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Sample records for broad-leaved forests differing

  1. Phylogenetic Structure of Tree Species across Different Life Stages from Seedlings to Canopy Trees in a Subtropical Evergreen Broad-Leaved Forest.

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    Jin, Yi; Qian, Hong; Yu, Mingjian

    2015-01-01

    Investigating patterns of phylogenetic structure across different life stages of tree species in forests is crucial to understanding forest community assembly, and investigating forest gap influence on the phylogenetic structure of forest regeneration is necessary for understanding forest community assembly. Here, we examine the phylogenetic structure of tree species across life stages from seedlings to canopy trees, as well as forest gap influence on the phylogenetic structure of forest regeneration in a forest of the subtropical region in China. We investigate changes in phylogenetic relatedness (measured as NRI) of tree species from seedlings, saplings, treelets to canopy trees; we compare the phylogenetic turnover (measured as βNRI) between canopy trees and seedlings in forest understory with that between canopy trees and seedlings in forest gaps. We found that phylogenetic relatedness generally increases from seedlings through saplings and treelets up to canopy trees, and that phylogenetic relatedness does not differ between seedlings in forest understory and those in forest gaps, but phylogenetic turnover between canopy trees and seedlings in forest understory is lower than that between canopy trees and seedlings in forest gaps. We conclude that tree species tend to be more closely related from seedling to canopy layers, and that forest gaps alter the seedling phylogenetic turnover of the studied forest. It is likely that the increasing trend of phylogenetic clustering as tree stem size increases observed in this subtropical forest is primarily driven by abiotic filtering processes, which select a set of closely related evergreen broad-leaved tree species whose regeneration has adapted to the closed canopy environments of the subtropical forest developed under the regional monsoon climate.

  2. Comparative Study of Carbon Storage and Allocation Characteristics of Mature Evergreen Broad-leaved Forest

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhangquan; ZENG; Canming; ZHANGY; Yandong; NIU; Xiquan; LI; Zijian; WU; Jia; LUO

    2014-01-01

    Evergreen broad-leaved forest is an important forest type in China.This paper analyzes the allocation characteristics of vegetation and soil carbon pool of evergreen broad-leaved forest,to understand the current status of research on the carbon storage of evergreen broadleaved forest as well as shortcomings.In the context of global climate change,it is necessary to carry out the long-term research of evergreen broad-leaved forest,in order to grasp the formation mechanism of evergreen broad-leaved forest productivity,and the impact of climate change on the carbon sequestration function of evergreen broad-leaved forest ecosystem.

  3. Root biomass and underground C and N storage of the primitive Korean pine and broad-leaved forest and its different succession stages in Changbai Mountain, northeast China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Liyun; LUO Tianxiang; WU Songtao

    2006-01-01

    This paper studied root biomass and underground carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) storage of a more than 200-year-old primitive Korean pine and broad-leaved forest and its two 20- and 80-year-old secondary Populus davidiana and Betula platyphylla forests in Changbai Mountain,northeast China.The results showed that with forest succession,the root biomass of 20-year-old,80-year-old,and primitive forests was 2.437,2.742,and 4.114 kg/m2,respectively.The root C storage was 1.113,1.323,and 2.023kg/m2,soil C storage was 11.911,11.943,and 12.587 kg/m2,and underground C storage was 13.024,13.266,and 14.610kg/m2,respectively,while the root N storage was 0.035,0.032,and 0.038 kg/m2,soil N storage was 1.208,1.222,and 0.915 kg/m2,and underground N storage was 1.243,1.254,and 0.955 kg/m2,respectively,which indicated that along with forest succession,the forest underground became a potential"carbon sink,"whereas underground N storage did not change obviously.

  4. Comparison of Characteristic of Water Balance between Evergreen Coniferous and Deciduous Broad-leaved Forests

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    Hisada, Shigeta; Senge, Masateru; Ito, Kengo; Maruyama, Toshisuke

    Hydrological observation was carried out at two basins occupied mainly by evergreen coniferous forest of Chamaecyparis obtusa and deciduous broad-leaved forest of Quercus crispula in order to clarify the influences of different forest type on water balance. The analysis of short-time period water-budget method showed that the evapotranspiration of coniferous forest was more than broad-leaved one. By calculating transpiration from Priestley-Taylor equation, intercepted evaporation was separated from evapotranspiration. The result of comparison of intercepted evaporation between two basin was that intercepted evaporation of coniferous basin was more than that of broad-leaved basin. From separating total runoff into direct and base flow components; it was shown that there was no difference in direct runoff of two basins, so the differences of total runoff of two basins were caused due to the difference of base flow. From the above analysis of water balance components, it is clarified that the different forest type influences the amount of intercepted evaporation and base flow.

  5. 不同模式杉阔混交对林木生长的影响%Effects of Different Modes of Chinese Fir-and-Broad-Leaved Mixed Forest on Tree Growth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴昌华

    2014-01-01

    通过对几种杉阔混交模式的试验研究,结果表明:杉木+枫香和杉木+木荷2种混交林与杉木纯林比较,在树高生长方面有极显著差异,其中以杉木+枫香混交模式生长最好,为8.47m,杉木+木荷模式次之,为7.93 m。杉阔混交对促进杉木林的健康生长有着非常大的作用。%Several modes for Chinese fir-and-broad-leaved mixed forest were studied .Result shows that :two kinds of mixed forest (Cunninghamia lanceolata+ Liquidambar formosana & Cunninghamia lanceolata + Schima super-ba) were compared to pure forest of Cunninghamia lanceolata;there are significant differences in height growth ,a-mong which the growth of mixed mode (C .lanceolata + L .formosana) is the optimal ,being 8 .47 m ,followed by C .lanceolata+ S .superba ,being 7 .93 m .Chinese fir-and-broad-leaved mixed forest has a significant role to promote healthy growth for C .lanceolata .

  6. Forest litter stocks in Korean pine-broad-leaved forests of the southern Sikhote Alin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Ivanov

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the data on the forest litter of the Korean pine-broad-leaved forests of the South of Primorsky krai. The focus of the research is plantations dominated by Korean pine; areas of the main tree species with ages of 50, 80, 130 and 200 years were selected. The dynamics of the forest litter stock in the pine and broadleaved forests of different ages according to the measurement results for the season in 2014 is stated. In the studied plantation, the forest litter stock varies between 9.7–20.3 t ha-1. The greatest value of the forest litter stock is recorded in old-growth cedar forest (200 years. Relatively high power and the stock of litter are typical for young Korean pine forest that can explain the lower speed of the litter properties change against the dynamics of taxation indicators of the forest stand. The difference between the amount of the litter in the 200-year-old and remaining pine trees are statistically significant at p = 0.05. The dependence of the litter power on the age is not revealed. The coefficient of the forest litter decomposition ranges from 2.55–10.60 that characterizes the high speed of its rotting. The highest coefficient of the litter decomposition has an old-growing pine forest. The schedule of seasonal humidity fluctuations of the forest litter on the chosen plot is made; with increasing cedar forest age, the volumetric moisture content of the forest litter increases; volumetric moisture content on the plots remain relatively unchanged during the season. The area of the Korean pine forests of Primorsky State Academy of Agriculture is 6835 ha. The amount of carbon stock in the forest litter is 38.7 thousand tons C. in this area, while the system of regional assessment of the forest carbon balance estimates this index as 24.3 tons С. The data obtained can be used to adjust the coefficients of regional assessment of the forest carbon balance for cedar forests of Primorsky krai.

  7. Spatial heterogeneity and its causes in evergreen broad-leaved forests in the Ailao Mountains, Yunnan Province

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    Yuanjie Xu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the variation of species richness over spatial scales, and elucidating the response of plant community composition to habitat heterogeneity has been one of the major topics in the study of community ecology. Niche differentiation related to habitat heterogeneity plays an important role in shaping diversity levels and species distribution patterns of plant communities. Based on a survey of 42 plots of four types of evergreen broad-leaved forests in the Ailao Mountains of Yunnan Province, this paper explored how community distribution and tree species richness of such forests changed along topographic and edaphic gradients. We found significant differences in community composition among the four types of evergreen broad-leaved forests. Tree species richness of monsoon evergreen broad-leaved forests was significantly higher than that of the other forest types. Tree species richness of mid-montane moist evergreen broad-leaved forests was significantly higher than that of semi-humid evergreen broad-leaved forests, whereas no significant difference was observed among the other forest types. Non-metric multidimensional scaling (NMDS revealed that nine environmental gradients, including elevation, slope, soil water content, soil organic matter, were the determinants of forest community composition and tree distribution patterns. As the best predictors of tree species richness, soil available boron, elevation, soil total potassium and convexity together explained 63.2% of the variance of tree species richness. The combination of topographic and edaphic factors explained most of the variance of community composition and tree species richness of the evergreen broad leaved forests in the Ailao Mountains.

  8. Correlations between canopy gaps and species diversity in broad-leaved and Korean pine mixed forests

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Xiuhai; ZHANG Chunyu; ZHENG Jingming

    2006-01-01

    Regeneration of tree species associated with canopy gaps in broad-leaved Korean pine forests was investigated.Species diversity in gaps and under closed canopy was compared,the relationship between biodiversity and gap structure was analyzed.Results indicate that there were significant differences between tree species diversity in gaps and that under canopy (p<0.01).In terms of Shannon-Wiener index,evenness index,and abundance index,the biodiversity in gap community were higher than those under forest canopy in regeneration layer.In terms of Simpson's dominance index,the dominance of certain species in the regeneration layer increased from gaps to closed canopy (p<0.01).In contrast,trends of biodiversity changes of succession layer in gaps and under closed canopy were opposite.Tree species diversity of different layers reacted directly to the change of gap size class.For example,Shannon-Wiener index and abundance index is higher and Simpson's dominance index is the lowest in succession layer of medium-size gap (100-250 m2) in the broad-leaved Korean pine forest of Changbai Mountains.Shannon-Wiener index reached the highest in a size of≥250 m2 and<100 m2,reached the lowest in a size of 200-250 m2 in the regeneration layer.Simpson's dominance index reached its maximum when the gap size was between 200 and 250m2.Generally,species of different layers reacted differently to the changes of gap size classes.The gap size class with more seedlings did not correspond to size class containing more medium-size trees.Tree species diversity indices in the two layers behaved reciprocally during the development process of forest gaps.

  9. [Tree uprooting of coniferous-broad leaved Korean pine mixed forest in Lesser Khingan Mountains, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Xiao-wen; Hou, Jie-jian; Wang, Li-hai; Wang, Xing-long; Rong, Bin-bin

    2016-02-01

    The morphological parameters, root wad indexes and site conditions of 127 uprooting trees from 76 plots (20 mx20 m) in Lesser Khingan coniferous-broad leaved Korean pine mixed forest were measured. Then the influencing factors of uprooting differences and the relationship between uprooting trees and disturbed soil were analyzed. Results showed that the number of uprooting trees varied significantly among species. Abies nephrolepis suffered the most serious uprooting damage, then Pinus koraiensis, and Ulmus spp. the least. Deciduous species had a stronger uprooting-resistant capacity than broad-leaved species. With the increase of tree DBH and height, tree' s uprooting resistance declined rapidly first and then was gradually enhanced, and finally reached the minimum at diameter class of 20 cm and height class of 14 m, respectively. The smaller the taper degree and projected area of crown were, the stronger the uprooting resistance was. Uprooting rate was negatively correlated with stand density. Trees lying in wet ground, flat terrain, medium low altitude area and windward slope had a greater risk of uprooting. There were significant positive correlation between the depth, area and volume of disturbed soil and the DBH, height, volume of uprooting trees.

  10. Minimum sampling area and a biodiversity of riparian broad-leaved/Korean pine forest in Erdaobaihe forested watershed, Changbai Mountain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Riparian zone is an important component of forested watershed. Species component, structure, and distribution pattern of plant community in riparian zone are different from those of forest far away from the riparian zone because of edge effect and influence of river, and their minimum sampling areas are also different. To study the minimum area and a biodiversity of broad-leaved/Korean pine forest in riparian zone, three 8 m × 32 m sampling belts were selected and distributed at elevation of 800 m, 900 m, and 1000 m. In the riparian broad-leaved/Korean pine forest, mean minimum sampling areas including 60%, 80%, and 90% of total species were 80 m2 (8 m×10 m), 180 m2 (12 m×15 m), and 320 m2 (16 m × 20 m) respectively; The corresponding mean minimum areas of non-riparian forest were about 260 m2, 380 m2, and 480 m2; and the former were smaller than the latter. In the riparian zone, species richness, Shannon-Weiner index and species evenness were also higher than those in non-riparian forest. On the contrary, species dominance in forest community was higher than that in riparian zone.

  11. Topographic variation in aboveground biomass in a subtropical evergreen broad-leaved forest in China.

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    Lin, Dunmei; Lai, Jiangshan; Muller-Landau, Helene C; Mi, Xiangcheng; Ma, Keping

    2012-01-01

    The subtropical forest biome occupies about 25% of China, with species diversity only next to tropical forests. Despite the recognized importance of subtropical forest in regional carbon storage and cycling, uncertainties remain regarding the carbon storage of subtropical forests, and few studies have quantified within-site variation of biomass, making it difficult to evaluate the role of these forests in the global and regional carbon cycles. Using data for a 24-ha census plot in east China, we quantify aboveground biomass, characterize its spatial variation among different habitats, and analyse species relative contribution to the total aboveground biomass of different habitats. The average aboveground biomass was 223.0 Mg ha(-1) (bootstrapped 95% confidence intervals [217.6, 228.5]) and varied substantially among four topographically defined habitats, from 180.6 Mg ha(-1) (bootstrapped 95% CI [167.1, 195.0]) in the upper ridge to 245.9 Mg ha(-1) (bootstrapped 95% CI [238.3, 253.8]) in the lower ridge, with upper and lower valley intermediate. In consistent with our expectation, individual species contributed differently to the total aboveground biomass of different habitats, reflecting significant species habitat associations. Different species show differently in habitat preference in terms of biomass contribution. These patterns may be the consequences of ecological strategies difference among different species. Results from this study enhance our ability to evaluate the role of subtropical forests in the regional carbon cycle and provide valuable information to guide the protection and management of subtropical broad-leaved forest for carbon sequestration and carbon storage.

  12. Topographic variation in aboveground biomass in a subtropical evergreen broad-leaved forest in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dunmei Lin

    Full Text Available The subtropical forest biome occupies about 25% of China, with species diversity only next to tropical forests. Despite the recognized importance of subtropical forest in regional carbon storage and cycling, uncertainties remain regarding the carbon storage of subtropical forests, and few studies have quantified within-site variation of biomass, making it difficult to evaluate the role of these forests in the global and regional carbon cycles. Using data for a 24-ha census plot in east China, we quantify aboveground biomass, characterize its spatial variation among different habitats, and analyse species relative contribution to the total aboveground biomass of different habitats. The average aboveground biomass was 223.0 Mg ha(-1 (bootstrapped 95% confidence intervals [217.6, 228.5] and varied substantially among four topographically defined habitats, from 180.6 Mg ha(-1 (bootstrapped 95% CI [167.1, 195.0] in the upper ridge to 245.9 Mg ha(-1 (bootstrapped 95% CI [238.3, 253.8] in the lower ridge, with upper and lower valley intermediate. In consistent with our expectation, individual species contributed differently to the total aboveground biomass of different habitats, reflecting significant species habitat associations. Different species show differently in habitat preference in terms of biomass contribution. These patterns may be the consequences of ecological strategies difference among different species. Results from this study enhance our ability to evaluate the role of subtropical forests in the regional carbon cycle and provide valuable information to guide the protection and management of subtropical broad-leaved forest for carbon sequestration and carbon storage.

  13. [Energy balance and evapotranspiration in broad-leaved Korean pine forest in Changbai Mountains].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xin-jian; Yuan, Feng-hui; Chen, Ni-na; Deng, Jun-li; Yu, Xiao-zhou; Sheng, Xue-jiao

    2011-03-01

    Based on the continuous measurements of an open-path eddy covariance system, this paper analyzed the characteristics of energy balance components and evapotranspiration in a broad-leaved Korean pine forest in Changbai Mountains in 2008, as well as the differences of energy balance components and evapotranspiration between growth season and dormant season. For the test forest, the year-round energy balance closure was 72%, being at a medium level, compared to the other studies in the Fluxnet community. The energy balance components had significant differences in their diurnal and seasonal variations. In growth season, turbulent energy exchange was dominated by upward latent heat flux, accounting for 66% of available energy; while in dormant season, the turbulent energy exchange was dominated by upward sensible heat flux, accounting for 63% of available energy. The accumulated annual evapotranspiration in the study site in 2008 was 484.7 mm, occupying 87% of the precipitation at the same time period (558.9 mm), which demonstrated that evapotranspiration was the main water loss item in temperate forests of northern China.

  14. Microenvironmental heterogeneity of physical soil properties in a broad-leaved Pinus koraiensis forest gap

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wenbiao DUAN; Jing WANG; Yan LI

    2009-01-01

    Microenvironmental heterogeneity of soil phy-sical properties in 0-20 cm and 20-40 cm soil layers in a broad-leaved Pinus koraiensis forest gap in Xiao Xing'anl-ing Mountains were analyzed by geostatistical method.The results show that the amount of soil water, saturation water capacity, capillary water capacity and porosity in the top layer were greater than those in the lower layer, except for bulk density, where the opposite applied. Soil physical properties in the top soil layer had relatively higher ranges and coefficients of variation. The total and auto correlation spatial heterogeneity of soil physical properties in the top layer were larger than those in the lower layer. The soil water had a strong anisotropic structure in an easterly and northerly direction, but porosity shows isotropy in the same directions. With increasing spatial distance, the other three physical factors exhibited anisotropic structures. The mutual effect between semi-variograms of soil physical properties in the top layer within the spatial autocorrelation range was not significant. For spatial distribution of physical properties within different layers, the patches at the middle and lower ranks in the forest gap dominated.Patches at higher rank were only distributed in the 0-20 cm soil layer and were located north of the forest gap center.

  15. [Applicability analysis of spatially explicit model of leaf litter in evergreen broad-leaved forests].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Qing-Qing; Liu, He-Ming; Jonard, Mathieu; Wang, Zhang-Hua; Wang, Xi-Hua

    2014-11-01

    The spatially explicit model of leaf litter can help to understand its dispersal process, which is very important to predict the distribution pattern of leaves on the surface of the earth. In this paper, the spatially explicit model of leaf litter was developed for 20 tree species using litter trap data from the mapped forest plot in an evergreen broad-leaved forest in Tiantong, Zhejiang Pro- vince, eastern China. Applicability of the model was analyzed. The model assumed an allometric equation between diameter at breast height (DBH) and leaf litter amount, and the leaf litter declined exponentially with the distance. Model parameters were estimated by the maximum likelihood method. Results showed that the predicted and measured leaf litter amounts were significantly correlated, but the prediction accuracies varied widely for the different tree species, averaging at 49.3% and ranging from 16.0% and 74.0%. Model qualities of tree species significantly correlated with the standard deviations of the leaf litter amount per trap, DBH of the tree species and the average leaf dry mass of tree species. There were several ways to improve the forecast precision of the model, such as installing the litterfall traps according to the distribution of the tree to cover the different classes of the DBH and distance apart from the parent trees, determining the optimal dispersal function of each tree species, and optimizing the existing dispersal function.

  16. Dynamics of nitrogen nutrition of coexisting dominant trees in mixed broad-leaved/Korean pine forest

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Yuwen

    1999-01-01

    Chemical analysis of ammonium, nitrate and total nitrogen in tree leaves and roots and an in-vivo bioassay for nitrate reductase activity (NRA) were used to monitor the seasonal variations in nitrogen assimilation among four coexisting dominant tree species, including Pinus koraiensis, Ti/ia amurensis, Fraxinus mandshurica and Acer mono, in a virgin mixed broad-leaved/Korean pine (Pinus koraiensis) forest. The soil study included individual horizons of L+F (0-5 cm), Ah (5-11 cm) and Aw (11-25 cm). All four species had nitrate and ammonium in their roots and leaves, and also NRA in leaves. This indicated that these coexisting species were adapted to ammonium + nitrate nutrition. A negative correlation existed between nitrate use and ammonium use. Ammonium concentration was higher than that of nitrate in tree leaves and roots, and also in soils, which indicated climax woody species had a relative preference for ammonium nutrition. There was a positive relationship between tree nitrogen nutrition use and soil nitrogen nutrient supply. Utilization of ammonium and nitrate as well as the seasonal patterns differed significantly between the species. Peaks of ammonium, nitrate, NRA and total nitrogen in one species were therefore not necessarily synchronous with peaks in other species, and which indicated a species-specific seasonal use of nitrogen. The species-specific temporal differentiation in nitrogen use might reduce the competition between co-existing species and may be an important mechanism promoting stability of virgin mixed broad-leaved∥Korean pine forest.

  17. Estimate of productivity in ecosystem of the broad-leaved Korean pine mixed forest in Changbai Mountain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    <正>We measured soil, stem and branch respiration of trees and shrubs, foliage photosynthesis and respiration in ecosystem of the needle and broad-leaved Korean pine forest in Changbai Mountain by LI-6400 CO2 analysis system. Measurement of forest microclimate was conducted simultaneously and a model was found for the relationship of soil, stem, leaf and climate factors. CO2 flux of different components in ecosystem of the broad-leaved Korean pine forest was estimated based on vegetation characteristics. The net ecosystem exchange was measured by eddy covariance technique. And we studied the effect of temperature and photosynthetic active radiation on ecosystem CO2 flux. Through analysis we found that the net ecosystem exchange was affected mainly by soil respiration and leaf photosynthesis. Annual net ecosystem exchange ranged from a minimum of about -4.671μmol·m-2·s-1 to a maximum of 13.80μmol·m-2·s-1, mean net ecosystem exchange of CO2 flux was -2.0μmol·m-2·s-1 and 3.9μmol·m-2·s-1 in winter and summer respectively (mean value during 24 h). Primary productivity of tree, shrub and herbage contributed about 89.7%, 3.5% and 6.8% to the gross primary productivity of the broad-leaved Korean pine forest respectively. Soil respiration contributed about 69.7% CO2 to the broad-leaved Korean pine forest ecosystem, comprising about 15.2% from tree leaves and 15.1% from branches. The net ecosystem exchange in growing season and non-growing season contributed 56.8% and 43.2% to the annual CO2 efflux respectively. The ratio of autotrophic respiration to gross primary productivity (Ra:GPP) was 0.52 (NPP:GPP=0.48). Annual carbon accumulation underground accounted for 52% of the gross primary productivity, and soil respiration contributed 60% to gross primary productivity. The NPP of the needle and broad-leaved Korean pine forest was 769.3 gC·m-2·a-1. The net ecosystem exchange of this forest ecosystem (NEE) was 229.51 gC·m-2·a-1. The NEE of this forest ecosystem

  18. Broad-Leaved Forest Community Structure Features in Different Habitats without Human Disturbance%无人为干扰下不同生境阔叶林的群落结构特征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    雷平; 郭洪兴; 邹志安; 邹思成; 兰文军; 徐新宇; 袁荣斌

    2014-01-01

    以江西武夷山国家级自然保护区核心区为无干扰环境,选取河岸带、内陆森林和林线3种生境阔叶林群落为研究对象。群落结构特征分析结果显示:1)不同生境类型的群落建群种不同,但群落各层主要优势种的重要值均呈差异不显著,物种组成上均以壳斗科、樟科、山茶科、山矾科、杜鹃花科、蔷薇科、冬青科等为常见,且种属数较多。2)立木总株数(乔灌木)林线群落高于其他生境群落,但不同生境类型的群落间乔木与灌木平均株数均呈差异不显著。3)群落各层物种的种数及各物种多样性指数均有河岸带>内陆森林>林线,乔木层、草本层与层间植物物种种数以及物种多样性Patrick、Gleason、Margalef和Shannon-Weiner指数,河岸带均与其他生境类型群落差异呈显著性;而灌木层物种种数及多样性Simpson和Pielou指数差异不呈显著性。4)散点图和线性回归得出林线群落活立木平均高度和平均胸径均高于其他生境类型的群落。%In core area of Jiangxi Wuyishan National Nature Reserve, as the non-disturbance condition, three habitats broad-leaved community of riparian zone, inland and forest line were selected for study aspects. Community structure characteristics analysis results showed that: 1) there were different constructive species of the community in different habitats, but the important value of the main dominant species in the communities’ layers has no significant difference. Species composition dominated by Fagaceae, Theaceae, Lauraceae, Symplocaceae, Ericaceae, Rosaceae, Aquifoliaceae with much of genera and species in all types of the habitats. 2) The total number of the standing timber (including trees and shrubs) in the forest line community was more than other communities, but the average number of the trees and shrubs in different habitats has no significant difference. 3) Community species and each

  19. [Effects of simulated nitrogen deposition on soil respiration in northern subtropical deciduous broad-leaved forest].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Zheng-hua; Li, Han-mao; Yang, Yan-ping; Chen, Shu-tao; Li, Cen-zi; Shen, Shuang-he

    2010-08-01

    To investigate the effects of elevated nitrogen deposition on forest soil respiration, a simulated nitrogen deposition field experiment was conducted in northern subtropical deciduous broad-leave forest from April 2008 to April 2009. Nitrogen treatments included the control (no N addition, CK), low-N [50 kg x (hm2 x a)(-1), T(L)], medium-N [100 kg x (hm2 x a)(-1), T(M)], and high-N [150 kg x (hm2 x a)(-1), T(H)]. The respiration rates were measured by a static chamber-gas chromatograph method. Results showed that nitrogen deposition did not change the seasonal and daily variation patterns of soil respiration. Compared to the control, T(L), T(M) and T(H) treatments reduced soil annual average respiration rates by 8.51%, 9.74% and 11.24%, respectively. Meanwhile, T(L), T(M) and T(H) treatments decreased daily average soil respiration rates by 4.42%, 11.09% and 12.17%, respectively. Significant relationship was found between soil respiration rate and soil temperature. The Q10 (temperature sensitivity coefficients) for soil respiration of CK, T(L), T(M), and T(H) treatments were 2.53, 3.22, 2.64 and 2.92, respectively. Our findings suggested that nitrogen deposition reduced soil respiration, and increased soil respiration temperature sensitivity in northern subtropical deciduous broad-leave forest.

  20. Effect of urbanization on the structure and functional traits of remnant subtropical evergreen broad-leaved forests in South China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Liujing; Chen, Hongfeng; Ren, Hai; Wang, Jun; Guo, Qinfeng

    2013-06-01

    We investigated the effects of major environmental drivers associated with urbanization on species diversity and plant functional traits (PFTs) in the remnant subtropical evergreen broad-leaved forests in Metropolitan Guangzhou (Guangdong, China). Twenty environmental factors including topography, light, and soil properties were used to quantify the effects of urbanization. Vegetation data and soil properties were collected from 30 400-m(2) plots at 6 study sites in urban and rural areas. The difference of plant species diversity and PFTs of remnant forests between urban and rural areas were analyzed. To discern the complex relationships, multivariate statistical analyses (e.g., canonical correspondence analysis and regression analysis) were employed. Pioneer species and stress-tolerant species can survive and vigorously establish their population dominance in the urban environment. The native herb diversity was lower in urban forests than in rural forests. Urban forests tend to prefer the species with Mesophanerophyte life form. In contrast, species in rural forests possessed Chamaephyte and Nanophanerophyte life forms and gravity/clonal growth dispersal mode. Soil pH and soil nutrients (K, Na, and TN) were positively related to herb diversity, while soil heavy metal concentrations (Cu) were negatively correlated with herb diversity. The herb plant species diversity declines and the species in the remnant forests usually have stress-tolerant functional traits in response to urbanization. The factors related to urbanization such as soil acidification, nutrient leaching, and heavy metal pollution were important in controlling the plant diversity in the forests along the urban-rural gradients. Urbanization affects the structure and functional traits of remnant subtropical evergreen broad-leaved forests.

  1. Microelement contents of litter, soil fauna and soil in Pinus koralensis and mixed broad-leaved forest

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Jinxia; YIN Xiuqin; DONG Weihua

    2007-01-01

    The Mn,Zn and Cu contents of litter,soil fauna and soil in Pinus koraiensis and mixed broad-leaved forest in Liangshui Nature Reserve of Xiaoxing'an Mountains were analyzed in this paper,results showed that the tested microelement contents in the litter,soil fauna and soil followed the order:Mn>Zn>Cu,but varied with environmental components,for Mn the order is soil>litter>soil fauna,for Zn is soil fauna>litter and soil,and for Cu is soil fauna>soil>litter.The change range of the tested microelement contents in litter was larger in broad-leaved forest than those in coniferous forest.Different soil fauna differed in their microelementenrichment capability,the highest content of Mn,Zn and Cu existed in earthworm,centipede and diplopod,respectively.The contents of the tested microelements in soil fauna had significant correlations with their environmental background values,litter decomposition rate,food habit of soil fauna,and its absorbing selectively and enrichment to microelements.The microelements contained in 5-20 cm soil horizon were more than those in 0-5 cm humus layer,and their dynamics differed in various horizons.

  2. Propagation of Native Tree Species to Restore Subtropical Evergreen Broad-Leaved Forests in SW China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Lu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Subtropical evergreen broad-leaved forest (EBLF is a widespread vegetation type throughout East Asia that has suffered extensive deforestation and fragmentation. Selection and successful propagation of native tree species are important for improving ecological restoration of these forests. We carried out a series of experiments to study the propagation requirements of indigenous subtropical tree species in Southwest China. Seeds of 21 tree species collected from the natural forest were materials for the experiment. This paper examines the seed germination and seedling growth performance of these species in a nursery environment. Germination percentages ranged from 41% to 96% and were ≥50% for 19 species. The median length of germination time (MLG ranged from 24 days for Padus wilsonii to 144 days for Ilex polyneura. Fifteen species can reach the transplant size (≥15 cm in height within 12 months of seed collection. Nursery-grown seedlings for each species were planted in degraded site. Two years after planting, the seedling survival rate was >50% in 18 species and >80% in 12 species. Based on these results, 17 species were recommended as appropriate species for nursery production in forest restoration projects. Our study contributes additional knowledge regarding the propagation techniques for various native subtropical tree species in nurseries for forest restoration.

  3. Diurnal Variations of Greenhouse Gas Fluxes from Mixed Broad-leaved and Coniferous Forest Soil in Dinghushan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOUCunyu; ZHANGDeqiang; WANGYuesi; ZHOUGuoyi; LIUShizhong; TANGXuli

    2005-01-01

    The subtropical mixed broad-leaved and coniferous forest, a typical successional monsoon forest, is one of the major forests in the subtropics of China. Therefore, it is very important to estimate the fluxes of the greenhouse gases from the forest soil in order to evaluate the impact of subtropical forests on the greenhouse gas emissions or absorptions. This study investigated the diurnal variations of fluxes of three greenhouse gases (CO2, CH4, and N2O) from a mixed broad-leaved and coniferous forest soil. A static chamber-gas chromatograph technique was used to measure the fluxes of three greenhouse gases. By using the improved gas chromatography sampling system, the fluxes were analyzed with a single injection. In order to find out the effects of litter and seedling on the emissions or absorptions of these greenhouse gases, three treatments were set in the fleld:(1)bare soil surface (litter was removed previously); (3) litter + soil; (3) seedling + litter + soil. The experimental results demonstrated that the forest soil was a source of CO2, N2O and a weak sink of CH4.The daily fluxes of CO2, CH4, and N2O from the soil surface were in the range of 488.99~700.57, 0.049~0.108 and -0.025~ -0.053 mg/(m2·h ), respectively. CO2 from the litter decomposition accounted for about 1/3 of the total CO2 emission from the soil surface, while the litter and seedling had no significant effect on the fluxes of CH4 and N2O. The fluxes of CO2 and N2O measured at 9:00 -11:00 a.m. were significantly different from their daily averages. Therefore, caution must be taken if the CO2 and N2O fluxes measured within 9:00-11:00 a.m. are used for extrapolation.

  4. Comparative study on active soil organic matter in Chinese fir plantation and native broad-leaved forest in subtropical China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Qing-kui; WANG Si-long; DENG Shi-jian

    2005-01-01

    Active soil organic matter (ASOM) has a main effect on biochemical cycles of soil nutrient elements such as N, P and S, and the quality and quantity of ASOM reflect soil primary productivity. The changes of ASOM fractions and soil nutrients in the first rotation site and the second rotation site of Chinese fir plantation and the native broad-leaved forest were investigated and analyzed by soil sampling at the Huitong Experimental Station of Forestry Ecology (at latitude 26°48′N and longitude 109°30′E under a subtropical climate conditions), Chinese Academy of Sciences in March, 2004. The results showed that values of ASOM fractions for the Chinese fir plantations were lower than those for the broad-leaved forest. The contents of easily oxidisable carbon (EOC), microbial biomass carbon (MBC), water soluble carbohydrate (WSC) and water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC) for the first rotation of Chinese fir plantation were 35.9%, 13.7%, 87.8% and 50.9% higher than those for the second rotation of Chinese fir plantation, and were 15.8%, 47.3%, 38.1% and 30.2% separately lower than those for the broad-leaved forest. For the three investigated forest sites, the contents of MBC and WSOC had a larger decrease, followed by WSC, and the change of EOC was least. Moreover, soil physico-chemistry properties such as soil nutrients in Chinese fir plantation were lower than those in broad-leaved forest. It suggested that soil fertility declined after Chinese fir plantation replaced native broad-leaved forest through continuous artificial plantation.

  5. Change in Species Diversity during Recovering Process of Evergreen Broad-leaved Forest%常绿阔叶林恢复过程植物物种多样性的变化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    温远光

    2005-01-01

    Evergreen broad-leaved forest is one of the most important vegetation types in China. Because of the human activities, evergreen broad-leaved forest has been destroyed extensively, leading to degraded ecosystem. It is urgent to conserve and restore these natural forests in China.In this paper, the tendency and rate of species diversity restoration of the evergreen broad-leaved forest in Daming Mountain has been studied. The main results are as follows: (a) In subtropical mid-mountain area, species diversity in degraded evergreen broad-leaved forest can be restored. Through analyzing b diversity index of communities in different time and space, it was found that the species composition of communities tend to be the same as that in the zonal evergreen broad-leaved forest. (b) The restoration rate of evergreen broad-leaved forest was very fast. Planting Chinese fir after clear-cutting and controlled burning of the forest, 178 species appeared in a 600m2 sample area after 20years'natural recovering. Among these species, 58 were tree layer and the height of community reached 18m. The survey suggested that it would take only 20 years for the degraded forest to develop into community composed of light demanding broad-leaved pioneer trees and min-tolerance broad-leaved trees, and it need another 40~80 years to reach the stage consisting of min-tolerance evergreen broad-leaved trees. (c) Species number increased quickly at the early stage (2-20 years) during vegetation recovering process toward the climax, and decreased at the min-stage (50-60 years ), then maintained a relatively stable level at the late-stage (over 150 years).

  6. A climate change-induced threat to the ecological resilience of a subtropical monsoon evergreen broad-leaved forest in Southern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Guoyi; Peng, Changhui; Li, Yuelin; Liu, Shizhong; Zhang, Qianmei; Tang, Xuli; Liu, Juxiu; Yan, Junhua; Zhang, Deqiang; Chu, Guowei

    2013-04-01

    Recent studies have suggested that tropical forests may not be resilient against climate change in the long term, primarily owing to predicted reductions in rainfall and forest productivity, increased tree mortality, and declining forest biomass carbon sinks. These changes will be caused by drought-induced water stress and ecosystem disturbances. Several recent studies have reported that climate change has increased tree mortality in temperate and boreal forests, or both mortality and recruitment rates in tropical forests. However, no study has yet examined these changes in the subtropical forests that account for the majority of China's forested land. In this study, we describe how the monsoon evergreen broad-leaved forest has responded to global warming and drought stress using 32 years of data from forest observation plots. Due to an imbalance in mortality and recruitment, and changes in diameter growth rates between larger and smaller trees and among different functional groups, the average DBH of trees and forest biomass have decreased. Sap flow measurements also showed that larger trees were more stressed than smaller trees by the warming and drying environment. As a result, the monsoon evergreen broad-leaved forest community is undergoing a transition from a forest dominated by a cohort of fewer and larger individuals to a forest dominated by a cohort of more and smaller individuals, with a different species composition, suggesting that subtropical forests are threatened by their lack of resilience against long-term climate change.

  7. Effects of selection cutting on the forest structure and species diversity of evergreen broad-leaved forest in northern Fujian, southern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qiu Ren-hui; Chen Han; Zhuo Li-xin

    2006-01-01

    The short-term effects of selection cutting of different intensities on the forest structure and species diversity of evergreen broad-leaved forest in northern Fujian Province were investigated and analyzed. The results showed that selection cutting of low and medium intensities caused little variation in the forest structure. After cutting, the dominant species retained their leading status in the community. However, the community structure changed significantly following selection cutting of high and extra-high intensities;the status of the dominant species of the community declined dramatically. Some tree species began to disappear from the sampling plots. Except for extra-high intensity cutting, the diversity of tree species did not change significantly for the other three cutting intensities. However, the evenness of the stands was very different among the four kinds of cutting plots. For low and medium intensity selection cutting, the evenness declined slightly. For extra-high intensity selection cutting, the evenness increased to some extent,which might be due to a more even distribution of tree species after cutting. Cutting operations resulted in some adverse reactions to development of arborous species diversity of evergreen broad-leaved forest, particularly serious damage to the forest canopy. But the rational selection cuttings, which may benefit the restoration and maintenance of species diversity over a long period and may come about from the variations in environmental factors such as sunlight, temperature and humidity.

  8. Retention of available P in acid soils of tropical and subtropical evergreen broad-leaved forests

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Jianhui; ZOU Xiaoming; YANG Xiaodong

    2007-01-01

    Precipitation of mineral phosphate is often recognized as a factor of limiting the availability of P in acidic soils of tropical and subtropical forests.For this paper,we studied the extractable P pools and their transformation rates in soils of a tropical evergreen forest at Xishuangbanna and a subtropical montane wet forest at the Ailao Mountains in order to understand the biogeochemical processes regulating P availability in acidic soils.The two forests differ in forest humus layer;it is deep in the Ailao forest while little is present in the Xishuangbanna forest.The extractable P pools by resin and sodium-bicarbonate decreased when soil organic carbon content was reduced.The lowest levels of extractable P pools occurred in the surface (0-10 era) mineral soils of the Xishuangbanna forest.However,microbial P in the mineral soil of the Xishuangbauna forest was twice that in the Ailao forest.Potential rates of microbial P immobilization were greater than those of organic P mineralization in mineral soils for both forests.We suggest that microbial P immobilization plays an essential role in avoiding mineral P precipitation and retaining available P of plant in tropical acidic soils,whereas both floor mass accumulation and microbial P immobilization function benefit retaining plant available P in subtropical montane wet forests.

  9. Role of urban remnant evergreen broad-leaved forests on natural restoration of artificial forests in Chongqing metropolis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨永川; 李楠

    2009-01-01

    The effects of urban remnant natural evergreen broad-leaved forest (EBLF) on the restoration of artificial pine forests surrounding it were studied with reference to species composition,biodiversity,dominant species and stand structure on Mt. Tieshanping in Chongqing metropolis,Southwest China. The seeds from the remnant EBLF naturally facilitate the restoration process of artificial Pinus massoniana forests near it. The similarity of species composition between the artificial Pinus massoniana forests and the remnant EBLF and biodiversity index of the artificial Pinus massoniana forests decrease as the distance from the remnant EBLF increases. Castanopsis carlesii var. spinusa is the dominant species in the ground vegetation,shrub layer and sub-tree layer of the Pinus massoniana forests near the remnant EBLF. However,the natural restoration processes of those farther away from the remnant EBLF are restricted for the absence of seed source of the inherent components of the remnant EBLF,and the anthropogenic measures should be taken to facilitate the restoration process.

  10. Community characteristics of a subtropical evergreen broad-leaved forest in Huangshan, Anhui Province, East China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Ding

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Located in the subtropical monsoon climate zone, Huangshan is one of the high mountains in eastern China and lies in the transition zone of north-south flora. It is considered a refuge of flora and fauna during the Quaternary maximum glaciation. Zonal vegetation is classified as evergreen broad-leaved forest with a vertical distribution pattern. It is not only one of China’s Biodiversity Conservation Priority Areas, but also one of the World’s Cultural and Natural Heritage Sites and a world famous scenic spot. In 2014, we established a large-scale forest dynamics plot with an area of 10.24 ha in Huangshan based on international protocols (Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute, Center for Tropical Forest Science, CTFS and completed the first field survey. The investigation aimed at revealing community characteristics by analyzing species composition, flora characteristics, diameter class structure, and spatial distribution patterns. We recorded 191 species of vascular plants, belonging to 59 families and 129 genera, in the plot. Among these, trees (DBH ≥ 1 cm belonged to 46 families, 97 genera and 153 species. The number of family and genera with tropical distributions accounted for 65.79% and 45.36% of the total taxa, respectively, while those with temperate distributions accounted for 34.21% and 51.55%, respectively. A number of rare and endangered species occurred in the plots, including six species classified as Class II of State Key Protected Wild Plants, seven threatened species (VU from the China’s Biodiversity Red List: Higher Plant, one species defined in the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES (Appendix II, and 64 endemic species to China, indicating their values for protection and research. We also found that the number of species increased sharply with increasing scale when the scale was less than 2,150 m2, while at a higher resolution its rate of increase decreased

  11. Effects of moso bamboo encroachment into native, broad-leaved forests on soil carbon and nitrogen pools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Shangbin; Conant, Richard T; Zhou, Guomo; Wang, Yixiang; Wang, Nan; Li, Yanhua; Zhang, Kaiqiang

    2016-08-16

    Across southern China, Moso bamboo has been encroaching on most neighboring secondary broad-leaved forests and/or coniferous plantations, leading to the land cover changes that alter abiotic and biotic conditions. Little is known about how this conversion alters soil carbon (C) and nitrogen (N). We selected three sites, each with three plots arrayed along the bamboo encroachment pathway: moso bamboo forest (BF); transition zone, mixed forest plots (MF); and broad-leaved forest (BLF), and examined how bamboo encroachment affects soil organic C (SOC), soil total N, microbial biomass C (MBC), microbial biomass N (MBN), water-soluble organic C (WSOC), and water-soluble organic N (WSON) in three forests. Over nine years, moso bamboo encroachment leads to a decrease in SOC and total soil N, an increase in MBC and WSOC, and a decrease in MBN and WSON. Changes in soil C and N occurred mainly in the topsoil. We conclude that moso bamboo encroachment on broadleaved forest not only substantially altered soil C and N pools, but also changed the distribution pattern of C and N in the studied forest soils. Continued bamboo encroachment into evergreen broadleaved forests seems likely to lead to net CO2 emissions to the atmosphere as ecosystem C stocks decline.

  12. Effects of moso bamboo encroachment into native, broad-leaved forests on soil carbon and nitrogen pools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Shangbin; Conant, Richard T.; Zhou, Guomo; Wang, Yixiang; Wang, Nan; Li, Yanhua; Zhang, Kaiqiang

    2016-01-01

    Across southern China, Moso bamboo has been encroaching on most neighboring secondary broad-leaved forests and/or coniferous plantations, leading to the land cover changes that alter abiotic and biotic conditions. Little is known about how this conversion alters soil carbon (C) and nitrogen (N). We selected three sites, each with three plots arrayed along the bamboo encroachment pathway: moso bamboo forest (BF); transition zone, mixed forest plots (MF); and broad-leaved forest (BLF), and examined how bamboo encroachment affects soil organic C (SOC), soil total N, microbial biomass C (MBC), microbial biomass N (MBN), water-soluble organic C (WSOC), and water-soluble organic N (WSON) in three forests. Over nine years, moso bamboo encroachment leads to a decrease in SOC and total soil N, an increase in MBC and WSOC, and a decrease in MBN and WSON. Changes in soil C and N occurred mainly in the topsoil. We conclude that moso bamboo encroachment on broadleaved forest not only substantially altered soil C and N pools, but also changed the distribution pattern of C and N in the studied forest soils. Continued bamboo encroachment into evergreen broadleaved forests seems likely to lead to net CO2 emissions to the atmosphere as ecosystem C stocks decline. PMID:27526781

  13. Soil properties in forest gaps and under canopy in broad-leaved Pinus koraiensis forests in Changbai Mountainous Region, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Chunyu; ZHAO Xiuhai

    2007-01-01

    The species composition and diversities,and soil properties under canopy gaps in broad-leaved Pinus koraiensis forests were studied in the Changbai Mountains.The results indicated that the species composition and diversifies in gap were different from those under canopy.The Shannon-Wiener index,evenness index,and abundance index in gap were higher than those under canopy in the seedling layer,while the community dominance in the seedling layer increased in closed canopy.The physicochemical properties of soil changed with the change of space and resource availability in gaps.The thickness,standing crop,and water holding capacity of the litter layer under canopy were significantly (p < 0.01) higher than those in gap.The content of total nitrogen and total potassium of litter in gap were 10.47% and 20.73% higher than those under canopy,however,the content of total phosphorus and organic carbon under canopy were 15.23% and 12.66% more than those under canopy.The water content of 0-10 cm and 10-20 cm of soil layer in gap were 17.65% and 16.17% more than those under canopy.The soil buck density of 0-10 cm were slightly higher under canopy than that in gaps,but there was no significant difference in the soil buck density of the 10-20 cm soil layer.The soil pH values were 5.80 and 5.85 in gap and under canopy,respectively,and were not significantly different.The content of soil organic matter,total nitrogen,and total potassium in gap were 12.85%,7.67%,and 2.38% higher than those under canopy.The content of NH4+-N,available phosphorus,available potassium,and total phosphorus in soil under canopy were 13.33%,20.04%,16.52%,and 4.30% higher than those in gap.

  14. Intraspecific sequence variation of chloroplast DNA among the component species of deciduous broad-leaved forests in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwasaki, Takaya; Aoki, Kyoko; Seo, Akihiro; Murakami, Noriaki

    2006-09-01

    To select appropriate plant materials for a phylogeography of deciduous broad-leaved forests in Japan, we surveyed intraspecific chloroplast DNA variation in 34 species found in these forests. A relatively large number of intraspecific cpDNA variations were detected in ten species: Carpinus japonica (nucleotide diversity pi=0.00083), C. laxiflora (pi=0.00221), Magnolia obovata (pi=0.00134), Lindera triloba (pi=0.00255), L. obtusiloba (pi=0.00289), Pourthiaea villosa var. leavis (pi=0.00263), Acer japonicum (pi=0.00170), A. micranthum (pi=0.00237), Euonymus oxyphyllus (pi=0.00322) and Styrax obassia (pi=0.00100).

  15. Forest structure, productivity and soil properties in a subtropical evergreen broad-leaved forest in Okinawa, Japan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Xiao-niu; WANG Qin; Hideaki SHIBATA

    2008-01-01

    Structure,species composition,and soil properties of a subtropical evergreen broad-leaved forest in Okinawa,Japan,were examined by establishment of plots at thirty sites.The forest was characterized by a relatively low canopy and a large number of small-diameter trees.Mean canopy height for this forest was 10 m and stands contained an average of 5400 stems·ha-1 (≧ 3.0 cm DBH); 64% of those stems were smaller than 10 cm DBH.The total basal area was 54.4 m 2·ha-1,of which Castanopsis sieboldii contributed 48%.The forest showed high species diversity of trees.80 tree species (≧ 3.0 cm DBH) from 31 families was identified in the thirty sampling plots.C.sieboldii and Schima wallichii were the dominant and subdominant species in terms of importance value.The mean tree species diversity indices for the plots were,3.36 for Diversity index (H'),0.71 for Equitability index (J') and 4.72 for Species richness index (S'),all of which strongly declined with the increase of importance value of the dominant,C.sieboldii.Measures of soil nutrients indicated low fertility,extreme heterogeneity and possible Al toxicity.Regression analysis showed that stem density and the dominant tree height were significantly correlated with soil pH.There was a significant positive relationship between species diversity index and soil exchangeable K+,Ca2+,and Ca2+/Al3+ ratio (all p values <0.001) and a negative relationship with N,C and P.The results suggest that soil property is a major factor influencing forest composition and structure within the subtropical forest in Okinawa.

  16. Exploring Conservation Options in the Broad-Leaved Korean Pine Mixed Forest of the Changbai Mountain Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Ma

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The broad-leaved Korean pine (Pinus koraiensis mixed forest (BKPF is one of the most biodiverse zonal communities in the northern temperate zone. Changbai Mountain in northeastern China contains one of the largest BKPFs in the region. The government of China has established a network of 23 nature reserves to protect the BKPF and the species that depend on it for habitat, including the endangered Siberian tiger (Panthera tigris altaica. This study used the conservation planning software C-Plan to calculate the irreplaceability value of each unit to assess how efficiently and comprehensively the existing conservation network supports biodiversity and to identify gap areas that, if integrated into the network, would expand its protection capability. Results show a number of high-conservation-value planning units concentrated along certain ridges. The existing conservation network is structured such that the habitats of only 24 species (out of a total of 75 achieve established conservation targets. Of the other 51 species, 20 achieve less than 50% of their conservation targets. However, expanding the network to include high-conservation-value gap areas could achieve conservation targets for 64 species and could provide different degrees of protection to the other 11 species. Using C-Plan software can guide decision-making to expand the conservation network in this most precious of mountainous ecological zones.

  17. Characteristics analysis of the evergreen broad-leaved forest in Minxi, Fujian Province%闽西常绿阔叶林群落特征分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孔祥海; 黄素华; 陈小红; 邱丰艳

    2009-01-01

    On the base of 1.6 hm~2 cumulative sampling plots community ecological investigation of the evergreen broad-leaved forest in Minxi, and through species composition, areal types, life form spectra, and leaf character statistics analysis, The results showed, 116 families, 235 genera and 398 species of vascular plants were recorded;The dominant seed plant families of the evergreen broad-leaved forest community in Minxi were Lauraceae, Fagaceae, Magnoliaceae, Myrsinaceae, Theaceae, and so on;The flora of the evergreen broad-leaved forest community was obviously tropical and subtropical geographical character in Minxi;The constructive species of the evergreen broad-leaved forest community was abundant, and different community form could be come into being by some constructive species combination which made community diversification;The evergreen broad-leaved forest community was characterized by the evergreen mesophanerophytes and microphanerophytes with simple leathery, entire mesophyllous and microphyllous leaves in Minxi;Comparison of the evergreen broad-leaved forest among Minxi and other regions, the community of the evergreen broad-leaved forest in Minxi had a transitional characteristics from typical subtropical flora to south subtropical at species composition, area type and life form spectrum, as well as the leaf character aspect.%采用群落生态学的方法对闽西常绿阔叶林植被的1.6 hm~2样地调查统计、分析,结果表明,构成闽西常绿阔叶林群落的优势科是樟科、壳斗科、木兰科、紫金牛科和山茶科等;闽西常绿阔叶林群落的植物区系具有明显的热带、亚热带地理性质;闽西常绿阔叶林群落的建群树种多,且部分不同的建群种间可组合构成不同的群丛,群落类型呈现多样化;闽西常绿阔叶林群落的外貌以单叶、革质、全缘和中小型叶为主的常绿中、小高位芽植物组成为特征;闽西常绿阔叶林群落植物在物种组成数量、科属

  18. Biocycle of nitrogen in a Cyclobalanopsis glauca-dominated evergreen broad-leaved forest in East China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Mingjian; XU Xuehong; LI Minghong; FU Hailong

    2006-01-01

    The nitrogen (N) cycling was elucidated in a 40-year-old subtropical evergreen broad-leaved forest dominated by Cyclobalanopsis glauca growing on red soil in Zhejiang Province,East China.The concentrations of N in the representative species ranged from 0.49% to 1.64%,the order of which in various layers was liana and herb layers>understory layer > tree and subtree layers;in various organs was leaf > branch > root > trunk;and aboveground parts > underground parts.The sequence of the concentrations of N in C.glauca was understory > tree > subtree layer;young and high-growing > old organs;reproductive >vegetative organs.Seasonal dynamics of the concentrations of N in C.glauca in the tree and subtree layers was comparatively stable.It was lower in autumn (October) in root,branch,and leaf in the tree layer,and low in January in the understory.There was no evident change in regularity of the concentrations of N in varying diameter classes.The concentrations of N in the litterfall,precipitation,throughfall,litter layer,and soil were 0.74%-2.30%,0.000,038%,0.000,09%,1.94%,and 0.59%,respectively.The standing crop of N in the plant community was 1,025.28 kg/hm2,accumulation in the litter layer was 224.88 kg/hm2,and reserve in the soil was 55,151 kg/hm2.Annual retention of N was 119.47 kg/hm2,return was about 84.13 kg/hm2,among which litterfall was 78.49 kg/hm2 and throughfall,5.64 kg/hm2.Annual absorption of N was 203.60 kg/hm2.Annual input of N through incident precipitation was 4.88 kg/hm2.Compared with other forest types,cycling rate of N in the community was lower than in deciduous broad-leaved forests,rain forests,and mangroves,and was moderate in evergreen broad-leaved forests.N use efficiency of this forest was moderate among the forest types cited.According to the characteristics of the biocycle of phosphorous,it was concluded that N availability in the soil of this forest was not lower,and phosphorous not N was the limiting factor in the growth

  19. [Dynamics of total organic carbon (TOC) in hydrological processes in coniferous and broad-leaved mixed forest of Dinghushan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Guangcai; Zhou, Guoyi; Zhang, Deqiang; Wang, Xu; Chu, Guowei; Liu, Yan

    2005-09-01

    The total flux and concentration of total organic carbon (TOC) in hydrological processes in coniferous and broad-leaved mixed forest of Dinghushan were measured from July 2002 to July 2003. The results showed that the TOC input by precipitation was 41.80 kg x hm(-2) x yr(-1), while its output by surface runoff and groundwater (soil solution at 50 cm depth) was 17.54 and 1.80 kg x hm(-2) x yr(-1), respectively. The difference between input and output was 22.46 kg x hm(-2) x yr(-1), indicating that the ecosystem TOC was in positive balance. The monthly variation of TOC flux in hydrological processes was very similar to that in precipitation. The mean TOC concentration in precipitation was 3.64 mg x L(-1), while that in throughfall and stemflow increased 6.10 and 7.39 times after rain passed through the tree canopies and barks. The mean TOC concentration in surface runoff and in soil solution at 25 and 50 cm depths was 12.72, 7.905 and 3.06 mg x L(-1), respectively. The monthly TOC concentration in throughfall and stemflow had a similar changing tendency, showing an increase at the beginning of growth season (March), a decrease after September, and a little increase in December. The TOC concentration in runoff was much higher during high precipitation months. No obvious monthly variation was observed in soil solution TOC concentration (25 and 50 cm below the surface). Stemflow TOC concentration differed greatly between different tree species. The TOC concentration in precipitation, throughfall, and soil solution (25 and 50 cm depths) decreased with increasing precipitation, and no significant relationship existed between the TOC concentrations in stemflow, surface runoff and precipitation. The TOC concentrations in the hydrological processes fluctuated with precipitation intensity, except for that in stemflow and soil solutions.

  20. [Spatial analysis of LAIe of montane evergreen broad-leaved forest in southwest Sichuan, Northwest China, based on image texture].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, An-Jiu; Yang, Chang-Qing; Liao, Cheng-Yun

    2014-11-01

    Optical remote sensing is still one of the most attractive choices for obtaining leaf area index (LAI) information, but currently may be derived from remotely sensed data with limited accuracy. Effective leaf area index (LAIe) of montane evergreen broad-leaved forest in southwest Sichuan was inventoried and assessed in 83 sample field plots of 20 m x 20 m using different types of image processing techniques, including simple spectral band, simple spectral band ratios and principal component. Texture information was extracted by gray level co-occurrence matrices (GLCM) from different types of processing image. The results showed that there were correlations of different degrees between LAIe and texture parameters, and highly significant correlations were observed between LAIe with the homogeneity of the B1 band, B1/B4 band ratio or principal component PC1. Using texture information of remotely sensed data as auxiliary variables, we developed geostatistics models. Compared with the model based on NDVI auxiliary variable, the accuracy of LAIe were improved, presenting an increase by 5.3% with the homogeneity of the B1 band, 11.0% with the homogeneity B1/B4 band ratio, and 14.5% with the homogeneity principal component PC1, and the statistical errors were also reduced to some extent. The optimal LAIe model of spatial geostatistics was obtained when taking NDVI and homogeneity principal component PC1 as auxiliary variables (R2 = 0.840, RMSE = 0.212). Our results provided a new way to estimate regional spatial distribution of LAI using other auxiliary variables besides the vegetation index.

  1. Accuracy of LiDAR-based tree height estimation and crown recognition in a subtropical evergreen broad-leaved forest in Okinawa, Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azita Ahmad Zawawi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim of study: To present an approach for estimating tree heights, stand density and crown patches using LiDAR data in a subtropical broad-leaved forest. Area of study: The study was conducted within the Yambaru subtropical evergreen broad-leaved forest, Okinawa main island, Japan. Materials and methods: A digital canopy height model (CHM was extracted from the LiDAR data for tree height estimation and a watershed segmentation method was applied for the individual crown delineation. Dominant tree canopy layers were estimated using multi-scale filtering and local maxima detection. The LiDAR estimation results were then compared to the ground inventory data and a high resolution orthophoto image for accuracy assessment. Main results: A Wilcoxon matched pair test suggests that LiDAR data is highly capable of estimating tree height in a subtropical forest (z = 4.0, p = 0.345, but has limitation to detect small understory trees and a single tree delineation. The results show that there is a statistically significant different type of crown detection from LiDAR data over forest inventory (z = 0, p = 0.043. We also found that LiDAR computation results underestimated the stand density and overestimated the crown size. Research highlights: Most studies involving crown detection and tree height estimation have focused on the analysis of plantations, boreal forests and temperate forests, and less was conducted on tropical and/or subtropical forests. Our study tested the capability of LiDAR as an effective application for analyzing a highly dense forest

  2. Simulating the exchanges of carbon dioxide, water vapor and heat over Changbai Mountains temperate broad-leaved Korean pine mixed forest ecosystem

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG; Qiufeng; NIU; Dong; YU; Guirui; REN; Chuanyou; WEN; X

    2005-01-01

    A process-based ecosystem productivity model BEPS (Boreal Ecosystem Productivity Simulator) was updated to simulate half-hourly exchanges of carbon, water and energy between the atmosphere and terrestrial ecosystem at a temperate broad-leaved Korean pine forest in the Changbai Mountains, China. The BEPSh model is able to capture the diurnal and seasonal variability in carbon dioxide, water vapor and heat fluxes at this site in the growing season of 2003. The model validation showed that the simulated net ecosystem productivity (NEP), latent heat flux (LE), sensible heat flux (Hs) are in good agreement with eddy covariance measurements with an R2 value of 0.68, 0.86 and 0.72 for NEP, LE and Hs, respectively. The simulated annual NEP of this forest in 2003 was 300.5 gC/m2, and was very close to the observed value. Driving this model with different climate scenarios, we found that the NEP in the Changbai Mountains temperate broad-leaved Korean pine mixed forest ecosystem was sensitive to climate variability, and the current carbon sink will be weakened under the condition of global warming. Furthermore, as a process-based model, BEPSh was also sensitive to physiological parameters of plant, such as maximum Rubisco activity (Vcmax) and the maximum stomatal conductance (gmax), and needs to be carefully calibrated for other applications.

  3. Meteorological control on CO2 flux above broad-leaved Korean pine mixed forest in Changbai Mountains

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUAN; Dexin; WU; Jiabing; YU; Guirui; SUN; Xiaomin; ZHAO; X

    2005-01-01

    The impacts of temperature, photosynthetic active radiation (PAR) and vapor pressure deficit (VPD) on CO2 flux above broad-leaved Korean pine mixed forest in the Changbai Mountains were studied based on eddy covariance and meteorological factors measurements.The results showed that, daytime CO2 flux was mainly controlled by PAR and they fit Michaelis-Menten equation. Meanwhile VPD also had an influence on the daytime flux. Drier air reduced the CO2 assimilation of the ecosystem, the drier the air, the more the reduction of the assimilation. And the forest was more sensitive to VPD in June than that in July and August. The respiration of the ecosystem was mainly controlled by soil temperature and they fit exponential equation. It was found that this relationship was also correlated with seasons; respiration from April to July was higher than that from August to November under the same temperature. Daily net carbon exchange of the ecosystem and the daily mean air temperature fit exponential equation. It was also found that seasonal trend of net carbon exchange was the result of comprehensive impacts of temperature and PAR and so on. These resulted in the biggest CO2 uptake in June and those in July and August were next. Annual carbon uptake of the forest ecosystem in 2003 was -184 gC. m-2.

  4. 亚热带常绿阔叶林和暖温带落叶阔叶林叶片热值比较研究%Comparison of leaf calorific values in subtropical evergreen broad-leaved and warm temperate deciduous broad-leaved forests in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田苗; 宋广艳; 赵宁; 何念鹏; 侯继华

    2015-01-01

    Gross calorific value ( GCV) has been introduced to biological research and applied to reflect the capability of plant species to fix solar radiation. Calorific value has also been considered as a coefficient characteristic to evaluate the adaptation strategies of plant species to the external environment. Therefore, understanding the variation in GCV among different ecosystems may provide a basis for assessing energy fixation, transformation, and utilization efficiency. A number of studies have indicated that GCV varies among different geographical locations and ecological categories. Some studies have suggested that the energy contents of alpine plants should be higher than those of tropical plants, and have also shown that energy content differs among different plant life forms, decreasing in the sequence tree >shrub >herb. However, little has been reported on the patterns of GCV in different typical ecosystems ( at the levels of species, life form, and community) across multiple zones. In this study, we compared the leaf calorific values of plant species in two forest ecosystem-subtropical evergreen broad-leaved and warm temperate deciduous broad-leaved forests in China. Field sampling was carried out in early August 2013 at Jiulian Mountain ( Jiangxi Province) and Dongling Mountain ( Beijing Province) , China. Leaf samples of 276 plant species were collected from subtropical evergreen broad-leaved and warm temperate deciduous broad-leaved forests, and the calorific values of these leaves were measured using a PARR 1281 oxygen bomb calorimeter. To explore the variability in GCV, we analyzed the data at the levels of species, life form ( trees, shrubs, and herbs) , and community in the two forest types. Furthermore, trees were subdivided into evergreen and deciduous, and coniferous and broad-leaved. The results showed that the GCV of the subtropical evergreen broad-leaved forest was 17. 83 kJ/g ( n=191) , whereas that of the warm temperate deciduous broad-leaved

  5. Relationships between established seedling survival and growth in evergreen broad-leaved forest in Tiantong

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heming Liu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Community seedling regeneration is a crucial process for maintaining species coexistence. The stage from which an established seedling becomes a new reproductive individual is one of the most important components of community regeneration, and influences the community recruitment pattern. However, the short-term mortality of established seedlings is lower than newly germinated seedlings, and previous studies have not been able to analyze the effect of biotic neighborhoods and abiotic micro-habitat factors on established seedling survival perfectly. Therefore, we suggest that the growth status of established seedlings could predict established seedling survival during development, and analyze the effects of these biotic and abiotic factors on established seedling growth, in order to indirectly estimate their effects on established seedling survival. To test this hypothesis, we selected established seedlings in the 20 ha forest dynamics plot in Tiantong as samples. Then, we used generalized linear mixed models to assess the effects of relative growth rate, biotic neighborhood factors (conspecific/heterospecific adult neighborhood indices, density of conspecific/heterospecific seedling neighbors, the amount of conspecific/heterospecific leaf litter from neighbors and abiotic micro-habitat factors (canopy openness, herbaceous coverage, elevation, slope, aspect, pH value, total nitrogen and total phosphorus in the soil on short-term established seedling survival rates. We used linear mixed models to assess the effects of biotic neighborhood factors and abiotic micro-habitat factors on relative growth rates of established seedlings. Results showed that relative growth rates have a significant, positive effect on established seedling survival, and this factor is the most important factor among potential influencing factors. In addition, canopy openness, as only one significant influencing factor, has a positive effect on relative growth rates of

  6. Net water vapour exchange over a mixed needle and broad-leaved forest in Changbai Mountain during autumn

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HANShijie; WENXuefa; YUGuirui; SUNXiaomin; LIQingkang; RENChuanyou

    2003-01-01

    Water vapour and CO2 fluxes were measured by the eddy-covariance technique above a mixed needle and broad-leaved forest with affiliated meteorological measurements in Changbai Mountain as part of China's FLUX projects since late August in 2002. Net water vapour exchange and environmental control over the forest were examined from September 1 to October 31 in 2002. To quantify the seasonal dynamics, the transition period was separated into leafed, leaf falling and leafless stages according to the development of leaf area. The results showed that (a) seasonal variation of water vapour exchange was mainly controlled by net radiation (Rn) which could account for 78.5%, 63.4% and 56.6% for leafed, leaf falling and leafless stages, respectively, while other environmental factors' effects varied evidently; (b) magnitude of water vapour flux decreased remarkably during autumn and daily mean of water vapour exchange was 24.2 mg m-2 s-1 (100%), 14.8 mg m-2 s-1 (61.2%) and 10.3 mg m-2 s-1 (42.6%) for leafed, leaf falling and leafless stage, respectively; and (c) the budget of water vapour exchange during autumn was estimated to be 87.1 kg H2O m2, with a mean of 1427.2 g H2O d-1 varying markedly from 3104.0 to 227.5 g H2O m-2d-1.

  7. Seasonal and annual variation of CO2 flux above a broad-leaved Korean pine mixed forest

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    <正>Long-term measurement of carbon metabolism of old-growth forests is critical to predict their behaviors and to reduce the uncertainties of carbon accounting under changing climate. Eddy covariance technology was applied to investigate the long-term carbon exchange over a 200 year-old Chinese broad-leaved Korean pine mixed forest in the Changbai Mountains (128°28’E and 42°24’N, Jilin Province, P. R. China) since August 2002. On the data obtained with open-path eddy covariance system and CO2 profile measurement system from Jan. 2003 to Dec. 2004, this paper reports (i) annual and seasonal variation of FNEE, FGPP and Re; (ii) regulation of environmental factors on phase and amplitude of ecosystem CO2 uptake and release Corrections due to storage and friction velocity were applied to the eddy carbon flux. Lal and soil temperature determined the seasonal and annual dynamics of FGPP and RE separately. VPD and air temperature regulated ecosystem photosynthesis at finer scales in growing seasons. Water condition at the root zone exerted a significant influence on ecosystem maintenance carbon metabolism of this forest in winter. The forest was a net sink of atmospheric CO2 and sequestered -449 g C·m-2 during the study period; -278 and -171 gC·m-2 for 2003 and 2004 respectively. FGPP and FRE over 2003 and 2004 were -1332, -1294 g C·m-2. and 1054, 1124 g C·m-2 respectively. This study shows that old-growth forest can be a strong net carbon sink of atmospheric CO2. There was significant seasonal and annual variation in carbon metabolism. In winter, there was weak photosynthesis while the ecosystem emitted CO2. Carbon exchanges were active in spring and fall but contributed little to carbon sequestration on an annual scale. The summer is the most significant season as far as ecosystem carbon balance is concerned. The 90 days of summer contributed 66.9, 68.9% of FGPp, and 60.4, 62.1% of RE of the entire year.

  8. 长白山不同演替阶段针阔混交林群落物种多度分布格局%Species-abundance distribution patterns at different successional stages of conifer and broad-leaved mixed forest communities in Changbai Mountains, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫琰; 张春雨; 赵秀海

    2012-01-01

    Aims Our objective was to explain processes that dominate species-abundance distribution pattern and mechanism of community assembly in temperate forests. Methods We used three 5.2-hm2 permanent plots established in secondary Populus davidiana-Betula platyphylla forest, secondary conifer and broad-leaved mixed forest and Titia amurensis-Pinus koraiensis mixed forest in Changbai Mountains. Within each plot, we randomly selected 500 subplots within 260 m x 200 m at the scales of 10 m × 10 m, 30 m × 30 m, 60 m × 60 m and 90 m × 90 m. We calculated the mean value of species-abundance distributions taken from the 500 subplots as the observed species-abundance distribution. We estimated the fitted species-abundance distributions by neutral, log-normal, Zipf, broken stick and niche preemption models at different scales. Simulation effects were tested by Chi-square test, Kolmogorov-Smirnov (K-S) test and Akaike Information Criterion (AIC). For the neutral model, we first estimated two parameters 6 and m and then simulated 600 species-abundance distributions. The average of these 600 species-abundance distributions was the best-fit result of the neutral model. We employed the 95% confidence envelopes that were approximated by the 2.5 and 97.5 percentiles of the abundances of species of rank / = 1 to S over the 600 simulations to test goodness-of-fit for the neutral model. All of the computations were conducted in R 2.14.1 with UNTB and VAGEN packages. Important findings The neutral model fit species-abundance distribution at different successional stages of conifer and broad-leaved mixed temperate forest communities. All five models fit the observed value at the 10 m x 10 m sampling scale, and the goodness of fit of the log-normal, Zipf, broken stick and niche preemption models were better than that of the neutral model. That means at small sampling scale the species-abundance distribution is dominated by neutral process and niche process; however, the niche process is

  9. Nitrogen in soils beneath 18-65 year old stands of subtropical evergreen broad-leaved forests in Laoshan Mountains in Eastern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GU Feng; ZHANG Kai; ZHANG Yun-qi; WANG Qin; XU Xiao-niu

    2011-01-01

    Monitoring of soil nitrogen (N) cycling is useful to assess soil quality and to gauge the sustainability of management practices.We studied net N mineralization,nitrification,and soil N availability in the 0-10 cm and 11-30 cm soil horizons in east China during 2006-2007 using an in sito incubation method in four subtropical evergreen broad-leaved forest stands aged 18-,36-,48-,and 65-years.The properties of surface soil and forest floor varied between stand age classes.C:N ratios of surface soil and forest floor decreased,whereas soil total N and total organic C,available P,and soil microbial biomass N increased with stand age.The mineral N pool was small for the young stand and large for the older stands.NO3-N was less than 30% in all stands.Net rates of N mineralization and nitrification were higher in old stands than in younger stands,and higher in the 0-10 cm than in the 11-30 cm horizon.The differences were significant between old and young stands (p <0.031) and between soil horizons (p < 0.005).Relative nitrification was somewhat low in all forest stands and declined with stand age.N transformation seemed to be controlled by soil moisture,soil microbial biomass N,and forest floor C:N ratio.Our results demonstrate that analyses of N cycling can provide insight into the effects of management disturbances on forest ecosystems.

  10. Diversity and Distribution of Vascular Epiphytes in Different Restoration Stages of Monsoonal Broad-leaved Evergreen Forest Communities%季风常绿阔叶林不同恢复阶段附生维管植物多样性及分布

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李帅锋; 苏建荣; 刘万德; 张志钧; 刘庆云; 李忠文

    2011-01-01

    Vascular epiphytes are important components of species richness in monsoonal broad-leaved evergreen forest.Field data collection on vascular epiphytes was based on 0.81 hm2 plot ( including 9 subplots) in different restoration stages (community of 15 years restoration (15 a), community of 30 years restoration (30 a) ) and primary monsoonal broadleaved evergreen forest distribute in Caiyanghe Nature Reserve, Yixiang Township and Xinfang reservoir, Pu' er city, Yunnan, China. On the basis of analyzing vascular epiphytes species richness, abundance, distribution, similarity coefficient,the relationship between epiphytes and phorophytes was discussed. The results showed that: ( 1 ) 3 116 vascular epiphytes,belonging to 22 species in 20 genera and 9 families were recorded in all plots. (2) The diversity of vascular epiphytes was low in restoration stages ( 15 a, 5 spp. and 30 a, 7 spp. ) compared to primary forest (17 spp. ). (3) The composition of epiphytic species in primary forests and the stand in restoration stages differed markedly: 15a harboured no orchid species but more fern species and primary forest hold more orchid species. Probably the families occurring only in primary forest sites which the authors studied may be used as bioindicators to determine the degree of restoration in monsoonal broadleaved evergreen forest. (4) The epiphyte abundance was also lower in restoration stages. The declines in species number and abundance as well as the differences in species composition were mainly due to the less diversified phorophyte structure and less differentiated microclimate in the disturbed and secondary vegetation compared to the primary forest. Sφrensen coefficient between 15 a and primary forest was higher than that between 30a and primary forest. (5) The vascular epiphytes were clumped horizontally iu 3 eommunity types. Vertically, vascular epiphytes of 15a were mainly distributed at 0 ~ 5 m and that of primary forest was up to 20 m. (6) Both the

  11. Turbulence regime near the forest floor of a mixed broad leaved/Korean pine forest in Changbai Mountains

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The measurement and observation for this study were carried out by using a three-dimensional (u, v, w) Sonic anemometer (IAP-SA 485), at Forest Ecosystem Opened Research Station of Changbai Mountains (128(28'E and 42(24' N, Jilin Province, P. R. China) in August 2001. The basic characteristics of turbulence, such as turbulence intensity, atmospheric stability, time scales, and convection state, near the forest floor were analyzed. It is concluded that the airflow near forest floor is characterized by high intermittence and asymmetry, and the active and upward movement takes the leading position. Near forest floor, the vertical turbulence is retained and its time scale and length scale are much less than that of u, v components. The eddy near forest floor shows a flat structure and look like a 'Disk'. Buoyancy plays a leading role in the generation and maintenance of local turbulence

  12. Community Dynamics of Seed Rain in Mixed Evergreen Broad-leaved and Deciduous Forests in a Subtropical Mountain of Central China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ze-Hao Shen; Yuan-Yuan Tang; Nan Lü; Jun Zhao; Dao-Xing Li; Gong-Fang Wang

    2007-01-01

    Seed dispersal is a key process within community dynamics. The spatial and temporal variations of seed dispersal and the interspecific differences are crucial for understanding species coexistence and community dynamics. This might also hold for the mixed evergreen broadleaved and deciduous forests in the mountains of subtropical China, but until now little existing knowledge is available for this question. In 2001, we chose to monitor the seed rain process of our mixed evergreen broad-leaved and deciduous forest communities in Mount Dalaoling National Forest Park, Yichang, Hubei Province, China.The preliminary analyses show obvious variations in seed rain density, species compositions and timing of seed rain among four communities. The average seed rain densities of the four communities are 2.43 ± 5.15, 54.13 ±182.75, 10.05 ±19.30and 24.91 ± 58.86 inds./m2, respectively; about one tenth the values in other studies in subtropical forests of China. In each community, the seed production is dominated by a limited number of species, and the contributions from the others are generally minor. Fecundity of evergreen broadleaved tree species is weaker than deciduous species. The seed rain of four communities begins earlier than September, and stops before December, peaking from early September to late October.The beginning date, ending date and peak times of seed rain are extensively varied among the species, indicating different types of dispersal strategies. According to the existing data, the timing of seed rain is not determined by the climate conditions in the same period, while the density of seed rain may be affected by the disturbances of weather variations at a finer temporal resolution.

  13. Study on Restoration of Evergreen Broad-leaved Forest from Pinus massoniana Forest.%马尾松林恢复为常绿阔叶林的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王希华; 宋永昌; 王良衍

    2001-01-01

    High coverage of Pinus massoniana forest on low mountains in Eastern China at present was studied in this paper. This forest is threatened by plant diseases, especially pines wilt, and needs to be restored urgently. Species of later successional stage or climax communities were retained or introduced to the forest through reconstruction according to vegetation ecology theory, so as to restore it quickly to zonal evergreen broad-leaved forest. It formed an evergreen broad-leaved sub-tree layer of 2~3m high dominated by Schima superba from a shrub layer of 57m high after 3 years of reconstruction. The questions of restoration were discussed in this paper.

  14. Seed rain, soil seed bank, seed loss and regeneration of Castanopsis fargesii (Fagaceae) in a subtropical evergreen broad-leaved forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, X.; Guo, Q.; Gao, X.; Ma, K.

    2007-01-01

    Understanding the seed rain and seed loss dynamics in the natural condition has important significance for revealing the natural regeneration mechanisms. We conducted a 3-year field observation on seed rain, seed loss and natural regeneration of Castanopsis fargesii Franch., a dominant tree species in evergreen broad-leaved forests in Dujiangyan, southwestern China. The results showed that: (1) there were marked differences in (mature) seed production between mast (733,700 seeds in 2001) and regular (51,200 and 195,600 seeds in 2002 and 2003, respectively) years for C. fargesii. (2) Most seeds were dispersed in leaf litter, humus and 0-2 cm depth soil in seed bank. (3) Frequency distributions of both DBH and height indicated that C. fargesii had a relatively stable population. (4) Seed rain, seed ground density, seed loss, and leaf fall were highly dynamic and certain quantity of seeds were preserved on the ground for a prolonged time due to predator satiation in both the mast and regular years so that the continuous presence of seed bank and seedling recruitments in situ became possible. Both longer time observations and manipulative experiments should be carried out to better understand the roles of seed dispersal and regeneration process in the ecosystem performance. ?? 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Niches and interspecific associations of dominant tree populations at different restoration stages of monsoonal broad-leaved evergreen forest%季风常绿阔叶林不同恢复阶段乔木优势种群生态位和种间联结

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李帅锋; 刘万德; 苏建荣; 张志钧

    2011-01-01

    Niche and interspecific association are one of the important contents in community dynamics research. Interspecific interaction affects the restoration and succession of community. In this paper, field investigation was made on the community structure of monsoonal broad-leaved evergreen forest at its different restoration stages ( primary forest, PF; 15 years restoration, 15R; and 30 years restoration, 30R) in Pu ’ er City of Yunnan Province, and the niche breadth, niche overlap, and variance ratio ( VR) as well as the chi-square test and association coefficient (AC) based on 2×2 contingency table were used to analyze the change trend of the dominant tree populations at different restoration stages. In the three communities at different restoration stages, there was a significant positive correlation (P<0. 001 ) between the importance value and corresponding niche breadth. 78. 22% of species pairs at 15R had a niche overlap 0. 4-0. 8, suggesting a strong resource utilization competition in dominant species; while the community structure at PF and 30R was rather stable , and the species with higher niche breadth had a higher niche overlap than those with lower niche breadth , reflecting that the dominant species had stronger competitiveness. At 15R and 30R. there was a positive interspecific association; while at PF, there was a negative association. In the three communities, most species pairs had no significant association, showed stronger independency, and the proportions of positive and negative associations decreased with the process of restoration. There was a significant positive correlation between the association coefficient and niches overlap at different restoration stages, i. e. , the high the niche overlap, the greater the association coefficient.%生态位和种间联结是群落动态研究的重要内容之一,物种间相互作用影响着群落的恢复和演替.本文在对云南普洱地区不同恢复阶段(恢复15年、恢复30年和

  16. Differential winter stemflow generation under contrasting storm conditions in a southern New England broad-leaved deciduous forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levia, Delphis F., Jr.

    2004-04-01

    Despite the importance of stemflow as a hydroecological process, differential winter stemflow generation among and within precipitation types (e.g. snow, rain-to-snow) is poorly understood. The purpose of the present study is to understand winter stemflow generation better under contrasting meteorological conditions in a leafless deciduous forest. It is hypothesized that stemflow volume and production, expressed as a funnelling ratio, will differ significantly among and within precipitation event types. Acceptance of this hypothesis would mean that intra-event meteorological conditions have a significant and discernible effect on stemflow production in deciduous forests, differentially affecting soil moisture, groundwater recharge, soil solution chemistry, and nutrient cycling. Stemflow volumes generated from seven canopy trees were monitored in a leafless deciduous forest of southern New England on a precipitation event basis over two successive winter seasons. Stemflow volume was found to differ significantly among different and same-type precipitation events. A rain event that occurred on 8 December 1998 and snow-to-rain event on 18 January 1999 were of similar duration, magnitude, and intensity, yet produced stemflow volumes that differed by a factor of 4. For two snow-to-rain events, stemflow volumes differed by a factor of 11. Stemflow production even varies widely within a discrete precipitation event as a function of meteorological conditions. Significant differential stemflow yield under contrasting storm conditions obviates generalizations concerning stemflow production as a function of precipitation event type and necessitates a deeper, process-level understanding of winter stemflow generation before modelling exercises are undertaken.

  17. A unique Middle Pleistocene beech (Fagus)-rich deciduous broad-leaved forest in the Yangtze Delta Plain, East China: Its climatic and stratigraphic implication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Jun-wu; Wang, Wei-ming

    2012-08-01

    Pollen analysis of Middle Pleistocene sediments from the Yangtze Delta Plain provides a paleoecological reconstruction and has implications for stratigraphic correlation in East China. The pollen assemblage is characterized by high values of Fagus (16.8% on average), which is unusual because Fagus is generally present only sporadically in other lowland Quaternary pollen records from the region. In addition to Fagus, the assemblage has a rich diversity of broad-leaved deciduous trees, including Quercus, Ulmus, Carpinus/Ostrya, Juglans, Betula, and Liquidambar, as well as conifers, including Pinus, Picea, Abies, Larix, and Tsuga. Thus, the pollen flora suggests a broad-leaved deciduous forest mixed with abundant conifers, which developed under cooler and more humid conditions than present. The stable pollen sequence throughout the studied section suggests a stable environment. Beech forests also characterize the Middle Pleistocene of Taiwan and Japan, and thus may be a stratigraphic indicator of the Middle Pleistocene in East Asia. The Yangtze Delta Plain may have been an important refugium for the last survival of Fagus in the lowlands.

  18. Acclimation in Leaf Morphological and Eco-physiological Characteristics of Different Canopy-dwelling Epiphytes in a Lower Subtropical Evergreen Broad-leaved Forest%亚热带常绿阔叶林冠层附生植物叶片形态结构及生理功能特征的适应性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    江浩; 黄钰辉; 周国逸; 胡晓颖; 刘世忠; 唐旭利

    2012-01-01

    著的差异,并致使各自的生理生态功能发生了相应的适应,是植物适应环境条件的重要表现.%Epiphytes have been well characterized in terms of the morphological and eco-physiological traits that permit them to thrive in the complex forest canopy. Our aim was to characterize and analyze the morphological and eco-physiological traits of different canopy-dwelling epiphytes in a lower subtropical evergreen broad-leaved forest in Southern China.Results showed that the differences in morphological and eco-physiological characteristics between the upper and lower canopy-dwelling epiphytes were largely explained by changes in environmental factors such as photosynthetic active radiation (PAR) .temperature,and humidity within the complex forest canopy. Two epiphytes, Dischidia chinensis and Psychotria ser-pens located in the upper canopy had low Tr (0.17 ±0. 02 mmol H2O and 0. 34 ±0. 05 mmol H2O,respectively) and low Pmax(2. 2 ±0.1 μmol CO2·m-2·S-1 and 3.2 ±0.4 μmol CO2·m-2-s-1,respectively) associated with thick leaf (558 ±63 μm and 217.1 ±33.1 μm, respectively) and small stomata size (185. 7 ±3. 7 pm2 and 225.4 ±5. 2 pm2 .respectively) to adapt to their upper dwelling environments (high temperature,low air humidity and high PAR). At the same time,the special structures led to high WUE (11. 35 ±0. 87 μmol CO2/mmol H2O and 7.88 ± 1.31 μmol CO2/mmol H2O,respectively). However,the lower canopy-dwelling epiphytes Fis-sistigma glaucescens and Piper hancei had thin leaf (90. 8 ± 9. 9 μm and 114. 9 ± 18.2 μm, respectively) and large stomata size (260. 6 ±6. 3 μm2 and 362. 5 ±8. 7 μm2 .respectively). The ratios of palisade to spongy tissues thickness (P/S) ,the thickness of leaf epidermis thickness and other structures also changed with various canopy-dwelling heights. In comparison with Dischidia chinensis and Psychotria serpens located at upper canopy-dwelling conditions, Fissistigma glaucescens and Piper hancei showed high

  19. 上阔下竹复合经营模式对毛竹生长的影响%Effects of Phyllostachys edulis and broad-leaved mixed forest on bamboo growth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟勇; 艾文胜; 杨明; 胡伟; 李美群; 涂佳

    2016-01-01

    为给科学、合理、可持续经营毛竹林提供参考数据,以上阔下竹复合经营模式和毛竹纯林经营模式的竹林为研究对象,对两种经营模式下毛竹的竿形生长和地上各部分生物量等指标进行了测定,研究了上位阔叶林对下位毛竹林生长的影响情况。结果表明:同在上坡位的毛竹,上阔下竹复合经营模式的毛竹其胸径、竿高、壁厚、竹竿质量、竹叶质量等指标均显著大于或高于毛竹纯林经营模式的,毛竹的相对竿径随竿高而变化的趋势也较纯林模式的平缓,而毛竹的相对壁厚随相对竿高的变化趋势较纯林模式的陡峭。两种经营模式的毛竹其胸径、竿高、壁厚、竹竿质量、竹叶质量等指标在中坡位和下坡位的竹林间均无显著差异。%To provide some reference data for scientifically, reasonably and sustainably managing bamboo forest, using compound management mode of Phyllostachys edulis and broad-leaved mixed forest and pure P. edulis forest as study objects, some indexes of culm growth and aboveground biomass in P. edulis were determined under the two kinds of management modes, and the influences of upper broad-leaved forest on growth of bamboo forest were studied. The results indicated that, the indexes of in P. edulis at uphill position under the compound management mode of broad-leaved and P. edulis mixed forest were significantly better than those under the management mode of pure P. edulis forest, include diameter at breast height, culm height, culm-wall thickness, culm mass and leaf mass. The variation trend of relative culm diameter with culm height in P. edulis and broad-leaved mixed forest was smoother than that in pure P. edulis forest. The variation trend of relative culm-wall thickness with relative culm height in P. edulis and broad-leaved mixed forest was steeper than that in pure P. edulis forest. The diameter at breast height, culm height, culm-wall thickness

  20. Growing season variability of net ecosystem CO2 exchange and evapotranspiration of a sphagnum mire in the broad-leaved forest zone of European Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olchev, A.; Volkova, E.; Karataeva, T.; Novenko, E.

    2013-09-01

    The spatial and temporal variability of net ecosystem exchange (NEE) of CO2 and evapotranspiration (ET) of a karst-hole sphagnum peat mire situated at the boundary between broad-leaved and forest-steppe zones in the central part of European Russia in the Tula region was described using results from field measurements. NEE and ET were measured using a portable measuring system consisting of a transparent ventilated chamber combined with an infrared CO2/H2O analyzer, LI-840A (Li-Cor, USA) along a transect from the southern peripheral part of the mire to its center under sunny clear-sky weather conditions in the period from May to September of 2012 and in May 2013. The results of the field measurements showed significant spatial and temporal variability of NEE and ET that was mainly influenced by incoming solar radiation and ground water level. The seasonal patterns of NEE and ET within the mire were quite different. During the entire growing season the central part of the mire was a sink of CO2 for the atmosphere. NEE reached maximal values in June-July (-6.8 ± 4.2 μmol m-2 s-1). The southern peripheral part of the mire, due to strong shading by the surrounding forest, was a sink of CO2 for the atmosphere in June-July only. ET reached maximal values in the well-lighted central parts of the mire in May (0.34 ± 0.20 mm h-1) mainly because of high air and surface temperatures and the very wet upper peat horizon and sphagnum moss. Herbaceous species made the maximum contribution to the total gross primary production (GPP) in both the central and the peripheral parts of the mire. The contribution of sphagnum to the total GPP of these plant communities was relatively small and ranged on sunny days of July-August from -1.1 ± 1.1 mgC g-1 of dry weight (DW) per hour in the peripheral zone of the mire to -0.6 ± 0.2 mgC g-1 DW h-1 at the mire center. The sphagnum layer made the maximum contribution to total ET at the mire center (0.25 ± 0.10 mm h-1) and the herbaceous

  1. Soil animal communities at five succession stages in the litter of the evergreen broad-leaved forest in Tiantong,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yi Lan; You Wenhui; Song Yongchang

    2006-01-01

    Soil animals are abundant in forest litter layer,but little attention has been Paid to the vertical distribution of community structure of soil animals in the layers at different plant community succession stages.The forest litter layer can be divided into fresh litter layer(L),fermentation layer(F)and humus layer(H),which may represent different litter decomposition stages.The aim of the study is to ascertain the vertical distribution features of soil animal communities among the three litter layers and the change in the succession process of the Evergreen Broad-Leaved Forest(EBLF)in Tiantong,Zhejiang Province,China.Soil animal communities in the five plant communities at different succession stages were investigated during the 2003 winter.Soil animals,which were collected by using Tullgren funnels,amounted to a total of 13381 individuals falling into 2 phyla,8 classes and 20 orders.The dominant groups were Acarina and Collembola,accounting for 94.24% of the total individuals,with the number of Acarina individuals 7.66 times than that of Collembola.The common group was Diptera.The results indicated that there was a distinctive vertical distribution of the soil animal communities in the forest litter laver,but it differed from that in soil below the litter layer.In contrast to those in the soil,the soil animals in the litter layer generally tended to increase in both group abundance and density from the top fresh litter layer to the bottom humus layer.Altogether 19 groups and 59.03% of total individuals were found in the bottom layer,while only 8 groups and 5.35% of the total individuals in the top.Moreover,there were some variations in the distribution of the soil animals at different plant succession stages.85.19% of Homoptera and 100% of Symphyla were found in the litter layer at the climax succession stage.while 75.61% of Thysanoptera at the intermediate succession stage.Therefore,these groups might be seen as indicative groups.The total numbers of soil animal

  2. Vegetation Composition and Community Structure of Typical Mid-Mountain Broad-Leaved Forest in Jiangxi Wuyishan%江西武夷山典型中山阔叶林的植被组成与群落结构

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    雷平; 袁荣斌; 兰文军; 邹思成; 徐新宇

    2013-01-01

    以江西武夷山典型中山阔叶林为研究对象,在30 km2固定样地设置16个样方,其中13个常绿阔叶林群落、3个落叶阔叶林群落.群落乔灌层物种丰富,占物种生活型的83%.共调查到植物58科112属186种,以壳斗科、山矾科、蔷薇科、山茶科、樟科物种数最多,建群种主要为多脉青冈、闽皖八角、白檀、枫香树等,灌木层以山矾科、山茶科、禾本科为主.物种科属分布区类型以热带性质为主,具有典型的中亚热带地区特点.常绿阔叶林群落和落叶阔叶林群落均具有较高的多样性,单因素方差结果显示这2种林型在多样性指数上不存在差异显著性,乔、草优势种重要值亦不存在差异显著性,只有灌木层重要值存在差异显著性.%Set 16 plots in 30km2 fixed sample area of typical mid-mountain broad-leaved forest in Jiangxi Wuyishan,including 13 evergreen broad-leaved forest communities and 3 deciduous broad-leaved forest communities.The communities have rich species in tree layer and shrub layer,which accounting for 83% of species' life forms.A total of 186 vascular plant species,belonging to 112 genera and 58 families,were recorded,and the largest number of species is Fagaceae,Symplocaceae,Rosaceae,Theaceae and Lauraceae.The mainly constructive species are Cyclobalanopsis multiervis,Illicium minwanense,Symplocos paniculata and Liquidambar formosana etc.,and the shrub layer dominant families are Symplocaceae,Theaceae and Gramineae.Areal distribution type of species suggests that the forest is typical characteristics in subtropical regions and highly related to tropic components.Evergreen broad-leaved forest community and deciduous broad-leaved forest communities both have high species diversity; one-way ANOVA results showed that there is no significant difference on the diversity index of the two forest types,so do the important values of tree layer and herbaceous layer,but there is significant difference on the

  3. Establishment of the evergreen broad-leaved tree species Castanopsis cuspidata in an abandoned secondary forest in western Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirayama, Kimiko; Kawamura, Shota; Nishimura, Tatsuya; Takahara, Hikaru

    2010-09-01

    Recently, populations of Castanopsis cuspidata have often expanded into secondary forests in western Japan. To determine the establishment processes of this species, we analyzed its spatial distribution in a secondary forest dominated by Quercus variabilis and Quercus serrata that is located adjacent to a stand dominated by C. cuspidata. Saplings, defined as >or=30 cm stem length (SL) and DBH), were abundant and their size distribution was inversely J-shaped, indicating continuous recruitment. Although seedlings (SL trees of this species, some were found >or=40 m from the nearest adults, suggesting that there is animal-aided dispersal of acorns. The distribution of larger-sized individuals (>or=100 cm SL) of C. cuspidata was unrelated to distance from the nearest flowering C. cuspidata or dominant Quercus species (>or=5 cm DBH), but was associated with dead Pinus densiflora trees, which were abundant at the site. Thus, the establishment of C. cuspidata in this forest is controlled mainly by two factors, viz. patterns of acorn dispersal by animals, and forest disturbance regime (i.e., deaths of pine trees).

  4. DIVERSITY AND ECOLOGICAL DETERMINANTS OF DEAD WOOD FUNGI IN TREE NATURAL RESERVES OF BROAD LEAVED FORESTS FROM SUCEAVA COUNTY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciprian BÎRSAN

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Dead wood fungi have a major importance for forests biodiversity as they produce wood degradation in forest habitats. In this paper are presented some aspects related to the diversity of dead wood fungi in tree deciduous forest types from tree natural reserves (Crujana, Dragomirna and Zamostea from Suceava County and the effect of some ecological factors (host tree, diameter and decomposition degree of the dead wood and some microclimatic characteristics of sites on their occurrence and diversity. Investigations carried out in 2013 resulted in the identification of 44 lignicolous fungi species. Analysis of similarities between lingnicolous fungi species from the investigated natural reserves (by hierarchical clustering shows a separation of three fungi groups, depending on the host-trees species. The effect of the tree host species was highlighted also by detrended correspondence analysis, which, in addition presented the existence of an altitudinal gradient and a weaker effect of site conditions (slope and aspect and microclimatic variables (solar radiation on dead wood fungi occurrence. The effect of diameter and decomposition degree of fallen trunks and branches on dead wood fungi species was investigated using the redundancy analysis showing that wood debris with large surfaces are more easily colonized by the fungi species developing large sporocarps compared to small branches with low diameters colonized only by few or a single fungus species.

  5. Change in Species Diversity during Recovering Process of Evergreen Broad-leaved Fo rest

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WenYuanguang; LiuShirong; ChenFang; HeTatping; LiangHongwen

    2005-01-01

    Evergreen broad-leaved forest is one of the most important vegetation types in China. Because of the human activities, evergreen broad-leaved forest has been destroyed extensively, leading to degraded ecosystem. It is urgent to conserve and restore these natural forests in China.tn this paper, the tendency and rate of species diversity restoration of the evergreen broad-lea ved forest in Darning Mountain has been studied. The main results are as follows:(a) in subtropical mid-mountain area, species diversity in degraded evergreen broad-leaved forest can be restored. Through analyzing b diversity index of communities in different time and space, it was found that the species composition of communities tend to be the same as that in the zonal evergreen broad-leaved forest. (b) The restoration rate of evergreen broad-leaved forest was very fast. Planting Chinese fir after clear-cutting and controlled burning of the forest 178 species appeared in a 60Om2, sample area after 20 years"" natural recovering. Among these species, 58 were tree layer and the height of community reached 18m, The survey suggested that it would take only 20 years for the degraded forest to develop into community composed of light demanding broad-leaved pioneer trees and rain-tolerance broad-leaved trees, and it need another 40-80 years to reach the stage consisting of min-tulerance evergreen broad-leaved trees, (c) Species number increased quickly at the early stage (2-20 years) during vegetation recovering process toward the climax, and decreased at the min-stage (50-60 years ), then maintained a relatively stable level at the late-stage (over 150 years).

  6. Distribution patterns of the subtropical evergreen broad-leaved forests of southwestern China, as compared with those of the eastern Chinese subtropical regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tang, C. Q.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the geographic distribution patterns of the subtropical evergreen broad-leaved forests of southwestern China, and compares with other subtropical regions in the east of China in terms of forest types, pertinent species, and spatial distribution along latitudinal, longitudinal and altitudinal gradients. In general, for both the western and the eastern subtropical regions, the evergreen broad-leaved forests are dominated by species of Castanopsis, Lithocarpus, Cyclobalanopsis (Fagaceae, Machilus, Cinnamomum (Lauraceae, Schima (Theaceae, Manglietia, and Michelia, (Magnoliaceae, while in southwestern China there are more diverse forest types including semi-humid, monsoon, mid-montane moist and humid evergreen broad-leaved forests, but only monsoon and humid forests in the east. The Yunnan area has more varied species of Lithocarpus or Cyclobalanopsis or Castanopsis as dominants than does eastern China, where the chief dominant genus is Castanopsis. The upper limits of the evergreen broad-leaved forests are mainly 2400–2800 m in western Yunnan and western Sichuan, much higher than in eastern China (600–1500, but 2500 m in Taiwan. Also discussed are the environmental effects on plant diversity of the evergreen broad-leaved forest ecosystems exemplified by Yunnan and Taiwan.En este trabajo se analiza los patrones de distribución geográfica de los bosques subtropicales perennifolios de hoja ancha del suroeste de china, y se comparan con los de otras regiones subtropicales del este de China en términos de tipología de bosque, especies relevantes, y distribución espacial a lo largo de un gradiente latitudinal, longitudinal y altitudinal. De manera general, los bosques perennifolios de hoja ancha de la regiones subtropicales tanto orientales como occidentales presentan dominancia de especies de Castanopsis, Lithocarpus, Cyclobalanopsis (Fagaceae, Machilus, Cinnamomum (Lauraceae, Schima (Theaceae, Manglietia y Michelia

  7. [Characterization of mid-subtropical evergreen broad-leaved forest gap based on light detection and ranging (LiDAR)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Feng; Tan, Chang; Wang, Hong; Zhang, Jiang; Wan, Ying; Long, Jiang-ping; Liu, Rui-xi

    2015-12-01

    Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) is an active remote sensing technology for acqui- ring three-dimensional structure parameters of vegetation canopy with high accuracy over multiple spatial scales, which is greatly important to the promotion of forest disturbance ecology and the ap- plication on gaps. This paper focused on mid-subtropical evergreen broadleaved forest in Hunan Province, and small footprint LiDAR point data were adopted to identify canopy gaps. and measure geomagnetic characteristics of gaps. The optimal grid model resolution and interpolation methods were chosen to generate canopy height model, and the computer graphics processing was adopted to estimate characteristics of gaps which involved gap size, canopy height and gap shape index, then field investigation was utilized to validate the estimation results. The results showed that the gap rec- ognition rate was 94.8%, and the major influencing factors were gap size and gap maker type. Line- ar correlation was observed between LiDAR estimation and field investigation, and the R² values of gap size and canopy height case were 0.962 and 0.878, respectively. Compared with field investiga- tion, the size of mean estimated gap was 19.9% larger and the mean estimated canopy height was 9.9% less. Gap density was 12.8 gaps · hm⁻² and the area of gaps occupied 13.3% of the forest area. The average gap size, canopy height and gap shape index were 85.06 m², 15.33 m and 1.71, respectively. The study site usually contained small gaps in which the edge effect was not obvious.

  8. Eddy flux corrections for CO2 exchange in broad-leaved Korean pine mixed forest of Changbai Mountains

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU; Jiabing; GUAN; Dexin; SUN; Xiaomin; YU; Guirui; ZHAO; X

    2005-01-01

    Based on analysis of mechanisms causing energy no-closure and nocturnal low fluxes issues for CO2 exchange studies by eddy covariance method, corrections were done with the raw data sets obtained from Changbai Mountains forest flux site, to evaluate the impacts of sonic anemometer tilt, frequency response limitations and advection on estimation of CO2 exchange, respectively. The results show that the planar fit coordinate transforming method is superior to the streamline coordinate transforming method in tilt correction. The latter could cause a systematical underestimation of eddy fluxes relating with the angle of sensor and terrain tilt. The underestimation of CO2 and energy fluxes for frequency response limitations average 3.0% and 2.0% during daytime, respectively, which increase by 9.0% and 5.5% during nighttime, respectively. The corrections of frequency response limitations are closely related to atmospheric stability. The advection loss of CO2 fluxes is dominated by nocturnal vertical advection, which is at least 18% when the horizontal advection is neglected. It is suggested that more work be done to understand the characteristics of horizontal advection and turbulent eddies under a complexcircumstance.

  9. Studies on Material Cycling in Evergreen Broad-Leaved Forest Ecosystem in Hangzhou:Ⅳ.Uptake,Storage and Return of S by Vegetation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1994-01-01

    The work was carried out to study the uptake,storage and return of S in the evergreen broad-leaved forest ecosystem of Hangzhou in Zhejiang Province,based on the annuam increments of plants and Scontents per unit weight plant organs as well as the measured data about the biological return and decomposition.Results showed that the vegetation layer had an annual S uptake of 55.02kg ha-1,which accounted for 15.8% of the total S storage in the vegetation layer,The S uptake was the highest in the arbor layer but the lowest in the shrub layer,the biological return of S was 50% higher than the biological uptake,indicating the relatively high cycling effciency of S.Nevertheless,S had a relatively low rate opf biological release,so that S trended to accumulate in the litter layer,S taken up by plants each year came mostly from precipitation and the reserve of soil.

  10. [Simulation of the effects of climate change on canopy transpiration over a broad-leaved Korean pine forest in Changbai Mountains].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ni-Na; Yuan, Feng-Hui; Wang, An-Zhi; Wu, Jia-Bing; Jin, Chang-Jie; Guan, De-Xin; Shi, Ting-Ting

    2011-02-01

    To investigate the effects of climate change on canopy transpiration, a process-based carbon and water coupling multi-layer model was verified, and used to simulate the canopy transpiration over a broad-leaved Korean pine forest in Changbai Mountains. This multi-layer model could well estimate canopy transpiration. The simulated values fitted well with the measured data based on eddy covariance method. The simulation of the responses of canopy transpiration to climate change indicated that the latent heat flux (LE) increased with increasing air temperature, and decreased with the decline of soil water content or the increase of air CO2 concentration. Under the climate scenarios in this study, the LE was most sensitive to the associated variation of 10% reduction of soil water content in 0-20 cm layer and 190 micromol x mol(-1) increase of CO2 concentration, but not sensitive to the synchronous variation of 10% reduce of soil water content and 3.6 degrees C increase of air temperature.

  11. Studies on Material Cycling in Evergreen Broad-Leaved Forest Ecosystem in Hangzhou:Ⅱ.Dynamics and Decomposition Characteristics of Litter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1993-01-01

    Through the long-term plot study on the litter and its decomposition in the evergreen broad-leaved forest ecosystem in Hangzhou for more than two years,it was resulted that the annual litter production was 5.85 t ha-1,most of which was the fallen leave (79.5 percent) and the withered branches and fruits were far less (7.1 and 13.4 percents respectively).The dynamics of the fallen litter was shown as a curve of two-peak pattern which appeared in April and September each year.The half-life of the litter was 1.59 years.The decay rate of the litter attenuted as an exponential function.The annual amount of the nutrient returned to the ground through the litter was as large as 223.69kg ha-1.The total current amount of the litter on the ground was 7.47t ha-1.The decay rate in the first half of a year was 45.18 percent.This ecosystem remained in the stage of litter increasing with time.

  12. Response Of Wheat (Triticum aestivum L. Crop And Broad-Leaved Weeds To Different Water Requirements And Weed Management In Sandy Soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El-Metwally Ibrahim M.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Water scarcity is a major cause of crops yield reduction in many parts of the world. So, a more rational use of irrigation water should be adapted and deficit irrigation principles should be accepted with a certain level of reduction in yield level. To study the efficiency of four water requirements (100% whole season, 75% whole season, 50% whole season and 100% whole season while 50% at grain-filling stage and five weed-control treatments (three postemergence herbicides i.e., metosulam, tribenuron-methyl, and bromoxynil, hand weeding and unweeded check, and their interactive effects, two field experiments on wheat crop were conducted in two successive seasons at the agricultural experimental station of the National Research Centre, Nubaria, Egypt. Bromoxynil, tribenuron-methyl came in the first order for controlling total broad-leaved weeds. Application of 100% water requirement recorded the highest values compared to all other irrigation water treatments in term of flag-leaf area, chlorophyll content, plant height, number of spike/m2, spike weight, grains number/spike, weight of 1,000 grains, yield and yield attributes of wheat. Metosulam followed by bromoxynil, tribenuron-methyl and hand-weeding treatments gave higher values of grain yield/ha. The highest grain yield, protein and carbohydrates percentages of wheat grains were obtained from addition of 100% water requirement with metosulam treatment was used followed by 75% of water requirement combined with metosulam treatment without significant difference among these treatments.

  13. Water-holding characteristics of litter in different forests at the Lianxiahe watershed

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Zhuowen; CHEN Yusheng; ZHANG Zhiyong; CUI Hongxia; LEI Yunfei; WANG Dongyun; SUI Juanjuan

    2006-01-01

    We surveyed the forest litter amount at the Lianxiahe watershed in the Three Gorges Reservoir Area and analyzed some hydrological characteristics such as the maximum water-holding capacity and water absorption rate of litter in six types of forests,i.e.the Cupressus funebris forest,the coniferous mixed forest,the coniferous and broad-leaved mixed forest,the broad-leaved forest,the Pinus massoniana forest,the bush forest.Results showed that the litter amount follows the order of the coniferous and broad-leaved mixed forest>the pure C.funebris forest,the P.massoniana forest>the coniferous mixed forest>the broad-leaved forest>the bush forest.The maximal water holding capacity of the undecomposed litter is in the order of the C.funebris forest>the coniferous mixed forest>the bush forest>the coniferous and broad-leaved mixed forest >the broad-leaved forest>the P.massoniana forest.The maximal water-holding capacity of the half-decomposed litter is the P.massoniana forest>the coniferous and broad-leaved mixed forest>the C.funebris forest>the coniferous mixed forest>the broad-leaved forest>the bush forest.In this watershed,the water holding capacity of the litter in the C.funebris forest is the highest,followed by the coniferous mixed forest,coniferous and broad-leaved mixed forest,P.massoniana forest,broad-leaved forest and bush forest.When the soil is covered only by litter,both the maximal rainfall amount and intensity in different forest stands are different if there is no water infiltration and runoff from the ground surface.

  14. Habitat associations of woody plant species in Baishanzu subtropical broad-leaved evergreen forest%百山祖常绿阔叶林木本植物的生境相关性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王伟; 骆争荣; 周荣飞; 许大明; 哀建国; 丁炳扬

    2011-01-01

    Both unified neutral theory and niche theory have played an important role in understanding the mechanisms of species coexistence in tropical rain forests. Using Toms-translation tests, we examined the relationships between microtopography (elevation, convexity, and slope) and the distribution of 89 wood species with >5 individuals and diameter at breast height (DBH) > 1.0 cm in a 5-ha permanent plot in a subtropical broad-leaved evergreen forest in Baishanzu, Zhejiang Province. We classified plants into three growth stages (sapling, juvenile and mature stages) based on their diameter-classes, and compared relationships between microtopography and the distribution of plants in different growth stages for each species.Species with less than 40 individuals always showed few associations with their habitats, while most common species in the 89 studied showed significant associations with their habitats. The majority of species exhibited shifts in habitat preference among growth stages; the exceptions were Rhododendron latoucheae,Cyclobalanopsis stewardiana and Cleyera pachyphylla, whose associations with habitats were similar at all stages. Our study suggests that topographical differentiation is important for maintaining species diversity in this subtropical broad-leaved evergreen forest, and that habitat associations of species change ontogenetically.%中性理论和生态位理论在解释热带雨林中物种共存机制上发挥了重要作用.本文通过Torus-translation榆测方法对百山祖常绿阔叶林5 ha样地中DBH≥1 cm、个体数大于5的89种木本植物与4个根据地形和物种组成划分的小生境进行了关联性分析.同时按植物的胸径径级大小将其分为幼树期、生长期、成熟期3个生长阶段,并分别分析了植物在这3个生长阶段与生境的关联性.结果表明:89个木本植物中,没有表现出显著的生境相关件的物种多是稀有种或是个体数较少的物种,而大部分的常见

  15. Ecogeographical Distribution of Soil Fauna in Pinus koraiensis Mixed Broad-leaved Forest of Changbai Mountains%长白山红松阔叶混交林土壤动物生态分布

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    殷秀琴; 蒋云峰; 陶岩; 安静超; 辛未冬

    2011-01-01

    .A total of 39 groups,6 124 individuals of soil fauna were obtained and fell into 3 phylum,6 classes,17 orders.Oribatida,Actinedida and Isotomidae were the dominant groups.There were 5 common groups,involving Hypogastruridae,Pseudachorutidae,Gamasida,Entomobryidae and Tomoceridae,and 31 rare groups in the collection.Results showed that there was significant difference in the individual numbers of soil fauna between typical and bottom(p0.05) distribution areas,while group numbers of soil fauna were no significant difference among top,typical and bottom distribution areas of Pinus koraiensis mixed broad-leaved forest.The highest community diversity and evenness of soil fauna was recorded in typical distribution area.Group and individual numbers of soil fauna decreased with the increase of soil layer depth in a vertically distribution,which was significant in top and typical distribution areas.There were greater correlation coefficient among Oribatida,Actinedida,Isotomidae,Hypogastruridae,Gamasida and Pseudachorutidae,and they were all found in three distribution areas at the same time,and individual numbers of them were also more than others.The pH,organic matter,total P,total K and total N of soil had effects on the composition of soil fauna community.The difference in total K,total N,total P and organic matter content were significant in 0-30 cm soil layers among top,typical and bottom distribution areas of Pinus koraiensis mixed broad-leaved forest(p0.001).Grey relevant analysis showed that total K,total N and organic matter content had more effects on the composition of soil fauna than pH and total P of soil.Environment factors had different effects on the key soil fauna community.

  16. Broad Leaves in Strong Flow

    CERN Document Server

    Miller, Laura

    2013-01-01

    Flexible broad leaves are thought to reconfigure in the wind and water to reduce the drag forces that act upon them. Simple mathematical models of a flexible beam immersed in a two-dimensional flow will also exhibit this behavior. What is less understood is how the mechanical properties of a leaf in a three-dimensional flow will passively allow roll up into a cone shape and reduce both drag and vortex induced oscillations. In this fluid dynamics video, the flows around the leaves are compared with those of simplified sheets using 3D numerical simulations and physical models. For some reconfiguration shapes, large forces and oscillations due to strong vortex shedding are produced. In the actual leaf, a stable recirculation zone is formed within the wake of the reconfigured cone. In physical and numerical models that reconfigure into cones, a similar recirculation zone is observed with both rigid and flexible tethers. These results suggest that the three-dimensional cone structure in addition to flexibility is ...

  17. Uncertainties of isoprene emissions in the MEGAN model estimated for a coniferous and broad-leaved mixed forest in Southern China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Situ, S.; Wang, Xuemei; Guenther, Alex B.; Zhang, Yanli; Wang, Xinming; Huang, Minjuan; Fan, Qi; Xiong, Zhe

    2014-12-01

    Using local observed emission factor, meteorological data, vegetation 5 information and dynamic MODIS LAI, MEGANv2.1 was constrained to predict the isoprene emission from Dinghushan forest in the Pearl River Delta region during a field campaign in November 2008, and the uncertainties in isoprene emission estimates were quantified by the Monte Carlo approach. The results indicate that MEGAN can predict the isoprene emission reasonably during the campaign, and the mean value of isoprene emission is 2.35 mg m-2 h-1 in daytime. There are high uncertainties associated with the MEGAN inputs and calculated parameters, and the relative error can be as high as -89 to 111% for a 95% confidence interval. The emission factor of broadleaf trees and the activity factor accounting for light and temperature dependence are the most important contributors to the uncertainties in isoprene emission estimated for the Dinghushan forest during the campaign. The results also emphasize the importance of accurate observed PAR and temperature to reduce the uncertainties in isoprene emission estimated by model, because the MEGAN model activity factor accounting for light and temperature dependence is highly sensitive to PAR and temperature.

  18. Responses of fine roots and soil N availability to short-term nitrogen fertilization in a broad-leaved Korean pine mixed forest in northeastern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Cunguo; Han, Shijie; Zhou, Yumei; Yan, Caifeng; Cheng, Xubing; Zheng, Xingbo; Li, Mai-He

    2012-01-01

    Knowledge of the responses of soil nitrogen (N) availability, fine root mass, production and turnover rates to atmospheric N deposition is crucial for understanding fine root dynamics and functioning in forest ecosystems. Fine root biomass and necromass, production and turnover rates, and soil nitrate-N and ammonium-N in relation to N fertilization (50 kg N ha(-1) year(-1)) were investigated in a temperate forest over the growing season of 2010, using sequential soil cores and ingrowth cores methods. N fertilization increased soil nitrate-N by 16% (Psoil were 13% (4.61 vs. 5.23 Mg ha(-1), Psoil N availability and nitrate-N contents, especially in 0-10 cm soil layer. Both fine root production and turnover rates increased with N fertilization, indicating a rapid underground carbon cycling in environment with high nitrogen levels. Although high N supply has been widely recognized to promote aboveground growth rates, the present study suggests that high levels of nitrogen supply may reduce the pool size of the underground carbon. Hence, we conclude that high levels of atmospheric N deposition will stimulate the belowground carbon cycling, leading to changes in the carbon balance between aboveground and underground storage. The implications of the present study suggest that carbon model and prediction need to take the effects of nitrogen deposition on underground system into account.

  19. Hydrological characteristics of litter in different forest succession stages at Liuxihe Watershed, southern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhuowen ZHANG; Yunfei LEI; Kaijun SU; Guang WANG; Dongyun WANG; Hongyan MA

    2009-01-01

    The hydrological characteristics of litter in four different forest succession stages, i.e., a Pinus massoniana forest, a mixed conifer and broad-leaved forest with conifer being the dominant species, a mixed conifer and broad-leaved forest with deciduous trees as dominant species, and an evergreen broad-leaved forest, have been studied by means of substituting space for time. The results show that while a community is developing to a zonal climax, the amount of litter becomes larger and its decomposition intensity becomes stronger; there is a positive relation between its water-holding capacity and velocity and its community maturity for the halfdecomposed litter layer.

  20. Responses of fine roots and soil N availability to short-term nitrogen fertilization in a broad-leaved Korean pine mixed forest in northeastern China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cunguo Wang

    Full Text Available Knowledge of the responses of soil nitrogen (N availability, fine root mass, production and turnover rates to atmospheric N deposition is crucial for understanding fine root dynamics and functioning in forest ecosystems. Fine root biomass and necromass, production and turnover rates, and soil nitrate-N and ammonium-N in relation to N fertilization (50 kg N ha(-1 year(-1 were investigated in a temperate forest over the growing season of 2010, using sequential soil cores and ingrowth cores methods. N fertilization increased soil nitrate-N by 16% (P<0.001 and ammonium-N by 6% (P<0.01 compared to control plots. Fine root biomass and necromass in 0-20 cm soil were 13% (4.61 vs. 5.23 Mg ha(-1, P<0.001 and 34% (1.39 vs. 1.86 Mg ha(-1, P<0.001 less in N fertilization plots than those in control plots. The fine root mass was significantly negatively correlated with soil N availability and nitrate-N contents, especially in 0-10 cm soil layer. Both fine root production and turnover rates increased with N fertilization, indicating a rapid underground carbon cycling in environment with high nitrogen levels. Although high N supply has been widely recognized to promote aboveground growth rates, the present study suggests that high levels of nitrogen supply may reduce the pool size of the underground carbon. Hence, we conclude that high levels of atmospheric N deposition will stimulate the belowground carbon cycling, leading to changes in the carbon balance between aboveground and underground storage. The implications of the present study suggest that carbon model and prediction need to take the effects of nitrogen deposition on underground system into account.

  1. Ice and Snow Disasters to the Evergreen Broad-leaved Forest in the Jiulianshan Nature Reserve in Jiangxi, China%九连山自然保护区常绿阔叶林冰雪灾害研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何俊; 赵秀海; 张春雨; 贾玉; 范娟; 毛双燕; 张自斌; 廖承开

    2011-01-01

    以九连山国家级自然保护区典型常绿阔叶林为对象,研究树木属性、地形因子与冰雪灾害受损程度的关系.结果表明:九连山常绿阔叶林(DBH≥10 cm)以栲属物种占据主要优势.断梢率、腰折率、翻蔸率和平均受损指数(MDI)最高的树种分别为马尾松、米槠、丝栗栲和米槠,最低的树种分别为红楠、丝栗栲、枫香和罗浮柿.断梢率与胸径(DBH)、树高(H)显著正相关(P0.05),坡度30°~ 40°生境中MDI值最高.%The ice and snow damages to the evergreen broad-leaved forest in the Jiulianshan National Nature Reserve in Jiangxi, China were studied, and the correlations between damage degrees with tree characteristics and topographical factors were analyzed.The results showed: The forest was dominated by Castanopsis species (DBH>10 cm), and Pinus massoniana (PM), C.carlesii (CC), C.fargesil (CF), and CC were found highest for top breakage ratio (TOB), trunk breakage ratio (TRB),uprooting ratio (UR) and mean damage index (MDI); while Machilus thunbergii (MT), CF, Liquidambarjormosana (LF),and Diospyros rnorrisiana (DM) were lowest.The TOB had extremely significantly positive correlation with DBH (P<0.01),H (P<0.01), and extremely significantly negative correlation with H/DBH (P<0.01); TRB had extremely significantly negative correlation with DBH (P<0.01); UP had extremely significantly negative correlation with DBH (P<0.01); and MDI was not significantly correlated with DBH, H, and H/DBH (P>0.05).The TOB was the highest under the conditions of DBH≥50 cm, 21≤H<23 m or 20≤H/DBH<40, and the lowest with 10≤DBH<12 cm, 5≤H<7 m or H/DBH≥120; the TRB was the highest under the conditions of 10≤DBH<12 cm, 13≤H<15 m or 100≤H/DBH<110, and the lowest with 42≤DBH<44 cm, 7≤H<9 m or H/DBH ≥120; the UR was the highest under the conditions of 20≤DBH<22 cm, 11≤H<13 m or 90≤H/DBH<100, and the lowest with 36≤DBH<38 cm, DBH≥40

  2. Effects of simulated acid rain on soil and soil solution chemistry in a monsoon evergreen broad-leaved forest in southern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Qingyan; Wu, Jianping; Liang, Guohua; Liu, Juxiu; Chu, Guowei; Zhou, Guoyi; Zhang, Deqiang

    2015-05-01

    Acid rain is an environmental problem of increasing concern in China. In this study, a laboratory leaching column experiment with acid forest soil was set up to investigate the responses of soil and soil solution chemistry to simulated acid rain (SAR). Five pH levels of SAR were set: 2.5, 3.0, 3.5, 4.0, and 4.5 (as a control, CK). The results showed that soil acidification would occur when the pH of SAR was ≤3.5. The concentrations of NO₃(-)and Ca(2+) in the soil increased significantly when the pH of SAR fell 3.5. The concentration of SO₄(2-) in the soil increased significantly when the pH of SAR was acidity of SAR. The releases of soluble Al and Fe were SAR pH dependent, and their net exports under pH 2.5 treatment were 19.6 and 5.5 times, respectively, higher than that under CK. The net export of DOC was reduced by 12-29% under SAR treatments as compared to CK. Our results indicate the chemical constituents in the soil are more sensitive to SAR than those in the soil solution, and the effects of SAR on soil solution chemistry depend not only on the intensity of SAR but also on the duration of SAR addition. The soil and soil solution chemistry in this region may not be affected by current precipitation (pH≈4.5) in short term, but the soil and soil leachate chemistry may change dramatically if the pH of precipitation were below 3.5 and 3.0, respectively.

  3. 长白山针阔混交林秋季净生态系统水气交换量%Net water vapour exchange over a mixed needle and broad-leaved forest in Changbai Mountain during autumn

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    温学发; 于贵瑞; 孙晓敏

    2003-01-01

    Water vapour and CO2 fluxes were measured by the eddy-covariance technique above a mixed needle and broad-leaved forest with affiliated meteorological measurements in Changbai Mountain as part of China's FLUX projects since late August in 2002. Net water vapour exchange and environmental control over the forest were examined from September 1 to October 31 in 2002.To quantify the seasonal dynamics, the transition period was separated into leafed, leaf falling and leafless stages according to the development of leaf area. The results showed that (a) seasonal variation of water vapour exchange was mainly controlled by net radiation (Rn) which could account for 78.5%, 63.4% and 56.6% for leafed, leaf falling and leafless stages, respectively, while other environmental factors' effects varied evidently; (b) magnitude of water vapour flux decreased remarkably during autumn and daily mean of water vapour exchange was 24.2 mgm-2 s-1 (100%),14.8 mgm-2 s-1 (61.2%) and 10.3 mg m-2 s-1 (42.6%) for leafed, leaf falling and leafless stage,respectively; and (c) the budget of water vapour exchange during autumn was estimated to be 87.1 kg H2O m-2, with a mean of 1427.2 g H2O d-1 varying markedly from 3104.0 to 227.5 g H2O m-2d-1.

  4. 帽儿山天然次生林主要阔叶树种叶量分布模拟%Simulation of Foliage Distribution for Major Broad-Leaved Species in Secondary Forest in Mao'er Mountain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢军; 李凤日; 张会儒; 张守攻

    2011-01-01

    The spatial distribution of foliage is the fundamental composition of crown structure, moreover, it is convenient to understand the mechanism of the energy convert to biomass above-ground through the crown by evaluating the spatial distribution of foliage and researching the relationship between foliage and factors in individual trees and stand. In Mao' er Mountains of Heilongjiang Province, 30 permanent sample plots in secondary forest were established where 3 401 biomass of living branches from 176 stem analysis sample trees with 10 different broad-leaved species were measured, 2007. This study presents 10 individual tree models for the prediction of vertical distribution of living crown. The 3 parameters Chapman-Richards model was used to estimate the distribution of the crown biomasses between the lower and upper limits of the crown. In the models for the relative cumulative living crown, parameters estimate results show that all coefficiens of determination are high more than 0. 91 especially 0. 98 for birch. The highest relative height at which the foliage reached its maximum point was 0. 82 CL( crown length) for manchurian ash and the lowest was 0. 52 CL for cork tree. The peak points for other species were between these two values, e. G. 0. 66 CL for birch and 0. 78 CL for oak. The percentage of foliage for broad-leaved species in secondary forestry at the top crown (above 0. 3 CL)was very small, which in middle crown and below it(0. 4 CL -0. 8 CL)took about 60% -70% of total biomass, especially 72. 22% for birch, 72. 55% for poplar and the minimum was 57. 51% for manchurian ash, however at under-part of the crown for all species occupied about 10% of total foliage. The models can be used for the planning of harvesting operations, for the selection of feasible harvesting methods, and for the estimation of nutrient removals of different harvesting practices.%2007年,在黑龙江省帽儿山林区,设置30块天然次生林固定标准地,获取10

  5. A gap-filling model for eddy covariance latent heat flux: Estimating evapotranspiration of a subtropical seasonal evergreen broad-leaved forest as an example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yi-Ying; Chu, Chia-Ren; Li, Ming-Hsu

    2012-10-01

    SummaryIn this paper we present a semi-parametric multivariate gap-filling model for tower-based measurement of latent heat flux (LE). Two statistical techniques, the principal component analysis (PCA) and a nonlinear interpolation approach were integrated into this LE gap-filling model. The PCA was first used to resolve the multicollinearity relationships among various environmental variables, including radiation, soil moisture deficit, leaf area index, wind speed, etc. Two nonlinear interpolation methods, multiple regressions (MRS) and the K-nearest neighbors (KNNs) were examined with random selected flux gaps for both clear sky and nighttime/cloudy data to incorporate into this LE gap-filling model. Experimental results indicated that the KNN interpolation approach is able to provide consistent LE estimations while MRS presents over estimations during nighttime/cloudy. Rather than using empirical regression parameters, the KNN approach resolves the nonlinear relationship between the gap-filled LE flux and principal components with adaptive K values under different atmospheric states. The developed LE gap-filling model (PCA with KNN) works with a RMSE of 2.4 W m-2 (˜0.09 mm day-1) at a weekly time scale by adding 40% artificial flux gaps into original dataset. Annual evapotranspiration at this study site were estimated at 736 mm (1803 MJ) and 728 mm (1785 MJ) for year 2008 and 2009, respectively.

  6. 云南高黎贡山中山湿性常绿阔叶林的群落特征%Community Characteristics of the Mid-Montane Humid Ever-Green Broad-Leaved Forest in Gaoligong Mountains, Yunnan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟广涛; 柴勇; 袁春明; 艾怀森; 李贵祥; 王骞; 李品荣; 蔺汝涛

    2013-01-01

    The dynamic observation of the mid - montane humid evergreen broad-leaved forest and the community characteristics analysis were conducted in a 4 - hm2 permanent plot located in ecological corridor in southern region of Gaoligong Mountains National Nature Reserve during 2009-2010. The results showed that there were 10 546 freestanding individuals with DBH ≥1. 0 cm in the 4 hm plot, belonging to 95 species, 64 genera and 35 families. The species richness was higher and the proportion of rare species was lower in the plot, compared with other plots of the same kind forest. Lauraceae, Theaceae, Araliaceae, Fagaceae, and Symplocaceae were dominant families in the plot and they comprised 44. 21 % of all species and 56. 70% of all individuals. Symplocas ramosissima, Eurya pseudocerasifera , Gordonia longicarpa, Neolitsea lunglingensis, Lithocarpus hancei, and Cyclobalanopsis lamellosa had more importance value in the plot, but no one had obvious advantage, namely the plot did not contain an obviously dominant species. Floristic characteristics of the community indicated that the tropical elements were much more than temperate elements, implying that this area could be an origin of tropics. The minimal area of the community is 1. 32 hm , which could comprise more than 80% of all species. The structure of DBH size class of all species and some dominant species in the plot showed a typical pyramid structure with a wide bottom and a narrow top, implying a good regeneration in the community. The survival curve of most of dominant species tended to be of the Deevey-Ⅲ type, with a high mortality rate at small DHB size class and a low and stable mortality rate at large DBH size class.

  7. 小兴安岭红松阔叶混交林土壤动物群落研究%Study on Soil Animals Community of Pinus koraiensis Broad-Leaved Mixed Forest in Xiaoxing' an Mountain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苗雅杰; 殷秀琴

    2005-01-01

    Soil animal communities of Pinus koraiensis broad-leaved mixed forest were studied. The purpose was to discuss the dynamic characteristic of soil animals and relationship with environmental factors. The ecosystem geography distribution law of soil animals, soil animals' role and function in ecological system were revealed. In June, August, October each year, three plots were selected. In each plot, four layers were sampled( litter layer,0 - 10 cm, 10 - 20 cm & 20 - 30 cm), adding up to 72 soil sample. The area for large-sized soil animals was 50 cm × 50 cm, and the area for middle-small-sized soil animals was 10 cm × 10 cm. Separated soil animals through adopting hand-picking method and Tullgren method respectively. Sampled the soil animals in two continuing years. Shannon-Wiener index was adopted to analyze the diversity of soil animals. Monad liner regression was used to search the relationship between soil animals and environmental factors. The dominant groups were Oribatida, Isotomidae. There were relatively great changes in groups and individual numbers of dominant groups and rare groups when the reason changed. The individual numbers of dominant groups and the groups of rare groups changed. The number of individual and group was the most in August. Obviously it correlated with climatic factors in middle temperate zone. The evenness was low and dominance was high. The diversity index was not most. Among the annual fluctuating there was a increasing trend. The evenness was low and dominance was high. The diversity index was low. It conformed with the law of reason change. The correlation between soil animals and atmospheric temperature, rainfall, ground temperature and sunlight showed the correlation with rainfall and soil temperature was the most significant.

  8. The Effect of Prescribed Burning on the Chemical Property of Mixed Coniferous and Broad-Leaved Forest Soil%计划烧除对针阔混交林地土壤化学性质的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张立存; 孙科辉; 钟安建; 焦鸿渤; 肖金香

    2014-01-01

    This study selected three standard sample plots in the mixed coniferous and broad leaved forest outside the Meiling National Forest Park .Prescribed burning was conducted for them every two months and each burning test lasted 10 min,30 min and 60 min.Soil sample collection and laboratory analysis were carried out after the final burning test .The results displayed that the pH value of the soil increased constantly after burning whose upward trend was in proportion to the burning duration .The soil organic content and total N con-tent were in an upward trend over time after 10 min’ s burning,but their values were in an upward trend fol-lowed by a downward trend when the burning duration were 30 min and 60 min.In addition,the soil available N content increased first and then decreased but its values were higher than those before burning under these three measures .The changing trends of the soil available P content varied different in response to the three burning durations .The 10 min’ s burning made the value increased gradually while the value was found to be in a downward trend followed by an upward trend after the burning lasting 30 min and 60 min and the value re-turned to its original level soon after the 30 min’s burning compared with that after 60 min’s burning.Besides, the rapid available K content in the soil was observed to be in an increasing trend resulted from the burning effect of 10 min while an upward trend at first and then a downward trend were noticed after the burning of 30 min and 60 min.It is advisable to conduct prescribed burning with low intensity within 60 min to improve soil nutrients .%在梅岭国家森林公园外围选取3块针阔混交林标准样地,按时间间隔每两个月进行一次计划烧除,每次燃烧实验共设置10,30,60 min和CK(对照)4个处理,最后一次燃烧实验结束后统一进行土样采集和室内试验分析。结果表明:火烧后土壤pH值持续升高,升高程度与火

  9. Genetic diversity of Lithocarpus harlandii populations in three forest communities with different succession stages

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jianhui LI; Zexin JIN; Wenyan LOU; Junmin LI

    2008-01-01

    By using random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) technique,this paper studied the genetic diversity and genetic differentiation of Lithocarpus harlandii populations in three forest communities (con-iferous forest, coniferous and broad-leaved mixed forest, and evergreen broad-leaved forest) with different succes-sion stages in Tiantai Mountain in Zhejiang Province.The results showed that a total of 173 repetitive loci were produced in 60 individuals of L. Harlandii by 12 random primers, among which, 152 loci were polymorphic, and the total percentage of polymorphic loci was 87.86%. The average percentage of polymorphic loci of the popula-tions was 65.32%, and their total genetic diversity estimated by Shannon information index was 0.4529,with an average of 0.3458,while that judged from Nei's index was 0.3004, with an average of 0.2320. The percentage of polymorphic loci, Shannon information index, and Nei's index of the populations were in the sequence of coniferous forest community coniferous and broad-leaved mixed forest community evergreen broad-leaved forest community. Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) showed that 72.85% of genetic variance was found within the populations,and 27.15% of genetic variance resided among the populations. The coefficient of gene differentiation was 0.2277, and the gene flow was 1.6949. The genetic structure of L. Harlandii was influenced not only by the biological characteristics of this species, but also by the micro-environment of different communities. The mean of genetic identity among three populations of L. Harlandii was 0.8662, and the mean of their genetic distance was 0.1442. The genetic similarity between coniferous and broad-leaved mixed forest community and evergreen broad-leaved forest community was the highest, while that between evergreen broad-leaved forest community and coniferous forest community was the lowest.The unweighted pair group method with arithmeticmean (UPGMA) cluster analysis based on Nei's genetic

  10. Allocation of Carbon Storage in the Arbor Layer of Young and Old-growth Evergreen Broad-leaved Forests in Wanmulin%万木林青年和老龄常绿阔叶林乔木层碳贮量分配特征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄蓉; 王超; 杨智杰; 陈光水

    2011-01-01

    In order to investigate the influence of forest biomass carbon on forest carbon storage,carbon sink measurement and management,as well as biodiversity conservation,this paper analyses the evergreen broad-leaved forests,including the young forest(about 47 a)and old-growth forest(about 120 a)in the Wanmulin Nature Reserve in Fujian.According to the results of biodiversity investigation and Biomass Different Speed Equation,we figure out the carbon storage in tree layer and its distribution features in different heights,diameter classes and tree species.The results are shown as follows:1)The carbon storage of young forest is 115.03 t·hm-2,while that of the old-growth forest is 224.43 t·hm-2.2)In young forest,the maximum carbon storage is 23.17 t·hm-2 in height class Ⅶ(15~17 m),in old-growth forest,it(62.96 t·hm-2)happens in height class Ⅷ(17~19 m).3)In young forest,the maximum carbon storage which amounts to 34.25 t·hm-2,lies in DBH class Ⅵ(15 cm≤DBH17 cm);in old-growth forest,the maximum carbon storage lies in class XIX(DBH≥41 cm)which amounts to 60.03 t·hm-2,taking up 26.78% of total carbon storage.4)Most carbon is stored in a small minority of trees,in other words,most tree species contribute only a tiny part to the total carbon storage.%了解森林生物量碳分配特征,对于森林碳贮量和碳汇估算、森林碳汇经营和生物多样性保护有重要意义.本课题选择福建省万木林自然保护区青年(约47 a生)和老龄(约120 a生)常绿阔叶林为研究对象,根据生物多样性调查结果和生物量异速方程,计算乔木层生物量碳贮量,并分析其高度级、径级和树种间的分配特征.结果表明:1)青年林碳贮量为115.03 t.hm-2,老龄林碳贮量为224.43 t.hm-2;2)青年林最大碳贮量出现在高度级Ⅶ级(15~17 m),为23.17 t.hm-2,而老年林最大碳贮量出现在高度级Ⅷ级

  11. 温带阔叶红松林中不同树种和倒木对土壤性质的影响%Effects of tree species and fallen trees on the soil properties in a temperate Korean pine and broad-leaved mixed forest

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗献宝; 张颖清; 徐浩; 郑俊强

    2011-01-01

    以长白山温带阔叶红松林为研究对象,通过野外采集土壤样品,综合研究老龄树及倒木对周边表层土壤性质的影响.研究结果显示,在本研究样地条件下,不同树种周边的表层土壤性质存在显著性差异,红松(Pinus koraiensis)周边土壤中水溶性有机碳WSOC的质量分数和特征吸光系数SUVA254值都高于紫椴(Tilia amurensis)和水曲柳(Fraxinus mandshurica),但是土壤水溶性总氮WSTN和交换性无机氮的质量分数却是红松低于紫椴和水曲柳.对倒木影响的森林表层土壤性质的研究结果显示,倒木下方森林表层土壤中WSOC、WSTN以及交换性矿质氮的质量分数都明显地高于林间土壤,说明在小尺度空间区域内,倒木可能是森林表层土壤活性碳、氮库的重要输入源.此外,本研究还利用主成分分析探讨了受树种影响的森林表层土壤不同性质之间的关联性,并对树种和倒木影响周边土壤性质的可能性机制进行分析.%This paper focused on the temperate Korean pine and broad-leaved mixed forest of Changbai mountain, and investigated on the soil properties of forest floor influenced by old-growth trees or fallen trees in the direct vicinity. The results indicated that different tree species have significant effects on the soil properties of forest floor in current experimental plot. The water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC) and the specific ultra-violet absorbance (SUVA254) of forest soil in the vicinity of Pinus koraiensis were higher than that of Tilia amurensis and Fraximis mandshurica; but as to water-soluble total nitrogen (WSTN) and exchangeable inorganic nitrogen, it was higher in Tilia amurensis and Fraxinus mandshurica, and lower in Pinus koraiensis. The study of soil properties of forest floor influenced by fallen trees indicated that forest soil under fallen tree had greater content of WSOC, WSTN and exchangeable inorganic nitrogen than that of forest soil in interstem-areas. The

  12. Effects of Stand Vegetation Factors and Soil Nitrogen on Fine Root Biomass in Evergreen Broad-leaved Secondary Forests in Lower Subtropical China%植被因子和土壤氮对南亚热带常绿阔叶次生林细根生物量的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐伟强; 周璋; 李意德; 李健容; 张霞; 徐大平

    2016-01-01

    The relationship between fine root biomass and tree basal area at breast height, and how fine roots would respond to soil nitrogen (N) in the forests with high atmospheric N deposition both are still not clear. Therefore, a study on the relationships of fine root biomass with total tree basal area at breast height, the ratio of basal area for big trees (diameter at breast height, DBH≥30 cm) to total trees, tree density, understory biomass, soil nitrogen concentration, and soil N/C ratio was conducted in lower subtropical evergreen broad-leaved secondary forests in Guangzhou. Forty-eight forest plots with mostly 1 200 m2 area were set up and investigated. These forests, called ecological forests, were protected from commercial use and human disturbance for about 40 years. This study was aim to estimate the effects of the stand vegetation factors and soil N on fine root biomass. Our results showed that:(1) Both of fine root biomass in 0~20 cm (topsoil) and 20~40 cm soil layers (subsoil) were not correlated to total tree basal area at breast height, but were negatively correlated to the ratio of basal area for big trees to total trees. (2) The correlation between fine root biomass and understory biomass was not significant in topsoil, but was negatively significant in subsoil. (3) The correlations between fine root biomass in each soil layers and the according soil N concentration or N concentration per unit carbon concentration (N/C ratio) were negatively significant, except that for fine root biomass in topsoil and soil N concentration. These results indicated that the ratio of basal area for big trees (DBH≥30 cm) to total trees rather than the total tree basal area affect fine root biomass in these secondary forests with large different tree DBH composition. The negative correlations between fine root biomass and soil N concentration indicate that forest plants still respond to soil N even in these evergreen broad-leaved forests in lower subtropical China with

  13. 模拟降水分配季节变化对南亚热带常绿阔叶林凋落物的影响%Effects of Seasonal Precipitation Variation on Litter-fall in Lower Subtropical Evergreen Broad-leaved Forest

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    焦敏; 申卫军

    2014-01-01

    为探讨降水季节分配的变化对南亚热带常绿阔叶林凋落物的影响,在广东省鹤山国家野外生态观测站模拟干季更干(DD)和延长干季(ED)的野外降水控制实验,对森林生态系统中凋落物变化进行了分析研究。结果表明,该试验林年凋落物总量为9.24 t hm–2,在不同时期均以叶凋落物为主,约占50.7%~69.3%。DD处理显著减少了干季(10–3月)叶凋落物量(P<0.01)。虽然DD处理下全年总凋落物量比对照降低了10.3%,但差异不显著。ED处理也减少了春季(4–5月)的叶和花果及总凋落物量,全年总凋落物量则比对照增加了11.3%,但ED处理对春季和全年凋落物量的影响均差异不显著。两种干旱处理对凋落物叶质量总体上影响不明显,但DD处理显著减小了火力楠(Michelia macclurei)凋落叶的木质素含量。因此,降水格局的变化可能会影响南亚热带森林土壤的碳汇能力。%In order to understand the effects of precipitation pattern on litter-fall in lower subtropical evergreen broad-leaved forest, a field precipitation manipulation experiment at Heshan National Forest Research Station (Guangdong Province, China) was designed to simulate decreasing dry-season (October–March) and spring (April–May) rainfall and the litter-fall respones in the forest was studied. The results showed that annual litter-fall of the experimental forest was 9.24 t hm–2, of which leaf litter was the main composition at different stages, accounting for 50.7%–69.3% of the total. The decreasing dry-season rainfall (DD) treatment significantly reduced leaf litter production (P<0.01). The whole-year litter production was also reduced by 10.3% under the DD treatment compared to the control, but not statistically significant. Decreasing spring rainfall (ED) also reduced flower-, fruit-, and leaf-litter as well as the total during the spring time, but the whole-year litter production was increased by 11

  14. 暖温带落叶阔叶林动态变化的模拟研究%Modelling changes of a deciduous broad-leaved forest in warm temperate zone of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    桑卫国

    2004-01-01

    用森林动态林窗模型FORET1模拟了暖温带落叶阔叶林的长期变化特征.模型参数取自暖温带地区长期森林研究和经营的历史数据,对过去数据中缺少的参数进行了实地测定,并用观测的数据对模型作了检验.结果表明模型能较好地模拟暖温带落叶阔叶林的长期动态变化特征.通过模拟可以看出,森林的净初级生产力没有明显变化规律且极度不稳定,峰值出现在30a左右,相似于世界上其它地区森林动态格局变化,生物量格局呈循环状态变化,循环周期大致在110a左右.%A warm temperate deciduous forest in Dongling Mountain of Beijing was simulated with forest gap dynamics model,FORET1,in order to predict ist future changes.The model parameters were derived from both historical and currently measured data;and the model was tested against observed data.Results showed that the model simulation of forest species composition,biomass and production matched well with observed data.Model simulation of the dynamics of this warm temperate deciduous forest indicate that the changes in net primary production was clearly unregulated and extremely unstable,with a peak around 30 years and repeated patterns of dynamics in biomass production every 110 years.The patterns of temporal dynamics of this forest are comparable to other forest ecosystems worldwide.

  15. 火干扰对重庆针阔混交林土壤理化性质的影响%On Influences of Fire Disturbance on Soil Properties of Coniferous and Broad-leaved Mixed Forests in Chongqing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柴捷; 严超龙; 陶建平

    2014-01-01

    In this study we have firstly test soil physical‐chemical properties in high ,mid and low fire severity stands of coniferous and broad‐leaved mixed forests in Maoan forestry station ,Chongqing .Then we have used IFI to evaluate the integrated soil fertility to examine the influences of different fire disturbance severity on soil proper ‐ties .By statistically comparing the measured properties ,we have found that 1 year later ,for the surface soil in burned stands ,bulk density increased while organic matter ,total N and available N decreased ,as well as the deg‐radation of integrated fertility index .%通过测定重庆茅庵林场针阔混交林内未火烧样地、低强度火干扰样地以及高强度火干扰样地的土壤理化性质,研究了不同强度火干扰对重庆针阔混交林土壤理化性质的影响。并基于主成分分析法,利用各个理化指标计算出土壤肥力综合指数,定量化评价不同强度火烧样地土壤肥力的差异状况。结果表明,火干扰1年后,茅庵林场针阔混交林内表层土壤的体积质量升高,有机质、总氮及有效氮含量降低,土壤综合肥力指数下降。

  16. Effects of enhanced ultraviolet-B radiation on water use efficiency, stomatal conductance, leaf nitrogen content and morphological characteristics of Spiraea pubesoens in a warm-temperate deciduous broad-leaved forest

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Lan; ZHANG Shouren

    2007-01-01

    Spiraeapubescens,a common shrub in the warm temperate deciduous forest zone which is distributed in the Dongling Mountain area of Beijing,was exposed to ambient and enhanced ultraviolet-B(UV-B,280-320 nm)radiation by artificially supplying a daily dose of 9.4 kJ/m2 for three growing seasons,a level that simulated a 17% depletion in stratospheric ozone.The objective of this study was to explore the effects of long-term UV-B enhancement on stomatal conductance,leaf tissue δ13C,leaf water content,and leaf area.Particular attention was paid to the effects of UV-B radiation on water use efficiency(WUE)and leaf total nitrogen content.Enhanced UV-B radiation significantly reduced leaf area (50.1%)but increased leaf total nitrogen content(102%).These changes were associated with a decrease in stomatal conductance(16.1%)and intercellular CO2 concentration/air CO2 concentration(C/Ca)(4.0%),and an increase in leaf tissue δ13C(20.5%),leaf water content(3.1%),specific leaf weight(SLW)(5.2%)and WUE(4.1%).The effects of UV-B on the plant were greatly affected by the water content of the deep soil(30-40 cm).During the dry season,differences in the stomatat conductance δ13C,and WUE between the control and UV-B treated shrubs were very small;whereas,differences became much greater when soil water stress disappeared.Furthermore,the effects of UV-B became much less significant as the treatment period progressed over the three growing seasons.Correlation analysis showed that enhanced UV-B radiation decreased the strength of the correlation between soil water content and leaf water content, δ13C,Ci/Ca,stomatal conductance,with the exception of WUE that had a significant correlation coefficient with soil water content.These results suggest that WUE would become more sensitive to soil water variation due to UV-B radiation.Based on this experiment,it was found that enhanced UV-B radiation had much more significant effects on morphological traits and growth of S.pubescens than hydro

  17. 叶山次生落叶阔叶林主要树种空间结构特征%Spatial structure characteristics of main tree species in secondary deciduous broad-leaved forest in Yeshan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    樊丙玉; 郝耀锋; 吴开华; 黄庆丰

    2012-01-01

    通过对铜陵叶山林场天然次生落叶阔叶混交林内具有代表性的样地调查,利用角尺度、混交度和大小比数3个林分空间结构参数分析了该次生落叶阔叶林林分空间结构特征.结果表明,该林分乔木层共有19个树种,麻栎是该森林类型的优势树种,主要伴生树种为化香、枫香、檫木等;该森林类型林分平均角尺度、平均混交度和平均大小比数分别为0.556、0.525和0.497;在林木空间格局上,林分整体呈团状分布;从林分种间隔离程度来看,整体处于中度混交状态;在林木大小分化程度上,麻栎、化香、枫香和檫木在生长上整体处于中庸状态,林木空间大小分化不大.该森林类型还处在不稳定阶段,即落叶阅叶向常绿与落叶阔叶林演替过程中.%Based on the investigation of typical plots of the natural secondary deciduous broadleaved mixed forest in Yeshan Forest-farm of Tongling city, the spatial structure features of this forest type were analyzed by using three spatial structure parameters (uniform angle, mingling degree and neighborhood comparison index). The results showed that there were 19 tree species in tree layer, of which Quercus acutissima was the dominant species of this forest type, and Platycarya strobilacea, Liquidambar formosana, Sassafras tzumus and so on were main associated tree species; the mean value of uniform angle index, mingling degree and neighborhood comparison of the stand in forest type were 0.556, 0.525 and 0.497, respectively. The pattern of tree spatial distribution of the stand was the cluster. The mingling degree of tree species of the stand was moderate mixed. Quercus acutissima, Platycarya strobilacea, Liquidambar formosana and Sassafras tzumus were the mean state in growing in the tree's size differentiation degree. The tree's size differentiation of this forest type was small. This forest type is still in the unstable stage, namely the transition stage from the

  18. Species composition and community structure of the Donglingshan forest dynamic plot in a warm temperate deciduous broad-leaved secondary forest, China%东灵山暖温带落叶阔叶次生林动态监测样地:物种组成与群落结构

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘海丰; 李亮; 桑卫国

    2011-01-01

    Community structure is one of the key features in the process of vegetation succession.Warm temperate mixed deciduous broad-leaved secondary forest is the main forest vegetation type in China's warm temperate zone.In order to better study the mechanisms of succession and species coexistence in this forest type, we established the Donglingshan 20-ha forest plot (DLS plot) in 2009 and 2010 using the same protocol as the well-established plot on Barro Colorado Island in Panama.In the plot, all free-standing woody plants with DBH (diameter at breast height) ≥1 cm were mapped, tagged, and identified to species.Here, we address preliminary results on floristic characteristics, community composition, and size-class, vertical, and spatial structure of the DLS plot.These datasets will serve as baseline information accessible to a wide range of future studies.We tagged a total of 52,136 genotype individuals (103,284 individuals including branches of genotype individuals), belonging to 58 species, 33 genera and 18 families.All of these tree species were deciduous.Floristic characteristics of the community suggested a temperate flora, including some subtropical and tropical elements.There were very obvious dominant species in the plot.Five species comprised 61% of all individuals, and 20 species comprised 92% of all individuals, while the other 38 species comprised only 8% of all individuals.Vertical structure was composed of an overstory layer (19 species), midstory layer (18 species), and a shrub layer (21 species).The DBH size-class structure of all species in the plot generally fitted a "reverse J" distribution, indicating good regeneration across the community.The size-class structure of the main species in the overstory layer showed a bimodal or nearly normal distribution, while the most abundant species in the midstory and shrub layers showed "reverse J" or even "L" distributions.Spatial distribution patterns of the dominant species varied with size-class and

  19. Effects of habitat heterogeneity on community functional diversity of Dinghu Mountain evergreen broad-leaved forest%生境异质性对鼎湖山常绿阔叶林群落功能多样性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周光霞; 黄立新; 臧晓蔚; 韦霄; 叶万辉; 沈浩

    2016-01-01

    (20 m×20 m) were selected according to the changes of relative elevation and topograph. These 27 subplots can stand for the heterogeneous habitats in Dinghushan ever-green broad-leaved forest. Leaf functional traits of all the trees with DBH (diameter at breast height)≥1 cm in the 27 sub-plots were measured to calculate the functional diversity ( functional dispersion and community weighted mean are caculated as the functional diversity in this paper) during the summer of 2013. The measured traits included morphological traits (spe-cific leaf area, leaf dry matter content, leaf area and leaf lenth to leaf width ratio) and stoichiometric traits (leaf carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus content). Combining with the topographic and soil information, we analysed the main environmental factors that influence the variation of functional diversity. To elucidate the relative importance of environmental filtering and competitive interactions for species co-existence of Dinghushan evergreen broad-leaved forest, we inferred the shifts in func-tional diversity patterns across environmental gradients. The results indicated that functional divergence and community-weighted mean were in close relation with environmental factors, especially elevation, convexity and soil fertility. In the op-timal environmental conditions (high relative elevation, high convexity and higher soil nutrient content), plants adopt the similar (functional divergence decreased) adaptive strategy of efficient conservation of nutrient (low SLA, high LDMC), which suggested that environmental filtering played a stronger role;while in the adverse environmental conditions ( low rela-tive elevation, low convexity and lower soil nutrient content), the traits were various (functional divergence increased) and use fast growing strategy (high SLA, low LDMC), since competitive interactions might play a key role. The functional di-vergence of leaf area and leaf nitrogen contents increased in better environmental conditions

  20. 百山祖常绿阔叶林木本植物的克隆繁殖特性%Clonal propagation characteristics of woody species in Baishanzu broad-leaved evergreen forest

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈娇; 王伟; 叶珍林; 陈晓慧; 蒋清玲; 丁炳扬

    2012-01-01

    Clonal plants, which are generated through both sexual reproduction and vegetative propagation (clonal growth) in nature, can affect species distribution patterns and dynamics, as well as the species composition and diversity of communities. Clonal plants with ability to adapt to the harsh environment have strong competence for survival, and thus play an important role in regeneration and revegetation of the forest dynamics. Based on the investigation of the root-sprouting situation of shrubs and woody vines with DBH (diameter at breast height) ≥ 1 cm or height ≥ 2 m and trees in Baishanzu permanent plot, the objective of this study was to research the sprouting ability of different species with different growth forms, the relationship between root-sprouting rate and DBH of parent-ramet and the association between sprouting rate and habitats. A 5-hm2 plot in Baishanzu Mountain was divided into 2 000 quadrats (5 m ×5 m) to survey species identity, DBH, root-sprouting number and root-sprouting DBH / basal diameter for shrubs and woody vines with DBH ≥ 1 cm and all trees. Species in the plot were classified into canopy trees, sub-canopy trees, understory trees, shrubs and vines to survey the differences of their root-sprouting capacity. The relationship between root-sprouting rate and DBH of parent-ramet was analyzed based on six common species with the number of mother plant ≥ 400 and root-sprouting rate ≥ 1.0. According to the differences of slope, convexity and elevation among quadrates, the plot was divided into four habitats, including ridge, less-steep slope, steep slope and gully to analyze the association between sprouting rate and habitats. The results showed that: 1) The total parent-ramet and sprout in the plot were 36 769 and 34 786 respectively, thus the sprouting rate of the species in the plot was 0.94 (Table 1); 2) the sprouting rates of species with different growth forms were different with the descending order of canopy species, sub

  1. Genetic diversity of Quercus glandulifera var. brevipetiolata populations in three forest communities with different succession stages

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Junmin LI; Zexin JIN; Qiping GU; Wenyan LOU

    2009-01-01

    In order to understand the relationship between population succession and its genetic behavior, random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) technique was used to analyze the genetic diversity of Quercu glandulifera var.brevipetiolata populations in three forest communities with different succession stages (coniferous forest, coniferous and broad-leaved mixed forest, evergreen broad-leaved forest). The results showed that 145 repetitive loci were produced in 60 individuals of Q. glandulifera using 11 primers, among which 120 loci were polymorphic, and the total percentage of polymorphic loci was 82.76% with an average of 64.14%. Estimated by the Shannon information index, the total genetic diversity of the three populations was 0.4747, with an average of 0.3642, while it was 0.3234, with an average of 0.2484, judged from the Nei index. Judged from percentage of polymorphic loci,Shannon inform at ion index and Nei index, the genetic diversity followed a decreasing order: coniferous forest >broad-leaved mixed forest > evergreen broad-leaved for-est. Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) showed that 69.73% of the genetic variance existed within populations and 30.27% of the genetic variance existed among popu-lations. The coefficient of gene differentiation (Gst) was 0.2319 and the gene flow (Nm) was 1.6539. The mean of genetic identity among populations of Q. glandulifera was 0.8501 and the mean of genetic distance was 0.1626. The genetic identity between the Q. glandulifera population in the coniferous forest and that in the coniferous and broad-leaved mixed forest was the highest. UPGMA cluster analysis based on Nei's genetic distance showed that the population in the coniferous forest gathered with that in the coniferous and broad-leaved mixed forest firstly, then with that in the evergreen broad-leaved forest. The genetic structure of Q. glandulifera was not only characteristic of the biological characteristics of this species, but was also influenced by the

  2. Studies on Soil Microbiological Characteristics of Evergreen Broad-leaved Forest in Northern Fujian Province%闽北常绿阔叶林土壤微生物学特性的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋漳; 朱锦懋; 杨玉盛

    2000-01-01

    选择闽北地区较有代表性的建瓯万木林自然保护区长期受保护的 (近600 a) 的中亚热带森林(conserved forest,CF)和顺昌县元坑镇近期(50年代以来)受人为干扰破坏的退化森林(degraded forest,DF)作为研究对象,比较了CF和DF群落的土壤微生物及其主要几种生理类群的数量分布和土壤主要化学性质的差异.研究结果表明:DF群落由于受人为的干扰破坏,土壤主要养分含量呈明显下降.对土壤微生物区系研究表明:CF群落的土壤微生物总数、细菌数量以及主要几种微生物生理类群的数量均明显高于DF群落.而真菌和放线菌的数量分布则以DF群落中数量较多,且占土壤微生物总量的比值也较大.DF群落根际和非根际土壤中3大类微生物及生理类群数量分布发生的变化,指示了土壤性质恶化的动态变化.研究结果为揭示森林生态系统土壤性质退化机理、找出防治的技术途径,恢复生物物种的多样性,提供科学依据.

  3. Adaptive characteristics and behavior of Dalbergia millettii liana in subtropical evergreen broad-leaved forest of eastern China%浙江天童常绿阔叶林香港黄檀的生态适应特征和行为

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡永立; 宋永昌

    2001-01-01

    通过对芽的类型和活动、攀援茎的形态、径级分布和格局、攀援能力和立体结构及其与支持木关系的测定分析,探讨了香港黄檀的生态适应特征和行为。结果如下:①芽按活动时间分为春芽和夏芽;两类芽均可形成长枝(攀援枝)或短枝,但在活动持续时间和抽生攀援的长度方面存在明显差异;林内不定芽(主要为春芽)的活动和适应生长是老藤更新的重要途径。②攀援枝的节数和节间长度分别为短枝的7倍和6.5倍,而且易受光照等条件的影响;林缘攀援枝的分枝率是林内的5倍。③径级分布反映出种群随群落演替而老化,香港黄檀属群落早期藤本。④对支持木种类表现出一定的选择性,马尾松是其中被攀援最多的支持木,这主要与香港黄檀的生理、生长要求和马尾松枝型特点等有较大的关系。⑤具有较强的攀援能力,单株在群落中平均可攀援乔木层大树5株,最多可达15株,水平扩展面积平均为54m2,最大可达260m2;藤本通过攀援与支持木形成的空间结构,构成群落的特殊层片,其群落学意义值得进一步研究。%Based on analysis of types and dynamics of buds,morphology and space structure of branches,the ecological adaptation and behavior of Dalbergia millettii liana in the subtropical evergreen broad-leaved forest of eastern China were studied.The results are as follows:(1)Both spring bud and summer bud may form the climbing or short branch,but there are great differences in the activity duration of bud and the branch length formed.Regeneration of old liana trunk will be mainly completed by adaptive growth of adventitious buds on it.(2)Node number and internode leggth of climbing branch are 7 and 6.5 times more than those of short branch,respectively.And they are easily influenced by light.Branching ratio of climbing brance at the edge of forest is 5 times greater than that in the inner

  4. Relationship between the decomposition process of coarse woody debris and fungal community structure as detected by high-throughput sequencing in a deciduous broad-leaved forest in Japan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoshi Yamashita

    Full Text Available We examined the relationship between the community structure of wood-decaying fungi, detected by high-throughput sequencing, and the decomposition rate using 13 years of data from a forest dynamics plot. For molecular analysis and wood density measurements, drill dust samples were collected from logs and stumps of Fagus and Quercus in the plot. Regression using a negative exponential model between wood density and time since death revealed that the decomposition rate of Fagus was greater than that of Quercus. The residual between the expected value obtained from the regression curve and the observed wood density was used as a decomposition rate index. Principal component analysis showed that the fungal community compositions of both Fagus and Quercus changed with time since death. Principal component analysis axis scores were used as an index of fungal community composition. A structural equation model for each wood genus was used to assess the effect of fungal community structure traits on the decomposition rate and how the fungal community structure was determined by the traits of coarse woody debris. Results of the structural equation model suggested that the decomposition rate of Fagus was affected by two fungal community composition components: one that was affected by time since death and another that was not affected by the traits of coarse woody debris. In contrast, the decomposition rate of Quercus was not affected by coarse woody debris traits or fungal community structure. These findings suggest that, in the case of Fagus coarse woody debris, the fungal community structure is related to the decomposition process of its host substrate. Because fungal community structure is affected partly by the decay stage and wood density of its substrate, these factors influence each other. Further research on interactive effects is needed to improve our understanding of the relationship between fungal community structure and the woody debris

  5. Leaf morphological and anatomical characteristics of epiphytes and their host tress in lower subtropical evergreen broad-leaved forest%南亚热带常绿阔叶林林冠层附生植物及其宿主叶片的形态解剖特征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    江浩; 黄钰辉; 周国逸; 胡晓颖; 刘世忠; 唐旭利

    2011-01-01

    Canopy-dwelling epiphytic plants have been well characterized in terms of the physiological and morphological traits permitting them to thrive in the absence of access to the soil. The ultimate purpose of this paper is to characterize the morphological and anatomical characteristics of major canopy-dwelling epiphytic plants and their host trees in the lower subtropical evergreen broad-leaved forest in the Southern China. Results showed epiphytic plants differed from host trees on leaf morphology and anatomy. Compared with host trees, epiphytic plants have smaller leaf area, larger specific leaf area (SLA), higher leaf water content, higher leaf thickness, higher leaf abaxial and adaxial epidermis thickness, lower stomatal density and stomata size for the uptake and restore of water and nutrients. Difference of leaf morphological and anatomical characters between epiphytes can be largely explained by changes of environmental factors such as photosynthetically active radiation (PAR), temperature and humidity within forest canopy. D. Chinensis and P. Serpens showed special characteristics with high leaf water contents, low stomatal density, thick spongy tissues and thin palisade tissues to adapt to their upper dwelling environment (high temperature, low air humidity and high PAR). F. Glaucescens and P. Hancei have large leaf area, thin leaf, and high stomata size in acclimatizing to the low temperature, high air humidity and low PAR.%选择南亚热带常绿阔叶林中具有代表性的4种林冠层附生植物:白背瓜馥木(Fissistigma glaucescens)、瓜子金(Dischidia chinensis)、蔓九节(Psychotria serpens)、山蒌(Piper hancei)及其主要宿主植物:厚壳桂(Cryptocarya chinensis)、荷木(Schimasuperba)、华润楠(Machilus chinensis)、锥栗(Castanopsis chinensis)为研究对象,对其叶片形态结构和解剖结构特征进行比较.研究结果表明:宿主植物与附生植物的叶片形态结构差异显著.相对于4种宿主植物,4种附生

  6. Effects of biotic neighbors and habitat heterogeneity on tree seedling survival in a secondary mixed conifer and broad-leaved forest in Changbai Mountain%长白山次生针阔混交林乔木幼苗存活的影响因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘帅; 廖嘉星; 肖翠; 范秀华

    2016-01-01

    基于长白山次生针阔混交林样地,以520个1 m ×1 m幼苗样方中胸径小于1 cm的乔木幼苗为研究对象,选取2013年和2014年的幼苗调查数据,运用广义线性混合模型(GLMM)分析了生物邻体和生境异质性对幼苗存活的影响,探讨了次生针阔混交林幼苗存活影响因素及物种共存机制。结果表明:(1)适宜大树生长的局域生境同样也适宜幼苗的存活,幼苗存活率与土壤含水量和有效氮等土壤养分显著正相关。(2)幼苗个体之间存在明显的竞争,较多的幼苗邻体显著降低幼苗的存活率。同种大树邻体和同种幼苗邻体与幼苗存活显著负相关,表明存在负密度制约效应。(3)随着幼苗年龄的增加,生境异质性对幼苗存活的影响逐渐增大。该研究证实了密度制约效应和生境异质性对幼苗存活有着重要影响,其相对重要性随着幼苗年龄级、功能群以及物种种类而变化。%Aims Our study aimed to understand the effects and the relative importance of biotic neighborhood and habitat heterogeneity for tree seedling survival in a secondary mixed conifer and broad-leaved forest in Changbai Moun-tain, north-eastern China. Methods The generalized mixed linear model was used to examine the relative effects of biotic neighborhood and habitat heterogeneity on seedling survival over two years. Important findingsOur results showed that both biotic neighborhood and habitat heterogeneity had significant effects on the seedling survival at community level. The local environment suitable for the adult growth was also suitable for seedling survival. The soil moisture and soil available nitrogen exhibited significant positive effects on seedling survival. On the other hand, seedling density had significant negative effects on seedling survival due to the individual competition. Particularly, we found significant negative density-dependent effects on seedling sur-vival which was caused by

  7. 闽北天然阔叶林径阶材种结构分析及出材率表的编制%Compilation of Output Structure of Diameter Grade Wood Assortments and Volume Ratio Table for Natural Broad-Leaved Forest Tree Species in North Fujian Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李晓景; 江希钿; 庄崇洋; 李小铃

    2012-01-01

    应用闽北天然阔叶林现场造材资料,在分析径阶材种结构规律的基础上,选择适合的方程建立材种出材率模型并编制二元材种出材率表.经检验,该表精度较高,在林业生产上有实用价值.为方便生产中应用,还建立了树高曲线模型,由二元材种出材率袁导出了一元材种出材率表.%The volume ratio model of wood assortment was built by choosing the proper equation, and the two dimension merchantable wood assortment volume yielding rate tables were compiled based on structure analyses of diameter grade wood assortments, with on the spot sample timber data collected from the natural broad-leaved forests in the north Fujian Province. The wood assortment volume yielding rate tables were tested to be with high precision and practicable in forestry production. In order to facilitate the production and application, tree height model was established, and the one dimension merchantable wood assortment volume yielding rate tables were derived from the two dimension tables.

  8. Transformation of Carbon and Nitrogen by Earthworms in the Decomposition Processes of Broad-leaved Litters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DONG Weihua; YIN Xiuqin

    2007-01-01

    Earthworms are the important constituents in the decayed food web and the main ecological conditioners in the process of decomposition and nutrient mineralization. The transformation of organic carbon (C) and total nitrogen (N) in the broad-leaved litters ingested by earthworms was researched by means of a laboratory experiment. Experimental samples were collected from broad-leaved Korea Pine mixed forest in Liangshui National Natural Reserve (47°10'50"N, 128°53'20"E) in the northeastern Xiao Hinggan Mountains of Northeast China. The contents of organic C and total N in earthworms, leaf litters and earthworm faeces were analyzed. Results show that the organic C content was in the following order: leaf litters>faeces>earthworms, while total N content was contrary to that of the organic C. The organic C contents in the different leaf litters were in the following order: Tilia amurensis>Betula costata>Acer mono, whereas the total N contents in the different leaf litters were: Betula costata>Tilia amurensis>Acer mono. The contents of organic C and total N in the faeces from the different leaf litters were almost consistent with the contents of the leaf litters. After the leaf litters were ingested by earthworms, the organic C, which was transformed to increase earthworms' weights, accounted for 3.90%-13.31% of the total ingestion by earthworms, while that in the earthworm faeces accounted for 6.14%-13.70%. The transformed organic C through the other metabolism (e.g., respiration) of earthworms accounted for 75.04%-89.92%. The ingested organic C by earthworms was mostly used for metabolic activities. The N ingested by earthworms was less than organic C. It is estimated that 37.08% of total N was transformed to increase the earthworm's weight, 19.97% into earthworm faeces and 47.86% for the consumption of the earthworm's activities. The earthworms not only increased the content of organic C and total N in the soil, but also decreased the values of C/N in

  9. [Soil organic carbon pools and their turnover under two different types of forest in Xiao-xing'an Mountains, Northeast China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Fei; Jiang, Hang; Cui, Xiao-yang

    2015-07-01

    Soil samples collected from virgin Korean pine forest and broad-leaved secondary forest in Xiaoxing'an Mountains, Northeast China were incubated in laboratory at different temperatures (8, 18 and 28 °C) for 160 days, and the data from the incubation experiment were fitted to a three-compartment, first-order kinetic model which separated soil organic carbon (SOC) into active, slow, and resistant carbon pools. Results showed that the soil organic carbon mineralization rates and the cumulative amount of C mineralized (all based on per unit of dry soil mass) of the broad-leaved secondary forest were both higher than that of the virgin Korean pine forest, whereas the mineralized C accounted for a relatively smaller part of SOC in the broad-leaved secondary forest soil. Soil active and slow carbon pools decreased with soil depth, while their proportions in SOC increased. Soil resistant carbon pool and its contribution to SOC were both greater in the broad-leaved secondary forest soil than in the virgin Korean pine forest soil, suggesting that the broad-leaved secondary forest soil organic carbon was relatively more stable. The mean retention time (MRT) of soil active carbon pool ranged from 9 to 24 d, decreasing with soil depth; while the MRT of slow carbon pool varied between 7 and 24 a, increasing with soil depth. Soil active carbon pool and its proportion in SOC increased linearly with incubation temperature, and consequently, decreased the slow carbon pool. Virgin Korean pine forest soils exhibited a higher increasing rate of active carbon pool along temperature gradient than the broad-leaved secondary forest soils, indicating that the organic carbon pool of virgin Korean pine forest soil was relatively more sensitive to temperature change.

  10. Temporal and spatial variation of seedfall in a broad-leaved evergreen forest in Gutianshan Nature Reserve of Zhejiang Province, China%浙江古田山自然保护区常绿阔叶林种子雨的时空变异

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜彦君; 马克平

    2012-01-01

    木本植物种子产量的时间和空间变化格局对植物更新以及群落组成和结构有着重要影响,是种子雨研究的一个重要方面.2006年6月在古田山亚热带常绿阔叶林24 hm2样地布置了130个面积为0.5 m2的种子雨收集器,每周收集一次.利用4年的种子雨数据,研究了种子雨的时间和空间变异.主要结果如下:(1)共收集到124 227粒成熟种子,属于29科51属63种,每月降水量与平均每月种子数、物种数均呈显著负相关;(2)种子产量在每年干季(秋季)有明显的高峰,有10个物种在湿季扩散种子,不同物种结实物候起始和终止时间有差异;(3)基于4年的种子雨数据,几乎所有物种的种子雨均存在很大的年际变异,收集到的所有物种的种子产量年际变异系数的中位数为1.72;(4)种子雨在不同收集器之间有很大的变异,变异系数的中位数为8.06;几乎所有物种的空间变异都远远大于时间变异,这可能是由于母树的稀有性、种子传播距离的差异,以及地形等因素造成.通过与巴拿马Barro Colorado Island 50 hm2样地108个物种种子产量的年际变异系数相比较,古田山种子雨数据支持了高纬度地区种子产量变异高于低纬度地区的假说.%Aims Seedfall of woody plants often fluctuates considerably from year to year and from site to site. These variations may have strong effects not only on the recruitment of the plant populations themselves, but also on the community composition and structure. Our objective was to elucidate seasonal, annual and spatial variations of seedfall in broad-leaved evergreen forest in Gutianshan Nature Reserve of Zhejiang Province over four years. Methods Seed rain was censused weekly since June 2006, using 130 seed traps set along 2.3 km of trails within the Gutianshan 24 hm2 subtropical evergreen forest plot. Each seed trap consisted of a square, 0.5 m2 Poly Vinyl Chloride (PVC) frame supporting a shallow, open

  11. Distribution patterns and carbon and nitrogen contents of Castanopsis platyacantha fine roots, the constructive species of evergreen broad-leaved secondary forest in Wawushan Mountain of Sichuan Province%瓦屋山常绿阔叶次生林建群种扁刺栲的细根分布及其碳氮特征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭勇; 陈冠陶; 梁政; 李顺; 彭天驰; 涂利华

    2016-01-01

    The Wawushan Mountain National Forest Park in Sichuan Province, where there is relatively intact Castanopsis platyacantha-Schima sinensis formations, is a typical representative of the mid-subtropical moist evergreen broad-leaved forest in West China. Using the soil core method, this study investigated the fine root distribution and characteristics of carbon and nitrogen of sample C. platyacantha which is the main constructive species in this formation. The results were as follows: (1) The total fine root biomass of C. platyacantha was 173.62 g·m?2 and the total biomass of live fine roots was 135.29 g·m?2. (2) The fine root biomass, root length density, root surface area and specific root length decreased with the increase of soil depth, and their proportions in 0-30 cm layers were 67.23%, 69.53%, 69.48%and 57.20%, respectively; root length density, root surface area and specific root length decreased significantly with increasing root diameter, and 58.84%, 52.59%and 51.36%of them were in the roots that diameter was less than 1 mm, respectively. (3) Root extinction coefficient in biomass, length and surface area of C. platyacantha fine root increased with the rise of the root diameter. (4) In the first soil layer, the roots C content increased significantly with the rising root diameter, but there was no significant difference in other soil layers;the C content of the roots whose diameter was less than 2 mm in the first soil layer was significantly lower than other soil layers, while the differences of roots C content of greater than 2 mm among soil layers was insignificant. (5) The roots N content decreased with the increase of soil depth and root diameter, while the C/N ratio value was opposite. These results reflected the vertical distribution of the secondary forest underground fine root system and nutrient characteristics, which would provided some basic data for revealing the subsurface ecological processes and the effects of environmental change on

  12. 1996-2012天目山常绿落叶阔叶混交林乔木层群落动态%Community Dynamics of Arbor Layer in the Mixed Evergreen and Deciduous Broad-Leaved Forests during 1996 -2012 in Tianmu Mountain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    游诗雪; 张超; 库伟鹏; 朱弘; 赵明水; 余树全

    2016-01-01

    要原因;中小径级个体间竞争剧烈,死亡率高。%Objective]Using long-term exploration of community dynamics ( ranging from 1996 to 2012 ) ,this study was aimed to provide scientific support for forest protection,management and operation in Tianmu Mountain.[Method]In 1996,a field site with the size of 1hm2 locating in evergreen and deciduous broad-leaved mixed forest of Tianmu Mountain,a national nature reserve in Zhejiang province was built,and then each tree in the site was numbered,labeled and recorded it’s species name,height,diameter at breast height (DBH),location and other information. In 2012,the above data was determined again to compare the community dynamics of the trees with the DBH more than 10 cm during the past 16 years.[Result]The results showed that in 1996,the evergreen broad-leaved trees and deciduous broad-leaved trees accounted for 54. 97% and 45. 03% of the total number of trees,respectively,while in 2012,the ratios changed to 62. 81% and 37. 19% respectively. The community structure changed from 40 species,34 genera and 24 families in 1996 to 48 species,40 genera and 29 families in 2012. During the 16 years,there were 14 species emerged which are belonging to 11 genera and 8 families and 6 species disappeared which are belonging to 5 genera and 3 families. Among them, 66. 67% of the disappeared species were accidental species ( defined as the total number of individuals varying from 1 to 3 ) ,while in new emergent species,92. 86% of which were accidental species. . The total number of trees increased from 553 in 1996 to 597 in 2012,of which the dead was 191 and the regeneration was 235. The richness index,Simpson diversity index,Shannon-Wiener index and Pielou evenness index were changed from 40,0. 72,3. 98,and 1. 03 in 1996, respectively to 48,0. 88,3. 88,and 1. 05 in 2012,respectively. The small DBH class ( DBH 60 cm) trees were 2. 53% and 2. 01%,respectively and the mortality ratio was 7. 69%; In general,the DBH class

  13. 亚热带常绿阔叶林群落物种多度分布格局对取样尺度的响应%Responses of species-abundance distribution to varying sampling scales in a subtropical broad-leaved forest

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程佳佳; 米湘成; 马克平; 张金屯

    2011-01-01

    We determined the best-fit model for, and explored the mechanisms shaping species-abundance distributions (SADs) by fitting five widely-used SAD distribution models at several scales.We used data collected in 2005 from a 24-ha dynamic plot in an evergreen broad-leaved forest in the Gutianshan National Nature Reserve.We estimated SAD at different sampling scales from the mean value of SADs taken from 100 randomly-selected subplots within the 600 m×400 m Gutianshan plot.We subsequently used the SADs to test the fit of different models, including the broken stick, lognormal distribution, niche preemption, Zipf,Zipf- Mandelbrot, and neutral models.We employed AIC and x2 values to test goodness-of-fit for these models.All computations were conducted using the Vegan package in R 2.7.1.At smaller scales (10 m× 10 m and 20 m×20 m), the broken stick, lognormal distribution, niche preemption, Zipf, and Zipf-Mandelbrot models all fit well to the observed species-abundance distribution.The Zipf-Mandelbrot was the best model at the 20 m×20 m scale.The Lognormal was the best-fit model at the 40 m×40 m scale, and the Zipf-Mandelbrot model was the only suitable one in explaining the observed SAD at scales of 60 m×60 m and 80 m×80 m.None of these models performed well at a scale of 100 m× 100 m, but the neutral model was better at explaining patterns of SADs at larger scales (40 m×40 m to 100 m× 100 m) than smaller scales and it is suitable in explaining patterns of SADs at all scales.Patterns in SAD were scale-dependent, suggesting that SADs at different scales are likely structured by different ecological processes.%为揭示物种多度格局随尺度的变化规律,探讨多度格局形成的机理及生态学过程,作者以古田山亚热带常绿阔叶林24 ha固定监测样地为背景.采用断棍模型(broken stick model)、对数正态模型(Iognormal distribution model)、生态位优先占领模型(preemption model)、Zipf模型(Zipf model

  14. Regeneration dynamics of major tree species during 2002-2007 in a subtropical evergreen broad-leaved forest in Gutianshan National Nature Reserve in East China%古田山常绿阔叶林主要树种2002-2007年间更新动态

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪殷华; 米湘成; 陈声文; 李铭红; 于明坚

    2011-01-01

    To explore the regeneration dynamics of major tree species in an evergreen broad-leaved forest in Gutianshan National Nature Reserve, a 5-ha dynamic plot was established in 2002. All woody plants with DBH (diameter at breast height) ≥1 cm were tagged, mapped, measured and identified to species. Based on data from one census each in 2002 and 2007, we analyzed the characteristics of dead and recruited individuals to estimate mortality and recruitment rates, and population change for 43 tree species. The results showed the following: (1) A total of 4,758 stems were recruited and 1,384 died during the five years, and the stem increment ratio was consequently 26.05%. (2) The amounts of recruits within three growth forms (tree, subtree or shrub, and sub-shrub) all declined as DBH size class increased; a pattern different from that observed in dead individuals. (3) The average annual mortality and recruitment rate of these 43 tree species was 2.26%and 5.90%, respectively. (4) Comparing mortality and recruitment rates in each DBH class, we found that 19 subtree or shrub species consistently had higher recruitment than mortality rates in small DBH class, and almost no difference in both middle and large DBH classes. (5) 31 out of 43 species showed population growth, while 12 species' populations declined slightly. Populations of 10 species increased or decreased at an annual rate of >5%, indicating that they were experiencing fast turnover. Among these, Chimonanthus salicifolius (45.13%) and Itea oblonga (16.35%) had the highest increment rate in population size, whereas Loropetalum chinense (-3.10%) and Quercus serrata var. brevipetiolata (-1.86%) had the highest rate of decline. In conclusion, both recruitment and mortality rates varied among species and among DBH size classes,pointing to the unique regeneration dynamics of the 43 tree species. These differences might be associated with patterns of density dependence in addition to habitat fluctuations

  15. 南亚热带常绿阔叶林林冠不同部位藤本植物的光合生理特征及其对环境因子的适应%Photosynthetic characteristics of canopy-dwelling vines in lower subtropical evergreen broad-leaved forest and response to environmental factors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    江浩; 周国逸; 黄钰辉; 刘世忠; 唐旭利

    2011-01-01

    Aims Vines are important floristic and ecological elements in forests of tropical and subtropical areas; however,few studies have provided information on the photosynthetic characteristics of vines. Our purpose is to characterize the photosynthetic traits of major canopy-dwelling vines in the lower subtropical evergreen broad-leaved forest in southern China.Methods We compared the photosynthetic characteristics of two upper-canopy vines (Dischidia chinensis and Psychotria serpens) and two lower-canopy vines (Fissistigma glaucescens and Piper hancei) in Dinghushan Nature Reserve. We measured maximum photosynthetic rate (Amax), light saturation point (Lsp), light compensation point (lcp), respiration in light (Rday), convexity (K), apparent quantum yield (φ), transpiration rate (Tr) and water utilization efficiency ( WUE) using a LI-6400 system. We also determined environmental factors inside and outsidethe canopy.Important findings Differences of photosynthetic characteristics between the upper and lower canopy-dwelling vines can be largely explained by differences in environmental factors such as photosynthetic active radiation (PAR), temperature and humidity within the forest canopy. Vines located in the upper canopy have lower annual mean Amax and LSP compared with those located in the lower canopy. Amax values of the upper canopy vines D. chinensis and Psychotria serpens are (2.9 ± 0.6) and (6.3 ± 1.3) μmol CO2m-2 ·S-1 , respectively, and their LSP values are (168.5 ± 83.4) and (231.4 ± 147.8) μmol·m-2·s-1, respectively. The Amax values of F. glaucescens and Piper hancei are (8.9 ± 2.9) and (8.6 ± 2.3) μmol CO2·m-2·s-1, respectively, and the LSP values are (491.6 ± 230.8) and (402.3 ± 112.8) μmol·m-2·s-1, respectively. The lower canopy vines have lower LCP compared with the upper canopy vines. The LCP values are (5.6 ± 1.9) and (5.4 ± 1.7) μmol·m-2·s-1 for F. glaucescens and Piper hancei,respectively and (16.1 ± 5.9) and (10.1 ± 5.7)

  16. [Niche comparison of dominant entomopathogenic fungi in three forest ecosystems].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ming-Jun; Huang, Bo; Li, Zeng-Zhi

    2011-05-01

    An investigation was made on the quantitative composition, niche width, and niche overlap of dominant entomopathogenic fungi in three different forest ecosystems, i.e., natural broad-leaved forest, natural secondary broad-leaved forest, and pure Masson' s pine plantation. In the three forest ecosystems, Beauveria bassiana was the first dominant species in natural secondary broad-leaved forest, the second in pure Masson's pine plantation, and the third in natural broad-leaved forest. B. bassiana had the broadest temporal niche width and nutritional niche width, whereas the dominant species Isaria cateinannulata, L. farinose, and I. tenuipes had much smaller niche widths. Meanwhile, B. bassiana had larger temporal niche overlaps but smaller nutritional niche overlaps with other dominant entomopathogenic fungi. It was suggested that in the three forest ecosystems, B. bassiana had the longest occurrence duration, widest host range, and strongest environmental adaptability.

  17. Effects of Freezing Rain and Snow Disaster on the Plant Diversity in the Subtropical Evergreen Broad-leaved Forest%雨雪冰冻灾害干扰对亚热带常绿阔叶林植物多样性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘足根; 袁小兰; 钟梁; 李铭书

    2014-01-01

    2008年雨雪冰冻灾害后,在崇义县选取了4块亚热带常绿阔叶林作为固定样地,分别记为P1,P2,P3和P4,连续5年监测了雨雪冰冻灾害对其植物多样性的影响。结果表明:雨雪冰冻灾害后的5年内,样地内的马尾松、拟赤杨和桤木消失了,增加了杜英;每块样地重要值排第一的树种在雨雪冰冻灾害后,其重要值都减小了,这些树种主要有槠树、栲树和木荷。雨雪冰冻灾害后,乔木层植物丰富度指数P 1和P3样地增大, P4样地减小, P2样地变化较小;植物多样性指数P1样地增大,P2和P3样地变化较小,P4样地减小;植物均匀度指数P1样地增大,P2和P3样地基本未变,P4样地变化较小。林下植物种类数增加了黄瑞木、猕猴桃、白背叶等植物,而黄杨、野甘菊、苦竹等植物消失了,铁芒萁和茅草数量增加较多。从2011年开始,林内郁闭度恢复到了灾害前水平。%After freezing rain and snow disaster in 2008,four fixed sample plots (P1、P2、P3 and P4) were selected to measure the effects on the plant diversity of the subtropical evergreen broad-leaved for-est in Chongyi County from 2008 to 2012.The result showed that Pinus massoniana,Alniphyllum fortunei and Alnus cremastogyne disappeared,and Elaeocarpus decipiens appeared.The important value of tree species which ranked the first before freezing rain and snow disaster was reduced.These tree species in-cluded Oachestnut,castanopsis fargesii,and Schima superba.The important value of Choerospondias axil-laris increased within five years after the freezing rain and snow disaster.P1 and P2 increased,P4 re-duced,P3 changed little for the Margalef index of the arbor layer.P1 increased,P2 and P3 changed lit-tle,P4 reduced for the Shannon-wiener index of the arbor layer.P1 increased,P2 and P3 basically un-changed,P4 reduced for the Pielou index of the arbor layer.The species kinds and the species number increased

  18. Structural Characteristics and Diversity of the Tree Species in the mid-montane Humid Ever-green Broad-leaved Forest in the Gaoligong Mountains, Yunnan%高黎贡山中山湿性常绿阔叶林树种结构及多样性特征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柴勇; 孟广涛; 李贵祥; 袁春明; 李品荣

    2015-01-01

    Structural characteristics and diversity of the tree species in the mid-montane humid ever-green broad-leaved forest in the Gaoligong Mountains in Yunnan Province were studied .The results showed that the forest is characterized by evergreen mesophanerophytes with simple and leathery and entire mesophylls , having a few decid-uous trees in the canopy layer and an unconspicuous seasonal aspect .In the plot , the species richness and the a-bundance are most among trees with height <5 m or with 1 cm≤DBH<5 cm, and decreased with the increase of the height or DBH class, respectively, which can be fitted very well with linear function or negative exponential function.The basal area are largest among trees with 11 m≤H<14 m or with 20 cm≤DBH<25 cm.In the plot, there were 10 546 individuals in 95 species, and ite Shannon-Weiner indes is 1.716, its Simpson index is 0.014, and its evenness index is 0.867 , indicating a higher level of species diversity in the whole .The species richness , the abundance and the Shannon-Weiner index were decreased gradually with the increase of the height and DBH class, but the Simpson index and the evenness index showed the opposite trend .Compared with other domestic plots, the species richness , density, basal area per ha of Gaoligongshan plot were at the middle level , but the maximum importance value was the lowest , and the proportion of the rare species was only higher than one plot , showing a higher diversity among these plots .%对高黎贡山中山湿性常绿阔叶林树种结构及多样性特征进行了研究。结果表明,高黎贡山中山湿性常绿阔叶林动态监测样地中树种以单叶、革质、全缘、中型叶为主,群落外貌以常绿的中高位芽植物为主,落叶树种较少,群落季相变化不明显。群落中树种数、树木个体数分别在H<5 m高度级及1 cm≤DBH<5 cm胸径级最多,并随高度或胸径的增加而不断减少,这种变化趋势可用直线函数或

  19. FIFTEEN-YEAR CHANGES OF TREE POPULATIONS IN THE SECONDARY SUBTROPICAL EVERGREEN BROAD-LEAVED FORESTS IN SOUTHWESTERN CHINA%亚热带次生常绿阔叶林主要乔木种群自然恢复15年来的变化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    包维楷; 刘照光; 刘朝禄; 袁亚夫; 刘仁东

    2001-01-01

    The present study was conducted in the secondary su btrop ical evergreen broad-leaved forests at altitude 1650~1670m in Mt.Wawusha n National Forest Park,southwestern China.In order to understand stand restoratio n dynamics,the stand structure in three permanent 0.04hm2 plots for 3~4t imes were recorded from 1982 to 1997 and expounded the changes in 15 years about tree composition,important value index,several diversity indices,structure and volume productivity of both communities and populations.The results were followe d:11 tree species disappeared and about another 10 species entered into tree lay er in the stand,keeping tree layer dynamic equilibrium and developing tree speci es diversity.The dominant species,Castanopsis platyacantha,assumed the super ior status,but its important value(Ⅳ)was decreased.The position of secondary do minant species,Schima sinense and Lithocarpus hancei, are gradually enha nced with gradually increased Ⅳ.The changes of densities,DBH and height dis tribution of tree populations displayed that the secondary evergreen forest was developed from past single or double dominant tree species to double or three do minant trees,from single tree layer to multiple levels in vertical structure.And the resulting community becomes more complicated and more stable.The growth rat es of average height and DBH of all main trees were 24~48cm.a-1 an d 0 .34~1.10cm.a-1,respectively.According to the differentiation of grow th,the main trees could be divided into three growth groups of species:fast-gro wing group including species of Schima sinense and Acanthopanax evodiaefoliu s var.gracills,slow-growing group of Machilus pingii and Lithocarpu s hancei, and the group in between of Castanopsis platyacantha and Cycl ob alanopsis myrsinaefolia. Volume productivity of the dominant population increa s ed firstly and then decreased,but the secondary tree population increased quickl y all the time.Volume productivity of all tree population in

  20. The Population Characteristics of Herbs Under Quecus mongolica Forest in Different Management%经营方式对蒙古栎次生林林下草本种群特征的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴国忠; 崔崧

    2012-01-01

    The population characteristics of herbs under Quecus rnongolica in the same age, same situation in different management are studied in this paper. Conclusions: the herbs species quantities of needle broad-leaved mixed mongolian oak forest is bigger than pure forest. The hight, coverage, frequency, quan- tities of needle broad-leaved mixed Quecus mongolica forest is bigger than pure forest. The growth and multiply of herbs under needle broad-leaved mixed Quecus mongolica forest is better than pure forest, and they can occupy more environmental factors resources. The herbs under needle broad-leaved mixed mon- golian oak forest can keep plant humidity better than pure forest.%对不同经营方式下蒙古栎次生林林下草本种群特征进行了研究。结果表明:混交模式下草本植物种类要略多于纯林模式下;大多数草本在针阔混交模式下,高度、盖度、数量、频度等指标要大于纯林模式下,即混交模式更适于林下草本的生长繁衍及对资源的占有利用;混交林下草本在保持水分方面与纯林相比更具优势。

  1. 地形和土壤特性对亚热带常绿阔叶林内植物功能性状的影响%Effects of topographic variations and soil characteristics on plant functional traits in a subtropical evergreen broad-leaved forest

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁佳; 吴茜; 闫慧; 张守仁

    2011-01-01

    To elucidate the driving factors behind plant functional traits, especially in mountainous areas, we explored how variation in topography and soil characteristics affects ecophysiological and morphological traits of woody plants within the Gutianshan 24-ha plot in Zhejiang Province. This site is in a typical subtropical broad-leaved forest. During the summers of 2008 and 2009, we measured three ecophysiological traits (chlorophyll content, chlorophyll fluorescence parameters Fy/Fro and PIABS, and stem sapwood xylem specific hydraulic conductivity) and four morphological traits (stomata density, specific leaf area, leaf thickness, and ratio of leaf length to leaf width) among 115 woody species in the field. Redundancy analysis was conducted to identify the most influential environmental factors from our topographical factors (mean elevation, convexity, slope, and aspect) and five soil parameters (moisture, total nitrogen content, total phosphorus content, total carbon content, and pH). Leaf chlorophyll content was negatively correlated with elevation and convexity, but positively correlated with soil moisture and total nitrogen content. The two chlorophyll fluorescence parameters (Fv/Fm and PlABS) were strongly negatively correlated with soil total nitrogen and phosphorus content; these variables were likely interrelated with low soil pH values. Stem sapwood xylem specific hydraulic conductivity was positively correlated with soil moisture and specific leaf area was positively correlated with elevation. Topographical variables explained 10.4% of total variation in functional traits;mean elevation was the most powerful explanatory variable, followed by convexity, slope and finally, aspect.Soil parameters explained 13.9% of the total functional trait variation; and soil moisture was the most powerful factor, followed by total nitrogen content, pH value, total phosphorous content, total carbon content and the ratio of nitrogen and phosphorous. At this scale and at

  2. [Quantitative analysis of different restoration stages during natural succession processes of subalpine dark brown coniferous forests in western Sichuan, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jiang-Ming; Liu, Shi-Rong; Shi, Zuo-Min; Zhang, Yuan-Dong; Chen, Bao-Yu

    2007-08-01

    By adopting space as a substitute for time, and based on the approaches of inter-specific association, PCA and optimal division, the restoration stages of various secondary forest communities originated from the natural succession processes of bamboo-dark brown coniferous and moss-dark brown coniferous old-growth forests after clear-cut were quantified at different temporal series (20, 30, 30, 40, 50 and 160-200 years). The results showed that Betula albo-sinensis, Salix rehderiana, Acer mono, A. laxiflorum, Prunus tatsienensis, Hydrangea xanthoneura, Tilia chinensis and Salix dolia were the declining species groups with progressive restoration processes from secondary forest to mature moss and bamboo-dark brown coniferous forests, Sorbus hupehensis, S. koehneana and P. pilosiuscula were the transient species groups, and Abies faxoniana, Picea purpurea, Tsuga chinensis and P. wilsonii were the progressive species groups. During the period of 20-40 years restoration, the secondary forests were dominated by broad-leaved tree species, such as B. albo-sinensis, and the main forest types were moss--B. albo-sinensis forest and bamboo--B. albo-sinensis forest. Through 50 years natural succession, the secondary forests turned into conifer/broad-leaved mixed forest dominated by B. albo-sinensis and A. faxoniana, and the main forest types were moss--B. albo-sinensis--A. faxoniana forest and bamboo--B. albo-sinensis--A. faxoniana forest. The remained 160-200 years old coniferous forests without cutting were dominated by old-growth stage A. faxoniana, and the main forest types were moss--A. faxoniana forest and bamboo--A. faxoniana forest.

  3. [Temperature sensitivity of soil organic carbon mineralization and β-glucosidase enzymekinetics in the northern temperate forests at different altitudes, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Jin-juan; Li, Dan-dan; Zhang, Xin-yu; He, Nian-peng; Bu, Jin-feng; Wang, Qing; Sun, Xiao-min; Wen, Xue-fa

    2016-01-01

    Soil samples, which were collected from three typical forests, i.e., Betula ermanii forest, coniferous mixed broad-leaved forest, and Pinus koraiensis forest, at different altitudes along the southern slope of Laotuding Mountain of Changbai Mountain range in Liaoning Province of China, were incubated over a temperature gradient in laboratory. Soil organic carbon mineralization rates (Cmin), soil β-1,4-glucosidase (βG) kinetics and their temperature sensitivity (Q₁₀) were measured. The results showed that both altitude and temperature had significant effects on Cmin · Cmin increased with temperature and was highest in the B. ermanii forest. The temperature sensitivity of Cmin [Q₁₀(Cmin)] ranked in order of B. ermanii forest > P. koraiensis forest > coniferous mixed broad-leaved forest, but did not differ significantly among the three forests. Both the maximum activity (Vmax) and the Michaelis constant (Km) of the βG responded positively to temperature for all the forests. The temperature sensitivity of Vmax [Q₁₀(Vmax)] ranged from 1.78 to 1.90, and the temperature sensitivity of Km [Q₁₀(Km)] ranged from 1.79 to 2.00. The Q₁₀(Vmax)/Q10(Km) ratios were significantly greater in the B. ermanii soil than in the other two forest soils, suggesting that the βG kinetics-dependent impacts of the global warming or temperature increase on the decomposition of soil organic carbon were temperature sensitive for the forests at the higher altitudes.

  4. 不同梯度氮沉降对亚热带甜槠林凋落物及养分的影响%Effects of Nitrogen Deposition on Litterfall and Its Nutrient in Subtropical Evergreen Broad-leaved Castanopsis Ey rei Forest

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐俊; 李茂; 刘露; 田地; 徐小牛

    2016-01-01

    Objective] This essay provided data reference and theoretical basis for nitrogen deposition in sub‐tropical regions by analyzing effects of nitrogen deposition on litterfall and its nutrient in a subtropical ever‐green broad‐leaved Castanopsis eyrei forest .[Methods] Different gradient nitrogen control experiments were set up in Xianyu mountain area of Anhui Province to monitor C .eyrei forest litterfall and nutrient response status for a long time .[Results] The order of the annual litterfall were as follows :high nitrogen and phos‐phorus(HN+P)>low nitrogen(LN)> high nitrogen(HN)> control check(CK) .There was no significant difference among the treatments .There was significant difference in foliar litter between LN and CK treat‐ments(p=0 .023) .The total litterfall showed a bimodal type with the peaks appeared in April and Novem‐ber .The order of the proportion of the different litter components for the four treatments ranked as leaf >fruit>branch>miscellaneous>flower>bark .HN+ P and HN treatments changed the fruit percentage to a certain degrees :HN+P(27% )> HN(25% )>CK= LN (23% ) .The annual amount of total nutrient‐returns of the six macro‐elements(C ,N ,P ,K ,Ca ,Mg) was as follows :HN+P 4.62 t/(hm2 · a)>CK 4 .44 t/(hm2 · a)> HN 4 .17 t/(hm2 · a)>LN 3 .96 t/(hm2 · a) .The similar patterns appeared for C ,N ,P ,Mg ,Ca returns in the four treatments .There was significant differences in annual returns of N and P between HN + P and CK treatments(p= 0 .047;p= 0 .023) . The nutrient return from foliar litter covered 52% ~58% of the annual total .[Conclusion] We simulated different gradient of nitrogen settlement and found that it changed the C . eyrei forest total litter amount and composition proportion in a certain extent and affected the absorption of other nutrients and return amount .%[目的]分析不同梯度氮沉降作用下亚热带常绿阔叶甜槠(Castanopsis eyrei)林凋落物量及养分变化规律,从而为亚热带地

  5. Hydrological Characteristics of Forest Litter and Soil in Different Successional Stages in the Hilly Region of Central Hubei%鄂中低丘区不同演替阶段森林凋落物和土壤水文特征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾秀红; 曾毅; 周志翔; 高大雄; 谢经荣; 郭国志

    2013-01-01

    The hydrological characteristics of the litter and soil in three different forest successional stages as coniferous forest,coniferous and broad-leaved mixed forest,and deciduous broad-leaved forest (8 forest stands) were studied in Taizishan forest farm,central Hubei,by using the method of substituting time with space.The results showed that the coniferous and broad-leaved mixed forest had the biggest total litter amount(9.76~12.01 t/hm2),the maximum water holding ratio of the litter in deciduous broad-leaved forest was the highest.The effective retain capacity of litters under coniferous and broad-leaved mixed forests and deciduous broad-leaved forests were greater.And there were no significant differences between them.The effective retain capacity of the litter in Quercus acutissima mixed stand was the biggest,reaching to 16.81 t/hm2.In different successional periods,the order of NCWHC(non-capillary water-holding capacity) and MWHC(maximal water-holding capacity) below the depth of 0-40 cm soil layer was as follows:Coniferous forest <coniferous and broad-leaved mixed forest <deciduous broad-leaved forest.Water-holding capacity of soil under Quercus acutissima mixed stand was the highest(2 145.8 t/hm2).In conclusion,the deciduous broad-leaved forest was optimal among three forest types in terms of water conservation,suggested that during the restoration of forest vegetation in study area deciduous broad-leaved forests should be improved in the process of the forest succession.%采用空间代替时间的方法,研究鄂中低丘区太子山林场针叶林、针阔混交林和落叶阔叶林3个不同演替阶段(共8类林分)林下凋落物和土壤的水文特性.结果表明:太子山林场3个演替阶段的林下凋落物总量以针阔混交林最大(介于9.76~12.01 t/hm2之间),林下凋落物最大持水率以落叶阔叶林最高;针阔混交林与落叶阔叶林林下凋落物对降水的有效拦蓄量较高,但两者差异不显著,其中

  6. A robot to detect and control broad-leaved dock (Rumex obtusifolius L.) in grassland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evert, van F.K.; Samsom, J.; Polder, G.; Vijn, M.P.; Dooren, van H.J.C.; Lamaker, E.J.J.; Heijden, van der G.W.A.M.; Kempenaar, C.; Zalm, van der A.J.A.; Lotz, L.A.P.

    2011-01-01

    Broad-leaved dock is a common and troublesome grassland weed with a wide geographic distribution. In conventional farming the weed is normally controlled by using a selective herbicide, but in organic farming manual removal is the best option to control this weed. The objective of our work was to de

  7. 小兴安岭凉水典型阔叶红松林动态监测样地:物种组成与群落结构%Species composition and community structure of a typical mixed broad-leaved-Korean pine (Pinus koraiensis) forest plot in Liangshui Nature Reserve, Northeast China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐丽娜; 金光泽

    2012-01-01

    The mixed broadleaved-Korean pine {Pinus koraiensis) forest (MBKF) represents the climax vegetation type of the eastern mountainous area of Northeast China. It is divided into three categories according to community structure and species composition, including southern MBKF, typical MBKF, and northern MBKF. To monitor long-term dynamics of the typical MBKF, we established a 9-ha plot following the field protocol of the 50 ha plot in Panama (Barro Colorado Island, BCI) in 2005 in Liangshui National Nature Reserve of Heilongjiang Province. All free-standing plant species with DBH (diameter at breast height) =1 cm were mapped, tagged, and identified to species in the plot. In the 2010 census, we documented 48 woody species with 21,355 individuals, belonging to 34 genera and 20 families. Most of the species belong to the Changbai Mountain plant flora, with a minor subtropical plant species component. The DBH distribution of all individuals showed a reversed "J" type, indicating well regenerated for the community. The DBH distribution for the canopy, sub-canopy, and middle layers and the understory layer showed the reversed "J" and "L" distributions, respectively. The DBH pattern of the nine dominant species can be classified into three categories: approximate normal, reversed "J", and "L" distribution. Spatial pattern analysis showed that the major tree species were aggregated, and aggregation intensity decreased as DBH increased. Further analysis showed that spatial distribution was closely related to topography and varied with DBH classes. For example, the distribution of Pinus koraiensis and Tilia amurensis was significantly affected by topography (P < 0.05); however, the distribution of Abies nephrolepis, Acer ukurunduense, and Ulmus laciniata correlated significantly with topography at diameter classes of I (DBH < 10 cm) and II (10 cm < DBH < 30 cm). The distribution of Betula costata and Acer tegmentosum was also significantly correlated with topography at a

  8. Variability in radial sap flux density patterns and sapwood area among seven co-occurring temperate broad-leaved tree species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebauer, Tobias; Horna, Viviana; Leuschner, Christoph

    2008-12-01

    Forest transpiration estimates are frequently based on xylem sap flux measurements in the outer sections of the hydro-active stem sapwood. We used Granier's constant-heating technique with heating probes at various xylem depths to analyze radial patterns of sap flux density in the sapwood of seven broad-leaved tree species differing in wood density and xylem structure. Study aims were to (1) compare radial sap flux density profiles between diffuse- and ring-porous trees and (2) analyze the relationship between hydro-active sapwood area and stem diameter. In all investigated species except the diffuse-porous beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) and ring-porous ash (Fraxinus excelsior L.), sap flux density peaked at a depth of 1 to 4 cm beneath the cambium, revealing a hump-shaped curve with species-specific slopes. Beech and ash reached maximum sap flux densities immediately beneath the cambium in the youngest annual growth rings. Experiments with dyes showed that the hydro-active sapwood occupied 70 to 90% of the stem cross-sectional area in mature trees of diffuse-porous species, whereas it occupied only about 21% in ring-porous ash. Dendrochronological analyses indicated that vessels in the older sapwood may remain functional for 100 years or more in diffuse-porous species and for up to 27 years in ring-porous ash. We conclude that radial sap flux density patterns are largely dependent on tree species, which may introduce serious bias in sap-flux-derived forest transpiration estimates, if non-specific sap flux profiles are assumed.

  9. Uptake of perfluoroalkyl acids in the leaves of coniferous and deciduous broad-leaved trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Huanhuan; Liu, Wei; He, Xin; Wang, Yu; Zhang, Qian

    2015-07-01

    Analytical methods for determining perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) in leaves were developed to quantify a suite of analytes in both coniferous and deciduous broad-leaved trees. Sodium hydroxide-methanol and solid-phase extraction was selected as the extracting and cleanup strategy for PFAA analysis. Ten perfluorocarboxylic acids (PFCAs) and 4 perfluorosulfonic acids (PFSAs) were monitored in 7 kinds of leaves grown in the urban areas of Dalian, China. The results show that coniferous tree leaves take up more PFAAs than broad-leaved tree leaves, with the highest amount of 150 ng/g in pine needles. Leaf PFCA levels were much higher than PFSAs level. Short carbon-chain PFCAs with 3 to 6 perfluorinated carbons account for approximately 40% to 80% of the total leaf PFAAs, where uptake decreased with increasing carbon chain length. Temporal observation of leaf PFAAs revealed no significant variation of concentrations in the leaves over a weekly interval and the absence of significant seasonal change in pine needles and sophora. The present study provides some evidence for the accumulation of PFAAs in leaves, which is valuable for understanding their environmental behavior and the development of alternative bioindicator.

  10. Response of Termite (Blattodea: Termitoidae) Assemblages to Lower Subtropical Forest Succession: A Case Study in Dinghushan Biosphere Reserve, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhi-Qiang; Ke, Yun-Ling; Zeng, Wen-Hui; Zhang, Shi-Jun; Wu, Wen-Jing

    2016-02-01

    Termite (Blattodea: Termitoidae) assemblages have important ecological functions and vary in structure between habitats, but have not been studied in lower subtropical forests. To examine whether differences in the richness and relative abundance of termite species and functional groups occur in lower subtropical regions, termite assemblages were sampled in Dinghushan Biosphere Reserve, China, among pine forest, pine and broad-leaved mixed forest (mixed forest), and monsoon evergreen broad-leaved forest (monsoon forest). The dominant functional group was wood-feeding termites (family Termitidae), and the mixed forest hosted the greatest richness and relative abundance. Soil-feeding termites were absent from the lower subtropical system, while humus-feeding termites were sporadically distributed in mixed forest and monsoon forest. The species richness and functional group abundance of termites in our site may be linked to the forest succession. Altitude, soil temperature, air temperature, surface air relative humidity, and litter depth were significant influences on species and functional group diversity.

  11. Influences of leaf litter replacement on soil biochemical characteristics of main planted forests in Qinling Mountains of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zengwen LIU; Erjun DUAN; Wenjun GAO

    2009-01-01

    Long-term continuous growth of the same tree species in planted pure forest will lead to soil polarization and degradation. Mixed forestation or litter replacement between different needle- and broad-leaved forests are effective measures, except fertilization, to control soil polarization according to the mutual compensation principle of different tree species. Through a two-year leaf litter replacement experiment in 4 typical planted pure forests of Larix kaempferi, Pinus tabulaeformis, Catalpa fargesii and Quercus aliena var. acuteserrata in Qinling Mountains of China, influences of leaf litter replacement on soil biochemical characteristics and their interspecific relationships were studied and main conclusions were reached as follows. (1) Annual leaf litter decomposition rate of broadleaved forests was 33.70% higher than those of needleleaved forests and increased by 8.35%-12.15% when needle-leaved litter was replaced with broad-leaved forests, whereas it decreased by 5.38%-9.49% when broad-leaved litter was replaced with needle-leaved forests. (2) Leaf litter replacement between needle- and broad-leaved forests popularly raised the contents of organic C, available N, P and K in soil, whose content increments in the needle-leaved forests (8.70%-35.84%) were obviously more than those in the broad-leaved forests (3.73%-10.44%), and in the former, the content increments after replacement with the litter of Catalpa fargesii (24.63%-35.84%) were more than those after replacement with the litter ofQuercus aliena var. acuteserrata (8.70% 28.15%). Furthermore, the litter replacement was found to make the soil pH of needle-leaved forests developed from light-acid to neutral. (3) Litter replacement of the needleleaved forests with the broad-leaved litter popularly raised enzyme activities, amounts of microorganisms and contents of micro-biomass C and N in soil, the increments of which after replacement with the litter of Catalpa fargesii were also more than those after

  12. Regeneration of different plant functional types in a Masson pine forest following pine wilt disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guang Hu

    Full Text Available Pine wilt disease is a severe threat to the native pine forests in East Asia. Understanding the natural regeneration of the forests disturbed by pine wilt disease is thus critical for the conservation of biodiversity in this realm. We studied the dynamics of composition and structure within different plant functional types (PFTs in Masson pine forests affected by pine wilt disease (PWD. Based on plant traits, all species were assigned to four PFTs: evergreen woody species (PFT1, deciduous woody species (PFT2, herbs (PFT3, and ferns (PFT4. We analyzed the changes in these PFTs during the initial disturbance period and during post-disturbance regeneration. The species richness, abundance and basal area, as well as life-stage structure of the PFTs changed differently after pine wilt disease. The direction of plant community regeneration depended on the differential response of the PFTs. PFT1, which has a higher tolerance to disturbances, became dominant during the post-disturbance regeneration, and a young evergreen-broad-leaved forest developed quickly after PWD. Results also indicated that the impacts of PWD were dampened by the feedbacks between PFTs and the microclimate, in which PFT4 played an important ecological role. In conclusion, we propose management at the functional type level instead of at the population level as a promising approach in ecological restoration and biodiversity conservation.

  13. Changes in sapwood permeability and anatomy with tree age and height in the broad-leaved evergreen species Eucalyptus regnans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    England, Jacqueline R; Attiwill, Peter M

    2007-08-01

    Increases in plant size and structural complexity with increasing age have important implications for water flow through trees. Water supply to the crown is influenced by both the cross-sectional area and the permeability of sapwood. It has been hypothesized that hydraulic conductivity within sapwood increases with age. We investigated changes in sapwood permeability (k) and anatomy with tree age and height in the broad-leaved evergreen species Eucalyptus regnans F. Muell. Sapwood was sampled at breast height from trees ranging from 8 to 240 years old, and at three height positions on the main stem of 8-year-old trees. Variation in k was not significant among sampling height positions in young trees. However, k at breast height increased with tree age. This was related to increases in both vessel frequency and vessel diameter, resulting in a greater proportion of sapwood being occupied by vessel lumina. Sapwood hydraulic conductivity (the product of k and sapwood area) also increased with increasing tree age. However, at the stand level, there was a decrease in forest sapwood hydraulic conductivity with increasing stand age, because of a decrease in the number of trees per hectare. Across all ages, there were significant relationships between k and anatomy, with individual anatomical characteristics explaining 33-62% of the variation in k. There was also strong agreement between measured k and permeability predicted by the Hagen-Poiseuille equation. The results support the hypothesis of an increase in sapwood permeability at breast height with age. Further measurements are required to confirm this result at other height positions in older trees. The significance of tree-level changes in sapwood permeability for stand-level water relations is discussed.

  14. Soil Structure Characteristics and Comprehensive Evaluation of Different Phyllostachys edulis Forests in Anfu,Jiangxi Province%赣中不同类型毛竹林土壤结构特征及其综合评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余林; 徐海宁; 肖复明; 曾伟; 熊振宇

    2012-01-01

    Five kinds of stand type(Pure Moso bamboo forest,mixed forest of Moso bamboo and broad-leaved tree,mixed forest of Moso bamboo and Chinese fir,broad-leaved forest,Chinese fir pure forest) had been chosen at Anfu,Jiangxi province.Through the study on soil structural characteristics,such as soil bulk density,soil porosity condition,and content,size,stability of soil aggregate were exposed.Finally,soil structural was comprehensive evaluated by grey correlation degree analysis.The results showed that the order of soil bulk density was mixed forest of Moso bamboo and broad-leaved forest 〉 pure Moso bamboo forest〉mixed forest of Moso bamboo and Chinese fir 〉 broad-leaved forest 〉 Chinese fir pure forest;soil porosity condition manifested as broadleaf forest is superior to Chinese fir pure forest,Moso bamboo forest is relatively poor.〉0.25 mm soil aggregates content from 94.43% to 97.25%,broadleaf forest were the largest in all soil layers.The order of soil aggregates fractal dimension mean was pure Moso bamboo forest 〉 mixed forest of Moso bamboo and broad-leaved tree 〉 mixed forest of Moso bamboo and Chinese fir 〉 Chinese fir pure forestbroad-leaved forest.The soil MWD and GMD of different stand types were difference.The soil MWD and GMD mean of mixed forest of Moso bamboo and broad-leaved forest and mixed forest of Moso bamboo and Chinese fir were increased by 3.38%,4.10% and 5.04%,8.11%,respectively.The order of index grey correlation degree of soil structure were broad-leaved forest 〉 Chinese fir pure forest 〉 mixed forest of Moso bamboo and broad-leaved forest〉 mixed forest of Moso bamboo and Chinese fir 〉 pure Moso bamboo forest by grey correlation degree analysis.The results could provide some scientific basis for forest resources management and vegetation construction in the subtropical region of China.%以赣中毛竹纯林(MC)、竹阔混交林(ZK)、竹杉混交林(ZS)3种不同类型毛竹林地土壤容重、孔

  15. Fallout volume and litter type affect (137)Cs concentration difference in litter between forest and stream environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, Masaru; Gomi, Takashi; Negishi, Junjiro N

    2016-11-01

    It is important to understand the changes in the (137)Cs concentration in litter through leaching when considering that (137)Cs is transferred from basal food resources to animals in forested streams. We found that the difference of (137)Cs activity concentration in litter between forest and stream was associated with both litter type and (137)Cs fallout volume around Fukushima, Japan. The (137)Cs activity concentrations in the litter of evergreen conifers tended to be greater than those in the litter of broad-leaved deciduous trees because of the absence of deciduous leaves during the fallout period in March 2011. Moreover, (137)Cs activity concentrations in forest litter were greater with respect to the (137)Cs fallout volume. The (137)Cs activity concentrations in stream litter were much lower than those in forest litter when those in forest litter were higher. The (137)Cs leaching patterns indicated that the differences in (137)Cs activity concentration between forest and stream litter could change with changes in both fallout volume and litter type. Because litter is an important basal food resource in the food webs of both forests and streams, the (137)Cs concentration gradient reflects to possible (137)Cs transfer from lower to higher trophic animals. Our findings will improve our understanding of the spatial heterogeneity and variability of (137)Cs concentrations in animals resident to the contaminated landscape.

  16. Optimisation of hot-water application technology for the control of broad-leaved dock (Rumex obtusifolius

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roy Latsch

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In organic farming, the control of broad-leaved dock (Rumex obtusifolius via hot-water treatment of the upper root region (hypocotyl is a new alternative to the current standard control method involving manual digging-out of the roots. This comparative study looks at five different hot-water application techniques. The aim is to optimise the control method in terms of water and energy requirement to obtain a mortality rate of the treated plants of at least 80%. The studied parameters were the application, the amount of water, the water temperature, the soil moisture content and the soil type. In total, 813 plants of varying size were treated (120-225 plants per treatment. The success of each treatment was rated 12 weeks after it was applied. Based on the results, the preferred treatment in terms of water and energy requirement was a commercially available rotary nozzle. With this nozzle, for example, at 40 vol.-% soil moisture, 1.6 L of water at a temperature of 90°C was necessary for successful Rumex control. The rotary nozzle could be used as a non-contact system, and was therefore the most user-friendly of the application techniques examined.

  17. Ramet Population Structure of Fargesia nitida (Mitford)Keng f. et Yi in Different Successional Stands of the Subalpine Coniferous Forest in Wolong Nature Reserve

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-Hong Yu; Jian-Ping Tao; Yuan Li; Yong-Jian Wang; Yi Xi; Wei-Yin Zhang; Run-Guo Zang

    2006-01-01

    Forest structure and succession in Wolong Nature Reserve is influenced by the understory dwarf bamboo population. However, less is known about how the forest succession affects the dwarf bamboo population.To examine the bamboo ramet population growth of Fargesia nitida (Mitford) Keng f. et Yi and to determine how ramet population structure varies along the succession of coniferous forest, we sampled ramet populations of F. nitida from the following three successional stages:(i) a deciduous broad-leaved (BL)stand;(ii) a mixed broad-leaved coniferous (MI) stand;and (iii) a coniferous (CF) stand. We investigated the population structure, biomass allocation, and morphological characteristics of the bamboo ramet among the three stand types. Clonal ramets, constituting the bamboo population, tended to become short and small with succession. The ramet changed towards having a greater mass investment in leaves, branches and underground roots and rhizomes rather than in the culm. With respect to leaf traits, individual leaf mass and area in the BL stand were markedly bigger than those in both the MI and CF stands, except for no significant difference in specific leaf area. The age distribution showed that the bamboo population approached an older age with succession. The results demonstrate that the ramet population structure of F.nitida is unstable and its growth performance is inhibited by succession.

  18. Comparison of Litter Decomposition of Six Species of Coniferous and Broad-leaved Trees in Subtropical China%亚热带6种针叶和阔叶树种凋落叶分解比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭培培; 江洪; 余树全; 马元丹; 窦荣鹏; 宋新章

    2009-01-01

    针叶和阔叶树种分别代表了不同的生活型,其凋落叶片具有不同的分解速率.应用分解网袋法,在中国亚热带地区,选取了具有代表性的3种针叶树种(马尾松Pinus massoniana、水杉Metasequoia glyptostroboides和杉木Cunninghamia lanceolata)和3种阔叶树种(木荷Schima superb、乐昌含笑Michelis chapensis和青冈Cyclobalanopsisgtauca)的凋落叶,放置于样地杭州千岛湖的林地中,经过1 a的分解实验,分析不同类型树种凋落叶的分解特征.6种树种凋落叶质量损失过程基本符合Olson指数模型,其中,3种针叶树种(马尾松、水杉和杉木)凋落叶的分解系数k值(分别为0.51、0.30和0.44),明显小于3种阔叶树种(木荷、乐昌含笑和青冈)凋落叶的分解系数k值(分别为0.55、1.12和0.66);同时,针叶树种(马尾松、水杉和杉木)凋落叶分解50%和95%所需时间(分别为1.36、2.31、1.78 a和5.87、9.99、7.68 a),大于阔叶树种(木荷、乐昌含笑和青冈)凋落叶的分解时间(分别为1.26、0.62、1.05 a和5.45、2.68、4.54a).多元回归分析表明,凋落物分解系数与初始钾元素含量显著相关(P<0.05).一元线性回归分析表明,凋落物的分解系数与初始钾元素和初始木质素含量均具有显著性差异(P<0.05).亚热带地区针、阔叶树种凋落叶分解的差异与自身质量密切相关,其中初始木质素与钾元素含量是控制凋落物分解的主要因素.图2表2参23%Coniferous and broad-leaved trees represent different life types, and their litters differ in decomposition rates. Six species (Pinus massoniana, Metasequoia glyptostroboides, Cunninghamia lanceolata, Schima superb, Michelis chapensis, Cyclobalanopsis glauca) representing typical coniferous and broad-leaved trees were sampled as experimental material for studying leaf litter decomposition in the subtropical region of china. The collected leaf litters were put in litter bags and placed in the forests of the Qiandao

  19. Classifying forest productivity at different scales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graham, R.L.

    1991-01-01

    Spatial scale is an important consideration when evaluating, using, or constructing forest productivity classifications. First, the factors which dominate spatial variability in forest productivity are scale dependent. For example, within a stand, spatial variability in productivity is dominated by microsite differences; within a national forest such as the Cherokee National Forest, spatial variability is dominated by topography and land-use history (e.g., years since harvest); within a large region such as the southeast, spatial variability is dominated by climatic patterns. Second, classifications developed at different spatial scales are often used for different purposes. For example, stand-level classifications are often keys or rules used in the field to judge the quality or potential of a site. National-forest classifications are often presented as maps or tables and may be used in forest land planning. Regional classifications may be maps or tables and may be used to quantify or predict resource availability. These scale-related differences in controlling factors and purposes will affect both the methods and the data used to develop classifications. In this paper, I will illustrate these points by describing and comparing three forest productivity classifications, each developed for a specific purpose at a specific scale. My objective is not to argue for or against any of these particular classifications but rather to heighten awareness of the critical role that spatial scale plays in the use and development of forest productivity classifications. 8 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  20. Effect of Radiocesium Transfer on Ambient Dose Rate in Forest Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Hiroaki; Onda, Yuichi; Loffredo, Nicolas; Hisadome, Keigo; Kawamori, Ayumi

    2014-05-01

    We investigated the transfer of canopy-intercepted radiocesium to the forest floor following the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident. The cesium-137 (Cs-137) contents of throughfall, stemflow, and litterfall were monitored in two coniferous stands (plantation of Japanese cedar) and a deciduous broad-leaved forest stand (beech with red pine). We also measured an ambient dose rate at different height in the forest by using a survey meter (TCS-172B, Hitachi-Aloka Medical, LTD.) and a portable Ge gamma-ray detector (Detective-DX-100T, Ortec, Ametek, Inc.). In decreasing order of total Cs-137 deposition from the canopy to forest floor were the mature cedar stand, the young cedar stand, and the broad-leaved forest. The ambient dose rate in forest exhibited height dependency and its vertical distribution varied by forest type and stand age. The ambient dose rate showed an exponential decrease with time for all the forest sites, however the decreasing trend differed depending on the height of dose measurement and forest type. The ambient dose rates at the canopy (approx. 10 m-) decreased earlier than physical attenuation of radiocesium, whereas those at the forest floor varied among three forest stands. These data suggested that an ambient dose rate in forest environment can be variable in spatially and temporally reflecting the transfer of radiocesium from canopy to forest floor.

  1. Forest type effects on the retention of radiocesium in organic layers of forest ecosystems affected by the Fukushima nuclear accident

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koarashi, Jun; Atarashi-Andoh, Mariko; Matsunaga, Takeshi; Sanada, Yukihisa

    2016-12-01

    The Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant disaster caused serious radiocesium (137Cs) contamination of forest ecosystems over a wide area. Forest-floor organic layers play a key role in controlling the overall bioavailability of 137Cs in forest ecosystems; however, there is still an insufficient understanding of how forest types influence the retention capability of 137Cs in organic layers in Japanese forest ecosystems. Here we conducted plot-scale investigations on the retention of 137Cs in organic layers at two contrasting forest sites in Fukushima. In a deciduous broad-leaved forest, approximately 80% of the deposited 137Cs migrated to mineral soil located below the organic layers within two years after the accident, with an ecological half-life of approximately one year. Conversely, in an evergreen coniferous forest, more than half of the deposited 137Cs remained in the organic layers, with an ecological half-life of 2.1 years. The observed retention behavior can be well explained by the tree phenology and accumulation of 137Cs associated with litter materials with different degrees of degradation in the organic layers. Spatial and temporal patterns of gamma-ray dose rates depended on the retention capability. Our results demonstrate that enhanced radiation risks last longer in evergreen coniferous forests than in deciduous broad-leaved forests.

  2. Carbon allocation to defense, storage, and growth in seedlings of two temperate broad-leaved tree species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imaji, Aya; Seiwa, Kenji

    2010-02-01

    Optimal carbon allocation to growth, defense, or storage is a critical trait in determining the shade tolerance of tree species. Thus, examining interspecific differences in carbon allocation patterns is useful when evaluating niche partitioning in forest communities. We hypothesized that shade-tolerant species allocate more carbon to defense and storage and less to growth compared to shade-intolerant species. In gaps and forest understory, we measured relative growth rates (RGR), carbon-based defensive compounds (condensed tannin, total phenolics), and storage compounds (total non-structural carbohydrate; TNC) in seedlings of two tree species differing in shade tolerance. RGR was greater in the shade-intolerant species, Castanea crenata, than in the shade-tolerant species, Quercus mongolica var. grosseserrata, in gaps, but did not differ between the species in the forest understory. In contrast, concentrations of condensed tannin and total phenolics were greater in Quercus than in Castanea at both sites. TNC pool sizes did not differ between the species. Condensed tannin concentrations increased with increasing growth rate of structural biomass (GRstr) in Quercus but not in Castanea. TNC pool sizes increased with increasing GRstr in both species, but the rate of increase did not differ between the species. Accordingly, the amount of condensed tannin against TNC pool sizes was usually higher in Quercus than in Castanea. Hence, Quercus preferentially invested more carbon in defense than in storage. Such a large allocation of carbon to defense would be advantageous for a shade-tolerant species, allowing Quercus to persist in the forest understory where damage from herbivores and pathogens is costly. In contrast, the shade-intolerant Castanea preferentially invested more carbon in growth rather than defense (and similar amounts in storage as Quercus), ensuring establishment success in gaps, where severe competition occurs for light among neighboring plants. These

  3. The growth investigation of different types of bamboo natural mixed forest%不同类型毛竹天然混交林生长调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林世友; 杨敬; 林斌; 曹流清; 粟林丽

    2016-01-01

    There are 58 block of bamboo forest by different setting standards of natural mixed forest were test for growth investigation.The results showed that there mixed types of 80% bamboo +10% Chinese fir +10% broad-leaved,70%bamboo +30% Chinese fir and broad-leaved,60% bamboo +30% Chinese fir +10% broad-leaved and pinus has a best forest stand structure,the growth index of number of bamboo shoots,number of new bamboo,shoots back production, quality of new bamboo per hectare and income of new bamboo and shoots back hectare are more obvious higher than pure bamboo forest in different level,and number of bamboo shoots,number of bamboo of single mother bamboo tree also higher than pure bamboo forest.The mixed types of 80% bamboo +10% pinus +10% Chinese fir and broard-leaved;70% bamboo +20% pinus +10% Chinese fir and broard-leaved has a better forest stand structure,the growth index of number of bamboo shoots,number of new bamboo,quality of new bamboo per hectare and income of new bamboo and shoots back hectare are higher than pure bamboo forest,but the number of bamboo shoots,number of bamboo and shoots back production of single mother bamboo tree are lower than pure bamboo forest.The mixed types of 60% bamboo +30%pinus +10% Chinese fir and broard-leaved;50% bamboo +40% pinus +10% Chinese fir and broard-leaved,40%bamboo +40% pinus +10% Chinese fir +10% broard-leaved,30% bamboo +50% pinus +20% Chinese fir and broard-leaved,has a bad forest stand structure,the growth index of number of bamboo shoots,number of new bamboo, and income of new bamboo and shoots back per hectare are obvious lower than pure bamboo forest.%在不同类型毛竹天然混交林内设置58块标准地进行生长调查。结果表明:8竹1杉1阔、7竹3杉+阔、6竹3杉1阔+松混交林,林分结构组成较合理,每公顷出笋数、新成竹数、退笋产量、新竹质量、新竹、退笋经济收入均不同程度大于纯竹林,每株母竹出笋、成竹数等各项

  4. Study on Soil Fertility of Different Forest Types in Jialing River Source%嘉陵江源头几种林地土壤肥力状况调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭胡燕; 刘瑞英; 杨改河; 任学敏; 王得祥

    2011-01-01

    Based on analysis of soil pH, the content of organic matter and main nutrient at the different levels of soil under seven different forest types (Quercus aliena BI. Var. Acuteserrate, Betula albo-sinensis, Pinus tabulaeformis , Pinus armandii , Abies fargesii , coniferous and broad-leaved mixed forest, shrub forest)in Jialing river of source, this paper studied on soil fertility of different forest types. The result showed that the soil in Pinus armandii, Pinus tabulae formis and coniferous and broad-leaved mixed forest were near neutral, the soil in Quercus aliena BI. Var. Acuteserrate, Betula albo-sinensis and shrub forest were slightly acidic, the soil in Abies fargesii was acidic. The soil pH, the contents of soil organic matter, total N and P, alkali-hydro N and available P tended to decrease with soil depth. The soil fertility was increased in the order of Pinus armandii <Lpinus tabulae formis <coniferous and broad-leaved mixed ioresKQuercus aliena BI. Var. Acuteserrate<shrub forest<Abies fargesii<L Betula albo-sinensis.%以嘉陵江源头风景区7种林型(锐齿栎林、红桦林、油松林、华山松林、巴山冷杉林、针阔混交林及灌木林)土壤为研究对象,通过对林地土壤不同层次pH、有机质及主要养分含量的测定,分析不同林型下土壤肥力的差异状况.结果表明,华山松林、油松林和针阔混交林的土壤趋于中性,锐齿栎林、红桦林、灌木林的土壤趋于弱酸性,而巴山冷杉林的土壤呈酸性.随土壤深度增加,土壤pH升高,土壤有机质、全氮、全磷、碱解氮、有效磷含量均呈下降趋势.土壤综合肥力优劣为华山松林<油松林<针阔混交林<锐齿栎林<灌木林<巴山冷杉林<红桦林.

  5. Different tree species affect soil respiration spatial distribution in a subtropical forest of southern Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Po-Neng; Yu, Jui-Chu; Wang, Ya-nan; Lai, Yen-Jen

    2014-05-01

    Global forests contain 69% of total carbon stored in forest soil and litter. But the carbon storage ability and release rate of warming gases of forest soil also affect global climate change. Soil carbon cycling processes are paid much attention by ecological scientists and policy makers because of the possibility of carbon being stored in soil via land use management. Soil respiration contributed large part of terrestrial carbon flux, but the relationship of soil respiration and climate change was still obscurity. Most of soil respiration researches focus on template and tropical area, little was known that in subtropical area. Afforestation is one of solutions to mitigate CO2 increase and to sequestrate CO2 in tree and soil. Therefore, the objective of this study is to clarify the relationship of tree species and soil respiration distribution in subtropical broad-leaves plantation in southern Taiwan. The research site located on southern Taiwan was sugarcane farm before 2002. The sugarcane was removed and fourteen broadleaved tree species were planted in 2002-2005. Sixteen plots (250m*250m) were set on 1 km2 area, each plot contained 4 subplots (170m2). The forest biomass (i.e. tree height, DBH) understory biomass, litter, and soil C were measured and analyzed at 2011 to 2012. Soil respiration measurement was sampled in each subplot in each month. The soil belongs to Entisol with over 60% of sandstone. The soil pH is 5.5 with low base cations because of high sand percentage. Soil carbon storage showed significantly negative relationship with soil bulk density (p<0.001) in research site. The differences of distribution of live tree C pool among 16 plots were affected by growth characteristic of tree species. Data showed that the accumulation amount of litterfall was highest in December to February and lowest in June. Different tree species planted in 16 plots, resulting in high spatial variation of litterfall amount. It also affected total amount of litterfall

  6. How does tree age influence damage and recovery in forests impacted by freezing rain and snow?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, LiRong; Zhou, Ting; Chen, BaoMing; Peng, ShaoLin

    2015-05-01

    The response and recovery mechanisms of forests to damage from freezing rain and snow events are a key topic in forest research and management. However, the relationship between the degree of damage and tree age, i.e., whether seedlings, young trees, or adult trees are most vulnerable, remains unclear and is rarely reported. We investigated the effect of tree age on the degrees of vegetation damage and subsequent recovery in three subtropical forest types-coniferous, mixed, and broad-leaved-in the Tianjing Mountains, South China, after a series of rare icy rain and freezing snow events in 2008. The results showed that damage and recovery rates were both dependent on tree age, with the proportion of damaged vegetation increasing with age (estimated by diameter at breast height, DBH) in all three forest types and gradually plateauing. Significant variation occurred among forest types. Young trees in the coniferous forest were more vulnerable than those in the broad-leaved forest. The type of damage also varied with tree age in different ways in the three forest types. The proportion of young seedlings that were uprooted (the most severe type of damage) was highest in the coniferous forest. In the mixed forest, young trees were significantly more likely to be uprooted than seedlings and adult trees, while in the broad-leaved forest, the proportion of uprooted adult trees was significantly higher than that of seedlings and young trees. There were also differences among forest types in how tree age affected damage recovery. In the coniferous forest, the recovery rate of trees with broken trunks or crowns (DBH > 2.5 cm) increased with tree age. However, in the mixed and broad-leaved forests, no obvious correlation between the recovery rate of trees with broken trunks or crowns and tree age was observed. Trees with severe root damage did not recover; they were uprooted and died. In these forests, vegetation damage and recovery showed tree age dependencies, which varied

  7. 7种阔叶植物群落降噪的临界达标宽度%Critical Width of Seven Broad-leaved Plant Communities for Noise Reduction to Standard

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    祝遵凌; 杜丹; 韩笑

    2012-01-01

    There were 7 kinds of broad-leaved plant communities of some main roads in Nanjing, and they were chosen as the research object. The noise reduction effect from the plant was measured along the longitudinal road by every 5 m and moving uncertain distance. The result showed that all the average equivalent continuous A-weighted sound pressure levels of the road edge in the measuring time were beyond the limits of the corresponding provisions in GB3096-2008, out of which the highest was beyond 6 dB, the lowest beyond 1.3 dB. As the distance from the road edge increasing, the noise reduction effect of the same broad-leaved plant community was more obvious. The noise reduction effect of different broad-leaved plant communities at the same distance from the sound source were different, that closely related with the composition and the internal structure of those plant communities. Not all the noise reduction effect of plant communities had the linear relationship with the belt width. For the 7 kinds of broad-leaved plant communities, the critical width, at which the noise level reached the ambient noise limits of acoustic environmental functional area, focused on the range of 5 - 15 m. The broad-leaved plant communities in a certain width can basically meet the requirement of the noise reduction, so the broad-leaved plant communities can be widely used in the urban main roads.%选取南京市部分主干路道路绿地的7种阔叶植物群落,通过沿道路纵向每间隔5m以及不定距移动测量,结果表明:测量时间段内路缘处噪声的等效连续A声级平均值都超出GB3096—2008中相应规定的限制,其中最高的超出6dB,最低的超出1.3dB;同一阔叶植物群落,随着离开路缘的距离增加,降噪效果更加明显;不同的阔叶植物群落在同一距离处的降噪效果不同,这与植物群落的组成和内部结构特征有密切关系;植物群落的降噪效果与林带宽

  8. Influence of radiocesium transfer and decontamination on ambient dose in Japanese forest environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Hiroaki; Onda, Yuichi

    2016-04-01

    This study investigated the effect of post-depositional migration of radiocesium and decontamination on ambient dose rate in Japanese forest environment following the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident. We measured cesium-137 deposition from canopy to forest floor in association with rainfall and litterfall in two coniferous stands (plantation of Japanese cedar) and a deciduous broad-leaved forest stand (oak with red pine). We also measured temporal evolution of ambient dose rate at different height in each forest site. Radiocesium inventory balance in each forest component (e.g., canopy, litter and mineral soil layer) were established to determine causes of the measured changes of ambient dose rate in three forest sites. Furthermore, we assessed influence of forest decontamination (removal of organic layer of forest floor) on spatial pattern of radiocesium at the forest floor and reduction of ambient dose rate.

  9. Infiltration characteristics of water in forest soils in the Simian mountains, Chongqing City, southwestern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei WANG; Hongjiang ZHANG; Meng LI; Jinhua CHENG; Bo WANG; Weili LU

    2009-01-01

    Spearman rank-correlation analysis and grey relational grade analysis were used to study infiltration characteristics of water in different forest soils in the Simian mountains, Chongqing City. The results indicate that the soil bulk density, contents of coarse sand, and porosity of macropores were significantly correlated with saturated hydraulic conductivity. Porosity of macropores and contents of coarse sand were positively correlated with soil saturated hydraulic conductivity and soil bulk density negatively. Based on the initial infiltration rate, the stable infiltration rate, time required for infiltration to reach a stable state, and cumulative infiltration, all of which are crucial parameters determining soil infiltration capacity, the results of grey relational grade analysis showed that the grey relational grades of the different forest soils were listed from high to low as broad-leaved forest (0.8031) > Phyllostachys pubescens forest (0.7869) > mixed coniferbroadleaf forest (0.4454)>coniferous forest (0.4039). Broadleaf forest had the best ability to be infiltrated among the four soils studied. The square roots of the coefficients of determination obtained from fitting the Horton infiltration equation, simulated in our study of forest soils, were higher than 0.950. We conclude that soils of broad-leaved forests were the best suited for infiltration processes of forestry in the Simian mountains.

  10. Forest vegetation of Xishuangbanna, south China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhu Hua

    2006-01-01

    Xishuangbanna of southern Yunnan is biogeographically located at a transitional zone from tropical southeast (SE) Asia to subtropical east Asia and is at the junction of the Indian and Burmese plates of Gondwana and the Eurasian plate of Laurasia. The region, though surprisingly far from the equator and at a relatively high altitude, has a rich tropical flora and a typical tropical rain forest in the lowland areas. Based on physiognomic and ecological characteristics, floristic composition and habitats combined, the primary vegetation in Xishuangbanna can be organized into four main vegetation types: tropical rain forest, tropical seasonal moist forest, tropical montane evergreen broad-leaved forest and tropical monsoon forest. The tropical rain forest can be classified into two subtypes, i.e. a tropical seasonal rain forest in the lowlands and a tropical montane rain forest at higher elevations. The tropical seasonal rain forest has almost the same forest profile and physiognomic characteristics as equatorial lowland rain forests and is a type of truly tropical rain forest. Because of conspicuous similarity on ecological and floristic characteristics, the tropical rain forest in Xishuangbanna is a type of tropical Asian rain forest. However, since the tropical rain forest of Xishuangbanna occurs at the northern edge of tropical SE Asia, it differs from typical lowland rain forests in equatorial areas in having some deciduous trees in the canopy layer, fewer megaphanerophytes and epiphytes but more abundant lianas and more plants with microphyll. It is a type of semi-evergreen rain forest at the northern edge of the tropical zone. The tropical montane rain forest occurs at wet montane habitats and is similar to the lower montane rain forest in equatorial Asia in floristic composition and physiognomy. It is a type of lower montane rain forests within the broader category of tropical rain forests. The tropical seasonal moist forest occurs on middle and upper

  11. 百花山典型林分土壤有机碳储量及垂直分布特征%Soil Organic Carbon Storage and Vertical Distribution of Different Forest Types in Baihua Mountain Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘艳; 查同刚; 付汝军

    2012-01-01

    针对百花山落叶阔叶混交林、华北落叶松林、桦木林3种典型林分土壤有机碳储量及垂直分布特征进行研究.结果表明,不同林分类型下的土壤有机碳含量存在明显差异,桦木林最高(33.87g/kg±2.82g/kg),华北落叶松林次之(27.42 g/kg±2.21 g/kg),落叶阔叶混交林最低(26.24 g/kg±1.91 g/kg),桦木林土壤有机碳的密度为(26.06±1.88) kg/m2,落叶阔叶混交林为(19.81±1.70) kg/m2,华北落叶松林为(18.94±1.50)kg/m2,土层间有机碳密度为(1.57~7.22) kg/m2,且随着土层深度的增加呈现减少的趋势;不同林分中0~20 cm土层有机碳储量占整个剖面有机碳总储量的百分比均达到50%以上,0~20 cm土层有机碳含量变化总趋势为下坡位>中坡位>上坡位.%Storage and vertical distribution features of soil organic carbon (SOC) about mixed deciduous broad-leaved forest,Larix principis-rupprechtii forest and Betula spp. Forest in Baihua Mountain of Beijing were studied in this paper. The results were as follows: the contents of SOC in different types of forest showed significantly difference; SOC content presented a rule as Betula spp. Forest> Larix principis-rupprechtii forest > mixed deciduous broad-leaved forest, the average value was (33.87±2.82) g/kg, (27.42 + 2.21) g/kg, and (26.24 + 1.91) g/kg correspondenly; SOC density was Betula spp. Forest (26.06±l. 88 kg/m2) > mixed deciduous broad-leaved forest (19. 81 ±1. 70 kg/m2) >Larix principis-rupprechtii forest (18. 94 + 1. 50 kg/m2). SOC density changed with a range of 1. 57~7. 22 kg/m2 for five soil layers in the three forest types, and both the density and content decreased with the depth of soil layers; on the upper layer (0 - 20 cm), the SOC content followed the variety trend of lower slope > middle slope >upper slope, and this layer occupied more than 50% SOC in all the soil profiles (0 - 80 cm).

  12. Soil properties discriminating Araucaria forests with different disturbance levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertini, Simone Cristina Braga; Azevedo, Lucas Carvalho Basilio; Stromberger, Mary E; Cardoso, Elke Jurandy Bran Nogueira

    2015-04-01

    Soil biological, chemical, and physical properties can be important for monitoring soil quality under one of the most spectacular vegetation formation on Atlantic Forest Biome, the Araucaria Forest. Our aim was to identify a set of soil variables capable of discriminating between disturbed, reforested, and native Araucaria forest soils such that these variables could be used to monitor forest recovery and maintenance. Soil samples were collected at dry and rainy season under the three forest types in two state parks at São Paulo State, Brazil. Soil biological, chemical, and physical properties were evaluated to verify their potential to differentiate the forest types, and discriminant analysis was performed to identify the variables that most contribute to the differentiation. Most of physical and chemical variables were sensitive to forest disturbance level, but few biological variables were significantly different when comparing native, reforested, and disturbed forests. Despite more than 20 years following reforestation, the reforested soils were chemically and biologically distinct from native and disturbed forest soils, mainly because of the greater acidity and Al3+ content of reforested soil. Disturbed soils, in contrast, were coarser in texture and contained greater concentrations of extractable P. Although biological properties are generally highly sensitive to disturbance and amelioration efforts, the most important soil variables to discriminate forest types in both seasons included Al3+, Mg2+, P, and sand, and only one microbial attribute: the NO2- oxidizers. Therefore, these five variables were the best candidates, of the variables we employed, for monitoring Araucaria forest disturbance and recovery.

  13. Phytosociology and standing crop biomass of five different forest types of East Dehra Dun Forest Division

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, O.M.; Vasistha, H.B.; Soni, P.

    1984-08-01

    Different types of forests have varying efficiency of production depending upon a number of factors such as microclimate, altitude, latitude, soil type, etc. The standing biomass and floristic composition were determined for five forest types of India, and the productivity was compared. 8 tables.

  14. Analysis on Plant Diversity Quanfu Village Basin of Water-holding Forest in of Yuanyang Terrace%元阳梯田全福庄流域水源涵养林的植物多样性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    和弦; 宋维峰; 彭永刚; 王惠生; 崔吉林

    2012-01-01

    元阳梯田已有1200多年的历史,水源涵养林的存在对于梯田的延续具有重要的价值。为得到元阳梯田水源涵养林的植物多样性分布特征,对元阳梯田全福庄流域4种主要植被类型水源涵养林下的植物物种数量特征、物种丰富度、多样性、均匀度等多样性规律进行了标准样地调查。结果表明,研究区共有植物155种,隶属66科,其中,山茶科、禾本科、蓼科植物占有绝对优势,不同植被类型森林群落的优势种不同;物种丰富度大小为:次生常绿阔叶林〉杂木林〉次生落叶阔叶林〉人工水冬瓜林;物种多样性特征表现为,乔木层:次生常绿阔叶林〉次生落叶阔叶林〉杂木林〉人工水冬瓜林;灌木层:次生常绿阔叶林〉杂木林〉次生落叶阔叶林,人工水冬瓜林无灌木层分布;草本层:次生落叶阔叶林〉人工水冬瓜林〉次生常绿阔叶林〉杂木林。植被分布的物种丰富度和均匀度对物种多样性存在交叉影响。%Yuanyang terrace with over 1 200 years of history, the existence of water-holding forest has an important value for development of Yuanyang terrace. In order to investigate the distribution of plant diversity in water-holding forest of Yuanyang terrace this study adopted the method of standard statistical and on-site investigation. The study on the quantitative features, the species richness, diversity and evenness, etc. char- acteristics in 4 types of vegetation regions in Quanfu middle village basin were carried out. The results showed that there were 155 species of plants in this area, belonging to 66 families, and Theaceae, Poaceae and Polygonaceae were 3 dominant families. The different vegetation regions had different dominant species. The species richness index followed the order of secondary evergreen broad-leaved forest〉weed tree forest〉 secondary deciduous broad-leaved forest〉artificial Alder forest. Within

  15. Spatio-temporal patterns of recurrent slope instabilities affecting undercut slopes in flysch: A dendrogeomorphic approach using broad-leaved trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šilhán, Karel; Pánek, Tomáš; Turský, Ondřej; Brázdil, Rudolf; Klimeš, Jan; Kašičková, Lucie

    2014-05-01

    The undercut slope of the Skalická Strážnice/Vrchy hill situated in the piedmont of the Carpathian Mountains (Czech Republic) is a regional landslide "hotspot", notorious for its repeated recent and historical sliding reactivations. We performed tree-ring analysis of a large number (n = 274) of broad-leaved trees to reconstruct the spatio-temporal patterns of landslide reactivation for a period spanning more than one hundred years (1884-2011). Although tree rings of broad-leaved trees are less-reliable archives of landslide activity than those of conifers, the application of a methodology based on the weighting of disturbance signals within eccentricity series generated a usable dataset of sliding activity affecting anisotropic flysch bedrock. Although some known landslide years could not be found (or were expressed by only weak signals) in the reconstructed dataset, the majority of landslide events reconstructed from the tree-ring series coincide with hydrometeorological data, revealing a correlation with heavy summer rainfalls lasting from two to ten days. The spatial distribution of landslide recurrence derived from the tree-ring records together with electrical resistivity tomography and a kinematic analysis of slope failures suggest a close link between the concentration of landslide activity and the presence of faulted or fractured flysch bedrock.

  16. Characteristics of initial deposition and behavior of radiocesium in forest ecosystems of different locations and species affected by the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komatsu, Masabumi; Kaneko, Shinji; Ohashi, Shinta; Kuroda, Katsushi; Sano, Tetsuya; Ikeda, Shigeto; Saito, Satoshi; Kiyono, Yoshiyuki; Tonosaki, Mario; Miura, Satoru; Akama, Akio; Kajimoto, Takuya; Takahashi, Masamichi

    2016-09-01

    After the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident, information about stand-level spatial patterns of radiocesium initially deposited in the surrounding forests was essential for predicting the future dynamics of radiocesium and suggesting a management plan for contaminated forests. In the first summer (approximately 6 months after the accident), we separately estimated the amounts of radiocesium ((134)Cs and (137)Cs; Bq m(-2)) in the major components (trees, organic layers, and soils) in forests of three sites with different contamination levels. For a Japanese cedar (Cryptomeria japonica) forest studied at each of the three sites, the radiocesium concentration greatly differed among the components, with the needle and organic layer having the highest concentrations. For these cedar forests, the proportion of the (137)Cs stock in the aboveground tree biomass varied from 22% to 44% of the total (137)Cs stock; it was 44% in highly contaminated sites (7.0 × 10(5) Bq m(-2)) but reduced to 22% in less contaminated sites (1.1 × 10(4) Bq m(-2)). In the intermediate contaminated site (5.0-5.8 × 10(4) Bq m(-2)), 34% of radiocesium was observed in the aboveground tree biomass of the Japanese cedar stand. However, this proportion was considerably smaller (18-19%) in the nearby mixed forests of the Japanese red pine (Pinus densiflora) and deciduous broad-leaved trees. Non-negligible amounts of (134)Cs and (137)Cs were detected in both the sapwood and heartwood of all the studied tree species. This finding suggested that the uptake or translocation of radiocesium had already started within 6 months after the accident. The belowground compartments were mostly present in the organic layer and the uppermost (0-5 cm deep) mineral soil layer at all the study sites. We discussed the initial transfer process of radiocesium deposited in the forest and inferred that the type of initial deposition (i.e., dry versus wet radiocesium deposition), the amount of

  17. Factors Influencing Local Communities' Satisfaction Levels with Different Forest Management Approaches of Kakamega Forest, Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guthiga, Paul M.; Mburu, John; Holm-Mueller, Karin

    2008-05-01

    Satisfaction of communities living close to forests with forest management authorities is essential for ensuring continued support for conservation efforts. However, more often than not, community satisfaction is not systematically elicited, analyzed, and incorporated in conservation decisions. This study attempts to elicit levels of community satisfaction with three management approaches of Kakamega forest in Kenya and analyze factors influencing them. Three distinct management approaches are applied by three different authorities: an incentive-based approach of the Forest Department (FD), a protectionist approach of the Kenya Wildlife Service (KWS), and a quasi-private incentive-based approach of Quakers Church Mission (QCM). Data was obtained from a random sample of about 360 households living within a 10-km radius around the forest margin. The protectionist approach was ranked highest overall for its performance in forest management. Results indicate that households are influenced by different factors in their ranking of management approaches. Educated households and those located far from market centers are likely to be dissatisfied with all the three management approaches. The location of the households from the forest margin influences negatively the satisfaction with the protectionist approach, whereas land size, a proxy for durable assets, has a similar effect on the private incentive based approach of the QCM. In conclusion, this article indicates a number of policy implications that can enable the different authorities and their management approaches to gain approval of the local communities.

  18. Different Patterns of Changes in the Dry Season Diameter at Breast Height of Dominant and Evergreen Tree Species in a Mature Subtropical Forest in South China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jun-Hua Yan; Guo-Yi Zhou; De-Qiang Zhang; Xu-Li Tang; Xu Wang

    2006-01-01

    Information on changes in diameter at breast height (DBH) is important for net primary production (NPP)estimates, timing of forest inventory, and forest management. In the present study, patterns of DBH change were measured under field conditions during the dry season for three dominant and native tree species in a monsoon evergreen broad-leaved forest in the Dinghushan Biosphere Reserve. For each tree species,different patterns of DBH change were observed. In the case of the fast-growing tree species Castanopsis chinensis Hance, large diurnal fluctuations occur, with a peak DBH in the early morning (around 05:00 h) that decreases to a minimum by about 14:00 h. Both Schima superba Gardn. et Chemp and Cryptocarya chinensis (Hance) Hemsl. exhibited less diurnal swelling and shrinkage. Diurnal fluctuations for these species were observed on a few occasions over the period of observation. Graphical comparisons and statistical analysis of changes in DBH with meteorological variables indicate that for different trees, the different changes in DBH observed responded to different meteorological variables. Large stem changes were found to occur for Ca. chinensis trees that were associated with variations in solar radiation. However, both S. superba and Cr. chinensis were found to be less sensitive to solar radiation. Changes in the DBH of these two species were found to be controlled mainly by soil temperature and soil moisture. During the later dry season, with a lower soil temperature and soil moisture, all three tree species stopped growing and only negligible shrinkage, expansion, or fluctuation occurred, suggesting that the optimum time to measure tree growth in the Dinghushan Biosphere Reserve is the later dry season.

  19. Characteristics of water and carbon balance in moso bamboo forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kume, T.; Laplace, S.; Tseng, H.; Hsieh, Y.; Wey, T.; Komatsu, H.

    2013-12-01

    Water and carbon cycles in mountainous areas can have considerable impacts on our available nature resources such as water resources and timber production. Thus, it is indispensable to clarify the difference of water and carbon balances between different types of forested ecosystems. Recently, bamboo forests have been expanding by replacing surrounding vegetation such as coniferous and broad-leaved forests in eastern Asian countries. It has been speculated that the replacements by bamboo forests could alter the vegetation water and carbon cycles. However, our knowledge for the bamboo forests was still limited due to lack of applicable methodology based on a field measurement. To clarify the potential impacts of bamboo expansion on water and carbon cycles, our previous study established optimal and effective design for assessing bamboo forest water use (ie, transpiration) based on sap flux measurements. Using the method, we quantified stand-scale transpiration in bamboo forests and coniferous forests in Taiwan. Consequently, we found significantly larger transpiration in bamboo forests compared with those of surrounding vegetation due to larger canopy conductance in bamboo forests. The unique characteristics of the water use accompanied larger carbon assimilation and soil CO2 efflux in bamboo forests.

  20. Brief analysis on canopy interception effect and influencing factors of five forest types in Simian Mountain of Chongqing%重庆四面山5种森林类型林冠截留影响因素浅析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张焜; 张洪江; 程金花; 张君玉; 孙龙; 马西军

    2011-01-01

    【Objective】 The study was to probe into the primary and secondary relation of factors influencing canopy interception of different forest types in Three Gorge Reservoir Region of Yangtze River.【Method】 Related data of 25 rainfalls from May to September in 2009 were observed.The paper made a grey correlation analysis on the research of factors influencing canopy interception among five forest type in Simian Mountain of Chongqing.【Result】 ①According to the general interception ratios from high to low,the five forest types are arranged as warm needle-leaved forest(42.70%)temperate needle-leaved forest(39.35%)broadleaf-conifer mixed forest(39.05%)evergreen and deciduous broad-leaved mixed forest(36.28%)evergreen broad-leaved forest(27.73%);According to the average interception ratios from high to low,the five types of forests are arranged as warm needle-leaved forest(50.08%)broadleaf-conifer mixed forest(44.91%)temperate needle-leaved forest(44.18%)evergreen and deciduous broad-leaved mixed forest(42.13%)evergreen broad-leaved forest(31.33%).②The influencing priority of meteorological factors for temperate needle-leaved forest is precipitationrainfall intensitywind velocitytemperatureair humidity.For broadleaf-conifer mixed forest,the priority is precipitationwind velocityrainfall intensitytemperature air humidity.For evergreen broad-leaved forest,the priority is precipitation=rainfall intensitywind velocity=temperatureair humidity.For evergreen and deciduous broad-leaved mixed forest,the priority is precipitationrainfall intensitywind velocitytemperatureair humidity.And for warm needle-leaved forest,the priority is precipitationrainfall intensitywind velocitytemperatureair humidity.③Between the canopy interception amount of each forest types and precipitation,a power function is shown.The precipitation of temperate needle-leaved forest,broadleaf-conifer mixed forest,evergreen broad-leaved forest,evergreen and

  1. DETERMINATION OF DIFFERENT STAKEHOLDER’S THOUGHT REGARDING THE FOREST RESOURCES AND FOREST RESOURCES SUSTAINABLE MANAGEMENT: A Case Study in Maçka State Forest Enterprise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atakan Öztürk

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to determine thoughts and views of stakeholders regarding the forest resources and management in Turkish Forestry. Maçka State Forest Enterprise under Trabzon Forest Regional Directorate was chosen as research area. Six different groups involving urban, rural, managerial, industrial, and recreational stakeholders as well as non-governmental organizations were determined. Interview and public survey methods and Khi-square test were used to attain the aim of the study. The main results were that the forest enterprise was perceived as the rich one with regard to forest existence and, it was put forward pessimistic though for forest future in the forest enterprise and, non-wood forest values were seen more important than the wood values by the stakeholders. The results of the study taken into account in forest resource planning would provide a contribution to sustainable forest resources management for the Maçka State Forest Enterprise.

  2. Effect of radiocesium transfer on ambient dose rate in forest environments affected by the Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant accident

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, H.

    2015-12-01

    We investigated the transfer of canopy-intercepted radiocesium to the forest floor during 3 years following the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident. The cesium-137 (Cs-137) contents in throughfall, stemflow, and litterfall were monitored in two coniferous stands (plantation of Japanese cedar) and a deciduous broad-leaved forest stand (Japanese oak with red pine). We also measured the ambient dose rate (ADR) at different heights in the forest using a survey meter and a portable Ge gamma-ray detector. Total Cs-137 deposition flux from the canopy to forest floor for the mature cedar, young cedar, and the mixed broad-leaved stands were 166 kBq/m2, 174 kBq/m2, and 60 kBq/m2, respectively. These values correspond to 38%, 40% and 13% of total atmospheric input after the accident. The ambient dose rate in forest exhibited height dependency and its vertical distribution varied with forest type and stand age. The ambient dose rate showed an exponential decrease with time for all the forest sites, however the decreasing trend differed depending on the height of dose measurement and forest type. The ambient dose rate at the canopy (approx. 10 m-height) decreased faster than that expected from physical decay of the two radiocesium isotopes, whereas those at the forest floor varied between the three forest stands. The radiocesium deposition via throughfall seemed to increase ambient dose rate during the first 200 days after the accident, however there was no clear relationship between litterfall and ambient dose rate since 400 days after the accident. These data suggested that the ambient dose rate in forest environment varied both spatially and temporally reflecting the transfer of radiocesium from canopy to forest floor. However, further monitoring investigation and analysis are required to determine the effect of litterfall on long-term trend of ambient dose rate in forest environments.

  3. Management pattern of ecological public welfare forests in South China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chong LOU; Anxing LIU; Guomin ZHU

    2008-01-01

    The characteristics and actualities of ecologi-cal public welfare forests in South China are studied in this paper, including common and special management patterns. The restoration and reconstruction pattern of subtropical evergreen broad-leaved forests, zonal vegeta-tion in the key eco-zone, and the transformation pattern of coniferous and broad-leaved mixed forests in the general eco-zone with multi-forms are discussed in detail. The authors also point out, based on ecological transformation and utilization, that ecological public welfare forests should be oriented to multiple benefit utilization to maintain sustainable management.

  4. Plant species diversity and dynamics in forests invaded by Moso bamboo (Phyllostachys edulis in Tianmu Mountain Nature Reserve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shangbin Bai

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Moso bamboo (Phyllostachys edulis is an economically important plant, widely cultivated not only for its delicious shoots and versatile culms, but also as an important biomass resource in southern China.However, with its robust growth and strong rhizomes, it has recently been shown to be a problem tree, capable of dominating some forest stands. Indeed, it may displace species within the community it invades with considerable potential impacts. However, little is known about the consequences of its invasion on plant community composition. We compared plant biodiversity change in different communities where we monitored and removed bamboo over a seven years period (2005 to 2011 in Tianmu Mountain Nature Reserve, so as to elucidate the impacts of Moso bamboo invasion. The results showed that Moso bamboo invasion had negative effects on plant communities. Simpson’s Diversity Index in tree and shrub layers of bamboo forest was lower than that of forests consisting of needle and broad-leaved species, and also those containing a mixture of bamboo with needle and broad-leaved plants. However, Simpson’s Diversity Index in the herb layer of bamboo forest was higher than that in the two other forest types. Plant species richness, Simpson’s Diversity Index, and Pielou’s Eveness Index varied greatly among the different forest types over time. In the tree and shrub layers of forests containing bamboo growing with both needle and broad-leaved species, these three indices declined significantly over the monitoring period (P0.05. Plant species richness increased in the herb layer of forests containing bamboo mixed with needle and broad-leaved species, while Simpson’s Diversity Index and Pielou’s Eveness Index did not change greatly over time. The removal of Moso bamboo resulted in an increase in plant species richness and Simpson’s Diversity Index in the tree and shrub layers. In contrast, plant species richness, Simpson’s Diversity Index, and

  5. Environmental Correlates of Distribution of the 25 Broad-leaved Tree Species Indigenous to Guangdong Province, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Su Zhiyao; Chen Beiguang; Chang Yong; Yang Jiazhi

    2004-01-01

    Twenty-five tree species indigenous to Guangdong Province were chosen in this study to portray their distribution patterns in relation to environmental factors. Both data of species distribution and environmental factors were tabulated based on a digitized map of Guangdong Province gridded at 0.5° latitude × 0.5° longitude. Grid-based diversity was mapped using DMAP, a distribution mapping program, and horizontal patterns were assessed using Kruskal-Wallis tests. The diversity center of the indigenous tree species under study is located north of 23° N. These tree species exhibit significant latitudinal variation (P = 0.007 4), but no significant longitudinal difference (P = 0.052 2). Non-metric Multidimensional Scaling (NMS) identified five different ecological species groups, while Canonical Correspondence Analysis (CCA) showed the distribution of tree species along each of the five environmental gradients. An understanding of the environmental correlates of distribution patterns has great implication for the introduction of the indigenous tree species for afforestation.

  6. Changes of Soil Water, Organic Matter, and Exchangeable Cations Along a Forest Successional Gradient in Southern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN Jun-Hua; ZHOU Guo-Yi; ZHANG De-Qiang; CHU Guo-Wei

    2007-01-01

    Information on the distribution patterns of soil water content (SWC), soil organic matter (SOM), and soil exchangeable cations (SEC) is important for managing forest ecosystems in a sustainable manner. This study investigated how SWC, SOM, and SEC were influenced in forests along a successional gradient, including a regional climax (monsoon evergreen broad-leaved forest, or MEBF), a transitional forest (coniferous and broad-leaved mixed forest, or MF), and a pioneer forest (coniferous Masson pine (Pinus massoniana) forest, or MPF) of the Dinghushan Biosphere Reserve in the subtropical region of southern China. SWC, SOM, and SEC excluding Ca2+ were found to increase in the soil during forest succession, being highest in the top soil layer (0 to 15 cm depth) except for Na+. The differences between soil layers were largest in MF. This finding also suggested that the nutrients were enriched in the topsoil when they became increasingly scarce in the soil. There were no significant differences (P = 0.05) among SWC, SOM, and SBC. A linear, positive correlation was found between SWC and SOM. The correlation between SOM and cation exchange capacity (CEC) was statistically significant, which agreed with the theory that the most important factor determining SEC is SOM. The ratio of K+ to Na+ in the topsoil was about a half of that in the plants of each forest. MF had the lowest exchangeable Ca2+ concentration among the three forests and Ca2+:K+ in MPF was two times higher than that in MF. Understanding the changes of SWC, SOM, and CEC during forest succession would be of great help in protecting all three forests in southern China.

  7. Artificial Promoting Coppice for Developing Evergreen Broad-leaved Forests%人工促进萌芽更新发展常绿阔叶林

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    廖土发; 周炳金

    2009-01-01

    从宏观的经济效益和社会效益角度出发,做到经济、社会、生态三大效益相统一,让森林发挥出最大的综合效益,做到青山常在,永续利用,是林场经营必须遵循的科学法则.在营造林工作中,采用人工促进萌芽更新方法,以管为主,营造、封、改为辅.以片带网点相结合,大力发展次生常绿阔叶林.

  8. [Effects of simulated nitrogen deposition on soil acid phosphomonoesterase activity and soil available phosphorus content in subtropical forests in Dinghushan Mountain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yin; Zeng, Shu-cai; Huang, Wen-juan

    2011-03-01

    An in situ field experiment was conducted to study the effects of simulated nitrogen (N) deposition on soil acid phosphomonoesterase activity (APA) and soil available phosphorous (AP) content in Pinus massoniana forest (PF), coniferous and broad-leaved mixed forest (MF), and monsoon evergreen broad-leaved forest (MEBF) in Dinghushan Mountain. In PF and MF, three treatments were installed, i.e., CK (0 kg N x hm(-2) x a(-1)), low N (50 kg N x hm(-2) x a(-1)), and medium N (100 kg N x hm(-2) x a(-1)); in MEBF, four treatments were installed, i.e., CK, low N, medium N, and high N (150 kg N x hm(-2) x a(-1)). The soil APA and soil AP content decreased with soil depth. The soil APA was the highest in MEBF, while the AP content had no significant difference in the three forests. The effects of N addition on soil APA differed with forest types. In MEBF, the APA was the highest (19.52 micromol x g(-1) x h(-1)) in low N treatment; while in PF and MF, the APA was the highest (12.74 and 11.02 micromol x g(-1) x h(-1), respectively) in medium N treatment. In the three forests, soil AP content was the highest in low N treatment, but had no significant differences among the N treatments. There was a significant positive correlation between soil APA and soil AP content.

  9. Composition and Characteristics of Natural Secondary Forests in Shenzhen,South China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Dianpei; Ji Shuyi; Chen Feipeng; Peng Shaolin

    2004-01-01

    The composition and structure of five natural secondary forests in Shenzhen were studied based on data of plots and were compared with Hong Kong zonal forest, so as to detect their succession stage and species diversity level. According to succession process of subtropical forest and ecological characteristics of dominant species, the authors speculate that five communities are at different stages. Sinosideroxylon community dominated by heliophilous evergreen broad-leaved tree (Sinosideroxylon wightianum) and conifer tree (Pinus massoniana) is at the third stage. Itea + Acronychia community dominated by two evergreen broad-leaved heliophytes (Itea chinensis and Acronychia pedunculata) is at the fourth stage. The others, I.e., Schefflera, Sterculia and Cleistocalyx + Sterculia community are at the fifth stage where some mesophytes are dominant but heliophytes have a weighed percentage of importance value. Due to succession stage and different forest management and conservation models, the species diversity of five communities is significantly lower than that of Endospermum community in Hong Kong. The values of Shannon-Wiener index and Pielous evenness index of five communities are 2.04-2.953 and 64.2%-74% respectively, but those of the Endospermum community are 4.74 and 79% respectively. The current situation of these communities suggests that the necessary measures should be taken to protect and restore the communities.

  10. [Effects of different type urban forest plantations on soil fertility].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Hui-zhen; Chen, Ming-yue; Cai, Chun-ju; Zhu, Ning

    2009-12-01

    Aimed to study the effects of different urban forest plantations on soil fertility, soil samples were collected from eight mono-cultured plantations (Larix gmelinii, Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica, Pinus tabulaeformis var. mukdensis, Phellodendron amurense, Juglans mandshurica, Fraxinus mandshurica, Betula platyphylla, and Quercus mongolica) and one mixed plantation (P. sylvestris var. mongolica + F. mandshurica + Picea koraiensis + P. amurense + B. platyphylla) established in Northeast Forestry University's Urban Forestry Demonstration Research Base in the 1950s, with two sites of neighboring farmland and abandoned farmland as the control. The soils in broadleaved forest plantations except Q. mongolica were near neutral, those in mixed plantation, L. gmelinii, P. sylvestris var. mongolica, and P. tabulaeformis var. mukdensis were slightly acidic, and that in Q. mongolica was acidic. The contents of soil organic matter, total N and P, available P and K, and hydrolysable N tended to decrease with soil depth. There existed significant differences in the chemical indices of the same soil layers among different plantations. The soil fertility was decreased in the order of F. mandshurica > P. amurense > mixed plantation > J. mandshurica > B. platyphylla > abandoned farmland > farmland > P. sylvestris var. mongolica > L. gmelinii > Q. mongolica > P. tabulaeformis var. mukdensis, suggesting that the soil fertility in broadleaved forest plantations except Q. mongolica and in mixed plantation increased, while that in needle-leaved forest plantations tended to decrease.

  11. Species identity and neighbor size surpass the impact of tree species diversity on productivity in experimental broad-leaved tree sapling assemblages under dry and moist conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lübbe, Torben; Schuldt, Bernhard; Leuschner, Christoph

    2015-01-01

    Species diversity may increase the productivity of tree communities through complementarity (CE) and/or selection effects (SE), but it is not well known how this relationship changes under water limitation. We tested the stress-gradient hypothesis, which predicts that resource use complementarity and facilitation are more important under water-limited conditions. We conducted a growth experiment with saplings of five temperate broad-leaved tree species that were grown in assemblages of variable diversity (1, 3, or 5 species) and species composition under ample and limited water supply to examine effects of species richness and species identity on stand- and tree-level productivity. Special attention was paid to effects of neighbor identity on the growth of target trees in mixture as compared to growth in monoculture. Stand productivity was strongly influenced by species identity while a net biodiversity effect (NE) was significant in the moist treatment (mostly assignable to CE) but of minor importance. The growth performance of some of the species in the mixtures was affected by tree neighborhood characteristics with neighbor size likely being more important than neighbor species identity. Diversity and neighbor identity effects visible in the moist treatment mostly disappeared in the dry treatment, disproving the stress-gradient hypothesis. The mixtures were similarly sensitive to drought-induced growth reduction as the monocultures, which may relate to the decreased CE on growth upon drought in the mixtures.

  12. Species identity and neighbor size surpass the impact of tree species diversity on productivity in experimental broad-leaved tree sapling assemblages under dry and moist conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torben eLübbe

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Species diversity may increase the productivity of tree communities through complementarity and/or selection effects, but it is not well known how this relationship changes under water limitation. We tested the stress-gradient hypothesis, which predicts that resource use complementarity and facilitation are more important under water-limited conditions. We conducted a growth experiment with saplings of five temperate broad-leaved tree species that were grown in assemblages of variable diversity (1, 3 or 5 species and species composition under ample and limited water supply to examine effects of species richness and species identity on stand and tree-level productivity. Special attention was paid to effects of neighbor identity on the growth of target trees in mixture as compared to growth in monoculture. Stand productivity was strongly influenced by species identity while a net biodiversity effect was significant in the moist treatment (mostly assignable to a complementarity effect but of minor importance. The growth performance of some of the species in the mixtures was affected by tree neighborhood characteristics with neighbor size likely being more important than neighbor species identity. Diversity and neighbor identity effects visible in the moist treatment mostly disappeared in the dry treatment, disproving the stress-gradient hypothesis. The mixtures were similarly sensitive to drought-induced growth reduction as the monocultures, which may relate to the decreased complementarity effect on growth upon drought in the mixtures.

  13. 不同类型杉木人工林两栖动物群落特征比较%Comparisons for Characters of Amphibians Communities in Different type Plantations of Chinese Fir

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王恒恒; 李斌; 栾晓峰

    2013-01-01

    From June to September 2011 and April to May 2012, we conducted a preliminary investigation on the amphibian communities in the different typical plantation using the "fence with pitfall trap" in Jiangle County of Fujian Province. The result showed that: 1 ) Totally, 8 species of amphibians, which belong to 4 families and 7 genera, were recorded, and among them Rana limnocharis is the highest abundance; 2 ) The mixed forest had higher amphibian biodiversity than the pure forest and the relative-fatness indexes were 8. 720 and 1. 65 , respectively; 3 ) The relative fatness of different amphibian communities increased with forest age( young forest 7. 961 mature forest 1. 59 > middle-aged forest 1.51). Therefore, in term of biodiversity conservation, we should create mixed forests and retain the coniferous trees and broad-leaved trees species in forest, to maintain the healthy survival environment and food chain for amphibians.

  14. Recreation in Different Forest Settings: A Scene Preference Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olof Olsson

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Recreation activity preferences in forest settings were explored in a scene preference study. The importance of type of human intervention and the level of biodiversity for preference and intention to engage in recreation activities were examined in a sample of forestry and social science students in Sweden. Results showed that forestry students displayed an almost equally strong preference for natural-looking scenes as for scenes with traces of recreation (e.g., paths, whereas social science students preferred recreational scenes the most. Least preferred were scenes with traces of forest management. Different forest settings were furthermore preferred for different recreation activities. Recreational settings were favored for walking and going on outings, and natural-looking settings were more appreciated for picking berries or mushrooms. Respondents displayed a stronger intention to study plants and animals in high biodiversity settings and the intention to exercise was stronger in low biodiversity settings. Implications for future land use planning and forest management are discussed.

  15. Insights into seasonal variation of litter decomposition and related soil degradative enzyme activities in subtropical forest in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Cong-yan; LÜ Yan-na; WANG Lei; LIU Xue-yan; TIAN Xing-jun

    2013-01-01

    We used a litterbag method to investigate litter decomposition and related soil degradative enzyme activities across four seasons in a broad-leaved forest and a coniferous forest on Zijin Mountain in sub-tropical China. Across four seasons, we quantified litter mass losses, soil pH values, and related soil degradative enzyme activities. Litter decomposition rates differed significantly by season. Litter decomposi-tion rates of broadleaf forest leaves were higher than for coniferous for-ests needles across four seasons, and maximal differences in litter de-composition rates between the two litter types were found in spring. Obvious differences in litter decomposition rates of the two litter types were found in winter, which were similar to rates in spring. Litter de-composition rates of the two litter types in autumn were significantly higher than in spring. Soil degradative enzyme activities were lowest in winter and highest in summer in most cases across four seasons.

  16. Diversity of Medicinal Plants among Different Forest-use Types of the Pakistani Himalaya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adnan, Muhammad; Hölscher, Dirk

    2012-12-01

    Diversity of Medicinal Plants among Different Forest-use Types of the Pakistani Himalaya Medicinal plants collected in Himalayan forests play a vital role in the livelihoods of regional rural societies and are also increasingly recognized at the international level. However, these forests are being heavily transformed by logging. Here we ask how forest transformation influences the diversity and composition of medicinal plants in northwestern Pakistan, where we studied old-growth forests, forests degraded by logging, and regrowth forests. First, an approximate map indicating these forest types was established and then 15 study plots per forest type were randomly selected. We found a total of 59 medicinal plant species consisting of herbs and ferns, most of which occurred in the old-growth forest. Species number was lowest in forest degraded by logging and intermediate in regrowth forest. The most valuable economic species, including six Himalayan endemics, occurred almost exclusively in old-growth forest. Species composition and abundance of forest degraded by logging differed markedly from that of old-growth forest, while regrowth forest was more similar to old-growth forest. The density of medicinal plants positively correlated with tree canopy cover in old-growth forest and negatively in degraded forest, which indicates that species adapted to open conditions dominate in logged forest. Thus, old-growth forests are important as refuge for vulnerable endemics. Forest degraded by logging has the lowest diversity of relatively common medicinal plants. Forest regrowth may foster the reappearance of certain medicinal species valuable to local livelihoods and as such promote acceptance of forest expansion and medicinal plants conservation in the region. ELECTRONIC SUPPLEMENTARY MATERIAL: The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s12231-012-9213-4) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.

  17. Forest cutting and regeneration methodology on Changbai Mountain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DAILi-min; SHAOGuo-fan; CHENGao; LIUXin-shuang; GUANZhi-peng; LIYang

    2003-01-01

    This paper discussed the characteristics of degenerated forest ecosystems in Changbai Mountain area,which include over-harvest natural forest,typical secondary forest,derived forest,and artificial forest.Forest cutting and regeneration methods that were historically used in the region were summarized.They lnclude diameter-class selective cutting,clearcutting,upbringing selective cutting,and selective sutting.We proposed cutting methods for the broad-leaved Korean pine mixed forest,spruce-fir forest,and larch forest.The measures for restoring the original mixed forest ecosystems were recommended.

  18. Earthworms as indicators for different forest management types and human disturbance in Ilam oak forest, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heydari Mehdi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available There has been observed widespread destruction of natural ecosystems around the world due to population growth, land use change and clear cutting which have affected soil properties. Different management strategies have been so far implemented to reduce this crisis in various regions of the world, such as e.g. short-term and long-term conservation management in the Zagros region. However, any management approach should be evaluated with appropriate measures to determine how managed areas respond. The main objective of the present study was to evaluate the potential of earthworms as an indicator for different forest management strategies and human disturbances in Zagros oak (Quercus persica Jaub. and Spach forest. The sites selected included undisturbed one as the control (Un, the sites under five-year conservation management (FCM and twenty-year conservation management (TCM as well as the disturbed site (D. The results of principal component analysis (PCA showed that different regions separated into the components: PC1 and PC2. Un and TCM sites gathered together and represented higher values of the factors such as pH, Kavailable, OC, clay content, Pavailable, CEC, overstory tree canopy, Ntot, biomass and abundance of earthworms. The positive direction of the first axis reflected a gradient of EC, BD and Ptot. According to the logistic model, NH4-N and EC played the most important role in earthworm presence and absence in Zagros forest ecosystem. Earthworm abundance and biomass could be a good indicator to evaluate different forest management strategies in the study area.

  19. Top-down control of herbivory by birds and bats in the canopy of temperate broad-leaved oaks (Quercus robur.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan M Böhm

    Full Text Available The intensive foraging of insectivorous birds and bats is well known to reduce the density of arboreal herbivorous arthropods but quantification of collateral leaf damage remains limited for temperate forest canopies. We conducted exclusion experiments with nets in the crowns of young and mature oaks, Quercus robur, in south and central Germany to investigate the extent to which aerial vertebrates reduce herbivory through predation. We repeatedly estimated leaf damage throughout the vegetation period. Exclusion of birds and bats led to a distinct increase in arthropod herbivory, emphasizing the prominent role of vertebrate predators in controlling arthropods. Leaf damage (e.g., number of holes differed strongly between sites and was 59% higher in south Germany, where species richness of vertebrate predators and relative oak density were lower compared with our other study site in central Germany. The effects of bird and bat exclusion on herbivory were 19% greater on young than on mature trees in south Germany. Our results support previous studies that have demonstrated clear effects of insectivorous vertebrates on leaf damage through the control of herbivorous arthropods. Moreover, our comparative approach on quantification of leaf damage highlights the importance of local attributes such as tree age, forest composition and species richness of vertebrate predators for control of arthropod herbivory.

  20. Development of spatial database on intact forest landscapes of India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudhakar Reddy, C.; Singh, Jyoti; Jha, C. S.; Diwakar, P. G.; Dadhwal, V. K.

    2017-01-01

    There is an increased interest in identifying the status of biodiversity in different spatial and temporal scales. The objective of the current research is to prepare a consistent spatial database of intact forest landscapes of India. The intact forest landscapes are located in the Himalayas, Andaman & Nicobar Islands, Western Ghats and Sunderbans. At national level 237 forest landscapes and 5.4% of the total natural forest remained as intact in India. Current intact forest landscapes of India consists of blocks larger than 10 km2 covering an area of 34,061 km2. Of the total area under intact forest landscapes, Eastern Himalayas represent 76.7% of the area, followed by Western Himalayas (8.8%), Andaman & Nicobar Islands (6.2%) and Western Ghats (5.7%). The largest intact forest landscape block occupies an area of 3342.9 km2 (9.8%) is found in western Arunachal Pradesh. Temperate forest zone represents the highest intactness (56.6%), followed by subtropical zone (19.2%), tropical zone (18.6%) and alpine zone (5.6%). Himalayan moist temperate forests represent the highest area (39.1%) of intact forest landscapes followed by subtropical broad-leaved hill forests, wet evergreen forests, and montane wet temperate forests. It is estimated that 4.4% of the area of intact forest landscapes fall inside the existing 47 protected areas. The results of the analysis best suited as input for the process of identification of new protected areas. The study recommends fine-scale mapping of biodiversity within the intact forest landscapes and to prepare efficient conservation plans.

  1. A Study on Forest Species Diversity and Its Ecological Service Function in the Plateau Area of Western Sichuan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Deng Yu-lin; Wang Yu-kuan; Peng Pei-hao

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents a study on species diversity and its ecological service function in the plateau area in western Sichuan. The results show that species diversity in the plantations on the cutover land has a tendency to increase and that its ecological service function is to be improved with stand age growing. The species diversity in forest communities is also gradually increased on different succession stage till reaching a climax level. But the species diversity in the climax community is slightly decreased before it reaches a relatively constant status. Ecological service function of diversity is gradually strengthened with the progress of succession. In addition, species diversity in a stand in a similar site and at a same age differs among forest types. Species diversity index within a coniferous and broad-leaved mixed forest is larger than that within a coniferous forest. Meanwhile, species diversity enriches as the tree density increases.

  2. Different cesium-137 transfers to forest and stream ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, Masaru; Gomi, Takashi; Negishi, Junjiro N; Iwamoto, Aimu; Okada, Kengo

    2016-02-01

    Understanding the mechanisms of (137)Cs movement across different ecosystems is crucial for projecting the environmental impact and management of nuclear contamination events. Here, we report differential movement of (137)Cs in adjacent forest and stream ecosystems. The food webs of the forest and stream ecosystems in our study were similar, in that they were both dominated by detrital-based food webs and the basal energy source was terrestrial litter. However, the concentration of (137)Cs in stream litter was significantly lower than in forest litter, the result of (137)Cs leaching from litter in stream water. The difference in (137)Cs concentrations between the two types of litter was reflected in the (137)Cs concentrations in the animal community. While the importance of (137)Cs fallout and the associated transfer to food webs has been well studied, research has been primarily limited to cases in a single ecosystem. Our results indicate that there are differences in the flow of (137)Cs through terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems, and that (137)Cs concentrations are reduced in both basal food resources and higher trophic animals in aquatic systems, where primary production is subsidized by a neighboring terrestrial ecosystem.

  3. Responses of soil respiration and its temperature/moisture sensitivity to precipitation in three subtropical forests in southern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Jiang

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Both long-term observation data and model simulations suggest an increasing chance of serious drought in the dry season and extreme flood in the wet season in southern China, yet little is known about how changes in precipitation pattern will affect soil respiration in the region. We conducted a field experiment to study the responses of soil respiration to precipitation manipulations – precipitation exclusion to mimic drought, double precipitation to simulate flood, and ambient precipitation as control (abbr. EP, DP and AP, respectively – in three subtropical forests in southern China. The three forest sites include Masson pine forest (PF, coniferous and broad-leaved mixed forest (MF and monsoon evergreen broad-leaved forest (BF. Our observations showed that altered precipitation strongly influenced soil respiration, not only through the well-known direct effects of soil moisture on plant and microbial activities, but also by modification of both moisture and temperature sensitivity of soil respiration. In the dry season, soil respiration and its temperature sensitivity, as well as fine root and soil microbial biomass, showed rising trends with precipitation increases in the three forest sites. Contrarily, the moisture sensitivity of soil respiration decreased with precipitation increases. In the wet season, different treatments showed different effects in three forest sites. The EP treatment decreased fine root biomass, soil microbial biomass, soil respiration and its temperature sensitivity, but enhanced soil moisture sensitivity in all three forest sites. The DP treatment significantly increased soil respiration, fine root and soil microbial biomass in the PF only, and no significant change was found for the soil temperature sensitivity. However, the DP treatment in the MF and BF reduced soil temperature sensitivity significantly in the wet season. Our results indicated that soil respiration would decrease in the three subtropical

  4. Doses reduzidas de herbicidas no controlo do Juncus Bufonius L. e infestantes dicotiledóneas em trigo de sementeira directa Reduced doses of herbicides to control Juncus Bufonius L. and broad-leaved weeds in no-till wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Calado Barros

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available O estudo foi levado a cabo nos anos de 2007/08 e 2008/09 numa herdade privada no distrito de Évora (Sul de Portugal, onde a cultura do trigo é semeada após o início das chuvas de Outono. O trigo foi estabelecido usando o sistema de sementeira directa, o qual possibilita a aplicação de herbicidas de pós-emergência numa fase mais precoce do desenvolvimento das infestantes. Para controlar o Juncus bufonius L. e diferentes infestantes de folha larga, foi aplicada uma mistura de dois herbicidas quando as infestantes se encontravam no estádio de desenvolvimento de 3-4 pares de folhas. Os herbicidas aplicados foram o mesossulfurão-metilo + iodossulfurão-metilo-sódio + mefenepir-dietilo (H1 e o clortolurão (H2 e utilizaram-se duas doses diferentes dos dois herbicidas. O maior controlo do J. bufonius foi obtido quando na mistura se utilizou a dose mais alta do herbicida H2 (2.0 L ha-1 e para se conseguir um maior controlo das infestantes dicotiledóneas foi também necessário aplicar a dose mais alta do herbicida H1 (0.3 kg ha-1. Apesar das diferenças na produção de grão não terem sido significativas para os diferentes tratamentos, verificou-se a tendência de um aumento na produção de grão com um controlo mais eficaz do Juncus bufonius L.The study was carried out over 2 years (2007/2008 and 2008/2009 on a private farm in the Alentejo region (Évora, in the South of Portugal where rainfed wheat is sown after the beginning of the autumn rainfall season. The wheat crop was established using no-till which permits the post-emergence application of herbicides at an early weed development stage. To control J. bufonius and different broad-leaved weeds, a mixture of two herbicides was used when the weeds were at the 3-4 pair of leaves development stage. The herbicides applied were mesosulfuron-methyl + iodosulfuron- methyl-sodium + mefenpyr-diethyl (H1 and clortoluron (H2 at two different doses. Best J. bufonius control was achieved with

  5. Comparison of Social Benefits of Forest under Different Management Models: A Case Study of Close-to-Nature Forest Management in Harbin, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Different forest management modes definitely create different results. A study of social benefits nurtured by scientific forest management had been conducted in 1998-2008 with Danqinghe Experiment Forest Farm, Zhuanshan Experiment Forest Farm and Shanhe Experiment Forest Farmtogether as the project area. The method that was centered on quantification and supplemented byqualification was employed to compare the social benefits of forests separately under the scientificmanagement model and the traditional man...

  6. Leaf and twig litter decomposition of main species in different forests along the north slope of Changbai Mountain,northeast China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Zhongling; LI Qingkang; ZHENG Jinping; LIU Wande; FAN Chunnan; MA Yuandan; YU Guirui; HAN Shijie

    2007-01-01

    From 2001 to 2003,the litter decomposition dynamics of dominant tree species were conducted using a litterbag burying method in the broadleaf-Korean pine forest,spruce-fir forest and Ermans birch forest,which represents three altitudinal belts in Changbai Mountain,northeast China.The spatial and temporal dynamics of litter decomposition and the effects of litter properties were examined.Furthermore,the decomposition trend of different species was simulated by the Olson model,and results showed that annual mass loss rates increased over time,but was not significantly correlated.Leaf decomposition rates increased after decomposing for 638 days (1.75 years),and the order of dry weight remaining rates of leaf litter for different species is:Asian white birch (Betula platyphylla) (24.56%)<Amur linden (Tilia amurensis) (24.81%) < Korean pine (Pinus koraiensis)(38.48%)<spruce (Picea jezoensis var. microsperma)(41.15%)< Ermans birch (Betula ermanii) (41.53%)<fir (Abies nephrolepis) (42.62%).The dry weight remaining rates of twig litter was smaller than that of leaf litter,and followed the order of Amur linden (44.98%)<fir (64.62%)<Korean pine (72.07%)<spruce (73.51%)<Asian white birch (77.37%)<Ermans birch (80.35%).The simulation results by the Olson model showed that,in leaf,the 95%-decomposition rates ranged from 4.5 to 8.0 years,and annual decomposition rate (k) followed the order of Amur linden (0.686)>Asian white birch (0.624)>Korean pine (0.441)>spruce (0.406)>fir (0.397)>Ermans birch (0.385);in twig,it ranged from 7.8 to 29.3 years,and k follows the order:Amur linden (0.391)>fir (0.204)>Korean pine (0.176)>spruce (0.157)>Asian white birch (0.148)>Ermans birch (0.102).In general,the differences of decomposition rate are evident between leaf and twig litter and among species,and were higher in broad-leaved species compared with coniferous species at the same elevation,and decreased with the ascending of elevation.

  7. [Dynamics of nitrogen and sulfur wet deposition in typical forest stand at different spatial levels in Simian Mountain, mid-subtropical region].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Tao; Ma, Ming; Wang, Ding-yong; Huang, Li-xin

    2014-12-01

    In order to investigate the dynamics of nitrogen and sulfur wet deposition in subtropical forest ecosystem, one typical forest stand, evergreen broad-leaved forest, at Simian Mountain located in Chongqing was selected in this research. Based on field monitoring, effects of precipitation, throughfall, litterfall, and groundwater runoff of the typical forest stand on the quality of water of Simian Mountain were investigated from September 2012 to August 2013. Results showed that the rainfall of Simian Mountain was apparently acidic, with average pH of 4.89 and maximum pH of 5.14. The soil, canopies and trunks could increase pH of precipitation, with soils having the maximum increment, followed by the forest canopy. Forest canopy had the function of adsorption and purification of NO3-, NO2- and SO4(2-), and the average entrapment rate was 56.68%, 45.84% and 35.51%, respectively. Moreover, the degradation of litter was probably the main reason for the increase of ion concentrations in the surface litter water. Forest soils could absorb and neutralize NO3-, SO2- and NH4+, and release NO2-. The evergreen broad-leaf forest of mid-subtropical region had the function of interception on NO3-, NO2-, NH4+ and SO4(2-), and the total entrapment rate was 92.86%, 57.86%, 87.24% and 87.25%, respectively, and it had a certain buffering function for the acid rain.

  8. Modeling forest aboveground biomass by combining spectrum, textures and topographic features

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mingshi LI; Ying TAN; Jie PAN; Shikui PENG

    2008-01-01

    Many textural measures have been developed and used for improving land cover classification accu-racy, but they rarely examined the role of textures in improving the performance of forest aboveground biomass estimations. The relationship between texture and biomass is poorly understood. In this paper, SPOT5 HRG datasets were ortho-rectified and atmospherically calibrated. Then the transform of spectral features is introduced, and the extraction of textural measures based on the Gray Level Co-occurrence Matrix is also implemented in accordance with four different directions (0°, 45°, 90o and 135°) and various moving window sizes, ranging from 3 x 3 to 51 x 51. Thus, a variety of textures were generated. Combined with derived topo-graphic features, the forest aboveground biomass estima-tion models for five predominant forest types in the scenic spot of the Mausoleum of Sun Yat-Sen, Nanjing, are identified and constructed, and the estimation accuracies exhibited by these models are also validated and evaluated respectively. The results indicate that: 1) Most textures are weakly correlated with forest biomass, but minority textural measures such as ME, CR and VA play a significantly effective and critical role in estimating forest biomass; 2) The textures of coniferous forest appear preferable to those of broad-leaved forest and mixed forest in representing the spatial configurations of forests;and 3) Among the topographic features including slope,aspect and elevation,aspect has the lowest correlation with the biomass of a forest in this study.

  9. Examining the effects of forest thinning on runoff responses at different catchments scales in forested headwaters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dung, B. X.; Gomi, T.; Onda, Y.; Kato, H.; Hiraoka, M.

    2012-12-01

    We conducted field observation in nested headwater catchments draining Japanese cypress (Chamaecyparis obtusa) and cedar (Cryptomeria japonica) forests at Tochigi prefectures for examining the effects of forest thinning on runoff generation at different catchment scales. 50% of the stems was removed with line thinning in catchment K2 (treatment catchment), while catchment K3 remained untreated as a control. We also monitored nested catchments within K2-1 (17.1 ha) as K2-2 (10.2 ha), K2-3 (3.7 ha) and K2-4 (5.1 ha), and within K3-1 (8.9 ha) as K3-2 (3.0 ha). Runoff from the catchments was monitored during the pre-thinning (from April, 2010 to May 2011), and the post-thinning periods (from June 2011 to July 2012). Paired-catchment and hydrograph separation analysis were used to evaluate the effects of forest thinning on runoff generation at different catchment scales. We developed the pre-thinning calibration equation for predicting post-thinning responses. Paired-catchment analysis revealed that annual catchment runoff increased 648 mm in K2-1, 414 mm in K2-2, 517 mm in K2-3 and 487 mm in K2-4 after the thinning. Both quick and delayed runoff components only increased significantly in the larger catchments of K2-1 and K2-2, while only delayed runoff components of smaller catchments (K2-3 and K2-4) increased significantly during the post-thinning period. Increases of quick runoff in large catchments could be associated with quick runoff response to soil surface compaction by line thinning and skid trail installation. Increases of delayed runoff in small catchment may be associated with increase in net precipitation and decrease in evapotranspiration. Our finding showed that changes in internal hydrological flow pathways and associated changes in runoff components due to forest harvesting differ depending on the catchment sizes.

  10. Climatic potential productivity and an IRS-1CWiFS image in Natural Park Los Alcornocales. Relationship with the standing forest biomass; Productividad Potencial Climatica y una imagen IRS-1CWiFS en el Parque Natural Los Alcornocales. Relacion con la biomasa forestal real

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cuevas, J. M.; Gonzalez-Alonso, F.; Roldan, A.; Huesca, M.

    2009-07-01

    It is studied the use of the Map of Forest Potential Productivity of Spain as information in base to which classify an Indian IRS-1C WiFS satellite image in Los Alcornocales Natural Park (Andalucia, Spain), a large forest area covered by natural forests of Mediterranean broad-leaved species, mainly cork oak (Quercus suber L.). Grouping the classes of climatic potential productivity of this map were obtained three macro classes that resulted significantly different among them at the 99% confidence level for the visible and the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) of the WiFS image. It was built a classifier using these macro classes of climatic potential productivity as ground truth areas. By maximum likelihood supervised classification of the NDVI were obtained classes who resulted significantly different among them at the 90% confidence level for the basal area from the Second Spanish National Forest Inventory ground plots located in the park. (Author) 60 refs.

  11. Examining the effects of forest thinning on hydrological processes at different catchment scales in forested headwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dung, Bui Xuan; Gomi, Takashi; Onda, Yuichi; Kato, Hiroaki; Hiraoka, Marino

    2013-04-01

    We conducted field observation in nested headwater catchments draining Japanese cypress (Chamaecyparis obtusa) and cedar (Cryptomeria japonica) forests at Tochigi prefecture for examining the effects of forest thinning on hydrological processes at different catchment scales. 50% of the stems was removed with line thinning in catchment K2 (treatment catchment), while catchment K3 remained untreated as a control. We monitored nested catchment within K2-1 (17.1 ha) as K2-2 (10.2 ha), K2-3 (3.7 ha) and K2-4 (5.1 ha), and within K3-1 (8.9 ha) as K3-2 (3.0 ha). Runoff from the catchments was monitored during the pre-thinning (from April, 2010 to May 2011), and the post-thinning periods (from June 2011 to December 2012). Paired-catchment and hydrograph separation analysis were used to evaluate the effects of forest thinning on hydrological processes at different catchment scales. We developed the pre-thinning calibration equation for predicting post-thinning behaviors. Paired catchment analysis revealed that annual catchment runoff increased 648 mm in K2-1, 414 mm in K2-2, 528 mm in K2-3, and 566 mm in K2-4 during the post-thinning period. Greater increase of flow in largest catchment (K2-1) was be due to the contribution of increased delayed flow from infiltrated water, reappearing as surface flow (i.e., quick flow) in the lower parts of the catchment, caused by harvested activities (logging, road, skid trail). Because both quick and delayed flows increased significantly in the larger catchments of K2-1 and K2-2, while only delayed flow of smaller catchments (K2-3 and K2-4) increased significantly during the post-thinning period. Delayed flow also increased greater in K2-3 and K2-4, smaller in K2-2 but greatest in K2-1. Moreover, the increasing contributions to runoff from deeper groundwater sources that are recharged in upslope subcatchments caused increase amount of flow. This was explained when increase of annual base flow (i.e., bedrock flow) of zero-order catchments

  12. Influence of different tree-harvesting intensities on forest soil carbon stocks in boreal and northern temperate forest ecosystems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clarke, Nicholas; Gundersen, Per; Jönsson-Belyazid, Ulrika;

    2015-01-01

    Effective forest governance measures are crucial to ensure sustainable management of forests, but so far there has been little specific focus in boreal and northern temperate forests on governance measures in relation to management effects, including harvesting effects, on soil organic carbon (SOC......) stocks. This paper reviews the findings in the scientific literature concerning the effects of harvesting of different intensities on SOC stocks and fluxes in boreal and northern temperate forest ecosystems to evaluate the evidence for significant SOC losses following biomass removal. An overview...... of existing governance measures related to SOC is given, followed by a discussion on how scientific findings could be incorporated in guidelines and other governance measures. The currently available information does not support firm conclusions about the long-term impact of intensified forest harvesting...

  13. [Soil microbial functional diversity of different altitude Pinus koraiensis forests].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Dong-xue; Wang, Ning; Wang, Nan-nan; Sun, Xue; Feng, Fu-juan

    2015-12-01

    In order to comprehensively understand the soil microbial carbon utilization characteristics of Pinus koraiensis forests, we took the topsoil (0-5 cm and 5-10 cm) along the 700-1100 m altitude in Changbai Mountains and analyzed the vertical distributed characteristics and variation of microbial functional diversity along the elevation gradient by Biolog microplate method. The results showed that there were significant differences in functional diversity of microbial communities at different elevations. AWCD increased with the extension of incubation time and AWCD at the same soil depth gradually decreased along with increasing altitude; Shannon, Simpson and McIntosh diversity index also showed the same trend with AWCD and three different diversity indices were significantly different along the elevation gradient; Species diversity and functional diversity showed the same variation. The utilization intensities of six categories carbon sources had differences while amino acids were constantly the most dominant carbon source. Principal component analysis (PCA) identified that soil microbial carbon utilization at different altitudes had obvious spatial differentiation, as reflected in the use of carbohydrates, amino acids and carboxylic acids. In addition, the cluster of the microbial diversity indexes and AWCD values of different altitudes showed that the composition of vegetation had a significant impact on soil microbial composition and functional activity.

  14. Evaluating spatial-temporal dynamics of net primary productivity of different forest types in northeastern China based on improved FORCCHN.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junfang Zhao

    Full Text Available An improved individual-based forest ecosystem carbon budget model for China (FORCCHN was applied to investigate the spatial-temporal dynamics of net primary productivity of different forest types in northeastern China. In this study, the forests of northeastern China were categorized into four ecological types according to their habitats and generic characteristics (evergreen broadleaf forest, deciduous broadleaf forest, evergreen needleleaf forest and deciduous needleleaf forest. The results showed that distribution and change of forest NPP in northeastern China were related to the different forest types. From 1981 to 2002, among the forest types in northeastern China, per unit area NPP and total NPP of deciduous broadleaf forest were the highest, with the values of 729.4 gC/(m(2•yr and 106.0 TgC/yr, respectively, followed by mixed broadleaf- needleleaf forest, deciduous needleleaf forest and evergreen needleleaf forest. From 1981 to 2002, per unit area NPP and total NPP of different forest types in northeastern China exhibited significant trends of interannual increase, and rapid increase was found between the 1980s and 1990s. The contribution of the different forest type's NPP to total NPP in northeastern China was clearly different. The greatest was deciduous broadleaf forest, followed by mixed broadleaf- needleleaf forest and deciduous needleleaf forest. The smallest was evergreen needleleaf forest. Spatial difference in NPP between different forest types was remarkable. High NPP values of deciduous needleleaf forest, mixed broadleaf- needleleaf forest and deciduous broadleaf forest were found in the Daxing'anling region, the southeastern of Xiaoxing'anling and Jilin province, and the Changbai Mountain, respectively. However, no regional differences were found for evergreen needleleaf NPP. This study provided not only an estimation NPP of different forest types in northeastern China but also a useful methodology for estimating forest

  15. 大别山自然保护区天然次生林分类及其生态位特征%Classification and ecological niche of natural secondary forest in the Nature Reserve of Dabie Mountain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张卓文; 王永健; 唐亚坤; ULRICH Apel; 王艳; 肖宋高; 李振

    2012-01-01

    Based on data with important values for classification and niche measuring,the classification, niche breadth and overlap of dominant woody species of natural secondary forest in Dabie Mountain Reserve were studied by means of sampling, two-way indicator species analysis (TWINSPAN) ,detrend-ed correspondence analysis (DCA) and niche analysis. The results showed that communities of natural secondary forest in Dabie Mountain Reserve were divided into six community types (coniferous forest I and II 籧oniferous broad-leaved mixed forest I and IJ , deciduous broad-leaved forest E and evergreen deciduous broad-leaved mixed forest F) based on TWINSPAN and DCA. DCA ordination figures also reflected the pattern of communities changing from the coniferous forest I and H to coniferous broad-leaved mixed forest I and JJ ,then to deciduous and evergreen deciduous mixed forest. Pinus massoni-ana and Pinus hivangshanensis had a large niche breadth in coniferous forest I and JJ . Pinus and Quer-cus both had larger niche in coniferous broad-leaved mixed forest I and TJ . Many woody species had larger niche in deciduous and evergreen deciduous mixed forest. The niche breadth and overlap of main dominant species in different communities might change according to the succession trend. It was feasible for using niche overlap index and species characteristic as the main evaluation criterion in terms of majority species relationships in different community succession.%通过样方调查、TWINSPAN分类与DCA排序及生态位分析,以物种重要值为分类排序与生态位计测的数据指标,研究湖北省大别山自然保护区天然次生林分类及优势木本生态位宽度与重叠.结果表明:应用TWINSPAN分类并结合DCA排序,可将植被划分为6个群落类型(针叶林Ⅰ、Ⅱ,针阔混交林Ⅰ、Ⅱ,E落叶阔叶林和F常绿落叶阔叶混交林).同时DCA排序图中反映了植被由针叶林Ⅰ、Ⅱ——针阔混交林Ⅰ、Ⅱ——落叶阔叶林与

  16. Long-term protection effects of national reserve to forest vegetation in 4 decades: Biodiversity change analysis of major forest types in Changbai Mountain Nature Reserve, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BAI Fan; SANG WeiGuo; LI GuangQi; LIU RuiGang; CHEN LingZhi; WANG Kun

    2008-01-01

    The Changbai Mountain Nature Reserve (CNR) was established in 1960 to protect the virgin Korean pine mixed hardwood forest, a typical temperate forest of northeast China. We conducted systematic stud-ies of vascular diversity patterns on the north slope of the CNR mountainside forests (800-1700 m a.s.I.) in 1963 and 2006 respectively. The aim of this comparison is to assess the long-term effects of the protection on plant biodiversity of CNR during the interval 43 years. The research was carried out in three types of forests: mixed coniferous and broad-leaved forest (MCBF), mixed coniferous forest (MCF), and sub-alpine coniferous forest (SCF), characterized by different dominant species. The alpha diversity indicted by species richness and the Shannon-Wiener index were found different in the same elevations and forest types during the 43-year interval. The floral composition and the diversity of vascular species were generally similar along altitudinal gradients before and after the 43-year interval, but some substantial changes were evident with the altitude gradient. In the tree layers, the dominant species in 2006 were similar to those of 1963, though diversity declined with altitude. The indices in the three forest types did not differ significantly between 1963 and 2006, and these values even increased in the MCBF and MCF from 1963 to 2006. However, originally dominant species, P. koraiensis for ex-ample, tended to decline, while the proportion of broad-leaved trees increased, and the species turn-over in the succession layers trended to shift to higher altitudes. The diversity pattern of the under canopy fluctuated along the altitudinal gradient due to micro-environmental variations. Comparison of the alpha diversity in the three forests shows that the diversity of the shrub and herb layer decreased with time. During the process of survey, we also found some rare and medicinal species disappeared. Analysis indicates that the changes of the diversity pattern

  17. Long-term protection effects of national reserve to forest vegetation in 4 decades: biodiversity change analysis of major forest types in Changbai Mountain Nature Reserve, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The Changbai Mountain Nature Reserve (CNR) was established in 1960 to protect the virgin Korean pine mixed hardwood forest, a typical temperate forest of northeast China. We conducted systematic stud- ies of vascular diversity patterns on the north slope of the CNR mountainside forests (800-1700 m a.s.l.) in 1963 and 2006 respectively. The aim of this comparison is to assess the long-term effects of the protection on plant biodiversity of CNR during the interval 43 years. The research was carried out in three types of forests: mixed coniferous and broad-leaved forest (MCBF), mixed coniferous forest (MCF), and sub-alpine coniferous forest (SCF), characterized by different dominant species. The alpha diversity indicted by species richness and the Shannon-Wiener index were found different in the same elevations and forest types during the 43-year interval. The floral composition and the diversity of vascular species were generally similar along altitudinal gradients before and after the 43-year interval, but some substantial changes were evident with the altitude gradient. In the tree layers, the dominant species in 2006 were similar to those of 1963, though diversity declined with altitude. The indices in the three forest types did not differ significantly between 1963 and 2006, and these values even increased in the MCBF and MCF from 1963 to 2006. However, originally dominant species, P. koraiensis for ex- ample, tended to decline, while the proportion of broad-leaved trees increased, and the species turn- over in the succession layers trended to shift to higher altitudes. The diversity pattern of the under canopy fluctuated along the altitudinal gradient due to micro-environmental variations. Comparison of the alpha diversity in the three forests shows that the diversity of the shrub and herb layer decreased with time. During the process of survey, we also found some rare and medicinal species disappeared. Analysis indicates that the changes of the diversity

  18. Long-term protection effects of National Reserve to forest vegetation in 4 decades: biodiversity change analysis of major forest types in Changbai Mountain Nature Reserve, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Fan; Sang, WeiGuo; Li, GuangQi; Liu, RuiGang; Chen, LingZhi; Wang, Kun

    2008-10-01

    The Changbai Mountain Nature Reserve (CNR) was established in 1960 to protect the virgin Korean pine mixed hardwood forest, a typical temperate forest of northeast China. We conducted systematic studies of vascular diversity patterns on the north slope of the CNR mountainside forests (800-1700 m a.s.l.) in 1963 and 2006 respectively. The aim of this comparison is to assess the long-term effects of the protection on plant biodiversity of CNR during the interval 43 years. The research was carried out in three types of forests: mixed coniferous and broad-leaved forest (MCBF), mixed coniferous forest (MCF), and sub-alpine coniferous forest (SCF), characterized by different dominant species. The alpha diversity indicted by species richness and the Shannon-Wiener index were found different in the same elevations and forest types during the 43-year interval. The floral composition and the diversity of vascular species were generally similar along altitudinal gradients before and after the 43-year interval, but some substantial changes were evident with the altitude gradient. In the tree layers, the dominant species in 2006 were similar to those of 1963, though diversity declined with altitude. The indices in the three forest types did not differ significantly between 1963 and 2006, and these values even increased in the MCBF and MCF from 1963 to 2006. However, originally dominant species, P. koraiensis for example, tended to decline, while the proportion of broad-leaved trees increased, and the species turnover in the succession layers trended to shift to higher altitudes. The diversity pattern of the under canopy fluctuated along the altitudinal gradient due to micro-environmental variations. Comparison of the alpha diversity in the three forests shows that the diversity of the shrub and herb layer decreased with time. During the process of survey, we also found some rare and medicinal species disappeared. Analysis indicates that the changes of the diversity pattern in

  19. Effects of Different Logging Techniques on Forest Soil Compaction at Mountainous Terrain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Habip Eroğlu

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In this study, it was investigated that the effects of different logging techniques on forest soil compaction in the Artvin region. For this purpose, soil penetration resistance was measured in a total of 12 experimental areas where each with 3 pieces, including logging with forest skyline, forest tractor, manpower and chute systems using penetrologger. As a result, changes of penetration resistances values at where logging with manpower and forest tractor according to control points were higher than logging with forest skyline and chute systems.

  20. Research on Functional Diversity of Typical Forest Communities in Pangquangou Natural Reserve in Shanxi%山西庞泉沟自然保护区典型森林群落功能多样性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭玉永

    2012-01-01

    Functional diversity and ecological significance of five different forests were analyzed by the functional diversity indices of Rao and CWM in Pangquangou Natural Reserve in Shanxi. Results showed that the indices of Rao and CWM had the same variation rule in different forest communities that indices of five forest communities ranked as mixed forest of Larix. principis-rupprechtii, mixed forest of picea, mixed forest of P. tabuliformis, mixed forest of coniferous and broad-leaved, mixed forest of broad-leaved and indices of tree layer, shrub layer, herb layer that ranked as arboreal layer, shrub layer, herb layer in forest community. This research also indicated that functional diversity index was positively related with the biodiversity index, and was closely related with the ecological significance such as productivity.%在山西庞泉沟自然保护区选取典型森林群落5类,设置15块样地,采用Rao指数和CWM指数计算群落的功能多样性指数,分析了不同森林群落功能多样性指数及其生态学意义。研究结果表明:不同群落类型群落功能Rao指数和CWM指数表现一致,基本排序为:华北落叶松混交林〉云杉混交林〉油松混交林〉阔针混交林〉阔叶树混交林,群落内不同层次间排序为:乔木层〉灌木层〉草本层。群落功能多样性指数与物种多样性指数呈显著正相关,并与群落生产力等功能特性密切相关。

  1. Plants Species Diversity in Hyrcanian Hardwood Forests, Northern Iran (Case Study: Mazandaran Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kambiz Abrari Vajari

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to better understand and manage forest ecosystems, it is important to study the relationship between environmental factors and plants in these ecosystems. We investigated plant species diversity of three hardwood forest stands in the Hyrcanian forests, Sari, northern Iran. Our aim was to determine the effect of forest stand type on the diversity of plant species. One plot 150 × 150 m established at the center of each forest stand and in each plot, nine subplots 50 × 50 m were selected. Diversity values (Richness, diversity and evenness indices were measured in five sample areas 0.01 ha per 50 × 50 m quadrates by estimating cover percentage of each species. The results showed that Geophytes (43.33% had the highest life form spectrum among species. JACCARD'S similarity index revealed that the highest values exist between Parrotia-Carpinus and Carpinus stands. All herb layer species diversity indices varied significantly among different forest stands. Cover percentage significantly positively correlated with diversity indices in Parrotia-Carpinus stand. Diversity and richness indices of herb-layers plants were significantly negatively correlated with cover percentage in Fagus stand. Correlation analysis between all diversity measures and cover percentage in Carpinus stand wasn't significant. The result of the present study revealed that species diversity in temperate broad-leaved deciduous forest was significantly influenced by forest stand type

  2. Characteristics of floor litter and soil arthropod community in different types of subtropical forest in Ailao Mountain of Yunnan, Southwest China%哀牢山不同类型亚热带森林地表凋落物及土壤节肢动物群落特征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨赵; 杨效东

    2011-01-01

    By using line transect method, an investigation was conducted on the floor litter and soil arthropod community in a mid mountain wet evergreen broad-leaved forest, a mossy dwarf forest, and a Populus bonatii forest in Ailao Mountain of Yunnan in April ( dry and hot season) , June ( rainy season) , and December (dry and cold season), 2005. In both dry and rainy seasons, the existing floor litter mass, C storage, and C/N ratio in the three forests all increased in the order of mossy dwarf forest > P. Bonatii forest > evergreen broad-leaved forest, but the N storage had less difference. In the floor litter layer of the forests, Acari and Collembola were the dominant groups of soil arthropod community, while Diptera larvae, Coleoptera, ants, and Homoptera were the common groups. The Sorenson coefficients of soil arthropod community in the three forests were extremely great. No significant differences were observed in the soil arthropod density (ind · M-2) in the floor litter layer among the three forests, but the relative density (ind · G-1 ) of soil arthropods was higher in the evergreen broad-leaved forest and P. Bonatii forest than in the mossy dwarf forest. In the three forests, the density of soil arthropods was significantly higher in dry season than in rainy season, but the Shannon diversity index had less difference. There were significant positive correlations between the existing floor litter mass and the individual density (ind · M-2 ) and dominant groups of soil arthropod communities in dry and hot season ( April) , but negative correlations between the existing floor litter mass and the relative density (ind · G-1) of soil arthropod communities and Acari in dry and cold season (December). The individual densities of Collembola and Coleop-tera also had positive correlations with the N storage of the existing floor litter mass in the three forests. It was considered that the floor litter and the development of soil arthropod community in the litter layer

  3. Effect of Different Ages of a Rehabilitated Forest on Selected Physico-chemical Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajeswari A.P. Murugayah

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: This research was important because of still lack of information about rehabilitated tropical forest age effect on infiltration rate. The objectives of this study were to determine the influence of age of forest on soil water infiltration rate and to evaluate the influence of forest age on the relationship between water infiltration rate, soil organic matter and soil texture. Approach: This study was conducted under a rehabilitated forest at Bukit Nyabau (University Putra Malaysia Bintulu Campus, UPMKB Forest. Soil organic matter, soil texture and infiltration rate were investigated in randomly selected blocks representing different age classes, namely two, four, six, eight and ten years. Results: The results indicated that 2, 4, 6 and 8 year old forest were not significantly different in organic matter content with the mean of 8.10+2.75, 9.32+3.50, 9.55+1.71 and 8.10+2.75% respectively. Besides, 10 year forest showed no significant differences compared with two and eight year forests. Soil texture for all the forests was sandy loam, except for the 4 year old forest which was a sandy clay loam. The lowest value of sand content was observed in four year forest. However, the clay content in this forest was statistically the highest compared with 2, 4, 8 and 10 year old forest. The infiltration rate of 6 years old forest was significantly greater in soil water infiltration rate with the mean of 5.0±0.02 mm m-1, compared with 2, 4, 8 and 10 years old forest with the means of 2.6±0.02, 4.2±0.03, 3.6±0.03 and 3.5±0.03 mm m-1 respectively. Eight and 10 year old forests showed no significant differences in terms of soil water infiltration rate and the lowest value of water infiltration rate was observed in the two year old forest. Conclusion: From the results, it can be concluded that the soil water infiltration rate in the forest is mainly influenced by soil texture and organic matter content, but not by forest age. However, the

  4. Simulation of the biomass dynamics of Masson pine forest under different management

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Gui-lian; WANG Kai-yun; LIU Xin-wei; PENG Shao-lin

    2006-01-01

    TREE submodel affiliated with TREEDYN was used to simulate biomass dynamics of Masson pine (Pinus massoniana) forest under different managements (including thinning, clear cutting, combining thinning with clear cutting). The purpose was to represent biomass dynamics involved in its development, which can provide scientific arguments for management of Masson pine forest. The results showed the scenario that 10% or 20% of biomass of the previous year was thinned every five years from 15 to 40 years made total biomass of pine forest increase slowly and it took more time to reach a mature community; If clear cutting and thinning were combined, the case C (clear cutting at 20 years of forest age, thinning 50% of remaining biomass at 30 years of forest age, and thinning 50% of remaining biomass again at 40 years of forest age) was the best scenario which can accelerate speed of development of Masson pine forest and gained better economic values.

  5. Changes in forest soil properties in different successional stages in lower tropical China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuelin Li

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Natural forest succession often affects soil physical and chemical properties. Selected physical and chemical soil properties were studied in an old-growth forest across a forest successional series in Dinghushan Nature Reserve, Southern China. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The aim was to assess the effects of forest succession change on soil properties. Soil samples (0-20 cm depth were collected from three forest types at different succession stages, namely pine (Pinus massoniana forest (PMF, mixed pine and broadleaf forest (PBMF and monsoon evergreen broadleaf forest (MEBF, representing early, middle and advanced successional stages respectively. The soil samples were analyzed for soil water storage (SWS, soil organic matter (SOM, soil microbial biomass carbon (SMBC, pH, NH4(+-N, available potassium (K, available phosphorus (P and microelements (available copper (Cu, available zinc (Zn, available iron (Fe and available boron (B between 1999 and 2009. The results showed that SWS, SOM, SMBC, Cu, Zn, Fe and B concentrations were higher in the advanced successional stage (MEBF stage. Conversely, P and pH were lower in the MEBF but higher in the PMF (early successional stage. pH, NH4(+-N, P and K declined while SOM, Zn, Cu, Fe and B increased with increasing forest age. Soil pH was lower than 4.5 in the three forest types, indicating that the surface soil was acidic, a stable trend in Dinghushan. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: These findings demonstrated significant impacts of natural succession in an old-growth forest on the surface soil nutrient properties and organic matter. Changes in soil properties along the forest succession gradient may be a useful index for evaluating the successional stages of the subtropical forests. We caution that our inferences are drawn from a pseudo-replicated chronosequence, as true replicates were difficult to find. Further studies are needed to draw rigorous conclusions regarding on nutrient dynamics in

  6. Recovery dynamics of secondary forests with different disturbance intensity in the Gutianshan National Nature Reserve

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    Yuanjie Xu

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the underlying processes of secondary forest recovery after disturbances such as logging is essential for biodiversity conservation and ecosystem rehabilitation. We surveyed 12 forest plots (1 ha in size with different extents of anthropogenic disturbances in the Gutianshan National Nature Reserve and explored the community dynamics of secondary forest recovery by applying multivariate statistical analysis. We found significant differences in community composition among various recovery phases, whereas high similarities of community composition were observed within the same recovery phase. No significant difference in species richness was observed among recovery stages, but species richness tended to increase during the recovery process. Species evenness in Chinese fir forests was relatively low whereas no significant difference occurred in other forests. The main differences in community composition and species diversity were found in the canopy layer. Respective indicator species were found in shrubs and regeneration layers during different recovery phases. The most representative indicator species were deciduous shrubs or heliophilous trees for plantation forests of Chinese fir, evergreen shrubs or small trees for young secondary forests, sub-canopy evergreen trees for old secondary forests, and canopy species for old-growth forests, respectively. Overall, species diversity recovered rigorously. Also the life-form composition of saplings in the same recovery phase presented consistent trends in spite of complex and unpredictable changes in species composition during the recovery process.

  7. Effects of elevated nitrogen deposition on soil microbial biomass carbon in major subtropical forests of southern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hui WANG; Jiangming MO; Xiankai LU; Jinghua XUE; Jiong LI; Yunting FANG

    2009-01-01

    The effects of elevated nitrogen deposition on soil microbial biomass carbon (C) and extractable dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in three types of forest of southern China were studied in November, 2004 and June, 2006. Plots were established in a pine forest (PF), a mixed pine and broad-leaved forest (MF) and monsoon evergreen broad-leaved forest (MEBF) in the Dinghushan Nature Reserve. Nitrogen treatments included a control (no N addition), low N (50 kg N/(hm2.a)), medium N (100 kg N/ (hm2. a)) and high N (150 kg N/(hm2. a)). Microbial biomass C and extractable DOC were determined using a chloro-form fumigation-extraction method. Results indicate that microbial biomass C and extractable DOC were higher in June, 2006 than in November, 2004 and higher in the MEBF than in the PF or the MF. The response of soil microbial biomass C and extractable DOC to nitrogen deposition varied depending on the forest type and the level of nitrogen treatment. In the PF or MF forests, no significantly different effects of nitrogen addition were found on soil microbial biomass C and extractable DOC. In the MEBF, however, the soil microbial biomass C generally decreased with increased nitrogen levels and high nitrogen addition significantly reduced soil microbial biomass C. The response of soil extractable DOC to added nitrogen in the MEBF shows the opposite trend to soil microbial biomass C. These results suggest that nitrogen deposition may increase the accumulation of soil organic carbon in the MEBF in the study region.

  8. Response of soil respiration to acid rain in forests of different maturity in southern China.

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    Guohua Liang

    Full Text Available The response of soil respiration to acid rain in forests, especially in forests of different maturity, is poorly understood in southern China despite the fact that acid rain has become a serious environmental threat in this region in recent years. Here, we investigated this issue in three subtropical forests of different maturity [i.e. a young pine forest (PF, a transitional mixed conifer and broadleaf forest (MF and an old-growth broadleaved forest (BF] in southern China. Soil respiration was measured over two years under four simulated acid rain (SAR treatments (CK, the local lake water, pH 4.5; T1, water pH 4.0; T2, water pH 3.5; and T3, water pH 3.0. Results indicated that SAR did not significantly affect soil respiration in the PF, whereas it significantly reduced soil respiration in the MF and the BF. The depressed effects on both forests occurred mostly in the warm-wet seasons and were correlated with a decrease in soil microbial activity and in fine root biomass caused by soil acidification under SAR. The sensitivity of the response of soil respiration to SAR showed an increasing trend with the progressive maturity of the three forests, which may result from their differences in acid buffering ability in soil and in litter layer. These results indicated that the depressed effect of acid rain on soil respiration in southern China may be more pronounced in the future in light of the projected change in forest maturity. However, due to the nature of this field study with chronosequence design and the related pseudoreplication for forest types, this inference should be read with caution. Further studies are needed to draw rigorous conclusions regarding the response differences among forests of different maturity using replicated forest types.

  9. Response of soil respiration to acid rain in forests of different maturity in southern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Guohua; Liu, Xingzhao; Chen, Xiaomei; Qiu, Qingyan; Zhang, Deqiang; Chu, Guowei; Liu, Juxiu; Liu, Shizhong; Zhou, Guoyi

    2013-01-01

    The response of soil respiration to acid rain in forests, especially in forests of different maturity, is poorly understood in southern China despite the fact that acid rain has become a serious environmental threat in this region in recent years. Here, we investigated this issue in three subtropical forests of different maturity [i.e. a young pine forest (PF), a transitional mixed conifer and broadleaf forest (MF) and an old-growth broadleaved forest (BF)] in southern China. Soil respiration was measured over two years under four simulated acid rain (SAR) treatments (CK, the local lake water, pH 4.5; T1, water pH 4.0; T2, water pH 3.5; and T3, water pH 3.0). Results indicated that SAR did not significantly affect soil respiration in the PF, whereas it significantly reduced soil respiration in the MF and the BF. The depressed effects on both forests occurred mostly in the warm-wet seasons and were correlated with a decrease in soil microbial activity and in fine root biomass caused by soil acidification under SAR. The sensitivity of the response of soil respiration to SAR showed an increasing trend with the progressive maturity of the three forests, which may result from their differences in acid buffering ability in soil and in litter layer. These results indicated that the depressed effect of acid rain on soil respiration in southern China may be more pronounced in the future in light of the projected change in forest maturity. However, due to the nature of this field study with chronosequence design and the related pseudoreplication for forest types, this inference should be read with caution. Further studies are needed to draw rigorous conclusions regarding the response differences among forests of different maturity using replicated forest types.

  10. Predicting the responses of forest distribution and aboveground biomass to climate change under RCP scenarios in southern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Erfu; Wu, Zhuo; Ge, Quansheng; Xi, Weimin; Wang, Xiaofan

    2016-11-01

    In the past three decades, our global climate has been experiencing unprecedented warming. This warming has and will continue to significantly influence the structure and function of forest ecosystems. While studies have been conducted to explore the possible responses of forest landscapes to future climate change, the representative concentration pathways (RCPs) scenarios under the framework of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) have not been widely used in quantitative modeling research of forest landscapes. We used LANDIS-II, a forest dynamic landscape model, coupled with a forest ecosystem process model (PnET-II), to simulate spatial interactions and ecological succession processes under RCP scenarios, RCP2.6, RCP4.5 and RCP8.5, respectively. We also modeled a control scenario of extrapolating current climate conditions to examine changes in distribution and aboveground biomass (AGB) among five different forest types for the period of 2010-2100 in Taihe County in southern China, where subtropical coniferous plantations dominate. The results of the simulation show that climate change will significantly influence forest distribution and AGB. (i) Evergreen broad-leaved forests will expand into Chinese fir and Chinese weeping cypress forests. The area percentages of evergreen broad-leaved forests under RCP2.6, RCP4.5, RCP8.5 and the control scenarios account for 18.25%, 18.71%, 18.85% and 17.46% of total forest area, respectively. (ii) The total AGB under RCP4.5 will reach its highest level by the year 2100. Compared with the control scenarios, the total AGB under RCP2.6, RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 increases by 24.1%, 64.2% and 29.8%, respectively. (iii) The forest total AGB increases rapidly at first and then decreases slowly on the temporal dimension. (iv) Even though the fluctuation patterns of total AGB will remain consistent under various future climatic scenarios, there will be certain responsive differences among various forest types.

  11. Characterization of humus microbial communities in adjacent forest types that differ in nitrogen availability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leckie, S E; Prescott, C E; Grayston, S J; Neufeld, J D; Mohn, W W

    2004-07-01

    To address the link between soil microbial community composition and soil processes, we investigated the microbial communities in forest floors of two forest types that differ substantially in nitrogen availability. Cedar-hemlock (CH) and hemlock-amabilis fir (HA) forests are both common on northern Vancouver Island, B.C., occurring adjacently across the landscape. CH forest floors have low nitrogen availability and HA high nitrogen availability. Total microbial biomass was assessed using chloroform fumigation-extraction and community composition was assessed using several cultivation-independent approaches: denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) of the bacterial communities, ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis (RISA) of the bacterial and fungal communities, and phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) profiles of the whole microbial community. We did not detect differences in the bacterial communities of each forest type using DGGE and RISA, but differences in the fungal communities were detected using RISA. PLFA analysis detected subtle differences in overall composition of the microbial community between the forest types, as well as in particular groups of organisms. Fungal PLFAs were more abundant in the nitrogen-poor CH forests. Bacteria were proportionally more abundant in HA forests than CH in the lower humus layer, and Gram-positive bacteria were proportionally more abundant in HA forests irrespective of layer. Bacterial and fungal communities were distinct in the F, upper humus, and lower humus layers of the forest floor and total biomass decreased in deeper layers. These results indicate that there are distinct patterns in forest floor microbial community composition at the landscape scale, which may be important for understanding nutrient availability to forest vegetation.

  12. BIOMASS AND MICROBIAL ACTIVITY UNDER DIFFERENT FOREST COVERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Malfitano Braga

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the soil fertility, biomass and microbial activity of the soil under forest cover of Eucalyptus grandis, Eucalyptus pilularis, Eucalyptus cloeziana and Corymbia maculata; Pinus Caribbean var. hondurensis, 40 years old, and a fragment of Semideciduous Forest, located on the campus of the Federal University of Lavras. In soil samples collected in the 0-5 cm layer were determined fertility parameters, basal respiration and microbial biomass carbon. The results showed that for the species E. grandis and E. cloeziana the carbon of biomass microbial content was higher than for any other ecosystem evaluated, and equal to those observed under native forest. In contrast, the ground under Pinus had the lowest microbiological indexes. Under C. maculata and E. pilularis the contents were intermediate for this parameter. The basal respiration of all ecosystems was equal. The fertility level was very low in all types of evaluated vegetation.

  13. Observed Differences in the Human Footprint and Forest Fragmentation in the Primary Forest Area of the Democratic Republic of Congo: A Remote Sensing Study for 2000-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molinario, G.

    2015-12-01

    Conflict in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) and neighboring countries has caused the displacement of people internally and internationally sometimes leading to drastic changes in the impact that traditional slash and burn shifting cultivation has on the forest ecosystem. In other areas, the lack of infrastructure and governance has isolated and protected areas of core forest from large scale exploitation. Observing specific patterns of forest fragmentation caused either by the expansion of existing rural complex areas or of isolated forest perforations has allowed us to track the differential growth of the human footprint throughout forested area of the country during the period 2000-2010. Our methodological approach involved the development of a model of shifting cultivation and forest fragmentation in which spatial rules applied morphological image processing to the Forets d'Afrique Central Evaluee par Teledetection (FACET) product. The result is a disaggregated classification of the primary forest into patch, edge, perforated, fragmented and core forest subtypes which we subsequently re-aggregated into homogenous anthropogenic macro-areas of rural complex and isolated forest perforations. We tracked how subsequent forest loss observed in 2005 and 2010 grew or shrunk these areas, presumably with differential impacts on the forest ecosystem. Using this approach we were able to map forest degradation by contextualizing the contribution of forest loss to change in different types of areas, highlighting how it can be greatly underestimated by a non contextualized per-pixel assessment of forest cover loss.

  14. Soil ni.trogen transformations varied with plant community under Nanchang urban forests in mid-subtropical zone of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    REN Wen; CHEN Fu-sheng; HU Xiao-fei; YU Ming-quan; FENG Xue

    2011-01-01

    Soil N transformations using the polyvinyl chloride (PVC)closed-top tube in situ incubation method were studied in Nanchang urban forests of the mid-subtropical region of China m different monthsof 2007.Four plots of 20 m × 20 m were established in four different plant communities that represented typical successional stages of forest development including shrubs,coniferous forest,mixed forest and broadleaved forest.Average concentrations of soil NH4+-N fiom January to December were not different among the four plant communities.The concentrations of soil NO3-N and mineral N,and the annual rates of ammonification,nitrification and net N-mineralization under the early successional shrub community and coniferous forest were generally lower than that of the late successional mixed and broad-leaved forests (p<0.05).Similar differences among the plant communities were also shown in the relative nitrification index (NH4+-N/NO3-N) and relative nitrification intensity (nitrification rate/net N-mineralization rate).The annual net N-mineralization rate was increased from younger to older plant communities,from 15.1 and 41.4 kg·ha-1·a-1 under the shrubs and coniferous forest communities to 98.0 and 112.9 kg·ha-1·a-1 under the mixed and broad-leaved forests,respectively.Moreover,the high annual nitrification rates (50-70 kg·ha-1·a-1) and its end product,NO3-N (2.4-3.8mg·kg-1),under older plant communities could increase the potential risk of N loss.Additionally,the temporal patterns of the different soil N variables mentioned above varied with different plant community due to the combined affects of natural biological processes associated with forest maturation and urbanization.Our results indicated that urban forests arc moving towards a state of"N saturation" (extremely nitrification rate and NO3-N content) as they mature.

  15. 北京引种7种常绿阔叶植物的抗寒适应性研究%The Cold Resistance of Seven Introduced Evergreen Broad-leaved Plants in Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金花; 王斌; 戴思兰; 杨秀珍

    2011-01-01

    The morphological, biochemical and physiological index of seven introduced evergreen broad-leaved plants in the over-wintering period in Beijing were studied from Nov. 2007 to Mar. 2008. The cold resistance of each introduced evergreen broad-leaved plant was evaluated, and the effect of each determination index in the evaluation was analyzed. The study showed that: the overall changes of water saturation deficit value, electrical conductivity, ration of bound water and free water, SOD activity, APX activity and soluble sugar content showed a trend of firstly rise and then decline, while chlorophyll content showed a trend of firstly decline and then rise, so they can be considered as the physiological index to evaluate cold resistance of evergreen broad-leaved plant; the changes of POD activity and MDA content were not significant, so they can hardly be the evaluation index for cold resistance of evergreen broad-leaved plant. Comprehensive analysis of each index found that the cold resistance of seven plants ordered as Cotoneaster suecicus Coral Beauty>Ilex meserveae Blue Princess and C. oleifera>Euonymus fortunei Emerald -'n' Gold and E. fortunei Emerald Gaiety >C. japonica and C. japon.ica April Rose. Consequently we suggested that when evaluate the cold resistance of the introduced evergreen broad-leaved plant should use comprehensive analysis method that using multiphysiological index, and combined with growing index.%2007年11月到2008年3月,对引种到北京的7种常绿阔叶植物越冬期间的形态指标和生理生化指标进行分析,评价各种引种材料的抗寒性,分析各测定指标在评价中的作用.研究发现:7种植物的水分饱和亏缺值、电导率、束缚水和自由水比值、SOD活性、APX活性以及可溶性糖含量总体呈现先上升后下降的趋势,叶绿素含量的变化则相反.呈现先下降后上升的变化,可以作为评价抗寒性的生理指标;而POD活性和MDA含量变化不明显,不宜

  16. Quantifying soil erosion with GIS-based RUSLE under different forest management options in Jianchang Forest Farm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG; Hengming; WANG; Qingli; DAI; Limin; Guofan; Shao; TANG; Lina; WANG; Shunzhong; GU; Huiyan

    2006-01-01

    Quantitatively estimating soil erosion with an integration of geographic information system (GIS) and the revised universal soil loss equation (RUSLE) under four different exposed soil proportion scenarios caused by forest management practices was studied at Jianchang Forest Farm. The GIS provided means of input data generation required by RUSLE model and allowed a spatial assessment of the erosion hazard over the study area. Four exposed soil proportion scenarios of 5%, 10%, 20% and 30% were tested with the GIS-based RUSLE model to evaluate soil erosion hazard. The predicted soil erosion potentials were classified into five categories in order to provide valuable aids for management planning.

  17. Arbuscular mycorrhizal associations in different forest tree species of Hazarikhil forest of Chittagong, Bangladesh

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    P.P.Dhar; M.A.U.Mridha

    2012-01-01

    Biodiversity ofarbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) colonization and AM fungal spores were studied in the roots and rhizosphere soils of Acacia catechu (L.f).Wild.,A.mangium Willd,Anthocephala cadamba Miq.,Artocarpus chaplasha Roxb.,Chickrassia tabularis A.Juss.,Swietenia macrophylla King.,Tectona grandis L.from plantations; Albizia procera (Roxb.) Benth.,A.falcataria L.,Alstonia scholaris (L.) R.Br.,Aphanamixis polystachya (Wall.) Parker.,Hydnocarpus kurzii (King.)Warb.,Heynea trijuga Roxb.,Lagerstroemia speciosa (L.) Pers.,Messua ferrea Linn.,Podocarpus nerifolia Don.,Swintonia floribunda Griff.,Syzygium fruticosum (Roxb.) DC.,S.grandis (Wt.) Wal.from forest and nursery seedlings of A.polystachya,A.chaplasha,Gmelina arborea Roxb.and S.cuminii (L.) Skeels from Hazarikhil forest,Chittagong of Bangladesh.Roots were stained in aniline blue and rhizosphere soils were assessed by wet sieving and decanting methods.The range of AM colonization varied significantly from 10%-73% in the plantations samples.Maximum colonization was observed in A.mangium (73%) and minimum colonization was observed in C tabularis (10%).Vesicular colonization was recorded 15%-67% in five plantation tree species.The highest was in A.cadamba (67%) and the lowest was in T.grandis; A.chaplasha and C tabularis showed no vesicular colonization.Arbuscular colonization was recorded 12%-60% in four plantation tree species.The highest was in A.mangium (60%) and the lowest was in A.cadamba.Roots of Artocarpus chaplasha,C tabularis and T.grandis showed no arbuscular colonization.Among 12 forest tree species,nine tree species showed AM colonization.The highest was in A.falcataria (62%) and the lowest was in S.fruticosum (10%).Significant variation in vesicular colonization was recorded in seven forest tree species.The highest was in H.trijuga (52%) and the lowest was in L.speciosa (18%).Hydnocarpus kurzii,M.ferrea,P.nerifolia S.fruticosum and S.grandis showed no vesicular colonization.Arbuscular colonization was

  18. ATTACHMENT TO FORESTS IN ROMANIA; DOES A HISTORY OF COLLECTIVISM MAKE A DIFFERENCE?

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    Maria ARDELEANU

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Forests in Romania are facing significant environmental problems. Due to the large transformations the forestry sector has undergone as a result of the communist period, sustainable forest management is highly relevant. Rural communities, who are dependent on the forests for their daily livelihood, need to be included in discussions regarding sustainable forest management. This paper calls for the need of understanding how these transformations have affected rural people’s attachment to the forests that have been for such a long time taken away from them. Two types of rural communities can be distinguished, those affected by collectivisation of agricultural land and those not. This paper addresses the functional and emotional attachment to the local forests of a former collectivized and of a non-collectivized community. We found that people in both communities are functionally attached to the forest, through a range of social benefits, mostly ‘recreation’ and ‘healthiness’, and economic benefits, especially the use of wood. Attachment was negative thru the economic detriments ‘decrease of wood availability’, ‘high costs of forest management’, ‘wood theft’ and ‘ineffective forest regime’. People in both communities are emotionally attached to the forest through feelings triggered mostly by a sense of kinship with family members. As a final conclusion, in the former collectivized rural areas, people are less attached to the forest compared to people in the non-collectivized rural areas and these differences can be linked to the transformations triggered by the former collectivisation process, but also to the weak regulation of the privatized forests, the limited financial possibilities and access restrictions.

  19. Forest biomass at Xiaolong Mountain in Gansu Province,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    In order to accurately estimate the size of the carbon pool and the capacity of the carbon sink in the forested areas of Xiaolong Mountain in Gansu Province,we have established regression equations of organ biomass of eight tree species.We measured and investigated the biomass of different forest stand types based on data from 1259 standard sample plots and 836 standard sample trees.for eight types of forest stands on Xiaolong Mountain,are as follows:Quercus aliena var.acuteserrata 84.05,Pinus tabulaeformis 62.44,Quercus variabilis 81.77,Populus sp.and Betula sp.combined 77.44,Larix sp.69.00,Pinus armandii 70.07,Picea sp.96.49 and Abies sp.98.72.We also looked at other broad-leaved mixed forests.Our study shows that the biomass of a single tree of each tree species is closely related to the diameter at breast height (DBH) and to tree height.The biomass of single trees as well as stand volumes is closely related to average DBH,average tree height and to stand density.

  20. The nitrogen budget for different forest types in the central Congo Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauters, Marijn; Verbeeck, Hans; Cizungu, Landry; Boeckx, Pascal

    2016-04-01

    Characterization of fundamental processes in different forest types is vital to understand the interaction of forests with their changing environment. Recent data analyses, as well as modeling activities have shown that the CO2 uptake by terrestrial ecosystems strongly depends on site fertility, i.e. nutrient availability. Accurate projections of future net forest growth and terrestrial CO2 uptake thus necessitate an improved understanding on nutrient cycles and how these are coupled to the carbon (C) cycle in forests. This holds especially for tropical forests, since they represent about 40-50% of the total carbon that is stored in terrestrial vegetation, with the Amazon basin and the Congo basin being the largest two contiguous blocks. However, due to political instability and reduced accessibility in the central Africa region, there is a strong bias in scientific research towards the Amazon basin. Consequently, central African forests are poorly characterized and their role in global change interactions shows distinct knowledge gaps, which is important bottleneck for all efforts to further optimize Earth system models explicitly including this region. Research in the Congo Basin region should combine assessments of both carbon stocks and the underlying nutrient cycles which directly impact the forest productivity. We set up a monitoring network for carbon stocks and nitrogen fluxes in four different forest types in the Congo Basin, which is now operative. With the preliminary data, we can get a glimpse of the differences in nitrogen budget and biogeochemistry of African mixed lowland rainforest, monodominant lowland forest, mixed montane forest and eucalypt plantations.

  1. PRECIPITATION AND NUTRIENT CONTRIBUTION IN DIFFERENT SUCCESSIONAL STAGES OF ATLANTIC FOREST, PINHEIRAL, RIO DE JANEIRO STATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anderson Ribeiro Diniz

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5902/1980509810550Forest cover has importance within the context of the water balance of a particular site and may alter the mechanism of entry of water and nutrients to the soil surface. The aim of this study was to quantify the net precipitation, interception addition of nutrients in throughfall and stem flow in a forest in different stages of regeneration Mata Atlântica: early-stage secondary forest (ESSF, intermediary stage secondary forest (ISSF and advanced stage secondary forest (AESF. The study was conducted in Pinheiral,  Rio de Janeiro state. The data collection was performed during the period April 2009 to March 2010. The values of incident precipitation,

  2. Soil fractal features of subalpine coniferous forests in western Sichuan under different anthropogenic disturbances

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIAO Yongmei; CHEN Jingsong

    2006-01-01

    Fractal theory,used to study natural figures and images with self-similarity but without characteristic lengths,offers an effective tool to investigate quantitatively the complex systems such as soil.In this paper,we have discussed about our study of the fractal features of the subalpine coniferous forests,soil particles,and microaggregates under different intensities of anthropogenic disturbances in the Miyaluo area of west Sichuan and investigated the effects of the disturbances on the forest soils attributed to different fractal dimensions.The study introduces a new way to investigate the recovery and reestablishment of subalpine coniferous forests.

  3. Biogenic volatile organic compound (BVOC) emissions from forested areas in Turkey: Determination of specific emission rates for thirty-one tree species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aydin, Yagmur Meltem; Yaman, Baris; Koca, Husnu; Dasdemir, Okan; Kara, Melik; Altiok, Hasan; Dumanoglu, Yetkin; Bayram, Abdurrahman [Department of Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Dokuz Eylul University, Tinaztepe Campus, Buca, Izmir (Turkey); Tolunay, Doganay [Department of Soil Science and Ecology, Faculty of Forestry, Istanbul University, Bahcekoy, Istanbul (Turkey); Odabasi, Mustafa [Department of Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Dokuz Eylul University, Tinaztepe Campus, Buca, Izmir (Turkey); Elbir, Tolga, E-mail: tolga.elbir@deu.edu.tr [Department of Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Dokuz Eylul University, Tinaztepe Campus, Buca, Izmir (Turkey)

    2014-08-15

    Normalized biogenic volatile organic compound (BVOC) emission rates for thirty one tree species that cover the 98% of national forested areas in Turkey were determined. Field samplings were performed at fourteen different forested areas in Turkey using a specific dynamic enclosure system. The selected branches of tree species were enclosed in a chamber consisted of a transparent Nalofan bag. The air-flows were sampled from both inlet and outlet of the chamber by Tenax-filled sorbent tubes during photosynthesis of trees under the presence of sunlight. Several environmental parameters (temperature, humidity, photosynthetically active radiation-PAR, and CO{sub 2}) were continuously monitored inside and outside the enclosure chamber during the samplings. Collected samples were analyzed using a gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC/MS) system equipped with a thermal desorber (TD). Sixty five BVOCs classified in five major groups (isoprene, monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes, oxygenated sesquiterpenes, and other oxygenated compounds) were analyzed. Emission rates were determined by normalization to standard conditions (1000 μmol/m{sup 2} s PAR and 30 °C temperature for isoprene and 30 °C temperature for the remaining compounds). In agreement with the literature, isoprene was mostly emitted by broad-leaved trees while coniferous species mainly emitted monoterpenes. Several tree species such as Sweet Chestnut, Silver Lime, and European Alder had higher monoterpene emissions although they are broad-leaved species. High isoprene emissions were also observed for a few coniferous species such as Nordmann Fir and Oriental Spruce. The highest normalized total BVOC emission rate of 27.1 μg/g h was observed for Oriental Plane while South European Flowering Ash was the weakest BVOC emitter with a total normalized emission rate of 0.031 μg/g h. Monoterpene emissions of broad-leaved species mainly consisted of sabinene, limonene and trans-beta-ocimene, while alpha-pinene, beta

  4. Soil uptake of carbonyl sulfide in subtropical forests with different successional stages in south China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Zhigang; Wang, Xinming; Sheng, Guoying; Zhang, Deqiang; Zhou, Guoyi; Fu, Jiamo

    2007-04-01

    The uptake rates of carbonyl sulfide (COS) by soils in subtropical forests with different successional stages were measured using static chambers in Dinghushan Biosphere Reserve (DBR) in south China from July 2004 to March 2005. The three typical tropical forests studied included monsoon evergreen broad-leaf forest (BF), pine and broad-leaf mixed forest (MF) and pine forest (PF), representing forests with different succession stages in the region. COS exchange rates were also compared between the plots with litter-fall remaining (plots L) and those with litter-fall removed (plots S) in each forest. Results showed that these forest soils all acted as sinks for COS with exchange rates of -1.22 to -11.82 pmol m-2 s-1. The MF in the midsuccessional stage had significantly higher uptake rates, and the mean exchange rates in the BF, MF, and PF were -3.90, -4.77, and -3.65 pmol m-2 s-1, respectively. COS uptake rates at plots L were higher than those at plots S. Mean COS fluxes were significantly higher in March (-6.06 pmol m-2 s-1) than those in July (-3.60 pmol m-2 s-1), August (-3.82 pmol m-2 s-1), September (-3.45 pmol m-2 s-1), and October (-3.54 pmol m-2 s-1). Significant correlation was observed between the COS uptake rates and soil respiration rates or microbial biomass, indicating that microbial activity was an important factor controlling the soil uptake of COS. Significant correlations between COS fluxes and initial COS mixing ratios were only observed in the BF and MF. COS fluxes showed no correlation with soil temperature or water content alone in any of the three forests, but do correlate well with soil temperature and water content together in polynomial forms with an order of 2.

  5. Higher subsoil carbon storage in species-rich than species-poor temperate forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schleuß, Per-Marten; Heitkamp, Felix; Leuschner, Christoph; Fender, Ann-Catrin; Jungkunst, Hermann F.

    2014-01-01

    Forest soils contribute ca. 70% to the global soil organic carbon (SOC) pool and thus are an important element of the global carbon cycle. Forests also harbour a large part of the global terrestrial biodiversity. It is not clear, however, whether tree species diversity affects SOC. By measuring the carbon concentration of different soil particle size fractions separately, we were able to distinguish between effects of fine particle content and tree species composition on the SOC pool in old-growth broad-leaved forest plots along a tree diversity gradient (1-, 3- and 5-species). Variation in clay content explained part of the observed SOC increase from monospecific to mixed forests, but we show that the carbon concentration per unit clay or fine silt in the subsoil was by 30-35% higher in mixed than monospecific stands indicating a significant species identity or species diversity effect on C stabilization. Underlying causes may be differences in fine root biomass and turnover, in leaf litter decomposition rate among the tree species, and/or species-specific rhizosphere effects on soil. Our findings may have important implications for forestry offering management options through preference of mixed stands that could increase forest SOC pools and mitigate climate warming.

  6. Variation of biomass and carbon pools with forest type in temperate forests of Kashmir Himalaya, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dar, Javid Ahmad; Sundarapandian, Somaiah

    2015-02-01

    influenced by vegetation type, stand structure, management history, and altitude. Our results reveal that a higher percentage (63 %) of C is stored in biomass and less in soil in these temperate forests except at the higher elevation broad-leaved BU forest. Results from this study will enhance our ability to evaluate the role of these forests in regional and global C cycles and have great implications for planning strategies for conservation. The study provides important data for developing and validating C cycling models for temperate forests.

  7. Carbon stocks and dynamics at different successional stages in an Afromontane tropical forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyirambangutse, Brigitte; Zibera, Etienne; Uwizeye, Félicien K.; Nsabimana, Donat; Bizuru, Elias; Pleijel, Håkan; Uddling, Johan; Wallin, Göran

    2017-03-01

    As a result of different types of disturbance, forests are a mixture of stands at different stages of ecological succession. Successional stage is likely to influence forest productivity and carbon storage, linking the degree of forest disturbance to the global carbon cycle and climate. Although tropical montane forests are an important part of tropical forest ecosystems (ca. 8 %, elevation > 1000 m a.s.l.), there are still significant knowledge gaps regarding the carbon dynamics and stocks of these forests, and how these differ between early (ES) and late successional (LS) stages. This study examines the carbon (C) stock, relative growth rate (RGR) and net primary production (NPP) of ES and LS forest stands in an Afromontane tropical rainforest using data from inventories of quantitatively important ecosystem compartments in fifteen 0.5 ha plots in Nyungwe National Park in Rwanda. The total C stock was 35 % larger in LS compared to ES plots due to significantly larger above-ground biomass (AGB; 185 and 76 Mg C ha-1 in LS and ES plots), while the soil and root C stock (down to 45 cm depth in the mineral soil) did not significantly differ between the two successional stages (178 and 204 Mg C ha-1 in LS and ES plots). The main reasons for the difference in AGB were that ES trees had significantly lower stature and wood density compared to LS trees. However, ES and LS stands had similar total NPP (canopy, wood and roots of all plots ˜ 9.4 Mg C ha-1) due to counterbalancing effects of differences in AGB (higher in LS stands) and RGR (higher in ES stands). The AGB in the LS plots was considerably higher than the average value reported for old-growth tropical montane forest of south-east Asia and Central and South America at similar elevations and temperatures, and of the same magnitude as in tropical lowland forest of these regions. The results of this study highlight the importance of accounting for disturbance regimes and differences in wood density and allometry of

  8. The saproxylic beetle assemblage associated with different host trees in Southwest China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jie Wu; Xiao-Dong Yu; Hong-Zhang Zhou

    2008-01-01

    Dead wood is a habitat for many insects and other small animals,some of which may be rare or endangered and in need of effective protection.In this paper,saproxylic beetle assemblages associated with different host trees in the subtropical forests in southwestern China were investigated.A total of 277 species (1 439 specimens) in 36 beetle families were collected from 117 dead wood samples,of which 101 samples were identified and respectively belonged to 12 tree genera.The number of saproxylic beetle species varied greatly among logs of different tree genera,with the highest diversity on logs of Juglans.Generally,broad-leaved trees had a higher richness and abundance of saproxylic species than coniferous trees.Cluster analysis revealed that assemblages from broad-leaved tree genera were generally similar (except for Betula) and assemblages from coniferous trees formed another distinct cluster.The subsequent indicator analysis proposed that there are different characteristic species for different cluster groups of host tree genera.In our study,log diameter has no positive influence on beetle species density.Conversely,comparisons of individual-based rarefaction curves suggested that beetle species richness was highest in the small diameter class both in coniferous and broad-leaved tree genera.With increased wood decay,proportion of habitat specialists (saproxylic beetles living on one tree genus)decreased,whereas proportion of habitat generalists (living on more than three tree genera)increased.The beetle species density was found to be higher in early stages,and decreased in later stages as well.A negative influence of altitude on saproxylic beetle species richness and abundance was detected.It was indicated that different tree genera and altitudes possibly display cross effects in modulating the altitudinal distribution and host preference of the beetles.

  9. Throughfall in different forest stands of Iperó, São Paulo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esthevan Augusto Goes Gasparoto

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In forestry, throughfall (Pi is that fraction of rainfall that runs directly through the tree canopy and reaches the ground. It is characterized as the main source of water supply in a watershed. This study aimed to analyze the dynamics of throughfall in three types of forest stands, namely Eucalyptus cloeziana, Pinus sp. and seasonal semideciduous forest (FES, all located in Ipanema National Forest, in the municipality of Iperó-SP. In each stand, a 300 m² plot was established in which ten rain gauges were installed for monitoring throughfall, and three rain gauges were installed in an open area adjacent to the stand for measuring gross precipitation (P. At the end of 25 observations, it was observed that, relative to P values, Pi values were 76.2% in semideciduous forest (FES, 85.1% in E.cloeziana forest and 84.0% in Pinus sp forest. In addition, comparing these stands, a larger leaf canopy coverage and consequently greater capability for water retention was noted in the semideciduous forest. However, no statistical differences were observed (P<0.05 between the stands of interest regarding throughfall.

  10. Sediment dynamics in restored riparian forest with different widths and agricultural surroundings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stucchi Boschi, Raquel; Simões da Silva, Laura; Ribeiro Rodrigues, Ricardo; Cooper, Miguel

    2016-04-01

    The riparian forests are essential to maintaining the quality of water resources, aquifer recharge and biodiversity. Due to the ecological services provided by riparian forests, these areas are considered by the law as Permanent Preservation Areas, being mandatory maintenance and restoration. However, the obligation of restoration and the extent of the Permanent Preservation Areas as defined by the Brazilian Forest Code, based on water body width, elucidates the lack of accurate scientific data on the influence of the size of the riparian forest in maintaining their ecological functions, particularly regarding the retention of sediments. Studies that evaluate the ideal width of riparian forests to guarantee their ecological functions are scarce and not conclusive, especially when we consider newly restored forests, located in agricultural areas. In this study, we investigate the dynamics of erosion and sedimentation in restored riparian forests with different widths situated in agricultural areas. The two study areas are located in a Semideciduous Tropical Forest inserted in sugarcane landscapes of São Paulo state, Brazil. The installed plots had 60 and 100 m in length and the riparian forest has a width of 15, 30 and 50 m. The characteristics of the sediments inside the plots were evaluated by detailed morphological and micromorphological studies as well as physical characterization. The dynamics of deposition and the amount of deposited sediments have been assessed with graded metal stakes partially buried inside the plots. The intensity, frequency and distribution of rainfall, as well as the occurrence of extreme events, have been evaluated by data collected from rain gauges installed in the areas. We expect that smaller widths are not able to retain sediments originated from the adjacent sugarcane areas. We also believe that extreme events are responsible for generating most of the sediments. The results will be important to support the discussion about an

  11. Comparison between mycocenosis living in forest of Cestnut reforested with Douglas Fir; Confronto tra micocenosi presenti nei boschi di latifoglie e rimboschimenti di Douglasia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andreotti, A.; Serra, F. [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Brasimone, Bologna (Italy). Dipt. Ambiente; Dalla Valle, E.; Govi, G. [Bologna, Univ. (Italy). Dipt. di Protezione e Valorizzazione Agroalimentare. Centro di Micologia

    1997-05-01

    In this technical report the results of a first mycological research carried out from 1989 to 1990 in Brasimone in the high Bolognan Appennines (Northern Italy) are shown. The study was taken up by making a comparison between the fungus community living in forest plots with different vegetation; in particular, the mycocenosis of plots reforested with Douglas Fir (Pseudotsuga (Mirb.) Franco) with those of Beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) and Cestnut (Castanea sativa Mill.) woods were compared. The results show that the specific richness clearly decreases form mixed broad-leaved forest (90 species) to the mono specific plantation of P. menziesii (41 species). Particularly in the artificial plantation with exotic trees, there are few symbiont species while the saprophytic wood and litter fungi abound in relationship with the large bulk of undecomposed vegetable material present in these habitats.

  12. Evaluating regional differences in macroinvertebrate communities from forested depressional wetlands across eastern and central North America.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batzer, Darold, P.; Dietz-Brantley, Susan E.; Taylor, Barbera E.; DeBiase, Adrienne E.

    2005-02-12

    Batzer, Darold, P., Susan E. Dietz-Brantley, Barbera E. Taylor, and Adrienne E. DeBiase. 2005. Evaluating regional differences in macroinvertebrate communities from forested depressional wetlands across eastern and central North America. J. N. Am. Benthol. Soc. 24(2):403-414. Abstract. Forested depressional wetlands are an important seasonal wetland type across eastern and central North America. Macroinvertebrates are crucial ecosystem components of most forested depressional wetlands, but community compositions can vary widely across the region. We evaluated variation in macroinvertebrate faunas across eastern and central North America using 5 published taxa lists from forested depressional wetlands in Michigan, Ontario, Wisconsin, Florida, and Georgia. We supplemented those data with quantitative community descriptions generated from 17 forested depressional wetlands in South Carolina and 74 of these wetlands in Minnesota. Cluster analysis of presence/absence data from these 7 locations indicated that distinct macroinvertebrate communities existed in northern and southern areas. Taxa characteristic of northern forested depressionalwetlands included Sphaeriidae, Lumbriculidae, Lymnaeidae, Physidae, Limnephilidae, Chirocephalidae, and Hirudinea (Glossophoniidae and/or Erpodbellidae) and taxa characteristic of southern sites included Asellidae, Crangonyctidae, Noteridae, and Cambaridae. Quantitative sampling in South Carolina and Minnesota indicated that regionally characteristic taxa included some of the most abundant organisms, with Sphaeriidae being the 2nd most abundant macroinvertebrate in Minnesota wetlands and Asellidae being the 2nd most abundant macroinvertebrate in South Carolina wetlands. Mollusks, in general, were restricted to forested depressional wetlands of northern latitudes, a pattern that may reflect a lack of Ca needed for shell formation in acidic southern sites. Differences in community composition probably translate into region

  13. Soc stock in different forest-related land-uses in central Stara planina mountain, Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiyanski Miglena

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Forest conversions may lead to an accumulation of carbon in vegetation, but little is known about changes in soil C storage with establishment of plantation forests. Understanding these effects is important to addressing issues relevant to ecosystem function and productivity, and to global balance of carbon. The study investigated the effects of the created coniferous plantations on former beech and pasture sites on the soil organic carbon storage. The major forest-related land-uses in the high mountainous regions of central Stara Planina Mountain were investigated: mountainous pasture, coniferous plantations (planted on previous pasture and beech forests between four and five decades ago and natural beech forests. The experimental data of soil properties, conducted in 2005, 2006 and 2007, were used in determining the variations in organic carbon storage in forest litter and in mineral soil under different land-use patterns. At each site five representative soil profiles were opened and described giving a total 75 soil samples from the soil layers respectively at 0-10, 10-30 and 30-50 cm depth. A total of 55 samples from forest floor layers (Aol, Aof, Aoh and greensward were collected with 25:25 cm plastic frame. The main soil properties were determined in accordance with the standardized methods in the Laboratory of soil science at the Forest Research Institute - BAS. The IPCC Good Practice Guidance for Land Use, Land Use Change and Forestry was used to estimate the soil organic carbon stock in soil and litter. The results obtained showed that the SOC stock was quite similar among forest land-uses. The conversion of natural beech forests to coniferous plantations in studied region is related with slightly expressed decrease in soil carbon storage. The values of SOC stocks in 0-50 cm soil layer in these sites were 8.5 (±2.1 tones/ha for pine and 11.0 (±1.4 tones/ha for spruce, while under the natural beech forest it was 14.8 (±1.0 tones

  14. Influence of different forest system management practices on leaf litter decomposition rates, nutrient dynamics and the activity of ligninolytic enzymes: a case study from central European forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purahong, Witoon; Kapturska, Danuta; Pecyna, Marek J; Schulz, Elke; Schloter, Michael; Buscot, François; Hofrichter, Martin; Krüger, Dirk

    2014-01-01

    Leaf litter decomposition is the key ecological process that determines the sustainability of managed forest ecosystems, however very few studies hitherto have investigated this process with respect to silvicultural management practices. The aims of the present study were to investigate the effects of forest management practices on leaf litter decomposition rates, nutrient dynamics (C, N, Mg, K, Ca, P) and the activity of ligninolytic enzymes. We approached these questions using a 473 day long litterbag experiment. We found that age-class beech and spruce forests (high forest management intensity) had significantly higher decomposition rates and nutrient release (most nutrients) than unmanaged deciduous forest reserves (Penzyme patterns compared to the unmanaged deciduous forest reserves, but most nutrient dynamics examined in this study were significantly faster under such near-to-nature forest management practices. Analyzing the activities of ligninolytic enzymes provided evidence that different forest system management practices affect litter decomposition by changing microbial enzyme activities, at least over the investigated time frame of 473 days (laccase, PMnP), P = 0.0260). Our results also indicate that lignin decomposition is the rate limiting step in leaf litter decomposition and that MnP is one of the key oxidative enzymes of litter degradation. We demonstrate here that forest system management practices can significantly affect important ecological processes and services such as decomposition and nutrient cycling.

  15. Response of clonal plasticity of Fargesia nitida to different canopy conditions of subalpine coniferous forest

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jianping TAO; Lixia SONG; Yongjian WANG; Weiyin ZHANG

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study is to explore the effects of canopy conditions on clump and culm numbers, and the morphological plasticity and biomass distribution patterns of the dwarf bamboo species Fargesia nitida. Specifically, we investigated the effects of canopy condi-tions on the growth and morphological characteristics of F. nitida, and the adaptive responses of F. nitida to dif-ferent canopy conditions and its ecological senses. The results indicate that forest canopy had a significant effect on the genet density and culm number per clump, while it did not affect the ramet density. Clumps tended to be few and large in gaps and forest edge plots, and small under forest understory plots. The ramets showed an even distribution under the closed canopy, and clus-ter distribution under gaps and forest edge plots. The forest canopy had a significant effect on both the ramets'biomass and biomass allocation. Favourable light conditions promoted ramet growth and biomass accumulation. Greater amounts of biomass in gaps and forest edge plots were shown by the higher number of culms per clump and the diameter of these culms. Under closed canopy, the bamboos increased their branching angle, leaf biomass allocation, specific leaf area and leaf area ratio to exploit more favourable light conditions in these locations. The spacer length, specific spacer length and spacer branching angles all showed significant differences between gaps and closed canopy conditions. The larger specific spacer length and spacer branching angle were beneficial for bamboo growth, scattering the ramets and exploiting more favourable light conditions. In summary, this study shows that to varying degrees, F nitida exhibits both a wide ecological amplitude and high degree of morphological plasticity in response to differing forest canopy conditions. More-over, the changes in plasticity enable the plants to optimize their light usage efficiency to promote growth and increase access to resources available in

  16. Different season, different strategies: Feeding ecology of two syntopic forest-dwelling salamanders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebastiano, Salvidio; Antonio, Romano; Fabrizio, Oneto; Dario, Ottonello; Roberta, Michelon

    2012-08-01

    Trophic niche may be the most important ecological dimension for some vertebrate groups and in particular for terrestrial amphibians, that are important predators of soil invertebrates. In general, resource partitioning occurs between syntopic species with similar ecological niches, and coexistence patterns seem to be regulated by temporal resource variability. However most of the generalization on foraging strategies of terrestrial salamanders are extrapolated from studies on New World temperate species, thus we investigated the seasonal effect of resource variation in an European forest ecosystem, in which two ecologically similar but phylogenetically distinct salamander species are found. The diet of adult and juvenile cave salamanders (Speleomantes strinati), and of adult spectacled salamander (Salamandrina perspicillata) was obtained by stomach flushing, and results showed large seasonal changes both in prey availability and in salamander realised trophic niche. Values of trophic diversity were similar and niche overlaps were large among all salamander groups in spring, during high prey availability. Conversely in autumn, when a two-fold reduction in prey biomass was observed, there was a clear niche partitioning as the smaller S. perspicillata shifted from a generalist to a specialized trophic strategy. Juvenile Speleomantes strinatii, that largely overlapped in size with S. perspicillata, did not show any change in diet, suggesting that the feeding strategies were species-specific and not size-mediated. The observed patterns of variation in feeding ecology indicate that similar predators may react differently to changing prey availability to enhance niche partitioning. We also observed an increased energy intake during autumn for S perspicillata and S. strinatii juveniles, possibly related to differences in microhabitat use and activity patterns.

  17. Diversity of Ixodes ricinus tick-associated bacterial communities from different forests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Overbeek, van L.S.; Gassner, F.; Lombaers-van der Plas, C.H.; Kastelein, P.; Nunes da Rocha, U.; Takken, W.

    2008-01-01

    Nymphal Ixodes ricinus ticks (n=180) were collected from three different areas in the Netherlands to investigate the effect of forest composition on tick-associated microbial communities. Sampled habitats differed in thickness of leaf litter and humus layers and vegetation associations and were loca

  18. NORMALIZED DIFFERENCE SNOW INDEX SIMULATION FOR SNOW-COVER MAPPING IN FOREST BY GEOSAIL MODEL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAO Yun-gang; LIU Chuang

    2006-01-01

    The snow-cover mapping in forest area is always one of the difficult points for optical satellite remote sensing. To investigate reflectance variability and to improve the mapping of snow in forest area, GeoSail model was used to simulate the reflectance of a snow-covered forest. Using this model, the effects of varying canopy density, solar illumination and view geometry on the performance of the MODIS (Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer)snow-cover mapping algorithm were investigated. The relationship between NDSI (Normalized Difference Snow Index), NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index) and snow fraction was discussed in detail. Results indicated that the weak performance would be achieved if fixed criteria were used for different regions especially in the complicated land cover components. Finally, some suggestions to MODIS SNOWMAP algorithm were put forward to improve snow mapping precision in forest area based on the simulation, for example, new criteria should be used in coniferous forest, that is, NDSI greater than 0.3 and NDVI greater than zero. Otherwise, a threshold on view zenith angle may be used in the criteria such as 45°.

  19. Effects of different forest practices on Pinus tabulaeformis population dynamics and species diversity in the Huanglongshan forest region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Tao; ZHANG Wenhui; LU Yuanchang; FAN Shaohui

    2007-01-01

    Three Pinus tabulaeformis populations which experienced tending,shelterwood cutting,and closed tending were separately investigated to study the effects of these three forest practices on the age structures,static life tables,survivorship curves,and species diversities of P.tabulaeformis populations in Huanglongshan Mountain.Time sequence model was adopted to predict the dynamic population numbers of different P tabulaeformis populations with different forest practices.The results revealed that the three populations are essentially identical in population structure,their young and old individuals make up a small proportion and their mid-aged individuals make up a large proportion and consequentially P.tabulaeformis populations generally stand stable.In the P tabulaeformis communities with three tending practices,the highest species abundance index appears with tending and shelterwood cutting and the highest evenness index and species diversity appears with closed tending.The P.tabulaeformis populations with tending and shelterwood cutting practices belong to one developmental type and the P.tabulaeformis populations with closed tending practices belong to a stable type.It indicated that in the future,closed tending as the major practice and tending and shelterwood cutting as the supporting practices should be applied for P tabulaeformis populations in Huanglongshan Mountain so that the communities will develop continuously.

  20. Influence of different forest system management practices on leaf litter decomposition rates, nutrient dynamics and the activity of ligninolytic enzymes: a case study from central European forests.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Witoon Purahong

    Full Text Available Leaf litter decomposition is the key ecological process that determines the sustainability of managed forest ecosystems, however very few studies hitherto have investigated this process with respect to silvicultural management practices. The aims of the present study were to investigate the effects of forest management practices on leaf litter decomposition rates, nutrient dynamics (C, N, Mg, K, Ca, P and the activity of ligninolytic enzymes. We approached these questions using a 473 day long litterbag experiment. We found that age-class beech and spruce forests (high forest management intensity had significantly higher decomposition rates and nutrient release (most nutrients than unmanaged deciduous forest reserves (P<0.05. The site with near-to-nature forest management (low forest management intensity exhibited no significant differences in litter decomposition rate, C release, lignin decomposition, and C/N, lignin/N and ligninolytic enzyme patterns compared to the unmanaged deciduous forest reserves, but most nutrient dynamics examined in this study were significantly faster under such near-to-nature forest management practices. Analyzing the activities of ligninolytic enzymes provided evidence that different forest system management practices affect litter decomposition by changing microbial enzyme activities, at least over the investigated time frame of 473 days (laccase, P<0.0001; manganese peroxidase (MnP, P = 0.0260. Our results also indicate that lignin decomposition is the rate limiting step in leaf litter decomposition and that MnP is one of the key oxidative enzymes of litter degradation. We demonstrate here that forest system management practices can significantly affect important ecological processes and services such as decomposition and nutrient cycling.

  1. Factors controlling regional differences in forest soil emission of nitrogen oxides (NO and N2O)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pilegaard, K.; Skiba, U.; Ambus, P.;

    2006-01-01

    Soil emissions of NO and N2O were measured continuously at high frequency for more than one year at 15 European forest sites as part of the EU-funded project NOFRETETE. The locations represent different forest types (coniferous/deciduous) and different nitrogen loads. Geoaphically they range from...... to a compact and moist litter layer lead to N2O production and NO consumption in the soil. The two factors soil moisture and soil temperature are often explaining most of the temporal variation within a site. When comparing annual emissions on a regional scale, however, factors such as nitrogen deposition...

  2. Structural Characteristics of Evergreen Broad-leaved Forest in Jiulianshan Mountain of Subtropical China%江西九连山自然保护区常绿阔叶林的结构特征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    简敏菲; 刘琪璟

    2008-01-01

    基于线路和样方调查的基础上分析了九连山国家级自然保护区常绿阔叶林的结构特征.优势科主要为壳斗科(Fagaceae)、樟科(Lauraceae)、山茶科(Theaceae)、安息香科(Styracaceae)、杜鹃花科(Ericaceae)、木兰科(Magnolicceae)、槭树科(Aceraceae)、枫香科(Altingiaceae)、冬青科(Aquifoliaceae)、厚皮香科(Ternstroemiaceae)、柿树科(Ebenaceae)、桃金娘科(Myrtaceae)、杜英科(Elaeocarpaceae)等科,优势树种也以相应的优势科属树种为主.调查中,胸径DBH≥3 cm的乔木个体密度1 808株/hm2;优势层相对较高大,平均高度达到11.5 m;乔木垂直分化较明显,树种水平分布不均.九连山现状植被是天然原生植被、次生植被和人工植被的混合体,并常见有阳性落叶树如枫香(Liquidambar formosana)、拟赤杨(Alniphyllum fortunei)、光皮桦(Betula luminifera)等侵入林窗,形成常绿与落叶阔叶树的混交林.

  3. Study on the spatial pattern of three Cyclobalanopsis' broad-leaved forest in subtropical zone%3种青冈的空间分布格局研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘标; 江希钿; 胡宗庆; 华伟平; 林琴琴

    2013-01-01

    在福建宁德支提山国家森林公园、福建南平茫荡山自然保护区以及福建闽清黄槠林自然保护区,对突脉青冈、小叶青冈和福建青冈群落进行空间格局研究.聚集度指标表明,突脉青冈、小叶青冈和福建青冈群落空间分布型均为聚集分布,聚集原因为种群与环境共同作用引起.回归模型偏离度计算表明,兰星平的La-X指标对突脉青冈、小叶青冈和福建青冈群落的空间分布型拟合效果最好,其次是Iwao的X*-X回归模型,Taylor幂法则对3种群落的空间分布型拟合效果最差.%In Zhiti Mountain Scenic Area of Ningde,Mangdangshan Nature Reserve of Nanping and Huangzhulin Nature Reserve of Minqing,the spatial patterns of Cyclobalanopsis elevaticostata community,Cyclobalanopsis myrsinaefolia community and Cyclobalanopsis chungii community were investigated.The aggregation indices indicated that the spatial patten of Cyclobalanopsis elevaticostata community,Cyclobalanopsis myrsinaefolia community and Cyclobalanopsis chungii community were aggregated distribution,due to the interaction of population and environment.Deviation calculation of regression model showed that,La-X-indexs was the best on the fitting effect in the spatial distribution,followed by Iwao X"-X regression model,Taylor power method was the worst.

  4. 江西九连山常绿阔叶林下蕨类植物的特征%Structural Characteristics on Pteridophytic Community of Evergreen Broad -leaved Forest in Jiulianshan Mountain of subtropical China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    简敏菲; 刘琪璟; 涂洁; 罗淑琴

    2008-01-01

    基于线路调查与样地调查的基础上,分析了九连山国家级自然保护区常绿阔叶林下蕨类植物的组成、总优势度、环境梯度等结构特征与分布特点.结果表明:研究区群落内蕨类植物主要由17科20属26种组成,主要的优势科有乌毛蕨科Blechnaceae、里白科Gleicheniaceae、鳞毛蕨科Dryopteridaceae、水龙骨科Polypodiaceae、凤尾蕨科Pteridaeeae、卷柏科Selaginellaceae、莲座蕨科Angiopteridaceae等;主要的优势种群有狗脊蕨Woodwardia japonica、中华里白Diplopterygium chinense、贯众Cyrtomium fortunei、凤尾蕨Pteris neruosa、攀援星蕨Microsorium buergerianum、江南卷柏Selaginella moellendotfli、瓦韦Lepisorus thunbergianus、大芒萁Dicranopteris ampla、蕨Pteridium aquilinum、福建莲座蕨Angiogpteris fokiensis、里白Diplopterygium glaucum、胎生狗脊蕨Woodwardia prolifera等.环境梯度分析表明,九连山常绿阔叶林80%的蕨类植物分布在海拔600~800 m的黄红壤区域内.

  5. Effects of Simulated Nitrogen Deposition on Soil Respiration in Northern Subtropical Deciduous Broad-leaved Forest%模拟氮沉降对北亚热带落叶阔叶林土壤呼吸的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡正华; 李涵茂; 杨燕萍; 陈书涛; 李岑子; 申双和

    2010-01-01

    于2008年4月~2009年4月在龙王山北亚热带落叶阔叶林地进行模拟氮沉降试验,利用静态箱-气相色谱法测定土壤呼吸,研究氮沉降增加对森林土壤呼吸的影响.结果表明,氮沉降没改变土壤呼吸的季节性变化规律和日变化规律.与对照(CK)相比,低氮(TL)、中氮(TM)和高氮(TH)处理使森林土壤年平均呼吸速率分别降低了8.51%、9.74%和11.24%,使日平均呼吸速率分别降低了4.42%、11.09%和12.17%.森林土壤呼吸与土壤温度存在极显著的指数关系(p<0.01),CK、TL、TM和TH的土壤呼吸温度敏感系数(Q10)分别为2.53、3.22、2.64和2.92,氮沉降提高了林地土壤呼吸的温度敏感系数.本研究表明,氮沉降显著降低了森林土壤呼吸,但提高了土壤呼吸的温度敏感性.

  6. Responses of Soil Respiration to Simulated Nitrogen Deposition in an Evergreen Broad-Leaved Forest in Jinyun Mountain%缙云山常绿阔叶林土壤呼吸对模拟氮沉降的响应

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙素琪; 王玉杰; 王云琦; 张会兰; 李云霞; 于雷; 胡波; 刘婕

    2014-01-01

    通过原位喷施,设置对照(CK,0 kgN.hm-2a-1)、低氮(T50,50 kgN· hm-2a-1)、中氮(T100,100 kgN.hm-2a-1)和高氮(T150,150 kgN·hm-2a-1)4个氮沉降处理,研究重庆缙云山常绿阔叶林土壤呼吸对模拟氮沉降的响应.结果表明:CK,T50,T100和T150氮沉降处理的土壤呼吸速率分别为(4.31±1.14),(3.42±0.74),(2.81±0.38)和(2.49±0.32) μmol·m-2s-1,相对于CK处理,氮沉降处理使土壤呼吸速率显著降低(P<0.05);土壤呼吸速率与5和10 cm深处土壤温度间均存在显著指数正相关关系(P<0.01);4个处理5 cm深处的土壤呼吸温度敏感系数Q10值分别为2.07,1.81,1.62和1.54,10 cm深处的Q10值分别为2.11,1.83,1.63和1.55,氮沉降处理抑制了土壤呼吸温度敏感性;土壤呼吸速率与土壤含水量之间相关性较弱.

  7. 川西南常绿阔叶林土壤呼吸及其对氮沉降的响应%Soil Respiration and Its Response to Simulated Nitrogen Deposition in Evergreen Broad-Leaved Forest, Southwest Sichuan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋学贵; 胡庭兴; 鲜骏仁; 肖春莲; 刘文婷

    2007-01-01

    通过原位进行低氮(LN,50 kg N/hm2·a)、中氮(MN,100 kg N/hm2·a)和高氮(HN,150 kg N/hm2·a)处理,研究了川西南天然常绿阔叶林土壤呼吸及其对模拟N沉降的响应.结果表明:(1)该森林土壤呼吸速率最大值612.21±77.82 mg CO2/m2·h出现在7月份,最小值108.95±17.01 mg CO2/m2·h出现在2月,年均土壤呼吸速率为348.00±157.83 mg CO2/m2·h,年均土壤呼吸通量为8.31±3.77 t C/hm2·a.采用双因素关系模型(Rs=aebTWc),土壤温度和土壤湿度共同解释了该常绿阔叶林2005年10月~2006年7月土壤呼吸速率季节变化的68.6%~73.9%,其拟合结果优于以土壤湿度或温度为参数的单因素关系模型.影响土壤呼吸速率的主导因子是温度,其地表温度变化响应的敏感程度Q10值为2.12,以土壤5 cm深处的温度为参数时,Q10值为2.51.(2)N沉降处理3个月后,该森林中HN和MN处理的土壤呼吸速率(309.43±17.24 mg CO2/m2·h,303.82±11.50 mgCO2/m2·h)均显著高于CK(269.28±13.78 mg CO2/m2·h)(P<0.05);处理4个月后,HN的土壤呼吸速率(272.42±13.25 mg CO2/m2·h)均显著高于MN(239.65±10.33 mg CO2/m2·h)、LN(229.10±9.90 mg CO2/m2·h)和CK(234.51±12.77 mg CO2/m2·h)(P<0.05);但处理7~10个月时,各处理之间无显著差异.研究表明,N沉降初期明显促进了常绿阔叶林土壤呼吸,后期无明显影响.

  8. Seasonal diversity of butterflies and their larval food plants in the surroundings of upper Neora Valley National Park, a sub-tropical broad leaved hill forest in the eastern Himalayan landscape, West Bengal, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Sengupta

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Seasonal butterfly diversity in the adjacent areas of the upper Neora Valley National Park, a part of the Himalayan landscape, was studied. The available larval host plant resources present within, as well as in the adjoining areas of transect were identified. A total of 4163 butterflies representing 161 species belonging to five families were recorded during this study. One-hundred-and-forty-three species of plants belonging to 44 families served as the larval food plants of butterflies. The maximum number of butterfly species and maximum number of individuals were sampled during the monsoons. The monsoons with least skewed rank abundance curve of species distribution, was also marked by maximum species diversity and maximum species evenness. This was probably due to the abundant distribution of luxurious vegetation that served as food plants for the larval stages of butterflies. Nymphalidae was the most dominant family with 43.48% of the total number of species. Autumn followed by the monsoon was associated with high species richness probably due to the abundance of vegetation that provides foliage to its larval stages.

  9. Evaluation of a method for removing cesium and reducing the volume of leaf litter from broad-leaved trees contaminated by the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear accident during the Great East Japan Earthquake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harada, Shigeki; Yanagisawa, Mitsunori

    2017-04-01

    The town of Marumori in southern Miyagi Prefecture borders on Fukushima Prefecture, and following the accident at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant, there were concerns about cesium deposition in forested areas. One of the authors of this paper has continually surveyed leaf litter from the forested areas. As leaf litter may be a source of cesium contamination from the forest to downstream areas, we considered a simplified version of wet oxidation, a method previously presented by one of the authors of this study, as a technology to reduce leaf litter weight and cesium concentration, separating radioactive nuclides from non-radioactive ones, in leaf litter. We tested our method in three experiments. Experiment 1 used new leaf litter (232 Bq/kg) from the surface of a small stream at the forest edge nearby an area with air dose level higher than the national standard threshold of 0.23 μSv/h for the implementation of governmental decontamination works. Experiment 2 applied wet oxidation to older leaf litter (705 Bq/kg) harvested from a pasture nearby the stream mentioned above. We also used the same leaf litter in experiment 3 for a cesium release tests using pure water. In experiment 1 and 2 we treated leaf litter with a sodium hypochlorite solution, optimizing sodium hypochlorite concentration and reaction temperature. We measured a 50-60% decrease in the leaf litter weight and a 60% decrease in the cesium concentration. Moreover, we also measured the amount of cesium washout. The cesium budget of experiment 1 showed no cesium gasification (wet oxidation avoids airborne cesium as this element is prone to be volatile at 600 °C), and that high sodium hypochlorite concentration and high temperature had a strong positive effect on leaf litter volume reduction and cesium decontamination. Experiment 2 confirmed the reproducibility of these results in leaves with different cesium concentration and harvested in different conditions. We could also explain the

  10. Classifying Complex Mountainous Forests with L-Band SAR and Landsat Data Integration: A Comparison among Different Machine Learning Methods in the Hyrcanian Forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Attarchi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Forest environment classification in mountain regions based on single-sensor remote sensing approaches is hindered by forest complexity and topographic effects. Temperate broadleaf forests in western Asia such as the Hyrcanian forest in northern Iran have already suffered from intense anthropogenic activities. In those regions, forests mainly extend in rough terrain and comprise different stand structures, which are difficult to discriminate. This paper explores the joint analysis of Landsat7/ETM+, L-band SAR and their derived parameters and the effect of terrain corrections to overcome the challenges of discriminating forest stand age classes in mountain regions. We also verified the performances of three machine learning methods which have recently shown promising results using multisource data; support vector machines (SVM, neural networks (NN, random forest (RF and one traditional classifier (i.e., maximum likelihood classification (MLC as a benchmark. The non-topographically corrected ETM+ data failed to differentiate among different forest stand age classes (average classification accuracy (OA = 65%. This confirms the need to reduce relief effects prior data classification in mountain regions. SAR backscattering alone cannot properly differentiate among different forest stand age classes (OA = 62%. However, textures and PolSAR features are very efficient for the separation of forest classes (OA = 82%. The highest classification accuracy was achieved by the joint usage of SAR and ETM+ (OA = 86%. However, this shows a slight improvement compared to the ETM+ classification (OA = 84%. The machine learning classifiers proved t o be more robust and accurate compared to MLC. SVM and RF statistically produced better classification results than NN in the exploitation of the considered multi-source data.

  11. Streamflow response of a small forested catchment on different timescales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Zabaleta

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The hydrological response of a catchment to rainfall on different timescales is result of a complex system involving a range of physical processes which may operate simultaneously and have different spatial and temporal influences. This paper presents the analysis of streamflow response of a small humid-temperate catchment (Aixola, 4.8 km2 in the Basque Country on different timescales and discusses the role of the controlling factors. Firstly, daily time series analysis was used to establish a hypothesis on the general functioning of the catchment through the relationship between precipitation and discharge on an annual and multiannual scale (2003–2008. Second, rainfall-runoff relationships and relationships among several hydrological variables, including catchment antecedent conditions, were explored at the event scale (222 events to check and improve the hypothesis. Finally, the evolution of electrical conductivity (EC during some of the monitored storm events (28 events was examined to identify the time origin of waters. Quick response of the catchment to almost all the rainfall events as well as a considerable regulation capacity was deduced from the correlation and spectral analyses. These results agree with runoff event scale data analysis; however, the event analysis revealed the non-linearity of the system, as antecedent conditions play a significant role in this catchment. Further, analysis at the event scale made possible to clarify factors controlling (precipitation, precipitation intensity and initial discharge the different aspects of the runoff response (runoff coefficient and discharge increase for this catchment. Finally, the evolution of EC of the waters enabled the time origin (event or pre-event waters of the quickflow to be established; specifically, the conductivity showed that pre-event waters usually represent a high percentage of the total discharge during runoff peaks. The importance of soil waters in the

  12. Operational efficiency of forest energy supply chains in different operational environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roeser, D.

    2012-06-15

    Ambitious international efforts to combat climate change have lead to a large interest about the use of forest biomass for energy in many countries. In order to meet the expected growing demand in the future, it will be necessary to improve operational efficiency of existing forest energy supply chains and support the establishment of efficient supply chains in new operational environments. The thesis applied a three-dimensional approach which examines forest energy supply chains from a technical, social and economic viewpoint. Four case studies in different operational environments have been carried out to investigate the applicability of the three dimensional approach to improve operational efficiency. The technical dimension was investigated in Paper 1 and 2. In Paper 1, the effects of climatic conditions, covering of piles, and partial debarking on drying of roundwood were studied in four experimental trials located in Scotland, Finland and Italy. In Paper 2, the chipping of forest biomass was studied in two different operational environments. The investigation of the social dimension in Paper 3 provides insights into the setup of two different supply chains through business process mapping and simulation. Finally, in paper 4, which investigated the economic dimension, an analysis of the effect of the operational environment on technology selection and design of supply chains, is presented. The thesis demonstrates that the chosen approach was practical to investigate the complex relationships between the chosen technologies and different supply chain actors and stakeholders thereby contributing to maintain or improve operational efficiency of forest energy supply chains. Due to its applicability in different operational environments, the approach is also suitable in a more global context. Furthermore, it captures the effect of different aspects and characteristics of the various operational environments on the setup and organization of supply chains. This will

  13. Sampling Ozone Exposure of Canadian Forests at Different Scales: Some Case Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.M. Cox

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of passive samplers in extensive monitoring, such as that used in national forest health monitoring plots, indicates that these devices are able to determine both spatial and temporal differences in ozone exposure of the plots. This allows for categorisation of the plots and the potential for cause-effect analysis of certain forest health responses. Forest exposure along a gradient of air pollution deposition demonstrates large variation in accumulated exposures. The efficacy of using passive samplers for in situ monitoring of forest canopy exposure was also demonstrated. The sampler data produced weak relationships with ozone values from the nearest �continuous� monitor, even though data from colocated samplers showed strong relationships. This spatial variation and the apparent effect of elevation on ozone exposure demonstrate the importance of topography and tree canopy characteristics in plant exposure on a regional scale. In addition, passive sampling may identify the effects of local pollutant gases, such as NO, which may scavenge ozone locally only to increase the production of this secondary pollutant downwind, as atmospheric reactions redress the equilibrium between concentrations of this precursor and those of the generated ozone. The use of passive samplers at the stand level is able to resolve vertical profiles within the stand and edge effects that are important in exposure of understorey and ground flora. Recent case studies using passive samplers to determine forest exposure to ozone indicate a great potential for the development of spatial models on a regional, landscape, and stand level scale.

  14. Functional trait strategies of trees in dry and wet tropical forests are similar but differ in their consequences for succession.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohbeck, Madelon; Lebrija-Trejos, Edwin; Martínez-Ramos, Miguel; Meave, Jorge A; Poorter, Lourens; Bongers, Frans

    2014-01-01

    Global plant trait studies have revealed fundamental trade-offs in plant resource economics. We evaluated such trait trade-offs during secondary succession in two species-rich tropical ecosystems that contrast in precipitation: dry deciduous and wet evergreen forests of Mexico. Species turnover with succession in dry forest largely relates to increasing water availability and in wet forest to decreasing light availability. We hypothesized that while functional trait trade-offs are similar in the two forest systems, the successful plant strategies in these communities will be different, as contrasting filters affect species turnover. Research was carried out in 15 dry secondary forest sites (5-63 years after abandonment) and in 17 wet secondary forest sites (species to make species-trait PCA biplots for dry and wet forest and compare trait trade-offs. We evaluated whether multivariate plant strategies changed during succession, by calculating a 'Community-Weighted Mean' plant strategy, based on species scores on the first two PCA-axes. Trait spectra reflected two main trade-off axes that were similar for dry and wet forest species: acquisitive versus conservative species, and drought avoiding species versus evergreen species with large animal-dispersed seeds. These trait associations were consistent when accounting for evolutionary history. Successional changes in the most successful plant strategies reflected different functional trait spectra depending on the forest type. In dry forest the community changed from having drought avoiding strategies early in succession to increased abundance of evergreen strategies with larger seeds late in succession. In wet forest the community changed from species having mainly acquisitive strategies to those with more conservative strategies during succession. These strategy changes were explained by increasing water availability during dry forest succession and increasing light scarcity during wet forest succession. Although

  15. 我国东北4种常见阔叶乔木物候对气候变化的响应%Response of 4 Common Broad-Leaved Arbors Phenology to Climate Change in the Northeast China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    裴顺祥; 郭泉水; 辛学兵; 刘玮; 洪明

    2011-01-01

    物候现象是指示气候及自然环境变化的重要指标(Pe(n)uelas et al.,2001;Moresette et al.,2009).自然物候记录可以提供全球环境变化最直接和最有效的证据.已有研究结果表明,受全球气候变化影响,1952-2000年地中海地区(Pe(n)uelas et al.,2001)、1851-1994年匈牙利(Walkovszky,1998)、1936-1998年美国Wisconsin地区(Bradley et al.,1999)和1970-1999年美国华盛顿地区(Abu-Asab et al.,2001)的许多植物花期提前了1个星期左右;中国北纬33°左右地区植物的早春物候每10年提前1.1 ~4.3天,晚春物候提前1.4~5.4天(Zheng et al.,2006).%In order to reveal the response of four broad - leaved arbors to climate change, we studied relationships between interannual variations of air temperature and various phenophases (I.e., seasonal biological events) of broad-leaved arbors species ( Betula platyphylla, Juglans mandshurica, Ulmus pumila and Morus alba ) in the Harbin, based on meteorological data from 1951 -2008 and phenological data from 1963 -2008. Results showed that the air temperature in Harbin had an increasing trend from 1951 to 2008, especially after 1978. The increase of the annual minimum temperature was greater than that of the annual maximum temperature and annual mean temperature. Annual precipitation slightly increased, but not significantly. In the period of 1963 -2008, bud burst, beginning of leaf expansion and first flowering of the 4 species all shifted to 5. 7 d, 10. 2 d and 7. 9 d earlier, respectively, and end of leaf - falling was delayed for 7. 5 d. The pattern of phenological change was consistent with that of air temperature change. The phenophases earlier or later was mainly subjected to air temperature, especially the mean temperature of the same month and previous month when phenophase began. The phenophase had little correlation with the precipitation. When the mean temperature in March rose up by 1 ℃ , Betula platyphylla, Juglans mandshurica, Ulmus pumila

  16. Calcium weathering in forested soils and the effedt of different tree species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, F.A.; Breemen, van N.; Jongmans, A.G.; Davies, G.R.; Likens, G.E.

    2003-01-01

    Soil weathering can be an important mechanism to neutralize acidity in forest soils. Tree species may differ in their effect on or response to soil weathering. We used soil mineral data and the natural strontium isotope ratio Sr-87/Sr-86 as a tracer to identify the effect of tree species on the Ca w

  17. Photosynthetic acclimation to light changes in tropical monsoon forest woody species differing in adult stature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cai, Z.Q.; Rijkers, A.J.M.; Bongers, F.J.J.M.

    2005-01-01

    We studied morphological and physiological leaf and whole-plant features of seedlings of six late-successional woody species common in the Xishuangbanna lowland rain forest in southwest China. Study species differed in adult stature and shade tolerance and included the shrubs Lasianthus attenuatus J

  18. Pentatomids associated with different forest species in Itaara, RS, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ervandil Corrêa Costa

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine qualitatively and quantitatively the pentatomid fauna associated with the canopy of different native species during the period from September 2005 to September 2006. Insects were collected from among nine botanical species: Gochnatia polymorpha (Less. (cambará, Eugenia uniflora Berg. (pitangueira, Acca selowiana (Berg Burret (goiaba-da-serra, Psidium cattleianum Sabine (araçá, Baccharis spp., Solanaum mauritianum Scop. (fumo-bravo, Micanea cinerascens Miq. (passiquinho, Calliandra brevipes Bhent. (caliandra, and Schinus molle L. (aroeira located at Rodolfo da Costa Dam in Itaara, RS, Brazil. Samples were taken every two weeks with a conical funnel made of tin plate (2mm, 70cm in diameter at the rim and 63cm in height. One sample per botanical species for each sampling date was taken, by shaking the branches, ten times over the funnel. Samples were sent to the Entomology Laboratory of the Crop Protection Department of the Federal University of Santa Maria, where the material was analyzed. A total of nine Pentatomidae species were identified. Edessa rufomarginata (De Geer, 1773 was the species of highest ocurrence followed by Thyanta humilis (Bergroth, 1891. The botanical species S. mauritianum presented the greatest number of Pentatomidae species, with an occurrence of 26.9%.

  19. 50%吡氟酰草胺水分散粒剂对春小麦田阔叶杂草的防效%Control Effect of Diflufenican 50%WG on Broad-leaved Weeds in Spring Wheat Field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程亮

    2015-01-01

    通过田间药效试验明确50%吡氟酰草胺水分散粒剂对春小麦田阔叶杂草的防除效果和田间推荐使用剂量,结果表明,50%吡氟酰草胺水分散粒剂对小麦田杂草密花香薷、野油菜和酸模叶蓼的防除效果稍差,施药后40 d对杂草株数总体防效为53.01%~61.75%,鲜重总体防效为54.30%~58.03%。该药剂对小麦安全,较空白对照增产6.44%~8.52%。建议该药剂于春小麦3叶期前,杂草2叶期前进行茎叶喷雾处理。%Based on the field trials,the efficacy and recommended dosage of diflufenican 50% WG are determined for controlling broad-leaf weeds in spring wheat field. The result shows that diflufenican 50% WG had not good control effect to broad-leaved weeds. The integrated plant and fresh weight control effects are 53.01%~61.75% and 54.30%~58.03% on weeds respectively after 40 days after spaying. Diflufenican 50% WG had no significant effect on spring wheat growth and the yield increasing rate of spring wheat is 6.44%~8.52%after sparing. The proper period of spraying is 2 leaves in weeds(3 leaves in wheat).

  20. Effect of different tree mortality patterns on stand development in the forest model SIBYLA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trombik Jiří

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Forest mortality critically affects stand structure and the quality of ecosystem services provided by forests. Spruce bark beetle (Ips typographus generates rather complex infestation and mortality patterns, and implementation of such patterns in forest models is challenging. We present here the procedure, which allows to simulate the bark beetle-related tree mortality in the forest dynamics model Sibyla. We explored how sensitive various production and stand structure indicators are to tree mortality patterns, which can be generated by bark beetles. We compared the simulation outputs for three unmanaged forest stands with 40, 70 and 100% proportion of spruce as affected by the disturbance-related mortality that occurred in a random pattern and in a patchy pattern. The used tree species and age class-specific mortality rates were derived from the disturbance-related mortality records from Slovakia. The proposed algorithm was developed in the SQLite using the Python language, and the algorithm allowed us to define the degree of spatial clustering of dead trees ranging from a random distribution to a completely clustered distribution; a number of trees that died in either mode is set to remain equal. We found significant differences between the long-term developments of the three investigated forest stands, but we found very little effect of the tested mortality modes on stand increment, tree species composition and diversity, and tree size diversity. Hence, our hypothesis that the different pattern of dead trees emergence should affect the competitive interactions between trees and regeneration, and thus affect selected productivity and stand structure indicators was not confirmed.

  1. Abundance and Dynamics of Soil Labile Carbon Pools Under Different Types of Forest Vegetation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Pei-Kun; XU Qiu-Fang

    2006-01-01

    Soil organic matter (SOM) in forest ecosystems is not only important to global carbon (C) storage but also to sustainable management of forestland with vegetation types, being a critical factor in controlling the quantity and dynamics of SOM. In this field experiment soil plots with three replicates were selected from three forest vegetation types: broadleaf,Masson pine (Pinus massoniana Lamb.), and Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata Hook.). Soil total organic C (TOC),two easily oxidizable C levels (EOC1 and EOC2, which were oxidized by 66.7 mmol L-1 K2Cr2O7 at 130-140 ℃ and333 mmol L-1 KMnO4 at 25 ℃, respectively), microbial biomass C (MBC), and water-soluble organic C (WSOC)were analyzed for soil samples. Soil under the broadleaf forest stored significantly higher TOC (P ≤ 0.05). Because of its significantly larger total soil C storage, the soil under the broadleaf forest usually had significantly higher levels (P ≤ 0.05)of the different labile organic carbons, EOC1, EOC2, MBC, and WSOC; but when calculated as a percentage of TOC each labile C fraction of the broadleaf forest was significantly lower (P ≤ 0.05) than one of the other two forests. Under all the three vegetation types temperature as well as quality and season of litter input generally affected the dynamics of different organic C fractions in soils, with EOC1, EOC2, and MBC increasing closely following increase in temperature,whereas WSOC showed an opposite trend.

  2. [Effects of simulated nitrogen deposition on soil available nitrogen forms and their contents in typical temperate forest stands].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Li-xin; Duan, Wen-biao

    2011-08-01

    An indoor experiment was conducted to study the effects of simulated nitrogen deposition on the soil available N in typical temperate forest stands. During the experiment period, nitrogen deposition increased the soil NH4+ -N, NO3- -N, and available N contents, as compared with the control, but the increments differed with stand types, soil layers, nitrogen treatment types, and treatment duration. Mixed forest soil had weaker responses in its available N contents to the nitrogen deposition than broad-leaved forest soil but stronger responses than artificially pure coniferous forest soil, and soil A horizon was more sensitive to nitrogen deposition than soil B horizon. Ammonium nitrogen deposition had larger effects on soil NH4+ -N content, nitrate nitrogen deposition had larger effects on soil NO3- -N content, while mixed ammonium and nitrate nitrogen deposition increased the contents of both soil NH4+ -N and soil NO3- -N, and the increments were higher than those of ammonium nitrogen deposition and nitrate nitrogen deposition, suggesting the additive effects of the mixed ammonium and nitrate nitrogen deposition on the forest soil available N.

  3. Tree species composition affects the abundance of rowan (Sorbus aucuparia L.) in urban forests in Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamberg, Leena; Lehvävirta, Susanna; Kotze, D Johan; Heikkinen, Juha

    2015-03-15

    Recent studies have shown a considerable increase in the abundance of rowan (Sorbus aucuparia) saplings in urban forests in Finland, yet the reasons for this increase are not well understood. Here we investigated whether canopy cover or tree species composition, i.e., the basal areas of different tree species in Norway spruce dominated urban forests, affects the abundances of rowan seedlings, saplings and trees. Altogether 24 urban forest patches were investigated. We sampled the number of rowan and other saplings, and calculated the basal areas of trees. We showed that rowan abundance was affected by tree species composition. The basal area of rowan trees (≥ 5 cm in diameter at breast height, dbh) decreased with increasing basal area of Norway spruce, while the cover of rowan seedlings increased with an increase in Norway spruce basal area. However, a decrease in the abundance of birch (Betula pendula) and an increase in the broad-leaved tree group (Acer platanoides, Alnus glutinosa, Alnus incana, Amelanchier spicata, Prunus padus, Quercus robur, Rhamnus frangula and Salix caprea) coincided with a decreasing number of rowans. Furthermore, rowan saplings were scarce in the vicinity of mature rowan trees. Although it seems that tree species composition has an effect on rowan, the relationship between rowan saplings and mature trees is complex, and therefore we conclude that regulating tree species composition is not an easy way to keep rowan thickets under control in urban forests in Finland.

  4. Effects of fire disturbance on the forest structure and succession in the natural broad-leaved/Korean pine forest

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIULi-juan; GEJian-ping

    2003-01-01

    Investigations on charcoal in the soil, fire-scarred trees, stand composition, forest structure as well as regeneration status were carried out in the natural broad-leaved/Korean pine (Pinus koraiensis) forest after fire disturbance at Liangshui Nature Reserve on the mid-north of Xiaoxing'an Mountains from 1990 to 1992, and the ecological effects of fire disturbance on the formation and succession of this kind of forest were analyzed according to the survey results. The average depth of charcoal in the soil was related to the timing of the fire. According to the characteristic of fire-scarred trees, the dynamic map of the fire behavior was drawn onto the topographic map. It showed that the dimension and extent of the fire disturbance was closely related with site conditions. Fire disturbance only led to a significant difference in stand composition and diameter class structurefor the stands at different locations, rather than completely destroying the forest. After fire disturbance, the horizontal community structure was a mosaic of different patches, which were made up of different deciduous species or different sizes of Korean pines, and the succession trend of each patch was also different. In the sites with the heavy fire disturbance, the intolerant hardwood species were dominant, and there were a large number of regenerative Korean pine saplings under the canopy. In the moderate -disturbed sites, the tolerant hardwood species were dominant, and a small number of large size Korean pines still survived. In the light-disturbed sites, large size Korean pines were dominant.

  5. 辽宁清原山区3种林型地表蜘蛛多样性比较研究%Biodiversity of ground-dwelling spiders in three forest types in Qingyuan Mountain Area, Liaoning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    佟艳丰; 赵丽; 刘悦

    2013-01-01

    2008年5月,采用陷阱法在辽宁省清原县大苏河乡大湖生态站选取杂木林、红松林和落叶松林3种森林植被类型收集地表蜘蛛.共采集成熟蜘蛛标本1 825头,隶属于13科49种.调查发现:1)皿蛛科、漏斗蛛科及平腹蛛科是该地区的优势科,旋卷隙蛛Alloclubionoides circinalis 及皿蛛科一未定种为该地区的优势种;2)3种森林植被类型的地表蜘蛛群落组成存在明显的差异,杂木林中物种最丰富,分布有13科39种,红松林中分布有10科29种,而落叶松林中有8科28种;平腹蛛科在杂木林中最丰富,而在红松林、落叶松林中数量稀少;3)多样性指数存在一定差异,杂木林中个体数量最多,红松林中个体数量最少,Margalef指数及Menhinick指数最低值均出现在红松林,而最高值出现在落叶松林.%In May 2008, the composition and distribution of ground-dwelling spiders were investigated using pitfall trapped method to assess the impact of forest type on spider diversity. Three forest types, i. e. , miscellaneous wood forest, broad-leaved Korean pine forest and deciduous Korean Pine forest were surveyed in Dahu Ecological Station in Dasuhe Town, Qingyuan County, Liaoning Province. A total of 1825 adult individuals were collected, belonging to 13 families and 49 species. The results showed: 1) Linyphiidae, Agelenidae and Gnaphosidae were dominant families, Alloclubionoid.es circinalis and one unidentified species of Linyphiidae were the dominant species; 2) the ground spider community composition were significantly different in the three forest types, 13 families and 39 species were collected from miscellaneous wood forest, 10 families and 29 species were collected from broad-leaved Korean pine forest and 8 families and 28 species were from deciduous Korean Pine forest; gnaphosid spiders were most abundant in miscellaneous wood forest, but sparse in the other two forest types; 3) the diversity indices were also different; the

  6. Temporal Trends of Ecosystem Development on Different Site Types in Reclaimed Boreal Forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bradley D. Pinno

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Forest development after land reclamation in the oil sands mining region of northern Alberta, Canada was assessed using long-term monitoring plots from both reclaimed and natural forests. The metrics of ecosystem development analyzed included measures of plant community structure and composition and soil nutrient availability. Early seral reclamation plots were grouped by site type (dry and moist-rich and age categories, and these were compared with mature natural forests. There were few significant differences in ecosystem metrics between reclamation site types, but natural stands showed numerous significant differences between site types. Over time, there were significant changes in most plant community metrics such as species richness and cover of plant community groups (e.g., forbs, shrubs, and non-native species, but these were still substantially different from mature forests 20 years after reclamation. Available soil nitrogen did not change over time or by reclamation site type but available soil phosphorus did, suggesting that phosphorus may be a more suitable indicator of ecosystem development. The significant temporal changes in these reclaimed ecosystems indicate that studies of ecosystem establishment and development on reclaimed areas should be conducted over the long-term, emphasizing the utility of monitoring using long-term plot networks.

  7. 陕北黄龙山林区景观格局动态%Dynamics of Landscape Pattern in Huanglong Mountain Forest Region of Northern Shaanxi Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李敏; 赵鹏祥; 郝红科; 杨延征; 袁飞

    2012-01-01

    Based on the forest inventory data of Huanglong Mountain in 1986 , 1997 and 2006, we analyzed the changes of landscape types and landscape structure.The landscape was changed greatly during the 20 years.The area of forested land continuously was increased, while the shrub land and wasteland were gradually decreased.The area of the cultivated land and immature forest land increased from 1986 to 1997, while decreased from 1997 to 2006.Changes in Cupressus forest land and nursery land, which accounted for only a small part of the entire landscape, were not significant.At the landscape level, the area of hard broad-leaved forests and coniferous forests was increased by 40% from 1986 to 2006.The area of Cupressus forest land remained unchanged at approximate 2 000 hm during the two periods, while the area of soft broad-leaved forest land continuously decreased.Moreover, the age-class structure of the major species significantly varied.The hard broad-leaved forests and coniferous forests merged with a block which had the largest patch index and was much greater than that of the other landscape types in each period.The landscape diversity decreased, while the landscape heterogeneity, fragmentation and dominance increased.The patch types tended to distribute in reunion state.

  8. The contrasting nature of woody plant species in different neotropical forest biomes reflects differences in ecological stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennington, R Toby; Lavin, Matt

    2016-04-01

    A fundamental premise of this review is that distinctive phylogenetic and biogeographic patterns in clades endemic to different major biomes illuminate the evolutionary process. In seasonally dry tropical forests (SDTFs), phylogenies are geographically structured and multiple individuals representing single species coalesce. This pattern of monophyletic species, coupled with their old species stem ages, is indicative of maintenance of small effective population sizes over evolutionary timescales, which suggests that SDTF is difficult to immigrate into because of persistent resident lineages adapted to a stable, seasonally dry ecology. By contrast, lack of coalescence in conspecific accessions of abundant and often widespread species is more frequent in rain forests and is likely to reflect large effective population sizes maintained over huge areas by effective seed and pollen flow. Species nonmonophyly, young species stem ages and lack of geographical structure in rain forest phylogenies may reflect more widespread disturbance by drought and landscape evolution causing resident mortality that opens up greater opportunities for immigration and speciation. We recommend full species sampling and inclusion of multiple accessions representing individual species in phylogenies to highlight nonmonophyletic species, which we predict will be frequent in rain forest and savanna, and which represent excellent case studies of incipient speciation.

  9. [Estimation of carbonaceous gases emission from forest fires in Xiao Xing'an Mountains of Northeast China in 1953-2011].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Hai-Qing; Luo, Bi-Zhen; Wei, Shu-Jing; Sun, Long; Wei, Shu-Wei; Wen, Zheng-Min

    2013-11-01

    Based on the forest resources investigation data and the forest fire inventory in 1953-2011, in combining with our field research in burned areas and our laboratory experiments, this paper estimated the carbonaceous gases carbon dioxide (CO2), carbon monoxide (CO), methane (CH4), and nonmethane hydrocarbons (NMHC) emission from the forest fires in Xiao Xing' an Mountains of Heilongjiang Province, Northeast China in 1953-2011. The total carbon emission from the forest fires in the Xiao Xing'an Mountains in 1953-2011 was 1.12 x 10(7) t, and the annual emission was averagely 1.90 x10(5) t, accounting for 1.7% of the annual average total carbon emission from the forest fires in China. The emission of CO2, CO, CH4, and NMHC was 3.39 x 10(7), 1.94 x 10(5), 1.09 x 10(5), and 7.46 x 10(4) t, respectively, and the corresponding annual average emission was 5.74 x 10(5), 3.29 x 10(4), 1.85 x 10(3), and 1.27 x 10(3) t, accounting for 1.4%, 1.2%, 1.7%, and 1.1% of the annual carbonaceous gases emitted from the forest fires in China, respectively. The combustion efficiency and the carbon emission per unit burned area of different forest types decreased in order of coniferous forest > broad-leaved forest > coniferous broadleaved mixed forest. Some rational forest fire management measures were put forward.

  10. Emission of Nitrous Oxide in Temperate Forests with Different Stages of Nitrogen Saturation in Central Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaoyan, F.

    2015-12-01

    Long-term nitrogen deposition has caused a problem called nitrogen saturation in forest ecosystems globally. Aber et al. (1989) suggested that nitrogen saturation activate soil nitrification in forest systems, which is the main process of N2O production in aerobic condition. Thus, nitrogen saturation may affect significantly the N2O emission from forests, while the impact on flux has not been quantitatively evaluated yet. In the present study, 3-year monitoring of N2O emission was performed in an N-saturated forests (Tama Hill, Tokyo): the emission rate of N2O was measured monthly by a closed chamber method at 12 plots along a slope, and the net nitrification rate of surface soil (0-10 cm) was measured 4 times in situ. In addition, a comparative research was conducted in summer in eight temperate forests with different stages of nitrogen saturation in central Japan; the N2O flux, soil moisture, nitrogen availability and stream water NO3- concentration were measured at each site. In an N-saturated forests, the annual N2O emission was estimated to be 0.88 kg N ha-1year-1 , showing a typical seasonal variation . The seasonal patterns of N2O emission were significantly related to soil moisture and ambient temperature. We also found high spatial variation of N2O flux among 12 plots along the slope, which was generally higher at the bottom. Moreover, a positive correlation was found between the rate of N2O emission and the net nitrification rate with WFPS60% , probably due to the effect of denitrification. In comparison sites, the N2O emission rate ranged nearly 16-fold from 0.13-2.11 g N ha-1day-1 was linearly related to the stream water NO3- concentration ranged 10-fold from 0.14 to 1.4 mg N/L. Our results revealed N enrichment in forest obviously stimulate soil N2O emission. Keywords: Nitrous oxide, nitrogen saturation, nitrification, temperate forest

  11. Evaluation of Soil Fertility Under Different Cupressus chengiana Forests Using Multivariate Approach

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PANG Xue-Yong; BAO Wei-Kai; ZHANG Yong-Mei

    2006-01-01

    The distribution and growing conditions of Cupressus chengiana forests along with the physical and chemical properties of soils in Northwest Sichuan were studied in 2002 to investigate the conditions and characteristics of soil fertility of C.chengiana and to compare and investigate differences of soil fertility for six C. chengiana populations and their relationships with vegetation, climate and disturbance. The results of the study at 0-20 cm soil depth showed that 1) significant differences (P<0.05) existed among populations for soil bulk density, soil total porosity, capillary porosity, maximum water-holding capacity, capillary water-holding capacity and topsoil natural water content; 2) chemical characteristics of soil organic matter, total N, total P, alkali-hydrolyzable N, available P, available K and cation exchange capacity were significantly different among the populations; and 3) based on the significant effect of soil fertility factors on forest growth,soil physical and chemical characteristics could be selected as an integrated fertility index (IFI) for evaluation of different C. chengiana populations. Principal component and cluster analyses showed significant differences probably due to the difference of vegetation conditions, management measurements, human-induced disturbances and environmental factors.In order to protect the soil ecological functions in fragile ecological regions, C. chengiana could be used in programs enclosing the hill for natural afforestation, natural forest protection programs, and programs replacing agriculture with afforestation measures.

  12. The amount and quality of dead trees in a mixed beech forest with different management histories in northern Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KIOMARS SEFIDI

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Sefidi K, Etemad V. 2014. The amount and quality of dead trees in a mixed beech forest with different management histories in northern Iran. Biodiversitas 15: 162-168. Dead tree (fallen logs and snags, is regarded as an important ecological component of forests on which many forest dwelling species depend, yet its relation to management history in Caspian forest has gone unreported. The aim of research aim was to compare the amounts of dead tree in the forests with historically different intensities of management, including: forests with the long term implication of management (Patom, the short term implication of management (Namekhaneh which were compared with semi virgin forest (Gorazbon. The number of 215 individual dead trees were recorded and measured at 79 sampling locations. ANOVA revealed volume of dead tree in the form and decay classes significantly differ within sites and dead volume in the semi virgin forest significantly higher than managed sites. Comparing the amount of dead tree in three sites showed that, dead tree volume related with management history and significantly differ in three study sites. Reaching their highest in virgin site and their lowest in the site with the long term implication of management, it was concluded that forest management cause reduction of the amount of dead tree. Forest management history affect the forest's ability to generate dead tree specially in a large size, thus managing this forest according to ecological sustainable principles require a commitment to maintaining stand structure that allow, continued generation of dead tree in a full range of size.

  13. Assemblages of carabid beetles (Coleoptera, Carabidae in humid forest habitats of different stages of succession in the Puszcza Knyszyńska Forest (northeastern Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Kwiatkowski

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available During a period of three years (2006–2008 the carabid fauna in wet and humid forest habitats of different stages of succession was studied at the Puszcza Knyszynska (north-east part of Poland. The aim of this study was to determine how the assemblages of the carabid fauna change in relation to the ongoing process of succession. Using pitfall traps, 24 plots were sampled. The plots were located in stands of different age, from two year old plantations to more than 100 year old forests. Additionally, the stands were ordered in three moisture classes (wet, humid and very humid and two classes of soil richness. As indicators for change in the carabid fauna in relation to age of the stands Mean Individual Biomass (MIB, species diversity and share of forest species were used. By applying multivariate statistics the relation of the different habitat characteristics to changes in the carabid fauna was examined. During the study 8903 individuals belonging to 57 species were collected. Pterostichus niger represented 28% of the total catches and therefore the most common species. Another common species, Pterostichus melanarius, contributed to 13% of the total catch. This species was caught at every plot, even in the old forests. In contrast to the results obtained by Szyszko (1990 for fresh and dry pine stands, in this study the relation of MIB with the age of forest was not significant. Although the number of species was rather constant, the number of individuals belonging to the group of forest species significantly increased with the ageing of the forest. The multivariate analysis showed a relationship with ageing of the stands and soil richness rather than with moisture and size of the forest. According to the present paper, clear cuttings in wet and humid habitats do not cause a strong degradation of the carabid fauna.

  14. Surface runoff and nitrogen (N) loss in a bamboo (Phyllostachys pubescens) forest under different fertilization regimes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qichun; Shamsi, Imran Haider; Wang, Jinwen; Song, Qiujin; Xue, Qiaoyun; Yu, Yan; Lin, Xianyong; Hussain, Sayed

    2013-07-01

    Nitrogen (N) losses from agricultural fields have been extensively studied. In contrast, surface runoff and N losses have rarely been considered for bamboo forests that are widespread in regions such as southern China. The thriving of bamboo industries has led to increasing fertilizer use in bamboo forests. In this study, we evaluated surface runoff and N losses in runoff following different fertilization treatments under field conditions in a bamboo (Phyllostachys pubescens) forest in the catchment of Lake Taihu in Jiangsu, China. Under three different fertilization regimes, i.e., control, site-specific nutrient management (SSNM), and farmer's fertilization practice (FFP), the water runoff rate amounted to 356, 361, and 342 m(3) ha(-1) and accounted for 1.91, 1.98, and 1.85% of the water input, respectively, from June 2009 to May 2010. The total N losses via surface runoff ranged from 1.2 to 1.8 kg ha(-1). Compared with FFP, the SSNM treatment reduced total nitrogen (TN) and dissolved nitrogen (DN) losses by 31 and 34%, respectively. The results also showed that variations in N losses depended mainly on runoff fluxes, not N concentrations. Runoff samples collected from all treatments throughout the year showed TN concentrations greater than 0.35 mg L(-1), with the mean TN concentration in the runoff from the FFP treatment reaching 8.97 mg L(-1). The loss of NO3(-)-N was greater than the loss of NH4(+)-N. The total loss of dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) reached 23-41% of the corresponding DN. Therefore, DON is likely the main N species in runoff from bamboo forests and should be emphasized in the assessment and management of N losses in bamboo forest.

  15. Effects of different land-uses on soil organic carbon pools in the Peruvian tropical forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, V.; Kala, J.; Lever, R.; Teh, Y.

    2013-12-01

    Tropical soils are a large carbon reservoir, acting as both a source and a sink of CO2. Changes to these soil environments have major implications for long term carbon storage and rising atmospheric CO2 concentrations. Enhanced CO2 emissions originate, in large part, from the decomposition and loss of soil organic matter (SOM) following anthropogenic disturbances such as deforestation or agricultural conversion. Therefore, quantitative knowledge of the stabilisation and decomposition of SOM is necessary in order to understand, assess and predict the impact of land use change in the tropics. In particular, labile SOM is an early and sensitive indicator of how SOM responds to changes in land use and management practices. The main focus of this study is to explore the relationship between soil respiration, decomposition and soil C pools in order to estimate the turnover times of soil C on a suite of different land uses in the Peruvian tropical forests. Three major C pools (light fractions, occluded light fractions and heavy fractions) were separated using sodium polytungstate in a density fraction technique, soil CO2 flux was measured bimonthly over a year using a closed-chamber technique and decomposition rates were estimated using buried birch wood sticks acting as a common substrate across the sites. Our results showed that CO2 flux ranged from 0.237-7.676 μmol m-2s-1 for the banana plantation, 2.773-11.1 μmol m-2s-1 for the mature forest, 1.718-17.005 μmol m-2s-1 for pasture and 2.931-5.216 μmol m-2s-1 for the secondary forest. On an annual basis, the soil CO2 flux was highest in the pasture ecosystem with an estimated production of 2.3 kg C m-2yr-1 followed by the banana plantation with 1.3 kg C m-2yr-1 and the mature forest site with 1.0 kg C m-2yr-1. Land use affected soil temperature and bulk density, which also showed positive correlations with CO2 flux. The stick decomposition rate was significantly faster on the pasture site in comparison to the forest

  16. Forest protection as a climate measure. Valuable forest types for biodiversity and carbon storage; Skogvern som klimatiltak. Verdifulle skogtyper for biologisk mangfold og karbonlagring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Framstad, E.; Stokland, J.N.; Hylen, G.

    2011-07-01

    the area of each forest type, however, mature deciduous, unproductive and productile forests, as well as old spruce and pine forests represent the largest carbon stocks. An nu-al Co2 uptake per unit area is related to the more productive forests, such as rich deciduous and coniferous forests and productive mature deciduous forest, and is lowest for unproductive deciduous forest. Old spruce and pine forests and mature coastal forests have medium Co2 uptake. Summed over the area of each forest type, mature boreal forests and rich deciduous forests have the highest annual Co2 uptake. Assessed value for biodiversity of the respective forest types coincides rather well with their value for Co2 uptake per unit area and, with some exceptions, also for carbon stocks per unit area. Rich coniferous and broad-leaved deciduous forests, in particular, have great value for biodiversity, carbon and uptake of Co2 per unit area. Relative to the profitability of forestry, potential conflicts seem to be greatest for rich and old coniferous forests, and less so for rich deciduous forest, mature productive deciduous forest, and coastal forest. Conflict with forestry is least likely for un-productive deciduous forest, but here values for biodiversity or carbon stocks are lower. Conservation of old forest is generally beneficial for biodiversity and carbon stocks in old broadleaved deciduous forest, where conflicts with forestry will be moderate. Rich deciduous forest, productive deciduous forest and coastal forest have rather high values for biodiversity and moderate potential conflict with forestry, but the value of carbon storage is lower. Rich coniferous forests are important for both biodiversity and carbon stock, but have great potential conflict with forestry, as most of this area will be economically suitable for forestry. Old spruce and partly old pine forests are important for carbon storage and somewhat less important for biodiversity, but may have significant conflicts with

  17. Sources of errors and uncertainties in the assessment of forest soil carbon stocks at different scales—review and recommendations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vanguelova, E.I.; Bonifacio, E.; Vos, De B.; Hoosbeek, M.R.; Berger, T.W.; Vesterdal, L.; Armolaitis, K.; Celi, L.; Dinca, L.; Kjønaas, O.J.; Pavlenda, P.; Pumpanen, J.; Püttsepp,; Reidy, B.; Simončič, P.; Tobin, B.; Zhiyanski, M.

    2016-01-01

    Spatially explicit knowledge of recent and past soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks in forests will improve our understanding of the effect of human- and non-human-induced changes on forest C fluxes. For SOC accounting, a minimum detectable difference must be defined in order to adequately determine te

  18. Effect of Forest Fire on Vegetation in Tahe Forestry Bureau%塔河林业局林火对植被的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙明学; 贾炜玮

    2009-01-01

    针对大兴安岭地区塔河林业局不同林型下,不同火烧强度的火烧迹地的森林植被更新及恢复情况进行了调查研究.结果表明:(1)针叶林过火迹地上,落叶松幼苗较少,阔叶树萌条更新强度同火烧程度成正比;火烧前生长有白桦、赤杨的林地上,火烧后阔叶树成为主导树种,林相完全发生变化.(2)重度火烧下有利于天然更新,促使白桦、山杨萌生.中度火烧最初形成以杨桦为优势树种的阔叶林,后逐渐演变为针阔混交林.轻度火烧有利于针叶林的更新.(3)火烧后不同林型下灌木草本植被种类变化不同.从盖度方面来看,杜鹃落叶松林型中林下灌木草本更新最为良好.%This paper studied the regeneration and restoration of vegetation in the burned area of different forest types and fire intensities. The results showed that there are few larch seedlings in the burned area of coniferous forest and the sprout of broad-leaved tree is positive related with burned intensity. In the burned area of birch and alder stand, the broad-leaved trees have become the dominant species. Severely burning is benefit for natural regeneration and promoting the sprout of birth and alder. The forest in moderately burned area is mainly composed by birch and alder at first and become mixed forest finally. The lightly burning is benefit for the regeneration of conifer forest. The kind of shrubbery and herbage is different in different forest after fire. The regeneration in the forest of Ass. Rhododendron dauricum, Larix gmelinii is the best.

  19. 模拟氮沉降对温带不同森林类型土壤氮矿化速率的影响%Influence of Simulated Nitrogen Deposition on Soil Nitrogen Mineralization Rate Under Different Forest Stands

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈立新; 黄兰英; 乔璐; 段文标; 纪萱; 俞元春

    2012-01-01

    An indoor experiment was conducted to study the effects of different forms of simulated nitrogen deposition(NH+4-N,NO-3-N,NH+4-N+NO-3-N) on soil nitrogen mineralization rate under different temperate forest stands(Korean pine plantation,larch plantation,natural Korean pine and linden mixed forest,natural secondary birch forest).The results showed that during the whole incubation period,nitrogen deposition increased soil net ammoniation rate,net nitration rate and net mineralization rate,as comparison with the control,but the increments differed with forest stands,soil layers,nitrogen treatment types and treatment duration.The influence of nitrogen deposition on soil net ammoniation rate,net nitration rate and net mineralization rate under different forest stands were different.The soil under mixed forests had weaker response to nitrogen deposition than under broad-leaved forests,but stronger response than under artificially pure coniferous forest,soil layer A was more sensitive to nitrogen deposition than soil layer B.Ammoniation nitrogen deposition had larger effect on soil NH+4-N and net ammoniation rate,nitrate nitrogen deposition had larger effect on soil NO-3-N and net nitration rate,while mixed ammoniation and nitrate nitrogen deposition increased soil net ammoniation rate,net nitration rate and net mineralization rate with higher extent than single form of nitrogen deposition.The longer nitrogen deposition under different forest stands increased the difference in the rates as compared with the control,suggesting the additive effect of the mixed ammoniation and nitrate nitrogen deposition on forest soil.%通过室内模拟不同氮形态(NH4+-N、NO3--N、NH4+-N+NO3--N)沉降实验,研究不同氮形态沉降对温带不同森林类型(椴树红松混交林、白桦天然次生林、红松人工林和落叶松人工林)土壤氮矿化速率的影响。结果表明:在整个培养期间,与对照相比,经过氮沉降土壤净氨化速率、

  20. Influences of Different Habitats on Asexual Propagation of Wild Gastrodia elata f. glauca being Domesticated in Ganzi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xueqiang XIE

    2015-01-01

    Objective] The influences of different habitats on asexual propagation of wild Geg (abbreviation for Gastrodia elata Bl. f. glauca S. Chow) being domesticat-ed in Ganzi prefecture was studied. [Method] The research trial was carried out in the fol owing three kinds of habitats at the same time: the plastic greenhouses, the birch forest of shady slope and the shrubbery of sunny slope, and the results were analyzed with group data average hypothesis test method. [Result] The overal tuber (the juvenile tuber, the immature tuber and the mature tuber) yield and the mature tuber yield were both very significantly higher in the plastic greenhouses than in the other two types of habitats, and respectively reached 9.52 and 6.70 kg/m2; the ma-ture tuber drying rate was dramatical y or very dramatical y lower in the plastic greenhouses than in the other two types of habitats, and was 23.84%; the stabilities of the overal tuber yield, the mature tuber yield and the drying rate were al re-duced in the order of greenhouses, birch forest and shrubbery; and the dry mature tuber yield of the plastic greenhouses was the highest in the three kinds of habi-tats, and was 1.60 kg/m2. [Conclusion] A good habitat had to be created or chosen in the domesticating cultivation of the wild Geg in Ganzi prefecture. The preferred choice was the plastic greenhouse, the alternative one was the deciduous broad-leaved forest of shady slope. The imitating wild planting of the wild Geg should be done in the warm moist deciduous broad-leaved forest of shady slope.

  1. Assessment of soil erodibility and aggregate stability for different parts of a forest road

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Aidin Parsakhoo; Majid Lotfalian; Ataollah Kavian; Seyed Ataollah Hosseini

    2014-01-01

    We measured erodibility and mean weight diameter (MWD) of soil aggregates in different parts of a forest road. Samples of topsoil were collected from cutslope, fillslope, road surface and forest ground to assess the texture, bulk density, moisture, CaCO3 and organic matter. Soil aggregate stability was determined by wet sieving. Soil erodibility on the road surface was 2.3 and 1.3 times higher than on the fillslope and cutslope, respectively. The forest soil had the lowest erodibility. Aggregate stability of cutslope and road surface were low and very low, respectively. There was a significant negative relationship between cutslope erodibility with CaCO3 and sand content. Cutslope erodibility increased with increasing silt, clay and moisture content. On fillslopes, MWD increased with in-creasing rock fragment cover, plant cover, litter cover, organic matter and sand. There was a strong negative correlation between fillslope erodibility and organic matter, sand and MWD. There was no significant difference between erodibility of bare soil and soils beneathRubus hyrcanusL. and Philonotis marchica (Hedw.) Brid.

  2. Nitrification and denitrification as sources of gaseous nitrogen emission from different forest soils in Changbai Mountain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The contributions of nitrification and denitrification to N2O and N2 emissions from four forest soils on northern slop of Changbai Mountain were measured with acetylene inhibition methods. In incubation experiments, 0.06% and 3% C2H2 were used to inhibit nitrification and denitrification in these soils, respectively. Both nitrification and denitification existed in these soils except tundra soil, where only denitrification was found. The annually averaged rates of nitrification and denitrification in mountain dark brown forest soil were much higher than that in other three soils. In mountain brown coniferous soil, contributions of different processes to gaseous nitrogen emissions were Denitrification N2O > Nitrification N2O > Denitrification N2. The same sequence exists in mountain soddy soil as that in the mountain brown coniferous soil. The sequence in mountain tundra soil was Denitrification N2O > Denitrification N2.

  3. Nitrification and denitrification in subalpine coniferous forests of different restoration stages in western Sichuan,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Yi; CHEN Jinsong; LIU Qing; WU Yan

    2007-01-01

    Nitrification is the biological conversion of organic or inorganic nitrogen compounds from a reduced to a more oxidized state.Denitrification is generally referred to as the microbial reduction of nitrate to nitrite and further gaseous forms of nitric oxide,nitrous oxide and molecular nitrogen.They are functionally interconnected processes in the soil nitrogen cycle that are involved in the control of longterm nitrogen losses in ecosystems through nitrate leaching and gaseous N losses.In" order to better understand how nitrification and denitrification change during the process of ecosystem restoration and how they are affected by various controlling factors,gross nitrification rates and denitrification rates were determined using the barometric process separation (BaPS) technique in subalpine coniferous forests of different restoration stages.The results showed that forest restoration stage had no significant effects on gross nitrification rates or denitrification rates (One-way ANOVA (analysis of variance),p < 0.05).There was no significant difference in the temperature coefficient (Q10) for gross nitrification rate among all the forest sites (One-wayANOVA,p < 0.05).Gross nitrification rates were positively correlated with water content (p <0.05),but not with soil pH,organic matter,total nitrogen,or C/N ratios.Denitrification rates in all the forest soils were low and not closely correlated with water content,soil pH,organic matter,or total nitrogen.Nevertheless,we found that C/N ratios obviously affected denitrification rates (p < 0.05).Results from this research suggest that gross nitrification is more responsible for the nitrogen loss from soils compared with denitrification.

  4. CARBON STOCK IN SOIL UNDER DIFFERENT FOREST FORMATIONS, CHAPECÓ, SANTA CATARINA STATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosiane Berenice Nicoloso Denardin

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5902/1980509813323The adoption of management practices that ensure the stability of soil organic matter also maintain the stabilityor quantitative increase of carbon (C in the lithosphere, reducing the amount of CO2 in theatmosphere. You can also minimize the losses of C to the atmosphere by using conservation practices,or using cover crops to keep the soil C stocks, and the forest cover are considered great abductionand forest systems considered large reservoirs of C. This work was performed on a property located inChapecó, Santa Catarina state, where soils were sampled from different forest formations distributedin a homogeneous soil range. The local climate is mesothermal, rainy, and the soil was characterizedas an association Cambissolo Háplico/Neossolo Litólico. The objectives were to estimate the C stocksin soils and estimate the C losses occurred due to the change of soil cover. It was evaluated soils undernatural forest (FN, of secondary stage, with a high degree of preservation; planted forest of eucalyptus(Eucalyptus saligna (PE, with eight years of cultivation, preceded by 17 years under crop conventionaltillage; and a planted forest of herb mate (Ilex paraguariensis (EM, with 25 years of cultivation underconventional system (cutting interval of 18 months, with removal of all waste produced and maintenanceof the ground without cover, with periodic use of herbicide - glyphosate. In each area were opened fourtrenches with 50 cm deep, where soil samples were collected in depths of: 0-5 cm, 5-10 cm, 10-20 cm,20-30 cm, 30-40 cm, and 40-50 cm, with kopeck rings. It was possible to determine the bulk density (Mgm-3, the soil volume per layer (depth and per hectare, and the concentration of soil C in the differentstudied areas. To quantify the C stocks equal amounts of soil were used for each depth evaluated. Itwas observed higher densities of soils and under PE and EM, to FN the lowest density are explained bythe

  5. Biodiversity Differences between Managed and Unmanaged Forests: Meta-Analysis of Species Richness in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paillet, Y.; Bergès, L.; Hjältén, J.; Ódor, P.; Avon, C.; Bernhardt-Römermann, M.; Bijlsma, R.J.; Bruyn, de L.; Fuhr, M.; Grandin, U.; Kanka, R.; Lundin, L.; Luque, S.; Magura, T.; Matesanz, S.; Mészáros, I.; Sebastià, M.T.; Schmidt, W.; Standovár, T.; Tóthmérész, B.; Uotila, A.; Valladares, F.; Vellak, K.; Virtanen, R.

    2010-01-01

    Past and present pressures on forest resources have led to a drastic decrease in the surface area of unmanaged forests in Europe. Changes in forest structure, composition, and dynamics inevitably lead to changes in the biodiversity of forest-dwelling species. The possible biodiversity gains and loss

  6. Forest operations in coppice: Environmental assessment of two different logging methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laschi, Andrea; Marchi, Enrico; González-García, Sara

    2016-08-15

    Wood is a renewable resource and it actively contributes to enhance energy production under a sustainable perspective. However, harvesting, transport and use of wood imply several consequences and impacts on environment. There are different ways for managing forests dedicated to wood production and a sustainable approach is fundamental to preserve the resource. In this context, Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is a useful tool for estimating the environmental impacts related to renewable resources. Traditional coppice is a common approach for forest management in several areas, including southern Europe and, specifically, Italy, Spain and the Balkans. Due to different terrain conditions, different types of forest operations are considered for wood extraction from coppices, where the main product is firewood used in domestic heating. The aim of this work was to compare the main common systems for firewood production in two different terrain conditions ('flat/low steep' and 'steep/very steep' terrains), in a representative environment for Mediterranean area, located in central Italy, by means of LCA. Seven different impact categories were evaluated in a cradle-to-gate perspective taking into account all the operations carried out from the trees felling to the firewood storage at factory. Results showed that the extraction phase was the most important in terms of environmental burdens in firewood production and the use of heavy and high-power machines negatively influenced the emissions compared with manual operations. Finally, considering the general low-inputs involved in wood production in coppice, the transport of workers by car to the work site resulted on consistent contributions into environmental burdens. An additional analysis about the modifications of CH4 and N2O exchanges between soil and atmosphere, due to soil compaction in the extraction phase, was made and based on bibliographic information. Results showed a sensible difference between disturbed and

  7. Modeling soil moisture dynamics in different forest types in semiarid areas%半干旱地区不同森林类型土壤水分动态模拟

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓学; 沈会涛; 周玥; 景峰; 李叙勇; 陈国鹏

    2015-01-01

    runoff models as well as to validate representations of hydrological processes. Datasets of observed in situ moisture measurements are crucial. Unfortunately, measured soil moisture time series are not widely available and therefore simulated soil moisture series are used. We apply and test a simple parametric water balance model to simulating soil moisture conditions in different forest types ( natural secondary forest, evergreen needleleaf and deciduous/coniferous plantation forest) in semiarid regions of southwestern Beijing, China. Model calibration and validation were performed using a dataset comprising averaged soil moisture content measured at depths of 0—75 cm in the growing seasons of 2006, 2007, and 2010. The models performed reasonably well in simulating the patterns and magnitudes of daily average soil moisture content in the upper 75 cm soil layer in all three forest types. Using different parameters in the model did not significantly alter the results and the model structure exhibited a relatively small amount of uncertainty. Sensitivity analysis revealed that four parameters ( Wmax( the maximum water capacity of the soil layer ) , m ( a parameter linked to the non-linearity of the infiltration process ) , Ks ( the field-saturated hydraulic conductivity) ,λ ( the pore size distribution index linked to the structure of soil layers) ) played important roles in rainfall infiltration, deep percolation and evaporative processes. In addition, differences in soil moisture flux among forest types suggested that both annual evapotranspiration in deciduous/coniferous forest plantations and infiltration in deciduous broad-leaved forest were greater than those in other forestlands;in addition, deep percolation in all three forestlands was low. We demonstrate that a simple, robust, parametric model is capable of simulating the temporal dynamics of soil moisture content in different forest types. The study of soil moisture in forest plantations in semiarid regions

  8. Responses of Grassland and Forest to Temperature and Precipitation Changes in Northeast China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PENG Jing; DONG Wenjie; YUAN Wenping; ZHANG Yong

    2012-01-01

    Using the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) as an indicator of vegetation growth,we explored the characteristics and differences in the response to drought of five vegetation biomes in Northeast China,including typical steppe,desert steppe,meadow steppe,deciduous coniferous forest and deciduous broad-leaved forest during the period 1982 2009.The results indicate that growing season precipitation may be the primary vegetation growth-limiting factor in grasslands.More than 70% of the temporal variations in NDVI can be explained by the amount of precipitation during the growing season in typical and desert steppes.During the same period,the mean temperature in the growing season could explain nearly 43% of the variations in the mean growing season NDVI and is therefore a dominant growth-limiting factor for forest ecosystems.Therefore,the NDVI trends differ largely due to differences in the vegetation growth-limiting factors of the different vegetation biomes.The NDVI responses to droughts vary in magnitude and direction and depend on the drought-affected areas of the five vegetation types.Specifically,the changes in NDVI are consistent with the variations in precipitation for grassland ecosystems.A lack of precipitation resulted in decreases in NDVI,thereby reducing vegetation growth in these regions.Conversely,increasing precipitation decreased the NDVI of forest ecosystems.The results also suggest that grasslands under arid and semi-arid environments may be more sensitive to drought than forests under humid environments.Among grassland ecosystems,desert steppe was most sensitive to drought,followed by typical steppe; meadow steppe was the least sensitive.

  9. Uneven-aged forest management in boreal Sweden: local forestry stakeholders' perceptions of different sustainability dimensions

    OpenAIRE

    Axelsson, Robert; Angelstam, Per

    2011-01-01

    To implement policies on sustainable forest management (SFM), there is a need to satisfy economical, ecological and socio-cultural sustainability objectives. Due to a long history of sustained yield wood production to satisfy the needs of the forest industry, clearfelling management systems are used in similar to 96 per cent of managed forests in Sweden. To satisfy the intentions of contemporary forest and land use policies, uneven-aged forest management systems as a complement are currently ...

  10. Gene flow among different taxonomic units: evidence from nuclear and cytoplasmic markers in Cedrus plantation forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fady, B; Lefèvre, F; Reynaud, M; Vendramin, G G; Bou Dagher-Kharrat, M; Anzidei, M; Pastorelli, R; Savouré, A; Bariteau, M

    2003-10-01

    Hybridization and introgression are important natural evolutionary processes that can be successfully investigated using molecular markers and open- and controlled-pollinated progeny. In this study, we collected open-pollinated seeds from Cedrus atlantica, Cedrus libani and C. libani x C. atlantica hybrids from three French-plantation forests. We also used pollen from C. libani and Cedrus brevifolia to pollinate C. atlantica trees. The progeny were analyzed using three different types of molecular markers: RAPDs, AFLPs and cpSSRs. Chloroplast DNA was found to be paternally inherited in Cedrus from the progeny of controlled-crosses. Heteroplasmy, although possible, could not be undoubtedly detected. There was no indication of strong reproductive isolating barriers among the three Mediterranean Cedrus taxa. Gene flow between C. atlantica and C. libani accounted for 67 to 81% of viable open-pollinated seedlings in two plantation forests. We propose that Mediterranean Cedrus taxa should be considered as units of a single collective species comprising two regional groups, North Africa and the Middle East. We recommend the use of cpSSRs for monitoring gene flow between taxa in plantation forests, especially in areas where garden specimens of one species are planted in the vicinity of selected seed-stands and gene-conservation reserves of another species.

  11. Stumpage value: comparative analysis among different approaches reported by the Italian forest literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carbone F

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available One of the most relevant professional task for a forestry consultant is to determine the stumpage value of a forest standing. It is an important information for the forest owner interested to know the market value of the actual timber production. Nevertheless, assessment approaches commonly used by scientists and forestry consultants go back to the beginning of XIX century, thus not considering the evolution of institutions, law and the socio-economic contests occurred in the meanwhile. Based on a case study located in Latium (central Italy, a comparative analysis of the main estimation approaches from the Italian forest literature have been carried out. A wide range of stumpage values has been obtained, with a coefficient of variation of 682%. Three underlying causes have been identified for such variation: revision of some components of the elementary costs, different calculation of cost procedures, new additional costs. Reiterate use of the above approaches affects transparency, traceability and documentation of the evaluation process, weakening the theoretical basis of the appraisal doctrine. Four issues to overtake this situation are proposed and discussed.

  12. Runoff and sediment production in a Mediterranean basin under two different land uses after forest maintenance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacheco, Edinson; Rallo, Elena; Úbeda, Xavier; Farguell, Joaquim; Outeiro, Luís

    2013-04-01

    This study analyses the influence of two different land uses on the hydrology of the Vernegà experimental basin between the years 1993 and 2012. The basin is located in the Northeast of the Iberian Peninsula and it is influenced by a Mediterranean climate, with an average annual rainfall of 688 mm. The study of rainfall distribution shows that the majority occurs during autumn and spring, with a 34% and 25% of total annual rainfall respectively. Surface runoff flows from October to June. In this catchment, flash floods may represent 70% of the total water yield, though they only occur 6% of the time. It is important to emphasize that agricultural practices within the study area have been maintained, which is the contrary to the general trend in Mediterranean rural areas. The introduction of forest management practices between 2003 and 2005 has resulted in important hydrological changes in the watershed: Between 2005 and 2012 an increase of the runoff coefficient has been detected. In Bosc the increase represents 38% while in Campàs is 12% in relation with the 1993-2005 period. Campàs yields a greater total runoff than Bosc as a consequence of a greater catchment surface, greater agricultural surface and the existence of forest roads and forest management practices. Part of this phenomenon may be due to the decrease of interception of rainfall and plant biomass in the forested area of the basin. In relation to the sediment yield, it is concentrated during floods (more than 80%) and there is an increase of available sediment after extraordinary events, as it is the case of October 2005 flood, where the total sediment yield was 7 Tkm¯²yr¯¹ and in November 2005 it was 10 Tkm¯²yr¯¹.

  13. Spatial pattern and compositive structure of forests in Guizhou

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Remote-sensing and field data of Guizhou forest resources in 2000 are processed usingArcGIS, with the production of forest resource distribution map, forest age class structure map, andforest canopy distribution map. Analysis of these data shows that: (1) though there are multiple typesof forest resources, forest coverage is low (only 25.27%, excluding sparse woodland, shrub andunderage-forest); (2) the geographical distribution of forests is quite uneven, mainly in the southeastof the province and in Zunyi prefecture; (3) the zonal evergreen broad-leaved forests have beenseriously destroyed, with striking secondary features, i.e., coniferous forest and shrubbery account forthe greatest proportion of Guizhou forests; (4) the timber-forest is much larger in area thanshelter-forest and economic forest; (5) young-and-middle aged forests are more widely distributed thannear-and-over matured forest; and (6) the forest of Guizhou is not enough to effectively protect theenvironment of karst mountain areas of the province.

  14. Functional trait strategies of trees in dry and wet tropical forests are similar but differ in their consequences for succession.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madelon Lohbeck

    Full Text Available Global plant trait studies have revealed fundamental trade-offs in plant resource economics. We evaluated such trait trade-offs during secondary succession in two species-rich tropical ecosystems that contrast in precipitation: dry deciduous and wet evergreen forests of Mexico. Species turnover with succession in dry forest largely relates to increasing water availability and in wet forest to decreasing light availability. We hypothesized that while functional trait trade-offs are similar in the two forest systems, the successful plant strategies in these communities will be different, as contrasting filters affect species turnover. Research was carried out in 15 dry secondary forest sites (5-63 years after abandonment and in 17 wet secondary forest sites (<1-25 years after abandonment. We used 11 functional traits measured on 132 species to make species-trait PCA biplots for dry and wet forest and compare trait trade-offs. We evaluated whether multivariate plant strategies changed during succession, by calculating a 'Community-Weighted Mean' plant strategy, based on species scores on the first two PCA-axes. Trait spectra reflected two main trade-off axes that were similar for dry and wet forest species: acquisitive versus conservative species, and drought avoiding species versus evergreen species with large animal-dispersed seeds. These trait associations were consistent when accounting for evolutionary history. Successional changes in the most successful plant strategies reflected different functional trait spectra depending on the forest type. In dry forest the community changed from having drought avoiding strategies early in succession to increased abundance of evergreen strategies with larger seeds late in succession. In wet forest the community changed from species having mainly acquisitive strategies to those with more conservative strategies during succession. These strategy changes were explained by increasing water availability during

  15. Functional Trait Strategies of Trees in Dry and Wet Tropical Forests Are Similar but Differ in Their Consequences for Succession

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohbeck, Madelon; Lebrija-Trejos, Edwin; Martínez-Ramos, Miguel; Meave, Jorge A.; Poorter, Lourens; Bongers, Frans

    2015-01-01

    Global plant trait studies have revealed fundamental trade-offs in plant resource economics. We evaluated such trait trade-offs during secondary succession in two species-rich tropical ecosystems that contrast in precipitation: dry deciduous and wet evergreen forests of Mexico. Species turnover with succession in dry forest largely relates to increasing water availability and in wet forest to decreasing light availability. We hypothesized that while functional trait trade-offs are similar in the two forest systems, the successful plant strategies in these communities will be different, as contrasting filters affect species turnover. Research was carried out in 15 dry secondary forest sites (5-63 years after abandonment) and in 17 wet secondary forest sites (<1-25 years after abandonment). We used 11 functional traits measured on 132 species to make species-trait PCA biplots for dry and wet forest and compare trait trade-offs. We evaluated whether multivariate plant strategies changed during succession, by calculating a ‘Community-Weighted Mean’ plant strategy, based on species scores on the first two PCA-axes. Trait spectra reflected two main trade-off axes that were similar for dry and wet forest species: acquisitive versus conservative species, and drought avoiding species versus evergreen species with large animal-dispersed seeds. These trait associations were consistent when accounting for evolutionary history. Successional changes in the most successful plant strategies reflected different functional trait spectra depending on the forest type. In dry forest the community changed from having drought avoiding strategies early in succession to increased abundance of evergreen strategies with larger seeds late in succession. In wet forest the community changed from species having mainly acquisitive strategies to those with more conservative strategies during succession. These strategy changes were explained by increasing water availability during dry forest

  16. Assessing risks and uncertainties in forest dynamics under different management scenarios and climate change

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Matthias; Albert; Jan; Hansen; Jürgen; Nagel; Matthias; Schmidt; Hermann; Spellmann

    2015-01-01

    Background: Forest management faces a climate induced shift in growth potential and increasing current and emerging new risks. Vulnerability analysis provides decision support based on projections of natural resources taking risks and uncertainties into account. In this paper we(1) characterize differences in forest dynamics under three management scenarios,(2) analyse the effects of the three scenarios on two risk factors, windthrow and drought stress, and(3) quantify the effects and the amount of uncertainty arising from climate projections on height increment and drought stress.Methods: In four regions in northern Germany, we apply three contrasting management scenarios and project forest development under climate change until 2070. Three climate runs(minimum, median, maximum) based on the emission scenario RCP 8.5 control the site-sensitive forest growth functions. The minimum and maximum climate run define the range of prospective climate development.Results: The projections of different management regimes until 2070 show the diverging medium-term effects of thinnings and harvests and long-term effects of species conversion on a regional scale. Examples of windthrow vulnerability and drought stress reveal how adaptation measures depend on the applied management path and the decision-maker’s risk attitude. Uncertainty analysis shows the increasing variability of drought risk projections with time. The effect of climate projections on height growth are quantified and uncertainty analysis reveals that height growth of young trees is dominated by the age-trend whereas the climate signal in height increment of older trees is decisive.Conclusions: Drought risk is a serious issue in the eastern regions independent of the applied silvicultural scenario,but adaptation measures are limited as the proportion of the most drought tolerant species Scots pine is already high. Windthrow risk is no serious overall threat in any region, but adequate counter-measures such as

  17. Trends over time in tree and seedling phylogenetic diversity indicate regional differences in forest biodiversity change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, Kevin M; Woodall, Christopher W

    2012-03-01

    Changing climate conditions may impact the short-term ability of forest tree species to regenerate in many locations. In the longer term, tree species may be unable to persist in some locations while they become established in new places. Over both time frames, forest tree biodiversity may change in unexpected ways. Using repeated inventory measurements five years apart from more than 7000 forested plots in the eastern United States, we tested three hypotheses: phylogenetic diversity is substantially different from species richness as a measure of biodiversity; forest communities have undergone recent changes in phylogenetic diversity that differ by size class, region, and seed dispersal strategy; and these patterns are consistent with expected early effects of climate change. Specifically, the magnitude of diversity change across broad regions should be greater among seedlings than in trees, should be associated with latitude and elevation, and should be greater among species with high dispersal capacity. Our analyses demonstrated that phylogenetic diversity and species richness are decoupled at small and medium scales and are imperfectly associated at large scales. This suggests that it is appropriate to apply indicators of biodiversity change based on phylogenetic diversity, which account for evolutionary relationships among species and may better represent community functional diversity. Our results also detected broadscale patterns of forest biodiversity change that are consistent with expected early effects of climate change. First, the statistically significant increase over time in seedling diversity in the South suggests that conditions there have become more favorable for the reproduction and dispersal of a wider variety of species, whereas the significant decrease in northern seedling diversity indicates that northern conditions have become less favorable. Second, we found weak correlations between seedling diversity change and latitude in both zones

  18. Assessing risks and uncertainties in forest dynamics under different management scenarios and climate change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Albert

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background Forest management faces a climate induced shift in growth potential and increasing current and emerging new risks. Vulnerability analysis provides decision support based on projections of natural resources taking risks and uncertainties into account. In this paper we (1 characterize differences in forest dynamics under three management scenarios, (2 analyse the effects of the three scenarios on two risk factors, windthrow and drought stress, and (3 quantify the effects and the amount of uncertainty arising from climate projections on height increment and drought stress. Methods In four regions in northern Germany, we apply three contrasting management scenarios and project forest development under climate change until 2070. Three climate runs (minimum, median, maximum based on the emission scenario RCP 8.5 control the site-sensitive forest growth functions. The minimum and maximum climate run define the range of prospective climate development. Results The projections of different management regimes until 2070 show the diverging medium-term effects of thinnings and harvests and long-term effects of species conversion on a regional scale. Examples of windthrow vulnerability and drought stress reveal how adaptation measures depend on the applied management path and the decision-maker’s risk attitude. Uncertainty analysis shows the increasing variability of drought risk projections with time. The effect of climate projections on height growth are quantified and uncertainty analysis reveals that height growth of young trees is dominated by the age-trend whereas the climate signal in height increment of older trees is decisive. Conclusions Drought risk is a serious issue in the eastern regions independent of the applied silvicultural scenario, but adaptation measures are limited as the proportion of the most drought tolerant species Scots pine is already high. Windthrow risk is no serious overall threat in any region, but adequate

  19. CoFoLaMo: Comparing forest landscape model simulations under different climate, interaction- and land use scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lischke, Heike; Speich, Matthias; Schmatz, Dirk; Vacchiano, Giorgio; Mairota, Paola; Leronni, Vincenzo; Schuler, Laura; Bugmann, Harald; Bruna, Josef; Thom, Dominik; Seidl, Rupert; Reineking, Björn

    2016-04-01

    Forests play an important role in the global climate system, and are themselves strongly affected by the changing climate. Forest dynamics do not only act at the stand scale, but are also influenced by larger scale drivers, such as landscape management, and by spatial interactions, such as fire spread or seed dispersal. Forest landscape models run on areas larger than a stand and interact spatially and thus are capable of taking into account these effects. We present the setup of the forest landscape model intercomparison CoFoLaMo (which is based on the setup of the ISI-MIP forest stand model comparison), where we examine several forest landscape models- LandClim, ForHyCS, TreeMig, LANDIS II and iLand - in terms of their usefulness for different kinds of applications. We compare the models with respect to their general approach, scales, resolution, and data requirements, processes, interactions, drivers, disturbances, outputs, and uncertainties. We run simulations in different test regions across temperate Europe, e.g., in the northern(Davos)and southern Alps (Valle d'Aosta), the Bavarian Forest and southern Italy (Puglia). Climate drivers (mostly daily T and P) are downscaled to 100 m resolution in the respective regions. For spinup and model testing we use past observed climate, extrapolated back to 1600 AD, for future simulations a set of different RCPs of different model chains from the ISI-MIP community. For model testing we use appropriate spatial forest data available for each region, ranging from NFI data, terrestrial vegetation type maps, or remote sensing derived forest types and high resolution canopy height. To address the landscape aspect of the models, we compare them in different scenarios of spatially interacting disturbances, spatial interactions by seed dispersal and land use.

  20. [Vertical distribution of soil active carbon and soil organic carbon storage under different forest types in the Qinling Mountains].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Di; Geng, Zeng-Chao; She, Diao; He, Wen-Xiang; Hou, Lin

    2014-06-01

    Adopting field investigation and indoor analysis methods, the distribution patterns of soil active carbon and soil carbon storage in the soil profiles of Quercus aliena var. acuteserrata (Matoutan Forest, I), Pinus tabuliformis (II), Pinus armandii (III), pine-oak mixed forest (IV), Picea asperata (V), and Quercus aliena var. acuteserrata (Xinjiashan Forest, VI) of Qinling Mountains were studied in August 2013. The results showed that soil organic carbon (SOC), microbial biomass carbon (MBC), dissolved organic carbon (DOC), and easily oxidizable carbon (EOC) decreased with the increase of soil depth along the different forest soil profiles. The SOC and DOC contents of different depths along the soil profiles of P. asperata and pine-oak mixed forest were higher than in the other studied forest soils, and the order of the mean SOC and DOC along the different soil profiles was V > IV > I > II > III > VI. The contents of soil MBC of the different forest soil profiles were 71.25-710.05 mg x kg(-1), with a content sequence of I > V > N > III > II > VI. The content of EOC along the whole soil profile of pine-oak mixed forest had a largest decline, and the order of the mean EOC was IV > V> I > II > III > VI. The sequence of soil organic carbon storage of the 0-60 cm soil layer was V > I >IV > III > VI > II. The MBC, DOC and EOC contents of the different forest soils were significanty correlated to each other. There was significant positive correlation among soil active carbon and TOC, TN. Meanwhile, there was no significant correlation between soil active carbon and other soil basic physicochemical properties.

  1. Blow Flies from Forest Fragments Embedded in Different Land Uses: Implications for Selecting Indicators in Forensic Entomology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Mirian S; Pepinelli, Mateus; de Almeida, Eduardo C; Ochoa-Quintero, Jose M; Roque, Fabio O

    2016-01-01

    Given the general expectation that forest loss can alter biodiversity patterns, we hypothesize that blow fly species abundances differ in a gradient of native vegetation cover. This study was conducted in 17 fragments across different landscapes in central Brazil. Different land cover type proportions were used to represent landscape structure. In total, 2334 specimens of nine species of Calliphoridae were collected. We used principal component analysis (PCA) to reduce dimensionality and multicollinearity of the landscape data. The first component explained 70%, and it represented a gradient of forest-pasture land uses. Alien species showed a wide distribution in different fragments with no clear relationship between the abundance values and the scores of PCA axes, whereas native species occurred only in areas with a predominance of forest cover. Our study revealed that certain native species may be sensitive to forest loss at the landscape scale, and they represent a bioindicator in forensic entomology.

  2. Different fire-climate relationships on forested and non-forested landscapes in the Sierra Nevada ecoregion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeley, Jon E.; Syphard, Alexandra D.

    2015-01-01

    In the California Sierra Nevada region, increased fire activity over the last 50 years has only occurred in the higher-elevation forests on US Forest Service (USFS) lands, and is not characteristic of the lower-elevation grasslands, woodlands and shrublands on state responsibility lands (Cal Fire). Increased fire activity on USFS lands was correlated with warmer and drier springs. Although this is consistent with recent global warming, we found an equally strong relationship between fire activity and climate in the first half of the 20th century. At lower elevations, warmer and drier conditions were not strongly tied to fire activity over the last 90 years, although prior-year precipitation was significant. It is hypothesised that the fire–climate relationship in forests is determined by climatic effects on spring and summer fuel moisture, with hotter and drier springs leading to a longer fire season and more extensive burning. In contrast, future fire activity in the foothills may be more dependent on rainfall patterns and their effect on the herbaceous fuel load. We predict spring and summer warming will have a significant impact on future fire regimes, primarily in higher-elevation forests. Lower elevation ecosystems are likely to be affected as much by global changes that directly involve land-use patterns as by climate change.

  3. Estimating the SCS runoff curve number in forest catchments of Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hyung Tae; Kim, Jaehoon; Lim, Hong-geun

    2016-04-01

    To estimate flood runoff discharge is a very important work in design for many hydraulic structures in streams, rivers and lakes such as dams, bridges, culverts, and so on. So, many researchers have tried to develop better methods for estimating flood runoff discharge. The SCS runoff curve number is an empirical parameter determined by empirical analysis of runoff from small catchments and hillslope plots monitored by the USDA. This method is an efficient method for determining the approximate amount of runoff from a rainfall even in a particular area, and is very widely used all around the world. However, there is a quite difference between the conditions of Korea and USA in topography, geology and land use. Therefore, examinations in adaptability of the SCS runoff curve number need to raise the accuracy of runoff prediction using SCS runoff curve number method. The purpose of this study is to find the SCS runoff curve number based on the analysis of observed data from several experimental forest catchments monitored by the National Institute of Forest Science (NIFOS), as a pilot study to modify SCS runoff curve number for forest lands in Korea. Rainfall and runoff records observed in Gwangneung coniferous and broad leaves forests, Sinwol, Hwasoon, Gongju and Gyeongsan catchments were selected to analyze the variability of flood runoff coefficients during the last 5 years. This study shows that runoff curve numbers of the experimental forest catchments range from 55 to 65. SCS Runoff Curve number method is a widely used method for estimating design discharge for small ungauged watersheds. Therefore, this study can be helpful technically to estimate the discharge for forest watersheds in Korea with more accuracy.

  4. Distribution and eco-coenotic patterns of the forest orchid Epipactis pontica in Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Hrivnák

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The present study is aimed at characterising the ecological niche of a typical forest orchid (Epipactis pontica in Slovakia. Vegetation-environmental data were collected across mountain ranges and  their foothills in the Western Carpathians in 2011. Numerical classification was performed to delimit the main forest vegetation types and a linear mixed effect model was applied to reveal differences between plots with versus without E. pontica. This endangered species of Slovak flora grows in thermophilous turkey oak forests (Quercion confertae-cerris, mesophilous broad-leaved mixed oak-hornbeam forests (Carpinion betuli, but most stands correspond to the acidic (Luzulo-Fagion sylvaticae and mesotrophic beech forests (Fagion sylvaticae. Principal component analysis supported the floristic separation of plant communities and showed some significant vegetation environmental relationships. E. pontica prefers forests with closed canopy (mean canopy openness: 8.5–15.1% occurring especially on slightly acidic (soil reaction: 4.48–5.65 and nutrient-poor soils (soil conductivity: 43.1–72.6 μS/cm. The proposed Ellenberg indicator values for light (4, temperature (5, continentality (4, moisture (5, soil reaction (6 and nutrients (5 follow species composition pattern of vascular plants in Slovak phytosociological relevés with E. pontica occurrence. They are also in accordance with its habitat conditions and ecological requirements in other parts of its range. The linear mixed effect model did not confirm any environmental peculiarity of plots with the presence of E. pontica at a microscale level and this result was consistent across the studied sites.

  5. Seedling Growth in Lower-Quality Forests After Transformation in Greater Xing' an Mountains%大兴安岭地区低质林改造后苗木生长状况

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李勇; 宋启亮; 董希斌; 李芝茹

    2012-01-01

    2009年对大兴安岭地区的阔叶混交次生林及白桦萌生低质林进行不同宽度效应带和不同面积林窗改造,分别种植西伯利亚红松、落叶松和樟子松,2011年8月调查实验区内每株苗木的成活和生长状况,研究不同改造方式苗木的成活率及生长率.结果表明:在阔叶混交次生林改造中,西伯利亚红松成活率效应带改造高于林窗改造,而生长率林窗改造高于效应带改造;樟子松成活率林窗改造高于效应带改造,生长率效应带改造高于林窗改造;落叶松改造与樟子松表现相同.在白桦萌生林改造中,西伯利亚红松成活率与生长率效应带改造均高于林窗改造;樟子松成活率和生长率林窗改造均高于效应带改造;落叶松成活率和生长率林窗改造均高于效应带改造.综合分析两类型低质林改造,不论是效应带改造还是林窗改造,对阔叶混交次生林改造的目的树种成活率和生长率均大于白桦萌生林改造.%Broad-leaved mixed secondary forests and birch coppice low-quality stands in Greater Xing' an Mountains in 2009 were transformed by different widths of effect belt or areas of forest gaps. Pinus koraiensis, Larix gmelinii and Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica were planted in the transformed stands respectively. The survival rate and growth rate of the seedlings in different transformed stands were surveyed in August 2011. In the broad-leaved mixed secondary forests after transformation , the survival rate of P. koraiensis for the transformation mode of effect belt was higher than that for the forest gap, while the growth rate for the transformation mode of forest gap was higher than that for the effect belt; the survival rate of P. sylvestris var. mongolica for the forest gap transformation was higher than that for the effect belt transformation, while the growth rate for the effect belt transformation was higher than that for the forest gap transformation; L

  6. Community structure, life histories and secondary production of stoneflies in two small mountain streams with different degree of forest cover

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Beracko

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Our study examines community structure and nymphal biology (life cycles and secondary production of stoneflies in two adjacent mountain streams with different degree of forest cover in the Prosiečanka River Basin (Chočské Vrchy Mts., West Carpathians. One of the streams has non-forested catchment, converted to meadows and pastures, while the other one has catchment with 60% covered by spruce forest. Differences in forest cover and in thermal regime of the streams were reflected by the difference of stonefly communities at their structural and functional level. Species Nemoura cinerea and Leuctra aurita created stonefly assemblage in non-forested stream, whereas Nemoura cinerea also occurred in naturally forested stream together with species Leuctra armata, Leuctra nigra, Leuctra prima, Siphonoperla neglecta and Arcynopteryx dichroa. All examined species had maximally annual life cycle and in eudominant species Nemoura cinerea one month shift was found in nymphal hatching and adult emergence between streams. Total secondary production of stoneflies in undisturbed stream (126.46 mg DW m-2 y-1 was more than two times higher than the production in non-forested stream (47.39 mg DW m-2 y-1. 

  7. Generation of runoff characteristics over three time period for four typical forests in Jinyun Mountain, Chongqing City southwest China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaoyuan CHU; Yujie WANG; Yiping XIA; Yun WU; Lin CHEN

    2009-01-01

    In order to provide a basis for water conservation in the restoration of vegetation for an urban water resource area, we studied the generation of runoff characteristics in four typical forests over three time periods in Jinyun Mountain, Chongqing City, based on the observation data of rainfall and runoff processes during the period 2002-2005. The results show that: 1) Rainfall was distributed evenly during the years 2002-2005. Annual rainfall variability was 4.46% and coefficient of variation was 0.0618. Average monthly rainfall tended towards a normal distribution N (113.8, 45972). 2) Both precipitation and runoff can be clearly divided into a dry and a wet season. The dry season was from October to March and the wet season from April to September. Most of annual runoff of the four forest stands occurred in the wet season. The surface runoff in the wet season accounted for more than 85% of the annual runoff, and more than 75% of underground runoff. 3) Both peak values of surface runoff and underground runoff occurred in June. The relation between monthly rainfall and surface/underground runoff was fitted by the model W = aP2 + bP + c. The order of annual surface runoff was as follows: Phyllostachys pub-escens forest > shrub forest > mixed Pinus massoniana-broadleaf forest > evergreen broad-leaved forest. The annual underground runoff was evergreen broad-leaved forest > mixed Pinus massoniana-broadleaf forest >Phyl-lostachys pubescens forest > shrub forest. 4) Under similar rainstorms events, the order of the surface runoff coefficient was: evergreen broad-leaved forest mixed Pinus massoniana-broadleaf forest > Phyllostachys pubescens forest > shrub forest. The relation between rainstorms and surface runoff was fitted by the linear relationship: Q = mp-n. Both mixed Pinus massoniana-broadleaf forest and evergreen broad-leaved forest have better flood regulation effects on an annual and monthly basis and per individual rainstorm. The function of Phyllostachys

  8. Red-cockaded woodpecker male/female foraging differences in young forest stands.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franzreb, Kathleen, E.

    2010-07-01

    ABSTRACT The Red-cockaded Woodpecker (Picoides borealis) is an endangered species endemic to pine (Pinus spp.) forests of the southeastern United States. I examined Red-cockaded Woodpecker foraging behavior to learn if there were male/female differences at the Savannah River Site, South Carolina. The study was conducted in largely young forest stands (,50 years of age) in contrast to earlier foraging behavior studies that focused on more mature forest. The Redcockaded Woodpecker at the Savannah River site is intensively managed including monitoring, translocation, and installation of artificial cavity inserts for roosting and nesting. Over a 3-year period, 6,407 foraging observations covering seven woodpecker family groups were recorded during all seasons of the year and all times of day. The most striking differences occurred in foraging method (males usually scaled [45% of observations] and females mostly probed [47%]),substrate used (females had a stronger preference [93%] for the trunk than males [79%]), and foraging height from the ground (mean 6 SE foraging height was higher for males [11.1 6 0.5 m] than females [9.8 6 0.5 m]). Niche overlap between males and females was lowest for substrate (85.6%) and foraging height (87.8%), and highest for tree species (99.0%), tree condition (98.3%), and tree height (96.4%). Both males and females preferred to forage in older, large pine trees. The habitat available at the Savannah River Site was considerably younger than at most other locations, but the pattern of male/female habitat partitioning observed was similar to that documented elsewhere within the range attesting to the species’ ability to adjust behaviorally.

  9. Soil Quality under Riparian Forest at Different Stages of Ecological Succession and Cultivated with Sugarcane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Luiz Gabriel; Casagrande, José Carlos; Colato, Alexandre; Soares, Marcio Roberto; Perissatto Meneghin, Silvana

    2014-05-01

    This work aimed at evaluating the quality of the soil through its chemical, physical and microbiological attributes, using additive pondered model, as well as studying the characteristics of the linear method of combination of data, figures of merit (FoMs), the process of assigning weights and standard score functions, using measurements collected in three areas (two riparian forests and a commercial crop of sugarcane) in two soil types (Oxisol and Podzol) located on the dam shores of Sugar Mill Saint Lucia-Araras/SP. The soil was sampled in the depths of 0-0.2 and 0.2-0.4m, and was determined some of its chemical attributes (nutrient content and organic matter, cationic exchange capacity - CEC, etc.), physical (particle size distribution, density and porosity) and microbiological (microbial biomass and basal respiration). Two models were built, one containing two hierarchical levels of FoMs (Mod1), and another containing three levels (Mod2), in order to try to isolate FoMs highly correlated from each other within a top-level FoM. At FoMs of Mod1 were assigned various combinations of weights, and those of Mod2 were assigned weights from three methods, distribution from fixed value, classification and pair-wise comparison. In the Mod1, in virtually all combinations of weights used, values of Soil Quality Index (SQI) were superior in older forests, while the most recent forest presented the lowest SQI, for both types of soil. The variation of SQI values obtained from the sets of weights used also differed between the combinations tested, with the set of values of the ancient forest showing smaller amplitude. It could also be observed that the sets of values of Oxisol showed higher SQI and lower amplitude in relation to that of Podzol. It was observed that these facts are due mainly to the soil organic matter content (MO), which differs between the vegetations and soil types, and influences many parameters used in the model. Thus, in the structures where MO had

  10. Depth distribution and composition of seed banks under different tree layers in a managed temperate forest ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godefroid, Sandrine; Phartyal, Shyam S.; Koedam, Nico

    2006-05-01

    In the present work we examined the composition and distribution across three soil layers of the buried soil seed bank under three different overstory types ( Fagus sylvatica, Quercus robur, Pinus sylvestris) and in logging areas in a 4383-ha forest in central Belgium. The objectives were: (1) to investigate whether species composition and species richness of soil seed banks are affected by different forest stands; (2) to examine how abundant are habitat-specific forest species in seed banks under different planted tree layers. The study was carried out in stands which are replicated, managed in the same way (even-aged high forest), and growing on the same soil type with the same land-use history. In the investigated area, the seed bank did show significant differences under oak, beech, pine and in logging areas, respectively in terms of size, composition and depth occurrence. All species and layers taken together, the seed bank size ranked as follows: oakwood > beechwood > logging area > pinewood. The same pattern was found for forest species. Seed numbers of Betula pendula, Calluna vulgaris, Dryopteris dilatata and Rubus fruticosus were significantly higher under the beech canopy. Carex remota, Impatiens parviflora and Lotus sp. showed a significantly denser seed bank in logging areas, while Digitalis purpurea seeds were significantly more abundant in soils under the oak canopy. The fact that the seed bank of an originally homogeneous forest varies under different planted stands highlights that a long period of canopy conversion can affect the composition and depth of buried seeds.

  11. Transfer of the Fukushima Daiichi reactor accident-derived radionuclides in forest environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Hiroaki; Onda, Yuichi; Kawamori, Ayumi; Hisadome, Keigo

    2013-04-01

    The Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident resulted in extensive radioactive contamination of the forest environment in Fukushima and the neighboring prefectures. In this study, we analyzed radiocesium concentrations in rainwater, throughfall, stemflow, and litterfall to characterize the transfer of the deposited radiocesium in various forest stands (evergreen conifers and broad-leaved forests), in Tochigi (Cs-137 fallout < 10 kBq/m^2) and Fukushima (Cs-137 fallout = 300-600 kBq/m^2) prefectures. Furthermore, in-situ measurement of radiocesium were conducted to delineate spatio-temporal variability of radiocesium in the canopy and forest floor. The result of this study demonstrated that a large proportion of radionuclides which deposited on forest were initially trapped by canopies, and subsequently transferred to forest floor in association with throughfall, stemflow, and litterfall. In the deciduous broad-leaved forest, the highest radioactivity was found at the forest floor; however, 25-40% of the total deposited radiocesium remained in the canopy of evergreen coniferous forests one year after the reactor accident.

  12. Forest Cover Change and Soil Erosion in Toledo's Rio Grande Watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chicas, S.; Omine, K.

    2015-04-01

    Toledo, the southernmost district, is the hub of Belize's Mayan population, descendants of the ancient Mayan civilization. The Toledo District is primarily inhibited by Kekchi and Mopan Mayans whose subsistence needs are met by the Milpa slash-and-burn agricultural system and the extraction of forest resources. The poverty assessment in the country indicates that Toledo is the district with the highest percentage of household an individual indigence of 37.5 % and 49.7 % respectively. Forest cover change in the area can be attributed to rapid population growth among the Maya, together with increase in immigration from neighboring countries, logging, oil exploration and improvement and construction of roads. The forest cover change analysis show that from 2001 to 2011 there was a decrease of Lowland broad-leaved wet forest of 7.53 km sq, Shrubland of 4.66 km sq, and Wetland of 0.08 km sq. Forest cover change has resulted in soil erosion which is causing the deterioration of soils. The land cover types that are contributing the most to total erosion in the Rio Grande watershed are no-forest, lowland broad-leaved wet forest and submontane broad-leaved wet forest. In this study the Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE) was employed in a GIS platform to quantify and assess forest cover change and soil erosion. Soil erosion vulnerability maps in Toledo's Rio Grande watershed were also created. This study provides scientifically sound information in order to understand and respond effectively to the impacts of soil erosion in the study site.

  13. Modeling of Two Different Water Uptake Approaches for Mono- and Mixed-Species Forest Stands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Gutsch

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available To assess how the effects of drought could be better captured in process-based models, this study simulated and contrasted two water uptake approaches in Scots pine and Scots pine-Sessile oak stands. The first approach consisted of an empirical function for root water uptake (WU1. The second approach was based on differences of soil water potential along a soil-plant-atmosphere continuum (WU2 with total root resistance varying at low, medium and high total root resistance levels. Three data sets on different time scales relevant for tree growth were used for model evaluation: Two short-term datasets on daily transpiration and soil water content as well as a long-term dataset on annual tree ring increments. Except WU2 with high total root resistance, all transpiration outputs exceeded observed values. The strongest correlation between simulated and observed annual tree ring width occurred with WU2 and high total root resistance. The findings highlighted the importance of severe drought as a main reason for small diameter increment. However, if all three data sets were taken into account, no approach was superior to the other. We conclude that accurate projections of future forest productivity depend largely on the realistic representation of root water uptake in forest model simulations.

  14. Integrating different knowledge sources and disciplines for practical applications in Forest and Agricultural Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzmán, Gema; Castillo, Carlos; Taguas, Encarnación

    2013-04-01

    One of the aims of 'The Bologna Process' is to promote among the students the acquisition of practical, social and creative skills to face real-life situations and to solve the difficulties they might find during their professional life. It involves an important change in the educational system, from a traditional approach focused on teaching, towards a new one that encourages learning. Under this context, University teaching implies the design of activities addressed to the dissemination of "know-how" to solve different problems associated with two technical disciplines: Forest and Agricultural Engineering. This study presents a preliminary experience where a group of information and communication technologies (ICT) such as, audiovisual resources (videos, reports and photo gallery), virtual visits to blogs and interactive activities have been used to provide a comprehensive knowledge of the environmental and sociocultural components of the landscape in order to facilitate the decision-making process in the engineering project context . With these tools, the students must study and characterize all these aspects in order to justify the chosen solutions and the project design. This approach was followed in the analysis of the limiting factors of practical cases in projects about forestation, landscape restoration and hydrological planning. This communication shows how this methodology has been applied in Forest and Agricultural Engineering and the students' experience with these innovative tools. The use of ICTs involved a friendly framework that stimulated students' interest and made subjects more attractive, since it allowed to assess the complex relationships between landscape, history and economy. Furthermore, this type of activities promotes the interdisciplinary training and the acquisition of creative and autonomous skills which are not included in many cases into the main objectives of the subjects.

  15. 模拟氮沉降对中亚热带森林土壤中可溶性氮含量的影响%Effects of Simulated Nitrogen Deposition on Soluble Nitrogen in Subtropical Forest Soils

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫聪微; 马红亮; 高人; 尹云锋; 陈仕东

    2012-01-01

    A field-simulated nitrogen deposition experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of added nitrogen on soil soluble inorganic nitrogen (SIN) and soluble organic nitrogen (SON) in two adjacent natural broad-leaved forests (Cinnamomum chekiangense, CIC and Castanopsu fabric, CAF) and a nearby coniferous plantation (Cunninghamiu lanceolate, CUL). Three treatments were set as the control (CK) ofO kg/(hm2·a), low nitrogen (LN) treatment of 30 kg/(hm2·a) and high nitrogen (HN) treatment of 100 kg/(hm2·a). The results showed that after three days of nitrogen addition, significant effects were only found from the high nitrogen treatment, and there were no significant differences between the effects of CK and LN. After three months of N addition, there were no significant differences among all treatments. Compared with the data after three days of N addition, NH4 +-N content in the three forest soils after three months of N addition was significantly increased by 42%-68% (P<0.05) under CK, and decreased by 45%-58% (P<0.05) under HN. NO3 +-N content was decreased on average by 24% -88% in the three treatments, with the effects most significant in the HN treatment and in the coniferous forest soil. After three days of N addition, soil SON in the three forest soils increased, with the proportion of SON in total soluble nitrogen (TSN) decreasing with increased N addition level, especially in the coniferous forest soil. However, three months of N addition had little or even the reverse effect on SON. The content of SON was decreased, and the proportion of SON to TSN was increased, after three months of N addition compared with that after three days. This indicated that SON loss was still lower than that of inorganic nitrogen. The content of SON in the broad-leaved forest soils, which was significantly higher than that in coniferous forest soil, which suggests that the chemical characteristics of linen play an important role in SON content variation.%通过野

  16. Differences in the impacts of formal and informal recreational trails on urban forest loss and tree structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballantyne, Mark; Pickering, Catherine Marina

    2015-08-15

    Recreational trails are one of the most common types of infrastructure used for nature-based activities such as hiking and mountain biking worldwide. Depending on their design, location, construction, maintenance and use, these trails differ in their environmental impacts. There are few studies, however, comparing the impacts of different trail types including between formal management-created trails and informal visitor-created trails. Although both types of trails can be found in remote natural areas, dense networks of them often occur in forests close to cities where they experience intense visitor use. To assess the relative impacts of different recreational trails in urban forests, we compared the condition of the trail surface, loss of forest strata and changes in tree structure caused by seven types of trails (total network 46.1 km) traversing 17 remnants of an endangered urban forest in Australia. After mapping and classifying all trails, we assessed their impact on the forest condition at 125 sites (15 sites per trail type, plus 15 control sites within undisturbed forest). On the trail sites, the condition of the trail surface, distance from the trail edge to four forest strata (litter, understory, midstorey and tree cover) and structure of the tree-line were assessed. Informal trails generally had poorer surface conditions and were poorly-designed and located. Per site, formal and informal trails resulted in similar loss of forest strata, with wider trails resulting in greater loss of forest. Because there were more informal trails, however, they accounted for the greatest cumulative forest loss. Structural impacts varied, with the widest informal trails and all formal hardened trails resulting in similar reductions in canopy cover and tree density but an increase in saplings. These structural impacts are likely a function of the unregulated and intense use of large informal trails, and disturbance from the construction and maintenance of formal trails

  17. Evaporation and transpiration differences among successional stages of Tropical Dry Forest, Santa Rosa National Park, Costa Rica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Rodríguez, César D.; Calvo-Alvarado, Julio

    2016-04-01

    Seasonal environments in the tropics show strong responses to changes in precipitation regimes. The monthly water availability is the main trigger for ecological responses as flowering, fructification, leaf sprouting and senescence. Among these environments, the tropical dry forests (TDF) depends directly on the soil water availability, defining the forest growing season despite the forest characteristics. However, within the same ecosystem is possible to find differences in the water fluxes due to forest age. The TDF located in Santa Rosa National Park (SRNP) in Costa Rica; shows a particular matrix of secondary forest patches varying in age, structure, and species composition allowing us to evaluate the water fluxes differences among successional stages of TDF. Three permanent plots of 1000.0 m2 were selected from the Tropi-Dry project. Each plot characterized a specific successional stage of this ecosystem varying in forest structure and age. Every location was equipped to measure the hourly soil water content and forest growth, while the meteorological conditions were collected by the meteorological station of the national park. The data was collected from December 2005 to June 2009 however, due to data gaps and quality control the data analysis includes only the hydrological years between 2006 and 2009. The soil water content was measured at three depths in each plot (10, 30 and 40 cm) to determine the real evapotranspiration from the forest. The precipitation along these three years shows strong variations registering 326.5 mm-1yr-1 in the first year up to 3004.0 mm-1yr-1 during the last year, these strong changes are influenced by the ENOS phenomena in the region. Regardless the precipitation amounts the evapotranspiration do not differ strongly on a yearly basis, were 726.7 mm-1yr-1, 675.1 mm-1yr-1 and 751.6 mm-1yr-1 were exported to the atmosphere by the early, intermediate and late stages of TDF secondary forest. The yearly strong differences in

  18. CO2 efflux from different forest soils and impact factors in Dinghu Mountain, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Cunyu; ZHOU Guoyi; ZHANG Deqiang; WANG Yinghong; LIU Shizhong

    2005-01-01

    CO2 fluxes from soils and related environmental factors were measured in three forest ecosystems of Dinghu Mountain using static chamber-gas chromatograph technique for one year. The seasonal pattern of CO2 flux, contribution of litter on total CO2 flux and the correlations of CO2 flux with soil temperature and soil water content were examined for each type of forest. The results were given as followings: (1) The seasonal patterns of CO2 flux from soil of the three types of forest were similar, with a higher CO2 flux in rainy season than in dry season. The comparative relations of mean annual CO2 fluxes between the three sites were expressed as:monsoon forest > mixed forest > pine forest. (2) CO2 fluxes from litter decomposition in monsoon forest, mixed forest and pine forest accounted for 24.43%, 41.75% and 29.23% of the corresponding total CO2 fluxes from forest floor, respectively. (3) Significant relationships were found between CO2 fluxes and soil temperatures at 5 cm depth for the three types of forest, which could be best described by exponential equations. The calculated Q10 values based on soil temperature at 5 cm depth ranged from 1.86 to 3.24. More significant relationships were found between CO2 fluxes and soil water content when the annual variation coefficients of soil moisture were higher.

  19. Development of the tree and shrub component and recovery techniques in a burnt pine forest, Castel Fusano, Rome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manetti MC

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A five-year study (2000-2005 was established in a part of Castel Fusano (Rome pinewood burned in 2000. The aims of the research were: i to analyse the behaviour of the coenoses after fire; ii to verify the post-fire growth and canopy recovery of the Mediterranean maquis; iii to evaluate natural regeneration of italian stone pine (Pinus pinea L.; iv to verify the effectiveness of italian stone pine plantation in enhancing the establishment of the forest cover. Permanent research plots were established to evaluate features and dynamics of the Mediterranean maquis as well as mortality and development of 1-year-old italian stone pine (ca.500 ha-1 seedlings. Two different plantation systems were applied: blocks of three seedlings at 8x8 m distance; one seedling at 5x5 m distance. After five growing seasons from the fire, only 700 stools ha-1 have resprouted, mainly holm oak (48%, whose only 38% of good vigour. Canopy cover of the broad-leaved species is not enough to assure a quick forest establishment. Combined pine plantation with the maquis species, has given satisfactory results, though the mortality was quite high because of the game damages. The block planting performed better for growth and survival of seedlings. This last plantation system could be a rational choice to assure, in a relative short time, forest recovery and mixed stands characterised by a considerable presence of natural vegetation.

  20. Sources of errors and uncertainties in the assessment of forest soil carbon stocks at different scales

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vanguelova, E. I.; Bonifacio, E.; De Vos, B.;

    2016-01-01

    for assessing SOC stocks with the highest possible accuracy at each scale. This review identifies where potential sources of errors and uncertainties related to forest SOC stock estimation occur at five different scales---sample, profile, plot, landscape/regional and European. Recommendations are also provided...... temporal changes and spatial differences in SOC. This requires sufficiently detailed data to predict SOC stocks at appropriate scales within the required accuracy so that only significant changes are accounted for. When designing sampling campaigns, taking into account factors influencing SOC spatial...... and temporal distribution (such as soil type, topography, climate and vegetation) are needed to optimise sampling depths and numbers of samples, thereby ensuring that samples accurately reflect the distribution of SOC at a site. Furthermore, the appropriate scales related to the research question need...

  1. Measurement and modeling of rainfall interception by two differently aged secondary forests in upland eastern Madagascar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad Ghimire, Chandra; Adrian Bruijnzeel, L.; Lubczynski, Maciek W.; Ravelona, Maafaka; Zwartendijk, Bob W.; van Meerveld, H. J. (Ilja)

    2017-02-01

    Secondary forests occupy a larger area than old-growth rain forests in many tropical regions but their hydrological functioning is still poorly understood. In particular, little is known about the various components of evapotranspiration in these possibly vigorously regenerating forests. This paper reports on a comparison of measured and modeled canopy interception losses (I) from a semi-mature (ca. 20 years) and a young (5-7 years) secondary forest in the lower montane rain forest zone of eastern Madagascar. Measurements of gross rainfall (P), throughfall (Tf), and stemflow (Sf) were made in both forests for one year (October 2014-September 2015) and the revised analytical model of Gash et al. (1995) was tested for the first time in a tropical secondary forest setting. Overall measured Tf, Sf and derived I in the semi-mature forest were 71.0%, 1.7% and 27.3% of incident P, respectively. Corresponding values for the young forest were 75.8%, 6.2% and 18.0%. The high Sf for the young forest reflects the strongly upward thrusting habit of the branches of the dominant species (Psiadia altissima), which favours funneling of P. The value of I for the semi-mature forest is similar to values reported for old-growth tropical lower montane rain forests elsewhere but I for the younger forest is higher than reported for similarly aged tropical lowland forests. These findings can be explained largely by the prevailing low rainfall intensities and the frequent occurrence of small rainfall events. The revised analytical model was able to reproduce measured cumulative I at the two sites accurately and succeeded in capturing the variability in I associated with the seasonal variability in rainfall intensity, provided that Tf-based values for the average wet-canopy evaporation rates were used instead of values derived with the Penman-Monteith equation.

  2. Comparative phytosociology of tree sinusiae between contiguous forests in different stages of succession.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavalcante, A; Soares, J J; Figueiredo, M A

    2000-11-01

    The Baturité Mountain Range, located in the State of Ceará (BRA), displays on its highest levels a vegetation viewed as a disjunction from the Atlantic Forest in the East of Brazil. Among the various attributes associated with this vegetation, the abundance of water resources and a high biodiversity have a more outstanding relevance. However, in view of the current accelerated deforestation process, those attributes may be threatened in a near future. Therefore, the present work is a comparative study with its focus on vegetal community organization (tree sinusiae) and the floristic similarity and the phytodiversity of two areas in different successive stages, preserved and deforested 24 years ago. The aim of that intent was to obtain information that could essentially shed light on the deforestation effects on tree vegetation and which could suggest scientific support regarding urgent projects of habitat reconstruction. The methodology used folowed the model utilized for rain forest, i.e. consisting of a random distribution of 10 x 20 m plots surveying the living woody species with DBH >/= 5 cm. The results obtained suggest that a possible new physiognomy type is emerging on the Baturite Mountain Range because of deforestation. The Myrtaceae and Mimosaceae families were the ones that contributed most significantly to species richness, being the most outstanding for Areas 1 and 2, respectively. The deforestation which occurred in Area 2 eliminated 28 species and gave birth to a current densely distinct floristic composition.

  3. Mean age of carbon in fine roots from temperate forests and grasslands with different management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solly, E.; Schöning, I.; Boch, S.; Müller, J.; Socher, S. A.; Trumbore, S. E.; Schrumpf, M.

    2013-07-01

    Fine roots are the most dynamic portion of a plant's root system and a major source of soil organic matter. By altering plant species diversity and composition, soil conditions and nutrient availability, and consequently belowground allocation and dynamics of root carbon (C) inputs, land-use and management changes may influence organic C storage in terrestrial ecosystems. In three German regions, we measured fine root radiocarbon (14C) content to estimate the mean time since C in root tissues was fixed from the atmosphere in 54 grassland and forest plots with different management and soil conditions. Although root biomass was on average greater in grasslands 5.1 ± 0.8 g (mean ± SE, n = 27) than in forests 3.1 ± 0.5 g (n = 27) (p soils in northern Germany and of 1.8 ± 0.3 yr (n = 9) and 2.6 ± 0.3 (n = 9) in central and southern Germany (p soil nutrient contents and soil moisture conditions between study regions, which affected plant species diversity and the presence of perennial species. Our results indicate more long-lived roots or internal redistribution of C in perennial species and suggest linkages between fine root C age and management in grasslands. These findings improve our ability to predict and model belowground C fluxes across broader spatial scales.

  4. Effects of Nitrogen Deposition on Soluble Organic Carbon:A Simulation Study in Subtropical Forest Soils%模拟氮沉降对森林土壤可溶性有机碳的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏春兰; 马红亮; 高人; 尹云锋; 陈仕东; 杨柳明

    2013-01-01

    In 2009-2012 in situ simulation nitrogen deposition experiments ( control, CK, 0 kg · hm-2 · a-1 , low nitrogen LN , 30 kg · hm -2 · a -1 and high nitrogen HN , 100 kg · hm-2 · a-1 ) were conducted to study effects of nitrogen deposition on soil soluble organic carbon for broad -leaved forest ( Cinnamomum chekiangense and Castanopsis fabri) and coniferous forest ( Cunninghamia lanceo-lata) in subtropical areas with different soil depth , different vegetation and litter removed or not .The results showed that soluble organic carbon at different soil depth for coniferous forest was largely differ -ences with highest at HN for 0~15 cm soil depth .However , soil soluble organic carbon has the high-est level for 15~30 cm and 30~40 cm at LN and it was decreased significantly for 15~30 cm at HN. Different from coniferous forest ( Cunninghamia lanceolata ) , soil soluble organic carbon for broad-leaved forest ( Cinnamomum chekiangense and Castanopsis fabri) in 15~30 cm and 30~40 cm depth increased in small amplitude with nitrogen deposition .With comparing the soluble organic carbon after nitrogen application to that prior to fertilization for 0~15 cm soil, it was found that the response of broad-leaved forest and coniferous forest to nitrogen deposition was different . Nitrogen deposition reduced soil soluble organic carbon content for coniferous forest , but not reduced the content for broad-leaved forest;even increase their content , especially in the broad-leaved forest ( Castanopsis fabri ) . These showed that the difference of soil carbon content in different forest soils is also an important fac-tor affecting the response of soil soluble organic carbon to nitrogen deposition .The response of soil sol-uble organic carbon to nitrogen application time and again at short-term to some extent affect the final long-term results.However, the effects of litter removed could not be observed at a short-term.%以亚热带森林生态系统为研究对象,于2009-2012

  5. Changes of Soil Enzyme Activities in Different Restoration Ages of Spruce Forests on the Eastern Qinghai-Tibet Plateau

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Yong-mei; BAO Wei-kai; PANG Xue-yong; WU Ning; ZHOU Guo-yi

    2005-01-01

    Six soil enzymes (invertase, acid phosphatase, proteinase, catalase, peroxidase and polyphenoloxidase ) were chosen for investigation under different spruce forests with restoration ages of 4,10,16 years and an old-growth spruce forest over 400 years old in the eastern Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, China. Results showed that the activities of invertase, phosphatase, proteinase, catalase and peroxidase decreased in newly restored forests except for pholyphenoloxidase. With the development of forests after restoration, the activities of invertase, acid phosphadase, proteinase increased gradually. Our study also indicated that the soil enzyme activities were associated with surface soils and decreased with depths. This result suggested that in the earlier restoration stage the application of organic fertilizer may be more effective by surface addition to soils than deep addition.

  6. Larval mosquito communities in discarded vehicle tires in a forested and unforested site: detritus type, amount, and water nutrient differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kling, Lindsey J; Juliano, Steven A; Yee, Donald A

    2007-12-01

    Discarded tires are an important habitat for larvae of multiple species of disease-transmitting mosquitoes. Although tire locations likely influence composition and abundance of vectors, there are few data linking vector populations to the characteristics of the aquatic tire environment. We sampled water-filled tires at three times at a forested and an unforested site to evaluate how differences in detritus inputs or nutrients in these two macrohabitats may be associated with composition of mosquito-dominated invertebrate communities. The forested site had significantly greater inputs of leaves, twigs, seeds, and fine detritus at the first sampling, but subsequent sampling indicated no differences in inputs of any detritus type. Total phosphorous levels were significantly greater in the forested site, but there was no difference in total nitrogen or total ion concentrations during any sampling. Chlorophyll a levels were not different between sites, even though light levels were greater and canopy cover was less at the unforested site. Culex restuans dominated at the unforested site, and Ochlerotatus triseriatus, Anopheles barberi, and Orthopodomyia signifera were found primarily in the forest. Tires at the forested site had significantly more species but not more individuals than at the unforested site. Leaf amount was a good predictor of densities of Oc. triseriatus and overall abundance of mosquitoes in the forest, whereas the amount of seeds was a good predictor of overall invertebrate richness and of Oc. triseriatus numbers in the unforested site. Differences in mosquito assemblage composition between forested and unforested locations may be explained by greater inputs of plant-based detritus and some nutrients, but other factors, such as macrohabitat or host preferences of adult mosquitoes, also may be important.

  7. Hydrological and erosive response of a Mediterranean forest soil in recovery after different impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreu, Vicente; Gonzalez-Pelayo, Oscar; Campo, Julian; Gimeno-García, Eugenia; Luís Rubio, Jose

    2010-05-01

    Land use changes, including land abandonment, and forest fires have been two key factors that have characterized the evolution of Mediterranean ecosystems. This work studies the evolution of the hydrologic dynamics and the erosive response of a Mediterranean forest soil (Rendzic Leptosol), which has undergone during years changes in its forest use and the fire impact. This soil is in recovering since the last disturbance (experimental fire) in 1996. The study has been carried out in the Experimental Station of Porta-Coeli (Valencia, Spain) in a system of four erosion plots of 320 m2 (40 x 8 m) of closed type. Each of the plots suffered different impacts: Plot 1 (T1) sustained the original shrub vegetation and suffered an experimental fire in 1997; Plot 2 (T2) and Plot 3 (T3) were used since 1988 to test different plant species to control erosion, in 1996 plot 3 was affected by fire in a 30% of its surface; Plot 4 (T4) was maintained bare of vegetation since 1987. All plots were left to recover since 1996. The climatic characteristics and the hydrologic and erosive parameters of these plots have been studied in each rain event of the period 2004-2008. This period reflects the great variations in rain quantity and distribution that characterize the Mediterranean climate. During this period a total of 562 rains were monitored, from which 66 showed runoff generation, and only in 14 events sediment production was detected. After 12 years in state of recovery, the vegetation cover has reached similar values in all plots but differences in the hydrologic response between them have been observed. The behaviour of T1 and T4 becomes similar mainly in rain events with intensities higher than 15 mm h-1, producing always the maximum values on runoff generation. However, the improvement in their conditions regarding erosion is clear, giving in all cases very low soil losses (the maximum observed was 8.62 g m2 in T4, 9/6/2004). Acknowledgements: this study has been developed

  8. Carbon storage as affected by different site preparation techniques two years after mixed forest stand installation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fonseca, F.; Figueiredo, T. de; Martins, A.

    2014-06-01

    Aim of study: This study aims at evaluating the impact of site preparation techniques prior to plantation on carbon storage and distribution in a young mixed stand of Pseudotsuga menziesii (PM) and Castanea sativa (CS). Area of study: The experimental field was established near Macedo de Cavaleiros, Northern Portugal, at 700 m elevation, mean annual temperature 12 degree centigrade and mean annual rainfall 678 mm. Material and methods: The experimental layout includes three replicates, where the different treatments corresponding to different tillage intensities were randomly distributed (high, moderate and slight intensity), in plots with an area of 375 m{sup 2} each. Twenty six months after forest stand installation, samples of herbaceous vegetation (0.49 m{sup 2} quadrat), forest species (8 PM and 8 CS) and mineral soil (at 0-5, 5-15, 15-30 and 30-60 cm depth) were collected in 15 randomly selected points in each treatment, processed in laboratory and analyzed for carbon by elemental carbon analyzer. Main results: The results obtained showed that: (i) more than 90% of the total carbon stored in the system is located in the soil, increasing in depth with tillage intensity; (ii) the contribution of herbaceous vegetation and related roots to the carbon storage is very low; (iii) the amount of carbon per tree is higher in CS than in PM; (iv) the global carbon storage was affected by soil tillage generally decreasing with the increase of tillage intensity. Accordingly, carbon storage capacity as affected by the application of different site preparation techniques should be a decision support tool in afforestation schemes. (Author)

  9. Niche comparison of dominant entomopathogenic fungi in three forest ecosystems%三种森林生态系统昆虫病原真菌优势种生态位比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈名君; 黄勃; 李增智

    2011-01-01

    An investigation was made on the quantitative composition , niche width . and niche overlap of dominant entomopathogenic fungi in three different forest ecosystems, i. e. , natural broadleaved forest. natural secondary broad-leaved forest, and pure Masson s pine plantation. In the three forest ecosystems, Beauveria bassiana was the first dominant species in natural secondary broad-leaved forest. the second in pure Masson's pine plantation. and the third in natural broadleaved forest. B. bassiana had the broadest temporal niche width and nutritional niche width.whereas the dominant species Isaria cateinannulata, I. farinose. and I. tenuipes had much smaller niche widths. Meanwhile. B. bassiana had larger temporal niche overlaps but smaller nutritional niche overlaps with other dominant entomopathogenic fungi. It was suggested that in the three forest ecosystems, B. bassiana had the longest occurrence duration. widest host range, and strongest environmental adaptability.%研究了天然阔叶林、天然阔叶次生林和马尾松人工纯林3种不同森林生态系统中昆虫病原真菌优势种的数量组成及生态位宽度和生态位重叠值.结果表明:球孢白僵菌在这3种森林生态系统中分别为第三、第一和第二优势种.该菌在3种森林生态系统中的营养生态位宽度和时间生态位宽度均最大,远大干环链棒束孢、粉棒束孢和细脚棒束孢等优势种;该菌与其他优势种的时间生态位重叠值较大,而营养生态位重叠值较小.球孢白僵菌在3种森林生态系统中都是发生时间最长、寄主昆虫最丰富、适应环境能力最强的昆虫病原真菌.

  10. Comparison of seed rain and seed limitation between community understory and gaps in a subtropical evergreen forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Yanjun; Mi, Xiangcheng; Ma, Keping

    2012-10-01

    Treefall gaps have been identified as important sites for plant recruitment. In this study, we compared seed rain between forest gaps and forest interior using 150 seed traps in the understory and 19 traps in gaps in a 24 ha permanent plot of subtropical evergreen broad-leaved forest in East China. We asked how total seed abundance and seed species richness, the relative representation of different dispersal modes, and seed limitation and its components differed between canopy gaps and the understory. Results showed that most of the species found in both the understory and in gaps were animal-dispersal, but most of the seed rain was comprised of wind-dispersed species in both habitats. No significant differences in either density or diversity of seeds between gaps and non-gap sites were found. Contrary to expectations, wind-dispersed seeds did not occur significantly more in treefall gaps than in the forest understory. There were also no significant differences in seed limitation and its components (source limitation, dispersal limitation) between the understory and gaps. Seed limitation was strong for all but a few of the best-dispersed species in both gap and understory seed traps. Source and dispersal limitation showed large inter-specific variation in both the understory and in gaps. Overall, our results indicate that: (i) gaps may play a neutral role in maintaining seed diversity in this subtropical forest; (ii) under strong seed limitation both in gaps and in the understory, population and community dynamics slows and ecological drift in species composition may become a more important determinant of community structure.

  11. Mean age of carbon in fine roots from temperate forests and grasslands with different management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Solly

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Fine roots are the most dynamic portion of a plant's root system and a major source of soil organic matter. By altering plant species diversity and composition, soil conditions and nutrient availability, and consequently belowground allocation and dynamics of root carbon (C inputs, land-use and management changes may influence organic C storage in terrestrial ecosystems. In three German regions we measured fine root radiocarbon (14C content to estimate the mean time since C in root tissues was fixed from the atmosphere in 54 grassland and forest plots with different management and soil conditions. Although root biomass was on average greater in grasslands 5.1 ± 0.8 g (mean ± SE, n = 27 than in forests 3.1 ± 0.5 g (n = 27, the mean age of C in fine roots in forests averaged 11.3 ± 1.8 yr and was significantly older and more variable compared to grasslands 1.7 ± 0.4 yr. We further found that management affects the mean age of fine root C in temperate grasslands mediated by changes in plant species diversity and composition. Fine root mean C age is positively correlated to plant diversity (r = 0.65 and to the number of perennial species (r = 0.77. In temperate grasslands the mean age of fine root C is also influenced by the study region mainly driven by differences in soil characteristics and climate which reflect in plant composition variations, with averages of 0.7 ± 0.1 yr (n = 9 on mostly organic sandy soils in northern Germany and of 1.8 ± 0.3 yr (n = 9 and 2.6 ± 0.3 (n = 9 in more silty and clayey soils respectively in central and southern Germany. Our results indicate an internal redistribution of C in perennial species and suggest linkages between fine root C age and management in grasslands. These findings improve our ability to predict and model belowground C fluxes across broader spatial scales.

  12. Seasonal dynamics of water use efficiency of typical forest and grassland ecosystems in China

    CERN Document Server

    Zhu, Xianjin; Wang, Qiufeng; Hu, Zhongmin; Han, Shijie; Yan, Junhua; Wang, Yanfen; Zhao, Liang

    2014-01-01

    We selected four sites of ChinaFLUX representing four major ecosystem types in China-Changbaishan temperate broad-leaved Korean pine mixed forest (CBS), Dinghushan subtropical evergreen broadleaved forest (DHS), Inner Mongolia temperate steppe (NM), and Haibei alpine shrub-meadow (HBGC)-to study the seasonal dynamics of ecosystem water use efficiency (WUE = GPP/ET, where GPP is gross primary productivity and ET is evapotranspiration) and factors affecting it. Our seasonal dynamics results indicated single-peak variation of WUE in CBS, NM, and HBGC, which were affected by air temperature (Ta) and leaf area index (LAI), through their effects on the partitioning of evapotranspiration (ET) into transpiration (T) (i.e., T/ET). In DHS, WUE was higher at the beginning and the end of the year, and minimum in summer. Ta and soil water content affected the seasonal dynamics of WUE through their effects on GPP/T. Our results indicate that seasonal dynamics of WUE were different because factors affecting the seasonal dyn...

  13. Impacts of Climate Change on Forest Ecosystems in Northeast China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xiao-Ying; ZHAO Chun-Yu; JIA Qing-Yu

    2013-01-01

    This paper reviews the studies and research on climate change impacts on the forest ecosystems in Northeast China. The results show that in the context of global and regional warming, the growing season of coniferous forests has been increasing at an average rate of 3.9 d per decade. Regional warming favors the growth of temperate broad-leaved forests and has a detrimental effect on the growth of boreal coniferous forests. Over the past hundred years, the forest edge of the cool temperate zone in the southern Daxing’anling region has retreated 140 km northward. From 1896 to 1986, the northern boundary of broad-leaved forests in Heilongjiang province has extended northwestward about 290 km. Future climatic changes (until 2060) may lead to the northern deciduous needle forests moving out of China’s territory altogether. The occurrence cycles of pests and diseases have shortened; their distribution ranges have expanded. The life cycle of tent caterpillars (Malacosoma neustria testacea Motschulsky) has shortened from 14-15 years in the past to 8-10 years now. The pine caterpillar (Dendrolimus tabulaeformis Tsai et Liu), which has spread within western Liaoning province and the nearby areas, can now be found in the north and west. Lightning fires in the Daxing’anling region have significantly increased since 1987, and August has become the month when lightning fires occur most frequently. Overall, the net primary productivity (NPP) of forest in Northeast China has increased. The NPP in 1981 was around 0.27 Pg C, and increased to approximately 0.40 Pg C in 2002. With the current climate, the broad-leaved Korean pine forest ecosystem acts as a carbon sink, with a carbon sink capacity of 2.7 Mg C hm-2. Although the carbon sink capacity of the forest ecosystems in Northeast China has been weakened since 2003, the total carbon absorption will still increase. The forest ecosystems in Northeast China are likely to remain a significant carbon sink, and will play a

  14. Combining Geomatics and Conventional Methods for Monitoring Forest Conditions under Different Governance Arrangements

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ambika P. Gautam

    2006-01-01

    This study employed an innovative methodological framework that combines geomatics and conventional survey methods to monitor changes in forest conditions and examine their associations with local forest governance parameters in a mountain watershed covering 153.3 km2 in the middle mountains of Nepal. The study involved two spatial scales and analytical steps. First, geomatics techniques were used to map and detect changes in major land cover types in the watershed between 1976 and 2000 and to analyze relationships between forest cover changes and governance arrangements. This was followed by micro-level analysis of the relationships between the biological conditions of selected forests within the watershed and their governance arrangements, using conventional survey methods and analytical tools. The findings show that forest cover in the watershed increased by about 15 per cent during the period. The rate of increase in forest cover was highest in areas under a semi-government type of governance arrangement, while the community forests were generally better in terms of current biological conditions compared to the semi-government forests. This inconsistency between the findings from the two analyscs does not allow us to draw any firm conclusions regarding the role of property rights in determining forest condition, but it indicates that the outcomes of local forest management initiatives may be more dependent on local institutional arrangements regulating forest use and maintenance of forest resources than on the type of property rights arrangements. The findings also provide evidence of the methodological suitability of the research approach adopted, which may be useful for addressing many other research questions related to forestry and natural resources management, particularly those involving multiple spatial scales.

  15. Differences in BVOC oxidation and SOA formation above and below the forest canopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulze, Benjamin C.; Wallace, Henry W.; Flynn, James H.; Lefer, Barry L.; Erickson, Matt H.; Jobson, B. Tom; Dusanter, Sebastien; Griffith, Stephen M.; Hansen, Robert F.; Stevens, Philip S.; VanReken, Timothy; Griffin, Robert J.

    2017-02-01

    Gas-phase biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) are oxidized in the troposphere to produce secondary pollutants such as ozone (O3), organic nitrates (RONO2), and secondary organic aerosol (SOA). Two coupled zero-dimensional models have been used to investigate differences in oxidation and SOA production from isoprene and α-pinene, especially with respect to the nitrate radical (NO3), above and below a forest canopy in rural Michigan. In both modeled environments (above and below the canopy), NO3 mixing ratios are relatively small (urban forest environment increases the average contribution of NO3 to daytime below-canopy α-pinene oxidation to 32 %. Gas-phase RONO2 produced through NO3 oxidation undergoes net transport upward from the below-canopy environment during the day, and this transport contributes up to 30 % of total NO3-derived RONO2 production above the canopy in the morning (˜ 07:00). Modeled SOA mass loadings above and below the canopy ultimately differ by less than 0.5 µg m-3, and extremely low-volatility organic compounds dominate SOA composition. Lower temperatures below the canopy cause increased partitioning of semi-volatile gas-phase products to the particle phase and up to 35 % larger SOA mass loadings of these products relative to above the canopy in the model. Including transport between above- and below-canopy environments increases above-canopy NO3-derived α-pinene RONO2 SOA mass by as much as 45 %, suggesting that below-canopy chemical processes substantially influence above-canopy SOA mass loadings, especially with regard to monoterpene-derived RONO2.

  16. Mean age of carbon in fine roots from temperate forests and grasslands with different management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Solly

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Fine roots are the most dynamic portion of a plant's root system and a major source of soil organic matter. By altering plant species diversity and composition, soil conditions and nutrient availability, and consequently belowground allocation and dynamics of root carbon (C inputs, land-use and management changes may influence organic C storage in terrestrial ecosystems. In three German regions, we measured fine root radiocarbon (14C content to estimate the mean time since C in root tissues was fixed from the atmosphere in 54 grassland and forest plots with different management and soil conditions. Although root biomass was on average greater in grasslands 5.1 ± 0.8 g (mean ± SE, n = 27 than in forests 3.1 ± 0.5 g (n = 27 (p p r = 0.65 and with the number of perennial species (r = 0.77. Fine root mean C age in grasslands was also affected by study region with averages of 0.7 ± 0.1 yr (n = 9 on mostly organic soils in northern Germany and of 1.8 ± 0.3 yr (n = 9 and 2.6 ± 0.3 (n = 9 in central and southern Germany (p < 0.05. This was probably due to differences in soil nutrient contents and soil moisture conditions between study regions, which affected plant species diversity and the presence of perennial species. Our results indicate more long-lived roots or internal redistribution of C in perennial species and suggest linkages between fine root C age and management in grasslands. These findings improve our ability to predict and model belowground C fluxes across broader spatial scales.

  17. Effects of different types of N deposition on the fungal decomposition activities of temperate forest soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shushan; Du, Yuhan; Guo, Peng; Guo, Lida; Qu, Kaiyue; He, Jianping

    2014-11-01

    Nitrogen (N) deposition significantly affects soil microbial activities and litter decomposition processes in forest ecosystems. However, the changes in soil fungi during litter decomposition remain unclear. In this study, ammonium nitrate was selected as inorganic N (IN), whereas urea and glycine were selected as organic N (ON). N fertilizer with different IN-to-ON ratios (1:4, 2:3, 3:2, 4:1, and 5:0) was mixed in equal amounts and then added to temperate forest soils. Half of each treatment was simultaneously added with streptomycin to inhibit soil bacteria. The activities of enzymes involved in litter decomposition (invertase, β-glucosidase, cellulase, polyphenol oxidase, and phosphatase) were assayed after a three-year field experiment. The results showed that enzymatic activities were inhibited by IN addition but accelerated by ON addition in the non-antibiotic addition treatments. An increase in ON in the mixed N fertilizer also shifted enzymatic activities from N inhibition to N stimulation. Similarly, in the antibiotic addition treatments, fungal activities revealed the same trends, but they were seriously inhibited by IN and significantly accelerated by ON. These results indicated that soil fungi were more sensitive to N deposition, particularly to ON. A large amount of ON may convert soil microbial communities into a fungi-dominated system. However, excessive ON deposition (20% IN+80% ON) caused N saturation and repressed fungal activities. These results suggested that soil fungi were sensitive to N type and that different IN-to-ON ratios may induce diverse ecological effects on soil fungi.

  18. Species Turnover across Different Life Stages from Seedlings to Canopy Trees in Swamp Forests of Central Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clarissa G. Fontes

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Processes driving the assembly of swamp forest communities have been poorly explored. We analyzed natural regeneration and adult tree communities data of a swamp gallery forest in Central Brazil to discuss the role of ecological filters in shaping plant species turnover in a successional gradient. Species data of 120 plots were used to assess species turnover between natural regeneration and adult tree communities. Our analyses were based on 4995 individuals belonging to 72 species. Community patterns were discerned using ordination analyses. A clear floristic turnover among plant life stages was distinguished. Regeneration community of swamp forests was richer in species composition than the adult community. Tree species commonly found in nonflooded gallery forests were present in the regeneration plots but not in the adult community. Differences in the floristic composition of these two strata suggest that not all species in the seedling stage can stand permanent flooding conditions and only a few tolerant species survive to become adult trees. We propose that natural disturbances play an important role by altering limiting resources, allowing seeds of nonflooded forest species to germinate. This paper elucidates the turnover between plant life stages in swamp forests and suggests mechanisms that may shape these communities.

  19. Comparative study of bird community structure and function in two different forest types of Corbett National Park, Uttarakhand, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaara Kidwai

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Point count method was used to estimate the population structure of avian fauna in two different forest types in Bijrani, Serpdulli and Dhikala ranges of Corbett national Park, Uttarakhand, India. A total of 38 plots were randomly laid by four teams of two each in a period of ten days covering both mixed and Sal forests equally. DISTANCE 6.0 was used to determine density of birds and various bird guilds. Richness and diversity was estimated through SPECDIVERS. A total of 47 species were recorded from mixed and 27 species from Sal forest. Highest and lowest densities (±SE in Sal forest were of Plum headed parakeet (11.63±2.30/km2 and blue whistling thrush (0.06±0.01/ km2 respectively. Whereas, in mixed forest, the highest density was of chestnut headed bee eater (13.84±3.25/ km2 and lowest density was of Hoopoe (0.09±0.01/ km2. In mixed forest, density, diversity and richness of insectivorous birds was found to be highest (42.91±6.27/ km2, 0.89±0.08 and 3.57±0.53 respectively, while, in Sal forests, omnivorous birds had highest density (76.73±4.22/ km2 and insectivorous birds had highest diversity (±SE and richness (±SE (0.88±0.14 and 3.15±0.49 respectively. Carnivorous birds showed least density in both Sal (0.19±0.08/ km2 and mixed forests (0.32±0.12/ km2.

  20. Spatial aspects of tree mortality strongly differ between young and old-growth forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Andrew J; Lutz, James A; Donato, Daniel C; Freund, James A; Swanson, Mark E; HilleRisLambers, Janneke; Sprugel, Douglas G; Franklin, Jerry F

    2015-11-01

    Rates and spatial patterns of tree mortality are predicted to change during forest structural development. In young forests, mortality should be primarily density dependent due to competition for light, leading to an increasingly spatially uniform pattern of surviving trees. In contrast, mortality in old-growth forests should be primarily caused by contagious and spatially autocorrelated agents (e.g., insects, wind), causing spatial aggregation of surviving trees to increase through time. We tested these predictions by contrasting a three-decade record of tree mortality from replicated mapped permanent plots located in young ( 300-year-old) Abies amabilis forests. Trees in young forests died at a rate of 4.42% per year, whereas trees in old-growth forests died at 0.60% per year. Tree mortality in young forests was significantly aggregated, strongly density dependent, and caused live tree patterns to become more uniform through time. Mortality in old-growth forests was spatially aggregated, but was density independent and did not change the spatial pattern of surviving trees. These results extend current theory by demonstrating that density-dependent competitive mortality leading to increasingly uniform tree spacing in young forests ultimately transitions late in succession to a more diverse tree mortality regime that maintains spatial heterogeneity through time.

  1. Environmental change controls postglacial forest dynamics through interspecific differences in life-history traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacourse, Terri

    2009-08-01

    interact significantly with life-history and stress tolerance traits over long ecological timescales to determine forest composition. Climate is the ultimate control on postglacial forest composition and species abundances, but long-term community assembly is also constrained through interspecific differences in plant traits.

  2. Bryophyte species diversity in seven typical forests of the West Tianmu Mountain in Zhejiang, China%浙江西天目山主要森林类型的苔藓多样性比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪岱华; 王幼芳; 左勤; 李敏; 吴文英; 黄建花; 赵明水

    2012-01-01

    苔藓是森林的重要组分,是森林保护区的重要保护对象,在物种资源和生态系统功能维护中有重要作用.该研究以浙江西天目山国家自然保护区内7种主要森林类型(落叶矮林、落叶阔叶林、常绿-落叶阔叶混交林、常绿阔叶林、针阔混交林、针叶林和竹林)内的苔藓植物为对象,调查了32个10m× 10m的样地,记录地面生苔藓植物盖度和树附生苔藓植物多度,采用重要值、相似性系数、多样性指数分析了森林类型间的苔藓植物多样性差异.共采集969份标本,隶属41科84属142种,其中苔类植物13科18属33种,藓类植物28科66属109种,优势科为灰藓科、青藓科和羽藓科.2种混交林(常绿-落叶阔叶混交林和针阔混交林)的物种丰富度和多样性指数均高于其余5种森林,其中物种丰富度以针阔混交林最高,苔藓植物多样性则以常绿-落叶阔叶混交林最高,竹林两者均为最低.海拔等环境因子较为接近的植被类型的苔藓植物多样性相似性较高,常绿阔叶林与针叶林相似性最高,而落叶矮林和竹林相似性最小.%Aims Bryophytes are an important component of forest vegetation. Their species diversity is vital to protecting plant resources and ecosystem diversity. Our objective was to explore the diversity and distribution of bryophytes and the relationship between bryophyte diversity and environment factors in seven dominant forest vegetation types (deciduous broad-leaved shrubs, DBS; deciduous broad-leaved forest, DBF; evergreen and deciduous broad-leaved mixed forest, EDF; evergreen broad-leaved forest, EBF; coniferous broad-leaved mixed forest, CBF; coniferous forest, CF; bamboo forest, BF) of West Tianmu Mountain, Zhejiang Province, China. Methods Thirty-two sites (10 m × 10 m) were established in the seven forest vegetation types. Sixteen plots were selected by systematic sampling in each sampling site. Coverage of floor bryophytes and abundance of

  3. Public Preferences Across Europe for Different Forest Stand Types as Sites for Recreation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David M. Edwards

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available A Delphi survey involving experts in forest preference research was carried out to derive scores for the recreational value of 240 forest stand types across Europe. The survey was organized around four regional panels: Great Britain, Nordic Region, Central Europe, and Iberia. In each region, 60 forest stand types were defined according to five forest management alternatives (FMAs on a continuum of management intensity, four phases of development (establishment, young, medium, and adult, and three tree species types (conifer, broadleaved, and mixed stands of conifer and broadleaved. The resulting scores were examined using conjoint analysis to determine the relative importance of the three structural attributes (FMA, phase of development, and tree species type, and each level or component of the attributes. The findings quantify the extent to which forest visitors prefer a degree of management to unmanaged forest nature reserves across the four regions. Phase of development was shown to make the highest contribution to the recreational value of forests while the contribution of tree species type was shown to be relatively unimportant. While the results are indicative, they provide evidence to support long-term retention and low-impact silviculture in forests where recreation is a primary objective of management.

  4. Application of 13C NMR spectroscopy to characterize organic chemical components of decomposing coarse woody debris from different climatic regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takuya Hishinuma

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Solid-state 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR spectroscopy was applied to coarse woody debris (CWD in different stages of decomposition and collected from forest floor of a subtropical, a cool temperate, and a subalpine forest in Japan. The purpose was to test its applicability to characterize organic chemical composition of CWD of broad-leaved and coniferous trees from different climatic conditions. O-alkyl-C, mainly representing carbohydrates, was the predominant component of CWD at the three sites, accounting for 43.5-58.1% of the NMR spectra. Generally, the relative area under the signals for aromatic-C and phenolic-C, mainly representing lignin, increased, whereas the relative area for O-alkyl-C decreased, as the decay class advanced. The relative area under NMR chemical shift regions was significantly correlated with the chemical properties examined with proximate analyses. That is, O-alkyl-C and di-O-alkyl-C NMR signal areas were positively correlated with the volumetric density of CWD and the content of total carbohydrates. Methoxyl-C, aromatic-C, phenolic-C, carboxyl-C, and carbonyl-C were positively correlated with the contents of acid-unhydrolyzable residues (lignin, tannins, and cutin and nitrogen. Lignin-C calculated from NMR signals increased, and polysaccharide-C decreased, with the decay class of CWD at the three study sites. A review of previous studies on 13C NMR spectroscopy for decomposing CWD suggested further needs of its application to broad-leaved trees from tropical and subtropical regions.

  5. Changes of forest stands vulnerability to future wind damage resulting from different management methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Panferov, O.; Sogachev, Andrey; Ahrends, B.

    2010-01-01

    The structure of forests stands changes continuously as a result of forest growth and both natural and anthropogenic disturbances like windthrow or management activities – planting/cutting of trees. These structure changes can stabilize or destabilize forest stands in terms of their resistance...... to wind damage. The driving force behind the damage is the climate, but the magnitude and sign of resulting effect depend on tree species, management method and soil conditions. The projected increasing frequency of weather extremes in the whole and severe storms in particular might produce wide area...... damage in European forest ecosystems during the 21st century. To assess the possible wind damage and stabilization/destabilization effects of forest management a number of numeric experiments are carried out for the region of Solling, Germany. The coupled small-scale process-based model combining Brook90...

  6. Exploring different forest definitions and their impact on developing REDD+ reference emission levels: A case study for Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Romijn, J.E.; Ainembabazi, J.H.; Wijaya, A.; Herold, M.; Angelsen, A.; Verchot, L.; Murdiyarso, D.

    2013-01-01

    Developing countries participating in the mitigation mechanism of reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation and the role of conservation, sustainable management of forests and enhancement of forest carbon stocks (REDD+), need to determine a national forest reference emission level

  7. Dynamic response of the scenic beauty value of different forests to various thinning intensities in central eastern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Songqiu; Yin, Na; Guan, Qingwei; Katoh, Masato

    2014-11-01

    Forest management has a significant influence on the preferences of people for forest landscapes. This study sought to evaluate the dynamic effects of thinning intensities on the landscape value of forests over time. Five typical stands in Wuxiangsi National Forest Park in Nanjing, China, were subjected to a thinning experiment designed with four intensities: unthinned, light thinning, moderate thinning, and heavy thinning. People's preferences for landscape photographs taken in plots under various thinning intensities were assessed through scenic beauty estimation (SBE) at 2 and 5 years after thinning. The differences in scenic beauty value between different thinning intensities were then analyzed with a paired samples t test for the two periods. The results indicated that the landscape value of all of the thinned plots significantly exceeded that of the unthinned plots 2 years after thinning (p beautiful than the lightly thinned and moderately thinned plots, whereas there was no significant difference between moderate thinning and light thinning. At 5 years after thinning, however, the moderately thinned plots received the highest preference scores among the four intensities, displaying an average improvement of 11.32 % compared with the unthinned plots. A multiple linear regression (MLR) model indicated that landscape value improved with increases in the average diameter at breast height (DBH) and with the improvement of environmental cleanliness in the stand, whereas the value decreased with an increasing stem density, species diversity, litter coverage, and canopy density. In addition, we found that the performance of a neural network model based on a multilayer perception (MLP) algorithm for predicting scenic beauty was slightly better than that of the MLR model. The findings of our study suggest that moderate to heavy thinning should be recommended to manage forests for the improvement of forest landscape value.

  8. Growing stock variation in different teak (Tectona grandis) forest stands of Mizoram, India

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Vinod Prasad Khanduri; Lalnundanga; J. Vanlalremkimi

    2008-01-01

    The growing stock assessment of three different teak forest stands (Tuirial: 500 m asl, Sairang: 200 m asl and Phunchawng: 550 m asl) was done in 2006 in Mizoram, India. Five diameter classes were arbitrarily established for knowing the volume attribute data and population structure, viz. a (10-20 cm), b (20-30 cm), c (30-40 cm), d (40-50 cm), and e (50-60 cm). Results revealed that the density of the individuals among the studied stands varied from 280 stems/ha to 620 stems/ha. The average diameter of all the individuals ranged between 27.48 cm and 35.43 cm. Similarly, the average height was oscillated between 17.87 m and 22.24 m. The total basal area was recorded between 24.28 m2·ha-1 and 45.80 m2·ha-1. The maximum and minimum values of total growing stock under all the diameter classes were 669.01 m3·ha-1 and 284.7 m3·ha-1, respectively. The representation of population structure of different stands explained that the perpetuation of this species was ensured for a quite long time.

  9. Carbon balance of an old hemi-boreal pine forest in Southern Estonia determined by different methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soosaar, Kaido; Repp, Kalev; Lõhmus, Krista; Uri, Veiko; Rannik, Kaire; Krasnova, Alisa; Ostonen, Ivika; Kukumägi, Mai; Maddison, Martin; Mander, Ülo

    2016-04-01

    The Soontaga Forest Station is located in hemi-boreal 200-years old pine forest (South Estonia; 58o01'N 26o04'E) with a second layer of spruce. The station has the instrumentation to assess the exchange of carbon dioxide (net ecosystem exchange, NEE), soil respiration, tree biomass (above and below ground biomass) and different environmental and meteorological parameters. In this study we quantified carbon balance by analyzing eddy-covariance CO2 flux data (carbon exchange) vs chamber-based measurements (ecosystem respiration) and CO2assimilation (soil and biomass). The annual NEE in this mature coniferous forest was -2.3 t C ha yr-1, showing a clear diurnal and seasonal trend. During the daytime in summer the forest sequestered CO2, while during the night and late night CO2 emitted from the ecosystem to the atmosphere. Within the growing period, the sequestration of CO2 by plants was greater than soil respiration. Thus, the ecosystem sequestered carbon. Most of the carbon is bound in tree biomass (above and below ground biomass) but as well into soil, while the sequestration in soil increases with stand age. In addition, the biomass of understory, especially belowground litter, is playing essential part in carbon input. A modelling approach of long-term C budget in the Soontaga pine forest is presented.

  10. Nitrogen oxides emission from two beech forests subjected to different nitrogen loads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Kitzler

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available We analysed nitrogen oxides (N2O, NO and carbon dioxide (CO2 emissions from two beech forest soils close to Vienna, Austria, which were exposed to different nitrogen input from the atmosphere. The site Schottenwald (SW received 20.2 kg N ha−1 y−1 and Klausenleopoldsdorf (KL 12.6 kg N ha−1 y−1 through wet deposition. Nitric oxide emissions from soil were measured hourly with an automatic dynamic chamber system. Daily N2O measurements were carried out by an automatic gas sampling system. Measurements of nitrous oxide (N2O and CO2 emissions were conducted over larger areas on a biweekly (SW or monthly (KL basis by manually operated chambers. We used an autoregression procedure (time-series analysis for establishing time-lagged relationships between N-oxides emissions and different climate, soil chemistry and N-deposition data. It was found that changes in soil moisture and soil temperature significantly effected CO2 and N-oxides emissions with a time lag of up to two weeks and could explain up to 95% of the temporal variations of gas emissions. Event emissions after rain or during freezing and thawing cycles contributed significantly (for NO 50% to overall N-oxides emissions. In the two-year period of analysis the annual gaseous N2O emissions at SW ranged from 0.64 to 0.79 kg N ha−1 y−1 and NO emissions were 0.24 to 0.49 kg N ha−1 per vegetation period. In KL significantly lower annual N2O emissions (0.52 to 0.65 kg N2O-N kg ha−1 y−1 as well as considerably lower NO-emissions were observed. During a three-month measurement campaign NO emissions at KL were 0.02 kg N ha−1, whereas in the same time period significantly more NO was emitted in SW (0.32 kg NO-N ha−1. Higher N-oxides emissions, especially NO emissions from the high N-input site (SW may indicate that atmospheric deposition has an impact on emissions of gaseous N from our forest soils. At KL there was a strong correlation between N-deposition and N-emission over time

  11. Quantifying the Implications of Different Land Users' Priorities in the Management of Boreal Multiple-Use Forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horstkotte, Tim; Lind, Torgny; Moen, Jon

    2016-04-01

    In the management of natural resources, conflicting interests and objectives among different stakeholders often need to be considered. Here, we examine how two contrasting management scenarios of boreal forests in northern Sweden differ in their consequences on forest structural composition and the economic gains at harvest. Management strategies prioritize either (i) forest characteristics that promote grazing resources for reindeer herded by the indigenous Sámi, or (ii) timber production as practiced in Sweden today. When prioritizing reindeer grazing, forest stands develop a higher abundance of older age classes with larger trees and lower stem density, which reduces harvest and revenue levels by approximately 20 % over a 100-year period. The differences between these strategies illustrate the complexity in finding a trade-off for coexistence between industrial land users and other livelihoods that share the same landscape. Political support and institutional solutions are necessary to initiate changes in policy in finding such trade-offs in the management of environmental resources and thereby influence the optimal distribution of costs and benefits between different actors.

  12. Long-term 15N tracking from biological N fixation across different plant and humus components of the boreal forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arroniz-Crespo, Maria; Jones, David L.; Zackrisson, Olle; Nilsson, Marie-Charlotte; DeLuca, Thomas H.

    2014-05-01

    Biological N2 fixation by cyanobacteria associated with feather mosses is an important cog in the nitrogen (N) cycle of boreal forests; still, our understanding of the turnover and fate of N fixed by this association remains greatly incomplete. The 15N signature of plants and soil serves as a powerful tool to explore N dynamics in forest ecosystems. In particular, in the present study we aimed to investigate the contribution of N2 fixation to δ15N signatures of plants and humus component of the boreal forest. Here we present results from a long-term (7 years) tacking of labelled 15N2 across the humus layer, seedlings of the tree species Pinus sylvestris, two common dwarf shrub species (Empetrum hermaphroditum and Vaccinium vitis-idaea) and the feather moss Pleurozium schreibery. The enriched experiment was conducted in 2005 in a natural boreal forest in northern Sweden. Two different treatments (10% 15N2 headspace enrichment and control) were setup in nine different plots (0.5 x 0.5 m) within the forest. We observed a significant reduction of δ15N signature of the 15N-enriched moss that could be explained by a growth dilution effect. Nevertheless, after 5 years since 15N2 enrichment some of the label 15N was still detected on the moss and in particular in the dead tissue. We could not detect a clear transfer of the labelled 15N2 from the moss-cyanobacteria system to other components of the ecosystem. However, we found consistence relationship through time between increments of δ15N signature of some of the forest components in plots which exhibited higher N fixation rates in the moss. In particular, changes in natural abundance δ15N that could be associated with N fixation were more apparent in the humus layer, the dwarf shrub Vaccinium vitis-idaea and the pine seedlings when comparing across plots and years.

  13. [Seasonal dynamics of soil organic carbon mineralization for two forest types in Xiaoxing'an Mountains, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Fei; Lin, Wei; Cui, Xiao-yang

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the seasonal dynamics of soil organic carbon (SOC) mineralization in Xiaoxing'an Mountain, we incubated soil samples collected from virgin Korean pine forest and broad-leaved secondary forest in different seasons in the laboratory and measured the SOC mineralization rate and cumulative SOC mineralization (Cm). We employed simultaneous reaction model to describe C mineralization kinetics and estimated SOC mineralization parameters including soil easily mineralizable C (C1), potentially mineralizable C (C₀). We also analyzed the relations between Cm, C₁and their influencing factors. Results showed that the incubated SOC mineralization rate and Cm for 0-5 cm soil layer decreased from early spring to late autumn, while for 5-10 cm soil layer the seasonal variation was not statistically significant for both forest types. The C₁ in 0-5 and 5-10 cm soil layers varied from 42.92-92.18 and 19.23-32.95 mg kg⁻¹, respectively, while the C₀ in 0-5 and 5-10 cm soil layers varied from 863.92-3957.15 and 434.15-865.79 mg · kg⁻¹, respec- tively. Both C₁ and C₀ decreased from early spring to late autumn. The proportions of C₀ in SOC for two forest types were 0.74%-2.78% and 1.11%-1.84% in 0-5 and 5-10 cm soil layers, respectively, and decreased from early spring to late autumn, indicating that SOC tended to become more stable as a whole from spring to autumn. The Cm and C₀ were significantly positively correlated to in situ soil water content and hot water-extractable carbohydrate content, but were not correlated to in situ soil temperature and cool water-extractable carbohydrate content. We concluded that soil labile organic carbon, soil physical and chemical properties contributed to the seasonal dynamics of SOC mineralization in the forests.

  14. 模拟氮沉降对森林土壤化学性质的影响%Effects of simulated nitrogen deposition on soil chemical properties of forests

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李秋玲; 肖辉林; 曾晓舵; 冯乙晴; 莫江明

    2013-01-01

    下,与对照相比,这3种林型的土壤交换性Na+含量分别下降了40.0%、68.4%、50.0%,差异达显著性水平(p<0.05)。氮沉降对人工幼林土壤盐基离子含量无明显的影响。由此可得出结论:在近2年至4年的时间内,氮沉降的增加能引起鼎湖山3种林型土壤尤其是阔叶林土壤加速酸化,引起交换性Na+明显淋失,以及马尾松林土壤水解性氮含量明显下降;但氮沉降的增加对木荷人工幼林土壤化学性质暂无明显的影响。后者可能与该林型模拟氮沉降时间较短、林龄较轻而处于快速生长期等因素有关。%The effects of the increasing atmospheric nitrogen deposition on forest soils have become one of the major issues in ecological research recently. The authors used the method of simulating atmospheric nitrogen deposition in situ, set up three levels of nitrogen deposition:N0 (CK, N:0 g·m-2·a-1), N5(N:5 g·m-2·a-1), and N10(N:10 g·m-2·a-1)for a monsoon evergreen broad-leaved forest (called“broad-leaved forest”for short in the following), a Pinus massoniana forest, and a coniferous and broad-leaved mixed forest (called “mixed forest” for short in the following) in Dinghushan Mountain, and for a young Schima superba plantation in Zengcheng, Guangdong province, China, collected the soil samples of 0~20 cm soil layer after simulating atmospheric nitrogen deposition for 42 months (broad-leaved forest), 31 months (Pinus massoniana forest), 50 months (mixed forest), and 20 months (the young plantation), and analysed the soil properties, to discuss the effects of different nitrogen deposition levels on the soil properties of different forest types. The results showed that, (1) the simulated nitrogen deposition appeared the similar tendency towards the effects on soil pH values of the broad-leaved forest, Pinus massoniana forest, and mixed forest in Dinghushan Mountain, forcing the pH values to drop. Among them, when the nitrogen deposition was at N10 level

  15. Random Forests Are Able to Identify Differences in Clotting Dynamics from Kinetic Models of Thrombin Generation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayavel Arumugam

    Full Text Available Current methods for distinguishing acute coronary syndromes such as heart attack from stable coronary artery disease, based on the kinetics of thrombin formation, have been limited to evaluating sensitivity of well-established chemical species (e.g., thrombin using simple quantifiers of their concentration profiles (e.g., maximum level of thrombin concentration, area under the thrombin concentration versus time curve. In order to get an improved classifier, we use a 34-protein factor clotting cascade model and convert the simulation data into a high-dimensional representation (about 19000 features using a piecewise cubic polynomial fit. Then, we systematically find plausible assays to effectively gauge changes in acute coronary syndrome/coronary artery disease populations by introducing a statistical learning technique called Random Forests. We find that differences associated with acute coronary syndromes emerge in combinations of a handful of features. For instance, concentrations of 3 chemical species, namely, active alpha-thrombin, tissue factor-factor VIIa-factor Xa ternary complex, and intrinsic tenase complex with factor X, at specific time windows, could be used to classify acute coronary syndromes to an accuracy of about 87.2%. Such a combination could be used to efficiently assay the coagulation system.

  16. Atlantic forest bird communities provide different but not fewer functions after habitat loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Coster, Greet; Banks-Leite, Cristina; Metzger, Jean Paul

    2015-07-22

    Habitat loss often reduces the number of species as well as functional diversity. Dramatic effects to species composition have also been shown, but changes to functional composition have so far been poorly documented, partly owing to a lack of appropriate indices. We here develop three new community indices (i.e. functional integrity, community integrity of ecological groups and community specialization) to investigate how habitat loss affects the diversity and composition of functional traits and species. We used data from more than 5000 individuals of 137 bird species captured in 57 sites in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest, a highly endangered biodiversity hotspot.Results indicate that habitat loss leads to a decrease in functional integrity while measures of functional diversity remain unchanged or are even positively affected. Changes to functional integrity were caused by (i) a decrease in the provisioning of some functions, and an increase in others; (ii) strong within-guild species turnover; and (iii) a replacement of specialists by generalists. Hence, communities from more deforested sites seem to provide different but not fewer functions. We show the importance of investigating changes to both diversity and composition of functional traits and species, as the effects of habitat loss on ecosystem functioning may be more complex than previously thought. Crucially, when only functional diversity is assessed, important changes to ecological functions may remain undetected and negative effects of habitat loss underestimated, thereby imperiling the application of effective conservation actions.

  17. Holocene forest development and maintenance on different substrates in the Klamath Mountains, northern California, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briles, Christy E; Whitlock, Cathy; Skinner, Carl N; Mohr, Jerry

    2011-03-01

    The influence of substrate on long-term vegetation dynamics has received little attention, and yet nutrient-limited ecosystems have some of the highest levels of endemism in the world. The diverse geology of the Klamath Mountains of northern California (USA) allows examination of the long-term influence of edaphic constraints in subalpine forests through a comparison of vegetation histories between nutrient-limited ultramafic substrates and terrain that is more fertile. Pollen and charcoal records spanning up to 15000 years from ultramafic settings reveal a distinctly different vegetation history compared to other soil types. In non-ultramafic settings, the dominant trees and shrubs shifted in elevation in response to Holocene climate variations resulting in compositional and structural changes, whereas on ultramafic substrates changes were primarily structural, not compositional. Fire activity was similar through most of the Holocene with the exception of declines over the last 4000 years on ultramafic substrates, likely due to the reduction of understory fuels and cooler wetter conditions than in the middle Holocene. These results suggest that the tree and shrub distributions were more responsive to past climate changes on non-ultramafic substrates compared to those on ultramafic substrates. The combination of these dynamics may help explain high levels of plant diversity in the Klamath Mountains and provide insights for managing these complex ecosystems.

  18. Spatial distribution patterns of trees at different life stages in a warm temperate forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsujino, Riyou; Yumoto, Takakazu

    2007-11-01

    We have investigated tree distributions in relation to topography between different tree life history stages, from the seed-dispersal stage to the adult stage in a warm temperate evergreen broadleaved forest on Yakushima Island, Japan, to clarify the critical stages in determining adult tree distributions. We conducted a census of all living trees > or =30 cm tall and collected seed falls over three years using 25 seed traps in a 50 m x 50 m quadrat. Four life stages were defined: stage 1, dispersed seed; stage 2, individuals taller than 30 cm and diameter at breast height (DBH) DBH DBH > or = 10 cm. We classified 17 common tree species into three groups; group A was distributed mainly on the upper slope, group B on the lower slope, and group C on both. Most of group A and B trees at stages 2-4 showed an aggregated distribution along the topographical gradient. The densities at stage 1 showed weaker aggregations according to slope. Topography-specific tree distribution was probably determined at the regeneration stage, and later survival was less effective as a mechanism of vegetation differentiation.

  19. Snow gliding and loading under two different forest stands:a case study in the north-western Italian Alps

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Davide Viglietti; Margherita Maggioni; Enrico Bruno; Ermanno Zanini; Michele Freppaz

    2013-01-01

    The presence of a thick snowpack could interfere with forest stability, especially on steep slopes with potential damages for young and old stands. The study of snow gliding in forests is rather complex be-cause this phenomenon could be influenced not only by forest features, but also by snow/soil interface characteristics, site morphology, meteoro-logical conditions and snow physical properties. Our starting hypothesis is that different forest stands have an influence on the snowpack evolu-tion and on the temperature and moisture at the snow/soil interface, which subsequently could affect snow gliding processes and snow forces. The aim of this work is therefore to analyse the snowpack evolution and snow gliding movements under different forest covers, in order to deter-mine the snow forces acting on single trees. The study site is located in a subalpine forest in Aosta Valley (NW-Italy) and includes two plots at the same altitude, inclination and aspect but with different tree composition:Larch (Larix decidua) and Spruce (Picea abies). The plots were equipped with moisture and temperature sensors placed at the snow/soil interface and glide shoes for continuous monitoring of snow gliding. The recorded data were related to periodically monitored snowpack and snow/soil in-terface properties. Data were collected during two winter seasons (2009-10 and 2010-11). The snow forces on trees were analytically calculated either from snowpack data and site morphology or also from measured snow gliding rates. Different snow accumulations were observed under the two different forest stands, with a significant effect on temperature and moisture at the snow/soil interface. The highest snow gliding rates were observed under Larch and were related to rapid increases in mois-ture at the snow/soil interface. The calculated snow forces were generally lower than the threshold values reported for tree uprooting due to snow gliding, as confirmed by the absence of tree damages in the

  20. Satellite Derived Forest Phenology and Its Relation with Nephropathia Epidemica in Belgium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Miguel Barrios

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The connection between nephropathia epidemica (NE and vegetation dynamics has been emphasized in recent studies. Changing climate has been suggested as a triggering factor of recently observed epidemiologic peaks in reported NE cases. We have investigated whether there is a connection between the NE occurrence pattern in Belgium and specific trends in remotely sensed phenology parameters of broad-leaved forests. The analysis of time series of the MODIS Enhanced Vegetation Index revealed that changes in forest phenology, considered in literature as an effect of climate change, may affect the mechanics of NE transmission.

  1. Study on complexity of plant communities at different altitudes on the Northern Slope of Changbai Mountain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    By the method of gradient pattern analysis, twenty plots were set at altitudes of 700-2600 m with an interval of 100 m on the northern slope of the Changbai Mountain. The dissimilarity of respective sub-plots in the same community was measured and the complexity of plant communities at different altitudes was analyzed. The result from binary data of tree species in canopy tree indicated that the sub-plots in the communities, except subalpine Betula ermanii forest, showed comparatively high dissimilarity in species composition. Especially, the dissimilarity index (0.7) of broadleaved/Korean pine forest at low altitudes was obviously higher than other communities. The differences are not obvious between communities referring to dark coniferous forest. Comparatively, the dissimilarity in sub-plots of the communities at altitude of 1400 m was slightly higher than that of other communities, which reflected the complexity of tree species compositions of transitory-type communities. For subalpine Betula ermanii forest, tree species composition was simple and showed a high similarity between sub-plots. The results derived from binary data of shrub showed that the dissimilarity index of shrub species in broadleaved/Korean pine forest at low altitudes was higher than that in other communities, but the divergence tendency wasn't so obvious as that of arbor species. The dissimilarity derived from binary data of herb and all plant species at different altitudes showed greatly close tendency, and the differences in herb and all plant species between sub-plots were the greatest for the communities of broad-leaved-Korean pine forest and alpine tundra zone.

  2. Controls On Water Use Efficiency For Different Forest Ecosystems Across North America: From The Leaf To Landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrieri, R.; Lepine, L. C.; Asbjornsen, H.; Xiao, J.; Ollinger, S. V.

    2014-12-01

    Water use efficiency (WUE), defined as the ratio of carbon assimilation (A) to water loss via transpiration, is the key physiological parameter that explicitly links water and carbon cycling in forest ecosystems. Most studies examining the influence of climatic factors on forest-WUE have focused on site-specific and water-limited ecosystems. Much less is known about the dynamics of WUE across different forest ecosystems, along gradients of climate and soil nutrients. This study explores the variation in WUE at twelve different forested Ameriflux sites across North America spanning a wide range of forest types and climate conditions. We were interested in answering the following questions: 1) Are patterns of WUE at the tree level similar to those for whole ecosystems? 2) Is there a consistent relationship between foliar nitrogen (N) and WUE at the two different scales? 3) To what extent does species diversity explain forest ecosystem functioning and resilience to drought? Finally, 4) Can changes in GPP, ET and WUE across the studied climate gradient be estimated using remotely derived water indices, such as NDWI? We address these questions through a combination of techniques applied at the leaf to landscape level, including foliar δ13C, δ18O and N, eddy covariance and remote sensing data. At each site, we used foliar δ13C to infer intrinsic WUE (iWUE=A/gs) for the two dominant tree species, while foliar N and δ18O provided insights about the species-specific physiological mechanisms underlying variation in iWUE. Furthermore, we used flux data to derive ET and WUEe (i.e., ecosystem WUE= GPP/ET). Variations in iWUE and WUEe in relation to foliar N, climate parameters and water stress index (PSDI) are considered across sites. Moreover, differences in GPP, ET and WUEe are explored in relation to forest ecosystem type, species richness and Shannon's diversity index. Finally we examine the degree to which changes in WUE are related to NDVI and NDWI.

  3. Beauveria brongniartii Sacc. (Petch against Melolontha spp. white grubs in forest nurseries with different soil pH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sierpińska Alicja

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In 2011, the General Directorate of State Forests in Poland managed 669 forest nurseries on the total area of 2411 ha that produced forest tree seedlings bare root systems, hence vulnerable to Melolontha spp. white grubs. Up to date, no chemical or biological plant protection product for control of cockchafer grubs in forests has been registered in Poland. The study was carried out with the aim to evaluate the efficacy of a biocontrol product Bovecol with BP strain of Beauveria brongniartii on sterilized wheat grain in control of Melolontha spp. white grubs in forest nurseries, established on acidic soils (with pH analogous to that of forest soils as well as on those alkaline. The active substance of Bovecol was 108 fungal conidia per 1g of the product. Study plots were established in 3 bareroot nurseries, situated in the areas with different soil reaction values and abundant populations of Melolontha spp. white grubs (assessed before Bovecol treatments. The product was applied against L1 larvae (rates in the Czerniawka and Bałtów nurseries: 120 kg/ha and 240 kg/ha and against L2 larvae (the Iłki nursery: 240 kg/ha. Grub population numbers were assessed 2, 3 and 4 months after the treatments. Application of Bovecol against L1 into the soil with neutral reaction (pH 6.8 caused the reduction of white grub numbers in 2 months, down to the threshold recommended by the Instruction of the protection of forests (mandatory guidelines for the protection of Poland’s State Forests, i.e. less than 1 grub/sampling pit. Bovecol treatment against L1 cockchafer larvae into acidic soil (pH 4.8 had no statistically significant effect on the reduction of grub population numbers, even 4 months after product application. Bovecol treatment against L2 larvae applied into the soil with medium pH value (5.3 gave poorer results when compared to the soil with pH 6.8, but considerably better – when compared to the soil with pH 4.8. The selection of a fungal strain

  4. ECOLOGICAL FEATURES OF ALGAE COMMUNITIES IN FOREST FLOOR OF PINE PLANTATIONS OF DIFFERENT TYPES OF LANDSCAPES IN STEPPE AREA OF UKRAINE

    OpenAIRE

    Maltsev Yevhen

    2013-01-01

    The steppe zone of Ukraine features a large variety of types of natural landscapes that together significantly differ in microclimatic, soil, hydrological and geobotanic conditions. Such a diversity of forest conditions affects not only the trees, but also on all biotic components of forest ecosystems including algae. Purpose of the study was establish systematic position of species, dominant and subdominant, leading families of algae for plantings in forest floor of pine plantations of the v...

  5. Association of extinction risk of saproxylic beetles with ecological degradation of forests in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seibold, Sebastian; Brandl, Roland; Buse, Jörn; Hothorn, Torsten; Schmidl, Jürgen; Thorn, Simon; Müller, Jörg

    2015-04-01

    To reduce future loss of biodiversity and to allocate conservation funds effectively, the major drivers behind large-scale extinction processes must be identified. A promising approach is to link the red-list status of species and specific traits that connect species of functionally important taxa or guilds to resources they rely on. Such traits can be used to detect the influence of anthropogenic ecosystem changes and conservation efforts on species, which allows for practical recommendations for conservation. We modeled the German Red List categories as an ordinal index of extinction risk of 1025 saproxylic beetles with a proportional-odds linear mixed-effects model for ordered categorical responses. In this model, we estimated fixed effects for intrinsic traits characterizing species biology, required resources, and distribution with phylogenetically correlated random intercepts. The model also allowed predictions of extinction risk for species with no red-list category. Our model revealed a higher extinction risk for lowland and large species as well as for species that rely on wood of large diameter, broad-leaved trees, or open canopy. These results mirror well the ecological degradation of European forests over the last centuries caused by modern forestry, that is the conversion of natural broad-leaved forests to dense conifer-dominated forests and the loss of old growth and dead wood. Therefore, conservation activities aimed at saproxylic beetles in all types of forests in Central and Western Europe should focus on lowlands, and habitat management of forest stands should aim at increasing the amount of dead wood of large diameter, dead wood of broad-leaved trees, and dead wood in sunny areas.

  6. [Distribution characteristics of soil organic carbon under different forest restoration modes on opencast coal mine dump].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Yue-rong; Dang, Ting-hui; Tang, Jun; Li, Jun-chao

    2016-01-01

    The content and storage of soil organic carbon (SOC) were compared in six wood restoration modes and adjacent abandoned land on opencast coal mine dump, and the mechanisms behind the differences and their influencing factors were analyzed. Results showed that the contents of SOC in six wood lands were significantly higher (23.8%-53.2%) than that of abandoned land (1.92 g · kg⁻¹) at 0-10 cm soil depth, the index were significantly higher (5.8%-70.4%) at 10-20 cm soil depth than the abandoned land (1.39 g · kg⁻¹), and then the difference of the contents of SOC in the deep soil (20-100 cm) were not significant. The contents of SOC decreased with increase of soil depth, but the decreasing magnitude of the topsoil (0-20 cm) was higher than that of the deep soil (20-100 cm). Compared with the deep soil, the topsoil significant higer storage of SOC in different woods, the SOC storage decreased with the soil depth. Along the 0-100 cm soil layer, the storage of SOC in six wood lands higher (18.1%-42.4%) than that of the abandoned land (17.52 t · hm⁻²). The SOC storage of Amorpha fruticosa land (24.95 t · hm⁻²) was obviously higher than that in the other wood lands. The SOC storage in the shrub lands was 12.4% higher than that of the arbor woods. There were significantly positive correlations among forest litter, fine root biomass, soil water content and SOC on the dump. Consequently, different plantation restorations significantly improved the SOC level on the dump in 0-100 cm soil, especially the topsoil. But there was still a big gap about SOC level between the wood restoration lands and the original landform. To improve the SOC on opencast coal mine dump, A. fruticosa could be selected as the main wood vegetation.

  7. Comparison of simulated forest soil response to acid deposition reduction with two models of differing complexity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. P. Mol-Dijkstra

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Great effort has been dedicated to developing soil acidification models for use on different scales. This paper focuses on the changes in model performance of a site scale soil acidification model (NUCSAM and a national to European scale soil acidification model (SMART 2. This was done to gain insight into the effects of model simplification. Because these models aim to predict the response to reduction in acid deposition, these models must be tested under such circumstances. A straightforward calibration and validation of the regional model, however, is hampered by lack of observations over a sufficient time period. Consequently, NUCSAM was calibrated and validated to a manipulation experiment involving reduced acid deposition in the Speuld forest, the Netherlands. SMART 2 was then used with calibrated input data from NUCSAM. The acid deposition was excluded by a roof beneath the canopy. The roofed area consists of a plot receiving pristine deposition levels of nitrogen (N and sulphur (S and a control plot receiving ambient deposition. NUCSAM was calibrated on the ambient plot, followed by a validation of both models on the pristine plot. Both models predicted soil solution concentrations within the 95% confidence interval of the observed responses for both the ambient plot and the pristine plot at 90 cm depth. Despite the large seasonal and vertical (spatial variation in soil solution chemistry, the trends in annual flux- weighted soil solution chemistry, as predicted by SMART 2 and NUCSAM, corresponded well.The annual leaching fluxes below the root zone were also similar although differences exist for the topsoil. For the topsoil, NUCSAM simulated the nutrients and acid related constituents better than SMART 2. Both models overestimated the ammonium (NH4 concentration at 10 cm depth. SMART 2 underestimated calcium and magnesium (BC2+ concentration at 10 depth, whereas NUCSAM overestimated BC2+ concentration at 90 cm depth. NUCSAM predicted

  8. The effects of disturbance on forest structure and diversity at different altitudes in Garhwal Himalaya

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Munesh KUMA; Chandra Mohan SHARMA; Govind Singh RAJWAR

    2009-01-01

    The effects of disturbance on forest structure and diversity along an altitudinal gradient in the temperate, sub-tropical, and tropical regions of Garhwal Himalaya were assessed. Each region was further categorized into undisturbed (UD), mildly disturbed (MD), and highly disturbed (HD) sites on the basis of magnitude of disturbance in these forests. On UD sites of temperate, sub-tropical and tropical regions, Quercus leucotrichophora, Anogeissus latifolia and Holoptelea integrifolia were the dominant tree species respectively. The highest values of tree density (1028 ind*hm-2) and total basal cover at breast height (31.70 m2 *hm-2) were recorded for UD site of temperate region, whereas maximum species diversity (3.128) and equitability (14.09) values were observed for HD site of tropical region. The structure and composition of the forests were greatly affected by the degree of disturbance.

  9. Nitrogen oxides emission from two beech forests subjected to different nitrogen loads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Kitzler

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available We analysed nitrogen oxides (N2O, NO and NO2 and carbon dioxide (CO2 emissions from two beech forest soils close to Vienna, Austria, which were exposed to different nitrogen input from the atmosphere. The site Schottenwald (SW received 22.6 kg N y-1 and Klausenleopoldsdorf (KL 13.5 kg N y-1 through wet and dry deposition. Nitrogen oxide emissions from soil were measured hourly with an automatic dynamic chamber system. Daily N2O measurements were carried out by an automatic gas sampling system. Measurements of nitrous oxide (N2O and CO2 emissions were conducted over larger areas on a biweekly (SW or monthly (KL basis by manually operated chambers. We used an autoregression procedure (time-series analysis for establishing time-lagged relationships between N-oxide emissions and different climate, soil chemistry and N-deposition data. It was found that changes in soil moisture and soil temperature significantly effected CO2 and N-oxide emissions with a time lag of up to two weeks and could explain up to 95% of the temporal variations of gas emissions. Event emissions after rain or during freezing and thawing cycles contributed significantly (for NO 50% to overall N-oxides emissions. In the two-year period of analysis the annual gaseous N2O losses at SW ranged from 0.65 to 0.77 kg N ha-1 y-1 and NO losses were 0.18 to 0.67 kg N ha-1 per vegetation period. In KL significantly lower annual N2O emissions (0.52 kg N2O-N kg ha-1 y-1 as well as considerably lower NO-losses were observed. During a three-month measurement campaign NO losses at KL were 0.02 kg, whereas in the same time period significantly more NO was emitted in SW (0.32 kg NO-N ha-1. Higher N-oxide emissions, especially NO emissions from the high N-input site (SW indicate that atmospheric

  10. Different harvest intensity and soil CO2 efflux in sessile oak coppice forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darenova E

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Soil CO2 efflux accounts for about 45-80% of total ecosystem respiration and is therefore an important part of the ecosystem carbon cycle. Soil CO2 efflux has been poorly studied in forests managed in the ancient coppicing manner. In our study, soil CO2 efflux, temperature, and moisture were measured in sessile oak stands with different harvesting intensity (control: 0% intensity; V1: 75%; V2: 80 %; V3: 85%; and V4: 100% during the fifth and sixth years after harvesting. Soil CO2 efflux was in the range 2-8 µmol CO2 m-2 s-1 and indicated an increasing pattern with increasing harvesting intensity. The slope of that pattern became less steep from the fifth to the sixth year after harvesting, thus indicating gradual recovery of soil carbon dynamics in the coppiced stand toward the equilibrium state existing before harvesting. Temperature sensitivity of soil CO2 efflux ranged between 2.1 and 2.8, with the lowest values measured in the control stand. Soil CO2 efflux in the control stand was more sensitive to changes in soil moisture than was that on harvested plots. By our calculations, 6.2 tC ha-1 was released from the control stand and 6.2-6.8 tC ha-1 from the harvested stands during the sixth year after harvesting. If mean temperature were to rise by 1 °C, the amount of soil carbon released would increase by 7.7% in the control stand and, depending on harvesting intensity, by 9.0-10.8% in the harvested stands.

  11. Narrowband Bio-Indicator Monitoring of Temperate Forest Carbon Fluxes in Northeastern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quanzhou Yu

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Developments in hyperspectral remote sensing techniques during the last decade have enabled the use of narrowband indices to evaluate the role of forest ecosystem variables in estimating carbon (C fluxes. In this study, narrowband bio-indicators derived from EO-1 Hyperion data were investigated to determine whether they could capture the temporal variation and estimate the spatial variability of forest C fluxes derived from eddy covariance tower data. Nineteen indices were divided into four categories of optical indices: broadband, chlorophyll, red edge, and light use efficiency. Correlation tests were performed between the selected vegetation indices, gross primary production (GPP, and ecosystem respiration (Re. Among the 19 indices, five narrowband indices (Chlorophyll Index RedEdge 710, scaled photochemical reflectance index (SPRI*enhanced vegetation index (EVI, SPRI*normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI, MCARI/OSAVI[705, 750] and the Vogelmann Index, and one broad band index (EVI had R-squared values with a good fit for GPP and Re. The SPRI*NDVI has the highest significant coefficients of determination with GPP and Re (R2 = 0.86 and 0.89, p < 0.0001, respectively. SPRI*NDVI was used in atmospheric inverse modeling at regional scales for the estimation of C fluxes. We compared the GPP spatial patterns inversed from our model with corresponding results from the Vegetation Photosynthesis Model (VPM, the Boreal Ecosystems Productivity Simulator model, and MODIS MOD17A2 products. The inversed GPP spatial patterns from our model of SPRI*NDVI had good agreement with the output from the VPM model. The normalized difference nitrogen index was well correlated with measured C net ecosystem exchange. Our findings indicated that narrowband bio-indicators based on EO-1 Hyperion images could be used to predict regional C flux variations for Northeastern China’s temperate broad-leaved Korean pine forest ecosystems.

  12. Soil Enzyme Activity Changes in Different-Aged Spruce Forests of the Eastern Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Yong-Mei; ZHOU Guo-Yi; WU Ning; BAO Wei-Kai

    2004-01-01

    Activities of selected soil enzymes (invertase, acid phosphatase, proteinase, catalase, peroxidase and polyphenoloxidase) were determined under different spruce forests with restoration histories of 5, 13, 18, 23, 27 years and an old growth forest over 400 years old in the eastern Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau, China, and their possible use as indicators of ecosystems health were analyzed. Plots 10 × 10 m with 4 replications were established to investigate three hypotheses: soil enzyme activities a) would increase with the restoration process; b) would be greater in surface soils than at lower depths; and c)would be correlated to selected physicochemical properties. Results showed that as the forests developed after restoration,invertase and peroxidase activities usually increased up to the 23 year point. Also soil enzyme activities were associated with surface soils and decreased with depths, suggesting that in earlier restoration stages surface addition of organic fertilizer to soils might be more effective than additions at depth. In the 0-20 cm soil, there were significant correlations (P < 0.01 or < 0.05) between some soil enzyme activities and some selected chemical properties. Therefore, temporal changes in enzyme activities should be included as an indicator when evaluating sustainable forest management practices.

  13. Habitat differences in dung beetle assemblages in an African savanna-forest ecotone: implications for secondary seed dispersal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunz, Britta K; Krell, Frank-Thorsten

    2011-06-01

    The probability and pattern of secondary seed dispersal by dung beetles (Scarabaeinae) depend on their community structure and composition at the site of primary deposition, which, in turn, seem to be strongly determined by vegetation. Consequently, we expected pronounced differences in secondary seed dispersal between forest and savanna in the northern Ivory Coast, West Africa. We found 99 dung beetle species at experimentally exposed dung piles of the olive baboon (Papio anubis (Lesson, 1827)), an important primary seed disperser in West Africa. Seventy-six species belonged to the roller and tunneler guilds, which are relevant for secondary seed dispersal. Most species showed a clear habitat preference. Contrary to the Neotropics, species number and abundance were much higher in the savanna than in the forest. Rollers and tunnelers each accounted for approximately 50% of the individuals in the savanna, but in the forest rollers made up only 4%. Seeds deposited into the savanna by an omnivorous primary disperser generally have a higher overall probability of being more rapidly dispersed secondarily by dung beetles than seeds in the forest. Also, rollers disperse seeds over larger distances. In contrast to other studies, small rollers were active in dispersal of large seeds, which were seemingly mistaken for dung balls. Our results suggest that rollers can remove seeds from any plant dispersed in primate dung in this ecosystem.

  14. Quantifying Forest Spatial Pattern Trends at Multiple Extents: An Approach to Detect Significant Changes at Different Scales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludovico Frate

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available We propose a procedure to detect significant changes in forest spatial patterns and relevant scales. Our approach consists of four sequential steps. First, based on a series of multi-temporal forest maps, a set of geographic windows of increasing extents are extracted. Second, for each extent and date, specific stochastic simulations that replicate real-world spatial pattern characteristics are run. Third, by computing pattern metrics on both simulated and real maps, their empirical distributions and confidence intervals are derived. Finally, multi-temporal scalograms are built for each metric. Based on cover maps (1954, 2011 with a resolution of 10 m we analyze forest pattern changes in a central Apennines (Italy reserve at multiple spatial extents (128, 256 and 512 pixels. We identify three types of multi-temporal scalograms, depending on pattern metric behaviors, describing different dynamics of natural reforestation process. The statistical distribution and variability of pattern metrics at multiple extents offers a new and powerful tool to detect forest variations over time. Similar procedures can (i help to identify significant changes in spatial patterns and provide the bases to relate them to landscape processes; (ii minimize the bias when comparing pattern metrics at a single extent and (iii be extended to other landscapes and scales.

  15. [Soil enzyme activities under two forest types as affected by different levels of nitrogen deposition].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yu-tao; Li, Xue-feng; Han, Shi-jie; Hu, Yan-ling

    2008-12-01

    A simulation test was conducted to study the change trends of soil cellulase, polyphenol oxidase, and sucrase activities under natural broadleaf-Korean pine (Pinus koraiensis) and secondary poplar (Populus davidiana) -birch (Betula platyphylla) mixed forests as affected by 0, 25, and 50 kg x hm(-2) x a(-1) of N deposition. The results showed that the effects of elevated N deposition on test enzyme activities varied with forest type, and short-term nitrogen addition could significantly affect the test enzyme activities. High N deposition decreased soil polyphyneol oxidase activity, and correspondingly, soil cellulase and sucrase activities also had a trend of decrease.

  16. Comparison of different real time VOC measurement techniques in a ponderosa pine forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Kaser

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Volatile organic compound (VOC mixing ratios measured by five independent instruments are compared at a forested site dominated by ponderosa pine (Pinus Ponderosa during the BEACHON-ROCS field study in summer 2010. The instruments included a Proton Transfer Reaction Time of Flight Mass Spectrometer (PTR-TOF-MS, a Proton Transfer Reaction Quadrupole Mass Spectrometer (PTR-MS, a Fast Online Gas-Chromatograph coupled to a Mass Spectrometer (GC/MS; TOGA, a Thermal Dissociation Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometer (PAN-CIMS and a Fiber Laser-Induced Fluorescence Instrument (FILIF. The species discussed in this comparison include the most important biogenic VOCs and a selected suite of oxygenated VOCs that are thought to dominate the VOC reactivity at this particular site as well as typical anthropogenic VOCs that showed low mixing ratios at this site. Good agreement was observed for methanol, the sum of the oxygenated hemiterpene 2-methyl-3-buten-2-ol (MBO and the hemiterpene isoprene, acetaldehyde, the sum of acetone and propanal, benzene and the sum of methyl ethyl ketone (MEK and butanal. Measurements of the above VOCs conducted by different instruments agree within 20%. The ability to differentiate the presence of toluene and cymene by PTR-TOF-MS is tested based on a comparison with GC-MS measurements, suggesting a study-average relative contribution of 74% for toluene and 26% for cymene. Similarly, 2-hydroxy-2-methylpropanal (HMPR is found to interfere with the sum of methyl vinyl ketone and methacrolein (MVK+MAC using PTR-(TOF-MS at this site. A study-average relative contribution of 85% for MVK+MAC and 15% for HMPR was determined. The sum of monoterpenes measured by PTR-MS and PTR-TOF-MS was generally 20–25% higher than the sum of speciated monoterpenes measured by TOGA, which included α-pinene, β-pinene, camphene, carene, myrcene, limonene, cineole as well as other terpenes. However, this difference is consistent throughout the

  17. Comparison of different real time VOC measurement techniques in a ponderosa pine forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Kaser

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Volatile organic compound (VOC mixing ratios measured by five independent instruments are compared at a forested site dominated by ponderosa pine (Pinus Ponderosa during the BEACHON-ROCS field study in summer 2010. The instruments included a Proton Transfer Reaction Time of Flight Mass Spectrometer (PTR-TOF-MS, a Proton Transfer Reaction Quadrupole Mass Spectrometer (PTR-MS, a Fast Online Gas-Chromatograph coupled to a Mass Spectrometer (GC/MS; TOGA, a Thermal Dissociation Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometer (PAN-CIMS and a Fiber Laser-Induced Fluorescence Instrument (FILIF. The species discussed in this comparison include the most important biogenic VOCs and a selected suite of oxygenated VOCs that are thought to dominate the VOC reactivity at this particular site as well as typical anthropogenic VOCs that showed low mixing ratios at this site. Good agreement was observed for methanol, the sum of the oxygenated hemiterpene 2-methyl-3-buten-2-ol (MBO and the hemiterpene isoprene, acetaldehyde, the sum of acetone and propanal, benzene and the sum of methyl ethyl ketone (MEK and butanal. Measurements of the above VOCs conducted by different instruments agree within 20%. The ability to differentiate the presence of toluene and cymene by PTR-TOF-MS is tested based on a comparison with GC-MS measurements, suggesting a study-average relative contribution of 74% for toluene and 26% for cymene. Similarly, 2-hydroxy-2-methylpropanal (HMPR is found to interfere with the sum of methyl vinyl ketone and methacrolein (MVK + MAC using PTR-(TOF-MS at this site. A study-average relative contribution of 85% for MVK + MAC and 15% for HMPR was determined. The sum of monoterpenes measured by PTR-MS and PTR-TOF-MS was generally 20–25% higher than the sum of speciated monoterpenes measured by TOGA, which included α-pinene, β-pinene, camphene, carene, myrcene, limonene, cineole as well as other terpenes. However, this difference is consistent throughout the study

  18. Comparison of different real time VOC measurement techniques in a ponderosa pine forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaser, L.; Karl, T.; Schnitzhofer, R.; Graus, M.; Herdlinger-Blatt, I. S.; DiGangi, J. P.; Sive, B.; Turnipseed, A.; Hornbrook, R. S.; Zheng, W.; Flocke, F. M.; Guenther, A.; Keutsch, F. N.; Apel, E.; Hansel, A.

    2013-03-01

    Volatile organic compound (VOC) mixing ratios measured by five independent instruments are compared at a forested site dominated by ponderosa pine (Pinus Ponderosa) during the BEACHON-ROCS field study in summer 2010. The instruments included a Proton Transfer Reaction Time of Flight Mass Spectrometer (PTR-TOF-MS), a Proton Transfer Reaction Quadrupole Mass Spectrometer (PTR-MS), a Fast Online Gas-Chromatograph coupled to a Mass Spectrometer (GC/MS; TOGA), a Thermal Dissociation Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometer (PAN-CIMS) and a Fiber Laser-Induced Fluorescence Instrument (FILIF). The species discussed in this comparison include the most important biogenic VOCs and a selected suite of oxygenated VOCs that are thought to dominate the VOC reactivity at this particular site as well as typical anthropogenic VOCs that showed low mixing ratios at this site. Good agreement was observed for methanol, the sum of the oxygenated hemiterpene 2-methyl-3-buten-2-ol (MBO) and the hemiterpene isoprene, acetaldehyde, the sum of acetone and propanal, benzene and the sum of methyl ethyl ketone (MEK) and butanal. Measurements of the above VOCs conducted by different instruments agree within 20%. The ability to differentiate the presence of toluene and cymene by PTR-TOF-MS is tested based on a comparison with GC-MS measurements, suggesting a study-average relative contribution of 74% for toluene and 26% for cymene. Similarly, 2-hydroxy-2-methylpropanal (HMPR) is found to interfere with the sum of methyl vinyl ketone and methacrolein (MVK + MAC) using PTR-(TOF)-MS at this site. A study-average relative contribution of 85% for MVK + MAC and 15% for HMPR was determined. The sum of monoterpenes measured by PTR-MS and PTR-TOF-MS was generally 20-25% higher than the sum of speciated monoterpenes measured by TOGA, which included α-pinene, β-pinene, camphene, carene, myrcene, limonene, cineole as well as other terpenes. However, this difference is consistent throughout the study, and

  19. Gap phase regeneration recruitment of mixed conifer-broadleaf forests in Wolong Nature Reserve

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Juan YANG; Jianping GE; Lijuan LIU; Yi DING; Yingchun TAN

    2009-01-01

    Wolong Nature Reserve is the largest reserve for protecting the endangered wild giant panda. Due to historical factors, even in many sections of the core protection area, the forests have been seriously destroyed and natural forests are poorly restored. However, the relative importance of the determinants for recruitment of communities under disturbance is rarely explored. In our study the endogenous and exterior factors in a forest gap that affect the conifer-broad-leaved mixed forest regeneration were investigated near Wuyipeng, one of the observation stations at Wolong, to explore which determinant had the greatest effect on gap regeneration and to discover the recruitment of seedling establishment in forest gaps. With a linear sampling method, environmental factors, gap characteristics and recruitment of new individuals were measured and examined in every forest gap along three sampling lines. Data of environmental factors in the gaps were collected for a Pearson correlation analysis in order to explore the disturbance and prepro-cessed characteristics of the gaps, using principal component analysis in SPSS. Correlation analysis was applied to further explore the relationship between changes in the gaps and the response of the regenerating seedlings. The results show that a range of natural and human disturbances affected the pattern and characteristics of the forest gaps in this area. The richness in the composition of the seedlings was higher than that of gap makers, but the order of dominance of the composition was different between seedlings and gap makers. The success of dominant species in establishing themselves was affected by different environmental factors. For instance, the establishment of Betula spp. was correlated significantly with topographic factors, while that of Abies faxoniana was affected by soil characteristics and that of Rhododendron spp. correlated significantly with topographic factors and characteristics of gap makers. Moreover, all

  20. Differences in arthropod communities between island and inland Masson pine forests infested by pine wilt disease in Zhejiang Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Hai-wei; LUO You-qing; SHI Juan; YAN Xiao-su; CHEN Wei-ping; JIANG Ping

    2008-01-01

    The invasion of Bursaphelenchus xylophilus (pine wood nematode, PWN) carried by Monochamus alternatus predominately attacks Masson pine (Pinus massoniana) forests and causes great economic losses in China. In this study, we assessed whether the effect of the invasion of PWN is different between island and inland forests. Arthropods were sampled in Fuyang (inland) and Zhoushan (island) counties in Zhejiang Province with sweep netting and light traps at four plots. During two field periods (May to June 2004 and September to October 2005) a total of 21,916 insects, representing 384 species belonging to 99 families and 15 orders,were collected in the sample plots from the island, whereas, from the inland forest a total of 29,262 insects, representing 308 species belonging to 96 families and 13 orders, were found. A hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) and one-way ANOVA, based on the composition of different arthropod guilds, were performed. The results showed that there was no significant difference in the composition of arthropod communities at the family level between inland and island. But these two habitats had a significant effect on the composition of species, individuals, sub-communities and energy class levels. Statistically, the composition of the two orders, Lepidoptera and Diptera, in the two habitats were significantly different.

  1. 广东南岭国家级自然保护森林景观格局分析%Analysis of Forest Landscape Pattern in Nanling National Nature Reserve, Guangdong

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    廖芳均; 何嘉

    2013-01-01

    [Objective] The study was to analyze the forest landscape in Nanling Na-tional Nature Reserve to provide information for the protection of local forest ecosys-tems. [Method] With the documents of 1∶10 000 topographic maps, updated Forest Resource Inventory Data, based on the GIS platform and Fragstats software, the paper analyzed the patterns and heterogeneity of forest landscapes by adopting the landscape ecological theory and the method of landscape index. [Result] The forest landscape types, in terms of area occupation from large to smal , are in the order of evergreen broad-leaved forest, coniferous mixed forest, evergreen and deciduous broad-leaved mixed forest, shrubs, mixed needle leaf forest, suitable land for forest deciduous broad-leaved forest and non-forest. [Conclusion] Overal , the Reserve had maintained sufficient forest landscape diversity with a low level fragmentation. The distribution of various types of forest landscape was extremely uneven, dominated by several types such as evergreen broad-leaved forest, coniferous forest, etc.%[目的]分析南岭国家级自然保护区森林景观格局,为该保护区的森林生态系统的保护提供支持。[方法]以1∶10000地形图、森林资源二类调查数据和实地补充调查数据为基础资料,基于GIS平台和 Fragstats软件,运用景观生态学原理和景观指数分析方法,对研究区内森林景观的格局和异质性进行分析。[结果]森林景观类型面积大小依次为常绿阔叶林、针叶林、针阔混交林、阔叶混交林、灌丛、针叶混交林、宜林地、落叶阔叶林和非林地。[结论]研究区域森林景观格局分析表明,保护区景观异质性较高,连通性较好,破碎化程度不明显,各景观组分的面积和比例分布极不均衡,常绿阔叶林和针叶林等少数几种组分在景观中占绝对优势。

  2. Leaf traits show different relationships with shade tolerance in moist versus dry tropical forests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poorter, L.

    2009-01-01

    ¿ Shade tolerance is the central paradigm for understanding forest succession and dynamics, but there is considerable debate as to what the salient features of shade tolerance are, whether adult leaves show similar shade adaptations to seedling leaves, and whether the same leaf adaptations are found

  3. Community composition, diversity and metabolic footprints of soil nematodes in differently-aged temperate forests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Xiaoke; Guan, Pingting; Wang, Yaolei; Li, Qi; Zhang, Shixiu; Zhang, Zhiyong; Bezemer, T. Martijn; Liang, Wenju

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Soil nematode communities can provide important information about soil food web structure and function. However, how soil nematode communities and their metabolic footprints change over time in temperate forests is not well known. We examined the changes in the composition, diversity and me

  4. Strong persistent growth differences govern individual performance and population dynamics in a tropical forest understorey palm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, M.; Zuidema, P.A.; Anten, N.P.R.; Martínez-Ramos, M.

    2012-01-01

    1. Persistent variation in growth rate between individual plants can have strong effects on population dynamics as fast growers reach the reproductive size at an earlier age and thus potentially contribute more to population growth than slow growers. In tropical forests, such persistent growth diffe

  5. Architecture of 53 rain forest tree species differing in adult stature and shade tolerance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poorter, L.; Bongers, F.J.J.M.; Sterck, F.J.; Wöll, H.

    2003-01-01

    Tree architecture determines a tree's light capture, stability, and efficiency of crown growth. The hypothesis that light demand and adult stature of tree species within a community, independently of each other, determine species' architectural traits was tested by comparing 53 Liberian rain forest

  6. 河南伏牛山区典型森林植被乔木层生物量研究%The Biomass of Typical Tree Layer of Forest Vegetation in the Nature Reserve of Funiu Mountain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毕会涛; 杨红震; 凡琳洁; 王炳焱; 高贤明

    2014-01-01

    选择伏牛山国家级自然保护区的五种典型植被类型作为研究对象,对15块临时样方内的乔木树种,分别测量出树高,胸径等因子,通过异速生长模型进行不同乔木树种生物量测定,进一步进行分析。结果表明,在选取的五种典型森林植被中,生物量大小依次为落叶针叶林>落叶阔叶林>针阔混交林>常绿针叶林>锐齿槲栎林。在落叶针叶林中,日本落叶松各个器官生物量在总的生物量所占比重从大到小依次为树干>树根>树枝>树皮>树叶。这一生物量分配格局既有利于日本落叶松的自身生长,也体现了对环境的适应性。在落叶针叶林、落叶阔叶林、针阔混交林、常绿针叶林、锐齿槲栎林中,乔木树种的地上生物量均大于地下生物量,尤其是对于落叶针叶林来说,地上生物量远远大于地下生物量。%In this paper we chose five kinds of typical vegetation type as the research objects in the nature reserve of Funiu mountain within the 15 pieces of temporary samples on tree species,respectively,then measured the tree height,diameter at breast height,and other factors. Through determination of different tree species biomass allometric growth model,we analyzed the biomass and further results. The selection of five kinds of typical forest vegetations,show the biomass sizes as deciduous coniferous forest>deciduous broad-leaved forest>mixed forest>evergreen coniferous forest>needle sharp tooth oriental white oak forest. In deciduous coniferous forest ,Japanese larch various organ biomass in total biomass accounted for the order from large to small is the trunk>root>branch>bark>leaf. The biomass allocation pattern is conducive to the growth of Japanese larch ,also reflected the adaptability to the environment. In deciduous coniferous forest,deciduous broad-leaved forest,mixed forest,evergreen coniferous forest,needle sharp teeth,oriental white oak forest,the ground

  7. Different Effects of Regional Species Pool on Plant Diversity between Forest and Grassland Biomes in Arid Northwest China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Liping; Liu, Yining; Wang, Xiangping; Fang, Jingyun; Wang, Qingchun; Zhang, Bengang; Xiao, Peigen; Mohammat, Anwar; Terwei, André

    2015-01-01

    Species pool hypothesis is broadly known and frequently tested in various regions and vegetation types. However it has not been tested in the arid Xinjiang region of China due to lack of data. Here with systematic data from references and field survey, we comprehensively examined species pool hypothesis in this region. Took species richness in 0.1° × 0.1° grid cells as regional species richness (RSR) which were obtained from the distribution maps of vascular plant species, and took species diversity of 190 and 103 plots in forest and grassland biomes across Xinjiang as local species richness (LSR), together with the digitalized soil pH and climate data, we tested the species pool hypothesis in this region. We found that: (1) the average RSR was higher in mountains than that in basins and it was negatively correlated with soil pH in mountains while positively correlated with soil pH in basins in Xinjiang; (2) RSR showed a positive correlation with mean annual precipitation (MAP) while showed a hump-shaped pattern with mean annual temperature (MAT); and the changing patterns of LSR were different for forest and grassland along the geographical and climate gradients; (3) LSR of forest was more affected by RSR than by climate, while on the contrary, LSR of grassland was more affected by climate than by RSR. Our results validated the species pool hypothesis in revealing that RSR had a significant role in shaping LSR patterns in addition to climate. We concluded that the relative effects of climate vs. RSR on LSR differed markedly between the forest and grassland communities across Xinjiang. Our results also showed that RSR revealed a contrasting relationship with soil pH in mountains and in basins, which might reflect differences in evolutionary processes of various habitats. In summary, our research systematically analyzed the correlation of species richness in regional and local scales in Xinjiang which provides more insights into the understanding of species pool

  8. [Macropore characteristics and its relationships with the preferential flow in broadleaved forest soils of Simian Mountains].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Zhang, Hong-jiang; Cheng, Jin-hua; Wu, Yu-he; Du, Shi-cai; Wang, Ran

    2010-05-01

    Brilliant blue dyeing and water breakthrough curve were applied to study the number and distribution of macropores and their relations to the preferential flow in typical sub-tropic broad-leaved forest soils of Simian Mountains. The radii of the macropores were mainly between 0. 3 and 3.0 mm, with the macroporosities in the range of 6.3% to 10.5%, and the macropores were always distributed in aggregation with increasing soil depth. The number of the macropores in each radius interval of dye-stained areas was tenfold increase than that of blank areas. The number of the macropores with radius larger than 0.3 mm, especially larger than 1.5 mm, was the most important factor affecting the occurrence of preferential flow. Significant correlations were found between the number of macropores and the water steady effluent volume, with the highest correlation coefficients of 0.842 and 0.879 for the radii intervals of 0.7-1.5 mm and 1.5-3.0 mm, respectively. Macro-pore continuity in dye-stained areas was better than that in blank areas, especially in the radius interval of 1.5-3.0 mm, with the biggest difference of 78.31%. In dye-stained areas, the number of macropores decreased gradually with soil depth. The filler-like distribution of macropores formed an effective water pressure gradient, which resulted in the preferential transport of water.

  9. [Effects of the different land use on soil labile organic matter and carbon management index in Junyun Mountain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Peng; Jiang, Chang-Sheng; Hao, Qing-Ju; Zhu, Tao

    2013-10-01

    The impacts of different land use on soil organic matter (SOM), soil labile organic matter (SLOM) and their efficiency ratios (ER), and soil carbon management index (CMI) were studied in this study. Subtropical evergreen broad-leaved forest (abbreviation: forest) , sloping farmland, orchard and abandoned land were selected and soils at the depths of 0-10, 10-20, 20-30, 30-40, 40-50 and 50-60 cm were sampled in the spring of 2011 to determine the contents of soil organic matter and labile organic matter. The results showed that the contents of soil organic matter and soil labile organic matter both decreased with the increase of soil depth under all four land use types; however, forest and orchard enriched SOM and SLOM contents in the 0-10 cm and 0-20 cm soil layers, respectively, while the contents of SOM and SLOM decreased evenly in sloping farmland and abandoned land. In the whole soil layer (0-60 cm) , the order of SOM and SLOM contents was abandoned land > forest > orchard > sloping farmland, indicating that at the conversion from forest into orchard or sloping farmland, SOM was reduced by 21.56% (P >0.05) and 55.90% (P forest > orchard > sloping farmland, revealing that forest reclamation resulted in the reduction of soil organic carbon storage and the decline of soil quality, and the abandonment of sloping farmland would increase soil carbon sink and improve soil quality. Three kinds of SLOM were all positively correlated with soil total nitrogen, available phosphorus and available potassium, while negatively correlated with soil density bulk, indicating that SLOM had close relationships with soil physical and chemical characters and could be used as an important index to reflect soil nutrient status and judge soil quality.

  10. Splitting the Difference: A Proposal for Benefit Sharing in Reduced Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation (REDD+

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arturo Balderas Torres

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of REDD+ is to create incentives for the reduction of emissions from deforestation and forest degradation and for the increase of carbon stocks through the enhancement, conservation and sustainable management of forests in developing countries. As part of the international negotiations under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC, compensation would be estimated in relation to national performance but how these incentives will be channeled within countries has not been specified and there are concerns about how the benefits will be shared among different stakeholders. One central issue is that under the national approach good performance in one region can be offset by underperformance in other regions of the country thus preventing the generation of predictable local incentives. Other issues relate to the need to provide incentives to a wide range of stakeholders and to avoid perverse reactions. To address these and other issues we propose separating the accounting of reduced deforestation, reduced degradation and enhancement of forests. The local attribution of credits would be easier for carbon enhancement, and possibly reduced degradation, than for reduced deforestation, since carbon gains can, in principle, be measured locally in the first two cases, while estimating achievements in reduced deforestation requires a regional approach. This separation in attribution of rewards can help to create adequate incentives for the different stakeholders and overcome some of the problems associated with the design and implementation of national REDD+ programs.

  11. Distribution of Litsea complex (lauraceae) and their association with soil properties in different forest types of Peninsular Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khamis, Shamsul; Nizam, M. S.

    2013-11-01

    A study was conducted at 13 locations of different forest types in Peninsular Malaysia to examine the association between Litsea complex (Lauraceae) and its soil properties. A total of 37 species and 786 individuals were recorded. Soil samples in each study plot were taken and Canonical Correspondence Analysis (CCA) was employed to determine relationships between species of Litsea complex and the edaphic features. This study showed that Machinchang Forest Reserve, Kedah was strongly associated with sand texture while Taman Negara, Pahang was influenced by silt. In other study sites, Bukit Fraser, Pahang was highly influenced by magnesium (Mg); Taman Negara, Pahang was influenced by nitrate nitrogen (NO3-N); and Gunung Belumut, Johor was influenced by elements of sodium (Na+) and ammonium nitrogen (NH4-N). The species distribution shows that Litsea artocarpifolia, Litsea maingayi and Neolitsea villosa were closely related to silt, while Litsea tomentosa and Litseae rectinervia were associated with clay, and Litsea grandis was related to sand. For tenden cyon soil chemical characteristic, Litsea artocarpifolia, Litsea maingayi and Neolitsea villosa were strongly related to nitrate nitrogen (NO3-N) while Litsea tomentosa and Litsea erectinervia were related to potassium (K+). On the other hand, Litsea myristicaefolia was influenced by cation exchange capacity (CEC) and Litsea johorensis was influenced by sodium (Na+). This study indicates that the species distribution of Litsea complex at the different forest types was associated with various soil properties.

  12. Different types of nitrogen deposition show variable effects on the soil carbon cycle process of temperate forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Yuhan; Guo, Peng; Liu, Jianqiu; Wang, Chunyu; Yang, Ning; Jiao, Zhenxia

    2014-10-01

    Nitrogen (N) deposition significantly affects the soil carbon (C) cycle process of forests. However, the influence of different types of N on it still remained unclear. In this work, ammonium nitrate was selected as an inorganic N (IN) source, while urea and glycine were chosen as organic N (ON) sources. Different ratios of IN to ON (1 : 4, 2 : 3, 3 : 2, 4 : 1, and 5 : 0) were mixed with equal total amounts and then used to fertilize temperate forest soils for 2 years. Results showed that IN deposition inhibited soil C cycle processes, such as soil respiration, soil organic C decomposition, and enzymatic activities, and induced the accumulation of recalcitrant organic C. By contrast, ON deposition promoted these processes. Addition of ON also resulted in accelerated transformation of recalcitrant compounds into labile compounds and increased CO2 efflux. Meanwhile, greater ON deposition may convert C sequestration in forest soils into C source. These results indicated the importance of the IN to ON ratio in controlling the soil C cycle, which can consequently change the ecological effect of N deposition.

  13. Functional groups show distinct differences in nitrogen cycling during early stand development: implications for forest management.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aubrey, Doug, P.; Coyle, David, R. Coleman, Mark, D.

    2011-08-26

    Nutrient acquisition of forest stands is controlled by soil resource availability and belowground production, but tree species are rarely compared in this regard. Here, we examine ecological and management implications of nitrogen (N) dynamics during early forest stand development in productive commercial tree species with narrow (Populus deltoides Bartr. and Platanus occidentalis L.) and broad (Liquidambar styraciflua L. and Pinus taeda L.) site requirements while grown with a range of nutrient and water resources. We constructed N budgets by measuring N concentration ([N]) and N content (N{sub C}) of above- and belowground perennial and ephemeral tissues, determined N uptake (N{sub UP}), and calculated N use efficiency (NUE). Forest stands regulated [N] within species-specific operating ranges without clear temporal or treatment patterns, thus demonstrating equilibrium between tissue [N] and biomass accumulation. Forest stand N{sub C} and N{sub UP} increased with stand development and paralleled treatment patterns of biomass accumulation, suggesting productivity is tightly linked to N{sub UP}. Inclusion of above- and belowground ephemeral tissue turnover in N{sub UP} calculations demonstrated that maximum N demand for narrow-sites adapted species exceeded 200 kg N ha{sup -1} year{sup -1} while demand for broad-site adapted species was below this level. NUE was species dependent but not consistently influenced by N availability, suggesting relationships between NUE and resource availability were species dependent. Based on early stand development, species with broad site adaptability are favored for woody cropping systems because they maintain high above- and belowground productivity with minimal fertilization requirements due to higher NUE than narrow site adapted species.

  14. Bryophyte flora in upland forests at different successional stages and in the various strata of host trees in northeastern Pará, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Cláudia Caldeira Tavares-Martins

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In the northeastern region of the Brazilian state of Pará, approximately 90% of the forested areas are secondary forests. Secondary forests are interesting areas for floristic studies aimed at determining the effects that clear-cutting has on bryophyte communities. The aim of this study was to compare upland forests at different successional stages and the various strata of host trees, in terms of the bryophyte species composition. Bryophyte specimens were collected between August 2005 and September 2006 from host trees in primary and secondary forests of different ages and of different heights, within the municipality of Capitão Poço, in the state of Pará. The vertical distribution of bryophytes was evaluated in 15 host trees within the primary forest. We identified a total of 99 bryophyte species: 33 mosses and 66 liverworts. The dominant family was Lejeuneaceae, with 56 species. Most of the species (n = 60 had a neotropical distribution, and 3 species were endemic to Brazil. Cololejeunea minutissima var. myriocarpa (Nees & Mont. R.M.Schust., Pycnolejeunea papillosa X.-L. He, Radula mammosa Spruce and Verdoornianthus marsupiifolius (Spruce Gradst. represent new records for the state of Pará. In the successional forests evaluated, we identified 78 species, most of which (n = 38 occurred in primary forest. On the host tree trunks evaluated in the primary forest, we observed 31 species occurring at heights ranging from 2 m to 20 m. Despite the fact that secondary forests account for such a large proportion of the forested areas in Capitão Poço, we found that the bryoflora was relatively rich, comprising 31% of the species recorded for the state. The fact that 40% of the species recorded occurred exclusively in the secondary forests and the fact that 45.5% of the species recorded in primary forest occurred within the 2-20 m height range show the importance of studies focusing on bryophytes in secondary forests and in the upper strata of

  15. Environmental measures in forest. Realistic measures for counteracting negative effects of acid precipitation in forest; Miljoetiltak i skog. Realistiske tiltak for aa motvirke negative effekter av sur nedboer i skog

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nilsen, P. [Norsk Inst. for Skogforskning, Aas (Norway)

    1996-01-01

    The conference paper deals with an Norwegian research programme concerning environmental measures for decreasing the effects of acidification in forest areas. This programme, which lasts in a period of five years, will terminate in 1997. An important part of the programme has been to investigate other types of measures than the ordinary methods of liming and fertilizing. In the course of the programme, there was determined to put the attention to the increased use of broad-leaved trees as an alternative in a coniferous forest. 19 refs., 1 fig.

  16. Forest Histories & Forest Futures

    OpenAIRE

    Whitlock, Cathy

    2009-01-01

    The climate changes projected for the future will have significant consequences for forest ecosystems and our ability to manage them. It is reasonable to ask: Are there historical precedents that help us understand what might happen in the future or are historical perspectives becoming irrelevant? What synergisms and feedbacks might be expected between rapidly changing climate and land–use in different settings, especially at the wildland–urban interface? What lessons from the past might help...

  17. Effect of acidic deposition on productivity of forest ecosystem and estimation of its economic losses in southern suburbs of Chongqing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1998-01-01

    In accordance with principle sand methods of ecology,this paper studied the effects of acidic deposition on productivity and volume increment of masson pine and Cinnamomum campora forest which are widely distributed in southern suburbs of Chongqing. Based on the field data and measurements, a multivariable stepwise regression model was established to analyze the effects of multiple environmental factors on the productivity of the forest ecosystems. This model was used to assess the volume and economic losses of these two forest ecosystems caused by acidic deposition. The results showed that, among the environmental factors, pH value of precipitation, soil depth, soil organic contents and slope are the dominant ones influencing the growth of masson pine forest. It is also shown that the acidic deposition has no clear relation to the growth of C.Campora forest, so development of such broad-leaved forest is suitable in the area.

  18. Characteristics of the Winter Birds Community at Different Habitats in Urban Parks of Liuzhou%柳州城市公园不同生境冬季鸟类的群落特征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭丽凤; 杨昌尚

    2012-01-01

    2009年11月至2010年1月,采用样点法调查了柳州城市4个公园不同生境中的鸟类种类和数量,共记录到鸟类50种,隶属6目22科.分析表明,阔叶林的鸟类物种数、密度和多样性均最高;水域的鸟类群落均匀度最好;建筑的鸟类群落优势度最高.因此,阔叶林生境对鸟类的吸引力最大.此外,对柳州城市公园如何保护鸟类也提出了建议.%The species and quantity of the birds in different habitats of four parks in Liuzhou were investigated by the sample point method from November,2009 to January ,2010,a total of 50 species were recorded,belonging to 22 families of six orders. It was found out that the quantity,density and diversity of the birds species in the broad-leaved forest were high,while the evenness of birds community in waters was the best,and the dominance of that in architectures was the highest. Thus,the broad-leaved forest had the largest attraction to the birds,finally some suggestions on how to protect the birds species in Liuzhou parks were presented.

  19. Worker morphology of the ant Gnamptogenys striatula Mayr (Formicidae, Ectatomminae in different landscapes from the Atlantic Forest domain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roseli F. Oliveira

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Morphological traits, such as size and shape, may reflect a combination of ecological and evolutionary responses by organisms. Ants have been used to evaluate the relationship between the environment and species coexistence and morphology. In the present study, we analyzed the morphology of workers of Gnamptogenys striatula Mayr in different landscapes from the Atlantic Domain in southeastern Brazil, focusing on the variation in the morphological attributes of these populations compared to those from a dense ombrophilous forest. Eighteen morphological traits of functional importance for interactions between workers and the environment were measured to characterize the size and shape of the workers. In general, the results show that ants of urban areas possess some morphological attributes of smaller size, with highly overlapped morphological space between the populations in forested ecosystems. Further, some of the traits related to predation were relatively smaller in modified land areas than in the populations from preserved areas of dense ombrophilous forest. These results help broaden the knowledge regarding morphological diversity in G. striatula, suggesting that the characterization of the morphology may be important to quantify the effects of land use on morphological diversity, and presumably, to facilitate the use of ants as biological indicators.

  20. Carbon and nitrogen accumulation in forest floor and surface soil under different geographic origins of Maritime pine (Pinus pinaster Aiton.) plantations