 pages with photos).

  9. Architectural Drawing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steinø, Nicolai

    2018-01-01

    In a time of computer aided design, computer graphics and parametric design tools, the art of architectural drawing is in a state of neglect. But design and drawing are inseparably linked in ways which often go unnoticed. Essentially, it is very difficult, if not impossible, to conceive of a design...... is that computers can represent graphic ideas both faster and better than most medium-skilled draftsmen, drawing in design is not only about representing final designs. In fact, several steps involving the capacity to draw lie before the representation of a final design. Not only is drawing skills an important...... prerequisite for learning about the nature of existing objects and spaces, and thus to build a vocabulary of design. It is also a prerequisite for both reflecting and communicating about design ideas. In this paper, a taxonomy of notation, reflection, communication and presentation drawing is presented...

  10. Architectural Theatricality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tvedebrink, Tenna Doktor Olsen; Fisker, Anna Marie; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning

    2013-01-01

    In the attempt to improve patient treatment and recovery, researchers focus on applying concepts of hospitality to hospitals. Often these concepts are dominated by hotel-metaphors focusing on host–guest relationships or concierge services. Motivated by a project trying to improve patient treatment...... is known for his writings on theatricality, understood as a holistic design approach emphasizing the contextual, cultural, ritual and social meanings rooted in architecture. Relative hereto, the International Food Design Society recently argued, in a similar holistic manner, that the methodology used...... to provide an aesthetic eating experience includes knowledge on both food and design. Based on a hermeneutic reading of Semper’s theory, our thesis is that this holistic design approach is important when debating concepts of hospitality in hospitals. We use this approach to argue for how ‘food design...

  11. Lab architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crease, Robert P.

    2008-04-01

    There are few more dramatic illustrations of the vicissitudes of laboratory architecturethan the contrast between Building 20 at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) and its replacement, the Ray and Maria Stata Center. Building 20 was built hurriedly in 1943 as temporary housing for MIT's famous Rad Lab, the site of wartime radar research, and it remained a productive laboratory space for over half a century. A decade ago it was demolished to make way for the Stata Center, an architecturally striking building designed by Frank Gehry to house MIT's computer science and artificial intelligence labs (above). But in 2004 - just two years after the Stata Center officially opened - the building was criticized for being unsuitable for research and became the subject of still ongoing lawsuits alleging design and construction failures.

  12. Interfacial Engineering of Nanoporous Architectures in Ga2O3 Film toward Self-Aligned Tubular Nanostructure with an Enhanced Photocatalytic Activity on Water Splitting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, Nabeen K; Bui, Hoa Thi; Lee, Taegweon; Noh, Yong-Young

    2018-04-17

    The present work demonstrates the formation of self-aligned nanoporous architecture of gallium oxide by anodization of gallium metal film controlled at -15 °C in aqueous electrolyte consisting of phosphoric acid. SEM examination of the anodized film reveals that by adding ethylene glycol to the electrolyte and optimizing the ratio of phosphoric acid and water, chemical etching at the oxide/electrolyte interfaces can be controlled, leading to the formation of aligned nanotubular oxide structures with closed bottom. XPS analysis confirms the chemical composition of the oxide film as Ga 2 O 3 . Further, XRD and SAED examination reveals that the as-synthesized nanotubular structure is amorphous, and can be crystallized to β-Ga 2 O 3 phase by annealing the film at 600 °C. The nanotubular structured film, when used as photoanode for photoelectrochemical splitting of water, achieved a higher photocurrent of about two folds than that of the nanoporous film, demonstrating the rewarding effect of the nanotubular structure. In addition, the work also demonstrates the formation of highly organized nonporous Ga 2 O 3 structure on a nonconducting glass substrate coated with thin film of Ga-metal, highlighting that the current approach can be extended for the formation of self-organized nanoporous Ga 2 O 3 thin film even on nonconducting flexible substrates.

  13. Broadband standard dipole antenna for antenna calibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koike, Kunimasa; Sugiura, Akira; Morikawa, Takao

    1995-06-01

    Antenna calibration of EMI antennas is mostly performed by the standard antenna method at an open-field test site using a specially designed dipole antenna as a reference. In order to develop broadband standard antennas, the antenna factors of shortened dipples are theoretically investigated. First, the effects of the dipole length are analyzed using the induced emf method. Then, baluns and loads are examined to determine their influence on the antenna factors. It is found that transformer-type baluns are very effective for improving the height dependence of the antenna factors. Resistive loads are also useful for flattening the frequency dependence. Based on these studies, a specification is developed for a broadband standard antenna operating in the 30 to 150 MHz frequency range.

  14. An ultra-broadband multilayered graphene absorber

    KAUST Repository

    Amin, Muhammad

    2013-01-01

    An ultra-broadband multilayered graphene absorber operating at terahertz (THz) frequencies is proposed. The absorber design makes use of three mechanisms: (i) The graphene layers are asymmetrically patterned to support higher order surface plasmon modes that destructively interfere with the dipolar mode and generate electromagnetically induced absorption. (ii) The patterned graphene layers biased at different gate voltages backedup with dielectric substrates are stacked on top of each other. The resulting absorber is polarization dependent but has an ultra-broadband of operation. (iii) Graphene\\'s damping factor is increased by lowering its electron mobility to 1000cm 2=Vs. Indeed, numerical experiments demonstrate that with only three layers, bandwidth of 90% absorption can be extended upto 7THz, which is drastically larger than only few THz of bandwidth that can be achieved with existing metallic/graphene absorbers. © 2013 Optical Society of America.

  15. Safety management of Ethernet broadband access based on VLAN aggregation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li

    2004-04-01

    With broadband access network development, the Ethernet technology is more and more applied access network now. It is different from the private network -LAN. The differences lie in four points: customer management, safety management, service management and count-fee management. This paper mainly discusses the safety management related questions. Safety management means that the access network must secure the customer data safety, isolate the broad message which brings the customer private information, such as ARP, DHCP, and protect key equipment from attack. Virtue LAN (VLAN) technology can restrict network broadcast flow. We can config each customer port with a VLAN, so each customer is isolated with others. The IP address bound with VLAN ID can be routed rightly. But this technology brings another question: IP address shortage. VLAN aggregation technology can solve this problem well. Such a mechanism provides several advantages over traditional IPv4 addressing architectures employed in large switched LANs today. With VLAN aggregation technology, we introduce the notion of sub-VLANs and super-VLANs, a much more optimal approach to IP addressing can be realized. This paper will expatiate the VLAN aggregation model and its implementation in Ethernet access network. It is obvious that the customers in different sub-VLANs can not communication to each other because the ARP packet is isolated. Proxy ARP can enable the communication among them. This paper will also expatiate the proxy ARP model and its implementation in Ethernet access network.

  16. Broadband phase-preserved optical elevator

    OpenAIRE

    Luo, Yuan; Han, Tiancheng; Zhang, Baile; Qiu, Cheng-Wei; Barbastathis, George

    2011-01-01

    Phase-preserved optical elevator is an optical device to lift up an entire plane virtually without distortion in light path or phase. Using transformation optics, we have predicted and observed the realization of such a broadband phase-preserved optical elevator, made of a natural homogeneous birefringent crystal without resorting to absorptive and narrowband metamaterials involving time-consuming nano-fabrication. In our demonstration, the optical elevator is designed to lift a sheet upwards...

  17. Broadband Spectroscopy of Nanoporous-Gold Promoter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. K. Nakatani

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The efficiency of UV photocatalysis on TiO2 particles was increased by mixing TiO2 particles with nanoporous gold (NPG with pore diameters of 10–40 nm. This means that NPG acts as a promoter in the photocatalytic reaction of TiO2. Broadband spectroscopic results from millimeter wave to ultra violet of NPG membrane are discussed to estimate plasmonic effect on the catalysis.

  18. Broadband S-band class E HPA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wanum, M.; van Dijk, R.; de Hek, A.P.; van Vliet, Frank Edward

    2009-01-01

    A broadband class E High Power Amplifier (HPA) is presented. This HPA is designed to operate at S-band (2.75 to 3.75 GHz). A power added efficiency of 50% is obtained for the two stage amplifier with an output power of 35.5 dBm on a chip area of 5.25 times 2.8 mm2.

  19. Diagonalizing sensing matrix of broadband RSE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Shuichi; Kokeyama, Keiko; Kawazoe, Fumiko; Somiya, Kentaro; Kawamura, Seiji

    2006-01-01

    For a broadband-operated RSE interferometer, a simple and smart length sensing and control scheme was newly proposed. The sensing matrix could be diagonal, owing to a simple allocation of two RF modulations and to a macroscopic displacement of cavity mirrors, which cause a detuning of the RF modulation sidebands. In this article, the idea of the sensing scheme and an optimization of the relevant parameters will be described

  20. Broadband luminescence in liquid-solid transition

    CERN Document Server

    Achilov, M F; Trunilina, O V

    2002-01-01

    Broadband luminescence (BBL) intensity behavior in liquid-solid transition in polyethyleneglycol-600 has been established. Oscillation of BBL intensity observed in liquid-polycrystal transition are not found to observed in liquid-amorphous solid transition. It is shown that application of the theory of electron state tails to interpretation of BBL spectral properties in liquids demands restriction. BBL spectroscopy may be applied for optimization of preparation of polymers with determined properties. (author)

  1. Broadband slow light in one-dimensional logically combined photonic crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alagappan, G; Png, C E

    2015-01-28

    Here, we demonstrate the broadband slow light effects in a new family of one dimensional photonic crystals, which are obtained by logically combining two photonic crystals of slightly different periods. The logical combination slowly destroys the original translational symmetries of the individual photonic crystals. Consequently, the Bloch modes of the individual photonic crystals with different wavevectors couple with each other, creating a vast number of slow modes. Specifically, we describe a photonic crystal architecture that results from a logical "OR" mixture of two one dimensional photonic crystals with a periods ratio of r = R/(R - 1), where R > 2 is an integer. Such a logically combined architecture, exhibits a broad region of frequencies in which a dense number of slow modes with varnishing group velocities, appear naturally as Bloch modes.

  2. Broadband electromagnetic analysis of compacted kaolin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bore, Thierry; Scheuermann, Alexander; Wagner, Norman; Cai, Caifang

    2017-01-01

    The mechanical compaction of soil influences not only the mechanical strength and compressibility but also the hydraulic behavior in terms of hydraulic conductivity and soil suction. At the same time, electric and dielectric parameters are increasingly used to characterize soil and to relate them with mechanic and hydraulic parameters. In the presented study electromagnetic soil properties and suction were measured under defined conditions of standardized compaction tests. The impact of external mechanical stress conditions of nearly pure kaolinite was analyzed on soil suction and broadband electromagnetic soil properties. An experimental procedure was developed and validated to simultaneously determine mechanical, hydraulic and broadband (1 MHz–3 GHz) electromagnetic properties of the porous material. The frequency dependent electromagnetic properties were modeled with a classical mixture equation (advanced Lichtenecker and Rother model, ALRM) and a hydraulic-mechanical-electromagnetic coupling approach was introduced considering water saturation, soil structure (bulk density, porosity), soil suction (pore size distribution, water sorption) as well as electrical conductivity of the aqueous pore solution. Moreover, the relaxation behavior was analyzed with a generalized fractional relaxation model concerning a high-frequency water process and two interface processes extended with an apparent direct current conductivity contribution. The different modeling approaches provide a satisfactory agreement with experimental data for the real part. These results show the potential of broadband electromagnetic approaches for quantitative estimation of the hydraulic state of the soil during densification. (paper)

  3. Design and fabrication of broadband rugate filter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Jun-Chao; Fang Ming; Shao Yu-Chuan; Jin Yun-Xia; He Hong-Bo

    2012-01-01

    The design and the deposition of a rugate filter for broadband applications are discussed. The bandwidth is extended by increasing the rugate period continuously with depth. The width and the smoothness of the reflection band with the distribution of the periods are investigated. The improvement of the steepness of the stopband edges and the suppression of the side lobes in the transmission zone are realized by adding two apodized rugate structures with fixed periods at the external broadband rugate filter interfaces. The rapidly alternating deposition technology is used to fabricate a rugate filter sample. The measured transmission spectrum with a reflection bandwidth of approximately 505 nm is close to that of the designed broadband rugate filter except a transmittance peak in the stopband. Based on the analysis of the cross-sectional scanning electron microscopic image of the sample, it is found that the transmission peak is most likely to be caused by the instability of the deposition rate. (electromagnetism, optics, acoustics, heat transfer, classical mechanics, and fluid dynamics)

  4. Design of broadband single polarized antenna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Phoo Kho; Aziz, Mohamad Zoinol Abidin Abd.; Ahmad, Badrul Hisham; Ramli, Mohamad Hafize Bin; Fauzi, Noor Azamiah Md; Malek, Mohd Fareq Abd

    2015-05-01

    In practical wireless communication application, bandwidth enhancement becomes one of the major design considerations. At the same time, circular polarized (CP) antenna received much attention for the applications of modern wireless communication system when compared to linear polarized (LP) antenna. This is because CP antenna can reduce the multipath effect. Hence, broadband antenna with operating frequency at 2.4GHz for WLAN application is proposed. The proposed antenna is done by using L-probe amendment with rectangular patch. The rectangular patch and copper ground plane is separated with 10mm air gap. This approach is used to enhance the bandwidth and the gain of the proposed antenna. The bandwidth of the designed antenna is more than 200MHz which meet broadband application. The return loss for the antenna is below -10dB to achieved 90% matching efficiency. The position of L-probe feed is altered in order to obtained different polarizations. The broadband antenna had been designed and simulated by using Computer Simulation Technology (CST) software. In this paper, the comparison for single polarized antenna with the design of non-inverted patch and inverted patch is discussed. The characteristics of the S-parameter, axial ratio, gain, surface current for each designed antenna are analyzed.

  5. The SCEC Broadband Platform: A Collaborative Open-Source Software Package for Strong Ground Motion Simulation and Validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, F.; Maechling, P. J.; Goulet, C. A.; Somerville, P.; Jordan, T. H.

    2014-12-01

    The Southern California Earthquake Center (SCEC) Broadband Platform is a collaborative software development project involving geoscientists, earthquake engineers, graduate students, and the SCEC Community Modeling Environment. The SCEC Broadband Platform (BBP) is open-source scientific software that can generate broadband (0-100Hz) ground motions for earthquakes, integrating complex scientific modules that implement rupture generation, low and high-frequency seismogram synthesis, non-linear site effects calculation, and visualization into a software system that supports easy on-demand computation of seismograms. The Broadband Platform operates in two primary modes: validation simulations and scenario simulations. In validation mode, the Platform runs earthquake rupture and wave propagation modeling software to calculate seismograms for a well-observed historical earthquake. Then, the BBP calculates a number of goodness of fit measurements that quantify how well the model-based broadband seismograms match the observed seismograms for a certain event. Based on these results, the Platform can be used to tune and validate different numerical modeling techniques. In scenario mode, the Broadband Platform can run simulations for hypothetical (scenario) earthquakes. In this mode, users input an earthquake description, a list of station names and locations, and a 1D velocity model for their region of interest, and the Broadband Platform software then calculates ground motions for the specified stations. Working in close collaboration with scientists and research engineers, the SCEC software development group continues to add new capabilities to the Broadband Platform and to release new versions as open-source scientific software distributions that can be compiled and run on many Linux computer systems. Our latest release includes 5 simulation methods, 7 simulation regions covering California, Japan, and Eastern North America, the ability to compare simulation results

  6. SUSTAINABLE ARCHITECTURE : WHAT ARCHITECTURE STUDENTS THINK

    OpenAIRE

    SATWIKO, PRASASTO

    2013-01-01

    Sustainable architecture has become a hot issue lately as the impacts of climate change become more intense. Architecture educations have responded by integrating knowledge of sustainable design in their curriculum. However, in the real life, new buildings keep coming with designs that completely ignore sustainable principles. This paper discusses the results of two national competitions on sustainable architecture targeted for architecture students (conducted in 2012 and 2013). The results a...

  7. Modeling Architectural Patterns Using Architectural Primitives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zdun, Uwe; Avgeriou, Paris

    2005-01-01

    Architectural patterns are a key point in architectural documentation. Regrettably, there is poor support for modeling architectural patterns, because the pattern elements are not directly matched by elements in modeling languages, and, at the same time, patterns support an inherent variability that

  8. Software architecture 2

    CERN Document Server

    Oussalah, Mourad Chabanne

    2014-01-01

    Over the past 20 years, software architectures have significantly contributed to the development of complex and distributed systems. Nowadays, it is recognized that one of the critical problems in the design and development of any complex software system is its architecture, i.e. the organization of its architectural elements. Software Architecture presents the software architecture paradigms based on objects, components, services and models, as well as the various architectural techniques and methods, the analysis of architectural qualities, models of representation of architectural templa

  9. Lightweight enterprise architectures

    CERN Document Server

    Theuerkorn, Fenix

    2004-01-01

    STATE OF ARCHITECTUREArchitectural ChaosRelation of Technology and Architecture The Many Faces of Architecture The Scope of Enterprise Architecture The Need for Enterprise ArchitectureThe History of Architecture The Current Environment Standardization Barriers The Need for Lightweight Architecture in the EnterpriseThe Cost of TechnologyThe Benefits of Enterprise Architecture The Domains of Architecture The Gap between Business and ITWhere Does LEA Fit? LEA's FrameworkFrameworks, Methodologies, and Approaches The Framework of LEATypes of Methodologies Types of ApproachesActual System Environmen

  10. Software architecture 1

    CERN Document Server

    Oussalah , Mourad Chabane

    2014-01-01

    Over the past 20 years, software architectures have significantly contributed to the development of complex and distributed systems. Nowadays, it is recognized that one of the critical problems in the design and development of any complex software system is its architecture, i.e. the organization of its architectural elements. Software Architecture presents the software architecture paradigms based on objects, components, services and models, as well as the various architectural techniques and methods, the analysis of architectural qualities, models of representation of architectural template

  11. Launch Vehicle Control Center Architectures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Michael D.; Epps, Amy; Woodruff, Van; Vachon, Michael Jacob; Monreal, Julio; Williams, Randall; McLaughlin, Tom

    2014-01-01

    This analysis is a survey of control center architectures of the NASA Space Launch System (SLS), United Launch Alliance (ULA) Atlas V and Delta IV, and the European Space Agency (ESA) Ariane 5. Each of these control center architectures have similarities in basic structure, and differences in functional distribution of responsibilities for the phases of operations: (a) Launch vehicles in the international community vary greatly in configuration and process; (b) Each launch site has a unique processing flow based on the specific configurations; (c) Launch and flight operations are managed through a set of control centers associated with each launch site, however the flight operations may be a different control center than the launch center; and (d) The engineering support centers are primarily located at the design center with a small engineering support team at the launch site.

  12. Jet Engine Control Using Ethernet with a BRAIN (Postprint)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hall, Brendan; Paulitsch, Michael; Benson, Dewey; Behbahani, Alireza

    2008-01-01

    .... However, achieving a distributed architecture that supports the increasing computational demands of engine control and prognostics strategies whilst surviving in the harsh on-engine environment...

  13. Enterprise architecture patterns practical solutions for recurring IT-architecture problems

    CERN Document Server

    Perroud, Thierry

    2013-01-01

    Every enterprise architect faces similar problems when designing and governing the enterprise architecture of a medium to large enterprise. Design patterns are a well-established concept in software engineering, used to define universally applicable solution schemes. By applying this approach to enterprise architectures, recurring problems in the design and implementation of enterprise architectures can be solved over all layers, from the business layer to the application and data layer down to the technology layer.Inversini and Perroud describe patterns at the level of enterprise architecture

  14. Dual-Channel, Molecular-Sieving Core/Shell ZIF@MOF Architectures as Engineered Fillers in Hybrid Membranes for Highly Selective CO2 Separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Zhuonan; Qiu, Fen; Zaia, Edmond W; Wang, Zhongying; Kunz, Martin; Guo, Jinghua; Brady, Michael; Mi, Baoxia; Urban, Jeffrey J

    2017-11-08

    A novel core/shell porous crystalline structure was prepared using a large pore metal organic framework (MOF, UiO-66-NH 2 , pore size, ∼ 0.6 nm) as core surrounded by a small pore zeolitic imidazolate framework (ZIF, ZIF-8, pore size, ∼ 0.4 nm) through a layer-by-layer deposition method and subsequently used as an engineered filler to construct hybrid polysulfone (PSF) membranes for CO 2 capture. Compared to traditional fillers utilizing only one type of porous material with rigid channels (either large or small), our custom designed core/shell fillers possess clear advantages via pore engineering: the large internal channels of the UiO-66-NH 2 MOFs create molecular highways to accelerate molecular transport through the membrane, while the thin shells with small pores (ZIF-8) or even smaller pores generated at the interface by the imperfect registry between the overlapping pores of ZIF and MOF enhance molecular sieving thus serving to distinguish slightly larger N 2 molecules (kinetic diameter, 0.364 nm) from smaller CO 2 molecules (kinetic diameter, 0.33 nm). The resultant core/shell ZIF@MOF and as-prepared hybrid PSF membranes were characterized by transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, wide-angle X-ray scattering, scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared, thermogravimetric analysis, differential scanning calorimetry, and contact angle tests. The dependence of the separation performance of the membranes on the MOF/ZIF ratio was also studied by varying the number of layers of ZIF coatings. The integrated PSF-ZIF@MOF hybrid membrane (40 wt % loading) with optimized ZIF coating cycles showed improved hydrophobicity and excellent CO 2 separation performance by simultaneously increasing CO 2 permeability (CO 2 permeability of 45.2 barrer, 710% higher than PSF membrane) and CO 2 /N 2 selectivity (CO 2 /N 2 selectivity of 39, 50% higher than PSF membrane), which is superior to most reported hybrid PSF membranes. The strategy of using

  15. Space and Architecture's Current Line of Research? A Lunar Architecture Workshop With An Architectural Agenda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, D.; van Dijk, A.

    The "2002 ESA Lunar Architecture Workshop" (June 3-16) ESTEC, Noordwijk, NL and V2_Lab, Rotterdam, NL) is the first-of-its-kind workshop for exploring the design of extra-terrestrial (infra) structures for human exploration of the Moon and Earth-like planets introducing 'architecture's current line of research', and adopting an architec- tural criteria. The workshop intends to inspire, engage and challenge 30-40 European masters students from the fields of aerospace engineering, civil engineering, archi- tecture, and art to design, validate and build models of (infra) structures for Lunar exploration. The workshop also aims to open up new physical and conceptual terrain for an architectural agenda within the field of space exploration. A sound introduc- tion to the issues, conditions, resources, technologies, and architectural strategies will initiate the workshop participants into the context of lunar architecture scenarios. In my paper and presentation about the development of the ideology behind this work- shop, I will comment on the following questions: * Can the contemporary architectural agenda offer solutions that affect the scope of space exploration? It certainly has had an impression on urbanization and colonization of previously sparsely populated parts of Earth. * Does the current line of research in architecture offer any useful strategies for com- bining scientific interests, commercial opportunity, and public space? What can be learned from 'state of the art' architecture that blends commercial and public pro- grammes within one location? * Should commercial 'colonisation' projects in space be required to provide public space in a location where all humans present are likely to be there in a commercial context? Is the wave in Koolhaas' new Prada flagship store just a gesture to public space, or does this new concept in architecture and shopping evolve the public space? * What can we learn about designing (infra-) structures on the Moon or any other

  16. Rail-based Broadband Synthetic Aperture Ocean Measurement System

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Enables collection of broadband acoustic scattering databases where acoustic sources and receivers can be translated on a precise linear path under program...

  17. Handheld, Broadband Electromagnetic UXO Sensor: Cost & Performance Report

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Won, I. J; SanFilipo, Bill; Oren, Alex

    2006-01-01

    The broadband electromagnetic sensor improvement and demonstration undertaken in this project took the prototype GEM-3 and evolved it into an operational sensor with increased bandwidth and dynamic...

  18. The Value of Style in Architectural Practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kornberger, Martin; Kreiner, Kristian; Clegg, Stewart

    2011-01-01

    To date, organization theory’s attempts to understand architecture firms have focused by and large on debates about increasing managerialization and economization of the profession. This paper suggests an alternative approach by conceptualizing architecture as practice that does not adhere only...... to a narrow economic logic of value creation but also focuses on the production of aesthetic value. We will introduce the concept of style to understand how architecture practice routinely breaks routines and follows the rule of rule breaking. We will analyze architecture practice as a form of organized...... heresy – a hegemonic engine for the production of difference. In order to illustrate our points we will draw on qualitative empirical fieldwork with an architecture firm....

  19. Architectural design decisions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, Antonius Gradus Johannes

    2008-01-01

    A software architecture can be considered as the collection of key decisions concerning the design of the software of a system. Knowledge about this design, i.e. architectural knowledge, is key for understanding a software architecture and thus the software itself. Architectural knowledge is mostly

  20. Information Integration Architecture Development

    OpenAIRE

    Faulkner, Stéphane; Kolp, Manuel; Nguyen, Duy Thai; Coyette, Adrien; Do, Thanh Tung; 16th International Conference on Software Engineering and Knowledge Engineering

    2004-01-01

    Multi-Agent Systems (MAS) architectures are gaining popularity for building open, distributed, and evolving software required by systems such as information integration applications. Unfortunately, despite considerable work in software architecture during the last decade, few research efforts have aimed at truly defining patterns and languages for designing such multiagent architectures. We propose a modern approach based on organizational structures and architectural description lan...

  1. Fragments of Architecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bang, Jacob Sebastian

    2016-01-01

    Topic 3: “Case studies dealing with the artistic and architectural work of architects worldwide, and the ties between specific artistic and architectural projects, methodologies and products”......Topic 3: “Case studies dealing with the artistic and architectural work of architects worldwide, and the ties between specific artistic and architectural projects, methodologies and products”...

  2. Resource Management in Broadband Communication Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Mads Stenhuus

    2003-01-01

    . The first part gives a brief description of some of the existing protocols for routing and controlling resources, such as RSVP, OSPF, BGP, PNNI, etc. The remaining part concerns the following two fundamentally different approaches to resource management etc.: - Software agents - Simulated ants......This thesis - Resource Management in Broadband Communication Networks - deals with different ways of optimizing the available resources of data- or telecommunication networks. Especially topics like optimal routing, load balancing and fast recovery of routes in case of link failures are covered...

  3. Broadband Planar 5:1 Impedence Transformer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehsan, Negar; Hsieh, Wen-Ting; Moseley, Samuel H.; Wollack, Edward J.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a broadband Guanella-type planar impedance transformer that transforms so 50 omega to 10 omega with a 10 dB bandwidth of 1-14GHz. The transformer is designed on a flexible 50 micrometer thick polyimide substrate in microstrip and parallel-plate transmission line topologies, and is Inspired by the traditional 4:1 Guanella transformer. Back-to-back transformers were designed and fabricated for characterization in a 50 omega system. Simulated and measured results are in excellent agreement.

  4. A compact broadband nonsynchronous noncommensurate impedance transformer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhurbenko, Vitaliy; Kim, Kseniya; Narenda, Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Nonsynchronous noncommensurate impedance transformers consist of a combination of high‐ and low‐impedance transmission lines. High‐impedance lines have narrow tracks in strip and microstrip technology, which allows for high flexibility and miniaturization of the layout in comparison...... to the traditional tapered line transformers. This flexibility of the broadband nonsynchronous noncommensurate impedance transformers is experimentally demonstrated in this article allowing the length reduction by almost three times. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Microwave Opt Technol Lett 54:1832–1835, 2012; View...

  5. Optimizing UV Index determination from broadband irradiances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tereszchuk, Keith A.; Rochon, Yves J.; McLinden, Chris A.; Vaillancourt, Paul A.

    2018-03-01

    A study was undertaken to improve upon the prognosticative capability of Environment and Climate Change Canada's (ECCC) UV Index forecast model. An aspect of that work, and the topic of this communication, was to investigate the use of the four UV broadband surface irradiance fields generated by ECCC's Global Environmental Multiscale (GEM) numerical prediction model to determine the UV Index. The basis of the investigation involves the creation of a suite of routines which employ high-spectral-resolution radiative transfer code developed to calculate UV Index fields from GEM forecasts. These routines employ a modified version of the Cloud-J v7.4 radiative transfer model, which integrates GEM output to produce high-spectral-resolution surface irradiance fields. The output generated using the high-resolution radiative transfer code served to verify and calibrate GEM broadband surface irradiances under clear-sky conditions and their use in providing the UV Index. A subsequent comparison of irradiances and UV Index under cloudy conditions was also performed. Linear correlation agreement of surface irradiances from the two models for each of the two higher UV bands covering 310.70-330.0 and 330.03-400.00 nm is typically greater than 95 % for clear-sky conditions with associated root-mean-square relative errors of 6.4 and 4.0 %. However, underestimations of clear-sky GEM irradiances were found on the order of ˜ 30-50 % for the 294.12-310.70 nm band and by a factor of ˜ 30 for the 280.11-294.12 nm band. This underestimation can be significant for UV Index determination but would not impact weather forecasting. Corresponding empirical adjustments were applied to the broadband irradiances now giving a correlation coefficient of unity. From these, a least-squares fitting was derived for the calculation of the UV Index. The resultant differences in UV indices from the high-spectral-resolution irradiances and the resultant GEM broadband irradiances are typically within 0

  6. Source of broadband Jovian Kilometric radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, D.; Leblanc, Y.

    1987-02-01

    Broadband Jovian Kilometric radiation was observed by Voyagers 1 and 2 to be beamed away from the zenomagnetic equatorial plane. Two theories were proposed for the equatorial shadow zone. One suggested that Io plasma torus forms an obstacle to radiation produced on auroral field lines. The other theory proposed that the source is located on the outer flanks of the torus, the beaming being inherent to the emission mechanism. Results are presented which indicate that the latter is consistent with the observations and it would appear that the emission is produced by linear mode conversion of electrostatic upper hybrid to electromagnetic waves in plasma density gradients.

  7. Source of broadband Jovian Kilometric radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, D.; Leblanc, Y.

    1987-01-01

    Broadband Jovian Kilometric radiation was observed by Voyagers 1 and 2 to be beamed away from the zenomagnetic equatorial plane. Two theories were proposed for the equatorial shadow zone. One suggested that Io plasma torus forms an obstacle to radiation produced on auroral field lines. The other theory proposed that the source is located on the outer flanks of the torus, the beaming being inherent to the emission mechanism. Results are presented which indicate that the latter is consistent with the observations and it would appear that the emission is produced by linear mode conversion of electrostatic upper hybrid to electromagnetic waves in plasma density gradients

  8. Hyperbolic metamaterials: Nonlocal response regularizes broadband supersingularity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yan, Wei; Wubs, Martijn; Mortensen, N. Asger

    2012-01-01

    We study metamaterials known as hyperbolic media that in the usual local-response approximation exhibit hyperbolic dispersion and an associated broadband singularity in the density of states. Instead, from the more microscopic hydrodynamic Drude theory we derive qualitatively different optical...... properties of these metamaterials, due to the free-electron nonlocal optical response of their metal constituents. We demonstrate that nonlocal response gives rise to a large-wavevector cutoff in the dispersion that is inversely proportional to the Fermi velocity of the electron gas, but also for small...

  9. Prediction of broadband trailing edge noise from a NACA0012 airfoil using wall-modeled large-eddy simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehrabadi, Mohammad; Bodony, Daniel

    2017-11-01

    In modern high-bypass ratio turbofan engines, the reduction of jet exhaust noise through engine design has increased the acoustic importance of the main fan to the point where it can be the primary source of noise in the fight direction of an airplane. While fan noise has been reduced by improved fan designs, its broadband component, originating from the interaction of turbulent flow with a solid surface, still remains an issue. Broadband fan noise is generated by several mechanisms, usually involving a turbulent boundary layer interacting with a solid surface. To prepare for a wall modeled large eddy simulation (WMLES) of the NASA/GE source diagnostic test fan, we study the broadband noise due to the turbulent flow on a NACA0012 airfoil at zero degree angle-of-attack, a chord-based Reynolds number of 408,000, and a Mach number of 0.115 using WMLES. We investigate the prediction of transition-to-turbulence and sound generation from the WMLES and examine its predictability compared with available experimental and DNS datasets for the same flow conditions. Verification of WMLES for such a canonical problem is crucial since it provides useful insight about the WMLES approach before using it for broadband fan noise prediction. AeroAcoustics Research Consortium.

  10. Peramalan Pengguna Broadband di Indonesia [Forecasting of Broadband Users in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azwar Aziz

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Negara Indonesia memiliki peluang yang sangat besar untuk merealisasikan potensi pitalebar, mengingat Indonesia memiliki jumlah penduduk 253 juta orang dan pengguna internet 88,1 juta orang pada tahun 2014. Di sisi lain sektor komunikasi (salah satunya termasuk telekomunikasi merupakan satu-satunya sektor yang secara konsisten memberikan kontribusi pertumbuhan terhadap Pendapatan Domestik Bruto (PDB sebesar dua angka (double digit. Kemudian peran penting pemerintah adalah selalu mengantisipasi dalam membuat regulasi telekomunikasi, salah satu nya untuk mempercepat penggelaran prasarana pitalebar, seperti menerbitkan Peraturan Presiden RI. Nomor 96 Tahun 2014 tentang Rencana Pitalebar Indonesia 2014 – 2019.  Secara riil pembangunan jaringan pitalebar di Indonesia masih dilakukan di kota-kota besar, mengingat pengguna telekomunikasi sebagian besar berada di kota-kota besar. Selain itu perangkat hanset atau handphone, ketersediaan di pasaran masih terbatas dan harganya masih mahal. Kajian ini menggunakan metodologi penelitian kuantitatif dengan menghitung peramalan dan kualitatif, dengan melakukan observasi atau pengamatan langsung ke lapangan kepada perusahaan Telkom, Telkomsel, XL Axiata dan Indosat. Selanjutnya hasil penelitian ini diperoleh lima faktor yang mempengaruhi penggunaan pitalebar yaitu jumlah penduduk, produk domestik bruto, pendapatan per kapita, laju pertumbuhan ekonomi dan inflasi, dan laju penetrasi. Selain itu, hasil pitalebar menunjukkan pengguna pitalebar lima tahun kedepan selalu meningkat.*****Indonesia has a tremendous opportunity to implement the potential of broadband, as Indonesia has a population of 253 million people and 88.1 million Internet users in 2014. On the other hand, the communication sector (one of them including telecommunications is the only sector that is consistently contributed to the growth of Gross Domestic Product (GDP as many as two numbers (double-digit. Then the important role of government is

  11. System architecture of communication infrastructures for PPDR organisations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Wilmuth

    2017-04-01

    The growing number of events affecting public safety and security (PS and S) on a regional scale with potential to grow up to large scale cross border disasters puts an increased pressure on organizations responsible for PS and S. In order to respond timely and in an adequate manner to such events Public Protection and Disaster Relief (PPDR) organizations need to cooperate, align their procedures and activities, share the needed information and be interoperable. Existing PPDR/PMR technologies do not provide broadband capability, which is a major limitation in supporting new services hence new information flows and currently they have no successor. There is also no known standard that addresses interoperability of these technologies. The paper at hands provides an approach to tackle the above mentioned aspects by defining an Enterprise Architecture (EA) of PPDR organizations and a System Architecture of next generation PPDR communication networks for a variety of applications and services on broadband networks, including the ability of inter-system, inter-agency and cross-border operations. The Open Safety and Security Architecture Framework (OSSAF) provides a framework and approach to coordinate the perspectives of different types of stakeholders within a PS and S organization. It aims at bridging the silos in the chain of commands and on leveraging interoperability between PPDR organizations. The framework incorporates concepts of several mature enterprise architecture frameworks including the NATO Architecture Framework (NAF). However, OSSAF is not providing details on how NAF should be used for describing the OSSAF perspectives and views. In this contribution a mapping of the NAF elements to the OSSAF views is provided. Based on this mapping, an EA of PPDR organizations with a focus on communication infrastructure related capabilities is presented. Following the capability modeling, a system architecture for secure and interoperable communication infrastructures

  12. Research progress of cholesteric liquid crystals with broadband reflection characteristics in application of intelligent optical modulation materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Lan-Ying; Gao Yan-Zi; Song Ping; Yuan Xiao; He Bao-Feng; Yang Huai; Wu Xiao-Juan; Chen Xing-Wu; Hu Wang; Guo Ren-Wei; Ding Hang-Jun; Xiao Jiu-Mei

    2016-01-01

    Cholesteric liquid crystals (CLCs) have recently sparked an enormous amount of interest in the development of soft matter materials due to their unique ability to self-organize into a helical supra-molecular architecture and their excellent selective reflection of light based on the Bragg relationship. Nowadays, by the virtue of building the self-organized nanostructures with pitch gradient or non-uniform pitch distribution, extensive work has already been performed to obtain CLC films with a broad reflection band. Based on authors’ many years’ research experience, this critical review systematically summarizes the physical and optical background of the CLCs with broadband reflection characteristics, methods to obtain broadband reflection of CLCs, as well as the application in the field of intelligent optical modulation materials. Combined with the research status and the advantages in the field, the important basic and applied scientific problems in the research direction are also introduced. (topical review)

  13. Reflective afocal broadband adaptive optics scanning ophthalmoscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubra, Alfredo; Sulai, Yusufu

    2011-01-01

    A broadband adaptive optics scanning ophthalmoscope (BAOSO) consisting of four afocal telescopes, formed by pairs of off-axis spherical mirrors in a non-planar arrangement, is presented. The non-planar folding of the telescopes is used to simultaneously reduce pupil and image plane astigmatism. The former improves the adaptive optics performance by reducing the root-mean-square (RMS) of the wavefront and the beam wandering due to optical scanning. The latter provides diffraction limited performance over a 3 diopter (D) vergence range. This vergence range allows for the use of any broadband light source(s) in the 450-850 nm wavelength range to simultaneously image any combination of retinal layers. Imaging modalities that could benefit from such a large vergence range are optical coherence tomography (OCT), multi- and hyper-spectral imaging, single- and multi-photon fluorescence. The benefits of the non-planar telescopes in the BAOSO are illustrated by resolving the human foveal photoreceptor mosaic in reflectance using two different superluminescent diodes with 680 and 796 nm peak wavelengths, reaching the eye with a vergence of 0.76 D relative to each other. PMID:21698035

  14. Asymmetric quantum well broadband thyristor laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhen; Wang, Jiaqi; Yu, Hongyan; Zhou, Xuliang; Chen, Weixi; Li, Zhaosong; Wang, Wei; Ding, Ying; Pan, Jiaoqing

    2017-11-01

    A broadband thyristor laser based on InGaAs/GaAs asymmetric quantum well (AQW) is fabricated by metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD). The 3-μm-wide Fabry-Perot (FP) ridge-waveguide laser shows an S-shape I-V characteristic and exhibits a flat-topped broadband optical spectrum coverage of ~27 nm (Δ-10 dB) at a center wavelength of ~1090 nm with a total output power of 137 mW under pulsed operation. The AQW structure was carefully designed to establish multiple energy states within, in order to broaden the gain spectrum. An obvious blue shift emission, which is not generally acquired in QW laser diodes, is observed in the broadening process of the optical spectrum as the injection current increases. This blue shift spectrum broadening is considered to result from the prominent band-filling effect enhanced by the multiple energy states of the AQW structure, as well as the optical feedback effect contributed by the thyristor laser structure. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 61604144, 61504137). Zhen Liu and Jiaqi Wang contributed equally to this work.

  15. Broadband impedance of the NESTOR storage ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Androsov, V.P.; Gladkikh, P.I.; Gvozd, A.M.; Karnaukhov, I.M.; Telegin, Yu.N.

    2011-01-01

    The contributions from lossy and inductive vacuum chamber components to the broadband impedance of the NESTOR storage ring are obtained by using both low-frequency analytical approaches and computer simulations. As was expected considering the small ring circumference (15.44m), the main contributions both to the longitudinal impedance Z || /n and the loss factor k loss come from the RF-cavity. Cavity impedance was also estimated with CST Microwave Studio (CST Studio Suite TM 2006) by simulating coaxial wire method commonly used for impedance measurements. Both estimates agree well. Finally, we performed the simulations of a number of inductive elements with CST Particle Studio 2010 by using wake field solver. We have also evaluated the bunch length in NESTOR taking the conservative estimate of 3 Ohm for the ring broadband impedance and have found that the bunch length s z = 0.5 cm could be obtained in steady state operation mode for the designed bunch current of 10 mA and RF-voltage of 250 kV.

  16. A Design of Double Broadband MIMO Antenna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanfeng Geng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The MIMO antenna applied to LTE mobile system should be miniaturization and can work in the current communication frequency band; isolation between each antenna unit also should be good so as to reduce loss of radio wave energy and improve the antenna performance of the MIMO system. This paper puts forward the design scheme of a broadband MIMO double antenna. And the design of antenna unit and debugging and related technical measures, such as bending antenna bracket, are both presented; the integration design of high isolation of ultra broadband MIMO antenna is realized on the plate with the volume of 100 × 52 × 0.8 mm3; antenna working bands are 698 MHz~960 MHz and 1710 MHz~2700 MHz; in the whole spectrum, the 10 dB of port isolation can be basically achieved; in low frequency band, the isolation degree of antenna port can reach 12 dB.

  17. Broadband acoustic properties of a murine skull.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrada, Héctor; Rebling, Johannes; Turner, Jake; Razansky, Daniel

    2016-03-07

    It has been well recognized that the presence of a skull imposes harsh restrictions on the use of ultrasound and optoacoustic techniques in the study, treatment and modulation of the brain function. We propose a rigorous modeling and experimental methodology for estimating the insertion loss and the elastic constants of the skull over a wide range of frequencies and incidence angles. A point-source-like excitation of ultrawideband acoustic radiation was induced via the absorption of nanosecond duration laser pulses by a 20 μm diameter microsphere. The acoustic waves transmitted through the skull are recorded by a broadband, spherically focused ultrasound transducer. A coregistered pulse-echo ultrasound scan is subsequently performed to provide accurate skull geometry to be fed into an acoustic transmission model represented in an angular spectrum domain. The modeling predictions were validated by measurements taken from a glass cover-slip and ex vivo adult mouse skulls. The flexible semi-analytical formulation of the model allows for seamless extension to other transducer geometries and diverse experimental scenarios involving broadband acoustic transmission through locally flat solid structures. It is anticipated that accurate quantification and modeling of the skull transmission effects would ultimately allow for skull aberration correction in a broad variety of applications employing transcranial detection or transmission of high frequency ultrasound.

  18. A Low-Complexity Euclidean Orthogonal LDPC Architecture for Low Power Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Revathy

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Low-density parity-check (LDPC codes have been implemented in latest digital video broadcasting, broadband wireless access (WiMax, and fourth generation of wireless standards. In this paper, we have proposed a high efficient low-density parity-check code (LDPC decoder architecture for low power applications. This study also considers the design and analysis of check node and variable node units and Euclidean orthogonal generator in LDPC decoder architecture. The Euclidean orthogonal generator is used to reduce the error rate of the proposed LDPC architecture, which can be incorporated between check and variable node architecture. This proposed decoder design is synthesized on Xilinx 9.2i platform and simulated using Modelsim, which is targeted to 45 nm devices. Synthesis report proves that the proposed architecture greatly reduces the power consumption and hardware utilizations on comparing with different conventional architectures.

  19. A Low-Complexity Euclidean Orthogonal LDPC Architecture for Low Power Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revathy, M; Saravanan, R

    2015-01-01

    Low-density parity-check (LDPC) codes have been implemented in latest digital video broadcasting, broadband wireless access (WiMax), and fourth generation of wireless standards. In this paper, we have proposed a high efficient low-density parity-check code (LDPC) decoder architecture for low power applications. This study also considers the design and analysis of check node and variable node units and Euclidean orthogonal generator in LDPC decoder architecture. The Euclidean orthogonal generator is used to reduce the error rate of the proposed LDPC architecture, which can be incorporated between check and variable node architecture. This proposed decoder design is synthesized on Xilinx 9.2i platform and simulated using Modelsim, which is targeted to 45 nm devices. Synthesis report proves that the proposed architecture greatly reduces the power consumption and hardware utilizations on comparing with different conventional architectures.

  20. Switching from computer to microcomputer architecture education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolanakis, Dimosthenis E.; Kotsis, Konstantinos T.; Laopoulos, Theodore

    2010-03-01

    In the last decades, the technological and scientific evolution of the computing discipline has been widely affecting research in software engineering education, which nowadays advocates more enlightened and liberal ideas. This article reviews cross-disciplinary research on a computer architecture class in consideration of its switching to microcomputer architecture. The authors present their strategies towards a successful crossing of boundaries between engineering disciplines. This communication aims at providing a different aspect on professional courses that are, nowadays, addressed at the expense of traditional courses.

  1. Optical broadband in-home networks for converged service delivery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shi, Y.

    2013-01-01

    Broadband access networks, and in particular fibre-to-the-home (FTTH) networks, are offering abundantly available bandwidth in the local loop with high quality of services. Under such broadband connectivity conditions, in-home networks should not represent the bottleneck for high capacity service

  2. Radio-over-fibre technology for broadband wireless communication systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ng'Oma, A.

    2005-01-01

    Wireless coverage of the end-user domain, be it outdoors or indoors (in-building), is poised to become an essential part of broadband communication networks. In order to offer integrated broadband services (combining voice, data, video, multimedia services, and new value added services), these

  3. Techno-economic evaluation of broadband access technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sigurdsson, Halldór Matthias; Skouby, Knud Erik

    2005-01-01

    Broadband for all is an essential element in the EU policy concerning the future of ICT-based society. The overall purpose of this paper is to present a model for evaluation of different broadband access technologies and to present some preliminary results based on the model that has been carried...

  4. Silicon graphene waveguide tunable broadband microwave photonics phase shifter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capmany, José; Domenech, David; Muñoz, Pascual

    2014-04-07

    We propose the use of silicon graphene waveguides to implement a tunable broadband microwave photonics phase shifter based on integrated ring cavities. Numerical computation results show the feasibility for broadband operation over 40 GHz bandwidth and full 360° radiofrequency phase-shift with a modest voltage excursion of 0.12 volt.

  5. The role of public initiatives facilitating investments in broadband infrastructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Falch, Morten; Tadayoni, Reza; Henten, Anders

    2015-01-01

    This paper discusses the role of a developmental approach to broadband policy. The policy approaches made in Denmark and Sweden are compared, and the scope for public intervention at the broadband market is discussed. The paper includes a case study on public intervention in the rural areas of th...

  6. Lunar architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malek, Shahin

    The climatic conditions of Earth and human trends for discover the space, make these questions that how we can design a camp on the moon as a base for traveling in space or how we can live on that condition and what kind of camp we can have on the moon?!The first step in this way was creating the International Space Station on earth's orbit. (International Space Station, 2001) Settlement on moon was proposed since knowledge about it growth. Regarding to new technologies, architects parallel to engineers are trying to design and invent new ways for human settlement on moon because of its suitable conditions. Proposed habitats range from the actual spacecraft lander or their used fuel tanks, to inflatable modules of various shapes. Due to the researches until now, the first requirement for the living on other planets is water existence for human breath and fuel and after that we need to solve air pressure and gravity difference. (Colonization of the Moon, 2004) The Goal of this research is to answer to the question which is designing a camp on the Moon. But for this goal, there is need to think and study more about the subject and its factors. With qualitative and comparative methodology, the conditions of the Earth and the Moon will be comparing in different categories such as nature, human and design. I think that after water discovery, with using local materials and appropriate building design which can be on surface or underground, along with new sciences, we can plan for long period living on Moon. The important point is to consider Function, Form and Structure together in designing on the Moon. References: Colonization of the Moon. (2004). Retrieved December 14, 2009, from Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Colonizationo ft heM oonStructure, InternationalSpaceStation.(2001).Retrie http : //en.wikipedia.org/wiki/InternationalS paceS tation

  7. Analisis Perkembangan Internet Broadband di Daerah Perbatasan Sulawesi Utara

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riva'atul Adaniah Wahab

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Adopsi teknologi internet broadband dapat memberikan dampak ekonomi bagi masyarakat perbatasan. Karenanya pemerataan pembangunan internet broadband di wilayah  ini harus segera diwujudkan. Penelitian deskriptif kuantitatif ini dilaksanakan di wilayah perbatasan Provinsi Sulawesi Utara untuk mengetahui kondisi aspek supply dan demand perkembangan internet broadband di wilayah tersebut. Berdasarkan hasil penelitian, dapat disimpulkan bahwa dari aspek supply, kondisi infrastruktur masih sangat kurang, ketersediaan layanan internet broadband berkualitas tinggi dengan tarif rendah juga masih sulit diwujudkan. Dari aspek demand, stigma atau persepsi masyarakat bahwa internet tidak penting menjadi salah satu faktor penyebab tidak memiliki akses internet. Adapun hambatan yang paling dominan adalah ketidakpahaman dalam penggunaan internet. Faktor ini juga menjadi mendasari literasi internet broadband masyarakat pada level 0 yaitu  tidak peduli akan pentinya internet. Menanggapai kondisi ini, penyusunan dan penetapan kebijakan serta regulasi seperti QoS layanan, tarif interkoneksi, infrastructure sharing dibuat untuk menyediakan internet broadband berkualitas tinggi dengan harga murah. Selain itu distribusi perangkat mobile berharga murah (smartphone juga perlu didorong dengan penerapan TKDN untuk produksi perangkat. Tidak kalah pentingnya adalah peningkatan literasi internet broadband masyarakat melalui sosialisasi atau pelatihan baik formal maupun nonformal. Abstract   Adoption of internet broadband internet can provide the economic impact for border communities. Hence equitable development of internet broadband in the region should be immediately implemented. This quantitative descriptive study was conducted in the border region of North Sulawesi to determine the condition of supply and demand aspects of the development of internet broadband. Based on the results, it can be concluded that from the aspect of supply, the condition of the

  8. Chaos-assisted broadband momentum transformation in optical microresonators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Xuefeng; Shao, Linbo; Zhang, Shu-Xin; Yi, Xu; Wiersig, Jan; Wang, Li; Gong, Qihuang; Lončar, Marko; Yang, Lan; Xiao, Yun-Feng

    2017-10-20

    The law of momentum conservation rules out many desired processes in optical microresonators. We report broadband momentum transformations of light in asymmetric whispering gallery microresonators. Assisted by chaotic motions, broadband light can travel between optical modes with different angular momenta within a few picoseconds. Efficient coupling from visible to near-infrared bands is demonstrated between a nanowaveguide and whispering gallery modes with quality factors exceeding 10 million. The broadband momentum transformation enhances the device conversion efficiency of the third-harmonic generation by greater than three orders of magnitude over the conventional evanescent-wave coupling. The observed broadband and fast momentum transformation could promote applications such as multicolor lasers, broadband memories, and multiwavelength optical networks. Copyright © 2017 The Authors, some rights reserved; exclusive licensee American Association for the Advancement of Science. No claim to original U.S. Government Works.

  9. Chaos-assisted broadband momentum transformation in optical microresonators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Xuefeng; Shao, Linbo; Zhang, Shu-Xin; Yi, Xu; Wiersig, Jan; Wang, Li; Gong, Qihuang; Lončar, Marko; Yang, Lan; Xiao, Yun-Feng

    2017-10-01

    The law of momentum conservation rules out many desired processes in optical microresonators. We report broadband momentum transformations of light in asymmetric whispering gallery microresonators. Assisted by chaotic motions, broadband light can travel between optical modes with different angular momenta within a few picoseconds. Efficient coupling from visible to near-infrared bands is demonstrated between a nanowaveguide and whispering gallery modes with quality factors exceeding 10 million. The broadband momentum transformation enhances the device conversion efficiency of the third-harmonic generation by greater than three orders of magnitude over the conventional evanescent-wave coupling. The observed broadband and fast momentum transformation could promote applications such as multicolor lasers, broadband memories, and multiwavelength optical networks.

  10. Performative Architecture and Urban Spaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiib, Hans

    2008-01-01

      3 Workshops one exibition   Three conceptual architectural workshops took take place in parallel from August 16th - 22nd 2008. Each workshop carried a specific methodology and the goal is to come up with conceptual proposals that could be further developed for selected sites in the city of Aalb...... This workshop focus on temporary architecture and urban catalysts. Informal spaces and the interface between the built and the void are foremost in the development of performative urban environments and cultural interaction. ......  3 Workshops one exibition   Three conceptual architectural workshops took take place in parallel from August 16th - 22nd 2008. Each workshop carried a specific methodology and the goal is to come up with conceptual proposals that could be further developed for selected sites in the city...... The workshop model includes an open workshop where a handful of international architects are invited to spend five days with local architects, engineers and scholars contributing to a work of architectural vision and quality. The workshop includes presentations and discussions and development of projects...

  11. Model Driven Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaševic, Dragan; Djuric, Dragan; Devedžic, Vladan

    A relevant initiative from the software engineering community called Model Driven Engineering (MDE) is being developed in parallel with the Semantic Web (Mellor et al. 2003a). The MDE approach to software development suggests that one should first develop a model of the system under study, which is then transformed into the real thing (i.e., an executable software entity). The most important research initiative in this area is the Model Driven Architecture (MDA), which is Model Driven Architecture being developed under the umbrella of the Object Management Group (OMG). This chapter describes the basic concepts of this software engineering effort.

  12. Complex epsilon-near-zero metamaterials for broadband light harvesting systems

    KAUST Repository

    Bonifazi, Marcella; Tian, Yi; Fratalocchi, Andrea

    2018-01-01

    We engineered an epsilon-near-zero (ENZ) material from suitably disordered metallic nanostructures. We create a new class of dispersionless composite materials that efficiently harnesses white light. By means of Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) and Photoluminescence (PLE) measurements we experimentally demonstrate that this nanomaterial increases up to a record value the absorption of ultra-thin light harvesting films at visible and infrared wavelengths. Moreover, we obtained a 170% broadband increase of the external quantum efficiency (EQE) when these ENZ materials are inserted in an energy-harvesting module. We developed an inexpensive electrochemical deposition process that enables large-scale production of this material for energy-harvesting applications.

  13. Broadband filters for abatement of spontaneous emission in circuit quantum electrodynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bronn, Nicholas T., E-mail: ntbronn@us.ibm.com; Hertzberg, Jared B.; Córcoles, Antonio D.; Gambetta, Jay M.; Chow, Jerry M. [IBM T.J. Watson Research Center, 1101 Kitchawan Road, Yorktown Heights, New York 10598 (United States); Liu, Yanbing; Houck, Andrew A. [Department of Electrical Engineering, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08544 (United States)

    2015-10-26

    The ability to perform fast, high-fidelity readout of quantum bits (qubits) is essential to the goal of building a quantum computer. However, coupling a fast measurement channel to a superconducting qubit typically also speeds up its relaxation via spontaneous emission. Here, we use impedance engineering to design a filter by which photons may easily leave the resonator at the cavity frequency but not at the qubit frequency. We implement this broadband filter in both an on-chip and off-chip configuration.

  14. Complex epsilon-near-zero metamaterials for broadband light harvesting systems

    KAUST Repository

    Bonifazi, Marcella

    2018-02-17

    We engineered an epsilon-near-zero (ENZ) material from suitably disordered metallic nanostructures. We create a new class of dispersionless composite materials that efficiently harnesses white light. By means of Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) and Photoluminescence (PLE) measurements we experimentally demonstrate that this nanomaterial increases up to a record value the absorption of ultra-thin light harvesting films at visible and infrared wavelengths. Moreover, we obtained a 170% broadband increase of the external quantum efficiency (EQE) when these ENZ materials are inserted in an energy-harvesting module. We developed an inexpensive electrochemical deposition process that enables large-scale production of this material for energy-harvesting applications.

  15. Modeling Architectural Patterns’ Behavior Using Architectural Primitives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waqas Kamal, Ahmad; Avgeriou, Paris

    2008-01-01

    Architectural patterns have an impact on both the structure and the behavior of a system at the architecture design level. However, it is challenging to model patterns’ behavior in a systematic way because modeling languages do not provide the appropriate abstractions and because each pattern

  16. High efficiency and broadband acoustic diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Congyi; Wang, Bohan; Zhao, Tianfei; Chen, C. Q.

    2018-01-01

    Energy transmission efficiency and working bandwidth are the two major factors limiting the application of current acoustic diodes (ADs). This letter presents a design of high efficiency and broadband acoustic diodes composed of a nonlinear frequency converter and a linear wave filter. The converter consists of two masses connected by a bilinear spring with asymmetric tension and compression stiffness. The wave filter is a linear mass-spring lattice (sonic crystal). Both numerical simulation and experiment show that the energy transmission efficiency of the acoustic diode can be improved by as much as two orders of magnitude, reaching about 61%. Moreover, the primary working band width of the AD is about two times of the cut-off frequency of the sonic crystal filter. The cut-off frequency dependent working band of the AD implies that the developed AD can be scaled up or down from macro-scale to micro- and nano-scale.

  17. Frequency Doubling Broadband Light in Multiple Crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alford, William J.; Smith, Arlee V.

    2000-01-01

    The authors compare frequency doubling of broadband light in a single nonlinear crystal with doubling in five crystals with intercrystal temporal walk off compensation, and with doubling in five crystals adjusted for offset phase matching frequencies. Using a plane-wave, dispersive numerical model of frequency doubling they study the bandwidth of the second harmonic and the conversion efficiency as functions of crystal length and fundamental irradiance. For low irradiance the offset phase matching arrangement has lower efficiency than a single crystal of the same total length but gives a broader second harmonic bandwidth. The walk off compensated arrangement gives both higher conversion efficiency and broader bandwidth than a single crystal. At high irradiance, both multicrystal arrangements improve on the single crystal efficiency while maintaining broad bandwidth

  18. Broadband plasmon induced transparency in terahertz metamaterials

    KAUST Repository

    Zhu, Zhihua

    2013-04-25

    Plasmon induced transparency (PIT) could be realized in metamaterials via interference between different resonance modes. Within the sharp transparency window, the high dispersion of the medium may lead to remarkable slow light phenomena and an enhanced nonlinear effect. However, the transparency mode is normally localized in a narrow frequency band, which thus restricts many of its applications. Here we present the simulation, implementation, and measurement of a broadband PIT metamaterial functioning in the terahertz regime. By integrating four U-shape resonators around a central bar resonator, a broad transparency window across a frequency range greater than 0.40 THz is obtained, with a central resonance frequency located at 1.01 THz. Such PIT metamaterials are promising candidates for designing slow light devices, highly sensitive sensors, and nonlinear elements operating over a broad frequency range. © 2013 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  19. Piezoelectric energy harvesting from broadband random vibrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adhikari, S; Friswell, M I; Inman, D J

    2009-01-01

    Energy harvesting for the purpose of powering low power electronic sensor systems has received explosive attention in the last few years. Most works using deterministic approaches focusing on using the piezoelectric effect to harvest ambient vibration energy have concentrated on cantilever beams at resonance using harmonic excitation. Here, using a stochastic approach, we focus on using a stack configuration and harvesting broadband vibration energy, a more practically available ambient source. It is assumed that the ambient base excitation is stationary Gaussian white noise, which has a constant power-spectral density across the frequency range considered. The mean power acquired from a piezoelectric vibration-based energy harvester subjected to random base excitation is derived using the theory of random vibrations. Two cases, namely the harvesting circuit with and without an inductor, have been considered. Exact closed-form expressions involving non-dimensional parameters of the electromechanical system have been given and illustrated using numerical examples

  20. Piezoelectric energy harvesting from broadband random vibrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adhikari, S.; Friswell, M. I.; Inman, D. J.

    2009-11-01

    Energy harvesting for the purpose of powering low power electronic sensor systems has received explosive attention in the last few years. Most works using deterministic approaches focusing on using the piezoelectric effect to harvest ambient vibration energy have concentrated on cantilever beams at resonance using harmonic excitation. Here, using a stochastic approach, we focus on using a stack configuration and harvesting broadband vibration energy, a more practically available ambient source. It is assumed that the ambient base excitation is stationary Gaussian white noise, which has a constant power-spectral density across the frequency range considered. The mean power acquired from a piezoelectric vibration-based energy harvester subjected to random base excitation is derived using the theory of random vibrations. Two cases, namely the harvesting circuit with and without an inductor, have been considered. Exact closed-form expressions involving non-dimensional parameters of the electromechanical system have been given and illustrated using numerical examples.

  1. Techno-Economics of Residential Broadband Deployment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sigurdsson, Halldor Matthias

    2007-01-01

    on account of their existing telecom network (”the raw copper”), and typically they will prefer an xDSL-based strategy (various types of Digital Subscriber Line-technology: ADSL, VDSL, etc.), where the rate of speed of data connections are increased gradually to 10-50 Mbit/s or even more, in order to gain...... broadband deployment strategy is depending on a complexed set of parameters, and there is a demand for precise techno-economic cost models estimating financial feasibility. The existing cost models do not consider the dynamic developments in the market caused by competition. The PhD thesis has a profound...... the general principles from the Danish LRAIC-model (Long Run Average Incremental Cost) and divides Denmark in 4 geografical profiles. Considering the existing copper-infrastructure the most advantageous strategies for the players of each of these profiles are identified. The importance of the time horizon...

  2. Broadband plasmon induced transparency in terahertz metamaterials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Zhihua; Yang Xu; Gu Jianqiang; Jiang Jun; Tian Zhen; Han Jiaguang; Zhang Weili; Yue Weisheng; Tonouchi, Masayoshi

    2013-01-01

    Plasmon induced transparency (PIT) could be realized in metamaterials via interference between different resonance modes. Within the sharp transparency window, the high dispersion of the medium may lead to remarkable slow light phenomena and an enhanced nonlinear effect. However, the transparency mode is normally localized in a narrow frequency band, which thus restricts many of its applications. Here we present the simulation, implementation, and measurement of a broadband PIT metamaterial functioning in the terahertz regime. By integrating four U-shape resonators around a central bar resonator, a broad transparency window across a frequency range greater than 0.40 THz is obtained, with a central resonance frequency located at 1.01 THz. Such PIT metamaterials are promising candidates for designing slow light devices, highly sensitive sensors, and nonlinear elements operating over a broad frequency range. (paper)

  3. Terahertz broadband polarization converter based on metamaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yonghua; Zhao, Guozhong

    2018-01-01

    Based on the metamaterial composed of symmetrical split resonant ring, a broadband reflective terahertz polarization converter is proposed. The numerical simulation shows that it can rotate the polarization direction of linear polarized wave 90° in the range of 0.7-1.8THz and the polarization conversion ratio is over 90%. The reflection coefficient of the two electric field components in the diagonal direction is the same and the phase difference is 180° ,which leads to the cross-polarization rotation.In order to further study the physical mechanism of high polarization conversion, we analyze the surface current distribution of the resonant ring. The polarization converter has potential applications in terahertz wave plate and metamaterial antenna design.

  4. Patient portals and broadband internet inequality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perzynski, Adam T; Roach, Mary Joan; Shick, Sarah; Callahan, Bill; Gunzler, Douglas; Cebul, Randall; Kaelber, David C; Huml, Anne; Thornton, John Daryl; Einstadter, Douglas

    2017-09-01

    Patient portals have shown potential for increasing health care quality and efficiency. Internet access and other factors influencing patient portal use could worsen health disparities. Observational study of adults with 1 or more visits to the outpatient clinics of an urban public health care system from 2012 to 2015. We used mixed effects logistic regression to evaluate the association between broadband internet access and (1) patient portal initiation (whether a patient logged in at least 1 time) and (2) messaging, controlling for demographic and neighborhood characteristics. There were 243 248 adults with 1 or more visits during 2012-2015 and 70 835 (29.1%) initiated portal use. Portal initiation was 34.1% for whites, 23.4% for blacks, and 23.8% for Hispanics, and was lower for Medicaid (26.5%), Medicare (23.4%), and uninsured patients (17.4%) than commercially insured patients (39.3%). In multivariate analysis, both initiation of portal use (odds ratio [OR] = 1.24 per quintile, 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.23-1.24, P  internet access. The majority of adults with outpatient visits to a large urban health care system did not use the patient portal, and initiation of use was lower for racial and ethnic minorities, persons of lower socioeconomic status, and those without neighborhood broadband internet access. These results suggest the emergence of a digital divide in patient portal use. Given the scale of investment in patient portals and other internet-dependent health information technologies, efforts are urgently needed to address this growing inequality. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the American Medical Informatics Association. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com

  5. Religious architecture: anthropological perspectives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verkaaik, O.

    2013-01-01

    Religious Architecture: Anthropological Perspectives develops an anthropological perspective on modern religious architecture, including mosques, churches and synagogues. Borrowing from a range of theoretical perspectives on space-making and material religion, this volume looks at how religious

  6. Avionics Architecture for Exploration

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The goal of the AES Avionics Architectures for Exploration (AAE) project is to develop a reference architecture that is based on standards and that can be scaled and...

  7. RATS: Reactive Architectures

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Christensen, Marc

    2004-01-01

    This project had two goals: To build an emulation prototype board for a tiled architecture and to demonstrate the utility of a global inter-chip free-space photonic interconnection fabric for polymorphous computer architectures (PCA...

  8. Rhein-Ruhr architecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2002-01-01

    katalog til udstillingen 'Rhein - Ruhr architecture' Meldahls smedie, 15. marts - 28. april 2002. 99 sider......katalog til udstillingen 'Rhein - Ruhr architecture' Meldahls smedie, 15. marts - 28. april 2002. 99 sider...

  9. Peculiarities of Natural Technology Application in Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umorina, Z.

    2017-11-01

    Technical advancement of the modern world has made it possible to create unique artificial objects based on the natural technology principle. New engineering and design types, such as computational design, additive manufacturing, materials engineering, synthetic biology, etc. allow us to enter a new level of interaction between a human being and nature. This influences the formation of a new world view in the sphere of architecture and leads to the development of new methods and styles [1,2].

  10. Architecture and Film

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Javaheri, Saharnaz

    2016-01-01

    Film does not exist without architecture. In every movie that has ever been made throughout history, the cinematic image of architecture is embedded within the picture. Throughout my studies and research, I began to see that there is no director who can consciously or unconsciously deny the use of architectural elements in his or her movies. Architecture offers a strong profile to distinguish characters and story. In the early days, films were shot in streets surrounde...

  11. Metropolitan area networks: a corner stone in the broadband era

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghanem, Adel

    1991-02-01

    Deployment of Broadband ISDN is being influenced by both a market pull and a technology push. New broadband service opportunities exist in the business and residential sectors of the market place. It is envisioned that some customers will need connections directly to broadband switches because of the high bandwidth needed for their applications. At the same time Metropolitan Area Network (MAN) systems will serve those customers with bandwidth requirements less than or equal to 150 Mbps. A given MAN will have a geographical domain to serve where it will carry out the switching tasks within this domain. While MANs couldbe designed using differentarchitecturalconcepts the setofservices expected tobeprovidedby MANs could be equivalent to thelist ofservices thatwillbe supported by the targetbroadband network. This paperpositions MANs as a major building block for Broadband networks. It also examines the evolution process ofMANs as a needed step to assure the successful deployment of these new broadband services. 2. BISDN - OVERVIEW Broadband ISDN (BISDN) is being driven into existence by both a market pull as well as a technology push. Opportunities for new valueadded services are the prime market pull for future broadband networks. These services opportunities extend beyond simple voice and low speed data applications and cover both the residential and the business sectors of the market. It is noted for instance that business customers have growing needs for sophisticated telecommunication vehicles to support their

  12. Broadband availability in metropolitan and non-metropolitan Pennsylvania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawrence E. Wood

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Over the past few years having a broadband connection has become essential for many Internet activities. As broadband increases in importance, it becomes imperative to assess how its use and availability may vary, especially in relation to issues such as geographic location. For rural areas in particular, the availability of broadband service is especially important. This research assesses broadband service availability in rural areas of Pennsylvania, USA. In particular, it examines the extent to which Digital Subscriber Line (DSL and broadband cable modem services are being deployed throughout rural Pennsylvania. It compares this deployment with the availability of such services in the state’s urban and metropolitan areas. The results of this research suggest that there is a “digital divide” in terms of broadband availability between rural and urban areas of Pennsylvania. However, this “divide” is perhaps not as wide as might be expected. Thus, as broadband is becoming increasingly available in rural areas of the U.S. and throughout much of the rest of the world, this research concludes that while research must remain vigilant in terms of assessing advanced telecommunications availability in rural areas, future research should also be sure to focus on how such technologies can be used to promote economic and social concerns, including in relation to building online networks and diminishing social and professional isolation in rural areas.

  13. Evaluating Space Weather Architecture Options to Support Human Deep Space Exploration of the Moon and Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, L.; Minow, J.; Pulkkinen, A.; Fry, D.; Semones, E.; Allen, J.; St Cyr, C.; Mertens, C.; Jun, I.; Onsager, T.; Hock, R.

    2018-02-01

    NASA's Engineering and Space Center (NESC) is conducting an independent technical assessment of space environment monitoring and forecasting architecture options to support human and robotic deep space exploration.

  14. Elements of Architecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elements of Architecture explores new ways of engaging architecture in archaeology. It conceives of architecture both as the physical evidence of past societies and as existing beyond the physical environment, considering how people in the past have not just dwelled in buildings but have existed...

  15. Object-Oriented Modular Architecture for Ground Combat Simulation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Luqi; Berzins, V; Shing, M; Saluto, M; Williams, J

    2000-01-01

    .... It describes the effective use of computer-aided prototyping techniques for re-engineering the legacy software to develop an object-oriented modular architecture for the Janus combat simulation system. Janus...

  16. Biomimetics for architecture & design nature, analogies, technology

    CERN Document Server

    Pohl, Göran

    2015-01-01

    This book provides the readers with a timely guide to the application of biomimetic principles in architecture and engineering design. As a result of a combined effort by two internationally recognized authorities, the biologist Werner Nachtigall and the architect Göran Pohl, the book describes the principles which can be used to compare nature and technology, and at the same time it presents detailed explanations and examples showing how biology can be used as a source of inspiration and “translated” in building and architectural solutions (biomimicry). Even though nature cannot be directly copied, the living world can provide architects and engineers with a wealth of analogues and inspirations for their own creative designs. But how can analysis of natural entities give rise to advanced and sustainable design? By reporting on the latest bionic design methods and using extensive artwork, the book guides readers through the field of nature-inspired architecture, offering an extraordinary resource for pro...

  17. Architectural and structural qualities in timber joints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Jesper Thøger; Christensen, Mogens Fiil; Damkilde, Lars

    2016-01-01

    Design of joints in timber structures is crucial to reach both elegant and structural efficient designs. Design of joints should therefore be an integral part of the conceptual design phase. Traditionally this is not the case, and joints are often solely designed and analysed in the engineering...... but also increase timbers competitiveness in the building industry. The paper is part of an ongoing research project aiming at providing tools for an integrated design process for timber structures. The focus of the paper is to identify how structure and its joints contributes to architecture and vice...... design phase. The result is joints that function structurally but do not add value to the design, and may even compromise the architectural ideas. With an approach, integrating both structural and architectural design from the beginning, one should not only gain better structures and architecture...

  18. Broadband infrared beam splitter for spaceborne interferometric infrared sounder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Tianyan; Liu, Dingquan; Qin, Yang

    2014-10-01

    A broadband infrared beam splitter (BS) on ZnSe substrate used for the spaceborne interferometric infrared sounder (SIIRS) is studied in the spectral range of 4.44-15 μm. Both broadband antireflection coating and broadband beam-splitter coating in this BS are designed and tested. To optimize the optical properties and the stability of the BS, suitable infrared materials were selected, and improved deposition techniques were applied. The designed structures matched experimental data well, and the properties of the BS met the application specification of SIIRS.

  19. CIM overview. (2). ; Architecture, infrastructure, information technology. CIM soron. (2). ; Architecture, infra, joho riyo shien gijutsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seryo, K [IBM Japan Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1991-12-10

    The materialization of computer integrated manufacturing (CIM) requires an establishment of its systematizing system, i.e., architecturer and planning of the infrastructure to support it and basic engineering to support the informational utilization. The CIM architecture is classified into management and system structure, strategic planning method, System development introduction method, etc. The infrastructure aims at epoch-makingly heightening the productivity and speed by integrating the production planning, engineering design, accounting, sales, general business and affairs, production engineering, production activities, and activities of suppliers and clients. The informational utilization support engineering comprises the management support tool, decision making support tool, application development tool, etc. What is important is to establish a system of systematizing engineering in order not to be behind the strategic activation era of information to come. 17 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  20. Vital architecture, slow momentum policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Braae, Ellen Marie

    2010-01-01

    A reflection on the relation between Danish landscape architecture policy and the statements made through current landscape architectural project.......A reflection on the relation between Danish landscape architecture policy and the statements made through current landscape architectural project....

  1. Interest in broadband dielectric spectroscopy to study the electronic transport in materials for lithium batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Badot, Jean-Claude, E-mail: jc.badot@chimie-paristech.fr [Institut de Recherche de Chimie Paris, UMR CNRS 8247, Réseau sur le Stockage Electrochimique de l' Energie (RS2E), Chimie Paris Tech, PSL*, 11 rue P. et M. Curie, 75231 Cedex 05 Paris (France); Lestriez, Bernard [Institut des Matériaux Jean Rouxel, UMR CNRS 6502, Université de Nantes, 2 rue de la Houssinière, BP32229, 44322 Nantes (France); Dubrunfaut, Olivier [GeePs | Group of electrical engineering – Paris, UMR CNRS 8507, CentraleSupélec, Univ. Paris-Sud, Université Paris-Saclay, Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Univ Paris 06, 3 & 11 rue Joliot-Curie, Plateau de Moulon, 91192 Gif-sur-Yvette CEDEX, Paris (France)

    2016-11-15

    Highlights: • Broadband dielectric spectroscopy measures the multiscale electronic conductivity from macroscopic to interatomic sizes. • There is an influence of the surface states on the electronic transfer of powdered materials (e.g. thin insulating layer of Li{sub 2}CO{sub 3} on LiNiO{sub 2} and carbon coating on LiFePO{sub 4}). • Electrical relaxations resulting from the interfacial polarizations at the different scales of the carbon black network are evidenced. - Abstract: Broadband dielectric spectroscopy (BDS) is used to measure complex permittivity and conductivity of conducting materials for lithium batteries at frequencies from a few Hz to several GHz with network and impedance analysers. Under the influence of an electric field, there will be charge density fluctuations in the conductor mainly due to electronic transfer. These fluctuations result in dielectric relaxations for frequencies below 100 GHz. The materials are compacted powders in which each element (particles, agglomerates of particles) can have different sizes and morphologies. In the present review, studies are reported on the influence of surface states in LiNiO{sub 2} (ageing and degradation in air) and LiFePO{sub 4} (carbon coating thin layer), and on a composite electrode based on the lithium trivanadate (Li{sub 1.1}V{sub 3}O{sub 8}) active material. The results have shown that the BDS technique is very sensitive to the different scales of materials architectures involved in electronic transport, from interatomic distances to macroscopic sizes.

  2. Information-Theoretic Limits on Broadband Multi-Antenna Systems in the Presence of Mutual Coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taluja, Pawandeep Singh

    2011-12-01

    Multiple-input, multiple-output (MIMO) systems have received considerable attention over the last decade due to their ability to provide high throughputs and mitigate multipath fading effects. While most of these benefits are obtained for ideal arrays with large separation between the antennas, practical devices are often constrained in physical dimensions. With smaller inter-element spacings, signal correlation and mutual coupling between the antennas start to degrade the system performance, thereby limiting the deployment of a large number of antennas. Various studies have proposed transceiver designs based on optimal matching networks to compensate for this loss. However, such networks are considered impractical due to their multiport structure and sensitivity to the RF bandwidth of the system. In this dissertation, we investigate two aspects of compact transceiver design. First, we consider simpler architectures that exploit coupling between the antennas, and second, we establish information-theoretic limits of broadband communication systems with closely-spaced antennas. We begin with a receiver model of a diversity antenna selection system and propose novel strategies that make use of inactive elements by virtue of mutual coupling. We then examine the limits on the matching efficiency of a single antenna system using broadband matching theory. Next, we present an extension to this theory for coupled MIMO systems to elucidate the impact of coupling on the RF bandwidth of the system, and derive optimal transceiver designs. Lastly, we summarize the main findings of this dissertation and suggest open problems for future work.

  3. Interest in broadband dielectric spectroscopy to study the electronic transport in materials for lithium batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badot, Jean-Claude; Lestriez, Bernard; Dubrunfaut, Olivier

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Broadband dielectric spectroscopy measures the multiscale electronic conductivity from macroscopic to interatomic sizes. • There is an influence of the surface states on the electronic transfer of powdered materials (e.g. thin insulating layer of Li_2CO_3 on LiNiO_2 and carbon coating on LiFePO_4). • Electrical relaxations resulting from the interfacial polarizations at the different scales of the carbon black network are evidenced. - Abstract: Broadband dielectric spectroscopy (BDS) is used to measure complex permittivity and conductivity of conducting materials for lithium batteries at frequencies from a few Hz to several GHz with network and impedance analysers. Under the influence of an electric field, there will be charge density fluctuations in the conductor mainly due to electronic transfer. These fluctuations result in dielectric relaxations for frequencies below 100 GHz. The materials are compacted powders in which each element (particles, agglomerates of particles) can have different sizes and morphologies. In the present review, studies are reported on the influence of surface states in LiNiO_2 (ageing and degradation in air) and LiFePO_4 (carbon coating thin layer), and on a composite electrode based on the lithium trivanadate (Li_1_._1V_3O_8) active material. The results have shown that the BDS technique is very sensitive to the different scales of materials architectures involved in electronic transport, from interatomic distances to macroscopic sizes.

  4. Architecture academic by information technologies utilization ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This research aims at studying teaching modern architecture with information technology approach. Today, information technology is used to transmit knowledge in many universities of the world. Information technology tools are potentially capable of providing engineering students with a broad continuum of curriculum in ...

  5. Developing Enterprise Architectures to Address the Enterprise Dilemma of Deciding What Should Be Sustained versus What Should Be Changed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrell, J. Michael

    2011-01-01

    Enterprise architecture is a relatively new concept that arose in the latter half of the twentieth century as a means of managing the information technology resources within the enterprise. Borrowing from the disciplines of brick and mortar architecture, software engineering, software architecture, and systems engineering, the enterprise…

  6. Diffractive intermediate layer enables broadband light trapping for high efficiency ultrathin c-Si tandem cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Guijun, E-mail: gliad@connect.ust.hk; Ho, Jacob Y. L.; Li, He; Kwok, Hoi-Sing [State Key Laboratory on Advanced Displays and Optoelectronics Technologies, Department of Electronic and Computer Engineering, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay, Kowloon (Hong Kong)

    2014-06-09

    Light management through the intermediate reflector in the tandem cell configuration is of great practical importance for achieving high stable efficiency and also low cost production. So far, however, the intermediate reflectors employed currently are mainly focused on the light absorption enhancement of the top cell. Here, we present a diffractive intermediate layer that allows for light trapping over a broadband wavelength for the ultrathin c-Si tandem solar cell. Compared with the standard intermediate reflector, this nanoscale architectural intermediate layer results in a 35% and 21% remarkable enhancement of the light absorption in the top (400–800 nm) and bottom (800–1100 nm) cells simultaneously, and ultrathin c-Si tandem cells with impressive conversion efficiency of 13.3% are made on the glass substrate.

  7. Efficiency of broadband terahertz rectennas based on self-switching nanodiodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briones, Edgar; Cortes-Mestizo, Irving E.; Briones, Joel; Droopad, Ravindranath; Espinosa-Vega, Leticia I.; Vilchis, Heber; Mendez-Garcia, Victor H.

    2017-04-01

    The authors investigate the efficiency of a series of broadband rectennas designed to harvest the free-propagating electromagnetic energy at terahertz frequencies. We analyze by simulations the case of self-complementary square- and Archimedean-spiral antennas coupled to L-shaped self-switching diodes (L-SSDs). First, the geometry (i.e., the width and length of the channel) of the L-SSD was optimized to obtain a remarkable diode-like I-V response. Subsequently, the optimized L-SSD geometry was coupled to both types of spiral antennas and their characteristic impedance was studied. Finally, the energy conversion efficiency was evaluated for both rectenna architectures.

  8. Diffractive intermediate layer enables broadband light trapping for high efficiency ultrathin c-Si tandem cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Guijun; Ho, Jacob Y. L.; Li, He; Kwok, Hoi-Sing

    2014-01-01

    Light management through the intermediate reflector in the tandem cell configuration is of great practical importance for achieving high stable efficiency and also low cost production. So far, however, the intermediate reflectors employed currently are mainly focused on the light absorption enhancement of the top cell. Here, we present a diffractive intermediate layer that allows for light trapping over a broadband wavelength for the ultrathin c-Si tandem solar cell. Compared with the standard intermediate reflector, this nanoscale architectural intermediate layer results in a 35% and 21% remarkable enhancement of the light absorption in the top (400–800 nm) and bottom (800–1100 nm) cells simultaneously, and ultrathin c-Si tandem cells with impressive conversion efficiency of 13.3% are made on the glass substrate.

  9. An articulated predictive model for fluid-free artificial basilar membrane as broadband frequency sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Riaz; Banerjee, Sourav

    2018-02-01

    In this article, an extremely versatile predictive model for a newly developed Basilar meta-Membrane (BM2) sensors is reported with variable engineering parameters that contribute to it's frequency selection capabilities. The predictive model reported herein is for advancement over existing method by incorporating versatile and nonhomogeneous (e.g. functionally graded) model parameters that could not only exploit the possibilities of creating complex combinations of broadband frequency sensors but also explain the unique unexplained physical phenomenon that prevails in BM2, e.g. tailgating waves. In recent years, few notable attempts were made to fabricate the artificial basilar membrane, mimicking the mechanics of the human cochlea within a very short range of frequencies. To explain the operation of these sensors a few models were proposed. But, we fundamentally argue the "fabrication to explanation" approach and proposed the model driven predictive design process for the design any (BM2) as broadband sensors. Inspired by the physics of basilar membrane, frequency domain predictive model is proposed where both the material and geometrical parameters can be arbitrarily varied. Broadband frequency is applicable in many fields of science, engineering and technology, such as, sensors for chemical, biological and acoustic applications. With the proposed model, which is three times faster than its FEM counterpart, it is possible to alter the attributes of the selected length of the designed sensor using complex combinations of model parameters, based on target frequency applications. Finally, the tailgating wave peaks in the artificial basilar membranes that prevails in the previously reported experimental studies are also explained using the proposed model.

  10. Exporting Humanist Architecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Tom

    2016-01-01

    The article is a chapter in the catalogue for the Danish exhibition at the 2016 Architecture Biennale in Venice. The catalogue is conceived at an independent book exploring the theme Art of Many - The Right to Space. The chapter is an essay in this anthology tracing and discussing the different...... values and ethical stands involved in the export of Danish Architecture. Abstract: Danish architecture has, in a sense, been driven by an unwritten contract between the architects and the democratic state and its institutions. This contract may be viewed as an ethos – an architectural tradition...... with inherent aesthetic and moral values. Today, however, Danish architecture is also an export commodity. That raises questions, which should be debated as openly as possible. What does it mean for architecture and architects to practice in cultures and under political systems that do not use architecture...

  11. Software architecture evolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barais, Olivier; Le Meur, Anne-Francoise; Duchien, Laurence

    2008-01-01

    Software architectures must frequently evolve to cope with changing requirements, and this evolution often implies integrating new concerns. Unfortunately, when the new concerns are crosscutting, existing architecture description languages provide little or no support for this kind of evolution....... The software architect must modify multiple elements of the architecture manually, which risks introducing inconsistencies. This chapter provides an overview, comparison and detailed treatment of the various state-of-the-art approaches to describing and evolving software architectures. Furthermore, we discuss...... one particular framework named Tran SAT, which addresses the above problems of software architecture evolution. Tran SAT provides a new element in the software architecture descriptions language, called an architectural aspect, for describing new concerns and their integration into an existing...

  12. Broadband back grating design for thin film solar cells

    KAUST Repository

    Janjua, Bilal; Jabbour, Ghassan E.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, design based on tapered circular grating structure was studied, to provide broadband enhancement in thin film amorphous silicon solar cells. In comparison to planar structure an absorption enhancement of ~ 7% was realized.

  13. Fixed Broadband Deployment Data: June, 2016 Status V1

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Communications Commission — Version 1 reflects data filed by the March 1, 2016 filing deadline and any revisions made before February 10, 2017. All facilities-based broadband providers are...

  14. Broadband Reflective Coating Process for Large FUVOIR Mirrors, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ZeCoat Corporation will develop and demonstrate a set of revolutionary coating processes for making broadband reflective coatings suitable for very large mirrors (4+...

  15. Direct and quantitative broadband absorptance spectroscopy with multilayer cantilever probes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Wei-Chun; Tong, Jonathan Kien-Kwok; Liao, Bolin; Chen, Gang

    2015-04-21

    A system for measuring the absorption spectrum of a sample is provided that includes a broadband light source that produces broadband light defined within a range of an absorptance spectrum. An interferometer modulates the intensity of the broadband light source for a range of modulation frequencies. A bi-layer cantilever probe arm is thermally connected to a sample arm having at most two layers of materials. The broadband light modulated by the interferometer is directed towards the sample and absorbed by the sample and converted into heat, which causes a temperature rise and bending of the bi-layer cantilever probe arm. A detector mechanism measures and records the deflection of the probe arm so as to obtain the absorptance spectrum of the sample.

  16. Fixed Broadband Deployment Data: June, 2016 Status V2

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Communications Commission — This data contains status reports for June 2016, with revisions accepted through May 2017. All facilities-based broadband providers are required to file data with...

  17. Expressive Communication and Human Development in the New Broadband Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, John

    2004-01-01

    An understanding of the structure and functions of expressive communication in face-to-face communication and audiovisual media can inform the development of new educational services for human development across cultures in the emerging broadband environment.

  18. Broadband Wireless Data Acquisition and Control Device, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Mobitrum is proposing to develop a broadband wireless device for real-time data acquisition and monitoring applicable to the field instrumentation and control...

  19. 76 FR 13769 - Rural Broadband Access Loans and Loan Guarantees

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-14

    ... pharmacy work, and savings to health facilities from outsourcing specialized medical procedures. One study... international markets and enables new, small, and home-based businesses to thrive. Broadband access affords...

  20. 78 FR 8353 - Rural Broadband Access Loans and Loan Guarantees

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-06

    ... outsourcing specialized medical procedures. One study of 24 rural hospitals placed the annual cost of not... a key to economic growth. For rural businesses, broadband gives access to national and international...

  1. Chaotic Dynamics-Based Analysis of Broadband Piezoelectric Vibration Energy Harvesting Enhanced by Using Nonlinearity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhongsheng Chen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Nonlinear magnetic forces are always used to enlarge resonant bandwidth of vibration energy harvesting systems with piezoelectric cantilever beams. However, how to determine properly the distance between two magnets is one of the key engineering problems. In this paper, the Melnikov theory is introduced to overcome it. Firstly, the Melnikov state-space model of the nonlinear piezoelectric vibration energy harvesting (PVEH system is built. Based on it, chaotic dynamics mechanisms of achieving broadband PVEH by nonlinearity are exposed by potential function of the unperturbed nonlinear PVEH system. Then the corresponding Melnikov function of the nonlinear PVEH system is defined, based on which two Melnikov necessary conditions of determining the distance are obtained. Finally, numerical simulations are done to testify the theoretic results. The results demonstrate that the distance is closely related to the excitation amplitude and frequency once geometric and material parameters are fixed. Under a single-frequency excitation, the nonlinear PVEH system can generate a periodic vibration around a stable point, a large-amplitude vibration around two stable points, or a chaotic vibration. The proposed method is very valuable for optimally designing and utilizing nonlinear broadband PVEH devices in engineering applications.

  2. High-speed combustion diagnostics in a rapid compression machine by broadband supercontinuum absorption spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werblinski, Thomas; Fendt, Peter; Zigan, Lars; Will, Stefan

    2017-05-20

    The first results under fired internal combustion engine conditions based on a supercontinuum absorption spectrometer are presented and discussed. Temperature, pressure, and water mole fraction are inferred simultaneously from broadband H 2 O absorbance spectra ranging from 1340 nm to 1440 nm. The auto-ignition combustion process is monitored for two premixed n-heptane/air mixtures with 10 kHz in a rapid compression machine. Pressure and temperature levels during combustion exceed 65 bar and 1900 K, respectively. To allow for combustion measurements, the robustness of the spectrometer against beam steering has been improved compared to its previous version. Additionally, the detectable wavelength range has been extended further into the infrared region to allow for the acquisition of distinct high-temperature water transitions located in the P-branch above 1410 nm. Based on a theoretical study, line-of-sight (LOS) effects introduced by temperature stratification on the broadband fitting algorithm in the complete range from 1340 nm to 1440 nm are discussed. In this context, the recorded spectra during combustion were evaluated only within a narrower spectral region exhibiting almost no interference from low-temperature molecules (here, P-branch from 1410 nm to 1440 nm). It is shown that this strategy mitigates almost all of the LOS effects introduced by cold molecules and the evaluation of the spectrum in the entirely recorded wavelength range at engine combustion conditions.

  3. Microprocessor engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Holdsworth, B

    2013-01-01

    Microprocessor Engineering provides an insight in the structures and operating techniques of a small computer. The book is comprised of 10 chapters that deal with the various aspects of computing. The first two chapters tackle the basic arithmetic and logic processes. The third chapter covers the various memory devices, both ROM and RWM. Next, the book deals with the general architecture of microprocessor. The succeeding three chapters discuss the software aspects of machine operation, while the last remaining three chapters talk about the relationship of the microprocessor with the outside wo

  4. Broadband and High power Reactive Jamming Resilient Wireless Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-21

    Broadband and High -power Reactive Jamming Resilient Wireless Communication The views, opinions and/or findings contained in this report are those of... available in extremely hostile environments, where FHSS and DSSS are completely defeated by a broadband and high -power reactive jammer. b. Wireless...SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 1. REPORT DATE (DD-MM-YYYY) 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 12. DISTRIBUTION AVAILIBILITY STATEMENT 6. AUTHORS

  5. Crosstalk analysis of a broadband data communications system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crutcher, R. I.; Ewing, P. D.; Hayes, T. W.

    1987-11-01

    A broadband cable system represents a significant resource for data transmission within a facility. Duplication of a broadband network to provide services of varying sensitivity levels within the same area is wasteful of capital resources. The sharing of a network by different data services is financially attractive providing that sensitive data are inaccessible from nonsensitive ports. The use of equipment from two manufacturers introduces a deliberate incompatibility for the purpose of data isolation. This report presents test results obtained by this technique.

  6. The Delft-Java Engine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Glossner III, C.J.

    2001-01-01

    In this dissertation, we describe the DELFT-JAVA engine - a 32-bit RISC-based architecture that provides high performance JAVA program execution. More specifically we describe a microarchitecture that accelerates JAVA execution and provide details of the DELFT-JAVA architecture for executing JAVA

  7. Investigating broadband acoustic adsorption using rapid manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godbold, O.

    The reduction of nuisance noise and the removal of unwanted sound modes within a room or component enclosure-area can be accomplished through the use of acoustic absorbers. Sound absorption can be achieved through conversion of the kinetic energy associated with pressure waves, into heat energy via viscous dissipation. This occurs within open porous materials, or by utilising resonant effects produced using simple cavity and orifice configurations. The manufacture of traditional porous and resonant absorbers is commonly realised using basic manufacturing techniques. These techniques restrict the geometry of a given resonant construction, and limit the configuration of porous absorbers. The aim of this work is to exploit new and emerging capabilities of Rapid Manufacturing (RM) to produce components with geometrical freedom, and apply it to the development of broadband acoustic absorption. New and novel absorber geometric configurations are identified and their absorption performance is determined. The capabilities and limitations of RM processes in reproducing these configurations are demonstrated. The geometric configuration of RM resonant absorbers is investigated. Cavity modifications aimed at damping the resonant effect by restricting the motion of cavity air, and adding increased viscous resistance are explored. Modifications relating to cavity shape, the addition of internal perforations and increased cavity surface area have all been shown to add acoustic resistance, thereby increasing the bandwidth of absorption. Decreasing the hydraulic radius of the cavity cross section and reducing internal feature dimensions provide improved resistance over conventional configurations..

  8. Broadband spectrally dynamic solid state illumination source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nicol, David B; Asghar, Ali; Gupta, Shalini; Kang, Hun; Pan, Ming [Georgia Institute of Technology, School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Atlanta, GA 30332-0250 (United States); Strassburg, Martin [Georgia Institute of Technology, School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Atlanta, GA 30332-0250 (United States); Georgia State University, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Atlanta, GA 30302-4106 (United States); Summers, Chris; Ferguson, Ian T [Georgia Institute of Technology, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Atlanta, GA 30332 (United States)

    2006-06-15

    Solid state lighting has done well recently in niche markets such as signage and displays, however, no available SSL technologies incorporate all the necessary attributes for general illumination. Development of a novel solid state general illumination source is discussed here. Two LEDs emitting at two distinct wavelengths can be monolithically grown and used to excite two or more phosphors with varied excitation spectra. The combined phosphorescence spectrum can then be controlled by adjusting the relative intensities of the two LED emissions. Preliminary phosphor analysis shows such a scheme to be viable for use in a spectrally dynamic broadband general illumination source. A tunnel junction is envisioned as a means of current spreading in a buried layer for three terminal operation. However, tunnel junction properties in GaN based materials are not well understood, and require further optimization to be practical devices. Preliminary results on GaN tunnel junctions are presented here as well. (copyright 2006 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  9. Broadband over powerline : advances and applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gunther, E.W. [EnerNex Corp., Knoxville, TN (United States)

    2006-07-01

    An overview of the broadband over powerline (BPL) industry was presented with reference to the history of the technology; current trials and deployments; applications; and, technologies currently in service. The presentation offers background information and a history of BPL, an early adopters test lab, BPL deployment map and access BPL stats. A comparison of wireless, hybrid and fiber optic communication technologies was presented along with access BPL systems and a review of how BPL can enhance utility operations. Diagnostic monitoring, operations improvement, system protection, load and DG management, distribution automation, and customer interface were included in an eye chart for operations enhancement. Suggestions on how BPL can reduce distribution line radio interference were presented along with examples of how BPL EMI analysis can find faulty electrical equipment. BPL customer services include Internet access, consumer portal, voice over Internet protocol, video surveillance, video conferencing, and building automation and energy management. BPL technical issues include installation, operation and electromagnetic compatibility. BPL regulations and standard efforts were described. It was concluded that BPL has a variety of applications in the utility sector including power quality, reliability monitoring and improvement. 1 tab., 7 figs.

  10. Broadband Vibration Attenuation Using Hybrid Periodic Rods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Asiri

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents both theoretically and experimentally a new kind of a broadband vibration isolator. It is a table-like system formed by four parallel hybrid periodic rods connected between two plates. The rods consist of an assembly of periodic cells, each cell being composed of a short rod and piezoelectric inserts. By actively controlling the piezoelectric elements, it is shown that the periodic rods can efficiently attenuate the propagation of vibration from the upper plate to the lower one within critical frequency bands and consequently minimize the effects of transmission of undesirable vibration and sound radiation. In such a system, longitudinal waves can propagate from the vibration source in the upper plate to the lower one along the rods only within specific frequency bands called the "Pass Bands" and wave propagation is efficiently attenuated within other frequency bands called the "Stop Bands". The spectral width of these bands can be tuned according to the nature of the external excitation. The theory governing the operation of this class of vibration isolator is presented and their tunable filtering characteristics are demonstrated experimentally as functions of their design parameters. This concept can be employed in many applications to control the wave propagation and the force transmission of longitudinal vibrations both in the spectral and spatial domains in an attempt to stop/attenuate the propagation of undesirable disturbances.

  11. Silicon Micromachined Sensor for Broadband Vibration Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutierrez, Adolfo; Edmans, Daniel; Cormeau, Chris; Seidler, Gernot; Deangelis, Dave; Maby, Edward

    1995-01-01

    The development of a family of silicon based integrated vibration sensors capable of sensing mechanical resonances over a broad range of frequencies with minimal signal processing requirements is presented. Two basic general embodiments of the concept were designed and fabricated. The first design was structured around an array of cantilever beams and fabricated using the ARPA sponsored multi-user MEMS processing system (MUMPS) process at the Microelectronics Center of North Carolina (MCNC). As part of the design process for this first sensor, a comprehensive finite elements analysis of the resonant modes and stress distribution was performed using PATRAN. The dependence of strain distribution and resonant frequency response as a function of Young's modulus in the Poly-Si structural material was studied. Analytical models were also studied. In-house experimental characterization using optical interferometry techniques were performed under controlled low pressure conditions. A second design, intended to operate in a non-resonant mode and capable of broadband frequency response, was proposed and developed around the concept of a cantilever beam integrated with a feedback control loop to produce a null mode vibration sensor. A proprietary process was used to integrat a metal-oxide semiconductor (MOS) sensing device, with actuators and a cantilever beam, as part of a compatible process. Both devices, once incorporated as part of multifunction data acquisition and telemetry systems will constitute a useful system for NASA launch vibration monitoring operations. Satellite and other space structures can benefit from the sensor for mechanical condition monitoring functions.

  12. Broadband Ionospheric Scintillation Measurements from Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suszcynsky, D. M.; Light, M. E.; Pigue, M. J.

    2014-12-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Radio Frequency Propagation (RFProp) experiment consists of a satellite-based radio receiver suite to study various aspects of trans-ionospheric signal propagation and detection in four frequency bands, 2 - 55 MHz, 125 - 175 MHz, 365 - 415 MHz and 825 - 1100 MHz. In this paper, we present an overview of the RFProp on-orbit research and analysis effort with particular focus on an equatorial scintillation experiment called ESCINT. The 3-year ESCINT project is designed to characterize equatorial ionospheric scintillation in the upper HF and lower VHF portions of the radio spectrum (20 - 150 MHz). Both a 40 MHz continuous wave (CW) signal and 30 - 42 MHz swept frequency signal are transmitted to the satellite receiver suite from the Reagan Test Site at Kwajalein Atoll in the Marshall Islands (8.7° N, 167.7° E) in four separate campaigns centered on the 2014 and 2015 equinoxes. Results from the first campaign conducted from April 22 - May 15, 2014 will be presented including (a) coherence bandwidth measurements over a full range of transmission frequencies and scintillation activity levels, (b) spread-Doppler clutter effects arising from preferential ray paths to the satellite due to refraction off of isolated density irregularities, and (c) supporting ray-trace simulations. The broadband nature of the measurements is found to offer unique insight into both the structure of ionospheric irregularities and their impact on HF/VHF trans-ionospheric radio wave propagation.

  13. Ionomer Dynamics: Insights from Broadband Dielectric Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runt, James

    2015-03-01

    Ionomers (polymers containing ionic functionality) have been traditionally used as packaging materials and in molding applications, and are now of increasing interest as candidate single ion conductors for energy storage devices, in energy conversion, and for other electroactive materials applications. The focus of this presentation is on the insight that broadband dielectric (impedance) spectroscopy brings to our understanding of ion and polymer dynamics of this family of materials. As an example of our recent work on relatively conductive ionomers, the first portion of the presentation will focus on anion conducting polyphosphazene ionomers, in which polymer bound cations are quaternized with either short alkyl or short ether oxygen chains. The low Tg, amorphous nature, and cation-solvating backbone distinguish polyphosphazenes as promising materials for ion conduction, the iodide variants being of particular interest in solar cells. In the second part of this overview, the first findings on the molecular dynamics of linear precise polyethylene-based ionomers containing 1-methylimidazolium bromide pendants on exactly every 9th, 15th, or 21st carbon atom will be summarized. In order to develop a robust interpretation of the dynamics of these materials, it is imperative to develop a thorough understanding of microphase separation (e.g. ion aggregation), and each of the above studies is complimented by multiangle X-ray scattering experiments. Supported by the NSF Polymers Program and DOE Basic Energy Sciences.

  14. Broadband unidirectional invisibility for airborne sound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kan, Weiwei; Guo, Mengping; Shen, Zhonghua

    2018-05-01

    We present a metafluid-based broadband cloak capable of guiding acoustic waves around obstacles along given directions while maintaining the wavefront undisturbed. The required parameter distribution of the proposed cloak is derived by coordinate transformation and practically implemented by employing the acoustic metafluid formed with periodically arranged slabs in acoustic chambers. The method for independently modulating the effective mass density and bulk modulus of the metafluid is developed by tuning the geometry parameters and the temperature of the acoustic chamber in a specific process. By virtue of this free-modulated method, the range of realizable effective parameters is substantially broadened, and the acoustic impedance of the anisotropic structures can be well matched to the background. The performance of the designed structure is quantitatively evaluated in the frequency range of 3-4 kHz by the averaged invisibility factor. The results show that the proposed cloak is effective in manipulating the acoustic field along the given direction and suppressing the wave scattering from the hidden object.

  15. Electronic resonances in broadband stimulated Raman spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batignani, G.; Pontecorvo, E.; Giovannetti, G.; Ferrante, C.; Fumero, G.; Scopigno, T.

    2016-01-01

    Spontaneous Raman spectroscopy is a formidable tool to probe molecular vibrations. Under electronic resonance conditions, the cross section can be selectively enhanced enabling structural sensitivity to specific chromophores and reaction centers. The addition of an ultrashort, broadband femtosecond pulse to the excitation field allows for coherent stimulation of diverse molecular vibrations. Within such a scheme, vibrational spectra are engraved onto a highly directional field, and can be heterodyne detected overwhelming fluorescence and other incoherent signals. At variance with spontaneous resonance Raman, however, interpreting the spectral information is not straightforward, due to the manifold of field interactions concurring to the third order nonlinear response. Taking as an example vibrational spectra of heme proteins excited in the Soret band, we introduce a general approach to extract the stimulated Raman excitation profiles from complex spectral lineshapes. Specifically, by a quantum treatment of the matter through density matrix description of the third order nonlinear polarization, we identify the contributions which generate the Raman bands, by taking into account for the cross section of each process.

  16. A Broadband Ultrathin Nonlinear Switching Metamaterial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Zarnousheh Farahani

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, an ultrathin planar nonlinear metamaterial slab is designed and simulated. Nonlinearity is provided through placing diodes in each metamaterial unit cell. The diodes are auto-biased and activated by an incident wave. The proposed structure represents a broadband switching property between two transmission and reflection states depending on the intensity of the incident wave. High permittivity values are presented creating a near zero effective impedance at low power states, around the second resonant mode of the structure unit cell; as the result, the incident wave is reflected. Increasing the incident power to the level which can activate the loaded diodes in the structure results in elimination of the resonance and consequently a drop in the permittivity values near the permeability one as well as a switch to the transmission state. A full wave as well as a nonlinear simulations are performed. An optimization method based on weed colonization is applied to the unit cell of the metamaterial slab to achieve the maximum switching bandwidth. The structure represents a 24% switching bandwidth of a 10 dB reduction in the reflection coefficient.

  17. Towards industry strength mapping of AUTOSAR automotive functionality on multicore architectures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Avasalcai, Cosmin Florin; Budhrani, Dhanesh; Pop, Paul

    2017-01-01

    The automotive electronic architectures have moved from federated architectures, where one function is implemented in one ECU (Electronic Control Unit), to distributed architectures, consisting of several multicore ECUs. In addition, multicore ECUs are being adopted because of better performance,...... engineer in the mapping task. We have successfully evaluated AUTOMAP on several realistic use cases from Volvo Trucks....

  18. Probing the Cypriot Lithosphere: Insights from Broadband Seismology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogden, C. S.; Bastow, I. D.; Pilidou, S.; Dimitriadis, I.; Iosif, P.; Constantinou, C.; Kounoudis, R.

    2017-12-01

    Cyprus, an island in the eastern Mediterranean Sea, is an ideal study locale for understanding both the final stages of subduction, and the internal structure of so-called `ophiolites' - rare, on-land exposures of oceanic crust. The Troodos ophiolite offers an excellent opportunity to interrogate a complete ophiolite sequence from mantle rocks to pillow lavas. However, determining its internal architecture, and that of the subducting African plate deep below it, cannot be easily achieved using traditional field geology. To address this issue, we have built a new network of five broadband seismograph stations across the island. These, along with existing permanent stations, record both local and teleseismic earthquakes that we are now using to image Cyprus' crust and mantle seismic structure. Receiver functions are time series, computed from three-component seismograms, which contain information about lithospheric seismic discontinuities. When a P-wave strikes a velocity discontinuity such as the Moho, energy is converted to S-waves (direct Ps phase). The widely-used H-K Stacking technique utilises this arrival, and subsequent crustal reverberations (PpPs and PsPs+PpSs), to calculate crustal thickness (H) and bulk-crustal Vp/Vs ratio (K). Central to the method is the assumption that the Moho produces the largest amplitude conversions, after the direct P-arrival, which is valid where the Moho is sharp. Where the Moho is gradational or upper crustal discontinuities are present, the Moho signals are weakened and masked by shallow crustal conversions, potentially rendering the H-K stacking method unreliable. Using a combination of synthetic and observed seismograms, we explore Cyprus' crustal structure and, specifically, the reliability of the H-K method in constraining it. Data quality is excellent across the island, but the receiver function Ps phase amplitude is low, and crustal reverberations are almost non-existent. Therefore, a simple, abrupt wavespeed jump at the

  19. Enterprise architecture management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rahimi, Fatemeh; Gøtze, John; Møller, Charles

    2017-01-01

    Despite the growing interest in enterprise architecture management, researchers and practitioners lack a shared understanding of its applications in organizations. Building on findings from a literature review and eight case studies, we develop a taxonomy that categorizes applications of enterprise...... architecture management based on three classes of enterprise architecture scope. Organizations may adopt enterprise architecture management to help form, plan, and implement IT strategies; help plan and implement business strategies; or to further complement the business strategy-formation process....... The findings challenge the traditional IT-centric view of enterprise architecture management application and suggest enterprise architecture management as an approach that could support the consistent design and evolution of an organization as a whole....

  20. Can You Hear Architecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ryhl, Camilla

    2016-01-01

    Taking an off set in the understanding of architectural quality being based on multisensory architecture, the paper aims to discuss the current acoustic discourse in inclusive design and its implications to the integration of inclusive design in architectural discourse and practice as well...... as the understanding of user needs. The paper further points to the need to elaborate and nuance the discourse much more, in order to assure inclusion to the many users living with a hearing impairment or, for other reasons, with a high degree of auditory sensitivity. Using the authors’ own research on inclusive...... design and architectural quality for people with a hearing disability and a newly conducted qualitative evaluation research in Denmark as well as architectural theories on multisensory aspects of architectural experiences, the paper uses examples of existing Nordic building cases to discuss the role...