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Sample records for broad-leaved forests differing

  1. [Effect of climate change on net primary productivity of Korean pine (Pinus koraiensis) at different successional stages of broad-leaved Korean pine forest].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Yang; Gao, Lu-Shuang; Zhang, Xue; Guo, Jing; Ma, Zhi-Yuan

    2014-07-01

    Pinus koraiensis in broad-leaved Korean pine forests of Changbai Mountain at different successional stages (secondary poplar-birch forest, secondary coniferous and broad-leaved forest and the primitive Korean pine forest) were selected in this paper as the research objects. In this research, the annual growth of net primary productivity (NPP) (1921-2006) of P. koraiensis was obtained by combining the tree-ring chronology and relative growth formulae, the correlation between NPP of P. koraiensis and climatic factors was developed, and the annual growth of NPP of P. koraiensis at different successional stages in relation to climatic variation within different climate periods were analyzed. The results showed that, in the research period, the correlations between climatic factors and NPP of P. koraiensis at different successional stages were different. With increasing the temperature, the correlations between NPP of P. koraiensis in the secondary poplar-birch forest and the minimum temperatures of previous and current growing seasons changed from being significantly negative to being significantly positive. The positive correlation between NPP of P. koraiensis in the secondary coniferous and broad-leaved forest and the minimum temperature in current spring changed into significantly positive correlation between NPP of P. koraiensis and the temperatures in previous and current growing seasons. The climatic factors had a stronger hysteresis effect on NPP of P. koraiensis in the secondary coniferous and broad-leaved forest, but NPP of P. koraiensis in the primitive Korean pine forest had weaker correlation with temperature but stronger positive correlation with the precipitation of previous growing season. The increases of minimum and mean temperatures were obvious, but no significant variations of the maximum temperature and precipitation were observed at our site. The climatic variation facilitated the increase of the NPP of P. koraiensis in the secondary poplar

  2. Comparative Study of Carbon Storage and Allocation Characteristics of Mature Evergreen Broad-leaved Forest

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhangquan; ZENG; Canming; ZHANGY; Yandong; NIU; Xiquan; LI; Zijian; WU; Jia; LUO

    2014-01-01

    Evergreen broad-leaved forest is an important forest type in China.This paper analyzes the allocation characteristics of vegetation and soil carbon pool of evergreen broad-leaved forest,to understand the current status of research on the carbon storage of evergreen broadleaved forest as well as shortcomings.In the context of global climate change,it is necessary to carry out the long-term research of evergreen broad-leaved forest,in order to grasp the formation mechanism of evergreen broad-leaved forest productivity,and the impact of climate change on the carbon sequestration function of evergreen broad-leaved forest ecosystem.

  3. Root biomass and underground C and N storage of the primitive Korean pine and broad-leaved forest and its different succession stages in Changbai Mountain, northeast China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Liyun; LUO Tianxiang; WU Songtao

    2006-01-01

    This paper studied root biomass and underground carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) storage of a more than 200-year-old primitive Korean pine and broad-leaved forest and its two 20- and 80-year-old secondary Populus davidiana and Betula platyphylla forests in Changbai Mountain,northeast China.The results showed that with forest succession,the root biomass of 20-year-old,80-year-old,and primitive forests was 2.437,2.742,and 4.114 kg/m2,respectively.The root C storage was 1.113,1.323,and 2.023kg/m2,soil C storage was 11.911,11.943,and 12.587 kg/m2,and underground C storage was 13.024,13.266,and 14.610kg/m2,respectively,while the root N storage was 0.035,0.032,and 0.038 kg/m2,soil N storage was 1.208,1.222,and 0.915 kg/m2,and underground N storage was 1.243,1.254,and 0.955 kg/m2,respectively,which indicated that along with forest succession,the forest underground became a potential"carbon sink,"whereas underground N storage did not change obviously.

  4. Correlations between canopy gaps and species diversity in broad-leaved and Korean pine mixed forests

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Xiuhai; ZHANG Chunyu; ZHENG Jingming

    2006-01-01

    Regeneration of tree species associated with canopy gaps in broad-leaved Korean pine forests was investigated.Species diversity in gaps and under closed canopy was compared,the relationship between biodiversity and gap structure was analyzed.Results indicate that there were significant differences between tree species diversity in gaps and that under canopy (p<0.01).In terms of Shannon-Wiener index,evenness index,and abundance index,the biodiversity in gap community were higher than those under forest canopy in regeneration layer.In terms of Simpson's dominance index,the dominance of certain species in the regeneration layer increased from gaps to closed canopy (p<0.01).In contrast,trends of biodiversity changes of succession layer in gaps and under closed canopy were opposite.Tree species diversity of different layers reacted directly to the change of gap size class.For example,Shannon-Wiener index and abundance index is higher and Simpson's dominance index is the lowest in succession layer of medium-size gap (100-250 m2) in the broad-leaved Korean pine forest of Changbai Mountains.Shannon-Wiener index reached the highest in a size of≥250 m2 and<100 m2,reached the lowest in a size of 200-250 m2 in the regeneration layer.Simpson's dominance index reached its maximum when the gap size was between 200 and 250m2.Generally,species of different layers reacted differently to the changes of gap size classes.The gap size class with more seedlings did not correspond to size class containing more medium-size trees.Tree species diversity indices in the two layers behaved reciprocally during the development process of forest gaps.

  5. Edge effects on epiphytes in montane moist evergreen broad-leaved forest

    OpenAIRE

    Wenzhang Ma; Wenyao Liu; Lipan Yang; Guoping Yang

    2008-01-01

    Epiphytes are important components in tropical and subtropical forest ecosystems, and are well-known for their sensitivity to environmental changes. To understand epiphyte’s response to forest fragmentation and edge effects, we established four plots at the edges of a montane moist evergreen broad-leaved forest in the Ailao Mountains of Yunnan. Within each plot, we established four transects at 10, 20, 40, and 80 m from forest edge to study the species composition, biomass, and life form of e...

  6. [Tree uprooting of coniferous-broad leaved Korean pine mixed forest in Lesser Khingan Mountains, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Xiao-wen; Hou, Jie-jian; Wang, Li-hai; Wang, Xing-long; Rong, Bin-bin

    2016-02-01

    The morphological parameters, root wad indexes and site conditions of 127 uprooting trees from 76 plots (20 mx20 m) in Lesser Khingan coniferous-broad leaved Korean pine mixed forest were measured. Then the influencing factors of uprooting differences and the relationship between uprooting trees and disturbed soil were analyzed. Results showed that the number of uprooting trees varied significantly among species. Abies nephrolepis suffered the most serious uprooting damage, then Pinus koraiensis, and Ulmus spp. the least. Deciduous species had a stronger uprooting-resistant capacity than broad-leaved species. With the increase of tree DBH and height, tree' s uprooting resistance declined rapidly first and then was gradually enhanced, and finally reached the minimum at diameter class of 20 cm and height class of 14 m, respectively. The smaller the taper degree and projected area of crown were, the stronger the uprooting resistance was. Uprooting rate was negatively correlated with stand density. Trees lying in wet ground, flat terrain, medium low altitude area and windward slope had a greater risk of uprooting. There were significant positive correlation between the depth, area and volume of disturbed soil and the DBH, height, volume of uprooting trees. PMID:27396108

  7. [Soil moisture dynamics under broad-leaved Korean pine forest in Changbai Mountains].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hong; Pei, Tiefan; Guan, Dexin; Jin, Changjie; Wang, Anzh

    2006-04-01

    The located observation on the soil moisture dynamics under broad-leaved Korean pine forest in Changbai Mountains in 1990 - 1992 and 2003 showed that the seasonal variation of soil moisture content could be divided into five periods, i. e., gathering water stage in spring, consuming water stage in arid season, holding water stage in rainy season, losing water stage in autumn, and relatively stable stage of soil moisture in winter-spring. By using standard deviation and variation coefficient, the vertical layers of soil moisture were divided into rapid change layer, active layer, and sub-active layer. Correlation analysis was applied to analyze the relationships of moisture content among different soil layers and the correlation between soil moisture and precipitation in the same period. PMID:16836083

  8. [Microclimate edge effects of evergreen broad-leaved forest fragments in Jinyun Mountain: a preliminary study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Min; Zhong, Zhangchen; Qiao, Xiuhong

    2006-01-01

    This paper studied the microclimate of continuous and fragmental evergreen broad-leaved forests in Jinyun Mountain by determining the horizontal gradient distribution of microclimate elements near forest edges. The results showed that there existed clear edge effects of microclimate in every edge of fragmental forests. The distinctions of maximum and minimum air temperature, photosynthetic active radiation, and minimum relative humidity between edge forest and interior forest were higher or greater, while that of maximum ground surface temperature was lower or smaller in dry season than in rain season. The edge effect was the smallest in the biggest fragmental patch, but the greatest in the smallest fragmental patch in interior forest. PMID:16689226

  9. Topographic variation in aboveground biomass in a subtropical evergreen broad-leaved forest in China.

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    Dunmei Lin

    Full Text Available The subtropical forest biome occupies about 25% of China, with species diversity only next to tropical forests. Despite the recognized importance of subtropical forest in regional carbon storage and cycling, uncertainties remain regarding the carbon storage of subtropical forests, and few studies have quantified within-site variation of biomass, making it difficult to evaluate the role of these forests in the global and regional carbon cycles. Using data for a 24-ha census plot in east China, we quantify aboveground biomass, characterize its spatial variation among different habitats, and analyse species relative contribution to the total aboveground biomass of different habitats. The average aboveground biomass was 223.0 Mg ha(-1 (bootstrapped 95% confidence intervals [217.6, 228.5] and varied substantially among four topographically defined habitats, from 180.6 Mg ha(-1 (bootstrapped 95% CI [167.1, 195.0] in the upper ridge to 245.9 Mg ha(-1 (bootstrapped 95% CI [238.3, 253.8] in the lower ridge, with upper and lower valley intermediate. In consistent with our expectation, individual species contributed differently to the total aboveground biomass of different habitats, reflecting significant species habitat associations. Different species show differently in habitat preference in terms of biomass contribution. These patterns may be the consequences of ecological strategies difference among different species. Results from this study enhance our ability to evaluate the role of subtropical forests in the regional carbon cycle and provide valuable information to guide the protection and management of subtropical broad-leaved forest for carbon sequestration and carbon storage.

  10. Microenvironmental heterogeneity of physical soil properties in a broad-leaved Pinus koraiensis forest gap

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wenbiao DUAN; Jing WANG; Yan LI

    2009-01-01

    Microenvironmental heterogeneity of soil phy-sical properties in 0-20 cm and 20-40 cm soil layers in a broad-leaved Pinus koraiensis forest gap in Xiao Xing'anl-ing Mountains were analyzed by geostatistical method.The results show that the amount of soil water, saturation water capacity, capillary water capacity and porosity in the top layer were greater than those in the lower layer, except for bulk density, where the opposite applied. Soil physical properties in the top soil layer had relatively higher ranges and coefficients of variation. The total and auto correlation spatial heterogeneity of soil physical properties in the top layer were larger than those in the lower layer. The soil water had a strong anisotropic structure in an easterly and northerly direction, but porosity shows isotropy in the same directions. With increasing spatial distance, the other three physical factors exhibited anisotropic structures. The mutual effect between semi-variograms of soil physical properties in the top layer within the spatial autocorrelation range was not significant. For spatial distribution of physical properties within different layers, the patches at the middle and lower ranks in the forest gap dominated.Patches at higher rank were only distributed in the 0-20 cm soil layer and were located north of the forest gap center.

  11. [Applicability analysis of spatially explicit model of leaf litter in evergreen broad-leaved forests].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Qing-Qing; Liu, He-Ming; Jonard, Mathieu; Wang, Zhang-Hua; Wang, Xi-Hua

    2014-11-01

    The spatially explicit model of leaf litter can help to understand its dispersal process, which is very important to predict the distribution pattern of leaves on the surface of the earth. In this paper, the spatially explicit model of leaf litter was developed for 20 tree species using litter trap data from the mapped forest plot in an evergreen broad-leaved forest in Tiantong, Zhejiang Pro- vince, eastern China. Applicability of the model was analyzed. The model assumed an allometric equation between diameter at breast height (DBH) and leaf litter amount, and the leaf litter declined exponentially with the distance. Model parameters were estimated by the maximum likelihood method. Results showed that the predicted and measured leaf litter amounts were significantly correlated, but the prediction accuracies varied widely for the different tree species, averaging at 49.3% and ranging from 16.0% and 74.0%. Model qualities of tree species significantly correlated with the standard deviations of the leaf litter amount per trap, DBH of the tree species and the average leaf dry mass of tree species. There were several ways to improve the forecast precision of the model, such as installing the litterfall traps according to the distribution of the tree to cover the different classes of the DBH and distance apart from the parent trees, determining the optimal dispersal function of each tree species, and optimizing the existing dispersal function. PMID:25898606

  12. Dynamics of nitrogen nutrition of coexisting dominant trees in mixed broad-leaved/Korean pine forest

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Yuwen

    1999-01-01

    Chemical analysis of ammonium, nitrate and total nitrogen in tree leaves and roots and an in-vivo bioassay for nitrate reductase activity (NRA) were used to monitor the seasonal variations in nitrogen assimilation among four coexisting dominant tree species, including Pinus koraiensis, Ti/ia amurensis, Fraxinus mandshurica and Acer mono, in a virgin mixed broad-leaved/Korean pine (Pinus koraiensis) forest. The soil study included individual horizons of L+F (0-5 cm), Ah (5-11 cm) and Aw (11-25 cm). All four species had nitrate and ammonium in their roots and leaves, and also NRA in leaves. This indicated that these coexisting species were adapted to ammonium + nitrate nutrition. A negative correlation existed between nitrate use and ammonium use. Ammonium concentration was higher than that of nitrate in tree leaves and roots, and also in soils, which indicated climax woody species had a relative preference for ammonium nutrition. There was a positive relationship between tree nitrogen nutrition use and soil nitrogen nutrient supply. Utilization of ammonium and nitrate as well as the seasonal patterns differed significantly between the species. Peaks of ammonium, nitrate, NRA and total nitrogen in one species were therefore not necessarily synchronous with peaks in other species, and which indicated a species-specific seasonal use of nitrogen. The species-specific temporal differentiation in nitrogen use might reduce the competition between co-existing species and may be an important mechanism promoting stability of virgin mixed broad-leaved∥Korean pine forest.

  13. Estimate of productivity in ecosystem of the broad-leaved Korean pine mixed forest in Changbai Mountain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    <正>We measured soil, stem and branch respiration of trees and shrubs, foliage photosynthesis and respiration in ecosystem of the needle and broad-leaved Korean pine forest in Changbai Mountain by LI-6400 CO2 analysis system. Measurement of forest microclimate was conducted simultaneously and a model was found for the relationship of soil, stem, leaf and climate factors. CO2 flux of different components in ecosystem of the broad-leaved Korean pine forest was estimated based on vegetation characteristics. The net ecosystem exchange was measured by eddy covariance technique. And we studied the effect of temperature and photosynthetic active radiation on ecosystem CO2 flux. Through analysis we found that the net ecosystem exchange was affected mainly by soil respiration and leaf photosynthesis. Annual net ecosystem exchange ranged from a minimum of about -4.671μmol·m-2·s-1 to a maximum of 13.80μmol·m-2·s-1, mean net ecosystem exchange of CO2 flux was -2.0μmol·m-2·s-1 and 3.9μmol·m-2·s-1 in winter and summer respectively (mean value during 24 h). Primary productivity of tree, shrub and herbage contributed about 89.7%, 3.5% and 6.8% to the gross primary productivity of the broad-leaved Korean pine forest respectively. Soil respiration contributed about 69.7% CO2 to the broad-leaved Korean pine forest ecosystem, comprising about 15.2% from tree leaves and 15.1% from branches. The net ecosystem exchange in growing season and non-growing season contributed 56.8% and 43.2% to the annual CO2 efflux respectively. The ratio of autotrophic respiration to gross primary productivity (Ra:GPP) was 0.52 (NPP:GPP=0.48). Annual carbon accumulation underground accounted for 52% of the gross primary productivity, and soil respiration contributed 60% to gross primary productivity. The NPP of the needle and broad-leaved Korean pine forest was 769.3 gC·m-2·a-1. The net ecosystem exchange of this forest ecosystem (NEE) was 229.51 gC·m-2·a-1. The NEE of this forest ecosystem

  14. [Effects of conversion of natural broad-leaved forest to Chinese fir plantation on soil respiration in subtropical China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Rui; Bai, Yang; Liu, Juan; Jiang, Pei-kun; Zhou, Guo-mo; Wu, Jia-sen; Tong, Zhi-peng; Li, Yong-fu

    2015-10-01

    Soil CO2 effluxes in natural broad-leaved forest and the conversed Chinese fir plantation in Linglong Mountains Scenic of Zhejiang Province were evaluated by using static closed chamber and gas chromatography method. The results showed that soil CO2 efflux showed consistent seasonal dynamics in natural broad-leaved forest and Chinese fir plantation, with the maximums observed in summer and autumn, the minimums in winter and spring. Soil CO2 effluxes were 20.0-111.3 and 4.1-118.6 mg C . m-2 . h-1 in natural broad-leaved forest and Chinese fir plantation, respectively. The cumulative soil CO2 emission of natural broad-leaved forest (16.46 t CO2 . hm-2 . a-1) was significantly higher than that of Chinese fir plantation (11.99 t CO2 . hm-2 . a-1). Soil moisture did not affect soil CO2 efflux. There was a significant relationship between soil CO2 efflux and soil temperature at 5 cm depth. There was no significant relationship between soil CO2 efflux of natural broad-leaved forest and water soluble organic carbon content, while water soluble organic carbon content affected significantly soil CO2 efflux in Chinese fir plantation. Converting the natural broad-leaved forest to Chinese fir plantation reduced soil CO2 efflux significantly but improved the sensitivity of soil respiration to environmental factors. PMID:26995901

  15. An optimal proportion of mixing broad-leaved forest for enhancing the effective productivity of moso bamboo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Xiao-Fei; Shi, Pei-Jian; Hui, Cang; Wang, Fu-Sheng; Liu, Guo-Hua; Li, Bai-Lian

    2015-04-01

    Moso bamboos (Phyllostachys edulis) are important forestry plants in southern China, with substantial roles to play in regional economic and ecological systems. Mixing broad-leaved forests and moso bamboos is a common management practice in China, and it is fundamental to elucidate the interactions between broad-leaved trees and moso bamboos for ensuring the sustainable provision of ecosystem services. We examine how the proportion of broad-leaved forest in a mixed managed zone, topology, and soil profile affects the effective productivity of moso bamboos (i.e., those with significant economic value), using linear regression and generalized additive models. Bamboo's diameter at breast height follows a Weibull distribution. The importance of these variables to bamboo productivity is, respectively, slope (25.9%), the proportion of broad-leaved forest (24.8%), elevation (23.3%), gravel content by volume (16.6%), slope location (8.3%), and soil layer thickness (1.2%). Highest productivity is found on the 25° slope, with a 600-m elevation, and 30% broad-leaved forest. As such, broad-leaved forest in the upper slope can have a strong influence on the effective productivity of moso bamboo, ranking only after slope and before elevation. These factors can be considered in future management practice. PMID:25937902

  16. Microelement contents of litter, soil fauna and soil in Pinus koralensis and mixed broad-leaved forest

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Jinxia; YIN Xiuqin; DONG Weihua

    2007-01-01

    The Mn,Zn and Cu contents of litter,soil fauna and soil in Pinus koraiensis and mixed broad-leaved forest in Liangshui Nature Reserve of Xiaoxing'an Mountains were analyzed in this paper,results showed that the tested microelement contents in the litter,soil fauna and soil followed the order:Mn>Zn>Cu,but varied with environmental components,for Mn the order is soil>litter>soil fauna,for Zn is soil fauna>litter and soil,and for Cu is soil fauna>soil>litter.The change range of the tested microelement contents in litter was larger in broad-leaved forest than those in coniferous forest.Different soil fauna differed in their microelementenrichment capability,the highest content of Mn,Zn and Cu existed in earthworm,centipede and diplopod,respectively.The contents of the tested microelements in soil fauna had significant correlations with their environmental background values,litter decomposition rate,food habit of soil fauna,and its absorbing selectively and enrichment to microelements.The microelements contained in 5-20 cm soil horizon were more than those in 0-5 cm humus layer,and their dynamics differed in various horizons.

  17. Propagation of Native Tree Species to Restore Subtropical Evergreen Broad-Leaved Forests in SW China

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    Yang Lu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Subtropical evergreen broad-leaved forest (EBLF is a widespread vegetation type throughout East Asia that has suffered extensive deforestation and fragmentation. Selection and successful propagation of native tree species are important for improving ecological restoration of these forests. We carried out a series of experiments to study the propagation requirements of indigenous subtropical tree species in Southwest China. Seeds of 21 tree species collected from the natural forest were materials for the experiment. This paper examines the seed germination and seedling growth performance of these species in a nursery environment. Germination percentages ranged from 41% to 96% and were ≥50% for 19 species. The median length of germination time (MLG ranged from 24 days for Padus wilsonii to 144 days for Ilex polyneura. Fifteen species can reach the transplant size (≥15 cm in height within 12 months of seed collection. Nursery-grown seedlings for each species were planted in degraded site. Two years after planting, the seedling survival rate was >50% in 18 species and >80% in 12 species. Based on these results, 17 species were recommended as appropriate species for nursery production in forest restoration projects. Our study contributes additional knowledge regarding the propagation techniques for various native subtropical tree species in nurseries for forest restoration.

  18. Diurnal Variations of Greenhouse Gas Fluxes from Mixed Broad-leaved and Coniferous Forest Soil in Dinghushan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOUCunyu; ZHANGDeqiang; WANGYuesi; ZHOUGuoyi; LIUShizhong; TANGXuli

    2005-01-01

    The subtropical mixed broad-leaved and coniferous forest, a typical successional monsoon forest, is one of the major forests in the subtropics of China. Therefore, it is very important to estimate the fluxes of the greenhouse gases from the forest soil in order to evaluate the impact of subtropical forests on the greenhouse gas emissions or absorptions. This study investigated the diurnal variations of fluxes of three greenhouse gases (CO2, CH4, and N2O) from a mixed broad-leaved and coniferous forest soil. A static chamber-gas chromatograph technique was used to measure the fluxes of three greenhouse gases. By using the improved gas chromatography sampling system, the fluxes were analyzed with a single injection. In order to find out the effects of litter and seedling on the emissions or absorptions of these greenhouse gases, three treatments were set in the fleld:(1)bare soil surface (litter was removed previously); (3) litter + soil; (3) seedling + litter + soil. The experimental results demonstrated that the forest soil was a source of CO2, N2O and a weak sink of CH4.The daily fluxes of CO2, CH4, and N2O from the soil surface were in the range of 488.99~700.57, 0.049~0.108 and -0.025~ -0.053 mg/(m2·h ), respectively. CO2 from the litter decomposition accounted for about 1/3 of the total CO2 emission from the soil surface, while the litter and seedling had no significant effect on the fluxes of CH4 and N2O. The fluxes of CO2 and N2O measured at 9:00 -11:00 a.m. were significantly different from their daily averages. Therefore, caution must be taken if the CO2 and N2O fluxes measured within 9:00-11:00 a.m. are used for extrapolation.

  19. Comparative study on active soil organic matter in Chinese fir plantation and native broad-leaved forest in subtropical China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Qing-kui; WANG Si-long; DENG Shi-jian

    2005-01-01

    Active soil organic matter (ASOM) has a main effect on biochemical cycles of soil nutrient elements such as N, P and S, and the quality and quantity of ASOM reflect soil primary productivity. The changes of ASOM fractions and soil nutrients in the first rotation site and the second rotation site of Chinese fir plantation and the native broad-leaved forest were investigated and analyzed by soil sampling at the Huitong Experimental Station of Forestry Ecology (at latitude 26°48′N and longitude 109°30′E under a subtropical climate conditions), Chinese Academy of Sciences in March, 2004. The results showed that values of ASOM fractions for the Chinese fir plantations were lower than those for the broad-leaved forest. The contents of easily oxidisable carbon (EOC), microbial biomass carbon (MBC), water soluble carbohydrate (WSC) and water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC) for the first rotation of Chinese fir plantation were 35.9%, 13.7%, 87.8% and 50.9% higher than those for the second rotation of Chinese fir plantation, and were 15.8%, 47.3%, 38.1% and 30.2% separately lower than those for the broad-leaved forest. For the three investigated forest sites, the contents of MBC and WSOC had a larger decrease, followed by WSC, and the change of EOC was least. Moreover, soil physico-chemistry properties such as soil nutrients in Chinese fir plantation were lower than those in broad-leaved forest. It suggested that soil fertility declined after Chinese fir plantation replaced native broad-leaved forest through continuous artificial plantation.

  20. Belowground carbon balance and carbon accumulation rate in the successional series of monsoon evergreen broad-leaved forest

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The balance, accumulation rate and temporal dynamics of belowground carbon in the successional series of monsoon evergreen broadleaved forest are obtained in this paper, based on long-term observations to the soil organic matter, input and standing biomass of litter and coarse woody debris, and dissolved organic carbon carried in the hydrological process of subtropical climax forest ecosystem-monsoon evergreen broad-leaved forest, and its two successional forests of natural restoration-coniferous and broad-leaved mixed forest and Pinus massoniana forest, as well as data of root biomass obtained once every five years and respiration measurement of soil, litter and coarse woody debris respiration for 1 year. The major results include: the belowground carbon pools of monsoon evergreen broad-leaved forest, coniferous and broad-leaved mixed forest, and Pinus massoniana forest are 23191 ± 2538 g·m?2, 16889 ± 1936 g·m?2 and 12680 ± 1854 g·m?2, respectively, in 2002. Mean annual carbon accumulation rates of the three forest types during the 24a from 1978 to 2002 are 383 ± 97 g·m?2·a?1, 193 ± 85 g·m?2·a?1 and 213 ± 86 g·m?2·a?1, respectively. The belowground carbon pools in the three forest types keep increasing during the observation period, suggesting that belowground carbon pools are carbon sinks to the atmosphere. There are seasonal variations, namely, they are strong carbon sources from April to June, weak carbon sources from July to September; while they are strong carbon sinks from October to November, weak carbon sinks from December to March.

  1. Change in Species Diversity during Recovering Process of Evergreen Broad-leaved Forest%常绿阔叶林恢复过程植物物种多样性的变化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    温远光

    2005-01-01

    Evergreen broad-leaved forest is one of the most important vegetation types in China. Because of the human activities, evergreen broad-leaved forest has been destroyed extensively, leading to degraded ecosystem. It is urgent to conserve and restore these natural forests in China.In this paper, the tendency and rate of species diversity restoration of the evergreen broad-leaved forest in Daming Mountain has been studied. The main results are as follows: (a) In subtropical mid-mountain area, species diversity in degraded evergreen broad-leaved forest can be restored. Through analyzing b diversity index of communities in different time and space, it was found that the species composition of communities tend to be the same as that in the zonal evergreen broad-leaved forest. (b) The restoration rate of evergreen broad-leaved forest was very fast. Planting Chinese fir after clear-cutting and controlled burning of the forest, 178 species appeared in a 600m2 sample area after 20years'natural recovering. Among these species, 58 were tree layer and the height of community reached 18m. The survey suggested that it would take only 20 years for the degraded forest to develop into community composed of light demanding broad-leaved pioneer trees and min-tolerance broad-leaved trees, and it need another 40~80 years to reach the stage consisting of min-tolerance evergreen broad-leaved trees. (c) Species number increased quickly at the early stage (2-20 years) during vegetation recovering process toward the climax, and decreased at the min-stage (50-60 years ), then maintained a relatively stable level at the late-stage (over 150 years).

  2. A climate change-induced threat to the ecological resilience of a subtropical monsoon evergreen broad-leaved forest in Southern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Guoyi; Peng, Changhui; Li, Yuelin; Liu, Shizhong; Zhang, Qianmei; Tang, Xuli; Liu, Juxiu; Yan, Junhua; Zhang, Deqiang; Chu, Guowei

    2013-04-01

    Recent studies have suggested that tropical forests may not be resilient against climate change in the long term, primarily owing to predicted reductions in rainfall and forest productivity, increased tree mortality, and declining forest biomass carbon sinks. These changes will be caused by drought-induced water stress and ecosystem disturbances. Several recent studies have reported that climate change has increased tree mortality in temperate and boreal forests, or both mortality and recruitment rates in tropical forests. However, no study has yet examined these changes in the subtropical forests that account for the majority of China's forested land. In this study, we describe how the monsoon evergreen broad-leaved forest has responded to global warming and drought stress using 32 years of data from forest observation plots. Due to an imbalance in mortality and recruitment, and changes in diameter growth rates between larger and smaller trees and among different functional groups, the average DBH of trees and forest biomass have decreased. Sap flow measurements also showed that larger trees were more stressed than smaller trees by the warming and drying environment. As a result, the monsoon evergreen broad-leaved forest community is undergoing a transition from a forest dominated by a cohort of fewer and larger individuals to a forest dominated by a cohort of more and smaller individuals, with a different species composition, suggesting that subtropical forests are threatened by their lack of resilience against long-term climate change. PMID:23504896

  3. Maintenance of an abrupt boundary between needle-leaved and broad-leaved forests in a wetland near coast

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shiro Tsuyuzaki; Akira Haraguchi

    2009-01-01

    There is an abrupt boundary between two well-developed wetland forests, a stand consisting of a broad-leaved, nitrogen-fixer Alnus japonica and a stand of the needle-leaved Picea glehnii Masters, in eastern Hokkaido, Japan. To clarify maintenance mechanisms, we studied the forest profile, water level, groundwater and precipitation chemistry, seedling establishment patterns in relation to microhabitats, and seed migration. The profile of groundwater level insufficiently explained the abrupt boundary formation, while the groundwater chemistry differed significantly between the two forests; i.e., EC, Na+, K+, Mg2+, Ca2+ and Cl- were higher in P. glehnii forest and pH was lower. Precipitation in P. glehnii forest contained richer Na+, Ca2+ and Cl-, indicating that the differences in surface-water chemistry were mostly derived from precipitation. Solar radiation was less than 2.2 MJ·m-2·d-1 on P. glehnii forest in late June, while that was patchily distributed in A. japonica forest with a range from 1.0 to 3.7 MJ·m-2·d-1. Moss cover on the soil surface, most of which were made of Sphagnum spp., was 60% in P. glehnii forest, but was 10% in A. japonica forest. Surface water chemistry represented by pH was considered to determine the development of Sphagnum moss. About 70% of P. glehnii seedlings < 1.3 m in height established on moss cover. Seed-sowing experiments suggested that seed germination and seedling survival for both species were significantly higher in P. glehnii forest. Therefore, the regeneration of P. glehnii in A. japonica forest was negligible, owing to the paucity of favorable microhabitats and low seedling establishment. A. japonica regenerated only by resprouting, and the seedlings were few in both forests. In addition, A. japonica seed migration into the P. glehnii forests was greatly restricted, and low solar radiation in the P. glehnii forest contributed to low seedling survival. Based on those results, we concluded that Picea glehnii and Alnus

  4. Retention of available P in acid soils of tropical and subtropical evergreen broad-leaved forests

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Jianhui; ZOU Xiaoming; YANG Xiaodong

    2007-01-01

    Precipitation of mineral phosphate is often recognized as a factor of limiting the availability of P in acidic soils of tropical and subtropical forests.For this paper,we studied the extractable P pools and their transformation rates in soils of a tropical evergreen forest at Xishuangbanna and a subtropical montane wet forest at the Ailao Mountains in order to understand the biogeochemical processes regulating P availability in acidic soils.The two forests differ in forest humus layer;it is deep in the Ailao forest while little is present in the Xishuangbanna forest.The extractable P pools by resin and sodium-bicarbonate decreased when soil organic carbon content was reduced.The lowest levels of extractable P pools occurred in the surface (0-10 era) mineral soils of the Xishuangbanna forest.However,microbial P in the mineral soil of the Xishuangbauna forest was twice that in the Ailao forest.Potential rates of microbial P immobilization were greater than those of organic P mineralization in mineral soils for both forests.We suggest that microbial P immobilization plays an essential role in avoiding mineral P precipitation and retaining available P of plant in tropical acidic soils,whereas both floor mass accumulation and microbial P immobilization function benefit retaining plant available P in subtropical montane wet forests.

  5. Soil properties in forest gaps and under canopy in broad-leaved Pinus koraiensis forests in Changbai Mountainous Region, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Chunyu; ZHAO Xiuhai

    2007-01-01

    The species composition and diversities,and soil properties under canopy gaps in broad-leaved Pinus koraiensis forests were studied in the Changbai Mountains.The results indicated that the species composition and diversifies in gap were different from those under canopy.The Shannon-Wiener index,evenness index,and abundance index in gap were higher than those under canopy in the seedling layer,while the community dominance in the seedling layer increased in closed canopy.The physicochemical properties of soil changed with the change of space and resource availability in gaps.The thickness,standing crop,and water holding capacity of the litter layer under canopy were significantly (p < 0.01) higher than those in gap.The content of total nitrogen and total potassium of litter in gap were 10.47% and 20.73% higher than those under canopy,however,the content of total phosphorus and organic carbon under canopy were 15.23% and 12.66% more than those under canopy.The water content of 0-10 cm and 10-20 cm of soil layer in gap were 17.65% and 16.17% more than those under canopy.The soil buck density of 0-10 cm were slightly higher under canopy than that in gaps,but there was no significant difference in the soil buck density of the 10-20 cm soil layer.The soil pH values were 5.80 and 5.85 in gap and under canopy,respectively,and were not significantly different.The content of soil organic matter,total nitrogen,and total potassium in gap were 12.85%,7.67%,and 2.38% higher than those under canopy.The content of NH4+-N,available phosphorus,available potassium,and total phosphorus in soil under canopy were 13.33%,20.04%,16.52%,and 4.30% higher than those in gap.

  6. Physiological basis of seasonal trend in leaf photosynthesis of five evergreen broad-leaved species in a temperate deciduous forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyazawa, Yoshiyuki; Kikuzawa, Kihachiro

    2006-02-01

    The physiological basis of photosynthesis during winter was investigated in saplings of five evergreen broad-leaved species (Camellia japonica L., Cleyera japonica Thunb., Photinia glabra (Thunb.) Maxim., Castanopsis cuspidata (Thunb.) Schottky and Quercus glauca Thunb.) co-occurring under deciduous canopy trees in a temperate forest. We focused on temperature dependence of photosynthetic rate and capacity as important physiological parameters that determine light-saturated rates of net photosynthesis at low temperatures during winter. Under controlled temperature conditions, maximum rates of ribulose bisphosphate carboxylation and electron transport (Vcmax) and Jmax, respectively) increased exponentially with increasing leaf temperature. The temperature dependence of photosynthetic rate did not differ among species. In the field, photosynthetic capacity, determined as Vcmax and Jmax at a common temperature of 25 degrees C (Vcmax(25) and Jmax(25)), increased until autumn and then decreased in species-specific patterns. Values of Vcmax(25) and Jmax(25) differed among species during winter. There was a positive correlation of Vcmax(25) with area-based nitrogen concentration among leaves during winter in Camellia and Photinia. Interspecific differences in Vcmax(25) were responsible for interspecific differences in light-saturated rates of net photosynthesis during winter. PMID:16356922

  7. Forest structure, productivity and soil properties in a subtropical evergreen broad-leaved forest in Okinawa, Japan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Xiao-niu; WANG Qin; Hideaki SHIBATA

    2008-01-01

    Structure,species composition,and soil properties of a subtropical evergreen broad-leaved forest in Okinawa,Japan,were examined by establishment of plots at thirty sites.The forest was characterized by a relatively low canopy and a large number of small-diameter trees.Mean canopy height for this forest was 10 m and stands contained an average of 5400 stems·ha-1 (≧ 3.0 cm DBH); 64% of those stems were smaller than 10 cm DBH.The total basal area was 54.4 m 2·ha-1,of which Castanopsis sieboldii contributed 48%.The forest showed high species diversity of trees.80 tree species (≧ 3.0 cm DBH) from 31 families was identified in the thirty sampling plots.C.sieboldii and Schima wallichii were the dominant and subdominant species in terms of importance value.The mean tree species diversity indices for the plots were,3.36 for Diversity index (H'),0.71 for Equitability index (J') and 4.72 for Species richness index (S'),all of which strongly declined with the increase of importance value of the dominant,C.sieboldii.Measures of soil nutrients indicated low fertility,extreme heterogeneity and possible Al toxicity.Regression analysis showed that stem density and the dominant tree height were significantly correlated with soil pH.There was a significant positive relationship between species diversity index and soil exchangeable K+,Ca2+,and Ca2+/Al3+ ratio (all p values <0.001) and a negative relationship with N,C and P.The results suggest that soil property is a major factor influencing forest composition and structure within the subtropical forest in Okinawa.

  8. Biocycle of nitrogen in a Cyclobalanopsis glauca-dominated evergreen broad-leaved forest in East China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Mingjian; XU Xuehong; LI Minghong; FU Hailong

    2006-01-01

    The nitrogen (N) cycling was elucidated in a 40-year-old subtropical evergreen broad-leaved forest dominated by Cyclobalanopsis glauca growing on red soil in Zhejiang Province,East China.The concentrations of N in the representative species ranged from 0.49% to 1.64%,the order of which in various layers was liana and herb layers>understory layer > tree and subtree layers;in various organs was leaf > branch > root > trunk;and aboveground parts > underground parts.The sequence of the concentrations of N in C.glauca was understory > tree > subtree layer;young and high-growing > old organs;reproductive >vegetative organs.Seasonal dynamics of the concentrations of N in C.glauca in the tree and subtree layers was comparatively stable.It was lower in autumn (October) in root,branch,and leaf in the tree layer,and low in January in the understory.There was no evident change in regularity of the concentrations of N in varying diameter classes.The concentrations of N in the litterfall,precipitation,throughfall,litter layer,and soil were 0.74%-2.30%,0.000,038%,0.000,09%,1.94%,and 0.59%,respectively.The standing crop of N in the plant community was 1,025.28 kg/hm2,accumulation in the litter layer was 224.88 kg/hm2,and reserve in the soil was 55,151 kg/hm2.Annual retention of N was 119.47 kg/hm2,return was about 84.13 kg/hm2,among which litterfall was 78.49 kg/hm2 and throughfall,5.64 kg/hm2.Annual absorption of N was 203.60 kg/hm2.Annual input of N through incident precipitation was 4.88 kg/hm2.Compared with other forest types,cycling rate of N in the community was lower than in deciduous broad-leaved forests,rain forests,and mangroves,and was moderate in evergreen broad-leaved forests.N use efficiency of this forest was moderate among the forest types cited.According to the characteristics of the biocycle of phosphorous,it was concluded that N availability in the soil of this forest was not lower,and phosphorous not N was the limiting factor in the growth

  9. Accuracy of LiDAR-based tree height estimation and crown recognition in a subtropical evergreen broad-leaved forest in Okinawa, Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Azita Ahmad Zawawi; Masami Shiba; Noor Janatun Naim Jemali

    2015-01-01

    Aim of study: To present an approach for estimating tree heights, stand density and crown patches using LiDAR data in a subtropical broad-leaved forest. Area of study: The study was conducted within the Yambaru subtropical evergreen broad-leaved forest, Okinawa main island, Japan. Materials and methods: A digital canopy height model (CHM) was extracted from the LiDAR data for tree height estimation and a watershed segmentation method was applied for the individual crown delineation....

  10. [Spatial analysis of LAIe of montane evergreen broad-leaved forest in southwest Sichuan, Northwest China, based on image texture].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, An-Jiu; Yang, Chang-Qing; Liao, Cheng-Yun

    2014-11-01

    Optical remote sensing is still one of the most attractive choices for obtaining leaf area index (LAI) information, but currently may be derived from remotely sensed data with limited accuracy. Effective leaf area index (LAIe) of montane evergreen broad-leaved forest in southwest Sichuan was inventoried and assessed in 83 sample field plots of 20 m x 20 m using different types of image processing techniques, including simple spectral band, simple spectral band ratios and principal component. Texture information was extracted by gray level co-occurrence matrices (GLCM) from different types of processing image. The results showed that there were correlations of different degrees between LAIe and texture parameters, and highly significant correlations were observed between LAIe with the homogeneity of the B1 band, B1/B4 band ratio or principal component PC1. Using texture information of remotely sensed data as auxiliary variables, we developed geostatistics models. Compared with the model based on NDVI auxiliary variable, the accuracy of LAIe were improved, presenting an increase by 5.3% with the homogeneity of the B1 band, 11.0% with the homogeneity B1/B4 band ratio, and 14.5% with the homogeneity principal component PC1, and the statistical errors were also reduced to some extent. The optimal LAIe model of spatial geostatistics was obtained when taking NDVI and homogeneity principal component PC1 as auxiliary variables (R2 = 0.840, RMSE = 0.212). Our results provided a new way to estimate regional spatial distribution of LAI using other auxiliary variables besides the vegetation index. PMID:25898622

  11. Simulating the exchanges of carbon dioxide, water vapor and heat over Changbai Mountains temperate broad-leaved Korean pine mixed forest ecosystem

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Qiufeng; NIU Dong; YU Guirui; REN Chuanyou; WEN Xuefa; CHEN Jingming; JU Weimin

    2005-01-01

    A process-based ecosystem productivity model BEPS (Boreal Ecosystem Productivity Simulator) was updated to simulate half-hourly exchanges of carbon, water and energy between the atmosphere and terrestrial ecosystem at a temperate broad-leaved Korean pine forest in the Changbai Mountains, China. The BEPSh model is able to capture the diurnal and seasonal variability in carbon dioxide, water vapor and heat fluxes at this site in the growing season of 2003. The model validation showed that the simulated net ecosystem productivity (NEP), latent heat flux (LE), sensible heat flux (Hs) are in good agreement with eddy covariance measurements with an R2 value of 0.68, 0.86 and 0.72 for NEP, LE and Hs, respectively. The simulated annual NEP of this forest in 2003 was 300.5 gC/m2, and was very close to the observed value. Driving this model with different climate scenarios, we found that the NEP in the Changbai Mountains temperate broad-leaved Korean pine mixed forest ecosystem was sensitive to climate variability, and the current carbon sink will be weakened under the condition of global warming. Furthermore, as a process-based model, BEPSh was also sensitive to physiological parameters of plant, such as maximum Rubisco activity (Vcmax) and the maximum stomatal conductance (gmax), and needs to be carefully calibrated for other applications.

  12. Meteorological control on CO2 flux above broad-leaved Korean pine mixed forest in Changbai Mountains

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUAN; Dexin; WU; Jiabing; YU; Guirui; SUN; Xiaomin; ZHAO; X

    2005-01-01

    The impacts of temperature, photosynthetic active radiation (PAR) and vapor pressure deficit (VPD) on CO2 flux above broad-leaved Korean pine mixed forest in the Changbai Mountains were studied based on eddy covariance and meteorological factors measurements.The results showed that, daytime CO2 flux was mainly controlled by PAR and they fit Michaelis-Menten equation. Meanwhile VPD also had an influence on the daytime flux. Drier air reduced the CO2 assimilation of the ecosystem, the drier the air, the more the reduction of the assimilation. And the forest was more sensitive to VPD in June than that in July and August. The respiration of the ecosystem was mainly controlled by soil temperature and they fit exponential equation. It was found that this relationship was also correlated with seasons; respiration from April to July was higher than that from August to November under the same temperature. Daily net carbon exchange of the ecosystem and the daily mean air temperature fit exponential equation. It was also found that seasonal trend of net carbon exchange was the result of comprehensive impacts of temperature and PAR and so on. These resulted in the biggest CO2 uptake in June and those in July and August were next. Annual carbon uptake of the forest ecosystem in 2003 was -184 gC. m-2.

  13. 针阔混交林不同演替阶段表层土壤理化性质与优势林木生长的相关性%Correlation between the Growth of Dominant Trees and Surface Soil Physiochemical Properties of Conifer and Broad-Leaved Mixed Forest at Different Succession Stages

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林文树; 穆丹; 王丽平; 邵立郡; 吴金卓

    2016-01-01

    论】毛管孔隙度、速效钾和全磷含量是影响不同演替阶段土壤质量的主要因子;经过不同演替阶段,表层土壤理化性质质量的综合得分表现为中龄林<成熟林<近熟林<老龄林;随着演替进行,针阔混交林的表层土壤理化性质基本呈现质量提高趋势,到老龄林时期达到最佳。本研究得到的不同演替阶段针阔混交林林木生长与表层土壤理化性质特征的相关性为进一步实现该地区森林可持续经营提供了科学依据。%[Objective]This study aims to analyze the relationship between surface soil physiochemical properties and the growth of dominant trees for mixed forest of conifer and broad-leaved species at different succession stages in order to explore the growth patterns of different stands and provide basis for sustainable forest management. [Method]The mixed forest conifers and broad-leaved trees at different succession stages ( middle-aged forest,near-mature forest,mature forest, and old growth forest) in Jiaohe Management Bureau of Forestry Experimental Area,Jilin Province were studied. The methods of comparison and principal component analysis were used to analyze physical and chemical properties of the surface soil,the growth of dominant trees,and the relationship between them.[Result]with the succession of forest,the average diameter at breast height ( DBH) of the dominant tree species increased,the average tree height varied slightly, the regeneration of Pinus koraiensis tended to be stable,and the number of Juglans mandshurica,Ulmus davidiana var. japonica ,and U. macrocarpa gradually decreased in the upper overstory. With respect to the soil physical properties,the soil density was not significantly different among middle-aged forest,near-mature forest and mature forest and it reached the minimum at the stage of old-growth forest. With the succession of forest,the non-capillary porosity gradually decreased and capillary porosity

  14. [Composition and seasonal dynamics of litter falls in a broad-leaved Korean pine (Pinus koraiensis) mixed forest in Changbai Mountains, Northeast China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Zuo-qiang; Li, Bu-hang; Bai, Xue-jiao; Lin, Fei; Shi, Shuai; Ye, Ji; Wang, Xu-gao; Hao, Zhan-qing

    2010-09-01

    In order to understand the composition and spatiotemporal dynamics of the litter falls at community level in a broad-leaved Korean pine mixed forest in Changbai Mountains, litter falls were collected from 150 containers in a 25 hm2 permanent plot in 2008. The leaf litters in the containers were from 35 tree species, accounting for 67.3% of the total number (52) of the tree species with DBH > or =1 cm in the plot. The litter falls had a weight 29.39 kg, equivalent to 3918.4 kg x hm(-2) among which, broad leaves, miscellany, needle leaves, and branches occupied 61.7%, 18.0%, 11.7%, and 8.6%, respectively. About 83.8% of the broad leaves were from Tilia amurensis, Fraxinus mandshurica, Quercus mongolica, Acer mono, and Ulmus japonica. The litter falls showed an evident seasonal dynamics, with the peaks occurred from 13 September to 10 October, e.g., the litter falls from T. amurensis and Pinus koraiensis peaked in 13-26 September, while those from Q. mongolica, U. japonica, and A. pseudo-sieboldianum peaked in 27 September to 10 October. There was a great difference in the mass of the litter falls among the containers, e.g., with 150-200 g litters in 68 containers and >500 g litters in 1 container. The species number of the litter falls in a container was 18 in maximum, and was 12 in common (32 containers). Litter falls mass was positively proportional to the sum of the basal area at breast height of parent trees in the plot, and the amount of the litter falls in the containers was related with the locations of the containers, exhibiting an evident spatial heterogeneity in the plot. PMID:21265134

  15. Comprehensive Evaluation of Different Transformation Models of Low-Quality Broad-Leaved Mixed Forest in Daxing’an Mountains%大兴安岭低质阔叶混交林不同改造模式综合评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋启亮; 董希斌

    2014-01-01

    Strip transformation test zone with different bandwidths and block transformation test zone with different sizes were established in low-quality mixed broad-leaved forest in Daxing’an Mountains,and principal component analysis was applied to comprehensively evaluate the ecological improvement models with the selection of 33 indicators such as biodiversity,water holding characteristics of litter,soil physical properties,soil chemical properties,soil carbon flux and seedling growth status,etc. The results showed that: strip clear-cutting along the hillside transformation model was better than block clear-cutting transformation model,for the strip clear-cutting transformation,the effect of different bandwidths were 10 m bandwidth > 6 m bandwidth > 18 m bandwidth > 14 m bandwidth plots, for the block clear-cutting transformation,the effect of different sizes were 100 m2 >25 m2 >225 m2 >400 m2 >900 m2 >625 m2 ,strip along the hillside transformation with 10 m bandwidth model and block transformation with 100 m2 model were most appropriate to Daxing’an Mountains broad-leaved mixed low-quality forest, and its improvement effect were better than the other transformation models.%在大兴安岭低质阔叶混交林中建立不同宽度的带状改造试验区和不同面积的块状改造试验区,选取生物多样性、枯落物持水特性、土壤物理性质、土壤化学性质、土壤碳通量和更新苗木生长状况等33项指标,运用主成分分析法综合评价不同改造模式的改造效果。结果表明:顺山带状皆伐改造模式优于块状改造模式,对于带状改造样地,不同带宽的改造效果依次为10 m带宽>6 m带宽>18 m 带宽>14 m 带宽,对于块状改造样地,不同面积的改造效果依次为100 m2>25 m2>225 m2>400 m2>900 m2>625 m2,其中10 m 带宽顺山带状改造模式和100 m2块状改造模式最适宜大兴安岭阔叶混交低质林,其改造效果明显优于其他改造模式。

  16. Seasonal and annual variation of CO2 flux above a broad-leaved Korean pine mixed forest

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    <正>Long-term measurement of carbon metabolism of old-growth forests is critical to predict their behaviors and to reduce the uncertainties of carbon accounting under changing climate. Eddy covariance technology was applied to investigate the long-term carbon exchange over a 200 year-old Chinese broad-leaved Korean pine mixed forest in the Changbai Mountains (128°28’E and 42°24’N, Jilin Province, P. R. China) since August 2002. On the data obtained with open-path eddy covariance system and CO2 profile measurement system from Jan. 2003 to Dec. 2004, this paper reports (i) annual and seasonal variation of FNEE, FGPP and Re; (ii) regulation of environmental factors on phase and amplitude of ecosystem CO2 uptake and release Corrections due to storage and friction velocity were applied to the eddy carbon flux. Lal and soil temperature determined the seasonal and annual dynamics of FGPP and RE separately. VPD and air temperature regulated ecosystem photosynthesis at finer scales in growing seasons. Water condition at the root zone exerted a significant influence on ecosystem maintenance carbon metabolism of this forest in winter. The forest was a net sink of atmospheric CO2 and sequestered -449 g C·m-2 during the study period; -278 and -171 gC·m-2 for 2003 and 2004 respectively. FGPP and FRE over 2003 and 2004 were -1332, -1294 g C·m-2. and 1054, 1124 g C·m-2 respectively. This study shows that old-growth forest can be a strong net carbon sink of atmospheric CO2. There was significant seasonal and annual variation in carbon metabolism. In winter, there was weak photosynthesis while the ecosystem emitted CO2. Carbon exchanges were active in spring and fall but contributed little to carbon sequestration on an annual scale. The summer is the most significant season as far as ecosystem carbon balance is concerned. The 90 days of summer contributed 66.9, 68.9% of FGPp, and 60.4, 62.1% of RE of the entire year.

  17. [Carbon dynamics of broad-leaved Korean pine forest ecosystem in Changbai Mountains and its responses to climate change].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Feng-De; Han, Shi-Jie; Zhang, Jun-Hui

    2009-06-01

    By using process model Sim-CYCLE based on dry matter production theory, this paper estimated the gross primary productivity (GPP), net primary productivity (NPP), net ecosystem productivity (NEP), ecosystem carbon storage (WE), total plant carbon storage (WP), and total soil carbon storage (WS) of broad-leaved Korean pine forest ecosystem in Changbai Mountains from 1982 to 2003, and analyzed the variations of these indices under present climate condition and carbon equilibrium state as well as the responses of these indices to climate change scenarios in the future. Under present climate condition, the estimated GPP, NPP, and NEP were 14.9, 8.7, and 2.7 Mg C x hm(-2) x a(-1), being 2.8 Mg C x hm(-2) x a(-1) less and 1.4 and 0.2 Mg C x hm(-2) x a(-1) higher than the measured values, respectively. The NEP in June-August occupied more than 90% of the annual NEP, and the maximum monthly NEP appeared in July (1.23 Mg C x hm(-2) month(-1)). The estimated WE, WP, and WS were 550.8, 183.8, and 367.0 Mg C x hm(-2), respectively, very close to the measured values. From present climate condition to carbon equilibrium state, the estimated carbon storages of the forest ecosystem increased to some extent, with the GPP and NPP being 17.7 and 7.3 Mg C x hm(-2) x a(-1), respectively, suggesting that the role of the forest ecosystem as a carbon "sink" declined gradually with the increase of carbon storage. A 2 degree C-increment of air temperature did not benefit the increase of GPP, NPP and NEP, while doubling CO2 concentration was in adverse. The effects of the combination of doubling CO2 concentration and 2 degree C-increment of air temperature on the GPP, NPP, and NEP were similar to those of doubling CO2 concentration. The climate change scenario in the future had the same effects both on the carbon storage and on the productivity of the forest ecosystem, which was mainly correlated to the effects of primary productivity on the carbon storage. PMID:19795634

  18. Short-Term Responses of Ground-Dwelling Beetles to Ice Storm-Induced Treefall Gaps in a Subtropical Broad-Leaved Forest in Southeastern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xiao-Dong; Liu, Chong-Ling; Lü, Liang; Luo, Tian-Hong; Zhou, Hong-Zhang

    2016-02-01

    Periodic natural disturbances shape the mosaic character of many landscapes and influence the distribution and abundance of organisms. In this study, we tested the effect of ice storm-induced treefall gaps on ground-dwelling beetle assemblages in different-aged successional stands of subtropical broad-leaved forest in southeastern China. We evaluated the relative importance of gap-phase microhabitat type (within gap, gap edge, and interior shaded) within different stand ages (regenerating stands and mature stands) as determinants of changes in beetle diversity and community structure. At 18 replicate sites sampled during 2009-2010, no significant differences were found in species richness and the abundances of the most common beetle species captured in pitfall traps among the three gap-phase microhabitat types, but the abundances of total beetles, as well as fungivorous and phytophagous species groups, were significantly lower in gap microhabitats than in interior shaded microhabitats in mature stands. Beetle assemblage composition showed no significant differences among the three microhabitat types, and only the fauna of gap plots slightly diverged from those of edge and shaded plots in mature stands. Cover of shrubs and stand age significantly affected beetle assemblage structure. Our results suggest that beetle responses to gap-phase dynamics in early successional forests are generally weak, and that effects are more discernible in the mature stands, perhaps due to the abundance responses of forest-specialist species. PMID:26377249

  19. Hydrological characteristics of forest litters in conifer and broad-leaved mixed forests at different forest successional stages in Jiaohe, Jilin Province%吉林蛟河不同演替阶段针阔混交林凋落物持水特性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴金卓; 孔琳琳; 王娇娇; 林文树

    2016-01-01

    The forest litter layer is indispensible for the protection of forest soil, it plays an important role in forest soil and water conservation. The purpose of this paper is to analyze the variation laws of hydrological characteristics of forest litters in conifer and broad⁃leaved mixed forests at different successional stages in the northeast mountainous area of Chi⁃na. We investigated the forest litters in conifer and broad⁃leaved mixed forests at different successional stages in Jiaohe management bureau of forestry experimental area, Jilin Province. The litter samples were collected from middle⁃aged for⁃est, near⁃mature forest and mature forest. Within each forest plot, a total of five square subplots with dimension of 20 cm×20 cm were set up using serpentine sampling method. The litters in the un⁃decomposed layer and semi⁃decom⁃posed layer were taken back to lab for analyzing the hydrological characteristics of forest litters. The standard branch soa⁃king method was used to calculate the storage of forest litters, water holding capacity, water holding rate, as well as the modified interception amount. For each sample, the litters were divided into four groups evenly and part of the litters was selected to measure the weight by electronic analytical balance, and then put in the 100-mesh nylon mesh. The soaking time was set as 0.25, 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 8 and 24 h, respectively. Combined with the field observation data, the relationship between the hydrological characteristics of forest litters and successional stages was analyzed. The litter storage of mature forest was the largest ( 7. 26 t/hm2 ) , followed by near⁃mature forest ( 4. 56 t/hm2 ) , and middle age forest ( 3�68 t/hm2).The order of the maximum water holding capacity was as follows:mature forest (21.23 t/hm2)>near⁃mature for⁃est(35.24 t/hm2)>middle⁃aged forest(47.71 t/hm2)and the maximum water holding rate was 844.72% in mature forest, 742.58% in near⁃mature forest, and 592

  20. Carbon of Woody Debris in Plateau-type Karst Evergreen and Deciduous Broad-leaved Mixed Forest of Central Guizhou Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Y.; Ni, J.; Liu, L.; Guo, C.

    2014-12-01

    Woody debris (WD) is an essential structural and functional component of forest ecosystems, and plays very significant roles for the biogeochemical cycling of carbon and nutrients. Coarse woody debris (CWD) is considered to be the major part in forest WD and it is primarily composed of logs, snags, stumps and large branches, while fine woody debris (FWD) mainly consists of small twigs. Composition, spatial distribution and carbon storage of WD have been studied in plateau-type karst evergreen and deciduous broad-leaved mixed forest in Tianlong Mountain of central Guizhou Province. Results showed that the carbon storage of WD in karst forests was less than non-karst forests. The major components of WD were fallen trees and snags with 10-20 cm in diameter. Fallen trees and snags with diameter greater than 20 cm were the smallest part of WD. The situation of WD in this region reflects the structural characteristics of WD in mid-late stage of plateau-type karst evergreen and deciduous broad-leaved mixed forest succession. The potential contribution of WD to the regional carbon cycle, and its relationship with climate change were finally discussed. The WD (especially CWD) plays an important role in the carbon cycle of karst forest. Forest WD production and decay rates may partially depend on climatic conditions, the accumulation of CWD and FWD carbon stocks in forests may be correlated with climate. Key words: woody debris, karst forests, carbon storage, spatial distribution, CWD, FWD.

  1. Nitrogen in soils beneath 18-65 year old stands of subtropical evergreen broad-leaved forests in Laoshan Mountains in Eastern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GU Feng; ZHANG Kai; ZHANG Yun-qi; WANG Qin; XU Xiao-niu

    2011-01-01

    Monitoring of soil nitrogen (N) cycling is useful to assess soil quality and to gauge the sustainability of management practices.We studied net N mineralization,nitrification,and soil N availability in the 0-10 cm and 11-30 cm soil horizons in east China during 2006-2007 using an in sito incubation method in four subtropical evergreen broad-leaved forest stands aged 18-,36-,48-,and 65-years.The properties of surface soil and forest floor varied between stand age classes.C:N ratios of surface soil and forest floor decreased,whereas soil total N and total organic C,available P,and soil microbial biomass N increased with stand age.The mineral N pool was small for the young stand and large for the older stands.NO3-N was less than 30% in all stands.Net rates of N mineralization and nitrification were higher in old stands than in younger stands,and higher in the 0-10 cm than in the 11-30 cm horizon.The differences were significant between old and young stands (p <0.031) and between soil horizons (p < 0.005).Relative nitrification was somewhat low in all forest stands and declined with stand age.N transformation seemed to be controlled by soil moisture,soil microbial biomass N,and forest floor C:N ratio.Our results demonstrate that analyses of N cycling can provide insight into the effects of management disturbances on forest ecosystems.

  2. Study on Restoration of Evergreen Broad-leaved Forest from Pinus massoniana Forest.%马尾松林恢复为常绿阔叶林的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王希华; 宋永昌; 王良衍

    2001-01-01

    High coverage of Pinus massoniana forest on low mountains in Eastern China at present was studied in this paper. This forest is threatened by plant diseases, especially pines wilt, and needs to be restored urgently. Species of later successional stage or climax communities were retained or introduced to the forest through reconstruction according to vegetation ecology theory, so as to restore it quickly to zonal evergreen broad-leaved forest. It formed an evergreen broad-leaved sub-tree layer of 2~3m high dominated by Schima superba from a shrub layer of 57m high after 3 years of reconstruction. The questions of restoration were discussed in this paper.

  3. Seed rain, soil seed bank, seed loss and regeneration of Castanopsis fargesii (Fagaceae) in a subtropical evergreen broad-leaved forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, X.; Guo, Q.; Gao, X.; Ma, K.

    2007-01-01

    Understanding the seed rain and seed loss dynamics in the natural condition has important significance for revealing the natural regeneration mechanisms. We conducted a 3-year field observation on seed rain, seed loss and natural regeneration of Castanopsis fargesii Franch., a dominant tree species in evergreen broad-leaved forests in Dujiangyan, southwestern China. The results showed that: (1) there were marked differences in (mature) seed production between mast (733,700 seeds in 2001) and regular (51,200 and 195,600 seeds in 2002 and 2003, respectively) years for C. fargesii. (2) Most seeds were dispersed in leaf litter, humus and 0-2 cm depth soil in seed bank. (3) Frequency distributions of both DBH and height indicated that C. fargesii had a relatively stable population. (4) Seed rain, seed ground density, seed loss, and leaf fall were highly dynamic and certain quantity of seeds were preserved on the ground for a prolonged time due to predator satiation in both the mast and regular years so that the continuous presence of seed bank and seedling recruitments in situ became possible. Both longer time observations and manipulative experiments should be carried out to better understand the roles of seed dispersal and regeneration process in the ecosystem performance. ?? 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Temporal dynamics of and effects of an ice storm on litter production in an evergreen broad-leaved forest in Gutianshan National Nature Reserve

    OpenAIRE

    Lei Zhang; Xiaohe Wang; Xiangcheng Mi; Jianhua Chen; Mingjian Yu

    2011-01-01

    To study litter production, composition, temporal dynamics, and the effects of an ice storm on litter production in a 24-ha evergreen broad-leaved forest dynamic plot in Gutianshan National Nature Reserve, Zhejiang, we set up 169 seed traps, and collected litterfall weekly from October 2006 to December 2009. Total annual litter production in 2007 and 2009 was 532.05 g/m2 and 375.17 g/m2, respectively. We attribute the remarkable drop in production due to an ice storm in February 2008. Leaves,...

  5. Acclimation in Leaf Morphological and Eco-physiological Characteristics of Different Canopy-dwelling Epiphytes in a Lower Subtropical Evergreen Broad-leaved Forest%亚热带常绿阔叶林冠层附生植物叶片形态结构及生理功能特征的适应性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    江浩; 黄钰辉; 周国逸; 胡晓颖; 刘世忠; 唐旭利

    2012-01-01

    著的差异,并致使各自的生理生态功能发生了相应的适应,是植物适应环境条件的重要表现.%Epiphytes have been well characterized in terms of the morphological and eco-physiological traits that permit them to thrive in the complex forest canopy. Our aim was to characterize and analyze the morphological and eco-physiological traits of different canopy-dwelling epiphytes in a lower subtropical evergreen broad-leaved forest in Southern China.Results showed that the differences in morphological and eco-physiological characteristics between the upper and lower canopy-dwelling epiphytes were largely explained by changes in environmental factors such as photosynthetic active radiation (PAR) .temperature,and humidity within the complex forest canopy. Two epiphytes, Dischidia chinensis and Psychotria ser-pens located in the upper canopy had low Tr (0.17 ±0. 02 mmol H2O and 0. 34 ±0. 05 mmol H2O,respectively) and low Pmax(2. 2 ±0.1 μmol CO2·m-2·S-1 and 3.2 ±0.4 μmol CO2·m-2-s-1,respectively) associated with thick leaf (558 ±63 μm and 217.1 ±33.1 μm, respectively) and small stomata size (185. 7 ±3. 7 pm2 and 225.4 ±5. 2 pm2 .respectively) to adapt to their upper dwelling environments (high temperature,low air humidity and high PAR). At the same time,the special structures led to high WUE (11. 35 ±0. 87 μmol CO2/mmol H2O and 7.88 ± 1.31 μmol CO2/mmol H2O,respectively). However,the lower canopy-dwelling epiphytes Fis-sistigma glaucescens and Piper hancei had thin leaf (90. 8 ± 9. 9 μm and 114. 9 ± 18.2 μm, respectively) and large stomata size (260. 6 ±6. 3 μm2 and 362. 5 ±8. 7 μm2 .respectively). The ratios of palisade to spongy tissues thickness (P/S) ,the thickness of leaf epidermis thickness and other structures also changed with various canopy-dwelling heights. In comparison with Dischidia chinensis and Psychotria serpens located at upper canopy-dwelling conditions, Fissistigma glaucescens and Piper hancei showed high

  6. The phylogenetic signal of functional traits and their effects on community structure in an evergreen broad-leaved forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ke Cao

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The phylogenetic conservatism of plant functional traits and its association with community structure are important topics in ecological research. Plant functional traits are simultaneously affected by their evolutionary background, local habitat conditions and large-scale climate. In this study we asked whether functional traits have a significant phylogenetic signal and significantly affect species abundance in a community. For this objective, we used data from a 24 ha Gutianshan forest plot, which included species abundance and six functional traits of 156 woody species: leaf nitrogen content, leaf phosphorus content, leaf area, wood density, specific leaf area and seed mass. We found that all functional traits showed significant phylogenetic signal, suggesting that all functional traits are significantly affected by their evolutionary history. We also found that species abundance was correlated with leaf nitrogen content, leaf phosphorus content, leaf area, woody density and specific leaf area except seed mass, suggesting that resource acquisition significantly affects species abundance distribution in a community, and that these functional traits impact community structure in different ways.

  7. Soil animal communities at five succession stages in the litter of the evergreen broad-leaved forest in Tiantong,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yi Lan; You Wenhui; Song Yongchang

    2006-01-01

    Soil animals are abundant in forest litter layer,but little attention has been Paid to the vertical distribution of community structure of soil animals in the layers at different plant community succession stages.The forest litter layer can be divided into fresh litter layer(L),fermentation layer(F)and humus layer(H),which may represent different litter decomposition stages.The aim of the study is to ascertain the vertical distribution features of soil animal communities among the three litter layers and the change in the succession process of the Evergreen Broad-Leaved Forest(EBLF)in Tiantong,Zhejiang Province,China.Soil animal communities in the five plant communities at different succession stages were investigated during the 2003 winter.Soil animals,which were collected by using Tullgren funnels,amounted to a total of 13381 individuals falling into 2 phyla,8 classes and 20 orders.The dominant groups were Acarina and Collembola,accounting for 94.24% of the total individuals,with the number of Acarina individuals 7.66 times than that of Collembola.The common group was Diptera.The results indicated that there was a distinctive vertical distribution of the soil animal communities in the forest litter laver,but it differed from that in soil below the litter layer.In contrast to those in the soil,the soil animals in the litter layer generally tended to increase in both group abundance and density from the top fresh litter layer to the bottom humus layer.Altogether 19 groups and 59.03% of total individuals were found in the bottom layer,while only 8 groups and 5.35% of the total individuals in the top.Moreover,there were some variations in the distribution of the soil animals at different plant succession stages.85.19% of Homoptera and 100% of Symphyla were found in the litter layer at the climax succession stage.while 75.61% of Thysanoptera at the intermediate succession stage.Therefore,these groups might be seen as indicative groups.The total numbers of soil animal

  8. Study on successions sequence of evergreen broad-leaved forest in Gutian Mountain of Zhejiang, Eastern China:species diversity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Using the widely adopted scheme of space-for-time substitution for investigating 16 typical plots distri-buted as a pattern of contiguous grid quadrates within a sampling plot, the expressions of Shannon-Wiener index (H) for species diversity, Pielou index (Jsw, JSI) for evenness and Simpson index (D) for ecological dominance are employed to investigate the species diversity (SD) of four evergreen broadleaved communities in the successions sequence within the Nature Reserve of the Gutian Mountains. Results showed that in the successions process from the coniferous to the mixed coniferous-broadleaved, then to Schima superba and finally to Castanopsis eyrei forest, the arbor layer SD showed the Shannon-Wiener index (H) as 1.9670, 2.4975, 2.6140 and 2.4356, respectively, characterized by their rise before drop and the shrub (herb) layer SD shows the maximum to be in the mixed coniferous-broadleaved (coniferous) forest (H arriving at 2.8625 (1.5334)). In the vertical structure, on the other hand, for the sequenced coniferous forest, coniferous-broad mixed forest and Castnaopsis eyrei forest, the number of SD ranges in a decreasing order from the shrub, arbor to herb layer in contrast to the SD in a decreasing order of Schima superba forest ranging from the arbor to shrub and then to herb layer, and during the succession, the herb layer exhibits the maximum range of SD change among these layers, with its variation coefficients of 0.1572, 0.0806, 0.0899 and 0.1884 for H, Jsw, JSI and D, in order, in sharp contrast to the minimal SD range in the shrub layer, with the corresponding figures of 0.0482, 0.0385, 0.0142, and 0.1553.

  9. The phylogenetic signal of functional traits and their effects on community structure in an evergreen broad-leaved forest

    OpenAIRE

    Ke Cao; Mide Rao; Jianzhong Yu; Xiaojuan Liu; Xiangcheng Mi; Jianhua Chen

    2013-01-01

    The phylogenetic conservatism of plant functional traits and its association with community structure are important topics in ecological research. Plant functional traits are simultaneously affected by their evolutionary background, local habitat conditions and large-scale climate. In this study we asked whether functional traits have a significant phylogenetic signal and significantly affect species abundance in a community. For this objective, we used data from a 24 ha Gutianshan forest plo...

  10. DIVERSITY AND ECOLOGICAL DETERMINANTS OF DEAD WOOD FUNGI IN TREE NATURAL RESERVES OF BROAD LEAVED FORESTS FROM SUCEAVA COUNTY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciprian BÎRSAN

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Dead wood fungi have a major importance for forests biodiversity as they produce wood degradation in forest habitats. In this paper are presented some aspects related to the diversity of dead wood fungi in tree deciduous forest types from tree natural reserves (Crujana, Dragomirna and Zamostea from Suceava County and the effect of some ecological factors (host tree, diameter and decomposition degree of the dead wood and some microclimatic characteristics of sites on their occurrence and diversity. Investigations carried out in 2013 resulted in the identification of 44 lignicolous fungi species. Analysis of similarities between lingnicolous fungi species from the investigated natural reserves (by hierarchical clustering shows a separation of three fungi groups, depending on the host-trees species. The effect of the tree host species was highlighted also by detrended correspondence analysis, which, in addition presented the existence of an altitudinal gradient and a weaker effect of site conditions (slope and aspect and microclimatic variables (solar radiation on dead wood fungi occurrence. The effect of diameter and decomposition degree of fallen trunks and branches on dead wood fungi species was investigated using the redundancy analysis showing that wood debris with large surfaces are more easily colonized by the fungi species developing large sporocarps compared to small branches with low diameters colonized only by few or a single fungus species.

  11. Change in Species Diversity during Recovering Process of Evergreen Broad-leaved Fo rest

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WenYuanguang; LiuShirong; ChenFang; HeTatping; LiangHongwen

    2005-01-01

    Evergreen broad-leaved forest is one of the most important vegetation types in China. Because of the human activities, evergreen broad-leaved forest has been destroyed extensively, leading to degraded ecosystem. It is urgent to conserve and restore these natural forests in China.tn this paper, the tendency and rate of species diversity restoration of the evergreen broad-lea ved forest in Darning Mountain has been studied. The main results are as follows:(a) in subtropical mid-mountain area, species diversity in degraded evergreen broad-leaved forest can be restored. Through analyzing b diversity index of communities in different time and space, it was found that the species composition of communities tend to be the same as that in the zonal evergreen broad-leaved forest. (b) The restoration rate of evergreen broad-leaved forest was very fast. Planting Chinese fir after clear-cutting and controlled burning of the forest 178 species appeared in a 60Om2, sample area after 20 years"" natural recovering. Among these species, 58 were tree layer and the height of community reached 18m, The survey suggested that it would take only 20 years for the degraded forest to develop into community composed of light demanding broad-leaved pioneer trees and rain-tolerance broad-leaved trees, and it need another 40-80 years to reach the stage consisting of min-tulerance evergreen broad-leaved trees, (c) Species number increased quickly at the early stage (2-20 years) during vegetation recovering process toward the climax, and decreased at the min-stage (50-60 years ), then maintained a relatively stable level at the late-stage (over 150 years).

  12. [Characterization of mid-subtropical evergreen broad-leaved forest gap based on light detection and ranging (LiDAR)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Feng; Tan, Chang; Wang, Hong; Zhang, Jiang; Wan, Ying; Long, Jiang-ping; Liu, Rui-xi

    2015-12-01

    Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) is an active remote sensing technology for acqui- ring three-dimensional structure parameters of vegetation canopy with high accuracy over multiple spatial scales, which is greatly important to the promotion of forest disturbance ecology and the ap- plication on gaps. This paper focused on mid-subtropical evergreen broadleaved forest in Hunan Province, and small footprint LiDAR point data were adopted to identify canopy gaps. and measure geomagnetic characteristics of gaps. The optimal grid model resolution and interpolation methods were chosen to generate canopy height model, and the computer graphics processing was adopted to estimate characteristics of gaps which involved gap size, canopy height and gap shape index, then field investigation was utilized to validate the estimation results. The results showed that the gap rec- ognition rate was 94.8%, and the major influencing factors were gap size and gap maker type. Line- ar correlation was observed between LiDAR estimation and field investigation, and the R² values of gap size and canopy height case were 0.962 and 0.878, respectively. Compared with field investiga- tion, the size of mean estimated gap was 19.9% larger and the mean estimated canopy height was 9.9% less. Gap density was 12.8 gaps · hm⁻² and the area of gaps occupied 13.3% of the forest area. The average gap size, canopy height and gap shape index were 85.06 m², 15.33 m and 1.71, respectively. The study site usually contained small gaps in which the edge effect was not obvious. PMID:27111996

  13. Growing season variability of net ecosystem CO2 exchange and evapotranspiration of a sphagnum mire in the broad-leaved forest zone of European Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The spatial and temporal variability of net ecosystem exchange (NEE) of CO2 and evapotranspiration (ET) of a karst-hole sphagnum peat mire situated at the boundary between broad-leaved and forest–steppe zones in the central part of European Russia in the Tula region was described using results from field measurements. NEE and ET were measured using a portable measuring system consisting of a transparent ventilated chamber combined with an infrared CO2/H2O analyzer, LI-840A (Li-Cor, USA) along a transect from the southern peripheral part of the mire to its center under sunny clear-sky weather conditions in the period from May to September of 2012 and in May 2013. The results of the field measurements showed significant spatial and temporal variability of NEE and ET that was mainly influenced by incoming solar radiation and ground water level. The seasonal patterns of NEE and ET within the mire were quite different. During the entire growing season the central part of the mire was a sink of CO2 for the atmosphere. NEE reached maximal values in June–July (−6.8 ± 4.2 μmol m−2 s−1). The southern peripheral part of the mire, due to strong shading by the surrounding forest, was a sink of CO2 for the atmosphere in June–July only. ET reached maximal values in the well-lighted central parts of the mire in May (0.34 ± 0.20 mm h−1) mainly because of high air and surface temperatures and the very wet upper peat horizon and sphagnum moss. Herbaceous species made the maximum contribution to the total gross primary production (GPP) in both the central and the peripheral parts of the mire. The contribution of sphagnum to the total GPP of these plant communities was relatively small and ranged on sunny days of July–August from −1.1 ± 1.1 mgC g−1 of dry weight (DW) per hour in the peripheral zone of the mire to −0.6 ± 0.2 mgC g−1 DW h−1 at the mire center. The sphagnum layer made the maximum contribution to total ET at the mire center (0.25 ± 0.10 mm

  14. Distribution patterns of the subtropical evergreen broad-leaved forests of southwestern China, as compared with those of the eastern Chinese subtropical regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tang, C. Q.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the geographic distribution patterns of the subtropical evergreen broad-leaved forests of southwestern China, and compares with other subtropical regions in the east of China in terms of forest types, pertinent species, and spatial distribution along latitudinal, longitudinal and altitudinal gradients. In general, for both the western and the eastern subtropical regions, the evergreen broad-leaved forests are dominated by species of Castanopsis, Lithocarpus, Cyclobalanopsis (Fagaceae, Machilus, Cinnamomum (Lauraceae, Schima (Theaceae, Manglietia, and Michelia, (Magnoliaceae, while in southwestern China there are more diverse forest types including semi-humid, monsoon, mid-montane moist and humid evergreen broad-leaved forests, but only monsoon and humid forests in the east. The Yunnan area has more varied species of Lithocarpus or Cyclobalanopsis or Castanopsis as dominants than does eastern China, where the chief dominant genus is Castanopsis. The upper limits of the evergreen broad-leaved forests are mainly 2400–2800 m in western Yunnan and western Sichuan, much higher than in eastern China (600–1500, but 2500 m in Taiwan. Also discussed are the environmental effects on plant diversity of the evergreen broad-leaved forest ecosystems exemplified by Yunnan and Taiwan.En este trabajo se analiza los patrones de distribución geográfica de los bosques subtropicales perennifolios de hoja ancha del suroeste de china, y se comparan con los de otras regiones subtropicales del este de China en términos de tipología de bosque, especies relevantes, y distribución espacial a lo largo de un gradiente latitudinal, longitudinal y altitudinal. De manera general, los bosques perennifolios de hoja ancha de la regiones subtropicales tanto orientales como occidentales presentan dominancia de especies de Castanopsis, Lithocarpus, Cyclobalanopsis (Fagaceae, Machilus, Cinnamomum (Lauraceae, Schima (Theaceae, Manglietia y Michelia

  15. 上阔下竹混交林对竹林土壤养分的影响%Effects of Phyllostachys edulis and broad-leaved mixed forest on soil nutrient content

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨宽; 王福升; 徐爱珍; 汪玉凤

    2015-01-01

    By taking the different proportions moso bamboo and broad-leaved mixed forests[Ⅰ(28.3%),Ⅱ(22.5%),Ⅲ(20.1%)]and moso bamboo pure forest[Ⅳ(0)]in north of Fujian as test materials,the soil nutritional of the forests in different depths were analyzed.The results showed that the soil pH of type Ⅳ was the lowest,the surface soil organic matter and available N,P,and B content of typeⅠ,Ⅱ and Ⅲ were significantly higher than those in type Ⅳ(P Ⅲ >Ⅱ >Ⅳ,which showed that the upper broad-leaves forests had some improvements on the soil nutritional of the lower moso bamboo for-est.%以闽北地区不同比例的上阔下竹混交林Ⅰ(28.3%)、Ⅱ(22.5%)、Ⅲ(20.1%)和毛竹纯林Ⅳ(0)为研究对象,对竹林土壤养分进行分析。结果表明:相同坡位之间,类型Ⅳ土壤 pH 最低;类型Ⅰ、Ⅱ、Ⅲ竹林表层土壤有机质、水解氮、有效磷和有效硼含量均明显高于类型Ⅳ(P <0.05);土壤有效态养分含量之间也存在极显著相关性,各类型毛竹林土壤综合肥力顺序为Ⅰ>Ⅲ>Ⅱ>Ⅳ,表明上位阔叶林对毛竹林土壤肥力具有一定的改善作用。

  16. 土壤水分梯度对阔叶红松林结构的影响%Effect of soil moisture gradient on structure of broad-leaved /Korean pine forest in Changbai Mountain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王艳; 王庆礼; 代力民; 王淼; 周莉; 代保清

    2004-01-01

    A 112 m(8 m sample plot which includes 14 sub-plots was set up along the slope in Hongshi Forestry Farm of Baihe Forestry Bureau(127(55'E,42(30' N),Jilin Province in August 2002.Community structure,soil moisture contents at 0-10 cm and 10-20 cm in depth,water content of litter as well as the contents of C,N and P of litter,living leaves and branches in the broad-leaved/Korean pine(Pinus korraiensis)forest were measured in each sub-plot on different slope positions.The analytical results showed that there existed an obvious soil moisture gradient along the slope:upper slope < middle slope < lower slope.The difference in soil moisture contents on different positions of slope led to a change of the stand structure of the broad-leaved/Korean pine forest.The proportion of Quercus mongolica gradually increased with the decrease of soil moisture content and that of other major tree species in the broad-leaved/Korean pine forest gradually decreased or disappeared.The dynamic of soil moisture contents in the litter layer was as same as that in mineral soils.The decomposition rates of the litter on different slope positions were different and the dry weights of existent litter varied significantly.The soil nutrients in the litter on the lower slope was richer than that on the upper slope due to the different stand structure on the different slope positions.The moisture content and nutrient contents of soil had effects on the composition,decomposition,and the nutrient release of litter,thus affecting stands growth and stand structure and finally leading to the change of ecosystem.%2002年8月,在吉林省白河林业局红石林场(127(55'E,42(30' N),沿着一个山坡设置了一个长宽为 112 m ( 8 m、包含14个样方的样带.调查了群落结构、0-10 cm 和 10-20 cm的土壤含水量、枯落物现存量及其C、N、P含量,主要树种的叶片和枝条的C、N、P含量.沿着山坡的不同位置土壤含水量的不同导致阔叶红松林的群落结构发

  17. Response Of Wheat (Triticum aestivum L. Crop And Broad-Leaved Weeds To Different Water Requirements And Weed Management In Sandy Soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El-Metwally Ibrahim M.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Water scarcity is a major cause of crops yield reduction in many parts of the world. So, a more rational use of irrigation water should be adapted and deficit irrigation principles should be accepted with a certain level of reduction in yield level. To study the efficiency of four water requirements (100% whole season, 75% whole season, 50% whole season and 100% whole season while 50% at grain-filling stage and five weed-control treatments (three postemergence herbicides i.e., metosulam, tribenuron-methyl, and bromoxynil, hand weeding and unweeded check, and their interactive effects, two field experiments on wheat crop were conducted in two successive seasons at the agricultural experimental station of the National Research Centre, Nubaria, Egypt. Bromoxynil, tribenuron-methyl came in the first order for controlling total broad-leaved weeds. Application of 100% water requirement recorded the highest values compared to all other irrigation water treatments in term of flag-leaf area, chlorophyll content, plant height, number of spike/m2, spike weight, grains number/spike, weight of 1,000 grains, yield and yield attributes of wheat. Metosulam followed by bromoxynil, tribenuron-methyl and hand-weeding treatments gave higher values of grain yield/ha. The highest grain yield, protein and carbohydrates percentages of wheat grains were obtained from addition of 100% water requirement with metosulam treatment was used followed by 75% of water requirement combined with metosulam treatment without significant difference among these treatments.

  18. 亚热带阔叶林植物叶片虫食特征研究%Insect herbivory characteristic on leaves of plant species in the evergreen broad-leaved forests

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘志国; 景军; 李恺; 蔡永立

    2013-01-01

    this study, herbivory on leaves was 7.21% and herbivory frequency was 32.95%. With herbivory frequency between 10%and 60%, herbivory rates of most species were less than 10%. No matter tree species and shrub species or companion species and dominant species, herbivory rates on leaves were no significant difference between them (P>0.05). Both herbivory rates (P=0.012)and herbivory frequency(P=0.74)of evergreen broad-leaved in Mt. Meihuashan, Fujian province are higher than Tiantong National Forest Park, Zhejiang province. Young plant leaves herbivory rate decreased with increasing elevation. The results indicated that the leaf damage of leaves in evergreen broad-leaved forest is between those in tropical rain forest (11.1%) and deciduous forest (7.1%). Life form and dominance affected herbivory on leaves. Rates of leaf damage reduced with the rising of latitude and altitude gradient. The majority of damage occurs during the short window when leaves are young and expanding.

  19. Water-holding characteristics of litter in different forests at the Lianxiahe watershed

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Zhuowen; CHEN Yusheng; ZHANG Zhiyong; CUI Hongxia; LEI Yunfei; WANG Dongyun; SUI Juanjuan

    2006-01-01

    We surveyed the forest litter amount at the Lianxiahe watershed in the Three Gorges Reservoir Area and analyzed some hydrological characteristics such as the maximum water-holding capacity and water absorption rate of litter in six types of forests,i.e.the Cupressus funebris forest,the coniferous mixed forest,the coniferous and broad-leaved mixed forest,the broad-leaved forest,the Pinus massoniana forest,the bush forest.Results showed that the litter amount follows the order of the coniferous and broad-leaved mixed forest>the pure C.funebris forest,the P.massoniana forest>the coniferous mixed forest>the broad-leaved forest>the bush forest.The maximal water holding capacity of the undecomposed litter is in the order of the C.funebris forest>the coniferous mixed forest>the bush forest>the coniferous and broad-leaved mixed forest >the broad-leaved forest>the P.massoniana forest.The maximal water-holding capacity of the half-decomposed litter is the P.massoniana forest>the coniferous and broad-leaved mixed forest>the C.funebris forest>the coniferous mixed forest>the broad-leaved forest>the bush forest.In this watershed,the water holding capacity of the litter in the C.funebris forest is the highest,followed by the coniferous mixed forest,coniferous and broad-leaved mixed forest,P.massoniana forest,broad-leaved forest and bush forest.When the soil is covered only by litter,both the maximal rainfall amount and intensity in different forest stands are different if there is no water infiltration and runoff from the ground surface.

  20. Effects of micro-topographies on stand structure and tree species diversity in an old-growth evergreen broad-leaved forest, southwestern Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tran Van Do

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Stand structure and species diversity were studied in correspondence with micro-topographies in an old-growth forest in southwestern Japan. The study was conducted in a 200×200m2 permanent plot, which were divided into 400 subplots using grids of 10m×10m. Subplots were categorized to four micro-topographies as crest slope (CS, head hollow (HH, upper slope (US and lower slope (LS, basing on slope of forest floor and plot position, and to two elevational zones as below 450 m and above 450 m. Tree censuses for all individuals with diameter at breast height (DBH ⩾ 5 cm were conducted in 2009 and 2013. The results indicated that CS had subplot means of living stems, dead stems, DBH, basal area (G, and basal area increment (▵G significantly higher than that in LS. While, means of recruited stems and Shannon diversity index were significantly lower. Comparing between below and above 450 m elevational zones indicated the significantly higher parameters of stand structure and species diversity in above 450 m elevational zone. The differences of edaphic conditions led to difference of density of living stems, species density, DBH, G, and ▵G among micro-topographies. Therefore, crest slope, upper slope, and higher elevational zones should be encouraged for the purposes of carbon accumulation and storage. While, the lower elevational zones should be used for the purposes of species diversity conservation.

  1. Uncertainties of isoprene emissions in the MEGAN model estimated for a coniferous and broad-leaved mixed forest in Southern China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Situ, S.; Wang, Xuemei; Guenther, Alex B.; Zhang, Yanli; Wang, Xinming; Huang, Minjuan; Fan, Qi; Xiong, Zhe

    2014-12-01

    Using local observed emission factor, meteorological data, vegetation 5 information and dynamic MODIS LAI, MEGANv2.1 was constrained to predict the isoprene emission from Dinghushan forest in the Pearl River Delta region during a field campaign in November 2008, and the uncertainties in isoprene emission estimates were quantified by the Monte Carlo approach. The results indicate that MEGAN can predict the isoprene emission reasonably during the campaign, and the mean value of isoprene emission is 2.35 mg m-2 h-1 in daytime. There are high uncertainties associated with the MEGAN inputs and calculated parameters, and the relative error can be as high as -89 to 111% for a 95% confidence interval. The emission factor of broadleaf trees and the activity factor accounting for light and temperature dependence are the most important contributors to the uncertainties in isoprene emission estimated for the Dinghushan forest during the campaign. The results also emphasize the importance of accurate observed PAR and temperature to reduce the uncertainties in isoprene emission estimated by model, because the MEGAN model activity factor accounting for light and temperature dependence is highly sensitive to PAR and temperature.

  2. Spatial patterns of dominant species in secondary evergreen broad-leaved forest in central Yunnan, Southwest China.%滇中次生常绿阔叶林优势树种的空间格局

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘保双; 付登高; 吴晓妮; 王洪娇; 王琪; 段昌群

    2013-01-01

    By using Ripley' s point pattern analysis, the spatial patterns of the dominant species Cyclobalanopsis glaucoides and Keteleeria evelyniana in the secondary evergreen broad-leaved forest in central Yunnan of Southwest China as well as the spatial associations among the individuals of the two species with different DBH classes were analyzed. Overall, the individuals of the two species with different DBH classes were in uniform distribution, indicating that the growth of the two populations was in stable period. The two species and their individuals with different DBH classes had a clumped distribution. With the increase of DBH class, the aggregation degree of C. glaucoides had a decreasing trend, while that of K. evelyniana decreased first, increased then, and decreased at last. A positive or no significant spatial association was observed among the saplings, juvenile trees, and adult trees of the two species. At different spatial scales, the two species of different DBH classes had less association, possibly because of the greater differences in the survival strategies of the two species. It was suggested that in the restoration of the forests in central Yunnan, it would be essential to control the plant population density and attend to the interspecific interaction to build an appropriate structure of the community.%采用Ripley的点格局分析方法对滇中次生常绿阔叶林中优势种滇青冈(Cyclobalanopsis glaucoides)和滇油杉(Keteleeria evelyniana)的分布格局以及不同径级分株之间的相互关系进行了分析.结果表明:(1)总体来看,两个优势物种各径级株数分布较均匀,二者的增长处于稳定期.(2)两个优势物种在总体上及不同径级阶段主要呈聚集分布.随径级的增加,滇青冈种群的聚集程度逐渐降低,而滇油杉种群的聚集程度呈现降低-增加-降低的趋势.两个优势物种的幼树、中树和大树主要呈空间正相关或无空间关联性.(3)两优势种群不同

  3. Effects of simulated acid rain on soil and soil solution chemistry in a monsoon evergreen broad-leaved forest in southern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Qingyan; Wu, Jianping; Liang, Guohua; Liu, Juxiu; Chu, Guowei; Zhou, Guoyi; Zhang, Deqiang

    2015-05-01

    Acid rain is an environmental problem of increasing concern in China. In this study, a laboratory leaching column experiment with acid forest soil was set up to investigate the responses of soil and soil solution chemistry to simulated acid rain (SAR). Five pH levels of SAR were set: 2.5, 3.0, 3.5, 4.0, and 4.5 (as a control, CK). The results showed that soil acidification would occur when the pH of SAR was ≤3.5. The concentrations of NO₃(-)and Ca(2+) in the soil increased significantly when the pH of SAR fell 3.5. The concentration of SO₄(2-) in the soil increased significantly when the pH of SAR was acidity of SAR. The releases of soluble Al and Fe were SAR pH dependent, and their net exports under pH 2.5 treatment were 19.6 and 5.5 times, respectively, higher than that under CK. The net export of DOC was reduced by 12-29% under SAR treatments as compared to CK. Our results indicate the chemical constituents in the soil are more sensitive to SAR than those in the soil solution, and the effects of SAR on soil solution chemistry depend not only on the intensity of SAR but also on the duration of SAR addition. The soil and soil solution chemistry in this region may not be affected by current precipitation (pH≈4.5) in short term, but the soil and soil leachate chemistry may change dramatically if the pH of precipitation were below 3.5 and 3.0, respectively. PMID:25893761

  4. Ice and Snow Disasters to the Evergreen Broad-leaved Forest in the Jiulianshan Nature Reserve in Jiangxi, China%九连山自然保护区常绿阔叶林冰雪灾害研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何俊; 赵秀海; 张春雨; 贾玉; 范娟; 毛双燕; 张自斌; 廖承开

    2011-01-01

    以九连山国家级自然保护区典型常绿阔叶林为对象,研究树木属性、地形因子与冰雪灾害受损程度的关系.结果表明:九连山常绿阔叶林(DBH≥10 cm)以栲属物种占据主要优势.断梢率、腰折率、翻蔸率和平均受损指数(MDI)最高的树种分别为马尾松、米槠、丝栗栲和米槠,最低的树种分别为红楠、丝栗栲、枫香和罗浮柿.断梢率与胸径(DBH)、树高(H)显著正相关(P0.05),坡度30°~ 40°生境中MDI值最高.%The ice and snow damages to the evergreen broad-leaved forest in the Jiulianshan National Nature Reserve in Jiangxi, China were studied, and the correlations between damage degrees with tree characteristics and topographical factors were analyzed.The results showed: The forest was dominated by Castanopsis species (DBH>10 cm), and Pinus massoniana (PM), C.carlesii (CC), C.fargesil (CF), and CC were found highest for top breakage ratio (TOB), trunk breakage ratio (TRB),uprooting ratio (UR) and mean damage index (MDI); while Machilus thunbergii (MT), CF, Liquidambarjormosana (LF),and Diospyros rnorrisiana (DM) were lowest.The TOB had extremely significantly positive correlation with DBH (P<0.01),H (P<0.01), and extremely significantly negative correlation with H/DBH (P<0.01); TRB had extremely significantly negative correlation with DBH (P<0.01); UP had extremely significantly negative correlation with DBH (P<0.01); and MDI was not significantly correlated with DBH, H, and H/DBH (P>0.05).The TOB was the highest under the conditions of DBH≥50 cm, 21≤H<23 m or 20≤H/DBH<40, and the lowest with 10≤DBH<12 cm, 5≤H<7 m or H/DBH≥120; the TRB was the highest under the conditions of 10≤DBH<12 cm, 13≤H<15 m or 100≤H/DBH<110, and the lowest with 42≤DBH<44 cm, 7≤H<9 m or H/DBH ≥120; the UR was the highest under the conditions of 20≤DBH<22 cm, 11≤H<13 m or 90≤H/DBH<100, and the lowest with 36≤DBH<38 cm, DBH≥40

  5. Hydrological characteristics of litter in different forest succession stages at Liuxihe Watershed, southern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhuowen ZHANG; Yunfei LEI; Kaijun SU; Guang WANG; Dongyun WANG; Hongyan MA

    2009-01-01

    The hydrological characteristics of litter in four different forest succession stages, i.e., a Pinus massoniana forest, a mixed conifer and broad-leaved forest with conifer being the dominant species, a mixed conifer and broad-leaved forest with deciduous trees as dominant species, and an evergreen broad-leaved forest, have been studied by means of substituting space for time. The results show that while a community is developing to a zonal climax, the amount of litter becomes larger and its decomposition intensity becomes stronger; there is a positive relation between its water-holding capacity and velocity and its community maturity for the halfdecomposed litter layer.

  6. 云南高黎贡山中山湿性常绿阔叶林的群落特征%Community Characteristics of the Mid-Montane Humid Ever-Green Broad-Leaved Forest in Gaoligong Mountains, Yunnan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟广涛; 柴勇; 袁春明; 艾怀森; 李贵祥; 王骞; 李品荣; 蔺汝涛

    2013-01-01

    The dynamic observation of the mid - montane humid evergreen broad-leaved forest and the community characteristics analysis were conducted in a 4 - hm2 permanent plot located in ecological corridor in southern region of Gaoligong Mountains National Nature Reserve during 2009-2010. The results showed that there were 10 546 freestanding individuals with DBH ≥1. 0 cm in the 4 hm plot, belonging to 95 species, 64 genera and 35 families. The species richness was higher and the proportion of rare species was lower in the plot, compared with other plots of the same kind forest. Lauraceae, Theaceae, Araliaceae, Fagaceae, and Symplocaceae were dominant families in the plot and they comprised 44. 21 % of all species and 56. 70% of all individuals. Symplocas ramosissima, Eurya pseudocerasifera , Gordonia longicarpa, Neolitsea lunglingensis, Lithocarpus hancei, and Cyclobalanopsis lamellosa had more importance value in the plot, but no one had obvious advantage, namely the plot did not contain an obviously dominant species. Floristic characteristics of the community indicated that the tropical elements were much more than temperate elements, implying that this area could be an origin of tropics. The minimal area of the community is 1. 32 hm , which could comprise more than 80% of all species. The structure of DBH size class of all species and some dominant species in the plot showed a typical pyramid structure with a wide bottom and a narrow top, implying a good regeneration in the community. The survival curve of most of dominant species tended to be of the Deevey-Ⅲ type, with a high mortality rate at small DHB size class and a low and stable mortality rate at large DBH size class.

  7. 帽峰山森林气温与区域气温变化趋势分析%Analysis of Temperature Variation Trends in Maofengshan Mt Subtropical Evergreen Broad-leaves Forest and Guangzhou City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘勇军; 王兵; 陈步峰; 史欣; 肖以华

    2011-01-01

    The responses and feedbacks of the forest climate ecosystem into the future global climate change have become very attractive issues. Analysis of historic climate data from 1952 to 2009 of Guangzhou and that from 2004 to 2009 in Maofengshan Mt forest ecosystem by using statistical method and seasonal decomposition additive model confirms that the climate in Guangzhou has recently been warming at a rate of 0.21 °C per decade; The results showed that the temperatures in Guangzhou and Maofengshan Mt were significantly positive correlated, the air temperature change in 2004-2009 had a decreasing trend at a rate of -0.008 ℃ · a-1 and -0.293 ℃ · a -1; The temperature change of Maofengshan Mt subtropical evergreen broad-leaves forest climate ecosystem positively responsed to regional climate change of Guangzhou. Occasionally, its responses appeared negative feedback before the abnormal weather, for example, before the winter-weather disaster in January and February 2008. Climate change is threatening the health of forests around the world. As temperature rises, the negative impacts of climate change are expected to far outweigh any benefits. The advanced fields need to be developed were discussed.%根据广州市1952-2009年和帽峰山2004-2009年气温观测数据,采用统计分析方法和季节分解加法模型,分析了帽峰山森林气温与区域气温变化趋势特征.结果表明:广州市近58年来气温增暖趋势显著,年平均气温的倾向率达0.21℃·a-1;2004-2009年间,广州市和帽峰山气温变化均呈下降趋势,气温倾向率分别为-0.008、-0.293℃·a-1,帽峰山气温下降幅度大于广州市;帽峰山林区气温变化趋势与广州市气温变化趋势基本一致;在区域极端异常天气出现前,森林气温变化趋势出现负反馈.

  8. Composition and Diversity of Ground-dwelling Beetle (Coleoptera) Along a Succession Gradient in Broad-leaved and Korean Pine Mixed Forest in the Changbai Mountains, China%长白山阔叶红松林不同演替阶段地表甲虫组成和多样性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾玉珍; 赵秀海; 孟庆繁

    2011-01-01

    Korean pine forest.The investigation results suggested that the composition and diversity of ground-dwelling beetle was determined by succession stage.The beetle diversity in the secondary birch forest at the earlier succession stage was higher than that of climax forest community,but no significant differences in beetle diversity were showed among the three habitats.Highest numbers of beetle species and individuals were found in July.Species accumulation curves of all the three habitats did not reach an asymptote.The actual species richness values of the secondary conifer and broad-leaved mixed forest and original broad-leaved and Korean pine forest were both within the 95% confidence intervals,but that of the secondary birch forest was lower than the minimum estimated value.There were no significant differences in beetle species-abundance distributions among the three habitats and all of them fit the log series distribution.The result of DCA showed that the dominance species of all sites was similar and the difference among habitats was made by occasional species.According to analysis of RDA,the area of breast height and soil moisture were main environment factors affecting distribution of ground-dwelling beetle,which explained 99.2% of relationship between beetle and environment.

  9. 普洱季风常绿阔叶林次生演替中木本植物幼苗更新特征%Woody seedling regeneration in secondary succession of monsoon broad-leaved evergreen forest in Puer, Yunnan, Southwest China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李帅锋; 刘万德; 苏建荣; 张志钧; 刘庆云

    2012-01-01

    以时空替代的方法,将针阔混交林、季风常绿阔叶林的次生林与成熟林等3个处于同一空间下的群落作为次生演替进程中的3个阶段,研究云南普洱地区次生演替过程中的木本植物幼苗更新特征,分析了次生演替过程中木本植物幼苗的物种组成、密度、高度级及与环境因子的相关性.结果表明:在8个共144 m2的幼苗样地中调查木本植物幼苗101种2014株,其中乔木幼苗是主要组成.随着次生演替的进行,木本植物幼苗、乔木与藤本幼苗密度逐渐增加,灌木幼苗密度无显著变化;藤本植物幼苗的物种丰富度随着次生演替进行而增加,乔木与灌木幼苗则无显著变化,成熟季风常绿阔叶林中木本植物幼苗ShannonWiener指数要显著小于针阔混交林与次生季风常绿阔叶林.次生与成熟季风常绿阔叶林木本植物幼苗多度随高度级增加而减少,针阔混交林则呈现偏峰曲线,幼苗密度均集中分布在高度20 cm以内,3个群落演替阶段木本植物幼苗物种丰富度随高度级增加呈现偏锋曲线.相似性系数反映出乔木和藤本幼苗的更新来源与群落的物种组成存在着紧密的联系.乔木幼苗密度分布与样地坡度之间存在着显著的负相关,灌木幼苗密度与土壤pH值之间存在着显著正相关.%Seedling, made up of small individuals of woody plant species in the understorey, is an important component of many forests and considered as an important source for natural restoration in forest ecosystems. Simultaneously seedling plays an important role in the regeneration of numerous tree species. Based on space-for-time substitution method, we treated coniferous and broad-leaved mixed forest, secondary monsoon evergreen broad-leaved forest ( MEBF) , primary MEBF in the same area as three different stages of secondary succession of MEBF. Eight sampling plots representing the three different stages distribute in Caiyanghe nature

  10. Coarse Woody Debris Biomass in a Monsoon Evergreen Broad-leaved Forest in the Dinghushan Nature Reserve, China%鼎湖山粗死木质残体生物量特征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨方方; 李跃林

    2011-01-01

    The biomass, types and decay classes of coarse woody debris (CWD) were analyzed in a monsoon evergreen broad-leaved forest (MEBF) in the Dinghushan Nature Reserve, Southeastern China based on long-term data from a I hm2 permanent sample plot. The results showed that: 1) The total CWD biomass was 42.09 t hm2, of which the fallen trees and standing dead trees were 32.81 t hm2 and 9.28 t hm2, respectively. Fallen trees were the main type and accounted for 77.9% of the total CWD biomass, while the percentage of standing dead trees was 22.1%. The average annual increment of CWD was 1.68 thm-2a1-from 1999 to 2010. 2) Castanopsis chinensis was the dominant species of CWD, accounting for 54.0% of the total CWD biomass, and followed by Engelhardtia roxburghiana and Schima superba, with the percentage of 15.1% and 13.9%, respectively. 3) DBH class of the CWD was mainly below 30 cm, though those with DBH more than 30 cm were the main contributor to CWD biomass. 4) The main decay class of CWD was intermediate decay, which accounted for 61.2% of the total CWD biomass. It was also found that the CWD biomass accumulated with time in the forest. Fig 2, Tab 3, Ref 17%对鼎湖山季风常绿阔叶林1 hm2永久性样地内粗死木质残体(Coarse woody debris,简称CWD)的生物量、存在形式及分解状态进行研究.结果表明:1)鼎湖山季风常绿阔叶林CWD的生物量为42.09 t hm-2,其中倒木和枯立木分别为32.81t hm-2、9.28t hm-2,所占比例分别为77.9%、22.1%.1999~2010年间CWD年均输入量为1.68 t hm-2a-1.2)CWD主要优势树种为锥栗(Castanopsis chinensis)、黄杞(Engelhardtia roxbueghiana)和荷木(Schima superba),所占比例分别为54.0%、15.1%和13.9%.3)CWD径级主要分布在30 cm以下,但对CWD生物量贡献最大的径级在30 cm以上.4)CWD 的分解状态主要为中度分解状态,占CWD总生物量的61.2%研究还表明,鼎湖山季风常绿阔叶林的CWD生物量呈逐年增加趋势.图2表3参17

  11. Genetic diversity of Lithocarpus harlandii populations in three forest communities with different succession stages

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jianhui LI; Zexin JIN; Wenyan LOU; Junmin LI

    2008-01-01

    By using random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) technique,this paper studied the genetic diversity and genetic differentiation of Lithocarpus harlandii populations in three forest communities (con-iferous forest, coniferous and broad-leaved mixed forest, and evergreen broad-leaved forest) with different succes-sion stages in Tiantai Mountain in Zhejiang Province.The results showed that a total of 173 repetitive loci were produced in 60 individuals of L. Harlandii by 12 random primers, among which, 152 loci were polymorphic, and the total percentage of polymorphic loci was 87.86%. The average percentage of polymorphic loci of the popula-tions was 65.32%, and their total genetic diversity estimated by Shannon information index was 0.4529,with an average of 0.3458,while that judged from Nei's index was 0.3004, with an average of 0.2320. The percentage of polymorphic loci, Shannon information index, and Nei's index of the populations were in the sequence of coniferous forest community coniferous and broad-leaved mixed forest community evergreen broad-leaved forest community. Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) showed that 72.85% of genetic variance was found within the populations,and 27.15% of genetic variance resided among the populations. The coefficient of gene differentiation was 0.2277, and the gene flow was 1.6949. The genetic structure of L. Harlandii was influenced not only by the biological characteristics of this species, but also by the micro-environment of different communities. The mean of genetic identity among three populations of L. Harlandii was 0.8662, and the mean of their genetic distance was 0.1442. The genetic similarity between coniferous and broad-leaved mixed forest community and evergreen broad-leaved forest community was the highest, while that between evergreen broad-leaved forest community and coniferous forest community was the lowest.The unweighted pair group method with arithmeticmean (UPGMA) cluster analysis based on Nei's genetic

  12. 降水变化驱动下红松阔叶林土壤真菌多样性的分布格局%Effects of precipitation variation on the distribution pattern of soil fungal diversity in broad-leaved Korean pine mixed forest

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王楠楠; 杨雪; 李世兰; 隋心; 韩士杰; 冯富娟

    2013-01-01

    红松阔叶林生态系统是中国东北地区地带性顶极植被,具有重要的生态学意义,长白山是研究温带森林对大气降水变化正负反馈的理想地带.本文以长白山原始红松阔叶林为研究对象,基于末端限制性片段长度多态性分析技术,分析了降水控制样地(增、减30%)和对照样地的0 ~5 cm和5~ 10 cm表层土和红松根际土真菌多样性的空间异质性.结果表明:降水的增加和减少均能提高土壤真菌的多样性,但优势种群有所变化.表层土中,片段长度超过500 bp的T-RFs丰度随降水增加而提高,根际土中对降水变化响应的T-RFs分别为380、455和487 bp,且根际土的响应模式较表层土复杂.典范对应分析结果表明,土壤pH、有机碳含量、总氮和有效磷等对真菌群落组成影响显著.%Broad-leaved Korean pine mixed forest is a kind of zonal climax vegetation with ecological significance in Northeast China,whereas Changbai Mountain is an ideal area to study the effects of precipitation variation on temperate forest.Taking the virgin broad-leaved Korean pine mixed forest in Changbai Mountain as the object,and based on T-RFLP method,this paper analyzed the spatial heterogeneity of fungal diversity in 0-5 cm and 5-10 cm soil layers and in rhizosphere soil at three different precipitation plots (30% increase,30% decrease,and the control).Both the increase and the decrease of precipitation increased the diversity of soil fungi,but the dominant population changed.In 0-5 cm and 5-10 cm soil layers,the T-RFs over 500 bp increased with precipitation; in rhizosphere soil,the T-RFs responded to precipitation variation were 380 bp,455 bp,and 487 bp,and the response mode was more complicated than that in surface soil layers.The results of CCA showed that the fungal community composition was significantly affected by soil pH,organic carbon,total nitrogen,and organic phosphorus.

  13. Effects of enhanced ultraviolet-B radiation on water use efficiency, stomatal conductance, leaf nitrogen content and morphological characteristics of Spiraea pubesoens in a warm-temperate deciduous broad-leaved forest

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Lan; ZHANG Shouren

    2007-01-01

    Spiraeapubescens,a common shrub in the warm temperate deciduous forest zone which is distributed in the Dongling Mountain area of Beijing,was exposed to ambient and enhanced ultraviolet-B(UV-B,280-320 nm)radiation by artificially supplying a daily dose of 9.4 kJ/m2 for three growing seasons,a level that simulated a 17% depletion in stratospheric ozone.The objective of this study was to explore the effects of long-term UV-B enhancement on stomatal conductance,leaf tissue δ13C,leaf water content,and leaf area.Particular attention was paid to the effects of UV-B radiation on water use efficiency(WUE)and leaf total nitrogen content.Enhanced UV-B radiation significantly reduced leaf area (50.1%)but increased leaf total nitrogen content(102%).These changes were associated with a decrease in stomatal conductance(16.1%)and intercellular CO2 concentration/air CO2 concentration(C/Ca)(4.0%),and an increase in leaf tissue δ13C(20.5%),leaf water content(3.1%),specific leaf weight(SLW)(5.2%)and WUE(4.1%).The effects of UV-B on the plant were greatly affected by the water content of the deep soil(30-40 cm).During the dry season,differences in the stomatat conductance δ13C,and WUE between the control and UV-B treated shrubs were very small;whereas,differences became much greater when soil water stress disappeared.Furthermore,the effects of UV-B became much less significant as the treatment period progressed over the three growing seasons.Correlation analysis showed that enhanced UV-B radiation decreased the strength of the correlation between soil water content and leaf water content, δ13C,Ci/Ca,stomatal conductance,with the exception of WUE that had a significant correlation coefficient with soil water content.These results suggest that WUE would become more sensitive to soil water variation due to UV-B radiation.Based on this experiment,it was found that enhanced UV-B radiation had much more significant effects on morphological traits and growth of S.pubescens than hydro

  14. DETECTING EFFECT OF PHYLOGENETIC DIVERSITY ON SEEDLING MORTALITY IN AN EVERGREEN BROAD-LEAVED FOREST IN CHINA%常绿阔叶林谱系多样性对幼苗存活率的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈英

    2009-01-01

    密度制约机制对于维护生物多样性有非常重要的作用.随着对密度制约机制的深入研究,人们逐渐认识到:不仅在种内存在密度制约效应,亲缘关系相近的物种之间也可能表现出密度制约效应.webb在2000年提山的NRI(净种间亲缘关系指数)、NTI(净最近种间亲缘关系指数)考虑了比较全面的谱系信息,获得了广泛的应用.该文采用NRI、NTI来代表种间关系,并用Logistic回归模犁来分析了谱系因子对浙江省开化县古田山自然保护区24hm~2永久监测样地中501个幼苗样方死亡率的影响.通过对6次幼苗调查数据的分析表明:不仅相同物种密度对于幼苗的死亡率有显著影响,当密度达到一定水平时,谱系因子同样也对幼苗的死亡率有显著影响苗区中个体间的亲缘关系越近,幼苗个体的死亡率越高.%Aims Negative density dependence plays an important role in maintaining forest biodiversity. Ecologists found this mechanism operates not only between conspecifics but also between closely related heterospecifics. Our objective was to determine whether phylogenetic diversity affects seedling mortality at different scales.Methods We used net relatedness index (NRI) and nearest taxon index (NTI) to represent phylogenetic diversity and employed logistic regression modeling. We analyzed the relationship between seedling mortality and phylogenetic diversity using the seedling dynamic data from six seedling censuses of 507 seedling plots at Gutianshan Nature Reserve during May 2006 and November 2007. Important findings We found that higher density of conspecifics resulted in higher seedling mortality, and phylogenetic diversity was responsible for seedling mortality when seedling density was high (>3.46 individuals·m~(-2)).

  15. Effects of biotic and abiotic factors on tree seedling survival in a broad-leaved Korean pine (Pinus koraiensis) mixed forest on Changbai Mountain%长白山阔叶红松林中影响乔木幼苗存活的关键因素

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖翠; 刘帅; 黄珍; 樊莹; 王均伟; 赵秀海; 唐景毅

    2015-01-01

    Seedling recruitment plays a key role in determining species composition and diversity. Exploring patterns of seedling dynamics can therefore provide crucial insights into the mechanisms that affect seedling recruitment. The broad-leaved Korean pine ( Pinus koraiensis) mixed forest is a temperate forest typical of northeast China. In 2007, we established a 1 hm2 plot in a broad-leaved Korean pine mixed forest on Changbai Mountain, northeast China. We identified, tagged, and mapped each tree with diameter at breast height ≥1 cm. At the same time, we set up 100 seedling quadrats of 1m × 1m which were censused every July. In total, we collected data on 1288 adult trees and 965 seedlings in the 1 hm2 plot between 2012 and 2013, and examined the importance of biotic and abiotic factors on seedling survival using a generalized mixed linear model. Biotic factors included presence of conspecific seedling neighbors and heterospecific seedling neighbors, presence of conspecific adult neighbors and heterospecific adult neighbors, and herb density and herb cover. Abiotic factors included soil organic matter, available soil phosphorus, available soil potassium, available soil nitrogen, total soil nitrogen, and canopy openness. Conspecific neighbors had a significant negative effect on seedling survival at the community level, indicating significant negative density-dependence effects. The effects of biotic and abiotic factors on seedlings differed with seedling age. Conspecific adult neighbors and canopy openness had significant positive effects on survival of, 1-year seedlings while heterospecific adult neighbors had a significant negative effect. In contrast, for 2- to 3-year-old seedlings, conspecific seedling neighbors and conspecific adult neighbors showed a significant negative effect on seedling survival, but abiotic factors had no significant effect. Moreover, for ≥4-year-old seedlings, soil PC axis 1 ( associated with low organic matter available K, available N

  16. Species composition and community structure of the Donglingshan forest dynamic plot in a warm temperate deciduous broad-leaved secondary forest, China%东灵山暖温带落叶阔叶次生林动态监测样地:物种组成与群落结构

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘海丰; 李亮; 桑卫国

    2011-01-01

    Community structure is one of the key features in the process of vegetation succession.Warm temperate mixed deciduous broad-leaved secondary forest is the main forest vegetation type in China's warm temperate zone.In order to better study the mechanisms of succession and species coexistence in this forest type, we established the Donglingshan 20-ha forest plot (DLS plot) in 2009 and 2010 using the same protocol as the well-established plot on Barro Colorado Island in Panama.In the plot, all free-standing woody plants with DBH (diameter at breast height) ≥1 cm were mapped, tagged, and identified to species.Here, we address preliminary results on floristic characteristics, community composition, and size-class, vertical, and spatial structure of the DLS plot.These datasets will serve as baseline information accessible to a wide range of future studies.We tagged a total of 52,136 genotype individuals (103,284 individuals including branches of genotype individuals), belonging to 58 species, 33 genera and 18 families.All of these tree species were deciduous.Floristic characteristics of the community suggested a temperate flora, including some subtropical and tropical elements.There were very obvious dominant species in the plot.Five species comprised 61% of all individuals, and 20 species comprised 92% of all individuals, while the other 38 species comprised only 8% of all individuals.Vertical structure was composed of an overstory layer (19 species), midstory layer (18 species), and a shrub layer (21 species).The DBH size-class structure of all species in the plot generally fitted a "reverse J" distribution, indicating good regeneration across the community.The size-class structure of the main species in the overstory layer showed a bimodal or nearly normal distribution, while the most abundant species in the midstory and shrub layers showed "reverse J" or even "L" distributions.Spatial distribution patterns of the dominant species varied with size-class and

  17. 长白山阔叶红松林中影响乔木幼苗存活的关键因素%Effects of biotic and abiotic factors on tree seedling survival in a broad-leaved Korean pine (Pinus koraiensis) mixed forest on Changbai Mountain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖翠; 刘帅; 黄珍; 樊莹; 王均伟; 赵秀海; 唐景毅

    2015-01-01

    应用广义线性混合模型,对长白山阔叶红松林中影响幼苗存活的生物因素和非生物因素进行分析。结果表明:(1)在群落水平上,幼苗存活率和生物因素中同种幼苗邻居显著负相关,说明在阔叶红松林群落中存在负密度制约效应。(2)生物因子和非生物因子对不同年龄阶段的幼苗存活率影响不同。对于1年生的幼苗,幼苗存活率与异种大树邻居呈显著负相关,与同种大树邻居呈显著正相关;对于2—3年生的幼苗,其存活率和同种幼苗邻居、同种大树邻居均呈显著负相关,和非生物因子相关不显著;对于4年生以上的幼苗,其存活率和土壤主成分分析的PC1(低的有机质、速效钾、速效氮等比较贫瘠的土壤)显著负相关。(3)种子的传播方式不同,幼苗存活率的影响因子也不同。对于风传播的物种,存活率与同种幼苗邻居密度显著正相关。对于重力传播的物种,幼苗存活率与土壤PC3(高的全氮和速效氮,含氮较高的土壤)、异种大树邻居、草本密度呈负相关,与林冠开阔度和草本盖度成正相关。(4)对于不同的物种,影响幼苗存活的因素也不同。紫椴的幼苗存活率与土壤PC3、异种大树邻居、草本密度呈显著负相关,与土壤主成分PC2(高的有机质和全氮等养分比较好的土壤)呈显著正相关。%Seedling recruitment plays a key role in determining species composition and diversity. Exploring patterns of seedling dynamics can therefore provide crucial insights into the mechanisms that affect seedling recruitment. The broad-leaved Korean pine ( Pinus koraiensis) mixed forest is a temperate forest typical of northeast China. In 2007, we established a 1 hm2 plot in a broad-leaved Korean pine mixed forest on Changbai Mountain, northeast China. We identified, tagged, and mapped each tree with diameter at breast height ≥1 cm. At the same time, we set up 100

  18. 浙江天童常绿阔叶林藤本植物的适应生态学 Ⅰ. 叶片解剖特征的比较%ADAPTIVE ECOLOGY OF LIANAS IN TIANTONG EVERGREEN BROAD-LEAVED FOREST, ZHEJIANG, CHINA I. LEAF ANATOMICAL CHARACTERS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡永立; 宋永昌

    2001-01-01

    The ecological adaptations and leaf characters of ten genera (including eleven species of liana) were studied in evergreen broad-leaved forest of Tiantong Forest Park, Zhejiang province, China. The results are as follows: 1) Despite the mesophyte leaf form of the eleven liana species there were significant differences in leaf anatomical characters among them and some differences among different plants of an individual. These differences are mainly controlled by genetic factors, but environmental factors (mainly light and water or humidity) also had an important influence on them and these may oppose forms required in climbing methods; 2) Based on leaf adaptive characters the 11 species may be divided into three adaptive kinds: sun-adapted taxa or xerophytes (Broussonetia kaempferi, Ficus pumila and F. sarmentosa var. henryi), shade-adapted taxa (Morinda umbellata, Millettia reticulata) and mesophytes (Ampelopsis cantoniensis, Hedera nepalensis var. sinensis, Smilax lanceiofolia var. opaca, Celastrus rosthonianus, Dioscorea cirrhosa, Dalbergia millettii); 3) Rates of variation of different anatomical characters adapting to light or humidity differed among species. The ability to vary these characters, which may be influenced by changing environmental factors during the growth of liana, may be important for liana to adapt to the different environmental conditions it experiences through its life.%利用解剖学方法对浙江天童森林公园常绿阔叶林的10属11种木质藤本叶片的解剖特征进行了比较和因子分析,结果表明:藤本植物叶片结构在不同种类之间具有明显的差异,同种藤本的不同植物体的叶片也存在一定的差异; 这些差异除受遗传因子控制外,环境因子(主要为光照和水分)也有重要作用; 攀援方式对藤本叶片特征有一定影响,但未表现出规律性。尽管叶片的基本结构仍属中生类型,但也表现出一定的趋异适应,根

  19. 南京仙林地区次生阔叶林群落的初步研究%A preliminary study on the secondary broad-leaved forest in Nanjing Xianlin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚榕; 方彦

    2012-01-01

    在野外实地调查的基础上,利用群落学研究手段对南京仙林地区的次生林群落进行了研究分析.结果表明:群落内共有植物60种,隶属于32科49属,科属种组成较为分散,优势科或优势属不明显;科属区系分析表明,泛热带分布和北温带分布的科属所占比例较大,分别为45.83%、21.28%和33.33%、19.51%,这说明群落区系分布类型真正的热带性质不明显,且具有热带性质和温带性质交融与过渡的特点.乔灌层的物种频度分布分别为A>B<C>D=E和A>B>C> D<E,灌木层物种分布较为均匀,而乔木层有进一步演替的可能.该群落结构层次较为简单,可分为乔木上层、乔木下层、灌木层、层间和草本层;其中,乔木层中的主要优势树种为短柄枹栎、构树、牡荆和马尾松,它们的重要值分别为16.10%、12.79%、9.31%和9.20%,而灌木层的优势树种为刚竹、短柄枹栎、野蔷薇、白檀和构树等.乔木层主要种群径级结构特征表明,短柄枹、构树等树种属于增长种群,而马尾松、化香等属于衰退种群.保护利用好该类型的森林群落对仙林地区的生态环境建设具有十分重要的意义.%Based on the field investigation, the secondary forest of Xianlin district was discussed by phyto coenology method. The results show that 60 species, belonging to 49 genera, 32 families were identified in this secondary forest, and the dominant family or genus is not significant, suggesting that the composition of the forest distributed unevenly. Among those 15 floristic elements, Pantropic and North Temperate accounted for 45.83%, 21.28% at the familial level and 33.33%, 19.51% at the generic level respectively; meanwhile, it indicates that the tropic element of community is not heavy, but it is characterized by the infiltration and transition between the tropical and temperate zones. The species distribution frequency show A>BB>C>IXE in tree layer

  20. Genetic diversity of Quercus glandulifera var. brevipetiolata populations in three forest communities with different succession stages

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Junmin LI; Zexin JIN; Qiping GU; Wenyan LOU

    2009-01-01

    In order to understand the relationship between population succession and its genetic behavior, random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) technique was used to analyze the genetic diversity of Quercu glandulifera var.brevipetiolata populations in three forest communities with different succession stages (coniferous forest, coniferous and broad-leaved mixed forest, evergreen broad-leaved forest). The results showed that 145 repetitive loci were produced in 60 individuals of Q. glandulifera using 11 primers, among which 120 loci were polymorphic, and the total percentage of polymorphic loci was 82.76% with an average of 64.14%. Estimated by the Shannon information index, the total genetic diversity of the three populations was 0.4747, with an average of 0.3642, while it was 0.3234, with an average of 0.2484, judged from the Nei index. Judged from percentage of polymorphic loci,Shannon inform at ion index and Nei index, the genetic diversity followed a decreasing order: coniferous forest >broad-leaved mixed forest > evergreen broad-leaved for-est. Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) showed that 69.73% of the genetic variance existed within populations and 30.27% of the genetic variance existed among popu-lations. The coefficient of gene differentiation (Gst) was 0.2319 and the gene flow (Nm) was 1.6539. The mean of genetic identity among populations of Q. glandulifera was 0.8501 and the mean of genetic distance was 0.1626. The genetic identity between the Q. glandulifera population in the coniferous forest and that in the coniferous and broad-leaved mixed forest was the highest. UPGMA cluster analysis based on Nei's genetic distance showed that the population in the coniferous forest gathered with that in the coniferous and broad-leaved mixed forest firstly, then with that in the evergreen broad-leaved forest. The genetic structure of Q. glandulifera was not only characteristic of the biological characteristics of this species, but was also influenced by the

  1. Leaf morphological and anatomical characteristics of epiphytes and their host tress in lower subtropical evergreen broad-leaved forest%南亚热带常绿阔叶林林冠层附生植物及其宿主叶片的形态解剖特征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    江浩; 黄钰辉; 周国逸; 胡晓颖; 刘世忠; 唐旭利

    2011-01-01

    Canopy-dwelling epiphytic plants have been well characterized in terms of the physiological and morphological traits permitting them to thrive in the absence of access to the soil. The ultimate purpose of this paper is to characterize the morphological and anatomical characteristics of major canopy-dwelling epiphytic plants and their host trees in the lower subtropical evergreen broad-leaved forest in the Southern China. Results showed epiphytic plants differed from host trees on leaf morphology and anatomy. Compared with host trees, epiphytic plants have smaller leaf area, larger specific leaf area (SLA), higher leaf water content, higher leaf thickness, higher leaf abaxial and adaxial epidermis thickness, lower stomatal density and stomata size for the uptake and restore of water and nutrients. Difference of leaf morphological and anatomical characters between epiphytes can be largely explained by changes of environmental factors such as photosynthetically active radiation (PAR), temperature and humidity within forest canopy. D. Chinensis and P. Serpens showed special characteristics with high leaf water contents, low stomatal density, thick spongy tissues and thin palisade tissues to adapt to their upper dwelling environment (high temperature, low air humidity and high PAR). F. Glaucescens and P. Hancei have large leaf area, thin leaf, and high stomata size in acclimatizing to the low temperature, high air humidity and low PAR.%选择南亚热带常绿阔叶林中具有代表性的4种林冠层附生植物:白背瓜馥木(Fissistigma glaucescens)、瓜子金(Dischidia chinensis)、蔓九节(Psychotria serpens)、山蒌(Piper hancei)及其主要宿主植物:厚壳桂(Cryptocarya chinensis)、荷木(Schimasuperba)、华润楠(Machilus chinensis)、锥栗(Castanopsis chinensis)为研究对象,对其叶片形态结构和解剖结构特征进行比较.研究结果表明:宿主植物与附生植物的叶片形态结构差异显著.相对于4种宿主植物,4种附生

  2. 特大冰冻干扰对大明山常绿阔叶林树冠及林冠层状况的影响%Effects of a Severe Ice Storm Disturbance on Crown and Canopy Condition of an Evergreen Broad-leaved Forest in Damingshan National Nature Reserve of Guangxi Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    温远光; 李婉舒; 朱宏光; 周晓果; 叶铎; 王磊

    2014-01-01

    【目的】通过对大明山南亚热带山地常绿阔叶林72个400m2样地的调查,了解特大冰冻干扰对南亚热带山地常绿阔叶林树冠和林冠状况的影响。【方法】2009年,在大明山海拔934~1223m 的范围内,按上、中、下坡设立3组调查样地,每一组样地包括24个20m×20m样方,对胸径≥5cm的林木进行调查,记录种名、胸径、树高、冠长、冠幅、座标及受损类型等。【结果】经统计,在调查的胸径≥5cm 的2538株林木中,有1714株受到不同程度损伤,占总数的67.53%,其中轻度损伤占47.75%、重度损伤占19.78%。总体上,不同坡位的冠损状况相似,均以轻度损伤为主,但表现有所不同,上坡轻度损伤比例最小(40.94%),严重损伤的比例最高(26.49%);中坡与之相反,轻度损伤比例最大(52.38%),严重损伤比例最小(16.52%);下坡损伤比例最低。胸径影响树木的受损类型和程度,呈现出随着胸径的增加,树冠受损的比例逐渐增大,并在30~40cm 径级(上坡)和40~81cm 径级(中坡和下坡)达到最大值。断枝比例(包括断枝少和断枝多)随胸径增大而增大,而断梢和失冠则随胸径增大而减小。落叶树种比常绿树种受损更重。冰冻灾害后,林冠叶面积指数显著下降,散射透光系数和直射透光系数显著增加。【结论】特大冰冻干扰对大明山常绿阔叶林已造成严重影响,受冰冻灾害的长期影响,大明山常绿阔叶林的树冠和林冠状况发生了显著的变化,由半圆球形树冠演变为狭窄的圆柱形树冠,以适应冰冻干扰和气候变化的影响。%[Objective]Through field investigation of 72 permanent plots (each 400m2 )of the south subtropical montane evergreen broad-leaved forest in Damingshan Nature Reserve of Guangxi province,this paper deals with the effects of a severe ice storm disturbance on the crown and canopy condition of south subtropical

  3. Transformation of Carbon and Nitrogen by Earthworms in the Decomposition Processes of Broad-leaved Litters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DONG Weihua; YIN Xiuqin

    2007-01-01

    Earthworms are the important constituents in the decayed food web and the main ecological conditioners in the process of decomposition and nutrient mineralization. The transformation of organic carbon (C) and total nitrogen (N) in the broad-leaved litters ingested by earthworms was researched by means of a laboratory experiment. Experimental samples were collected from broad-leaved Korea Pine mixed forest in Liangshui National Natural Reserve (47°10'50"N, 128°53'20"E) in the northeastern Xiao Hinggan Mountains of Northeast China. The contents of organic C and total N in earthworms, leaf litters and earthworm faeces were analyzed. Results show that the organic C content was in the following order: leaf litters>faeces>earthworms, while total N content was contrary to that of the organic C. The organic C contents in the different leaf litters were in the following order: Tilia amurensis>Betula costata>Acer mono, whereas the total N contents in the different leaf litters were: Betula costata>Tilia amurensis>Acer mono. The contents of organic C and total N in the faeces from the different leaf litters were almost consistent with the contents of the leaf litters. After the leaf litters were ingested by earthworms, the organic C, which was transformed to increase earthworms' weights, accounted for 3.90%-13.31% of the total ingestion by earthworms, while that in the earthworm faeces accounted for 6.14%-13.70%. The transformed organic C through the other metabolism (e.g., respiration) of earthworms accounted for 75.04%-89.92%. The ingested organic C by earthworms was mostly used for metabolic activities. The N ingested by earthworms was less than organic C. It is estimated that 37.08% of total N was transformed to increase the earthworm's weight, 19.97% into earthworm faeces and 47.86% for the consumption of the earthworm's activities. The earthworms not only increased the content of organic C and total N in the soil, but also decreased the values of C/N in

  4. [Soil organic carbon pools and their turnover under two different types of forest in Xiao-xing'an Mountains, Northeast China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Fei; Jiang, Hang; Cui, Xiao-yang

    2015-07-01

    Soil samples collected from virgin Korean pine forest and broad-leaved secondary forest in Xiaoxing'an Mountains, Northeast China were incubated in laboratory at different temperatures (8, 18 and 28 °C) for 160 days, and the data from the incubation experiment were fitted to a three-compartment, first-order kinetic model which separated soil organic carbon (SOC) into active, slow, and resistant carbon pools. Results showed that the soil organic carbon mineralization rates and the cumulative amount of C mineralized (all based on per unit of dry soil mass) of the broad-leaved secondary forest were both higher than that of the virgin Korean pine forest, whereas the mineralized C accounted for a relatively smaller part of SOC in the broad-leaved secondary forest soil. Soil active and slow carbon pools decreased with soil depth, while their proportions in SOC increased. Soil resistant carbon pool and its contribution to SOC were both greater in the broad-leaved secondary forest soil than in the virgin Korean pine forest soil, suggesting that the broad-leaved secondary forest soil organic carbon was relatively more stable. The mean retention time (MRT) of soil active carbon pool ranged from 9 to 24 d, decreasing with soil depth; while the MRT of slow carbon pool varied between 7 and 24 a, increasing with soil depth. Soil active carbon pool and its proportion in SOC increased linearly with incubation temperature, and consequently, decreased the slow carbon pool. Virgin Korean pine forest soils exhibited a higher increasing rate of active carbon pool along temperature gradient than the broad-leaved secondary forest soils, indicating that the organic carbon pool of virgin Korean pine forest soil was relatively more sensitive to temperature change. PMID:26710615

  5. 亚热带常绿阔叶林群落物种多度分布格局对取样尺度的响应%Responses of species-abundance distribution to varying sampling scales in a subtropical broad-leaved forest

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程佳佳; 米湘成; 马克平; 张金屯

    2011-01-01

    We determined the best-fit model for, and explored the mechanisms shaping species-abundance distributions (SADs) by fitting five widely-used SAD distribution models at several scales.We used data collected in 2005 from a 24-ha dynamic plot in an evergreen broad-leaved forest in the Gutianshan National Nature Reserve.We estimated SAD at different sampling scales from the mean value of SADs taken from 100 randomly-selected subplots within the 600 m×400 m Gutianshan plot.We subsequently used the SADs to test the fit of different models, including the broken stick, lognormal distribution, niche preemption, Zipf,Zipf- Mandelbrot, and neutral models.We employed AIC and x2 values to test goodness-of-fit for these models.All computations were conducted using the Vegan package in R 2.7.1.At smaller scales (10 m× 10 m and 20 m×20 m), the broken stick, lognormal distribution, niche preemption, Zipf, and Zipf-Mandelbrot models all fit well to the observed species-abundance distribution.The Zipf-Mandelbrot was the best model at the 20 m×20 m scale.The Lognormal was the best-fit model at the 40 m×40 m scale, and the Zipf-Mandelbrot model was the only suitable one in explaining the observed SAD at scales of 60 m×60 m and 80 m×80 m.None of these models performed well at a scale of 100 m× 100 m, but the neutral model was better at explaining patterns of SADs at larger scales (40 m×40 m to 100 m× 100 m) than smaller scales and it is suitable in explaining patterns of SADs at all scales.Patterns in SAD were scale-dependent, suggesting that SADs at different scales are likely structured by different ecological processes.%为揭示物种多度格局随尺度的变化规律,探讨多度格局形成的机理及生态学过程,作者以古田山亚热带常绿阔叶林24 ha固定监测样地为背景.采用断棍模型(broken stick model)、对数正态模型(Iognormal distribution model)、生态位优先占领模型(preemption model)、Zipf模型(Zipf model

  6. Quantitative Analysis of Tree Species Diversity in Different Oak (Quercus spp.) Dominated Forests in Garhwal Himalaya, India

    OpenAIRE

    Gajendra SINGH; Gopal S. RAWAT

    2012-01-01

    Himalayan broad-leaved forests are mainly dominated by oak (Quercus spp.) species. Oak species with other tree species provide numerous ecosystem services and serve as lifeline for local inhabitants. Overall tree diversity and their status in different oak dominated forests viz., Quercus leucotrichophora (1500-2200 m), Q. floribunda (2201-2700 m) and Q. semecarpifolia (2701-3300 m) were studied in Garhwal, Himalaya. A total of 54 tree species (40 genera) in Q. leucotrichophora, 43 tree specie...

  7. Distribution of 14C-activity after 14CO2 application of the non structural carbohydrate in broad leaved dock (Rumex-Obtusifolis L), wild chervil (Anthriscus-Silvestris Cv Hoffmann) and cow parsnip (Heracleum-Spondylium L), at different growth stage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the present work was intended to test and provide guidance on the successful utilization of herbicides. At the time of sprouting of broad leaved dock the fraction of 14C mono- and disaccharides immediately after treatment with 14CO2, in the roots and shoot parts of the plant sometimes makes up more than 50% of the total sugars. This relates obviously with an accelerated starch accumulation at this stage of growth in the root system. However, it was not shown to be the case that the sensitivity of broad leaved dock towards systemic herbicides increases at the same time. The basipetal translocation of assimilates does not seem to be the only prerequisite for an effective attack on this type of weed. At all growth stages only of wild chervil on small fraction of the 14C is present in the mono- and disaccharide fractions. At the time of flowering when the use of herbicides can be recommended, the composition of the 14C carbohydrate fraction does not give an addition or better explanation for the sensitivity of the plants towards herbicides at this stage of growth. The experimental results were influenced by the fact that at the time of flowering no basic rosette had been formed and the 14C application had to be applied at a higher inserted leaf on the shoot. The main fraction of 14C activity in mono- and disaccharide immediately after 14CO2 application occurs in the roots of cow parsnip at the time of seed ripening when new basic leaves are formed. After seven days the major fractions of the 14C applied occur in the starch fraction of the root. The assumed close relationship between the transport of herbicides in the assimilate stream and the actual herbicide sensitivity of cow parsnip is additionally explained by these results. (orig./MG)

  8. Distribution of /sup 14/C-activity after /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ application of the non structural carbohydrate in broad leaved dock (Rumex-Obtusifolis L), wild chervil (Anthriscus-Silvestris Cv Hoffmann) and cow parsnip (Heracleum-Spondylium L), at different growth stage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuehbauch, W.; Imhoff, H.; Voigtlaender, G.

    1980-01-01

    In the present work was intended to test and provide guidance on the successful utilization of herbicides. At the time of sprouting of broad leaved dock the fraction of /sup 14/C mono- and disaccharides immediately after treatment with /sup 14/CO/sub 2/, in the roots and shoot parts of the plant sometimes makes up more than 50% of the total sugars. This relates obviously with an accelerated starch accumulation at this stage of growth in the root system. However, it was not shown to be the case that the sensitivity of broad leaved dock towards systemic herbicides increases at the same time. The basipetal translocation of assimilates does not seem to be the only prerequisite for an effective attack on this type of weed. At all growth stages only of wild chervil on small fraction of the /sup 14/C is present in the mono- and disaccharide fractions. At the time of flowering when the use of herbicides can be recommended, the composition of the /sup 14/C carbohydrate fraction does not give an addition or better explanation for the sensitivity of the plants towards herbicides at this stage of growth. The experimental results were influenced by the fact that at the time of flowering no basic rosette had been formed and the /sup 14/C application had to be applied at a higher inserted leaf on the shoot. The main fraction of /sup 14/C activity in mono- and disaccharide immediately after /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ application occurs in the roots of cow parsnip at the time of seed ripening when new basic leaves are formed. After seven days the major fractions of the /sup 14/C applied occur in the starch fraction of the root. The assumed close relationship between the transport of herbicides in the assimilate stream and the actual herbicide sensitivity of cow parsnip is additionally explained by these results.

  9. Trade-off between leaf size and number in current-year twigs of deciduous broad-leaved woody species at different altitudes on Qingliang Mountain, southeastern China%清凉峰不同海拔木本植物小枝内叶大小-数量权衡关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨冬梅; 占峰; 张宏伟

    2012-01-01

    Aims Trade-offs are fundamental to life-history strategies theory, and the leaf size and number trade-off is an important determinant of leaf-size evolution. It also has been proposed that this trade-off is dependent on habitat, but this is not well tested. Our objectives were to test whether the negative, isometric relationship between leaf size and number is conserved in different habitats and to explore the effects of altitude change on the relationship between the leaf size and number.Methods Leaf area, mass and number and twig mass and stem mass of current-year twigs were measured for 61 deciduous broad-leaved woody species within three altitude-based habitats on Qingliang Mountain, southeastern China. The standardized major axis estimation method and the phylogenetically independent contrast method were used to examine the scaling relationship between leaf size (leaf mass and leaf area) and leafing intensity (twig mass and stem mass) within current-year twigs.Important findings Significantly negative and isometric scaling relationships between leaf size and leafing intensity were found to be consistent in all three altitude-based habitats, regardless of whether leaf/twig size was expressed as area or mass. However, the intercepts of these relationships significantly decreased with increasing altitude, suggesting that habitats constrain the leaf size that can be supported by a given leafing intensity. The middle-attitude species usually had significant upper shifts along the common slopes relative to the high-altitude species. This suggested that the middle altitude is a more suitable habitat with high nutrients and moderate climate conditions for plants, compared to the high altitude with low temperatures and nutrients.%权衡关系是生活史对策理论的基础,叶大小-数量的权衡关系对理解叶大小进化具有重要的意义.该研究以单叶面积和单叶片干重表示叶大小,用小枝干重和小枝茎干重

  10. Impact of cloudiness on net ecosystem exchange of carbon dioxide in different types of forest ecosystems in China

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, M; G.-R. Yu; L.-M. Zhang; X.-M. Sun; X.-F. Wen; S.-J. Han; J.-H. Yan

    2010-01-01

    Clouds can significantly affect carbon exchange process between forest ecosystems and the atmosphere by influencing the quantity and quality of solar radiation received by ecosystem's surface and other environmental factors. In this study, we analyzed the effects of cloudiness on net ecosystem exchange of carbon dioxide (NEE) in a temperate broad-leaved Korean pine mixed forest at Changbaishan (CBS) and a subtropical evergreen broad-leaved forest at Dinghushan (DHS), based on the flux data ob...

  11. A robot to detect and control broad-leaved dock (Rumex obtusifolius L.) in grassland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evert, van F.K.; Samsom, J.; Polder, G.; Vijn, M.P.; Dooren, van H.J.C.; Lamaker, E.J.J.; Heijden, van der G.W.A.M.; Kempenaar, C.; Zalm, van der A.J.A.; Lotz, L.A.P.

    2011-01-01

    Broad-leaved dock is a common and troublesome grassland weed with a wide geographic distribution. In conventional farming the weed is normally controlled by using a selective herbicide, but in organic farming manual removal is the best option to control this weed. The objective of our work was to de

  12. Influence of Overstory on Seasonal Variability of Understory Herbs in Primary Broad-leaved Korean Pine Forest of Changbai Mountain%长白山原始阔叶红松林林下草本植物多样性格局及其影响因素

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏富才; 潘春芳2; 赵秀海2; 何海燕3; 周海城3

    2012-01-01

    于2009年生长季(5~9月份)对布置在1.0 hm2的原始阔叶红松林样地内的100个草本样方(1m×1 m)进行物种及其植株高度、盖度以及土壤因子、光照环境进行调查,分析不同层片与土壤因子、光照环境的相关性以及乔木层、灌木层、土壤因子、光照环境对草本层多样性格局的影响,以阐明长白山阔叶红松林林下草本层多样性格局及其影响因素.结果表明:(1)阔叶红松林下的草本植物存在明显的季节动态变化,其中,5月份黑水银莲花(Anemone amurensis)、延胡索(Corydalis ambigua)等早春短命植物占优势,6月份部分早春短命植物和早夏植物、晚夏植物同时出现,物种丰富度最高,7月份是夏季植物的生长旺季,物种多样性最高,8~9月份草本植物逐渐枯萎.(2)灌木层的多样性与草本层的多样性呈极显著正相关,灌木层的株数密度与不同月份的草本层盖度呈正相关、与草本层多样性呈负相关,而乔木层对草本层盖度和多样性的影响均不显著.(3)土壤速效钾、光照和土壤水分是关联乔木层和草本层的重要环境因子.研究认为,阔叶红松林下的乔木层通过影响光照、降水及枯落物的含量而间接影响草本层的多样性格局.%The relationships among the vertical layers (tree-, shrub- and herb-layer) of a temperate forest and the power of environmental and spatial factors were investigated to explain the variation in two attributes of herb-layer;cover and diversity. In the 1. 0 hm2 study site,a total of 100 1-m2 sub-plots (each 20 mX 20 m has 4 1-m2 sub-plots) were monitored monthly from May to September in 2009. Among the environmental factors, tree-and shrub-layer related factors (density, canopy cover and Shannon-diversity) , soil attributes (soil organic matter, available nitrogen, available phosphorus, available potassium, soil water and pH) and light regime (LAI,PPFD and canopy presence) were studied. The results

  13. 小兴安岭凉水典型阔叶红松林动态监测样地:物种组成与群落结构%Species composition and community structure of a typical mixed broad-leaved-Korean pine (Pinus koraiensis) forest plot in Liangshui Nature Reserve, Northeast China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐丽娜; 金光泽

    2012-01-01

    The mixed broadleaved-Korean pine {Pinus koraiensis) forest (MBKF) represents the climax vegetation type of the eastern mountainous area of Northeast China. It is divided into three categories according to community structure and species composition, including southern MBKF, typical MBKF, and northern MBKF. To monitor long-term dynamics of the typical MBKF, we established a 9-ha plot following the field protocol of the 50 ha plot in Panama (Barro Colorado Island, BCI) in 2005 in Liangshui National Nature Reserve of Heilongjiang Province. All free-standing plant species with DBH (diameter at breast height) =1 cm were mapped, tagged, and identified to species in the plot. In the 2010 census, we documented 48 woody species with 21,355 individuals, belonging to 34 genera and 20 families. Most of the species belong to the Changbai Mountain plant flora, with a minor subtropical plant species component. The DBH distribution of all individuals showed a reversed "J" type, indicating well regenerated for the community. The DBH distribution for the canopy, sub-canopy, and middle layers and the understory layer showed the reversed "J" and "L" distributions, respectively. The DBH pattern of the nine dominant species can be classified into three categories: approximate normal, reversed "J", and "L" distribution. Spatial pattern analysis showed that the major tree species were aggregated, and aggregation intensity decreased as DBH increased. Further analysis showed that spatial distribution was closely related to topography and varied with DBH classes. For example, the distribution of Pinus koraiensis and Tilia amurensis was significantly affected by topography (P < 0.05); however, the distribution of Abies nephrolepis, Acer ukurunduense, and Ulmus laciniata correlated significantly with topography at diameter classes of I (DBH < 10 cm) and II (10 cm < DBH < 30 cm). The distribution of Betula costata and Acer tegmentosum was also significantly correlated with topography at a

  14. [Effects of soil temperature and moisture on soil respiration in different forest types in Changbai Mountain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Miao; Ji, Lanzhu; Li, Qiurong; Liu, Yanqiu

    2003-08-01

    The effects of soil temperature (0, 5, 15, 25, 35 degrees C) and water content on soil respiration in three forest types in Changbai Mountain were evaluated in laboratory condition. The results indicated that the soil respiration rate was positively correlated to soil temperature from 0 to 35 degrees C and it increased with soil water content from 0.21 to 0.37 kg.kg-1. The soil respiration rate decreased with soil water content when water content was over the range. The result suggested the interactive effects of temperature and water content on soil respiration. There were significant differences in soil respiration among the various forest types and the highest was in broad leaf Korean pine forest, then in erman's birch forest, and it was the lowest in dark coniferous forest. The optimal condition for soil respiration in broad-leaved Korean pine forest was at 35 degrees C under 0.37 kg.kg-1 water content, and it was at 25 degrees C under 0.21 kg.kg-1 in dark coniferous forest and at 35 degrees C under 0.37 kg.kg-1 water content in erman's birch forest. Because the forests of broad leaf Korean pine, dark coniferous and erman's birch are located at various altitudes, the soil temperatures had 4-5 degrees C variation in different forest types during the same period. The soil respiration rates measured in brown pine mountain soil were lower than those in dark brown forest and they were higher in mountain grass forest soil than those in brown pine mountain soil. PMID:14655349

  15. Response of Termite (Blattodea: Termitoidae) Assemblages to Lower Subtropical Forest Succession: A Case Study in Dinghushan Biosphere Reserve, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhi-Qiang; Ke, Yun-Ling; Zeng, Wen-Hui; Zhang, Shi-Jun; Wu, Wen-Jing

    2016-02-01

    Termite (Blattodea: Termitoidae) assemblages have important ecological functions and vary in structure between habitats, but have not been studied in lower subtropical forests. To examine whether differences in the richness and relative abundance of termite species and functional groups occur in lower subtropical regions, termite assemblages were sampled in Dinghushan Biosphere Reserve, China, among pine forest, pine and broad-leaved mixed forest (mixed forest), and monsoon evergreen broad-leaved forest (monsoon forest). The dominant functional group was wood-feeding termites (family Termitidae), and the mixed forest hosted the greatest richness and relative abundance. Soil-feeding termites were absent from the lower subtropical system, while humus-feeding termites were sporadically distributed in mixed forest and monsoon forest. The species richness and functional group abundance of termites in our site may be linked to the forest succession. Altitude, soil temperature, air temperature, surface air relative humidity, and litter depth were significant influences on species and functional group diversity. PMID:26577861

  16. Influences of leaf litter replacement on soil biochemical characteristics of main planted forests in Qinling Mountains of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zengwen LIU; Erjun DUAN; Wenjun GAO

    2009-01-01

    Long-term continuous growth of the same tree species in planted pure forest will lead to soil polarization and degradation. Mixed forestation or litter replacement between different needle- and broad-leaved forests are effective measures, except fertilization, to control soil polarization according to the mutual compensation principle of different tree species. Through a two-year leaf litter replacement experiment in 4 typical planted pure forests of Larix kaempferi, Pinus tabulaeformis, Catalpa fargesii and Quercus aliena var. acuteserrata in Qinling Mountains of China, influences of leaf litter replacement on soil biochemical characteristics and their interspecific relationships were studied and main conclusions were reached as follows. (1) Annual leaf litter decomposition rate of broadleaved forests was 33.70% higher than those of needleleaved forests and increased by 8.35%-12.15% when needle-leaved litter was replaced with broad-leaved forests, whereas it decreased by 5.38%-9.49% when broad-leaved litter was replaced with needle-leaved forests. (2) Leaf litter replacement between needle- and broad-leaved forests popularly raised the contents of organic C, available N, P and K in soil, whose content increments in the needle-leaved forests (8.70%-35.84%) were obviously more than those in the broad-leaved forests (3.73%-10.44%), and in the former, the content increments after replacement with the litter of Catalpa fargesii (24.63%-35.84%) were more than those after replacement with the litter ofQuercus aliena var. acuteserrata (8.70% 28.15%). Furthermore, the litter replacement was found to make the soil pH of needle-leaved forests developed from light-acid to neutral. (3) Litter replacement of the needleleaved forests with the broad-leaved litter popularly raised enzyme activities, amounts of microorganisms and contents of micro-biomass C and N in soil, the increments of which after replacement with the litter of Catalpa fargesii were also more than those after

  17. Regeneration of different plant functional types in a Masson pine forest following pine wilt disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guang Hu

    Full Text Available Pine wilt disease is a severe threat to the native pine forests in East Asia. Understanding the natural regeneration of the forests disturbed by pine wilt disease is thus critical for the conservation of biodiversity in this realm. We studied the dynamics of composition and structure within different plant functional types (PFTs in Masson pine forests affected by pine wilt disease (PWD. Based on plant traits, all species were assigned to four PFTs: evergreen woody species (PFT1, deciduous woody species (PFT2, herbs (PFT3, and ferns (PFT4. We analyzed the changes in these PFTs during the initial disturbance period and during post-disturbance regeneration. The species richness, abundance and basal area, as well as life-stage structure of the PFTs changed differently after pine wilt disease. The direction of plant community regeneration depended on the differential response of the PFTs. PFT1, which has a higher tolerance to disturbances, became dominant during the post-disturbance regeneration, and a young evergreen-broad-leaved forest developed quickly after PWD. Results also indicated that the impacts of PWD were dampened by the feedbacks between PFTs and the microclimate, in which PFT4 played an important ecological role. In conclusion, we propose management at the functional type level instead of at the population level as a promising approach in ecological restoration and biodiversity conservation.

  18. Regeneration of different plant functional types in a Masson pine forest following pine wilt disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Guang; Xu, Xuehong; Wang, Yuling; Lu, Gao; Feeley, Kenneth J; Yu, Mingjian

    2012-01-01

    Pine wilt disease is a severe threat to the native pine forests in East Asia. Understanding the natural regeneration of the forests disturbed by pine wilt disease is thus critical for the conservation of biodiversity in this realm. We studied the dynamics of composition and structure within different plant functional types (PFTs) in Masson pine forests affected by pine wilt disease (PWD). Based on plant traits, all species were assigned to four PFTs: evergreen woody species (PFT1), deciduous woody species (PFT2), herbs (PFT3), and ferns (PFT4). We analyzed the changes in these PFTs during the initial disturbance period and during post-disturbance regeneration. The species richness, abundance and basal area, as well as life-stage structure of the PFTs changed differently after pine wilt disease. The direction of plant community regeneration depended on the differential response of the PFTs. PFT1, which has a higher tolerance to disturbances, became dominant during the post-disturbance regeneration, and a young evergreen-broad-leaved forest developed quickly after PWD. Results also indicated that the impacts of PWD were dampened by the feedbacks between PFTs and the microclimate, in which PFT4 played an important ecological role. In conclusion, we propose management at the functional type level instead of at the population level as a promising approach in ecological restoration and biodiversity conservation. PMID:22563499

  19. Soil Structure Characteristics and Comprehensive Evaluation of Different Phyllostachys edulis Forests in Anfu,Jiangxi Province%赣中不同类型毛竹林土壤结构特征及其综合评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余林; 徐海宁; 肖复明; 曾伟; 熊振宇

    2012-01-01

    Five kinds of stand type(Pure Moso bamboo forest,mixed forest of Moso bamboo and broad-leaved tree,mixed forest of Moso bamboo and Chinese fir,broad-leaved forest,Chinese fir pure forest) had been chosen at Anfu,Jiangxi province.Through the study on soil structural characteristics,such as soil bulk density,soil porosity condition,and content,size,stability of soil aggregate were exposed.Finally,soil structural was comprehensive evaluated by grey correlation degree analysis.The results showed that the order of soil bulk density was mixed forest of Moso bamboo and broad-leaved forest 〉 pure Moso bamboo forest〉mixed forest of Moso bamboo and Chinese fir 〉 broad-leaved forest 〉 Chinese fir pure forest;soil porosity condition manifested as broadleaf forest is superior to Chinese fir pure forest,Moso bamboo forest is relatively poor.〉0.25 mm soil aggregates content from 94.43% to 97.25%,broadleaf forest were the largest in all soil layers.The order of soil aggregates fractal dimension mean was pure Moso bamboo forest 〉 mixed forest of Moso bamboo and broad-leaved tree 〉 mixed forest of Moso bamboo and Chinese fir 〉 Chinese fir pure forestbroad-leaved forest.The soil MWD and GMD of different stand types were difference.The soil MWD and GMD mean of mixed forest of Moso bamboo and broad-leaved forest and mixed forest of Moso bamboo and Chinese fir were increased by 3.38%,4.10% and 5.04%,8.11%,respectively.The order of index grey correlation degree of soil structure were broad-leaved forest 〉 Chinese fir pure forest 〉 mixed forest of Moso bamboo and broad-leaved forest〉 mixed forest of Moso bamboo and Chinese fir 〉 pure Moso bamboo forest by grey correlation degree analysis.The results could provide some scientific basis for forest resources management and vegetation construction in the subtropical region of China.%以赣中毛竹纯林(MC)、竹阔混交林(ZK)、竹杉混交林(ZS)3种不同类型毛竹林地土壤容重、孔

  20. Quantitative Analysis of Tree Species Diversity in Different Oak (Quercus spp. Dominated Forests in Garhwal Himalaya, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gajendra SINGH

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Himalayan broad-leaved forests are mainly dominated by oak (Quercus spp. species. Oak species with other tree species provide numerous ecosystem services and serve as lifeline for local inhabitants. Overall tree diversity and their status in different oak dominated forests viz., Quercus leucotrichophora (1500-2200 m, Q. floribunda (2201-2700 m and Q. semecarpifolia (2701-3300 m were studied in Garhwal, Himalaya. A total of 54 tree species (40 genera in Q. leucotrichophora, 43 tree species (30 genera in Q. floribunda and 23 tree species (16 genera in Q. semecarpifolia dominated forests were recorded. Lauraceae was the dominant family in Q. leucotrichophora and Q. floribunda forests (6 and 8 species respectively, while Ericaceae (3 species was the dominant family in Q. semecarpifolia dominated forests. Pinaceae and Taxaceae were only two gymnospermic family represented by Pinus roxburghii at low, Abies pinrow at mid, Abies spectabilis and Taxus wallichiana at higher elevational oak forests. There was no significant variation (p=0.8 between overall tree density in different oak forests which ranges from 337�51 individual/ha in Q. semecarpifolia to 433�92 individual/ha in Q. leucotrichophora forests. The seedling density has significant variation (p=0.01 in different oak forests where highest density was recorded in Q. leucotrichophora forests (1981 individual/ha and lowest in Q. semecarpifolia forests (348 individual/ha. The Total Basal Area (TBA reported from Q. leucotrichophora (88.06 m2/ha and Q. floribunda (110.5 m2/ha forests was higher than those of earlier reported from the region, while basal area of Q. semecarpifolia (90.16 m2/ha was comparable with the forests of western Himalaya.

  1. Impact of cloudiness on net ecosystem exchange of carbon dioxide in different types of forest ecosystems in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Zhang

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Clouds can significantly affect carbon exchange process between forest ecosystems and the atmosphere by influencing the quantity and quality of solar radiation received by ecosystem's surface and other environmental factors. In this study, we analyzed the effects of cloudiness on net ecosystem exchange of carbon dioxide (NEE in a temperate broad-leaved Korean pine mixed forest at Changbaishan (CBS and a subtropical evergreen broad-leaved forest at Dinghushan (DHS, based on the flux data obtained during June–August from 2003 to 2006. The results showed that the response of NEE of forest ecosystems to photosynthetically active radiation (PAR differed under clear skies and cloudy skies. Compared with clear skies, the light-saturated maximum photosynthetic rate (Pec,max at CBS under cloudy skies during mid-growing season (from June to August increased by 34%, 25%, 4% and 11% in 2003, 2004, 2005 and 2006, respectively. In contrast, Pec,max of the forest ecosystem at DHS was higher under clear skies than under cloudy skies from 2004 to 2006. When the clearness index (kt ranged between 0.4 and 0.6, the NEE reached its maximum at both CBS and DHS. However, the NEE decreased more dramatically at CBS than at DHS when kt exceeded 0.6. The results indicate that cloudy sky conditions are beneficial to net carbon uptake in the temperate forest ecosystem and the subtropical forest ecosystem. Under clear skies, vapor pressure deficit (VPD and air temperature increased due to strong light. These environmental conditions led to greater decrease in gross ecosystem photosynthesis (GEP and greater increase in ecosystem respiration (Re at CBS than at DHS. As a result, clear sky conditions caused more reduction of NEE in the temperate forest ecosystem than in the subtropical forest ecosystem. The response of NEE of different forest ecosystems to the changes in

  2. Ramet Population Structure of Fargesia nitida (Mitford)Keng f. et Yi in Different Successional Stands of the Subalpine Coniferous Forest in Wolong Nature Reserve

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-Hong Yu; Jian-Ping Tao; Yuan Li; Yong-Jian Wang; Yi Xi; Wei-Yin Zhang; Run-Guo Zang

    2006-01-01

    Forest structure and succession in Wolong Nature Reserve is influenced by the understory dwarf bamboo population. However, less is known about how the forest succession affects the dwarf bamboo population.To examine the bamboo ramet population growth of Fargesia nitida (Mitford) Keng f. et Yi and to determine how ramet population structure varies along the succession of coniferous forest, we sampled ramet populations of F. nitida from the following three successional stages:(i) a deciduous broad-leaved (BL)stand;(ii) a mixed broad-leaved coniferous (MI) stand;and (iii) a coniferous (CF) stand. We investigated the population structure, biomass allocation, and morphological characteristics of the bamboo ramet among the three stand types. Clonal ramets, constituting the bamboo population, tended to become short and small with succession. The ramet changed towards having a greater mass investment in leaves, branches and underground roots and rhizomes rather than in the culm. With respect to leaf traits, individual leaf mass and area in the BL stand were markedly bigger than those in both the MI and CF stands, except for no significant difference in specific leaf area. The age distribution showed that the bamboo population approached an older age with succession. The results demonstrate that the ramet population structure of F.nitida is unstable and its growth performance is inhibited by succession.

  3. Stem water storage in five coexisting temperate broad-leaved tree species: significance, temporal dynamics and dependence on tree functional traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köcher, Paul; Horna, Viviana; Leuschner, Christoph

    2013-08-01

    The functional role of internal water storage is increasingly well understood in tropical trees and conifers, while temperate broad-leaved trees have only rarely been studied. We examined the magnitude and dynamics of the use of stem water reserves for transpiration in five coexisting temperate broad-leaved trees with largely different morphology and physiology (genera Fagus, Fraxinus, Tilia, Carpinus and Acer). We expected that differences in water storage patterns would mostly reflect species differences in wood anatomy (ring vs. diffuse-porous) and wood density. Sap flux density was recorded synchronously at five positions along the root-to-branch flow path of mature trees (roots, three stem positions and branches) with high temporal resolution (2 min) and related to stem radius changes recorded with electronic point dendrometers. The daily amount of stored stem water withdrawn for transpiration was estimated by comparing the integrated flow at stem base and stem top. The temporal coincidence of flows at different positions and apparent time lags were examined by cross-correlation analysis. Our results confirm that internal water stores play an important role in the four diffuse-porous species with estimated 5-12 kg day(-1) being withdrawn on average in 25-28 m tall trees representing 10-22% of daily transpiration; in contrast, only 0.5-2.0 kg day(-1) was withdrawn in ring-porous Fraxinus. Wood density had a large influence on storage; sapwood area (diffuse- vs. ring-porous) may be another influential factor but its effect was not significant. Across the five species, the length of the time lag in flow at stem top and stem base was positively related to the size of stem storage. The stem stores were mostly exhausted when the soil matrix potential dropped below -0.1 MPa and daily mean vapor pressure deficit exceeded 3-5 hPa. We conclude that stem storage is an important factor improving the water balance of diffuse-porous temperate broad-leaved trees in moist

  4. [Soil physical and chemical characteristics under different vegetation restoration patterns in China south subtropical area].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Bing; Liu, Shi-rong; Cai, Dao-xiong; Lu, Li-hua; He, Ri-ming; Gao, Yan-xia; Di, Wei-zhi

    2010-10-01

    This paper studied the change of soil physical and chemical properties under eleven vegetation restoration patterns (1 kind of secondary forest, 2 kinds of pure coniferous plantations, 5 kinds of evergreen broad-leaved plantations, 2 kinds of conifer and broad-leaved mixed plantations, and 1 kind of shrub) typical in Daqingshan of Guangxi. Obvious differences were observed in the soil physical and chemical properties under different vegetation restoration patterns. The soil physical properties were better in secondary forest but poorer in pure conifer plantations. Conifer and broad-leaved mixed plantations had lower soil bulk density, and their soil total porosity and water-holding capacity were higher than those in pure plantations. There were no significant differences in the soil porosity among the 5 evergreen broad-leaved plantations. Except that of soil total K, the contents of soil nutrients in secondary forest were higher than those in plantations, and the soil C/N ratio and pH value were relatively lower. Comparing with shrub, the 9 plantations had an obvious change in their soil nutrient contents, e. g. , the increase of soil total N and available K. The 2 pure coniferous plantations had lower soil nutrient contents, but after mixed planted with evergreen broad-leaved trees, their soil nutrient contents increased markedly, and the soil C/N ratio decreased. PMID:21328932

  5. [An Analysis of the Spectrums between Different Canopy Structures Based on Hyperion Hyperspectral Data in a Temperate Forest of Northeast China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Quan-zhou; Wang, Shao-qiang; Huang, Kun; Zhou, Lei; Chen, Die-cong

    2015-07-01

    Canopy is a major structural layer for vegetation to carry out ecological activities. The differences of light radiative transfer processes in canopies caused by forest canopy structure directly influence remote sensing inversion of forest canopy biochemical composition. Thus an analysis of spectral characteristics between different canopy structures contributes to improve the accuracy of remote sensing inversion of forest canopy biochemical components. Based on a Hyperion hyperspectral image in the north Slope of Changbai Mountain Nature Reserve, through FLAASH (the Fast Line-of-sight Atmospheric Analysis of Spectral Hypercubes) atmospheric correction, different canopy reflectance spectra were extracted, and spectral transforms were carried out using continuum removal method and first derivative method for quantitative analysis of the spectral characteristics. A set of spectral indices were calculated, including NIR (near infrared reflectance), NDVI (normalized difference vegetation index), EVI (Enhanced Vegetation Index), NDNI (normalized difference nitrogen index), SPRI (normalized photochemical reflectance index) * NDVI and SPRI * EVI (vegetation productivity index). Combined with the broad foliar dominance index (BFDI), the relationships between the spectral indices and canopy structure composition were investigated. The characteristics of canopy structure composition impacting its spectral curve and indices were clarified in the temperate forest. The results showed that: (1) there existed significantly different spectral characteristics between different canopy structures: comparing to the spectrum of broad-leaved forest canopies, the red edge moved to the left and their slope decreased, blue edge and yellow edge features were also weakened, near-infrared reflectance decreased, normalized reflectance in visible region risen for the spectrum of conifer forest canopies; (2) the spectrum variation were controlled by BFDL The correlations between BFDI and the

  6. Irradiance in young stands of Picea abies (L.) Karst. and Pinus sylvestris L. and the possibilities to prevent suckers of broad-leaved trees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Incoming shortwave global radiation (Qg) and photosynthetically active radiation (PAR;Qpa) as a fraction of full daylight, relative irradiance (%Q), were measured at the same time in young stands of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) and Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.). Measurements were made on three levels above ground: 20 cm above ground and 50 and 75% of stand height. Stands of three heights (75, 150 and 300 cm) were studied during two months. The stands were created by arranging young trees cut from natural stands, in nine quadratic spacings: 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4, 0.5, 0.7, 1.0, 1.4, and 2.0 m. The leaf area index (L) was estimated. Differences in %Q-values for Qpa and Qg in the same species at the same stand height and level of light measurements above ground were significant only in 150 and 300 cm stands. In 75 cm high stands of Scots pine, the %Q was less than 60% at spacings less than 0.2 m and in 75 cm high stands of Norway spruce, the %Q was less than 60% at spacings less than 0.3 m. Only at 0.1 x 0.1-0.3 x 0.3 m, %Q was less than 20% in Norway spruce stands. In 150 cm stands %Q less than 20% was measured at spacings less than 0.7 m in Norway spruce and less than 0.5 in Scots pine. In 300 cm stands of Norway spruce it was measured up to 1.2 and in Scots pine less than 1.1 m. Light extinction coefficients, K and Kg for spruce and pine stands were 0.17-0.40 and 0.16-0.31 respectively. Some practical implications of the study are presented. Lack of light (%Q less than 10%) as a single factor of seriously suppressed growth and development of broad-leaved plants and suckers by competition in young stands of spruce and pine only occur in dense stands 0.3 x 0.3-1.1 x 1.1 m (8000-100000 stems per hectare). Competition by light on a regenerated area generally occurs in the level of 50% of tree height (150-300 cm) and higher due to the rapid growth of broad-leaved trees (sprouts) compared with planted conifers but the light intensity at these levels %Q greater

  7. Study on Soil Fertility of Different Forest Types in Jialing River Source%嘉陵江源头几种林地土壤肥力状况调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭胡燕; 刘瑞英; 杨改河; 任学敏; 王得祥

    2011-01-01

    Based on analysis of soil pH, the content of organic matter and main nutrient at the different levels of soil under seven different forest types (Quercus aliena BI. Var. Acuteserrate, Betula albo-sinensis, Pinus tabulaeformis , Pinus armandii , Abies fargesii , coniferous and broad-leaved mixed forest, shrub forest)in Jialing river of source, this paper studied on soil fertility of different forest types. The result showed that the soil in Pinus armandii, Pinus tabulae formis and coniferous and broad-leaved mixed forest were near neutral, the soil in Quercus aliena BI. Var. Acuteserrate, Betula albo-sinensis and shrub forest were slightly acidic, the soil in Abies fargesii was acidic. The soil pH, the contents of soil organic matter, total N and P, alkali-hydro N and available P tended to decrease with soil depth. The soil fertility was increased in the order of Pinus armandii <Lpinus tabulae formis <coniferous and broad-leaved mixed ioresKQuercus aliena BI. Var. Acuteserrate<shrub forest<Abies fargesii<L Betula albo-sinensis.%以嘉陵江源头风景区7种林型(锐齿栎林、红桦林、油松林、华山松林、巴山冷杉林、针阔混交林及灌木林)土壤为研究对象,通过对林地土壤不同层次pH、有机质及主要养分含量的测定,分析不同林型下土壤肥力的差异状况.结果表明,华山松林、油松林和针阔混交林的土壤趋于中性,锐齿栎林、红桦林、灌木林的土壤趋于弱酸性,而巴山冷杉林的土壤呈酸性.随土壤深度增加,土壤pH升高,土壤有机质、全氮、全磷、碱解氮、有效磷含量均呈下降趋势.土壤综合肥力优劣为华山松林<油松林<针阔混交林<锐齿栎林<灌木林<巴山冷杉林<红桦林.

  8. Different tree species affect soil respiration spatial distribution in a subtropical forest of southern Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Po-Neng; Yu, Jui-Chu; Wang, Ya-nan; Lai, Yen-Jen

    2014-05-01

    Global forests contain 69% of total carbon stored in forest soil and litter. But the carbon storage ability and release rate of warming gases of forest soil also affect global climate change. Soil carbon cycling processes are paid much attention by ecological scientists and policy makers because of the possibility of carbon being stored in soil via land use management. Soil respiration contributed large part of terrestrial carbon flux, but the relationship of soil respiration and climate change was still obscurity. Most of soil respiration researches focus on template and tropical area, little was known that in subtropical area. Afforestation is one of solutions to mitigate CO2 increase and to sequestrate CO2 in tree and soil. Therefore, the objective of this study is to clarify the relationship of tree species and soil respiration distribution in subtropical broad-leaves plantation in southern Taiwan. The research site located on southern Taiwan was sugarcane farm before 2002. The sugarcane was removed and fourteen broadleaved tree species were planted in 2002-2005. Sixteen plots (250m*250m) were set on 1 km2 area, each plot contained 4 subplots (170m2). The forest biomass (i.e. tree height, DBH) understory biomass, litter, and soil C were measured and analyzed at 2011 to 2012. Soil respiration measurement was sampled in each subplot in each month. The soil belongs to Entisol with over 60% of sandstone. The soil pH is 5.5 with low base cations because of high sand percentage. Soil carbon storage showed significantly negative relationship with soil bulk density (p<0.001) in research site. The differences of distribution of live tree C pool among 16 plots were affected by growth characteristic of tree species. Data showed that the accumulation amount of litterfall was highest in December to February and lowest in June. Different tree species planted in 16 plots, resulting in high spatial variation of litterfall amount. It also affected total amount of litterfall

  9. 暖温带-北亚热带过渡带落叶阔叶林群落不同径级系统发育结构的变化%Phylogenetic structure of individuals with different DBH sizes in a deciduous broad-leaved forest community in the temperate-subtropical ecological transition zone, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任思远; 王婷; 祝燕; 叶永忠; 袁志良; 李聪; 潘娜; 李鹿鑫

    2014-01-01

    群落的系统发育结构能够有效地反映各种生态过程对群落组成的影响,通过研究群落系统发育结构能推断出其形成的生态过程,对于揭示群落动态具有重要意义.作者将宝天曼1 ha落叶阔叶林样地分为10 m×10 m、20m×20 m、25 m×25 m-个尺度的样方,将样地内乔木个体划分为小径级(1 cm≤DBH≤5 cm)、中径级(5 cm≤DBH≤ 10 cm)、大径级(DBH≥10 cm)三个径级,通过比较各个阶段系统发育结构的变化,来分析其群落系统发育结构的生态过程.不同零模型的比较发现,宝天曼落叶阔叶林群落的净系统发育亲缘关系指数(net relatedness index,NRI)和最近种间亲缘关系指数(net nearest taxa index,NTI)值都随着研究尺度和径级的增加而降低,表明该群落在不同时空尺度上都表现出群落系统发育结构发散,而且系统发育密度制约对大径级个体的系统发育结构的影响大于小径级个体.上述结果说明密度制约是地处暖温带-亚热带过渡带的宝天曼落叶阔叶林群落物种多样性维持的重要机制.

  10. Effects of Soil Temperature and Moisture on Soil Respiration in Different Soil Layers in Broad-leaved Korean Pine Forests in Changbai Mountain%土壤温、湿度对长白山阔叶红松林不同土壤层呼吸速率的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晓静; 关德新; 吴家兵; 王安志; 袁凤辉

    2010-01-01

    在实验室条件下,研究土壤温度与湿度对长白山阔叶红松林不同深度土壤呼吸速率的影响.结果显示:枯枝落叶层、半分解层和壤土层的呼吸速率均随温度的升高呈指数增加趋势,而白浆土层与黄土层的呼吸速率先随温度的升高而增大;当温度超过15℃时,呼吸速率随温度升高而减小.枯枝落叶层、半分解层的呼吸速率随含水量的增加而呈线性增大;壤土层的呼吸速率随土壤含水量的增加呈先增大后减小的趋势,当土壤含水量约为36%时,土壤呼吸速率达到最大;白浆土层与黄土层的呼吸速率与土壤含水量没有明显的相关关系.浅层土壤对土壤温度和湿度的响应要比深层土壤敏感;各层土壤的呼吸速率贡献率会随着温度变化而发生改变,深层土壤呼吸速率在低温时期的贡献率要大于高温时期.

  11. Soil Moisture Dynamics of Different Forest Types in Xiaolong Mountain Region in Gansu Province, China%甘肃小陇山林区不同森林类型土壤水分动态

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑子龙; 蔺岩雄; 袁一超; 高兴红; 孟玉珂

    2013-01-01

    Five kinds of forest soil of oak and broad leaved mixed forest,Quercus aliena var.acuteserrata forest,Larix kaempferi forest,Pinus tabulaeformis forest and non-forest land were investigated in Xiaolong Mountain region.Soil water dynamics variation law of different forest types were studied through nine plot observations of the soil moisture in 2011.The results showed that atmospheric precipitation and evapotranspiration are main factors for the change of soil moisture.The seasonal variation of soil moisture content is clear.The effect of slope position on soil moisture for different forest types is not significant.There is significant difference in the soil moisture content of different soil layer (H).At 0 ≤H<20 cm,the change of soil moisture content is severe.On the whole,the soil moisture content at 0≤H<20 cm is higher than that at 20≤H<60 cm layer.Broad leaved mixed forest and Q.aliena var.acuteserrata forest have higher soil moisture content with strong soil and water conservation ability and significant water conservation function.%以小陇山林区栎类阔叶混交林、锐齿栎林、日本落叶松林、油松林及无林地5种森林土壤为研究对象,通过2011年对9个样点土壤水分长期定位观测,研究不同森林类型土壤水分动态变化规律.结果表明:大气降水和蒸散量是引起土壤含水量变化的主要因素,土壤含水量季节性变化趋势十分明显;坡位对林区不同森林类型土壤含水量无显著影响;不同层次土壤含水量差异显著,土层深(H)O≤H<20 cm的土壤含水量变化较为剧烈,但总体上其含水量大于20 cm≤H<60 cm的土壤含水量;各个时期阔叶混交林、锐齿栎林土壤平均含水量较高,具有较强水土保持能力和显著水源涵养作用.

  12. Influence of radiocesium transfer and decontamination on ambient dose in Japanese forest environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Hiroaki; Onda, Yuichi

    2016-04-01

    This study investigated the effect of post-depositional migration of radiocesium and decontamination on ambient dose rate in Japanese forest environment following the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident. We measured cesium-137 deposition from canopy to forest floor in association with rainfall and litterfall in two coniferous stands (plantation of Japanese cedar) and a deciduous broad-leaved forest stand (oak with red pine). We also measured temporal evolution of ambient dose rate at different height in each forest site. Radiocesium inventory balance in each forest component (e.g., canopy, litter and mineral soil layer) were established to determine causes of the measured changes of ambient dose rate in three forest sites. Furthermore, we assessed influence of forest decontamination (removal of organic layer of forest floor) on spatial pattern of radiocesium at the forest floor and reduction of ambient dose rate.

  13. Infiltration characteristics of water in forest soils in the Simian mountains, Chongqing City, southwestern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei WANG; Hongjiang ZHANG; Meng LI; Jinhua CHENG; Bo WANG; Weili LU

    2009-01-01

    Spearman rank-correlation analysis and grey relational grade analysis were used to study infiltration characteristics of water in different forest soils in the Simian mountains, Chongqing City. The results indicate that the soil bulk density, contents of coarse sand, and porosity of macropores were significantly correlated with saturated hydraulic conductivity. Porosity of macropores and contents of coarse sand were positively correlated with soil saturated hydraulic conductivity and soil bulk density negatively. Based on the initial infiltration rate, the stable infiltration rate, time required for infiltration to reach a stable state, and cumulative infiltration, all of which are crucial parameters determining soil infiltration capacity, the results of grey relational grade analysis showed that the grey relational grades of the different forest soils were listed from high to low as broad-leaved forest (0.8031) > Phyllostachys pubescens forest (0.7869) > mixed coniferbroadleaf forest (0.4454)>coniferous forest (0.4039). Broadleaf forest had the best ability to be infiltrated among the four soils studied. The square roots of the coefficients of determination obtained from fitting the Horton infiltration equation, simulated in our study of forest soils, were higher than 0.950. We conclude that soils of broad-leaved forests were the best suited for infiltration processes of forestry in the Simian mountains.

  14. Sustaining forest landscape connectivity under different land cover change scenarios

    OpenAIRE

    Rubio, L.; RODRIGUEZ-FREIRE Monica; MATEO-SANCHEZ M.c.; Estreguil, Christine; Saura, Santiago

    2012-01-01

    Managing forest landscapes to sustain functional connectivity is considered one of the key strategies to counteract the negative effects of climate and human-induced changes in forest species pools. With this objective, we evaluated whether a robust network of forest connecting elements can be identified so that it remains efficient when facing different types of potential land cover changes that may affect forest habitat networks and ecological fluxes. For this purpose we conside...

  15. Composition and stability of organic carbon in the top soil under different forest types in subtropical China%亚热带不同林分土壤表层有机碳组成及其稳定性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    商素云; 姜培坤; 宋照亮; 李永夫; 林琳

    2013-01-01

    在浙江临安玲珑山选取了常绿阔叶林、马尾松林、板栗林和雷竹林4种林分,采用传统的化学方法与固态13C核磁共振(NMR)技术研究其土壤有机碳在不同粒径土壤颗粒中的分布规律和结构特征,探讨林分类别和管理措施对土壤有机碳含量及其结构的影响,为亚热带地区森林固碳和土壤碳库管理提供科学依据.结果显示:(1)土壤表层(0-20 cm)有机碳含量按以下次序递减:雷竹林>常绿阔叶林>马尾松林>板栗林,且板栗林以粉黏粒结合态碳为主,其他林分土壤则以粗砂结合态碳为主;(2)13C NMR结果表明,阔叶林和马尾松林土壤有机碳中烷基碳所占比例最大,而雷竹林和板栗林则是烷氧碳比例最大,表明人工经营措施改变了土壤有机碳的成分组成;(3)随着土壤颗粒变细,有机碳中烷基碳比例增加,烷氧碳比例减少,A/O-A值和疏水碳/亲水碳值逐渐增大,表明颗粒越细,其结合的有机碳结构稳定性越高.%Soil organic carbon ( C) influences soil physical, chemical and biological properties that control nutrient cycling and consequently have important impacts on forest productivity and sustainability. Due to the important role of soil organic C in nutrient cycling of forest ecosystems and global C balance, there has long been an interest in understanding the effects of vegetation types and forest soil management on soil C pools. Four types of forest vegetations, including evergreen broad-leaved forest, Masson pine ( Pinus massoniana) , Chestnut ( Castanea mollissima) forest and Phyllostachys praecox forest, on Linglong mountain located in Lin'an county, Zhejiang Province, China, were selected to study the distribution and chemical composition of soil organic C using chemical analysis and solid-state 13C nuclear magnetic resonance ( NMR) spectroscopy. The results showed that the contents of soil organic C in the 0-20 cm soil layer under different forest types

  16. 杠寨小流域不同林分对土壤理化性质的影响%The Effect of Different Forest Types on Soil Physical and Chemical Properties in Gangzhai Small Watershed

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周玮; 朱军; 吴鹏; 丁访军; 崔迎春

    2012-01-01

    The effect of different forest types on soil physical and chemical properties was analyzed. The results showed that the contents of organic matter and N in soil of Gangzhai small watershed were plentiful while the content of K was lower and P was scarce. The soil in this region was acid (3.8~5.0), the soil was clay or clay loam. The soil fertility of broad leaved forest was better than that of coniferous forest. The acidity in broad leaved forest was more serious than that of coniferous forest, especially in Pinus massoniana forest (3.80). The soil bulk density of P. massoniana forest was less (1.18g/cm3) and its water storage capacity and draught capacity was the best (159.33 t/hm2, 160.58 t/hm2), while it was opposite in Quercus acutissima Carruth forest (84.33 t/hm2, 92.17 t/hm2).%就杠寨小流域4种林分下土壤的理化性质进行分析.结果表明,杠寨小流域土壤中有机质、氮素含量较丰富,钾素含量较低,而磷素则较缺乏,土壤均表现为酸性(pH 3.80~5.00),土壤为黏土或黏壤土.总之,阔叶林(麻栎林)土壤的肥力状况优于针叶林(马尾松林、柏木幼林),针叶林下土壤酸度较高,特别是马尾松林下土壤达到极酸性水平(pH 3.80).马尾松林下土壤容重较小(1.18 g/cm3),蓄水、排水能力最强(分别为159.33 t/hm2、160.58 t/hm2),而麻栎乔木林正好相反(分别为84.33 t/hm2、92.17 t/hm2).

  17. 福建省连城县天然林资源分析与评价%Analysis and appraisal on natural forest resource in Liancheng,Fujian

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周兴东

    2011-01-01

    The statistics of the natural forest species in 18 townships of Liancheng in Fujian province shows that the proportion of natural forest area to county forest land is 72.64%.For natural forest area,it decreases with the increasing of broad-leaved tree ratio,the proportion of conifer species and pure broad-leaved tree is 57.75% and 4.89%,respectively.The average weight of natural broad-leaved tree is 0.4,and there is certain difference between the township.With cluster analysis,according to the weight of broad-leaved tree and natural forest area,the 18 townships is divided to four types.The appraisal indicates that the natural forest ratio is biggish,the broad-leaved tree species is rich,the natural forest area is decreasing,the foresty structure is degradation,the natural succession environment is bad,a great part of natural forest in the succession dose not meet the natural climax community.%对连城县18个乡镇的天然林面积和树种组成分析表明:全县天然林面积比例为72.64%,以针叶树种为主的天然林占57.75%,纯阔叶林仅占4.89%;不同针阔比例的天然林面积,随着阔叶树比例增加呈递减趋势;全县天然林阔叶树权重为0.4,乡镇间存在较大差异;通过聚类分析,18个乡镇被划分为4个不同天然林阔叶树比例类型;综合评价认为,全县天然林比例大,阔叶树种丰富,但干扰严重,天然林面积呈减小趋势,森林结构退化,个别地段出现逆行演替。

  18. Characteristics of initial deposition and behavior of radiocesium in forest ecosystems of different locations and species affected by the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komatsu, Masabumi; Kaneko, Shinji; Ohashi, Shinta; Kuroda, Katsushi; Sano, Tetsuya; Ikeda, Shigeto; Saito, Satoshi; Kiyono, Yoshiyuki; Tonosaki, Mario; Miura, Satoru; Akama, Akio; Kajimoto, Takuya; Takahashi, Masamichi

    2016-09-01

    After the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident, information about stand-level spatial patterns of radiocesium initially deposited in the surrounding forests was essential for predicting the future dynamics of radiocesium and suggesting a management plan for contaminated forests. In the first summer (approximately 6 months after the accident), we separately estimated the amounts of radiocesium ((134)Cs and (137)Cs; Bq m(-2)) in the major components (trees, organic layers, and soils) in forests of three sites with different contamination levels. For a Japanese cedar (Cryptomeria japonica) forest studied at each of the three sites, the radiocesium concentration greatly differed among the components, with the needle and organic layer having the highest concentrations. For these cedar forests, the proportion of the (137)Cs stock in the aboveground tree biomass varied from 22% to 44% of the total (137)Cs stock; it was 44% in highly contaminated sites (7.0 × 10(5) Bq m(-2)) but reduced to 22% in less contaminated sites (1.1 × 10(4) Bq m(-2)). In the intermediate contaminated site (5.0-5.8 × 10(4) Bq m(-2)), 34% of radiocesium was observed in the aboveground tree biomass of the Japanese cedar stand. However, this proportion was considerably smaller (18-19%) in the nearby mixed forests of the Japanese red pine (Pinus densiflora) and deciduous broad-leaved trees. Non-negligible amounts of (134)Cs and (137)Cs were detected in both the sapwood and heartwood of all the studied tree species. This finding suggested that the uptake or translocation of radiocesium had already started within 6 months after the accident. The belowground compartments were mostly present in the organic layer and the uppermost (0-5 cm deep) mineral soil layer at all the study sites. We discussed the initial transfer process of radiocesium deposited in the forest and inferred that the type of initial deposition (i.e., dry versus wet radiocesium deposition), the amount of

  19. Different Patterns of Changes in the Dry Season Diameter at Breast Height of Dominant and Evergreen Tree Species in a Mature Subtropical Forest in South China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jun-Hua Yan; Guo-Yi Zhou; De-Qiang Zhang; Xu-Li Tang; Xu Wang

    2006-01-01

    Information on changes in diameter at breast height (DBH) is important for net primary production (NPP)estimates, timing of forest inventory, and forest management. In the present study, patterns of DBH change were measured under field conditions during the dry season for three dominant and native tree species in a monsoon evergreen broad-leaved forest in the Dinghushan Biosphere Reserve. For each tree species,different patterns of DBH change were observed. In the case of the fast-growing tree species Castanopsis chinensis Hance, large diurnal fluctuations occur, with a peak DBH in the early morning (around 05:00 h) that decreases to a minimum by about 14:00 h. Both Schima superba Gardn. et Chemp and Cryptocarya chinensis (Hance) Hemsl. exhibited less diurnal swelling and shrinkage. Diurnal fluctuations for these species were observed on a few occasions over the period of observation. Graphical comparisons and statistical analysis of changes in DBH with meteorological variables indicate that for different trees, the different changes in DBH observed responded to different meteorological variables. Large stem changes were found to occur for Ca. chinensis trees that were associated with variations in solar radiation. However, both S. superba and Cr. chinensis were found to be less sensitive to solar radiation. Changes in the DBH of these two species were found to be controlled mainly by soil temperature and soil moisture. During the later dry season, with a lower soil temperature and soil moisture, all three tree species stopped growing and only negligible shrinkage, expansion, or fluctuation occurred, suggesting that the optimum time to measure tree growth in the Dinghushan Biosphere Reserve is the later dry season.

  20. Environmental Correlates of Distribution of the 25 Broad-leaved Tree Species Indigenous to Guangdong Province, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Su Zhiyao; Chen Beiguang; Chang Yong; Yang Jiazhi

    2004-01-01

    Twenty-five tree species indigenous to Guangdong Province were chosen in this study to portray their distribution patterns in relation to environmental factors. Both data of species distribution and environmental factors were tabulated based on a digitized map of Guangdong Province gridded at 0.5° latitude × 0.5° longitude. Grid-based diversity was mapped using DMAP, a distribution mapping program, and horizontal patterns were assessed using Kruskal-Wallis tests. The diversity center of the indigenous tree species under study is located north of 23° N. These tree species exhibit significant latitudinal variation (P = 0.007 4), but no significant longitudinal difference (P = 0.052 2). Non-metric Multidimensional Scaling (NMS) identified five different ecological species groups, while Canonical Correspondence Analysis (CCA) showed the distribution of tree species along each of the five environmental gradients. An understanding of the environmental correlates of distribution patterns has great implication for the introduction of the indigenous tree species for afforestation.

  1. Do ectomycorrhizal and arbuscular mycorrhizal temperate tree species systematically differ in root order-related fine root morphology and biomass?

    OpenAIRE

    Kubisch, Petra; Hertel, Dietrich; Leuschner, Christoph

    2015-01-01

    While most temperate broad-leaved tree species form ectomycorrhizal (EM) symbioses, a few species have arbuscular mycorrhizas (AM). It is not known whether EM and AM tree species differ systematically with respect to fine root morphology, fine root system size and root functioning. In a species-rich temperate mixed forest, we studied the fine root morphology and biomass of three EM and three AM tree species from the genera Acer, Carpinus, Fagus, Fraxinus, and Tilia searching for principal dif...

  2. Impacts of moso bamboo (Phyllostachys pubescens) invasion on dry matter and carbon and nitrogen stocks in a broad-leaved secondary forest located in Kyoto, western Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Fukushima, Keitaro; Usui, Nobuaki; Ogawa, Ryo; Tokuchi, Naoko

    2014-01-01

    In western and central Japan, the expansion of exotic moso bamboo (Phyllostachys pubescens Mazel ex J. Houz.) populations into neighboring vegetation has become a serious problem. Although the effects of bamboo invasion on biodiversity have been well studied, shifts in nutrient stocks and cycling, which are fundamental for ecosystem functioning, are not fully understood. To explore the effects of P. pubescens invasion on ecosystem functions we examined above- and below-ground dry matter and c...

  3. Application of Two Exponential Equations in the Study of Soil Organic Carbon Mineralization in Natural Forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pang Huan

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This study respective using the exponential equation and double exponential equation which are widely used were fitted Pinus massoniana, evergreen broad leaved forest, deciduous oak forest, pine-oak forest, Pinus koraiensis and Pinus tabulaeformis and other six kinds of typical natural forest soil organic carbon mineralization process, it also by fitting curves and cumulative release of CO2 mineralization process analysis and correlation of inert carbon content of soil measured and fitted values of t-test analysis, the two exponential equations in natural forest soil organic carbon mineralization process the application results were evaluated. The results show that the double exponential equation on soil organic carbon mineralization has a better fitting description effect can be more realistically reflect the changes in soil organic carbon mineralization characteristics of the fitting results of insert soil carbon content and measured values a significant difference is not level, the soil can be more accurately reflect the changes of the inert carbon.

  4. Management pattern of ecological public welfare forests in South China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chong LOU; Anxing LIU; Guomin ZHU

    2008-01-01

    The characteristics and actualities of ecologi-cal public welfare forests in South China are studied in this paper, including common and special management patterns. The restoration and reconstruction pattern of subtropical evergreen broad-leaved forests, zonal vegeta-tion in the key eco-zone, and the transformation pattern of coniferous and broad-leaved mixed forests in the general eco-zone with multi-forms are discussed in detail. The authors also point out, based on ecological transformation and utilization, that ecological public welfare forests should be oriented to multiple benefit utilization to maintain sustainable management.

  5. Plant species diversity and dynamics in forests invaded by Moso bamboo (Phyllostachys edulis in Tianmu Mountain Nature Reserve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shangbin Bai

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Moso bamboo (Phyllostachys edulis is an economically important plant, widely cultivated not only for its delicious shoots and versatile culms, but also as an important biomass resource in southern China.However, with its robust growth and strong rhizomes, it has recently been shown to be a problem tree, capable of dominating some forest stands. Indeed, it may displace species within the community it invades with considerable potential impacts. However, little is known about the consequences of its invasion on plant community composition. We compared plant biodiversity change in different communities where we monitored and removed bamboo over a seven years period (2005 to 2011 in Tianmu Mountain Nature Reserve, so as to elucidate the impacts of Moso bamboo invasion. The results showed that Moso bamboo invasion had negative effects on plant communities. Simpson’s Diversity Index in tree and shrub layers of bamboo forest was lower than that of forests consisting of needle and broad-leaved species, and also those containing a mixture of bamboo with needle and broad-leaved plants. However, Simpson’s Diversity Index in the herb layer of bamboo forest was higher than that in the two other forest types. Plant species richness, Simpson’s Diversity Index, and Pielou’s Eveness Index varied greatly among the different forest types over time. In the tree and shrub layers of forests containing bamboo growing with both needle and broad-leaved species, these three indices declined significantly over the monitoring period (P0.05. Plant species richness increased in the herb layer of forests containing bamboo mixed with needle and broad-leaved species, while Simpson’s Diversity Index and Pielou’s Eveness Index did not change greatly over time. The removal of Moso bamboo resulted in an increase in plant species richness and Simpson’s Diversity Index in the tree and shrub layers. In contrast, plant species richness, Simpson’s Diversity Index, and

  6. Changes of Soil Water, Organic Matter, and Exchangeable Cations Along a Forest Successional Gradient in Southern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN Jun-Hua; ZHOU Guo-Yi; ZHANG De-Qiang; CHU Guo-Wei

    2007-01-01

    Information on the distribution patterns of soil water content (SWC), soil organic matter (SOM), and soil exchangeable cations (SEC) is important for managing forest ecosystems in a sustainable manner. This study investigated how SWC, SOM, and SEC were influenced in forests along a successional gradient, including a regional climax (monsoon evergreen broad-leaved forest, or MEBF), a transitional forest (coniferous and broad-leaved mixed forest, or MF), and a pioneer forest (coniferous Masson pine (Pinus massoniana) forest, or MPF) of the Dinghushan Biosphere Reserve in the subtropical region of southern China. SWC, SOM, and SEC excluding Ca2+ were found to increase in the soil during forest succession, being highest in the top soil layer (0 to 15 cm depth) except for Na+. The differences between soil layers were largest in MF. This finding also suggested that the nutrients were enriched in the topsoil when they became increasingly scarce in the soil. There were no significant differences (P = 0.05) among SWC, SOM, and SBC. A linear, positive correlation was found between SWC and SOM. The correlation between SOM and cation exchange capacity (CEC) was statistically significant, which agreed with the theory that the most important factor determining SEC is SOM. The ratio of K+ to Na+ in the topsoil was about a half of that in the plants of each forest. MF had the lowest exchangeable Ca2+ concentration among the three forests and Ca2+:K+ in MPF was two times higher than that in MF. Understanding the changes of SWC, SOM, and CEC during forest succession would be of great help in protecting all three forests in southern China.

  7. Composition and Characteristics of Natural Secondary Forests in Shenzhen,South China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Dianpei; Ji Shuyi; Chen Feipeng; Peng Shaolin

    2004-01-01

    The composition and structure of five natural secondary forests in Shenzhen were studied based on data of plots and were compared with Hong Kong zonal forest, so as to detect their succession stage and species diversity level. According to succession process of subtropical forest and ecological characteristics of dominant species, the authors speculate that five communities are at different stages. Sinosideroxylon community dominated by heliophilous evergreen broad-leaved tree (Sinosideroxylon wightianum) and conifer tree (Pinus massoniana) is at the third stage. Itea + Acronychia community dominated by two evergreen broad-leaved heliophytes (Itea chinensis and Acronychia pedunculata) is at the fourth stage. The others, I.e., Schefflera, Sterculia and Cleistocalyx + Sterculia community are at the fifth stage where some mesophytes are dominant but heliophytes have a weighed percentage of importance value. Due to succession stage and different forest management and conservation models, the species diversity of five communities is significantly lower than that of Endospermum community in Hong Kong. The values of Shannon-Wiener index and Pielous evenness index of five communities are 2.04-2.953 and 64.2%-74% respectively, but those of the Endospermum community are 4.74 and 79% respectively. The current situation of these communities suggests that the necessary measures should be taken to protect and restore the communities.

  8. Response of Soil Respiration to Acid Rain in Forests of Different Maturity in Southern China

    OpenAIRE

    Guohua Liang; Xingzhao Liu; Xiaomei Chen; Qingyan Qiu; Deqiang Zhang; Guowei Chu; Juxiu Liu; Shizhong Liu; Guoyi Zhou

    2013-01-01

    The response of soil respiration to acid rain in forests, especially in forests of different maturity, is poorly understood in southern China despite the fact that acid rain has become a serious environmental threat in this region in recent years. Here, we investigated this issue in three subtropical forests of different maturity [i.e. a young pine forest (PF), a transitional mixed conifer and broadleaf forest (MF) and an old-growth broadleaved forest (BF)] in southern China. Soil respiration...

  9. Caraboidea distribution in different forest stands Chrea National Park, Algeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    T he distribution of the ground beetles in different forests of the national park of Chrea (Blida, Algerie) using pitfall traps was investigated . A total of 29 species of Caraboidea , in seven families, were collected, with the chestnut and holm oak forests were the most diversified sites with 16 species each. The family Pterostichidae is the richest with nine specie s. The distribution of the species of Caraboidea was influenced by the site altitude, since the site vegetation composition and fluctuations are dependent on several ecological parameters. (author)

  10. Top-down control of herbivory by birds and bats in the canopy of temperate broad-leaved oaks (Quercus robur.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan M Böhm

    Full Text Available The intensive foraging of insectivorous birds and bats is well known to reduce the density of arboreal herbivorous arthropods but quantification of collateral leaf damage remains limited for temperate forest canopies. We conducted exclusion experiments with nets in the crowns of young and mature oaks, Quercus robur, in south and central Germany to investigate the extent to which aerial vertebrates reduce herbivory through predation. We repeatedly estimated leaf damage throughout the vegetation period. Exclusion of birds and bats led to a distinct increase in arthropod herbivory, emphasizing the prominent role of vertebrate predators in controlling arthropods. Leaf damage (e.g., number of holes differed strongly between sites and was 59% higher in south Germany, where species richness of vertebrate predators and relative oak density were lower compared with our other study site in central Germany. The effects of bird and bat exclusion on herbivory were 19% greater on young than on mature trees in south Germany. Our results support previous studies that have demonstrated clear effects of insectivorous vertebrates on leaf damage through the control of herbivorous arthropods. Moreover, our comparative approach on quantification of leaf damage highlights the importance of local attributes such as tree age, forest composition and species richness of vertebrate predators for control of arthropod herbivory.

  11. [Dynamics of soil properties under secondary succession forest communities in Mt. Jinyun].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hongyan; Huang, Jianguo

    2005-11-01

    Mt. Jinyun is located in the north suburb of Chongqing, 30 km away from the city center. It is rich in forest plants, an epitome of forests in north tropical areas of China. Under anthropocentric disturbance, there still exist large numbers of succession communities, and the process of successive development follows the way of shrub-grassland (X1)-->coniferous forest (X2)-->coniferous-broad leaved mixed forest (X3)-->evergreen broad-leaved forest (X4). By now, soil and water conservation is very important in the Three Gorges area of Yangtze River, and the investigation on the secondary succession of the forests could help to realize the changes of the forests and soils under anthropocentric disturbance, and supply information on the protection of natural forests and the artificial reforestation of this area. In this paper, some typical and representative plant communities in different succession stages were selected to study the plant composition and type and the soil properties, with species diversity indices and canopy density investigated in many standard squares and soil physical and chemical characteristics analyzed. The results showed that there were obvious variations of soil properties with time. As the plant community developed from primary stage to climax, the contents of soil organic matter, total N, and available N and K increased in order of X1 soil pH changed from 5.23 (X1) to 4.06 (X4), soil base saturation varied from 58.3% (X1) to 37.7% (X4), and soil CEC increased with the succession. It was suggested that an intense soil acid leaching was occurred in Mt. Jinyun. The contents of soil organic matter and total N in different layers showed a trend of A>B>C, e. g., soil total nitrogen in evergreen broad leaved forest was 2.31(A), 0.66(B) and 0.12(C)g x kg(-1). Gray analysis was used to study the relationships of soil properties between the climax community and other three succession communities. The relation coefficient was 0.461 0 (X3), 0.586 2(X2

  12. Comparison of Selected Soil Chemical Properties of Two Different Mangrove Forests in Sarawak

    OpenAIRE

    Empi Rambok; Seca Gandaseca; Osumanu H. Ahmed; Nik M.A. Majid

    2010-01-01

    Problem statement: Despite few studies of forest health and environmental conditions of mangrove forest in Sarawak, the data was not sufficient to facilitate baseline data and direct comparison of mangrove forest health obtained for different location of mangrove forest in Sarawak. On this regard, determination of contemporary mangrove soil condition was essential to addressing mangrove forest for forest health, carbon storage and environmental balance. The study attempts ...

  13. Three-year monitoring study of radiocesium transfer and ambient dose rate in forest environments affected by the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Hiroaki; Onda, Yuichi; Loffredo, Nicolas; Kawamori, Ayumi; Hisadome, Keigo

    2015-04-01

    We investigated the transfer of canopy-intercepted radiocesium to the forest floor during 3 years (July 2011~) following the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident. The cesium-137 (Cs-137) contents of throughfall, stemflow, and litterfall were monitored in two coniferous stands (plantation of Japanese cedar) and a deciduous broad-leaved forest stand (Japanese oak with red pine). We also measured an ambient dose rate at different height in the forest by using a survey meter (TCS-172B, Hitachi-Aloka Medical, LTD.) and a portable Ge gamma-ray detector (Detective-DX-100T, Ortec, Ametek, Inc.). Furthermore, effects of forest decontamination on the reduction of ambient dose rate were assessed quantitatively. Total Cs-137 deposition flux from the canopy to forest floor for the mature cedar, young cedar, and the mixed broad-leaved stands were 157 kBq/m^2, 167 kBq/m^2, and 54 kBq/m^2, respectively. These values correspond to 36%, 39% and 12% of total atmospheric input after the accident. The ambient dose rate showed an exponential decrease with time for all the forest sites, however the decreasing trend differed depending on the forest type. These data suggested that an ambient dose rate in forest environment can be variable in spatially and temporally reflecting the transfer of radiocesium from canopy to forest floor. We presented the analysis results of the relationship between radiocesium deposition flux and ambient dose rate at the forest floor. In addition to that, we reported the effects of forest decontamination (e.g., tree felling, removal of organic materials, woodchip pavement) on the reduction of ambient dose rate in the forest environment.

  14. Recreation in Different Forest Settings: A Scene Preference Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olof Olsson

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Recreation activity preferences in forest settings were explored in a scene preference study. The importance of type of human intervention and the level of biodiversity for preference and intention to engage in recreation activities were examined in a sample of forestry and social science students in Sweden. Results showed that forestry students displayed an almost equally strong preference for natural-looking scenes as for scenes with traces of recreation (e.g., paths, whereas social science students preferred recreational scenes the most. Least preferred were scenes with traces of forest management. Different forest settings were furthermore preferred for different recreation activities. Recreational settings were favored for walking and going on outings, and natural-looking settings were more appreciated for picking berries or mushrooms. Respondents displayed a stronger intention to study plants and animals in high biodiversity settings and the intention to exercise was stronger in low biodiversity settings. Implications for future land use planning and forest management are discussed.

  15. Insights into seasonal variation of litter decomposition and related soil degradative enzyme activities in subtropical forest in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Cong-yan; LÜ Yan-na; WANG Lei; LIU Xue-yan; TIAN Xing-jun

    2013-01-01

    We used a litterbag method to investigate litter decomposition and related soil degradative enzyme activities across four seasons in a broad-leaved forest and a coniferous forest on Zijin Mountain in sub-tropical China. Across four seasons, we quantified litter mass losses, soil pH values, and related soil degradative enzyme activities. Litter decomposition rates differed significantly by season. Litter decomposi-tion rates of broadleaf forest leaves were higher than for coniferous for-ests needles across four seasons, and maximal differences in litter de-composition rates between the two litter types were found in spring. Obvious differences in litter decomposition rates of the two litter types were found in winter, which were similar to rates in spring. Litter de-composition rates of the two litter types in autumn were significantly higher than in spring. Soil degradative enzyme activities were lowest in winter and highest in summer in most cases across four seasons.

  16. Forest cutting and regeneration methodology on Changbai Mountain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DAILi-min; SHAOGuo-fan; CHENGao; LIUXin-shuang; GUANZhi-peng; LIYang

    2003-01-01

    This paper discussed the characteristics of degenerated forest ecosystems in Changbai Mountain area,which include over-harvest natural forest,typical secondary forest,derived forest,and artificial forest.Forest cutting and regeneration methods that were historically used in the region were summarized.They lnclude diameter-class selective cutting,clearcutting,upbringing selective cutting,and selective sutting.We proposed cutting methods for the broad-leaved Korean pine mixed forest,spruce-fir forest,and larch forest.The measures for restoring the original mixed forest ecosystems were recommended.

  17. Differences in management between public and forest roads

    OpenAIRE

    Golob , Uroš

    2013-01-01

    Road planning is dealt by two professions. Forest roads are planned by forestry engineers, only relying on two policies: Pravilnik o gozdnih prometnicah and Pravilnik o gradnji, vzdrževanju in načinu uporabe gozdnih prometnic. Public roads are planned by civil engineers, who use a number of different laws, policies and technical specifications at their work. The thesis focuses on the comparison of the most important fields of managing in planning, designing, construction and maintenance of...

  18. A Study on Forest Species Diversity and Its Ecological Service Function in the Plateau Area of Western Sichuan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DengYu-Lin; WangYu-kuan; PengPei-hao

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents a study on species diversity and its ecological service function in the plateau area in western Sichuan. The results show that species diversity in the plantations on the cutover land has a tendency to increase and that its ecological service function is to be improved with stand age growing. The species diversity in forest communities is also gradually increased on different succession stage till reaching a climax level. But the species diversity in the climax community is slightly decreased before it reaches a relatively constant status. Ecological service function of diversity is gradually strengthened with the progress of succession. In addition, species diversity in a stand in a similar site and at a same age differs among forest types. Species diversity index within a coniferous and broad-leaved mixed forest is larger than that within a coniferous forest. Meanwhile, species diversity enriches as the tree density increases.

  19. Responses of soil respiration and its temperature/moisture sensitivity to precipitation in three subtropical forests in southern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Jiang

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Both long-term observation data and model simulations suggest an increasing chance of serious drought in the dry season and extreme flood in the wet season in southern China, yet little is known about how changes in precipitation pattern will affect soil respiration in the region. We conducted a field experiment to study the responses of soil respiration to precipitation manipulations – precipitation exclusion to mimic drought, double precipitation to simulate flood, and ambient precipitation as control (abbr. EP, DP and AP, respectively – in three subtropical forests in southern China. The three forest sites include Masson pine forest (PF, coniferous and broad-leaved mixed forest (MF and monsoon evergreen broad-leaved forest (BF. Our observations showed that altered precipitation strongly influenced soil respiration, not only through the well-known direct effects of soil moisture on plant and microbial activities, but also by modification of both moisture and temperature sensitivity of soil respiration. In the dry season, soil respiration and its temperature sensitivity, as well as fine root and soil microbial biomass, showed rising trends with precipitation increases in the three forest sites. Contrarily, the moisture sensitivity of soil respiration decreased with precipitation increases. In the wet season, different treatments showed different effects in three forest sites. The EP treatment decreased fine root biomass, soil microbial biomass, soil respiration and its temperature sensitivity, but enhanced soil moisture sensitivity in all three forest sites. The DP treatment significantly increased soil respiration, fine root and soil microbial biomass in the PF only, and no significant change was found for the soil temperature sensitivity. However, the DP treatment in the MF and BF reduced soil temperature sensitivity significantly in the wet season. Our results indicated that soil respiration would decrease in the three subtropical

  20. Responses of soil respiration and its temperature/moisture sensitivity to precipitation in three subtropical forests in southern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, H.; Deng, Q.; Zhou, G.; Hui, D.; Zhang, D.; Liu, S.; Chu, G.; Li, J.

    2013-06-01

    Both long-term observation data and model simulations suggest an increasing chance of serious drought in the dry season and extreme flood in the wet season in southern China, yet little is known about how changes in precipitation pattern will affect soil respiration in the region. We conducted a field experiment to study the responses of soil respiration to precipitation manipulations - precipitation exclusion to mimic drought, double precipitation to simulate flood, and ambient precipitation as control (abbr. EP, DP and AP, respectively) - in three subtropical forests in southern China. The three forest sites include Masson pine forest (PF), coniferous and broad-leaved mixed forest (MF) and monsoon evergreen broad-leaved forest (BF). Our observations showed that altered precipitation strongly influenced soil respiration, not only through the well-known direct effects of soil moisture on plant and microbial activities, but also by modification of both moisture and temperature sensitivity of soil respiration. In the dry season, soil respiration and its temperature sensitivity, as well as fine root and soil microbial biomass, showed rising trends with precipitation increases in the three forest sites. Contrarily, the moisture sensitivity of soil respiration decreased with precipitation increases. In the wet season, different treatments showed different effects in three forest sites. The EP treatment decreased fine root biomass, soil microbial biomass, soil respiration and its temperature sensitivity, but enhanced soil moisture sensitivity in all three forest sites. The DP treatment significantly increased soil respiration, fine root and soil microbial biomass in the PF only, and no significant change was found for the soil temperature sensitivity. However, the DP treatment in the MF and BF reduced soil temperature sensitivity significantly in the wet season. Our results indicated that soil respiration would decrease in the three subtropical forests if soil moisture

  1. Study on Effect of Different Forest Type on Water Quality at The Source of Qiantang River%钱塘江源头不同林分类型的水质效应研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毛玉明; 吴初平; 袁位高; 张骏; 沈爱华; 朱锦茹

    2013-01-01

    对钱塘江源头湿地松林、杉木林、落叶阔叶林、松阔混交林、毛竹林5种森林类型的降水、穿透水、树干径流、地表径流、枯透水和土壤渗透水中的pH值、溶解氧、COD、氨氮和Cl-等水质指标进行了检测。结果表明:大气降水透过林冠层后,pH值略微下降,溶解氧含量减小,氨氮、COD和Cl-含量增加;树冠径流其pH值、溶解氧比穿透水更低,氨氮、COD和Cl-1含量增加;穿透水和树干径流转化为枯透水后,水中的溶解氧浓度进一步降低,COD和Cl-含量升高,氨氮浓度降低,说明枯落物层对营养元素具有吸附作用;土壤渗透水的各项水质指标均明显优于大气降水,说明土壤层是森林生态系统净化水质的关键层;各林分内水中溶解氧含量和 COD 含量较为接近,落叶阔叶林和混交林内水分的pH值略高,吸附氨氮和Cl-的能力更高,说明落叶阔叶林和混交林净水能力更强。%The rainfall, through fall, stem flow, runoff, litter through and soil infiltration water was sampled in forest of slash pine, Chinese fir, deciduous broad-leaf forest, pine-broad-leaf forest and bamboo stand at the source of Qiantang River(Kaihua county of Zhejiang province), and the water quality indicators such as pH, dissolved oxygen, COD, ammonia nitrogen and Cl-were detected. The results showed that by the order of the rainfall, through fall, stem flow, runoff, litter through and oil infiltration water, the pH value decreased slightly and the content of dissolved oxygen reduced, with an increasing of ammonia nitrogen, COD and Cl-. Soil infiltration water had significantly better quality than others. The dissolved oxygen content and COD content was similar under different forest. Deciduous broad-leaved forest and mixed forest had higher water pH value, indicating that the deciduous broad-leaved forest and mixed forest had better water purification capacity.

  2. The efficacy of Chondrostereum purpureum as a biological control agent : A comparative analysis of the decay fungus (Chondrostereum purpureum), a chemical herbicide and mechanical cutting to control sprouting of broad-leaved tree species.

    OpenAIRE

    Lemola, Jan

    2014-01-01

    In forestry, manual control of broad-leaved trees is tedious and costly. To reduce costs, chemicals have been applied to keep these species in control. However, some chemicals are not recommended to use because of possibly adverse effects on the environment. Instead of chemicals, biological alternatives, such as a fungus, Chondrostereum purpureum, might be used to prevent sprouting. C. purpureum is a common decay fungus in Finland; it has been investigated at Metla, to find out whether it cou...

  3. What Is A forest? Definitions Do Make A Difference An Example From Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Lund, H. Gyde

    2014-01-01

    Abstract: Estimates of forest area vary according to source and definition. How forest is defined can influence how deforestation, reforestation and afforestation can be interpreted. This paper illustrates some of the difference for estimates of forest land in Turkey and how changes in €˜forest' may be interpreted. I also provide some suggestions for developing clearer definitions. Keywords: Forest, deforestation, reforestation, afforestation, Turkey.

  4. Changes in Forest Soil Properties in Different Successional Stages in Lower Tropical China

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Yuelin; Yang, Fangfang; Ou, Yangxu; Zhang, Deqiang; Liu, Juxiu; Chu, Guowei; Zhang, Yaru; Otieno, Dennis; Zhou, Guoyi

    2013-01-01

    Background Natural forest succession often affects soil physical and chemical properties. Selected physical and chemical soil properties were studied in an old-growth forest across a forest successional series in Dinghushan Nature Reserve, Southern China. Methodology/Principal Findings The aim was to assess the effects of forest succession change on soil properties. Soil samples (0–20 cm depth) were collected from three forest types at different succession stages, namely pine (Pinus massonian...

  5. 闽江入海口沿岸不同林龄森林碳储量和碳密度研究%Study on Carbon Storage and Density of the Forests of Different Age Groups along the Banks of the Minjiang River Estuary

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张绍轩; 马娇娇; 吴强; 王卫军; 谷建才

    2014-01-01

    The forest areas of the upper reaches of the Minjiang River estuary are used as the research ob-ject and based on two types of resources survey data in two aspects of forest vegetation types and different age groups,analysis was done on the biomass estimation distribution and the carbon storage and carbon density distribution of the main forest types.The results shows that carbon density distribution in addition to the western mountain area,shows a rising pattern from east to west,carbon density ranges mainly be-tween 20t/hm2 and 40t/hm2 in the area of human activity.The carbon storage of the forests of different ages is in an ascending order as follows:middle-aged forest (82 171.91t)>young growth (43 692.94t)>near mature forest (18 851.71t)>mature forest (5 789.81t),carbon density in different age groups of coniferous forest,broad-leaved forest,coniferous and broad-leaved mixed forest is in an ascending order as follows:mature forest carbon density >near mature forest carbon density >middle aged forest carbon density >sapling forest carbon density.With the increase of age class,carbon density increases,and with the growth of the forests,carbon sequestration capacity increases gradually.%以闽江入海口沿岸上游林区为研究对象,采用生物量推算法对调查资料进行处理,从森林植被类型和林龄两方面分析林区主要森林类型的碳储量和碳密度的分布情况。结果表明:除西部高山区外,碳密度分布从东往西逐渐升高,在人类活动区域碳密度变化范围主要为20~40t/hm2。不同林龄碳储量从小到大排序为中龄林(82171.91t)>幼龄林(43692.93t)>近熟林(18851.71t)>成熟林(5789.81 t),碳密度在针叶林、阔叶林与针阔混交林各林龄分布中均表现为成熟林>近熟林>中龄林>幼龄林。随着龄级的增大,碳密度增大,随着森林的增长,固碳能力逐渐增大。

  6. Leaf and twig litter decomposition of main species in different forests along the north slope of Changbai Mountain,northeast China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Zhongling; LI Qingkang; ZHENG Jinping; LIU Wande; FAN Chunnan; MA Yuandan; YU Guirui; HAN Shijie

    2007-01-01

    From 2001 to 2003,the litter decomposition dynamics of dominant tree species were conducted using a litterbag burying method in the broadleaf-Korean pine forest,spruce-fir forest and Ermans birch forest,which represents three altitudinal belts in Changbai Mountain,northeast China.The spatial and temporal dynamics of litter decomposition and the effects of litter properties were examined.Furthermore,the decomposition trend of different species was simulated by the Olson model,and results showed that annual mass loss rates increased over time,but was not significantly correlated.Leaf decomposition rates increased after decomposing for 638 days (1.75 years),and the order of dry weight remaining rates of leaf litter for different species is:Asian white birch (Betula platyphylla) (24.56%)<Amur linden (Tilia amurensis) (24.81%) < Korean pine (Pinus koraiensis)(38.48%)<spruce (Picea jezoensis var. microsperma)(41.15%)< Ermans birch (Betula ermanii) (41.53%)<fir (Abies nephrolepis) (42.62%).The dry weight remaining rates of twig litter was smaller than that of leaf litter,and followed the order of Amur linden (44.98%)<fir (64.62%)<Korean pine (72.07%)<spruce (73.51%)<Asian white birch (77.37%)<Ermans birch (80.35%).The simulation results by the Olson model showed that,in leaf,the 95%-decomposition rates ranged from 4.5 to 8.0 years,and annual decomposition rate (k) followed the order of Amur linden (0.686)>Asian white birch (0.624)>Korean pine (0.441)>spruce (0.406)>fir (0.397)>Ermans birch (0.385);in twig,it ranged from 7.8 to 29.3 years,and k follows the order:Amur linden (0.391)>fir (0.204)>Korean pine (0.176)>spruce (0.157)>Asian white birch (0.148)>Ermans birch (0.102).In general,the differences of decomposition rate are evident between leaf and twig litter and among species,and were higher in broad-leaved species compared with coniferous species at the same elevation,and decreased with the ascending of elevation.

  7. Comparison of Social Benefits of Forest under Different Management Models: A Case Study of Close-to-Nature Forest Management in Harbin, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Different forest management modes definitely create different results. A study of social benefits nurtured by scientific forest management had been conducted in 1998-2008 with Danqinghe Experiment Forest Farm, Zhuanshan Experiment Forest Farm and Shanhe Experiment Forest Farmtogether as the project area. The method that was centered on quantification and supplemented byqualification was employed to compare the social benefits of forests separately under the scientificmanagement model and the traditional man...

  8. Climatic potential productivity and an IRS-1CWiFS image in Natural Park Los Alcornocales. Relationship with the standing forest biomass; Productividad Potencial Climatica y una imagen IRS-1CWiFS en el Parque Natural Los Alcornocales. Relacion con la biomasa forestal real

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cuevas, J. M.; Gonzalez-Alonso, F.; Roldan, A.; Huesca, M.

    2009-07-01

    It is studied the use of the Map of Forest Potential Productivity of Spain as information in base to which classify an Indian IRS-1C WiFS satellite image in Los Alcornocales Natural Park (Andalucia, Spain), a large forest area covered by natural forests of Mediterranean broad-leaved species, mainly cork oak (Quercus suber L.). Grouping the classes of climatic potential productivity of this map were obtained three macro classes that resulted significantly different among them at the 99% confidence level for the visible and the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) of the WiFS image. It was built a classifier using these macro classes of climatic potential productivity as ground truth areas. By maximum likelihood supervised classification of the NDVI were obtained classes who resulted significantly different among them at the 90% confidence level for the basal area from the Second Spanish National Forest Inventory ground plots located in the park. (Author) 60 refs.

  9. Effects of different liming agencies in forests. A literature review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nihlgaard, B.; Budimir, P.

    1984-07-01

    In the introduction of this report the different reasons for acidification of forest soils are summarized. The buffering systems of the soil are reviewed: the carbonate, silicate, aluminium and the iron buffering systems and the cation exchange system. Results of soil acidification are mentioned. Different liming agencies in use are described. Changes in the chemical soil processes due to liming are described. From a soil biology point of view liming means that the turnover of carbon and nitrogen is increased, with lowered C/N-ratio as a consequence. The tree production might be influenced, sometimes strongly positively but more often with slightly lowered volume production. This decrease is mainly interpreted as a result of disturbed mycorrhiza, possibly a negative nitrate-effect, and sometimes as a relative magnesium or bor deficiency. Increased production seems mainly to appear when liming is done in young stands or before reforestation. The conclusions are - that liming has a long term positive effect on the chemical soil status in preventing the resolution of aluminum and other metals, subsequently with positive effects on the soil and ground water in the long run - that one has to be careful with liming in old stands, in order not to get a decreased volume production - that one probably has to compensate for the acidification leaching effects in the soil by adding eg magnesium and bor together with lime in many forest soils.

  10. Comparison of forest edge effects on throughfall deposition in different forest types

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study examined the influence of distance to the forest edge, forest type, and time on Cl-, SO42-, NO3-, and NH4+ throughfall deposition in forest edges. The forests were dominated by pedunculate oak, silver birch, or Corsican/Austrian pine, and were situated in two regions of Flanders (Belgium). Along transects, throughfall deposition was monitored at distances of 0-128 m from the forest edge. A repeated-measures analysis demonstrated that time, forest type, and distance to the forest edge significantly influenced throughfall deposition of the ions studied. The effect of distance to the forest edge depended significantly on forest type in the deposition of Cl-, SO42-, and NO3-: the edge effect was significantly greater in pine stands than in deciduous birch and oak stands. This finding supports the possibility of converting pine plantations into oak or birch forests in order to mitigate the input of nitrogen and potentially acidifying deposition. - Conversion of pine plantations into oak or birch forests would reduce by 85-90% the nitrogen and potentially acidifying throughfall deposition induced by forest edge effects

  11. Regional differences of water conservation in Beijing's forest ecosystem

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Biao; XIE Gao-di; YAN Yu-ping; YANG Yan-gang

    2011-01-01

    The water conservation capacities of main forests in Beijing,China were estimated through the quantitative analysis. Various methods developed in published papers on forest hydrology were employed. The forests in Huairou, Yanqing, Miyun, Mentougou and Fangshan districts are the main contributors to water conservation (the cumulative ratio reaches 65%), and the forests in Tongzhou, Chaoyang, Shunyi and Daxing districts have the highest water conservation capacity (3000 m3/ha).Altitude and slope are the key factors to affect the water conservation capacity. The forests located in Plain Area, Hilly Area, Low Mountain,and Middle Mountain contributes 27%, 28%, 24% and 21% of the conserved water, respectively. The water conservation capacity of forests in Plain Area (2 948 m3/ha), is superior to the forests in other regions. And the forests situated on Flat Slope, Moderate Slope and Genre Slope constitute the largest proportion (nearly 93%) of water conservation,while the forests on Flat Slope has the highest water conservation capacity (2 797 m3/ha), and the forest on Steep slope has the lowest water conservation capacity (948 m3/ha).

  12. Evaluating spatial-temporal dynamics of net primary productivity of different forest types in northeastern China based on improved FORCCHN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Junfang; Yan, Xiaodong; Guo, Jianping; Jia, Gensuo

    2012-01-01

    An improved individual-based forest ecosystem carbon budget model for China (FORCCHN) was applied to investigate the spatial-temporal dynamics of net primary productivity of different forest types in northeastern China. In this study, the forests of northeastern China were categorized into four ecological types according to their habitats and generic characteristics (evergreen broadleaf forest, deciduous broadleaf forest, evergreen needleleaf forest and deciduous needleleaf forest). The results showed that distribution and change of forest NPP in northeastern China were related to the different forest types. From 1981 to 2002, among the forest types in northeastern China, per unit area NPP and total NPP of deciduous broadleaf forest were the highest, with the values of 729.4 gC/(m(2)•yr) and 106.0 TgC/yr, respectively, followed by mixed broadleaf- needleleaf forest, deciduous needleleaf forest and evergreen needleleaf forest. From 1981 to 2002, per unit area NPP and total NPP of different forest types in northeastern China exhibited significant trends of interannual increase, and rapid increase was found between the 1980s and 1990s. The contribution of the different forest type's NPP to total NPP in northeastern China was clearly different. The greatest was deciduous broadleaf forest, followed by mixed broadleaf- needleleaf forest and deciduous needleleaf forest. The smallest was evergreen needleleaf forest. Spatial difference in NPP between different forest types was remarkable. High NPP values of deciduous needleleaf forest, mixed broadleaf- needleleaf forest and deciduous broadleaf forest were found in the Daxing'anling region, the southeastern of Xiaoxing'anling and Jilin province, and the Changbai Mountain, respectively. However, no regional differences were found for evergreen needleleaf NPP. This study provided not only an estimation NPP of different forest types in northeastern China but also a useful methodology for estimating forest carbon storage at

  13. Similar taxonomic richness but different communities of ectomycorrhizas in native forests and non-native plantation forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Hanlon, Richard; Harrington, Thomas J

    2012-07-01

    This investigation sought to examine if there was a difference between the ectomycorrhizal (ECM) communities in plots of native oak and introduced Scots pine and Sitka spruce forest. The ECM communities in four plots of each forest type were described, from five soil cores collected in each plot, by morphotyping, internal transcribed spacer (ITS)-restriction fragment length polymorphism matching of mycorrhizas and sporocarps and ITS sequencing. Fifty-one distinct taxa were distinguished; 25 were identified to species level, 11 to genus and 15 remained unidentified. Seventy-one ECM species were recorded as sporocarps from the forest plots; most (43 species) were found in the Sitka spruce plots. The below-ground ECM communities of the different forest types did not differ significantly with respect to species richness of taxa on roots, but differed in species composition. Multivariate analysis produced a clear separation of the communities of the different forest types using below-ground data, but the above-ground sporocarp data did not separate the forest types. Moreover, results of a Mantel test found no relationship between the above- and below-ground similarity matrices. The oak plots had the most distinctive ECM community, with Laccaria amethystina and Elaphomyces granulatus being frequent. The Sitka spruce plots showed the lowest intra-forest type similarity and were often dominated by "nursery type" ectomycorrhizas. There was only 10% similarity between the above- and below-ground ECM species in these plots, different colonisation methods of ectomycorrhizal taxa and insufficient below-ground sampling being possible reasons for this disparity. Our results indicate that plantations of non-native Sitka spruce can support similar levels of ECM diversity as native forests. PMID:21947779

  14. Research on Water Conservation Function of Typical Forests in Jinyun Mountain%重庆缙云山典型林分水源涵养功能研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李杨; 王百田; 饶良懿; 王玉杰; 赵铭军

    2012-01-01

    [Objective] This study aimed to explore the relationship between different forest types and water conservation function. [Method] Based on field survey and experimental analysis, water conservation function of four typical forest stands in Jinyun Mountain of Chongqing was explored, including conifer-broadleaved mixed forest, evergreen broad-leaved forest, bamboo forest and shrub forest. [Result] The results show that the order of saturated water storage capacity of soil in four forest stands was shrub forest (266.48 mm) > conifer-broadleaved mixed forest (190.40 mm) > evergreen broad-leaved forest (186. 80 mm) > bamboo forest (174. 80 mm) ; the order of maximum water-holding capacity of litter was shrub forest (8.06 mm) > conifer-broadleaved mixed forest (4.71 mm) > evergreen broad-leaved forest (4.32 mm) > bamboo forest (3. 34 mm) ; the order of canopy interception in various forest stands was conifer-broadleaved mixed forest (16. 15% ) > evergreen broad-leaved forest (14. 70% ) > bamboo forest (12. 64% ). [Conclusion] The study had great significance to rational manage forest resources, improve water environment and realize scientific management and use of water resources.%[目的]探讨不同类型林地与涵养水源功能的关系.[方法]通过实地调查与实验分析,对重庆缙云山中针阔混交林、常绿阔叶林、楠竹林和灌木林4种典型林分的水源涵养功能进行了分析.[结果]4种林分的土壤饱和蓄水量顺序为灌木林(266.48 mm)>针阔混交林(190.40 mm)>常绿阔叶林(186.80 mm)>楠竹林(174.80 mm);枯落物最大持水量顺序为灌木林(8.06 mm)>针阔混交林(4.71 mm)>常绿阔叶林(4.32 mm)>楠竹林(3.34 mm);各种林分的林冠截留率顺序为针阔混交林(16.15%)>常绿阔叶林(14.70%)>楠竹林(12.64%).[结论]该研究对合理经营森林资源、改善水环境、实现水资源的科学管理和利用具有重要意义.

  15. Long-term protection effects of national reserve to forest vegetation in 4 decades: Biodiversity change analysis of major forest types in Changbai Mountain Nature Reserve, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BAI Fan; SANG WeiGuo; LI GuangQi; LIU RuiGang; CHEN LingZhi; WANG Kun

    2008-01-01

    The Changbai Mountain Nature Reserve (CNR) was established in 1960 to protect the virgin Korean pine mixed hardwood forest, a typical temperate forest of northeast China. We conducted systematic stud-ies of vascular diversity patterns on the north slope of the CNR mountainside forests (800-1700 m a.s.I.) in 1963 and 2006 respectively. The aim of this comparison is to assess the long-term effects of the protection on plant biodiversity of CNR during the interval 43 years. The research was carried out in three types of forests: mixed coniferous and broad-leaved forest (MCBF), mixed coniferous forest (MCF), and sub-alpine coniferous forest (SCF), characterized by different dominant species. The alpha diversity indicted by species richness and the Shannon-Wiener index were found different in the same elevations and forest types during the 43-year interval. The floral composition and the diversity of vascular species were generally similar along altitudinal gradients before and after the 43-year interval, but some substantial changes were evident with the altitude gradient. In the tree layers, the dominant species in 2006 were similar to those of 1963, though diversity declined with altitude. The indices in the three forest types did not differ significantly between 1963 and 2006, and these values even increased in the MCBF and MCF from 1963 to 2006. However, originally dominant species, P. koraiensis for ex-ample, tended to decline, while the proportion of broad-leaved trees increased, and the species turn-over in the succession layers trended to shift to higher altitudes. The diversity pattern of the under canopy fluctuated along the altitudinal gradient due to micro-environmental variations. Comparison of the alpha diversity in the three forests shows that the diversity of the shrub and herb layer decreased with time. During the process of survey, we also found some rare and medicinal species disappeared. Analysis indicates that the changes of the diversity pattern

  16. Long-term protection effects of national reserve to forest vegetation in 4 decades: biodiversity change analysis of major forest types in Changbai Mountain Nature Reserve, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The Changbai Mountain Nature Reserve (CNR) was established in 1960 to protect the virgin Korean pine mixed hardwood forest, a typical temperate forest of northeast China. We conducted systematic stud- ies of vascular diversity patterns on the north slope of the CNR mountainside forests (800-1700 m a.s.l.) in 1963 and 2006 respectively. The aim of this comparison is to assess the long-term effects of the protection on plant biodiversity of CNR during the interval 43 years. The research was carried out in three types of forests: mixed coniferous and broad-leaved forest (MCBF), mixed coniferous forest (MCF), and sub-alpine coniferous forest (SCF), characterized by different dominant species. The alpha diversity indicted by species richness and the Shannon-Wiener index were found different in the same elevations and forest types during the 43-year interval. The floral composition and the diversity of vascular species were generally similar along altitudinal gradients before and after the 43-year interval, but some substantial changes were evident with the altitude gradient. In the tree layers, the dominant species in 2006 were similar to those of 1963, though diversity declined with altitude. The indices in the three forest types did not differ significantly between 1963 and 2006, and these values even increased in the MCBF and MCF from 1963 to 2006. However, originally dominant species, P. koraiensis for ex- ample, tended to decline, while the proportion of broad-leaved trees increased, and the species turn- over in the succession layers trended to shift to higher altitudes. The diversity pattern of the under canopy fluctuated along the altitudinal gradient due to micro-environmental variations. Comparison of the alpha diversity in the three forests shows that the diversity of the shrub and herb layer decreased with time. During the process of survey, we also found some rare and medicinal species disappeared. Analysis indicates that the changes of the diversity

  17. Effects of Different Forest Management Regimes on Plant Community Structure and Biodiversity of Natural Secondary Forests in Danqinghe Forestry Farm%不同经营模式对丹清河林场天然次生林植物群落结构及其多样性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁星云; 何友均; 张谱; 戎建涛; 覃林; 李智勇

    2013-01-01

    以黑龙江省哈尔滨市林业局丹清河林场的针叶林、阔叶林及针阔混交林3种天然次生林为对象,以无干扰模式为对照,研究粗放经营模式和目标树经营模式对植物群落结构及其多样性的影响.结果表明:1)在针叶林、阔叶林、针阔混交林中,相对于粗放经营模式和无干扰模式而言,目标树经营模式中以目标树为主的第1林层断面积值最大,占林分断面积百分比为95.00%,90.00%,87.00%,但第2,3林层断面积最小,形成了合理的林冠结构;2)目标树经营模式的林木平均密度(408 ~858株·hm-2)显著低于(P<0.05)粗放经营模式(992 ~1 917株·hm-2),而平均胸高断面积(18.18 ~46.03 m2·hm-2)与粗放经营模式(18.43 ~39.70 m2·hm-2)无显著差异(P<0.05),平均树高(11.8~14.9 m)和平均胸径(15.94 ~27.34 cm)均显著高于(P<0.05)粗放经营模式(分别为7.1~11.0 m和10.18~19.00cm);3)粗放经营模式和无干扰模式60%以上的林木为小径木(12 cm以下),目标树经营模式60%以上为中径木(14 ~ 18 cm)和大径木(20 cm以上);4)粗放经营模式乔木层的多样性高于目标树经营模式;灌木层除阔叶林的多样性与目标树经营模式不可比外,其余林分的多样性均高于目标树经营模式;草本层的多样性则以目标树经营模式为最高;5)粗放经营模式只注重短期经济价值而忽略生态要求,无干扰模式只注重绝对生态保护而忽略人对森林资源的利用需求,二者都不符合人类经营森林的目标.目标树经营模式可改善群落和林冠结构,不仅能够获得较好的经济效益,还能平衡生态功能,符合人类经营森林的目标.%We studied the different effects of extensive forest management regime and target tree management regime on plant community structure and biodiversity of natural secondary coniferous forest, broad-leaved forest and mixed forest in Danqinghe Forestry Farm which locates

  18. [Soil quality assessment of forest stand in different plantation esosystems].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yu; Wang, Silong; Feng, Zongwei; Gao, Hong; Wang, Qingkui; Hu, Yalin; Yan, Shaokui

    2004-12-01

    After a clear-cutting of the first generation Cunninghamia lanceolata plantation in 1982, three plantation ecosystems, pure Michelia macclurei stand (PMS), pure Chinese-fir stand (PCS) and their mixed stand, were established in spring 1983, and their effects on soil characteristics were evaluated by measuring some soil physical, chemical, microbiological and biochemical parameters. After 20 years' plantation, all test indices showed differences among different forest management models. Both PMS and MCM had a favorable effect on soil fertility maintenance. Soil quality assessment showed that some soil functions, e.g., water availability, nutrient availability, root suitability and soil quality index were all in a moderate level under the mixed and pure PMS stands, whereas in a relatively lower level under successive PCS stand. The results also showed that there existed close correlations between soil total organic C (TOC), cation exchange capacity (CEC), microbial biomass-C (Cmic) and other soil physical, chemical and biological indices. Therefore, TOC, CEC and Cmic could be used as the indicators in assessing soil quality in this study area. In addition, there were also positive correlations between soil microbial biomass-C and TOC, soil microbial biomass-N and total N, and soil microbial biomass-P and total P in the present study. PMID:15825426

  19. Research on Water Conservation Function ol Typical Forests in Jinyun Mountain%重庆缙云山典型林分水源涵养功能研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李杨; 王百田; 饶良懿; 王玉杰

    2012-01-01

    [Objective] This study aimed to explore the relationship between different forest types and water conservation function. [Method] Based on field survey and experimental analysis, water conservation function of four typical forest stands in Jinyun Mountain of Chongqing was explored, including conifer-broadleaved mixed for- est, evergreen broad-leaved forest, bamboo forest and shrub forest. [Result] The re- sults showed that the order of saturated water storage capacity of soil in four forest stands was shrub forest (266.48 mm) 〉 conifer-broadleaved mixed forest (190.40 mm) 〉 evergreen broad-leaved forest (186.80 mm) 〉 bamboo forest (174.80 mm); the order of maximum water-holding capacity of litter was shrub forest (8.06 mm) 〉 conifer-broadleaved mixed forest (4.71 mm) 〉 evergreen broad-leaved forest (4.32 mm) 〉 bamboo forest (3.34 mm); the order of canopy interception in various forest stands was conifer-broadleaved mixed forest (16.15%) 〉 evergreen broad-leaved for- est (14.70%) 〉 bamboo forest (12.64%). [Conclusion] The study had great signifi- cance to rational manage forest resources, improve water environment and realize scientific management and use of water resources.%【目的]探讨不同类型林地与涵养水源功能的关系。[方法]通过实地调查与实验分析,对重庆缙云山中针阔混交林、常绿阔叶林、楠竹林和灌木林4种典型林分的水源涵养功能进行了分析。【结果]4种林分的土壤饱和蓄水量顺序为灌木林(266.48mm)〉针阔混交林(190.40mm)〉常绿阔叶林(186.80mm)〉楠竹林(174.80mm);枯落物最大持水量顺序为灌木林(8.06mm)〉针阔混交林(4.71mm)〉常绿阔叶林(4.32mm)〉楠竹林(3.34mm);各种林分的林冠截留率顺序为针阔混交林(16.15%)〉常绿阔叶林(14.70%)〉楠竹林(12.64%)。[结论]该研究对

  20. Factors controlling regional differences in forest soil emission of nitrogen oxides (NO and N2O)

    OpenAIRE

    K. Pilegaard; Skiba, U.; Ambus, P.; Beier, C.; N. Brüggemann; K. Butterbach-Bahl; Dick, J.; Dorsey, J.; J. Duyzer; Gallagher, M; Gasche, R.; Horvath, L; Kitzler, B.; A. Leip; Pihlatie, M. K.

    2006-01-01

    Soil emissions of NO and N2O were measured continuously at high frequency for more than one year at 15 European forest sites as part of the EU-funded project NOFRETETE. The locations represent different forest types (coniferous/deciduous) and different nitrogen loads. Geographically they range from Finland in the north to Italy in the south and from Hungary in the east to Scotland in the west. The highest NO emissions were observed from coniferous forests, whereas the ...

  1. Simulation of the biomass dynamics of Masson pine forest under different management

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Gui-lian; WANG Kai-yun; LIU Xin-wei; PENG Shao-lin

    2006-01-01

    TREE submodel affiliated with TREEDYN was used to simulate biomass dynamics of Masson pine (Pinus massoniana) forest under different managements (including thinning, clear cutting, combining thinning with clear cutting). The purpose was to represent biomass dynamics involved in its development, which can provide scientific arguments for management of Masson pine forest. The results showed the scenario that 10% or 20% of biomass of the previous year was thinned every five years from 15 to 40 years made total biomass of pine forest increase slowly and it took more time to reach a mature community; If clear cutting and thinning were combined, the case C (clear cutting at 20 years of forest age, thinning 50% of remaining biomass at 30 years of forest age, and thinning 50% of remaining biomass again at 40 years of forest age) was the best scenario which can accelerate speed of development of Masson pine forest and gained better economic values.

  2. Effects of elevated nitrogen deposition on soil microbial biomass carbon in major subtropical forests of southern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hui WANG; Jiangming MO; Xiankai LU; Jinghua XUE; Jiong LI; Yunting FANG

    2009-01-01

    The effects of elevated nitrogen deposition on soil microbial biomass carbon (C) and extractable dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in three types of forest of southern China were studied in November, 2004 and June, 2006. Plots were established in a pine forest (PF), a mixed pine and broad-leaved forest (MF) and monsoon evergreen broad-leaved forest (MEBF) in the Dinghushan Nature Reserve. Nitrogen treatments included a control (no N addition), low N (50 kg N/(hm2.a)), medium N (100 kg N/ (hm2. a)) and high N (150 kg N/(hm2. a)). Microbial biomass C and extractable DOC were determined using a chloro-form fumigation-extraction method. Results indicate that microbial biomass C and extractable DOC were higher in June, 2006 than in November, 2004 and higher in the MEBF than in the PF or the MF. The response of soil microbial biomass C and extractable DOC to nitrogen deposition varied depending on the forest type and the level of nitrogen treatment. In the PF or MF forests, no significantly different effects of nitrogen addition were found on soil microbial biomass C and extractable DOC. In the MEBF, however, the soil microbial biomass C generally decreased with increased nitrogen levels and high nitrogen addition significantly reduced soil microbial biomass C. The response of soil extractable DOC to added nitrogen in the MEBF shows the opposite trend to soil microbial biomass C. These results suggest that nitrogen deposition may increase the accumulation of soil organic carbon in the MEBF in the study region.

  3. Changes in forest soil properties in different successional stages in lower tropical China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuelin Li

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Natural forest succession often affects soil physical and chemical properties. Selected physical and chemical soil properties were studied in an old-growth forest across a forest successional series in Dinghushan Nature Reserve, Southern China. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The aim was to assess the effects of forest succession change on soil properties. Soil samples (0-20 cm depth were collected from three forest types at different succession stages, namely pine (Pinus massoniana forest (PMF, mixed pine and broadleaf forest (PBMF and monsoon evergreen broadleaf forest (MEBF, representing early, middle and advanced successional stages respectively. The soil samples were analyzed for soil water storage (SWS, soil organic matter (SOM, soil microbial biomass carbon (SMBC, pH, NH4(+-N, available potassium (K, available phosphorus (P and microelements (available copper (Cu, available zinc (Zn, available iron (Fe and available boron (B between 1999 and 2009. The results showed that SWS, SOM, SMBC, Cu, Zn, Fe and B concentrations were higher in the advanced successional stage (MEBF stage. Conversely, P and pH were lower in the MEBF but higher in the PMF (early successional stage. pH, NH4(+-N, P and K declined while SOM, Zn, Cu, Fe and B increased with increasing forest age. Soil pH was lower than 4.5 in the three forest types, indicating that the surface soil was acidic, a stable trend in Dinghushan. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: These findings demonstrated significant impacts of natural succession in an old-growth forest on the surface soil nutrient properties and organic matter. Changes in soil properties along the forest succession gradient may be a useful index for evaluating the successional stages of the subtropical forests. We caution that our inferences are drawn from a pseudo-replicated chronosequence, as true replicates were difficult to find. Further studies are needed to draw rigorous conclusions regarding on nutrient dynamics in

  4. Response of soil respiration to acid rain in forests of different maturity in southern China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guohua Liang

    Full Text Available The response of soil respiration to acid rain in forests, especially in forests of different maturity, is poorly understood in southern China despite the fact that acid rain has become a serious environmental threat in this region in recent years. Here, we investigated this issue in three subtropical forests of different maturity [i.e. a young pine forest (PF, a transitional mixed conifer and broadleaf forest (MF and an old-growth broadleaved forest (BF] in southern China. Soil respiration was measured over two years under four simulated acid rain (SAR treatments (CK, the local lake water, pH 4.5; T1, water pH 4.0; T2, water pH 3.5; and T3, water pH 3.0. Results indicated that SAR did not significantly affect soil respiration in the PF, whereas it significantly reduced soil respiration in the MF and the BF. The depressed effects on both forests occurred mostly in the warm-wet seasons and were correlated with a decrease in soil microbial activity and in fine root biomass caused by soil acidification under SAR. The sensitivity of the response of soil respiration to SAR showed an increasing trend with the progressive maturity of the three forests, which may result from their differences in acid buffering ability in soil and in litter layer. These results indicated that the depressed effect of acid rain on soil respiration in southern China may be more pronounced in the future in light of the projected change in forest maturity. However, due to the nature of this field study with chronosequence design and the related pseudoreplication for forest types, this inference should be read with caution. Further studies are needed to draw rigorous conclusions regarding the response differences among forests of different maturity using replicated forest types.

  5. Fungal Taxa Target Different Carbon Substrates in Harvard Forest Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, C. A.; Allison, S. D.; Wallenstein, M. D.; Mellilo, J. M.; Treseder, K. K.

    2006-12-01

    The mineralization of soil organic carbon is a major component of the global carbon cycle and is largely controlled by soil microbial communities. However, little is known about the functional roles of soil microbes or whether different microbial taxa target different carbon substrates under natural conditions. To examine this possibility, we assessed the community composition of active fungi by using a novel nucleotide analog technique in soils from the Harvard Forest. We hypothesized that fungal community composition would shift in response to the addition of different substrates and that specific fungal taxa would respond differentially to particular carbon sources. To test this hypothesis, we added a nucleotide analog probe directly to soils in conjunction with one of five carbon compounds of increasing recalcitrance: glycine, sucrose, cellulose, tannin-protein complex, and lignin. During 48 hour incubations, the nucleotide analog was incorporated into newly replicated DNA of soil organisms that proliferated following the addition of the substrates. In this way, we labeled the DNA of microbes that respond to a particular carbon source. Labeled DNA was isolated and fungal Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS) regions of ribosomal DNA (rDNA) were sequenced and analyzed to identify active fungi to near-species resolution. Diversity analyses at the ≥97% sequence similarity level indicated that taxonomic richness was greater under cellulose (Shannon Index: 3.23 ± 0.11 with ± 95% CI) and lignin (2.87 ± 0.15) additions than the other treatments (2.34 ± 0.16 to 2.64 ± 0.13). In addition, community composition of active fungi shifted under glycine, sucrose, and cellulose additions. Specifically, the community under glycine was significantly different from communities under control, cellulose, and tannin-protein (Ptannin-protein and slightly increased in response to lignin and sucrose. This confirms our hypothesis that particular taxa respond differently to specific

  6. Influence of different tree-harvesting intensities on forest soil carbon stocks in boreal and northern temperate forest ecosystems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clarke, Nicholas; Gundersen, Per; Jönsson-Belyazid, Ulrika; Kjønaas, O. Janne; Persson, Tryggve; Sigurdsson, Bjarni D.; Stupak, Inge; Vesterdal, Lars

    2015-01-01

    ) stocks. This paper reviews the findings in the scientific literature concerning the effects of harvesting of different intensities on SOC stocks and fluxes in boreal and northern temperate forest ecosystems to evaluate the evidence for significant SOC losses following biomass removal. An overview of...... SOC stocks in boreal and northern temperate forest ecosystems, which is in any case species-, site- and practice-specific. Properly conducted long-term experiments are therefore necessary to enable us to clarify the relative importance of different harvesting practices on the SOC stores, the key...

  7. Soil ni.trogen transformations varied with plant community under Nanchang urban forests in mid-subtropical zone of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    REN Wen; CHEN Fu-sheng; HU Xiao-fei; YU Ming-quan; FENG Xue

    2011-01-01

    Soil N transformations using the polyvinyl chloride (PVC)closed-top tube in situ incubation method were studied in Nanchang urban forests of the mid-subtropical region of China m different monthsof 2007.Four plots of 20 m × 20 m were established in four different plant communities that represented typical successional stages of forest development including shrubs,coniferous forest,mixed forest and broadleaved forest.Average concentrations of soil NH4+-N fiom January to December were not different among the four plant communities.The concentrations of soil NO3-N and mineral N,and the annual rates of ammonification,nitrification and net N-mineralization under the early successional shrub community and coniferous forest were generally lower than that of the late successional mixed and broad-leaved forests (p<0.05).Similar differences among the plant communities were also shown in the relative nitrification index (NH4+-N/NO3-N) and relative nitrification intensity (nitrification rate/net N-mineralization rate).The annual net N-mineralization rate was increased from younger to older plant communities,from 15.1 and 41.4 kg·ha-1·a-1 under the shrubs and coniferous forest communities to 98.0 and 112.9 kg·ha-1·a-1 under the mixed and broad-leaved forests,respectively.Moreover,the high annual nitrification rates (50-70 kg·ha-1·a-1) and its end product,NO3-N (2.4-3.8mg·kg-1),under older plant communities could increase the potential risk of N loss.Additionally,the temporal patterns of the different soil N variables mentioned above varied with different plant community due to the combined affects of natural biological processes associated with forest maturation and urbanization.Our results indicated that urban forests arc moving towards a state of"N saturation" (extremely nitrification rate and NO3-N content) as they mature.

  8. Comparison of Selected Soil Chemical Properties of Two Different Mangrove Forests in Sarawak

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Empi Rambok

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Despite few studies of forest health and environmental conditions of mangrove forest in Sarawak, the data was not sufficient to facilitate baseline data and direct comparison of mangrove forest health obtained for different location of mangrove forest in Sarawak. On this regard, determination of contemporary mangrove soil condition was essential to addressing mangrove forest for forest health, carbon storage and environmental balance. The study attempts to obtained preliminary database of mangrove forest soil chemical properties and to compare the forest health from two different mangrove forest locations. Approach: Mangrove soil samples were taken from Miri and Limbang Division of Sarawak at 0-30 cm depth. Selected soil chemical properties were determined and data obtained were analyzed using Statistical Analysis System (SAS Version 9.2. Results: The soil acidity, total N, total P, CEC and humic acid of both locations were significantly different while in terms of total carbon and organic matter were similar. Conclusion: Regional diversity has significant effects the soil acidity, total N, total P, CEC and yield of the study areas. Data obtained can be useful for further study of carbon stock and nutrient content.

  9. Costs, CO{sub 2}- and primary energy balances of forest-fuel recovery systems at different forest productivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eriksson, Lisa; Gustavsson, Leif [Ecotechnology, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Mid Sweden University, SE-831 25 Oestersund (Sweden)

    2010-05-15

    Here we examine the cost, primary energy use, and net carbon emissions associated with removal and use of forest residues for energy, considering different recovery systems, terrain, forwarding distance and forest productivity. We show the potential recovery of forest fuel for Sweden, its costs and net carbon emissions from primary energy use and avoided fossil carbon emissions. The potential annual net recovery of forest fuel is about 66 TWh, which would cost one billion EUR{sub 2005} to recover and would reduce fossil emissions by 6.9 Mt carbon if coal were replaced. Of the forest fuel, 56% is situated in normal terrain with productivity of >30 t dry-matter ha{sup -1} and of this, 65% has a forwarding distance of <400 m. In normal terrain with >30 t dry-matter ha{sup -1} the cost increase for the recovery of forest fuel, excluding stumps, is around 4-6% and 8-11% for medium and longer forwarding distances, respectively. The stump and small roundwood systems are less cost-effective at lower forest fuel intensity per area. For systems where loose material is forwarded, less dry-matter per hectare increases costs by 6-7%, while a difficult terrain increases costs by 3-4%. Still, these systems are quite cost-effective. The cost of spreading ash is around 40 EUR{sub 2005} ha{sup -1}, while primary energy use for spreading ash in areas where logging residues, stumps, and small roundwood are recovered is about 0.025% of the recovered bioenergy. (author)

  10. Diversity of insect communities with different development phases in natural Populus euphratica forests in Xinjiang

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIAO Hai-li; LUO You-qing; TIAN Chengming; SUN Jian-hua; FENG Xiaofeng

    2008-01-01

    An investigation method with sample plots was used to study insect communities in four different growth phases of natural Populus euphratica forests, which are juvenile, middle aged, over-mature and degraded forests, in Tarim, Xinjiang in July, 2005 and April, 2006. In our studies, 5,116 insect specimens, belonging to 12 orders, 61 families and 141 species, were collected. Lepidoptera and Coleoptera were the dominant orders. In middle-aged forests, species, individual numbers and diversity indices of insect communities were higher than those in other woodlands. The species richness and diversity indices were lowest in degraded forests because of extremely scarce vegetation.

  11. Quantifying soil erosion with GIS-based RUSLE under different forest management options in Jianchang Forest Farm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG; Hengming; WANG; Qingli; DAI; Limin; Guofan; Shao; TANG; Lina; WANG; Shunzhong; GU; Huiyan

    2006-01-01

    Quantitatively estimating soil erosion with an integration of geographic information system (GIS) and the revised universal soil loss equation (RUSLE) under four different exposed soil proportion scenarios caused by forest management practices was studied at Jianchang Forest Farm. The GIS provided means of input data generation required by RUSLE model and allowed a spatial assessment of the erosion hazard over the study area. Four exposed soil proportion scenarios of 5%, 10%, 20% and 30% were tested with the GIS-based RUSLE model to evaluate soil erosion hazard. The predicted soil erosion potentials were classified into five categories in order to provide valuable aids for management planning.

  12. Soil carbon dioxide fluxes of a typical broad-leaved/Korean pine mixed forest in Changbai Mountain, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANGChen-rui; WUJie; LIANGZhan-bei; HUANGGuo-hong

    2004-01-01

    The forest ecosystem plays an important role in the global carbon cycling. A study was conducted to evaluate soil CO2 flux and its seasonal and diurnal variation with the air and soil temperatures by using static closed chamber technique in a typical broad-leaved/Korean pine mixed forest area on the northern slope of Changbai Mountain, Jilin Province, China. The experiment was carried out through the day and night in the growing season (from June to September) in situ and sample gas was analyzed by a gas chromatograph. Results showed that the forest floor was a large net source of carbon, and soil CO2 fluxes had an obvious law of seasonal and diel variation. The soil CO2 flux of broad-leaved/Korean pine mixed forest was in the range of 0.30-2.42μmol·m-2·s-1 with the mean value of 0.98μmol·m-2·s-1. An examination on the seasonal pattern of soil CO2 emission suggested that the variability in soil CO2 flux could be correlated with variations in soil temperature, and the maximum of mean CO2 flux occurred in July ((1.27±23%)μmol·m-2·s-1) and the minimum was in September ((0.50±28%)μmol·m-2·s-1). The fluctuations in diel soil CO2 flux were also correlated with changes in soil temperature; however, there existed a factor for a time lag. Soil CO2 flux from the forest floor was strongly related to soil temperature and had the highest correlation with temperature at 6-cm depth of soil. Q10 values based on air temperature and soil temperature of different soil depths were at the ranges of 2.09 - 3.40.

  13. The relations of growth and increment in thrace oak forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gafura Aylak Özdemir

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, increment and growth relationships of oak forests of Thrace in different ages, densities and site indexes were examined. For this purpose, double-entry tree volume table, site quality table and the density - dependent yield table was created with the help of the data provided to 101 sample plots were taken. Density – dependent yield table was programmed using VBA macro feature of MS Excel 2010 program. Thus, yield table can be taken as output in computer environment according to the desired age, density and site index. Trends of stand volume and volume elements provided to density – dependent yield table for the oak forest of Thrace according to the age in different site conditions and densities was presented comparatively. Values obtained by density dependent yield table were compared with values of the yield table generated by Eraslan (1954 and Eraslan – Evcimen (1967 for the oak forests. The same comparison also was made with values of the yield table generated by Carus (1998 for beech forests with broad-leaved species.

  14. ATTACHMENT TO FORESTS IN ROMANIA; DOES A HISTORY OF COLLECTIVISM MAKE A DIFFERENCE?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria ARDELEANU

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Forests in Romania are facing significant environmental problems. Due to the large transformations the forestry sector has undergone as a result of the communist period, sustainable forest management is highly relevant. Rural communities, who are dependent on the forests for their daily livelihood, need to be included in discussions regarding sustainable forest management. This paper calls for the need of understanding how these transformations have affected rural people’s attachment to the forests that have been for such a long time taken away from them. Two types of rural communities can be distinguished, those affected by collectivisation of agricultural land and those not. This paper addresses the functional and emotional attachment to the local forests of a former collectivized and of a non-collectivized community. We found that people in both communities are functionally attached to the forest, through a range of social benefits, mostly ‘recreation’ and ‘healthiness’, and economic benefits, especially the use of wood. Attachment was negative thru the economic detriments ‘decrease of wood availability’, ‘high costs of forest management’, ‘wood theft’ and ‘ineffective forest regime’. People in both communities are emotionally attached to the forest through feelings triggered mostly by a sense of kinship with family members. As a final conclusion, in the former collectivized rural areas, people are less attached to the forest compared to people in the non-collectivized rural areas and these differences can be linked to the transformations triggered by the former collectivisation process, but also to the weak regulation of the privatized forests, the limited financial possibilities and access restrictions.

  15. Differences in fire regimes and fire-climate feedbacks in North American and Eurasian boreal forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, B. M.; Randerson, J. T.; Soja, A. J.

    2012-12-01

    Boreal forests contribute 9% of current annual fire emissions and contain nearly 40% of the world's terrestrial carbon stocks. Temperatures are projected to increase by the greatest magnitudes in high latitudes and lead to increased frequencies of forest fires. However, because of variations in climate and species-driven forest structure, fire regimes of North American and Eurasian boreal forests are distinctly different. These differences are generally not accounted for in global models. We quantified variations in fire and burn severity between the two continents using MODIS fire radiative power, differenced Normalized Burn Ratio, and spring albedo. These metrics suggest that Eurasian boreal fires are on average less than half as severe as those in North America. We examine how boreal forest fires may respond to 21st century climate change using the Community Land Model, and consider how these regimes may feed back to climate through fire-emitted aerosols, greenhouse gas fluxes, and land surface characteristics.

  16. Microclimate and Modeled Fire Behavior Differ Between Adjacent Forest Types in Northern Portugal

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Fire severity varies with forest composition and structure, reflecting micrometeorology and the fuel complex, but their respective influences are difficult to untangle from observation alone. We quantify the differences in fire weather between different forest types and the resulting differences in modeled fire behavior. Collection of in-stand weather data proceeded during two summer periods in three adjacent stands in northern Portugal, respectively Pinus pinaster (PP), Betula alba (BA), and...

  17. The nitrogen budget for different forest types in the central Congo Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauters, Marijn; Verbeeck, Hans; Cizungu, Landry; Boeckx, Pascal

    2016-04-01

    Characterization of fundamental processes in different forest types is vital to understand the interaction of forests with their changing environment. Recent data analyses, as well as modeling activities have shown that the CO2 uptake by terrestrial ecosystems strongly depends on site fertility, i.e. nutrient availability. Accurate projections of future net forest growth and terrestrial CO2 uptake thus necessitate an improved understanding on nutrient cycles and how these are coupled to the carbon (C) cycle in forests. This holds especially for tropical forests, since they represent about 40-50% of the total carbon that is stored in terrestrial vegetation, with the Amazon basin and the Congo basin being the largest two contiguous blocks. However, due to political instability and reduced accessibility in the central Africa region, there is a strong bias in scientific research towards the Amazon basin. Consequently, central African forests are poorly characterized and their role in global change interactions shows distinct knowledge gaps, which is important bottleneck for all efforts to further optimize Earth system models explicitly including this region. Research in the Congo Basin region should combine assessments of both carbon stocks and the underlying nutrient cycles which directly impact the forest productivity. We set up a monitoring network for carbon stocks and nitrogen fluxes in four different forest types in the Congo Basin, which is now operative. With the preliminary data, we can get a glimpse of the differences in nitrogen budget and biogeochemistry of African mixed lowland rainforest, monodominant lowland forest, mixed montane forest and eucalypt plantations.

  18. Forest biomass at Xiaolong Mountain in Gansu Province,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    In order to accurately estimate the size of the carbon pool and the capacity of the carbon sink in the forested areas of Xiaolong Mountain in Gansu Province,we have established regression equations of organ biomass of eight tree species.We measured and investigated the biomass of different forest stand types based on data from 1259 standard sample plots and 836 standard sample trees.for eight types of forest stands on Xiaolong Mountain,are as follows:Quercus aliena var.acuteserrata 84.05,Pinus tabulaeformis 62.44,Quercus variabilis 81.77,Populus sp.and Betula sp.combined 77.44,Larix sp.69.00,Pinus armandii 70.07,Picea sp.96.49 and Abies sp.98.72.We also looked at other broad-leaved mixed forests.Our study shows that the biomass of a single tree of each tree species is closely related to the diameter at breast height (DBH) and to tree height.The biomass of single trees as well as stand volumes is closely related to average DBH,average tree height and to stand density.

  19. Different soil respiration responses to litter manipulation in three subtropical successional forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Tianfeng; Huang, Wenjuan; Liu, Juxiu; Zhou, Guoyi; Xiao, Yin

    2015-12-01

    Aboveground litter inputs have been greatly altered by human disturbances and climate change, which have important effects on soil respiration. However, the knowledge of how soil respiration responds to altered litter inputs is limited in tropical and subtropical forests. We conducted an aboveground litterfall manipulation experiment in three successional forests in the subtropics to examine the soil respiration responses to different litter inputs from January 2010 to July 2012. The soil respiration decreased by 35% in the litter exclusion treatments and increased by 77% in the doubled litter additions across all three forests. The reduction in soil respiration induced by the litter exclusion was greatest in the early successional forest, which may be related to a decrease in the soil moisture and shifts in the microbial community. The increase in soil respiration produced by the doubled litter addition was largest in the mature forest, which was most probably due to its relatively high quantity and quality of litterfall. Our results suggest that the effect of reduced litter inputs on the soil respiration lessened with forest succession but that the doubled litter inputs resulted in a stronger priming effect in the mature forest than in the other two forests.

  20. Forest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The forest are subject to many direct and indirect influences, apart from atmospheric pollutants and the potential effects of climatic changes, timber production and hunting have a major impact in the Austrian forests. Ozone, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, ammonia, inorganic fluoride, chloride compounds, heavy metals (cadmium and lead), organic pollutants (chlorinated hydrocarbons, trichloroacetic acid and nitrophenols), acidifying compounds and eutrophying compounds are the main forest pollutants. As forests cover nearly 50 % of the Austrian territory, changes affecting them constitute a potentially significant parameter in the national greenhouse gas balance. Carbon stocks and the annual carbon balance were calculated and a estimation of the potential impact of climate change by means of dynamic computer simulation and risk assesment were performed. The results are illustrated in a cartographic chart. Other topics discussed in this chapter are forest management, forest damage (game, cattle, abiotic and biotic influences), changes in land use, biodiversity, crown condition and long-term monitoring to determine the impact of environmental stress. Figs. 2, Table 1. (nevyjel)

  1. Belowground ectomycorrhizal fungal communities at fagus stands in differently polluted forest research plots

    OpenAIRE

    Al Sayegh-Petkovšek, Samar

    2005-01-01

    Belowground ectomycorrhizal fungal communities at fagus stands were analysed. Eectomycorrhiza types were identified in soil cores from differently polluted beech forest research plots in the 1998 - 2001 period by mycobioindication method. Forest research plots were situated in the vicinity of thermal power plants (polluted plots: Zavodnje - Prednji vrh and Zasavje - Dobovec) and in unpolluted areas (in the vicinity of Kočevska Reka: Preža and Moravške gredice). Eighty-eight different ectomyco...

  2. The saproxylic beetle assemblage associated with different host trees in Southwest China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jie Wu; Xiao-Dong Yu; Hong-Zhang Zhou

    2008-01-01

    Dead wood is a habitat for many insects and other small animals,some of which may be rare or endangered and in need of effective protection.In this paper,saproxylic beetle assemblages associated with different host trees in the subtropical forests in southwestern China were investigated.A total of 277 species (1 439 specimens) in 36 beetle families were collected from 117 dead wood samples,of which 101 samples were identified and respectively belonged to 12 tree genera.The number of saproxylic beetle species varied greatly among logs of different tree genera,with the highest diversity on logs of Juglans.Generally,broad-leaved trees had a higher richness and abundance of saproxylic species than coniferous trees.Cluster analysis revealed that assemblages from broad-leaved tree genera were generally similar (except for Betula) and assemblages from coniferous trees formed another distinct cluster.The subsequent indicator analysis proposed that there are different characteristic species for different cluster groups of host tree genera.In our study,log diameter has no positive influence on beetle species density.Conversely,comparisons of individual-based rarefaction curves suggested that beetle species richness was highest in the small diameter class both in coniferous and broad-leaved tree genera.With increased wood decay,proportion of habitat specialists (saproxylic beetles living on one tree genus)decreased,whereas proportion of habitat generalists (living on more than three tree genera)increased.The beetle species density was found to be higher in early stages,and decreased in later stages as well.A negative influence of altitude on saproxylic beetle species richness and abundance was detected.It was indicated that different tree genera and altitudes possibly display cross effects in modulating the altitudinal distribution and host preference of the beetles.

  3. Effect of different spatial resolution of satellite image to observe the forest condition using satellite image and National Forest Inventory data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kajisa, T.; Mizoue, N.; Yoshida, S.

    2010-12-01

    One of the most substantial needs in forest management planning is information about the condition of the forest. Strategic decisions concerning timber policies, decisions about timing and spatial extent of forest operations, and operational decisions such as work plans are all examples where accurate information of the forest conditions are required. Landsat has played the important role for land cover observation in the past, but, got a serious problem. Currently, many kinds of satellite image are available to monitor land cover. So, the utility of different types of satellite image have to be evaluated for land cover monitoring. On the other hands, in Japan, National Forest Inventory (NFI) has been conducted since 1999 with the aim of understanding the state and dynamics of various aspects in forests such as wood production and biodiversity throughout the country. However, few studies have been conducted to combine the satellite image and NFI data. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of different spatial resolution of satellite image to observe the forest condition (forest/non-forest, forest types, forest stand volume) using satellite image and NFI data.

  4. Biogenic volatile organic compound (BVOC) emissions from forested areas in Turkey: Determination of specific emission rates for thirty-one tree species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aydin, Yagmur Meltem; Yaman, Baris; Koca, Husnu; Dasdemir, Okan; Kara, Melik; Altiok, Hasan; Dumanoglu, Yetkin; Bayram, Abdurrahman [Department of Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Dokuz Eylul University, Tinaztepe Campus, Buca, Izmir (Turkey); Tolunay, Doganay [Department of Soil Science and Ecology, Faculty of Forestry, Istanbul University, Bahcekoy, Istanbul (Turkey); Odabasi, Mustafa [Department of Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Dokuz Eylul University, Tinaztepe Campus, Buca, Izmir (Turkey); Elbir, Tolga, E-mail: tolga.elbir@deu.edu.tr [Department of Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Dokuz Eylul University, Tinaztepe Campus, Buca, Izmir (Turkey)

    2014-08-15

    Normalized biogenic volatile organic compound (BVOC) emission rates for thirty one tree species that cover the 98% of national forested areas in Turkey were determined. Field samplings were performed at fourteen different forested areas in Turkey using a specific dynamic enclosure system. The selected branches of tree species were enclosed in a chamber consisted of a transparent Nalofan bag. The air-flows were sampled from both inlet and outlet of the chamber by Tenax-filled sorbent tubes during photosynthesis of trees under the presence of sunlight. Several environmental parameters (temperature, humidity, photosynthetically active radiation-PAR, and CO{sub 2}) were continuously monitored inside and outside the enclosure chamber during the samplings. Collected samples were analyzed using a gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC/MS) system equipped with a thermal desorber (TD). Sixty five BVOCs classified in five major groups (isoprene, monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes, oxygenated sesquiterpenes, and other oxygenated compounds) were analyzed. Emission rates were determined by normalization to standard conditions (1000 μmol/m{sup 2} s PAR and 30 °C temperature for isoprene and 30 °C temperature for the remaining compounds). In agreement with the literature, isoprene was mostly emitted by broad-leaved trees while coniferous species mainly emitted monoterpenes. Several tree species such as Sweet Chestnut, Silver Lime, and European Alder had higher monoterpene emissions although they are broad-leaved species. High isoprene emissions were also observed for a few coniferous species such as Nordmann Fir and Oriental Spruce. The highest normalized total BVOC emission rate of 27.1 μg/g h was observed for Oriental Plane while South European Flowering Ash was the weakest BVOC emitter with a total normalized emission rate of 0.031 μg/g h. Monoterpene emissions of broad-leaved species mainly consisted of sabinene, limonene and trans-beta-ocimene, while alpha-pinene, beta

  5. Biogenic volatile organic compound (BVOC) emissions from forested areas in Turkey: Determination of specific emission rates for thirty-one tree species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Normalized biogenic volatile organic compound (BVOC) emission rates for thirty one tree species that cover the 98% of national forested areas in Turkey were determined. Field samplings were performed at fourteen different forested areas in Turkey using a specific dynamic enclosure system. The selected branches of tree species were enclosed in a chamber consisted of a transparent Nalofan bag. The air-flows were sampled from both inlet and outlet of the chamber by Tenax-filled sorbent tubes during photosynthesis of trees under the presence of sunlight. Several environmental parameters (temperature, humidity, photosynthetically active radiation-PAR, and CO2) were continuously monitored inside and outside the enclosure chamber during the samplings. Collected samples were analyzed using a gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC/MS) system equipped with a thermal desorber (TD). Sixty five BVOCs classified in five major groups (isoprene, monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes, oxygenated sesquiterpenes, and other oxygenated compounds) were analyzed. Emission rates were determined by normalization to standard conditions (1000 μmol/m2 s PAR and 30 °C temperature for isoprene and 30 °C temperature for the remaining compounds). In agreement with the literature, isoprene was mostly emitted by broad-leaved trees while coniferous species mainly emitted monoterpenes. Several tree species such as Sweet Chestnut, Silver Lime, and European Alder had higher monoterpene emissions although they are broad-leaved species. High isoprene emissions were also observed for a few coniferous species such as Nordmann Fir and Oriental Spruce. The highest normalized total BVOC emission rate of 27.1 μg/g h was observed for Oriental Plane while South European Flowering Ash was the weakest BVOC emitter with a total normalized emission rate of 0.031 μg/g h. Monoterpene emissions of broad-leaved species mainly consisted of sabinene, limonene and trans-beta-ocimene, while alpha-pinene, beta-pinene and beta

  6. Factors controlling regional differences in forest soil emission of nitrogen oxides (NO and N2O

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Pilegaard

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Soil emissions of NO and N2O were measured continuously at high frequency for more than one year at 15 European forest sites as part of the EU-funded project NOFRETETE. The locations represent different forest types (coniferous/deciduous and different nitrogen loads. Geographically they range from Finland in the north to Italy in the south and from Hungary in the east to Scotland in the west. The highest NO emissions were observed from coniferous forests, whereas the lowest NO emissions were observed from deciduous forests. The NO emissions from coniferous forests were highly correlated with N-deposition. The site with the highest average annual emission (82 μg NO-N m−2 h−1 was a spruce forest in South-Germany (Höglwald receiving an annual N-deposition of 2.9 g m−2. NO emissions close to the detection limit were observed from a pine forest in Finland where the N-deposition was 0.2 g N m−2 a−1. No significant correlation between N2O emission and N-deposition was found. The highest average annual N2O emission (20 μg N2O-N m−2 h−1 was found in an oak forest in the Mátra mountains (Hungary receiving an annual N-deposition of 1.6 g m−2. N2O emission was significantly negatively correlated with the C/N ratio. The difference in N-oxide emissions from soils of coniferous and deciduous forests may partly be explained by differences in N-deposition rates and partly by differences in characteristics of the litter layer and soil. NO was mainly derived from nitrification whereas N2O was mainly derived from denitrification. In general, soil moisture is lower at coniferous sites (at least during spring time and the litter layer of coniferous forests is thick and well aerated favouring nitrification and thus release of NO. Conversely, the higher rates of denitrification in deciduous forests due to a compact and moist litter layer lead to N2O production and NO consumption in the soil. The two factors soil moisture and soil temperature are

  7. Comparative Study of Water Quality at Different Peat Swamp Forest of Batang Igan, Sibu Sarawak

    OpenAIRE

    Noraini Rosli; Seca Gandaseca; Johan Ismail; Mohd I. Jailan

    2010-01-01

    Problem statement: It is important to find the status of water quality at converted peat swamp forest into oil palm plantation. This study was conducted to find and determine the water quality at peat swamp forest of Batang Igan, Sibu Sarawak. This study presents a status on the water quality of peat swamp forest at the area. Approach: In-situ data and a total of 72 water samples were collected at four sampling stations (S1, S2, S3 and S4) in three different months of July...

  8. Higher subsoil carbon storage in species-rich than species-poor temperate forests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forest soils contribute ca. 70% to the global soil organic carbon (SOC) pool and thus are an important element of the global carbon cycle. Forests also harbour a large part of the global terrestrial biodiversity. It is not clear, however, whether tree species diversity affects SOC. By measuring the carbon concentration of different soil particle size fractions separately, we were able to distinguish between effects of fine particle content and tree species composition on the SOC pool in old-growth broad-leaved forest plots along a tree diversity gradient (1-, 3- and 5-species). Variation in clay content explained part of the observed SOC increase from monospecific to mixed forests, but we show that the carbon concentration per unit clay or fine silt in the subsoil was by 30–35% higher in mixed than monospecific stands indicating a significant species identity or species diversity effect on C stabilization. Underlying causes may be differences in fine root biomass and turnover, in leaf litter decomposition rate among the tree species, and/or species-specific rhizosphere effects on soil. Our findings may have important implications for forestry offering management options through preference of mixed stands that could increase forest SOC pools and mitigate climate warming. (paper)

  9. Study on the Water Conservation Capacities of Soil with Major Forest Types in Baishilazi Natural Reserve%白石砬子自然保护区主要森林类型土壤水源涵养功能研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵军; 陈建伟; 吕刚

    2009-01-01

    Forest soil as the most important function layer for the forest eco-hydrological role, its ability to conserve water sources in regulating floods and drought, reducing and preventing soil erosion plays an important role. Starting from the vertical distribution laws of soil types in line with plant zone in Baishilazi Nature Reserve, water conservation function of soil under major vegetation types of forest was studied. The results showed that soil bulk density in different forest types was in the order of artificial Korean pine forestforest of Picea jezoensis and Abies nephrolepis > Korean pine broad-leaved mixed forest > mixed forest > Quercus mongolicus forest, and the bulk density of the upper soil was smaller than that of the lower soil. The capillary porosity, non-capillary porosity, total porosity, water content, the maximum capillary water holding capacity, infiltration rate of different forest types were as follows: Quercus mongolicus forest > mixed forest > Korean pine broad-leaved mixed forestforest of P. jezoensis and A. nephrolepis > artificial Korean pine forest, and the values in the upper layer of each forest type was greater than that of the lower layer. The water storage capacity of soil under different forest types was between 729.5-1 227.8 t/hm~2. The water conservation function of soil under Quercus mongolicus forest was the best, followed by mixed forest, Korean pine broad-leaved mixed forest, forest of P. jezoensis and A. nephrolepis and artificial Korean pine forest.%森林土壤作为森林生态水文功能最重要的作用层,其涵养水源的能力对调节洪水和干旱、减弱并防止土壤侵蚀具有重要作用.从白石砬子自然保护区土壤类型与植物带相一致的垂直分布规律出发,对区内主要森林植被类型下的土壤水源涵养功能进行了研究.结果表明,不同林型土壤容重大小顺序为人工红松林>鱼鳞云杉臭冷杉林>红松阔叶混交林>杂木林

  10. Assessing forest inventory information obtained from different inventory approaches and remote sensing data sources

    OpenAIRE

    Bergseng, Even; Ørka, Hans Ole; Næsset, Erik; Gobakken, Terje

    2015-01-01

    International audience Context Evaluations of forest inventories usually end when accuracy and precision have been quantified. Aims We aim to value the accuracy of information derived from different remote sensing sensors (airborne laser scanning, aerial multispectral and hyperspectral imagery) and four alternative forest inventory approaches. Methods The approaches were (1) mean values or (2) diameter distributions both obtained by the area-based approach (ABA), (3) individual tree crown ...

  11. Restinga forests of the Brazilian coast: richness and abundance of tree species on different soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnago, Luiz F S; Martins, Sebastião V; Schaefer, Carlos E G R; Neri, Andreza V

    2012-09-01

    The aim of this study was to determine changes in composition, abundance and richness of species along a forest gradient with varying soils and flood regimes. The forests are located on the left bank of the lower Jucu River, in Jacarenema Natural Municipal Park, Espírito Santo. A survey of shrub/tree species was done in 80 plots, 5x25 m, equally distributed among the forests studied. We included in the sampling all individuals with >3.2 cm diameter at breast height (1.30 m). Soil samples were collected from the surface layer (0-10 cm) in each plot for chemical and physical analysis. The results indicate that a significant pedological gradient occurs, which is influenced by varying seasonal groundwater levels. Restinga forest formations showed significant differences in species richness, except for Non-flooded Forest and Non-flooded Forest Transition. The Canonical Correlation Analysis (CCA) showed that some species are distributed along the gradient under the combined influence of drainage, nutrient concentration and physical characteristics of the soil. Regarding the variables tested, flooding seems to be a more limiting factor for the establishment of plant species in Restinga forests than basic soil fertility attributes. PMID:22886165

  12. Throughfall in different forest stands of Iperó, São Paulo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esthevan Augusto Goes Gasparoto

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In forestry, throughfall (Pi is that fraction of rainfall that runs directly through the tree canopy and reaches the ground. It is characterized as the main source of water supply in a watershed. This study aimed to analyze the dynamics of throughfall in three types of forest stands, namely Eucalyptus cloeziana, Pinus sp. and seasonal semideciduous forest (FES, all located in Ipanema National Forest, in the municipality of Iperó-SP. In each stand, a 300 m² plot was established in which ten rain gauges were installed for monitoring throughfall, and three rain gauges were installed in an open area adjacent to the stand for measuring gross precipitation (P. At the end of 25 observations, it was observed that, relative to P values, Pi values were 76.2% in semideciduous forest (FES, 85.1% in E.cloeziana forest and 84.0% in Pinus sp forest. In addition, comparing these stands, a larger leaf canopy coverage and consequently greater capability for water retention was noted in the semideciduous forest. However, no statistical differences were observed (P<0.05 between the stands of interest regarding throughfall.

  13. Comparison between mycocenosis living in forest of Cestnut reforested with Douglas Fir; Confronto tra micocenosi presenti nei boschi di latifoglie e rimboschimenti di Douglasia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andreotti, A.; Serra, F. [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Brasimone, Bologna (Italy). Dipt. Ambiente; Dalla Valle, E.; Govi, G. [Bologna, Univ. (Italy). Dipt. di Protezione e Valorizzazione Agroalimentare. Centro di Micologia

    1997-05-01

    In this technical report the results of a first mycological research carried out from 1989 to 1990 in Brasimone in the high Bolognan Appennines (Northern Italy) are shown. The study was taken up by making a comparison between the fungus community living in forest plots with different vegetation; in particular, the mycocenosis of plots reforested with Douglas Fir (Pseudotsuga (Mirb.) Franco) with those of Beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) and Cestnut (Castanea sativa Mill.) woods were compared. The results show that the specific richness clearly decreases form mixed broad-leaved forest (90 species) to the mono specific plantation of P. menziesii (41 species). Particularly in the artificial plantation with exotic trees, there are few symbiont species while the saprophytic wood and litter fungi abound in relationship with the large bulk of undecomposed vegetable material present in these habitats.

  14. Sediment dynamics in restored riparian forest with different widths and agricultural surroundings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stucchi Boschi, Raquel; Simões da Silva, Laura; Ribeiro Rodrigues, Ricardo; Cooper, Miguel

    2016-04-01

    The riparian forests are essential to maintaining the quality of water resources, aquifer recharge and biodiversity. Due to the ecological services provided by riparian forests, these areas are considered by the law as Permanent Preservation Areas, being mandatory maintenance and restoration. However, the obligation of restoration and the extent of the Permanent Preservation Areas as defined by the Brazilian Forest Code, based on water body width, elucidates the lack of accurate scientific data on the influence of the size of the riparian forest in maintaining their ecological functions, particularly regarding the retention of sediments. Studies that evaluate the ideal width of riparian forests to guarantee their ecological functions are scarce and not conclusive, especially when we consider newly restored forests, located in agricultural areas. In this study, we investigate the dynamics of erosion and sedimentation in restored riparian forests with different widths situated in agricultural areas. The two study areas are located in a Semideciduous Tropical Forest inserted in sugarcane landscapes of São Paulo state, Brazil. The installed plots had 60 and 100 m in length and the riparian forest has a width of 15, 30 and 50 m. The characteristics of the sediments inside the plots were evaluated by detailed morphological and micromorphological studies as well as physical characterization. The dynamics of deposition and the amount of deposited sediments have been assessed with graded metal stakes partially buried inside the plots. The intensity, frequency and distribution of rainfall, as well as the occurrence of extreme events, have been evaluated by data collected from rain gauges installed in the areas. We expect that smaller widths are not able to retain sediments originated from the adjacent sugarcane areas. We also believe that extreme events are responsible for generating most of the sediments. The results will be important to support the discussion about an

  15. Evaluating regional differences in macroinvertebrate communities from forested depressional wetlands across eastern and central North America.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batzer, Darold, P.; Dietz-Brantley, Susan E.; Taylor, Barbera E.; DeBiase, Adrienne E.

    2005-02-12

    Batzer, Darold, P., Susan E. Dietz-Brantley, Barbera E. Taylor, and Adrienne E. DeBiase. 2005. Evaluating regional differences in macroinvertebrate communities from forested depressional wetlands across eastern and central North America. J. N. Am. Benthol. Soc. 24(2):403-414. Abstract. Forested depressional wetlands are an important seasonal wetland type across eastern and central North America. Macroinvertebrates are crucial ecosystem components of most forested depressional wetlands, but community compositions can vary widely across the region. We evaluated variation in macroinvertebrate faunas across eastern and central North America using 5 published taxa lists from forested depressional wetlands in Michigan, Ontario, Wisconsin, Florida, and Georgia. We supplemented those data with quantitative community descriptions generated from 17 forested depressional wetlands in South Carolina and 74 of these wetlands in Minnesota. Cluster analysis of presence/absence data from these 7 locations indicated that distinct macroinvertebrate communities existed in northern and southern areas. Taxa characteristic of northern forested depressionalwetlands included Sphaeriidae, Lumbriculidae, Lymnaeidae, Physidae, Limnephilidae, Chirocephalidae, and Hirudinea (Glossophoniidae and/or Erpodbellidae) and taxa characteristic of southern sites included Asellidae, Crangonyctidae, Noteridae, and Cambaridae. Quantitative sampling in South Carolina and Minnesota indicated that regionally characteristic taxa included some of the most abundant organisms, with Sphaeriidae being the 2nd most abundant macroinvertebrate in Minnesota wetlands and Asellidae being the 2nd most abundant macroinvertebrate in South Carolina wetlands. Mollusks, in general, were restricted to forested depressional wetlands of northern latitudes, a pattern that may reflect a lack of Ca needed for shell formation in acidic southern sites. Differences in community composition probably translate into region

  16. Variation of biomass and carbon pools with forest type in temperate forests of Kashmir Himalaya, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dar, Javid Ahmad; Sundarapandian, Somaiah

    2015-02-01

    influenced by vegetation type, stand structure, management history, and altitude. Our results reveal that a higher percentage (63 %) of C is stored in biomass and less in soil in these temperate forests except at the higher elevation broad-leaved BU forest. Results from this study will enhance our ability to evaluate the role of these forests in regional and global C cycles and have great implications for planning strategies for conservation. The study provides important data for developing and validating C cycling models for temperate forests. PMID:25638061

  17. 常绿阔叶林中栲树展叶期叶片的虫食格局%INSECT HERBIVORY PATTERNS ON LEAVES OF CASTANOPSIS FARGESII DURING LEAF EXPANSION IN EVERGREEN BROAD-LEAVED FOREST IN EASTERN CHINA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘志国; 蔡永立; 李恺; 杨乐; 孙灿

    2009-01-01

    叶片的虫食主要发生在展叶期.虽然展叶期短暂,它却可能是了解植食性昆虫和植物之间相互关系的关键.为了解栲树(Castanopsis fargesii)在展叶期叶片的虫食格局和展叶方式对叶片虫食的影响,研究了栲树展叶期内的虫食动态变化,结果表明:栲树展叶的两个阶段(折叠期和打开期),虫食叶片的格局存在较大的差异,打开阶段的日虫食频度和日虫食率显著高于折叠阶段(F1,32=8.97,P=0.005 4;F1,32=12.38,P=0.001 4),展叶期最终叶片虫食频度为50.72%,叶片虫食率为8.25%.折叠期叶片主要受到低强度的虫食,打开期叶片虫食则以较大强度的虫食为主.展叶期叶片的虫食主要发生在夜间,夜间虫食率显著高于日间虫食率(t=2.51,p=0.017),变化趋势与日虫食率一致.栲树叶片在展叶的两个阶段可能采用了不同的防御对策.

  18. Soil moisture dynamics under broad-leaved Korean pine forest in Changbai Mountains%长白山阔叶红松林土壤水分动态研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨弘; 裴铁璠; 关德新; 金昌杰; 王安志

    2006-01-01

    在1990~1992年和2003年对长白山阔叶红松林土壤水分动态进行定位观测研究.结果表明,土壤水分年内变化可划分为5个时期:春季聚水阶段、旱季耗水阶段、雨季蓄墒阶段、秋季失墒阶段和冬春土壤水分相对稳定阶段.利用标准差和变异系数对土壤水分垂直变化进行分层,得出土壤水分剖面分布分为速变层、活跃层和次活跃层,并用相关分析方法分析了各层次间土壤水分及其与其间降水量的关系.

  19. Population Dynamics of Siberian Chipmunk in the Broad-Leaved and Korean Pine Mixed Forest%阔叶红松林下花鼠的种群动态

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘蓓蓓; 王广鑫; 许林; 聂佳旭; 戎可

    2015-01-01

    2011年10月~2014年10月,为了了解花鼠种群与食物资源的关系,我们在凉水国家级自然保护区,采用样方法与标志重捕法对花鼠种群动态进行了研究,结果如下:2011年及2014年红松结实量呈爆发式增长,同期花鼠种群数量出现2个较高峰值;花鼠在2012年平均胎仔数达到最低值(1.04±0.13)只,同年越冬期生存率最低,达到(0.11±0.04);花鼠在2013年繁殖期后雌雄性比达到最高值1.17.数据分析表明,在研究期间,红松结实年际间波动明显.花鼠种群的波动基本与食物资源波动同步,在食物匮乏的年份繁殖力减弱,在食物充足的年份繁殖力提高.

  20. Functional trait strategies of trees in dry and wet tropical forests are similar but differ in their consequences for succession.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohbeck, Madelon; Lebrija-Trejos, Edwin; Martínez-Ramos, Miguel; Meave, Jorge A; Poorter, Lourens; Bongers, Frans

    2014-01-01

    Global plant trait studies have revealed fundamental trade-offs in plant resource economics. We evaluated such trait trade-offs during secondary succession in two species-rich tropical ecosystems that contrast in precipitation: dry deciduous and wet evergreen forests of Mexico. Species turnover with succession in dry forest largely relates to increasing water availability and in wet forest to decreasing light availability. We hypothesized that while functional trait trade-offs are similar in the two forest systems, the successful plant strategies in these communities will be different, as contrasting filters affect species turnover. Research was carried out in 15 dry secondary forest sites (5-63 years after abandonment) and in 17 wet secondary forest sites (scarcity during wet forest succession. Although similar trait spectra were observed among dry and wet secondary forest species, the consequences for succession were different resulting from contrasting environmental filters. PMID:25919023

  1. Calcium mineralization in the forest floor and surface soil beneath different tree species in the northeastern US

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, F.A.

    2003-01-01

    Calcium (Ca) is an important element for neutralizing soil acidity in temperate forests. The immediate availability of Ca in forested acid soils is largely dependent on mineralization of organic Ca, which may differ significantly among tree species. I estimated net Ca mineralization in the forest fl

  2. Does degradation from selective logging and illegal activities differently impact forest resources? A case study in Ghana

    OpenAIRE

    Vaglio Laurin G; Hawthorne WD; Chiti T; Di Paola A; Cazzolla Gatti R; Marconi S; Noce S; Grieco E; Pirotti F; Valentini R

    2016-01-01

    Degradation, a reduction of the ecosystem’s capacity to supply goods and services, is widespread in tropical forests and mainly caused by human disturbance. To maintain the full range of forest ecosystem services and support the development of effective conservation policies, we must understand the overall impact of degradation on different forest resources. This research investigates the response to disturbance of forest structure using several indicators: soil carbon content, arboreal richn...

  3. Influence of different forest system management practices on leaf litter decomposition rates, nutrient dynamics and the activity of ligninolytic enzymes: a case study from central European forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purahong, Witoon; Kapturska, Danuta; Pecyna, Marek J; Schulz, Elke; Schloter, Michael; Buscot, François; Hofrichter, Martin; Krüger, Dirk

    2014-01-01

    Leaf litter decomposition is the key ecological process that determines the sustainability of managed forest ecosystems, however very few studies hitherto have investigated this process with respect to silvicultural management practices. The aims of the present study were to investigate the effects of forest management practices on leaf litter decomposition rates, nutrient dynamics (C, N, Mg, K, Ca, P) and the activity of ligninolytic enzymes. We approached these questions using a 473 day long litterbag experiment. We found that age-class beech and spruce forests (high forest management intensity) had significantly higher decomposition rates and nutrient release (most nutrients) than unmanaged deciduous forest reserves (Pforest management (low forest management intensity) exhibited no significant differences in litter decomposition rate, C release, lignin decomposition, and C/N, lignin/N and ligninolytic enzyme patterns compared to the unmanaged deciduous forest reserves, but most nutrient dynamics examined in this study were significantly faster under such near-to-nature forest management practices. Analyzing the activities of ligninolytic enzymes provided evidence that different forest system management practices affect litter decomposition by changing microbial enzyme activities, at least over the investigated time frame of 473 days (laccase, Pforest system management practices can significantly affect important ecological processes and services such as decomposition and nutrient cycling. PMID:24699676

  4. Soc stock in different forest-related land-uses in central Stara planina mountain, Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiyanski Miglena

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Forest conversions may lead to an accumulation of carbon in vegetation, but little is known about changes in soil C storage with establishment of plantation forests. Understanding these effects is important to addressing issues relevant to ecosystem function and productivity, and to global balance of carbon. The study investigated the effects of the created coniferous plantations on former beech and pasture sites on the soil organic carbon storage. The major forest-related land-uses in the high mountainous regions of central Stara Planina Mountain were investigated: mountainous pasture, coniferous plantations (planted on previous pasture and beech forests between four and five decades ago and natural beech forests. The experimental data of soil properties, conducted in 2005, 2006 and 2007, were used in determining the variations in organic carbon storage in forest litter and in mineral soil under different land-use patterns. At each site five representative soil profiles were opened and described giving a total 75 soil samples from the soil layers respectively at 0-10, 10-30 and 30-50 cm depth. A total of 55 samples from forest floor layers (Aol, Aof, Aoh and greensward were collected with 25:25 cm plastic frame. The main soil properties were determined in accordance with the standardized methods in the Laboratory of soil science at the Forest Research Institute - BAS. The IPCC Good Practice Guidance for Land Use, Land Use Change and Forestry was used to estimate the soil organic carbon stock in soil and litter. The results obtained showed that the SOC stock was quite similar among forest land-uses. The conversion of natural beech forests to coniferous plantations in studied region is related with slightly expressed decrease in soil carbon storage. The values of SOC stocks in 0-50 cm soil layer in these sites were 8.5 (±2.1 tones/ha for pine and 11.0 (±1.4 tones/ha for spruce, while under the natural beech forest it was 14.8 (±1.0 tones

  5. Effects of seed predators of different body size on seed mortality in Bornean logged forest.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yann Hautier

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The Janzen-Connell hypothesis proposes that seed and seedling enemies play a major role in maintaining high levels of tree diversity in tropical forests. However, human disturbance may alter guilds of seed predators including their body size distribution. These changes have the potential to affect seedling survival in logged forest and may alter forest composition and diversity. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We manipulated seed density in plots beneath con- and heterospecific adult trees within a logged forest and excluded vertebrate predators of different body sizes using cages. We show that small and large-bodied predators differed in their effect on con- and heterospecific seedling mortality. In combination small and large-bodied predators dramatically decreased both con- and heterospecific seedling survival. In contrast, when larger-bodied predators were excluded small-bodied predators reduced conspecific seed survival leaving seeds coming from the distant tree of a different species. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results suggest that seed survival is affected differently by vertebrate predators according to their body size. Therefore, changes in the body size structure of the seed predator community in logged forests may change patterns of seed mortality and potentially affect recruitment and community composition.

  6. 50%吡氟酰草胺水分散粒剂对春小麦田阔叶杂草的防效%Control Effect of Diflufenican 50%WG on Broad-leaved Weeds in Spring Wheat Field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程亮

    2015-01-01

    通过田间药效试验明确50%吡氟酰草胺水分散粒剂对春小麦田阔叶杂草的防除效果和田间推荐使用剂量,结果表明,50%吡氟酰草胺水分散粒剂对小麦田杂草密花香薷、野油菜和酸模叶蓼的防除效果稍差,施药后40 d对杂草株数总体防效为53.01%~61.75%,鲜重总体防效为54.30%~58.03%。该药剂对小麦安全,较空白对照增产6.44%~8.52%。建议该药剂于春小麦3叶期前,杂草2叶期前进行茎叶喷雾处理。%Based on the field trials,the efficacy and recommended dosage of diflufenican 50% WG are determined for controlling broad-leaf weeds in spring wheat field. The result shows that diflufenican 50% WG had not good control effect to broad-leaved weeds. The integrated plant and fresh weight control effects are 53.01%~61.75% and 54.30%~58.03% on weeds respectively after 40 days after spaying. Diflufenican 50% WG had no significant effect on spring wheat growth and the yield increasing rate of spring wheat is 6.44%~8.52%after sparing. The proper period of spraying is 2 leaves in weeds(3 leaves in wheat).

  7. Ecosystemic, climatic and temporal differences in oribatid communities (Acari: Oribatida) from forest soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corral-Hernández, E; Balanzategui, I; Iturrondobeitia, J C

    2016-08-01

    Oribatid mite communities from 18 natural autochthonous forest soils in the Basque Country, belonging to five forest types, distributed along an ombrothermic gradient of five climatic regions were broadly studied. Forest type and climatic region together (45 % of the total variability) were important factors influencing the oribatid community. The local scale variable (forest type, 28 %) was about as determinant a factor as the regional scale (climatic region, 26 %), though together they accounted for just 9 %. By contrast, the influence of spatial distribution (geography) was not significant by itself but played an important role as a co-variable. Differences in community indices were detected only for species abundances, with holm oak showing the highest oribatid density and beech the lowest. The effect of the passage of time on oribatid communities was also analyzed by comparing recent communities to those of 19-26 years ago in the same forests. The community indices are influenced by the course of time when separate periods of time are compared. Although the recently studied forests apparently show the same conservational conditions as those studied in the past, they are less diverse. PMID:27193341

  8. Insect attraction to herbivore-induced beech volatiles under different forest management regimes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gossner, Martin M; Weisser, Wolfgang W; Gershenzon, Jonathan; Unsicker, Sybille B

    2014-10-01

    Insect herbivore enemies such as parasitoids and predators are important in controlling herbivore pests. From agricultural systems we know that land-use intensification can negatively impact biological control as an important ecosystem service. The aim of our study was to investigate the importance of management regime for natural enemy pressure and biological control possibilities in forests dominated by European beech. We hypothesize that the volatile blend released from herbivore-infested beech trees functions as a signal, attracting parasitoids and herbivore enemies. Furthermore, we hypothesize that forest management regime influences the composition of species attracted by these herbivore-induced beech volatiles. We installed flight-interception traps next to Lymantria dispar caterpillar-infested young beech trees releasing herbivore-induced volatiles and next to non-infested control trees. Significantly more parasitoids were captured next to caterpillar-infested trees compared to non-infested controls, irrespective of forest type. However, the composition of the trophic guilds in the traps did vary in response to forest management regime. While the proportion of chewing insects was highest in non-managed forests, the proportion of sucking insects peaked in forests with low management and of parasitoids in young, highly managed, forest stands. Neither the number of naturally occurring beech saplings nor herbivory levels in the proximity of our experiment affected the abundance and diversity of parasitoids caught. Our data show that herbivore-induced beech volatiles attract herbivore enemies under field conditions. They further suggest that differences in the structural complexity of forests as a consequence of management regime only play a minor role in parasitoid activity and thus in indirect tree defense. PMID:25080178

  9. Response of clonal plasticity of Fargesia nitida to different canopy conditions of subalpine coniferous forest

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jianping TAO; Lixia SONG; Yongjian WANG; Weiyin ZHANG

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study is to explore the effects of canopy conditions on clump and culm numbers, and the morphological plasticity and biomass distribution patterns of the dwarf bamboo species Fargesia nitida. Specifically, we investigated the effects of canopy condi-tions on the growth and morphological characteristics of F. nitida, and the adaptive responses of F. nitida to dif-ferent canopy conditions and its ecological senses. The results indicate that forest canopy had a significant effect on the genet density and culm number per clump, while it did not affect the ramet density. Clumps tended to be few and large in gaps and forest edge plots, and small under forest understory plots. The ramets showed an even distribution under the closed canopy, and clus-ter distribution under gaps and forest edge plots. The forest canopy had a significant effect on both the ramets'biomass and biomass allocation. Favourable light conditions promoted ramet growth and biomass accumulation. Greater amounts of biomass in gaps and forest edge plots were shown by the higher number of culms per clump and the diameter of these culms. Under closed canopy, the bamboos increased their branching angle, leaf biomass allocation, specific leaf area and leaf area ratio to exploit more favourable light conditions in these locations. The spacer length, specific spacer length and spacer branching angles all showed significant differences between gaps and closed canopy conditions. The larger specific spacer length and spacer branching angle were beneficial for bamboo growth, scattering the ramets and exploiting more favourable light conditions. In summary, this study shows that to varying degrees, F nitida exhibits both a wide ecological amplitude and high degree of morphological plasticity in response to differing forest canopy conditions. More-over, the changes in plasticity enable the plants to optimize their light usage efficiency to promote growth and increase access to resources available in

  10. Diversity of Ixodes ricinus tick-associated bacterial communities from different forests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Overbeek, van L.S.; Gassner, F.; Lombaers-van der Plas, C.H.; Kastelein, P.; Nunes da Rocha, U.; Takken, W.

    2008-01-01

    Nymphal Ixodes ricinus ticks (n=180) were collected from three different areas in the Netherlands to investigate the effect of forest composition on tick-associated microbial communities. Sampled habitats differed in thickness of leaf litter and humus layers and vegetation associations and were loca

  11. Modern analogues from the Southern Urals provide insights into biodiversity change in the early Holocene forests of Central Europe

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Chytrý, M.; Danihelka, Jiří; Horsák, M.; Kočí, M.; Kubešová, S.; Lososová, Z.; Otýpková, Z.; Tichý, L.; Martynenko, V. B.; Baisheva, E. Z.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 37, č. 4 (2010), s. 767-780. ISSN 0305-0270 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : bryophytes * broad-leaved trees * mixed oak forests Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 4.273, year: 2010

  12. Pentatomids associated with different forest species in Itaara, RS, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Ervandil Corrêa Costa; Juliana Garlet; Maína Roman

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine qualitatively and quantitatively the pentatomid fauna associated with the canopy of different native species during the period from September 2005 to September 2006. Insects were collected from among nine botanical species: Gochnatia polymorpha (Less.) (cambará), Eugenia uniflora Berg. (pitangueira), Acca selowiana (Berg) Burret (goiaba-da-serra), Psidium cattleianum Sabine (araçá), Baccharis spp., Solanaum mauritianum Scop. (fumo-bravo), Micanea c...

  13. Changes in dissolved organic carbon and total dissolved nitrogen fluxes across subtropical forest ecosystems at different successional stages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Junhua; Li, Kun; Wang, Wantong; Zhang, Deqiang; Zhou, Guoyi

    2015-05-01

    Lateral transports of carbon and nitrogen are important processes linking terrestrial ecosystems and aquatic systems. Most previous studies made in temperate forests found that fluxes of carbon and nitrogen by runoff water varied in different forests, but few studies have been made in subtropical forests. This study was to investigate dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and total dissolved nitrogen (TDN) fluxes at the catchment scale along a subtropical forest succession gradient from pine forest (pioneer) to coniferous and broadleaved mixed forest (transitional) to broadleaved forest (mature). Our results showed that DOC concentration significantly decreased (pforests, which in turn resulted in a decrease in DOC flux and an increase in TDN flux, as mean annual runoff did not vary significantly among three succession forest catchments. The mean (±standard deviation) annual DOC flux was 118.1±43.6, 88.3±16.7 and 77.2±11.7 kg ha-1 yr-1for pioneer, transitional and mature forest catchments, respectively; and the mean annual TDN flux was 9.9 ±2.7, 18.2±3.0 and 21.2 ±4.5 kg ha-1 yr-1for pioneer, transitional and mature forest catchments, respectively. The mature forest reduced DOC flux by increased soil chemical adsorption and physical protection. An increase in TDN flux from pioneer to mature forests was consistent with the previous finding that mature forest was nitrogen saturated while pioneer forest was nitrogen limited. Therefore large-scale conversion of pioneer forests to transitional or mature forests in subtropical China will reduce DOC concentration and increase TDN concentration in the down-stream water, which may have significant impact on its water quality and aquatic biological activities.

  14. 137Cs availability for soil to understory transfer in different types of forest ecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A quantitative analysis of 137Cs bioavailability in forest soils in the long term after the Chernobyl NPP accident based on a 3-year (1996-1998) investigation is presented. Five forest sites with different trees, composition and properties of soil were studied to identify factors determining radiocaesium transfer to different understory species. The following parameters were investigated: 137Cs activity concentrations and its speciation in various horizons of forest soil, accumulation of this radionuclide by different species of understory vegetation and distribution of root biomass in the soil profile. It has been shown that one decade after the deposition maximum 137Cs activity in soil of the experimental sites considered is located in different soil layers dependent on moisture regime, characteristics of litter and soil properties. A linear dependence between aggregated transfer factors for different species and groups of species of understory vegetation and exchangeable and available fractions of radiocaesium in soil was found. The vertical distribution of 137Cs activity, percentage of exchangeable radiocaesium in each horizon of litter and soil, as well as distribution of root systems (mycelia) over the soil profile are key factors governing variations in the availability of 137Cs for transfer to all forest understory components

  15. Classifying Complex Mountainous Forests with L-Band SAR and Landsat Data Integration: A Comparison among Different Machine Learning Methods in the Hyrcanian Forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Attarchi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Forest environment classification in mountain regions based on single-sensor remote sensing approaches is hindered by forest complexity and topographic effects. Temperate broadleaf forests in western Asia such as the Hyrcanian forest in northern Iran have already suffered from intense anthropogenic activities. In those regions, forests mainly extend in rough terrain and comprise different stand structures, which are difficult to discriminate. This paper explores the joint analysis of Landsat7/ETM+, L-band SAR and their derived parameters and the effect of terrain corrections to overcome the challenges of discriminating forest stand age classes in mountain regions. We also verified the performances of three machine learning methods which have recently shown promising results using multisource data; support vector machines (SVM, neural networks (NN, random forest (RF and one traditional classifier (i.e., maximum likelihood classification (MLC as a benchmark. The non-topographically corrected ETM+ data failed to differentiate among different forest stand age classes (average classification accuracy (OA = 65%. This confirms the need to reduce relief effects prior data classification in mountain regions. SAR backscattering alone cannot properly differentiate among different forest stand age classes (OA = 62%. However, textures and PolSAR features are very efficient for the separation of forest classes (OA = 82%. The highest classification accuracy was achieved by the joint usage of SAR and ETM+ (OA = 86%. However, this shows a slight improvement compared to the ETM+ classification (OA = 84%. The machine learning classifiers proved t o be more robust and accurate compared to MLC. SVM and RF statistically produced better classification results than NN in the exploitation of the considered multi-source data.

  16. Operational efficiency of forest energy supply chains in different operational environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roeser, D.

    2012-06-15

    Ambitious international efforts to combat climate change have lead to a large interest about the use of forest biomass for energy in many countries. In order to meet the expected growing demand in the future, it will be necessary to improve operational efficiency of existing forest energy supply chains and support the establishment of efficient supply chains in new operational environments. The thesis applied a three-dimensional approach which examines forest energy supply chains from a technical, social and economic viewpoint. Four case studies in different operational environments have been carried out to investigate the applicability of the three dimensional approach to improve operational efficiency. The technical dimension was investigated in Paper 1 and 2. In Paper 1, the effects of climatic conditions, covering of piles, and partial debarking on drying of roundwood were studied in four experimental trials located in Scotland, Finland and Italy. In Paper 2, the chipping of forest biomass was studied in two different operational environments. The investigation of the social dimension in Paper 3 provides insights into the setup of two different supply chains through business process mapping and simulation. Finally, in paper 4, which investigated the economic dimension, an analysis of the effect of the operational environment on technology selection and design of supply chains, is presented. The thesis demonstrates that the chosen approach was practical to investigate the complex relationships between the chosen technologies and different supply chain actors and stakeholders thereby contributing to maintain or improve operational efficiency of forest energy supply chains. Due to its applicability in different operational environments, the approach is also suitable in a more global context. Furthermore, it captures the effect of different aspects and characteristics of the various operational environments on the setup and organization of supply chains. This will

  17. Sampling Ozone Exposure of Canadian Forests at Different Scales: Some Case Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.M. Cox

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of passive samplers in extensive monitoring, such as that used in national forest health monitoring plots, indicates that these devices are able to determine both spatial and temporal differences in ozone exposure of the plots. This allows for categorisation of the plots and the potential for cause-effect analysis of certain forest health responses. Forest exposure along a gradient of air pollution deposition demonstrates large variation in accumulated exposures. The efficacy of using passive samplers for in situ monitoring of forest canopy exposure was also demonstrated. The sampler data produced weak relationships with ozone values from the nearest �continuous� monitor, even though data from colocated samplers showed strong relationships. This spatial variation and the apparent effect of elevation on ozone exposure demonstrate the importance of topography and tree canopy characteristics in plant exposure on a regional scale. In addition, passive sampling may identify the effects of local pollutant gases, such as NO, which may scavenge ozone locally only to increase the production of this secondary pollutant downwind, as atmospheric reactions redress the equilibrium between concentrations of this precursor and those of the generated ozone. The use of passive samplers at the stand level is able to resolve vertical profiles within the stand and edge effects that are important in exposure of understorey and ground flora. Recent case studies using passive samplers to determine forest exposure to ozone indicate a great potential for the development of spatial models on a regional, landscape, and stand level scale.

  18. Calcium weathering in forested soils and the effedt of different tree species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, F.A.; Breemen, van N.; Jongmans, A.G.; Davies, G.R.; Likens, G.E.

    2003-01-01

    Soil weathering can be an important mechanism to neutralize acidity in forest soils. Tree species may differ in their effect on or response to soil weathering. We used soil mineral data and the natural strontium isotope ratio Sr-87/Sr-86 as a tracer to identify the effect of tree species on the Ca w

  19. Pentatomids associated with different forest species in Itaara, RS, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ervandil Corrêa Costa

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine qualitatively and quantitatively the pentatomid fauna associated with the canopy of different native species during the period from September 2005 to September 2006. Insects were collected from among nine botanical species: Gochnatia polymorpha (Less. (cambará, Eugenia uniflora Berg. (pitangueira, Acca selowiana (Berg Burret (goiaba-da-serra, Psidium cattleianum Sabine (araçá, Baccharis spp., Solanaum mauritianum Scop. (fumo-bravo, Micanea cinerascens Miq. (passiquinho, Calliandra brevipes Bhent. (caliandra, and Schinus molle L. (aroeira located at Rodolfo da Costa Dam in Itaara, RS, Brazil. Samples were taken every two weeks with a conical funnel made of tin plate (2mm, 70cm in diameter at the rim and 63cm in height. One sample per botanical species for each sampling date was taken, by shaking the branches, ten times over the funnel. Samples were sent to the Entomology Laboratory of the Crop Protection Department of the Federal University of Santa Maria, where the material was analyzed. A total of nine Pentatomidae species were identified. Edessa rufomarginata (De Geer, 1773 was the species of highest ocurrence followed by Thyanta humilis (Bergroth, 1891. The botanical species S. mauritianum presented the greatest number of Pentatomidae species, with an occurrence of 26.9%.

  20. Quantifying differences in biodiversity between a tropical forest area and a grassland area subject to traditional burning

    OpenAIRE

    Nangendo, G.; A. Stein; Gelens, M.; de Gier, A.; Albricht, R.

    2002-01-01

    Mosaics of natural forest and grassland tracts in sub-Saharan Africa provide differences in woody species biodiversity. These mosaics are of considerable interest as they are a major biodiversity bank. Their richness is felt to be threatened, for example by local burning. This study focuses on the impact of burning on biodiversity in the Budongo Forest Reserve in Uganda. Woody species at different development stages are compared between a forest stratum and the adjacent grassland stratum. Spa...

  1. Abundance and Dynamics of Soil Labile Carbon Pools Under Different Types of Forest Vegetation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Pei-Kun; XU Qiu-Fang

    2006-01-01

    Soil organic matter (SOM) in forest ecosystems is not only important to global carbon (C) storage but also to sustainable management of forestland with vegetation types, being a critical factor in controlling the quantity and dynamics of SOM. In this field experiment soil plots with three replicates were selected from three forest vegetation types: broadleaf,Masson pine (Pinus massoniana Lamb.), and Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata Hook.). Soil total organic C (TOC),two easily oxidizable C levels (EOC1 and EOC2, which were oxidized by 66.7 mmol L-1 K2Cr2O7 at 130-140 ℃ and333 mmol L-1 KMnO4 at 25 ℃, respectively), microbial biomass C (MBC), and water-soluble organic C (WSOC)were analyzed for soil samples. Soil under the broadleaf forest stored significantly higher TOC (P ≤ 0.05). Because of its significantly larger total soil C storage, the soil under the broadleaf forest usually had significantly higher levels (P ≤ 0.05)of the different labile organic carbons, EOC1, EOC2, MBC, and WSOC; but when calculated as a percentage of TOC each labile C fraction of the broadleaf forest was significantly lower (P ≤ 0.05) than one of the other two forests. Under all the three vegetation types temperature as well as quality and season of litter input generally affected the dynamics of different organic C fractions in soils, with EOC1, EOC2, and MBC increasing closely following increase in temperature,whereas WSOC showed an opposite trend.

  2. The contrasting nature of woody plant species in different neotropical forest biomes reflects differences in ecological stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennington, R Toby; Lavin, Matt

    2016-04-01

    25 I. 25 II. 26 III. 27 IV. 27 V. 28 VI. 32 VII. 33 VIII. 34 35 References 35 SUMMARY: A fundamental premise of this review is that distinctive phylogenetic and biogeographic patterns in clades endemic to different major biomes illuminate the evolutionary process. In seasonally dry tropical forests (SDTFs), phylogenies are geographically structured and multiple individuals representing single species coalesce. This pattern of monophyletic species, coupled with their old species stem ages, is indicative of maintenance of small effective population sizes over evolutionary timescales, which suggests that SDTF is difficult to immigrate into because of persistent resident lineages adapted to a stable, seasonally dry ecology. By contrast, lack of coalescence in conspecific accessions of abundant and often widespread species is more frequent in rain forests and is likely to reflect large effective population sizes maintained over huge areas by effective seed and pollen flow. Species nonmonophyly, young species stem ages and lack of geographical structure in rain forest phylogenies may reflect more widespread disturbance by drought and landscape evolution causing resident mortality that opens up greater opportunities for immigration and speciation. We recommend full species sampling and inclusion of multiple accessions representing individual species in phylogenies to highlight nonmonophyletic species, which we predict will be frequent in rain forest and savanna, and which represent excellent case studies of incipient speciation. PMID:26558891

  3. Tree species composition affects the abundance of rowan (Sorbus aucuparia L.) in urban forests in Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamberg, Leena; Lehvävirta, Susanna; Kotze, D Johan; Heikkinen, Juha

    2015-03-15

    Recent studies have shown a considerable increase in the abundance of rowan (Sorbus aucuparia) saplings in urban forests in Finland, yet the reasons for this increase are not well understood. Here we investigated whether canopy cover or tree species composition, i.e., the basal areas of different tree species in Norway spruce dominated urban forests, affects the abundances of rowan seedlings, saplings and trees. Altogether 24 urban forest patches were investigated. We sampled the number of rowan and other saplings, and calculated the basal areas of trees. We showed that rowan abundance was affected by tree species composition. The basal area of rowan trees (≥ 5 cm in diameter at breast height, dbh) decreased with increasing basal area of Norway spruce, while the cover of rowan seedlings increased with an increase in Norway spruce basal area. However, a decrease in the abundance of birch (Betula pendula) and an increase in the broad-leaved tree group (Acer platanoides, Alnus glutinosa, Alnus incana, Amelanchier spicata, Prunus padus, Quercus robur, Rhamnus frangula and Salix caprea) coincided with a decreasing number of rowans. Furthermore, rowan saplings were scarce in the vicinity of mature rowan trees. Although it seems that tree species composition has an effect on rowan, the relationship between rowan saplings and mature trees is complex, and therefore we conclude that regulating tree species composition is not an easy way to keep rowan thickets under control in urban forests in Finland. PMID:25588119

  4. Effects of fire disturbance on the forest structure and succession in the natural broad-leaved/Korean pine forest

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIULi-juan; GEJian-ping

    2003-01-01

    Investigations on charcoal in the soil, fire-scarred trees, stand composition, forest structure as well as regeneration status were carried out in the natural broad-leaved/Korean pine (Pinus koraiensis) forest after fire disturbance at Liangshui Nature Reserve on the mid-north of Xiaoxing'an Mountains from 1990 to 1992, and the ecological effects of fire disturbance on the formation and succession of this kind of forest were analyzed according to the survey results. The average depth of charcoal in the soil was related to the timing of the fire. According to the characteristic of fire-scarred trees, the dynamic map of the fire behavior was drawn onto the topographic map. It showed that the dimension and extent of the fire disturbance was closely related with site conditions. Fire disturbance only led to a significant difference in stand composition and diameter class structurefor the stands at different locations, rather than completely destroying the forest. After fire disturbance, the horizontal community structure was a mosaic of different patches, which were made up of different deciduous species or different sizes of Korean pines, and the succession trend of each patch was also different. In the sites with the heavy fire disturbance, the intolerant hardwood species were dominant, and there were a large number of regenerative Korean pine saplings under the canopy. In the moderate -disturbed sites, the tolerant hardwood species were dominant, and a small number of large size Korean pines still survived. In the light-disturbed sites, large size Korean pines were dominant.

  5. Forest decline in Europe: development and possible causes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krause, G.H.M.; Arndt, U.; Brandt, C.J.; Bucher, J.; Kenk, G.; Matzner, E.

    1986-12-01

    Symptoms of recent forest decline were first observed on silver fir (Abies alba) in the early 1970s in clean-air areas of southern Germany; they have subsequently been described in the early 1980s for Norway spruce (Picea abies) and recently broad-leaved trees such as European beech (Fagus sylvatica). The history of forest decline is discussed with emphasis on symptomatology, development and distribution. After a description of results of recent surveys of tree injury, indicating an increase in the occurrence of decline, attempts will be made, by exploiting knowledge of pollutant emissions and deposition, to deduce the possible causes of European forest decline. 164 references.

  6. ORGANIC MATTER AND AGGREGATION OF A PLANOSOL UNDER DIFFERENT FOREST COVERINGS

    OpenAIRE

    Julia Kishida Bochner; Milton Marques Fernandes; Marcos Gervasio Pereira; Fabiano de Carvalho Balieiro; Ingrid Kely da Silva Santana

    2008-01-01

    The litter quality can alter soil aggregation, modifying the transformation dynamics and allocation of soil carbon (C)in different compartments. This study evaluated the aggregate stability and its relation with litter chemical characteristics, organiccarbon and free light fraction (FLL) from the organic matter under three different types of vegetation covering: secondary forest (FS)and plantings of Mimosa Caesalpiniaefolia (PM) and Carapa guianenses (PA) with subsequently natural regeneratio...

  7. Biodiversity of types of ectomycorrhizae in fagus stands in differently polluted forest research plots

    OpenAIRE

    Al Sayegh-Petkovšek, Samar

    2004-01-01

    Types of ectomycorrhizae were identified by the mycobioindication method and biodiversity was assessed in soil cores from differently polluted beech forestresearch plots in the period 1998 - 2001. Forest research plots were situated in the vicinity of thermal power plants (polluted plots: Zavodnje - Prednji vrh and Zasavje - Dobovec) and in unpolluted areas (in the vicinity ofKočevska Reka: Preža and Moravške gredice). Eighty-eight different types of ectomycorrhizae were determined from a tot...

  8. Factors controlling regional differences in forest soil emission of nitrogen oxides (NO and N2O)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pilegaard, K.; Skiba, U.; Ambus, P.;

    2006-01-01

    Soil emissions of NO and N2O were measured continuously at high frequency for more than one year at 15 European forest sites as part of the EU-funded project NOFRETETE. The locations represent different forest types (coniferous/deciduous) and different nitrogen loads. Geoaphically they range from...

  9. [Effects of Different Altitudes on Soil Microbial PLFA and Enzyme Activity in Two Kinds of Forests].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Qing-ping; He, Bing-hui; Mao, Qiao-zhi; Wu, Yao-peng; Huang, Qi; Li, Yuan

    2015-12-01

    The soil microbial community is an important part in soil ecosystem, and it is sensitive to the ecological environment. Phospholipid-derived fatty acids ( PLFA ) analysis was used to examine variations in soil microbial community diversity and its influencing factors. The results showed that: there existed 48 PLFAs that were significant in the soil samples from six altitudes. The PLFAs of six altitudes with the highest contents were i16:0, 10Me17:0, 10Me18:0 TBSA. The citrus forest exhibited richer soil PLFAs distribution both in type and amount than those in masson pine. The microbial activity and functional diversity of masson pine were increased with increasing altitudes, and citrus forest gradually decreased, the PLFA content of different microbial groups in each altitude were significantly different. The richness index, Shannon-Wiener index and Pielou evenness index of masson pine in low elevation were holistically higher than those in high elevation. However, the highest richness index of citrus forest was in low altitude, the highest Shannon-Wiener index and Pielou evenness index were in high altitude. The PLFAs content of different microbial groups were closely correlated to the soil enzyme activities and environmental factors. The PLFAs of bacteria, actinomycetes, G⁻ (Gram- positive), G⁺ (Gram-negative) were positively correlated with Ure(urease) , Ive(invertase) , CAT( catalase activity) and forest type, the PLFAs of fungi was significantly correlated with Ure, Ive, CAT, the PLFAs of bacteria, fungi, actinomycetes, G⁻ , G⁺ were significantly negatively or less correlated with elevation. Ure, Ive, CAT, forest type and elevation are the pivotal factors controlling the soil microbial biomass and activities. PMID:27012007

  10. Evaluation of Soil Fertility Under Different Cupressus chengiana Forests Using Multivariate Approach

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PANG Xue-Yong; BAO Wei-Kai; ZHANG Yong-Mei

    2006-01-01

    The distribution and growing conditions of Cupressus chengiana forests along with the physical and chemical properties of soils in Northwest Sichuan were studied in 2002 to investigate the conditions and characteristics of soil fertility of C.chengiana and to compare and investigate differences of soil fertility for six C. chengiana populations and their relationships with vegetation, climate and disturbance. The results of the study at 0-20 cm soil depth showed that 1) significant differences (P<0.05) existed among populations for soil bulk density, soil total porosity, capillary porosity, maximum water-holding capacity, capillary water-holding capacity and topsoil natural water content; 2) chemical characteristics of soil organic matter, total N, total P, alkali-hydrolyzable N, available P, available K and cation exchange capacity were significantly different among the populations; and 3) based on the significant effect of soil fertility factors on forest growth,soil physical and chemical characteristics could be selected as an integrated fertility index (IFI) for evaluation of different C. chengiana populations. Principal component and cluster analyses showed significant differences probably due to the difference of vegetation conditions, management measurements, human-induced disturbances and environmental factors.In order to protect the soil ecological functions in fragile ecological regions, C. chengiana could be used in programs enclosing the hill for natural afforestation, natural forest protection programs, and programs replacing agriculture with afforestation measures.

  11. Biogeographic Distribution Patterns of Bacteria in Typical Chinese Forest Soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Zongwei; Bai, Edith; Wang, Qingkui; Gao, Decai; Zhou, Jidong; Jiang, Ping; Wu, Jiabing

    2016-01-01

    Microbes are widely distributed in soils and play a very important role in nutrient cycling and ecosystem services. To understand the biogeographic distribution of forest soil bacteria, we collected 115 soil samples in typical forest ecosystems across eastern China to investigate their bacterial community compositions using Illumina MiSeq high throughput sequencing based on 16S rRNA. We obtained 4,667,656 sequences totally and more than 70% of these sequences were classified into five dominant groups, i.e., Actinobacteria, Acidobacteria, Alphaproteobacteria, Verrucomicrobia, and Planctomycetes (relative abundance >5%). The bacterial diversity showed a parabola shape along latitude and the maximum diversity appeared at latitudes between 33.50°N and 40°N, an area characterized by warm-temperate zones and moderate temperature, neutral soil pH and high substrate availability (soil C and N) from dominant deciduous broad-leaved forests. Pairwise dissimilarity matrix in bacterial community composition showed that bacterial community structure had regional similarity and the latitude of 30°N could be used as the dividing line between southern and northern forest soils. Soil properties and climate conditions (MAT and MAP) greatly accounted for the differences in the soil bacterial structure. Among all soil parameters determined, soil pH predominantly affected the diversity and composition of the bacterial community, and soil pH = 5 probably could be used as a threshold below which soil bacterial diversity might decline and soil bacterial community structure might change significantly. Moreover, soil exchangeable cations, especially Ca(2+) (ECa(2+)) and some other soil variables were also closely related to bacterial community structure. The selected environmental variables (21.11%) explained more of the bacterial community variation than geographic distance (15.88%), indicating that the edaphic properties and environmental factors played a more important role than

  12. Relationships between Forest Community Secondary Succession and Soil Fertility in Kanas Tourist Area,Xinjiang%新疆喀纳斯旅游区森林群落次生演替与土壤肥力的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程平; 潘存德; 朱跃峰; 康剑; 魏秋生; 寇福堂; 余戈壁

    2011-01-01

    从土壤理化性质出发,利用多元统计方法和土壤肥力综合评价体系,对新疆喀纳斯旅游区森林群落次生演替过程中土壤肥力的变化特征进行了综合评价.结果表明,不同森林类型的土壤肥力综合指标值为阔叶林>阔叶针叶混交林>针叶阔叶混交林>针叶混交林;不同森林演替阶段的土壤肥力综合指标值为演替前期>演替中期>演替后期.%Based on soil physical and chemical properties, the variation characteristics of soil fertility at different succession series of the forest communities in Kanas Tourist Areas was evaluated by the integra-tive evaluation system. The result showed that the descending order of the integrated index value of soil fertility among different forest types was as follows:broad-leaved forest>broadleaved-needleleaved mixed forest> needleleaved-broadleaved mixed forest >needleleaved mixed forest. The descending order of soil fertility among different succession series was as follows; the earlier stage>the middle stage>the later stage.

  13. Mercury, cadmium and lead concentrations in different ecophysiological groups of earthworms in forest soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ernst, Gregor; Zimmermann, Stefan [Soil Sciences, Swiss Federal Research Institute WSL, Zuercherstrasse 111, CH-8903 Birmensdorf (Switzerland); Christie, Peter [Agricultural and Environmental Science Department, Queen' s University Belfast, Newforge Lane, Belfast BT9 5PX (United Kingdom); Frey, Beat [Soil Sciences, Swiss Federal Research Institute WSL, Zuercherstrasse 111, CH-8903 Birmensdorf (Switzerland)], E-mail: beat.frey@wsl.ch

    2008-12-15

    Bioaccumulation of Hg, Cd and Pb by eight ecophysiologically distinct earthworm species was studied in 27 polluted and uncontaminated forest soils. Lowest tissue concentrations of Hg and Cd occurred in epigeic Lumbricus rubellus and highest in endogeic Octolasion cyaneum. Soils dominated by Dendrodrilus rubidus possess a high potential of risk of Pb biomagnification for secondary predators. Bioconcentration factors (soil-earthworm) followed the sequence ranked Cd > Hg > Pb. Ordination plots of redundancy analysis were used to compare HM concentrations in earthworm tissues with soil, leaf litter and root concentrations and with soil pH and CEC. Different ecological categories of earthworms are exposed to Hg, Cd and Pb in the topsoil by atmospheric deposition and accumulate them in their bodies. Species differences in HM concentrations largely reflect differences in food selectivity and niche separation. - Accumulation of non-essential heavy metals by earthworms is species-dependent and is affected by soil characteristics in natural forest soils.

  14. Mercury, cadmium and lead concentrations in different ecophysiological groups of earthworms in forest soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bioaccumulation of Hg, Cd and Pb by eight ecophysiologically distinct earthworm species was studied in 27 polluted and uncontaminated forest soils. Lowest tissue concentrations of Hg and Cd occurred in epigeic Lumbricus rubellus and highest in endogeic Octolasion cyaneum. Soils dominated by Dendrodrilus rubidus possess a high potential of risk of Pb biomagnification for secondary predators. Bioconcentration factors (soil-earthworm) followed the sequence ranked Cd > Hg > Pb. Ordination plots of redundancy analysis were used to compare HM concentrations in earthworm tissues with soil, leaf litter and root concentrations and with soil pH and CEC. Different ecological categories of earthworms are exposed to Hg, Cd and Pb in the topsoil by atmospheric deposition and accumulate them in their bodies. Species differences in HM concentrations largely reflect differences in food selectivity and niche separation. - Accumulation of non-essential heavy metals by earthworms is species-dependent and is affected by soil characteristics in natural forest soils

  15. Attaining the canopy in dry and moist tropical forests: Strong differences in tree growth trajectories reflect variation in growing conditions.

    OpenAIRE

    Brienen, Roel J W; Pieter A. Zuidema; Martínez-Ramos, Miguel

    2010-01-01

    Availability of light and water differs between tropical moist and dry forests, with typically higher understorey light levels and lower water availability in the latter. Therefore, growth trajectories of juvenile trees—those that have not attained the canopy—are likely governed by temporal fluctuations in light availability in moist forests (suppressions and releases), and by spatial heterogeneity in water availability in dry forests. In this study, we compared juvenile growth trajectories o...

  16. Variability of alder-dominated forest vegetation along a latitudinal gradient in Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Slezák

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Syntaxonmical revision of azonal forest vegetation with dominance of Alnus glutinosa and A. incana was done along a latitudinal transect of Slovakia. A data matrix consisting of 240 phytosociological relevés was obtained in accordance with the standard Zürich-Montpellier approach. Detrended correspondence analysis was used to clarify the relationships between the vegetation composition and environmental variables, whereas one-way ANOVA was applied to quantify the differences in site requirements of particular vegetation types. The unsupervised numerical classification resulted in identification of five clusters corresponding to the traditionally described and ecologically interpretable associations within the Euro-Siberian alder carr forests of Alnion glutinosae and the European broad-leaved floodplain forests of Alnion incanae: Carici elongatae-Alnetum glutinosae Schwickerath 1933 (alder carr forests on permanently waterlogged soils, Stellario-Alnetum glutinosae Lohmeyer 1957 (riparian alder vegetation on mesic to humid sites along small brooks, Piceo-Alnetum Mráz 1959 (submontane and montane oligotrophic spruce-alder forests on waterlogged habitats, Cardamino amarae-Alnetum incanae Šomšák 1961 (grey alder vegetation in spring fed areas and Alnetum incanae Lüdi 1921 (submontane and montane streamside grey alder forests on mesic sites. They significantly (P < 0.05 differed in the Ellenberg's indicator values for nutrients, moisture, temperature and altitude. These environmental variables were also established by DCA analysis as underlying sources of variation in alder-dominated forest composition. Special attention was given to discussion of their syntaxonomy, nomenclature, floristic structure, ecological features and distribution.

  17. Modeling carbon dynamics in two adjacent spruce forests with different soil conditions in Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Kurbatova

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Net ecosystem carbon exchange (NEE were measured with eddy covariance method for two adjacent forests located at the southern boundary of European taiga in Russia in 1999–2004. The two spruce forests shared similar vegetation composition but differed in soil conditions. The wet spruce forest (WSF possessed a thick peat layer (60 cm with a high water table seasonally close to or above the soil surface. The dry spruce forest (DSF had a relatively thin organic layer (5 cm with a deep water table (>60 cm. The measured NEE fluxes (2000 and −1440 kg C ha−1 yr−1 for WSF and DSF, respectively indicated that WSF was a source while DSF a sink of atmospheric carbon dioxide during the experimental years. A process-based model, Forest-DNDC, was employed in the study to interpret the observations. The modeled NEE fluxes were 1800 and −2200 kg C ha−1 yr−1 for WSF and DSF, respectively, which were comparable with the observations. The modeled data indicated that WSF and DSF had similar rates of photosynthesis and plant autotrophic respiration but differed in soil heterotrophic respiration. The simulations resulted in a hypothesis that the water table fluctuation at WSF could play a key role in determining the negative C balance in the ecosystem. A sensitivity test was conducted by running Forest-DNDC with varied water table scenarios for WSF. The results proved that the NEE fluxes from WSF were highly sensitive to the water table depth. When the water table dropped, the length of flooding season became shorter and more organic matter in the soil profile suffered from rapid decomposition that converted the ecosystem into a source atmospheric C. The conclusion from this modeling study could be applicable for a wide range of wetland and forest ecosystems that have accumulated soil organic C while face hydrological changes under certain climatic or land-use change scenarios.

  18. Planning Forest Opening with Forest Roads

    OpenAIRE

    Krč, Janez; Beguš, Jurij

    2013-01-01

    The article presents the model for determining inaccessible forest areas by density of forest roads. The model is based on the GIS analysis of the distances between the existing network of public and forest roads and inaccessible forest areas, sizes of excluded forest areas, and forest site potentials. In order to increase forest road density, the following must be done: (1) construct connecting roads to the inaccessible forest areas and (2) construct new forest roads with different density i...

  19. Assemblages of carabid beetles (Coleoptera, Carabidae in humid forest habitats of different stages of succession in the Puszcza Knyszyńska Forest (northeastern Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Kwiatkowski

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available During a period of three years (2006–2008 the carabid fauna in wet and humid forest habitats of different stages of succession was studied at the Puszcza Knyszynska (north-east part of Poland. The aim of this study was to determine how the assemblages of the carabid fauna change in relation to the ongoing process of succession. Using pitfall traps, 24 plots were sampled. The plots were located in stands of different age, from two year old plantations to more than 100 year old forests. Additionally, the stands were ordered in three moisture classes (wet, humid and very humid and two classes of soil richness. As indicators for change in the carabid fauna in relation to age of the stands Mean Individual Biomass (MIB, species diversity and share of forest species were used. By applying multivariate statistics the relation of the different habitat characteristics to changes in the carabid fauna was examined. During the study 8903 individuals belonging to 57 species were collected. Pterostichus niger represented 28% of the total catches and therefore the most common species. Another common species, Pterostichus melanarius, contributed to 13% of the total catch. This species was caught at every plot, even in the old forests. In contrast to the results obtained by Szyszko (1990 for fresh and dry pine stands, in this study the relation of MIB with the age of forest was not significant. Although the number of species was rather constant, the number of individuals belonging to the group of forest species significantly increased with the ageing of the forest. The multivariate analysis showed a relationship with ageing of the stands and soil richness rather than with moisture and size of the forest. According to the present paper, clear cuttings in wet and humid habitats do not cause a strong degradation of the carabid fauna.

  20. Assemblages of carabid beetles (Coleoptera, Carabidae) in humid forest habitats of different stages of succession in the Puszcza Knyszyńska Forest (northeastern Poland).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwiatkowski, Adam

    2011-01-01

    During a period of three years (2006-2008) the carabid fauna in wet and humid forest habitats of different stages of succession was studied at the Puszcza Knyszynska (north-east part of Poland). The aim of this study was to determine how the assemblages of the carabid fauna change in relation to the ongoing process of succession. Using pitfall traps, 24 plots were sampled. The plots were located in stands of different age, from two year old plantations to more than 100 year old forests. Additionally, the stands were ordered in three moisture classes (wet, humid and very humid) and two classes of soil richness. As indicators for change in the carabid fauna in relation to age of the stands Mean Individual Biomass (MIB), species diversity and share of forest species were used. By applying multivariate statistics the relation of the different habitat characteristics to changes in the carabid fauna was examined. During the study 8903 individuals belonging to 57 species were collected. Pterostichus niger represented 28% of the total catches and therefore the most common species. Another common species, Pterostichus melanarius, contributed to 13% of the total catch. This species was caught at every plot, even in the old forests. In contrast to the results obtained by Szyszko (1990) for fresh and dry pine stands, in this study the relation of MIB with the age of forest was not significant. Although the number of species was rather constant, the number of individuals belonging to the group of forest species significantly increased with the ageing of the forest. The multivariate analysis showed a relationship with ageing of the stands and soil richness rather than with moisture and size of the forest. According to the present paper, clear cuttings in wet and humid habitats do not cause a strong degradation of the carabid fauna. PMID:21738426

  1. Microclimate and Modeled Fire Behavior Differ Between Adjacent Forest Types in Northern Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Pinto

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Fire severity varies with forest composition and structure, reflecting micrometeorology and the fuel complex, but their respective influences are difficult to untangle from observation alone. We quantify the differences in fire weather between different forest types and the resulting differences in modeled fire behavior. Collection of in-stand weather data proceeded during two summer periods in three adjacent stands in northern Portugal, respectively Pinus pinaster (PP, Betula alba (BA, and Chamaecyparis lawsoniana (CL. Air temperature, relative humidity and wind speed varied respectively as CL < PP < BA, PP < CL < BA, and CL < BA < PP. Differences between PP and the other types were greatest during the warmest and driest hours of the day in a sequence of 10 days with high fire danger. Estimates of daytime moisture content of fine dead fuels and fire behavior characteristics for this period, respectively, from Behave and BehavePlus, indicate a CL < BA < PP gradient in fire potential. High stand density in CL and BA ensured lower wind speed and higher fuel moisture content than in PP, limiting the likelihood of an extreme fire environment. However, regression tree analysis revealed that the fire behavior distinction between the three forest types was primarily a function of the surface fuel complex, and more so during extreme fire weather conditions.

  2. Influences of Different Habitats on Asexual Propagation of Wild Gastrodia elata f. glauca being Domesticated in Ganzi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xueqiang XIE

    2015-01-01

    Objective] The influences of different habitats on asexual propagation of wild Geg (abbreviation for Gastrodia elata Bl. f. glauca S. Chow) being domesticat-ed in Ganzi prefecture was studied. [Method] The research trial was carried out in the fol owing three kinds of habitats at the same time: the plastic greenhouses, the birch forest of shady slope and the shrubbery of sunny slope, and the results were analyzed with group data average hypothesis test method. [Result] The overal tuber (the juvenile tuber, the immature tuber and the mature tuber) yield and the mature tuber yield were both very significantly higher in the plastic greenhouses than in the other two types of habitats, and respectively reached 9.52 and 6.70 kg/m2; the ma-ture tuber drying rate was dramatical y or very dramatical y lower in the plastic greenhouses than in the other two types of habitats, and was 23.84%; the stabilities of the overal tuber yield, the mature tuber yield and the drying rate were al re-duced in the order of greenhouses, birch forest and shrubbery; and the dry mature tuber yield of the plastic greenhouses was the highest in the three kinds of habi-tats, and was 1.60 kg/m2. [Conclusion] A good habitat had to be created or chosen in the domesticating cultivation of the wild Geg in Ganzi prefecture. The preferred choice was the plastic greenhouse, the alternative one was the deciduous broad-leaved forest of shady slope. The imitating wild planting of the wild Geg should be done in the warm moist deciduous broad-leaved forest of shady slope.

  3. Comparative efficacy of three epigeic earthworms under different deciduous forest litters decomposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manna, M C; Jha, S; Ghosh, P K; Acharya, C L

    2003-07-01

    An experiment was conducted during 1998-1999, in a deciduous forest located in the semi-arid tropics of central India, to evaluate the suitability of different forest litters as food material for the tropical epigeic earthworms i.e. Eisenia fetida (Savigny), Perionyx excavatus (Perrier) and Dicogaster bolaui (michaelsen). The aim was to examine the influence of these earthworms on the decomposition processes of three types of forest litters i.e. Tectona grandis (teak), Madhuca indica (mahua) and Butea monosperma (palas), on the maintenance of quality in a vermicomposting system, and to assess the effect of applications of in situ prepared vermicomposts on the growth of forest trees. The results indicated that T. grandis litter was the most suitable food material for the earthworms possibly because it contained high reserves of mineral nutrients. Comparisons of the survival and reproduction rates of the three epigeic earthworm species indicated that a higher reproduction rate was maintained for E. fetida compared to P. excavatus and D. bolaui in the decomposition of these forest litters. The rates of growth and population increases of E. fetida approximately doubled after 12 weeks of litter decomposition. The litter decomposition process was associated strongly with the quality of the materials and their chemical composition. Irrespective of earthworm inoculations, the levels of available nutrient such as NH(4)-N, NO(3)-N, available P and K increased significantly (pM. indica litter compost>B. monosperma litter compost. The mature decomposed litter had lower C/N ratios (11.3-24.8:1), water-soluble carbon (0.30-0.58%), water-soluble carbohydrates (0.35-0.71%) and larger cation exchange capacity/total organic carbon ratios than the values in the parent forest litter. The lignin content increased with maturation with a concomitant decrease in cellulose resulting in higher lignin/cellulose ratios. Application of all three vermicomposts to forest trees significantly

  4. Antioxidant activity of ginseng cultivated under mountainous forest with different growing years

    OpenAIRE

    Pan, Hong-Yan; Qu, Yang; Zhang, Jian-kui; Kang, Ting-guo; Dou, De-Qiang

    2013-01-01

    Ginseng cultivated and grown naturally under mountainous forest is formally called “Lin-Xia-Shan-Shen” (LXSS) and grown in manual condition is called garden ginseng (GG) according to Chinese pharmacopoeia (2010 edition). Usually the growing condition of LXSS is similar to wild ginseng and mostly used in Chinese folks in ancient times. The antioxidant properties of LXSS with different growing years were evaluated by their inhibitions of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance (TBA-RS) formation...

  5. Forest protection as a climate measure. Valuable forest types for biodiversity and carbon storage; Skogvern som klimatiltak. Verdifulle skogtyper for biologisk mangfold og karbonlagring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Framstad, E.; Stokland, J.N.; Hylen, G.

    2011-07-01

    the area of each forest type, however, mature deciduous, unproductive and productile forests, as well as old spruce and pine forests represent the largest carbon stocks. An nu-al Co2 uptake per unit area is related to the more productive forests, such as rich deciduous and coniferous forests and productive mature deciduous forest, and is lowest for unproductive deciduous forest. Old spruce and pine forests and mature coastal forests have medium Co2 uptake. Summed over the area of each forest type, mature boreal forests and rich deciduous forests have the highest annual Co2 uptake. Assessed value for biodiversity of the respective forest types coincides rather well with their value for Co2 uptake per unit area and, with some exceptions, also for carbon stocks per unit area. Rich coniferous and broad-leaved deciduous forests, in particular, have great value for biodiversity, carbon and uptake of Co2 per unit area. Relative to the profitability of forestry, potential conflicts seem to be greatest for rich and old coniferous forests, and less so for rich deciduous forest, mature productive deciduous forest, and coastal forest. Conflict with forestry is least likely for un-productive deciduous forest, but here values for biodiversity or carbon stocks are lower. Conservation of old forest is generally beneficial for biodiversity and carbon stocks in old broadleaved deciduous forest, where conflicts with forestry will be moderate. Rich deciduous forest, productive deciduous forest and coastal forest have rather high values for biodiversity and moderate potential conflict with forestry, but the value of carbon storage is lower. Rich coniferous forests are important for both biodiversity and carbon stock, but have great potential conflict with forestry, as most of this area will be economically suitable for forestry. Old spruce and partly old pine forests are important for carbon storage and somewhat less important for biodiversity, but may have significant conflicts with

  6. Biodiversity differences between managed and unmanaged forests: meta-analysis of species richness in Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Y. Paillet; Bergès, L.; Hjältén, J.; Odor, P.; Avon, C.; Bernhardt Römermann, M.; Bijlsma, R.J.; De Bruyn, L; Fuhr, M.; Grandin, U., , Ulf; Kanka, R.; Lundin, L.; Luque, S.; T. Magura; Matesanz, S.

    2010-01-01

    Past and present pressures on forest resources have led to a drastic decrease in the surface area of unmanaged forests in Europe. Changes in forest structure, composition, and dynamics inevitably lead to changes in the biodiversity of forest-dwelling species. However, the possible biodiversity gains and losses due to forest management (i.e. anthropogenic pressures related to direct forest resource use) have never been assessed at a pan-European scale. We used meta-analysis to review 49 publis...

  7. Effect of Forest Fire on Vegetation in Tahe Forestry Bureau%塔河林业局林火对植被的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙明学; 贾炜玮

    2009-01-01

    针对大兴安岭地区塔河林业局不同林型下,不同火烧强度的火烧迹地的森林植被更新及恢复情况进行了调查研究.结果表明:(1)针叶林过火迹地上,落叶松幼苗较少,阔叶树萌条更新强度同火烧程度成正比;火烧前生长有白桦、赤杨的林地上,火烧后阔叶树成为主导树种,林相完全发生变化.(2)重度火烧下有利于天然更新,促使白桦、山杨萌生.中度火烧最初形成以杨桦为优势树种的阔叶林,后逐渐演变为针阔混交林.轻度火烧有利于针叶林的更新.(3)火烧后不同林型下灌木草本植被种类变化不同.从盖度方面来看,杜鹃落叶松林型中林下灌木草本更新最为良好.%This paper studied the regeneration and restoration of vegetation in the burned area of different forest types and fire intensities. The results showed that there are few larch seedlings in the burned area of coniferous forest and the sprout of broad-leaved tree is positive related with burned intensity. In the burned area of birch and alder stand, the broad-leaved trees have become the dominant species. Severely burning is benefit for natural regeneration and promoting the sprout of birth and alder. The forest in moderately burned area is mainly composed by birch and alder at first and become mixed forest finally. The lightly burning is benefit for the regeneration of conifer forest. The kind of shrubbery and herbage is different in different forest after fire. The regeneration in the forest of Ass. Rhododendron dauricum, Larix gmelinii is the best.

  8. Assessment of soil erodibility and aggregate stability for different parts of a forest road

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Aidin Parsakhoo; Majid Lotfalian; Ataollah Kavian; Seyed Ataollah Hosseini

    2014-01-01

    We measured erodibility and mean weight diameter (MWD) of soil aggregates in different parts of a forest road. Samples of topsoil were collected from cutslope, fillslope, road surface and forest ground to assess the texture, bulk density, moisture, CaCO3 and organic matter. Soil aggregate stability was determined by wet sieving. Soil erodibility on the road surface was 2.3 and 1.3 times higher than on the fillslope and cutslope, respectively. The forest soil had the lowest erodibility. Aggregate stability of cutslope and road surface were low and very low, respectively. There was a significant negative relationship between cutslope erodibility with CaCO3 and sand content. Cutslope erodibility increased with increasing silt, clay and moisture content. On fillslopes, MWD increased with in-creasing rock fragment cover, plant cover, litter cover, organic matter and sand. There was a strong negative correlation between fillslope erodibility and organic matter, sand and MWD. There was no significant difference between erodibility of bare soil and soils beneathRubus hyrcanusL. and Philonotis marchica (Hedw.) Brid.

  9. Nitrification and denitrification as sources of gaseous nitrogen emission from different forest soils in Changbai Mountain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The contributions of nitrification and denitrification to N2O and N2 emissions from four forest soils on northern slop of Changbai Mountain were measured with acetylene inhibition methods. In incubation experiments, 0.06% and 3% C2H2 were used to inhibit nitrification and denitrification in these soils, respectively. Both nitrification and denitification existed in these soils except tundra soil, where only denitrification was found. The annually averaged rates of nitrification and denitrification in mountain dark brown forest soil were much higher than that in other three soils. In mountain brown coniferous soil, contributions of different processes to gaseous nitrogen emissions were Denitrification N2O > Nitrification N2O > Denitrification N2. The same sequence exists in mountain soddy soil as that in the mountain brown coniferous soil. The sequence in mountain tundra soil was Denitrification N2O > Denitrification N2.

  10. Nitrification and denitrification in subalpine coniferous forests of different restoration stages in western Sichuan,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Yi; CHEN Jinsong; LIU Qing; WU Yan

    2007-01-01

    Nitrification is the biological conversion of organic or inorganic nitrogen compounds from a reduced to a more oxidized state.Denitrification is generally referred to as the microbial reduction of nitrate to nitrite and further gaseous forms of nitric oxide,nitrous oxide and molecular nitrogen.They are functionally interconnected processes in the soil nitrogen cycle that are involved in the control of longterm nitrogen losses in ecosystems through nitrate leaching and gaseous N losses.In" order to better understand how nitrification and denitrification change during the process of ecosystem restoration and how they are affected by various controlling factors,gross nitrification rates and denitrification rates were determined using the barometric process separation (BaPS) technique in subalpine coniferous forests of different restoration stages.The results showed that forest restoration stage had no significant effects on gross nitrification rates or denitrification rates (One-way ANOVA (analysis of variance),p < 0.05).There was no significant difference in the temperature coefficient (Q10) for gross nitrification rate among all the forest sites (One-wayANOVA,p < 0.05).Gross nitrification rates were positively correlated with water content (p <0.05),but not with soil pH,organic matter,total nitrogen,or C/N ratios.Denitrification rates in all the forest soils were low and not closely correlated with water content,soil pH,organic matter,or total nitrogen.Nevertheless,we found that C/N ratios obviously affected denitrification rates (p < 0.05).Results from this research suggest that gross nitrification is more responsible for the nitrogen loss from soils compared with denitrification.

  11. Comparison between two vegetation indices for measuring different types of forest damage in the north-eastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogelmann, J. E.

    1990-01-01

    The relative effectiveness of the Landsat TM-derived normalized difference vegetative index (NDVI) and the short-wave IR to NIR ratio (SWIR/NIR) index was examined in measurements of different types of damage in several forest communities. The forests examined included a site with well-defined fir waves in New Hampshire, a site undergoing well-documented coniferous forest decline in Vermont, and predominantly deciduous regions in Vermont and northwestern Massachusetts seriously impacted by pear thrips. Both NDVI and SWIR/NIR images were produced for each area. Results demonstrated that the SWIR/NIR index was superior to NDVI in distinguishing between high and low conifer damage at both fir-wave and forest decline sites; high and low deciduous-forest damage sites were easily separable using either NDVI or SWIR/NIR, but the NDVI was superior in separation between medium and low deciduous damage.

  12. Modeling soil moisture dynamics in different forest types in semiarid areas%半干旱地区不同森林类型土壤水分动态模拟

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓学; 沈会涛; 周玥; 景峰; 李叙勇; 陈国鹏

    2015-01-01

    linked to the non-linearity of the infiltration process ) , Ks ( the field-saturated hydraulic conductivity) ,λ ( the pore size distribution index linked to the structure of soil layers) ) played important roles in rainfall infiltration, deep percolation and evaporative processes. In addition, differences in soil moisture flux among forest types suggested that both annual evapotranspiration in deciduous/coniferous forest plantations and infiltration in deciduous broad-leaved forest were greater than those in other forestlands;in addition, deep percolation in all three forestlands was low. We demonstrate that a simple, robust, parametric model is capable of simulating the temporal dynamics of soil moisture content in different forest types. The study of soil moisture in forest plantations in semiarid regions helps researchers clearly recognize the fundamental role of the soil-atmosphere-vegetation continuum. In addition, it provides a theoretical basis for selecting forest plantation species. It also aids the selection and design of studies that analyze the ecohydrological effects of plantations in semiarid regions. Moreover, due to its simple structure and good performance the proposed model may be incorporated in continuous-time rainfall runoff models. Similar thorough investigations should also be conducted in other basins.%采用暖温带落叶阔叶次生林、油松人工林和华北落叶松人工林样地土壤水分的生长季内观测数据和其他辅助观测数据,检验了Georgakakos等提出的土壤水分模型在半干旱林地的适用性。结果表明,该模型用于模拟半干旱林地日尺度土壤水分动态具有一定的可信度,且能够较好的反映不同森林类型的水文效应。模型参数的敏感性分析表明,不同目标函数的参数敏感度信息反映了该模型“异参同效”现象不显著,模型结构不确定性也较小。各参数的敏感度结果揭示了各参数在降雨入渗、深层渗漏和

  13. The biomasss distribution of different Phyllostachys edulis forest types in Northwest of Fujian Province%闽西北不同类型毛竹林生物量分布格局

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范少辉; 刘广路; 苏文会; 杜满义; 吴继林

    2011-01-01

    The distribution pattern of biomass was studied in pure bamboo stand (I), bamboo stand mixed with broadleaves trees (II), and bamboo stand mixed with coniferous trees(III) in Yong'an county, Fujian Prov ince. The result showed that the biomass and productivity of bamboo forest was in the order of I > II >III . The biomass of I, II ,and III was 143 418.06, 135 469.53, and 131 782.78 kg·hm-2, respectively. The productivity of Ⅰ,Ⅱ,and Ⅲ was 59 786.55, 54 921.44, and 38 418.68 kghm-2·a-1, respectively. The productivity of pure bam boo stand was higher than that of other bamboo forest types. The biomass distribution was different with different bamboo forests types. The stem mass fraction in pure bamboo forest was higher than the fraction in forest II and III, while the mass fraction of bamboo root and leaf was lower. The more economic benefits come from the higher stem mass fraction in forest I. The characteristics of bamboo number and biomass were different in different bamboo forest types. The DBH of I and II forest was mainly between 10.5 cm and 12.5 cm and biomass ac counted for 54.25% and 53.71% of forest I and Ⅱ. The DBH of Ⅲ was mainly between 9.5 cm and 11.5 cm and biomass accounted for 54.34% in forest HI. The biomass and productivity of bamboo stand mixed with broad-leaves trees was higher, meanwhile the bamboo stand mixed with broadleaves trees had better physical and chemical properties of soil and better nutrient cycling characteristics. The bamboo stand mixed with broadleaves trees may be a better cultivation pattern.%以福建省天宝岩自然保护区的毛竹纯林(Ⅰ)、竹阔混交林(Ⅱ)和竹针混交林(Ⅲ)为研究对象,对其生物量分布格局进行研究.结果表明,不同类型毛竹林生物量和生产力不同,林分Ⅰ、Ⅱ和Ⅲ的生物量分别为143 418.06.135 469.53和131 782.78 kg·hm-2,生产力分别为59 786.55、54 921.44和38 418.68 kg·hm-2·a-1,毛竹林纯林化经营可以提高竹林的生产力.经

  14. CARBON STOCK IN SOIL UNDER DIFFERENT FOREST FORMATIONS, CHAPECÓ, SANTA CATARINA STATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosiane Berenice Nicoloso Denardin

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5902/1980509813323The adoption of management practices that ensure the stability of soil organic matter also maintain the stabilityor quantitative increase of carbon (C in the lithosphere, reducing the amount of CO2 in theatmosphere. You can also minimize the losses of C to the atmosphere by using conservation practices,or using cover crops to keep the soil C stocks, and the forest cover are considered great abductionand forest systems considered large reservoirs of C. This work was performed on a property located inChapecó, Santa Catarina state, where soils were sampled from different forest formations distributedin a homogeneous soil range. The local climate is mesothermal, rainy, and the soil was characterizedas an association Cambissolo Háplico/Neossolo Litólico. The objectives were to estimate the C stocksin soils and estimate the C losses occurred due to the change of soil cover. It was evaluated soils undernatural forest (FN, of secondary stage, with a high degree of preservation; planted forest of eucalyptus(Eucalyptus saligna (PE, with eight years of cultivation, preceded by 17 years under crop conventionaltillage; and a planted forest of herb mate (Ilex paraguariensis (EM, with 25 years of cultivation underconventional system (cutting interval of 18 months, with removal of all waste produced and maintenanceof the ground without cover, with periodic use of herbicide - glyphosate. In each area were opened fourtrenches with 50 cm deep, where soil samples were collected in depths of: 0-5 cm, 5-10 cm, 10-20 cm,20-30 cm, 30-40 cm, and 40-50 cm, with kopeck rings. It was possible to determine the bulk density (Mgm-3, the soil volume per layer (depth and per hectare, and the concentration of soil C in the differentstudied areas. To quantify the C stocks equal amounts of soil were used for each depth evaluated. Itwas observed higher densities of soils and under PE and EM, to FN the lowest density are explained bythe

  15. Forest operations in coppice: Environmental assessment of two different logging methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laschi, Andrea; Marchi, Enrico; González-García, Sara

    2016-08-15

    Wood is a renewable resource and it actively contributes to enhance energy production under a sustainable perspective. However, harvesting, transport and use of wood imply several consequences and impacts on environment. There are different ways for managing forests dedicated to wood production and a sustainable approach is fundamental to preserve the resource. In this context, Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is a useful tool for estimating the environmental impacts related to renewable resources. Traditional coppice is a common approach for forest management in several areas, including southern Europe and, specifically, Italy, Spain and the Balkans. Due to different terrain conditions, different types of forest operations are considered for wood extraction from coppices, where the main product is firewood used in domestic heating. The aim of this work was to compare the main common systems for firewood production in two different terrain conditions ('flat/low steep' and 'steep/very steep' terrains), in a representative environment for Mediterranean area, located in central Italy, by means of LCA. Seven different impact categories were evaluated in a cradle-to-gate perspective taking into account all the operations carried out from the trees felling to the firewood storage at factory. Results showed that the extraction phase was the most important in terms of environmental burdens in firewood production and the use of heavy and high-power machines negatively influenced the emissions compared with manual operations. Finally, considering the general low-inputs involved in wood production in coppice, the transport of workers by car to the work site resulted on consistent contributions into environmental burdens. An additional analysis about the modifications of CH4 and N2O exchanges between soil and atmosphere, due to soil compaction in the extraction phase, was made and based on bibliographic information. Results showed a sensible difference between disturbed and

  16. Characteristics of CO2 flux over a forest on complex topography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The CO2 flux over a mixed forest of evergreen and deciduous broad-leave trees on complex topography was measured by using an eddy covariance method. To evaluate the CO2 flux over such a forest and to ascertain the effect of topography, the eddy covariance measurement was conducted at the top of each of two meteorological towers erected in a basin (1.6 ha). The CO2 flux measured by the eddy covariance method was also evaluated by comparing it with the CO2 flux from leaf photosynthesis and soil respiration as continuously measured by automatic chamber methods on the forest floor and in the foliage. The daily variations in the daytime CO2 flux values measured at the two towers were each quite similar. However, for the night-time CO2 flux values, there was about 36% difference between the towers, even though the flux was measured in the same basin. The CO2 flux as measured by eddy covariance and including CO2 storage change (Fn) was 60% lower than that estimated by the chamber methods (Fchm). The CO2 flux as measured by using the relation between Fn and soil temperature at 2 cm depth obtained only under conditions of low stability was 32% lower than Fchm

  17. Modeling carbon dynamics in two adjacent spruce forests with different soil conditions in Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Kurbatova

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Net ecosystem carbon exchange (NEE was measured with eddy covariance method for two adjacent forests located at the southern boundary of European taiga in Russia in 1999–2004. The two spruce forests shared similar vegetation composition but differed in soil conditions. The wet spruce forest (WSF possessed a thick peat layer (60 cm with a high water table seasonally close to or above the soil surface. The dry spruce forest (DSF had a relatively thin organic layer (5 cm with a deep water table (>60 cm. The measured multi-year average NEE fluxes (2000 and –1440 kg C ha−1yr−1 for WSF and DSF, respectively indicated that WSF was a source while DSF a sink of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2 during the experimental years. A process-based model, Forest-DNDC, was employed in the study to interpret the observations. The modeled multi-year average NEE fluxes were 1800 and –2200 kg C ha−1yr−1 for WSF and DSF, respectively, which were comparable with observations. The modeled data also showed high soil heterotrophic respiration rates at WSF that suggested that the water table fluctuation at WSF could have played a key role in determining the negative carbon balance in the wetland ecosystem. A sensitivity test was conducted by running Forest-DNDC with varied water table scenarios for WSF. The results indicated that the NEE fluxes from WSF were highly sensitive to the water table depth. When the water table was high, the WSF ecosystem maintained as a sink of atmospheric CO2; while along with the drop of the water table the length of the flooded period reduced and more organic matter in the soil profile suffered from rapid decomposition that gradually converted the ecosystem into a source of atmospheric CO2. The general effect of water table variation on wetland carbon balance observed from this modeling study could be applicable for a wide range of wetland ecosystems that

  18. Factors controlling regional differences in forest soil emission of nitrogen oxides (NO and N2O)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pilegaard, K.; Skiba, U.; Ambus, P.;

    2006-01-01

    Soil emissions of NO and N2O were measured continuously at high frequency for more than one year at 15 European forest sites as part of the EU-funded project NOFRETETE. The locations represent different forest types (coniferous/deciduous) and different nitrogen loads. Geoaphically they range from...... correlated with the C/N ratio. The difference in N-oxide emissions from soils of coniferous and deciduous forests may partly be explained by differences in N-deposition rates and partly by differences in characteristics of the litter layer and soil. NO was mainly derived from nitrification whereas N2O was...... nitrogen deposition and forest and soil type become much more important....

  19. Responses of Grassland and Forest to Temperature and Precipitation Changes in Northeast China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PENG Jing; DONG Wenjie; YUAN Wenping; ZHANG Yong

    2012-01-01

    Using the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) as an indicator of vegetation growth,we explored the characteristics and differences in the response to drought of five vegetation biomes in Northeast China,including typical steppe,desert steppe,meadow steppe,deciduous coniferous forest and deciduous broad-leaved forest during the period 1982 2009.The results indicate that growing season precipitation may be the primary vegetation growth-limiting factor in grasslands.More than 70% of the temporal variations in NDVI can be explained by the amount of precipitation during the growing season in typical and desert steppes.During the same period,the mean temperature in the growing season could explain nearly 43% of the variations in the mean growing season NDVI and is therefore a dominant growth-limiting factor for forest ecosystems.Therefore,the NDVI trends differ largely due to differences in the vegetation growth-limiting factors of the different vegetation biomes.The NDVI responses to droughts vary in magnitude and direction and depend on the drought-affected areas of the five vegetation types.Specifically,the changes in NDVI are consistent with the variations in precipitation for grassland ecosystems.A lack of precipitation resulted in decreases in NDVI,thereby reducing vegetation growth in these regions.Conversely,increasing precipitation decreased the NDVI of forest ecosystems.The results also suggest that grasslands under arid and semi-arid environments may be more sensitive to drought than forests under humid environments.Among grassland ecosystems,desert steppe was most sensitive to drought,followed by typical steppe; meadow steppe was the least sensitive.

  20. Fungal Assemblages in Different Habitats in an Erman’s Birch Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Teng; Sun, Huaibo; Shen, Congcong; Chu, Haiyan

    2016-01-01

    Recent meta-analyses of fungal diversity using deeply sequenced marker genes suggest that most fungal taxa are locally distributed. However, little is known about the extent of overlap and niche partitions in total fungal communities or functional guilds within distinct habitats on a local forest scale. Here, we compared fungal communities in endosphere (leaf interior), phyllosphere (leaf interior and associated surface area) and soil samples from an Erman’s birch forest in Changbai Mountain, China. Community structures were significantly differentiated in terms of habitat, with soil having the highest fungal richness and phylogenetic diversity. Endophytic and phyllosphere fungi of Betula ermanii were more phylogenetically clustered compared with the corresponding soil fungi, indicating the ability of that host plants to filter and select their fungal partners. Furthermore, the majority of soil fungal taxa were soil specialists, while the dominant endosphere and phyllosphere taxa were aboveground generalists, with soil and plant foliage only sharing <8.2% fungal taxa. Most of the fungal taxa could be assigned to different functional guilds; however, the assigned guilds showed significant habitat specificity with variation in relative abundance. Collectively, the fungal assemblages in this Erman’s birch forest were strictly niche specialized and constrained by weak migration among habitats. The findings suggest that phylogenetic relatedness and functional guilds’ assignment can effectively interpret the certain ecological processes.

  1. Functional trait strategies of trees in dry and wet tropical forests are similar but differ in their consequences for succession.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madelon Lohbeck

    Full Text Available Global plant trait studies have revealed fundamental trade-offs in plant resource economics. We evaluated such trait trade-offs during secondary succession in two species-rich tropical ecosystems that contrast in precipitation: dry deciduous and wet evergreen forests of Mexico. Species turnover with succession in dry forest largely relates to increasing water availability and in wet forest to decreasing light availability. We hypothesized that while functional trait trade-offs are similar in the two forest systems, the successful plant strategies in these communities will be different, as contrasting filters affect species turnover. Research was carried out in 15 dry secondary forest sites (5-63 years after abandonment and in 17 wet secondary forest sites (<1-25 years after abandonment. We used 11 functional traits measured on 132 species to make species-trait PCA biplots for dry and wet forest and compare trait trade-offs. We evaluated whether multivariate plant strategies changed during succession, by calculating a 'Community-Weighted Mean' plant strategy, based on species scores on the first two PCA-axes. Trait spectra reflected two main trade-off axes that were similar for dry and wet forest species: acquisitive versus conservative species, and drought avoiding species versus evergreen species with large animal-dispersed seeds. These trait associations were consistent when accounting for evolutionary history. Successional changes in the most successful plant strategies reflected different functional trait spectra depending on the forest type. In dry forest the community changed from having drought avoiding strategies early in succession to increased abundance of evergreen strategies with larger seeds late in succession. In wet forest the community changed from species having mainly acquisitive strategies to those with more conservative strategies during succession. These strategy changes were explained by increasing water availability during

  2. Assessing risks and uncertainties in forest dynamics under different management scenarios and climate change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Albert

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background Forest management faces a climate induced shift in growth potential and increasing current and emerging new risks. Vulnerability analysis provides decision support based on projections of natural resources taking risks and uncertainties into account. In this paper we (1 characterize differences in forest dynamics under three management scenarios, (2 analyse the effects of the three scenarios on two risk factors, windthrow and drought stress, and (3 quantify the effects and the amount of uncertainty arising from climate projections on height increment and drought stress. Methods In four regions in northern Germany, we apply three contrasting management scenarios and project forest development under climate change until 2070. Three climate runs (minimum, median, maximum based on the emission scenario RCP 8.5 control the site-sensitive forest growth functions. The minimum and maximum climate run define the range of prospective climate development. Results The projections of different management regimes until 2070 show the diverging medium-term effects of thinnings and harvests and long-term effects of species conversion on a regional scale. Examples of windthrow vulnerability and drought stress reveal how adaptation measures depend on the applied management path and the decision-maker’s risk attitude. Uncertainty analysis shows the increasing variability of drought risk projections with time. The effect of climate projections on height growth are quantified and uncertainty analysis reveals that height growth of young trees is dominated by the age-trend whereas the climate signal in height increment of older trees is decisive. Conclusions Drought risk is a serious issue in the eastern regions independent of the applied silvicultural scenario, but adaptation measures are limited as the proportion of the most drought tolerant species Scots pine is already high. Windthrow risk is no serious overall threat in any region, but adequate

  3. Assessing risks and uncertainties in forest dynamics under different management scenarios and climate change

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Matthias; Albert; Jan; Hansen; Jürgen; Nagel; Matthias; Schmidt; Hermann; Spellmann

    2015-01-01

    Background: Forest management faces a climate induced shift in growth potential and increasing current and emerging new risks. Vulnerability analysis provides decision support based on projections of natural resources taking risks and uncertainties into account. In this paper we(1) characterize differences in forest dynamics under three management scenarios,(2) analyse the effects of the three scenarios on two risk factors, windthrow and drought stress, and(3) quantify the effects and the amount of uncertainty arising from climate projections on height increment and drought stress.Methods: In four regions in northern Germany, we apply three contrasting management scenarios and project forest development under climate change until 2070. Three climate runs(minimum, median, maximum) based on the emission scenario RCP 8.5 control the site-sensitive forest growth functions. The minimum and maximum climate run define the range of prospective climate development.Results: The projections of different management regimes until 2070 show the diverging medium-term effects of thinnings and harvests and long-term effects of species conversion on a regional scale. Examples of windthrow vulnerability and drought stress reveal how adaptation measures depend on the applied management path and the decision-maker’s risk attitude. Uncertainty analysis shows the increasing variability of drought risk projections with time. The effect of climate projections on height growth are quantified and uncertainty analysis reveals that height growth of young trees is dominated by the age-trend whereas the climate signal in height increment of older trees is decisive.Conclusions: Drought risk is a serious issue in the eastern regions independent of the applied silvicultural scenario,but adaptation measures are limited as the proportion of the most drought tolerant species Scots pine is already high. Windthrow risk is no serious overall threat in any region, but adequate counter-measures such as

  4. Trends over time in tree and seedling phylogenetic diversity indicate regional differences in forest biodiversity change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, Kevin M; Woodall, Christopher W

    2012-03-01

    Changing climate conditions may impact the short-term ability of forest tree species to regenerate in many locations. In the longer term, tree species may be unable to persist in some locations while they become established in new places. Over both time frames, forest tree biodiversity may change in unexpected ways. Using repeated inventory measurements five years apart from more than 7000 forested plots in the eastern United States, we tested three hypotheses: phylogenetic diversity is substantially different from species richness as a measure of biodiversity; forest communities have undergone recent changes in phylogenetic diversity that differ by size class, region, and seed dispersal strategy; and these patterns are consistent with expected early effects of climate change. Specifically, the magnitude of diversity change across broad regions should be greater among seedlings than in trees, should be associated with latitude and elevation, and should be greater among species with high dispersal capacity. Our analyses demonstrated that phylogenetic diversity and species richness are decoupled at small and medium scales and are imperfectly associated at large scales. This suggests that it is appropriate to apply indicators of biodiversity change based on phylogenetic diversity, which account for evolutionary relationships among species and may better represent community functional diversity. Our results also detected broadscale patterns of forest biodiversity change that are consistent with expected early effects of climate change. First, the statistically significant increase over time in seedling diversity in the South suggests that conditions there have become more favorable for the reproduction and dispersal of a wider variety of species, whereas the significant decrease in northern seedling diversity indicates that northern conditions have become less favorable. Second, we found weak correlations between seedling diversity change and latitude in both zones

  5. Factors controlling regional differences in forest soil emission of nitrogen oxides (NO and N2O)

    OpenAIRE

    K. Pilegaard; Skiba, U.; Ambus, P.; Beier, C.; N. Brüggemann; K. Butterbach-Bahl; Dick, J.; Dorsey, J.; J. Duyzer; Gallagher, M; Gasche, R.; Horvath, L; Kitzler, B.; A. Leip; Pihlatie, M. K.

    2006-01-01

    Soil emissions of NO and N2O were measured continuously at high frequency for more than one year at 15 European forest sites as part of the EU-funded project NOFRETETE. The locations represent different forest types (coniferous/deciduous) and different nitrogen loads. Geographically they range from Finland in the north to Italy in the south and from Hungary in the east to Scotland in the west. The highest NO emissions were observed from coniferous forests, whereas the lowest NO emissions wer...

  6. A Forest Management Map of European Forests

    OpenAIRE

    Isabel van den Wyngaert; Markus Didion; Gert-Jan Nabuurs; Hengeveld, Geerten M.; Clerkx, A. P. P. M. (Sandra); Mart-Jan Schelhaas

    2012-01-01

    Forest management to a large extent determines the possible services that the forest can provide. Different objectives in forest management determine the rotation length and valuation of different stages in forest succession. We present a method of mapping potential forest management at 1-km resolution to inform policy, land use modeling, and forest resource projections. The presented method calculates the suitability of a location to different forest management alternatives based on biotic, ...

  7. Spatial pattern and compositive structure of forests in Guizhou

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Remote-sensing and field data of Guizhou forest resources in 2000 are processed usingArcGIS, with the production of forest resource distribution map, forest age class structure map, andforest canopy distribution map. Analysis of these data shows that: (1) though there are multiple typesof forest resources, forest coverage is low (only 25.27%, excluding sparse woodland, shrub andunderage-forest); (2) the geographical distribution of forests is quite uneven, mainly in the southeastof the province and in Zunyi prefecture; (3) the zonal evergreen broad-leaved forests have beenseriously destroyed, with striking secondary features, i.e., coniferous forest and shrubbery account forthe greatest proportion of Guizhou forests; (4) the timber-forest is much larger in area thanshelter-forest and economic forest; (5) young-and-middle aged forests are more widely distributed thannear-and-over matured forest; and (6) the forest of Guizhou is not enough to effectively protect theenvironment of karst mountain areas of the province.

  8. Estimating the SCS runoff curve number in forest catchments of Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hyung Tae; Kim, Jaehoon; Lim, Hong-geun

    2016-04-01

    To estimate flood runoff discharge is a very important work in design for many hydraulic structures in streams, rivers and lakes such as dams, bridges, culverts, and so on. So, many researchers have tried to develop better methods for estimating flood runoff discharge. The SCS runoff curve number is an empirical parameter determined by empirical analysis of runoff from small catchments and hillslope plots monitored by the USDA. This method is an efficient method for determining the approximate amount of runoff from a rainfall even in a particular area, and is very widely used all around the world. However, there is a quite difference between the conditions of Korea and USA in topography, geology and land use. Therefore, examinations in adaptability of the SCS runoff curve number need to raise the accuracy of runoff prediction using SCS runoff curve number method. The purpose of this study is to find the SCS runoff curve number based on the analysis of observed data from several experimental forest catchments monitored by the National Institute of Forest Science (NIFOS), as a pilot study to modify SCS runoff curve number for forest lands in Korea. Rainfall and runoff records observed in Gwangneung coniferous and broad leaves forests, Sinwol, Hwasoon, Gongju and Gyeongsan catchments were selected to analyze the variability of flood runoff coefficients during the last 5 years. This study shows that runoff curve numbers of the experimental forest catchments range from 55 to 65. SCS Runoff Curve number method is a widely used method for estimating design discharge for small ungauged watersheds. Therefore, this study can be helpful technically to estimate the discharge for forest watersheds in Korea with more accuracy.

  9. Distribution and eco-coenotic patterns of the forest orchid Epipactis pontica in Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Hrivnák

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The present study is aimed at characterising the ecological niche of a typical forest orchid (Epipactis pontica in Slovakia. Vegetation-environmental data were collected across mountain ranges and  their foothills in the Western Carpathians in 2011. Numerical classification was performed to delimit the main forest vegetation types and a linear mixed effect model was applied to reveal differences between plots with versus without E. pontica. This endangered species of Slovak flora grows in thermophilous turkey oak forests (Quercion confertae-cerris, mesophilous broad-leaved mixed oak-hornbeam forests (Carpinion betuli, but most stands correspond to the acidic (Luzulo-Fagion sylvaticae and mesotrophic beech forests (Fagion sylvaticae. Principal component analysis supported the floristic separation of plant communities and showed some significant vegetation environmental relationships. E. pontica prefers forests with closed canopy (mean canopy openness: 8.5–15.1% occurring especially on slightly acidic (soil reaction: 4.48–5.65 and nutrient-poor soils (soil conductivity: 43.1–72.6 μS/cm. The proposed Ellenberg indicator values for light (4, temperature (5, continentality (4, moisture (5, soil reaction (6 and nutrients (5 follow species composition pattern of vascular plants in Slovak phytosociological relevés with E. pontica occurrence. They are also in accordance with its habitat conditions and ecological requirements in other parts of its range. The linear mixed effect model did not confirm any environmental peculiarity of plots with the presence of E. pontica at a microscale level and this result was consistent across the studied sites.

  10. Community structure, life histories and secondary production of stoneflies in two small mountain streams with different degree of forest cover

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Beracko

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Our study examines community structure and nymphal biology (life cycles and secondary production of stoneflies in two adjacent mountain streams with different degree of forest cover in the Prosiečanka River Basin (Chočské Vrchy Mts., West Carpathians. One of the streams has non-forested catchment, converted to meadows and pastures, while the other one has catchment with 60% covered by spruce forest. Differences in forest cover and in thermal regime of the streams were reflected by the difference of stonefly communities at their structural and functional level. Species Nemoura cinerea and Leuctra aurita created stonefly assemblage in non-forested stream, whereas Nemoura cinerea also occurred in naturally forested stream together with species Leuctra armata, Leuctra nigra, Leuctra prima, Siphonoperla neglecta and Arcynopteryx dichroa. All examined species had maximally annual life cycle and in eudominant species Nemoura cinerea one month shift was found in nymphal hatching and adult emergence between streams. Total secondary production of stoneflies in undisturbed stream (126.46 mg DW m-2 y-1 was more than two times higher than the production in non-forested stream (47.39 mg DW m-2 y-1. 

  11. 土壤温度和水分对长白山3种温带森林土壤呼吸的影响%Effects of soil temperature and soil water content on soil respiration in three forest types in Changbai Mountain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王淼; 李秋荣; 肖冬梅; 董百丽

    2004-01-01

    为了研究土壤温度和土壤含水量对阔叶红松林(山地暗棕壤)、云冷杉暗针叶林(山地棕针叶林土壤)和岳桦林(生草森林土)的土壤呼吸的影响,于2001年9月在长白山进行了土壤实验.利用增加土壤样柱的含水量,将土壤含水量分为9%,、21%、30%、37%和43% 5个等级,土壤样品分别在0、5、15、25和35 ℃的温度下保持24小时.阔叶红松林土壤在0(35 ℃范围内,土壤呼吸速率与温度呈正相关.在一定的含水量范围内(21%(37%),土壤呼吸随含水量的增加而升高,当含水量超出该范围,土壤呼吸速率则随含水量的变化而降低.土壤温度和水分对土壤呼吸作用存在明显的交互作用.不同森林类型土壤呼吸作用强弱存在显著差异,大小顺序为阔叶红松林>岳桦林>云冷杉暗针叶林.红松阔叶林土壤呼吸作用的最佳条件是土壤温度35 ℃,含水量37%;云冷杉暗针叶林下的山地棕色针叶土壤呼吸作用的最佳条件是25 ℃,21%;岳桦林土壤呼吸作用的最佳条件是35 ℃,含水量37%.但是,由于长白山阔叶红松林,云冷杉林和岳桦林处在不同的海拔带上,同期不同森林类型土壤温度各不相同,相差4~5 ℃,所以野外所测的同期的山地棕色针叶林土呼吸速率应低于暗棕色森林土呼吸速率,山地生草森林土呼吸速率应高于山地棕色针叶林土的呼吸速率.图2表1参25.%Soil incubation experiments were conducted in lab to delineate the effect of soil temperature and soil water content on soil respirations in broad-leaved/Korean pine forest(mountain dark brown forest soil),dark coniferous forest(mountain brown coniferous forest soil)and erman's birch forest(mountain soddy forest soil)in Changbai Mountain in September 2001.The soil water content was adjusted to five different levels(9%,21%,30%,37% and 43%)by adding certain amount of water into the soil cylinders,and the soil sample was incubated at 0,5,15,25 and 35 ℃ for

  12. Different fire-climate relationships on forested and non-forested landscapes in the Sierra Nevada ecoregion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeley, Jon E.; Syphard, Alexandra D.

    2015-01-01

    In the California Sierra Nevada region, increased fire activity over the last 50 years has only occurred in the higher-elevation forests on US Forest Service (USFS) lands, and is not characteristic of the lower-elevation grasslands, woodlands and shrublands on state responsibility lands (Cal Fire). Increased fire activity on USFS lands was correlated with warmer and drier springs. Although this is consistent with recent global warming, we found an equally strong relationship between fire activity and climate in the first half of the 20th century. At lower elevations, warmer and drier conditions were not strongly tied to fire activity over the last 90 years, although prior-year precipitation was significant. It is hypothesised that the fire–climate relationship in forests is determined by climatic effects on spring and summer fuel moisture, with hotter and drier springs leading to a longer fire season and more extensive burning. In contrast, future fire activity in the foothills may be more dependent on rainfall patterns and their effect on the herbaceous fuel load. We predict spring and summer warming will have a significant impact on future fire regimes, primarily in higher-elevation forests. Lower elevation ecosystems are likely to be affected as much by global changes that directly involve land-use patterns as by climate change.

  13. Ecosystem carbon balance of temperate forests differing in elevation and nitrogen availability

    OpenAIRE

    Caprez, Riccarda

    2014-01-01

    This PhD thesis addressed the carbon (C) balance of temperate deciduous forests across natural gradients of temperature and nitrogen (N) availability, the major drivers of net primary production (NPP) and the soil C balance. A mean annual temperature difference of 6 K across a 1200 m change in elevation from the Swiss Plateau to the Central Swiss Alps, and the presence or absence of the N2-fixing tree species Alnus glutinosa or Alnus incana within each elevation, offered the framework (1) to ...

  14. Litter production in different successional stages of a subtropical secondary rain forest, in Antonina, PR

    OpenAIRE

    Kauana Melissa Cunha Dickow; Renato Marques; Carolina Benghi Pinto; Hubert Höfer

    2012-01-01

    This study was conducted in the Cachoeira River Natural Reserve, in Antonina, Paraná state, Brazil. The main goal was to assess the litter production of secondary tropical rain forests in different sucessional stages (initial, medium and advanced stages). The litter fall was collected every 3 weeks during four years (2004 to 2007), in circular litter traps of 0.25m2, distributed in 30 plots of 100m2 of area. A total of 60 litter traps were installed in an area of 3000m2. The litter fall colle...

  15. Different harvest intensity and soil CO2 efflux in sessile oak coppice forests

    OpenAIRE

    Darenova E; Cater M; Pavelka M

    2016-01-01

    Soil CO2 efflux accounts for about 45-80% of total ecosystem respiration and is therefore an important part of the ecosystem carbon cycle. Soil CO2 efflux has been poorly studied in forests managed in the ancient coppicing manner. In our study, soil CO2 efflux, temperature, and moisture were measured in sessile oak stands with different harvesting intensity (control: 0% intensity; V1: 75%; V2: 80 %; V3: 85%; and V4: 100%) during the fifth and sixth years after harvesting. Soil CO2 efflux was ...

  16. Generation of runoff characteristics over three time period for four typical forests in Jinyun Mountain, Chongqing City southwest China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaoyuan CHU; Yujie WANG; Yiping XIA; Yun WU; Lin CHEN

    2009-01-01

    In order to provide a basis for water conservation in the restoration of vegetation for an urban water resource area, we studied the generation of runoff characteristics in four typical forests over three time periods in Jinyun Mountain, Chongqing City, based on the observation data of rainfall and runoff processes during the period 2002-2005. The results show that: 1) Rainfall was distributed evenly during the years 2002-2005. Annual rainfall variability was 4.46% and coefficient of variation was 0.0618. Average monthly rainfall tended towards a normal distribution N (113.8, 45972). 2) Both precipitation and runoff can be clearly divided into a dry and a wet season. The dry season was from October to March and the wet season from April to September. Most of annual runoff of the four forest stands occurred in the wet season. The surface runoff in the wet season accounted for more than 85% of the annual runoff, and more than 75% of underground runoff. 3) Both peak values of surface runoff and underground runoff occurred in June. The relation between monthly rainfall and surface/underground runoff was fitted by the model W = aP2 + bP + c. The order of annual surface runoff was as follows: Phyllostachys pub-escens forest > shrub forest > mixed Pinus massoniana-broadleaf forest > evergreen broad-leaved forest. The annual underground runoff was evergreen broad-leaved forest > mixed Pinus massoniana-broadleaf forest >Phyl-lostachys pubescens forest > shrub forest. 4) Under similar rainstorms events, the order of the surface runoff coefficient was: evergreen broad-leaved forest mixed Pinus massoniana-broadleaf forest > Phyllostachys pubescens forest > shrub forest. The relation between rainstorms and surface runoff was fitted by the linear relationship: Q = mp-n. Both mixed Pinus massoniana-broadleaf forest and evergreen broad-leaved forest have better flood regulation effects on an annual and monthly basis and per individual rainstorm. The function of Phyllostachys

  17. Red-cockaded woodpecker male/female foraging differences in young forest stands.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franzreb, Kathleen, E.

    2010-07-01

    ABSTRACT The Red-cockaded Woodpecker (Picoides borealis) is an endangered species endemic to pine (Pinus spp.) forests of the southeastern United States. I examined Red-cockaded Woodpecker foraging behavior to learn if there were male/female differences at the Savannah River Site, South Carolina. The study was conducted in largely young forest stands (,50 years of age) in contrast to earlier foraging behavior studies that focused on more mature forest. The Redcockaded Woodpecker at the Savannah River site is intensively managed including monitoring, translocation, and installation of artificial cavity inserts for roosting and nesting. Over a 3-year period, 6,407 foraging observations covering seven woodpecker family groups were recorded during all seasons of the year and all times of day. The most striking differences occurred in foraging method (males usually scaled [45% of observations] and females mostly probed [47%]),substrate used (females had a stronger preference [93%] for the trunk than males [79%]), and foraging height from the ground (mean 6 SE foraging height was higher for males [11.1 6 0.5 m] than females [9.8 6 0.5 m]). Niche overlap between males and females was lowest for substrate (85.6%) and foraging height (87.8%), and highest for tree species (99.0%), tree condition (98.3%), and tree height (96.4%). Both males and females preferred to forage in older, large pine trees. The habitat available at the Savannah River Site was considerably younger than at most other locations, but the pattern of male/female habitat partitioning observed was similar to that documented elsewhere within the range attesting to the species’ ability to adjust behaviorally.

  18. Different spatial organisation strategies of woody plant species in a montane cloud forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledo, Alicia; Montes, Fernando; Condés, Sonia

    2012-01-01

    The coexistence of a high number of species in the forest is a central issue in tropical ecology. In this paper, we aim to characterise the spatial pattern of woody species in an Andean montane cloud forest to determine whether differences exist among the species in terms of spatial organization and if so, whether these differences are related to the life-form, primary dispersal mode, shade tolerance or the diameter distribution of the species. For this purpose, we analysed the spatial pattern of each species as well as the spatial relationships between young and adult individuals. Almost all the analysed species showed a cluster pattern, followed by a random pattern at larger distances. The cluster size is more evident for the young trees whereas adult trees tended to be more randomly distributed. The shade-tolerant species showed greater distances of aggregation than gap or medium-shade-tolerant species. Species primarily dispersed by wind and small birds showed larger distances of aggregation than species dispersed by mammals or big birds. All the under-story woody plants showed a notable cluster pattern, whereas canopy trees showed a variety of spatial patterns, with clustering at small scales being the most frequent. In the case of emergent trees, association was found between young and adult individuals on a large scale. Positive associations between young and adult individuals predominate at small scales for medium and shade tolerant species and at larger scales for bird-dispersed species whereas negative spatial associations at smaller scales were found for shade tolerant species and wind dispersed species. Our study confirms that conspecific organization varies among the woody plants in the analysed forest, and that the spatial pattern of woody plants is partially linked to shade tolerance, primary dispersal mode and life form of the species.

  19. Soil Quality under Riparian Forest at Different Stages of Ecological Succession and Cultivated with Sugarcane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Luiz Gabriel; Casagrande, José Carlos; Colato, Alexandre; Soares, Marcio Roberto; Perissatto Meneghin, Silvana

    2014-05-01

    This work aimed at evaluating the quality of the soil through its chemical, physical and microbiological attributes, using additive pondered model, as well as studying the characteristics of the linear method of combination of data, figures of merit (FoMs), the process of assigning weights and standard score functions, using measurements collected in three areas (two riparian forests and a commercial crop of sugarcane) in two soil types (Oxisol and Podzol) located on the dam shores of Sugar Mill Saint Lucia-Araras/SP. The soil was sampled in the depths of 0-0.2 and 0.2-0.4m, and was determined some of its chemical attributes (nutrient content and organic matter, cationic exchange capacity - CEC, etc.), physical (particle size distribution, density and porosity) and microbiological (microbial biomass and basal respiration). Two models were built, one containing two hierarchical levels of FoMs (Mod1), and another containing three levels (Mod2), in order to try to isolate FoMs highly correlated from each other within a top-level FoM. At FoMs of Mod1 were assigned various combinations of weights, and those of Mod2 were assigned weights from three methods, distribution from fixed value, classification and pair-wise comparison. In the Mod1, in virtually all combinations of weights used, values of Soil Quality Index (SQI) were superior in older forests, while the most recent forest presented the lowest SQI, for both types of soil. The variation of SQI values obtained from the sets of weights used also differed between the combinations tested, with the set of values of the ancient forest showing smaller amplitude. It could also be observed that the sets of values of Oxisol showed higher SQI and lower amplitude in relation to that of Podzol. It was observed that these facts are due mainly to the soil organic matter content (MO), which differs between the vegetations and soil types, and influences many parameters used in the model. Thus, in the structures where MO had

  20. Soil humus composition - comparison between mountain grasslands and forest lands with different land-use intensity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naydenova, Lora; Zhiyanski, Miglena; Leifeld, Jens; Filcheva, Ekaterina

    2015-04-01

    in changes in its composition under intensive grazing. The extensive pasture management in mountain areas is better land-use approach in the perspective of soil humus quality improvement. The managed meadow in mountain areas accumulated more carbon in superficial soil, but the composition of soil humus is similar to this in unmanaged grassland. Both European beech and Norway spruce stands had higher accumulation of organic matter in the forest floor and the Ah horizon under unmanaged conditions. For the forest lands the highest total carbon content was found in the soil under the spruce forest - 9.5 %. In the managed forests, carbon contents tended to be higher in deeper horizons of the mineral soil, probably due to differences in microclimate after cutting. However, the variability in carbon storage was higher in managed sites which may reflect a higher degree of disturbance.

  1. Restinga forests of the Brazilian coast: richness and abundance of tree species on different soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz F.S. Magnago

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine changes in composition, abundance and richness of species along a forest gradient with varying soils and flood regimes. The forests are located on the left bank of the lower Jucu River, in Jacarenema Natural Municipal Park, Espírito Santo. A survey of shrub/tree species was done in 80 plots, 5x25 m, equally distributed among the forests studied. We included in the sampling all individuals with >3.2 cm diameter at breast height (1.30 m. Soil samples were collected from the surface layer (0-10 cm in each plot for chemical and physical analysis. The results indicate that a significant pedological gradient occurs, which is influenced by varying seasonal groundwater levels. Restinga forest formations showed significant differences in species richness, except for Non-flooded Forest and Non-flooded Forest Transition. The Canonical Correlation Analysis (CCA showed that some species are distributed along the gradient under the combined influence of drainage, nutrient concentration and physical characteristics of the soil. Regarding the variables tested, flooding seems to be a more limiting factor for the establishment of plant species in Restinga forests than basic soil fertility attributes.O objetivo deste estudo foi o de determinar as mudanças na composição, abundância e riqueza de espécies ao longo de um gradiente de floresta com variações de solo e inundações. As florestas localizam-se na margem esquerda do Rio Jucu, no Parque Natural Municipal de Jacarenema, Espírito Santo. O levantamento das espécies arbustivo/arbóreas foi realizado em 80 parcelas de 5x25m, distribuídas equitativamente entre as florestas estudadas. Foram incluídos na amostragem todos os indivíduos com >3,2 cm diâmetro à altura do solo (1,30 m. Foram coletadas amostras de solo superficial (0-10 cm em cada parcela para análise química e física. Os resultados mostraram a existência de gradiente pedológico significativo, que

  2. Long-term forecast of Sr 90 migration in forest ecosystems of different types

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathematical model of Sr 90 migration in forest ecosystems is described and forecast of its content in forest components is calculated for several types of biogeocenoses. Results of modeling are satisfactorily agreeable to the experimental data. (authors)

  3. Nutrient dynamics in different sub-types of peat swamp forest in central Kalimantan, Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Sulistiyanto, Yustinus

    2005-01-01

    Nutrient dynamics of two sub-types of peat swamp forest, mixed swamp forest and low pole forest, in the upper catchment of the Sebangau River in Central Kalimantan, Indonesia were studied. Three permanent study plots, 50 x 50 m, were established in each forest sub-type to facilitate collection of throughfall, stemflow, litterfall, decomposition, above ground and below ground biomass, peat and water samples. Graphical presentation, Wilm's method, and analysis of variance were carried out for b...

  4. Effect of Different Ages of a Rehabilitated Forest on Selected Physico-chemical Properties

    OpenAIRE

    Rajeswari A.P. Murugayah; Seca Gandaseca; Osumanu H. Ahmed; Nik M.A. Majid

    2009-01-01

    Problem statement: This research was important because of still lack of information about rehabilitated tropical forest age effect on infiltration rate. The objectives of this study were to determine the influence of age of forest on soil water infiltration rate and to evaluate the influence of forest age on the relationship between water infiltration rate, soil organic matter and soil texture. Approach: This study was conducted under a rehabilitated forest at Bukit Nyabau (University Putra M...

  5. Analysis of forest quantities and species composition alterations using two different methods with comparision

    OpenAIRE

    Krč, Janez

    2015-01-01

    The article analyses composition alterations in forest stands using two methods. In the first, composition alterations in types of plant community areestimated and in the second, composition alterations in stands according toamounts and types of wood stock are established. To assess composition alterations at the level of basic units of forest inventory, the optimal and actual structure of wood stock was used in models according to tree types in forest communities within forest tracts. The da...

  6. Forest Cover Change and Soil Erosion in Toledo's Rio Grande Watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chicas, S.; Omine, K.

    2015-04-01

    Toledo, the southernmost district, is the hub of Belize's Mayan population, descendants of the ancient Mayan civilization. The Toledo District is primarily inhibited by Kekchi and Mopan Mayans whose subsistence needs are met by the Milpa slash-and-burn agricultural system and the extraction of forest resources. The poverty assessment in the country indicates that Toledo is the district with the highest percentage of household an individual indigence of 37.5 % and 49.7 % respectively. Forest cover change in the area can be attributed to rapid population growth among the Maya, together with increase in immigration from neighboring countries, logging, oil exploration and improvement and construction of roads. The forest cover change analysis show that from 2001 to 2011 there was a decrease of Lowland broad-leaved wet forest of 7.53 km sq, Shrubland of 4.66 km sq, and Wetland of 0.08 km sq. Forest cover change has resulted in soil erosion which is causing the deterioration of soils. The land cover types that are contributing the most to total erosion in the Rio Grande watershed are no-forest, lowland broad-leaved wet forest and submontane broad-leaved wet forest. In this study the Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE) was employed in a GIS platform to quantify and assess forest cover change and soil erosion. Soil erosion vulnerability maps in Toledo's Rio Grande watershed were also created. This study provides scientifically sound information in order to understand and respond effectively to the impacts of soil erosion in the study site.

  7. Variability of 40K isotopic composition in forest soils under different environmental conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiopotassium isotopic composition (40K/K, %) of several forest soils did not show a constant value of generally known 1.17 × 10-2 %, but they were varied significantly from 0.4 × 10-2 to 1.3 × 10-2 % at different locations under different environmental conditions. Surface portion of a soil (2-4 cm in depth) gave always lower 40K/K values compared with those of deeper soil layer (35-40 cm in depth). Ion exchange of K+ with NH4+ did not affects the 40K/K value in any soils, which revealed with chemical leaching experiments in the laboratory. Some plant species showed much lower 40K/K values than those in the surface soil. Possible reasons for varying 40K/K values obtained in this study may result from a dynamic behavior of potassium in soil, probably due to biological activity including root uptake and decomposing soil organic matter by microorganisms in the forest floor. (author)

  8. Initial growth of six forest tree species in differents spacing conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Ferreira do Nascimento

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This work veriflied the influence of planting spacing on the initial growth of six forest species, at the age of 22 months, in plantations of forest recomposition in the Guandu River Basin. The experiment was installed in the SFE - thermoelectric power plants Barbosa Lima Sobrinho, located in the City of Seropédica-RJ. Forty eight tree species were planted, using the spacings, 1.0 x 1.0, 1.5 x 1.5, 2.0 and 2.0 x 3.0 x 2.0 m, which are the study treatments. At 22 months after planting, it was evaluated the growth in height, diameter at ground level (DNS and area of the canopy for the species, Anadenanthera macrocarpa Benth. Brenan (angico vermelho, Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi (aroeira pimenteira, Schizolobium parahyba Blake (guapuruvu Chorisia speciosa St. Hill (paineira, Cordia sp. (babosa branca and Inga marginata (ingá. It was found that the studied species behaved in a different way in the differents spacing of planting, and that the planting density significantly influenced on the initial growth of all the species. In general, in wider planting spacings, the plants had higher growth.

  9. Integrating different knowledge sources and disciplines for practical applications in Forest and Agricultural Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzmán, Gema; Castillo, Carlos; Taguas, Encarnación

    2013-04-01

    One of the aims of 'The Bologna Process' is to promote among the students the acquisition of practical, social and creative skills to face real-life situations and to solve the difficulties they might find during their professional life. It involves an important change in the educational system, from a traditional approach focused on teaching, towards a new one that encourages learning. Under this context, University teaching implies the design of activities addressed to the dissemination of "know-how" to solve different problems associated with two technical disciplines: Forest and Agricultural Engineering. This study presents a preliminary experience where a group of information and communication technologies (ICT) such as, audiovisual resources (videos, reports and photo gallery), virtual visits to blogs and interactive activities have been used to provide a comprehensive knowledge of the environmental and sociocultural components of the landscape in order to facilitate the decision-making process in the engineering project context . With these tools, the students must study and characterize all these aspects in order to justify the chosen solutions and the project design. This approach was followed in the analysis of the limiting factors of practical cases in projects about forestation, landscape restoration and hydrological planning. This communication shows how this methodology has been applied in Forest and Agricultural Engineering and the students' experience with these innovative tools. The use of ICTs involved a friendly framework that stimulated students' interest and made subjects more attractive, since it allowed to assess the complex relationships between landscape, history and economy. Furthermore, this type of activities promotes the interdisciplinary training and the acquisition of creative and autonomous skills which are not included in many cases into the main objectives of the subjects.

  10. Entity-Based Landscape Modelling to Assess the Impacts of Different Incentives Mechanisms on Argan Forest Dynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Farid El Wahidi; Julien Radoux; Quentin Ponette; Pierre Defourny

    2015-01-01

    Illegal occupation of argan forest parcels by local households is a new phenomenon in South West Morocco. This is primarily due to the weakening of traditional common control systems and to the boom of the argan oil price. The scope of this work is to develop a decision support system based on dynamic spatial modelling, allowing to anticipate the land tenure dynamics and their impact on forest stand degradation under different policy scenarios. The model simulates the change of land possessio...

  11. Evaporation and transpiration differences among successional stages of Tropical Dry Forest, Santa Rosa National Park, Costa Rica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Rodríguez, César D.; Calvo-Alvarado, Julio

    2016-04-01

    Seasonal environments in the tropics show strong responses to changes in precipitation regimes. The monthly water availability is the main trigger for ecological responses as flowering, fructification, leaf sprouting and senescence. Among these environments, the tropical dry forests (TDF) depends directly on the soil water availability, defining the forest growing season despite the forest characteristics. However, within the same ecosystem is possible to find differences in the water fluxes due to forest age. The TDF located in Santa Rosa National Park (SRNP) in Costa Rica; shows a particular matrix of secondary forest patches varying in age, structure, and species composition allowing us to evaluate the water fluxes differences among successional stages of TDF. Three permanent plots of 1000.0 m2 were selected from the Tropi-Dry project. Each plot characterized a specific successional stage of this ecosystem varying in forest structure and age. Every location was equipped to measure the hourly soil water content and forest growth, while the meteorological conditions were collected by the meteorological station of the national park. The data was collected from December 2005 to June 2009 however, due to data gaps and quality control the data analysis includes only the hydrological years between 2006 and 2009. The soil water content was measured at three depths in each plot (10, 30 and 40 cm) to determine the real evapotranspiration from the forest. The precipitation along these three years shows strong variations registering 326.5 mm-1yr-1 in the first year up to 3004.0 mm-1yr-1 during the last year, these strong changes are influenced by the ENOS phenomena in the region. Regardless the precipitation amounts the evapotranspiration do not differ strongly on a yearly basis, were 726.7 mm-1yr-1, 675.1 mm-1yr-1 and 751.6 mm-1yr-1 were exported to the atmosphere by the early, intermediate and late stages of TDF secondary forest. The yearly strong differences in

  12. Differences in the impacts of formal and informal recreational trails on urban forest loss and tree structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballantyne, Mark; Pickering, Catherine Marina

    2015-08-15

    Recreational trails are one of the most common types of infrastructure used for nature-based activities such as hiking and mountain biking worldwide. Depending on their design, location, construction, maintenance and use, these trails differ in their environmental impacts. There are few studies, however, comparing the impacts of different trail types including between formal management-created trails and informal visitor-created trails. Although both types of trails can be found in remote natural areas, dense networks of them often occur in forests close to cities where they experience intense visitor use. To assess the relative impacts of different recreational trails in urban forests, we compared the condition of the trail surface, loss of forest strata and changes in tree structure caused by seven types of trails (total network 46.1 km) traversing 17 remnants of an endangered urban forest in Australia. After mapping and classifying all trails, we assessed their impact on the forest condition at 125 sites (15 sites per trail type, plus 15 control sites within undisturbed forest). On the trail sites, the condition of the trail surface, distance from the trail edge to four forest strata (litter, understory, midstorey and tree cover) and structure of the tree-line were assessed. Informal trails generally had poorer surface conditions and were poorly-designed and located. Per site, formal and informal trails resulted in similar loss of forest strata, with wider trails resulting in greater loss of forest. Because there were more informal trails, however, they accounted for the greatest cumulative forest loss. Structural impacts varied, with the widest informal trails and all formal hardened trails resulting in similar reductions in canopy cover and tree density but an increase in saplings. These structural impacts are likely a function of the unregulated and intense use of large informal trails, and disturbance from the construction and maintenance of formal trails

  13. Relationship between radiocesium and stable cesium in plants and mushrooms collected from forest ecosystems with different contamination levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiocesium contamination of forest products is still high in contrast to agricultural products, even more than 10 years after the Chernobyl accident. Since the removal of radiocesium from a contaminated forest is not feasible on a large scale, studies on the distribution and transfer of radiocesium in forest ecosystems are important from radiation protection viewpoint. However, the long-term fate of radiocesium in forest ecosystems is still difficult to predict because of the changes in vertical profiles and availability with time of radiocesium in soil, and particularly because of varying stand characteristics. As the chemical behavior of radiocesium is expected to be almost identical to that of stable Cs, analysis of stable Cs should be useful to understand the long-term behavior of radiocesium and its equilibrium distribution. In this study, the concentrations of stable Cs and related alkali and alkaline earth elements in mushrooms, plants and soils were determined by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) or inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES). Samples were collected in forests with different contamination levels in Japan, Germany, Finland, Italy, Ireland and Belarus. Data of stable elements were summarized together with those of radiocesium. A good correlation between Cs-137 and stable Cs in mushrooms was observed for each site independently, suggesting that mushrooms take up Cs-137 together with stable Cs. The Cs-137/Cs ratios were almost constant for samples collected at the same site except a German forest. A detailed study on the transfer of Cs-134 from organic soil horizons to fungal fruit bodies in a German forest showed that the Cs-134/Cs ratio reflected the ratios of those soil layers, from which the corresponding mushroom species takes up Cs-134. Different Cs-137/Cs ratios at different sites might be attributable to different depositions of Cs-137 and different forest (soil and vegetation) types. Positive

  14. CO2 efflux from different forest soils and impact factors in Dinghu Mountain, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU; Cunyu; ZHOU; Guoyi; ZHANG; Deqiang; WANG; Yinghong

    2005-01-01

    CO2 fluxes from soils and related environmental factors were measured in three forest ecosystems of Dinghu Mountain using static chamber-gas chromatograph technique for one year. The seasonal pattern of CO2 flux, contribution of litter on total CO2 flux and the correlations of CO2 flux with soil temperature and soil water content were examined for each type of forest. The results were given as followings: (1) The seasonal patterns of CO2 flux from soil of the three types of forest were similar, with a higher CO2 flux in rainy season than in dry season. The comparative relations of mean annual CO2 fluxes between the three sites were expressed as:monsoon forest > mixed forest > pine forest. (2) CO2 fluxes from litter decomposition in monsoon forest, mixed forest and pine forest accounted for 24.43%, 41.75% and 29.23% of the corresponding total CO2 fluxes from forest floor, respectively. (3) Significant relationships were found between CO2 fluxes and soil temperatures at 5 cm depth for the three types of forest, which could be best described by exponential equations. The calculated Q10 values based on soil temperature at 5 cm depth ranged from 1.86 to 3.24. More significant relationships were found between CO2 fluxes and soil water content when the annual variation coefficients of soil moisture were higher.

  15. The effects of different fertilizers on the ciliate communities of forests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The influence of lime, mineral fertilizers and different composts on the ciliate communities (Protozoa: Ciliophora) of very acidified spruce forests were tested. In succession culture experiments species range, total numbers, abundance and dominance structure of the ciliate communities showed continued changes over a 90 day period. This method offers the opportunity not only to diagnose, but also to quantify effects of soil treatments. Investigations at the ARINUS-site Schluchsee (Black Forest) showed the following results: Liming led to a greater change in the ciliate communities than fertilization with magnesium-sulphate and ammonia-sulphate. Liming and treatment with compost, made from household garbage, and compost, made from chopped wood on the Beimerstetten site (Swabian Alb) led also to remarkably changes in the ciliate communities. The total ciliate numbers of the household garbage area were very low. In contrast, the ciliate community of the chopped wood compost areas were characterized by a great species number and high abundances of spirotrichuous ciliates, especially Halteria grandinella. (orig./UWA)

  16. Comparative phytosociology of tree sinusiae between contiguous forests in different stages of succession

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CAVALCANTE A. DE M. B.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The Baturité Mountain Range, located in the State of Ceará (BRA, displays on its highest levels a vegetation viewed as a disjunction from the Atlantic Forest in the East of Brazil. Among the various attributes associated with this vegetation, the abundance of water resources and a high biodiversity have a more outstanding relevance. However, in view of the current accelerated deforestation process, those attributes may be threatened in a near future. Therefore, the present work is a comparative study with its focus on vegetal community organization (tree sinusiae and the floristic similarity and the phytodiversity of two areas in different successive stages, preserved and deforested 24 years ago. The aim of that intent was to obtain information that could essentially shed light on the deforestation effects on tree vegetation and which could suggest scientific support regarding urgent projects of habitat reconstruction. The methodology used folowed the model utilized for rain forest, i.e. consisting of a random distribution of 10 × 20 m plots surveying the living woody species with DBH > or = 5 cm. The results obtained suggest that a possible new physiognomy type is emerging on the Baturite Mountain Range because of deforestation. The Myrtaceae and Mimosaceae families were the ones that contributed most significantly to species richness, being the most outstanding for Areas 1 and 2, respectively. The deforestation which occurred in Area 2 eliminated 28 species and gave birth to a current densely distinct floristic composition.

  17. Changes of Soil Enzyme Activities in Different Restoration Ages of Spruce Forests on the Eastern Qinghai-Tibet Plateau

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Yong-mei; BAO Wei-kai; PANG Xue-yong; WU Ning; ZHOU Guo-yi

    2005-01-01

    Six soil enzymes (invertase, acid phosphatase, proteinase, catalase, peroxidase and polyphenoloxidase ) were chosen for investigation under different spruce forests with restoration ages of 4,10,16 years and an old-growth spruce forest over 400 years old in the eastern Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, China. Results showed that the activities of invertase, phosphatase, proteinase, catalase and peroxidase decreased in newly restored forests except for pholyphenoloxidase. With the development of forests after restoration, the activities of invertase, acid phosphadase, proteinase increased gradually. Our study also indicated that the soil enzyme activities were associated with surface soils and decreased with depths. This result suggested that in the earlier restoration stage the application of organic fertilizer may be more effective by surface addition to soils than deep addition.

  18. Dynamic response of the scenic beauty value of different forests to various thinning intensities in central eastern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Songqiu; Yin, Na; Guan, Qingwei; Katoh, Masato

    2014-11-01

    Forest management has a significant influence on the preferences of people for forest landscapes. This study sought to evaluate the dynamic effects of thinning intensities on the landscape value of forests over time. Five typical stands in Wuxiangsi National Forest Park in Nanjing, China, were subjected to a thinning experiment designed with four intensities: unthinned, light thinning, moderate thinning, and heavy thinning. People's preferences for landscape photographs taken in plots under various thinning intensities were assessed through scenic beauty estimation (SBE) at 2 and 5 years after thinning. The differences in scenic beauty value between different thinning intensities were then analyzed with a paired samples t test for the two periods. The results indicated that the landscape value of all of the thinned plots significantly exceeded that of the unthinned plots 2 years after thinning (p stand, whereas the value decreased with an increasing stem density, species diversity, litter coverage, and canopy density. In addition, we found that the performance of a neural network model based on a multilayer perception (MLP) algorithm for predicting scenic beauty was slightly better than that of the MLR model. The findings of our study suggest that moderate to heavy thinning should be recommended to manage forests for the improvement of forest landscape value. PMID:25023749

  19. Hydrological and erosive response of a Mediterranean forest soil in recovery after different impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreu, Vicente; Gonzalez-Pelayo, Oscar; Campo, Julian; Gimeno-García, Eugenia; Luís Rubio, Jose

    2010-05-01

    Land use changes, including land abandonment, and forest fires have been two key factors that have characterized the evolution of Mediterranean ecosystems. This work studies the evolution of the hydrologic dynamics and the erosive response of a Mediterranean forest soil (Rendzic Leptosol), which has undergone during years changes in its forest use and the fire impact. This soil is in recovering since the last disturbance (experimental fire) in 1996. The study has been carried out in the Experimental Station of Porta-Coeli (Valencia, Spain) in a system of four erosion plots of 320 m2 (40 x 8 m) of closed type. Each of the plots suffered different impacts: Plot 1 (T1) sustained the original shrub vegetation and suffered an experimental fire in 1997; Plot 2 (T2) and Plot 3 (T3) were used since 1988 to test different plant species to control erosion, in 1996 plot 3 was affected by fire in a 30% of its surface; Plot 4 (T4) was maintained bare of vegetation since 1987. All plots were left to recover since 1996. The climatic characteristics and the hydrologic and erosive parameters of these plots have been studied in each rain event of the period 2004-2008. This period reflects the great variations in rain quantity and distribution that characterize the Mediterranean climate. During this period a total of 562 rains were monitored, from which 66 showed runoff generation, and only in 14 events sediment production was detected. After 12 years in state of recovery, the vegetation cover has reached similar values in all plots but differences in the hydrologic response between them have been observed. The behaviour of T1 and T4 becomes similar mainly in rain events with intensities higher than 15 mm h-1, producing always the maximum values on runoff generation. However, the improvement in their conditions regarding erosion is clear, giving in all cases very low soil losses (the maximum observed was 8.62 g m2 in T4, 9/6/2004). Acknowledgements: this study has been developed

  20. Efficiency of Inventory in Uneven-Aged Forests on Sample Plots with Different Radii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anamarija Jazbec

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available For the purpose of forest management planning in Croatia, forest inventory is performed on sample plots of permanent sizes, generally from 500 to 1,000 m². Such plots have been accepted in practice on the basis of experience. Thus, the plot size has only partially been adjusted to different forest types. Although methods of sample selection are regulated by Forest Management Regulations and are limited to plots of permanent sizes, the Regulations still allow plot sizes to be adjusted to specific stand conditions. This article compares the results of forest measurement on differently sized plots in order to estimate their efficiency in selection fir and beech stands. Research was carried out in Gorski Kotar, where the stand structure was recorded using a sample of experimental plots. Systematic sampling with a random start was used to establish 103 sample plots in the management units of »Delnice« and »RavnaGora«. Breast height diameters over 10 cm and tree heightsweremeasured on circular plots of 20mradius, set up across a 100 x 100 m square grid, and their positions in the space (azimuth and distance from the centre were recorded. The values of structural elements (number of trees, basal area and volume were calculated from the obtained data bymeans of a specially constructed computer programme CirCon for the plots and stands. The precision of estimates was expressed as a relative sample error with 95% confidence. Thanks to spatial data for all the trees, a calculation was made of the structure for sample plots in the radius range from 4 to 20 m. The precision of structural elements estimate (sample error was calculated for each plot size. The average values in differently sized plots were compared with repeated measurement analysis of variance (RM ANOVA with significance level of 0.05. The results of different plot sizes were subsequently tested by means of the Fisher’s LSD 'post hoc' test. On a sub-sample of 24 standpoints, the time

  1. Genetic structures of forest trees with different levels of damage on permanent observation plots on forest decline in Baden-Wuerttemberg

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The genetic structures of forest trees (Picea abies (L.) Karst., Abies alba Mill., Quercus petraea (Matt.) Liebl., Quercus robur L.) with different levels of damage, growing on permanent observation plots of forest decline in Baden-Wuerttemberg, were studied by isoenzyme analysis. In order to prove supposed interactions between the genetic structures and the level of damage, statistical methods were used. Statistically significant differences were detected between the genetic structure of 'tolerant' and 'sensitive' tree subpopulations, whereas these deviations had not the same tendency for all stands. For the first time the genetic variation within and between populations of Quercus robur and Quercus petraea in Baden-Wuerttemberg was described. Similar examinations on firs which had been published in 1992 are summarized briefly. (orig./UWA). 13 figs., 25 tabs., 84 refs

  2. Health condition of forests; 1 : 500 000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The map was produced in the Forestry Research Institute in Zvolen in collaboration with the Slovak Environmental Agency in Banska Bystrica. Health condition of forests is mapped at scale 1 : 50 000 based on the Landsat Thematic Mapper satellite data (4 satellite scenes from 1996 and one from 1995). In classification stage the data of 453 terrestrial monitoring plots where heath condition of forest was evaluated in the years 1995 - 1996 were used. Classification was processed on the basis of the two-phase regression selection between the 1st phase of selection (satellite image) and the 2nd phase (terrestrial evaluation). 220 terrestrial plots with defoliation lower than 20 % or higher then 35 % were used for classification. The accuracy of classification for homogeneous growths is about 80 % and 50 % for not homogeneous growths. Amount of needles highly influences the result of classification of health condition of coniferous growths by satellite images. In case of broad-leaved growths apart from amount of leafs, the quantification of damage is greatly influenced by site, water regime, withering of the particular locality and the current phenological phase of the broad-leaved growth. This is the reason why the dynamics of the changes of health condition of broad-leaved growths is higher than that of coniferous growths and it can vary even in the course of one year. The method of evaluation of health condition by satellite images though, is limited. One of the greatest influences on the correctness of classification is the canopy. With decreasing canopy the spectral characteristics of the growth is increasingly influenced by its undergrowth or substrate. Overestimation or underestimation of health condition depends on their quality. In case of severely damaged or dead growths it is almost impossible to discern them from not forested areas. Distortion of evaluation also occurs in cases when the forest growths are located at the dividing lines between the forested and

  3. Mean age of carbon in fine roots from temperate forests and grasslands with different management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Solly

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Fine roots are the most dynamic portion of a plant's root system and a major source of soil organic matter. By altering plant species diversity and composition, soil conditions and nutrient availability, and consequently belowground allocation and dynamics of root carbon (C inputs, land-use and management changes may influence organic C storage in terrestrial ecosystems. In three German regions we measured fine root radiocarbon (14C content to estimate the mean time since C in root tissues was fixed from the atmosphere in 54 grassland and forest plots with different management and soil conditions. Although root biomass was on average greater in grasslands 5.1 ± 0.8 g (mean ± SE, n = 27 than in forests 3.1 ± 0.5 g (n = 27, the mean age of C in fine roots in forests averaged 11.3 ± 1.8 yr and was significantly older and more variable compared to grasslands 1.7 ± 0.4 yr. We further found that management affects the mean age of fine root C in temperate grasslands mediated by changes in plant species diversity and composition. Fine root mean C age is positively correlated to plant diversity (r = 0.65 and to the number of perennial species (r = 0.77. In temperate grasslands the mean age of fine root C is also influenced by the study region mainly driven by differences in soil characteristics and climate which reflect in plant composition variations, with averages of 0.7 ± 0.1 yr (n = 9 on mostly organic sandy soils in northern Germany and of 1.8 ± 0.3 yr (n = 9 and 2.6 ± 0.3 (n = 9 in more silty and clayey soils respectively in central and southern Germany. Our results indicate an internal redistribution of C in perennial species and suggest linkages between fine root C age and management in grasslands. These findings improve our ability to predict and model belowground C fluxes across broader spatial scales.

  4. Comparison of different methods for the in situ measurement of forest litter moisture content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schunk, C.; Ruth, B.; Leuchner, M.; Wastl, C.; Menzel, A.

    2016-02-01

    Dead fine fuel (e.g., litter) moisture content is an important parameter for both forest fire and ecological applications as it is related to ignitability, fire behavior and soil respiration. Real-time availability of this value would thus be a great benefit to fire risk management and prevention. However, the comprehensive literature review in this paper shows that there is no easy-to-use method for automated measurements available. This study investigates the applicability of four different sensor types (permittivity and electrical resistance measuring principles) for this measurement. Comparisons were made to manual gravimetric reference measurements carried out almost daily for one fire season and overall agreement was good (highly significant correlations with 0.792 management. However, they may be interesting for scientific studies when some manual fuel moisture measurements are made anyway. Additionally, a number of potential methodological improvements are suggested.

  5. Application of 13C NMR spectroscopy to characterize organic chemical components of decomposing coarse woody debris from different climatic regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takuya Hishinuma

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Solid-state 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR spectroscopy was applied to coarse woody debris (CWD in different stages of decomposition and collected from forest floor of a subtropical, a cool temperate, and a subalpine forest in Japan. The purpose was to test its applicability to characterize organic chemical composition of CWD of broad-leaved and coniferous trees from different climatic conditions. O-alkyl-C, mainly representing carbohydrates, was the predominant component of CWD at the three sites, accounting for 43.5-58.1% of the NMR spectra. Generally, the relative area under the signals for aromatic-C and phenolic-C, mainly representing lignin, increased, whereas the relative area for O-alkyl-C decreased, as the decay class advanced. The relative area under NMR chemical shift regions was significantly correlated with the chemical properties examined with proximate analyses. That is, O-alkyl-C and di-O-alkyl-C NMR signal areas were positively correlated with the volumetric density of CWD and the content of total carbohydrates. Methoxyl-C, aromatic-C, phenolic-C, carboxyl-C, and carbonyl-C were positively correlated with the contents of acid-unhydrolyzable residues (lignin, tannins, and cutin and nitrogen. Lignin-C calculated from NMR signals increased, and polysaccharide-C decreased, with the decay class of CWD at the three study sites. A review of previous studies on 13C NMR spectroscopy for decomposing CWD suggested further needs of its application to broad-leaved trees from tropical and subtropical regions.

  6. Seasonal dynamics of water use efficiency of typical forest and grassland ecosystems in China

    CERN Document Server

    Zhu, Xianjin; Wang, Qiufeng; Hu, Zhongmin; Han, Shijie; Yan, Junhua; Wang, Yanfen; Zhao, Liang

    2014-01-01

    We selected four sites of ChinaFLUX representing four major ecosystem types in China-Changbaishan temperate broad-leaved Korean pine mixed forest (CBS), Dinghushan subtropical evergreen broadleaved forest (DHS), Inner Mongolia temperate steppe (NM), and Haibei alpine shrub-meadow (HBGC)-to study the seasonal dynamics of ecosystem water use efficiency (WUE = GPP/ET, where GPP is gross primary productivity and ET is evapotranspiration) and factors affecting it. Our seasonal dynamics results indicated single-peak variation of WUE in CBS, NM, and HBGC, which were affected by air temperature (Ta) and leaf area index (LAI), through their effects on the partitioning of evapotranspiration (ET) into transpiration (T) (i.e., T/ET). In DHS, WUE was higher at the beginning and the end of the year, and minimum in summer. Ta and soil water content affected the seasonal dynamics of WUE through their effects on GPP/T. Our results indicate that seasonal dynamics of WUE were different because factors affecting the seasonal dyn...

  7. Mean age of carbon in fine roots from temperate forests and grasslands with different management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Solly

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Fine roots are the most dynamic portion of a plant's root system and a major source of soil organic matter. By altering plant species diversity and composition, soil conditions and nutrient availability, and consequently belowground allocation and dynamics of root carbon (C inputs, land-use and management changes may influence organic C storage in terrestrial ecosystems. In three German regions, we measured fine root radiocarbon (14C content to estimate the mean time since C in root tissues was fixed from the atmosphere in 54 grassland and forest plots with different management and soil conditions. Although root biomass was on average greater in grasslands 5.1 ± 0.8 g (mean ± SE, n = 27 than in forests 3.1 ± 0.5 g (n = 27 (p p r = 0.65 and with the number of perennial species (r = 0.77. Fine root mean C age in grasslands was also affected by study region with averages of 0.7 ± 0.1 yr (n = 9 on mostly organic soils in northern Germany and of 1.8 ± 0.3 yr (n = 9 and 2.6 ± 0.3 (n = 9 in central and southern Germany (p < 0.05. This was probably due to differences in soil nutrient contents and soil moisture conditions between study regions, which affected plant species diversity and the presence of perennial species. Our results indicate more long-lived roots or internal redistribution of C in perennial species and suggest linkages between fine root C age and management in grasslands. These findings improve our ability to predict and model belowground C fluxes across broader spatial scales.

  8. Effects of different types of N deposition on the fungal decomposition activities of temperate forest soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shushan; Du, Yuhan; Guo, Peng; Guo, Lida; Qu, Kaiyue; He, Jianping

    2014-11-01

    Nitrogen (N) deposition significantly affects soil microbial activities and litter decomposition processes in forest ecosystems. However, the changes in soil fungi during litter decomposition remain unclear. In this study, ammonium nitrate was selected as inorganic N (IN), whereas urea and glycine were selected as organic N (ON). N fertilizer with different IN-to-ON ratios (1:4, 2:3, 3:2, 4:1, and 5:0) was mixed in equal amounts and then added to temperate forest soils. Half of each treatment was simultaneously added with streptomycin to inhibit soil bacteria. The activities of enzymes involved in litter decomposition (invertase, β-glucosidase, cellulase, polyphenol oxidase, and phosphatase) were assayed after a three-year field experiment. The results showed that enzymatic activities were inhibited by IN addition but accelerated by ON addition in the non-antibiotic addition treatments. An increase in ON in the mixed N fertilizer also shifted enzymatic activities from N inhibition to N stimulation. Similarly, in the antibiotic addition treatments, fungal activities revealed the same trends, but they were seriously inhibited by IN and significantly accelerated by ON. These results indicated that soil fungi were more sensitive to N deposition, particularly to ON. A large amount of ON may convert soil microbial communities into a fungi-dominated system. However, excessive ON deposition (20% IN+80% ON) caused N saturation and repressed fungal activities. These results suggested that soil fungi were sensitive to N type and that different IN-to-ON ratios may induce diverse ecological effects on soil fungi. PMID:25127443

  9. Combining Geomatics and Conventional Methods for Monitoring Forest Conditions under Different Governance Arrangements

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ambika P. Gautam

    2006-01-01

    This study employed an innovative methodological framework that combines geomatics and conventional survey methods to monitor changes in forest conditions and examine their associations with local forest governance parameters in a mountain watershed covering 153.3 km2 in the middle mountains of Nepal. The study involved two spatial scales and analytical steps. First, geomatics techniques were used to map and detect changes in major land cover types in the watershed between 1976 and 2000 and to analyze relationships between forest cover changes and governance arrangements. This was followed by micro-level analysis of the relationships between the biological conditions of selected forests within the watershed and their governance arrangements, using conventional survey methods and analytical tools. The findings show that forest cover in the watershed increased by about 15 per cent during the period. The rate of increase in forest cover was highest in areas under a semi-government type of governance arrangement, while the community forests were generally better in terms of current biological conditions compared to the semi-government forests. This inconsistency between the findings from the two analyscs does not allow us to draw any firm conclusions regarding the role of property rights in determining forest condition, but it indicates that the outcomes of local forest management initiatives may be more dependent on local institutional arrangements regulating forest use and maintenance of forest resources than on the type of property rights arrangements. The findings also provide evidence of the methodological suitability of the research approach adopted, which may be useful for addressing many other research questions related to forestry and natural resources management, particularly those involving multiple spatial scales.

  10. Differences in Soil Physical and Chemical Properties of Rehabilitated and Secondary Forests

    OpenAIRE

    M. H. Akbar; Ahmed, O.H.; A. S. Jamaluddin; N. M.N.A. Majid; H. Abdul-Hamid; S. Jusop; A Hassan; K. H. Yusof; Arifin Abdu

    2010-01-01

    Problem statement: The soil properties of tropical rain forest in Southeast Asia have been characterized by several researchers; however empirical data on soil characteristics under rehabilitation program are still limited or even lacking. This research is important to determine the soil physical and chemical properties of a rehabilitated degraded forest land 19 years after planting with various indigenous species in comparison with adjacent secondary forests and to elucidate the soil fertili...

  11. Impacts of Climate Change on Forest Ecosystems in Northeast China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xiao-Ying; ZHAO Chun-Yu; JIA Qing-Yu

    2013-01-01

    This paper reviews the studies and research on climate change impacts on the forest ecosystems in Northeast China. The results show that in the context of global and regional warming, the growing season of coniferous forests has been increasing at an average rate of 3.9 d per decade. Regional warming favors the growth of temperate broad-leaved forests and has a detrimental effect on the growth of boreal coniferous forests. Over the past hundred years, the forest edge of the cool temperate zone in the southern Daxing’anling region has retreated 140 km northward. From 1896 to 1986, the northern boundary of broad-leaved forests in Heilongjiang province has extended northwestward about 290 km. Future climatic changes (until 2060) may lead to the northern deciduous needle forests moving out of China’s territory altogether. The occurrence cycles of pests and diseases have shortened; their distribution ranges have expanded. The life cycle of tent caterpillars (Malacosoma neustria testacea Motschulsky) has shortened from 14-15 years in the past to 8-10 years now. The pine caterpillar (Dendrolimus tabulaeformis Tsai et Liu), which has spread within western Liaoning province and the nearby areas, can now be found in the north and west. Lightning fires in the Daxing’anling region have significantly increased since 1987, and August has become the month when lightning fires occur most frequently. Overall, the net primary productivity (NPP) of forest in Northeast China has increased. The NPP in 1981 was around 0.27 Pg C, and increased to approximately 0.40 Pg C in 2002. With the current climate, the broad-leaved Korean pine forest ecosystem acts as a carbon sink, with a carbon sink capacity of 2.7 Mg C hm-2. Although the carbon sink capacity of the forest ecosystems in Northeast China has been weakened since 2003, the total carbon absorption will still increase. The forest ecosystems in Northeast China are likely to remain a significant carbon sink, and will play a

  12. Evaluating humus forms variation in an unmanaged mixed beech forest using two different classification methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waez-Mousavi SM

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Humus is an important part of terrestrial ecosystems and can be considered as an indicator of ecosystem functioning status. Morphologic method is an inexpensive and easy way to study humus forms. This study investigated two morphological methods that have been applied in beech stands of Hyrcanian forest and compared them to assess which one is more appropriate for these ecosystems. Therefore an unmanaged beech stand was selected and 320 humus profiles were considered in it. In each profile the humus form was determined as to suborder level according to two morphological methods. The results showed that the average thickness of organic and organo-mineral horizons (OL, OF, OH and Ah in the study site was 2, 0.6, 0.3 and 3.6 cm, respectively. Also the two different morphological methods used in the study site had different functions and outputs. According to both methods the Mull order was the dominant humus form in the study site. The number of humus suborders found in the study site was different in the two methods and indicates their different ability in describing humus forms in the study site

  13. Tree Species Linked to Large Differences in Ecosystem Carbon Distribution in the Boreal Forest of Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melvin, A. M.; Mack, M. C.; Johnstone, J. F.; Schuur, E. A. G.; Genet, H.; McGuire, A. D.

    2014-12-01

    In the boreal forest of Alaska, increased fire severity associated with climate change is altering plant-soil-microbial feedbacks and ecosystem carbon (C) dynamics. The boreal landscape has historically been dominated by black spruce (Picea mariana), a tree species associated with slow C turnover and large soil organic matter (SOM) accumulation. Historically, low severity fires have led to black spruce regeneration post-fire, thereby maintaining slow C cycling rates and large SOM pools. In recent decades however, an increase in high severity fires has led to greater consumption of the soil organic layer (SOL) during fire and subsequent establishment of deciduous tree species in areas previously dominated by black spruce. This shift to a more deciduous dominated landscape has many implications for ecosystem structure and function, as well as feedbacks to global C cycling. To improve our understanding of how boreal tree species affect C cycling, we quantified above- and belowground C stocks and fluxes in adjacent, mid-successional stands of black spruce and Alaska paper birch (Betula neoalaskana) that established following a 1958 fire near Fairbanks, Alaska. Although total ecosystem C pools (aboveground live tree biomass + dead wood + SOL + top 10 cm of mineral soil) were similar for the two stand types, the distribution of C among pools was markedly different. In black spruce, 78% of measured C was found in soil pools, primarily in the SOL, where spruce contained twice the C stored in paper birch (4.8 ± 0.3 vs. 2.4 ± 0.1 kg C m-2). In contrast, aboveground biomass dominated ecosystem C pools in birch forest (6.0 ± 0.3 vs. 2.5 ± 0.2 kg C m-2 in birch and spruce, respectively). Our findings suggest that tree species exert a strong influence over plant-soil-microbial feedbacks and may have long-term effects on ecosystem C sequestration and storage that feedback to the climate system.

  14. Extreme differences in forest degradation in Borneo: comparing practices in Sarawak, Sabah, and Brunei.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane E Bryan

    Full Text Available The Malaysian states of Sabah and Sarawak are global hotspots of forest loss and degradation due to timber and oil palm industries; however, the rates and patterns of change have remained poorly measured by conventional field or satellite approaches. Using 30 m resolution optical imagery acquired since 1990, forest cover and logging roads were mapped throughout Malaysian Borneo and Brunei using the Carnegie Landsat Analysis System. We uncovered ∼364,000 km of roads constructed through the forests of this region. We estimated that in 2009 there were at most 45,400 km(2 of intact forest ecosystems in Malaysian Borneo and Brunei. Critically, we found that nearly 80% of the land surface of Sabah and Sarawak was impacted by previously undocumented, high-impact logging or clearing operations from 1990 to 2009. This contrasted strongly with neighbouring Brunei, where 54% of the land area remained covered by unlogged forest. Overall, only 8% and 3% of land area in Sabah and Sarawak, respectively, was covered by intact forests under designated protected areas. Our assessment shows that very few forest ecosystems remain intact in Sabah or Sarawak, but that Brunei, by largely excluding industrial logging from its borders, has been comparatively successful in protecting its forests.

  15. Public Preferences Across Europe for Different Forest Stand Types as Sites for Recreation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Peace

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available A Delphi survey involving experts in forest preference research was carried out to derive scores for the recreational value of 240 forest stand types across Europe. The survey was organized around four regional panels: Great Britain, Nordic Region, Central Europe, and Iberia. In each region, 60 forest stand types were defined according to five forest management alternatives (FMAs on a continuum of management intensity, four phases of development (establishment, young, medium, and adult, and three tree species types (conifer, broadleaved, and mixed stands of conifer and broadleaved. The resulting scores were examined using conjoint analysis to determine the relative importance of the three structural attributes (FMA, phase of development, and tree species type, and each level or component of the attributes. The findings quantify the extent to which forest visitors prefer a degree of management to unmanaged forest nature reserves across the four regions. Phase of development was shown to make the highest contribution to the recreational value of forests while the contribution of tree species type was shown to be relatively unimportant. While the results are indicative, they provide evidence to support long-term retention and low-impact silviculture in forests where recreation is a primary objective of management.

  16. Changes of forest stands vulnerability to future wind damage resulting from different management methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Panferov, O.; Sogachev, Andrey; Ahrends, B.

    2010-01-01

    The structure of forests stands changes continuously as a result of forest growth and both natural and anthropogenic disturbances like windthrow or management activities – planting/cutting of trees. These structure changes can stabilize or destabilize forest stands in terms of their resistance...... to wind damage. The driving force behind the damage is the climate, but the magnitude and sign of resulting effect depend on tree species, management method and soil conditions. The projected increasing frequency of weather extremes in the whole and severe storms in particular might produce wide area...... damage in European forest ecosystems during the 21st century. To assess the possible wind damage and stabilization/destabilization effects of forest management a number of numeric experiments are carried out for the region of Solling, Germany. The coupled small-scale process-based model combining Brook90...

  17. Assemblages of carabid beetles (Coleoptera, Carabidae) in humid forest habitats of different stages of succession in the Puszcza Knyszyńska Forest (northeastern Poland)

    OpenAIRE

    Adam Kwiatkowski

    2011-01-01

    Abstract During a period of three years (2006–2008) the carabid fauna in wet and humid forest habitats of different stages of succession was studied at the Puszcza Knyszynska (north-east part of Poland). The aim of this study was to determine how the assemblages of the carabid fauna change in relation to the ongoing process of succession. Using pitfall traps, 24 plots were sampled. The plots were located in stands of different age, from two year old plantations to more than 100 year old fores...

  18. Measured differences in snow accumulation and melt among clearcut, juvenile, and mature forests in southern British Columbia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkler, R. D.; Spittlehouse, D. L.; Golding, D. L.

    2005-01-01

    Quantification of the relationships between snow and forest cover, including its removal through logging, insects or disease and its regrowth, is a prerequisite to assessing the effects of forestry practices on streamflow from montane and boreal forest watersheds. Over a 3 year period, a juvenile and a juvenile-thinned lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Dougl.) stand, a mature mixed Engelmann spruce (Picea engelmannii Parry), subalpine fir (Abies lasiocarpa (Hook.) Nutt) and lodgepole pine stand, and a clearcut were intensively surveyed to quantify differences in snow water equivalent (SWE). Daily snowmelt, weather conditions, and the energy balance were measured during the first year of this study. The 1 April SWE was 32% and 14% less under the mature and juvenile forests respectively than in the clearcut. No significant differences in peak SWE were measured between the juvenile and juvenile-thinned stands. Continuous snowmelt lysimeter measurements showed that snowmelt began earlier, accumulated more rapidly, and disappeared 2 to 4 days earlier in the juvenile-thinned stand than in either the unthinned juvenile stand or the clearcut. When the snowpack had disappeared from the clearcut and juvenile stands, 30% of the SWE on 1 April remained in the mature forest. The results not only show that snow accumulation and melt differ significantly between clearcut, juvenile, and mature stands, but also that snowmelt patterns vary among juvenile stands with distinct structural differences. This is due to the difference in the energy balances, dominated by radiant heat fluxes, of the four sites. Copyright

  19. Soil respiration rate on the contrasting north- and south-facing slopes of a larch forest in central Siberia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In an attempt to evaluate global warming effects, we measured the soil respiration of the contrasting north- and south- facing slopes of a larch forest in central Siberia, located at Tura City in the Krasnoyarsk District, Russia. The north-facing slope is assumed to be the present condition while the south-facing slope may stand for the future warm condition. As a result of differences in solar radiation, there were clear differences between the north- and south- facing slopes in terms, for example, of the active layer as the growth rate of larch trees. The soil respiration rate was higher on the south-facing slope than on the north-facing slope. At the temperature of 15°C, soil respiration rate of the south-facing slope was ca. 6.2 μ mol CO2 * m-2s-1, which was about 0.6 times lower than that of broad-leaved forests in Hokkaido. There was an exponential correlation between soil temperature at 10 cm depth and the efflux of CO2 from the soil surface. Various conditions (soil temperature,. nitrogen content and soil water content) seemed to be more favorable for soil respiration on the south-facing slope. (author)

  20. Estimation of autotrophic soil respiration in a boreal forest using three different approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulmala, Liisa; Pumpanen, Jukka; Heinonsalo, Jussi

    2016-04-01

    It is generally challenging to separate autotrophic and heterotrophic soil respiration. The reason for these difficulties is connected with the intimate interaction of the key processes in soil. Root-associated microbes practically colonize the whole soil volume while decomposition processes occur in the same matrix. Therefore, autotrophic and heterotrophic processes cannot be separated in natural systems. However, there are several methods that can be used to better understand the dynamics of these two. A classical method is called 'trenching' where a trench is dug around a known volume of soil and the roots entering the soil are cut from the living trees thus blocking the C flow from them. The second way to separate autotrophic and heterotrophic respiration relies on the difference in the isotopic signature (13C) of plant-derived or decomposition-derived CO2. The third way to separate the sources is to study the differences in the short- and long-term temperature dependencies in CO2 soil emissions. This is possible especially in boreal forests where the biological activity has a strong seasonal cycle. We compared these three methods in an experiment conducted in a southern boreal middle-aged Scots pine stand in Finland. Our data provides a unique possibility to critically evaluate current methods for estimating autotrophic and heterotrophic soil respiration. The knowledge is needed to study further plant physiology and plant-microbe interactions in soil.

  1. ORGANIC MATTER AND AGGREGATION OF A PLANOSOL UNDER DIFFERENT FOREST COVERINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Kishida Bochner

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The litter quality can alter soil aggregation, modifying the transformation dynamics and allocation of soil carbon (Cin different compartments. This study evaluated the aggregate stability and its relation with litter chemical characteristics, organiccarbon and free light fraction (FLL from the organic matter under three different types of vegetation covering: secondary forest (FSand plantings of Mimosa Caesalpiniaefolia (PM and Carapa guianenses (PA with subsequently natural regeneration. Litter sampleswere characterized using polyfenols, lignin, suberine, tannin and holocelulose content and C/N relationship. Soil samples werecollected in two depths (0-10 and 10-20 cm and soil aggregation were estimate using mean weight diameter (DMP, mean geometricdiameter (DMG and index of aggregate stability (IEA analysis . Soil samples in the same depths were also characterized using C andFLL content. The highest suberine and polyfenols content of the litter found in the areas FS and PM reduced the speed of residuesdecomposition in the soil causing larger FLL content in both coverings. Those compositions contributed to the stabilization of C in themineral phase, because the highest C content was found in those areas. This fact is confirmed by the values of DMP, DMG and IEAamong the areas. They are higher in the coverings, PM and FS. It can be concluded that the polyfenols and suberine content weredecisive in the subdivision of C and in the aggregation of the soil in the areas of FS and PM.

  2. A Geosimulation Approach for Data Scarce Environments: Modeling Dynamics of Forest Insect Infestation across Different Landscapes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taylor Anderson

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Insect infestation behaves as a complex system, characterized by non-linear spatial dynamics and emergent patterns that evolve from smaller to larger spatial scales. The emerald ash borer (EAB is an invasive species that has infested and killed millions of ash trees across North America. Existing EAB models use traditional statistical approaches that often cannot address the spatiotemporal complexity emerging from EAB infestation processes. Moreover, these studies of insect infestation are limited by a lack of sufficient time series data. The objective of this study is to develop a geosimulation approach to overcome the challenge of data scarcity and represent EAB infestation at a regional scale. Geographic information systems (GIS, multi-criteria evaluation (MCE, and cellular automata (CA are used to model EAB spread across different hypothetical landscape types. Simulation results represent EAB propagation and indicate different dynamics of spread for each landscape. Urban environments are identified as being at the greatest risk to the infestation. The proposed approach offers a theoretical framework and a modeling tool to represent the propagation of EAB infestation that can be applied with real geospatial datasets and potentially used in forest management strategies.

  3. Exploring different forest definitions and their impact on developing REDD+ reference emission levels: A case study for Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Romijn, J.E.; Ainembabazi, J.H.; Wijaya, A.; Herold, M.; Angelsen, A.; Verchot, L.; Murdiyarso, D.

    2013-01-01

    Developing countries participating in the mitigation mechanism of reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation and the role of conservation, sustainable management of forests and enhancement of forest carbon stocks (REDD+), need to determine a national forest reference emission level

  4. Validation of chemical analyses of atmospheric deposition in forested European sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erwin ULRICH

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Within the activities of the Integrated Co-operative Programme on Assessment and Monitoring of Air Pollution Effects on Forests (ICP Forests and of the EU Regulation 2152/2003, a Working Group on Quality Assurance/Quality Control of analyses has been created to assist the participating laboratories in the analysis of atmospheric deposition, soil and soil solution, and leaves/needles. As part of the activity of the WG, this study is a statistical analysis in the field of water analysis of chemical concentrations and relationships between ions, and between conductivity and ions for different types of samples (bulk or wet-only samples, throughfall, stemflow considered in forest studies. About 5000 analyses from seven laboratories were used to establish relationships representative of different European geographic and climatic situations, from northern Finland to southern Italy. Statistically significant differences between the relationships obtained from different types of solutions, interacting with different types of vegetation (throughfall and stemflow samples, broad-leaved trees and conifers and with varying influence of marine salt were tested. The ultimate aim is to establish general relationships between ions, and between conductivity and ions, with relative confidence limits, which can be used as a comparison with those established in single laboratories. The use of such techniques is strongly encouraged in the ICPF laboratories to validate single chemical analyses, to be performed when it is still possible to replicate the analysis, and as a general overview of the whole set of analyses, to obtain an indication of the laboratory performance on a long-term basis.

  5. Nitrogen oxides emission from two beech forests subjected to different nitrogen loads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Kitzler

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available We analysed nitrogen oxides (N2O, NO and carbon dioxide (CO2 emissions from two beech forest soils close to Vienna, Austria, which were exposed to different nitrogen input from the atmosphere. The site Schottenwald (SW received 20.2 kg N ha−1 y−1 and Klausenleopoldsdorf (KL 12.6 kg N ha−1 y−1 through wet deposition. Nitric oxide emissions from soil were measured hourly with an automatic dynamic chamber system. Daily N2O measurements were carried out by an automatic gas sampling system. Measurements of nitrous oxide (N2O and CO2 emissions were conducted over larger areas on a biweekly (SW or monthly (KL basis by manually operated chambers. We used an autoregression procedure (time-series analysis for establishing time-lagged relationships between N-oxides emissions and different climate, soil chemistry and N-deposition data. It was found that changes in soil moisture and soil temperature significantly effected CO2 and N-oxides emissions with a time lag of up to two weeks and could explain up to 95% of the temporal variations of gas emissions. Event emissions after rain or during freezing and thawing cycles contributed significantly (for NO 50% to overall N-oxides emissions. In the two-year period of analysis the annual gaseous N2O emissions at SW ranged from 0.64 to 0.79 kg N ha−1 y−1 and NO emissions were 0.24 to 0.49 kg N ha−1 per vegetation period. In KL significantly lower annual N2O emissions (0.52 to 0.65 kg N2O-N kg ha−1 y−1 as well as considerably lower NO-emissions were observed. During a three-month measurement campaign NO emissions at KL were 0.02 kg N ha−1, whereas in the same time period significantly more NO was emitted in SW (0.32 kg NO-N ha−1. Higher N-oxides emissions, especially NO emissions from the high N-input site (SW may indicate that atmospheric deposition has an impact on emissions of gaseous N from our forest soils. At KL there was a strong correlation between N-deposition and N-emission over time

  6. Throughfall in different forest stands of Iperó, São Paulo

    OpenAIRE

    Esthevan Augusto Goes Gasparoto; Kelly Cristina Tonell; Emily Tsiemi Shinzato; Roberta de Oliveira Averna Valente

    2014-01-01

    In forestry, throughfall (Pi) is that fraction of rainfall that runs directly through the tree canopy and reaches the ground. It is characterized as the main source of water supply in a watershed. This study aimed to analyze the dynamics of throughfall in three types of forest stands, namely Eucalyptus cloeziana, Pinus sp. and seasonal semideciduous forest (FES), all located in Ipanema National Forest, in the municipality of Iperó-SP. In each stand, a 300 m² plot was established in which ten ...

  7. Restinga forests of the Brazilian coast: richness and abundance of tree species on different soils

    OpenAIRE

    Luiz F.S. Magnago; Sebastião V. Martins; Carlos E. G. R. Schaefer; Andreza V. Neri

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine changes in composition, abundance and richness of species along a forest gradient with varying soils and flood regimes. The forests are located on the left bank of the lower Jucu River, in Jacarenema Natural Municipal Park, Espírito Santo. A survey of shrub/tree species was done in 80 plots, 5x25 m, equally distributed among the forests studied. We included in the sampling all individuals with >3.2 cm diameter at breast height (1.30 m). Soil samples were...

  8. Carbon balance of an old hemi-boreal pine forest in Southern Estonia determined by different methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soosaar, Kaido; Repp, Kalev; Lõhmus, Krista; Uri, Veiko; Rannik, Kaire; Krasnova, Alisa; Ostonen, Ivika; Kukumägi, Mai; Maddison, Martin; Mander, Ülo

    2016-04-01

    The Soontaga Forest Station is located in hemi-boreal 200-years old pine forest (South Estonia; 58o01'N 26o04'E) with a second layer of spruce. The station has the instrumentation to assess the exchange of carbon dioxide (net ecosystem exchange, NEE), soil respiration, tree biomass (above and below ground biomass) and different environmental and meteorological parameters. In this study we quantified carbon balance by analyzing eddy-covariance CO2 flux data (carbon exchange) vs chamber-based measurements (ecosystem respiration) and CO2assimilation (soil and biomass). The annual NEE in this mature coniferous forest was -2.3 t C ha yr‑1, showing a clear diurnal and seasonal trend. During the daytime in summer the forest sequestered CO2, while during the night and late night CO2 emitted from the ecosystem to the atmosphere. Within the growing period, the sequestration of CO2 by plants was greater than soil respiration. Thus, the ecosystem sequestered carbon. Most of the carbon is bound in tree biomass (above and below ground biomass) but as well into soil, while the sequestration in soil increases with stand age. In addition, the biomass of understory, especially belowground litter, is playing essential part in carbon input. A modelling approach of long-term C budget in the Soontaga pine forest is presented.

  9. Quantifying the Implications of Different Land Users' Priorities in the Management of Boreal Multiple-Use Forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horstkotte, Tim; Lind, Torgny; Moen, Jon

    2016-04-01

    In the management of natural resources, conflicting interests and objectives among different stakeholders often need to be considered. Here, we examine how two contrasting management scenarios of boreal forests in northern Sweden differ in their consequences on forest structural composition and the economic gains at harvest. Management strategies prioritize either (i) forest characteristics that promote grazing resources for reindeer herded by the indigenous Sámi, or (ii) timber production as practiced in Sweden today. When prioritizing reindeer grazing, forest stands develop a higher abundance of older age classes with larger trees and lower stem density, which reduces harvest and revenue levels by approximately 20 % over a 100-year period. The differences between these strategies illustrate the complexity in finding a trade-off for coexistence between industrial land users and other livelihoods that share the same landscape. Political support and institutional solutions are necessary to initiate changes in policy in finding such trade-offs in the management of environmental resources and thereby influence the optimal distribution of costs and benefits between different actors.

  10. Quantifying differences in biodiversity between a tropical forest area and a grassland area subject to traditional burning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nangendo, G.; Stein, A.; Gelens, M.; Gier, de A.; Albricht, R.

    2002-01-01

    Mosaics of natural forest and grassland tracts in sub-Saharan Africa provide differences in woody species biodiversity. These mosaics are of considerable interest as they are a major biodiversity bank. Their richness is felt to be threatened, for example by local burning. This study focuses on the i

  11. Study on Biological Diversity of Several Different Forest Community Types in Northern Subtropical Region%北亚热带不同森林群落类型的生物多样性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁增发; 张瑶; 刘俊龙; 马永春; 吴中能

    2011-01-01

    北亚热带地区的人工针叶纯林可以通过抚育间伐或者封山育林等措施大大加快其向着该地区的顶级群落方向演替。该地区几种典型群落的乔木层生物多样性指数大小依次为:针阔混交林〉〉常绿阔叶纯林〉马尾松纯林(郁0.5)〉马尾松纯林(CK组)〉杉木纯林(修枝)〉杉木纯林(间伐10%);灌木层生物多样性指数大小排序为:马尾松纯林(CK组)〉杉木纯林(间伐10%)〉杉木纯林(修枝)〉常绿阔叶纯林〉马尾松纯林(郁0.5)〉针阔混交林。%The succession process from artificial pure coniferous forests to climax communities could be accelerated greatly by tending thinning or mountain closure for forest recovery in the northern subtropical region.The sequence of the tree layer diversity indexes of several typical forest communities is: Mixed coniferous and broadleaved forest Evergreen broadleaved pure forest Masson pine pure forest(crown density 0.5) Masson pine pure forest(CK group) Chinese fir pure forest(pruned) Chinese fir pure forest(thinned by 10%).The sequence of shrub layer diversity indexes is: Masson pine pure forest(CK group) Chinese fir pure forest(thinned by 10%) Chinese fir pure forest(pruned) Evergreen broadleaved pure forest Masson pine pure forest(crown density 0.5) Mixed coniferous and broad leaved forest.

  12. Pyrosequencing-Based Assessment of Bacterial Community Structure Along Different Management Types in German Forest and Grassland Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nacke, Heiko; Thürmer, Andrea; Wollherr, Antje; Will, Christiane; Hodac, Ladislav; Herold, Nadine; Schöning, Ingo; Schrumpf, Marion; Daniel, Rolf

    2011-01-01

    Background Soil bacteria are important drivers for nearly all biogeochemical cycles in terrestrial ecosystems and participate in most nutrient transformations in soil. In contrast to the importance of soil bacteria for ecosystem functioning, we understand little how different management types affect the soil bacterial community composition. Methodology/Principal Findings We used pyrosequencing-based analysis of the V2-V3 16S rRNA gene region to identify changes in bacterial diversity and community structure in nine forest and nine grassland soils from the Schwäbische Alb that covered six different management types. The dataset comprised 598,962 sequences that were affiliated to the domain Bacteria. The number of classified sequences per sample ranged from 23,515 to 39,259. Bacterial diversity was more phylum rich in grassland soils than in forest soils. The dominant taxonomic groups across all samples (>1% of all sequences) were Acidobacteria, Alphaproteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Betaproteobacteria, Deltaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria, and Firmicutes. Significant variations in relative abundances of bacterial phyla and proteobacterial classes, including Actinobacteria, Firmicutes, Verrucomicrobia, Cyanobacteria, Gemmatimonadetes and Alphaproteobacteria, between the land use types forest and grassland were observed. At the genus level, significant differences were also recorded for the dominant genera Phenylobacter, Bacillus, Kribbella, Streptomyces, Agromyces, and Defluviicoccus. In addition, soil bacterial community structure showed significant differences between beech and spruce forest soils. The relative abundances of bacterial groups at different taxonomic levels correlated with soil pH, but little or no relationships to management type and other soil properties were found. Conclusions/Significance Soil bacterial community composition and diversity of the six analyzed management types showed significant differences between the land use types grassland

  13. Pyrosequencing-based assessment of bacterial community structure along different management types in German forest and grassland soils.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heiko Nacke

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Soil bacteria are important drivers for nearly all biogeochemical cycles in terrestrial ecosystems and participate in most nutrient transformations in soil. In contrast to the importance of soil bacteria for ecosystem functioning, we understand little how different management types affect the soil bacterial community composition. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We used pyrosequencing-based analysis of the V2-V3 16S rRNA gene region to identify changes in bacterial diversity and community structure in nine forest and nine grassland soils from the Schwäbische Alb that covered six different management types. The dataset comprised 598,962 sequences that were affiliated to the domain Bacteria. The number of classified sequences per sample ranged from 23,515 to 39,259. Bacterial diversity was more phylum rich in grassland soils than in forest soils. The dominant taxonomic groups across all samples (>1% of all sequences were Acidobacteria, Alphaproteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Betaproteobacteria, Deltaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria, and Firmicutes. Significant variations in relative abundances of bacterial phyla and proteobacterial classes, including Actinobacteria, Firmicutes, Verrucomicrobia, Cyanobacteria, Gemmatimonadetes and Alphaproteobacteria, between the land use types forest and grassland were observed. At the genus level, significant differences were also recorded for the dominant genera Phenylobacter, Bacillus, Kribbella, Streptomyces, Agromyces, and Defluviicoccus. In addition, soil bacterial community structure showed significant differences between beech and spruce forest soils. The relative abundances of bacterial groups at different taxonomic levels correlated with soil pH, but little or no relationships to management type and other soil properties were found. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Soil bacterial community composition and diversity of the six analyzed management types showed significant differences between the land

  14. Litter production in different successional stages of a subtropical secondary rain forest, in Antonina, PR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kauana Melissa Cunha Dickow

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted in the Cachoeira River Natural Reserve, in Antonina, Paraná state, Brazil. The main goal was to assess the litter production of secondary tropical rain forests in different sucessional stages (initial, medium and advanced stages. The litter fall was collected every 3 weeks during four years (2004 to 2007, in circular litter traps of 0.25m2, distributed in 30 plots of 100m2 of area. A total of 60 litter traps were installed in an area of 3000m2. The litter fall collected at each retrieval date was dried, separated into fractions (leaves, twigs, reproductive organs and miscellaneous and weighed. Leaves of some tree species were selected from the total litter for a specific study of their contribution to the total litter. The average annual litter production for the three years was 5201, 5399 and 5323 kg.ha-1.year-1, and the percentage contribution of the leaf fraction was 77, 75 and 68%, in the initial, medium and advanced sucessional stages, respectively. The leaf litter fraction produced in the initial stage was dominated by the species Tibouchina pulchra (jacatirão (75%, but in the medium and advanced stages the dominance of only one tree species in leaf litter fraction did not occur. The production of twigs and reproductive organs did not differ statistically among the sucessional stages. The production of miscellaneous fraction was higher in the advanced stage and did not differ between the initial and medium stages. In general, the differences in litter production were little along the sucessional stage in the area of the study.

  15. Differences between Pygmy and Non-Pygmy Hunting in Congo Basin Forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fa, John E; Olivero, Jesús; Farfán, Miguel Angel; Lewis, Jerome; Yasuoka, Hirokazu; Noss, Andrew; Hattori, Shiho; Hirai, Masaaki; Kamgaing, Towa O W; Carpaneto, Giuseppe; Germi, Francesco; Márquez, Ana Luz; Duarte, Jesús; Duda, Romain; Gallois, Sandrine; Riddell, Michael; Nasi, Robert

    2016-01-01

    We use data on game harvest from 60 Pygmy and non-Pygmy settlements in the Congo Basin forests to examine whether hunting patterns and prey profiles differ between the two hunter groups. For each group, we calculate hunted animal numbers and biomass available per inhabitant, P, per year (harvest rates) and killed per hunter, H, per year (extraction rates). We assess the impact of hunting of both hunter groups from estimates of numbers and biomass of prey species killed per square kilometre, and by examining the proportion of hunted taxa of low, medium and high population growth rates as a measure of their vulnerability to overhunting. We then map harvested biomass (kg-1P-1Yr-1) of bushmeat by Pygmies and non-Pygmies throughout the Congo Basin. Hunting patterns differ between Pygmies and non-Pygmies; Pygmies take larger and different prey and non-Pygmies sell more for profit. We show that non-Pygmies have a potentially more severe impact on prey populations than Pygmies. This is because non-Pygmies hunt a wider range of species, and twice as many animals are taken per square kilometre. Moreover, in non-Pygmy settlements there was a larger proportion of game taken of low population growth rate. Our harvest map shows that the non-Pygmy population may be responsible for 27 times more animals harvested than the Pygmy population. Such differences indicate that the intense competition that may arise from the more widespread commercial hunting by non-Pygmies is a far more important constraint and source of conflict than are protected areas. PMID:27589384

  16. Study on complexity of plant communities at different altitudes on the Northern Slope of Changbai Mountain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    By the method of gradient pattern analysis, twenty plots were set at altitudes of 700-2600 m with an interval of 100 m on the northern slope of the Changbai Mountain. The dissimilarity of respective sub-plots in the same community was measured and the complexity of plant communities at different altitudes was analyzed. The result from binary data of tree species in canopy tree indicated that the sub-plots in the communities, except subalpine Betula ermanii forest, showed comparatively high dissimilarity in species composition. Especially, the dissimilarity index (0.7) of broadleaved/Korean pine forest at low altitudes was obviously higher than other communities. The differences are not obvious between communities referring to dark coniferous forest. Comparatively, the dissimilarity in sub-plots of the communities at altitude of 1400 m was slightly higher than that of other communities, which reflected the complexity of tree species compositions of transitory-type communities. For subalpine Betula ermanii forest, tree species composition was simple and showed a high similarity between sub-plots. The results derived from binary data of shrub showed that the dissimilarity index of shrub species in broadleaved/Korean pine forest at low altitudes was higher than that in other communities, but the divergence tendency wasn't so obvious as that of arbor species. The dissimilarity derived from binary data of herb and all plant species at different altitudes showed greatly close tendency, and the differences in herb and all plant species between sub-plots were the greatest for the communities of broad-leaved-Korean pine forest and alpine tundra zone.

  17. 模拟氮沉降对森林土壤化学性质的影响%Effects of simulated nitrogen deposition on soil chemical properties of forests

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李秋玲; 肖辉林; 曾晓舵; 冯乙晴; 莫江明

    2013-01-01

    下,与对照相比,这3种林型的土壤交换性Na+含量分别下降了40.0%、68.4%、50.0%,差异达显著性水平(p<0.05)。氮沉降对人工幼林土壤盐基离子含量无明显的影响。由此可得出结论:在近2年至4年的时间内,氮沉降的增加能引起鼎湖山3种林型土壤尤其是阔叶林土壤加速酸化,引起交换性Na+明显淋失,以及马尾松林土壤水解性氮含量明显下降;但氮沉降的增加对木荷人工幼林土壤化学性质暂无明显的影响。后者可能与该林型模拟氮沉降时间较短、林龄较轻而处于快速生长期等因素有关。%The effects of the increasing atmospheric nitrogen deposition on forest soils have become one of the major issues in ecological research recently. The authors used the method of simulating atmospheric nitrogen deposition in situ, set up three levels of nitrogen deposition:N0 (CK, N:0 g·m-2·a-1), N5(N:5 g·m-2·a-1), and N10(N:10 g·m-2·a-1)for a monsoon evergreen broad-leaved forest (called“broad-leaved forest”for short in the following), a Pinus massoniana forest, and a coniferous and broad-leaved mixed forest (called “mixed forest” for short in the following) in Dinghushan Mountain, and for a young Schima superba plantation in Zengcheng, Guangdong province, China, collected the soil samples of 0~20 cm soil layer after simulating atmospheric nitrogen deposition for 42 months (broad-leaved forest), 31 months (Pinus massoniana forest), 50 months (mixed forest), and 20 months (the young plantation), and analysed the soil properties, to discuss the effects of different nitrogen deposition levels on the soil properties of different forest types. The results showed that, (1) the simulated nitrogen deposition appeared the similar tendency towards the effects on soil pH values of the broad-leaved forest, Pinus massoniana forest, and mixed forest in Dinghushan Mountain, forcing the pH values to drop. Among them, when the nitrogen deposition was at N10 level

  18. [Seasonal dynamics of soil organic carbon mineralization for two forest types in Xiaoxing'an Mountains, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Fei; Lin, Wei; Cui, Xiao-yang

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the seasonal dynamics of soil organic carbon (SOC) mineralization in Xiaoxing'an Mountain, we incubated soil samples collected from virgin Korean pine forest and broad-leaved secondary forest in different seasons in the laboratory and measured the SOC mineralization rate and cumulative SOC mineralization (Cm). We employed simultaneous reaction model to describe C mineralization kinetics and estimated SOC mineralization parameters including soil easily mineralizable C (C1), potentially mineralizable C (C₀). We also analyzed the relations between Cm, C₁and their influencing factors. Results showed that the incubated SOC mineralization rate and Cm for 0-5 cm soil layer decreased from early spring to late autumn, while for 5-10 cm soil layer the seasonal variation was not statistically significant for both forest types. The C₁ in 0-5 and 5-10 cm soil layers varied from 42.92-92.18 and 19.23-32.95 mg kg⁻¹, respectively, while the C₀ in 0-5 and 5-10 cm soil layers varied from 863.92-3957.15 and 434.15-865.79 mg · kg⁻¹, respec- tively. Both C₁ and C₀ decreased from early spring to late autumn. The proportions of C₀ in SOC for two forest types were 0.74%-2.78% and 1.11%-1.84% in 0-5 and 5-10 cm soil layers, respectively, and decreased from early spring to late autumn, indicating that SOC tended to become more stable as a whole from spring to autumn. The Cm and C₀ were significantly positively correlated to in situ soil water content and hot water-extractable carbohydrate content, but were not correlated to in situ soil temperature and cool water-extractable carbohydrate content. We concluded that soil labile organic carbon, soil physical and chemical properties contributed to the seasonal dynamics of SOC mineralization in the forests. PMID:27228587

  19. PRODUCTIVE BEHAVIOR OF EUCALYPTUS AND ACACIA, IN DIFFERENT ARRANGEMENTS OF CROP-LIVESTOCK-FOREST INTEGRATION

    OpenAIRE

    Fabiana Lopes Ramos de Oliveira; Christian Dias Cabacinha; Leonardo David Tuffi Santos; Dalvânia Gomes Barroso; Antônio dos Santos Júnior; Matheus Caldeira Brant; Regynaldo Arruda Sampaio

    2015-01-01

    The objective was to evaluate initial growth of clonal Eucalyptus, hybrid Eucalyptus grandis x E. urophylla and Acacia (Acacia mangium) trees in alternate and not alternate rows of trees, intercropped with forage (crop-livestock-forest integration - CLFI) and monoculture. The design was a randomized complete block design with four replications, three arboreal arrangements consisting of eucalyptus, acacia + eucalyptus, acacia, all planted in crop-livestock-forest integration and...

  20. Forest-fire models as a bridge between different paradigms in Self-Organized Criticality

    OpenAIRE

    Sinha-Ray, Proshun; JENSEN, Henrik Jeldtoft

    1999-01-01

    We turn the stochastic critical forest-fire model introduced by Drossel and Schwabl (PRL 69, 1629, 1992) into a deterministic threshold model. This new model has many features in common with sandpile and earthquake models of Self-Organized Criticality. Nevertheless our deterministic forest-fire model exhibits in detail the same macroscopic statistical properties as the original Drossel and Schwabl model. We use the deterministic model and a related semi-deterministic version of the model to e...

  1. Random Forests Are Able to Identify Differences in Clotting Dynamics from Kinetic Models of Thrombin Generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arumugam, Jayavel; Bukkapatnam, Satish T S; Narayanan, Krishna R; Srinivasa, Arun R

    2016-01-01

    Current methods for distinguishing acute coronary syndromes such as heart attack from stable coronary artery disease, based on the kinetics of thrombin formation, have been limited to evaluating sensitivity of well-established chemical species (e.g., thrombin) using simple quantifiers of their concentration profiles (e.g., maximum level of thrombin concentration, area under the thrombin concentration versus time curve). In order to get an improved classifier, we use a 34-protein factor clotting cascade model and convert the simulation data into a high-dimensional representation (about 19000 features) using a piecewise cubic polynomial fit. Then, we systematically find plausible assays to effectively gauge changes in acute coronary syndrome/coronary artery disease populations by introducing a statistical learning technique called Random Forests. We find that differences associated with acute coronary syndromes emerge in combinations of a handful of features. For instance, concentrations of 3 chemical species, namely, active alpha-thrombin, tissue factor-factor VIIa-factor Xa ternary complex, and intrinsic tenase complex with factor X, at specific time windows, could be used to classify acute coronary syndromes to an accuracy of about 87.2%. Such a combination could be used to efficiently assay the coagulation system. PMID:27171403

  2. Random Forests Are Able to Identify Differences in Clotting Dynamics from Kinetic Models of Thrombin Generation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayavel Arumugam

    Full Text Available Current methods for distinguishing acute coronary syndromes such as heart attack from stable coronary artery disease, based on the kinetics of thrombin formation, have been limited to evaluating sensitivity of well-established chemical species (e.g., thrombin using simple quantifiers of their concentration profiles (e.g., maximum level of thrombin concentration, area under the thrombin concentration versus time curve. In order to get an improved classifier, we use a 34-protein factor clotting cascade model and convert the simulation data into a high-dimensional representation (about 19000 features using a piecewise cubic polynomial fit. Then, we systematically find plausible assays to effectively gauge changes in acute coronary syndrome/coronary artery disease populations by introducing a statistical learning technique called Random Forests. We find that differences associated with acute coronary syndromes emerge in combinations of a handful of features. For instance, concentrations of 3 chemical species, namely, active alpha-thrombin, tissue factor-factor VIIa-factor Xa ternary complex, and intrinsic tenase complex with factor X, at specific time windows, could be used to classify acute coronary syndromes to an accuracy of about 87.2%. Such a combination could be used to efficiently assay the coagulation system.

  3. Snow gliding and loading under two different forest stands:a case study in the north-western Italian Alps

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Davide Viglietti; Margherita Maggioni; Enrico Bruno; Ermanno Zanini; Michele Freppaz

    2013-01-01

    The presence of a thick snowpack could interfere with forest stability, especially on steep slopes with potential damages for young and old stands. The study of snow gliding in forests is rather complex be-cause this phenomenon could be influenced not only by forest features, but also by snow/soil interface characteristics, site morphology, meteoro-logical conditions and snow physical properties. Our starting hypothesis is that different forest stands have an influence on the snowpack evolu-tion and on the temperature and moisture at the snow/soil interface, which subsequently could affect snow gliding processes and snow forces. The aim of this work is therefore to analyse the snowpack evolution and snow gliding movements under different forest covers, in order to deter-mine the snow forces acting on single trees. The study site is located in a subalpine forest in Aosta Valley (NW-Italy) and includes two plots at the same altitude, inclination and aspect but with different tree composition:Larch (Larix decidua) and Spruce (Picea abies). The plots were equipped with moisture and temperature sensors placed at the snow/soil interface and glide shoes for continuous monitoring of snow gliding. The recorded data were related to periodically monitored snowpack and snow/soil in-terface properties. Data were collected during two winter seasons (2009-10 and 2010-11). The snow forces on trees were analytically calculated either from snowpack data and site morphology or also from measured snow gliding rates. Different snow accumulations were observed under the two different forest stands, with a significant effect on temperature and moisture at the snow/soil interface. The highest snow gliding rates were observed under Larch and were related to rapid increases in mois-ture at the snow/soil interface. The calculated snow forces were generally lower than the threshold values reported for tree uprooting due to snow gliding, as confirmed by the absence of tree damages in the

  4. Satellite Derived Forest Phenology and Its Relation with Nephropathia Epidemica in Belgium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Miguel Barrios

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The connection between nephropathia epidemica (NE and vegetation dynamics has been emphasized in recent studies. Changing climate has been suggested as a triggering factor of recently observed epidemiologic peaks in reported NE cases. We have investigated whether there is a connection between the NE occurrence pattern in Belgium and specific trends in remotely sensed phenology parameters of broad-leaved forests. The analysis of time series of the MODIS Enhanced Vegetation Index revealed that changes in forest phenology, considered in literature as an effect of climate change, may affect the mechanics of NE transmission.

  5. Ectomycorrhizas naturally established in Nothofagus nervosa seedlings under different cultivation practices in a forest nursery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, Natalia V; Marchelli, Paula; Fontenla, Sonia B

    2013-10-01

    Mycorrhizas are mutualistic associations between soil fungi and plant roots which usually improve water and nutrient uptake, influencing plant fitness. Nothofagus nervosa (Raulí) is an ecologically and economically important species of South American temperate forests. Since this native tree species yields valuable timber, it was overexploited and its natural distribution area was critically reduced, so it is currently included in domestication and conservation programs. Among the factors that should be considered in these programs are the ectomycorrhizas (EcM), which would be important for the successful establishment and survival of outplanted seedlings. The aim of this work was to analyze the abundance and diversity of EcM in N. nervosa nursery-cultivated seedlings assessed by morphotyping, fungal isolation, and DNA sequencing. Arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM) occurrence was also studied. A 2-year trial was conducted following the cultivation conditions used for domestication programs. Seedlings were cultivated under two different cultivation practices (greenhouse and nursery soil) without artificial inoculation of mycorrhizal fungi. Seedlings' roots were examined at different times. It was observed that they developed EcM between 6 and 12 months after germination and AMs were not detected in any plant. The most abundant ectomycorrhizal fungi present in seedlings' roots were Tomentella ellisii (Basidiomycota) and an unidentified fungus named Ascomicetous EcM sp. 1. Abundance and diversity of EcM varied between the two cultivation techniques analyzed in this study, since seedlings that continued growing in the greenhouse had higher colonization values, but those transplanted to the nursery soil were colonized by a higher diversity of fungal taxa. PMID:23636582

  6. Structure of the herb stratum under different light regimes in the Submontane Atlantic Rain Forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, R A F; Gandolfi, S

    2009-05-01

    This study aimed to characterize the structure of the herb stratum in relation to light availability in the Submontane Atlantic Rain Forest at the Carlos Botelho State Park, SP, Brazil. Fortyone 10 x10 m plots were established under the closed canopy (18 plots), small and medium canopy gaps (11) and large canopy gaps dominated by Guadua tagoara (Ness) Kunth (12). Inside each plot, the line intercept method was applied to assess soil coverage as an estimate of density of herb stratum vegetation. Hemispherical photographs were taken at the centre of the plots to evaluate the annual light regime. Overall, Calathea communis Wanderley and S. Vieira had the greater mean coverage, followed by woody seedlings, ground ferns and other herbs (mainly, Araceae, Acanthaceae, Amaranthaceae and Cyperaceae). There were strong correlations among several groups of the herb stratum, such as the negative correlations between woody seedlings with the coverage of C. communis and with rocks. The analysis of the hemispherical photographs confirmed the difference among environments that led to significant differences in the soil coverage of the herb stratum vegetation but woody seedlings. For instance, C. communis showed great coverage in large gaps while ferns were more abundant in small and medium gaps and in the understorey. Other herbs, in turn, demonstrated bigger soil coverage in small and medium gaps. Although this study represents a rough assessment of the structure and composition of the herb stratum, the results found here illustrated the evident relation between herb species density and the environmental variation promoted by changes on canopy structure and topography. PMID:19675929

  7. Forest area assessment in the Slovenian forest inventory design

    OpenAIRE

    Hladnik, David; Žižek Kulovec, Laura

    2012-01-01

    In Slovenia, data on forest area are obtained within the framework of forest management planning and data of the actual agriculture and forest land use. The article shows the differences in the assessment methodology of forest cover and spatial structure of forests. In accordance with the concept of national forest inventories, the article suggests upgrading of the existing concept of forest inventories which, in the last decade, have been subordinate to forest management areas and difference...

  8. ECOLOGICAL FEATURES OF ALGAE COMMUNITIES IN FOREST FLOOR OF PINE PLANTATIONS OF DIFFERENT TYPES OF LANDSCAPES IN STEPPE AREA OF UKRAINE

    OpenAIRE

    Maltsev Yevhen

    2013-01-01

    The steppe zone of Ukraine features a large variety of types of natural landscapes that together significantly differ in microclimatic, soil, hydrological and geobotanic conditions. Such a diversity of forest conditions affects not only the trees, but also on all biotic components of forest ecosystems including algae. Purpose of the study was establish systematic position of species, dominant and subdominant, leading families of algae for plantings in forest floor of pine plantations of the v...

  9. Nitrogen oxides emission from two beech forests subjected to different nitrogen loads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Kitzler

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available We analysed nitrogen oxides (N2O, NO and NO2 and carbon dioxide (CO2 emissions from two beech forest soils close to Vienna, Austria, which were exposed to different nitrogen input from the atmosphere. The site Schottenwald (SW received 22.6 kg N y-1 and Klausenleopoldsdorf (KL 13.5 kg N y-1 through wet and dry deposition. Nitrogen oxide emissions from soil were measured hourly with an automatic dynamic chamber system. Daily N2O measurements were carried out by an automatic gas sampling system. Measurements of nitrous oxide (N2O and CO2 emissions were conducted over larger areas on a biweekly (SW or monthly (KL basis by manually operated chambers. We used an autoregression procedure (time-series analysis for establishing time-lagged relationships between N-oxide emissions and different climate, soil chemistry and N-deposition data. It was found that changes in soil moisture and soil temperature significantly effected CO2 and N-oxide emissions with a time lag of up to two weeks and could explain up to 95% of the temporal variations of gas emissions. Event emissions after rain or during freezing and thawing cycles contributed significantly (for NO 50% to overall N-oxides emissions. In the two-year period of analysis the annual gaseous N2O losses at SW ranged from 0.65 to 0.77 kg N ha-1 y-1 and NO losses were 0.18 to 0.67 kg N ha-1 per vegetation period. In KL significantly lower annual N2O emissions (0.52 kg N2O-N kg ha-1 y-1 as well as considerably lower NO-losses were observed. During a three-month measurement campaign NO losses at KL were 0.02 kg, whereas in the same time period significantly more NO was emitted in SW (0.32 kg NO-N ha-1. Higher N-oxide emissions, especially NO emissions from the high N-input site (SW indicate that atmospheric

  10. Migration of 137Cs and 134Cs in different forest soil layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caesium-134 and 137Cs measurements in about 250 samples from L-, Of-, Oh-, Ah- and B-horizons of a Bavarian forest from 1987 to 1994 are analysed with respect to migration by using a compartment model. The derived ecological half-lives are 2.8 years, 3.8 years, 4.4 years and 7.7 years, respectively. By using these results, caesium behaviour can be predicted for about 25 years. The resulting profile is similar to that found nowadays for weapons fallout caesium, migrating within about 25 years in the same forest. Therefore, the model is suitable for the estimation of future behaviour of radiocaesium in the forest investigated for a period of about 25 years after deposition. (Author)

  11. Different harvest intensity and soil CO2 efflux in sessile oak coppice forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darenova E

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Soil CO2 efflux accounts for about 45-80% of total ecosystem respiration and is therefore an important part of the ecosystem carbon cycle. Soil CO2 efflux has been poorly studied in forests managed in the ancient coppicing manner. In our study, soil CO2 efflux, temperature, and moisture were measured in sessile oak stands with different harvesting intensity (control: 0% intensity; V1: 75%; V2: 80 %; V3: 85%; and V4: 100% during the fifth and sixth years after harvesting. Soil CO2 efflux was in the range 2-8 µmol CO2 m-2 s-1 and indicated an increasing pattern with increasing harvesting intensity. The slope of that pattern became less steep from the fifth to the sixth year after harvesting, thus indicating gradual recovery of soil carbon dynamics in the coppiced stand toward the equilibrium state existing before harvesting. Temperature sensitivity of soil CO2 efflux ranged between 2.1 and 2.8, with the lowest values measured in the control stand. Soil CO2 efflux in the control stand was more sensitive to changes in soil moisture than was that on harvested plots. By our calculations, 6.2 tC ha-1 was released from the control stand and 6.2-6.8 tC ha-1 from the harvested stands during the sixth year after harvesting. If mean temperature were to rise by 1 °C, the amount of soil carbon released would increase by 7.7% in the control stand and, depending on harvesting intensity, by 9.0-10.8% in the harvested stands.

  12. Calibration and assessment of seasonal changes in leaf area index of a tropical dry forest in different stages of succession.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalácska, M; Calvo-Alvarado, J C; Sánchez-Azofeifa, G A

    2005-06-01

    A simple measure of the amount of foliage present in a forest is leaf area index (LAI; the amount of foliage per unit ground surface area), which can be determined by optical estimation (gap fraction method) with an instrument such as the Li-Cor LAI-2000 Plant Canopy Analyzer. However, optical instruments such as the LAI-2000 cannot directly differentiate between foliage and woody components of the canopy. Studies investigating LAI and its calibration (extracting foliar LAI from optical estimates) in tropical forests are rare. We calibrated optical estimates of LAI from the LAI-2000 with leaf litter data for a tropical dry forest. We also developed a robust method for determining LAI from leaf litter data in a tropical dry forest environment. We found that, depending on the successional stage of the canopy and the season, the LAI-2000 may underestimate LAI by 17% to over 40%. In the dry season, the instrument overestimated LAI by the contribution of the woody area index. Examination of the seasonal variation in LAI for three successional stages in a tropical dry forest indicated differences in timing of leaf fall according to successional stage and functional group (i.e., lianas and trees). We conclude that when calculating LAI from optical estimates, it is necessary to account for the differences between values obtained from optical and semi-direct techniques. In addition, to calculate LAI from litter collected in traps, specific leaf area must be calculated for each species rather than from a mean value for multiple species. PMID:15805093

  13. Narrowband Bio-Indicator Monitoring of Temperate Forest Carbon Fluxes in Northeastern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quanzhou Yu

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Developments in hyperspectral remote sensing techniques during the last decade have enabled the use of narrowband indices to evaluate the role of forest ecosystem variables in estimating carbon (C fluxes. In this study, narrowband bio-indicators derived from EO-1 Hyperion data were investigated to determine whether they could capture the temporal variation and estimate the spatial variability of forest C fluxes derived from eddy covariance tower data. Nineteen indices were divided into four categories of optical indices: broadband, chlorophyll, red edge, and light use efficiency. Correlation tests were performed between the selected vegetation indices, gross primary production (GPP, and ecosystem respiration (Re. Among the 19 indices, five narrowband indices (Chlorophyll Index RedEdge 710, scaled photochemical reflectance index (SPRI*enhanced vegetation index (EVI, SPRI*normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI, MCARI/OSAVI[705, 750] and the Vogelmann Index, and one broad band index (EVI had R-squared values with a good fit for GPP and Re. The SPRI*NDVI has the highest significant coefficients of determination with GPP and Re (R2 = 0.86 and 0.89, p < 0.0001, respectively. SPRI*NDVI was used in atmospheric inverse modeling at regional scales for the estimation of C fluxes. We compared the GPP spatial patterns inversed from our model with corresponding results from the Vegetation Photosynthesis Model (VPM, the Boreal Ecosystems Productivity Simulator model, and MODIS MOD17A2 products. The inversed GPP spatial patterns from our model of SPRI*NDVI had good agreement with the output from the VPM model. The normalized difference nitrogen index was well correlated with measured C net ecosystem exchange. Our findings indicated that narrowband bio-indicators based on EO-1 Hyperion images could be used to predict regional C flux variations for Northeastern China’s temperate broad-leaved Korean pine forest ecosystems.

  14. Soil Enzyme Activity Changes in Different-Aged Spruce Forests of the Eastern Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Yong-Mei; ZHOU Guo-Yi; WU Ning; BAO Wei-Kai

    2004-01-01

    Activities of selected soil enzymes (invertase, acid phosphatase, proteinase, catalase, peroxidase and polyphenoloxidase) were determined under different spruce forests with restoration histories of 5, 13, 18, 23, 27 years and an old growth forest over 400 years old in the eastern Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau, China, and their possible use as indicators of ecosystems health were analyzed. Plots 10 × 10 m with 4 replications were established to investigate three hypotheses: soil enzyme activities a) would increase with the restoration process; b) would be greater in surface soils than at lower depths; and c)would be correlated to selected physicochemical properties. Results showed that as the forests developed after restoration,invertase and peroxidase activities usually increased up to the 23 year point. Also soil enzyme activities were associated with surface soils and decreased with depths, suggesting that in earlier restoration stages surface addition of organic fertilizer to soils might be more effective than additions at depth. In the 0-20 cm soil, there were significant correlations (P < 0.01 or < 0.05) between some soil enzyme activities and some selected chemical properties. Therefore, temporal changes in enzyme activities should be included as an indicator when evaluating sustainable forest management practices.

  15. Quantifying Forest Spatial Pattern Trends at Multiple Extents: An Approach to Detect Significant Changes at Different Scales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludovico Frate

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available We propose a procedure to detect significant changes in forest spatial patterns and relevant scales. Our approach consists of four sequential steps. First, based on a series of multi-temporal forest maps, a set of geographic windows of increasing extents are extracted. Second, for each extent and date, specific stochastic simulations that replicate real-world spatial pattern characteristics are run. Third, by computing pattern metrics on both simulated and real maps, their empirical distributions and confidence intervals are derived. Finally, multi-temporal scalograms are built for each metric. Based on cover maps (1954, 2011 with a resolution of 10 m we analyze forest pattern changes in a central Apennines (Italy reserve at multiple spatial extents (128, 256 and 512 pixels. We identify three types of multi-temporal scalograms, depending on pattern metric behaviors, describing different dynamics of natural reforestation process. The statistical distribution and variability of pattern metrics at multiple extents offers a new and powerful tool to detect forest variations over time. Similar procedures can (i help to identify significant changes in spatial patterns and provide the bases to relate them to landscape processes; (ii minimize the bias when comparing pattern metrics at a single extent and (iii be extended to other landscapes and scales.

  16. Soil inorganic N leaching in edges of different forest types subject to high N deposition loads

    OpenAIRE

    Wuyts, Karen; De Schrijver, An; Staelens, Jeroen; Van Nevel, Lotte; Adriaenssens, Sandy; Verheyen, Kris

    2011-01-01

    We report on soil leaching of dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) along transects across exposed edges of four coniferous and four deciduous forest stands. In a 64-m edge zone, DIN leaching below the main rooting zone was enhanced relative to the interior (at 128 m from the edge) by 21 and 14 kg N ha-1 y-1 in the coniferous and deciduous forest stands, respectively. However, the patterns of DIN leaching did not univocally reflect those of DIN throughfall deposition. DIN leaching in the first 2...

  17. Initial growth of six forest tree species in differents spacing conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel Ferreira do Nascimento; Paulo Sérgio dos Santos Leles; Sílvio Nolasco de Oliveira Neto; Rodrigo Teixeira Soares Moreira; Jorge Makhlouta Alonso

    2012-01-01

    This work veriflied the influence of planting spacing on the initial growth of six forest species, at the age of 22 months, in plantations of forest recomposition in the Guandu River Basin. The experiment was installed in the SFE - thermoelectric power plants Barbosa Lima Sobrinho, located in the City of Seropédica-RJ. Forty eight tree species were planted, using the spacings, 1.0 x 1.0, 1.5 x 1.5, 2.0 and 2.0 x 3.0 x 2.0 m, which are the study treatments. At 22 months after planting, it was ...

  18. Comparison of different real time VOC measurement techniques in a ponderosa pine forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Kaser

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Volatile organic compound (VOC mixing ratios measured by five independent instruments are compared at a forested site dominated by ponderosa pine (Pinus Ponderosa during the BEACHON-ROCS field study in summer 2010. The instruments included a Proton Transfer Reaction Time of Flight Mass Spectrometer (PTR-TOF-MS, a Proton Transfer Reaction Quadrupole Mass Spectrometer (PTR-MS, a Fast Online Gas-Chromatograph coupled to a Mass Spectrometer (GC/MS; TOGA, a Thermal Dissociation Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometer (PAN-CIMS and a Fiber Laser-Induced Fluorescence Instrument (FILIF. The species discussed in this comparison include the most important biogenic VOCs and a selected suite of oxygenated VOCs that are thought to dominate the VOC reactivity at this particular site as well as typical anthropogenic VOCs that showed low mixing ratios at this site. Good agreement was observed for methanol, the sum of the oxygenated hemiterpene 2-methyl-3-buten-2-ol (MBO and the hemiterpene isoprene, acetaldehyde, the sum of acetone and propanal, benzene and the sum of methyl ethyl ketone (MEK and butanal. Measurements of the above VOCs conducted by different instruments agree within 20%. The ability to differentiate the presence of toluene and cymene by PTR-TOF-MS is tested based on a comparison with GC-MS measurements, suggesting a study-average relative contribution of 74% for toluene and 26% for cymene. Similarly, 2-hydroxy-2-methylpropanal (HMPR is found to interfere with the sum of methyl vinyl ketone and methacrolein (MVK+MAC using PTR-(TOF-MS at this site. A study-average relative contribution of 85% for MVK+MAC and 15% for HMPR was determined. The sum of monoterpenes measured by PTR-MS and PTR-TOF-MS was generally 20–25% higher than the sum of speciated monoterpenes measured by TOGA, which included α-pinene, β-pinene, camphene, carene, myrcene, limonene, cineole as well as other terpenes. However, this difference is consistent throughout the

  19. Comparison of different real time VOC measurement techniques in a ponderosa pine forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Kaser

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Volatile organic compound (VOC mixing ratios measured by five independent instruments are compared at a forested site dominated by ponderosa pine (Pinus Ponderosa during the BEACHON-ROCS field study in summer 2010. The instruments included a Proton Transfer Reaction Time of Flight Mass Spectrometer (PTR-TOF-MS, a Proton Transfer Reaction Quadrupole Mass Spectrometer (PTR-MS, a Fast Online Gas-Chromatograph coupled to a Mass Spectrometer (GC/MS; TOGA, a Thermal Dissociation Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometer (PAN-CIMS and a Fiber Laser-Induced Fluorescence Instrument (FILIF. The species discussed in this comparison include the most important biogenic VOCs and a selected suite of oxygenated VOCs that are thought to dominate the VOC reactivity at this particular site as well as typical anthropogenic VOCs that showed low mixing ratios at this site. Good agreement was observed for methanol, the sum of the oxygenated hemiterpene 2-methyl-3-buten-2-ol (MBO and the hemiterpene isoprene, acetaldehyde, the sum of acetone and propanal, benzene and the sum of methyl ethyl ketone (MEK and butanal. Measurements of the above VOCs conducted by different instruments agree within 20%. The ability to differentiate the presence of toluene and cymene by PTR-TOF-MS is tested based on a comparison with GC-MS measurements, suggesting a study-average relative contribution of 74% for toluene and 26% for cymene. Similarly, 2-hydroxy-2-methylpropanal (HMPR is found to interfere with the sum of methyl vinyl ketone and methacrolein (MVK + MAC using PTR-(TOF-MS at this site. A study-average relative contribution of 85% for MVK + MAC and 15% for HMPR was determined. The sum of monoterpenes measured by PTR-MS and PTR-TOF-MS was generally 20–25% higher than the sum of speciated monoterpenes measured by TOGA, which included α-pinene, β-pinene, camphene, carene, myrcene, limonene, cineole as well as other terpenes. However, this difference is consistent throughout the study

  20. Differences in arthropod communities between island and inland Masson pine forests infested by pine wilt disease in Zhejiang Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Hai-wei; LUO You-qing; SHI Juan; YAN Xiao-su; CHEN Wei-ping; JIANG Ping

    2008-01-01

    The invasion of Bursaphelenchus xylophilus (pine wood nematode, PWN) carried by Monochamus alternatus predominately attacks Masson pine (Pinus massoniana) forests and causes great economic losses in China. In this study, we assessed whether the effect of the invasion of PWN is different between island and inland forests. Arthropods were sampled in Fuyang (inland) and Zhoushan (island) counties in Zhejiang Province with sweep netting and light traps at four plots. During two field periods (May to June 2004 and September to October 2005) a total of 21,916 insects, representing 384 species belonging to 99 families and 15 orders,were collected in the sample plots from the island, whereas, from the inland forest a total of 29,262 insects, representing 308 species belonging to 96 families and 13 orders, were found. A hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) and one-way ANOVA, based on the composition of different arthropod guilds, were performed. The results showed that there was no significant difference in the composition of arthropod communities at the family level between inland and island. But these two habitats had a significant effect on the composition of species, individuals, sub-communities and energy class levels. Statistically, the composition of the two orders, Lepidoptera and Diptera, in the two habitats were significantly different.

  1. Soil Water Contents of Different Vegetation Types in the Ecotone between Dry-hot Valleys and Mountain Forest in the Upper Reaches of the Minjiang River%岷江上游山地森林/干旱河谷交错带几种植被类型土壤含水量研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡天钧; 周义贵; 冯毅; 宋鹏

    2011-01-01

    The soil water content is an important mark of the soil quality. It affects not only the physicochemical properties hut also distribution and absorption of mineral nutrients of plant, and at the same time it has the influence on the change of soil heat flux. The drying method and cutting-ring method were used to determine the physical properties of soil, and emphasis was to know the change of 0 - 40cm soil water content under different vegetation types in this area. Through determining soil water content in April, July, September and November, the results showed that the soil water content reached maximum value in September under the same vegetation types except the shrub land, and displayed positive correlation with the rainy season of this area, under the shrub land it continued to increase from April to November in 2007. In the same month,the status of soil water content under different vegetation types was: secondary forest 〉 Populus mixed with Salix 〉 shrub land 〉 needle-broad leaved mixed forest 〉 black locust forest 〉 steep waste land 〉 fiat waste land 〉 Cupressus chengiana forest, but in September and November, the soil water content under the shrub land was more than that under the other vegetation types.%采用烘干法和环刀法对土壤物理性质进行了测定,目的是为了重点了解岷江上游山地森林/干旱河谷交错带的不同植被类型下0~40cm土壤含水量的变化。经过2007年4月、7月、9月、11月四个不同时期的测定,结果表明:同一植被类型下(除灌木林地)土壤含水量9月份的最大,与当地的雨季呈现同增同减的关系,而灌木林地下的呈现从4月到11月的持续增加的变化。在同一月份中,不同植被下的土壤含水状况为:次生林地〉杨柳混交林地〉灌木林地〉针阔混交林地〉刺槐林地〉陡荒地〉平荒地〉岷江柏林地的变化关系,但是在9月和11月中,灌木林地下的

  2. 广东南岭国家级自然保护森林景观格局分析%Analysis of Forest Landscape Pattern in Nanling National Nature Reserve, Guangdong

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    廖芳均; 何嘉

    2013-01-01

    [Objective] The study was to analyze the forest landscape in Nanling Na-tional Nature Reserve to provide information for the protection of local forest ecosys-tems. [Method] With the documents of 1∶10 000 topographic maps, updated Forest Resource Inventory Data, based on the GIS platform and Fragstats software, the paper analyzed the patterns and heterogeneity of forest landscapes by adopting the landscape ecological theory and the method of landscape index. [Result] The forest landscape types, in terms of area occupation from large to smal , are in the order of evergreen broad-leaved forest, coniferous mixed forest, evergreen and deciduous broad-leaved mixed forest, shrubs, mixed needle leaf forest, suitable land for forest deciduous broad-leaved forest and non-forest. [Conclusion] Overal , the Reserve had maintained sufficient forest landscape diversity with a low level fragmentation. The distribution of various types of forest landscape was extremely uneven, dominated by several types such as evergreen broad-leaved forest, coniferous forest, etc.%[目的]分析南岭国家级自然保护区森林景观格局,为该保护区的森林生态系统的保护提供支持。[方法]以1∶10000地形图、森林资源二类调查数据和实地补充调查数据为基础资料,基于GIS平台和 Fragstats软件,运用景观生态学原理和景观指数分析方法,对研究区内森林景观的格局和异质性进行分析。[结果]森林景观类型面积大小依次为常绿阔叶林、针叶林、针阔混交林、阔叶混交林、灌丛、针叶混交林、宜林地、落叶阔叶林和非林地。[结论]研究区域森林景观格局分析表明,保护区景观异质性较高,连通性较好,破碎化程度不明显,各景观组分的面积和比例分布极不均衡,常绿阔叶林和针叶林等少数几种组分在景观中占绝对优势。

  3. Gap phase regeneration recruitment of mixed conifer-broadleaf forests in Wolong Nature Reserve

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Juan YANG; Jianping GE; Lijuan LIU; Yi DING; Yingchun TAN

    2009-01-01

    Wolong Nature Reserve is the largest reserve for protecting the endangered wild giant panda. Due to historical factors, even in many sections of the core protection area, the forests have been seriously destroyed and natural forests are poorly restored. However, the relative importance of the determinants for recruitment of communities under disturbance is rarely explored. In our study the endogenous and exterior factors in a forest gap that affect the conifer-broad-leaved mixed forest regeneration were investigated near Wuyipeng, one of the observation stations at Wolong, to explore which determinant had the greatest effect on gap regeneration and to discover the recruitment of seedling establishment in forest gaps. With a linear sampling method, environmental factors, gap characteristics and recruitment of new individuals were measured and examined in every forest gap along three sampling lines. Data of environmental factors in the gaps were collected for a Pearson correlation analysis in order to explore the disturbance and prepro-cessed characteristics of the gaps, using principal component analysis in SPSS. Correlation analysis was applied to further explore the relationship between changes in the gaps and the response of the regenerating seedlings. The results show that a range of natural and human disturbances affected the pattern and characteristics of the forest gaps in this area. The richness in the composition of the seedlings was higher than that of gap makers, but the order of dominance of the composition was different between seedlings and gap makers. The success of dominant species in establishing themselves was affected by different environmental factors. For instance, the establishment of Betula spp. was correlated significantly with topographic factors, while that of Abies faxoniana was affected by soil characteristics and that of Rhododendron spp. correlated significantly with topographic factors and characteristics of gap makers. Moreover, all

  4. Analysis of energetic exchange processes within the two different forest ecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The utilisation of energy within the floodplain forest ecosystem near Lednice - south Moravia, and spruce monoculture ecosystem near Rájec Jestřebí - central Moravia during the years 1988 and 1989 was measured. Net radiation balance, global solar radiation, wet bulb and dry bulb temperatures and soil heat flux directly by instruments and sensors; latent, sensible heat flux and heat flux to the vegetation was calculated. It is possible to say, considering hitherto results, that well watered (groundwater) floodplain forest ecosystem shows greater evapotranspiration and therefore latent heat flux than spruce monoculture. Greater flux of energy was recorded in a daily course of sensible heat flux (65% proportion to net radiation), in contrast with the spruce monoculture. The floodplain forest latent heat flux proportion to net radiation was found to be variable within the growing season; in the middle of the vegetation period (from June to August) it reached the value of about 70%, at the end (in October) of about 20%. The estimation of the floodplain forest actual evapotranspiration was possible almost all over the season, the actual evapotranspiration reached its maximum of about 0.72 mm/square m per h one hour after the maximum of radiation balance. The time lag of about 4 hours was observed when compared the diurnal course of air humidity gradient to the air temperature gradient above the forest canopy. This phenomenon caused the left side asymmetry of the diurnal course of the Bowen ratio. It was not possible to measure the spruce monoculture latent heat flux all over the season, probably due to smaller gradient of the air humidity although it was measured across at greater distance than in the floodplain forest (12 m in comparison with 9 m). The values of the second half of May and the first half of June ones were at our disposal only. The spruce monoculture latent heat flux proportion to radiation balance was found about 25%, the actual evapotranspiration

  5. Girdling Affects Ectomycorrhizal Fungal (EMF) Diversity and Reveals Functional Differences in EMF Community Composition in a Beech Forest

    OpenAIRE

    Pena, R.; Offermann, C.; Simon, J.; Naumann, P. S.; Gessler, A.; Holst, J; Dannenmann, M.; Mayer, H.; Kogel-Knabner, I.; Rennenberg, H.; Polle, A.

    2010-01-01

    The relationships between plant carbon resources, soil carbon and nitrogen content, and ectomycorrhizal fungal (EMF) diversity in a monospecific, old-growth beech (Fagus sylvatica) forest were investigated by manipulating carbon flux by girdling. We hypothesized that disruption of the carbon supply would not affect diversity and EMF species numbers if EM fungi can be supplied by plant internal carbohydrate resources or would result in selective disappearance of EMF taxa because of differences...

  6. Effects of precipitation on soil acid phosphatase activity in three successional forests in southern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Huang

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Phosphorus (P is often a limiting nutrient for plant growth in tropical and subtropical forests. Global climate change has led to alterations in precipitation in the recent years, which inevitably influences P cycling. Soil acid phosphatase plays a vital role in controlling P mineralization, and its activity reflects the capacity of organic P mineralization potential in soils. In order to study the effects of precipitation on soil acid phosphatase activity, an experiment with precipitation treatments (no precipitation, natural precipitation and doubled precipitation in three successional forests in southern China was carried out. The three forests include Masson pine forest (MPF, coniferous and broad-leaved mixed forest (MF and monsoon evergreen broad-leaved forest (MEBF. Results showed that driven by seasonality of precipitation, changes in soil acid phosphatase activities coincided with the seasonal climate pattern, with significantly higher values in the wet season than in the dry season. Soil acid phosphatase activities were closely linked to forest successional stages, with enhanced values in the later stages of forest succession. In the dry season, soil acid phosphatase activities in the three forests showed a rising trend with increasing precipitation treatments. In the wet season, soil acid phosphatase activity was depressed by no precipitation treatment in the three forests. However, doubled precipitation treatment exerted a significantly negative effect on it only in MEBF. These results indicate that the potential transformation rate of organic P might be more dependent on water in the dry season than in the wet season. A decrease in organic P turnover would occur in the three forests if there was a drought in a whole year in the future. More rainfall in the wet season would also be adverse to organic P turnover in MEBF due to its high soil moisture.

  7. Modelling of atmospheric boundary-layer flow in complex terrain with different forest parameterizations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work explores the accuracy of two approaches that account for the effects of the forest canopy on the wind flow by using a RANS-based model. The first approach implements additional terms in the RANS equations (canopy model), whilst the second one uses large values of roughness length and a zero-plane displacement height. The model uses a limited-length-scale k-ε turbulence closure that considers processes occurring in the Atmospheric Boundary-Layer (ABL) such as the Coriolis effects. Both the forest and the ABL implementations are compared with experimental data obtained from 118 m high met masts installed in a large mountain- range site with mixed forest characteristics for neutral stability cases. In order to perform a meaningful comparison at multiple mast locations, a novel methodology is presented which allows the selection of a velocity bin for a given wind direction and a stability class that minimizes the error of using short-term measurement periods at some masts compared to long-term wind statistics from a reference mast. Based on the outcome of the model validation it is possible to conclude that more consistent results are obtained by the canopy model since it reduces the uncertainty in the selection of correct input parameters in the large-roughness approach. The errors in the vertical profiles of velocity and turbulence intensity are reduced by the forest model by almost 63% and 11%, respectively, compared to the standard configuration (no forest). The large-roughness method reduces the error in the velocity profiles by 54% while the predictions of turbulence intensity are barely improved

  8. Insect herbivory patterns on leaves of 11 plant species in the evergreen broad-leaved forests of Tiantong National Forest Park, Zhejiang%浙江天童常绿阔叶林中11种常绿乔灌木叶片虫食状分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王宏伟; 蔡永立; 李恺; 江红; 田玉鹏

    2006-01-01

    为探讨昆虫对植物叶片的取食行为和伤害方式,作者选择浙江天童常绿阔叶林内的11种常绿乔灌木为对象,对叶片虫食状类型和格局进行分析.结果如下:(1)共发现16种虫食状类型,每种植物叶片虫食状类型数在10-13种之间,每种虫食状出现频率在0.5-28.7%之间.缘食状出现频率最高(28.7%),虫瘿和泡状出现频率最低(0.5%).(2)叶片虫食状分布格局可分为3种类型,即一种虫食状占绝对优势的单优格局,如马银花(Rhododendron ovatum)和檵木(Loropetalum chinense);两种虫食状(缘食状和顶食状)共占优势的双优格局,仅有木荷(Schima superba);3种及3种以上虫食状占优势的多优格局(其余8种植物).(3)叶片虫食状多样性指数变化在1.57-2.23之间,最高为苦槠(Castanopsis sclerophylla),最低为马银花;乔木的多样性指数(2.040)高于灌木(1.882),优势种多样性指数高于伴生种,但差异均不显著;多样性指数反映了虫食状类型和出现频率的综合差异.(4)16种虫食状类型中有8对显著正相关,4对显著负相关,可能反映出不同类型昆虫取食植物的趋同和差异.

  9. Differences in satellite-derived NOx emission factors between Eurasian and North American boreal forest fires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreier, S. F.; Richter, A.; Schepaschenko, D.; Shvidenko, A.; Hilboll, A.; Burrows, J. P.

    2015-11-01

    Current fire emission inventories apply universal emission factors (EFs) for the calculation of NOx emissions over large biomes such as boreal forest. However, recent satellite-based studies over tropical and subtropical regions have indicated spatio-temporal variations in EFs within specific biomes. In this study, satellite measurements of tropospheric NO2 vertical columns (TVC NO2) from the GOME-2 instrument and fire radiative power (FRP) from MODIS are used for the estimation of fire emission rates (FERs) of NOx over Eurasian and North American boreal forests. The retrieval of TVC NO2 is based on a stratospheric correction using simulated stratospheric NO2 instead of applying the reference sector method, which was used in a previous study. The model approach is more suitable for boreal latitudes. TVC NO2 and FRP are spatially aggregated to a 1° × 1° horizontal resolution and temporally averaged to monthly values. The conversion of the satellite-derived tropospheric NO2 columns into production rates of NOx from fire (Pf) is based on the NO2/NOx ratio as obtained from the MACC reanalysis data set and an assumed lifetime of NOx. A global land cover map is used to define boreal forests across these two regions in order to evaluate the FERs of NOx for this biome. The FERs of NOx, which are derived from the gradients of the linear relationship between Pf and FRP, are more than 30% lower for North American than for Eurasian boreal forest fires. We speculate that these discrepancies are mainly related to the variable nitrogen content in plant tissues, which is higher in deciduous forests dominating large parts in Eurasia. In order to compare the obtained values with EFs found in the literature, the FERs are converted into EFs. The satellite-based EFs of NOx are estimated at 0.83 and 0.61 g kg-1 for Eurasian and North American boreal forests, respectively, which is in good agreement with the value found in a recent emission factor compilation. However, recent fire

  10. Frequency of Low Clouds in Taiwan Retrieved from MODIS Data and Its Relation to Cloud Forest Occurrence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris Thies

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between satellite-derived low cloud frequency and the occurrence of tropical montane cloud forest (TMCF in Taiwan was investigated. From daily MODIS cloud mask products between 2003 and 2012 the low cloud class was extracted and mean low cloud frequency was calculated for Taiwan. This low cloud frequency map was blended with an existing plot-based vegetation classification for Taiwan to analyze the relationship between low cloud frequency and TMCF occurrence. Receiver operating characteristics curves and the area under the ROC curve (AUC were used to analyze if a relationship exists. No relationship was found for all four TMCF types taken together (AUC = 0.61 and for the dominant TMCF type, Quercus montane evergreen broad-leaved cloud forest (AUC = 0.5. Strong relationships were found for the two spatially-restricted TMCF types, Fagus montane deciduous broad-leaved cloud forest (AUC = 0.91 and Pasania-Elaeocarpus montane evergreen broad-leaved forest (AUC = 0.84, as well as for the second dominant type Chamaecyparis montane mixed cloud forest (AUC = 0.74. The results show that low cloud frequency thresholds might be associated with specific cloud forest types in Taiwan. Further studies should incorporate information about cloud base height, cloud density, and cloud immersion time as well as satellite-based cloud frequency information with a higher temporal resolution. Combination with satellite-based land cover classifications for Taiwan would allow quasi-continuous observation of TMCF changes. Such knowledge would be the precondition for effective protective actions concerning this exceptional but threatened ecosystem.

  11. Forest Litter Containing Moisture and Water Storage and Associated Influencing Factors in Rolling Hill Areas of Southern Jiangsu Province%苏南丘陵森林枯落物含水量及其影响因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张增信; 闵俊杰; 闫少锋; 姜志林; 张军; 张菲

    2011-01-01

    Forest litter, which has a high water storage and retention capacity, is an extremely important hydrological component for sustaining water conservation function of the forests.The variations of forest litter containing moisture(FLCM) and forest litter water storage(FLWS) were analyzed in Southern Jiangsu Province, associating with influencing factors such as soil water contents and meteorological parameters.The results show that evergreen broad-leaved, deciduous broad-leaved, pine(Pinus taeda L.), and bamboo forests had FLCM values from high to low, respectively, and similarly, deciduous broad-leaved, evergreen broad-leaved, pine, and bamboo forests had high to low FLWS values.Precipitation had an obvious impact on FLWS, as well as evaporation.The increase of FLCM resulted from precipitation normally had a time lag of 1 to 5 days.Evaporation correlated negatively with FLCM, with correlation coefficients of -0.39,-0.38,-0.13 and -0.32 for deciduous broad-leaved, evergreen broad-leaved, pine, and bamboo forests,respectively.FLWSS of deciduous forests(deciduous broad-leaved and bamboo) are affected by soil moisture contents more significantly than those of evergreen forests(pine and evergreen broad-leaved).FLWSS correlated with soil water contents of 10 cm more closely than those of 20 cm.%森林枯落物是保障森林充分发挥涵养水源功能的一个极其重要的水文层次,具有明显的蓄水、保水作用.通过分析苏南丘陵地区的主要森林类型枯落物含水率、蓄水量及其与土壤含水率和气象因子之间的关系,结果发现,苏南丘陵地区枯落物含水率由大到小依次为;常绿阔叶林、落叶阔叶林、火炬松林、毛竹林;蓄水量由大到小则为;落叶阔叶林、常绿阔叶林、火炬松林、毛竹林.降水和蒸发等气象要素对枯落物含水率有重要影响,一次连续降水会显著增加枯落物含水率,但存在1~5 d的滞后;蒸发量与枯落物含水率呈显著负相关,平

  12. Distribution of Litsea complex (lauraceae) and their association with soil properties in different forest types of Peninsular Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khamis, Shamsul; Nizam, M. S.

    2013-11-01

    A study was conducted at 13 locations of different forest types in Peninsular Malaysia to examine the association between Litsea complex (Lauraceae) and its soil properties. A total of 37 species and 786 individuals were recorded. Soil samples in each study plot were taken and Canonical Correspondence Analysis (CCA) was employed to determine relationships between species of Litsea complex and the edaphic features. This study showed that Machinchang Forest Reserve, Kedah was strongly associated with sand texture while Taman Negara, Pahang was influenced by silt. In other study sites, Bukit Fraser, Pahang was highly influenced by magnesium (Mg); Taman Negara, Pahang was influenced by nitrate nitrogen (NO3-N); and Gunung Belumut, Johor was influenced by elements of sodium (Na+) and ammonium nitrogen (NH4-N). The species distribution shows that Litsea artocarpifolia, Litsea maingayi and Neolitsea villosa were closely related to silt, while Litsea tomentosa and Litseae rectinervia were associated with clay, and Litsea grandis was related to sand. For tenden cyon soil chemical characteristic, Litsea artocarpifolia, Litsea maingayi and Neolitsea villosa were strongly related to nitrate nitrogen (NO3-N) while Litsea tomentosa and Litsea erectinervia were related to potassium (K+). On the other hand, Litsea myristicaefolia was influenced by cation exchange capacity (CEC) and Litsea johorensis was influenced by sodium (Na+). This study indicates that the species distribution of Litsea complex at the different forest types was associated with various soil properties.

  13. Sequential parametric optimization of methane production from different sources of forest raw material

    OpenAIRE

    Matsakas, Leonidas; Rova, Ulrika; Christakopoulos, Paul

    2015-01-01

    The increase in environmental problems and the shortage of fossil fuels have led to the need for action in the development of sustainable and renewable fuels. Methane is produced through anaerobic digestion of organic materials and is a biofuel with very promising characteristics. The success in using methane as a biofuel has resulted in the operation of several commercial-scale plants and the need to exploit novel materials to be used. Forest biomass can serve as an excellent candidate for u...

  14. Comparison of different ground techniques to map leaf area index of Norway spruce forest canopy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Homolová, Lucie; Malenovský, Zbyněk; Hanuš, Jan; Tomášková, Ivana; Dvořáková, Marcela; Pokorný, Radek

    2007 - (Schaepman, M.; Liang, S.; Groot, N.; Kneubühler, M.) ISSN 1682-1777. - (Intl. Archives of the Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Sciences. 36). [10th Intl. Symposium on Physical Measurements and Spectral Signatures in Remote Sensing. Davos (CH), 12.03.2007-14.03.2007] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60870520 Keywords : leaf area index * sampling strategy * PCA LAI-2000 * TRAC * hemispherical photograph * Norway spruce Subject RIV: GK - Forest ry

  15. Comparative phytosociology of tree sinusiae between contiguous forests in different stages of succession

    OpenAIRE

    CAVALCANTE A. DE M. B.; SOARES J. J.; Figueiredo, M.A.

    2000-01-01

    The Baturité Mountain Range, located in the State of Ceará (BRA), displays on its highest levels a vegetation viewed as a disjunction from the Atlantic Forest in the East of Brazil. Among the various attributes associated with this vegetation, the abundance of water resources and a high biodiversity have a more outstanding relevance. However, in view of the current accelerated deforestation process, those attributes may be threatened in a near future. Therefore, the present work is a comparat...

  16. Active and total microbial communities in forest soil are largely different and highly stratified during decomposition

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Baldrian, Petr; Kolařík, Miroslav; Štursová, Martina; Kopecký, J.; Valášková, Vendula; Větrovský, Tomáš; Žifčáková, Lucia; Šnajdr, Jaroslav; Rídl, Jakub; Vlček, Čestmír; Voříšková, Jana

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 6, č. 2 (2012), s. 248-258. ISSN 1751-7362 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA526/08/0751; GA MŠk LC06066 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510; CEZ:AV0Z50520514 Keywords : cellulose decomposition * bacteria * forest soil Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 8.951, year: 2012

  17. Aboveground-belowground biodiversity linkages differ in early and late successional temperate forests

    OpenAIRE

    Hui Li; Xugao Wang; Chao Liang; Zhanqing Hao; Lisha Zhou; Sam Ma; Xiaobin Li; Shan Yang; Fei Yao; Yong Jiang

    2015-01-01

    Understanding ecological linkages between above- and below-ground biota is critical for deepening our knowledge on the maintenance and stability of ecosystem processes. Nevertheless, direct comparisons of plant-microbe diversity at the community level remain scarce due to the knowledge gap between microbial ecology and plant ecology. We compared the α- and β- diversities of plant and soil bacterial communities in two temperate forests that represented early and late successional stages. We do...

  18. Different management regimes in a boreal forest landscape : ecological and economic effects

    OpenAIRE

    Fries, Clas; Lämås, Tomas

    2000-01-01

    Five management regimes were theoretically applied and evaluated in a 10 000 ha boreal forest landscape. Four regimes were designed to enhance conditions for biodiversity conservation, by establishing reserves and by modifying stand management. One regime was purely for timber production. Effects on biodiversity were assessed in terms of changes in population sizes within species or as number of species within ecological groups of the Red-listed species in the landscape. Assessments were base...

  19. Bryophyte flora in upland forests at different successional stages and in the various strata of host trees in northeastern Pará, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Cláudia Caldeira Tavares-Martins

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In the northeastern region of the Brazilian state of Pará, approximately 90% of the forested areas are secondary forests. Secondary forests are interesting areas for floristic studies aimed at determining the effects that clear-cutting has on bryophyte communities. The aim of this study was to compare upland forests at different successional stages and the various strata of host trees, in terms of the bryophyte species composition. Bryophyte specimens were collected between August 2005 and September 2006 from host trees in primary and secondary forests of different ages and of different heights, within the municipality of Capitão Poço, in the state of Pará. The vertical distribution of bryophytes was evaluated in 15 host trees within the primary forest. We identified a total of 99 bryophyte species: 33 mosses and 66 liverworts. The dominant family was Lejeuneaceae, with 56 species. Most of the species (n = 60 had a neotropical distribution, and 3 species were endemic to Brazil. Cololejeunea minutissima var. myriocarpa (Nees & Mont. R.M.Schust., Pycnolejeunea papillosa X.-L. He, Radula mammosa Spruce and Verdoornianthus marsupiifolius (Spruce Gradst. represent new records for the state of Pará. In the successional forests evaluated, we identified 78 species, most of which (n = 38 occurred in primary forest. On the host tree trunks evaluated in the primary forest, we observed 31 species occurring at heights ranging from 2 m to 20 m. Despite the fact that secondary forests account for such a large proportion of the forested areas in Capitão Poço, we found that the bryoflora was relatively rich, comprising 31% of the species recorded for the state. The fact that 40% of the species recorded occurred exclusively in the secondary forests and the fact that 45.5% of the species recorded in primary forest occurred within the 2-20 m height range show the importance of studies focusing on bryophytes in secondary forests and in the upper strata of

  20. EVALUATION OF PHYSICAL ATTRIBUTES OF A DYSTROFERRIC RED LATOSOL (OXISOL UNDER DIFFERENT FOREST SETTLEMENTS

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    Sérgio Gualberto Martins

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the structural quality of a dystroferric Red Latosol (Oxisol under four forest settlements at Federal University of Lavras campus. The studied forest settlements were: Pinus sp. (PP, Eucalyptus sp. (PE, Hevea brasiliensis (PHB, and native forest (PNF. The mean annual precipitation and temperature for the region are 1493 mm and 19.3°C, respectively. For each studied settlement, disturbed and undisturbed samples from 0-5 cm depth were collected. The studied physical attributes were: aggregates stability, expressed through geometric average diameter, porosity distribution, penetration resistance and permeability. The PNF revealed the highest permeability value (139 mm h-1, followed by PHB (57 mm h-1, PP and PE (40 mm h-1. The highest value for penetration resistance was verified for PP, followed by PE and PHB. The smallest value was presented by PNF. Through this study, it can be concluded that the physical attributes, permeability and soil resistance to penetration, utilized as indicators of soil structural quality, present good performance in distinguishing the effects proportionated by the introduction of fast growth species, contributing for the sustainable management of the studied soil.

  1. Environmental measures in forest. Realistic measures for counteracting negative effects of acid precipitation in forest; Miljoetiltak i skog. Realistiske tiltak for aa motvirke negative effekter av sur nedboer i skog

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nilsen, P. [Norsk Inst. for Skogforskning, Aas (Norway)

    1996-01-01

    The conference paper deals with an Norwegian research programme concerning environmental measures for decreasing the effects of acidification in forest areas. This programme, which lasts in a period of five years, will terminate in 1997. An important part of the programme has been to investigate other types of measures than the ordinary methods of liming and fertilizing. In the course of the programme, there was determined to put the attention to the increased use of broad-leaved trees as an alternative in a coniferous forest. 19 refs., 1 fig.

  2. National and global greenhouse gas dynamics of different forest management and wood use scenarios: a model-based assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An increased use of wood products and an adequate management of forests can help to mitigate climate change. However, planning horizons and response time to changes in forest management are usually long and the respective GHG effects related to the use of wood depend on the availability of harvested wood. Therefore, an integral long-term strategic approach is required to formulate the most effective forest and wood management strategies for mitigating climate change. The greenhouse gas (GHG) dynamics related to the production, use and disposal of wood products are manifold and show a complex time pattern. On the one hand, wood products can be considered as a carbon pool, as is the forest itself. On the other hand, an increased use of wood can lead to the substitution of usually more energy-intense materials and to the substitution of fossil fuels when the thermal energy of wood is recovered. Country-specific import/export flows of wood products and their alternative products as well as their processing stage have to be considered if substitution effects are assessed on a national basis. We present an integral model-based approach to evaluate the GHG impacts of various forest management and wood use scenarios. Our approach allows us to analyse the complex temporal and spatial patterns of GHG emissions and removals including trade-offs of different forest management and wood use strategies. This study shows that the contributions of the forestry and timber sector to mitigate climate change can be optimized with the following key recommendations: (1) the maximum possible, sustainable increment should be generated in the forest, taking into account biodiversity conservation as well as the long-term preservation of soil quality and growth performance; (2) this increment should be harvested continuously; (3) the harvested wood should be processed in accordance with the principle of cascade use, i.e. first be used as a material as long as possible, preferably in

  3. Effect of acidic deposition on productivity of forest ecosystem and estimation of its economic losses in southern suburbs of Chongqing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1998-01-01

    In accordance with principle sand methods of ecology,this paper studied the effects of acidic deposition on productivity and volume increment of masson pine and Cinnamomum campora forest which are widely distributed in southern suburbs of Chongqing. Based on the field data and measurements, a multivariable stepwise regression model was established to analyze the effects of multiple environmental factors on the productivity of the forest ecosystems. This model was used to assess the volume and economic losses of these two forest ecosystems caused by acidic deposition. The results showed that, among the environmental factors, pH value of precipitation, soil depth, soil organic contents and slope are the dominant ones influencing the growth of masson pine forest. It is also shown that the acidic deposition has no clear relation to the growth of C.Campora forest, so development of such broad-leaved forest is suitable in the area.

  4. Worker morphology of the ant Gnamptogenys striatula Mayr (Formicidae, Ectatomminae in different landscapes from the Atlantic Forest domain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roseli F. Oliveira

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Morphological traits, such as size and shape, may reflect a combination of ecological and evolutionary responses by organisms. Ants have been used to evaluate the relationship between the environment and species coexistence and morphology. In the present study, we analyzed the morphology of workers of Gnamptogenys striatula Mayr in different landscapes from the Atlantic Domain in southeastern Brazil, focusing on the variation in the morphological attributes of these populations compared to those from a dense ombrophilous forest. Eighteen morphological traits of functional importance for interactions between workers and the environment were measured to characterize the size and shape of the workers. In general, the results show that ants of urban areas possess some morphological attributes of smaller size, with highly overlapped morphological space between the populations in forested ecosystems. Further, some of the traits related to predation were relatively smaller in modified land areas than in the populations from preserved areas of dense ombrophilous forest. These results help broaden the knowledge regarding morphological diversity in G. striatula, suggesting that the characterization of the morphology may be important to quantify the effects of land use on morphological diversity, and presumably, to facilitate the use of ants as biological indicators.

  5. Comparing the impacts of hiking, skiing and horse riding on trail and vegetation in different types of forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Törn, A; Tolvanen, A; Norokorpi, Y; Tervo, R; Siikamäki, P

    2009-03-01

    Nature-based tourism in protected areas has increased and diversified dramatically during the last decades. Different recreational activities have a range of impacts on natural environments. This paper reports results from a comparison of the impacts of hiking, cross-country skiing and horse riding on trail characteristics and vegetation in northern Finland. Widths and depths of existing trails, and vegetation on trails and in the neighbouring forests were monitored in two research sites during 2001 and 2002. Trail characteristics and vegetation were clearly related to the recreational activity, research site and forest type. Horse trails were as deep as hiking trails, even though the annual number of users was 150-fold higher on the hiking trails. Simultaneously, cross-country skiing had the least effect on trails due to the protective snow cover during winter. Hiking trail plots had little or no vegetation cover, horse riding trail plots had lower vegetation cover than forest plots, while skiing had no impact on total vegetation cover. On the other hand, on horse riding trails there were more forbs and grasses, many of which did not grow naturally in the forest. These species that were limited to riding trails may change the structure of adjacent plant communities in the long run. Therefore, the type of activities undertaken and the sensitivity of habitats to these activities should be a major consideration in the planning and management of nature-based tourism. Establishment of artificial structures, such as stairs, duckboards and trail cover, or complete closure of the site, may be the only way to protect the most sensitive or deteriorated sites. PMID:18930578

  6. Carbon and nitrogen accumulation in forest floor and surface soil under different geographic origins of Maritime pine (Pinus pinaster Aiton. plantations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Ozdemir

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim of study : To determine if plantations consisting of different geographic origins of the Maritime pine (Pinus pinaster Aiton. could have altered C and N stocks in the forest floor and surface soils.Area of study : Forest floor and mineral soil C and N stocks were measured in four adjacent plantations of different geographic origins of Maritime pine (Gironde, Toulon, Corsica and Spain and adjacent primary native Sessile oak (Quercus petraea L. at Burunsuz region in Belgrad Forest where is located in the Istanbul province in the Marmara geographical region between 41°09' -41°12' N latitude and 28°54' - 29°00' E longitude in Turkey.Material and Methods : Plots were compared as common garden experiments without replications. 15 surface soil (0-10 cm and 15 forest floor samples were taken from each Maritime pine origins and adjacent native Sessile oak forest. C and N contents were determined on LECO Truspec 2000 CN analyzer. The statistical significance of the results was evaluated by one-way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA.Research highlights : Forest floor carbon mass, nitrogen concentration and nitrogen mass of forest floor showed a significant difference among origins. Soil carbon mass and nitrogen mass did not significantly differ among investigated plots.Keywords: carbon sequestration; C/N ratio; decomposition; exotic; tree provenance.

  7. Carbon and nitrogen accumulation in forest floor and surface soil under different geographic origins of Maritime pine (Pinus pinaster Aiton.) plantations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozdemir, E.; Oral, H. V.; Akburak, S.; Makineci, E.; Yilmaz, E.

    2013-09-01

    Aim of study: To determine if plantations consisting of different geographic origins of the Maritime pine (Pinus pinaster Aiton.) could have altered C and N stocks in the forest floor and surface soils. Area of study: Forest floor and mineral soil C and N stocks were measured in four adjacent plantations of different geographic origins of Maritime pine (Gironde, Toulon, Corsica and Spain) and adjacent primary native Sessile oak (Quercus petraea L.) at Burunsuz region in Belgrad Forest where is located in the Istanbul province in the Marmara geographical region between 41° 09’-41° 12’ N latitude and 28° 54’-29° 00’ E longitude in Turkey. Material and methods: Plots were compared as common garden experiments without replications. 15 surface soil (0-10 cm) and 15 forest floor samples were taken from each Maritime pine origins and adjacent native Sessile oak forest. C and N contents were determined on LECO Truspec 2000 CN analyzer. The statistical significance of the results was evaluated by one-way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA). Research highlights: Forest floor carbon mass, nitrogen concentration and nitrogen mass of forest floor showed a significant difference among origins. Soil carbon mass and nitrogen mass did not significantly differ among investigated plots. (Author)

  8. Mite diversity on plants of different families found in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work reports the occurrence of mites predominantly predatory, phytophagous and with varied feeding habits on plants of the Atlantic Forest vegetation type of the State of Sao Paulo. The objective was to estimate the possible role of the Atlantic Forest vegetation as reservoir of these groups of mites which are also found on plants of agricultural importance. Samples were taken from 187 plant species belonging to 73 families in three vegetation types of the Atlantic Forest from February of 2001 to October of 2002. A total of 2,887 mites belonging to 163 morpho-species of 16 families were collected. Mite diversity was high, especially of predatory mites; these corresponded to 1,562 specimens of 92 morpho-species. Within this group, Phytoseiidae comprised 71% of the specimens and 62% of the morpho-species. Phytophagous mites comprised 836 specimens of 36 morpho-species. Within this group, Tenuipalpidae comprised the larger proportion of specimens (61%) whereas Tetranychidae corresponded to the larger proportion of morpho-species (64%). Mites with varied feeding habits corresponded to 491 specimens of 36 morpho-species. In this group, the larger proportion of specimens (52%) consisted of Ascidae and the larger proportion of morpho-species (42%) consisted of Tydeinae (family Tydeidae). High abundance and high morpho-species richness of mites of predominantly predatory, phytophagous and variable feeding habits were observed on 17, five and nine plant species, respectively. The results obtained suggest the importance of plants of the studied vegetation as reservoirs of predatory mites. (author)

  9. Mite diversity on plants of different families found in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castro, Tatiane M.M.G. de [UNESP, Jaboticabal, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Agrarias e Veterinarias. Dept. de Fitossanidade]. E-mail: tatianemarie@yahoo.com.br; Moraes, Gilberto J. de [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz (ESALQ). Dept. Entomologia, Fitopatologia e Zoologia Agricola]. E-mail: gjmoraes@esalq.usp.br

    2007-09-15

    This work reports the occurrence of mites predominantly predatory, phytophagous and with varied feeding habits on plants of the Atlantic Forest vegetation type of the State of Sao Paulo. The objective was to estimate the possible role of the Atlantic Forest vegetation as reservoir of these groups of mites which are also found on plants of agricultural importance. Samples were taken from 187 plant species belonging to 73 families in three vegetation types of the Atlantic Forest from February of 2001 to October of 2002. A total of 2,887 mites belonging to 163 morpho-species of 16 families were collected. Mite diversity was high, especially of predatory mites; these corresponded to 1,562 specimens of 92 morpho-species. Within this group, Phytoseiidae comprised 71% of the specimens and 62% of the morpho-species. Phytophagous mites comprised 836 specimens of 36 morpho-species. Within this group, Tenuipalpidae comprised the larger proportion of specimens (61%) whereas Tetranychidae corresponded to the larger proportion of morpho-species (64%). Mites with varied feeding habits corresponded to 491 specimens of 36 morpho-species. In this group, the larger proportion of specimens (52%) consisted of Ascidae and the larger proportion of morpho-species (42%) consisted of Tydeinae (family Tydeidae). High abundance and high morpho-species richness of mites of predominantly predatory, phytophagous and variable feeding habits were observed on 17, five and nine plant species, respectively. The results obtained suggest the importance of plants of the studied vegetation as reservoirs of predatory mites. (author)

  10. Do physicochemical sediment variables and their soft sediment macrofauna differ among microsize coastal lagoons with forested and urbanised catchments?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikac, K. M.; Maher, W. A.; Jones, A. R.

    2007-03-01

    Microsize intermittently open and closed coastal lagoons are a common feature of the coast of southern New South Wales, in southeast Australia. Many of these lagoons are undergoing development and urbanisation of their catchments, leading to concern about their ecological health. Consequently, it was hypothesised that lagoons with urbanised catchments should hav e finer, more contaminated sediments and fewer macrofaunal taxa (represented by opportunistic taxa) than lagoons that have undeveloped, forested catchments. To test these hypotheses, five lagoons with catchments dominated by either native forest or urban development were compared with respect to their sediment composition (i.e. sediment grain size, trace metal concentrations, organic carbon and nutrients) and soft sediment macrofaunal assemblages in the Batemans Bay region of southeast Australia. Using a nested design without temporal replication, replicate core samples were taken from sampling stations nested within lagoons that were nested within catchment type. Univariate and multivariate statistical analyses were used to test for significant differences and dissimilarities between catchment types and among lagoons. Of all the abiotic and biotic variables measured, only total nitrogen showed a difference between the two catchment types. Thus providing support to refute the explanatory model that urbanisation had negatively affected the sedimentary environment and macrofaunal composition of these microsize coastal lagoons. In contrast, differences among lagoons were usually significant with differences between the two forested lagoons, North Head and Acheron lagoon, being particularly large for assemblage composition and the abundance of some taxa; this variation may, potentially, obscure any effects of urbanisation. In addition, the information collected in this study provides a basic understanding of the physicochemical and biological aspects of microsize coastal lagoons in southeast Australia. Such

  11. Atmospheric Methane Consumption by Forest Soils and Extracted Bacteria at Different pH Values

    OpenAIRE

    Amaral, John A.; Ren, Tie; Knowles, Roger

    1998-01-01

    The effect of pH on atmospheric methane (CH4) consumption was studied with slurries of forest soils and with bacteria extracted from the same soils. Soil samples were collected from a mixed hardwood stand in New Hampshire, from jackpine and aspen stands at the BOREAS (Boreal Ecosystem Atmosphere Study) site near Thompson, northern Manitoba, from sites in southern Québec, including a beech stand and a meadow, and from a site in Ontario (cultivated humisol). Consumption of atmospheric CH4 (conc...

  12. Vegetation change impacts on soil organic carbon chemical composition in subtropical forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xiaoping; Meng, Miaojing; Zhang, Jinchi; Chen, Han Y H

    2016-01-01

    Changes in the chemical composition of soil organic carbon (SOC) might strongly affect the global carbon cycle as it controls the SOC decomposition rate. Vegetation change associated with long-term land use changes is known to strongly impact the chemical composition of SOC; however, data on the impacts of vegetation change following disturbance events of short durations and succession that occur frequently in forest ecosystems via diverse management objectives on SOC chemical composition are negligible. Here we examined the impacts of vegetation changes on the chemical composition of SOC by sampling soils of native broad-leaved forests, planted mixed broad-leaved and coniferous forests, and tea gardens in eastern China. We used nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy to quantify SOC chemical composition. We found that among all components of SOC chemical composition, alkyl carbon (C) and aryl C were more liable to change with vegetation than other SOC components. Soil pH was negatively correlated to the relative abundances of alkyl C and N-alkyl C, and Shannon's index of overstory plant species was positively correlated to the relative abundances of phenolic C and aromaticity. Our results suggest that vegetation changes following short disturbance events and succession may strongly alter SOC chemical composition in forest ecosystems. PMID:27403714

  13. Community dynamics of a montane Fagus engleriana–Cyclobalanopsis multiervis mixed forest in Shennongjia, Hubei, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jielin Ge

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Montane evergreen and deciduous broad-leaved mixed forests are some of the main vegetation types in China. Specifically, the Fagus–Cyclobalanopsis mixed forest is a dominant forest community in themountainous region of Shennongjia. Using three datasets (2001, 2006, and 2010 from a permanent 120 m ×80 m plot in the montane evergreen and deciduous broad-leaved mixed forest in Shengnongjia, we analyzedthe dynamics of tree species composition and community structure for individual trees (DBH ≥ 4 cm. We found that total species number increased from 81 in 2001 to 84 in 2006, and then decreased to 83 in 2010. Dominant species remained constant throughout the study period, including Cyclobalanopsis multiervis, Fagus engleriana, Rhododendron hypoglaucum and Lithocarpus henryi. Stem number and basal area followed the same trend with an initial increase, followed by a decline. The mortality and recruitment of this survey plot changed substantially over the nine-year study period. Although an ice storm in 2008 had some impact on the community, the species richness and community structure did not alter significantly and the community appeared to be in a state of dynamic equilibrium with strong resilience to external disturbances.

  14. UU* filtering of nighttime net ecosystem CO2 exchange flux over forest canopy under strong wind in wintertime

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG; Junhui

    2005-01-01

    ., Hogstrup, J. et al., The budget of turbulent kinetic energy in the marine atmospheric surface layer,Air-Sea Exchange: Physics, Chemistry, and Dynamics (ed. Geernaert, G.L.), Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1999, 153-173.[23]Zhang, N., Yu, G. R., Yu, Z. L. et al., Analysis on factors affecting net primary productivity distribution in Changbai Mountains based on process model for landscape scale, Chinese Journal of Applied Ecology, 2003, 14: 659-664.[24]Zhang, J. H., Han, S. J., Yu, G. R., Seasonal variation in carbon dioxide exchange over a 200-year-old Chinese broad-leaved Korean pinemixed forest, Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, 2004, submitted.[25]Lin, L.S., Carbon flux across soil-atmosphere interface in broad-leaved Korean pine mixed forest in Changbai Mountains, Ph.D. Thesis,Chinese Academy of Sciences, China (in Chinese), 2004.[26]Zhang, J. H., Structures of and dominant exchange processes across canopy-atmosphere, soil-atmosphere interfaces in broad-leaved Koreanpine mixed forest of Changbai Mountains, Ph.D. Thesis, Chinese Academy of Sciences, China (in Chinese), 2002.[27]See footnote 1) on page 89.

  15. Use of near-infrared spectroscopy to assess phosphorus fractions of different plant availability in forest soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Todt

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The fractionation of soil P into fractions of different plant availability is a common approach to characterize the P status of forest soils. However, quantification of organic and inorganic P fractions in different extracts is labour-intensive and therefore rarely applied for large sample numbers. Therefore, we examined whether different P fractions can be predicted using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS. We used the Hedley method with increasingly strong extractants to determine P in fractions of different plant availability and measured NIR spectra for soil samples from sites of the German forest soil inventory and from a nature reserve in south-eastern China. The R2 of NIRS calibrations to predict P in individual Hedley fractions ranged between 0.08 and 0.85. When these were pooled into labile, moderately labile and stable fractions, R2 of calibration models was between 0.38 and 0.88. Model prediction quality was higher for organic than for inorganic P fractions and increased with the homogeneity of soil sample sets. Useful models were obtained for samples originating from one soil type in subtropical China, whereas prediction models for sample sets from a range of soil types in Germany were only moderately useful or not useful. Our results indicate that prediction of Hedley P fractions with NIRS is a promising approach to replace conventional analysis, if models are developed for sets of soil samples with similar physical and chemical properties.

  16. Differences in soil fungal communities between European beech (Fagus sylvatica L. dominated forests are related to soil and understory vegetation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tesfaye Wubet

    Full Text Available Fungi are important members of soil microbial communities with a crucial role in biogeochemical processes. Although soil fungi are known to be highly diverse, little is known about factors influencing variations in their diversity and community structure among forests dominated by the same tree species but spread over different regions and under different managements. We analyzed the soil fungal diversity and community composition of managed and unmanaged European beech dominated forests located in three German regions, the Schwäbische Alb in Southwestern, the Hainich-Dün in Central and the Schorfheide Chorin in the Northeastern Germany, using internal transcribed spacer (ITS rDNA pyrotag sequencing. Multiple sequence quality filtering followed by sequence data normalization revealed 1655 fungal operational taxonomic units. Further analysis based on 722 abundant fungal OTUs revealed the phylum Basidiomycota to be dominant (54% and its community to comprise 71.4% of ectomycorrhizal taxa. Fungal community structure differed significantly (p≤0.001 among the three regions and was characterized by non-random fungal OTUs co-occurrence. Soil parameters, herbaceous understory vegetation, and litter cover affected fungal community structure. However, within each study region we found no difference in fungal community structure between management types. Our results also showed region specific significant correlation patterns between the dominant ectomycorrhizal fungal genera. This suggests that soil fungal communities are region-specific but nevertheless composed of functionally diverse and complementary taxa.

  17. Flux-based Water Use Efficiency over Two Larch Forests with Different Soil and Canopy Structure at Eastern Siberia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotani, A.; Ohta, T.; Maximov, T.

    2013-12-01

    This study investigated evapotranspiration and CO2 exchange, observed by the eddy covariance method, over two larch-dominated forests mixed with birch and willow, in the southern and middle parts of the Lena basin, eastern Siberia. One is the Spasskaya Pad station (SP) at Yakutsk (62° 15'N, 129° 14'E). The other station named Elgeeii station (EG) (60° 0'N, 133° 49'E) is located at 300 km southeast of Yakutsk. The dominant species in the forest is larch (Larix cajanderi), mixed with birch (Betula pendula), willow (Salix bebbiana) and pine (Pinus sylvesrtis). The stand density of larch trees is 720 and 1040 trees ha-1 (1800 and 2600 trees ha-1 including birch, salix and pine) at SP and EG, respectively. The mean stand height of upper canopy, which is comprised of larch trees, is around 20m at SP and 25m at EG, and plant area index measured in August 2011 is 1.4 at SP and 2.1 at EG. At SP forest, decline of some larch trees was recently observed. Observations of eddy-covariance and meteorological data in three growing seasons showed similarities in the seasonal variation of meteorological conditions and evapotranspiration (ET), while the two sites varied in gross CO2 uptake and ecosystem respiration during the growing season. An earlier onset of and a later decline of gross CO2 uptake (GPP) compared to ET at EG resulted in a seasonal time lag between ET and CO2 uptake and therefore mid-summer depletion of ecosystem WUE (defined as the ratio of net or gross CO2 uptake to ET), while relatively stable WUE was observed at SP. The total amount of ET from May to September was almost identical at the two sites, whereas the components of CO2 exchange (gross uptake and respiration) at EG were 1.31 times those recorded at SP. Consequently, ecosystem WUE was larger at EG than at SP. The difference in total GPP was explained mainly by difference in the PAI, that is, the tree biomass above ground, rather than the climate condition. It is likely that the level of forest

  18. Different Effects of Regional Species Pool on Plant Diversity between Forest and Grassland Biomes in Arid Northwest China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liping Li

    Full Text Available Species pool hypothesis is broadly known and frequently tested in various regions and vegetation types. However it has not been tested in the arid Xinjiang region of China due to lack of data. Here with systematic data from references and field survey, we comprehensively examined species pool hypothesis in this region. Took species richness in 0.1° × 0.1° grid cells as regional species richness (RSR which were obtained from the distribution maps of vascular plant species, and took species diversity of 190 and 103 plots in forest and grassland biomes across Xinjiang as local species richness (LSR, together with the digitalized soil pH and climate data, we tested the species pool hypothesis in this region. We found that: (1 the average RSR was higher in mountains than that in basins and it was negatively correlated with soil pH in mountains while positively correlated with soil pH in basins in Xinjiang; (2 RSR showed a positive correlation with mean annual precipitation (MAP while showed a hump-shaped pattern with mean annual temperature (MAT; and the changing patterns of LSR were different for forest and grassland along the geographical and climate gradients; (3 LSR of forest was more affected by RSR than by climate, while on the contrary, LSR of grassland was more affected by climate than by RSR. Our results validated the species pool hypothesis in revealing that RSR had a significant role in shaping LSR patterns in addition to climate. We concluded that the relative effects of climate vs. RSR on LSR differed markedly between the forest and grassland communities across Xinjiang. Our results also showed that RSR revealed a contrasting relationship with soil pH in mountains and in basins, which might reflect differences in evolutionary processes of various habitats. In summary, our research systematically analyzed the correlation of species richness in regional and local scales in Xinjiang which provides more insights into the understanding of

  19. Carbon mineralisation in litter and soil organic matter in forests with different nitrogen status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karlsson, Patrik

    2000-07-01

    The objective of this thesis was to investigate the effect of both organic and inorganic nitrogen (N) on carbon (C) mineralisation of litter and soil organic matter, in order to increase the understanding of factors affecting decomposition and, ultimately, soil C sequestration. Fresh recently fallen needle litter with three contrasting total N concentrations were sampled, along with litter, humus and mineral soil layers from coniferous and deciduous forest sites in Europe. The sampled substrates were incubated in the laboratory at constant temperature (15 deg C) and near-optimal moisture. The fresh needles further received additions of ammonium and nitrate. Initial C mineralisation rates were higher in fresh N-rich needles than in fresh N-poor needles. However, after a 559-day incubation at 15 deg C cumulative C mineralisation was lower in the fresh N-rich needles than in the fresh N-poor needles. Negative effects of high N on C mineralisation were also found in litter and humus layers in the European forests and at sites with N-fertilisation trials, where low C mineralisation rates were associated with high total N concentrations. During early stages of decomposition, addition of ammonium and nitrate to fresh needles did not increase cumulative C mineralisation, suggesting that the decomposing organisms were not limited by low N supply even in the low-N needles. The initially higher C mineralisation in N-rich compared with N-poor needles is suggested to be a consequence of higher C quality in the N-rich substrates. In later stages of decomposition, the question why N seemed to have a negative effect on decomposition could not be satisfactorily answered, although there were indications that recalcitrant N-containing compounds were formed in fresh needles with high N concentration. This thesis presents some probable explanations of the negative effect on decomposition of high N.

  20. Sap flow based transpiration estimates in species-rich secondary forests of different ages in central Panama during a wet-season drought

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bretfeld, M.; Ewers, B. E.; Hall, J. S.; Ogden, F. L.

    2015-12-01

    Many landscapes that were previously covered by mature tropical forests in central Panama today comprise of a mosaic of mature forest fragments, pastures and agricultural land, and regrowing secondary forests. An increasing demand for water due to urbanization and the expansion of the Panama Canal, along with a predicted transition into a dryer climatic period necessitate a better understanding regarding the effects of land use and land use history on hydrological processes. Such knowledge, including water storage, residence times, and fluxes is essential to develop effective land management strategies and propose incentives to alter land use practices to enhance hydrological services. To quantify transpiration rates at different stages of secondary forest succession, we measured sap flow in forests growing for 8, ~25, and 80+ years since last known land use in the 15 km2 "Agua Salud" study area, located in central Panama. In each forest, we selected a subset of at least 15 individuals, representing the local tree size distribution, and recorded data from heat-ratio sap flow sensors every 30 minutes starting in February 2015. All instrumented trees were identified to species and compared to local species distributions. Basal area in the three forest types was 9.1, 10.8, and 50.2 m2 ha-1 for 8, ~25, and 80+ year old forests, respectively. Average daily transpiration was highly correlated to forest age, with highest rates in the oldest forest (3.0 to 18.2 mm ha-1 day-1), followed by intermediate (1.2 to 6.7 mm ha-1 day-1) and youngest forests (0.2 to 2.7 mm ha-1 day-1), suggesting roughly a doubling in transpiration from 8 to ~25 year old forests, despite similar basal area, and again from ~25 to 80+ year old forests. Flow rates in individual trees generally reflected the dry-to-wet season transition but behaved differently in response to the unprecedentedly dry conditions during the first half of 2015 in central Panama.

  1. Structural, physiognomic and above-ground biomass variation in savanna–forest transition zones on three continents – how different are co-occurring savanna and forest formations?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. M. Veenendaal

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Through interpretations of remote-sensing data and/or theoretical propositions, the idea that forest and savanna represent "alternative stable states" is gaining increasing acceptance. Filling an observational gap, we present detailed stratified floristic and structural analyses for forest and savanna stands located mostly within zones of transition (where both vegetation types occur in close proximity in Africa, South America and Australia. Woody plant leaf area index variation was related to tree canopy cover in a similar way for both savanna and forest with substantial overlap between the two vegetation types. As total woody plant canopy cover increased, so did the relative contribution of middle and lower strata of woody vegetation. Herbaceous layer cover declined as woody cover increased. This pattern of understorey grasses and herbs progressively replaced by shrubs as the canopy closes over was found for both savanna and forests and on all continents. Thus, once subordinate woody canopy layers are taken into account, a less marked transition in woody plant cover across the savanna–forest-species discontinuum is observed compared to that inferred when trees of a basal diameter > 0.1 m are considered in isolation. This is especially the case for shrub-dominated savannas and in taller savannas approaching canopy closure. An increased contribution of forest species to the total subordinate cover is also observed as savanna stand canopy closure occurs. Despite similarities in canopy-cover characteristics, woody vegetation in Africa and Australia attained greater heights and stored a greater amount of above-ground biomass than in South America. Up to three times as much above-ground biomass is stored in forests compared to savannas under equivalent climatic conditions. Savanna–forest transition zones were also found to typically occur at higher precipitation regimes for South America than for Africa. Nevertheless, consistent across all three

  2. Evaluation of Soil Nutrients for Different Forest Types in Xing'an Mountains Forest Area%大小兴安岭林区不同林型土壤养分综合评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王芳; 黄玫; 孙希华; 龚亚珍; 王军邦

    2013-01-01

    This study is based on the field data obtained for the main forest types in Xing an mountains region, including coniferous forest, mixed forest, birch forest, pine forest and Mongolian oak forest. By using statistical method, the vertical distribution characteristics of soil organic matter, total nitrogen, available phosphorus and potassium are analyzed and the soil nutrient status is evaluated. Results indicate that the contents of soil organic matter, total nitrogen, available phosphorus and potassium are different significantly among various forest soil(0-40 cm) types. The contents of organic matter, total nitrogen and available phosphorus in the soils of birch forest and mixed forest are the highest, followed by that in coniferous forest and then Mongolian oak forest. The available potassium content in soils of the Mongolian oak forest and birch forest is the highest and in the mixed forest, the lowest. The improved Nemerow comprehensive index is used to evaluate soil quality. The results show that the contents of organic matter and total nitrogen are especially abundant in Xing'an Mountain forest soils, and the content of available phosphorus is in the medium to high level. The overall soil nutrient of the studied forests is in a relatively high level, but the content of available potassium is in a low level. Lack of available potassium has become a major limitation in this area.%基于大小兴安岭地区主要林型野外采样数据,利用统计学方法分析了红松林、针阔混交林、白桦林、樟子松林和蒙古栎林土壤有机质、全氮、速效磷和速效钾的垂直分布特征,并对土壤养分状况进行了综合评价.结果表明,不同林型土壤(0-40 cm)有机质、全氮、速效磷、速效钾养分含量差异显著.有机质、全氮、速效磷3种土壤养分的总体分布是白桦林、针阔混交林比较高,针叶林次之,蒙古栎林比较低;而速效钾含量以蒙古栎林、白桦林为最高,针阔混交

  3. Seasonal differences in leaf-level physiology give lianas a competitive advantage over trees in a tropical seasonal forest

    OpenAIRE

    Cai, Z.Q.; Schnitzer, S.A.; Bongers, F.

    2009-01-01

    Lianas are an important component of most tropical forests, where they vary in abundance from high in seasonal forests to low in aseasonal forests. We tested the hypothesis that the physiological ability of lianas to fix carbon (and thus grow) during seasonal drought may confer a distinct advantage in seasonal tropical forests, which may explain pan-tropical liana distributions. We compared a range of leaf-level physiological attributes of 18 co-occurring liana and 16 tree species during the ...

  4. Beauveria brongniartii Sacc. (Petch) against Melolontha spp. white grubs in forest nurseries with different soil pH

    OpenAIRE

    Sierpińska Alicja; Popowska-Nowak Elżbieta; Bednarek Andrzej

    2015-01-01

    In 2011, the General Directorate of State Forests in Poland managed 669 forest nurseries on the total area of 2411 ha that produced forest tree seedlings bare root systems, hence vulnerable to Melolontha spp. white grubs. Up to date, no chemical or biological plant protection product for control of cockchafer grubs in forests has been registered in Poland. The study was carried out with the aim to evaluate the efficacy of a biocontrol product Bovecol with BP strain of Beauveria brongniartii o...

  5. Robustness of model-based high-resolution prediction of forest biomass against different field plot designs

    OpenAIRE

    Junttila, Virpi; Gautam, Basanta; Karky, Bhaskar Singh; Maguya, Almasi; Tegel, Katri; Kauranne, Tuomo; Gunia, Katja; Hämäläinen, Jarno; Latva-Käyrä, Petri; Nikolaeva, Ekaterina; Peuhkurinen, Jussi

    2015-01-01

    Background Participatory forest monitoring has been promoted as a means to engage local forest-dependent communities in concrete climate mitigation activities as it brings a sense of ownership to the communities and hence increases the likelihood of success of forest preservation measures. However, sceptics of this approach argue that local community forest members will not easily attain the level of technical proficiency that accurate monitoring needs. Thus it is interesting to establish if ...

  6. Different pollinator assemblages ensure reproductive success of Cleisostoma linearilobatum (Orchidaceae) in fragmented holy hill forest and traditional tea garden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xiang; Liu, Qiang; Han, Jessie Yc; Gao, JiangYun

    2016-01-01

    Orchids are generally recognized to have specialist pollination systems and low fruit set is often thought to be characteristic of the family. In this study, we investigated the reproductive ecology of Cleisostoma linearilobatum, an epiphytic tropical orchid, in a holy hill forest fragment and a traditional tea garden in SW China using comparable methods. C. linearilobatum is self-compatible and dependent on insects for pollination. Fruit production in natural conditions was both pollinator- and resource-limited. However, the natural fruit set remained stable over multiple years at both sites. Pollination observations showed that C. linearilobatum has a generalized pollination system and seven insect species were observed as legitimate pollinators. Although the visit frequencies of different pollinators were different in the two sites, the pollinator assemblages ensured reproductive success of C. linearilobatum in both study sites over multiple years. The results partly explain why C. linearilobatum is so successful in the area, and also suggest that holy hill forest fragments and traditional tea gardens in Xishuangbanna are important in preserving orchids, especially those with generalist pollination. PMID:26907369

  7. Local Consequences of Applying International Norms: Differences in the Application of Forest Certification in Northern Sweden, Northern Finland, and Northwest Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna Johansson

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Forest certification, developed in the early 1990s, is a process in which independent assessors grant use of the certification label to producers who meet certain environmental and social criteria set for their forest products. This label was quickly seen to offer a market advantage and to signal corporate social and environmental responsibility. This paper focuses on international norms pertaining to environmental and indigenous rights, as manifested in cases of Forest Stewardship Council (FSC- and Programme for the Endorsement of Forest Certification (PEFC-compatible certification, and how these norms have been applied domestically and perceived locally in different states. Case studies are drawn from northern Sweden, northern Finland, and three regions in northwest Russia. The studies illustrate that the choice and implementation of certification type depend considerably on national infrastructure and market characteristics and result in substantial differences in the impact that international norms have at the local level.

  8. Hydrological Effects of Forest Litters and Soil in Xing’an Larch Forest at Different Stand Ages%不同林龄兴安落叶松枯落物及土壤水文效应研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王美莲; 王飞; 姚晓娟; 张秋良

    2015-01-01

    122.07和213.00 t·hm-2,20~40 cm土层分别达是77.22、58.13和86.43 t·hm-2;过熟林在10~20 cm土层为100.36、68.43和156.98 t·hm-2,20~40 cm土层只有31.09、24.26和37.83 t·hm-2,不同林龄各层土壤质量含水量、体积含水量也表现出相同的变化规律。该研究可为制定科学合理有效的经营管理方式和砍伐措施提供理论依据。%Under the impact of global climate warming, forests as the main terrestrial of ecosystems will undoubtedly be affected, especially the forest hydrological cycle will become more apparent. Precipitation will be reallocated by different forest vegetation and the enrichment litter of surface, which forms a feedback effect on climate change and also affects the soil water content of the forest. So forest vegetation and litter layer play unique forest ecosystems’ hydrological and ecological function that largely regulated the global water cycle and water balance. A study of hydrological effects of litters layer and soil layer was carried out through field sample collection and treatment on different ages of Larch in Greater Xing’an Mountains forest, middle-aged forest, near mature forest, mature forest, overmature forest. Results showed that the increment of litter layer accumulation increased with forest age, ranging from 18.02 to 21.65 t·hm-2, and the total storage of semi-decomposed is 4.8~5.9 times of decomposed; Semi-decomposed layer accumulated amount of near mature forest was 85.3% at most. For all age of the forests, the water holding ratio and capacity were largest in over mature forest and semi-decomposed > decomposed, the order of the water holding capacity was over mature forest > nearly mature forest > mature forest>mid-maturation forest between 40.13 and 75.60 t·hm-2, the water holding ratio was over mature forest > nearly mature forest > mid-maturation forest > mature forest between 5.94% and 7.93%. The modified interception rate was great different, varied from 30

  9. Sustainable Forest Management Preferences of Interest Groups in Three Regions with Different Levels of Industrial Forestry: An Exploratory Attribute-Based Choice Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berninger, Kati; Adamowicz, Wiktor; Kneeshaw, Daniel; Messier, Christian

    2010-07-01

    The challenge of sustainable forest management is to integrate diverse and sometimes conflicting management objectives. In order to achieve this goal, we need a better understanding of the aspects influencing the preferences of diverse groups and how these groups make trade-offs between different attributes of SFM. We compare the SFM preferences of interest groups in regions with different forest use histories based on the reasoning that the condition of the forest reflects the forest use history of the area. The condition of the forest also shapes an individual’s forest values and attitudes. These held values and attitudes are thought to influence SFM preferences. We tested whether the SFM preferences vary amongst the different interest groups within and across regions. We collected data from 252 persons using a choice experiment approach, where participants chose multiple times among different options described by a combination of attributes that are assigned different levels. The novelty of our approach was the use of choice experiments in the assessment of regional preference differences. Given the complexity of inter-regional comparison and the small sample size, this was an exploratory study based on a purposive rather than random sample. Nevertheless, our results suggest that the aggregation of preferences of all individuals within a region does not reveal all information necessary for forest management planning since opposing viewpoints could cancel each other out and lead to an interpretation that does not reflect possibly polarised views. Although based on a small sample size, the preferences of interest groups within a region are generally statistically significantly different from each other; however preferences of interest groups across regions are also significantly different. This illustrates the potential importance of assessing heterogeneity by region and by group.

  10. Relative importance of various regeneration mechanisms in different restoration stages of Quercus variabilis forest after selective logging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaoqin Xue

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim of study: Quercus variabilis (Chinese cork oak reproduces asexually and sexually. This study aimed to determine the status and growth of asexual and sexual recruits of Q. variabilis in different forest recovery stages.Area of study: Three selective logged stands and one unlogged stand in Q. variabilis forest, Shaanxi Province, China.Material and Methods: Origin, number, basal diameter, height and size structure of Q. variabilis shoots (height ≤200 cm were investigated in the plots of 5, 10, and 20-years post-logging stands and unlogged stand. Effects of recovery stage on the density and growth of the three original recruits (stump sprouts, stem base sprouts and true seedlings were analysis by One-way ANOVA.Main results: Sprouts dominated logged stands, whereas true seedlings dominated unlogged stand, stem base sprouts only existed in 20-years post-logging and unlogged stands. Stump sprout density and sprout number per stump both declined with extended post-logging time. True seedlings density increased from 7 to 20 shoots/100 m2 as the postlogging time extended, and peaked in unlogged stand (94 shoots/100 m2. An ongoing size structure was observed in true seedlings in all stands. Stump sprouts were taller and greater than true seedlings.Research highlights: Stump sprouts contributed more to Q. variabilis forest recovery in the early stage after disturbance. The contribution of true seedlings was limited in the same stage, but they were beneficial for population long-term development. Stem base sprouts were most likely to be a survival strategy rather than a reproductive strategy.Key words: asexual reproduction; true seedling; post-logging time; Chinese cork oak.

  11. Comparison of the composition of forest soil litter derived from three different sites at various decompositional stages using FTIR spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Transmission Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy was used to compare organic soil layers originating from three different sites in two climatic regions. A variety of bands characteristic of molecular structures and functional groups have been identified for these samples from a humic podsol, a dystric cambisol and a spodo dystric cambisol. Similar results were obtained for all three soils. From L to H soil horizons, an increase of the band at 1630 cm-1 and decrease of bands in the region from 1510 cm-1 to 1230 cm-1 were observed. The band at 1630 cm-1 can be assigned to carboxylic and aromatic groups. The decline of the peak intensity at 1510 cm-1 is significantly correlated to the total carbon content and C/N ratio. The mineral material of the Ah horizons leads to an increase of the band at 1050 cm-1 due to IR-absorbance of the Si-O bond and to an appearance of bands in the region from 900 to 400 cm-1, which are characteristic for clay and quartz minerals. Analysis of the FTIR absorbance showed that intensities of distinct peaks (e.g., at 1510 cm-1) can be a measure of decomposition of forest litter. Therefore, the proposed simple FTIR method has potential for identification and differentiation of organic soil horizons originating from known tree litter. The similarity of the characteristics of the spectra of the three soil profiles investigated suggests a broad applicability of this method to distinguish organic forest soil horizons. On the basis of the data presented in this study, it may be concluded that FTIR spectroscopy offers a simple, powerful, non-destructive tool for the investigation of decomposition of L to H horizons in forest soils. (author)

  12. Entity-Based Landscape Modelling to Assess the Impacts of Different Incentives Mechanisms on Argan Forest Dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farid El Wahidi

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Illegal occupation of argan forest parcels by local households is a new phenomenon in South West Morocco. This is primarily due to the weakening of traditional common control systems and to the boom of the argan oil price. The scope of this work is to develop a decision support system based on dynamic spatial modelling, allowing to anticipate the land tenure dynamics and their impact on forest stand degradation under different policy scenarios. The model simulates the change of land possession by locals and the forest stand degradation levels. The methodological approach combines a Markov chain analysis (MCA with stakeholders’ preferences for land tenure. First, parcels’ transition probabilities are computed using the MCA. Second, the acquiring suitability map is derived from multi-criteria evaluation procedure (AHP using biophysical and socio-economic data. Finally, uncertainty is introduced in the simulation based on probabilistic analysis for supporting socio-economic diversity and non-mechanistic human behavior. The modelling approach was successfully used to compare three scenarios: business as usual (continuation of illegal acquiring, total disengagement of the population and private/public partnership with incentives for restoring argan parcel. The model yields geographic information about (i the magnitude of the on-going process; (ii the potential occurrence of land use conflicts induced by new policies; and (iii the location of land conservation or degradation hot-spots. The outcomes of the “business as usual” and of the “total disengagement” models were similar over a 30-year simulation period: in both cases, the proportion of “highly degraded” parcels was doubled and the number of “quite degraded” parcels was increased by 50%. On the other hand, should the private/public partnership effectively work, about 40% of the parcels could be restored to a sustainable level.

  13. ECOLOGICAL FEATURES OF ALGAE COMMUNITIES IN FOREST FLOOR OF PINE PLANTATIONS OF DIFFERENT TYPES OF LANDSCAPES IN STEPPE AREA OF UKRAINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maltsev Yevhen

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The steppe zone of Ukraine features a large variety of types of natural landscapes that together significantly differ in microclimatic, soil, hydrological and geobotanic conditions. Such a diversity of forest conditions affects not only the trees, but also on all biotic components of forest ecosystems including algae. Purpose of the study was establish systematic position of species, dominant and subdominant, leading families of algae for plantings in forest floor of pine plantations of the valley-terrace and inundable-terrace landscapes in steppe area of Ukraine. In general, in the forest floor of Samara pine forest marked 34 species of algae with 4 divisions, most of which related to green: Chlorophyta – 22 (65%, Xanthophyta – 8 (23%, Bacillariophyta – 2 (6% and Eustigmatophyta – 2 (6%. Among the leading families of the greatest number of species belonged to: Pleurochloridaceae (7 species, Chlorococcaceae (5, Chlamydomonadaceae (4. During all studied seasons in base of algae communities were species resistant to extreme values of all climatic conditions. Total in forest floor of pine forest in Altagir forest marked 42 species of algae with 5 divisions: Chlorophyta - 23 (55 %, Xanthophyta - 9 (21 %, Cyanophyta - 5 (12 %, Bacillariophyta - 3 (7% and Eustigmatophyta – 2 (5%. Systematic structure of list species determine three family, which have the number of species in excess of the average number (2: Pleurochloridaceae, Chlamydomonadaceae and Myrmeciaceae. The base of algae community are moisture-loving and shade-tolerant species, which may be the result of favorable moisture regime. In the forest floor of pine plantings in forest floor of pine plantations of the valley-terrace (Samara pine forest and inundable-terrace (Altagir forest landscapes found 64 species of algae with 5 divisions, which are dominated by green algae - 37 species (58%, that exceed xanthophytes - 15 (23%, blue-green 5 (8 %, eustigmatofites 4 (6% and diatoms 3 (5

  14. Structural, physiognomic and aboveground biomass variation in savanna-forest transition zones on three continents. How different are co-occurring savanna and forest formations?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. M. Veenendaal

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Through interpretations of remote sensing data and/or theoretical propositions, the idea that forest and savanna represent "alternative stable states" is gaining increasing acceptance. Filling an observational gap, we present detailed stratified floristic and structural analyses for forest and savanna stands mostly located within zones of transition (where both vegetation types occur in close proximity in Africa, South America and Australia. Woody plant leaf area index variation was related in a similar way to tree canopy cover for both savanna and forest with substantial overlap between the two vegetation types. As total woody plant canopy cover increased, so did the contribution of middle and lower strata of woody vegetation to this total. Herbaceous layer cover also declined as woody cover increased. This pattern of understorey grasses and herbs being progressively replaced by shrubs as canopy closure occurs was found for both savanna and forests and on all continents. Thus, once subordinate woody canopy layers are taken into account, a less marked transition in woody plant cover across the savanna-forest species discontinuum is observed compared to that implied when trees of a basal diameter > 0.1m are considered in isolation. This is especially the case for shrub-dominated savannas and in taller savannas approaching canopy closure. An increased contribution of forest species to the total subordinate cover is also observed as savanna stand canopy closure occurs. Despite similarities in canopy cover characteristics, woody vegetation in Africa and Australia attained greater heights and stored a greater concentration of above ground biomass than in South America. Up to three times as much aboveground biomass is stored in forests compared to savannas under equivalent climatic conditions. Savanna/forest transition zones were also found to typically occur at higher precipitation regimes for South America than for Africa. Nevertheless, coexistence

  15. The Effects of Forest Therapy on Coping with Chronic Widespread Pain: Physiological and Psychological Differences between Participants in a Forest Therapy Program and a Control Group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-Woo Han

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate the effects of a two-day forest therapy program on individuals with chronic widespread pain. Sixty one employees of a public organization providing building and facilities management services within the Seoul Metropolitan area participated in the study. Participants were assigned to an experimental group (n = 33 who participated in a forest therapy program or a control group (n = 28 on a non-random basis. Pre- and post-measures of heart rate variability (HRV, Natural Killer cell (NK cell activity, self-reported pain using the visual analog scale (VAS, depression level using the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI, and health-related quality of life measures using the EuroQol Visual Analog Scale (EQ-VAS were collected in both groups. The results showed that participants in the forest therapy group, as compared to the control group, showed physiological improvement as indicated by a significant increase in some measures of HRV and an increase in immune competence as indicated by NK cell activity. Participants in the forest therapy group also reported significant decreases in pain and depression, and a significant improvement in health-related quality of life. These results support the hypothesis that forest therapy is an effective intervention to relieve pain and associated psychological and physiological symptoms in individuals with chronic widespread pain.

  16. The Effects of Forest Therapy on Coping with Chronic Widespread Pain: Physiological and Psychological Differences between Participants in a Forest Therapy Program and a Control Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jin-Woo; Choi, Han; Jeon, Yo-Han; Yoon, Chong-Hyeon; Woo, Jong-Min; Kim, Won

    2016-03-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effects of a two-day forest therapy program on individuals with chronic widespread pain. Sixty one employees of a public organization providing building and facilities management services within the Seoul Metropolitan area participated in the study. Participants were assigned to an experimental group (n = 33) who participated in a forest therapy program or a control group (n = 28) on a non-random basis. Pre- and post-measures of heart rate variability (HRV), Natural Killer cell (NK cell) activity, self-reported pain using the visual analog scale (VAS), depression level using the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), and health-related quality of life measures using the EuroQol Visual Analog Scale (EQ-VAS) were collected in both groups. The results showed that participants in the forest therapy group, as compared to the control group, showed physiological improvement as indicated by a significant increase in some measures of HRV and an increase in immune competence as indicated by NK cell activity. Participants in the forest therapy group also reported significant decreases in pain and depression, and a significant improvement in health-related quality of life. These results support the hypothesis that forest therapy is an effective intervention to relieve pain and associated psychological and physiological symptoms in individuals with chronic widespread pain. PMID:26927141

  17. 基于二类调查数据的森林植被碳储量和碳密度——以徐州市为例%Carbon Storage and Carbon Density of Urban Forest Vegetation Based on Forest Resource Inventory Data: A Case Study of Xuzhou City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周伟; 王晓洁; 关庆伟; 梁波

    2012-01-01

    Biomass expansion factor was used to evaluate the carbon storage and carbon density of urban forest vegetation in Xuzhou City based on the data of forest resource inventory in 2009. Results showed that the carbon storage of forest vegetation was 1. 934 8 Mt, and carbon density was 37.218 5 t/hm2. The carbon storage of urban forest vegetation in Xuzhou was provided by the plantations. The carbon storage of broad-leaved forest is the highest, followed by coniferous forest, and coniferous and broad-leaved mixed forest. The carbon storage of middle-aged forest is the highest, followed by young forest, pre-mature forest, mature forest, and over-mature forest. The carbon density of broad-leaved forest is the highest, followed by coniferous forest and coniferous and broad-leaved mixed forest, and increased with forest age. According to the current status of the plantations, thinning and opening forest gaps should be taken for overcrowding P. Orientalis plantations in order to transform the stand to be a coniferous and broad-leaved mixed forest.%基于2009年徐州市森林资源二类调查数据,运用生物量换算因子连续函数法研究了徐州城市森林植被碳储量和碳密度.结果表明:徐州城市森林植被碳储量为1.934 8 Mt,植被碳密度为37.218 5 t·hm-2.徐州城市森林植被碳储量均由人工林提供.森林植被碳储量按林分类型划分,从大到小依次为:阔叶林、针叶林、针阔混交林;按不同林龄划分,从大到小依次为:中龄林、幼龄林、近熟林、成熟林和过熟林.森林植被碳密度的特征为:阔叶林>针叶林>针阔混交林,且随着林龄的增加而增大.建议对现有侧柏人工林过密林分,通过间伐、开设林窗等措施,把侧柏纯林改造为针阔混交林.该研究可为今后徐州城市森林的综合经营和管理提供一定的科学依据.

  18. Dynamics of stand biomass and volume of the tree layer in forests with different restoration approaches based on tree-ring analysis%基于年轮分析的不同恢复途径下森林乔木层生物量和蓄积量的动态变化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张远东; 刘彦春; 刘世荣; 张笑鹤

    2012-01-01

    Aims Our objectives were to (a) explore potential applications of tree-ring analysis for evaluating biomass dynamics of different forest restoration approaches in Western Sichuan, (b) compare aboveground biomass and stem volume with differently restored forests, and (c) identify the appropriate management approaches for different management aims.Methods We intensively surveyed three replicated plots for each restoration approach and cored and measured all living trees with diameter at breast height (DBH) > 5 cm using dendroecological methods. Dynamics of aboveground biomass and stem volume were calculated by means of allometric relationships and one-way tree volume models based on continuous variation of DBH.Important findings Forests in all three restoration approaches entered into an accelerated growth phase after 20 years, when significant differences in average DBH were observed among different forest types. Planted spruce (Picea asperata) forest (PSF) showed faster growth in mean DBH than secondary birch (Betula spp.) forest (SBF) and secondary coniferous and broad-leaved mixed forest (SMF). In the process of recovery, SMF had the highest aboveground biomass and stand volume; its biomass was significant higher than that of PSF (p SBF>PSF. After 30 years, the order changed to SMF>PSF>SBF. Results indicated that SMF had an advantage in both biomass and stand volume accumulation among the three restoration approaches.%基于树木年轮学与标准地调查法,研究了川西亚高山林区3种恢复森林类型生物量、蓄积量及生产力动态变化特征,旨在尝试年轮学在森林生长过程反演中的运用,并探索不同恢复模式下森林生物量和蓄积量的动态变化.结果表明,不同恢复类型发育至20年以后,均进入生长加速期,平均胸径间差异逐渐显著,人工云杉(Picea asperata)林胸径增长最快,明显高于天然恢复的次生桦木(Betula spp.)林和次生针阔混交林.在恢复过程中,次生针阔

  19. Water Retaining Capacity of Different Forest Stands%不同林分的保水能力

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵若楠; 刘秀萍; 张万军; 赵昕

    2014-01-01

    为给太行山低山丘陵区植被建设和生态环境可持续发展提供科学依据,对太行山低山丘陵区经济林和生态林冠层水容量、枯落物水容量、土壤贮水量和土壤入渗能力等涵养水源功能进行了研究。结果表明:乔灌草、灌草相结合的生态林冠层水容量明显大于石榴、枣树,草地最低,乔灌草、灌草结合的林地枯落物贮存量、饱和吸水率和饱和吸水量明显高于石榴和枣树经济林,土壤饱和贮水量和毛管最大贮水量排序为草地>荆条灌丛>薄皮木灌丛>刺槐林>石榴林>枣树林,不同林分的土壤入渗速率依次为薄皮木灌丛>荆条灌丛>枣树林>石榴林。%The water conservation function of canopy water volume,litter water volume,soil water storage and soil infiltration capacity of economic forest and ecological forest of the hilly area in Taihang Mountains was studied to provide the scientific basis for vegetation construction and eco-environment sustainable development of the hilly area in Taihang Mountains.The canopy water volume of ecological forest composed with arbors-shrub-grass and shrub-grass is higher than Punica granatum and Ziziphus jujube obviously,and the canopy water volume of grassland is the minimum.The litter storage capacity, water saturated absorption and water absorbing capacity of forests composed with arbors-shrub-grass and shrub-grass are higher than Punica granatum and Ziziphus jujube significantly. The order of soil saturated water storage capacity and maximum soil capillary water capacity is grassland >Vitex negundo var.heterophylla >Leptodermis oblonga >Robinia pseudoacacia >Punica granatum > Ziziphus jujube . The soil infiltration rate of different stands is Leptodermis oblonga > Vitex negundo var.heterophylla >Punica granatum > Ziziphus jujube .

  20. The mesofauna in different types of soils under southern taiga spruce forests (Tver oblast)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gryuntal, S. Yu.

    2010-11-01

    The soil mesofauna of the burozem, soddy pale-podzolic, and whitish-podzolic soils under three types of southern taiga spruce forests was studied. The mesofauna of all these soils turned out to be similar in terms of the Chilopoda, Staphylinidae (Coleoptera), and Rhagionidae (Diptera) numbers and their predominant concentration in the litter. The zoophages prevailed, and, among the saprophages, primary destroyers were predominant. However, some specific characteristics of the mesofauna in the soils studied were revealed. In the sequence burozem, soddy pale-podzolic, and whitish-podzolic soils, the number of earthworms significantly decreased, while, in the sequence soddy pale-podzolic, burozem, and whitish-podzolic soils, the number of Diplopoda representatives and calciphilic forms became lower and was directly related to the diversity of the deciduous tree species and to the presence of the calcareous moraine close to the surface. In addition, some species can be indicators of particular soil properties. The presence of the road beetle Quedius fuliginosus indicated the elevated moisture of the soils, that of Philonthus decorus pointed to the high humus content, and the presence of the road beetle Tachinus marginellus showed the low acidity of the humus. The low number or the absence of the earthworms Octolasium lacteum and Dendrodril us rubidus f. tenuis indicated higher humus acidity.

  1. Characterisation of ecosystem water-use efficiency of european forests from eddy covariance measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. G. Kuglitsch

    2008-11-01

    18°C in boreal, temperate and Mediterranean ecosystems, respectively. Across all sites, the highest monthly WUEGPP-values were detected at times of positive anomalies of summer-precipitation. During drought periods with high temperatures, high VPD, little precipitation and low soil water content, the water-use efficiency of gross carbon uptake (WUEGPP tended to decrease in all forest types because of a stronger decline of GPP compared to ET.

    However the largest variation of growing season WUEGPP was found between-sites and significantly related to vegetation type: WUEGPP was highest in ecosystems dominated by deciduous trees ranging from 5.0 g CO2 kg H2O−1 for temperate broad-leaved deciduous forests (TD, to 4.5 for temperate mixed forests (TM, 3.5 for temperate evergreen conifers (TC, 3.4 for Mediterranean broad-leaved deciduous forests (MD, 3.3 for Mediterranean broad-leaved evergreen forests (Mbeg, 3.1 for Mediterranean evergreen conifers (MC, 2.9 for boreal evergreen conifers (BC and only 1.2 g CO2 kg H2O−1 for a boreal wetland site (BT. Although vegetation type and meteorology co-vary, the WUEGPP variation was hardly related to meteorology, as we could show by comparing similar meteorological conditions only. Furthermore we compared across-site WUEGPP only under conditions when the 10% high GPP rates were exhibited. The between site differences remained, and at all sites ecosystem reached higher WUEGPP levels under this condition. This means when vegetation is most productive usually it also maximises the amount of carbon gained per water lost.

    Overall our results show that water-use efficiency exhibits a strong time-scale dependency in the sense that at longer time-scale meteorological conditions play a smaller role compared to shorter time scale. Moreover, we highlight the role of vegetation in determining

  2. Mapping forest functional type in a forest-shrubland ecotone using SPOT imagery and predictive habitat distribution modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assal, Timothy J.; Anderson, Patrick J.; Sibold, Jason

    2015-01-01

    The availability of land cover data at local scales is an important component in forest management and monitoring efforts. Regional land cover data seldom provide detailed information needed to support local management needs. Here we present a transferable framework to model forest cover by major plant functional type using aerial photos, multi-date Système Pour l’Observation de la Terre (SPOT) imagery, and topographic variables. We developed probability of occurrence models for deciduous broad-leaved forest and needle-leaved evergreen forest using logistic regression in the southern portion of the Wyoming Basin Ecoregion. The model outputs were combined into a synthesis map depicting deciduous and coniferous forest cover type. We evaluated the models and synthesis map using a field-validated, independent data source. Results showed strong relationships between forest cover and model variables, and the synthesis map was accurate with an overall correct classification rate of 0.87 and Cohen’s kappa value of 0.81. The results suggest our method adequately captures the functional type, size, and distribution pattern of forest cover in a spatially heterogeneous landscape.

  3. Soil properties in different types of Eucalypt Plantations in a small forested watershed, north-central Portugal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, J. M.; van Beersum, S.; van Hall, I.; Bernard-Jannin, L.; Rial-Rivas, M. E.; Nunes, J. P.; Keizer, J. J.

    2012-04-01

    The main aim of the HIDRIA project is to improve the knowledge and understanding of factors and processes that determine the hydrological behaviour of forested foothills in the Caramulo mountain range, North-Central Portugal. The changes from natural forest cover to Eucalyptus plantations in the last decades in Portugal is present in Serra de Cima catchment, one of the four experimental catchments monitored within the framework of the project. The objectives of the present study are to determine the effects of these changes on soil properties, and to improve the parameterization of the SWAT model to simulate the impact of land-use changes associated with forestry practices on hydrological processes. The study catchment (Serra de Cima) is located in the Águeda Basin, draining the foothills of the Caramulo mountains east of Águeda (40°36'N, -8°20'E). The climate is wet Mediterranean with a mean annual precipitation of about 1600 mm at 445 m a.s.l. Soils are generally Umbric Leptosols (pine forest (27% of the total area). Eucalypts are managed as Short Rotation Coppices, with each stand growing during 30-36 years; trees are cut every 10-12 years and stems re-grow from roots afterwards. The eucalypt stands in the study area differ in tree age, undergoing their first, second or third rotations. Climate, soil moisture and streamflow are monitored at the catchment. The presentation will focus on the results of a field campaign done on June 2011 to characterize soil and vegetation properties for six points on eucalypt stands in different stages of growth, as well as pine stands. The parameters sampled in this campaign were selected based on a sensitivity analysis of the SWAT model, and included: tree density and diameter; Leaf Area Index (LAI); ground cover; profile description; dry bulk density; texture and rock content; organic matter content; intensity of Soil Water Repellency (Molarity of Ethanol Droplet test); and near-saturated hydraulic conductivity (mini

  4. The influence of pine forests of different ages on the biological activity of layland soils in the middle Angara River basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorokina, O. A.; Sorokin, N. D.

    2007-05-01

    The influence of pine forests of different ages (from 25 to 85 years) restoring on old plow land soils is reflected in the biological processes proceeding in them. The drastic decrease in the absolute and relative number of actinomycetes, along with an increase of the fungal population in the microbial complexes of the soils (within the whole profiles), indicates that the microbocenoses acquire “forest” properties. In the soils under the younger pine forests, the processes of microbiological mineralization and specific respiration activity are more active than in the soils under the older pine forests. With the age of the pine forests, the soil profiles become more differentiated according to the eluvial-illuvial type.

  5. Context Dependent Effect of Landscape on the Occurrence of an Apex Predator across Different Climate Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujita, Go; Azuma, Atsuki; Nonaka, Jun; Sakai, Yoshiaki; Sakai, Hatsumi; Iseki, Fumitaka; Itaya, Hiroo; Fukasawa, Keita; Miyashita, Tadashi

    2016-01-01

    In studies of habitat suitability at landscape scales, transferability of species-landscape associations among sites are likely to be critical because it is often impractical to collect datasets across various regions. However, limiting factors, such as prey availability, are not likely to be constant across scales because of the differences in species pools. This is particularly true for top predators that are often the target for conservation concern. Here we focus on gray-faced buzzards, apex predators of farmland-dominated landscapes in East Asia. We investigated context dependency of “buzzard-landscape relationship”, using nest location datasets from five sites, each differing in landscape composition. Based on the similarities of prey items and landscape compositions across the sites, we determined several alternative ways of grouping the sites, and then examined whether buzzard-landscape relationship change among groups, which was conducted separately for each way of grouping. As a result, the model of study-sites grouping based on similarities in prey items showed the smallest ΔAICc. Because the terms of interaction between group IDs and areas of broad-leaved forests and grasslands were selected, buzzard-landscape relationship showed a context dependency, i.e., these two landscape elements strengthen the relationship in southern region. The difference in prey fauna, which is associated with the difference in climate, might generate regional differences in the buzzard-landscape associations. PMID:27123930

  6. Molecular analysis of fungal communities and laccase genes in decomposing litter reveals differences among forest types but no impact of nitrogen deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackwood, C.B.; Waldrop, M.P.; Zak, D.R.; Sinsabaugh, R. L.

    2007-01-01

    The fungal community of the forest floor was examined as the cause of previously reported increases in soil organic matter due to experimental N deposition in ecosystems producing predominantly high-lignin litter, and the opposite response in ecosystems producing low-lignin litter. The mechanism proposed to explain this phenomenon was that white-rot basidiomycetes are more important in the degradation of high-lignin litter than of low-lignin litter, and that their activity is suppressed by N deposition. We found that forest floor mass in the low-lignin sugar-maple dominated system decreased in October due to experimental N deposition, whereas forest floor mass of high-lignin oak-dominated ecosystems was unaffected by N deposition. Increased relative abundance of basidiomycetes in high-lignin forest floor was confirmed by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and sequencing. Abundance of basidiomycete laccase genes, encoding an enzyme used by white-rot basidiomycetes in the degradation of lignin, was 5-10 times greater in high-lignin forest floor than in low-lignin forest floor. While the differences between the fungal communities in different ecosystems were consistent with the proposed mechanism, no significant effects of N deposition were detected on DGGE profiles, laccase gene abundance, laccase length heterogeneity profiles, or phenol oxidase activity. Our observations indicate that the previously detected accumulation of soil organic matter in the high-lignin system may be driven by effects of N deposition on organisms in the mineral soil, rather than on organisms residing in the forest floor. However, studies of in situ gene expression and temporal and spatial variability within forest floor communities will be necessary to further relate the ecosystem dynamics of organic carbon to microbial communities and atmospheric N deposition. ?? 2007 The Authors; Journal compilation ?? 2007 Society for Applied Microbiology and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  7. Variation in carbon stocks on different slope aspects in seven major forest types of temperate region of Garhwal Himalaya, India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    C M Sharma; Sumeet Gairola; N P Baduni; S K Ghildiyal; Sarvesh Suyal

    2011-09-01

    The present study was undertaken in seven major forest types of temperate zone (1500 m a.s.l. to 3100 m a.s.l.) of Garhwal Himalaya to understand the effect of slope aspects on carbon (C) density and make recommendations for forest management based on priorities for C conservation/sequestration. We assessed soil organic carbon (SOC) density, tree density, biomass and soil organic carbon (SOC) on four aspects, viz. north-east (NE), north-west (NW), south-east (SE) and south-west (SW), in forest stands dominated by Abies pindrow, Cedrus deodara, Pinus roxburghii, Cupressus torulosa, Quercus floribunda, Quercus semecarpifolia and Quercus leucotrichophora. TCD ranged between 77.3 CMg ha−1 on SE aspect (Quercus leucotrichophora forest) and 291.6 CMg ha−1 on NE aspect (moist Cedrus deodara forest). SOC varied between 40.3 CMg ha−1 on SW aspect (Himalayan Pinus roxburghii forest) and 177.5 CMg ha−1 on NE aspect (moist Cedrus deodara forest). Total C density (SOC+TCD) ranged between 118.1 CMg ha−1 on SW aspect (Himalayan Pinus roxburghii forest) and 469.1 CMg ha−1 on NE aspect (moist Cedrus deodara forest). SOC and TCD were significantly higher on northern aspects as compared with southern aspects. It is recommended that for C sequestration, the plantation silviculture be exercised on northern aspects, and for C conservation purposes, mature forest stands growing on northern aspects be given priority.

  8. Rhizosphere effect on phosphorus availability in forest soils at different altitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Feudis, Mauro; Cardelli, Valeria; Massaccesi, Luisa; Bol, Roland; Willbold, Sabine; Cocco, Stefania; Corti, Giuseppe; Agnelli, Alberto

    2016-04-01

    Phosphorus (P) is an essential nutrient for plants but it is one of the least available mineral nutrients, and can substantially limit plant growth. Although plants are able to respond to the P shortage, the global warming might modify the soil-plant-microorganisms system and reduce P availability. We evaluated the rhizosphere effect of beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) in forest soils of the Apennines mountains (central Italy) at two altitudes (800 and 1000 m) and along 1° of latitudinal gradient, using latitude and altitude as proxies for temperature change. Specifically, we tested if 1) soil organic C, total N, and organic and available P decrease with increasing latitude and altitude, and 2) the rhizosphere effect on P availability becomes more pronounced when potential nutrient limitations are more severe, as it happens with increasing latitude and altitude. The results suggested that the small latitudinal gradient has no effect on soil properties. Conversely, significant changes occurred between 800 and 1000 m a.s.l., as the soils at higher altitude showed greater TOC, organic and available P contents, and alkaline mono-phosphatases activity than the soils at 800 m a.s.l. Compared to the soils at lower altitude, a marked rhizosphere effect was found at 1000 m a.s.l., and it was mainly attributed to the release of labile organics through rhizodeposition processes. These labile organic compounds were considered able to induce a "priming effect" that fostered the mineralization of the soil organic matter. The enhanced organic carbon cycling, in turn, likely promoted the mineralization of the organic P forms. This was supported by the smaller proportion of orthophosphate monoesters found in the P pool of the rhizosphere than in that of the soil far from the roots, with a consequent increase of the amount of available P. Hence, we speculate that at high altitude the energy supplied by the plants through rhizodeposition to the rhizosphere heterotrophic microbial

  9. 福建梅花山17种常绿阔叶植物叶片虫食状况%Insect Herbivory Patterns on Leaves of 17 Plant Species in the Evergreen Broad-leaved Forests of Mt. Meihuashan, Fujian Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈凌; 蔡永立; 李恺; 王宏伟; 田玉鹏; 叶倩

    2008-01-01

    从福建梅花山自然保护区海拔450m和1 200m的常绿阔叶林中选取17种常绿乔、灌木,对其叶片虫食状和取食强度进行分析,结果如下:(1)17种植物叶片共有15种虫食状类型,每种叶片虫食状类型为8~14;虫食状出现频率0.02%~37.01%,其中缘食状出现频率最高(37.01%),叶中脉食状出现频率最低(0.02%).(2)木荷(Schima superba)的取食强度最大(9.60%),栲树(Castanopsis fargesii)次之(6.61%),油茶(Camellia Oleifera)最小(0.34%).(3)15种虫食状类型中有6对虫食状呈显著正相关, 2对呈显著负相关.(4)海拔1 200m处的甜槠(Castanopsis eyrei)、木荷、栲树和连蕊茶(Camellia fraterna)比海拔450m处的同种植物叶片的虫食强度高,其中木荷差异最大,从13.81%降至2.93%.

  10. Spatial heterogeneity of surface soil moisture in a broad-leaved Korean pine forest in Changbai Mountains based on geostatistic analysis%长白山阔叶红松林表层土壤水分空间异质性的地统计学分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王存国; 韩士杰; 张军辉; 王树堂; 徐媛

    2010-01-01

    采用时域反射仪对长白山原始阔叶红松林3块50 m×50 m样地表层土壤(0~7.5 cm)水分进行测定,应用地统计学的理论与方法对表层土壤水分的空间异质性进行分析.结果表明:研究区3块样地表层土壤水分变异系数分别为24.32%(样地1)、24.11%(样地2)和23.60%(样地3),均属于中等变异性;该区表层土壤水分的理论变异模型为球状模型,具有高度的空间异质性,其空间异质性以空间自相关部分为主;表层土壤水分的结构比分别为57.9%(样地1,属中等相关性)、83.3%和90.0%(样地2和3,属强烈的空间相关性);研究区表层土壤水分的变程在5.5~13.1 m,与贝叶斯方法估计的变程相差不大;通过克立格插值估计,研究区表层土壤水分含量的平均值分别为49.3%(样地1)、52.8%(样地2)和42.6%(样地3).

  11. 哀牢山中山湿性常绿阔叶林枯立木数量及分配规律%Quantity and Distribution of Standing Dead Trees in Montane Moist Evergreen Broad-leaved Forest in Ailao Mountain,Yunnan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张树斌; 郑征

    2009-01-01

    以三棵树、锅底塘、山门口和簸箕坝4块样地调查资料为基础,研究了云南哀牢山国家级自然保护区内中山湿性常绿阔叶林枯立木的数量组成、分配格局和生物量特征.结果表明:哀牢山中山湿性常绿阔叶林内枯立木的密度为(68.5±18.0)株/hm2,枯立木占全部乔木的(5.7±0.6)%.枯立木胸径(DBH)分配以小径级为主(5≤DBH<20 cm),此径级的枯立木显著高于另外2个级别(20≤DBH<40 cm和DBH≥40 cm,P<0.05).哀牢山中山湿性常绿阔叶林枯立木的物种组成极其丰富,分属于14科32种,树种组成以壳斗科的腾冲栲(Castanopsis wattii)、硬壳柯(Lithocarpus hancei)和木果柯(Lithocarpus xylocarpus),越桔科的云南越桔(Vaccinium duclouxii),杜鹃花科的珍珠花(Lyonia ovalifolia)和薄叶杜鹃(Rhododendron leptothrium)为主.哀牢山中山湿性常绿阔叶林枯立木贮量较高为(3.9±0.7)t*hm-2,生物量的树种分配以腾冲栲(Castanopsis wattii)和木果柯(Lithocarpus xylocarpus)为主.

  12. 八大公山常绿落叶阔叶混交林枯立木物种组成、大小级与分布格局%Species composition, size class, and spatial patterns of snags in the Badagongshan (BDGS) mixed evergreen and deciduous broad-leaved forest in central China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢志军; 刘福玲; 吴浩; 江明喜

    2015-01-01

    枯立木是森林生态系统的重要组成部分,对其数量特征(如物种组成和大小级)与分布格局的研究是认识这个特殊类群的起点.本文以湖南八大公山25 ha森林动态监测样地常绿落叶阔叶混交林为研究对象,以该样地第一次木本植物(DBH≥1 cm)调查数据为基础,分析了枯立木的物种组成、径级结构、分布格局以及生境关联.结果表明,样地内共有枯立木(DBH≥1 cm,高度≥130 cm,完全死亡)8,947株.其中,1 cm≤ DBH <5 cm枯立木4,258株(47.59%),5 cm ≤ DBH <10 cm枯立木2,132株(23.84%),10 cm ≤ DBH <30 cm枯立木2,377株(26.57%),DBH≥30 cm枯立木180株(2%);平均DBH为8.0 cm,最大DBH为83.5 cm.从分布格局来看,0-50 m的尺度上,样地内枯立木主要呈现聚集分布,但在接近40 m的尺度上,逐渐变为随机分布.利用多元回归树(multivariate regression tree,MRT)将样地生境分为3类,运用Torus转换比较某类生境中枯立木密度与物种零分布模型中的期望密度,结果显示枯立木在山谷中分布较少,山脊较多,而在山坡生境则呈现随机分布.鉴定到种的枯立木有724株(8.1%),隶属于26科84种;其中,杜鹃花科、壳斗科和樟科枯立木最多.在物种水平上,多脉青冈(Cyclobalanopsis multinervis)、长蕊杜鹃(Rhododendron stamineum)和黄丹木姜子(Litsea elongata)枯立木最多;而优势树种亮叶水青冈(Fagus lucida)的枯立木并不多见.

  13. Tree species richness, diversity, and regeneration status in different oak (Quercus spp. dominated forests of Garhwal Himalaya, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sushma Singh

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Himalayan forests are dominated by different species of oaks (Quercus spp. at different altitudes. These oaks are intimately linked with hill agriculture as they protect soil fertility, watershed, and local biodiversity. They also play an important role in maintaining ecosystem stability. This work was carried out to study the diversity and regeneration status of some oak forests in Garhwal Himalaya, India. A total of 18 tree species belonging to 16 genera and 12 families were reported from the study area. Species richness varied for trees (4–7, saplings (3–10, and seedlings (2–6. Seedling and sapling densities (Ind/ha varied between 1,376 Ind/ha and 9,600 Ind/ha and 167 Ind/ha and 1,296 Ind/ha, respectively. Species diversity varied from 1.27 to 1.86 (trees, from 0.93 to 3.18 (saplings, and from 0.68 to 2.26 (seedlings. Total basal area (m2/ha of trees and saplings was 2.2–87.07 m2/ha and 0.20–2.24 m2/ha, respectively, whereas that of seedlings varied from 299 cm2/ha to 8,177 cm2/ha. Maximum tree species (20–80% had “good” regeneration. Quercus floribunda, the dominant tree species in the study area, showed “poor” regeneration, which is a matter of concern, and therefore, proper management and conservation strategies need to be developed for maintenance and sustainability of this oak species along with other tree species that show poor or no regeneration.

  14. Vascular Epiphyte Diversity Differs with Host Crown Zone and Diameter, but Not Orientation in a Tropical Cloud Forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xixi; Long, Wenxing; Schamp, Brandon S; Yang, Xiaobo; Kang, Yong; Xie, Zhixu; Xiong, Menghui

    2016-01-01

    Vascular epiphytes are important components of biological diversity in tropical forests. We measured the species richness and abundance of vascular epiphytes along four vertical crown zones and five horizontal orientations on 376 trees, as well as the diameter at breast height (DBH) of host trees in tropical cloud forests in Bawangling, Hainan, China. The relationship between vascular epiphyte species richness and host tree DBH was assessed using a generalized linear model. There were 1,453 vascular individual epiphytes attributed to 9 families, 24 genera and 35 species, with orchids and pteridophytes dominating. Both the species richness and abundance of epiphytes significantly differed among the four crown zones for all collections and each host tree, suggesting that vertical microhabitats contribute to the distribution of epiphytes on host trees. Neither epiphyte abundance nor species richness differed among the eastern, southern, western, and northern orientations for all host trees; however, both richness and abundance were significantly higher for epiphytes that encircled host tree trunks. This suggests that morphological and physiological characteristics of the tree, but not microclimates probably contribute to the distribution of epiphytes on host trees. Epiphyte species richness was positively correlated with tree DBH across the six host tree species studied, with increases in DBH among smaller trees resulting in larger increases in richness, while increases in DBH among larger host trees resulting in more modest increases in ephiphyte richness. Our findings contribute support for a positive relationship between epiphyte species richness and host tree DBH and provide important guidance for future surveys of epiphyte community development. PMID:27391217

  15. Microbial Diversity of Primary Korean Pine Forests and Artificial Forests in Liangshui National Natural Reserve%凉水自然保护区原始红松林与人工林土壤微生物多样性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭彦萃; 熊毅; 张志

    2013-01-01

    采用BIOLOG微平板法,研究了小兴安岭凉水国家自然保护区内原始红皮云杉( Picea koraiensis Na-kai)红松林、青楷槭( Acer tegmentosum Maxim.)红松林与人工兴安落叶松( Larix gmelini Rupr.)林、白桦( Betula platyphylla Suk.)林土壤微生物多样性特征。结果表明:各林型土壤微生物AWCD值随土层深度与季节变化表现为,在表层与0~10 cm土层中,四季2种原始红松林均高于人工林;在>10~20 cm土层中以人工林在春、夏、秋三季最高,冬季仍以原始红松林最高。不同土层的3种微生物多样性指数均以青楷槭红松林最高,且显著高于2种人工林。可见,原始阔叶红松林土壤微生物比原始针叶红松林及人工林土壤微生物具有更丰富的多样性。%By BIOLOG microplate method, an investigation was conducted to study the soil microbial diversity characteristics of Picea.koraiensis Nakai, Acer tegmentosum Maxim, artificial Larix.gmelini Rupr.and Betula platyphylla Suk.in Liang-shui National Nature Reserve, Xiaoxing’an Mountain.The soil microbial AWCD values of the forest-type varied with soil depth and seasons:in the surface and 0-10 cm layer of soil, it was highest in two original Korean pine forest throughout the year;in the 10-20 cm layer of soil, it was highest in plantation in spring, summer and autumn, while it was highest in the primitive Korean pine forest in winter;three different soil microbial diversity indexes of all soil layers were highest in Acer tegmentosum Maxim forest, and significantly higher than those of two plantation.Therefore, the soil microbial diversi-ty of original Broad-leaved Korean Pine forest is richer than that of the original coniferous Korean pine forest and planta-tion.

  16. Functional Trait Strategies of Trees in Dry and Wet Tropical Forests Are Similar but Differ in Their Consequences for Succession

    OpenAIRE

    Lohbeck, M.W.M.; Lebrija-Trejos, E.E.; Martinez-Ramos, M.; J.A. Meave; Poorter, L.; Bongers, F.

    2015-01-01

    Global plant trait studies have revealed fundamental trade-offs in plant resource economics. We evaluated such trait trade-offs during secondary succession in two species-rich tropical ecosystems that contrast in precipitation: dry deciduous and wet evergreen forests of Mexico. Species turnover with succession in dry forest largely relates to increasing water availability and in wet forest to decreasing light availability. We hypothesized that while functional trait trade-offs are similar in ...

  17. Comparing Hydraulic Excavator and Bulldozer in Construction of Forest Road Standarad Cross Section in Different Slope Classes (Lattalar, Mazandaran Province)

    OpenAIRE

    S.A. Hosseini; M Lotfalian; A Parsakho; H. Jalilvand

    2009-01-01

    Forest roads must be constructed according to technical standards and guidelines which have been published by the scientific and operational organizations. Recently, hydraulic excavators have been used beside the bulldozer for excavating the forest roads. Thus, it is necessary that their ability in construct of standard cross sections be compared. This study was conducted in Lattalar forest which is located south of Sari city (Mazandaran Province). 60 cross section samples were randomly selec...

  18. Conversion from forests to pastures in the Colombian Amazon leads to differences in dead wood dynamics depending on land management practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarrete, Diego; Sitch, Stephen; Aragão, Luiz E O C; Pedroni, Lucio; Duque, Alvaro

    2016-04-15

    Dead wood, composed of coarse standing and fallen woody debris (CWD), is an important carbon (C) pool in tropical forests and its accounting is needed to reduce uncertainties within the strategies to mitigate climate change by reducing deforestation and forest degradation (REDD+). To date, information on CWD stocks in tropical forests is scarce and effects of land-cover conversion and land management practices on CWD dynamics remain largely unexplored. Here we present estimates on CWD stocks in primary forests in the Colombian Amazon and their dynamics along 20 years of forest-to-pasture conversion in two sub-regions with different management practices during pasture establishment: high-grazing intensity (HG) and low-grazing intensity (LG) sub-regions. Two 20-year-old chronosequences describing the forest-to-pasture conversion were identified in both sub-regions. The line-intersect and the plot-based methods were used to estimate fallen and standing CWD stocks, respectively. Total necromass in primary forests was similar between both sub-regions (35.6 ± 5.8 Mg ha(-1) in HG and 37.0 ± 7.4 Mg ha(-1) in LG). An increase of ∼124% in CWD stocks followed by a reduction to values close to those at the intact forests were registered after slash-and-burn practice was implemented in both sub-regions during the first two years of forest-to-pasture conversion. Implementation of machinery after using fire in HG pastures led to a reduction of 82% in CWD stocks during the second and fifth years of pasture establishment, compared to a decrease of 41% during the same period in LG where mechanization is not implemented. Finally, average necromass 20 years after forest-to-pasture conversion decreased to 3.5 ± 1.4 Mg ha(-1) in HG and 9.3 ± 3.5 Mg ha(-1) in LG, representing a total reduction of between 90% and 75% in each sub-region, respectively. These results highlight the importance of low-grazing intensity management practices during ranching activities in the Colombian

  19. Boreal forests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We review patterns and processes important for biodiversity in the Fennoscandian boreal forest, describe man's past and present impact and outline a strategy for conservation. Natural disturbances, particularly forest fire and gap formation, create much of the structural and functional diversity in forest ecosystems. Several boreal plants and animals are adapted to fire regimes. In contrast, many organisms (epiphytic lichens, fungi, invertebrates) require stable conditions with long continuity in canopy cover. The highly mechanized and efficient Fennoscandian forest industry has developed during the last century. The result is that most natural forest has been lost and that several hundreds of species, mainly cryptograms and invertebrates, are threatened. The forestry is now in a transition from exploitation to sustainable production and has recently incorporated some measures to protect the environment. Programmes for maintaining biodiversity in the boreal forest should include at least three parts. First, the system of forest reserves must be significantly improved through protection of large representative ecosystems and key biotopes that host threatened species. Second, we must restore ecosystem properties that have been lost or altered. Natural disturbance regimes must be allowed to operate or be imitated, for example by artificial fire management. Stand-level management should particularly increase the amount of coarse woody debris, the number of old deciduous trees and large, old conifers, by using partial cutting. Third, natural variation should also be mimicked at the landscape level, for example, by reducing fragmentation and increasing links between landscape elements. Long-term experiments are required to evaluate the success of different management methods in maintaining biodiversity in the boreal forest. (au) 260 refs

  20. Assessment of carbon pools in two soils from the Campania region (Southwest, Italy) under different forest types

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez-Romero, Marta; Papa, Stefania; Lozano-García, Beatriz; Parras-Alcántara, Luis; González-Pérez, José A.; Jordán, Antonio; Zavala, Lorena M.; González-Vila, Francisco J.; Coppola, Elio

    2014-05-01

    Soil is the largest carbon reservoir of terrestrial ecosystems, this reservoir is not inert, but it is constantly in a dynamic phase of accumulation an depletion. After the addition, in the soil, of organic residues of different origin and nature, two processes can occur in charge of SOM (Soil Organic Matter) during the pedogenesis: mineralization and humification. The accumulation of SOM in soil is controlled by the balance between carbon inputs and losses through mineralization and/or leaching. In particular the humification process leads to the formation of organic compounds (in some cases even complex organo-mineral) chemically stable able to distribute itself in the soil second rules of site-specific pedogenesis. The transport process along the profile can take very different forms which may extend in the formation of Bh horizons of accumulation in depth also strongly cemented (so-called ortstein). The transport process along the profile occurs for the occurrence of certain conditions such as deposition of high amounts of organic residues on the top of the profile, high porosity of the soil for the presence of coarse solid fractions (coarse sands or skeleton) that determinate a strong infiltrating capacity of the circulating waters, extreme temperatures can slow or stop the process of mineralization and/or humification in one intermediate step of the degradation process releasing organic metabolites with high or medium solubility and high loads of percolating water related to intense rainfall. The nature of the forest cover influence the quantity and quality of the organic materials deposited with marked dif