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Sample records for broad-leaved forests differing

  1. [Effect of climate change on net primary productivity of Korean pine (Pinus koraiensis) at different successional stages of broad-leaved Korean pine forest].

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    Qiu, Yang; Gao, Lu-Shuang; Zhang, Xue; Guo, Jing; Ma, Zhi-Yuan

    2014-07-01

    Pinus koraiensis in broad-leaved Korean pine forests of Changbai Mountain at different successional stages (secondary poplar-birch forest, secondary coniferous and broad-leaved forest and the primitive Korean pine forest) were selected in this paper as the research objects. In this research, the annual growth of net primary productivity (NPP) (1921-2006) of P. koraiensis was obtained by combining the tree-ring chronology and relative growth formulae, the correlation between NPP of P. koraiensis and climatic factors was developed, and the annual growth of NPP of P. koraiensis at different successional stages in relation to climatic variation within different climate periods were analyzed. The results showed that, in the research period, the correlations between climatic factors and NPP of P. koraiensis at different successional stages were different. With increasing the temperature, the correlations between NPP of P. koraiensis in the secondary poplar-birch forest and the minimum temperatures of previous and current growing seasons changed from being significantly negative to being significantly positive. The positive correlation between NPP of P. koraiensis in the secondary coniferous and broad-leaved forest and the minimum temperature in current spring changed into significantly positive correlation between NPP of P. koraiensis and the temperatures in previous and current growing seasons. The climatic factors had a stronger hysteresis effect on NPP of P. koraiensis in the secondary coniferous and broad-leaved forest, but NPP of P. koraiensis in the primitive Korean pine forest had weaker correlation with temperature but stronger positive correlation with the precipitation of previous growing season. The increases of minimum and mean temperatures were obvious, but no significant variations of the maximum temperature and precipitation were observed at our site. The climatic variation facilitated the increase of the NPP of P. koraiensis in the secondary poplar

  2. Comparative Study of Carbon Storage and Allocation Characteristics of Mature Evergreen Broad-leaved Forest

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhangquan; ZENG; Canming; ZHANGY; Yandong; NIU; Xiquan; LI; Zijian; WU; Jia; LUO

    2014-01-01

    Evergreen broad-leaved forest is an important forest type in China.This paper analyzes the allocation characteristics of vegetation and soil carbon pool of evergreen broad-leaved forest,to understand the current status of research on the carbon storage of evergreen broadleaved forest as well as shortcomings.In the context of global climate change,it is necessary to carry out the long-term research of evergreen broad-leaved forest,in order to grasp the formation mechanism of evergreen broad-leaved forest productivity,and the impact of climate change on the carbon sequestration function of evergreen broad-leaved forest ecosystem.

  3. Root biomass and underground C and N storage of the primitive Korean pine and broad-leaved forest and its different succession stages in Changbai Mountain, northeast China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Liyun; LUO Tianxiang; WU Songtao

    2006-01-01

    This paper studied root biomass and underground carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) storage of a more than 200-year-old primitive Korean pine and broad-leaved forest and its two 20- and 80-year-old secondary Populus davidiana and Betula platyphylla forests in Changbai Mountain,northeast China.The results showed that with forest succession,the root biomass of 20-year-old,80-year-old,and primitive forests was 2.437,2.742,and 4.114 kg/m2,respectively.The root C storage was 1.113,1.323,and 2.023kg/m2,soil C storage was 11.911,11.943,and 12.587 kg/m2,and underground C storage was 13.024,13.266,and 14.610kg/m2,respectively,while the root N storage was 0.035,0.032,and 0.038 kg/m2,soil N storage was 1.208,1.222,and 0.915 kg/m2,and underground N storage was 1.243,1.254,and 0.955 kg/m2,respectively,which indicated that along with forest succession,the forest underground became a potential"carbon sink,"whereas underground N storage did not change obviously.

  4. Forest litter stocks in Korean pine-broad-leaved forests of the southern Sikhote Alin

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    A. V. Ivanov

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the data on the forest litter of the Korean pine-broad-leaved forests of the South of Primorsky krai. The focus of the research is plantations dominated by Korean pine; areas of the main tree species with ages of 50, 80, 130 and 200 years were selected. The dynamics of the forest litter stock in the pine and broadleaved forests of different ages according to the measurement results for the season in 2014 is stated. In the studied plantation, the forest litter stock varies between 9.7–20.3 t ha-1. The greatest value of the forest litter stock is recorded in old-growth cedar forest (200 years. Relatively high power and the stock of litter are typical for young Korean pine forest that can explain the lower speed of the litter properties change against the dynamics of taxation indicators of the forest stand. The difference between the amount of the litter in the 200-year-old and remaining pine trees are statistically significant at p = 0.05. The dependence of the litter power on the age is not revealed. The coefficient of the forest litter decomposition ranges from 2.55–10.60 that characterizes the high speed of its rotting. The highest coefficient of the litter decomposition has an old-growing pine forest. The schedule of seasonal humidity fluctuations of the forest litter on the chosen plot is made; with increasing cedar forest age, the volumetric moisture content of the forest litter increases; volumetric moisture content on the plots remain relatively unchanged during the season. The area of the Korean pine forests of Primorsky State Academy of Agriculture is 6835 ha. The amount of carbon stock in the forest litter is 38.7 thousand tons C. in this area, while the system of regional assessment of the forest carbon balance estimates this index as 24.3 tons С. The data obtained can be used to adjust the coefficients of regional assessment of the forest carbon balance for cedar forests of Primorsky krai.

  5. Correlations between canopy gaps and species diversity in broad-leaved and Korean pine mixed forests

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Xiuhai; ZHANG Chunyu; ZHENG Jingming

    2006-01-01

    Regeneration of tree species associated with canopy gaps in broad-leaved Korean pine forests was investigated.Species diversity in gaps and under closed canopy was compared,the relationship between biodiversity and gap structure was analyzed.Results indicate that there were significant differences between tree species diversity in gaps and that under canopy (p<0.01).In terms of Shannon-Wiener index,evenness index,and abundance index,the biodiversity in gap community were higher than those under forest canopy in regeneration layer.In terms of Simpson's dominance index,the dominance of certain species in the regeneration layer increased from gaps to closed canopy (p<0.01).In contrast,trends of biodiversity changes of succession layer in gaps and under closed canopy were opposite.Tree species diversity of different layers reacted directly to the change of gap size class.For example,Shannon-Wiener index and abundance index is higher and Simpson's dominance index is the lowest in succession layer of medium-size gap (100-250 m2) in the broad-leaved Korean pine forest of Changbai Mountains.Shannon-Wiener index reached the highest in a size of≥250 m2 and<100 m2,reached the lowest in a size of 200-250 m2 in the regeneration layer.Simpson's dominance index reached its maximum when the gap size was between 200 and 250m2.Generally,species of different layers reacted differently to the changes of gap size classes.The gap size class with more seedlings did not correspond to size class containing more medium-size trees.Tree species diversity indices in the two layers behaved reciprocally during the development process of forest gaps.

  6. [Tree uprooting of coniferous-broad leaved Korean pine mixed forest in Lesser Khingan Mountains, China].

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    Ge, Xiao-wen; Hou, Jie-jian; Wang, Li-hai; Wang, Xing-long; Rong, Bin-bin

    2016-02-01

    The morphological parameters, root wad indexes and site conditions of 127 uprooting trees from 76 plots (20 mx20 m) in Lesser Khingan coniferous-broad leaved Korean pine mixed forest were measured. Then the influencing factors of uprooting differences and the relationship between uprooting trees and disturbed soil were analyzed. Results showed that the number of uprooting trees varied significantly among species. Abies nephrolepis suffered the most serious uprooting damage, then Pinus koraiensis, and Ulmus spp. the least. Deciduous species had a stronger uprooting-resistant capacity than broad-leaved species. With the increase of tree DBH and height, tree' s uprooting resistance declined rapidly first and then was gradually enhanced, and finally reached the minimum at diameter class of 20 cm and height class of 14 m, respectively. The smaller the taper degree and projected area of crown were, the stronger the uprooting resistance was. Uprooting rate was negatively correlated with stand density. Trees lying in wet ground, flat terrain, medium low altitude area and windward slope had a greater risk of uprooting. There were significant positive correlation between the depth, area and volume of disturbed soil and the DBH, height, volume of uprooting trees.

  7. [Tree uprooting of coniferous-broad leaved Korean pine mixed forest in Lesser Khingan Mountains, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Xiao-wen; Hou, Jie-jian; Wang, Li-hai; Wang, Xing-long; Rong, Bin-bin

    2016-02-01

    The morphological parameters, root wad indexes and site conditions of 127 uprooting trees from 76 plots (20 mx20 m) in Lesser Khingan coniferous-broad leaved Korean pine mixed forest were measured. Then the influencing factors of uprooting differences and the relationship between uprooting trees and disturbed soil were analyzed. Results showed that the number of uprooting trees varied significantly among species. Abies nephrolepis suffered the most serious uprooting damage, then Pinus koraiensis, and Ulmus spp. the least. Deciduous species had a stronger uprooting-resistant capacity than broad-leaved species. With the increase of tree DBH and height, tree' s uprooting resistance declined rapidly first and then was gradually enhanced, and finally reached the minimum at diameter class of 20 cm and height class of 14 m, respectively. The smaller the taper degree and projected area of crown were, the stronger the uprooting resistance was. Uprooting rate was negatively correlated with stand density. Trees lying in wet ground, flat terrain, medium low altitude area and windward slope had a greater risk of uprooting. There were significant positive correlation between the depth, area and volume of disturbed soil and the DBH, height, volume of uprooting trees. PMID:27396108

  8. Minimum sampling area and a biodiversity of riparian broad-leaved/Korean pine forest in Erdaobaihe forested watershed, Changbai Mountain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Riparian zone is an important component of forested watershed. Species component, structure, and distribution pattern of plant community in riparian zone are different from those of forest far away from the riparian zone because of edge effect and influence of river, and their minimum sampling areas are also different. To study the minimum area and a biodiversity of broad-leaved/Korean pine forest in riparian zone, three 8 m × 32 m sampling belts were selected and distributed at elevation of 800 m, 900 m, and 1000 m. In the riparian broad-leaved/Korean pine forest, mean minimum sampling areas including 60%, 80%, and 90% of total species were 80 m2 (8 m×10 m), 180 m2 (12 m×15 m), and 320 m2 (16 m × 20 m) respectively; The corresponding mean minimum areas of non-riparian forest were about 260 m2, 380 m2, and 480 m2; and the former were smaller than the latter. In the riparian zone, species richness, Shannon-Weiner index and species evenness were also higher than those in non-riparian forest. On the contrary, species dominance in forest community was higher than that in riparian zone.

  9. [Soil moisture dynamics under broad-leaved Korean pine forest in Changbai Mountains].

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    Yang, Hong; Pei, Tiefan; Guan, Dexin; Jin, Changjie; Wang, Anzh

    2006-04-01

    The located observation on the soil moisture dynamics under broad-leaved Korean pine forest in Changbai Mountains in 1990 - 1992 and 2003 showed that the seasonal variation of soil moisture content could be divided into five periods, i. e., gathering water stage in spring, consuming water stage in arid season, holding water stage in rainy season, losing water stage in autumn, and relatively stable stage of soil moisture in winter-spring. By using standard deviation and variation coefficient, the vertical layers of soil moisture were divided into rapid change layer, active layer, and sub-active layer. Correlation analysis was applied to analyze the relationships of moisture content among different soil layers and the correlation between soil moisture and precipitation in the same period. PMID:16836083

  10. Topographic variation in aboveground biomass in a subtropical evergreen broad-leaved forest in China.

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    Dunmei Lin

    Full Text Available The subtropical forest biome occupies about 25% of China, with species diversity only next to tropical forests. Despite the recognized importance of subtropical forest in regional carbon storage and cycling, uncertainties remain regarding the carbon storage of subtropical forests, and few studies have quantified within-site variation of biomass, making it difficult to evaluate the role of these forests in the global and regional carbon cycles. Using data for a 24-ha census plot in east China, we quantify aboveground biomass, characterize its spatial variation among different habitats, and analyse species relative contribution to the total aboveground biomass of different habitats. The average aboveground biomass was 223.0 Mg ha(-1 (bootstrapped 95% confidence intervals [217.6, 228.5] and varied substantially among four topographically defined habitats, from 180.6 Mg ha(-1 (bootstrapped 95% CI [167.1, 195.0] in the upper ridge to 245.9 Mg ha(-1 (bootstrapped 95% CI [238.3, 253.8] in the lower ridge, with upper and lower valley intermediate. In consistent with our expectation, individual species contributed differently to the total aboveground biomass of different habitats, reflecting significant species habitat associations. Different species show differently in habitat preference in terms of biomass contribution. These patterns may be the consequences of ecological strategies difference among different species. Results from this study enhance our ability to evaluate the role of subtropical forests in the regional carbon cycle and provide valuable information to guide the protection and management of subtropical broad-leaved forest for carbon sequestration and carbon storage.

  11. [Energy balance and evapotranspiration in broad-leaved Korean pine forest in Changbai Mountains].

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    Zhang, Xin-jian; Yuan, Feng-hui; Chen, Ni-na; Deng, Jun-li; Yu, Xiao-zhou; Sheng, Xue-jiao

    2011-03-01

    Based on the continuous measurements of an open-path eddy covariance system, this paper analyzed the characteristics of energy balance components and evapotranspiration in a broad-leaved Korean pine forest in Changbai Mountains in 2008, as well as the differences of energy balance components and evapotranspiration between growth season and dormant season. For the test forest, the year-round energy balance closure was 72%, being at a medium level, compared to the other studies in the Fluxnet community. The energy balance components had significant differences in their diurnal and seasonal variations. In growth season, turbulent energy exchange was dominated by upward latent heat flux, accounting for 66% of available energy; while in dormant season, the turbulent energy exchange was dominated by upward sensible heat flux, accounting for 63% of available energy. The accumulated annual evapotranspiration in the study site in 2008 was 484.7 mm, occupying 87% of the precipitation at the same time period (558.9 mm), which demonstrated that evapotranspiration was the main water loss item in temperate forests of northern China.

  12. Microenvironmental heterogeneity of physical soil properties in a broad-leaved Pinus koraiensis forest gap

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wenbiao DUAN; Jing WANG; Yan LI

    2009-01-01

    Microenvironmental heterogeneity of soil phy-sical properties in 0-20 cm and 20-40 cm soil layers in a broad-leaved Pinus koraiensis forest gap in Xiao Xing'anl-ing Mountains were analyzed by geostatistical method.The results show that the amount of soil water, saturation water capacity, capillary water capacity and porosity in the top layer were greater than those in the lower layer, except for bulk density, where the opposite applied. Soil physical properties in the top soil layer had relatively higher ranges and coefficients of variation. The total and auto correlation spatial heterogeneity of soil physical properties in the top layer were larger than those in the lower layer. The soil water had a strong anisotropic structure in an easterly and northerly direction, but porosity shows isotropy in the same directions. With increasing spatial distance, the other three physical factors exhibited anisotropic structures. The mutual effect between semi-variograms of soil physical properties in the top layer within the spatial autocorrelation range was not significant. For spatial distribution of physical properties within different layers, the patches at the middle and lower ranks in the forest gap dominated.Patches at higher rank were only distributed in the 0-20 cm soil layer and were located north of the forest gap center.

  13. [Applicability analysis of spatially explicit model of leaf litter in evergreen broad-leaved forests].

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    Zhao, Qing-Qing; Liu, He-Ming; Jonard, Mathieu; Wang, Zhang-Hua; Wang, Xi-Hua

    2014-11-01

    The spatially explicit model of leaf litter can help to understand its dispersal process, which is very important to predict the distribution pattern of leaves on the surface of the earth. In this paper, the spatially explicit model of leaf litter was developed for 20 tree species using litter trap data from the mapped forest plot in an evergreen broad-leaved forest in Tiantong, Zhejiang Pro- vince, eastern China. Applicability of the model was analyzed. The model assumed an allometric equation between diameter at breast height (DBH) and leaf litter amount, and the leaf litter declined exponentially with the distance. Model parameters were estimated by the maximum likelihood method. Results showed that the predicted and measured leaf litter amounts were significantly correlated, but the prediction accuracies varied widely for the different tree species, averaging at 49.3% and ranging from 16.0% and 74.0%. Model qualities of tree species significantly correlated with the standard deviations of the leaf litter amount per trap, DBH of the tree species and the average leaf dry mass of tree species. There were several ways to improve the forecast precision of the model, such as installing the litterfall traps according to the distribution of the tree to cover the different classes of the DBH and distance apart from the parent trees, determining the optimal dispersal function of each tree species, and optimizing the existing dispersal function. PMID:25898606

  14. Dynamics of nitrogen nutrition of coexisting dominant trees in mixed broad-leaved/Korean pine forest

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Yuwen

    1999-01-01

    Chemical analysis of ammonium, nitrate and total nitrogen in tree leaves and roots and an in-vivo bioassay for nitrate reductase activity (NRA) were used to monitor the seasonal variations in nitrogen assimilation among four coexisting dominant tree species, including Pinus koraiensis, Ti/ia amurensis, Fraxinus mandshurica and Acer mono, in a virgin mixed broad-leaved/Korean pine (Pinus koraiensis) forest. The soil study included individual horizons of L+F (0-5 cm), Ah (5-11 cm) and Aw (11-25 cm). All four species had nitrate and ammonium in their roots and leaves, and also NRA in leaves. This indicated that these coexisting species were adapted to ammonium + nitrate nutrition. A negative correlation existed between nitrate use and ammonium use. Ammonium concentration was higher than that of nitrate in tree leaves and roots, and also in soils, which indicated climax woody species had a relative preference for ammonium nutrition. There was a positive relationship between tree nitrogen nutrition use and soil nitrogen nutrient supply. Utilization of ammonium and nitrate as well as the seasonal patterns differed significantly between the species. Peaks of ammonium, nitrate, NRA and total nitrogen in one species were therefore not necessarily synchronous with peaks in other species, and which indicated a species-specific seasonal use of nitrogen. The species-specific temporal differentiation in nitrogen use might reduce the competition between co-existing species and may be an important mechanism promoting stability of virgin mixed broad-leaved∥Korean pine forest.

  15. Estimate of productivity in ecosystem of the broad-leaved Korean pine mixed forest in Changbai Mountain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    <正>We measured soil, stem and branch respiration of trees and shrubs, foliage photosynthesis and respiration in ecosystem of the needle and broad-leaved Korean pine forest in Changbai Mountain by LI-6400 CO2 analysis system. Measurement of forest microclimate was conducted simultaneously and a model was found for the relationship of soil, stem, leaf and climate factors. CO2 flux of different components in ecosystem of the broad-leaved Korean pine forest was estimated based on vegetation characteristics. The net ecosystem exchange was measured by eddy covariance technique. And we studied the effect of temperature and photosynthetic active radiation on ecosystem CO2 flux. Through analysis we found that the net ecosystem exchange was affected mainly by soil respiration and leaf photosynthesis. Annual net ecosystem exchange ranged from a minimum of about -4.671μmol·m-2·s-1 to a maximum of 13.80μmol·m-2·s-1, mean net ecosystem exchange of CO2 flux was -2.0μmol·m-2·s-1 and 3.9μmol·m-2·s-1 in winter and summer respectively (mean value during 24 h). Primary productivity of tree, shrub and herbage contributed about 89.7%, 3.5% and 6.8% to the gross primary productivity of the broad-leaved Korean pine forest respectively. Soil respiration contributed about 69.7% CO2 to the broad-leaved Korean pine forest ecosystem, comprising about 15.2% from tree leaves and 15.1% from branches. The net ecosystem exchange in growing season and non-growing season contributed 56.8% and 43.2% to the annual CO2 efflux respectively. The ratio of autotrophic respiration to gross primary productivity (Ra:GPP) was 0.52 (NPP:GPP=0.48). Annual carbon accumulation underground accounted for 52% of the gross primary productivity, and soil respiration contributed 60% to gross primary productivity. The NPP of the needle and broad-leaved Korean pine forest was 769.3 gC·m-2·a-1. The net ecosystem exchange of this forest ecosystem (NEE) was 229.51 gC·m-2·a-1. The NEE of this forest ecosystem

  16. [Effects of conversion of natural broad-leaved forest to Chinese fir plantation on soil respiration in subtropical China].

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    Zhang, Rui; Bai, Yang; Liu, Juan; Jiang, Pei-kun; Zhou, Guo-mo; Wu, Jia-sen; Tong, Zhi-peng; Li, Yong-fu

    2015-10-01

    Soil CO2 effluxes in natural broad-leaved forest and the conversed Chinese fir plantation in Linglong Mountains Scenic of Zhejiang Province were evaluated by using static closed chamber and gas chromatography method. The results showed that soil CO2 efflux showed consistent seasonal dynamics in natural broad-leaved forest and Chinese fir plantation, with the maximums observed in summer and autumn, the minimums in winter and spring. Soil CO2 effluxes were 20.0-111.3 and 4.1-118.6 mg C . m-2 . h-1 in natural broad-leaved forest and Chinese fir plantation, respectively. The cumulative soil CO2 emission of natural broad-leaved forest (16.46 t CO2 . hm-2 . a-1) was significantly higher than that of Chinese fir plantation (11.99 t CO2 . hm-2 . a-1). Soil moisture did not affect soil CO2 efflux. There was a significant relationship between soil CO2 efflux and soil temperature at 5 cm depth. There was no significant relationship between soil CO2 efflux of natural broad-leaved forest and water soluble organic carbon content, while water soluble organic carbon content affected significantly soil CO2 efflux in Chinese fir plantation. Converting the natural broad-leaved forest to Chinese fir plantation reduced soil CO2 efflux significantly but improved the sensitivity of soil respiration to environmental factors. PMID:26995901

  17. Fine Root Productivity and Turnover of Ectomycorrhizal and Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Tree Species in a Temperate Broad-Leaved Mixed Forest.

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    Kubisch, Petra; Hertel, Dietrich; Leuschner, Christoph

    2016-01-01

    Advancing our understanding of tree fine root dynamics is of high importance for tree physiology and forest biogeochemistry. In temperate broad-leaved forests, ectomycorrhizal (EM) and arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) tree species often are coexisting. It is not known whether EM and AM trees differ systematically in fine root dynamics and belowground resource foraging strategies. We measured fine root productivity (FRP) and fine root turnover (and its inverse, root longevity) of three EM and three AM broad-leaved tree species in a natural cool-temperate mixed forest using ingrowth cores and combined the productivity data with data on root biomass per root orders. FRP and root turnover were related to root morphological traits and aboveground productivity. FRP differed up to twofold among the six coexisting species with larger species differences in lower horizons than in the topsoil. Root turnover varied up to fivefold among the species with lowest values in Acer pseudoplatanus and highest in its congener Acer platanoides. Variation in root turnover was larger within the two groups than between EM and AM species. We conclude that the main determinant of FRP and turnover in this mixed forest is species identity, while the influence of mycorrhiza type seems to be less important. PMID:27617016

  18. Effect of urbanization on the structure and functional traits of remnant subtropical evergreen broad-leaved forests in South China.

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    Huang, Liujing; Chen, Hongfeng; Ren, Hai; Wang, Jun; Guo, Qinfeng

    2013-06-01

    We investigated the effects of major environmental drivers associated with urbanization on species diversity and plant functional traits (PFTs) in the remnant subtropical evergreen broad-leaved forests in Metropolitan Guangzhou (Guangdong, China). Twenty environmental factors including topography, light, and soil properties were used to quantify the effects of urbanization. Vegetation data and soil properties were collected from 30 400-m(2) plots at 6 study sites in urban and rural areas. The difference of plant species diversity and PFTs of remnant forests between urban and rural areas were analyzed. To discern the complex relationships, multivariate statistical analyses (e.g., canonical correspondence analysis and regression analysis) were employed. Pioneer species and stress-tolerant species can survive and vigorously establish their population dominance in the urban environment. The native herb diversity was lower in urban forests than in rural forests. Urban forests tend to prefer the species with Mesophanerophyte life form. In contrast, species in rural forests possessed Chamaephyte and Nanophanerophyte life forms and gravity/clonal growth dispersal mode. Soil pH and soil nutrients (K, Na, and TN) were positively related to herb diversity, while soil heavy metal concentrations (Cu) were negatively correlated with herb diversity. The herb plant species diversity declines and the species in the remnant forests usually have stress-tolerant functional traits in response to urbanization. The factors related to urbanization such as soil acidification, nutrient leaching, and heavy metal pollution were important in controlling the plant diversity in the forests along the urban-rural gradients. Urbanization affects the structure and functional traits of remnant subtropical evergreen broad-leaved forests.

  19. Microelement contents of litter, soil fauna and soil in Pinus koralensis and mixed broad-leaved forest

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Jinxia; YIN Xiuqin; DONG Weihua

    2007-01-01

    The Mn,Zn and Cu contents of litter,soil fauna and soil in Pinus koraiensis and mixed broad-leaved forest in Liangshui Nature Reserve of Xiaoxing'an Mountains were analyzed in this paper,results showed that the tested microelement contents in the litter,soil fauna and soil followed the order:Mn>Zn>Cu,but varied with environmental components,for Mn the order is soil>litter>soil fauna,for Zn is soil fauna>litter and soil,and for Cu is soil fauna>soil>litter.The change range of the tested microelement contents in litter was larger in broad-leaved forest than those in coniferous forest.Different soil fauna differed in their microelementenrichment capability,the highest content of Mn,Zn and Cu existed in earthworm,centipede and diplopod,respectively.The contents of the tested microelements in soil fauna had significant correlations with their environmental background values,litter decomposition rate,food habit of soil fauna,and its absorbing selectively and enrichment to microelements.The microelements contained in 5-20 cm soil horizon were more than those in 0-5 cm humus layer,and their dynamics differed in various horizons.

  20. Propagation of Native Tree Species to Restore Subtropical Evergreen Broad-Leaved Forests in SW China

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    Yang Lu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Subtropical evergreen broad-leaved forest (EBLF is a widespread vegetation type throughout East Asia that has suffered extensive deforestation and fragmentation. Selection and successful propagation of native tree species are important for improving ecological restoration of these forests. We carried out a series of experiments to study the propagation requirements of indigenous subtropical tree species in Southwest China. Seeds of 21 tree species collected from the natural forest were materials for the experiment. This paper examines the seed germination and seedling growth performance of these species in a nursery environment. Germination percentages ranged from 41% to 96% and were ≥50% for 19 species. The median length of germination time (MLG ranged from 24 days for Padus wilsonii to 144 days for Ilex polyneura. Fifteen species can reach the transplant size (≥15 cm in height within 12 months of seed collection. Nursery-grown seedlings for each species were planted in degraded site. Two years after planting, the seedling survival rate was >50% in 18 species and >80% in 12 species. Based on these results, 17 species were recommended as appropriate species for nursery production in forest restoration projects. Our study contributes additional knowledge regarding the propagation techniques for various native subtropical tree species in nurseries for forest restoration.

  1. Diurnal Variations of Greenhouse Gas Fluxes from Mixed Broad-leaved and Coniferous Forest Soil in Dinghushan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOUCunyu; ZHANGDeqiang; WANGYuesi; ZHOUGuoyi; LIUShizhong; TANGXuli

    2005-01-01

    The subtropical mixed broad-leaved and coniferous forest, a typical successional monsoon forest, is one of the major forests in the subtropics of China. Therefore, it is very important to estimate the fluxes of the greenhouse gases from the forest soil in order to evaluate the impact of subtropical forests on the greenhouse gas emissions or absorptions. This study investigated the diurnal variations of fluxes of three greenhouse gases (CO2, CH4, and N2O) from a mixed broad-leaved and coniferous forest soil. A static chamber-gas chromatograph technique was used to measure the fluxes of three greenhouse gases. By using the improved gas chromatography sampling system, the fluxes were analyzed with a single injection. In order to find out the effects of litter and seedling on the emissions or absorptions of these greenhouse gases, three treatments were set in the fleld:(1)bare soil surface (litter was removed previously); (3) litter + soil; (3) seedling + litter + soil. The experimental results demonstrated that the forest soil was a source of CO2, N2O and a weak sink of CH4.The daily fluxes of CO2, CH4, and N2O from the soil surface were in the range of 488.99~700.57, 0.049~0.108 and -0.025~ -0.053 mg/(m2·h ), respectively. CO2 from the litter decomposition accounted for about 1/3 of the total CO2 emission from the soil surface, while the litter and seedling had no significant effect on the fluxes of CH4 and N2O. The fluxes of CO2 and N2O measured at 9:00 -11:00 a.m. were significantly different from their daily averages. Therefore, caution must be taken if the CO2 and N2O fluxes measured within 9:00-11:00 a.m. are used for extrapolation.

  2. Comparative study on active soil organic matter in Chinese fir plantation and native broad-leaved forest in subtropical China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Qing-kui; WANG Si-long; DENG Shi-jian

    2005-01-01

    Active soil organic matter (ASOM) has a main effect on biochemical cycles of soil nutrient elements such as N, P and S, and the quality and quantity of ASOM reflect soil primary productivity. The changes of ASOM fractions and soil nutrients in the first rotation site and the second rotation site of Chinese fir plantation and the native broad-leaved forest were investigated and analyzed by soil sampling at the Huitong Experimental Station of Forestry Ecology (at latitude 26°48′N and longitude 109°30′E under a subtropical climate conditions), Chinese Academy of Sciences in March, 2004. The results showed that values of ASOM fractions for the Chinese fir plantations were lower than those for the broad-leaved forest. The contents of easily oxidisable carbon (EOC), microbial biomass carbon (MBC), water soluble carbohydrate (WSC) and water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC) for the first rotation of Chinese fir plantation were 35.9%, 13.7%, 87.8% and 50.9% higher than those for the second rotation of Chinese fir plantation, and were 15.8%, 47.3%, 38.1% and 30.2% separately lower than those for the broad-leaved forest. For the three investigated forest sites, the contents of MBC and WSOC had a larger decrease, followed by WSC, and the change of EOC was least. Moreover, soil physico-chemistry properties such as soil nutrients in Chinese fir plantation were lower than those in broad-leaved forest. It suggested that soil fertility declined after Chinese fir plantation replaced native broad-leaved forest through continuous artificial plantation.

  3. Belowground carbon balance and carbon accumulation rate in the successional series of monsoon evergreen broad-leaved forest

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The balance, accumulation rate and temporal dynamics of belowground carbon in the successional series of monsoon evergreen broadleaved forest are obtained in this paper, based on long-term observations to the soil organic matter, input and standing biomass of litter and coarse woody debris, and dissolved organic carbon carried in the hydrological process of subtropical climax forest ecosystem-monsoon evergreen broad-leaved forest, and its two successional forests of natural restoration-coniferous and broad-leaved mixed forest and Pinus massoniana forest, as well as data of root biomass obtained once every five years and respiration measurement of soil, litter and coarse woody debris respiration for 1 year. The major results include: the belowground carbon pools of monsoon evergreen broad-leaved forest, coniferous and broad-leaved mixed forest, and Pinus massoniana forest are 23191 ± 2538 g·m?2, 16889 ± 1936 g·m?2 and 12680 ± 1854 g·m?2, respectively, in 2002. Mean annual carbon accumulation rates of the three forest types during the 24a from 1978 to 2002 are 383 ± 97 g·m?2·a?1, 193 ± 85 g·m?2·a?1 and 213 ± 86 g·m?2·a?1, respectively. The belowground carbon pools in the three forest types keep increasing during the observation period, suggesting that belowground carbon pools are carbon sinks to the atmosphere. There are seasonal variations, namely, they are strong carbon sources from April to June, weak carbon sources from July to September; while they are strong carbon sinks from October to November, weak carbon sinks from December to March.

  4. Change in Species Diversity during Recovering Process of Evergreen Broad-leaved Forest%常绿阔叶林恢复过程植物物种多样性的变化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    温远光

    2005-01-01

    Evergreen broad-leaved forest is one of the most important vegetation types in China. Because of the human activities, evergreen broad-leaved forest has been destroyed extensively, leading to degraded ecosystem. It is urgent to conserve and restore these natural forests in China.In this paper, the tendency and rate of species diversity restoration of the evergreen broad-leaved forest in Daming Mountain has been studied. The main results are as follows: (a) In subtropical mid-mountain area, species diversity in degraded evergreen broad-leaved forest can be restored. Through analyzing b diversity index of communities in different time and space, it was found that the species composition of communities tend to be the same as that in the zonal evergreen broad-leaved forest. (b) The restoration rate of evergreen broad-leaved forest was very fast. Planting Chinese fir after clear-cutting and controlled burning of the forest, 178 species appeared in a 600m2 sample area after 20years'natural recovering. Among these species, 58 were tree layer and the height of community reached 18m. The survey suggested that it would take only 20 years for the degraded forest to develop into community composed of light demanding broad-leaved pioneer trees and min-tolerance broad-leaved trees, and it need another 40~80 years to reach the stage consisting of min-tolerance evergreen broad-leaved trees. (c) Species number increased quickly at the early stage (2-20 years) during vegetation recovering process toward the climax, and decreased at the min-stage (50-60 years ), then maintained a relatively stable level at the late-stage (over 150 years).

  5. A climate change-induced threat to the ecological resilience of a subtropical monsoon evergreen broad-leaved forest in Southern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Guoyi; Peng, Changhui; Li, Yuelin; Liu, Shizhong; Zhang, Qianmei; Tang, Xuli; Liu, Juxiu; Yan, Junhua; Zhang, Deqiang; Chu, Guowei

    2013-04-01

    Recent studies have suggested that tropical forests may not be resilient against climate change in the long term, primarily owing to predicted reductions in rainfall and forest productivity, increased tree mortality, and declining forest biomass carbon sinks. These changes will be caused by drought-induced water stress and ecosystem disturbances. Several recent studies have reported that climate change has increased tree mortality in temperate and boreal forests, or both mortality and recruitment rates in tropical forests. However, no study has yet examined these changes in the subtropical forests that account for the majority of China's forested land. In this study, we describe how the monsoon evergreen broad-leaved forest has responded to global warming and drought stress using 32 years of data from forest observation plots. Due to an imbalance in mortality and recruitment, and changes in diameter growth rates between larger and smaller trees and among different functional groups, the average DBH of trees and forest biomass have decreased. Sap flow measurements also showed that larger trees were more stressed than smaller trees by the warming and drying environment. As a result, the monsoon evergreen broad-leaved forest community is undergoing a transition from a forest dominated by a cohort of fewer and larger individuals to a forest dominated by a cohort of more and smaller individuals, with a different species composition, suggesting that subtropical forests are threatened by their lack of resilience against long-term climate change. PMID:23504896

  6. 闽西北地区不同林龄常绿阔叶混交林物种多样性比较%Species diversity of ever-green broad-leaved mixed forest with different forest age in the north-west of Fujian province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    常云妮; 钟全林; 程栋梁; 徐朝斌; 胡波; 张治

    2013-01-01

      基于野外样方数据,按照林龄与垂直分布层次,分别采用Margalef丰富度指数(Dm)、Pielou均匀度指数(J)与生态优势度指数(C)计算式,对闽西北地区主要优势种为米槠(Castanopsis carlesii)、栲树(Castanopsis fargesii)、甜槠(Cadtanopsis eyrei)、青冈(Quercus glauca)等壳斗科植物为主的天然常绿阔叶混交林群落的物种多样性进行了调查与对比分析。结果表明:(1)不同龄组常绿阔叶混交林乔木层的物种多样性存在显著差异(P草本层>灌木层,J值为草本层>乔木层>灌木层。中龄林、近熟林、成熟林的Dm值大小顺序均为:乔木层>灌木层>草本层,J值为灌木层>乔木层>草本层。研究结果可为了解闽西北地区不同龄组常绿阔叶混交林群落结构的物种组成与动态变化特征,探讨常绿阔叶混交林近自然经营及其残次林改造技术,制定其生物多样性的生态保护决策等提供理论依据。%Based on forest age and vertical distribution levels by using typical quadrat sampling method, the species richness index (Dm),evenness (J) and ecological dominance (C) of ten nature ever-green broad-leaved mixed forest communities in the north-west of Fujian province were calculated and analyzed. The dominant species were Castanopsis carlesii、Castanopsis fargesii、Cadtanopsis eyrei、Quercus glauca. The comparative study showed that, (1) The species diversity in different age groups of evergreen broad-leaved mixed forests were significantly different between tree layers (Pherb layer>shrub layer, the J value were herb layer>tree layer>shrub layer;In the half-mature forest, near mature forest and mature forest, the order of the species richness index were tree layer> shrub layer>herb layer, the J value were shrub layer>tree layer>herb layer. The results help to understand species composition and dynamic characteristics of ten nature ever-green broad-leaved mixed

  7. Maintenance of an abrupt boundary between needle-leaved and broad-leaved forests in a wetland near coast

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shiro Tsuyuzaki; Akira Haraguchi

    2009-01-01

    There is an abrupt boundary between two well-developed wetland forests, a stand consisting of a broad-leaved, nitrogen-fixer Alnus japonica and a stand of the needle-leaved Picea glehnii Masters, in eastern Hokkaido, Japan. To clarify maintenance mechanisms, we studied the forest profile, water level, groundwater and precipitation chemistry, seedling establishment patterns in relation to microhabitats, and seed migration. The profile of groundwater level insufficiently explained the abrupt boundary formation, while the groundwater chemistry differed significantly between the two forests; i.e., EC, Na+, K+, Mg2+, Ca2+ and Cl- were higher in P. glehnii forest and pH was lower. Precipitation in P. glehnii forest contained richer Na+, Ca2+ and Cl-, indicating that the differences in surface-water chemistry were mostly derived from precipitation. Solar radiation was less than 2.2 MJ·m-2·d-1 on P. glehnii forest in late June, while that was patchily distributed in A. japonica forest with a range from 1.0 to 3.7 MJ·m-2·d-1. Moss cover on the soil surface, most of which were made of Sphagnum spp., was 60% in P. glehnii forest, but was 10% in A. japonica forest. Surface water chemistry represented by pH was considered to determine the development of Sphagnum moss. About 70% of P. glehnii seedlings < 1.3 m in height established on moss cover. Seed-sowing experiments suggested that seed germination and seedling survival for both species were significantly higher in P. glehnii forest. Therefore, the regeneration of P. glehnii in A. japonica forest was negligible, owing to the paucity of favorable microhabitats and low seedling establishment. A. japonica regenerated only by resprouting, and the seedlings were few in both forests. In addition, A. japonica seed migration into the P. glehnii forests was greatly restricted, and low solar radiation in the P. glehnii forest contributed to low seedling survival. Based on those results, we concluded that Picea glehnii and Alnus

  8. Retention of available P in acid soils of tropical and subtropical evergreen broad-leaved forests

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Jianhui; ZOU Xiaoming; YANG Xiaodong

    2007-01-01

    Precipitation of mineral phosphate is often recognized as a factor of limiting the availability of P in acidic soils of tropical and subtropical forests.For this paper,we studied the extractable P pools and their transformation rates in soils of a tropical evergreen forest at Xishuangbanna and a subtropical montane wet forest at the Ailao Mountains in order to understand the biogeochemical processes regulating P availability in acidic soils.The two forests differ in forest humus layer;it is deep in the Ailao forest while little is present in the Xishuangbanna forest.The extractable P pools by resin and sodium-bicarbonate decreased when soil organic carbon content was reduced.The lowest levels of extractable P pools occurred in the surface (0-10 era) mineral soils of the Xishuangbanna forest.However,microbial P in the mineral soil of the Xishuangbauna forest was twice that in the Ailao forest.Potential rates of microbial P immobilization were greater than those of organic P mineralization in mineral soils for both forests.We suggest that microbial P immobilization plays an essential role in avoiding mineral P precipitation and retaining available P of plant in tropical acidic soils,whereas both floor mass accumulation and microbial P immobilization function benefit retaining plant available P in subtropical montane wet forests.

  9. Community characteristics of a subtropical evergreen broad-leaved forest in Huangshan, Anhui Province, East China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Ding

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Located in the subtropical monsoon climate zone, Huangshan is one of the high mountains in eastern China and lies in the transition zone of north-south flora. It is considered a refuge of flora and fauna during the Quaternary maximum glaciation. Zonal vegetation is classified as evergreen broad-leaved forest with a vertical distribution pattern. It is not only one of China’s Biodiversity Conservation Priority Areas, but also one of the World’s Cultural and Natural Heritage Sites and a world famous scenic spot. In 2014, we established a large-scale forest dynamics plot with an area of 10.24 ha in Huangshan based on international protocols (Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute, Center for Tropical Forest Science, CTFS and completed the first field survey. The investigation aimed at revealing community characteristics by analyzing species composition, flora characteristics, diameter class structure, and spatial distribution patterns. We recorded 191 species of vascular plants, belonging to 59 families and 129 genera, in the plot. Among these, trees (DBH ≥ 1 cm belonged to 46 families, 97 genera and 153 species. The number of family and genera with tropical distributions accounted for 65.79% and 45.36% of the total taxa, respectively, while those with temperate distributions accounted for 34.21% and 51.55%, respectively. A number of rare and endangered species occurred in the plots, including six species classified as Class II of State Key Protected Wild Plants, seven threatened species (VU from the China’s Biodiversity Red List: Higher Plant, one species defined in the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES (Appendix II, and 64 endemic species to China, indicating their values for protection and research. We also found that the number of species increased sharply with increasing scale when the scale was less than 2,150 m2, while at a higher resolution its rate of increase decreased

  10. Role of urban remnant evergreen broad-leaved forests on natural restoration of artificial forests in Chongqing metropolis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨永川; 李楠

    2009-01-01

    The effects of urban remnant natural evergreen broad-leaved forest (EBLF) on the restoration of artificial pine forests surrounding it were studied with reference to species composition,biodiversity,dominant species and stand structure on Mt. Tieshanping in Chongqing metropolis,Southwest China. The seeds from the remnant EBLF naturally facilitate the restoration process of artificial Pinus massoniana forests near it. The similarity of species composition between the artificial Pinus massoniana forests and the remnant EBLF and biodiversity index of the artificial Pinus massoniana forests decrease as the distance from the remnant EBLF increases. Castanopsis carlesii var. spinusa is the dominant species in the ground vegetation,shrub layer and sub-tree layer of the Pinus massoniana forests near the remnant EBLF. However,the natural restoration processes of those farther away from the remnant EBLF are restricted for the absence of seed source of the inherent components of the remnant EBLF,and the anthropogenic measures should be taken to facilitate the restoration process.

  11. Effects of moso bamboo encroachment into native, broad-leaved forests on soil carbon and nitrogen pools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Shangbin; Conant, Richard T.; Zhou, Guomo; Wang, Yixiang; Wang, Nan; Li, Yanhua; Zhang, Kaiqiang

    2016-01-01

    Across southern China, Moso bamboo has been encroaching on most neighboring secondary broad-leaved forests and/or coniferous plantations, leading to the land cover changes that alter abiotic and biotic conditions. Little is known about how this conversion alters soil carbon (C) and nitrogen (N). We selected three sites, each with three plots arrayed along the bamboo encroachment pathway: moso bamboo forest (BF); transition zone, mixed forest plots (MF); and broad-leaved forest (BLF), and examined how bamboo encroachment affects soil organic C (SOC), soil total N, microbial biomass C (MBC), microbial biomass N (MBN), water-soluble organic C (WSOC), and water-soluble organic N (WSON) in three forests. Over nine years, moso bamboo encroachment leads to a decrease in SOC and total soil N, an increase in MBC and WSOC, and a decrease in MBN and WSON. Changes in soil C and N occurred mainly in the topsoil. We conclude that moso bamboo encroachment on broadleaved forest not only substantially altered soil C and N pools, but also changed the distribution pattern of C and N in the studied forest soils. Continued bamboo encroachment into evergreen broadleaved forests seems likely to lead to net CO2 emissions to the atmosphere as ecosystem C stocks decline. PMID:27526781

  12. Soil properties in forest gaps and under canopy in broad-leaved Pinus koraiensis forests in Changbai Mountainous Region, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Chunyu; ZHAO Xiuhai

    2007-01-01

    The species composition and diversities,and soil properties under canopy gaps in broad-leaved Pinus koraiensis forests were studied in the Changbai Mountains.The results indicated that the species composition and diversifies in gap were different from those under canopy.The Shannon-Wiener index,evenness index,and abundance index in gap were higher than those under canopy in the seedling layer,while the community dominance in the seedling layer increased in closed canopy.The physicochemical properties of soil changed with the change of space and resource availability in gaps.The thickness,standing crop,and water holding capacity of the litter layer under canopy were significantly (p < 0.01) higher than those in gap.The content of total nitrogen and total potassium of litter in gap were 10.47% and 20.73% higher than those under canopy,however,the content of total phosphorus and organic carbon under canopy were 15.23% and 12.66% more than those under canopy.The water content of 0-10 cm and 10-20 cm of soil layer in gap were 17.65% and 16.17% more than those under canopy.The soil buck density of 0-10 cm were slightly higher under canopy than that in gaps,but there was no significant difference in the soil buck density of the 10-20 cm soil layer.The soil pH values were 5.80 and 5.85 in gap and under canopy,respectively,and were not significantly different.The content of soil organic matter,total nitrogen,and total potassium in gap were 12.85%,7.67%,and 2.38% higher than those under canopy.The content of NH4+-N,available phosphorus,available potassium,and total phosphorus in soil under canopy were 13.33%,20.04%,16.52%,and 4.30% higher than those in gap.

  13. Exploring Conservation Options in the Broad-Leaved Korean Pine Mixed Forest of the Changbai Mountain Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Ma

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The broad-leaved Korean pine (Pinus koraiensis mixed forest (BKPF is one of the most biodiverse zonal communities in the northern temperate zone. Changbai Mountain in northeastern China contains one of the largest BKPFs in the region. The government of China has established a network of 23 nature reserves to protect the BKPF and the species that depend on it for habitat, including the endangered Siberian tiger (Panthera tigris altaica. This study used the conservation planning software C-Plan to calculate the irreplaceability value of each unit to assess how efficiently and comprehensively the existing conservation network supports biodiversity and to identify gap areas that, if integrated into the network, would expand its protection capability. Results show a number of high-conservation-value planning units concentrated along certain ridges. The existing conservation network is structured such that the habitats of only 24 species (out of a total of 75 achieve established conservation targets. Of the other 51 species, 20 achieve less than 50% of their conservation targets. However, expanding the network to include high-conservation-value gap areas could achieve conservation targets for 64 species and could provide different degrees of protection to the other 11 species. Using C-Plan software can guide decision-making to expand the conservation network in this most precious of mountainous ecological zones.

  14. Forest structure, productivity and soil properties in a subtropical evergreen broad-leaved forest in Okinawa, Japan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Xiao-niu; WANG Qin; Hideaki SHIBATA

    2008-01-01

    Structure,species composition,and soil properties of a subtropical evergreen broad-leaved forest in Okinawa,Japan,were examined by establishment of plots at thirty sites.The forest was characterized by a relatively low canopy and a large number of small-diameter trees.Mean canopy height for this forest was 10 m and stands contained an average of 5400 stems·ha-1 (≧ 3.0 cm DBH); 64% of those stems were smaller than 10 cm DBH.The total basal area was 54.4 m 2·ha-1,of which Castanopsis sieboldii contributed 48%.The forest showed high species diversity of trees.80 tree species (≧ 3.0 cm DBH) from 31 families was identified in the thirty sampling plots.C.sieboldii and Schima wallichii were the dominant and subdominant species in terms of importance value.The mean tree species diversity indices for the plots were,3.36 for Diversity index (H'),0.71 for Equitability index (J') and 4.72 for Species richness index (S'),all of which strongly declined with the increase of importance value of the dominant,C.sieboldii.Measures of soil nutrients indicated low fertility,extreme heterogeneity and possible Al toxicity.Regression analysis showed that stem density and the dominant tree height were significantly correlated with soil pH.There was a significant positive relationship between species diversity index and soil exchangeable K+,Ca2+,and Ca2+/Al3+ ratio (all p values <0.001) and a negative relationship with N,C and P.The results suggest that soil property is a major factor influencing forest composition and structure within the subtropical forest in Okinawa.

  15. Characteristics analysis of the evergreen broad-leaved forest in Minxi, Fujian Province%闽西常绿阔叶林群落特征分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孔祥海; 黄素华; 陈小红; 邱丰艳

    2009-01-01

    On the base of 1.6 hm~2 cumulative sampling plots community ecological investigation of the evergreen broad-leaved forest in Minxi, and through species composition, areal types, life form spectra, and leaf character statistics analysis, The results showed, 116 families, 235 genera and 398 species of vascular plants were recorded;The dominant seed plant families of the evergreen broad-leaved forest community in Minxi were Lauraceae, Fagaceae, Magnoliaceae, Myrsinaceae, Theaceae, and so on;The flora of the evergreen broad-leaved forest community was obviously tropical and subtropical geographical character in Minxi;The constructive species of the evergreen broad-leaved forest community was abundant, and different community form could be come into being by some constructive species combination which made community diversification;The evergreen broad-leaved forest community was characterized by the evergreen mesophanerophytes and microphanerophytes with simple leathery, entire mesophyllous and microphyllous leaves in Minxi;Comparison of the evergreen broad-leaved forest among Minxi and other regions, the community of the evergreen broad-leaved forest in Minxi had a transitional characteristics from typical subtropical flora to south subtropical at species composition, area type and life form spectrum, as well as the leaf character aspect.%采用群落生态学的方法对闽西常绿阔叶林植被的1.6 hm~2样地调查统计、分析,结果表明,构成闽西常绿阔叶林群落的优势科是樟科、壳斗科、木兰科、紫金牛科和山茶科等;闽西常绿阔叶林群落的植物区系具有明显的热带、亚热带地理性质;闽西常绿阔叶林群落的建群树种多,且部分不同的建群种间可组合构成不同的群丛,群落类型呈现多样化;闽西常绿阔叶林群落的外貌以单叶、革质、全缘和中小型叶为主的常绿中、小高位芽植物组成为特征;闽西常绿阔叶林群落植物在物种组成数量、科属

  16. Biocycle of nitrogen in a Cyclobalanopsis glauca-dominated evergreen broad-leaved forest in East China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Mingjian; XU Xuehong; LI Minghong; FU Hailong

    2006-01-01

    The nitrogen (N) cycling was elucidated in a 40-year-old subtropical evergreen broad-leaved forest dominated by Cyclobalanopsis glauca growing on red soil in Zhejiang Province,East China.The concentrations of N in the representative species ranged from 0.49% to 1.64%,the order of which in various layers was liana and herb layers>understory layer > tree and subtree layers;in various organs was leaf > branch > root > trunk;and aboveground parts > underground parts.The sequence of the concentrations of N in C.glauca was understory > tree > subtree layer;young and high-growing > old organs;reproductive >vegetative organs.Seasonal dynamics of the concentrations of N in C.glauca in the tree and subtree layers was comparatively stable.It was lower in autumn (October) in root,branch,and leaf in the tree layer,and low in January in the understory.There was no evident change in regularity of the concentrations of N in varying diameter classes.The concentrations of N in the litterfall,precipitation,throughfall,litter layer,and soil were 0.74%-2.30%,0.000,038%,0.000,09%,1.94%,and 0.59%,respectively.The standing crop of N in the plant community was 1,025.28 kg/hm2,accumulation in the litter layer was 224.88 kg/hm2,and reserve in the soil was 55,151 kg/hm2.Annual retention of N was 119.47 kg/hm2,return was about 84.13 kg/hm2,among which litterfall was 78.49 kg/hm2 and throughfall,5.64 kg/hm2.Annual absorption of N was 203.60 kg/hm2.Annual input of N through incident precipitation was 4.88 kg/hm2.Compared with other forest types,cycling rate of N in the community was lower than in deciduous broad-leaved forests,rain forests,and mangroves,and was moderate in evergreen broad-leaved forests.N use efficiency of this forest was moderate among the forest types cited.According to the characteristics of the biocycle of phosphorous,it was concluded that N availability in the soil of this forest was not lower,and phosphorous not N was the limiting factor in the growth

  17. Accuracy of LiDAR-based tree height estimation and crown recognition in a subtropical evergreen broad-leaved forest in Okinawa, Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Azita Ahmad Zawawi; Masami Shiba; Noor Janatun Naim Jemali

    2015-01-01

    Aim of study: To present an approach for estimating tree heights, stand density and crown patches using LiDAR data in a subtropical broad-leaved forest. Area of study: The study was conducted within the Yambaru subtropical evergreen broad-leaved forest, Okinawa main island, Japan. Materials and methods: A digital canopy height model (CHM) was extracted from the LiDAR data for tree height estimation and a watershed segmentation method was applied for the individual crown delineation....

  18. [Spatial analysis of LAIe of montane evergreen broad-leaved forest in southwest Sichuan, Northwest China, based on image texture].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, An-Jiu; Yang, Chang-Qing; Liao, Cheng-Yun

    2014-11-01

    Optical remote sensing is still one of the most attractive choices for obtaining leaf area index (LAI) information, but currently may be derived from remotely sensed data with limited accuracy. Effective leaf area index (LAIe) of montane evergreen broad-leaved forest in southwest Sichuan was inventoried and assessed in 83 sample field plots of 20 m x 20 m using different types of image processing techniques, including simple spectral band, simple spectral band ratios and principal component. Texture information was extracted by gray level co-occurrence matrices (GLCM) from different types of processing image. The results showed that there were correlations of different degrees between LAIe and texture parameters, and highly significant correlations were observed between LAIe with the homogeneity of the B1 band, B1/B4 band ratio or principal component PC1. Using texture information of remotely sensed data as auxiliary variables, we developed geostatistics models. Compared with the model based on NDVI auxiliary variable, the accuracy of LAIe were improved, presenting an increase by 5.3% with the homogeneity of the B1 band, 11.0% with the homogeneity B1/B4 band ratio, and 14.5% with the homogeneity principal component PC1, and the statistical errors were also reduced to some extent. The optimal LAIe model of spatial geostatistics was obtained when taking NDVI and homogeneity principal component PC1 as auxiliary variables (R2 = 0.840, RMSE = 0.212). Our results provided a new way to estimate regional spatial distribution of LAI using other auxiliary variables besides the vegetation index.

  19. 不同生境中杉阔混交林物种多样性特征初步研究%Primary study on the characteristics of species diversity in Chinese-fir and broad-leaved mixed forests in different habitats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄世国; 林思祖; 曹光球; 吴淑芳; 陈建宇

    2001-01-01

    The categorization of different habitat types was done with principal component analysis and dynamical clustering based on parameters of the habitat. In addition, the quantitative characteristics of tree organization in Chinese fir and broad-leaved forests in different habitat types were analyzed. The results showed that: the characteristics of main parameters of habitat were distinctly different in different habitat and the dominant species and relative importance values were also different. The total number of species, species diversity, and community evenness of tree organization were different. The influence of altitude on the total number of species and on their ecological dominance was highly significant. Slope-exposure influenced the number of unit more significantly in certain degree. Altitude and slope-exposure had no influence on the ecological dominance of trees in different habitats. The protection of diversity in Chinese-fir and broad-leaved mixed forest in different habitats should be emphasized.%根据生境因子应用主分量分析和动态聚类方法进行生境的划分,在此基础上分析不同生境中杉阔混交林群落数量特征。结果表明:不同生境中植物群落的主要优势种组成不一,其重要值也不同。不同生境中植物群落乔木层的物种数目、物种多样性、群落均匀度均有较大差异。海拔对不同生境中植物群落乔木层的物种数目、物种多样性和群落均匀度有很大影响,坡向则对个体总数和种类数量的影响较大。海拔和坡向对不同生境中植物群落乔木层生态优势度则无明显影响。应该重视不同生境中杉阔混交林多样性的保护。

  20. Simulating the exchanges of carbon dioxide, water vapor and heat over Changbai Mountains temperate broad-leaved Korean pine mixed forest ecosystem

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG; Qiufeng; NIU; Dong; YU; Guirui; REN; Chuanyou; WEN; X

    2005-01-01

    A process-based ecosystem productivity model BEPS (Boreal Ecosystem Productivity Simulator) was updated to simulate half-hourly exchanges of carbon, water and energy between the atmosphere and terrestrial ecosystem at a temperate broad-leaved Korean pine forest in the Changbai Mountains, China. The BEPSh model is able to capture the diurnal and seasonal variability in carbon dioxide, water vapor and heat fluxes at this site in the growing season of 2003. The model validation showed that the simulated net ecosystem productivity (NEP), latent heat flux (LE), sensible heat flux (Hs) are in good agreement with eddy covariance measurements with an R2 value of 0.68, 0.86 and 0.72 for NEP, LE and Hs, respectively. The simulated annual NEP of this forest in 2003 was 300.5 gC/m2, and was very close to the observed value. Driving this model with different climate scenarios, we found that the NEP in the Changbai Mountains temperate broad-leaved Korean pine mixed forest ecosystem was sensitive to climate variability, and the current carbon sink will be weakened under the condition of global warming. Furthermore, as a process-based model, BEPSh was also sensitive to physiological parameters of plant, such as maximum Rubisco activity (Vcmax) and the maximum stomatal conductance (gmax), and needs to be carefully calibrated for other applications.

  1. Meteorological control on CO2 flux above broad-leaved Korean pine mixed forest in Changbai Mountains

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUAN; Dexin; WU; Jiabing; YU; Guirui; SUN; Xiaomin; ZHAO; X

    2005-01-01

    The impacts of temperature, photosynthetic active radiation (PAR) and vapor pressure deficit (VPD) on CO2 flux above broad-leaved Korean pine mixed forest in the Changbai Mountains were studied based on eddy covariance and meteorological factors measurements.The results showed that, daytime CO2 flux was mainly controlled by PAR and they fit Michaelis-Menten equation. Meanwhile VPD also had an influence on the daytime flux. Drier air reduced the CO2 assimilation of the ecosystem, the drier the air, the more the reduction of the assimilation. And the forest was more sensitive to VPD in June than that in July and August. The respiration of the ecosystem was mainly controlled by soil temperature and they fit exponential equation. It was found that this relationship was also correlated with seasons; respiration from April to July was higher than that from August to November under the same temperature. Daily net carbon exchange of the ecosystem and the daily mean air temperature fit exponential equation. It was also found that seasonal trend of net carbon exchange was the result of comprehensive impacts of temperature and PAR and so on. These resulted in the biggest CO2 uptake in June and those in July and August were next. Annual carbon uptake of the forest ecosystem in 2003 was -184 gC. m-2.

  2. Studies on Material Cycling in Evergreen Broad-Leaved Forest Ecosystem in Hangzhou:I.Precipitation Distribution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1993-01-01

    Through the long-term plot studies plot studies on the precipitation distribution in the evergreen broad-leaved forest ecosystem in Hangzhou for two years,it was indicated that the pattern of precipitation distribution included larger amounts of penetration water and stemflow and a lower amount of interception water.The results revealed that the main factors to infulence the percentages of penetration and stemflow were the air temperature and the leaf area of the forest.The quantity of seepage through the litter layer was much larger than that through the soil layers which decreased sharply with soil depth.The output of water from the ecosystem by surface runoff and deep infiltration through the soil was much lower,only being 5.20 percent of the rainfall,while the water evapotranspiration loss was as large as more than 90 percent of it.The losses by the soil evaporation and plant evapotranspiration were the largest part of output in this forest ecosystem.

  3. 亚热带常绿阔叶林和暖温带落叶阔叶林叶片热值比较研究%Comparison of leaf calorific values in subtropical evergreen broad-leaved and warm temperate deciduous broad-leaved forests in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田苗; 宋广艳; 赵宁; 何念鹏; 侯继华

    2015-01-01

    Gross calorific value ( GCV) has been introduced to biological research and applied to reflect the capability of plant species to fix solar radiation. Calorific value has also been considered as a coefficient characteristic to evaluate the adaptation strategies of plant species to the external environment. Therefore, understanding the variation in GCV among different ecosystems may provide a basis for assessing energy fixation, transformation, and utilization efficiency. A number of studies have indicated that GCV varies among different geographical locations and ecological categories. Some studies have suggested that the energy contents of alpine plants should be higher than those of tropical plants, and have also shown that energy content differs among different plant life forms, decreasing in the sequence tree >shrub >herb. However, little has been reported on the patterns of GCV in different typical ecosystems ( at the levels of species, life form, and community) across multiple zones. In this study, we compared the leaf calorific values of plant species in two forest ecosystem-subtropical evergreen broad-leaved and warm temperate deciduous broad-leaved forests in China. Field sampling was carried out in early August 2013 at Jiulian Mountain ( Jiangxi Province) and Dongling Mountain ( Beijing Province) , China. Leaf samples of 276 plant species were collected from subtropical evergreen broad-leaved and warm temperate deciduous broad-leaved forests, and the calorific values of these leaves were measured using a PARR 1281 oxygen bomb calorimeter. To explore the variability in GCV, we analyzed the data at the levels of species, life form ( trees, shrubs, and herbs) , and community in the two forest types. Furthermore, trees were subdivided into evergreen and deciduous, and coniferous and broad-leaved. The results showed that the GCV of the subtropical evergreen broad-leaved forest was 17. 83 kJ/g ( n=191) , whereas that of the warm temperate deciduous broad-leaved

  4. [Composition and seasonal dynamics of litter falls in a broad-leaved Korean pine (Pinus koraiensis) mixed forest in Changbai Mountains, Northeast China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Zuo-qiang; Li, Bu-hang; Bai, Xue-jiao; Lin, Fei; Shi, Shuai; Ye, Ji; Wang, Xu-gao; Hao, Zhan-qing

    2010-09-01

    In order to understand the composition and spatiotemporal dynamics of the litter falls at community level in a broad-leaved Korean pine mixed forest in Changbai Mountains, litter falls were collected from 150 containers in a 25 hm2 permanent plot in 2008. The leaf litters in the containers were from 35 tree species, accounting for 67.3% of the total number (52) of the tree species with DBH > or =1 cm in the plot. The litter falls had a weight 29.39 kg, equivalent to 3918.4 kg x hm(-2) among which, broad leaves, miscellany, needle leaves, and branches occupied 61.7%, 18.0%, 11.7%, and 8.6%, respectively. About 83.8% of the broad leaves were from Tilia amurensis, Fraxinus mandshurica, Quercus mongolica, Acer mono, and Ulmus japonica. The litter falls showed an evident seasonal dynamics, with the peaks occurred from 13 September to 10 October, e.g., the litter falls from T. amurensis and Pinus koraiensis peaked in 13-26 September, while those from Q. mongolica, U. japonica, and A. pseudo-sieboldianum peaked in 27 September to 10 October. There was a great difference in the mass of the litter falls among the containers, e.g., with 150-200 g litters in 68 containers and >500 g litters in 1 container. The species number of the litter falls in a container was 18 in maximum, and was 12 in common (32 containers). Litter falls mass was positively proportional to the sum of the basal area at breast height of parent trees in the plot, and the amount of the litter falls in the containers was related with the locations of the containers, exhibiting an evident spatial heterogeneity in the plot. PMID:21265134

  5. 针阔混交林不同演替阶段表层土壤理化性质与优势林木生长的相关性%Correlation between the Growth of Dominant Trees and Surface Soil Physiochemical Properties of Conifer and Broad-Leaved Mixed Forest at Different Succession Stages

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林文树; 穆丹; 王丽平; 邵立郡; 吴金卓

    2016-01-01

    论】毛管孔隙度、速效钾和全磷含量是影响不同演替阶段土壤质量的主要因子;经过不同演替阶段,表层土壤理化性质质量的综合得分表现为中龄林<成熟林<近熟林<老龄林;随着演替进行,针阔混交林的表层土壤理化性质基本呈现质量提高趋势,到老龄林时期达到最佳。本研究得到的不同演替阶段针阔混交林林木生长与表层土壤理化性质特征的相关性为进一步实现该地区森林可持续经营提供了科学依据。%[Objective]This study aims to analyze the relationship between surface soil physiochemical properties and the growth of dominant trees for mixed forest of conifer and broad-leaved species at different succession stages in order to explore the growth patterns of different stands and provide basis for sustainable forest management. [Method]The mixed forest conifers and broad-leaved trees at different succession stages ( middle-aged forest,near-mature forest,mature forest, and old growth forest) in Jiaohe Management Bureau of Forestry Experimental Area,Jilin Province were studied. The methods of comparison and principal component analysis were used to analyze physical and chemical properties of the surface soil,the growth of dominant trees,and the relationship between them.[Result]with the succession of forest,the average diameter at breast height ( DBH) of the dominant tree species increased,the average tree height varied slightly, the regeneration of Pinus koraiensis tended to be stable,and the number of Juglans mandshurica,Ulmus davidiana var. japonica ,and U. macrocarpa gradually decreased in the upper overstory. With respect to the soil physical properties,the soil density was not significantly different among middle-aged forest,near-mature forest and mature forest and it reached the minimum at the stage of old-growth forest. With the succession of forest,the non-capillary porosity gradually decreased and capillary porosity

  6. Net water vapour exchange over a mixed needle and broad-leaved forest in Changbai Mountain during autumn

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HANShijie; WENXuefa; YUGuirui; SUNXiaomin; LIQingkang; RENChuanyou

    2003-01-01

    Water vapour and CO2 fluxes were measured by the eddy-covariance technique above a mixed needle and broad-leaved forest with affiliated meteorological measurements in Changbai Mountain as part of China's FLUX projects since late August in 2002. Net water vapour exchange and environmental control over the forest were examined from September 1 to October 31 in 2002. To quantify the seasonal dynamics, the transition period was separated into leafed, leaf falling and leafless stages according to the development of leaf area. The results showed that (a) seasonal variation of water vapour exchange was mainly controlled by net radiation (Rn) which could account for 78.5%, 63.4% and 56.6% for leafed, leaf falling and leafless stages, respectively, while other environmental factors' effects varied evidently; (b) magnitude of water vapour flux decreased remarkably during autumn and daily mean of water vapour exchange was 24.2 mg m-2 s-1 (100%), 14.8 mg m-2 s-1 (61.2%) and 10.3 mg m-2 s-1 (42.6%) for leafed, leaf falling and leafless stage, respectively; and (c) the budget of water vapour exchange during autumn was estimated to be 87.1 kg H2O m2, with a mean of 1427.2 g H2O d-1 varying markedly from 3104.0 to 227.5 g H2O m-2d-1.

  7. Comprehensive Evaluation of Different Transformation Models of Low-Quality Broad-Leaved Mixed Forest in Daxing’an Mountains%大兴安岭低质阔叶混交林不同改造模式综合评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋启亮; 董希斌

    2014-01-01

    Strip transformation test zone with different bandwidths and block transformation test zone with different sizes were established in low-quality mixed broad-leaved forest in Daxing’an Mountains,and principal component analysis was applied to comprehensively evaluate the ecological improvement models with the selection of 33 indicators such as biodiversity,water holding characteristics of litter,soil physical properties,soil chemical properties,soil carbon flux and seedling growth status,etc. The results showed that: strip clear-cutting along the hillside transformation model was better than block clear-cutting transformation model,for the strip clear-cutting transformation,the effect of different bandwidths were 10 m bandwidth > 6 m bandwidth > 18 m bandwidth > 14 m bandwidth plots, for the block clear-cutting transformation,the effect of different sizes were 100 m2 >25 m2 >225 m2 >400 m2 >900 m2 >625 m2 ,strip along the hillside transformation with 10 m bandwidth model and block transformation with 100 m2 model were most appropriate to Daxing’an Mountains broad-leaved mixed low-quality forest, and its improvement effect were better than the other transformation models.%在大兴安岭低质阔叶混交林中建立不同宽度的带状改造试验区和不同面积的块状改造试验区,选取生物多样性、枯落物持水特性、土壤物理性质、土壤化学性质、土壤碳通量和更新苗木生长状况等33项指标,运用主成分分析法综合评价不同改造模式的改造效果。结果表明:顺山带状皆伐改造模式优于块状改造模式,对于带状改造样地,不同带宽的改造效果依次为10 m带宽>6 m带宽>18 m 带宽>14 m 带宽,对于块状改造样地,不同面积的改造效果依次为100 m2>25 m2>225 m2>400 m2>900 m2>625 m2,其中10 m 带宽顺山带状改造模式和100 m2块状改造模式最适宜大兴安岭阔叶混交低质林,其改造效果明显优于其他改造模式。

  8. Seasonal and annual variation of CO2 flux above a broad-leaved Korean pine mixed forest

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    <正>Long-term measurement of carbon metabolism of old-growth forests is critical to predict their behaviors and to reduce the uncertainties of carbon accounting under changing climate. Eddy covariance technology was applied to investigate the long-term carbon exchange over a 200 year-old Chinese broad-leaved Korean pine mixed forest in the Changbai Mountains (128°28’E and 42°24’N, Jilin Province, P. R. China) since August 2002. On the data obtained with open-path eddy covariance system and CO2 profile measurement system from Jan. 2003 to Dec. 2004, this paper reports (i) annual and seasonal variation of FNEE, FGPP and Re; (ii) regulation of environmental factors on phase and amplitude of ecosystem CO2 uptake and release Corrections due to storage and friction velocity were applied to the eddy carbon flux. Lal and soil temperature determined the seasonal and annual dynamics of FGPP and RE separately. VPD and air temperature regulated ecosystem photosynthesis at finer scales in growing seasons. Water condition at the root zone exerted a significant influence on ecosystem maintenance carbon metabolism of this forest in winter. The forest was a net sink of atmospheric CO2 and sequestered -449 g C·m-2 during the study period; -278 and -171 gC·m-2 for 2003 and 2004 respectively. FGPP and FRE over 2003 and 2004 were -1332, -1294 g C·m-2. and 1054, 1124 g C·m-2 respectively. This study shows that old-growth forest can be a strong net carbon sink of atmospheric CO2. There was significant seasonal and annual variation in carbon metabolism. In winter, there was weak photosynthesis while the ecosystem emitted CO2. Carbon exchanges were active in spring and fall but contributed little to carbon sequestration on an annual scale. The summer is the most significant season as far as ecosystem carbon balance is concerned. The 90 days of summer contributed 66.9, 68.9% of FGPp, and 60.4, 62.1% of RE of the entire year.

  9. CO2 flux evaluation over the evergreen coniferous and broad-leaved mixed forest in Dinghushan, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    <正>The Dinghushan flux observation site, as one of the four forest sites of ChinaFLUX, aims to acquire long-term measurements of CO2 flux over a typical southern subtropical evergreen coniferous and broad-leaved mixed forest ecosystem using the open path eddy covariance method. Based on two years of data from 2003 to 2004, the characteristics of temporal variation in CO2 flux and its response to environmental factors in the forest ecosystem are analyzed. Provided two-dimensional coordinate rotation, WPL correction and quality control, poor energy-balance and underestimation of ecosystem respiration during nighttime implied that there could be a CO2 leak during the nighttime at the site. Using daytime (PAR > 1.0μmol-1·m-2·s-1) flux data during windy conditions (u* > 0.2 m·s-1), monthly ecosystem respiration (Reco) was derived through the Michaelis-Menten equation modeling the relationship between net ecosystem CO2 exchange (NEE) and photosynthetically active radiation (PAR). Exponential function was employed to describe the relationship between Reco and soil temperature at 5 cm depth (Ts05), then Reco of both daytime and nighttime was calculated respectively by the function. The major results are: (i) Derived from the Michaelis-Menten equation, the apparent quantum yield (α) was 0.0027±0.0011 mgCO2·μmol-1 photons, and the maximum photosynthetic assimilation rate (Amax) was 1.102±0.288 mgCO2·m-2·s-1. Indistinctive seasonal variation of o or Amax was consistent with weak seasonal dynamics of leaf area index (LAI) in such a lower subtropical evergreen mixed forest. (ii) Monthly accumulated Reco was estimated as 95.3±21.1 gC·m-2 mon-1, accounting for about 68% of the gross primary product (GPP). Monthly accumulated NEE was estimated as -43.2±29.6 gC·m-2·mon-1. The forest ecosystem acted as carbon sink all year round without any seasonal carbon efflux period. Annual NEE of 2003 and 2004 was estimated as -563.0 and -441.2 gC·m-2·a-1 respectively

  10. Short-Term Responses of Ground-Dwelling Beetles to Ice Storm-Induced Treefall Gaps in a Subtropical Broad-Leaved Forest in Southeastern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xiao-Dong; Liu, Chong-Ling; Lü, Liang; Luo, Tian-Hong; Zhou, Hong-Zhang

    2016-02-01

    Periodic natural disturbances shape the mosaic character of many landscapes and influence the distribution and abundance of organisms. In this study, we tested the effect of ice storm-induced treefall gaps on ground-dwelling beetle assemblages in different-aged successional stands of subtropical broad-leaved forest in southeastern China. We evaluated the relative importance of gap-phase microhabitat type (within gap, gap edge, and interior shaded) within different stand ages (regenerating stands and mature stands) as determinants of changes in beetle diversity and community structure. At 18 replicate sites sampled during 2009-2010, no significant differences were found in species richness and the abundances of the most common beetle species captured in pitfall traps among the three gap-phase microhabitat types, but the abundances of total beetles, as well as fungivorous and phytophagous species groups, were significantly lower in gap microhabitats than in interior shaded microhabitats in mature stands. Beetle assemblage composition showed no significant differences among the three microhabitat types, and only the fauna of gap plots slightly diverged from those of edge and shaded plots in mature stands. Cover of shrubs and stand age significantly affected beetle assemblage structure. Our results suggest that beetle responses to gap-phase dynamics in early successional forests are generally weak, and that effects are more discernible in the mature stands, perhaps due to the abundance responses of forest-specialist species. PMID:26377249

  11. Influence of Different Cutting Intensities on the Structural Stability for Evergreen Broad-leaved Forests in Western Fujian Province%不同采伐强度对闽西常绿阔叶林林分结构稳定性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗永福

    2012-01-01

    应用多样性分析方法和改进后的M.Godron稳定性测定方法研究常绿阔叶林5种不同强度采伐(弱度9.8%、中度24.5%、强度46.8%、极强度72.3%和皆伐)作业10 a后林分结构稳定性。结果表明,择伐林地林分处于稳定状态,随着择伐强度的增强,林分的稳定性开始逐渐降低。皆伐林地林分处于不稳定状态。对于常绿阔叶林的科学经营,从稳定性出发,应尽量采取择伐方式,尤其是中低强度的择伐方式。%The structural stability of evergreen broad-leaved forest stand by 5 types of cutting intensity operation(low intensity at 9.8%,middle intensity at 24.5%,high intensity at 46.8%,over-high intensity at 72.3% and clear cutting) after 10 years was studied with methods of diversity analysis and the improved expression of the M.Godron stability measurement.The result showed that the selection cutting was benefit to stability of stand structures,with the enhancement of selection cutting intensity,the stability of the stand began to decrease.Clear cutting woodlands stand was in an unstable state.From the stability of the scientific management of the evergreen broad-leaved forest,selection cutting should be taken,especially the selection cutting at middle-low intensity.

  12. [Composition and carbon storage of woody debris in moist evergreen broad-leaved forest and its secondary forests in Ailao Mountains of Yunnan Provinve].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Li-Pan; Liu, Wen-Yao; Yang, Guo-Ping; Ma, Wen-Zhang; Li, Da-Wen

    2007-10-01

    This paper studied the composition and carbon storage of woody debris in the primary moist evergreen broad-leaved forest and its main secondary forests (regenerated Lithocarpus forest, Populus bonatii forest, and Alnus nepalensis forest) in Ailao Moutains of Yunnan Province. The results showed that in the primary forest, the carbon storage of woody debris amounted to 36.56 t x hm(-2). Castanopsis wattii, Lithocarpus xylocarpus and L. chintungensis were the main contributors, and most of them were the logs with larger diameter and at intermediate stage of decay. The unique environment of richer precipitation, higher humidity and lower temperature in the study area, and the decay-resistance of hardwood were favorable to the accumulation of woody debris. The three secondary forests had a carbon storage of 1.2-5.0 t x hm(-2), which decreased in the order of regenerated Lithocaropus forest > P. bonatii forest > A. nepalensis forest, showing a tendency of increasing carbon storage with succession course. PMID:18163291

  13. Hydrological characteristics of forest litters in conifer and broad-leaved mixed forests at different forest successional stages in Jiaohe, Jilin Province%吉林蛟河不同演替阶段针阔混交林凋落物持水特性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴金卓; 孔琳琳; 王娇娇; 林文树

    2016-01-01

    The forest litter layer is indispensible for the protection of forest soil, it plays an important role in forest soil and water conservation. The purpose of this paper is to analyze the variation laws of hydrological characteristics of forest litters in conifer and broad⁃leaved mixed forests at different successional stages in the northeast mountainous area of Chi⁃na. We investigated the forest litters in conifer and broad⁃leaved mixed forests at different successional stages in Jiaohe management bureau of forestry experimental area, Jilin Province. The litter samples were collected from middle⁃aged for⁃est, near⁃mature forest and mature forest. Within each forest plot, a total of five square subplots with dimension of 20 cm×20 cm were set up using serpentine sampling method. The litters in the un⁃decomposed layer and semi⁃decom⁃posed layer were taken back to lab for analyzing the hydrological characteristics of forest litters. The standard branch soa⁃king method was used to calculate the storage of forest litters, water holding capacity, water holding rate, as well as the modified interception amount. For each sample, the litters were divided into four groups evenly and part of the litters was selected to measure the weight by electronic analytical balance, and then put in the 100-mesh nylon mesh. The soaking time was set as 0.25, 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 8 and 24 h, respectively. Combined with the field observation data, the relationship between the hydrological characteristics of forest litters and successional stages was analyzed. The litter storage of mature forest was the largest ( 7. 26 t/hm2 ) , followed by near⁃mature forest ( 4. 56 t/hm2 ) , and middle age forest ( 3�68 t/hm2).The order of the maximum water holding capacity was as follows:mature forest (21.23 t/hm2)>near⁃mature for⁃est(35.24 t/hm2)>middle⁃aged forest(47.71 t/hm2)and the maximum water holding rate was 844.72% in mature forest, 742.58% in near⁃mature forest, and 592

  14. Carbon of Woody Debris in Plateau-type Karst Evergreen and Deciduous Broad-leaved Mixed Forest of Central Guizhou Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Y.; Ni, J.; Liu, L.; Guo, C.

    2014-12-01

    Woody debris (WD) is an essential structural and functional component of forest ecosystems, and plays very significant roles for the biogeochemical cycling of carbon and nutrients. Coarse woody debris (CWD) is considered to be the major part in forest WD and it is primarily composed of logs, snags, stumps and large branches, while fine woody debris (FWD) mainly consists of small twigs. Composition, spatial distribution and carbon storage of WD have been studied in plateau-type karst evergreen and deciduous broad-leaved mixed forest in Tianlong Mountain of central Guizhou Province. Results showed that the carbon storage of WD in karst forests was less than non-karst forests. The major components of WD were fallen trees and snags with 10-20 cm in diameter. Fallen trees and snags with diameter greater than 20 cm were the smallest part of WD. The situation of WD in this region reflects the structural characteristics of WD in mid-late stage of plateau-type karst evergreen and deciduous broad-leaved mixed forest succession. The potential contribution of WD to the regional carbon cycle, and its relationship with climate change were finally discussed. The WD (especially CWD) plays an important role in the carbon cycle of karst forest. Forest WD production and decay rates may partially depend on climatic conditions, the accumulation of CWD and FWD carbon stocks in forests may be correlated with climate. Key words: woody debris, karst forests, carbon storage, spatial distribution, CWD, FWD.

  15. Nitrogen in soils beneath 18-65 year old stands of subtropical evergreen broad-leaved forests in Laoshan Mountains in Eastern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GU Feng; ZHANG Kai; ZHANG Yun-qi; WANG Qin; XU Xiao-niu

    2011-01-01

    Monitoring of soil nitrogen (N) cycling is useful to assess soil quality and to gauge the sustainability of management practices.We studied net N mineralization,nitrification,and soil N availability in the 0-10 cm and 11-30 cm soil horizons in east China during 2006-2007 using an in sito incubation method in four subtropical evergreen broad-leaved forest stands aged 18-,36-,48-,and 65-years.The properties of surface soil and forest floor varied between stand age classes.C:N ratios of surface soil and forest floor decreased,whereas soil total N and total organic C,available P,and soil microbial biomass N increased with stand age.The mineral N pool was small for the young stand and large for the older stands.NO3-N was less than 30% in all stands.Net rates of N mineralization and nitrification were higher in old stands than in younger stands,and higher in the 0-10 cm than in the 11-30 cm horizon.The differences were significant between old and young stands (p <0.031) and between soil horizons (p < 0.005).Relative nitrification was somewhat low in all forest stands and declined with stand age.N transformation seemed to be controlled by soil moisture,soil microbial biomass N,and forest floor C:N ratio.Our results demonstrate that analyses of N cycling can provide insight into the effects of management disturbances on forest ecosystems.

  16. Turbulence regime near the forest floor of a mixed broad leaved/Korean pine forest in Changbai Mountains

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The measurement and observation for this study were carried out by using a three-dimensional (u, v, w) Sonic anemometer (IAP-SA 485), at Forest Ecosystem Opened Research Station of Changbai Mountains (128(28'E and 42(24' N, Jilin Province, P. R. China) in August 2001. The basic characteristics of turbulence, such as turbulence intensity, atmospheric stability, time scales, and convection state, near the forest floor were analyzed. It is concluded that the airflow near forest floor is characterized by high intermittence and asymmetry, and the active and upward movement takes the leading position. Near forest floor, the vertical turbulence is retained and its time scale and length scale are much less than that of u, v components. The eddy near forest floor shows a flat structure and look like a 'Disk'. Buoyancy plays a leading role in the generation and maintenance of local turbulence

  17. Community Dynamics of Seed Rain in Mixed Evergreen Broad-leaved and Deciduous Forests in a Subtropical Mountain of Central China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ze-Hao Shen; Yuan-Yuan Tang; Nan Lü; Jun Zhao; Dao-Xing Li; Gong-Fang Wang

    2007-01-01

    Seed dispersal is a key process within community dynamics. The spatial and temporal variations of seed dispersal and the interspecific differences are crucial for understanding species coexistence and community dynamics. This might also hold for the mixed evergreen broadleaved and deciduous forests in the mountains of subtropical China, but until now little existing knowledge is available for this question. In 2001, we chose to monitor the seed rain process of our mixed evergreen broad-leaved and deciduous forest communities in Mount Dalaoling National Forest Park, Yichang, Hubei Province, China.The preliminary analyses show obvious variations in seed rain density, species compositions and timing of seed rain among four communities. The average seed rain densities of the four communities are 2.43 ± 5.15, 54.13 ±182.75, 10.05 ±19.30and 24.91 ± 58.86 inds./m2, respectively; about one tenth the values in other studies in subtropical forests of China. In each community, the seed production is dominated by a limited number of species, and the contributions from the others are generally minor. Fecundity of evergreen broadleaved tree species is weaker than deciduous species. The seed rain of four communities begins earlier than September, and stops before December, peaking from early September to late October.The beginning date, ending date and peak times of seed rain are extensively varied among the species, indicating different types of dispersal strategies. According to the existing data, the timing of seed rain is not determined by the climate conditions in the same period, while the density of seed rain may be affected by the disturbances of weather variations at a finer temporal resolution.

  18. Study on Restoration of Evergreen Broad-leaved Forest from Pinus massoniana Forest.%马尾松林恢复为常绿阔叶林的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王希华; 宋永昌; 王良衍

    2001-01-01

    High coverage of Pinus massoniana forest on low mountains in Eastern China at present was studied in this paper. This forest is threatened by plant diseases, especially pines wilt, and needs to be restored urgently. Species of later successional stage or climax communities were retained or introduced to the forest through reconstruction according to vegetation ecology theory, so as to restore it quickly to zonal evergreen broad-leaved forest. It formed an evergreen broad-leaved sub-tree layer of 2~3m high dominated by Schima superba from a shrub layer of 57m high after 3 years of reconstruction. The questions of restoration were discussed in this paper.

  19. Seed rain, soil seed bank, seed loss and regeneration of Castanopsis fargesii (Fagaceae) in a subtropical evergreen broad-leaved forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, X.; Guo, Q.; Gao, X.; Ma, K.

    2007-01-01

    Understanding the seed rain and seed loss dynamics in the natural condition has important significance for revealing the natural regeneration mechanisms. We conducted a 3-year field observation on seed rain, seed loss and natural regeneration of Castanopsis fargesii Franch., a dominant tree species in evergreen broad-leaved forests in Dujiangyan, southwestern China. The results showed that: (1) there were marked differences in (mature) seed production between mast (733,700 seeds in 2001) and regular (51,200 and 195,600 seeds in 2002 and 2003, respectively) years for C. fargesii. (2) Most seeds were dispersed in leaf litter, humus and 0-2 cm depth soil in seed bank. (3) Frequency distributions of both DBH and height indicated that C. fargesii had a relatively stable population. (4) Seed rain, seed ground density, seed loss, and leaf fall were highly dynamic and certain quantity of seeds were preserved on the ground for a prolonged time due to predator satiation in both the mast and regular years so that the continuous presence of seed bank and seedling recruitments in situ became possible. Both longer time observations and manipulative experiments should be carried out to better understand the roles of seed dispersal and regeneration process in the ecosystem performance. ?? 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Temporal dynamics of and effects of an ice storm on litter production in an evergreen broad-leaved forest in Gutianshan National Nature Reserve

    OpenAIRE

    Lei Zhang; Xiaohe Wang; Xiangcheng Mi; Jianhua Chen; Mingjian Yu

    2011-01-01

    To study litter production, composition, temporal dynamics, and the effects of an ice storm on litter production in a 24-ha evergreen broad-leaved forest dynamic plot in Gutianshan National Nature Reserve, Zhejiang, we set up 169 seed traps, and collected litterfall weekly from October 2006 to December 2009. Total annual litter production in 2007 and 2009 was 532.05 g/m2 and 375.17 g/m2, respectively. We attribute the remarkable drop in production due to an ice storm in February 2008. Leaves,...

  1. Niches and interspecific associations of dominant tree populations at different restoration stages of monsoonal broad-leaved evergreen forest%季风常绿阔叶林不同恢复阶段乔木优势种群生态位和种间联结

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李帅锋; 刘万德; 苏建荣; 张志钧

    2011-01-01

    Niche and interspecific association are one of the important contents in community dynamics research. Interspecific interaction affects the restoration and succession of community. In this paper, field investigation was made on the community structure of monsoonal broad-leaved evergreen forest at its different restoration stages ( primary forest, PF; 15 years restoration, 15R; and 30 years restoration, 30R) in Pu ’ er City of Yunnan Province, and the niche breadth, niche overlap, and variance ratio ( VR) as well as the chi-square test and association coefficient (AC) based on 2×2 contingency table were used to analyze the change trend of the dominant tree populations at different restoration stages. In the three communities at different restoration stages, there was a significant positive correlation (P<0. 001 ) between the importance value and corresponding niche breadth. 78. 22% of species pairs at 15R had a niche overlap 0. 4-0. 8, suggesting a strong resource utilization competition in dominant species; while the community structure at PF and 30R was rather stable , and the species with higher niche breadth had a higher niche overlap than those with lower niche breadth , reflecting that the dominant species had stronger competitiveness. At 15R and 30R. there was a positive interspecific association; while at PF, there was a negative association. In the three communities, most species pairs had no significant association, showed stronger independency, and the proportions of positive and negative associations decreased with the process of restoration. There was a significant positive correlation between the association coefficient and niches overlap at different restoration stages, i. e. , the high the niche overlap, the greater the association coefficient.%生态位和种间联结是群落动态研究的重要内容之一,物种间相互作用影响着群落的恢复和演替.本文在对云南普洱地区不同恢复阶段(恢复15年、恢复30年和

  2. Ecological Distribution of Collembola in the Litter under Different Ground Cover Treatment of Evergreen Broad-leaved Forest%天童常绿阔叶林砍伐后凋落物层跳虫群落生态学研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    靳亚丽; 蒋跃

    2016-01-01

    Objective] To understand the effects of ground cover removal on collembola communities in the litter and the community restoration situations. [Method] The collembola community investigation of 4 seasons in an evergreen broad-leaved forest after 7 years since the ground cover removal in Tiantong Region, Zhejiang Province was carried out during Dec. 2019-Sep. 2010. The five treatments in five sites were as follows:(Ⅰ) big trees were removed but sprouts retained;(Ⅱ) ground surface vegetation was removed but litter retained;(Ⅲ) all vegetation and 0–10 cm topsoil were removed;(Ⅳ) undergrowth was removed but big trees retained; and (Ⅴ) a control plot without any disturbance. [Result] The number of collembolan groups did not vary widely. The number of collembola community was as follows:Ⅱ(28. 79%) > Ⅳ(21. 03%) >Ⅰ(20. 75%) > Ⅴ(17. 09%) >Ⅲ(12. 33%) . The community composition vary in different seasons. The number of collembola community was as follows:autumn > summer > spring > winter. The organic carbon, total nitrogen and total phosphorus had obvious differences among the plots. Even after 7 years of restoration, the collembola community traits were obviously different among the treatments. [ Conclusion] Collembola community was very sensitive to the environmental disturbing, which can be used as the indicator species to evaluate the soil environmental dis-turbance.%[目的]了解不同砍伐处理对常绿阔叶林凋落物层跳虫群落结构的影响以及各处理样地跳虫群落恢复状况。[方法]于2009年12月至2010年9月在浙江天童地区常绿阔叶林5个砍伐7年后的恢复样地进行四季采样,对浙江森林公园不同砍伐处理下常绿阔叶林土壤动物优势类群跳虫群落进行调查。样地处理分别为:(Ⅰ)去除大树保留萌枝、(Ⅱ)去除地表植物保留枯枝落叶层、(Ⅲ)去除地表植物和10 cm表土、(Ⅳ)清除下木层保留大树、(Ⅴ)对照。[结果]各处理样地各科

  3. Acclimation in Leaf Morphological and Eco-physiological Characteristics of Different Canopy-dwelling Epiphytes in a Lower Subtropical Evergreen Broad-leaved Forest%亚热带常绿阔叶林冠层附生植物叶片形态结构及生理功能特征的适应性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    江浩; 黄钰辉; 周国逸; 胡晓颖; 刘世忠; 唐旭利

    2012-01-01

    著的差异,并致使各自的生理生态功能发生了相应的适应,是植物适应环境条件的重要表现.%Epiphytes have been well characterized in terms of the morphological and eco-physiological traits that permit them to thrive in the complex forest canopy. Our aim was to characterize and analyze the morphological and eco-physiological traits of different canopy-dwelling epiphytes in a lower subtropical evergreen broad-leaved forest in Southern China.Results showed that the differences in morphological and eco-physiological characteristics between the upper and lower canopy-dwelling epiphytes were largely explained by changes in environmental factors such as photosynthetic active radiation (PAR) .temperature,and humidity within the complex forest canopy. Two epiphytes, Dischidia chinensis and Psychotria ser-pens located in the upper canopy had low Tr (0.17 ±0. 02 mmol H2O and 0. 34 ±0. 05 mmol H2O,respectively) and low Pmax(2. 2 ±0.1 μmol CO2·m-2·S-1 and 3.2 ±0.4 μmol CO2·m-2-s-1,respectively) associated with thick leaf (558 ±63 μm and 217.1 ±33.1 μm, respectively) and small stomata size (185. 7 ±3. 7 pm2 and 225.4 ±5. 2 pm2 .respectively) to adapt to their upper dwelling environments (high temperature,low air humidity and high PAR). At the same time,the special structures led to high WUE (11. 35 ±0. 87 μmol CO2/mmol H2O and 7.88 ± 1.31 μmol CO2/mmol H2O,respectively). However,the lower canopy-dwelling epiphytes Fis-sistigma glaucescens and Piper hancei had thin leaf (90. 8 ± 9. 9 μm and 114. 9 ± 18.2 μm, respectively) and large stomata size (260. 6 ±6. 3 μm2 and 362. 5 ±8. 7 μm2 .respectively). The ratios of palisade to spongy tissues thickness (P/S) ,the thickness of leaf epidermis thickness and other structures also changed with various canopy-dwelling heights. In comparison with Dischidia chinensis and Psychotria serpens located at upper canopy-dwelling conditions, Fissistigma glaucescens and Piper hancei showed high

  4. The phylogenetic signal of functional traits and their effects on community structure in an evergreen broad-leaved forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ke Cao

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The phylogenetic conservatism of plant functional traits and its association with community structure are important topics in ecological research. Plant functional traits are simultaneously affected by their evolutionary background, local habitat conditions and large-scale climate. In this study we asked whether functional traits have a significant phylogenetic signal and significantly affect species abundance in a community. For this objective, we used data from a 24 ha Gutianshan forest plot, which included species abundance and six functional traits of 156 woody species: leaf nitrogen content, leaf phosphorus content, leaf area, wood density, specific leaf area and seed mass. We found that all functional traits showed significant phylogenetic signal, suggesting that all functional traits are significantly affected by their evolutionary history. We also found that species abundance was correlated with leaf nitrogen content, leaf phosphorus content, leaf area, woody density and specific leaf area except seed mass, suggesting that resource acquisition significantly affects species abundance distribution in a community, and that these functional traits impact community structure in different ways.

  5. Soil animal communities at five succession stages in the litter of the evergreen broad-leaved forest in Tiantong,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yi Lan; You Wenhui; Song Yongchang

    2006-01-01

    Soil animals are abundant in forest litter layer,but little attention has been Paid to the vertical distribution of community structure of soil animals in the layers at different plant community succession stages.The forest litter layer can be divided into fresh litter layer(L),fermentation layer(F)and humus layer(H),which may represent different litter decomposition stages.The aim of the study is to ascertain the vertical distribution features of soil animal communities among the three litter layers and the change in the succession process of the Evergreen Broad-Leaved Forest(EBLF)in Tiantong,Zhejiang Province,China.Soil animal communities in the five plant communities at different succession stages were investigated during the 2003 winter.Soil animals,which were collected by using Tullgren funnels,amounted to a total of 13381 individuals falling into 2 phyla,8 classes and 20 orders.The dominant groups were Acarina and Collembola,accounting for 94.24% of the total individuals,with the number of Acarina individuals 7.66 times than that of Collembola.The common group was Diptera.The results indicated that there was a distinctive vertical distribution of the soil animal communities in the forest litter laver,but it differed from that in soil below the litter layer.In contrast to those in the soil,the soil animals in the litter layer generally tended to increase in both group abundance and density from the top fresh litter layer to the bottom humus layer.Altogether 19 groups and 59.03% of total individuals were found in the bottom layer,while only 8 groups and 5.35% of the total individuals in the top.Moreover,there were some variations in the distribution of the soil animals at different plant succession stages.85.19% of Homoptera and 100% of Symphyla were found in the litter layer at the climax succession stage.while 75.61% of Thysanoptera at the intermediate succession stage.Therefore,these groups might be seen as indicative groups.The total numbers of soil animal

  6. Study on successions sequence of evergreen broad-leaved forest in Gutian Mountain of Zhejiang, Eastern China:species diversity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Using the widely adopted scheme of space-for-time substitution for investigating 16 typical plots distri-buted as a pattern of contiguous grid quadrates within a sampling plot, the expressions of Shannon-Wiener index (H) for species diversity, Pielou index (Jsw, JSI) for evenness and Simpson index (D) for ecological dominance are employed to investigate the species diversity (SD) of four evergreen broadleaved communities in the successions sequence within the Nature Reserve of the Gutian Mountains. Results showed that in the successions process from the coniferous to the mixed coniferous-broadleaved, then to Schima superba and finally to Castanopsis eyrei forest, the arbor layer SD showed the Shannon-Wiener index (H) as 1.9670, 2.4975, 2.6140 and 2.4356, respectively, characterized by their rise before drop and the shrub (herb) layer SD shows the maximum to be in the mixed coniferous-broadleaved (coniferous) forest (H arriving at 2.8625 (1.5334)). In the vertical structure, on the other hand, for the sequenced coniferous forest, coniferous-broad mixed forest and Castnaopsis eyrei forest, the number of SD ranges in a decreasing order from the shrub, arbor to herb layer in contrast to the SD in a decreasing order of Schima superba forest ranging from the arbor to shrub and then to herb layer, and during the succession, the herb layer exhibits the maximum range of SD change among these layers, with its variation coefficients of 0.1572, 0.0806, 0.0899 and 0.1884 for H, Jsw, JSI and D, in order, in sharp contrast to the minimal SD range in the shrub layer, with the corresponding figures of 0.0482, 0.0385, 0.0142, and 0.1553.

  7. Vegetation Composition and Community Structure of Typical Mid-Mountain Broad-Leaved Forest in Jiangxi Wuyishan%江西武夷山典型中山阔叶林的植被组成与群落结构

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    雷平; 袁荣斌; 兰文军; 邹思成; 徐新宇

    2013-01-01

    以江西武夷山典型中山阔叶林为研究对象,在30 km2固定样地设置16个样方,其中13个常绿阔叶林群落、3个落叶阔叶林群落.群落乔灌层物种丰富,占物种生活型的83%.共调查到植物58科112属186种,以壳斗科、山矾科、蔷薇科、山茶科、樟科物种数最多,建群种主要为多脉青冈、闽皖八角、白檀、枫香树等,灌木层以山矾科、山茶科、禾本科为主.物种科属分布区类型以热带性质为主,具有典型的中亚热带地区特点.常绿阔叶林群落和落叶阔叶林群落均具有较高的多样性,单因素方差结果显示这2种林型在多样性指数上不存在差异显著性,乔、草优势种重要值亦不存在差异显著性,只有灌木层重要值存在差异显著性.%Set 16 plots in 30km2 fixed sample area of typical mid-mountain broad-leaved forest in Jiangxi Wuyishan,including 13 evergreen broad-leaved forest communities and 3 deciduous broad-leaved forest communities.The communities have rich species in tree layer and shrub layer,which accounting for 83% of species' life forms.A total of 186 vascular plant species,belonging to 112 genera and 58 families,were recorded,and the largest number of species is Fagaceae,Symplocaceae,Rosaceae,Theaceae and Lauraceae.The mainly constructive species are Cyclobalanopsis multiervis,Illicium minwanense,Symplocos paniculata and Liquidambar formosana etc.,and the shrub layer dominant families are Symplocaceae,Theaceae and Gramineae.Areal distribution type of species suggests that the forest is typical characteristics in subtropical regions and highly related to tropic components.Evergreen broad-leaved forest community and deciduous broad-leaved forest communities both have high species diversity; one-way ANOVA results showed that there is no significant difference on the diversity index of the two forest types,so do the important values of tree layer and herbaceous layer,but there is significant difference on the

  8. DIVERSITY AND ECOLOGICAL DETERMINANTS OF DEAD WOOD FUNGI IN TREE NATURAL RESERVES OF BROAD LEAVED FORESTS FROM SUCEAVA COUNTY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciprian BÎRSAN

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Dead wood fungi have a major importance for forests biodiversity as they produce wood degradation in forest habitats. In this paper are presented some aspects related to the diversity of dead wood fungi in tree deciduous forest types from tree natural reserves (Crujana, Dragomirna and Zamostea from Suceava County and the effect of some ecological factors (host tree, diameter and decomposition degree of the dead wood and some microclimatic characteristics of sites on their occurrence and diversity. Investigations carried out in 2013 resulted in the identification of 44 lignicolous fungi species. Analysis of similarities between lingnicolous fungi species from the investigated natural reserves (by hierarchical clustering shows a separation of three fungi groups, depending on the host-trees species. The effect of the tree host species was highlighted also by detrended correspondence analysis, which, in addition presented the existence of an altitudinal gradient and a weaker effect of site conditions (slope and aspect and microclimatic variables (solar radiation on dead wood fungi occurrence. The effect of diameter and decomposition degree of fallen trunks and branches on dead wood fungi species was investigated using the redundancy analysis showing that wood debris with large surfaces are more easily colonized by the fungi species developing large sporocarps compared to small branches with low diameters colonized only by few or a single fungus species.

  9. Change in Species Diversity during Recovering Process of Evergreen Broad-leaved Fo rest

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WenYuanguang; LiuShirong; ChenFang; HeTatping; LiangHongwen

    2005-01-01

    Evergreen broad-leaved forest is one of the most important vegetation types in China. Because of the human activities, evergreen broad-leaved forest has been destroyed extensively, leading to degraded ecosystem. It is urgent to conserve and restore these natural forests in China.tn this paper, the tendency and rate of species diversity restoration of the evergreen broad-lea ved forest in Darning Mountain has been studied. The main results are as follows:(a) in subtropical mid-mountain area, species diversity in degraded evergreen broad-leaved forest can be restored. Through analyzing b diversity index of communities in different time and space, it was found that the species composition of communities tend to be the same as that in the zonal evergreen broad-leaved forest. (b) The restoration rate of evergreen broad-leaved forest was very fast. Planting Chinese fir after clear-cutting and controlled burning of the forest 178 species appeared in a 60Om2, sample area after 20 years"" natural recovering. Among these species, 58 were tree layer and the height of community reached 18m, The survey suggested that it would take only 20 years for the degraded forest to develop into community composed of light demanding broad-leaved pioneer trees and rain-tolerance broad-leaved trees, and it need another 40-80 years to reach the stage consisting of min-tulerance evergreen broad-leaved trees, (c) Species number increased quickly at the early stage (2-20 years) during vegetation recovering process toward the climax, and decreased at the min-stage (50-60 years ), then maintained a relatively stable level at the late-stage (over 150 years).

  10. [Characterization of mid-subtropical evergreen broad-leaved forest gap based on light detection and ranging (LiDAR)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Feng; Tan, Chang; Wang, Hong; Zhang, Jiang; Wan, Ying; Long, Jiang-ping; Liu, Rui-xi

    2015-12-01

    Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) is an active remote sensing technology for acqui- ring three-dimensional structure parameters of vegetation canopy with high accuracy over multiple spatial scales, which is greatly important to the promotion of forest disturbance ecology and the ap- plication on gaps. This paper focused on mid-subtropical evergreen broadleaved forest in Hunan Province, and small footprint LiDAR point data were adopted to identify canopy gaps. and measure geomagnetic characteristics of gaps. The optimal grid model resolution and interpolation methods were chosen to generate canopy height model, and the computer graphics processing was adopted to estimate characteristics of gaps which involved gap size, canopy height and gap shape index, then field investigation was utilized to validate the estimation results. The results showed that the gap rec- ognition rate was 94.8%, and the major influencing factors were gap size and gap maker type. Line- ar correlation was observed between LiDAR estimation and field investigation, and the R² values of gap size and canopy height case were 0.962 and 0.878, respectively. Compared with field investiga- tion, the size of mean estimated gap was 19.9% larger and the mean estimated canopy height was 9.9% less. Gap density was 12.8 gaps · hm⁻² and the area of gaps occupied 13.3% of the forest area. The average gap size, canopy height and gap shape index were 85.06 m², 15.33 m and 1.71, respectively. The study site usually contained small gaps in which the edge effect was not obvious. PMID:27111996

  11. Distribution patterns of the subtropical evergreen broad-leaved forests of southwestern China, as compared with those of the eastern Chinese subtropical regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tang, C. Q.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the geographic distribution patterns of the subtropical evergreen broad-leaved forests of southwestern China, and compares with other subtropical regions in the east of China in terms of forest types, pertinent species, and spatial distribution along latitudinal, longitudinal and altitudinal gradients. In general, for both the western and the eastern subtropical regions, the evergreen broad-leaved forests are dominated by species of Castanopsis, Lithocarpus, Cyclobalanopsis (Fagaceae, Machilus, Cinnamomum (Lauraceae, Schima (Theaceae, Manglietia, and Michelia, (Magnoliaceae, while in southwestern China there are more diverse forest types including semi-humid, monsoon, mid-montane moist and humid evergreen broad-leaved forests, but only monsoon and humid forests in the east. The Yunnan area has more varied species of Lithocarpus or Cyclobalanopsis or Castanopsis as dominants than does eastern China, where the chief dominant genus is Castanopsis. The upper limits of the evergreen broad-leaved forests are mainly 2400–2800 m in western Yunnan and western Sichuan, much higher than in eastern China (600–1500, but 2500 m in Taiwan. Also discussed are the environmental effects on plant diversity of the evergreen broad-leaved forest ecosystems exemplified by Yunnan and Taiwan.En este trabajo se analiza los patrones de distribución geográfica de los bosques subtropicales perennifolios de hoja ancha del suroeste de china, y se comparan con los de otras regiones subtropicales del este de China en términos de tipología de bosque, especies relevantes, y distribución espacial a lo largo de un gradiente latitudinal, longitudinal y altitudinal. De manera general, los bosques perennifolios de hoja ancha de la regiones subtropicales tanto orientales como occidentales presentan dominancia de especies de Castanopsis, Lithocarpus, Cyclobalanopsis (Fagaceae, Machilus, Cinnamomum (Lauraceae, Schima (Theaceae, Manglietia y Michelia

  12. Eddy flux corrections for CO2 exchange in broad-leaved Korean pine mixed forest of Changbai Mountains

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU; Jiabing; GUAN; Dexin; SUN; Xiaomin; YU; Guirui; ZHAO; X

    2005-01-01

    Based on analysis of mechanisms causing energy no-closure and nocturnal low fluxes issues for CO2 exchange studies by eddy covariance method, corrections were done with the raw data sets obtained from Changbai Mountains forest flux site, to evaluate the impacts of sonic anemometer tilt, frequency response limitations and advection on estimation of CO2 exchange, respectively. The results show that the planar fit coordinate transforming method is superior to the streamline coordinate transforming method in tilt correction. The latter could cause a systematical underestimation of eddy fluxes relating with the angle of sensor and terrain tilt. The underestimation of CO2 and energy fluxes for frequency response limitations average 3.0% and 2.0% during daytime, respectively, which increase by 9.0% and 5.5% during nighttime, respectively. The corrections of frequency response limitations are closely related to atmospheric stability. The advection loss of CO2 fluxes is dominated by nocturnal vertical advection, which is at least 18% when the horizontal advection is neglected. It is suggested that more work be done to understand the characteristics of horizontal advection and turbulent eddies under a complexcircumstance.

  13. Studies on Material Cycling in Evergreen Broad-Leaved Forest Ecosystem in Hangzhou:Ⅱ.Dynamics and Decomposition Characteristics of Litter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1993-01-01

    Through the long-term plot study on the litter and its decomposition in the evergreen broad-leaved forest ecosystem in Hangzhou for more than two years,it was resulted that the annual litter production was 5.85 t ha-1,most of which was the fallen leave (79.5 percent) and the withered branches and fruits were far less (7.1 and 13.4 percents respectively).The dynamics of the fallen litter was shown as a curve of two-peak pattern which appeared in April and September each year.The half-life of the litter was 1.59 years.The decay rate of the litter attenuted as an exponential function.The annual amount of the nutrient returned to the ground through the litter was as large as 223.69kg ha-1.The total current amount of the litter on the ground was 7.47t ha-1.The decay rate in the first half of a year was 45.18 percent.This ecosystem remained in the stage of litter increasing with time.

  14. [Simulation of the effects of climate change on canopy transpiration over a broad-leaved Korean pine forest in Changbai Mountains].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ni-Na; Yuan, Feng-Hui; Wang, An-Zhi; Wu, Jia-Bing; Jin, Chang-Jie; Guan, De-Xin; Shi, Ting-Ting

    2011-02-01

    To investigate the effects of climate change on canopy transpiration, a process-based carbon and water coupling multi-layer model was verified, and used to simulate the canopy transpiration over a broad-leaved Korean pine forest in Changbai Mountains. This multi-layer model could well estimate canopy transpiration. The simulated values fitted well with the measured data based on eddy covariance method. The simulation of the responses of canopy transpiration to climate change indicated that the latent heat flux (LE) increased with increasing air temperature, and decreased with the decline of soil water content or the increase of air CO2 concentration. Under the climate scenarios in this study, the LE was most sensitive to the associated variation of 10% reduction of soil water content in 0-20 cm layer and 190 micromol x mol(-1) increase of CO2 concentration, but not sensitive to the synchronous variation of 10% reduce of soil water content and 3.6 degrees C increase of air temperature.

  15. Assessment on the Soil Health of Conifer and Broad-leaved Mixed Forests at Different Successional Stages in Jiao-he, Jilin Province%吉林蛟河不同演替阶段针阔混交林土壤健康评价1)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴金卓; 蔡小溪; 林文树

    2015-01-01

    应用层次分析法、隶属度函数和森林土壤健康指数法,对吉林省蛟河市林业实验区管理局内4种不同演替阶段的森林土壤健康进行评价;主要选取5个物理性指标、8个化学性指标、1个生物指标建立评价体系,使用隶属度函数进行无量纲化处理,应用层次分析法求出各指标的权重值,得出森林土壤的健康指数。结果表明:森林土壤健康等级降幂排序为中龄林、成熟林、老龄林、近熟林;相关性分析可知,土壤健康指数,与全氮、有效磷、速效钾呈极显著相关性,与水解氮、有机质呈显著相关。%We used analytical hierarchy process , standard scoring functions and forest soil health index to evaluate the health of forest soil at four sucessional stages in Jiaohe Management Bureau of Forestry Experimental Area in Jilin Province .We se-lected five indexes of physical properties , eight indexes of chemical properties and one biological indicator to establish the assessment indicator system .The standard scoring functions were used to process dimensionless , and the analytical hierar-chy process was used to calculate the index weight , and finally the health index of forest soil was obtained .The descending order of forest soil health level was middle-aged forest, mature forest, old-growth forest, and near-mature forest.By the correlation analysis , the correlations between health index of forest soil and total nitrogen , available phosphorus , and avail-able potassium were highly significant , and health index was significantly correlated with available nitrogen and organic matter.

  16. Insect diversity along a successional gradient in conifer and broad-leaved mixed forests in Changbai Mountain%长白山针阔混交林不同演替阶段的昆虫多样性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾玉珍; 赵秀海; 孟庆繁

    2009-01-01

    It has been noted that insect community is a powerful indicator of forest discover and succession. We examined the changes in species diversity and faunal composition of insect along a successional gradient of conifer and broad-leaved mixed forests in Changbai Mountain in this study. Insect community of three habitats, viz. Secondary birch forest (SBF), secondary conifer and broad-leaved mixed forest (SCBF), and original broad-leaved Korean pine forest (OBPF), from the early successional stage to mature forest understory were investigated by using sweeping nets, light traps and pitfall traps. The results showed that a total of 8 183 individuals representing 699 species in 362 orders were recorded. The dominant species were of Lepidoptera and Coleoptera. SCBF had the highest number of individuals and OBPF had the highest number of species, but the number of species and individuals between the successional habitats did not differ significantly. The Fisher' s a index values of SCBF and OBPF were significantly greater than that of SBF, and the diversity at the family level was not significantly different between the three habitats. Insect diversity increased following the herb diversity along the successional habitats. Because of different feeding habits and habitat preference, the diversity of Lepidoptera increased along the successional habitats, while that of Coleoptera decreased, which was similar to that found in previously reported studies.%昆虫多样性变化对生态系统健康有重要的指示作用,为研究昆虫群落变化与生境演替之间的关系,本研究采用网捕、灯诱和诱捕法系统调查了长白山针阔混交林不同演替阶段(次生白桦林、次生针阔混交林、原始阔叶红松林)昆虫群落的组成和多样性,分析了昆虫在森林演替过程中的规律及与植被群落之间的关系.系统调查共采集昆虫标本8 183头,隶属于14个目699种,其中鳞翅目和鞘翅目是主要优势类群.次生针

  17. 上阔下竹混交林对竹林土壤养分的影响%Effects of Phyllostachys edulis and broad-leaved mixed forest on soil nutrient content

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨宽; 王福升; 徐爱珍; 汪玉凤

    2015-01-01

    By taking the different proportions moso bamboo and broad-leaved mixed forests[Ⅰ(28.3%),Ⅱ(22.5%),Ⅲ(20.1%)]and moso bamboo pure forest[Ⅳ(0)]in north of Fujian as test materials,the soil nutritional of the forests in different depths were analyzed.The results showed that the soil pH of type Ⅳ was the lowest,the surface soil organic matter and available N,P,and B content of typeⅠ,Ⅱ and Ⅲ were significantly higher than those in type Ⅳ(P Ⅲ >Ⅱ >Ⅳ,which showed that the upper broad-leaves forests had some improvements on the soil nutritional of the lower moso bamboo for-est.%以闽北地区不同比例的上阔下竹混交林Ⅰ(28.3%)、Ⅱ(22.5%)、Ⅲ(20.1%)和毛竹纯林Ⅳ(0)为研究对象,对竹林土壤养分进行分析。结果表明:相同坡位之间,类型Ⅳ土壤 pH 最低;类型Ⅰ、Ⅱ、Ⅲ竹林表层土壤有机质、水解氮、有效磷和有效硼含量均明显高于类型Ⅳ(P <0.05);土壤有效态养分含量之间也存在极显著相关性,各类型毛竹林土壤综合肥力顺序为Ⅰ>Ⅲ>Ⅱ>Ⅳ,表明上位阔叶林对毛竹林土壤肥力具有一定的改善作用。

  18. 土壤水分梯度对阔叶红松林结构的影响%Effect of soil moisture gradient on structure of broad-leaved /Korean pine forest in Changbai Mountain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王艳; 王庆礼; 代力民; 王淼; 周莉; 代保清

    2004-01-01

    A 112 m(8 m sample plot which includes 14 sub-plots was set up along the slope in Hongshi Forestry Farm of Baihe Forestry Bureau(127(55'E,42(30' N),Jilin Province in August 2002.Community structure,soil moisture contents at 0-10 cm and 10-20 cm in depth,water content of litter as well as the contents of C,N and P of litter,living leaves and branches in the broad-leaved/Korean pine(Pinus korraiensis)forest were measured in each sub-plot on different slope positions.The analytical results showed that there existed an obvious soil moisture gradient along the slope:upper slope < middle slope < lower slope.The difference in soil moisture contents on different positions of slope led to a change of the stand structure of the broad-leaved/Korean pine forest.The proportion of Quercus mongolica gradually increased with the decrease of soil moisture content and that of other major tree species in the broad-leaved/Korean pine forest gradually decreased or disappeared.The dynamic of soil moisture contents in the litter layer was as same as that in mineral soils.The decomposition rates of the litter on different slope positions were different and the dry weights of existent litter varied significantly.The soil nutrients in the litter on the lower slope was richer than that on the upper slope due to the different stand structure on the different slope positions.The moisture content and nutrient contents of soil had effects on the composition,decomposition,and the nutrient release of litter,thus affecting stands growth and stand structure and finally leading to the change of ecosystem.%2002年8月,在吉林省白河林业局红石林场(127(55'E,42(30' N),沿着一个山坡设置了一个长宽为 112 m ( 8 m、包含14个样方的样带.调查了群落结构、0-10 cm 和 10-20 cm的土壤含水量、枯落物现存量及其C、N、P含量,主要树种的叶片和枝条的C、N、P含量.沿着山坡的不同位置土壤含水量的不同导致阔叶红松林的群落结构发

  19. Response Of Wheat (Triticum aestivum L. Crop And Broad-Leaved Weeds To Different Water Requirements And Weed Management In Sandy Soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El-Metwally Ibrahim M.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Water scarcity is a major cause of crops yield reduction in many parts of the world. So, a more rational use of irrigation water should be adapted and deficit irrigation principles should be accepted with a certain level of reduction in yield level. To study the efficiency of four water requirements (100% whole season, 75% whole season, 50% whole season and 100% whole season while 50% at grain-filling stage and five weed-control treatments (three postemergence herbicides i.e., metosulam, tribenuron-methyl, and bromoxynil, hand weeding and unweeded check, and their interactive effects, two field experiments on wheat crop were conducted in two successive seasons at the agricultural experimental station of the National Research Centre, Nubaria, Egypt. Bromoxynil, tribenuron-methyl came in the first order for controlling total broad-leaved weeds. Application of 100% water requirement recorded the highest values compared to all other irrigation water treatments in term of flag-leaf area, chlorophyll content, plant height, number of spike/m2, spike weight, grains number/spike, weight of 1,000 grains, yield and yield attributes of wheat. Metosulam followed by bromoxynil, tribenuron-methyl and hand-weeding treatments gave higher values of grain yield/ha. The highest grain yield, protein and carbohydrates percentages of wheat grains were obtained from addition of 100% water requirement with metosulam treatment was used followed by 75% of water requirement combined with metosulam treatment without significant difference among these treatments.

  20. 亚热带阔叶林植物叶片虫食特征研究%Insect herbivory characteristic on leaves of plant species in the evergreen broad-leaved forests

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘志国; 景军; 李恺; 蔡永立

    2013-01-01

    this study, herbivory on leaves was 7.21% and herbivory frequency was 32.95%. With herbivory frequency between 10%and 60%, herbivory rates of most species were less than 10%. No matter tree species and shrub species or companion species and dominant species, herbivory rates on leaves were no significant difference between them (P>0.05). Both herbivory rates (P=0.012)and herbivory frequency(P=0.74)of evergreen broad-leaved in Mt. Meihuashan, Fujian province are higher than Tiantong National Forest Park, Zhejiang province. Young plant leaves herbivory rate decreased with increasing elevation. The results indicated that the leaf damage of leaves in evergreen broad-leaved forest is between those in tropical rain forest (11.1%) and deciduous forest (7.1%). Life form and dominance affected herbivory on leaves. Rates of leaf damage reduced with the rising of latitude and altitude gradient. The majority of damage occurs during the short window when leaves are young and expanding.

  1. Water-holding characteristics of litter in different forests at the Lianxiahe watershed

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Zhuowen; CHEN Yusheng; ZHANG Zhiyong; CUI Hongxia; LEI Yunfei; WANG Dongyun; SUI Juanjuan

    2006-01-01

    We surveyed the forest litter amount at the Lianxiahe watershed in the Three Gorges Reservoir Area and analyzed some hydrological characteristics such as the maximum water-holding capacity and water absorption rate of litter in six types of forests,i.e.the Cupressus funebris forest,the coniferous mixed forest,the coniferous and broad-leaved mixed forest,the broad-leaved forest,the Pinus massoniana forest,the bush forest.Results showed that the litter amount follows the order of the coniferous and broad-leaved mixed forest>the pure C.funebris forest,the P.massoniana forest>the coniferous mixed forest>the broad-leaved forest>the bush forest.The maximal water holding capacity of the undecomposed litter is in the order of the C.funebris forest>the coniferous mixed forest>the bush forest>the coniferous and broad-leaved mixed forest >the broad-leaved forest>the P.massoniana forest.The maximal water-holding capacity of the half-decomposed litter is the P.massoniana forest>the coniferous and broad-leaved mixed forest>the C.funebris forest>the coniferous mixed forest>the broad-leaved forest>the bush forest.In this watershed,the water holding capacity of the litter in the C.funebris forest is the highest,followed by the coniferous mixed forest,coniferous and broad-leaved mixed forest,P.massoniana forest,broad-leaved forest and bush forest.When the soil is covered only by litter,both the maximal rainfall amount and intensity in different forest stands are different if there is no water infiltration and runoff from the ground surface.

  2. Effects of micro-topographies on stand structure and tree species diversity in an old-growth evergreen broad-leaved forest, southwestern Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tran Van Do

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Stand structure and species diversity were studied in correspondence with micro-topographies in an old-growth forest in southwestern Japan. The study was conducted in a 200×200m2 permanent plot, which were divided into 400 subplots using grids of 10m×10m. Subplots were categorized to four micro-topographies as crest slope (CS, head hollow (HH, upper slope (US and lower slope (LS, basing on slope of forest floor and plot position, and to two elevational zones as below 450 m and above 450 m. Tree censuses for all individuals with diameter at breast height (DBH ⩾ 5 cm were conducted in 2009 and 2013. The results indicated that CS had subplot means of living stems, dead stems, DBH, basal area (G, and basal area increment (▵G significantly higher than that in LS. While, means of recruited stems and Shannon diversity index were significantly lower. Comparing between below and above 450 m elevational zones indicated the significantly higher parameters of stand structure and species diversity in above 450 m elevational zone. The differences of edaphic conditions led to difference of density of living stems, species density, DBH, G, and ▵G among micro-topographies. Therefore, crest slope, upper slope, and higher elevational zones should be encouraged for the purposes of carbon accumulation and storage. While, the lower elevational zones should be used for the purposes of species diversity conservation.

  3. 红松阔叶混交林林隙土壤养分的空间异质性%Spatial Heterogeneity of Soil Nutrition in the Mixed Broad-Leaved Korean Pine Forest Gap

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘少冲; 段文标

    2011-01-01

    采用经典统计学和地统计学方法分析了小兴安岭阔叶红松混交林林隙表层土壤(0-10 cm)养分空间变异结构及其分布格局.结果表明:土壤pH值(CV=5.28%)和速效钾(CV=7.33%),呈弱变异性,其他土壤化学指标均表现为中等程度变异.土壤pH值、有机质、全氮、全磷、铵态氮、硝态氮、有效磷和速效钾变异函数曲线的理论模型符合球状模型.土壤养分的空间变异主要是由结构性因素引起的,且空间自相关程度均属中等(空间结构比均在25%以上).克里格法插值估计和各养分属性的等值线图表明,林隙表层土壤养分具有块状或连续分布的特点,不同的指标表现出不同的分布规律.%The spatial heterogeneity and distribution pattern in surface soil layer(0-10 cm) in mixed broad-leaved koren pine forest gap ir Xiao Xing'an Mountains were analysed by the methods of the traditional statistics and geostatistics. The results showed that. pH (CV= 5.28 %) and available potassium (CV= 7.33 %) showed weaker variability,other chemical indices exhibited moderate variability. The theoretical models of variation function curve of soil pH, organic matter, total nitrogen, total phosphorous, ammonium nitrogen, nitrate nitrogen, available phosphorous and available potassium were best described by exponential models. The spatial variability of soil nutrient primarily resulted from structural factors,and the spatial heterogeneity degree of these indices was moderate with spatial structural ratio above 25 %. Both Kriging interpolation method and the isoline maps of soil nutrients revealed that the spatial distributions of upper soil nutrients had the characteristic of patchy or continuous distribution, the spatial distribution of different indices were clearly different.

  4. Uncertainties of isoprene emissions in the MEGAN model estimated for a coniferous and broad-leaved mixed forest in Southern China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Situ, S.; Wang, Xuemei; Guenther, Alex B.; Zhang, Yanli; Wang, Xinming; Huang, Minjuan; Fan, Qi; Xiong, Zhe

    2014-12-01

    Using local observed emission factor, meteorological data, vegetation 5 information and dynamic MODIS LAI, MEGANv2.1 was constrained to predict the isoprene emission from Dinghushan forest in the Pearl River Delta region during a field campaign in November 2008, and the uncertainties in isoprene emission estimates were quantified by the Monte Carlo approach. The results indicate that MEGAN can predict the isoprene emission reasonably during the campaign, and the mean value of isoprene emission is 2.35 mg m-2 h-1 in daytime. There are high uncertainties associated with the MEGAN inputs and calculated parameters, and the relative error can be as high as -89 to 111% for a 95% confidence interval. The emission factor of broadleaf trees and the activity factor accounting for light and temperature dependence are the most important contributors to the uncertainties in isoprene emission estimated for the Dinghushan forest during the campaign. The results also emphasize the importance of accurate observed PAR and temperature to reduce the uncertainties in isoprene emission estimated by model, because the MEGAN model activity factor accounting for light and temperature dependence is highly sensitive to PAR and temperature.

  5. Spatial patterns of dominant species in secondary evergreen broad-leaved forest in central Yunnan, Southwest China.%滇中次生常绿阔叶林优势树种的空间格局

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘保双; 付登高; 吴晓妮; 王洪娇; 王琪; 段昌群

    2013-01-01

    By using Ripley' s point pattern analysis, the spatial patterns of the dominant species Cyclobalanopsis glaucoides and Keteleeria evelyniana in the secondary evergreen broad-leaved forest in central Yunnan of Southwest China as well as the spatial associations among the individuals of the two species with different DBH classes were analyzed. Overall, the individuals of the two species with different DBH classes were in uniform distribution, indicating that the growth of the two populations was in stable period. The two species and their individuals with different DBH classes had a clumped distribution. With the increase of DBH class, the aggregation degree of C. glaucoides had a decreasing trend, while that of K. evelyniana decreased first, increased then, and decreased at last. A positive or no significant spatial association was observed among the saplings, juvenile trees, and adult trees of the two species. At different spatial scales, the two species of different DBH classes had less association, possibly because of the greater differences in the survival strategies of the two species. It was suggested that in the restoration of the forests in central Yunnan, it would be essential to control the plant population density and attend to the interspecific interaction to build an appropriate structure of the community.%采用Ripley的点格局分析方法对滇中次生常绿阔叶林中优势种滇青冈(Cyclobalanopsis glaucoides)和滇油杉(Keteleeria evelyniana)的分布格局以及不同径级分株之间的相互关系进行了分析.结果表明:(1)总体来看,两个优势物种各径级株数分布较均匀,二者的增长处于稳定期.(2)两个优势物种在总体上及不同径级阶段主要呈聚集分布.随径级的增加,滇青冈种群的聚集程度逐渐降低,而滇油杉种群的聚集程度呈现降低-增加-降低的趋势.两个优势物种的幼树、中树和大树主要呈空间正相关或无空间关联性.(3)两优势种群不同

  6. Effects of simulated acid rain on soil and soil solution chemistry in a monsoon evergreen broad-leaved forest in southern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Qingyan; Wu, Jianping; Liang, Guohua; Liu, Juxiu; Chu, Guowei; Zhou, Guoyi; Zhang, Deqiang

    2015-05-01

    Acid rain is an environmental problem of increasing concern in China. In this study, a laboratory leaching column experiment with acid forest soil was set up to investigate the responses of soil and soil solution chemistry to simulated acid rain (SAR). Five pH levels of SAR were set: 2.5, 3.0, 3.5, 4.0, and 4.5 (as a control, CK). The results showed that soil acidification would occur when the pH of SAR was ≤3.5. The concentrations of NO₃(-)and Ca(2+) in the soil increased significantly when the pH of SAR fell 3.5. The concentration of SO₄(2-) in the soil increased significantly when the pH of SAR was acidity of SAR. The releases of soluble Al and Fe were SAR pH dependent, and their net exports under pH 2.5 treatment were 19.6 and 5.5 times, respectively, higher than that under CK. The net export of DOC was reduced by 12-29% under SAR treatments as compared to CK. Our results indicate the chemical constituents in the soil are more sensitive to SAR than those in the soil solution, and the effects of SAR on soil solution chemistry depend not only on the intensity of SAR but also on the duration of SAR addition. The soil and soil solution chemistry in this region may not be affected by current precipitation (pH≈4.5) in short term, but the soil and soil leachate chemistry may change dramatically if the pH of precipitation were below 3.5 and 3.0, respectively. PMID:25893761

  7. Ice and Snow Disasters to the Evergreen Broad-leaved Forest in the Jiulianshan Nature Reserve in Jiangxi, China%九连山自然保护区常绿阔叶林冰雪灾害研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何俊; 赵秀海; 张春雨; 贾玉; 范娟; 毛双燕; 张自斌; 廖承开

    2011-01-01

    以九连山国家级自然保护区典型常绿阔叶林为对象,研究树木属性、地形因子与冰雪灾害受损程度的关系.结果表明:九连山常绿阔叶林(DBH≥10 cm)以栲属物种占据主要优势.断梢率、腰折率、翻蔸率和平均受损指数(MDI)最高的树种分别为马尾松、米槠、丝栗栲和米槠,最低的树种分别为红楠、丝栗栲、枫香和罗浮柿.断梢率与胸径(DBH)、树高(H)显著正相关(P0.05),坡度30°~ 40°生境中MDI值最高.%The ice and snow damages to the evergreen broad-leaved forest in the Jiulianshan National Nature Reserve in Jiangxi, China were studied, and the correlations between damage degrees with tree characteristics and topographical factors were analyzed.The results showed: The forest was dominated by Castanopsis species (DBH>10 cm), and Pinus massoniana (PM), C.carlesii (CC), C.fargesil (CF), and CC were found highest for top breakage ratio (TOB), trunk breakage ratio (TRB),uprooting ratio (UR) and mean damage index (MDI); while Machilus thunbergii (MT), CF, Liquidambarjormosana (LF),and Diospyros rnorrisiana (DM) were lowest.The TOB had extremely significantly positive correlation with DBH (P<0.01),H (P<0.01), and extremely significantly negative correlation with H/DBH (P<0.01); TRB had extremely significantly negative correlation with DBH (P<0.01); UP had extremely significantly negative correlation with DBH (P<0.01); and MDI was not significantly correlated with DBH, H, and H/DBH (P>0.05).The TOB was the highest under the conditions of DBH≥50 cm, 21≤H<23 m or 20≤H/DBH<40, and the lowest with 10≤DBH<12 cm, 5≤H<7 m or H/DBH≥120; the TRB was the highest under the conditions of 10≤DBH<12 cm, 13≤H<15 m or 100≤H/DBH<110, and the lowest with 42≤DBH<44 cm, 7≤H<9 m or H/DBH ≥120; the UR was the highest under the conditions of 20≤DBH<22 cm, 11≤H<13 m or 90≤H/DBH<100, and the lowest with 36≤DBH<38 cm, DBH≥40

  8. Hydrological characteristics of litter in different forest succession stages at Liuxihe Watershed, southern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhuowen ZHANG; Yunfei LEI; Kaijun SU; Guang WANG; Dongyun WANG; Hongyan MA

    2009-01-01

    The hydrological characteristics of litter in four different forest succession stages, i.e., a Pinus massoniana forest, a mixed conifer and broad-leaved forest with conifer being the dominant species, a mixed conifer and broad-leaved forest with deciduous trees as dominant species, and an evergreen broad-leaved forest, have been studied by means of substituting space for time. The results show that while a community is developing to a zonal climax, the amount of litter becomes larger and its decomposition intensity becomes stronger; there is a positive relation between its water-holding capacity and velocity and its community maturity for the halfdecomposed litter layer.

  9. Regeneration and restoration of broad-leaved Korean pine forests in Lesser Xing′an Mountains of Northeast China%中国东北小兴安岭阔叶红松林更新及其恢复研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李俊清; 李景文

    2003-01-01

    研究了中国东北小兴安岭地区阔叶红松林的更新和红松的生长及其影响因素.研究结果表明由于成树树冠的遮蔽作用所导致的光照减少是制约幼树生长和存活的关键因素.阔叶红松林是该区最典型和稳定的植被类型,但是在过去的50a中,由于皆伐和更新不良导致了它的分布面积和蓄积量的减少.阔叶红松林是地带性"顶极"植被,并通过具有连续性年龄结构的树种有规律的替代和演替过程中不同阔叶树种组成而处于优势地位.这种林型无疑应作为一种重要的基因库加以保护.次生阔叶林是在阔叶红松林受干扰后出现的,但它的种类组成简单,而且结构也很不稳定.因此,必须对现有的林分结构加以调整以利于林分的长期稳定和高产.同时,提出了红松阔叶林的恢复和重建的经营方式.%This paper studied the regeneration and growth of Korean pine (Pinus koraiensis) and the influencing factors in broad-leaved Korean pine forests in Lesser Xing′an Mountains of Northeast China. Light solar radiation decrement within the forest stand overshadowed by the mature tree canopy was considered as the key factor that limited the seedling growth and survival. Broad-leaved Korean pine forest is the most typical and the most stable vegetation type in the region, but its area and stocking have been decreased in the last 50 years caused by the over-cutting and poor regeneration. Broad-leaved Korean pine forest is the zonal "climax" vegetation type and remains dominant through the regular replacement of succeeding age classes of tree species and the succession between different assemblages of species. This forest type should, undoubtedly, be conserved so as to preserve an important gene pool for future generations. The secondary deciduous forest occurring after disturbance of the broad-leaved Korean pine forest is much simpler in composition and highly unstable in structure. Forest structure must

  10. 长白山针阔混交林秋季净生态系统水气交换量%Net water vapour exchange over a mixed needle and broad-leaved forest in Changbai Mountain during autumn

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    温学发; 于贵瑞; 孙晓敏

    2003-01-01

    Water vapour and CO2 fluxes were measured by the eddy-covariance technique above a mixed needle and broad-leaved forest with affiliated meteorological measurements in Changbai Mountain as part of China's FLUX projects since late August in 2002. Net water vapour exchange and environmental control over the forest were examined from September 1 to October 31 in 2002.To quantify the seasonal dynamics, the transition period was separated into leafed, leaf falling and leafless stages according to the development of leaf area. The results showed that (a) seasonal variation of water vapour exchange was mainly controlled by net radiation (Rn) which could account for 78.5%, 63.4% and 56.6% for leafed, leaf falling and leafless stages, respectively, while other environmental factors' effects varied evidently; (b) magnitude of water vapour flux decreased remarkably during autumn and daily mean of water vapour exchange was 24.2 mgm-2 s-1 (100%),14.8 mgm-2 s-1 (61.2%) and 10.3 mg m-2 s-1 (42.6%) for leafed, leaf falling and leafless stage,respectively; and (c) the budget of water vapour exchange during autumn was estimated to be 87.1 kg H2O m-2, with a mean of 1427.2 g H2O d-1 varying markedly from 3104.0 to 227.5 g H2O m-2d-1.

  11. 帽儿山天然次生林主要阔叶树种叶量分布模拟%Simulation of Foliage Distribution for Major Broad-Leaved Species in Secondary Forest in Mao'er Mountain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢军; 李凤日; 张会儒; 张守攻

    2011-01-01

    The spatial distribution of foliage is the fundamental composition of crown structure, moreover, it is convenient to understand the mechanism of the energy convert to biomass above-ground through the crown by evaluating the spatial distribution of foliage and researching the relationship between foliage and factors in individual trees and stand. In Mao' er Mountains of Heilongjiang Province, 30 permanent sample plots in secondary forest were established where 3 401 biomass of living branches from 176 stem analysis sample trees with 10 different broad-leaved species were measured, 2007. This study presents 10 individual tree models for the prediction of vertical distribution of living crown. The 3 parameters Chapman-Richards model was used to estimate the distribution of the crown biomasses between the lower and upper limits of the crown. In the models for the relative cumulative living crown, parameters estimate results show that all coefficiens of determination are high more than 0. 91 especially 0. 98 for birch. The highest relative height at which the foliage reached its maximum point was 0. 82 CL( crown length) for manchurian ash and the lowest was 0. 52 CL for cork tree. The peak points for other species were between these two values, e. G. 0. 66 CL for birch and 0. 78 CL for oak. The percentage of foliage for broad-leaved species in secondary forestry at the top crown (above 0. 3 CL)was very small, which in middle crown and below it(0. 4 CL -0. 8 CL)took about 60% -70% of total biomass, especially 72. 22% for birch, 72. 55% for poplar and the minimum was 57. 51% for manchurian ash, however at under-part of the crown for all species occupied about 10% of total foliage. The models can be used for the planning of harvesting operations, for the selection of feasible harvesting methods, and for the estimation of nutrient removals of different harvesting practices.%2007年,在黑龙江省帽儿山林区,设置30块天然次生林固定标准地,获取10

  12. A gap-filling model for eddy covariance latent heat flux: Estimating evapotranspiration of a subtropical seasonal evergreen broad-leaved forest as an example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yi-Ying; Chu, Chia-Ren; Li, Ming-Hsu

    2012-10-01

    SummaryIn this paper we present a semi-parametric multivariate gap-filling model for tower-based measurement of latent heat flux (LE). Two statistical techniques, the principal component analysis (PCA) and a nonlinear interpolation approach were integrated into this LE gap-filling model. The PCA was first used to resolve the multicollinearity relationships among various environmental variables, including radiation, soil moisture deficit, leaf area index, wind speed, etc. Two nonlinear interpolation methods, multiple regressions (MRS) and the K-nearest neighbors (KNNs) were examined with random selected flux gaps for both clear sky and nighttime/cloudy data to incorporate into this LE gap-filling model. Experimental results indicated that the KNN interpolation approach is able to provide consistent LE estimations while MRS presents over estimations during nighttime/cloudy. Rather than using empirical regression parameters, the KNN approach resolves the nonlinear relationship between the gap-filled LE flux and principal components with adaptive K values under different atmospheric states. The developed LE gap-filling model (PCA with KNN) works with a RMSE of 2.4 W m-2 (˜0.09 mm day-1) at a weekly time scale by adding 40% artificial flux gaps into original dataset. Annual evapotranspiration at this study site were estimated at 736 mm (1803 MJ) and 728 mm (1785 MJ) for year 2008 and 2009, respectively.

  13. Hyperspectral Characteristics of Subtropical Evergreen Broad-Leaved Trees at Different Levels of Simulated Shade%亚热带常绿阔叶树种对模拟遮荫胁迫的高光谱响应

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐建辉; 江洪

    2014-01-01

    “blue shift”.The mean first derivative spectral of red edge position corresponds to a narrow wavelength rage and chlorophyll content has higher correlations,R 2 is more than 0.61.The correlation is significant.This study analyzed the spectral variation characteristics of four kinds of subtropical evergreen broad-leaved species in different gradient shade and the correlation between the red edge position corresponds to an mean of a narrow band within the first derivative spectra and chlorophyll content.It proves that shade effect the growth of four kinds of subtropical evergreen broad-leaved species.The red edge position of the first derivative spectra can effectively monitor the impact of shading on trees.It provides a theoretical basis for remote sensing monitoring the growth of forest plants in atmospheric aerosol parasol effect condition.

  14. 云南高黎贡山中山湿性常绿阔叶林的群落特征%Community Characteristics of the Mid-Montane Humid Ever-Green Broad-Leaved Forest in Gaoligong Mountains, Yunnan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟广涛; 柴勇; 袁春明; 艾怀森; 李贵祥; 王骞; 李品荣; 蔺汝涛

    2013-01-01

    The dynamic observation of the mid - montane humid evergreen broad-leaved forest and the community characteristics analysis were conducted in a 4 - hm2 permanent plot located in ecological corridor in southern region of Gaoligong Mountains National Nature Reserve during 2009-2010. The results showed that there were 10 546 freestanding individuals with DBH ≥1. 0 cm in the 4 hm plot, belonging to 95 species, 64 genera and 35 families. The species richness was higher and the proportion of rare species was lower in the plot, compared with other plots of the same kind forest. Lauraceae, Theaceae, Araliaceae, Fagaceae, and Symplocaceae were dominant families in the plot and they comprised 44. 21 % of all species and 56. 70% of all individuals. Symplocas ramosissima, Eurya pseudocerasifera , Gordonia longicarpa, Neolitsea lunglingensis, Lithocarpus hancei, and Cyclobalanopsis lamellosa had more importance value in the plot, but no one had obvious advantage, namely the plot did not contain an obviously dominant species. Floristic characteristics of the community indicated that the tropical elements were much more than temperate elements, implying that this area could be an origin of tropics. The minimal area of the community is 1. 32 hm , which could comprise more than 80% of all species. The structure of DBH size class of all species and some dominant species in the plot showed a typical pyramid structure with a wide bottom and a narrow top, implying a good regeneration in the community. The survival curve of most of dominant species tended to be of the Deevey-Ⅲ type, with a high mortality rate at small DHB size class and a low and stable mortality rate at large DBH size class.

  15. 帽峰山森林气温与区域气温变化趋势分析%Analysis of Temperature Variation Trends in Maofengshan Mt Subtropical Evergreen Broad-leaves Forest and Guangzhou City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘勇军; 王兵; 陈步峰; 史欣; 肖以华

    2011-01-01

    The responses and feedbacks of the forest climate ecosystem into the future global climate change have become very attractive issues. Analysis of historic climate data from 1952 to 2009 of Guangzhou and that from 2004 to 2009 in Maofengshan Mt forest ecosystem by using statistical method and seasonal decomposition additive model confirms that the climate in Guangzhou has recently been warming at a rate of 0.21 °C per decade; The results showed that the temperatures in Guangzhou and Maofengshan Mt were significantly positive correlated, the air temperature change in 2004-2009 had a decreasing trend at a rate of -0.008 ℃ · a-1 and -0.293 ℃ · a -1; The temperature change of Maofengshan Mt subtropical evergreen broad-leaves forest climate ecosystem positively responsed to regional climate change of Guangzhou. Occasionally, its responses appeared negative feedback before the abnormal weather, for example, before the winter-weather disaster in January and February 2008. Climate change is threatening the health of forests around the world. As temperature rises, the negative impacts of climate change are expected to far outweigh any benefits. The advanced fields need to be developed were discussed.%根据广州市1952-2009年和帽峰山2004-2009年气温观测数据,采用统计分析方法和季节分解加法模型,分析了帽峰山森林气温与区域气温变化趋势特征.结果表明:广州市近58年来气温增暖趋势显著,年平均气温的倾向率达0.21℃·a-1;2004-2009年间,广州市和帽峰山气温变化均呈下降趋势,气温倾向率分别为-0.008、-0.293℃·a-1,帽峰山气温下降幅度大于广州市;帽峰山林区气温变化趋势与广州市气温变化趋势基本一致;在区域极端异常天气出现前,森林气温变化趋势出现负反馈.

  16. 小兴安岭红松阔叶混交林土壤动物群落研究%Study on Soil Animals Community of Pinus koraiensis Broad-Leaved Mixed Forest in Xiaoxing' an Mountain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苗雅杰; 殷秀琴

    2005-01-01

    Soil animal communities of Pinus koraiensis broad-leaved mixed forest were studied. The purpose was to discuss the dynamic characteristic of soil animals and relationship with environmental factors. The ecosystem geography distribution law of soil animals, soil animals' role and function in ecological system were revealed. In June, August, October each year, three plots were selected. In each plot, four layers were sampled( litter layer,0 - 10 cm, 10 - 20 cm & 20 - 30 cm), adding up to 72 soil sample. The area for large-sized soil animals was 50 cm × 50 cm, and the area for middle-small-sized soil animals was 10 cm × 10 cm. Separated soil animals through adopting hand-picking method and Tullgren method respectively. Sampled the soil animals in two continuing years. Shannon-Wiener index was adopted to analyze the diversity of soil animals. Monad liner regression was used to search the relationship between soil animals and environmental factors. The dominant groups were Oribatida, Isotomidae. There were relatively great changes in groups and individual numbers of dominant groups and rare groups when the reason changed. The individual numbers of dominant groups and the groups of rare groups changed. The number of individual and group was the most in August. Obviously it correlated with climatic factors in middle temperate zone. The evenness was low and dominance was high. The diversity index was not most. Among the annual fluctuating there was a increasing trend. The evenness was low and dominance was high. The diversity index was low. It conformed with the law of reason change. The correlation between soil animals and atmospheric temperature, rainfall, ground temperature and sunlight showed the correlation with rainfall and soil temperature was the most significant.

  17. Composition and Diversity of Ground-dwelling Beetle (Coleoptera) Along a Succession Gradient in Broad-leaved and Korean Pine Mixed Forest in the Changbai Mountains, China%长白山阔叶红松林不同演替阶段地表甲虫组成和多样性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾玉珍; 赵秀海; 孟庆繁

    2011-01-01

    Korean pine forest.The investigation results suggested that the composition and diversity of ground-dwelling beetle was determined by succession stage.The beetle diversity in the secondary birch forest at the earlier succession stage was higher than that of climax forest community,but no significant differences in beetle diversity were showed among the three habitats.Highest numbers of beetle species and individuals were found in July.Species accumulation curves of all the three habitats did not reach an asymptote.The actual species richness values of the secondary conifer and broad-leaved mixed forest and original broad-leaved and Korean pine forest were both within the 95% confidence intervals,but that of the secondary birch forest was lower than the minimum estimated value.There were no significant differences in beetle species-abundance distributions among the three habitats and all of them fit the log series distribution.The result of DCA showed that the dominance species of all sites was similar and the difference among habitats was made by occasional species.According to analysis of RDA,the area of breast height and soil moisture were main environment factors affecting distribution of ground-dwelling beetle,which explained 99.2% of relationship between beetle and environment.

  18. 普洱季风常绿阔叶林次生演替中木本植物幼苗更新特征%Woody seedling regeneration in secondary succession of monsoon broad-leaved evergreen forest in Puer, Yunnan, Southwest China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李帅锋; 刘万德; 苏建荣; 张志钧; 刘庆云

    2012-01-01

    以时空替代的方法,将针阔混交林、季风常绿阔叶林的次生林与成熟林等3个处于同一空间下的群落作为次生演替进程中的3个阶段,研究云南普洱地区次生演替过程中的木本植物幼苗更新特征,分析了次生演替过程中木本植物幼苗的物种组成、密度、高度级及与环境因子的相关性.结果表明:在8个共144 m2的幼苗样地中调查木本植物幼苗101种2014株,其中乔木幼苗是主要组成.随着次生演替的进行,木本植物幼苗、乔木与藤本幼苗密度逐渐增加,灌木幼苗密度无显著变化;藤本植物幼苗的物种丰富度随着次生演替进行而增加,乔木与灌木幼苗则无显著变化,成熟季风常绿阔叶林中木本植物幼苗ShannonWiener指数要显著小于针阔混交林与次生季风常绿阔叶林.次生与成熟季风常绿阔叶林木本植物幼苗多度随高度级增加而减少,针阔混交林则呈现偏峰曲线,幼苗密度均集中分布在高度20 cm以内,3个群落演替阶段木本植物幼苗物种丰富度随高度级增加呈现偏锋曲线.相似性系数反映出乔木和藤本幼苗的更新来源与群落的物种组成存在着紧密的联系.乔木幼苗密度分布与样地坡度之间存在着显著的负相关,灌木幼苗密度与土壤pH值之间存在着显著正相关.%Seedling, made up of small individuals of woody plant species in the understorey, is an important component of many forests and considered as an important source for natural restoration in forest ecosystems. Simultaneously seedling plays an important role in the regeneration of numerous tree species. Based on space-for-time substitution method, we treated coniferous and broad-leaved mixed forest, secondary monsoon evergreen broad-leaved forest ( MEBF) , primary MEBF in the same area as three different stages of secondary succession of MEBF. Eight sampling plots representing the three different stages distribute in Caiyanghe nature

  19. Coarse Woody Debris Biomass in a Monsoon Evergreen Broad-leaved Forest in the Dinghushan Nature Reserve, China%鼎湖山粗死木质残体生物量特征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨方方; 李跃林

    2011-01-01

    The biomass, types and decay classes of coarse woody debris (CWD) were analyzed in a monsoon evergreen broad-leaved forest (MEBF) in the Dinghushan Nature Reserve, Southeastern China based on long-term data from a I hm2 permanent sample plot. The results showed that: 1) The total CWD biomass was 42.09 t hm2, of which the fallen trees and standing dead trees were 32.81 t hm2 and 9.28 t hm2, respectively. Fallen trees were the main type and accounted for 77.9% of the total CWD biomass, while the percentage of standing dead trees was 22.1%. The average annual increment of CWD was 1.68 thm-2a1-from 1999 to 2010. 2) Castanopsis chinensis was the dominant species of CWD, accounting for 54.0% of the total CWD biomass, and followed by Engelhardtia roxburghiana and Schima superba, with the percentage of 15.1% and 13.9%, respectively. 3) DBH class of the CWD was mainly below 30 cm, though those with DBH more than 30 cm were the main contributor to CWD biomass. 4) The main decay class of CWD was intermediate decay, which accounted for 61.2% of the total CWD biomass. It was also found that the CWD biomass accumulated with time in the forest. Fig 2, Tab 3, Ref 17%对鼎湖山季风常绿阔叶林1 hm2永久性样地内粗死木质残体(Coarse woody debris,简称CWD)的生物量、存在形式及分解状态进行研究.结果表明:1)鼎湖山季风常绿阔叶林CWD的生物量为42.09 t hm-2,其中倒木和枯立木分别为32.81t hm-2、9.28t hm-2,所占比例分别为77.9%、22.1%.1999~2010年间CWD年均输入量为1.68 t hm-2a-1.2)CWD主要优势树种为锥栗(Castanopsis chinensis)、黄杞(Engelhardtia roxbueghiana)和荷木(Schima superba),所占比例分别为54.0%、15.1%和13.9%.3)CWD径级主要分布在30 cm以下,但对CWD生物量贡献最大的径级在30 cm以上.4)CWD 的分解状态主要为中度分解状态,占CWD总生物量的61.2%研究还表明,鼎湖山季风常绿阔叶林的CWD生物量呈逐年增加趋势.图2表3参17

  20. Genetic diversity of Lithocarpus harlandii populations in three forest communities with different succession stages

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jianhui LI; Zexin JIN; Wenyan LOU; Junmin LI

    2008-01-01

    By using random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) technique,this paper studied the genetic diversity and genetic differentiation of Lithocarpus harlandii populations in three forest communities (con-iferous forest, coniferous and broad-leaved mixed forest, and evergreen broad-leaved forest) with different succes-sion stages in Tiantai Mountain in Zhejiang Province.The results showed that a total of 173 repetitive loci were produced in 60 individuals of L. Harlandii by 12 random primers, among which, 152 loci were polymorphic, and the total percentage of polymorphic loci was 87.86%. The average percentage of polymorphic loci of the popula-tions was 65.32%, and their total genetic diversity estimated by Shannon information index was 0.4529,with an average of 0.3458,while that judged from Nei's index was 0.3004, with an average of 0.2320. The percentage of polymorphic loci, Shannon information index, and Nei's index of the populations were in the sequence of coniferous forest community coniferous and broad-leaved mixed forest community evergreen broad-leaved forest community. Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) showed that 72.85% of genetic variance was found within the populations,and 27.15% of genetic variance resided among the populations. The coefficient of gene differentiation was 0.2277, and the gene flow was 1.6949. The genetic structure of L. Harlandii was influenced not only by the biological characteristics of this species, but also by the micro-environment of different communities. The mean of genetic identity among three populations of L. Harlandii was 0.8662, and the mean of their genetic distance was 0.1442. The genetic similarity between coniferous and broad-leaved mixed forest community and evergreen broad-leaved forest community was the highest, while that between evergreen broad-leaved forest community and coniferous forest community was the lowest.The unweighted pair group method with arithmeticmean (UPGMA) cluster analysis based on Nei's genetic

  1. 降水变化驱动下红松阔叶林土壤真菌多样性的分布格局%Effects of precipitation variation on the distribution pattern of soil fungal diversity in broad-leaved Korean pine mixed forest

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王楠楠; 杨雪; 李世兰; 隋心; 韩士杰; 冯富娟

    2013-01-01

    红松阔叶林生态系统是中国东北地区地带性顶极植被,具有重要的生态学意义,长白山是研究温带森林对大气降水变化正负反馈的理想地带.本文以长白山原始红松阔叶林为研究对象,基于末端限制性片段长度多态性分析技术,分析了降水控制样地(增、减30%)和对照样地的0 ~5 cm和5~ 10 cm表层土和红松根际土真菌多样性的空间异质性.结果表明:降水的增加和减少均能提高土壤真菌的多样性,但优势种群有所变化.表层土中,片段长度超过500 bp的T-RFs丰度随降水增加而提高,根际土中对降水变化响应的T-RFs分别为380、455和487 bp,且根际土的响应模式较表层土复杂.典范对应分析结果表明,土壤pH、有机碳含量、总氮和有效磷等对真菌群落组成影响显著.%Broad-leaved Korean pine mixed forest is a kind of zonal climax vegetation with ecological significance in Northeast China,whereas Changbai Mountain is an ideal area to study the effects of precipitation variation on temperate forest.Taking the virgin broad-leaved Korean pine mixed forest in Changbai Mountain as the object,and based on T-RFLP method,this paper analyzed the spatial heterogeneity of fungal diversity in 0-5 cm and 5-10 cm soil layers and in rhizosphere soil at three different precipitation plots (30% increase,30% decrease,and the control).Both the increase and the decrease of precipitation increased the diversity of soil fungi,but the dominant population changed.In 0-5 cm and 5-10 cm soil layers,the T-RFs over 500 bp increased with precipitation; in rhizosphere soil,the T-RFs responded to precipitation variation were 380 bp,455 bp,and 487 bp,and the response mode was more complicated than that in surface soil layers.The results of CCA showed that the fungal community composition was significantly affected by soil pH,organic carbon,total nitrogen,and organic phosphorus.

  2. 暖温带落叶阔叶林动态变化的模拟研究%Modelling changes of a deciduous broad-leaved forest in warm temperate zone of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    桑卫国

    2004-01-01

    用森林动态林窗模型FORET1模拟了暖温带落叶阔叶林的长期变化特征.模型参数取自暖温带地区长期森林研究和经营的历史数据,对过去数据中缺少的参数进行了实地测定,并用观测的数据对模型作了检验.结果表明模型能较好地模拟暖温带落叶阔叶林的长期动态变化特征.通过模拟可以看出,森林的净初级生产力没有明显变化规律且极度不稳定,峰值出现在30a左右,相似于世界上其它地区森林动态格局变化,生物量格局呈循环状态变化,循环周期大致在110a左右.%A warm temperate deciduous forest in Dongling Mountain of Beijing was simulated with forest gap dynamics model,FORET1,in order to predict ist future changes.The model parameters were derived from both historical and currently measured data;and the model was tested against observed data.Results showed that the model simulation of forest species composition,biomass and production matched well with observed data.Model simulation of the dynamics of this warm temperate deciduous forest indicate that the changes in net primary production was clearly unregulated and extremely unstable,with a peak around 30 years and repeated patterns of dynamics in biomass production every 110 years.The patterns of temporal dynamics of this forest are comparable to other forest ecosystems worldwide.

  3. Effects of enhanced ultraviolet-B radiation on water use efficiency, stomatal conductance, leaf nitrogen content and morphological characteristics of Spiraea pubesoens in a warm-temperate deciduous broad-leaved forest

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Lan; ZHANG Shouren

    2007-01-01

    Spiraeapubescens,a common shrub in the warm temperate deciduous forest zone which is distributed in the Dongling Mountain area of Beijing,was exposed to ambient and enhanced ultraviolet-B(UV-B,280-320 nm)radiation by artificially supplying a daily dose of 9.4 kJ/m2 for three growing seasons,a level that simulated a 17% depletion in stratospheric ozone.The objective of this study was to explore the effects of long-term UV-B enhancement on stomatal conductance,leaf tissue δ13C,leaf water content,and leaf area.Particular attention was paid to the effects of UV-B radiation on water use efficiency(WUE)and leaf total nitrogen content.Enhanced UV-B radiation significantly reduced leaf area (50.1%)but increased leaf total nitrogen content(102%).These changes were associated with a decrease in stomatal conductance(16.1%)and intercellular CO2 concentration/air CO2 concentration(C/Ca)(4.0%),and an increase in leaf tissue δ13C(20.5%),leaf water content(3.1%),specific leaf weight(SLW)(5.2%)and WUE(4.1%).The effects of UV-B on the plant were greatly affected by the water content of the deep soil(30-40 cm).During the dry season,differences in the stomatat conductance δ13C,and WUE between the control and UV-B treated shrubs were very small;whereas,differences became much greater when soil water stress disappeared.Furthermore,the effects of UV-B became much less significant as the treatment period progressed over the three growing seasons.Correlation analysis showed that enhanced UV-B radiation decreased the strength of the correlation between soil water content and leaf water content, δ13C,Ci/Ca,stomatal conductance,with the exception of WUE that had a significant correlation coefficient with soil water content.These results suggest that WUE would become more sensitive to soil water variation due to UV-B radiation.Based on this experiment,it was found that enhanced UV-B radiation had much more significant effects on morphological traits and growth of S.pubescens than hydro

  4. 叶山林场次生阔叶林乔木树种多样性及种间关联分析%Analysis of tree species diversity and interspecific association of tree layer in secondary broad-leaved forest in Yeshan forest-farm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郝耀锋; 樊丙玉; 吴开华; 黄庆丰

    2012-01-01

    通过铜陵叶山林场次生落叶阔叶林样地调查,对乔木层物种丰富度指数、植物多样性指数、Pielou均匀度指数、生态优势度指数、重要值和种间关联进行分析.结果表明,在12块样地中共有乔木树种19种,平均植物多样性指数、均匀度指数和生态优势度指数分别为1.25、0.70和0.37.优势树种麻栎重要值为105.3,伴生树种化香、枫香和国槐重要值分别为65.1、36.3和18.6.该森林类型为麻栎落叶阔叶混交林.19个树种之间共存在171对相关,但正关联树种对少于负关联树种对,正负关联比小于1,说明该群落类型还处于演替阶段,即由落叶阔叶林向常绿与落叶阔叶混交林过渡阶段.%Based on the investigation of plots, the indexes of species richness, plant diversity, Pielou evenness and ecological dominance, important value and interspecific association of tree layer in secondary broad-leaved forest were calculated and analyzed in Yeshan forest-farm of Tongling county. The results showed that there are 19 tree species in the 12 plots. Mean indexes of plant diversity, evenness and ecological dominance are 1.25, 0.70 and 037, respectively. The important value of dominant tree, Quercus acutissima, is 105.3, and the companion tree species, Platycarya strobilacea, Liquidambar formosana and Sophorajaponica, are 65.1, 36.3 and 18.6, respectively. This forest type is Quercus acutissima deciduous broadleaved mixed forest. One hundred and seventy-one tree species coexist correlation among 19 tree species, but the pairs of the positive associated tree species are less than the negative ones. The ratio between the positive and negative association is less than 1, which mean that this community type is still in successive stage, namely the transition stage from the deciduous broadleaved forest to the evergreen and deciduous broadleaved mixed forest.

  5. 叶山次生落叶阔叶林主要树种空间结构特征%Spatial structure characteristics of main tree species in secondary deciduous broad-leaved forest in Yeshan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    樊丙玉; 郝耀锋; 吴开华; 黄庆丰

    2012-01-01

    通过对铜陵叶山林场天然次生落叶阔叶混交林内具有代表性的样地调查,利用角尺度、混交度和大小比数3个林分空间结构参数分析了该次生落叶阔叶林林分空间结构特征.结果表明,该林分乔木层共有19个树种,麻栎是该森林类型的优势树种,主要伴生树种为化香、枫香、檫木等;该森林类型林分平均角尺度、平均混交度和平均大小比数分别为0.556、0.525和0.497;在林木空间格局上,林分整体呈团状分布;从林分种间隔离程度来看,整体处于中度混交状态;在林木大小分化程度上,麻栎、化香、枫香和檫木在生长上整体处于中庸状态,林木空间大小分化不大.该森林类型还处在不稳定阶段,即落叶阅叶向常绿与落叶阔叶林演替过程中.%Based on the investigation of typical plots of the natural secondary deciduous broadleaved mixed forest in Yeshan Forest-farm of Tongling city, the spatial structure features of this forest type were analyzed by using three spatial structure parameters (uniform angle, mingling degree and neighborhood comparison index). The results showed that there were 19 tree species in tree layer, of which Quercus acutissima was the dominant species of this forest type, and Platycarya strobilacea, Liquidambar formosana, Sassafras tzumus and so on were main associated tree species; the mean value of uniform angle index, mingling degree and neighborhood comparison of the stand in forest type were 0.556, 0.525 and 0.497, respectively. The pattern of tree spatial distribution of the stand was the cluster. The mingling degree of tree species of the stand was moderate mixed. Quercus acutissima, Platycarya strobilacea, Liquidambar formosana and Sassafras tzumus were the mean state in growing in the tree's size differentiation degree. The tree's size differentiation of this forest type was small. This forest type is still in the unstable stage, namely the transition stage from the

  6. DETECTING EFFECT OF PHYLOGENETIC DIVERSITY ON SEEDLING MORTALITY IN AN EVERGREEN BROAD-LEAVED FOREST IN CHINA%常绿阔叶林谱系多样性对幼苗存活率的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈英

    2009-01-01

    密度制约机制对于维护生物多样性有非常重要的作用.随着对密度制约机制的深入研究,人们逐渐认识到:不仅在种内存在密度制约效应,亲缘关系相近的物种之间也可能表现出密度制约效应.webb在2000年提山的NRI(净种间亲缘关系指数)、NTI(净最近种间亲缘关系指数)考虑了比较全面的谱系信息,获得了广泛的应用.该文采用NRI、NTI来代表种间关系,并用Logistic回归模犁来分析了谱系因子对浙江省开化县古田山自然保护区24hm~2永久监测样地中501个幼苗样方死亡率的影响.通过对6次幼苗调查数据的分析表明:不仅相同物种密度对于幼苗的死亡率有显著影响,当密度达到一定水平时,谱系因子同样也对幼苗的死亡率有显著影响苗区中个体间的亲缘关系越近,幼苗个体的死亡率越高.%Aims Negative density dependence plays an important role in maintaining forest biodiversity. Ecologists found this mechanism operates not only between conspecifics but also between closely related heterospecifics. Our objective was to determine whether phylogenetic diversity affects seedling mortality at different scales.Methods We used net relatedness index (NRI) and nearest taxon index (NTI) to represent phylogenetic diversity and employed logistic regression modeling. We analyzed the relationship between seedling mortality and phylogenetic diversity using the seedling dynamic data from six seedling censuses of 507 seedling plots at Gutianshan Nature Reserve during May 2006 and November 2007. Important findings We found that higher density of conspecifics resulted in higher seedling mortality, and phylogenetic diversity was responsible for seedling mortality when seedling density was high (>3.46 individuals·m~(-2)).

  7. Effects of habitat heterogeneity on community functional diversity of Dinghu Mountain evergreen broad-leaved forest%生境异质性对鼎湖山常绿阔叶林群落功能多样性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周光霞; 黄立新; 臧晓蔚; 韦霄; 叶万辉; 沈浩

    2016-01-01

    (20 m×20 m) were selected according to the changes of relative elevation and topograph. These 27 subplots can stand for the heterogeneous habitats in Dinghushan ever-green broad-leaved forest. Leaf functional traits of all the trees with DBH (diameter at breast height)≥1 cm in the 27 sub-plots were measured to calculate the functional diversity ( functional dispersion and community weighted mean are caculated as the functional diversity in this paper) during the summer of 2013. The measured traits included morphological traits (spe-cific leaf area, leaf dry matter content, leaf area and leaf lenth to leaf width ratio) and stoichiometric traits (leaf carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus content). Combining with the topographic and soil information, we analysed the main environmental factors that influence the variation of functional diversity. To elucidate the relative importance of environmental filtering and competitive interactions for species co-existence of Dinghushan evergreen broad-leaved forest, we inferred the shifts in func-tional diversity patterns across environmental gradients. The results indicated that functional divergence and community-weighted mean were in close relation with environmental factors, especially elevation, convexity and soil fertility. In the op-timal environmental conditions (high relative elevation, high convexity and higher soil nutrient content), plants adopt the similar (functional divergence decreased) adaptive strategy of efficient conservation of nutrient (low SLA, high LDMC), which suggested that environmental filtering played a stronger role;while in the adverse environmental conditions ( low rela-tive elevation, low convexity and lower soil nutrient content), the traits were various (functional divergence increased) and use fast growing strategy (high SLA, low LDMC), since competitive interactions might play a key role. The functional di-vergence of leaf area and leaf nitrogen contents increased in better environmental conditions

  8. Effects of biotic and abiotic factors on tree seedling survival in a broad-leaved Korean pine (Pinus koraiensis) mixed forest on Changbai Mountain%长白山阔叶红松林中影响乔木幼苗存活的关键因素

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖翠; 刘帅; 黄珍; 樊莹; 王均伟; 赵秀海; 唐景毅

    2015-01-01

    Seedling recruitment plays a key role in determining species composition and diversity. Exploring patterns of seedling dynamics can therefore provide crucial insights into the mechanisms that affect seedling recruitment. The broad-leaved Korean pine ( Pinus koraiensis) mixed forest is a temperate forest typical of northeast China. In 2007, we established a 1 hm2 plot in a broad-leaved Korean pine mixed forest on Changbai Mountain, northeast China. We identified, tagged, and mapped each tree with diameter at breast height ≥1 cm. At the same time, we set up 100 seedling quadrats of 1m × 1m which were censused every July. In total, we collected data on 1288 adult trees and 965 seedlings in the 1 hm2 plot between 2012 and 2013, and examined the importance of biotic and abiotic factors on seedling survival using a generalized mixed linear model. Biotic factors included presence of conspecific seedling neighbors and heterospecific seedling neighbors, presence of conspecific adult neighbors and heterospecific adult neighbors, and herb density and herb cover. Abiotic factors included soil organic matter, available soil phosphorus, available soil potassium, available soil nitrogen, total soil nitrogen, and canopy openness. Conspecific neighbors had a significant negative effect on seedling survival at the community level, indicating significant negative density-dependence effects. The effects of biotic and abiotic factors on seedlings differed with seedling age. Conspecific adult neighbors and canopy openness had significant positive effects on survival of, 1-year seedlings while heterospecific adult neighbors had a significant negative effect. In contrast, for 2- to 3-year-old seedlings, conspecific seedling neighbors and conspecific adult neighbors showed a significant negative effect on seedling survival, but abiotic factors had no significant effect. Moreover, for ≥4-year-old seedlings, soil PC axis 1 ( associated with low organic matter available K, available N

  9. Species composition and community structure of the Donglingshan forest dynamic plot in a warm temperate deciduous broad-leaved secondary forest, China%东灵山暖温带落叶阔叶次生林动态监测样地:物种组成与群落结构

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘海丰; 李亮; 桑卫国

    2011-01-01

    Community structure is one of the key features in the process of vegetation succession.Warm temperate mixed deciduous broad-leaved secondary forest is the main forest vegetation type in China's warm temperate zone.In order to better study the mechanisms of succession and species coexistence in this forest type, we established the Donglingshan 20-ha forest plot (DLS plot) in 2009 and 2010 using the same protocol as the well-established plot on Barro Colorado Island in Panama.In the plot, all free-standing woody plants with DBH (diameter at breast height) ≥1 cm were mapped, tagged, and identified to species.Here, we address preliminary results on floristic characteristics, community composition, and size-class, vertical, and spatial structure of the DLS plot.These datasets will serve as baseline information accessible to a wide range of future studies.We tagged a total of 52,136 genotype individuals (103,284 individuals including branches of genotype individuals), belonging to 58 species, 33 genera and 18 families.All of these tree species were deciduous.Floristic characteristics of the community suggested a temperate flora, including some subtropical and tropical elements.There were very obvious dominant species in the plot.Five species comprised 61% of all individuals, and 20 species comprised 92% of all individuals, while the other 38 species comprised only 8% of all individuals.Vertical structure was composed of an overstory layer (19 species), midstory layer (18 species), and a shrub layer (21 species).The DBH size-class structure of all species in the plot generally fitted a "reverse J" distribution, indicating good regeneration across the community.The size-class structure of the main species in the overstory layer showed a bimodal or nearly normal distribution, while the most abundant species in the midstory and shrub layers showed "reverse J" or even "L" distributions.Spatial distribution patterns of the dominant species varied with size-class and

  10. 长白山阔叶红松林中影响乔木幼苗存活的关键因素%Effects of biotic and abiotic factors on tree seedling survival in a broad-leaved Korean pine (Pinus koraiensis) mixed forest on Changbai Mountain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖翠; 刘帅; 黄珍; 樊莹; 王均伟; 赵秀海; 唐景毅

    2015-01-01

    应用广义线性混合模型,对长白山阔叶红松林中影响幼苗存活的生物因素和非生物因素进行分析。结果表明:(1)在群落水平上,幼苗存活率和生物因素中同种幼苗邻居显著负相关,说明在阔叶红松林群落中存在负密度制约效应。(2)生物因子和非生物因子对不同年龄阶段的幼苗存活率影响不同。对于1年生的幼苗,幼苗存活率与异种大树邻居呈显著负相关,与同种大树邻居呈显著正相关;对于2—3年生的幼苗,其存活率和同种幼苗邻居、同种大树邻居均呈显著负相关,和非生物因子相关不显著;对于4年生以上的幼苗,其存活率和土壤主成分分析的PC1(低的有机质、速效钾、速效氮等比较贫瘠的土壤)显著负相关。(3)种子的传播方式不同,幼苗存活率的影响因子也不同。对于风传播的物种,存活率与同种幼苗邻居密度显著正相关。对于重力传播的物种,幼苗存活率与土壤PC3(高的全氮和速效氮,含氮较高的土壤)、异种大树邻居、草本密度呈负相关,与林冠开阔度和草本盖度成正相关。(4)对于不同的物种,影响幼苗存活的因素也不同。紫椴的幼苗存活率与土壤PC3、异种大树邻居、草本密度呈显著负相关,与土壤主成分PC2(高的有机质和全氮等养分比较好的土壤)呈显著正相关。%Seedling recruitment plays a key role in determining species composition and diversity. Exploring patterns of seedling dynamics can therefore provide crucial insights into the mechanisms that affect seedling recruitment. The broad-leaved Korean pine ( Pinus koraiensis) mixed forest is a temperate forest typical of northeast China. In 2007, we established a 1 hm2 plot in a broad-leaved Korean pine mixed forest on Changbai Mountain, northeast China. We identified, tagged, and mapped each tree with diameter at breast height ≥1 cm. At the same time, we set up 100

  11. 浙江天童常绿阔叶林藤本植物的适应生态学 Ⅰ. 叶片解剖特征的比较%ADAPTIVE ECOLOGY OF LIANAS IN TIANTONG EVERGREEN BROAD-LEAVED FOREST, ZHEJIANG, CHINA I. LEAF ANATOMICAL CHARACTERS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡永立; 宋永昌

    2001-01-01

    The ecological adaptations and leaf characters of ten genera (including eleven species of liana) were studied in evergreen broad-leaved forest of Tiantong Forest Park, Zhejiang province, China. The results are as follows: 1) Despite the mesophyte leaf form of the eleven liana species there were significant differences in leaf anatomical characters among them and some differences among different plants of an individual. These differences are mainly controlled by genetic factors, but environmental factors (mainly light and water or humidity) also had an important influence on them and these may oppose forms required in climbing methods; 2) Based on leaf adaptive characters the 11 species may be divided into three adaptive kinds: sun-adapted taxa or xerophytes (Broussonetia kaempferi, Ficus pumila and F. sarmentosa var. henryi), shade-adapted taxa (Morinda umbellata, Millettia reticulata) and mesophytes (Ampelopsis cantoniensis, Hedera nepalensis var. sinensis, Smilax lanceiofolia var. opaca, Celastrus rosthonianus, Dioscorea cirrhosa, Dalbergia millettii); 3) Rates of variation of different anatomical characters adapting to light or humidity differed among species. The ability to vary these characters, which may be influenced by changing environmental factors during the growth of liana, may be important for liana to adapt to the different environmental conditions it experiences through its life.%利用解剖学方法对浙江天童森林公园常绿阔叶林的10属11种木质藤本叶片的解剖特征进行了比较和因子分析,结果表明:藤本植物叶片结构在不同种类之间具有明显的差异,同种藤本的不同植物体的叶片也存在一定的差异; 这些差异除受遗传因子控制外,环境因子(主要为光照和水分)也有重要作用; 攀援方式对藤本叶片特征有一定影响,但未表现出规律性。尽管叶片的基本结构仍属中生类型,但也表现出一定的趋异适应,根

  12. 南京仙林地区次生阔叶林群落的初步研究%A preliminary study on the secondary broad-leaved forest in Nanjing Xianlin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚榕; 方彦

    2012-01-01

    在野外实地调查的基础上,利用群落学研究手段对南京仙林地区的次生林群落进行了研究分析.结果表明:群落内共有植物60种,隶属于32科49属,科属种组成较为分散,优势科或优势属不明显;科属区系分析表明,泛热带分布和北温带分布的科属所占比例较大,分别为45.83%、21.28%和33.33%、19.51%,这说明群落区系分布类型真正的热带性质不明显,且具有热带性质和温带性质交融与过渡的特点.乔灌层的物种频度分布分别为A>B<C>D=E和A>B>C> D<E,灌木层物种分布较为均匀,而乔木层有进一步演替的可能.该群落结构层次较为简单,可分为乔木上层、乔木下层、灌木层、层间和草本层;其中,乔木层中的主要优势树种为短柄枹栎、构树、牡荆和马尾松,它们的重要值分别为16.10%、12.79%、9.31%和9.20%,而灌木层的优势树种为刚竹、短柄枹栎、野蔷薇、白檀和构树等.乔木层主要种群径级结构特征表明,短柄枹、构树等树种属于增长种群,而马尾松、化香等属于衰退种群.保护利用好该类型的森林群落对仙林地区的生态环境建设具有十分重要的意义.%Based on the field investigation, the secondary forest of Xianlin district was discussed by phyto coenology method. The results show that 60 species, belonging to 49 genera, 32 families were identified in this secondary forest, and the dominant family or genus is not significant, suggesting that the composition of the forest distributed unevenly. Among those 15 floristic elements, Pantropic and North Temperate accounted for 45.83%, 21.28% at the familial level and 33.33%, 19.51% at the generic level respectively; meanwhile, it indicates that the tropic element of community is not heavy, but it is characterized by the infiltration and transition between the tropical and temperate zones. The species distribution frequency show A>BB>C>IXE in tree layer

  13. Adaptive characteristics and behavior of Dalbergia millettii liana in subtropical evergreen broad-leaved forest of eastern China%浙江天童常绿阔叶林香港黄檀的生态适应特征和行为

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡永立; 宋永昌

    2001-01-01

    通过对芽的类型和活动、攀援茎的形态、径级分布和格局、攀援能力和立体结构及其与支持木关系的测定分析,探讨了香港黄檀的生态适应特征和行为。结果如下:①芽按活动时间分为春芽和夏芽;两类芽均可形成长枝(攀援枝)或短枝,但在活动持续时间和抽生攀援的长度方面存在明显差异;林内不定芽(主要为春芽)的活动和适应生长是老藤更新的重要途径。②攀援枝的节数和节间长度分别为短枝的7倍和6.5倍,而且易受光照等条件的影响;林缘攀援枝的分枝率是林内的5倍。③径级分布反映出种群随群落演替而老化,香港黄檀属群落早期藤本。④对支持木种类表现出一定的选择性,马尾松是其中被攀援最多的支持木,这主要与香港黄檀的生理、生长要求和马尾松枝型特点等有较大的关系。⑤具有较强的攀援能力,单株在群落中平均可攀援乔木层大树5株,最多可达15株,水平扩展面积平均为54m2,最大可达260m2;藤本通过攀援与支持木形成的空间结构,构成群落的特殊层片,其群落学意义值得进一步研究。%Based on analysis of types and dynamics of buds,morphology and space structure of branches,the ecological adaptation and behavior of Dalbergia millettii liana in the subtropical evergreen broad-leaved forest of eastern China were studied.The results are as follows:(1)Both spring bud and summer bud may form the climbing or short branch,but there are great differences in the activity duration of bud and the branch length formed.Regeneration of old liana trunk will be mainly completed by adaptive growth of adventitious buds on it.(2)Node number and internode leggth of climbing branch are 7 and 6.5 times more than those of short branch,respectively.And they are easily influenced by light.Branching ratio of climbing brance at the edge of forest is 5 times greater than that in the inner

  14. Genetic diversity of Quercus glandulifera var. brevipetiolata populations in three forest communities with different succession stages

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Junmin LI; Zexin JIN; Qiping GU; Wenyan LOU

    2009-01-01

    In order to understand the relationship between population succession and its genetic behavior, random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) technique was used to analyze the genetic diversity of Quercu glandulifera var.brevipetiolata populations in three forest communities with different succession stages (coniferous forest, coniferous and broad-leaved mixed forest, evergreen broad-leaved forest). The results showed that 145 repetitive loci were produced in 60 individuals of Q. glandulifera using 11 primers, among which 120 loci were polymorphic, and the total percentage of polymorphic loci was 82.76% with an average of 64.14%. Estimated by the Shannon information index, the total genetic diversity of the three populations was 0.4747, with an average of 0.3642, while it was 0.3234, with an average of 0.2484, judged from the Nei index. Judged from percentage of polymorphic loci,Shannon inform at ion index and Nei index, the genetic diversity followed a decreasing order: coniferous forest >broad-leaved mixed forest > evergreen broad-leaved for-est. Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) showed that 69.73% of the genetic variance existed within populations and 30.27% of the genetic variance existed among popu-lations. The coefficient of gene differentiation (Gst) was 0.2319 and the gene flow (Nm) was 1.6539. The mean of genetic identity among populations of Q. glandulifera was 0.8501 and the mean of genetic distance was 0.1626. The genetic identity between the Q. glandulifera population in the coniferous forest and that in the coniferous and broad-leaved mixed forest was the highest. UPGMA cluster analysis based on Nei's genetic distance showed that the population in the coniferous forest gathered with that in the coniferous and broad-leaved mixed forest firstly, then with that in the evergreen broad-leaved forest. The genetic structure of Q. glandulifera was not only characteristic of the biological characteristics of this species, but was also influenced by the

  15. Leaf morphological and anatomical characteristics of epiphytes and their host tress in lower subtropical evergreen broad-leaved forest%南亚热带常绿阔叶林林冠层附生植物及其宿主叶片的形态解剖特征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    江浩; 黄钰辉; 周国逸; 胡晓颖; 刘世忠; 唐旭利

    2011-01-01

    Canopy-dwelling epiphytic plants have been well characterized in terms of the physiological and morphological traits permitting them to thrive in the absence of access to the soil. The ultimate purpose of this paper is to characterize the morphological and anatomical characteristics of major canopy-dwelling epiphytic plants and their host trees in the lower subtropical evergreen broad-leaved forest in the Southern China. Results showed epiphytic plants differed from host trees on leaf morphology and anatomy. Compared with host trees, epiphytic plants have smaller leaf area, larger specific leaf area (SLA), higher leaf water content, higher leaf thickness, higher leaf abaxial and adaxial epidermis thickness, lower stomatal density and stomata size for the uptake and restore of water and nutrients. Difference of leaf morphological and anatomical characters between epiphytes can be largely explained by changes of environmental factors such as photosynthetically active radiation (PAR), temperature and humidity within forest canopy. D. Chinensis and P. Serpens showed special characteristics with high leaf water contents, low stomatal density, thick spongy tissues and thin palisade tissues to adapt to their upper dwelling environment (high temperature, low air humidity and high PAR). F. Glaucescens and P. Hancei have large leaf area, thin leaf, and high stomata size in acclimatizing to the low temperature, high air humidity and low PAR.%选择南亚热带常绿阔叶林中具有代表性的4种林冠层附生植物:白背瓜馥木(Fissistigma glaucescens)、瓜子金(Dischidia chinensis)、蔓九节(Psychotria serpens)、山蒌(Piper hancei)及其主要宿主植物:厚壳桂(Cryptocarya chinensis)、荷木(Schimasuperba)、华润楠(Machilus chinensis)、锥栗(Castanopsis chinensis)为研究对象,对其叶片形态结构和解剖结构特征进行比较.研究结果表明:宿主植物与附生植物的叶片形态结构差异显著.相对于4种宿主植物,4种附生

  16. 特大冰冻干扰对大明山常绿阔叶林树冠及林冠层状况的影响%Effects of a Severe Ice Storm Disturbance on Crown and Canopy Condition of an Evergreen Broad-leaved Forest in Damingshan National Nature Reserve of Guangxi Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    温远光; 李婉舒; 朱宏光; 周晓果; 叶铎; 王磊

    2014-01-01

    【目的】通过对大明山南亚热带山地常绿阔叶林72个400m2样地的调查,了解特大冰冻干扰对南亚热带山地常绿阔叶林树冠和林冠状况的影响。【方法】2009年,在大明山海拔934~1223m 的范围内,按上、中、下坡设立3组调查样地,每一组样地包括24个20m×20m样方,对胸径≥5cm的林木进行调查,记录种名、胸径、树高、冠长、冠幅、座标及受损类型等。【结果】经统计,在调查的胸径≥5cm 的2538株林木中,有1714株受到不同程度损伤,占总数的67.53%,其中轻度损伤占47.75%、重度损伤占19.78%。总体上,不同坡位的冠损状况相似,均以轻度损伤为主,但表现有所不同,上坡轻度损伤比例最小(40.94%),严重损伤的比例最高(26.49%);中坡与之相反,轻度损伤比例最大(52.38%),严重损伤比例最小(16.52%);下坡损伤比例最低。胸径影响树木的受损类型和程度,呈现出随着胸径的增加,树冠受损的比例逐渐增大,并在30~40cm 径级(上坡)和40~81cm 径级(中坡和下坡)达到最大值。断枝比例(包括断枝少和断枝多)随胸径增大而增大,而断梢和失冠则随胸径增大而减小。落叶树种比常绿树种受损更重。冰冻灾害后,林冠叶面积指数显著下降,散射透光系数和直射透光系数显著增加。【结论】特大冰冻干扰对大明山常绿阔叶林已造成严重影响,受冰冻灾害的长期影响,大明山常绿阔叶林的树冠和林冠状况发生了显著的变化,由半圆球形树冠演变为狭窄的圆柱形树冠,以适应冰冻干扰和气候变化的影响。%[Objective]Through field investigation of 72 permanent plots (each 400m2 )of the south subtropical montane evergreen broad-leaved forest in Damingshan Nature Reserve of Guangxi province,this paper deals with the effects of a severe ice storm disturbance on the crown and canopy condition of south subtropical

  17. Effects of biotic neighbors and habitat heterogeneity on tree seedling survival in a secondary mixed conifer and broad-leaved forest in Changbai Mountain%长白山次生针阔混交林乔木幼苗存活的影响因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘帅; 廖嘉星; 肖翠; 范秀华

    2016-01-01

    基于长白山次生针阔混交林样地,以520个1 m ×1 m幼苗样方中胸径小于1 cm的乔木幼苗为研究对象,选取2013年和2014年的幼苗调查数据,运用广义线性混合模型(GLMM)分析了生物邻体和生境异质性对幼苗存活的影响,探讨了次生针阔混交林幼苗存活影响因素及物种共存机制。结果表明:(1)适宜大树生长的局域生境同样也适宜幼苗的存活,幼苗存活率与土壤含水量和有效氮等土壤养分显著正相关。(2)幼苗个体之间存在明显的竞争,较多的幼苗邻体显著降低幼苗的存活率。同种大树邻体和同种幼苗邻体与幼苗存活显著负相关,表明存在负密度制约效应。(3)随着幼苗年龄的增加,生境异质性对幼苗存活的影响逐渐增大。该研究证实了密度制约效应和生境异质性对幼苗存活有着重要影响,其相对重要性随着幼苗年龄级、功能群以及物种种类而变化。%Aims Our study aimed to understand the effects and the relative importance of biotic neighborhood and habitat heterogeneity for tree seedling survival in a secondary mixed conifer and broad-leaved forest in Changbai Moun-tain, north-eastern China. Methods The generalized mixed linear model was used to examine the relative effects of biotic neighborhood and habitat heterogeneity on seedling survival over two years. Important findingsOur results showed that both biotic neighborhood and habitat heterogeneity had significant effects on the seedling survival at community level. The local environment suitable for the adult growth was also suitable for seedling survival. The soil moisture and soil available nitrogen exhibited significant positive effects on seedling survival. On the other hand, seedling density had significant negative effects on seedling survival due to the individual competition. Particularly, we found significant negative density-dependent effects on seedling sur-vival which was caused by

  18. Study on the interception of precipitation of coniferous plantations and natural broad-leaved forests in mountain region of northern Yanshan%燕山北部山地人工针叶林及天然阔叶林植被层的降水截留量研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    纪晓林; 李强; 许中旗; 陈圆圆

    2013-01-01

    In order to compare regulating effects of the artificial coniferous forests and natural broad-leaved forests on precipitation, method of branch soaking was used to compare interception capacity of larch plantations and natural secondary birch forests in the mountain region of northern Yanshan. Results indicated that, in every period, the canopy interception of larch was higher than the natural secondary birch forest. The canopy interception capabilities of larch young forests, middle-age forests, near-mature forests trees were 0. 44 mm, 0. 74 mm and 0. 69 mm, respectively, and those of birch forests were 0. 25 mm, 0. 33 mm, 0. 49 mm, respectively. However, the interception of larch shrubs was lower than natural secondary birch forests. The total interception amount of larch forest vegetation layers was higher than the natural secondary birch forests. As the age prolonged, the trend of birch forest canopy ability increased gradually and young forests, middle-age forests, near-mature forests trees were 0. 41mm, 0. 38mm and 0. 76mm respectively, while the canopy interception ability of larch forests decreased when they were near-matured.%为了比较人工针叶林及天然阔叶林对降水的调控作用,利用泡枝法对燕山北部山地落叶松人工林及天然次生杨桦林植被层对降水的截留量进行了比较.研究结果表明:在各个年龄阶段,落叶松乔木林冠截留量都高于天然次生杨桦林.落叶松人工林幼龄林、中龄林、近熟林乔木林冠截留量分别为0.44 mm、0.74 mm、0.69 mm,杨桦林则分别为0.25 mm、0.33 mm、0.49 mm;但落叶松人工林灌木的截留量低于天然次生杨桦林;华北落叶松人工林植被层总截留量高于天然次生杨桦林,分别是0.48 mm、0.78 mm、0.74 mm.随着林龄的增加,杨桦林林冠截留量有逐渐增加的趋势,幼龄林、中龄林、近熟林分别为0.41 mm、0.38 mm、0.76 mm;但落叶松林到达近熟林时林冠截留量却有所下降.

  19. 闽北天然阔叶林径阶材种结构分析及出材率表的编制%Compilation of Output Structure of Diameter Grade Wood Assortments and Volume Ratio Table for Natural Broad-Leaved Forest Tree Species in North Fujian Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李晓景; 江希钿; 庄崇洋; 李小铃

    2012-01-01

    应用闽北天然阔叶林现场造材资料,在分析径阶材种结构规律的基础上,选择适合的方程建立材种出材率模型并编制二元材种出材率表.经检验,该表精度较高,在林业生产上有实用价值.为方便生产中应用,还建立了树高曲线模型,由二元材种出材率袁导出了一元材种出材率表.%The volume ratio model of wood assortment was built by choosing the proper equation, and the two dimension merchantable wood assortment volume yielding rate tables were compiled based on structure analyses of diameter grade wood assortments, with on the spot sample timber data collected from the natural broad-leaved forests in the north Fujian Province. The wood assortment volume yielding rate tables were tested to be with high precision and practicable in forestry production. In order to facilitate the production and application, tree height model was established, and the one dimension merchantable wood assortment volume yielding rate tables were derived from the two dimension tables.

  20. Transformation of Carbon and Nitrogen by Earthworms in the Decomposition Processes of Broad-leaved Litters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DONG Weihua; YIN Xiuqin

    2007-01-01

    Earthworms are the important constituents in the decayed food web and the main ecological conditioners in the process of decomposition and nutrient mineralization. The transformation of organic carbon (C) and total nitrogen (N) in the broad-leaved litters ingested by earthworms was researched by means of a laboratory experiment. Experimental samples were collected from broad-leaved Korea Pine mixed forest in Liangshui National Natural Reserve (47°10'50"N, 128°53'20"E) in the northeastern Xiao Hinggan Mountains of Northeast China. The contents of organic C and total N in earthworms, leaf litters and earthworm faeces were analyzed. Results show that the organic C content was in the following order: leaf litters>faeces>earthworms, while total N content was contrary to that of the organic C. The organic C contents in the different leaf litters were in the following order: Tilia amurensis>Betula costata>Acer mono, whereas the total N contents in the different leaf litters were: Betula costata>Tilia amurensis>Acer mono. The contents of organic C and total N in the faeces from the different leaf litters were almost consistent with the contents of the leaf litters. After the leaf litters were ingested by earthworms, the organic C, which was transformed to increase earthworms' weights, accounted for 3.90%-13.31% of the total ingestion by earthworms, while that in the earthworm faeces accounted for 6.14%-13.70%. The transformed organic C through the other metabolism (e.g., respiration) of earthworms accounted for 75.04%-89.92%. The ingested organic C by earthworms was mostly used for metabolic activities. The N ingested by earthworms was less than organic C. It is estimated that 37.08% of total N was transformed to increase the earthworm's weight, 19.97% into earthworm faeces and 47.86% for the consumption of the earthworm's activities. The earthworms not only increased the content of organic C and total N in the soil, but also decreased the values of C/N in

  1. Distribution patterns and carbon and nitrogen contents of Castanopsis platyacantha fine roots, the constructive species of evergreen broad-leaved secondary forest in Wawushan Mountain of Sichuan Province%瓦屋山常绿阔叶次生林建群种扁刺栲的细根分布及其碳氮特征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭勇; 陈冠陶; 梁政; 李顺; 彭天驰; 涂利华

    2016-01-01

    The Wawushan Mountain National Forest Park in Sichuan Province, where there is relatively intact Castanopsis platyacantha-Schima sinensis formations, is a typical representative of the mid-subtropical moist evergreen broad-leaved forest in West China. Using the soil core method, this study investigated the fine root distribution and characteristics of carbon and nitrogen of sample C. platyacantha which is the main constructive species in this formation. The results were as follows: (1) The total fine root biomass of C. platyacantha was 173.62 g·m?2 and the total biomass of live fine roots was 135.29 g·m?2. (2) The fine root biomass, root length density, root surface area and specific root length decreased with the increase of soil depth, and their proportions in 0-30 cm layers were 67.23%, 69.53%, 69.48%and 57.20%, respectively; root length density, root surface area and specific root length decreased significantly with increasing root diameter, and 58.84%, 52.59%and 51.36%of them were in the roots that diameter was less than 1 mm, respectively. (3) Root extinction coefficient in biomass, length and surface area of C. platyacantha fine root increased with the rise of the root diameter. (4) In the first soil layer, the roots C content increased significantly with the rising root diameter, but there was no significant difference in other soil layers;the C content of the roots whose diameter was less than 2 mm in the first soil layer was significantly lower than other soil layers, while the differences of roots C content of greater than 2 mm among soil layers was insignificant. (5) The roots N content decreased with the increase of soil depth and root diameter, while the C/N ratio value was opposite. These results reflected the vertical distribution of the secondary forest underground fine root system and nutrient characteristics, which would provided some basic data for revealing the subsurface ecological processes and the effects of environmental change on

  2. [Soil organic carbon pools and their turnover under two different types of forest in Xiao-xing'an Mountains, Northeast China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Fei; Jiang, Hang; Cui, Xiao-yang

    2015-07-01

    Soil samples collected from virgin Korean pine forest and broad-leaved secondary forest in Xiaoxing'an Mountains, Northeast China were incubated in laboratory at different temperatures (8, 18 and 28 °C) for 160 days, and the data from the incubation experiment were fitted to a three-compartment, first-order kinetic model which separated soil organic carbon (SOC) into active, slow, and resistant carbon pools. Results showed that the soil organic carbon mineralization rates and the cumulative amount of C mineralized (all based on per unit of dry soil mass) of the broad-leaved secondary forest were both higher than that of the virgin Korean pine forest, whereas the mineralized C accounted for a relatively smaller part of SOC in the broad-leaved secondary forest soil. Soil active and slow carbon pools decreased with soil depth, while their proportions in SOC increased. Soil resistant carbon pool and its contribution to SOC were both greater in the broad-leaved secondary forest soil than in the virgin Korean pine forest soil, suggesting that the broad-leaved secondary forest soil organic carbon was relatively more stable. The mean retention time (MRT) of soil active carbon pool ranged from 9 to 24 d, decreasing with soil depth; while the MRT of slow carbon pool varied between 7 and 24 a, increasing with soil depth. Soil active carbon pool and its proportion in SOC increased linearly with incubation temperature, and consequently, decreased the slow carbon pool. Virgin Korean pine forest soils exhibited a higher increasing rate of active carbon pool along temperature gradient than the broad-leaved secondary forest soils, indicating that the organic carbon pool of virgin Korean pine forest soil was relatively more sensitive to temperature change. PMID:26710615

  3. 亚热带常绿阔叶林群落物种多度分布格局对取样尺度的响应%Responses of species-abundance distribution to varying sampling scales in a subtropical broad-leaved forest

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程佳佳; 米湘成; 马克平; 张金屯

    2011-01-01

    We determined the best-fit model for, and explored the mechanisms shaping species-abundance distributions (SADs) by fitting five widely-used SAD distribution models at several scales.We used data collected in 2005 from a 24-ha dynamic plot in an evergreen broad-leaved forest in the Gutianshan National Nature Reserve.We estimated SAD at different sampling scales from the mean value of SADs taken from 100 randomly-selected subplots within the 600 m×400 m Gutianshan plot.We subsequently used the SADs to test the fit of different models, including the broken stick, lognormal distribution, niche preemption, Zipf,Zipf- Mandelbrot, and neutral models.We employed AIC and x2 values to test goodness-of-fit for these models.All computations were conducted using the Vegan package in R 2.7.1.At smaller scales (10 m× 10 m and 20 m×20 m), the broken stick, lognormal distribution, niche preemption, Zipf, and Zipf-Mandelbrot models all fit well to the observed species-abundance distribution.The Zipf-Mandelbrot was the best model at the 20 m×20 m scale.The Lognormal was the best-fit model at the 40 m×40 m scale, and the Zipf-Mandelbrot model was the only suitable one in explaining the observed SAD at scales of 60 m×60 m and 80 m×80 m.None of these models performed well at a scale of 100 m× 100 m, but the neutral model was better at explaining patterns of SADs at larger scales (40 m×40 m to 100 m× 100 m) than smaller scales and it is suitable in explaining patterns of SADs at all scales.Patterns in SAD were scale-dependent, suggesting that SADs at different scales are likely structured by different ecological processes.%为揭示物种多度格局随尺度的变化规律,探讨多度格局形成的机理及生态学过程,作者以古田山亚热带常绿阔叶林24 ha固定监测样地为背景.采用断棍模型(broken stick model)、对数正态模型(Iognormal distribution model)、生态位优先占领模型(preemption model)、Zipf模型(Zipf model

  4. 南亚热带常绿阔叶林林冠不同部位藤本植物的光合生理特征及其对环境因子的适应%Photosynthetic characteristics of canopy-dwelling vines in lower subtropical evergreen broad-leaved forest and response to environmental factors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    江浩; 周国逸; 黄钰辉; 刘世忠; 唐旭利

    2011-01-01

    Aims Vines are important floristic and ecological elements in forests of tropical and subtropical areas; however,few studies have provided information on the photosynthetic characteristics of vines. Our purpose is to characterize the photosynthetic traits of major canopy-dwelling vines in the lower subtropical evergreen broad-leaved forest in southern China.Methods We compared the photosynthetic characteristics of two upper-canopy vines (Dischidia chinensis and Psychotria serpens) and two lower-canopy vines (Fissistigma glaucescens and Piper hancei) in Dinghushan Nature Reserve. We measured maximum photosynthetic rate (Amax), light saturation point (Lsp), light compensation point (lcp), respiration in light (Rday), convexity (K), apparent quantum yield (φ), transpiration rate (Tr) and water utilization efficiency ( WUE) using a LI-6400 system. We also determined environmental factors inside and outsidethe canopy.Important findings Differences of photosynthetic characteristics between the upper and lower canopy-dwelling vines can be largely explained by differences in environmental factors such as photosynthetic active radiation (PAR), temperature and humidity within the forest canopy. Vines located in the upper canopy have lower annual mean Amax and LSP compared with those located in the lower canopy. Amax values of the upper canopy vines D. chinensis and Psychotria serpens are (2.9 ± 0.6) and (6.3 ± 1.3) μmol CO2m-2 ·S-1 , respectively, and their LSP values are (168.5 ± 83.4) and (231.4 ± 147.8) μmol·m-2·s-1, respectively. The Amax values of F. glaucescens and Piper hancei are (8.9 ± 2.9) and (8.6 ± 2.3) μmol CO2·m-2·s-1, respectively, and the LSP values are (491.6 ± 230.8) and (402.3 ± 112.8) μmol·m-2·s-1, respectively. The lower canopy vines have lower LCP compared with the upper canopy vines. The LCP values are (5.6 ± 1.9) and (5.4 ± 1.7) μmol·m-2·s-1 for F. glaucescens and Piper hancei,respectively and (16.1 ± 5.9) and (10.1 ± 5.7)

  5. Effects of Freezing Rain and Snow Disaster on the Plant Diversity in the Subtropical Evergreen Broad-leaved Forest%雨雪冰冻灾害干扰对亚热带常绿阔叶林植物多样性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘足根; 袁小兰; 钟梁; 李铭书

    2014-01-01

    2008年雨雪冰冻灾害后,在崇义县选取了4块亚热带常绿阔叶林作为固定样地,分别记为P1,P2,P3和P4,连续5年监测了雨雪冰冻灾害对其植物多样性的影响。结果表明:雨雪冰冻灾害后的5年内,样地内的马尾松、拟赤杨和桤木消失了,增加了杜英;每块样地重要值排第一的树种在雨雪冰冻灾害后,其重要值都减小了,这些树种主要有槠树、栲树和木荷。雨雪冰冻灾害后,乔木层植物丰富度指数P 1和P3样地增大, P4样地减小, P2样地变化较小;植物多样性指数P1样地增大,P2和P3样地变化较小,P4样地减小;植物均匀度指数P1样地增大,P2和P3样地基本未变,P4样地变化较小。林下植物种类数增加了黄瑞木、猕猴桃、白背叶等植物,而黄杨、野甘菊、苦竹等植物消失了,铁芒萁和茅草数量增加较多。从2011年开始,林内郁闭度恢复到了灾害前水平。%After freezing rain and snow disaster in 2008,four fixed sample plots (P1、P2、P3 and P4) were selected to measure the effects on the plant diversity of the subtropical evergreen broad-leaved for-est in Chongyi County from 2008 to 2012.The result showed that Pinus massoniana,Alniphyllum fortunei and Alnus cremastogyne disappeared,and Elaeocarpus decipiens appeared.The important value of tree species which ranked the first before freezing rain and snow disaster was reduced.These tree species in-cluded Oachestnut,castanopsis fargesii,and Schima superba.The important value of Choerospondias axil-laris increased within five years after the freezing rain and snow disaster.P1 and P2 increased,P4 re-duced,P3 changed little for the Margalef index of the arbor layer.P1 increased,P2 and P3 changed lit-tle,P4 reduced for the Shannon-wiener index of the arbor layer.P1 increased,P2 and P3 basically un-changed,P4 reduced for the Pielou index of the arbor layer.The species kinds and the species number increased

  6. Effects of Soil Biological Characteristics on Physiochemical Properties in Evergreen Broad-leaved Forest in Middle Yunnan Plateau, China%滇中高原常绿阔叶林土壤生物学特性对土壤理化性质的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨媛媛; 黎建强; 陈奇伯; 赵维娜; 刘佩琪; 丁延龙

    2016-01-01

    Soil enzymes activities and soil microbes are the important components of soil ecosystem, particular for forest soil, and also the key factor to determine the soil function. Predicting impacts of soil biological characteristics on physiochemical properties requires a clear understanding of relationship between physicochemical properties and both enzymes activities and soil microbes. In this study, the indices of physicochemical properties, enzymes activities and soil microbes were measured in evergreen broad-leaved forest located in Middle Yunnan Plateau, and the relationship between physicochemical properties and both enzymes activities and soil microbes were analyzed using path analysis. The results showed that: (1) The soil moisture content, field capacity, organic matter, total nitrogen, alkali-hydro nitrogen, total phosphorus, available potassium content were decreased with the increasing of soil depth, and the soil bulk density, pH, total potassium content were increases with increasing of soil depth; (2) Soil urease, catalase, invertase activity and bacteria, actinomyces, fungi is gradually reduce with the increasing of soil depth; (3) Correlation analysis indicated that the physiochemical properties was significantly correlated with both enzymes activities and soil microbes; And (4) the path analyses suggested that soil urease and catalase are the main contributing factors to soil physical properties, and the urease, catalase, invertase and bacteria fungus had significant effects on chemical properties.%土壤酶活性和微生物是构成土壤生态系统的重要组分,也是决定土壤功能的关键因子,研究土壤生物学特性对理化性质的影响可以阐明影响土壤理化性质的因子,从而为林地土壤质量的恢复与保育提供科学依据。文章通过野外调查与室内实验相结合的方法进行样品采集与处理,结合相关分析与通径分析的数据分析方法对云南省玉溪市磨盘山常绿阔

  7. Quantitative Analysis of Tree Species Diversity in Different Oak (Quercus spp.) Dominated Forests in Garhwal Himalaya, India

    OpenAIRE

    Gajendra SINGH; Gopal S. RAWAT

    2012-01-01

    Himalayan broad-leaved forests are mainly dominated by oak (Quercus spp.) species. Oak species with other tree species provide numerous ecosystem services and serve as lifeline for local inhabitants. Overall tree diversity and their status in different oak dominated forests viz., Quercus leucotrichophora (1500-2200 m), Q. floribunda (2201-2700 m) and Q. semecarpifolia (2701-3300 m) were studied in Garhwal, Himalaya. A total of 54 tree species (40 genera) in Q. leucotrichophora, 43 tree specie...

  8. 透光抚育对长白山"栽针保阔"红松林土壤碳储量影响%Effect of liberation cutting on the soil carbon storage of a Korean pine forest restored by planting conifers and reserving broad-leaved trees in Changbai Mountains of China.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晓亮; 牟长城; 张小单; 韩阳瑞; 庄宸; 曹万亮; 程家友; 郑曈

    2015-01-01

    We studied the effect of liberation cutting on the soil carbon storage and the litter carbon storage of a mid-term (33-year-old) Korean pine forest which was restored by planting conifers and reserving broad-leaved trees by using crown thinning control test method in Changbai Mountains of China. Five levels of cutting intensity were applied, namely, non-cutting ( control) , mild liberation cutting (25%) , moderate liberation cutting ( 50%) , heavy liberation cutting ( 75%) , and clear cutting ( 100%) ( cutting intensity refers to volume percentage) . The main research results were as follows. The liberation cutting had certain effects on the soil bulk density ((0. 83 ± 0. 02) -(1. 15 ± 0. 03)g/cm3) and the soil carbon concentration ((43. 36 ± 1. 60) -(70. 26 ± 1. 94) g/kg) of the Korean pine forest. Compared to the control, moderate liberation cutting decreased the soil bulk density by 8. 4% (P<0. 05), but increased the soil carbon concentration by 14. 9% ( P<0. 05 ) . Heavy liberation cutting and clear cutting increased the soil bulk density by 23. 3% and 27. 1% ( P<0. 05 ) , and degraded the soil carbon concentration by 23. 7% and 29. 1%, respectively ( P<0. 05 ) . Mild liberation cutting had no significant effect on the two parameters. The liberation cutting had great effect on the soil carbon storage ((13. 12 ± 1. 57)-(23. 46 ± 2. 03) kg/m2) of the Korean pine forest. Compared to the control, moderate liberation cutting led to the increase of soil carbon storage by 12. 8% ( P<0. 05 ) , while heavy liberation cutting and clear cutting lowered it by 29. 9% and 36. 9%, respectively ( P<0. 05 ) . Mild liberation cutting had no significant effect on it. The liberation cutting had remarkable effect on the litter carbon storage( (2. 13 ± 0. 39) -(2. 82 ± 0. 37) t/ha) of the Korean pine forest. Moderate liberation cutting resulted in the increase of the litter carbon storage by 19. 5% ( P<0. 05 ) compared to the control, while clear cutting reduced it by 9. 8

  9. 地形和土壤特性对亚热带常绿阔叶林内植物功能性状的影响%Effects of topographic variations and soil characteristics on plant functional traits in a subtropical evergreen broad-leaved forest

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁佳; 吴茜; 闫慧; 张守仁

    2011-01-01

    To elucidate the driving factors behind plant functional traits, especially in mountainous areas, we explored how variation in topography and soil characteristics affects ecophysiological and morphological traits of woody plants within the Gutianshan 24-ha plot in Zhejiang Province. This site is in a typical subtropical broad-leaved forest. During the summers of 2008 and 2009, we measured three ecophysiological traits (chlorophyll content, chlorophyll fluorescence parameters Fy/Fro and PIABS, and stem sapwood xylem specific hydraulic conductivity) and four morphological traits (stomata density, specific leaf area, leaf thickness, and ratio of leaf length to leaf width) among 115 woody species in the field. Redundancy analysis was conducted to identify the most influential environmental factors from our topographical factors (mean elevation, convexity, slope, and aspect) and five soil parameters (moisture, total nitrogen content, total phosphorus content, total carbon content, and pH). Leaf chlorophyll content was negatively correlated with elevation and convexity, but positively correlated with soil moisture and total nitrogen content. The two chlorophyll fluorescence parameters (Fv/Fm and PlABS) were strongly negatively correlated with soil total nitrogen and phosphorus content; these variables were likely interrelated with low soil pH values. Stem sapwood xylem specific hydraulic conductivity was positively correlated with soil moisture and specific leaf area was positively correlated with elevation. Topographical variables explained 10.4% of total variation in functional traits;mean elevation was the most powerful explanatory variable, followed by convexity, slope and finally, aspect.Soil parameters explained 13.9% of the total functional trait variation; and soil moisture was the most powerful factor, followed by total nitrogen content, pH value, total phosphorous content, total carbon content and the ratio of nitrogen and phosphorous. At this scale and at

  10. 基于模型数据融合的长白山阔叶红松林碳循环模拟%CARBON CYCLE MODELING OF A BROAD-LEAVED KOREAN PINE FOREST IN CHANGBAI MOUNTAIN OF CHINA USING THE MODEL-DATA FUSION APPROACH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张黎; 于贵瑞; LUO Yi-qi; 何洪林; 张雷明

    2009-01-01

    Aims Our objective was to use multiple terrestrial carbon observations to improve existing terrestrial ecosystem models. Methods We conducted a Bayesian probabilistic inversion to estimate the key parameter (i.e., carbon residence time) of a terrestrial ecosystem model (TECO) by using biometric and eddy covariance flux data measured at a temperate broad-leaved Korean pine forest in Changbai Mountain (CBS) of China from 2003 to 2005. We then estimated carbon stocks, carbon fluxes and uncertainties with posterior estimates of parameters. Biometric measurements consisted of foliage biomass, fine root biomass, woody biomass, litterfall, soil organic matter (SOM) and soil respiration. Important findings Residence times of carbon for most pools can be constrained by eddy covariance flux and biometric measurements, except for the passive soil organic matter pool. Estimated residence times of C ranged from 2 to 6 months for litter and microbial biomass pools, 1 to 2 years for foliage and fine root biomass, 8 to 16 years for slow SOM pool and 77-109 and 409-1 879 years for woody biomass and passive SOM pools, respectively. Model results showed that the prediction uncertainties of carbon stocks and accumulated carbon fluxes increased with time. When air temperature increased 10% and 20%, annual gross primary productivity (GPP) increased 6.5% and 9.9%, but annual net ecosystem productivity (NEP) changed with soil temperature. If soil temperature is constant, annual NEP increased 11.4%-21.9% and 17.6%-33.1%, while if soil temperature increased 10% and 20%, annual NEP decreased to a level that was lower than that under ambient temperature. Given the same climate condition and seasonal variation for leaf area index during 2003-2005, annual NEP and soil respiration in 2020 would be 163±12 and 721±14 g C·m~(-2)·a~(-1). Markov Chain Monte Carlo method is an effective way to estimate model parameters and to evaluate model prediction uncertainties. However, more studies are

  11. [Quantitative analysis of different restoration stages during natural succession processes of subalpine dark brown coniferous forests in western Sichuan, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jiang-Ming; Liu, Shi-Rong; Shi, Zuo-Min; Zhang, Yuan-Dong; Chen, Bao-Yu

    2007-08-01

    By adopting space as a substitute for time, and based on the approaches of inter-specific association, PCA and optimal division, the restoration stages of various secondary forest communities originated from the natural succession processes of bamboo-dark brown coniferous and moss-dark brown coniferous old-growth forests after clear-cut were quantified at different temporal series (20, 30, 30, 40, 50 and 160-200 years). The results showed that Betula albo-sinensis, Salix rehderiana, Acer mono, A. laxiflorum, Prunus tatsienensis, Hydrangea xanthoneura, Tilia chinensis and Salix dolia were the declining species groups with progressive restoration processes from secondary forest to mature moss and bamboo-dark brown coniferous forests, Sorbus hupehensis, S. koehneana and P. pilosiuscula were the transient species groups, and Abies faxoniana, Picea purpurea, Tsuga chinensis and P. wilsonii were the progressive species groups. During the period of 20-40 years restoration, the secondary forests were dominated by broad-leaved tree species, such as B. albo-sinensis, and the main forest types were moss--B. albo-sinensis forest and bamboo--B. albo-sinensis forest. Through 50 years natural succession, the secondary forests turned into conifer/broad-leaved mixed forest dominated by B. albo-sinensis and A. faxoniana, and the main forest types were moss--B. albo-sinensis--A. faxoniana forest and bamboo--B. albo-sinensis--A. faxoniana forest. The remained 160-200 years old coniferous forests without cutting were dominated by old-growth stage A. faxoniana, and the main forest types were moss--A. faxoniana forest and bamboo--A. faxoniana forest.

  12. [Temperature sensitivity of soil organic carbon mineralization and β-glucosidase enzymekinetics in the northern temperate forests at different altitudes, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Jin-juan; Li, Dan-dan; Zhang, Xin-yu; He, Nian-peng; Bu, Jin-feng; Wang, Qing; Sun, Xiao-min; Wen, Xue-fa

    2016-01-01

    Soil samples, which were collected from three typical forests, i.e., Betula ermanii forest, coniferous mixed broad-leaved forest, and Pinus koraiensis forest, at different altitudes along the southern slope of Laotuding Mountain of Changbai Mountain range in Liaoning Province of China, were incubated over a temperature gradient in laboratory. Soil organic carbon mineralization rates (Cmin), soil β-1,4-glucosidase (βG) kinetics and their temperature sensitivity (Q₁₀) were measured. The results showed that both altitude and temperature had significant effects on Cmin · Cmin increased with temperature and was highest in the B. ermanii forest. The temperature sensitivity of Cmin [Q₁₀(Cmin)] ranked in order of B. ermanii forest > P. koraiensis forest > coniferous mixed broad-leaved forest, but did not differ significantly among the three forests. Both the maximum activity (Vmax) and the Michaelis constant (Km) of the βG responded positively to temperature for all the forests. The temperature sensitivity of Vmax [Q₁₀(Vmax)] ranged from 1.78 to 1.90, and the temperature sensitivity of Km [Q₁₀(Km)] ranged from 1.79 to 2.00. The Q₁₀(Vmax)/Q10(Km) ratios were significantly greater in the B. ermanii soil than in the other two forest soils, suggesting that the βG kinetics-dependent impacts of the global warming or temperature increase on the decomposition of soil organic carbon were temperature sensitive for the forests at the higher altitudes.

  13. Trade-off between leaf size and number in current-year twigs of deciduous broad-leaved woody species at different altitudes on Qingliang Mountain, southeastern China%清凉峰不同海拔木本植物小枝内叶大小-数量权衡关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨冬梅; 占峰; 张宏伟

    2012-01-01

    Aims Trade-offs are fundamental to life-history strategies theory, and the leaf size and number trade-off is an important determinant of leaf-size evolution. It also has been proposed that this trade-off is dependent on habitat, but this is not well tested. Our objectives were to test whether the negative, isometric relationship between leaf size and number is conserved in different habitats and to explore the effects of altitude change on the relationship between the leaf size and number.Methods Leaf area, mass and number and twig mass and stem mass of current-year twigs were measured for 61 deciduous broad-leaved woody species within three altitude-based habitats on Qingliang Mountain, southeastern China. The standardized major axis estimation method and the phylogenetically independent contrast method were used to examine the scaling relationship between leaf size (leaf mass and leaf area) and leafing intensity (twig mass and stem mass) within current-year twigs.Important findings Significantly negative and isometric scaling relationships between leaf size and leafing intensity were found to be consistent in all three altitude-based habitats, regardless of whether leaf/twig size was expressed as area or mass. However, the intercepts of these relationships significantly decreased with increasing altitude, suggesting that habitats constrain the leaf size that can be supported by a given leafing intensity. The middle-attitude species usually had significant upper shifts along the common slopes relative to the high-altitude species. This suggested that the middle altitude is a more suitable habitat with high nutrients and moderate climate conditions for plants, compared to the high altitude with low temperatures and nutrients.%权衡关系是生活史对策理论的基础,叶大小-数量的权衡关系对理解叶大小进化具有重要的意义.该研究以单叶面积和单叶片干重表示叶大小,用小枝干重和小枝茎干重

  14. A robot to detect and control broad-leaved dock (Rumex obtusifolius L.) in grassland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evert, van F.K.; Samsom, J.; Polder, G.; Vijn, M.P.; Dooren, van H.J.C.; Lamaker, E.J.J.; Heijden, van der G.W.A.M.; Kempenaar, C.; Zalm, van der A.J.A.; Lotz, L.A.P.

    2011-01-01

    Broad-leaved dock is a common and troublesome grassland weed with a wide geographic distribution. In conventional farming the weed is normally controlled by using a selective herbicide, but in organic farming manual removal is the best option to control this weed. The objective of our work was to de

  15. Hydrological Characteristics of Forest Litter and Soil in Different Successional Stages in the Hilly Region of Central Hubei%鄂中低丘区不同演替阶段森林凋落物和土壤水文特征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾秀红; 曾毅; 周志翔; 高大雄; 谢经荣; 郭国志

    2013-01-01

    The hydrological characteristics of the litter and soil in three different forest successional stages as coniferous forest,coniferous and broad-leaved mixed forest,and deciduous broad-leaved forest (8 forest stands) were studied in Taizishan forest farm,central Hubei,by using the method of substituting time with space.The results showed that the coniferous and broad-leaved mixed forest had the biggest total litter amount(9.76~12.01 t/hm2),the maximum water holding ratio of the litter in deciduous broad-leaved forest was the highest.The effective retain capacity of litters under coniferous and broad-leaved mixed forests and deciduous broad-leaved forests were greater.And there were no significant differences between them.The effective retain capacity of the litter in Quercus acutissima mixed stand was the biggest,reaching to 16.81 t/hm2.In different successional periods,the order of NCWHC(non-capillary water-holding capacity) and MWHC(maximal water-holding capacity) below the depth of 0-40 cm soil layer was as follows:Coniferous forest <coniferous and broad-leaved mixed forest <deciduous broad-leaved forest.Water-holding capacity of soil under Quercus acutissima mixed stand was the highest(2 145.8 t/hm2).In conclusion,the deciduous broad-leaved forest was optimal among three forest types in terms of water conservation,suggested that during the restoration of forest vegetation in study area deciduous broad-leaved forests should be improved in the process of the forest succession.%采用空间代替时间的方法,研究鄂中低丘区太子山林场针叶林、针阔混交林和落叶阔叶林3个不同演替阶段(共8类林分)林下凋落物和土壤的水文特性.结果表明:太子山林场3个演替阶段的林下凋落物总量以针阔混交林最大(介于9.76~12.01 t/hm2之间),林下凋落物最大持水率以落叶阔叶林最高;针阔混交林与落叶阔叶林林下凋落物对降水的有效拦蓄量较高,但两者差异不显著,其中

  16. Influence of Overstory on Seasonal Variability of Understory Herbs in Primary Broad-leaved Korean Pine Forest of Changbai Mountain%长白山原始阔叶红松林林下草本植物多样性格局及其影响因素

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏富才; 潘春芳2; 赵秀海2; 何海燕3; 周海城3

    2012-01-01

    于2009年生长季(5~9月份)对布置在1.0 hm2的原始阔叶红松林样地内的100个草本样方(1m×1 m)进行物种及其植株高度、盖度以及土壤因子、光照环境进行调查,分析不同层片与土壤因子、光照环境的相关性以及乔木层、灌木层、土壤因子、光照环境对草本层多样性格局的影响,以阐明长白山阔叶红松林林下草本层多样性格局及其影响因素.结果表明:(1)阔叶红松林下的草本植物存在明显的季节动态变化,其中,5月份黑水银莲花(Anemone amurensis)、延胡索(Corydalis ambigua)等早春短命植物占优势,6月份部分早春短命植物和早夏植物、晚夏植物同时出现,物种丰富度最高,7月份是夏季植物的生长旺季,物种多样性最高,8~9月份草本植物逐渐枯萎.(2)灌木层的多样性与草本层的多样性呈极显著正相关,灌木层的株数密度与不同月份的草本层盖度呈正相关、与草本层多样性呈负相关,而乔木层对草本层盖度和多样性的影响均不显著.(3)土壤速效钾、光照和土壤水分是关联乔木层和草本层的重要环境因子.研究认为,阔叶红松林下的乔木层通过影响光照、降水及枯落物的含量而间接影响草本层的多样性格局.%The relationships among the vertical layers (tree-, shrub- and herb-layer) of a temperate forest and the power of environmental and spatial factors were investigated to explain the variation in two attributes of herb-layer;cover and diversity. In the 1. 0 hm2 study site,a total of 100 1-m2 sub-plots (each 20 mX 20 m has 4 1-m2 sub-plots) were monitored monthly from May to September in 2009. Among the environmental factors, tree-and shrub-layer related factors (density, canopy cover and Shannon-diversity) , soil attributes (soil organic matter, available nitrogen, available phosphorus, available potassium, soil water and pH) and light regime (LAI,PPFD and canopy presence) were studied. The results

  17. 小兴安岭凉水典型阔叶红松林动态监测样地:物种组成与群落结构%Species composition and community structure of a typical mixed broad-leaved-Korean pine (Pinus koraiensis) forest plot in Liangshui Nature Reserve, Northeast China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐丽娜; 金光泽

    2012-01-01

    The mixed broadleaved-Korean pine {Pinus koraiensis) forest (MBKF) represents the climax vegetation type of the eastern mountainous area of Northeast China. It is divided into three categories according to community structure and species composition, including southern MBKF, typical MBKF, and northern MBKF. To monitor long-term dynamics of the typical MBKF, we established a 9-ha plot following the field protocol of the 50 ha plot in Panama (Barro Colorado Island, BCI) in 2005 in Liangshui National Nature Reserve of Heilongjiang Province. All free-standing plant species with DBH (diameter at breast height) =1 cm were mapped, tagged, and identified to species in the plot. In the 2010 census, we documented 48 woody species with 21,355 individuals, belonging to 34 genera and 20 families. Most of the species belong to the Changbai Mountain plant flora, with a minor subtropical plant species component. The DBH distribution of all individuals showed a reversed "J" type, indicating well regenerated for the community. The DBH distribution for the canopy, sub-canopy, and middle layers and the understory layer showed the reversed "J" and "L" distributions, respectively. The DBH pattern of the nine dominant species can be classified into three categories: approximate normal, reversed "J", and "L" distribution. Spatial pattern analysis showed that the major tree species were aggregated, and aggregation intensity decreased as DBH increased. Further analysis showed that spatial distribution was closely related to topography and varied with DBH classes. For example, the distribution of Pinus koraiensis and Tilia amurensis was significantly affected by topography (P < 0.05); however, the distribution of Abies nephrolepis, Acer ukurunduense, and Ulmus laciniata correlated significantly with topography at diameter classes of I (DBH < 10 cm) and II (10 cm < DBH < 30 cm). The distribution of Betula costata and Acer tegmentosum was also significantly correlated with topography at a

  18. Variability in radial sap flux density patterns and sapwood area among seven co-occurring temperate broad-leaved tree species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebauer, Tobias; Horna, Viviana; Leuschner, Christoph

    2008-12-01

    Forest transpiration estimates are frequently based on xylem sap flux measurements in the outer sections of the hydro-active stem sapwood. We used Granier's constant-heating technique with heating probes at various xylem depths to analyze radial patterns of sap flux density in the sapwood of seven broad-leaved tree species differing in wood density and xylem structure. Study aims were to (1) compare radial sap flux density profiles between diffuse- and ring-porous trees and (2) analyze the relationship between hydro-active sapwood area and stem diameter. In all investigated species except the diffuse-porous beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) and ring-porous ash (Fraxinus excelsior L.), sap flux density peaked at a depth of 1 to 4 cm beneath the cambium, revealing a hump-shaped curve with species-specific slopes. Beech and ash reached maximum sap flux densities immediately beneath the cambium in the youngest annual growth rings. Experiments with dyes showed that the hydro-active sapwood occupied 70 to 90% of the stem cross-sectional area in mature trees of diffuse-porous species, whereas it occupied only about 21% in ring-porous ash. Dendrochronological analyses indicated that vessels in the older sapwood may remain functional for 100 years or more in diffuse-porous species and for up to 27 years in ring-porous ash. We conclude that radial sap flux density patterns are largely dependent on tree species, which may introduce serious bias in sap-flux-derived forest transpiration estimates, if non-specific sap flux profiles are assumed.

  19. Uptake of perfluoroalkyl acids in the leaves of coniferous and deciduous broad-leaved trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Huanhuan; Liu, Wei; He, Xin; Wang, Yu; Zhang, Qian

    2015-07-01

    Analytical methods for determining perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) in leaves were developed to quantify a suite of analytes in both coniferous and deciduous broad-leaved trees. Sodium hydroxide-methanol and solid-phase extraction was selected as the extracting and cleanup strategy for PFAA analysis. Ten perfluorocarboxylic acids (PFCAs) and 4 perfluorosulfonic acids (PFSAs) were monitored in 7 kinds of leaves grown in the urban areas of Dalian, China. The results show that coniferous tree leaves take up more PFAAs than broad-leaved tree leaves, with the highest amount of 150 ng/g in pine needles. Leaf PFCA levels were much higher than PFSAs level. Short carbon-chain PFCAs with 3 to 6 perfluorinated carbons account for approximately 40% to 80% of the total leaf PFAAs, where uptake decreased with increasing carbon chain length. Temporal observation of leaf PFAAs revealed no significant variation of concentrations in the leaves over a weekly interval and the absence of significant seasonal change in pine needles and sophora. The present study provides some evidence for the accumulation of PFAAs in leaves, which is valuable for understanding their environmental behavior and the development of alternative bioindicator.

  20. [Effects of soil temperature and moisture on soil respiration in different forest types in Changbai Mountain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Miao; Ji, Lanzhu; Li, Qiurong; Liu, Yanqiu

    2003-08-01

    The effects of soil temperature (0, 5, 15, 25, 35 degrees C) and water content on soil respiration in three forest types in Changbai Mountain were evaluated in laboratory condition. The results indicated that the soil respiration rate was positively correlated to soil temperature from 0 to 35 degrees C and it increased with soil water content from 0.21 to 0.37 kg.kg-1. The soil respiration rate decreased with soil water content when water content was over the range. The result suggested the interactive effects of temperature and water content on soil respiration. There were significant differences in soil respiration among the various forest types and the highest was in broad leaf Korean pine forest, then in erman's birch forest, and it was the lowest in dark coniferous forest. The optimal condition for soil respiration in broad-leaved Korean pine forest was at 35 degrees C under 0.37 kg.kg-1 water content, and it was at 25 degrees C under 0.21 kg.kg-1 in dark coniferous forest and at 35 degrees C under 0.37 kg.kg-1 water content in erman's birch forest. Because the forests of broad leaf Korean pine, dark coniferous and erman's birch are located at various altitudes, the soil temperatures had 4-5 degrees C variation in different forest types during the same period. The soil respiration rates measured in brown pine mountain soil were lower than those in dark brown forest and they were higher in mountain grass forest soil than those in brown pine mountain soil. PMID:14655349

  1. Seasonal and yearly variations in light use and nitrogen use by seedlings of four deciduous broad-leaved tree species invading larch plantations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitaoka, Satoshi; Koike, Takayoshi

    2005-04-01

    Several deciduous broad-leaved tree species, differing in leaf phenology, invade larch (Larix kaempferii (Lamb.) Carrière) plantations in Japan. The understory light environment of larch forests changes drastically between the leafy and leafless periods. To determine how the invading seedlings exploit the changing light environment, and if phenological differences reflect the light- and nitrogen-use traits of the seedlings, we measured leaf phenology, seasonal changes in light-saturated photosynthetic rate (P(sat)), leaf nitrogen (N) content (N(area)), chlorophyll/nitrogen ratio (Chl/N), specific leaf area (SLA) and N remobilization rate (NRMR) over 3 years. The mid-successional or gap-phase species, Magnolia hypoleuca Siebold & Zucc., had a short leafy period and high P(sat) and NRMR. In contrast, two late-successional tree species, Prunus ssiori Friedr. Schmidt, which undergoes leaf flush before larch, and Carpinus cordata Blume, which maintains green leaves until frost, both had low P(sat) and NRMR but exploited the opportunity for growth during the period when the larch canopy trees were leafless. Quercus mongolica Fisch. ex Ledeb. var. crispula (Blume) Ohashi, a mid-late-successional species that underwent leaf flush at the same time as the overstory larch, had values of photosynthetic parameters between those of the gap-phase and late-successional species. Among species, M. hypoleuca and Q. mongolica had higher photosynthetic rates and photosynthetic N-use efficiencies. In all species, the relationship between N(area) and P(sat) showed species-specific yearly fluctuations; however, there was no yearly fluctuation in the relationship between N(area) and P(sat) at CO2 saturation. Yearly fluctuations in the N(area)-P(sat) relationship appeared to be induced by changes in SLA and N-use characteristics, which in turn are affected by climatic variations.

  2. Effects of Mixture Silviculture of Larix kaempferi and Natural-Regenerated Broad-Leaved Trees%日本落叶松与天然萌芽阔叶树人工混交培育效果的分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田永霞

    2016-01-01

    通过对日本落叶松与天然萌生阔叶树人工混交林的调查分析,结果表明:日本落叶松与天然萌芽阔叶树人工混交培育降低了培育成本,提高了生态效益,混交林培育28 a 后,林分生长稳定,生产力较高;混交林中的植物种类丰富,数量较多,各层次的物种多样性指数均好于人工营造的日本落叶松与白桦针阔混交林和日本落叶松纯林;日本落叶松与天然萌生阔叶树人工混交林,对恢复森林生态原始林貌有一定促进作用。%Mixture plantation of Larix kaempferi and natural-regenerated broad-leaved trees were investigated.Re-sult shows that silviculture of Larix kaempferi and natural-regenerated broad-leaved trees reduce costs and improve the eco-efficiency,growth of the stand is stable after silviculturing mixed forest for 28 years and the productivity is more higher;plant species of mixed forest is abundant ,the number are larger;all levels of species diversity index are optimal than that of Larix kaempferi ,coniferous and broad-leaved mixed forest and pure forest of Larix kaempferi .Larix kaempferi and natural-regenerated broad-leaved trees have a certain promotion role in restoring original appearance of forest ecology.

  3. Response of Termite (Blattodea: Termitoidae) Assemblages to Lower Subtropical Forest Succession: A Case Study in Dinghushan Biosphere Reserve, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhi-Qiang; Ke, Yun-Ling; Zeng, Wen-Hui; Zhang, Shi-Jun; Wu, Wen-Jing

    2016-02-01

    Termite (Blattodea: Termitoidae) assemblages have important ecological functions and vary in structure between habitats, but have not been studied in lower subtropical forests. To examine whether differences in the richness and relative abundance of termite species and functional groups occur in lower subtropical regions, termite assemblages were sampled in Dinghushan Biosphere Reserve, China, among pine forest, pine and broad-leaved mixed forest (mixed forest), and monsoon evergreen broad-leaved forest (monsoon forest). The dominant functional group was wood-feeding termites (family Termitidae), and the mixed forest hosted the greatest richness and relative abundance. Soil-feeding termites were absent from the lower subtropical system, while humus-feeding termites were sporadically distributed in mixed forest and monsoon forest. The species richness and functional group abundance of termites in our site may be linked to the forest succession. Altitude, soil temperature, air temperature, surface air relative humidity, and litter depth were significant influences on species and functional group diversity. PMID:26577861

  4. Response of Termite (Blattodea: Termitoidae) Assemblages to Lower Subtropical Forest Succession: A Case Study in Dinghushan Biosphere Reserve, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhi-Qiang; Ke, Yun-Ling; Zeng, Wen-Hui; Zhang, Shi-Jun; Wu, Wen-Jing

    2016-02-01

    Termite (Blattodea: Termitoidae) assemblages have important ecological functions and vary in structure between habitats, but have not been studied in lower subtropical forests. To examine whether differences in the richness and relative abundance of termite species and functional groups occur in lower subtropical regions, termite assemblages were sampled in Dinghushan Biosphere Reserve, China, among pine forest, pine and broad-leaved mixed forest (mixed forest), and monsoon evergreen broad-leaved forest (monsoon forest). The dominant functional group was wood-feeding termites (family Termitidae), and the mixed forest hosted the greatest richness and relative abundance. Soil-feeding termites were absent from the lower subtropical system, while humus-feeding termites were sporadically distributed in mixed forest and monsoon forest. The species richness and functional group abundance of termites in our site may be linked to the forest succession. Altitude, soil temperature, air temperature, surface air relative humidity, and litter depth were significant influences on species and functional group diversity.

  5. Influences of leaf litter replacement on soil biochemical characteristics of main planted forests in Qinling Mountains of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zengwen LIU; Erjun DUAN; Wenjun GAO

    2009-01-01

    Long-term continuous growth of the same tree species in planted pure forest will lead to soil polarization and degradation. Mixed forestation or litter replacement between different needle- and broad-leaved forests are effective measures, except fertilization, to control soil polarization according to the mutual compensation principle of different tree species. Through a two-year leaf litter replacement experiment in 4 typical planted pure forests of Larix kaempferi, Pinus tabulaeformis, Catalpa fargesii and Quercus aliena var. acuteserrata in Qinling Mountains of China, influences of leaf litter replacement on soil biochemical characteristics and their interspecific relationships were studied and main conclusions were reached as follows. (1) Annual leaf litter decomposition rate of broadleaved forests was 33.70% higher than those of needleleaved forests and increased by 8.35%-12.15% when needle-leaved litter was replaced with broad-leaved forests, whereas it decreased by 5.38%-9.49% when broad-leaved litter was replaced with needle-leaved forests. (2) Leaf litter replacement between needle- and broad-leaved forests popularly raised the contents of organic C, available N, P and K in soil, whose content increments in the needle-leaved forests (8.70%-35.84%) were obviously more than those in the broad-leaved forests (3.73%-10.44%), and in the former, the content increments after replacement with the litter of Catalpa fargesii (24.63%-35.84%) were more than those after replacement with the litter ofQuercus aliena var. acuteserrata (8.70% 28.15%). Furthermore, the litter replacement was found to make the soil pH of needle-leaved forests developed from light-acid to neutral. (3) Litter replacement of the needleleaved forests with the broad-leaved litter popularly raised enzyme activities, amounts of microorganisms and contents of micro-biomass C and N in soil, the increments of which after replacement with the litter of Catalpa fargesii were also more than those after

  6. Optimisation of hot-water application technology for the control of broad-leaved dock (Rumex obtusifolius

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roy Latsch

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In organic farming, the control of broad-leaved dock (Rumex obtusifolius via hot-water treatment of the upper root region (hypocotyl is a new alternative to the current standard control method involving manual digging-out of the roots. This comparative study looks at five different hot-water application techniques. The aim is to optimise the control method in terms of water and energy requirement to obtain a mortality rate of the treated plants of at least 80%. The studied parameters were the application, the amount of water, the water temperature, the soil moisture content and the soil type. In total, 813 plants of varying size were treated (120-225 plants per treatment. The success of each treatment was rated 12 weeks after it was applied. Based on the results, the preferred treatment in terms of water and energy requirement was a commercially available rotary nozzle. With this nozzle, for example, at 40 vol.-% soil moisture, 1.6 L of water at a temperature of 90°C was necessary for successful Rumex control. The rotary nozzle could be used as a non-contact system, and was therefore the most user-friendly of the application techniques examined.

  7. Regeneration of different plant functional types in a Masson pine forest following pine wilt disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guang Hu

    Full Text Available Pine wilt disease is a severe threat to the native pine forests in East Asia. Understanding the natural regeneration of the forests disturbed by pine wilt disease is thus critical for the conservation of biodiversity in this realm. We studied the dynamics of composition and structure within different plant functional types (PFTs in Masson pine forests affected by pine wilt disease (PWD. Based on plant traits, all species were assigned to four PFTs: evergreen woody species (PFT1, deciduous woody species (PFT2, herbs (PFT3, and ferns (PFT4. We analyzed the changes in these PFTs during the initial disturbance period and during post-disturbance regeneration. The species richness, abundance and basal area, as well as life-stage structure of the PFTs changed differently after pine wilt disease. The direction of plant community regeneration depended on the differential response of the PFTs. PFT1, which has a higher tolerance to disturbances, became dominant during the post-disturbance regeneration, and a young evergreen-broad-leaved forest developed quickly after PWD. Results also indicated that the impacts of PWD were dampened by the feedbacks between PFTs and the microclimate, in which PFT4 played an important ecological role. In conclusion, we propose management at the functional type level instead of at the population level as a promising approach in ecological restoration and biodiversity conservation.

  8. Regeneration of different plant functional types in a Masson pine forest following pine wilt disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Guang; Xu, Xuehong; Wang, Yuling; Lu, Gao; Feeley, Kenneth J; Yu, Mingjian

    2012-01-01

    Pine wilt disease is a severe threat to the native pine forests in East Asia. Understanding the natural regeneration of the forests disturbed by pine wilt disease is thus critical for the conservation of biodiversity in this realm. We studied the dynamics of composition and structure within different plant functional types (PFTs) in Masson pine forests affected by pine wilt disease (PWD). Based on plant traits, all species were assigned to four PFTs: evergreen woody species (PFT1), deciduous woody species (PFT2), herbs (PFT3), and ferns (PFT4). We analyzed the changes in these PFTs during the initial disturbance period and during post-disturbance regeneration. The species richness, abundance and basal area, as well as life-stage structure of the PFTs changed differently after pine wilt disease. The direction of plant community regeneration depended on the differential response of the PFTs. PFT1, which has a higher tolerance to disturbances, became dominant during the post-disturbance regeneration, and a young evergreen-broad-leaved forest developed quickly after PWD. Results also indicated that the impacts of PWD were dampened by the feedbacks between PFTs and the microclimate, in which PFT4 played an important ecological role. In conclusion, we propose management at the functional type level instead of at the population level as a promising approach in ecological restoration and biodiversity conservation. PMID:22563499

  9. Soil Structure Characteristics and Comprehensive Evaluation of Different Phyllostachys edulis Forests in Anfu,Jiangxi Province%赣中不同类型毛竹林土壤结构特征及其综合评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余林; 徐海宁; 肖复明; 曾伟; 熊振宇

    2012-01-01

    Five kinds of stand type(Pure Moso bamboo forest,mixed forest of Moso bamboo and broad-leaved tree,mixed forest of Moso bamboo and Chinese fir,broad-leaved forest,Chinese fir pure forest) had been chosen at Anfu,Jiangxi province.Through the study on soil structural characteristics,such as soil bulk density,soil porosity condition,and content,size,stability of soil aggregate were exposed.Finally,soil structural was comprehensive evaluated by grey correlation degree analysis.The results showed that the order of soil bulk density was mixed forest of Moso bamboo and broad-leaved forest 〉 pure Moso bamboo forest〉mixed forest of Moso bamboo and Chinese fir 〉 broad-leaved forest 〉 Chinese fir pure forest;soil porosity condition manifested as broadleaf forest is superior to Chinese fir pure forest,Moso bamboo forest is relatively poor.〉0.25 mm soil aggregates content from 94.43% to 97.25%,broadleaf forest were the largest in all soil layers.The order of soil aggregates fractal dimension mean was pure Moso bamboo forest 〉 mixed forest of Moso bamboo and broad-leaved tree 〉 mixed forest of Moso bamboo and Chinese fir 〉 Chinese fir pure forestbroad-leaved forest.The soil MWD and GMD of different stand types were difference.The soil MWD and GMD mean of mixed forest of Moso bamboo and broad-leaved forest and mixed forest of Moso bamboo and Chinese fir were increased by 3.38%,4.10% and 5.04%,8.11%,respectively.The order of index grey correlation degree of soil structure were broad-leaved forest 〉 Chinese fir pure forest 〉 mixed forest of Moso bamboo and broad-leaved forest〉 mixed forest of Moso bamboo and Chinese fir 〉 pure Moso bamboo forest by grey correlation degree analysis.The results could provide some scientific basis for forest resources management and vegetation construction in the subtropical region of China.%以赣中毛竹纯林(MC)、竹阔混交林(ZK)、竹杉混交林(ZS)3种不同类型毛竹林地土壤容重、孔

  10. Quantitative Analysis of Tree Species Diversity in Different Oak (Quercus spp. Dominated Forests in Garhwal Himalaya, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gajendra SINGH

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Himalayan broad-leaved forests are mainly dominated by oak (Quercus spp. species. Oak species with other tree species provide numerous ecosystem services and serve as lifeline for local inhabitants. Overall tree diversity and their status in different oak dominated forests viz., Quercus leucotrichophora (1500-2200 m, Q. floribunda (2201-2700 m and Q. semecarpifolia (2701-3300 m were studied in Garhwal, Himalaya. A total of 54 tree species (40 genera in Q. leucotrichophora, 43 tree species (30 genera in Q. floribunda and 23 tree species (16 genera in Q. semecarpifolia dominated forests were recorded. Lauraceae was the dominant family in Q. leucotrichophora and Q. floribunda forests (6 and 8 species respectively, while Ericaceae (3 species was the dominant family in Q. semecarpifolia dominated forests. Pinaceae and Taxaceae were only two gymnospermic family represented by Pinus roxburghii at low, Abies pinrow at mid, Abies spectabilis and Taxus wallichiana at higher elevational oak forests. There was no significant variation (p=0.8 between overall tree density in different oak forests which ranges from 337�51 individual/ha in Q. semecarpifolia to 433�92 individual/ha in Q. leucotrichophora forests. The seedling density has significant variation (p=0.01 in different oak forests where highest density was recorded in Q. leucotrichophora forests (1981 individual/ha and lowest in Q. semecarpifolia forests (348 individual/ha. The Total Basal Area (TBA reported from Q. leucotrichophora (88.06 m2/ha and Q. floribunda (110.5 m2/ha forests was higher than those of earlier reported from the region, while basal area of Q. semecarpifolia (90.16 m2/ha was comparable with the forests of western Himalaya.

  11. Impact of cloudiness on net ecosystem exchange of carbon dioxide in different types of forest ecosystems in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Zhang

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Clouds can significantly affect carbon exchange process between forest ecosystems and the atmosphere by influencing the quantity and quality of solar radiation received by ecosystem's surface and other environmental factors. In this study, we analyzed the effects of cloudiness on net ecosystem exchange of carbon dioxide (NEE in a temperate broad-leaved Korean pine mixed forest at Changbaishan (CBS and a subtropical evergreen broad-leaved forest at Dinghushan (DHS, based on the flux data obtained during June–August from 2003 to 2006. The results showed that the response of NEE of forest ecosystems to photosynthetically active radiation (PAR differed under clear skies and cloudy skies. Compared with clear skies, the light-saturated maximum photosynthetic rate (Pec,max at CBS under cloudy skies during mid-growing season (from June to August increased by 34%, 25%, 4% and 11% in 2003, 2004, 2005 and 2006, respectively. In contrast, Pec,max of the forest ecosystem at DHS was higher under clear skies than under cloudy skies from 2004 to 2006. When the clearness index (kt ranged between 0.4 and 0.6, the NEE reached its maximum at both CBS and DHS. However, the NEE decreased more dramatically at CBS than at DHS when kt exceeded 0.6. The results indicate that cloudy sky conditions are beneficial to net carbon uptake in the temperate forest ecosystem and the subtropical forest ecosystem. Under clear skies, vapor pressure deficit (VPD and air temperature increased due to strong light. These environmental conditions led to greater decrease in gross ecosystem photosynthesis (GEP and greater increase in ecosystem respiration (Re at CBS than at DHS. As a result, clear sky conditions caused more reduction of NEE in the temperate forest ecosystem than in the subtropical forest ecosystem. The response of NEE of different forest ecosystems to the changes in

  12. Ramet Population Structure of Fargesia nitida (Mitford)Keng f. et Yi in Different Successional Stands of the Subalpine Coniferous Forest in Wolong Nature Reserve

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-Hong Yu; Jian-Ping Tao; Yuan Li; Yong-Jian Wang; Yi Xi; Wei-Yin Zhang; Run-Guo Zang

    2006-01-01

    Forest structure and succession in Wolong Nature Reserve is influenced by the understory dwarf bamboo population. However, less is known about how the forest succession affects the dwarf bamboo population.To examine the bamboo ramet population growth of Fargesia nitida (Mitford) Keng f. et Yi and to determine how ramet population structure varies along the succession of coniferous forest, we sampled ramet populations of F. nitida from the following three successional stages:(i) a deciduous broad-leaved (BL)stand;(ii) a mixed broad-leaved coniferous (MI) stand;and (iii) a coniferous (CF) stand. We investigated the population structure, biomass allocation, and morphological characteristics of the bamboo ramet among the three stand types. Clonal ramets, constituting the bamboo population, tended to become short and small with succession. The ramet changed towards having a greater mass investment in leaves, branches and underground roots and rhizomes rather than in the culm. With respect to leaf traits, individual leaf mass and area in the BL stand were markedly bigger than those in both the MI and CF stands, except for no significant difference in specific leaf area. The age distribution showed that the bamboo population approached an older age with succession. The results demonstrate that the ramet population structure of F.nitida is unstable and its growth performance is inhibited by succession.

  13. [Soil physical and chemical characteristics under different vegetation restoration patterns in China south subtropical area].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Bing; Liu, Shi-rong; Cai, Dao-xiong; Lu, Li-hua; He, Ri-ming; Gao, Yan-xia; Di, Wei-zhi

    2010-10-01

    This paper studied the change of soil physical and chemical properties under eleven vegetation restoration patterns (1 kind of secondary forest, 2 kinds of pure coniferous plantations, 5 kinds of evergreen broad-leaved plantations, 2 kinds of conifer and broad-leaved mixed plantations, and 1 kind of shrub) typical in Daqingshan of Guangxi. Obvious differences were observed in the soil physical and chemical properties under different vegetation restoration patterns. The soil physical properties were better in secondary forest but poorer in pure conifer plantations. Conifer and broad-leaved mixed plantations had lower soil bulk density, and their soil total porosity and water-holding capacity were higher than those in pure plantations. There were no significant differences in the soil porosity among the 5 evergreen broad-leaved plantations. Except that of soil total K, the contents of soil nutrients in secondary forest were higher than those in plantations, and the soil C/N ratio and pH value were relatively lower. Comparing with shrub, the 9 plantations had an obvious change in their soil nutrient contents, e. g. , the increase of soil total N and available K. The 2 pure coniferous plantations had lower soil nutrient contents, but after mixed planted with evergreen broad-leaved trees, their soil nutrient contents increased markedly, and the soil C/N ratio decreased. PMID:21328932

  14. Irradiance in young stands of Picea abies (L.) Karst. and Pinus sylvestris L. and the possibilities to prevent suckers of broad-leaved trees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Incoming shortwave global radiation (Qg) and photosynthetically active radiation (PAR;Qpa) as a fraction of full daylight, relative irradiance (%Q), were measured at the same time in young stands of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) and Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.). Measurements were made on three levels above ground: 20 cm above ground and 50 and 75% of stand height. Stands of three heights (75, 150 and 300 cm) were studied during two months. The stands were created by arranging young trees cut from natural stands, in nine quadratic spacings: 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4, 0.5, 0.7, 1.0, 1.4, and 2.0 m. The leaf area index (L) was estimated. Differences in %Q-values for Qpa and Qg in the same species at the same stand height and level of light measurements above ground were significant only in 150 and 300 cm stands. In 75 cm high stands of Scots pine, the %Q was less than 60% at spacings less than 0.2 m and in 75 cm high stands of Norway spruce, the %Q was less than 60% at spacings less than 0.3 m. Only at 0.1 x 0.1-0.3 x 0.3 m, %Q was less than 20% in Norway spruce stands. In 150 cm stands %Q less than 20% was measured at spacings less than 0.7 m in Norway spruce and less than 0.5 in Scots pine. In 300 cm stands of Norway spruce it was measured up to 1.2 and in Scots pine less than 1.1 m. Light extinction coefficients, K and Kg for spruce and pine stands were 0.17-0.40 and 0.16-0.31 respectively. Some practical implications of the study are presented. Lack of light (%Q less than 10%) as a single factor of seriously suppressed growth and development of broad-leaved plants and suckers by competition in young stands of spruce and pine only occur in dense stands 0.3 x 0.3-1.1 x 1.1 m (8000-100000 stems per hectare). Competition by light on a regenerated area generally occurs in the level of 50% of tree height (150-300 cm) and higher due to the rapid growth of broad-leaved trees (sprouts) compared with planted conifers but the light intensity at these levels %Q greater

  15. Study on Soil Fertility of Different Forest Types in Jialing River Source%嘉陵江源头几种林地土壤肥力状况调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭胡燕; 刘瑞英; 杨改河; 任学敏; 王得祥

    2011-01-01

    Based on analysis of soil pH, the content of organic matter and main nutrient at the different levels of soil under seven different forest types (Quercus aliena BI. Var. Acuteserrate, Betula albo-sinensis, Pinus tabulaeformis , Pinus armandii , Abies fargesii , coniferous and broad-leaved mixed forest, shrub forest)in Jialing river of source, this paper studied on soil fertility of different forest types. The result showed that the soil in Pinus armandii, Pinus tabulae formis and coniferous and broad-leaved mixed forest were near neutral, the soil in Quercus aliena BI. Var. Acuteserrate, Betula albo-sinensis and shrub forest were slightly acidic, the soil in Abies fargesii was acidic. The soil pH, the contents of soil organic matter, total N and P, alkali-hydro N and available P tended to decrease with soil depth. The soil fertility was increased in the order of Pinus armandii <Lpinus tabulae formis <coniferous and broad-leaved mixed ioresKQuercus aliena BI. Var. Acuteserrate<shrub forest<Abies fargesii<L Betula albo-sinensis.%以嘉陵江源头风景区7种林型(锐齿栎林、红桦林、油松林、华山松林、巴山冷杉林、针阔混交林及灌木林)土壤为研究对象,通过对林地土壤不同层次pH、有机质及主要养分含量的测定,分析不同林型下土壤肥力的差异状况.结果表明,华山松林、油松林和针阔混交林的土壤趋于中性,锐齿栎林、红桦林、灌木林的土壤趋于弱酸性,而巴山冷杉林的土壤呈酸性.随土壤深度增加,土壤pH升高,土壤有机质、全氮、全磷、碱解氮、有效磷含量均呈下降趋势.土壤综合肥力优劣为华山松林<油松林<针阔混交林<锐齿栎林<灌木林<巴山冷杉林<红桦林.

  16. Different tree species affect soil respiration spatial distribution in a subtropical forest of southern Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Po-Neng; Yu, Jui-Chu; Wang, Ya-nan; Lai, Yen-Jen

    2014-05-01

    Global forests contain 69% of total carbon stored in forest soil and litter. But the carbon storage ability and release rate of warming gases of forest soil also affect global climate change. Soil carbon cycling processes are paid much attention by ecological scientists and policy makers because of the possibility of carbon being stored in soil via land use management. Soil respiration contributed large part of terrestrial carbon flux, but the relationship of soil respiration and climate change was still obscurity. Most of soil respiration researches focus on template and tropical area, little was known that in subtropical area. Afforestation is one of solutions to mitigate CO2 increase and to sequestrate CO2 in tree and soil. Therefore, the objective of this study is to clarify the relationship of tree species and soil respiration distribution in subtropical broad-leaves plantation in southern Taiwan. The research site located on southern Taiwan was sugarcane farm before 2002. The sugarcane was removed and fourteen broadleaved tree species were planted in 2002-2005. Sixteen plots (250m*250m) were set on 1 km2 area, each plot contained 4 subplots (170m2). The forest biomass (i.e. tree height, DBH) understory biomass, litter, and soil C were measured and analyzed at 2011 to 2012. Soil respiration measurement was sampled in each subplot in each month. The soil belongs to Entisol with over 60% of sandstone. The soil pH is 5.5 with low base cations because of high sand percentage. Soil carbon storage showed significantly negative relationship with soil bulk density (p<0.001) in research site. The differences of distribution of live tree C pool among 16 plots were affected by growth characteristic of tree species. Data showed that the accumulation amount of litterfall was highest in December to February and lowest in June. Different tree species planted in 16 plots, resulting in high spatial variation of litterfall amount. It also affected total amount of litterfall

  17. How does tree age influence damage and recovery in forests impacted by freezing rain and snow?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, LiRong; Zhou, Ting; Chen, BaoMing; Peng, ShaoLin

    2015-05-01

    The response and recovery mechanisms of forests to damage from freezing rain and snow events are a key topic in forest research and management. However, the relationship between the degree of damage and tree age, i.e., whether seedlings, young trees, or adult trees are most vulnerable, remains unclear and is rarely reported. We investigated the effect of tree age on the degrees of vegetation damage and subsequent recovery in three subtropical forest types-coniferous, mixed, and broad-leaved-in the Tianjing Mountains, South China, after a series of rare icy rain and freezing snow events in 2008. The results showed that damage and recovery rates were both dependent on tree age, with the proportion of damaged vegetation increasing with age (estimated by diameter at breast height, DBH) in all three forest types and gradually plateauing. Significant variation occurred among forest types. Young trees in the coniferous forest were more vulnerable than those in the broad-leaved forest. The type of damage also varied with tree age in different ways in the three forest types. The proportion of young seedlings that were uprooted (the most severe type of damage) was highest in the coniferous forest. In the mixed forest, young trees were significantly more likely to be uprooted than seedlings and adult trees, while in the broad-leaved forest, the proportion of uprooted adult trees was significantly higher than that of seedlings and young trees. There were also differences among forest types in how tree age affected damage recovery. In the coniferous forest, the recovery rate of trees with broken trunks or crowns (DBH > 2.5 cm) increased with tree age. However, in the mixed and broad-leaved forests, no obvious correlation between the recovery rate of trees with broken trunks or crowns and tree age was observed. Trees with severe root damage did not recover; they were uprooted and died. In these forests, vegetation damage and recovery showed tree age dependencies, which varied

  18. 暖温带-北亚热带过渡带落叶阔叶林群落不同径级系统发育结构的变化%Phylogenetic structure of individuals with different DBH sizes in a deciduous broad-leaved forest community in the temperate-subtropical ecological transition zone, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任思远; 王婷; 祝燕; 叶永忠; 袁志良; 李聪; 潘娜; 李鹿鑫

    2014-01-01

    群落的系统发育结构能够有效地反映各种生态过程对群落组成的影响,通过研究群落系统发育结构能推断出其形成的生态过程,对于揭示群落动态具有重要意义.作者将宝天曼1 ha落叶阔叶林样地分为10 m×10 m、20m×20 m、25 m×25 m-个尺度的样方,将样地内乔木个体划分为小径级(1 cm≤DBH≤5 cm)、中径级(5 cm≤DBH≤ 10 cm)、大径级(DBH≥10 cm)三个径级,通过比较各个阶段系统发育结构的变化,来分析其群落系统发育结构的生态过程.不同零模型的比较发现,宝天曼落叶阔叶林群落的净系统发育亲缘关系指数(net relatedness index,NRI)和最近种间亲缘关系指数(net nearest taxa index,NTI)值都随着研究尺度和径级的增加而降低,表明该群落在不同时空尺度上都表现出群落系统发育结构发散,而且系统发育密度制约对大径级个体的系统发育结构的影响大于小径级个体.上述结果说明密度制约是地处暖温带-亚热带过渡带的宝天曼落叶阔叶林群落物种多样性维持的重要机制.

  19. Effects of Soil Temperature and Moisture on Soil Respiration in Different Soil Layers in Broad-leaved Korean Pine Forests in Changbai Mountain%土壤温、湿度对长白山阔叶红松林不同土壤层呼吸速率的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晓静; 关德新; 吴家兵; 王安志; 袁凤辉

    2010-01-01

    在实验室条件下,研究土壤温度与湿度对长白山阔叶红松林不同深度土壤呼吸速率的影响.结果显示:枯枝落叶层、半分解层和壤土层的呼吸速率均随温度的升高呈指数增加趋势,而白浆土层与黄土层的呼吸速率先随温度的升高而增大;当温度超过15℃时,呼吸速率随温度升高而减小.枯枝落叶层、半分解层的呼吸速率随含水量的增加而呈线性增大;壤土层的呼吸速率随土壤含水量的增加呈先增大后减小的趋势,当土壤含水量约为36%时,土壤呼吸速率达到最大;白浆土层与黄土层的呼吸速率与土壤含水量没有明显的相关关系.浅层土壤对土壤温度和湿度的响应要比深层土壤敏感;各层土壤的呼吸速率贡献率会随着温度变化而发生改变,深层土壤呼吸速率在低温时期的贡献率要大于高温时期.

  20. Influence of radiocesium transfer and decontamination on ambient dose in Japanese forest environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Hiroaki; Onda, Yuichi

    2016-04-01

    This study investigated the effect of post-depositional migration of radiocesium and decontamination on ambient dose rate in Japanese forest environment following the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident. We measured cesium-137 deposition from canopy to forest floor in association with rainfall and litterfall in two coniferous stands (plantation of Japanese cedar) and a deciduous broad-leaved forest stand (oak with red pine). We also measured temporal evolution of ambient dose rate at different height in each forest site. Radiocesium inventory balance in each forest component (e.g., canopy, litter and mineral soil layer) were established to determine causes of the measured changes of ambient dose rate in three forest sites. Furthermore, we assessed influence of forest decontamination (removal of organic layer of forest floor) on spatial pattern of radiocesium at the forest floor and reduction of ambient dose rate.

  1. Soil Moisture Dynamics of Different Forest Types in Xiaolong Mountain Region in Gansu Province, China%甘肃小陇山林区不同森林类型土壤水分动态

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑子龙; 蔺岩雄; 袁一超; 高兴红; 孟玉珂

    2013-01-01

    Five kinds of forest soil of oak and broad leaved mixed forest,Quercus aliena var.acuteserrata forest,Larix kaempferi forest,Pinus tabulaeformis forest and non-forest land were investigated in Xiaolong Mountain region.Soil water dynamics variation law of different forest types were studied through nine plot observations of the soil moisture in 2011.The results showed that atmospheric precipitation and evapotranspiration are main factors for the change of soil moisture.The seasonal variation of soil moisture content is clear.The effect of slope position on soil moisture for different forest types is not significant.There is significant difference in the soil moisture content of different soil layer (H).At 0 ≤H<20 cm,the change of soil moisture content is severe.On the whole,the soil moisture content at 0≤H<20 cm is higher than that at 20≤H<60 cm layer.Broad leaved mixed forest and Q.aliena var.acuteserrata forest have higher soil moisture content with strong soil and water conservation ability and significant water conservation function.%以小陇山林区栎类阔叶混交林、锐齿栎林、日本落叶松林、油松林及无林地5种森林土壤为研究对象,通过2011年对9个样点土壤水分长期定位观测,研究不同森林类型土壤水分动态变化规律.结果表明:大气降水和蒸散量是引起土壤含水量变化的主要因素,土壤含水量季节性变化趋势十分明显;坡位对林区不同森林类型土壤含水量无显著影响;不同层次土壤含水量差异显著,土层深(H)O≤H<20 cm的土壤含水量变化较为剧烈,但总体上其含水量大于20 cm≤H<60 cm的土壤含水量;各个时期阔叶混交林、锐齿栎林土壤平均含水量较高,具有较强水土保持能力和显著水源涵养作用.

  2. Infiltration characteristics of water in forest soils in the Simian mountains, Chongqing City, southwestern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei WANG; Hongjiang ZHANG; Meng LI; Jinhua CHENG; Bo WANG; Weili LU

    2009-01-01

    Spearman rank-correlation analysis and grey relational grade analysis were used to study infiltration characteristics of water in different forest soils in the Simian mountains, Chongqing City. The results indicate that the soil bulk density, contents of coarse sand, and porosity of macropores were significantly correlated with saturated hydraulic conductivity. Porosity of macropores and contents of coarse sand were positively correlated with soil saturated hydraulic conductivity and soil bulk density negatively. Based on the initial infiltration rate, the stable infiltration rate, time required for infiltration to reach a stable state, and cumulative infiltration, all of which are crucial parameters determining soil infiltration capacity, the results of grey relational grade analysis showed that the grey relational grades of the different forest soils were listed from high to low as broad-leaved forest (0.8031) > Phyllostachys pubescens forest (0.7869) > mixed coniferbroadleaf forest (0.4454)>coniferous forest (0.4039). Broadleaf forest had the best ability to be infiltrated among the four soils studied. The square roots of the coefficients of determination obtained from fitting the Horton infiltration equation, simulated in our study of forest soils, were higher than 0.950. We conclude that soils of broad-leaved forests were the best suited for infiltration processes of forestry in the Simian mountains.

  3. 雨雪冰冻灾害后粤北森林各林型凋落物动态%Litter dynamics in different forest types suffered an extreme ice storm in the subtropical region, southern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐雅雯; 朱丽蓉; 吴可可; 周志平; 彭少麟

    2011-01-01

    为了考察中国亚热带不同森林类型对雨雪冰冻灾害的响应模式,以粤北天井山3种代表性的林型一针叶林、阔叶林和混交林为对象,于不同森林类型中比较受损森林与未受损森林在凋落物年产量、成分及月际动态方面的差异,从而在凋落物水平上反映不同森林类型在雨雪冰冻灾害后的早期恢复力.研究结果表明,灾后针叶林、阔叶林和混交林的年凋落量分别为0.52、3.21、1.37 t·hm2,比未受损的同种森林类型年凋落量显著减少,减少程度分别为87.89%、53.46%、76.78%.由此可以看出阔叶林的植被恢复情况最好,说明在凋落物水平上,其灾后恢复的早期阶段恢复力最强.在凋落物成分方面,灾后各森林类型叶凋落物所占比例显著增加,枝凋落物所占比例则显著减少.受损针叶林和阔叶林的凋落物月动态与未受损森林基本一致,但其波动幅度较小;在混交林中,受损和未受损森林其凋落量的季节动态模式则表现出不一致性且为不规则型.根据研究结果,建议在亚热带地区优先考虑种植阔叶林以促进受损森林在类似雨雪冰冻灾害的极端天气后的恢复.%To understand the responses pattern of subtropical forests recovered from the damage of ice storm happened in southern China during Jan to Feb in 2008, we take three different forests, including coniferous forest, mixed forest and broad-leaf forest located in Tianjing Mountain, as a case to compare their differences in annual litter production, component and seasonal fluctuation in undamaged and damaged plots in each forest type and access their recuperability at the early stage of natural recovery. It is indicated that the annual input of litter in the damaged forests was up to 0.52 t·hm-1, 3.21 t·hm-2 and 1.37 t·hm-2 in coniferous forest, broad-leaved forest and mixed forest, respectively. Compared with the normal annual amount of litter in subtropical forest of

  4. Forest vegetation of Xishuangbanna, south China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhu Hua

    2006-01-01

    Xishuangbanna of southern Yunnan is biogeographically located at a transitional zone from tropical southeast (SE) Asia to subtropical east Asia and is at the junction of the Indian and Burmese plates of Gondwana and the Eurasian plate of Laurasia. The region, though surprisingly far from the equator and at a relatively high altitude, has a rich tropical flora and a typical tropical rain forest in the lowland areas. Based on physiognomic and ecological characteristics, floristic composition and habitats combined, the primary vegetation in Xishuangbanna can be organized into four main vegetation types: tropical rain forest, tropical seasonal moist forest, tropical montane evergreen broad-leaved forest and tropical monsoon forest. The tropical rain forest can be classified into two subtypes, i.e. a tropical seasonal rain forest in the lowlands and a tropical montane rain forest at higher elevations. The tropical seasonal rain forest has almost the same forest profile and physiognomic characteristics as equatorial lowland rain forests and is a type of truly tropical rain forest. Because of conspicuous similarity on ecological and floristic characteristics, the tropical rain forest in Xishuangbanna is a type of tropical Asian rain forest. However, since the tropical rain forest of Xishuangbanna occurs at the northern edge of tropical SE Asia, it differs from typical lowland rain forests in equatorial areas in having some deciduous trees in the canopy layer, fewer megaphanerophytes and epiphytes but more abundant lianas and more plants with microphyll. It is a type of semi-evergreen rain forest at the northern edge of the tropical zone. The tropical montane rain forest occurs at wet montane habitats and is similar to the lower montane rain forest in equatorial Asia in floristic composition and physiognomy. It is a type of lower montane rain forests within the broader category of tropical rain forests. The tropical seasonal moist forest occurs on middle and upper

  5. Composition and stability of organic carbon in the top soil under different forest types in subtropical China%亚热带不同林分土壤表层有机碳组成及其稳定性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    商素云; 姜培坤; 宋照亮; 李永夫; 林琳

    2013-01-01

    在浙江临安玲珑山选取了常绿阔叶林、马尾松林、板栗林和雷竹林4种林分,采用传统的化学方法与固态13C核磁共振(NMR)技术研究其土壤有机碳在不同粒径土壤颗粒中的分布规律和结构特征,探讨林分类别和管理措施对土壤有机碳含量及其结构的影响,为亚热带地区森林固碳和土壤碳库管理提供科学依据.结果显示:(1)土壤表层(0-20 cm)有机碳含量按以下次序递减:雷竹林>常绿阔叶林>马尾松林>板栗林,且板栗林以粉黏粒结合态碳为主,其他林分土壤则以粗砂结合态碳为主;(2)13C NMR结果表明,阔叶林和马尾松林土壤有机碳中烷基碳所占比例最大,而雷竹林和板栗林则是烷氧碳比例最大,表明人工经营措施改变了土壤有机碳的成分组成;(3)随着土壤颗粒变细,有机碳中烷基碳比例增加,烷氧碳比例减少,A/O-A值和疏水碳/亲水碳值逐渐增大,表明颗粒越细,其结合的有机碳结构稳定性越高.%Soil organic carbon ( C) influences soil physical, chemical and biological properties that control nutrient cycling and consequently have important impacts on forest productivity and sustainability. Due to the important role of soil organic C in nutrient cycling of forest ecosystems and global C balance, there has long been an interest in understanding the effects of vegetation types and forest soil management on soil C pools. Four types of forest vegetations, including evergreen broad-leaved forest, Masson pine ( Pinus massoniana) , Chestnut ( Castanea mollissima) forest and Phyllostachys praecox forest, on Linglong mountain located in Lin'an county, Zhejiang Province, China, were selected to study the distribution and chemical composition of soil organic C using chemical analysis and solid-state 13C nuclear magnetic resonance ( NMR) spectroscopy. The results showed that the contents of soil organic C in the 0-20 cm soil layer under different forest types

  6. 百花山典型林分土壤有机碳储量及垂直分布特征%Soil Organic Carbon Storage and Vertical Distribution of Different Forest Types in Baihua Mountain Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘艳; 查同刚; 付汝军

    2012-01-01

    针对百花山落叶阔叶混交林、华北落叶松林、桦木林3种典型林分土壤有机碳储量及垂直分布特征进行研究.结果表明,不同林分类型下的土壤有机碳含量存在明显差异,桦木林最高(33.87g/kg±2.82g/kg),华北落叶松林次之(27.42 g/kg±2.21 g/kg),落叶阔叶混交林最低(26.24 g/kg±1.91 g/kg),桦木林土壤有机碳的密度为(26.06±1.88) kg/m2,落叶阔叶混交林为(19.81±1.70) kg/m2,华北落叶松林为(18.94±1.50)kg/m2,土层间有机碳密度为(1.57~7.22) kg/m2,且随着土层深度的增加呈现减少的趋势;不同林分中0~20 cm土层有机碳储量占整个剖面有机碳总储量的百分比均达到50%以上,0~20 cm土层有机碳含量变化总趋势为下坡位>中坡位>上坡位.%Storage and vertical distribution features of soil organic carbon (SOC) about mixed deciduous broad-leaved forest,Larix principis-rupprechtii forest and Betula spp. Forest in Baihua Mountain of Beijing were studied in this paper. The results were as follows: the contents of SOC in different types of forest showed significantly difference; SOC content presented a rule as Betula spp. Forest> Larix principis-rupprechtii forest > mixed deciduous broad-leaved forest, the average value was (33.87±2.82) g/kg, (27.42 + 2.21) g/kg, and (26.24 + 1.91) g/kg correspondenly; SOC density was Betula spp. Forest (26.06±l. 88 kg/m2) > mixed deciduous broad-leaved forest (19. 81 ±1. 70 kg/m2) >Larix principis-rupprechtii forest (18. 94 + 1. 50 kg/m2). SOC density changed with a range of 1. 57~7. 22 kg/m2 for five soil layers in the three forest types, and both the density and content decreased with the depth of soil layers; on the upper layer (0 - 20 cm), the SOC content followed the variety trend of lower slope > middle slope >upper slope, and this layer occupied more than 50% SOC in all the soil profiles (0 - 80 cm).

  7. 杠寨小流域不同林分对土壤理化性质的影响%The Effect of Different Forest Types on Soil Physical and Chemical Properties in Gangzhai Small Watershed

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周玮; 朱军; 吴鹏; 丁访军; 崔迎春

    2012-01-01

    The effect of different forest types on soil physical and chemical properties was analyzed. The results showed that the contents of organic matter and N in soil of Gangzhai small watershed were plentiful while the content of K was lower and P was scarce. The soil in this region was acid (3.8~5.0), the soil was clay or clay loam. The soil fertility of broad leaved forest was better than that of coniferous forest. The acidity in broad leaved forest was more serious than that of coniferous forest, especially in Pinus massoniana forest (3.80). The soil bulk density of P. massoniana forest was less (1.18g/cm3) and its water storage capacity and draught capacity was the best (159.33 t/hm2, 160.58 t/hm2), while it was opposite in Quercus acutissima Carruth forest (84.33 t/hm2, 92.17 t/hm2).%就杠寨小流域4种林分下土壤的理化性质进行分析.结果表明,杠寨小流域土壤中有机质、氮素含量较丰富,钾素含量较低,而磷素则较缺乏,土壤均表现为酸性(pH 3.80~5.00),土壤为黏土或黏壤土.总之,阔叶林(麻栎林)土壤的肥力状况优于针叶林(马尾松林、柏木幼林),针叶林下土壤酸度较高,特别是马尾松林下土壤达到极酸性水平(pH 3.80).马尾松林下土壤容重较小(1.18 g/cm3),蓄水、排水能力最强(分别为159.33 t/hm2、160.58 t/hm2),而麻栎乔木林正好相反(分别为84.33 t/hm2、92.17 t/hm2).

  8. Soil properties discriminating Araucaria forests with different disturbance levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertini, Simone Cristina Braga; Azevedo, Lucas Carvalho Basilio; Stromberger, Mary E; Cardoso, Elke Jurandy Bran Nogueira

    2015-04-01

    Soil biological, chemical, and physical properties can be important for monitoring soil quality under one of the most spectacular vegetation formation on Atlantic Forest Biome, the Araucaria Forest. Our aim was to identify a set of soil variables capable of discriminating between disturbed, reforested, and native Araucaria forest soils such that these variables could be used to monitor forest recovery and maintenance. Soil samples were collected at dry and rainy season under the three forest types in two state parks at São Paulo State, Brazil. Soil biological, chemical, and physical properties were evaluated to verify their potential to differentiate the forest types, and discriminant analysis was performed to identify the variables that most contribute to the differentiation. Most of physical and chemical variables were sensitive to forest disturbance level, but few biological variables were significantly different when comparing native, reforested, and disturbed forests. Despite more than 20 years following reforestation, the reforested soils were chemically and biologically distinct from native and disturbed forest soils, mainly because of the greater acidity and Al3+ content of reforested soil. Disturbed soils, in contrast, were coarser in texture and contained greater concentrations of extractable P. Although biological properties are generally highly sensitive to disturbance and amelioration efforts, the most important soil variables to discriminate forest types in both seasons included Al3+, Mg2+, P, and sand, and only one microbial attribute: the NO2- oxidizers. Therefore, these five variables were the best candidates, of the variables we employed, for monitoring Araucaria forest disturbance and recovery.

  9. 福建省连城县天然林资源分析与评价%Analysis and appraisal on natural forest resource in Liancheng,Fujian

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周兴东

    2011-01-01

    The statistics of the natural forest species in 18 townships of Liancheng in Fujian province shows that the proportion of natural forest area to county forest land is 72.64%.For natural forest area,it decreases with the increasing of broad-leaved tree ratio,the proportion of conifer species and pure broad-leaved tree is 57.75% and 4.89%,respectively.The average weight of natural broad-leaved tree is 0.4,and there is certain difference between the township.With cluster analysis,according to the weight of broad-leaved tree and natural forest area,the 18 townships is divided to four types.The appraisal indicates that the natural forest ratio is biggish,the broad-leaved tree species is rich,the natural forest area is decreasing,the foresty structure is degradation,the natural succession environment is bad,a great part of natural forest in the succession dose not meet the natural climax community.%对连城县18个乡镇的天然林面积和树种组成分析表明:全县天然林面积比例为72.64%,以针叶树种为主的天然林占57.75%,纯阔叶林仅占4.89%;不同针阔比例的天然林面积,随着阔叶树比例增加呈递减趋势;全县天然林阔叶树权重为0.4,乡镇间存在较大差异;通过聚类分析,18个乡镇被划分为4个不同天然林阔叶树比例类型;综合评价认为,全县天然林比例大,阔叶树种丰富,但干扰严重,天然林面积呈减小趋势,森林结构退化,个别地段出现逆行演替。

  10. Analysis on Plant Diversity Quanfu Village Basin of Water-holding Forest in of Yuanyang Terrace%元阳梯田全福庄流域水源涵养林的植物多样性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    和弦; 宋维峰; 彭永刚; 王惠生; 崔吉林

    2012-01-01

    元阳梯田已有1200多年的历史,水源涵养林的存在对于梯田的延续具有重要的价值。为得到元阳梯田水源涵养林的植物多样性分布特征,对元阳梯田全福庄流域4种主要植被类型水源涵养林下的植物物种数量特征、物种丰富度、多样性、均匀度等多样性规律进行了标准样地调查。结果表明,研究区共有植物155种,隶属66科,其中,山茶科、禾本科、蓼科植物占有绝对优势,不同植被类型森林群落的优势种不同;物种丰富度大小为:次生常绿阔叶林〉杂木林〉次生落叶阔叶林〉人工水冬瓜林;物种多样性特征表现为,乔木层:次生常绿阔叶林〉次生落叶阔叶林〉杂木林〉人工水冬瓜林;灌木层:次生常绿阔叶林〉杂木林〉次生落叶阔叶林,人工水冬瓜林无灌木层分布;草本层:次生落叶阔叶林〉人工水冬瓜林〉次生常绿阔叶林〉杂木林。植被分布的物种丰富度和均匀度对物种多样性存在交叉影响。%Yuanyang terrace with over 1 200 years of history, the existence of water-holding forest has an important value for development of Yuanyang terrace. In order to investigate the distribution of plant diversity in water-holding forest of Yuanyang terrace this study adopted the method of standard statistical and on-site investigation. The study on the quantitative features, the species richness, diversity and evenness, etc. char- acteristics in 4 types of vegetation regions in Quanfu middle village basin were carried out. The results showed that there were 155 species of plants in this area, belonging to 66 families, and Theaceae, Poaceae and Polygonaceae were 3 dominant families. The different vegetation regions had different dominant species. The species richness index followed the order of secondary evergreen broad-leaved forest〉weed tree forest〉 secondary deciduous broad-leaved forest〉artificial Alder forest. Within

  11. Characteristics of initial deposition and behavior of radiocesium in forest ecosystems of different locations and species affected by the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komatsu, Masabumi; Kaneko, Shinji; Ohashi, Shinta; Kuroda, Katsushi; Sano, Tetsuya; Ikeda, Shigeto; Saito, Satoshi; Kiyono, Yoshiyuki; Tonosaki, Mario; Miura, Satoru; Akama, Akio; Kajimoto, Takuya; Takahashi, Masamichi

    2016-09-01

    After the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident, information about stand-level spatial patterns of radiocesium initially deposited in the surrounding forests was essential for predicting the future dynamics of radiocesium and suggesting a management plan for contaminated forests. In the first summer (approximately 6 months after the accident), we separately estimated the amounts of radiocesium ((134)Cs and (137)Cs; Bq m(-2)) in the major components (trees, organic layers, and soils) in forests of three sites with different contamination levels. For a Japanese cedar (Cryptomeria japonica) forest studied at each of the three sites, the radiocesium concentration greatly differed among the components, with the needle and organic layer having the highest concentrations. For these cedar forests, the proportion of the (137)Cs stock in the aboveground tree biomass varied from 22% to 44% of the total (137)Cs stock; it was 44% in highly contaminated sites (7.0 × 10(5) Bq m(-2)) but reduced to 22% in less contaminated sites (1.1 × 10(4) Bq m(-2)). In the intermediate contaminated site (5.0-5.8 × 10(4) Bq m(-2)), 34% of radiocesium was observed in the aboveground tree biomass of the Japanese cedar stand. However, this proportion was considerably smaller (18-19%) in the nearby mixed forests of the Japanese red pine (Pinus densiflora) and deciduous broad-leaved trees. Non-negligible amounts of (134)Cs and (137)Cs were detected in both the sapwood and heartwood of all the studied tree species. This finding suggested that the uptake or translocation of radiocesium had already started within 6 months after the accident. The belowground compartments were mostly present in the organic layer and the uppermost (0-5 cm deep) mineral soil layer at all the study sites. We discussed the initial transfer process of radiocesium deposited in the forest and inferred that the type of initial deposition (i.e., dry versus wet radiocesium deposition), the amount of

  12. Different Patterns of Changes in the Dry Season Diameter at Breast Height of Dominant and Evergreen Tree Species in a Mature Subtropical Forest in South China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jun-Hua Yan; Guo-Yi Zhou; De-Qiang Zhang; Xu-Li Tang; Xu Wang

    2006-01-01

    Information on changes in diameter at breast height (DBH) is important for net primary production (NPP)estimates, timing of forest inventory, and forest management. In the present study, patterns of DBH change were measured under field conditions during the dry season for three dominant and native tree species in a monsoon evergreen broad-leaved forest in the Dinghushan Biosphere Reserve. For each tree species,different patterns of DBH change were observed. In the case of the fast-growing tree species Castanopsis chinensis Hance, large diurnal fluctuations occur, with a peak DBH in the early morning (around 05:00 h) that decreases to a minimum by about 14:00 h. Both Schima superba Gardn. et Chemp and Cryptocarya chinensis (Hance) Hemsl. exhibited less diurnal swelling and shrinkage. Diurnal fluctuations for these species were observed on a few occasions over the period of observation. Graphical comparisons and statistical analysis of changes in DBH with meteorological variables indicate that for different trees, the different changes in DBH observed responded to different meteorological variables. Large stem changes were found to occur for Ca. chinensis trees that were associated with variations in solar radiation. However, both S. superba and Cr. chinensis were found to be less sensitive to solar radiation. Changes in the DBH of these two species were found to be controlled mainly by soil temperature and soil moisture. During the later dry season, with a lower soil temperature and soil moisture, all three tree species stopped growing and only negligible shrinkage, expansion, or fluctuation occurred, suggesting that the optimum time to measure tree growth in the Dinghushan Biosphere Reserve is the later dry season.

  13. Factors Influencing Local Communities' Satisfaction Levels with Different Forest Management Approaches of Kakamega Forest, Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guthiga, Paul M.; Mburu, John; Holm-Mueller, Karin

    2008-05-01

    Satisfaction of communities living close to forests with forest management authorities is essential for ensuring continued support for conservation efforts. However, more often than not, community satisfaction is not systematically elicited, analyzed, and incorporated in conservation decisions. This study attempts to elicit levels of community satisfaction with three management approaches of Kakamega forest in Kenya and analyze factors influencing them. Three distinct management approaches are applied by three different authorities: an incentive-based approach of the Forest Department (FD), a protectionist approach of the Kenya Wildlife Service (KWS), and a quasi-private incentive-based approach of Quakers Church Mission (QCM). Data was obtained from a random sample of about 360 households living within a 10-km radius around the forest margin. The protectionist approach was ranked highest overall for its performance in forest management. Results indicate that households are influenced by different factors in their ranking of management approaches. Educated households and those located far from market centers are likely to be dissatisfied with all the three management approaches. The location of the households from the forest margin influences negatively the satisfaction with the protectionist approach, whereas land size, a proxy for durable assets, has a similar effect on the private incentive based approach of the QCM. In conclusion, this article indicates a number of policy implications that can enable the different authorities and their management approaches to gain approval of the local communities.

  14. Do ectomycorrhizal and arbuscular mycorrhizal temperate tree species systematically differ in root order-related fine root morphology and biomass?

    OpenAIRE

    Kubisch, Petra; Hertel, Dietrich; Leuschner, Christoph

    2015-01-01

    While most temperate broad-leaved tree species form ectomycorrhizal (EM) symbioses, a few species have arbuscular mycorrhizas (AM). It is not known whether EM and AM tree species differ systematically with respect to fine root morphology, fine root system size and root functioning. In a species-rich temperate mixed forest, we studied the fine root morphology and biomass of three EM and three AM tree species from the genera Acer, Carpinus, Fagus, Fraxinus, and Tilia searching for principal dif...

  15. Environmental Correlates of Distribution of the 25 Broad-leaved Tree Species Indigenous to Guangdong Province, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Su Zhiyao; Chen Beiguang; Chang Yong; Yang Jiazhi

    2004-01-01

    Twenty-five tree species indigenous to Guangdong Province were chosen in this study to portray their distribution patterns in relation to environmental factors. Both data of species distribution and environmental factors were tabulated based on a digitized map of Guangdong Province gridded at 0.5° latitude × 0.5° longitude. Grid-based diversity was mapped using DMAP, a distribution mapping program, and horizontal patterns were assessed using Kruskal-Wallis tests. The diversity center of the indigenous tree species under study is located north of 23° N. These tree species exhibit significant latitudinal variation (P = 0.007 4), but no significant longitudinal difference (P = 0.052 2). Non-metric Multidimensional Scaling (NMS) identified five different ecological species groups, while Canonical Correspondence Analysis (CCA) showed the distribution of tree species along each of the five environmental gradients. An understanding of the environmental correlates of distribution patterns has great implication for the introduction of the indigenous tree species for afforestation.

  16. Brief analysis on canopy interception effect and influencing factors of five forest types in Simian Mountain of Chongqing%重庆四面山5种森林类型林冠截留影响因素浅析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张焜; 张洪江; 程金花; 张君玉; 孙龙; 马西军

    2011-01-01

    【Objective】 The study was to probe into the primary and secondary relation of factors influencing canopy interception of different forest types in Three Gorge Reservoir Region of Yangtze River.【Method】 Related data of 25 rainfalls from May to September in 2009 were observed.The paper made a grey correlation analysis on the research of factors influencing canopy interception among five forest type in Simian Mountain of Chongqing.【Result】 ①According to the general interception ratios from high to low,the five forest types are arranged as warm needle-leaved forest(42.70%)temperate needle-leaved forest(39.35%)broadleaf-conifer mixed forest(39.05%)evergreen and deciduous broad-leaved mixed forest(36.28%)evergreen broad-leaved forest(27.73%);According to the average interception ratios from high to low,the five types of forests are arranged as warm needle-leaved forest(50.08%)broadleaf-conifer mixed forest(44.91%)temperate needle-leaved forest(44.18%)evergreen and deciduous broad-leaved mixed forest(42.13%)evergreen broad-leaved forest(31.33%).②The influencing priority of meteorological factors for temperate needle-leaved forest is precipitationrainfall intensitywind velocitytemperatureair humidity.For broadleaf-conifer mixed forest,the priority is precipitationwind velocityrainfall intensitytemperature air humidity.For evergreen broad-leaved forest,the priority is precipitation=rainfall intensitywind velocity=temperatureair humidity.For evergreen and deciduous broad-leaved mixed forest,the priority is precipitationrainfall intensitywind velocitytemperatureair humidity.And for warm needle-leaved forest,the priority is precipitationrainfall intensitywind velocitytemperatureair humidity.③Between the canopy interception amount of each forest types and precipitation,a power function is shown.The precipitation of temperate needle-leaved forest,broadleaf-conifer mixed forest,evergreen broad-leaved forest,evergreen and

  17. Artificial Promoting Coppice for Developing Evergreen Broad-leaved Forests%人工促进萌芽更新发展常绿阔叶林

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    廖土发; 周炳金

    2009-01-01

    从宏观的经济效益和社会效益角度出发,做到经济、社会、生态三大效益相统一,让森林发挥出最大的综合效益,做到青山常在,永续利用,是林场经营必须遵循的科学法则.在营造林工作中,采用人工促进萌芽更新方法,以管为主,营造、封、改为辅.以片带网点相结合,大力发展次生常绿阔叶林.

  18. Impacts of moso bamboo (Phyllostachys pubescens) invasion on dry matter and carbon and nitrogen stocks in a broad-leaved secondary forest located in Kyoto, western Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Fukushima, Keitaro; Usui, Nobuaki; Ogawa, Ryo; Tokuchi, Naoko

    2014-01-01

    In western and central Japan, the expansion of exotic moso bamboo (Phyllostachys pubescens Mazel ex J. Houz.) populations into neighboring vegetation has become a serious problem. Although the effects of bamboo invasion on biodiversity have been well studied, shifts in nutrient stocks and cycling, which are fundamental for ecosystem functioning, are not fully understood. To explore the effects of P. pubescens invasion on ecosystem functions we examined above- and below-ground dry matter and c...

  19. Management pattern of ecological public welfare forests in South China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chong LOU; Anxing LIU; Guomin ZHU

    2008-01-01

    The characteristics and actualities of ecologi-cal public welfare forests in South China are studied in this paper, including common and special management patterns. The restoration and reconstruction pattern of subtropical evergreen broad-leaved forests, zonal vegeta-tion in the key eco-zone, and the transformation pattern of coniferous and broad-leaved mixed forests in the general eco-zone with multi-forms are discussed in detail. The authors also point out, based on ecological transformation and utilization, that ecological public welfare forests should be oriented to multiple benefit utilization to maintain sustainable management.

  20. Application of Two Exponential Equations in the Study of Soil Organic Carbon Mineralization in Natural Forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pang Huan

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This study respective using the exponential equation and double exponential equation which are widely used were fitted Pinus massoniana, evergreen broad leaved forest, deciduous oak forest, pine-oak forest, Pinus koraiensis and Pinus tabulaeformis and other six kinds of typical natural forest soil organic carbon mineralization process, it also by fitting curves and cumulative release of CO2 mineralization process analysis and correlation of inert carbon content of soil measured and fitted values of t-test analysis, the two exponential equations in natural forest soil organic carbon mineralization process the application results were evaluated. The results show that the double exponential equation on soil organic carbon mineralization has a better fitting description effect can be more realistically reflect the changes in soil organic carbon mineralization characteristics of the fitting results of insert soil carbon content and measured values a significant difference is not level, the soil can be more accurately reflect the changes of the inert carbon.

  1. Changes of Soil Water, Organic Matter, and Exchangeable Cations Along a Forest Successional Gradient in Southern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN Jun-Hua; ZHOU Guo-Yi; ZHANG De-Qiang; CHU Guo-Wei

    2007-01-01

    Information on the distribution patterns of soil water content (SWC), soil organic matter (SOM), and soil exchangeable cations (SEC) is important for managing forest ecosystems in a sustainable manner. This study investigated how SWC, SOM, and SEC were influenced in forests along a successional gradient, including a regional climax (monsoon evergreen broad-leaved forest, or MEBF), a transitional forest (coniferous and broad-leaved mixed forest, or MF), and a pioneer forest (coniferous Masson pine (Pinus massoniana) forest, or MPF) of the Dinghushan Biosphere Reserve in the subtropical region of southern China. SWC, SOM, and SEC excluding Ca2+ were found to increase in the soil during forest succession, being highest in the top soil layer (0 to 15 cm depth) except for Na+. The differences between soil layers were largest in MF. This finding also suggested that the nutrients were enriched in the topsoil when they became increasingly scarce in the soil. There were no significant differences (P = 0.05) among SWC, SOM, and SBC. A linear, positive correlation was found between SWC and SOM. The correlation between SOM and cation exchange capacity (CEC) was statistically significant, which agreed with the theory that the most important factor determining SEC is SOM. The ratio of K+ to Na+ in the topsoil was about a half of that in the plants of each forest. MF had the lowest exchangeable Ca2+ concentration among the three forests and Ca2+:K+ in MPF was two times higher than that in MF. Understanding the changes of SWC, SOM, and CEC during forest succession would be of great help in protecting all three forests in southern China.

  2. Composition and Characteristics of Natural Secondary Forests in Shenzhen,South China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Dianpei; Ji Shuyi; Chen Feipeng; Peng Shaolin

    2004-01-01

    The composition and structure of five natural secondary forests in Shenzhen were studied based on data of plots and were compared with Hong Kong zonal forest, so as to detect their succession stage and species diversity level. According to succession process of subtropical forest and ecological characteristics of dominant species, the authors speculate that five communities are at different stages. Sinosideroxylon community dominated by heliophilous evergreen broad-leaved tree (Sinosideroxylon wightianum) and conifer tree (Pinus massoniana) is at the third stage. Itea + Acronychia community dominated by two evergreen broad-leaved heliophytes (Itea chinensis and Acronychia pedunculata) is at the fourth stage. The others, I.e., Schefflera, Sterculia and Cleistocalyx + Sterculia community are at the fifth stage where some mesophytes are dominant but heliophytes have a weighed percentage of importance value. Due to succession stage and different forest management and conservation models, the species diversity of five communities is significantly lower than that of Endospermum community in Hong Kong. The values of Shannon-Wiener index and Pielous evenness index of five communities are 2.04-2.953 and 64.2%-74% respectively, but those of the Endospermum community are 4.74 and 79% respectively. The current situation of these communities suggests that the necessary measures should be taken to protect and restore the communities.

  3. Response of Soil Respiration to Acid Rain in Forests of Different Maturity in Southern China

    OpenAIRE

    Guohua Liang; Xingzhao Liu; Xiaomei Chen; Qingyan Qiu; Deqiang Zhang; Guowei Chu; Juxiu Liu; Shizhong Liu; Guoyi Zhou

    2013-01-01

    The response of soil respiration to acid rain in forests, especially in forests of different maturity, is poorly understood in southern China despite the fact that acid rain has become a serious environmental threat in this region in recent years. Here, we investigated this issue in three subtropical forests of different maturity [i.e. a young pine forest (PF), a transitional mixed conifer and broadleaf forest (MF) and an old-growth broadleaved forest (BF)] in southern China. Soil respiration...

  4. [Dynamics of soil properties under secondary succession forest communities in Mt. Jinyun].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hongyan; Huang, Jianguo

    2005-11-01

    Mt. Jinyun is located in the north suburb of Chongqing, 30 km away from the city center. It is rich in forest plants, an epitome of forests in north tropical areas of China. Under anthropocentric disturbance, there still exist large numbers of succession communities, and the process of successive development follows the way of shrub-grassland (X1)-->coniferous forest (X2)-->coniferous-broad leaved mixed forest (X3)-->evergreen broad-leaved forest (X4). By now, soil and water conservation is very important in the Three Gorges area of Yangtze River, and the investigation on the secondary succession of the forests could help to realize the changes of the forests and soils under anthropocentric disturbance, and supply information on the protection of natural forests and the artificial reforestation of this area. In this paper, some typical and representative plant communities in different succession stages were selected to study the plant composition and type and the soil properties, with species diversity indices and canopy density investigated in many standard squares and soil physical and chemical characteristics analyzed. The results showed that there were obvious variations of soil properties with time. As the plant community developed from primary stage to climax, the contents of soil organic matter, total N, and available N and K increased in order of X1 soil pH changed from 5.23 (X1) to 4.06 (X4), soil base saturation varied from 58.3% (X1) to 37.7% (X4), and soil CEC increased with the succession. It was suggested that an intense soil acid leaching was occurred in Mt. Jinyun. The contents of soil organic matter and total N in different layers showed a trend of A>B>C, e. g., soil total nitrogen in evergreen broad leaved forest was 2.31(A), 0.66(B) and 0.12(C)g x kg(-1). Gray analysis was used to study the relationships of soil properties between the climax community and other three succession communities. The relation coefficient was 0.461 0 (X3), 0.586 2(X2

  5. Top-down control of herbivory by birds and bats in the canopy of temperate broad-leaved oaks (Quercus robur.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan M Böhm

    Full Text Available The intensive foraging of insectivorous birds and bats is well known to reduce the density of arboreal herbivorous arthropods but quantification of collateral leaf damage remains limited for temperate forest canopies. We conducted exclusion experiments with nets in the crowns of young and mature oaks, Quercus robur, in south and central Germany to investigate the extent to which aerial vertebrates reduce herbivory through predation. We repeatedly estimated leaf damage throughout the vegetation period. Exclusion of birds and bats led to a distinct increase in arthropod herbivory, emphasizing the prominent role of vertebrate predators in controlling arthropods. Leaf damage (e.g., number of holes differed strongly between sites and was 59% higher in south Germany, where species richness of vertebrate predators and relative oak density were lower compared with our other study site in central Germany. The effects of bird and bat exclusion on herbivory were 19% greater on young than on mature trees in south Germany. Our results support previous studies that have demonstrated clear effects of insectivorous vertebrates on leaf damage through the control of herbivorous arthropods. Moreover, our comparative approach on quantification of leaf damage highlights the importance of local attributes such as tree age, forest composition and species richness of vertebrate predators for control of arthropod herbivory.

  6. 不同类型杉木人工林两栖动物群落特征比较%Comparisons for Characters of Amphibians Communities in Different type Plantations of Chinese Fir

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王恒恒; 李斌; 栾晓峰

    2013-01-01

    From June to September 2011 and April to May 2012, we conducted a preliminary investigation on the amphibian communities in the different typical plantation using the "fence with pitfall trap" in Jiangle County of Fujian Province. The result showed that: 1 ) Totally, 8 species of amphibians, which belong to 4 families and 7 genera, were recorded, and among them Rana limnocharis is the highest abundance; 2 ) The mixed forest had higher amphibian biodiversity than the pure forest and the relative-fatness indexes were 8. 720 and 1. 65 , respectively; 3 ) The relative fatness of different amphibian communities increased with forest age( young forest 7. 961 mature forest 1. 59 > middle-aged forest 1.51). Therefore, in term of biodiversity conservation, we should create mixed forests and retain the coniferous trees and broad-leaved trees species in forest, to maintain the healthy survival environment and food chain for amphibians.

  7. Comparison of Selected Soil Chemical Properties of Two Different Mangrove Forests in Sarawak

    OpenAIRE

    Empi Rambok; Seca Gandaseca; Osumanu H. Ahmed; Nik M.A. Majid

    2010-01-01

    Problem statement: Despite few studies of forest health and environmental conditions of mangrove forest in Sarawak, the data was not sufficient to facilitate baseline data and direct comparison of mangrove forest health obtained for different location of mangrove forest in Sarawak. On this regard, determination of contemporary mangrove soil condition was essential to addressing mangrove forest for forest health, carbon storage and environmental balance. The study attempts ...

  8. Recreation in Different Forest Settings: A Scene Preference Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olof Olsson

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Recreation activity preferences in forest settings were explored in a scene preference study. The importance of type of human intervention and the level of biodiversity for preference and intention to engage in recreation activities were examined in a sample of forestry and social science students in Sweden. Results showed that forestry students displayed an almost equally strong preference for natural-looking scenes as for scenes with traces of recreation (e.g., paths, whereas social science students preferred recreational scenes the most. Least preferred were scenes with traces of forest management. Different forest settings were furthermore preferred for different recreation activities. Recreational settings were favored for walking and going on outings, and natural-looking settings were more appreciated for picking berries or mushrooms. Respondents displayed a stronger intention to study plants and animals in high biodiversity settings and the intention to exercise was stronger in low biodiversity settings. Implications for future land use planning and forest management are discussed.

  9. Doses reduzidas de herbicidas no controlo do Juncus Bufonius L. e infestantes dicotiledóneas em trigo de sementeira directa Reduced doses of herbicides to control Juncus Bufonius L. and broad-leaved weeds in no-till wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Calado Barros

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available O estudo foi levado a cabo nos anos de 2007/08 e 2008/09 numa herdade privada no distrito de Évora (Sul de Portugal, onde a cultura do trigo é semeada após o início das chuvas de Outono. O trigo foi estabelecido usando o sistema de sementeira directa, o qual possibilita a aplicação de herbicidas de pós-emergência numa fase mais precoce do desenvolvimento das infestantes. Para controlar o Juncus bufonius L. e diferentes infestantes de folha larga, foi aplicada uma mistura de dois herbicidas quando as infestantes se encontravam no estádio de desenvolvimento de 3-4 pares de folhas. Os herbicidas aplicados foram o mesossulfurão-metilo + iodossulfurão-metilo-sódio + mefenepir-dietilo (H1 e o clortolurão (H2 e utilizaram-se duas doses diferentes dos dois herbicidas. O maior controlo do J. bufonius foi obtido quando na mistura se utilizou a dose mais alta do herbicida H2 (2.0 L ha-1 e para se conseguir um maior controlo das infestantes dicotiledóneas foi também necessário aplicar a dose mais alta do herbicida H1 (0.3 kg ha-1. Apesar das diferenças na produção de grão não terem sido significativas para os diferentes tratamentos, verificou-se a tendência de um aumento na produção de grão com um controlo mais eficaz do Juncus bufonius L.The study was carried out over 2 years (2007/2008 and 2008/2009 on a private farm in the Alentejo region (Évora, in the South of Portugal where rainfed wheat is sown after the beginning of the autumn rainfall season. The wheat crop was established using no-till which permits the post-emergence application of herbicides at an early weed development stage. To control J. bufonius and different broad-leaved weeds, a mixture of two herbicides was used when the weeds were at the 3-4 pair of leaves development stage. The herbicides applied were mesosulfuron-methyl + iodosulfuron- methyl-sodium + mefenpyr-diethyl (H1 and clortoluron (H2 at two different doses. Best J. bufonius control was achieved with

  10. Insights into seasonal variation of litter decomposition and related soil degradative enzyme activities in subtropical forest in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Cong-yan; LÜ Yan-na; WANG Lei; LIU Xue-yan; TIAN Xing-jun

    2013-01-01

    We used a litterbag method to investigate litter decomposition and related soil degradative enzyme activities across four seasons in a broad-leaved forest and a coniferous forest on Zijin Mountain in sub-tropical China. Across four seasons, we quantified litter mass losses, soil pH values, and related soil degradative enzyme activities. Litter decomposition rates differed significantly by season. Litter decomposi-tion rates of broadleaf forest leaves were higher than for coniferous for-ests needles across four seasons, and maximal differences in litter de-composition rates between the two litter types were found in spring. Obvious differences in litter decomposition rates of the two litter types were found in winter, which were similar to rates in spring. Litter de-composition rates of the two litter types in autumn were significantly higher than in spring. Soil degradative enzyme activities were lowest in winter and highest in summer in most cases across four seasons.

  11. Forest cutting and regeneration methodology on Changbai Mountain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DAILi-min; SHAOGuo-fan; CHENGao; LIUXin-shuang; GUANZhi-peng; LIYang

    2003-01-01

    This paper discussed the characteristics of degenerated forest ecosystems in Changbai Mountain area,which include over-harvest natural forest,typical secondary forest,derived forest,and artificial forest.Forest cutting and regeneration methods that were historically used in the region were summarized.They lnclude diameter-class selective cutting,clearcutting,upbringing selective cutting,and selective sutting.We proposed cutting methods for the broad-leaved Korean pine mixed forest,spruce-fir forest,and larch forest.The measures for restoring the original mixed forest ecosystems were recommended.

  12. A Study on Forest Species Diversity and Its Ecological Service Function in the Plateau Area of Western Sichuan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DengYu-Lin; WangYu-kuan; PengPei-hao

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents a study on species diversity and its ecological service function in the plateau area in western Sichuan. The results show that species diversity in the plantations on the cutover land has a tendency to increase and that its ecological service function is to be improved with stand age growing. The species diversity in forest communities is also gradually increased on different succession stage till reaching a climax level. But the species diversity in the climax community is slightly decreased before it reaches a relatively constant status. Ecological service function of diversity is gradually strengthened with the progress of succession. In addition, species diversity in a stand in a similar site and at a same age differs among forest types. Species diversity index within a coniferous and broad-leaved mixed forest is larger than that within a coniferous forest. Meanwhile, species diversity enriches as the tree density increases.

  13. Earthworms as indicators for different forest management types and human disturbance in Ilam oak forest, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heydari Mehdi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available There has been observed widespread destruction of natural ecosystems around the world due to population growth, land use change and clear cutting which have affected soil properties. Different management strategies have been so far implemented to reduce this crisis in various regions of the world, such as e.g. short-term and long-term conservation management in the Zagros region. However, any management approach should be evaluated with appropriate measures to determine how managed areas respond. The main objective of the present study was to evaluate the potential of earthworms as an indicator for different forest management strategies and human disturbances in Zagros oak (Quercus persica Jaub. and Spach forest. The sites selected included undisturbed one as the control (Un, the sites under five-year conservation management (FCM and twenty-year conservation management (TCM as well as the disturbed site (D. The results of principal component analysis (PCA showed that different regions separated into the components: PC1 and PC2. Un and TCM sites gathered together and represented higher values of the factors such as pH, Kavailable, OC, clay content, Pavailable, CEC, overstory tree canopy, Ntot, biomass and abundance of earthworms. The positive direction of the first axis reflected a gradient of EC, BD and Ptot. According to the logistic model, NH4-N and EC played the most important role in earthworm presence and absence in Zagros forest ecosystem. Earthworm abundance and biomass could be a good indicator to evaluate different forest management strategies in the study area.

  14. Responses of soil respiration and its temperature/moisture sensitivity to precipitation in three subtropical forests in southern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Jiang

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Both long-term observation data and model simulations suggest an increasing chance of serious drought in the dry season and extreme flood in the wet season in southern China, yet little is known about how changes in precipitation pattern will affect soil respiration in the region. We conducted a field experiment to study the responses of soil respiration to precipitation manipulations – precipitation exclusion to mimic drought, double precipitation to simulate flood, and ambient precipitation as control (abbr. EP, DP and AP, respectively – in three subtropical forests in southern China. The three forest sites include Masson pine forest (PF, coniferous and broad-leaved mixed forest (MF and monsoon evergreen broad-leaved forest (BF. Our observations showed that altered precipitation strongly influenced soil respiration, not only through the well-known direct effects of soil moisture on plant and microbial activities, but also by modification of both moisture and temperature sensitivity of soil respiration. In the dry season, soil respiration and its temperature sensitivity, as well as fine root and soil microbial biomass, showed rising trends with precipitation increases in the three forest sites. Contrarily, the moisture sensitivity of soil respiration decreased with precipitation increases. In the wet season, different treatments showed different effects in three forest sites. The EP treatment decreased fine root biomass, soil microbial biomass, soil respiration and its temperature sensitivity, but enhanced soil moisture sensitivity in all three forest sites. The DP treatment significantly increased soil respiration, fine root and soil microbial biomass in the PF only, and no significant change was found for the soil temperature sensitivity. However, the DP treatment in the MF and BF reduced soil temperature sensitivity significantly in the wet season. Our results indicated that soil respiration would decrease in the three subtropical

  15. Responses of soil respiration and its temperature/moisture sensitivity to precipitation in three subtropical forests in southern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, H.; Deng, Q.; Zhou, G.; Hui, D.; Zhang, D.; Liu, S.; Chu, G.; Li, J.

    2013-06-01

    Both long-term observation data and model simulations suggest an increasing chance of serious drought in the dry season and extreme flood in the wet season in southern China, yet little is known about how changes in precipitation pattern will affect soil respiration in the region. We conducted a field experiment to study the responses of soil respiration to precipitation manipulations - precipitation exclusion to mimic drought, double precipitation to simulate flood, and ambient precipitation as control (abbr. EP, DP and AP, respectively) - in three subtropical forests in southern China. The three forest sites include Masson pine forest (PF), coniferous and broad-leaved mixed forest (MF) and monsoon evergreen broad-leaved forest (BF). Our observations showed that altered precipitation strongly influenced soil respiration, not only through the well-known direct effects of soil moisture on plant and microbial activities, but also by modification of both moisture and temperature sensitivity of soil respiration. In the dry season, soil respiration and its temperature sensitivity, as well as fine root and soil microbial biomass, showed rising trends with precipitation increases in the three forest sites. Contrarily, the moisture sensitivity of soil respiration decreased with precipitation increases. In the wet season, different treatments showed different effects in three forest sites. The EP treatment decreased fine root biomass, soil microbial biomass, soil respiration and its temperature sensitivity, but enhanced soil moisture sensitivity in all three forest sites. The DP treatment significantly increased soil respiration, fine root and soil microbial biomass in the PF only, and no significant change was found for the soil temperature sensitivity. However, the DP treatment in the MF and BF reduced soil temperature sensitivity significantly in the wet season. Our results indicated that soil respiration would decrease in the three subtropical forests if soil moisture

  16. Study on Effect of Different Forest Type on Water Quality at The Source of Qiantang River%钱塘江源头不同林分类型的水质效应研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毛玉明; 吴初平; 袁位高; 张骏; 沈爱华; 朱锦茹

    2013-01-01

    对钱塘江源头湿地松林、杉木林、落叶阔叶林、松阔混交林、毛竹林5种森林类型的降水、穿透水、树干径流、地表径流、枯透水和土壤渗透水中的pH值、溶解氧、COD、氨氮和Cl-等水质指标进行了检测。结果表明:大气降水透过林冠层后,pH值略微下降,溶解氧含量减小,氨氮、COD和Cl-含量增加;树冠径流其pH值、溶解氧比穿透水更低,氨氮、COD和Cl-1含量增加;穿透水和树干径流转化为枯透水后,水中的溶解氧浓度进一步降低,COD和Cl-含量升高,氨氮浓度降低,说明枯落物层对营养元素具有吸附作用;土壤渗透水的各项水质指标均明显优于大气降水,说明土壤层是森林生态系统净化水质的关键层;各林分内水中溶解氧含量和 COD 含量较为接近,落叶阔叶林和混交林内水分的pH值略高,吸附氨氮和Cl-的能力更高,说明落叶阔叶林和混交林净水能力更强。%The rainfall, through fall, stem flow, runoff, litter through and soil infiltration water was sampled in forest of slash pine, Chinese fir, deciduous broad-leaf forest, pine-broad-leaf forest and bamboo stand at the source of Qiantang River(Kaihua county of Zhejiang province), and the water quality indicators such as pH, dissolved oxygen, COD, ammonia nitrogen and Cl-were detected. The results showed that by the order of the rainfall, through fall, stem flow, runoff, litter through and oil infiltration water, the pH value decreased slightly and the content of dissolved oxygen reduced, with an increasing of ammonia nitrogen, COD and Cl-. Soil infiltration water had significantly better quality than others. The dissolved oxygen content and COD content was similar under different forest. Deciduous broad-leaved forest and mixed forest had higher water pH value, indicating that the deciduous broad-leaved forest and mixed forest had better water purification capacity.

  17. Changes in Forest Soil Properties in Different Successional Stages in Lower Tropical China

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Yuelin; Yang, Fangfang; Ou, Yangxu; Zhang, Deqiang; Liu, Juxiu; Chu, Guowei; Zhang, Yaru; Otieno, Dennis; Zhou, Guoyi

    2013-01-01

    Background Natural forest succession often affects soil physical and chemical properties. Selected physical and chemical soil properties were studied in an old-growth forest across a forest successional series in Dinghushan Nature Reserve, Southern China. Methodology/Principal Findings The aim was to assess the effects of forest succession change on soil properties. Soil samples (0–20 cm depth) were collected from three forest types at different succession stages, namely pine (Pinus massonian...

  18. What Is A forest? Definitions Do Make A Difference An Example From Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Lund, H. Gyde

    2014-01-01

    Abstract: Estimates of forest area vary according to source and definition. How forest is defined can influence how deforestation, reforestation and afforestation can be interpreted. This paper illustrates some of the difference for estimates of forest land in Turkey and how changes in €˜forest' may be interpreted. I also provide some suggestions for developing clearer definitions. Keywords: Forest, deforestation, reforestation, afforestation, Turkey.

  19. 闽江入海口沿岸不同林龄森林碳储量和碳密度研究%Study on Carbon Storage and Density of the Forests of Different Age Groups along the Banks of the Minjiang River Estuary

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张绍轩; 马娇娇; 吴强; 王卫军; 谷建才

    2014-01-01

    The forest areas of the upper reaches of the Minjiang River estuary are used as the research ob-ject and based on two types of resources survey data in two aspects of forest vegetation types and different age groups,analysis was done on the biomass estimation distribution and the carbon storage and carbon density distribution of the main forest types.The results shows that carbon density distribution in addition to the western mountain area,shows a rising pattern from east to west,carbon density ranges mainly be-tween 20t/hm2 and 40t/hm2 in the area of human activity.The carbon storage of the forests of different ages is in an ascending order as follows:middle-aged forest (82 171.91t)>young growth (43 692.94t)>near mature forest (18 851.71t)>mature forest (5 789.81t),carbon density in different age groups of coniferous forest,broad-leaved forest,coniferous and broad-leaved mixed forest is in an ascending order as follows:mature forest carbon density >near mature forest carbon density >middle aged forest carbon density >sapling forest carbon density.With the increase of age class,carbon density increases,and with the growth of the forests,carbon sequestration capacity increases gradually.%以闽江入海口沿岸上游林区为研究对象,采用生物量推算法对调查资料进行处理,从森林植被类型和林龄两方面分析林区主要森林类型的碳储量和碳密度的分布情况。结果表明:除西部高山区外,碳密度分布从东往西逐渐升高,在人类活动区域碳密度变化范围主要为20~40t/hm2。不同林龄碳储量从小到大排序为中龄林(82171.91t)>幼龄林(43692.93t)>近熟林(18851.71t)>成熟林(5789.81 t),碳密度在针叶林、阔叶林与针阔混交林各林龄分布中均表现为成熟林>近熟林>中龄林>幼龄林。随着龄级的增大,碳密度增大,随着森林的增长,固碳能力逐渐增大。

  20. Leaf and twig litter decomposition of main species in different forests along the north slope of Changbai Mountain,northeast China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Zhongling; LI Qingkang; ZHENG Jinping; LIU Wande; FAN Chunnan; MA Yuandan; YU Guirui; HAN Shijie

    2007-01-01

    From 2001 to 2003,the litter decomposition dynamics of dominant tree species were conducted using a litterbag burying method in the broadleaf-Korean pine forest,spruce-fir forest and Ermans birch forest,which represents three altitudinal belts in Changbai Mountain,northeast China.The spatial and temporal dynamics of litter decomposition and the effects of litter properties were examined.Furthermore,the decomposition trend of different species was simulated by the Olson model,and results showed that annual mass loss rates increased over time,but was not significantly correlated.Leaf decomposition rates increased after decomposing for 638 days (1.75 years),and the order of dry weight remaining rates of leaf litter for different species is:Asian white birch (Betula platyphylla) (24.56%)<Amur linden (Tilia amurensis) (24.81%) < Korean pine (Pinus koraiensis)(38.48%)<spruce (Picea jezoensis var. microsperma)(41.15%)< Ermans birch (Betula ermanii) (41.53%)<fir (Abies nephrolepis) (42.62%).The dry weight remaining rates of twig litter was smaller than that of leaf litter,and followed the order of Amur linden (44.98%)<fir (64.62%)<Korean pine (72.07%)<spruce (73.51%)<Asian white birch (77.37%)<Ermans birch (80.35%).The simulation results by the Olson model showed that,in leaf,the 95%-decomposition rates ranged from 4.5 to 8.0 years,and annual decomposition rate (k) followed the order of Amur linden (0.686)>Asian white birch (0.624)>Korean pine (0.441)>spruce (0.406)>fir (0.397)>Ermans birch (0.385);in twig,it ranged from 7.8 to 29.3 years,and k follows the order:Amur linden (0.391)>fir (0.204)>Korean pine (0.176)>spruce (0.157)>Asian white birch (0.148)>Ermans birch (0.102).In general,the differences of decomposition rate are evident between leaf and twig litter and among species,and were higher in broad-leaved species compared with coniferous species at the same elevation,and decreased with the ascending of elevation.

  1. Comparison of Social Benefits of Forest under Different Management Models: A Case Study of Close-to-Nature Forest Management in Harbin, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Different forest management modes definitely create different results. A study of social benefits nurtured by scientific forest management had been conducted in 1998-2008 with Danqinghe Experiment Forest Farm, Zhuanshan Experiment Forest Farm and Shanhe Experiment Forest Farmtogether as the project area. The method that was centered on quantification and supplemented byqualification was employed to compare the social benefits of forests separately under the scientificmanagement model and the traditional man...

  2. Climatic potential productivity and an IRS-1CWiFS image in Natural Park Los Alcornocales. Relationship with the standing forest biomass; Productividad Potencial Climatica y una imagen IRS-1CWiFS en el Parque Natural Los Alcornocales. Relacion con la biomasa forestal real

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cuevas, J. M.; Gonzalez-Alonso, F.; Roldan, A.; Huesca, M.

    2009-07-01

    It is studied the use of the Map of Forest Potential Productivity of Spain as information in base to which classify an Indian IRS-1C WiFS satellite image in Los Alcornocales Natural Park (Andalucia, Spain), a large forest area covered by natural forests of Mediterranean broad-leaved species, mainly cork oak (Quercus suber L.). Grouping the classes of climatic potential productivity of this map were obtained three macro classes that resulted significantly different among them at the 99% confidence level for the visible and the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) of the WiFS image. It was built a classifier using these macro classes of climatic potential productivity as ground truth areas. By maximum likelihood supervised classification of the NDVI were obtained classes who resulted significantly different among them at the 90% confidence level for the basal area from the Second Spanish National Forest Inventory ground plots located in the park. (Author) 60 refs.

  3. Effects of different liming agencies in forests. A literature review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nihlgaard, B.; Budimir, P.

    1984-07-01

    In the introduction of this report the different reasons for acidification of forest soils are summarized. The buffering systems of the soil are reviewed: the carbonate, silicate, aluminium and the iron buffering systems and the cation exchange system. Results of soil acidification are mentioned. Different liming agencies in use are described. Changes in the chemical soil processes due to liming are described. From a soil biology point of view liming means that the turnover of carbon and nitrogen is increased, with lowered C/N-ratio as a consequence. The tree production might be influenced, sometimes strongly positively but more often with slightly lowered volume production. This decrease is mainly interpreted as a result of disturbed mycorrhiza, possibly a negative nitrate-effect, and sometimes as a relative magnesium or bor deficiency. Increased production seems mainly to appear when liming is done in young stands or before reforestation. The conclusions are - that liming has a long term positive effect on the chemical soil status in preventing the resolution of aluminum and other metals, subsequently with positive effects on the soil and ground water in the long run - that one has to be careful with liming in old stands, in order not to get a decreased volume production - that one probably has to compensate for the acidification leaching effects in the soil by adding eg magnesium and bor together with lime in many forest soils.

  4. Influence of different tree-harvesting intensities on forest soil carbon stocks in boreal and northern temperate forest ecosystems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clarke, Nicholas; Gundersen, Per; Jönsson-Belyazid, Ulrika;

    2015-01-01

    Effective forest governance measures are crucial to ensure sustainable management of forests, but so far there has been little specific focus in boreal and northern temperate forests on governance measures in relation to management effects, including harvesting effects, on soil organic carbon (SOC......) stocks. This paper reviews the findings in the scientific literature concerning the effects of harvesting of different intensities on SOC stocks and fluxes in boreal and northern temperate forest ecosystems to evaluate the evidence for significant SOC losses following biomass removal. An overview...... of existing governance measures related to SOC is given, followed by a discussion on how scientific findings could be incorporated in guidelines and other governance measures. The currently available information does not support firm conclusions about the long-term impact of intensified forest harvesting...

  5. Regional differences of water conservation in Beijing's forest ecosystem

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Biao; XIE Gao-di; YAN Yu-ping; YANG Yan-gang

    2011-01-01

    The water conservation capacities of main forests in Beijing,China were estimated through the quantitative analysis. Various methods developed in published papers on forest hydrology were employed. The forests in Huairou, Yanqing, Miyun, Mentougou and Fangshan districts are the main contributors to water conservation (the cumulative ratio reaches 65%), and the forests in Tongzhou, Chaoyang, Shunyi and Daxing districts have the highest water conservation capacity (3000 m3/ha).Altitude and slope are the key factors to affect the water conservation capacity. The forests located in Plain Area, Hilly Area, Low Mountain,and Middle Mountain contributes 27%, 28%, 24% and 21% of the conserved water, respectively. The water conservation capacity of forests in Plain Area (2 948 m3/ha), is superior to the forests in other regions. And the forests situated on Flat Slope, Moderate Slope and Genre Slope constitute the largest proportion (nearly 93%) of water conservation,while the forests on Flat Slope has the highest water conservation capacity (2 797 m3/ha), and the forest on Steep slope has the lowest water conservation capacity (948 m3/ha).

  6. Evaluating spatial-temporal dynamics of net primary productivity of different forest types in northeastern China based on improved FORCCHN.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junfang Zhao

    Full Text Available An improved individual-based forest ecosystem carbon budget model for China (FORCCHN was applied to investigate the spatial-temporal dynamics of net primary productivity of different forest types in northeastern China. In this study, the forests of northeastern China were categorized into four ecological types according to their habitats and generic characteristics (evergreen broadleaf forest, deciduous broadleaf forest, evergreen needleleaf forest and deciduous needleleaf forest. The results showed that distribution and change of forest NPP in northeastern China were related to the different forest types. From 1981 to 2002, among the forest types in northeastern China, per unit area NPP and total NPP of deciduous broadleaf forest were the highest, with the values of 729.4 gC/(m(2•yr and 106.0 TgC/yr, respectively, followed by mixed broadleaf- needleleaf forest, deciduous needleleaf forest and evergreen needleleaf forest. From 1981 to 2002, per unit area NPP and total NPP of different forest types in northeastern China exhibited significant trends of interannual increase, and rapid increase was found between the 1980s and 1990s. The contribution of the different forest type's NPP to total NPP in northeastern China was clearly different. The greatest was deciduous broadleaf forest, followed by mixed broadleaf- needleleaf forest and deciduous needleleaf forest. The smallest was evergreen needleleaf forest. Spatial difference in NPP between different forest types was remarkable. High NPP values of deciduous needleleaf forest, mixed broadleaf- needleleaf forest and deciduous broadleaf forest were found in the Daxing'anling region, the southeastern of Xiaoxing'anling and Jilin province, and the Changbai Mountain, respectively. However, no regional differences were found for evergreen needleleaf NPP. This study provided not only an estimation NPP of different forest types in northeastern China but also a useful methodology for estimating forest

  7. Research on Water Conservation Function of Typical Forests in Jinyun Mountain%重庆缙云山典型林分水源涵养功能研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李杨; 王百田; 饶良懿; 王玉杰; 赵铭军

    2012-01-01

    [Objective] This study aimed to explore the relationship between different forest types and water conservation function. [Method] Based on field survey and experimental analysis, water conservation function of four typical forest stands in Jinyun Mountain of Chongqing was explored, including conifer-broadleaved mixed forest, evergreen broad-leaved forest, bamboo forest and shrub forest. [Result] The results show that the order of saturated water storage capacity of soil in four forest stands was shrub forest (266.48 mm) > conifer-broadleaved mixed forest (190.40 mm) > evergreen broad-leaved forest (186. 80 mm) > bamboo forest (174. 80 mm) ; the order of maximum water-holding capacity of litter was shrub forest (8.06 mm) > conifer-broadleaved mixed forest (4.71 mm) > evergreen broad-leaved forest (4.32 mm) > bamboo forest (3. 34 mm) ; the order of canopy interception in various forest stands was conifer-broadleaved mixed forest (16. 15% ) > evergreen broad-leaved forest (14. 70% ) > bamboo forest (12. 64% ). [Conclusion] The study had great significance to rational manage forest resources, improve water environment and realize scientific management and use of water resources.%[目的]探讨不同类型林地与涵养水源功能的关系.[方法]通过实地调查与实验分析,对重庆缙云山中针阔混交林、常绿阔叶林、楠竹林和灌木林4种典型林分的水源涵养功能进行了分析.[结果]4种林分的土壤饱和蓄水量顺序为灌木林(266.48 mm)>针阔混交林(190.40 mm)>常绿阔叶林(186.80 mm)>楠竹林(174.80 mm);枯落物最大持水量顺序为灌木林(8.06 mm)>针阔混交林(4.71 mm)>常绿阔叶林(4.32 mm)>楠竹林(3.34 mm);各种林分的林冠截留率顺序为针阔混交林(16.15%)>常绿阔叶林(14.70%)>楠竹林(12.64%).[结论]该研究对合理经营森林资源、改善水环境、实现水资源的科学管理和利用具有重要意义.

  8. 大别山自然保护区天然次生林分类及其生态位特征%Classification and ecological niche of natural secondary forest in the Nature Reserve of Dabie Mountain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张卓文; 王永健; 唐亚坤; ULRICH Apel; 王艳; 肖宋高; 李振

    2012-01-01

    Based on data with important values for classification and niche measuring,the classification, niche breadth and overlap of dominant woody species of natural secondary forest in Dabie Mountain Reserve were studied by means of sampling, two-way indicator species analysis (TWINSPAN) ,detrend-ed correspondence analysis (DCA) and niche analysis. The results showed that communities of natural secondary forest in Dabie Mountain Reserve were divided into six community types (coniferous forest I and II 籧oniferous broad-leaved mixed forest I and IJ , deciduous broad-leaved forest E and evergreen deciduous broad-leaved mixed forest F) based on TWINSPAN and DCA. DCA ordination figures also reflected the pattern of communities changing from the coniferous forest I and H to coniferous broad-leaved mixed forest I and JJ ,then to deciduous and evergreen deciduous mixed forest. Pinus massoni-ana and Pinus hivangshanensis had a large niche breadth in coniferous forest I and JJ . Pinus and Quer-cus both had larger niche in coniferous broad-leaved mixed forest I and TJ . Many woody species had larger niche in deciduous and evergreen deciduous mixed forest. The niche breadth and overlap of main dominant species in different communities might change according to the succession trend. It was feasible for using niche overlap index and species characteristic as the main evaluation criterion in terms of majority species relationships in different community succession.%通过样方调查、TWINSPAN分类与DCA排序及生态位分析,以物种重要值为分类排序与生态位计测的数据指标,研究湖北省大别山自然保护区天然次生林分类及优势木本生态位宽度与重叠.结果表明:应用TWINSPAN分类并结合DCA排序,可将植被划分为6个群落类型(针叶林Ⅰ、Ⅱ,针阔混交林Ⅰ、Ⅱ,E落叶阔叶林和F常绿落叶阔叶混交林).同时DCA排序图中反映了植被由针叶林Ⅰ、Ⅱ——针阔混交林Ⅰ、Ⅱ——落叶阔叶林与

  9. Long-term protection effects of national reserve to forest vegetation in 4 decades: biodiversity change analysis of major forest types in Changbai Mountain Nature Reserve, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The Changbai Mountain Nature Reserve (CNR) was established in 1960 to protect the virgin Korean pine mixed hardwood forest, a typical temperate forest of northeast China. We conducted systematic stud- ies of vascular diversity patterns on the north slope of the CNR mountainside forests (800-1700 m a.s.l.) in 1963 and 2006 respectively. The aim of this comparison is to assess the long-term effects of the protection on plant biodiversity of CNR during the interval 43 years. The research was carried out in three types of forests: mixed coniferous and broad-leaved forest (MCBF), mixed coniferous forest (MCF), and sub-alpine coniferous forest (SCF), characterized by different dominant species. The alpha diversity indicted by species richness and the Shannon-Wiener index were found different in the same elevations and forest types during the 43-year interval. The floral composition and the diversity of vascular species were generally similar along altitudinal gradients before and after the 43-year interval, but some substantial changes were evident with the altitude gradient. In the tree layers, the dominant species in 2006 were similar to those of 1963, though diversity declined with altitude. The indices in the three forest types did not differ significantly between 1963 and 2006, and these values even increased in the MCBF and MCF from 1963 to 2006. However, originally dominant species, P. koraiensis for ex- ample, tended to decline, while the proportion of broad-leaved trees increased, and the species turn- over in the succession layers trended to shift to higher altitudes. The diversity pattern of the under canopy fluctuated along the altitudinal gradient due to micro-environmental variations. Comparison of the alpha diversity in the three forests shows that the diversity of the shrub and herb layer decreased with time. During the process of survey, we also found some rare and medicinal species disappeared. Analysis indicates that the changes of the diversity

  10. Long-term protection effects of national reserve to forest vegetation in 4 decades: Biodiversity change analysis of major forest types in Changbai Mountain Nature Reserve, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BAI Fan; SANG WeiGuo; LI GuangQi; LIU RuiGang; CHEN LingZhi; WANG Kun

    2008-01-01

    The Changbai Mountain Nature Reserve (CNR) was established in 1960 to protect the virgin Korean pine mixed hardwood forest, a typical temperate forest of northeast China. We conducted systematic stud-ies of vascular diversity patterns on the north slope of the CNR mountainside forests (800-1700 m a.s.I.) in 1963 and 2006 respectively. The aim of this comparison is to assess the long-term effects of the protection on plant biodiversity of CNR during the interval 43 years. The research was carried out in three types of forests: mixed coniferous and broad-leaved forest (MCBF), mixed coniferous forest (MCF), and sub-alpine coniferous forest (SCF), characterized by different dominant species. The alpha diversity indicted by species richness and the Shannon-Wiener index were found different in the same elevations and forest types during the 43-year interval. The floral composition and the diversity of vascular species were generally similar along altitudinal gradients before and after the 43-year interval, but some substantial changes were evident with the altitude gradient. In the tree layers, the dominant species in 2006 were similar to those of 1963, though diversity declined with altitude. The indices in the three forest types did not differ significantly between 1963 and 2006, and these values even increased in the MCBF and MCF from 1963 to 2006. However, originally dominant species, P. koraiensis for ex-ample, tended to decline, while the proportion of broad-leaved trees increased, and the species turn-over in the succession layers trended to shift to higher altitudes. The diversity pattern of the under canopy fluctuated along the altitudinal gradient due to micro-environmental variations. Comparison of the alpha diversity in the three forests shows that the diversity of the shrub and herb layer decreased with time. During the process of survey, we also found some rare and medicinal species disappeared. Analysis indicates that the changes of the diversity pattern

  11. Long-term protection effects of National Reserve to forest vegetation in 4 decades: biodiversity change analysis of major forest types in Changbai Mountain Nature Reserve, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Fan; Sang, WeiGuo; Li, GuangQi; Liu, RuiGang; Chen, LingZhi; Wang, Kun

    2008-10-01

    The Changbai Mountain Nature Reserve (CNR) was established in 1960 to protect the virgin Korean pine mixed hardwood forest, a typical temperate forest of northeast China. We conducted systematic studies of vascular diversity patterns on the north slope of the CNR mountainside forests (800-1700 m a.s.l.) in 1963 and 2006 respectively. The aim of this comparison is to assess the long-term effects of the protection on plant biodiversity of CNR during the interval 43 years. The research was carried out in three types of forests: mixed coniferous and broad-leaved forest (MCBF), mixed coniferous forest (MCF), and sub-alpine coniferous forest (SCF), characterized by different dominant species. The alpha diversity indicted by species richness and the Shannon-Wiener index were found different in the same elevations and forest types during the 43-year interval. The floral composition and the diversity of vascular species were generally similar along altitudinal gradients before and after the 43-year interval, but some substantial changes were evident with the altitude gradient. In the tree layers, the dominant species in 2006 were similar to those of 1963, though diversity declined with altitude. The indices in the three forest types did not differ significantly between 1963 and 2006, and these values even increased in the MCBF and MCF from 1963 to 2006. However, originally dominant species, P. koraiensis for example, tended to decline, while the proportion of broad-leaved trees increased, and the species turnover in the succession layers trended to shift to higher altitudes. The diversity pattern of the under canopy fluctuated along the altitudinal gradient due to micro-environmental variations. Comparison of the alpha diversity in the three forests shows that the diversity of the shrub and herb layer decreased with time. During the process of survey, we also found some rare and medicinal species disappeared. Analysis indicates that the changes of the diversity pattern in

  12. Effects of Different Forest Management Regimes on Plant Community Structure and Biodiversity of Natural Secondary Forests in Danqinghe Forestry Farm%不同经营模式对丹清河林场天然次生林植物群落结构及其多样性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁星云; 何友均; 张谱; 戎建涛; 覃林; 李智勇

    2013-01-01

    以黑龙江省哈尔滨市林业局丹清河林场的针叶林、阔叶林及针阔混交林3种天然次生林为对象,以无干扰模式为对照,研究粗放经营模式和目标树经营模式对植物群落结构及其多样性的影响.结果表明:1)在针叶林、阔叶林、针阔混交林中,相对于粗放经营模式和无干扰模式而言,目标树经营模式中以目标树为主的第1林层断面积值最大,占林分断面积百分比为95.00%,90.00%,87.00%,但第2,3林层断面积最小,形成了合理的林冠结构;2)目标树经营模式的林木平均密度(408 ~858株·hm-2)显著低于(P<0.05)粗放经营模式(992 ~1 917株·hm-2),而平均胸高断面积(18.18 ~46.03 m2·hm-2)与粗放经营模式(18.43 ~39.70 m2·hm-2)无显著差异(P<0.05),平均树高(11.8~14.9 m)和平均胸径(15.94 ~27.34 cm)均显著高于(P<0.05)粗放经营模式(分别为7.1~11.0 m和10.18~19.00cm);3)粗放经营模式和无干扰模式60%以上的林木为小径木(12 cm以下),目标树经营模式60%以上为中径木(14 ~ 18 cm)和大径木(20 cm以上);4)粗放经营模式乔木层的多样性高于目标树经营模式;灌木层除阔叶林的多样性与目标树经营模式不可比外,其余林分的多样性均高于目标树经营模式;草本层的多样性则以目标树经营模式为最高;5)粗放经营模式只注重短期经济价值而忽略生态要求,无干扰模式只注重绝对生态保护而忽略人对森林资源的利用需求,二者都不符合人类经营森林的目标.目标树经营模式可改善群落和林冠结构,不仅能够获得较好的经济效益,还能平衡生态功能,符合人类经营森林的目标.%We studied the different effects of extensive forest management regime and target tree management regime on plant community structure and biodiversity of natural secondary coniferous forest, broad-leaved forest and mixed forest in Danqinghe Forestry Farm which locates

  13. Research on Functional Diversity of Typical Forest Communities in Pangquangou Natural Reserve in Shanxi%山西庞泉沟自然保护区典型森林群落功能多样性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭玉永

    2012-01-01

    Functional diversity and ecological significance of five different forests were analyzed by the functional diversity indices of Rao and CWM in Pangquangou Natural Reserve in Shanxi. Results showed that the indices of Rao and CWM had the same variation rule in different forest communities that indices of five forest communities ranked as mixed forest of Larix. principis-rupprechtii, mixed forest of picea, mixed forest of P. tabuliformis, mixed forest of coniferous and broad-leaved, mixed forest of broad-leaved and indices of tree layer, shrub layer, herb layer that ranked as arboreal layer, shrub layer, herb layer in forest community. This research also indicated that functional diversity index was positively related with the biodiversity index, and was closely related with the ecological significance such as productivity.%在山西庞泉沟自然保护区选取典型森林群落5类,设置15块样地,采用Rao指数和CWM指数计算群落的功能多样性指数,分析了不同森林群落功能多样性指数及其生态学意义。研究结果表明:不同群落类型群落功能Rao指数和CWM指数表现一致,基本排序为:华北落叶松混交林〉云杉混交林〉油松混交林〉阔针混交林〉阔叶树混交林,群落内不同层次间排序为:乔木层〉灌木层〉草本层。群落功能多样性指数与物种多样性指数呈显著正相关,并与群落生产力等功能特性密切相关。

  14. Factors controlling regional differences in forest soil emission of nitrogen oxides (NO and N2O)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pilegaard, K.; Skiba, U.; Ambus, P.;

    2006-01-01

    Soil emissions of NO and N2O were measured continuously at high frequency for more than one year at 15 European forest sites as part of the EU-funded project NOFRETETE. The locations represent different forest types (coniferous/deciduous) and different nitrogen loads. Geoaphically they range from...... Finland in the north to Italy in the south and from Hungary in the east to Scotland in the west. The highest NO emissions were observed from coniferous forests, whereas the lowest NO emissions were observed from deciduous forests. The NO emissions from coniferous forests were highly correlated with N...... with the C/N ratio. The difference in N-oxide emissions from soils of coniferous and deciduous forests may partly be explained by differences in N-deposition rates and partly by differences in characteristics of the litter layer and soil. NO was mainly derived from nitrification whereas N2O was mainly...

  15. [Soil quality assessment of forest stand in different plantation esosystems].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yu; Wang, Silong; Feng, Zongwei; Gao, Hong; Wang, Qingkui; Hu, Yalin; Yan, Shaokui

    2004-12-01

    After a clear-cutting of the first generation Cunninghamia lanceolata plantation in 1982, three plantation ecosystems, pure Michelia macclurei stand (PMS), pure Chinese-fir stand (PCS) and their mixed stand, were established in spring 1983, and their effects on soil characteristics were evaluated by measuring some soil physical, chemical, microbiological and biochemical parameters. After 20 years' plantation, all test indices showed differences among different forest management models. Both PMS and MCM had a favorable effect on soil fertility maintenance. Soil quality assessment showed that some soil functions, e.g., water availability, nutrient availability, root suitability and soil quality index were all in a moderate level under the mixed and pure PMS stands, whereas in a relatively lower level under successive PCS stand. The results also showed that there existed close correlations between soil total organic C (TOC), cation exchange capacity (CEC), microbial biomass-C (Cmic) and other soil physical, chemical and biological indices. Therefore, TOC, CEC and Cmic could be used as the indicators in assessing soil quality in this study area. In addition, there were also positive correlations between soil microbial biomass-C and TOC, soil microbial biomass-N and total N, and soil microbial biomass-P and total P in the present study. PMID:15825426

  16. Research on Water Conservation Function ol Typical Forests in Jinyun Mountain%重庆缙云山典型林分水源涵养功能研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李杨; 王百田; 饶良懿; 王玉杰

    2012-01-01

    [Objective] This study aimed to explore the relationship between different forest types and water conservation function. [Method] Based on field survey and experimental analysis, water conservation function of four typical forest stands in Jinyun Mountain of Chongqing was explored, including conifer-broadleaved mixed for- est, evergreen broad-leaved forest, bamboo forest and shrub forest. [Result] The re- sults showed that the order of saturated water storage capacity of soil in four forest stands was shrub forest (266.48 mm) 〉 conifer-broadleaved mixed forest (190.40 mm) 〉 evergreen broad-leaved forest (186.80 mm) 〉 bamboo forest (174.80 mm); the order of maximum water-holding capacity of litter was shrub forest (8.06 mm) 〉 conifer-broadleaved mixed forest (4.71 mm) 〉 evergreen broad-leaved forest (4.32 mm) 〉 bamboo forest (3.34 mm); the order of canopy interception in various forest stands was conifer-broadleaved mixed forest (16.15%) 〉 evergreen broad-leaved for- est (14.70%) 〉 bamboo forest (12.64%). [Conclusion] The study had great signifi- cance to rational manage forest resources, improve water environment and realize scientific management and use of water resources.%【目的]探讨不同类型林地与涵养水源功能的关系。[方法]通过实地调查与实验分析,对重庆缙云山中针阔混交林、常绿阔叶林、楠竹林和灌木林4种典型林分的水源涵养功能进行了分析。【结果]4种林分的土壤饱和蓄水量顺序为灌木林(266.48mm)〉针阔混交林(190.40mm)〉常绿阔叶林(186.80mm)〉楠竹林(174.80mm);枯落物最大持水量顺序为灌木林(8.06mm)〉针阔混交林(4.71mm)〉常绿阔叶林(4.32mm)〉楠竹林(3.34mm);各种林分的林冠截留率顺序为针阔混交林(16.15%)〉常绿阔叶林(14.70%)〉楠竹林(12.64%)。[结论]该研究对

  17. Effect of Different Ages of a Rehabilitated Forest on Selected Physico-chemical Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajeswari A.P. Murugayah

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: This research was important because of still lack of information about rehabilitated tropical forest age effect on infiltration rate. The objectives of this study were to determine the influence of age of forest on soil water infiltration rate and to evaluate the influence of forest age on the relationship between water infiltration rate, soil organic matter and soil texture. Approach: This study was conducted under a rehabilitated forest at Bukit Nyabau (University Putra Malaysia Bintulu Campus, UPMKB Forest. Soil organic matter, soil texture and infiltration rate were investigated in randomly selected blocks representing different age classes, namely two, four, six, eight and ten years. Results: The results indicated that 2, 4, 6 and 8 year old forest were not significantly different in organic matter content with the mean of 8.10+2.75, 9.32+3.50, 9.55+1.71 and 8.10+2.75% respectively. Besides, 10 year forest showed no significant differences compared with two and eight year forests. Soil texture for all the forests was sandy loam, except for the 4 year old forest which was a sandy clay loam. The lowest value of sand content was observed in four year forest. However, the clay content in this forest was statistically the highest compared with 2, 4, 8 and 10 year old forest. The infiltration rate of 6 years old forest was significantly greater in soil water infiltration rate with the mean of 5.0±0.02 mm m-1, compared with 2, 4, 8 and 10 years old forest with the means of 2.6±0.02, 4.2±0.03, 3.6±0.03 and 3.5±0.03 mm m-1 respectively. Eight and 10 year old forests showed no significant differences in terms of soil water infiltration rate and the lowest value of water infiltration rate was observed in the two year old forest. Conclusion: From the results, it can be concluded that the soil water infiltration rate in the forest is mainly influenced by soil texture and organic matter content, but not by forest age. However, the

  18. Factors controlling regional differences in forest soil emission of nitrogen oxides (NO and N2O)

    OpenAIRE

    K. Pilegaard; Skiba, U.; Ambus, P.; Beier, C.; N. Brüggemann; K. Butterbach-Bahl; Dick, J.; Dorsey, J.; J. Duyzer; Gallagher, M; Gasche, R.; Horvath, L; Kitzler, B.; A. Leip; Pihlatie, M. K.

    2006-01-01

    Soil emissions of NO and N2O were measured continuously at high frequency for more than one year at 15 European forest sites as part of the EU-funded project NOFRETETE. The locations represent different forest types (coniferous/deciduous) and different nitrogen loads. Geographically they range from Finland in the north to Italy in the south and from Hungary in the east to Scotland in the west. The highest NO emissions were observed from coniferous forests, whereas the ...

  19. Effects of elevated nitrogen deposition on soil microbial biomass carbon in major subtropical forests of southern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hui WANG; Jiangming MO; Xiankai LU; Jinghua XUE; Jiong LI; Yunting FANG

    2009-01-01

    The effects of elevated nitrogen deposition on soil microbial biomass carbon (C) and extractable dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in three types of forest of southern China were studied in November, 2004 and June, 2006. Plots were established in a pine forest (PF), a mixed pine and broad-leaved forest (MF) and monsoon evergreen broad-leaved forest (MEBF) in the Dinghushan Nature Reserve. Nitrogen treatments included a control (no N addition), low N (50 kg N/(hm2.a)), medium N (100 kg N/ (hm2. a)) and high N (150 kg N/(hm2. a)). Microbial biomass C and extractable DOC were determined using a chloro-form fumigation-extraction method. Results indicate that microbial biomass C and extractable DOC were higher in June, 2006 than in November, 2004 and higher in the MEBF than in the PF or the MF. The response of soil microbial biomass C and extractable DOC to nitrogen deposition varied depending on the forest type and the level of nitrogen treatment. In the PF or MF forests, no significantly different effects of nitrogen addition were found on soil microbial biomass C and extractable DOC. In the MEBF, however, the soil microbial biomass C generally decreased with increased nitrogen levels and high nitrogen addition significantly reduced soil microbial biomass C. The response of soil extractable DOC to added nitrogen in the MEBF shows the opposite trend to soil microbial biomass C. These results suggest that nitrogen deposition may increase the accumulation of soil organic carbon in the MEBF in the study region.

  20. Simulation of the biomass dynamics of Masson pine forest under different management

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Gui-lian; WANG Kai-yun; LIU Xin-wei; PENG Shao-lin

    2006-01-01

    TREE submodel affiliated with TREEDYN was used to simulate biomass dynamics of Masson pine (Pinus massoniana) forest under different managements (including thinning, clear cutting, combining thinning with clear cutting). The purpose was to represent biomass dynamics involved in its development, which can provide scientific arguments for management of Masson pine forest. The results showed the scenario that 10% or 20% of biomass of the previous year was thinned every five years from 15 to 40 years made total biomass of pine forest increase slowly and it took more time to reach a mature community; If clear cutting and thinning were combined, the case C (clear cutting at 20 years of forest age, thinning 50% of remaining biomass at 30 years of forest age, and thinning 50% of remaining biomass again at 40 years of forest age) was the best scenario which can accelerate speed of development of Masson pine forest and gained better economic values.

  1. Recovery dynamics of secondary forests with different disturbance intensity in the Gutianshan National Nature Reserve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanjie Xu

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the underlying processes of secondary forest recovery after disturbances such as logging is essential for biodiversity conservation and ecosystem rehabilitation. We surveyed 12 forest plots (1 ha in size with different extents of anthropogenic disturbances in the Gutianshan National Nature Reserve and explored the community dynamics of secondary forest recovery by applying multivariate statistical analysis. We found significant differences in community composition among various recovery phases, whereas high similarities of community composition were observed within the same recovery phase. No significant difference in species richness was observed among recovery stages, but species richness tended to increase during the recovery process. Species evenness in Chinese fir forests was relatively low whereas no significant difference occurred in other forests. The main differences in community composition and species diversity were found in the canopy layer. Respective indicator species were found in shrubs and regeneration layers during different recovery phases. The most representative indicator species were deciduous shrubs or heliophilous trees for plantation forests of Chinese fir, evergreen shrubs or small trees for young secondary forests, sub-canopy evergreen trees for old secondary forests, and canopy species for old-growth forests, respectively. Overall, species diversity recovered rigorously. Also the life-form composition of saplings in the same recovery phase presented consistent trends in spite of complex and unpredictable changes in species composition during the recovery process.

  2. Changes in forest soil properties in different successional stages in lower tropical China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuelin Li

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Natural forest succession often affects soil physical and chemical properties. Selected physical and chemical soil properties were studied in an old-growth forest across a forest successional series in Dinghushan Nature Reserve, Southern China. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The aim was to assess the effects of forest succession change on soil properties. Soil samples (0-20 cm depth were collected from three forest types at different succession stages, namely pine (Pinus massoniana forest (PMF, mixed pine and broadleaf forest (PBMF and monsoon evergreen broadleaf forest (MEBF, representing early, middle and advanced successional stages respectively. The soil samples were analyzed for soil water storage (SWS, soil organic matter (SOM, soil microbial biomass carbon (SMBC, pH, NH4(+-N, available potassium (K, available phosphorus (P and microelements (available copper (Cu, available zinc (Zn, available iron (Fe and available boron (B between 1999 and 2009. The results showed that SWS, SOM, SMBC, Cu, Zn, Fe and B concentrations were higher in the advanced successional stage (MEBF stage. Conversely, P and pH were lower in the MEBF but higher in the PMF (early successional stage. pH, NH4(+-N, P and K declined while SOM, Zn, Cu, Fe and B increased with increasing forest age. Soil pH was lower than 4.5 in the three forest types, indicating that the surface soil was acidic, a stable trend in Dinghushan. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: These findings demonstrated significant impacts of natural succession in an old-growth forest on the surface soil nutrient properties and organic matter. Changes in soil properties along the forest succession gradient may be a useful index for evaluating the successional stages of the subtropical forests. We caution that our inferences are drawn from a pseudo-replicated chronosequence, as true replicates were difficult to find. Further studies are needed to draw rigorous conclusions regarding on nutrient dynamics in

  3. Changes in Forest Soil Properties in Different Successional Stages in Lower Tropical China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuelin; Yang, Fangfang; Ou, Yangxu; Zhang, Deqiang; Liu, Juxiu; Chu, Guowei; Zhang, Yaru; Otieno, Dennis; Zhou, Guoyi

    2013-01-01

    Background Natural forest succession often affects soil physical and chemical properties. Selected physical and chemical soil properties were studied in an old-growth forest across a forest successional series in Dinghushan Nature Reserve, Southern China. Methodology/Principal Findings The aim was to assess the effects of forest succession change on soil properties. Soil samples (0–20 cm depth) were collected from three forest types at different succession stages, namely pine (Pinus massoniana) forest (PMF), mixed pine and broadleaf forest (PBMF) and monsoon evergreen broadleaf forest (MEBF), representing early, middle and advanced successional stages respectively. The soil samples were analyzed for soil water storage (SWS), soil organic matter (SOM), soil microbial biomass carbon (SMBC), pH, NH4+-N, available potassium (K), available phosphorus (P) and microelements (available copper (Cu), available zinc (Zn), available iron (Fe) and available boron (B)) between 1999 and 2009. The results showed that SWS, SOM, SMBC, Cu, Zn, Fe and B concentrations were higher in the advanced successional stage (MEBF stage). Conversely, P and pH were lower in the MEBF but higher in the PMF (early successional stage). pH, NH4+-N, P and K declined while SOM, Zn, Cu, Fe and B increased with increasing forest age. Soil pH was lower than 4.5 in the three forest types, indicating that the surface soil was acidic, a stable trend in Dinghushan. Conclusion/Significance These findings demonstrated significant impacts of natural succession in an old-growth forest on the surface soil nutrient properties and organic matter. Changes in soil properties along the forest succession gradient may be a useful index for evaluating the successional stages of the subtropical forests. We caution that our inferences are drawn from a pseudo-replicated chronosequence, as true replicates were difficult to find. Further studies are needed to draw rigorous conclusions regarding on nutrient dynamics in

  4. Fungal Taxa Target Different Carbon Substrates in Harvard Forest Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, C. A.; Allison, S. D.; Wallenstein, M. D.; Mellilo, J. M.; Treseder, K. K.

    2006-12-01

    The mineralization of soil organic carbon is a major component of the global carbon cycle and is largely controlled by soil microbial communities. However, little is known about the functional roles of soil microbes or whether different microbial taxa target different carbon substrates under natural conditions. To examine this possibility, we assessed the community composition of active fungi by using a novel nucleotide analog technique in soils from the Harvard Forest. We hypothesized that fungal community composition would shift in response to the addition of different substrates and that specific fungal taxa would respond differentially to particular carbon sources. To test this hypothesis, we added a nucleotide analog probe directly to soils in conjunction with one of five carbon compounds of increasing recalcitrance: glycine, sucrose, cellulose, tannin-protein complex, and lignin. During 48 hour incubations, the nucleotide analog was incorporated into newly replicated DNA of soil organisms that proliferated following the addition of the substrates. In this way, we labeled the DNA of microbes that respond to a particular carbon source. Labeled DNA was isolated and fungal Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS) regions of ribosomal DNA (rDNA) were sequenced and analyzed to identify active fungi to near-species resolution. Diversity analyses at the ≥97% sequence similarity level indicated that taxonomic richness was greater under cellulose (Shannon Index: 3.23 ± 0.11 with ± 95% CI) and lignin (2.87 ± 0.15) additions than the other treatments (2.34 ± 0.16 to 2.64 ± 0.13). In addition, community composition of active fungi shifted under glycine, sucrose, and cellulose additions. Specifically, the community under glycine was significantly different from communities under control, cellulose, and tannin-protein (Ptannin-protein and slightly increased in response to lignin and sucrose. This confirms our hypothesis that particular taxa respond differently to specific

  5. Response of soil respiration to acid rain in forests of different maturity in southern China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guohua Liang

    Full Text Available The response of soil respiration to acid rain in forests, especially in forests of different maturity, is poorly understood in southern China despite the fact that acid rain has become a serious environmental threat in this region in recent years. Here, we investigated this issue in three subtropical forests of different maturity [i.e. a young pine forest (PF, a transitional mixed conifer and broadleaf forest (MF and an old-growth broadleaved forest (BF] in southern China. Soil respiration was measured over two years under four simulated acid rain (SAR treatments (CK, the local lake water, pH 4.5; T1, water pH 4.0; T2, water pH 3.5; and T3, water pH 3.0. Results indicated that SAR did not significantly affect soil respiration in the PF, whereas it significantly reduced soil respiration in the MF and the BF. The depressed effects on both forests occurred mostly in the warm-wet seasons and were correlated with a decrease in soil microbial activity and in fine root biomass caused by soil acidification under SAR. The sensitivity of the response of soil respiration to SAR showed an increasing trend with the progressive maturity of the three forests, which may result from their differences in acid buffering ability in soil and in litter layer. These results indicated that the depressed effect of acid rain on soil respiration in southern China may be more pronounced in the future in light of the projected change in forest maturity. However, due to the nature of this field study with chronosequence design and the related pseudoreplication for forest types, this inference should be read with caution. Further studies are needed to draw rigorous conclusions regarding the response differences among forests of different maturity using replicated forest types.

  6. Soil ni.trogen transformations varied with plant community under Nanchang urban forests in mid-subtropical zone of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    REN Wen; CHEN Fu-sheng; HU Xiao-fei; YU Ming-quan; FENG Xue

    2011-01-01

    Soil N transformations using the polyvinyl chloride (PVC)closed-top tube in situ incubation method were studied in Nanchang urban forests of the mid-subtropical region of China m different monthsof 2007.Four plots of 20 m × 20 m were established in four different plant communities that represented typical successional stages of forest development including shrubs,coniferous forest,mixed forest and broadleaved forest.Average concentrations of soil NH4+-N fiom January to December were not different among the four plant communities.The concentrations of soil NO3-N and mineral N,and the annual rates of ammonification,nitrification and net N-mineralization under the early successional shrub community and coniferous forest were generally lower than that of the late successional mixed and broad-leaved forests (p<0.05).Similar differences among the plant communities were also shown in the relative nitrification index (NH4+-N/NO3-N) and relative nitrification intensity (nitrification rate/net N-mineralization rate).The annual net N-mineralization rate was increased from younger to older plant communities,from 15.1 and 41.4 kg·ha-1·a-1 under the shrubs and coniferous forest communities to 98.0 and 112.9 kg·ha-1·a-1 under the mixed and broad-leaved forests,respectively.Moreover,the high annual nitrification rates (50-70 kg·ha-1·a-1) and its end product,NO3-N (2.4-3.8mg·kg-1),under older plant communities could increase the potential risk of N loss.Additionally,the temporal patterns of the different soil N variables mentioned above varied with different plant community due to the combined affects of natural biological processes associated with forest maturation and urbanization.Our results indicated that urban forests arc moving towards a state of"N saturation" (extremely nitrification rate and NO3-N content) as they mature.

  7. Characterization of humus microbial communities in adjacent forest types that differ in nitrogen availability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leckie, S E; Prescott, C E; Grayston, S J; Neufeld, J D; Mohn, W W

    2004-07-01

    To address the link between soil microbial community composition and soil processes, we investigated the microbial communities in forest floors of two forest types that differ substantially in nitrogen availability. Cedar-hemlock (CH) and hemlock-amabilis fir (HA) forests are both common on northern Vancouver Island, B.C., occurring adjacently across the landscape. CH forest floors have low nitrogen availability and HA high nitrogen availability. Total microbial biomass was assessed using chloroform fumigation-extraction and community composition was assessed using several cultivation-independent approaches: denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) of the bacterial communities, ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis (RISA) of the bacterial and fungal communities, and phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) profiles of the whole microbial community. We did not detect differences in the bacterial communities of each forest type using DGGE and RISA, but differences in the fungal communities were detected using RISA. PLFA analysis detected subtle differences in overall composition of the microbial community between the forest types, as well as in particular groups of organisms. Fungal PLFAs were more abundant in the nitrogen-poor CH forests. Bacteria were proportionally more abundant in HA forests than CH in the lower humus layer, and Gram-positive bacteria were proportionally more abundant in HA forests irrespective of layer. Bacterial and fungal communities were distinct in the F, upper humus, and lower humus layers of the forest floor and total biomass decreased in deeper layers. These results indicate that there are distinct patterns in forest floor microbial community composition at the landscape scale, which may be important for understanding nutrient availability to forest vegetation.

  8. BIOMASS AND MICROBIAL ACTIVITY UNDER DIFFERENT FOREST COVERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Malfitano Braga

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the soil fertility, biomass and microbial activity of the soil under forest cover of Eucalyptus grandis, Eucalyptus pilularis, Eucalyptus cloeziana and Corymbia maculata; Pinus Caribbean var. hondurensis, 40 years old, and a fragment of Semideciduous Forest, located on the campus of the Federal University of Lavras. In soil samples collected in the 0-5 cm layer were determined fertility parameters, basal respiration and microbial biomass carbon. The results showed that for the species E. grandis and E. cloeziana the carbon of biomass microbial content was higher than for any other ecosystem evaluated, and equal to those observed under native forest. In contrast, the ground under Pinus had the lowest microbiological indexes. Under C. maculata and E. pilularis the contents were intermediate for this parameter. The basal respiration of all ecosystems was equal. The fertility level was very low in all types of evaluated vegetation.

  9. Comparison of Selected Soil Chemical Properties of Two Different Mangrove Forests in Sarawak

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Empi Rambok

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Despite few studies of forest health and environmental conditions of mangrove forest in Sarawak, the data was not sufficient to facilitate baseline data and direct comparison of mangrove forest health obtained for different location of mangrove forest in Sarawak. On this regard, determination of contemporary mangrove soil condition was essential to addressing mangrove forest for forest health, carbon storage and environmental balance. The study attempts to obtained preliminary database of mangrove forest soil chemical properties and to compare the forest health from two different mangrove forest locations. Approach: Mangrove soil samples were taken from Miri and Limbang Division of Sarawak at 0-30 cm depth. Selected soil chemical properties were determined and data obtained were analyzed using Statistical Analysis System (SAS Version 9.2. Results: The soil acidity, total N, total P, CEC and humic acid of both locations were significantly different while in terms of total carbon and organic matter were similar. Conclusion: Regional diversity has significant effects the soil acidity, total N, total P, CEC and yield of the study areas. Data obtained can be useful for further study of carbon stock and nutrient content.

  10. Observed Differences in the Human Footprint and Forest Fragmentation in the Primary Forest Area of the Democratic Republic of Congo: A Remote Sensing Study for 2000-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molinario, G.

    2015-12-01

    Conflict in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) and neighboring countries has caused the displacement of people internally and internationally sometimes leading to drastic changes in the impact that traditional slash and burn shifting cultivation has on the forest ecosystem. In other areas, the lack of infrastructure and governance has isolated and protected areas of core forest from large scale exploitation. Observing specific patterns of forest fragmentation caused either by the expansion of existing rural complex areas or of isolated forest perforations has allowed us to track the differential growth of the human footprint throughout forested area of the country during the period 2000-2010. Our methodological approach involved the development of a model of shifting cultivation and forest fragmentation in which spatial rules applied morphological image processing to the Forets d'Afrique Central Evaluee par Teledetection (FACET) product. The result is a disaggregated classification of the primary forest into patch, edge, perforated, fragmented and core forest subtypes which we subsequently re-aggregated into homogenous anthropogenic macro-areas of rural complex and isolated forest perforations. We tracked how subsequent forest loss observed in 2005 and 2010 grew or shrunk these areas, presumably with differential impacts on the forest ecosystem. Using this approach we were able to map forest degradation by contextualizing the contribution of forest loss to change in different types of areas, highlighting how it can be greatly underestimated by a non contextualized per-pixel assessment of forest cover loss.

  11. Diversity of insect communities with different development phases in natural Populus euphratica forests in Xinjiang

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIAO Hai-li; LUO You-qing; TIAN Chengming; SUN Jian-hua; FENG Xiaofeng

    2008-01-01

    An investigation method with sample plots was used to study insect communities in four different growth phases of natural Populus euphratica forests, which are juvenile, middle aged, over-mature and degraded forests, in Tarim, Xinjiang in July, 2005 and April, 2006. In our studies, 5,116 insect specimens, belonging to 12 orders, 61 families and 141 species, were collected. Lepidoptera and Coleoptera were the dominant orders. In middle-aged forests, species, individual numbers and diversity indices of insect communities were higher than those in other woodlands. The species richness and diversity indices were lowest in degraded forests because of extremely scarce vegetation.

  12. Quantifying soil erosion with GIS-based RUSLE under different forest management options in Jianchang Forest Farm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG; Hengming; WANG; Qingli; DAI; Limin; Guofan; Shao; TANG; Lina; WANG; Shunzhong; GU; Huiyan

    2006-01-01

    Quantitatively estimating soil erosion with an integration of geographic information system (GIS) and the revised universal soil loss equation (RUSLE) under four different exposed soil proportion scenarios caused by forest management practices was studied at Jianchang Forest Farm. The GIS provided means of input data generation required by RUSLE model and allowed a spatial assessment of the erosion hazard over the study area. Four exposed soil proportion scenarios of 5%, 10%, 20% and 30% were tested with the GIS-based RUSLE model to evaluate soil erosion hazard. The predicted soil erosion potentials were classified into five categories in order to provide valuable aids for management planning.

  13. Soil carbon dioxide fluxes of a typical broad-leaved/Korean pine mixed forest in Changbai Mountain, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANGChen-rui; WUJie; LIANGZhan-bei; HUANGGuo-hong

    2004-01-01

    The forest ecosystem plays an important role in the global carbon cycling. A study was conducted to evaluate soil CO2 flux and its seasonal and diurnal variation with the air and soil temperatures by using static closed chamber technique in a typical broad-leaved/Korean pine mixed forest area on the northern slope of Changbai Mountain, Jilin Province, China. The experiment was carried out through the day and night in the growing season (from June to September) in situ and sample gas was analyzed by a gas chromatograph. Results showed that the forest floor was a large net source of carbon, and soil CO2 fluxes had an obvious law of seasonal and diel variation. The soil CO2 flux of broad-leaved/Korean pine mixed forest was in the range of 0.30-2.42μmol·m-2·s-1 with the mean value of 0.98μmol·m-2·s-1. An examination on the seasonal pattern of soil CO2 emission suggested that the variability in soil CO2 flux could be correlated with variations in soil temperature, and the maximum of mean CO2 flux occurred in July ((1.27±23%)μmol·m-2·s-1) and the minimum was in September ((0.50±28%)μmol·m-2·s-1). The fluctuations in diel soil CO2 flux were also correlated with changes in soil temperature; however, there existed a factor for a time lag. Soil CO2 flux from the forest floor was strongly related to soil temperature and had the highest correlation with temperature at 6-cm depth of soil. Q10 values based on air temperature and soil temperature of different soil depths were at the ranges of 2.09 - 3.40.

  14. The relations of growth and increment in thrace oak forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gafura Aylak Özdemir

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, increment and growth relationships of oak forests of Thrace in different ages, densities and site indexes were examined. For this purpose, double-entry tree volume table, site quality table and the density - dependent yield table was created with the help of the data provided to 101 sample plots were taken. Density – dependent yield table was programmed using VBA macro feature of MS Excel 2010 program. Thus, yield table can be taken as output in computer environment according to the desired age, density and site index. Trends of stand volume and volume elements provided to density – dependent yield table for the oak forest of Thrace according to the age in different site conditions and densities was presented comparatively. Values obtained by density dependent yield table were compared with values of the yield table generated by Eraslan (1954 and Eraslan – Evcimen (1967 for the oak forests. The same comparison also was made with values of the yield table generated by Carus (1998 for beech forests with broad-leaved species.

  15. Arbuscular mycorrhizal associations in different forest tree species of Hazarikhil forest of Chittagong, Bangladesh

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    P.P.Dhar; M.A.U.Mridha

    2012-01-01

    Biodiversity ofarbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) colonization and AM fungal spores were studied in the roots and rhizosphere soils of Acacia catechu (L.f).Wild.,A.mangium Willd,Anthocephala cadamba Miq.,Artocarpus chaplasha Roxb.,Chickrassia tabularis A.Juss.,Swietenia macrophylla King.,Tectona grandis L.from plantations; Albizia procera (Roxb.) Benth.,A.falcataria L.,Alstonia scholaris (L.) R.Br.,Aphanamixis polystachya (Wall.) Parker.,Hydnocarpus kurzii (King.)Warb.,Heynea trijuga Roxb.,Lagerstroemia speciosa (L.) Pers.,Messua ferrea Linn.,Podocarpus nerifolia Don.,Swintonia floribunda Griff.,Syzygium fruticosum (Roxb.) DC.,S.grandis (Wt.) Wal.from forest and nursery seedlings of A.polystachya,A.chaplasha,Gmelina arborea Roxb.and S.cuminii (L.) Skeels from Hazarikhil forest,Chittagong of Bangladesh.Roots were stained in aniline blue and rhizosphere soils were assessed by wet sieving and decanting methods.The range of AM colonization varied significantly from 10%-73% in the plantations samples.Maximum colonization was observed in A.mangium (73%) and minimum colonization was observed in C tabularis (10%).Vesicular colonization was recorded 15%-67% in five plantation tree species.The highest was in A.cadamba (67%) and the lowest was in T.grandis; A.chaplasha and C tabularis showed no vesicular colonization.Arbuscular colonization was recorded 12%-60% in four plantation tree species.The highest was in A.mangium (60%) and the lowest was in A.cadamba.Roots of Artocarpus chaplasha,C tabularis and T.grandis showed no arbuscular colonization.Among 12 forest tree species,nine tree species showed AM colonization.The highest was in A.falcataria (62%) and the lowest was in S.fruticosum (10%).Significant variation in vesicular colonization was recorded in seven forest tree species.The highest was in H.trijuga (52%) and the lowest was in L.speciosa (18%).Hydnocarpus kurzii,M.ferrea,P.nerifolia S.fruticosum and S.grandis showed no vesicular colonization.Arbuscular colonization was

  16. Forest biomass at Xiaolong Mountain in Gansu Province,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    In order to accurately estimate the size of the carbon pool and the capacity of the carbon sink in the forested areas of Xiaolong Mountain in Gansu Province,we have established regression equations of organ biomass of eight tree species.We measured and investigated the biomass of different forest stand types based on data from 1259 standard sample plots and 836 standard sample trees.for eight types of forest stands on Xiaolong Mountain,are as follows:Quercus aliena var.acuteserrata 84.05,Pinus tabulaeformis 62.44,Quercus variabilis 81.77,Populus sp.and Betula sp.combined 77.44,Larix sp.69.00,Pinus armandii 70.07,Picea sp.96.49 and Abies sp.98.72.We also looked at other broad-leaved mixed forests.Our study shows that the biomass of a single tree of each tree species is closely related to the diameter at breast height (DBH) and to tree height.The biomass of single trees as well as stand volumes is closely related to average DBH,average tree height and to stand density.

  17. The nitrogen budget for different forest types in the central Congo Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauters, Marijn; Verbeeck, Hans; Cizungu, Landry; Boeckx, Pascal

    2016-04-01

    Characterization of fundamental processes in different forest types is vital to understand the interaction of forests with their changing environment. Recent data analyses, as well as modeling activities have shown that the CO2 uptake by terrestrial ecosystems strongly depends on site fertility, i.e. nutrient availability. Accurate projections of future net forest growth and terrestrial CO2 uptake thus necessitate an improved understanding on nutrient cycles and how these are coupled to the carbon (C) cycle in forests. This holds especially for tropical forests, since they represent about 40-50% of the total carbon that is stored in terrestrial vegetation, with the Amazon basin and the Congo basin being the largest two contiguous blocks. However, due to political instability and reduced accessibility in the central Africa region, there is a strong bias in scientific research towards the Amazon basin. Consequently, central African forests are poorly characterized and their role in global change interactions shows distinct knowledge gaps, which is important bottleneck for all efforts to further optimize Earth system models explicitly including this region. Research in the Congo Basin region should combine assessments of both carbon stocks and the underlying nutrient cycles which directly impact the forest productivity. We set up a monitoring network for carbon stocks and nitrogen fluxes in four different forest types in the Congo Basin, which is now operative. With the preliminary data, we can get a glimpse of the differences in nitrogen budget and biogeochemistry of African mixed lowland rainforest, monodominant lowland forest, mixed montane forest and eucalypt plantations.

  18. Soil fractal features of subalpine coniferous forests in western Sichuan under different anthropogenic disturbances

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIAO Yongmei; CHEN Jingsong

    2006-01-01

    Fractal theory,used to study natural figures and images with self-similarity but without characteristic lengths,offers an effective tool to investigate quantitatively the complex systems such as soil.In this paper,we have discussed about our study of the fractal features of the subalpine coniferous forests,soil particles,and microaggregates under different intensities of anthropogenic disturbances in the Miyaluo area of west Sichuan and investigated the effects of the disturbances on the forest soils attributed to different fractal dimensions.The study introduces a new way to investigate the recovery and reestablishment of subalpine coniferous forests.

  19. PRECIPITATION AND NUTRIENT CONTRIBUTION IN DIFFERENT SUCCESSIONAL STAGES OF ATLANTIC FOREST, PINHEIRAL, RIO DE JANEIRO STATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anderson Ribeiro Diniz

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5902/1980509810550Forest cover has importance within the context of the water balance of a particular site and may alter the mechanism of entry of water and nutrients to the soil surface. The aim of this study was to quantify the net precipitation, interception addition of nutrients in throughfall and stem flow in a forest in different stages of regeneration Mata Atlântica: early-stage secondary forest (ESSF, intermediary stage secondary forest (ISSF and advanced stage secondary forest (AESF. The study was conducted in Pinheiral,  Rio de Janeiro state. The data collection was performed during the period April 2009 to March 2010. The values of incident precipitation,

  20. Biogenic volatile organic compound (BVOC) emissions from forested areas in Turkey: Determination of specific emission rates for thirty-one tree species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aydin, Yagmur Meltem; Yaman, Baris; Koca, Husnu; Dasdemir, Okan; Kara, Melik; Altiok, Hasan; Dumanoglu, Yetkin; Bayram, Abdurrahman [Department of Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Dokuz Eylul University, Tinaztepe Campus, Buca, Izmir (Turkey); Tolunay, Doganay [Department of Soil Science and Ecology, Faculty of Forestry, Istanbul University, Bahcekoy, Istanbul (Turkey); Odabasi, Mustafa [Department of Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Dokuz Eylul University, Tinaztepe Campus, Buca, Izmir (Turkey); Elbir, Tolga, E-mail: tolga.elbir@deu.edu.tr [Department of Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Dokuz Eylul University, Tinaztepe Campus, Buca, Izmir (Turkey)

    2014-08-15

    Normalized biogenic volatile organic compound (BVOC) emission rates for thirty one tree species that cover the 98% of national forested areas in Turkey were determined. Field samplings were performed at fourteen different forested areas in Turkey using a specific dynamic enclosure system. The selected branches of tree species were enclosed in a chamber consisted of a transparent Nalofan bag. The air-flows were sampled from both inlet and outlet of the chamber by Tenax-filled sorbent tubes during photosynthesis of trees under the presence of sunlight. Several environmental parameters (temperature, humidity, photosynthetically active radiation-PAR, and CO{sub 2}) were continuously monitored inside and outside the enclosure chamber during the samplings. Collected samples were analyzed using a gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC/MS) system equipped with a thermal desorber (TD). Sixty five BVOCs classified in five major groups (isoprene, monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes, oxygenated sesquiterpenes, and other oxygenated compounds) were analyzed. Emission rates were determined by normalization to standard conditions (1000 μmol/m{sup 2} s PAR and 30 °C temperature for isoprene and 30 °C temperature for the remaining compounds). In agreement with the literature, isoprene was mostly emitted by broad-leaved trees while coniferous species mainly emitted monoterpenes. Several tree species such as Sweet Chestnut, Silver Lime, and European Alder had higher monoterpene emissions although they are broad-leaved species. High isoprene emissions were also observed for a few coniferous species such as Nordmann Fir and Oriental Spruce. The highest normalized total BVOC emission rate of 27.1 μg/g h was observed for Oriental Plane while South European Flowering Ash was the weakest BVOC emitter with a total normalized emission rate of 0.031 μg/g h. Monoterpene emissions of broad-leaved species mainly consisted of sabinene, limonene and trans-beta-ocimene, while alpha-pinene, beta

  1. Effect of different spatial resolution of satellite image to observe the forest condition using satellite image and National Forest Inventory data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kajisa, T.; Mizoue, N.; Yoshida, S.

    2010-12-01

    One of the most substantial needs in forest management planning is information about the condition of the forest. Strategic decisions concerning timber policies, decisions about timing and spatial extent of forest operations, and operational decisions such as work plans are all examples where accurate information of the forest conditions are required. Landsat has played the important role for land cover observation in the past, but, got a serious problem. Currently, many kinds of satellite image are available to monitor land cover. So, the utility of different types of satellite image have to be evaluated for land cover monitoring. On the other hands, in Japan, National Forest Inventory (NFI) has been conducted since 1999 with the aim of understanding the state and dynamics of various aspects in forests such as wood production and biodiversity throughout the country. However, few studies have been conducted to combine the satellite image and NFI data. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of different spatial resolution of satellite image to observe the forest condition (forest/non-forest, forest types, forest stand volume) using satellite image and NFI data.

  2. Belowground ectomycorrhizal fungal communities at fagus stands in differently polluted forest research plots

    OpenAIRE

    Al Sayegh-Petkovšek, Samar

    2005-01-01

    Belowground ectomycorrhizal fungal communities at fagus stands were analysed. Eectomycorrhiza types were identified in soil cores from differently polluted beech forest research plots in the 1998 - 2001 period by mycobioindication method. Forest research plots were situated in the vicinity of thermal power plants (polluted plots: Zavodnje - Prednji vrh and Zasavje - Dobovec) and in unpolluted areas (in the vicinity of Kočevska Reka: Preža and Moravške gredice). Eighty-eight different ectomyco...

  3. The saproxylic beetle assemblage associated with different host trees in Southwest China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jie Wu; Xiao-Dong Yu; Hong-Zhang Zhou

    2008-01-01

    Dead wood is a habitat for many insects and other small animals,some of which may be rare or endangered and in need of effective protection.In this paper,saproxylic beetle assemblages associated with different host trees in the subtropical forests in southwestern China were investigated.A total of 277 species (1 439 specimens) in 36 beetle families were collected from 117 dead wood samples,of which 101 samples were identified and respectively belonged to 12 tree genera.The number of saproxylic beetle species varied greatly among logs of different tree genera,with the highest diversity on logs of Juglans.Generally,broad-leaved trees had a higher richness and abundance of saproxylic species than coniferous trees.Cluster analysis revealed that assemblages from broad-leaved tree genera were generally similar (except for Betula) and assemblages from coniferous trees formed another distinct cluster.The subsequent indicator analysis proposed that there are different characteristic species for different cluster groups of host tree genera.In our study,log diameter has no positive influence on beetle species density.Conversely,comparisons of individual-based rarefaction curves suggested that beetle species richness was highest in the small diameter class both in coniferous and broad-leaved tree genera.With increased wood decay,proportion of habitat specialists (saproxylic beetles living on one tree genus)decreased,whereas proportion of habitat generalists (living on more than three tree genera)increased.The beetle species density was found to be higher in early stages,and decreased in later stages as well.A negative influence of altitude on saproxylic beetle species richness and abundance was detected.It was indicated that different tree genera and altitudes possibly display cross effects in modulating the altitudinal distribution and host preference of the beetles.

  4. Factors controlling regional differences in forest soil emission of nitrogen oxides (NO and N2O

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Pilegaard

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Soil emissions of NO and N2O were measured continuously at high frequency for more than one year at 15 European forest sites as part of the EU-funded project NOFRETETE. The locations represent different forest types (coniferous/deciduous and different nitrogen loads. Geographically they range from Finland in the north to Italy in the south and from Hungary in the east to Scotland in the west. The highest NO emissions were observed from coniferous forests, whereas the lowest NO emissions were observed from deciduous forests. The NO emissions from coniferous forests were highly correlated with N-deposition. The site with the highest average annual emission (82 μg NO-N m−2 h−1 was a spruce forest in South-Germany (Höglwald receiving an annual N-deposition of 2.9 g m−2. NO emissions close to the detection limit were observed from a pine forest in Finland where the N-deposition was 0.2 g N m−2 a−1. No significant correlation between N2O emission and N-deposition was found. The highest average annual N2O emission (20 μg N2O-N m−2 h−1 was found in an oak forest in the Mátra mountains (Hungary receiving an annual N-deposition of 1.6 g m−2. N2O emission was significantly negatively correlated with the C/N ratio. The difference in N-oxide emissions from soils of coniferous and deciduous forests may partly be explained by differences in N-deposition rates and partly by differences in characteristics of the litter layer and soil. NO was mainly derived from nitrification whereas N2O was mainly derived from denitrification. In general, soil moisture is lower at coniferous sites (at least during spring time and the litter layer of coniferous forests is thick and well aerated favouring nitrification and thus release of NO. Conversely, the higher rates of denitrification in deciduous forests due to a compact and moist litter layer lead to N2O production and NO consumption in the soil. The two factors soil moisture and soil temperature are

  5. Higher subsoil carbon storage in species-rich than species-poor temperate forests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forest soils contribute ca. 70% to the global soil organic carbon (SOC) pool and thus are an important element of the global carbon cycle. Forests also harbour a large part of the global terrestrial biodiversity. It is not clear, however, whether tree species diversity affects SOC. By measuring the carbon concentration of different soil particle size fractions separately, we were able to distinguish between effects of fine particle content and tree species composition on the SOC pool in old-growth broad-leaved forest plots along a tree diversity gradient (1-, 3- and 5-species). Variation in clay content explained part of the observed SOC increase from monospecific to mixed forests, but we show that the carbon concentration per unit clay or fine silt in the subsoil was by 30–35% higher in mixed than monospecific stands indicating a significant species identity or species diversity effect on C stabilization. Underlying causes may be differences in fine root biomass and turnover, in leaf litter decomposition rate among the tree species, and/or species-specific rhizosphere effects on soil. Our findings may have important implications for forestry offering management options through preference of mixed stands that could increase forest SOC pools and mitigate climate warming. (paper)

  6. Study on the Water Conservation Capacities of Soil with Major Forest Types in Baishilazi Natural Reserve%白石砬子自然保护区主要森林类型土壤水源涵养功能研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵军; 陈建伟; 吕刚

    2009-01-01

    Forest soil as the most important function layer for the forest eco-hydrological role, its ability to conserve water sources in regulating floods and drought, reducing and preventing soil erosion plays an important role. Starting from the vertical distribution laws of soil types in line with plant zone in Baishilazi Nature Reserve, water conservation function of soil under major vegetation types of forest was studied. The results showed that soil bulk density in different forest types was in the order of artificial Korean pine forestforest of Picea jezoensis and Abies nephrolepis > Korean pine broad-leaved mixed forest > mixed forest > Quercus mongolicus forest, and the bulk density of the upper soil was smaller than that of the lower soil. The capillary porosity, non-capillary porosity, total porosity, water content, the maximum capillary water holding capacity, infiltration rate of different forest types were as follows: Quercus mongolicus forest > mixed forest > Korean pine broad-leaved mixed forestforest of P. jezoensis and A. nephrolepis > artificial Korean pine forest, and the values in the upper layer of each forest type was greater than that of the lower layer. The water storage capacity of soil under different forest types was between 729.5-1 227.8 t/hm~2. The water conservation function of soil under Quercus mongolicus forest was the best, followed by mixed forest, Korean pine broad-leaved mixed forest, forest of P. jezoensis and A. nephrolepis and artificial Korean pine forest.%森林土壤作为森林生态水文功能最重要的作用层,其涵养水源的能力对调节洪水和干旱、减弱并防止土壤侵蚀具有重要作用.从白石砬子自然保护区土壤类型与植物带相一致的垂直分布规律出发,对区内主要森林植被类型下的土壤水源涵养功能进行了研究.结果表明,不同林型土壤容重大小顺序为人工红松林>鱼鳞云杉臭冷杉林>红松阔叶混交林>杂木林

  7. Comparison between mycocenosis living in forest of Cestnut reforested with Douglas Fir; Confronto tra micocenosi presenti nei boschi di latifoglie e rimboschimenti di Douglasia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andreotti, A.; Serra, F. [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Brasimone, Bologna (Italy). Dipt. Ambiente; Dalla Valle, E.; Govi, G. [Bologna, Univ. (Italy). Dipt. di Protezione e Valorizzazione Agroalimentare. Centro di Micologia

    1997-05-01

    In this technical report the results of a first mycological research carried out from 1989 to 1990 in Brasimone in the high Bolognan Appennines (Northern Italy) are shown. The study was taken up by making a comparison between the fungus community living in forest plots with different vegetation; in particular, the mycocenosis of plots reforested with Douglas Fir (Pseudotsuga (Mirb.) Franco) with those of Beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) and Cestnut (Castanea sativa Mill.) woods were compared. The results show that the specific richness clearly decreases form mixed broad-leaved forest (90 species) to the mono specific plantation of P. menziesii (41 species). Particularly in the artificial plantation with exotic trees, there are few symbiont species while the saprophytic wood and litter fungi abound in relationship with the large bulk of undecomposed vegetable material present in these habitats.

  8. Assessing forest inventory information obtained from different inventory approaches and remote sensing data sources

    OpenAIRE

    Bergseng, Even; Ørka, Hans Ole; Næsset, Erik; Gobakken, Terje

    2015-01-01

    International audience Context Evaluations of forest inventories usually end when accuracy and precision have been quantified. Aims We aim to value the accuracy of information derived from different remote sensing sensors (airborne laser scanning, aerial multispectral and hyperspectral imagery) and four alternative forest inventory approaches. Methods The approaches were (1) mean values or (2) diameter distributions both obtained by the area-based approach (ABA), (3) individual tree crown ...

  9. Restinga forests of the Brazilian coast: richness and abundance of tree species on different soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnago, Luiz F S; Martins, Sebastião V; Schaefer, Carlos E G R; Neri, Andreza V

    2012-09-01

    The aim of this study was to determine changes in composition, abundance and richness of species along a forest gradient with varying soils and flood regimes. The forests are located on the left bank of the lower Jucu River, in Jacarenema Natural Municipal Park, Espírito Santo. A survey of shrub/tree species was done in 80 plots, 5x25 m, equally distributed among the forests studied. We included in the sampling all individuals with >3.2 cm diameter at breast height (1.30 m). Soil samples were collected from the surface layer (0-10 cm) in each plot for chemical and physical analysis. The results indicate that a significant pedological gradient occurs, which is influenced by varying seasonal groundwater levels. Restinga forest formations showed significant differences in species richness, except for Non-flooded Forest and Non-flooded Forest Transition. The Canonical Correlation Analysis (CCA) showed that some species are distributed along the gradient under the combined influence of drainage, nutrient concentration and physical characteristics of the soil. Regarding the variables tested, flooding seems to be a more limiting factor for the establishment of plant species in Restinga forests than basic soil fertility attributes. PMID:22886165

  10. Throughfall in different forest stands of Iperó, São Paulo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esthevan Augusto Goes Gasparoto

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In forestry, throughfall (Pi is that fraction of rainfall that runs directly through the tree canopy and reaches the ground. It is characterized as the main source of water supply in a watershed. This study aimed to analyze the dynamics of throughfall in three types of forest stands, namely Eucalyptus cloeziana, Pinus sp. and seasonal semideciduous forest (FES, all located in Ipanema National Forest, in the municipality of Iperó-SP. In each stand, a 300 m² plot was established in which ten rain gauges were installed for monitoring throughfall, and three rain gauges were installed in an open area adjacent to the stand for measuring gross precipitation (P. At the end of 25 observations, it was observed that, relative to P values, Pi values were 76.2% in semideciduous forest (FES, 85.1% in E.cloeziana forest and 84.0% in Pinus sp forest. In addition, comparing these stands, a larger leaf canopy coverage and consequently greater capability for water retention was noted in the semideciduous forest. However, no statistical differences were observed (P<0.05 between the stands of interest regarding throughfall.

  11. Variation of biomass and carbon pools with forest type in temperate forests of Kashmir Himalaya, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dar, Javid Ahmad; Sundarapandian, Somaiah

    2015-02-01

    influenced by vegetation type, stand structure, management history, and altitude. Our results reveal that a higher percentage (63 %) of C is stored in biomass and less in soil in these temperate forests except at the higher elevation broad-leaved BU forest. Results from this study will enhance our ability to evaluate the role of these forests in regional and global C cycles and have great implications for planning strategies for conservation. The study provides important data for developing and validating C cycling models for temperate forests.

  12. Variation of biomass and carbon pools with forest type in temperate forests of Kashmir Himalaya, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dar, Javid Ahmad; Sundarapandian, Somaiah

    2015-02-01

    influenced by vegetation type, stand structure, management history, and altitude. Our results reveal that a higher percentage (63 %) of C is stored in biomass and less in soil in these temperate forests except at the higher elevation broad-leaved BU forest. Results from this study will enhance our ability to evaluate the role of these forests in regional and global C cycles and have great implications for planning strategies for conservation. The study provides important data for developing and validating C cycling models for temperate forests. PMID:25638061

  13. Sediment dynamics in restored riparian forest with different widths and agricultural surroundings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stucchi Boschi, Raquel; Simões da Silva, Laura; Ribeiro Rodrigues, Ricardo; Cooper, Miguel

    2016-04-01

    The riparian forests are essential to maintaining the quality of water resources, aquifer recharge and biodiversity. Due to the ecological services provided by riparian forests, these areas are considered by the law as Permanent Preservation Areas, being mandatory maintenance and restoration. However, the obligation of restoration and the extent of the Permanent Preservation Areas as defined by the Brazilian Forest Code, based on water body width, elucidates the lack of accurate scientific data on the influence of the size of the riparian forest in maintaining their ecological functions, particularly regarding the retention of sediments. Studies that evaluate the ideal width of riparian forests to guarantee their ecological functions are scarce and not conclusive, especially when we consider newly restored forests, located in agricultural areas. In this study, we investigate the dynamics of erosion and sedimentation in restored riparian forests with different widths situated in agricultural areas. The two study areas are located in a Semideciduous Tropical Forest inserted in sugarcane landscapes of São Paulo state, Brazil. The installed plots had 60 and 100 m in length and the riparian forest has a width of 15, 30 and 50 m. The characteristics of the sediments inside the plots were evaluated by detailed morphological and micromorphological studies as well as physical characterization. The dynamics of deposition and the amount of deposited sediments have been assessed with graded metal stakes partially buried inside the plots. The intensity, frequency and distribution of rainfall, as well as the occurrence of extreme events, have been evaluated by data collected from rain gauges installed in the areas. We expect that smaller widths are not able to retain sediments originated from the adjacent sugarcane areas. We also believe that extreme events are responsible for generating most of the sediments. The results will be important to support the discussion about an

  14. 常绿阔叶林中栲树展叶期叶片的虫食格局%INSECT HERBIVORY PATTERNS ON LEAVES OF CASTANOPSIS FARGESII DURING LEAF EXPANSION IN EVERGREEN BROAD-LEAVED FOREST IN EASTERN CHINA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘志国; 蔡永立; 李恺; 杨乐; 孙灿

    2009-01-01

    叶片的虫食主要发生在展叶期.虽然展叶期短暂,它却可能是了解植食性昆虫和植物之间相互关系的关键.为了解栲树(Castanopsis fargesii)在展叶期叶片的虫食格局和展叶方式对叶片虫食的影响,研究了栲树展叶期内的虫食动态变化,结果表明:栲树展叶的两个阶段(折叠期和打开期),虫食叶片的格局存在较大的差异,打开阶段的日虫食频度和日虫食率显著高于折叠阶段(F1,32=8.97,P=0.005 4;F1,32=12.38,P=0.001 4),展叶期最终叶片虫食频度为50.72%,叶片虫食率为8.25%.折叠期叶片主要受到低强度的虫食,打开期叶片虫食则以较大强度的虫食为主.展叶期叶片的虫食主要发生在夜间,夜间虫食率显著高于日间虫食率(t=2.51,p=0.017),变化趋势与日虫食率一致.栲树叶片在展叶的两个阶段可能采用了不同的防御对策.

  15. Seasonal diversity of butterflies and their larval food plants in the surroundings of upper Neora Valley National Park, a sub-tropical broad leaved hill forest in the eastern Himalayan landscape, West Bengal, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Sengupta

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Seasonal butterfly diversity in the adjacent areas of the upper Neora Valley National Park, a part of the Himalayan landscape, was studied. The available larval host plant resources present within, as well as in the adjoining areas of transect were identified. A total of 4163 butterflies representing 161 species belonging to five families were recorded during this study. One-hundred-and-forty-three species of plants belonging to 44 families served as the larval food plants of butterflies. The maximum number of butterfly species and maximum number of individuals were sampled during the monsoons. The monsoons with least skewed rank abundance curve of species distribution, was also marked by maximum species diversity and maximum species evenness. This was probably due to the abundant distribution of luxurious vegetation that served as food plants for the larval stages of butterflies. Nymphalidae was the most dominant family with 43.48% of the total number of species. Autumn followed by the monsoon was associated with high species richness probably due to the abundance of vegetation that provides foliage to its larval stages.

  16. 凋落叶空间扩散模型在常绿阔叶林的适用性分析%Applicability analysis of spatially explicit model of leaf litter in evergreen broad-leaved forests

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵青青; 刘何铭; Mathieu Jonard; 王樟华; 王希华

    2014-01-01

    利用凋落叶空间扩散模型研究单株植物的凋落叶扩散过程,这对预测凋落叶在地表的分布格局有重要意义.本文依据浙江天童20 hm2动态监测样地植被调查数据和叶凋落量数据,分别对20种目标树种进行凋落叶空间扩散模型的拟合,以及模型适用性分析.模型假设叶凋落量和植株胸径之间服从异速生长关系,并且叶凋落量随距离呈指数降低,通过极大似然法估计模型参数.结果表明:所有树种实际叶凋落量和理论叶凋落量相关性显著;但树种间的模型预测精度相差较大,各树种理论叶凋落量解释实际叶凋落量变异的百分比为16.0% ~ 74.0%,平均为49.3%.模型预测精度与叶凋落量数据的标准差、树种平均胸径、树种平均叶片干质量呈显著正相关.根据各树种的分布格局,使凋落物筐覆盖到不同胸径母树周围不同距离处,确定各树种的最优扩散函数,以及不断改进已有的扩散函数可以提高模型的预测精度.

  17. Soil moisture dynamics under broad-leaved Korean pine forest in Changbai Mountains%长白山阔叶红松林土壤水分动态研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨弘; 裴铁璠; 关德新; 金昌杰; 王安志

    2006-01-01

    在1990~1992年和2003年对长白山阔叶红松林土壤水分动态进行定位观测研究.结果表明,土壤水分年内变化可划分为5个时期:春季聚水阶段、旱季耗水阶段、雨季蓄墒阶段、秋季失墒阶段和冬春土壤水分相对稳定阶段.利用标准差和变异系数对土壤水分垂直变化进行分层,得出土壤水分剖面分布分为速变层、活跃层和次活跃层,并用相关分析方法分析了各层次间土壤水分及其与其间降水量的关系.

  18. 鼎湖山针阔叶混交林生态系统呼吸及其影响因子%Ecosystem respiration and its controlling factors in a Coniferous and broad-leaved mixed forest in Dinghushan, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王春林; 周国逸; 唐旭利; 王旭; 周传艳; 于贵瑞; 唐力生; 孟泽

    2007-01-01

    精确估算典型森林生态系统呼吸(Reco)对评价生态系统碳平衡具有重要意义.采用开路涡度相关法对鼎湖山针阔叶混交林Reco进行定位测定,根据2003~2004年数据采用多种呼吸模型对Reco进行估算并分析Reco对环境要素的响应特征,结果表明:(1)Reco受土壤温度、湿度和冠层气温、相对湿度共同影响,Reco对环境因子的响应模式存在季节性差异,总体上土壤温度是驱动Reco的主要因子.(2)描述Reco与温度因子的关系模式中,指数方程、Van't Hoff方程、Arrhenius方程和Lloyd-Talor方程,统计意义上具有同等的能力,从温度敏感性指标Q10看,Lloyd-Talor方程比其他方程更适合于描述Reco对温度的响应特征.(3)由土壤温度(Ts)和土壤含水量(Ms)驱动的连乘耦合模型,能综合反映Ts、Ms对Reco的协同作用.在胁较高时段,连乘模型模拟的Reco高于Tloyd-Taylor方程,而在Ms较低时段连乘模型的结果低于Tloyd-Taylor方程,但二者没有统计意义上的显著差异.(4)鼎湖山混交林2003年Reco年总量,基于白天涡度相关通量观测资料的模型估算结果为1100~1135.6 gCm-2a-1,比基于夜间通量资料估算结果(921-975 gCm-2a-1)增加12%~25%.采用白天通量资料估算Reco,对克服夜间涡度相关法通量测定结果偏低问题具有积极意义,为进一步可靠评估净生态系统CO2交换(NEE)奠定方法基础.

  19. Population Dynamics of Siberian Chipmunk in the Broad-Leaved and Korean Pine Mixed Forest%阔叶红松林下花鼠的种群动态

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘蓓蓓; 王广鑫; 许林; 聂佳旭; 戎可

    2015-01-01

    2011年10月~2014年10月,为了了解花鼠种群与食物资源的关系,我们在凉水国家级自然保护区,采用样方法与标志重捕法对花鼠种群动态进行了研究,结果如下:2011年及2014年红松结实量呈爆发式增长,同期花鼠种群数量出现2个较高峰值;花鼠在2012年平均胎仔数达到最低值(1.04±0.13)只,同年越冬期生存率最低,达到(0.11±0.04);花鼠在2013年繁殖期后雌雄性比达到最高值1.17.数据分析表明,在研究期间,红松结实年际间波动明显.花鼠种群的波动基本与食物资源波动同步,在食物匮乏的年份繁殖力减弱,在食物充足的年份繁殖力提高.

  20. [Modeling organic matter dynamics in conifer-broadleaf forests win different site types upon fires: a computational experiment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komarov, A S; Kubasova, T S

    2007-01-01

    The effect of forest fires differing in intensity on organic matter dynamics in forest soils has been assessed in different types of forest sites using the EFIMOD 2 system of models. Differences between the patterns of organic matter dynamics according to scenarios of forest ecosystem development under normal conditions and upon forest fires have been analyzed. Recovery rates of soil organic matter pools after fires depend on their intensity and frequency. The most profound changes take place upon high-intensity crown fires, which may even result in ecosystem destruction. PMID:17966910

  1. Functional trait strategies of trees in dry and wet tropical forests are similar but differ in their consequences for succession.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohbeck, Madelon; Lebrija-Trejos, Edwin; Martínez-Ramos, Miguel; Meave, Jorge A; Poorter, Lourens; Bongers, Frans

    2014-01-01

    Global plant trait studies have revealed fundamental trade-offs in plant resource economics. We evaluated such trait trade-offs during secondary succession in two species-rich tropical ecosystems that contrast in precipitation: dry deciduous and wet evergreen forests of Mexico. Species turnover with succession in dry forest largely relates to increasing water availability and in wet forest to decreasing light availability. We hypothesized that while functional trait trade-offs are similar in the two forest systems, the successful plant strategies in these communities will be different, as contrasting filters affect species turnover. Research was carried out in 15 dry secondary forest sites (5-63 years after abandonment) and in 17 wet secondary forest sites (scarcity during wet forest succession. Although similar trait spectra were observed among dry and wet secondary forest species, the consequences for succession were different resulting from contrasting environmental filters. PMID:25919023

  2. Calcium mineralization in the forest floor and surface soil beneath different tree species in the northeastern US

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, F.A.

    2003-01-01

    Calcium (Ca) is an important element for neutralizing soil acidity in temperate forests. The immediate availability of Ca in forested acid soils is largely dependent on mineralization of organic Ca, which may differ significantly among tree species. I estimated net Ca mineralization in the forest fl

  3. Does degradation from selective logging and illegal activities differently impact forest resources? A case study in Ghana

    OpenAIRE

    Vaglio Laurin G; Hawthorne WD; Chiti T; Di Paola A; Cazzolla Gatti R; Marconi S; Noce S; Grieco E; Pirotti F; Valentini R

    2016-01-01

    Degradation, a reduction of the ecosystem’s capacity to supply goods and services, is widespread in tropical forests and mainly caused by human disturbance. To maintain the full range of forest ecosystem services and support the development of effective conservation policies, we must understand the overall impact of degradation on different forest resources. This research investigates the response to disturbance of forest structure using several indicators: soil carbon content, arboreal richn...

  4. Soc stock in different forest-related land-uses in central Stara planina mountain, Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiyanski Miglena

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Forest conversions may lead to an accumulation of carbon in vegetation, but little is known about changes in soil C storage with establishment of plantation forests. Understanding these effects is important to addressing issues relevant to ecosystem function and productivity, and to global balance of carbon. The study investigated the effects of the created coniferous plantations on former beech and pasture sites on the soil organic carbon storage. The major forest-related land-uses in the high mountainous regions of central Stara Planina Mountain were investigated: mountainous pasture, coniferous plantations (planted on previous pasture and beech forests between four and five decades ago and natural beech forests. The experimental data of soil properties, conducted in 2005, 2006 and 2007, were used in determining the variations in organic carbon storage in forest litter and in mineral soil under different land-use patterns. At each site five representative soil profiles were opened and described giving a total 75 soil samples from the soil layers respectively at 0-10, 10-30 and 30-50 cm depth. A total of 55 samples from forest floor layers (Aol, Aof, Aoh and greensward were collected with 25:25 cm plastic frame. The main soil properties were determined in accordance with the standardized methods in the Laboratory of soil science at the Forest Research Institute - BAS. The IPCC Good Practice Guidance for Land Use, Land Use Change and Forestry was used to estimate the soil organic carbon stock in soil and litter. The results obtained showed that the SOC stock was quite similar among forest land-uses. The conversion of natural beech forests to coniferous plantations in studied region is related with slightly expressed decrease in soil carbon storage. The values of SOC stocks in 0-50 cm soil layer in these sites were 8.5 (±2.1 tones/ha for pine and 11.0 (±1.4 tones/ha for spruce, while under the natural beech forest it was 14.8 (±1.0 tones

  5. 我国东北4种常见阔叶乔木物候对气候变化的响应%Response of 4 Common Broad-Leaved Arbors Phenology to Climate Change in the Northeast China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    裴顺祥; 郭泉水; 辛学兵; 刘玮; 洪明

    2011-01-01

    物候现象是指示气候及自然环境变化的重要指标(Pe(n)uelas et al.,2001;Moresette et al.,2009).自然物候记录可以提供全球环境变化最直接和最有效的证据.已有研究结果表明,受全球气候变化影响,1952-2000年地中海地区(Pe(n)uelas et al.,2001)、1851-1994年匈牙利(Walkovszky,1998)、1936-1998年美国Wisconsin地区(Bradley et al.,1999)和1970-1999年美国华盛顿地区(Abu-Asab et al.,2001)的许多植物花期提前了1个星期左右;中国北纬33°左右地区植物的早春物候每10年提前1.1 ~4.3天,晚春物候提前1.4~5.4天(Zheng et al.,2006).%In order to reveal the response of four broad - leaved arbors to climate change, we studied relationships between interannual variations of air temperature and various phenophases (I.e., seasonal biological events) of broad-leaved arbors species ( Betula platyphylla, Juglans mandshurica, Ulmus pumila and Morus alba ) in the Harbin, based on meteorological data from 1951 -2008 and phenological data from 1963 -2008. Results showed that the air temperature in Harbin had an increasing trend from 1951 to 2008, especially after 1978. The increase of the annual minimum temperature was greater than that of the annual maximum temperature and annual mean temperature. Annual precipitation slightly increased, but not significantly. In the period of 1963 -2008, bud burst, beginning of leaf expansion and first flowering of the 4 species all shifted to 5. 7 d, 10. 2 d and 7. 9 d earlier, respectively, and end of leaf - falling was delayed for 7. 5 d. The pattern of phenological change was consistent with that of air temperature change. The phenophases earlier or later was mainly subjected to air temperature, especially the mean temperature of the same month and previous month when phenophase began. The phenophase had little correlation with the precipitation. When the mean temperature in March rose up by 1 ℃ , Betula platyphylla, Juglans mandshurica, Ulmus pumila

  6. Effects of seed predators of different body size on seed mortality in Bornean logged forest.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yann Hautier

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The Janzen-Connell hypothesis proposes that seed and seedling enemies play a major role in maintaining high levels of tree diversity in tropical forests. However, human disturbance may alter guilds of seed predators including their body size distribution. These changes have the potential to affect seedling survival in logged forest and may alter forest composition and diversity. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We manipulated seed density in plots beneath con- and heterospecific adult trees within a logged forest and excluded vertebrate predators of different body sizes using cages. We show that small and large-bodied predators differed in their effect on con- and heterospecific seedling mortality. In combination small and large-bodied predators dramatically decreased both con- and heterospecific seedling survival. In contrast, when larger-bodied predators were excluded small-bodied predators reduced conspecific seed survival leaving seeds coming from the distant tree of a different species. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results suggest that seed survival is affected differently by vertebrate predators according to their body size. Therefore, changes in the body size structure of the seed predator community in logged forests may change patterns of seed mortality and potentially affect recruitment and community composition.

  7. 50%吡氟酰草胺水分散粒剂对春小麦田阔叶杂草的防效%Control Effect of Diflufenican 50%WG on Broad-leaved Weeds in Spring Wheat Field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程亮

    2015-01-01

    通过田间药效试验明确50%吡氟酰草胺水分散粒剂对春小麦田阔叶杂草的防除效果和田间推荐使用剂量,结果表明,50%吡氟酰草胺水分散粒剂对小麦田杂草密花香薷、野油菜和酸模叶蓼的防除效果稍差,施药后40 d对杂草株数总体防效为53.01%~61.75%,鲜重总体防效为54.30%~58.03%。该药剂对小麦安全,较空白对照增产6.44%~8.52%。建议该药剂于春小麦3叶期前,杂草2叶期前进行茎叶喷雾处理。%Based on the field trials,the efficacy and recommended dosage of diflufenican 50% WG are determined for controlling broad-leaf weeds in spring wheat field. The result shows that diflufenican 50% WG had not good control effect to broad-leaved weeds. The integrated plant and fresh weight control effects are 53.01%~61.75% and 54.30%~58.03% on weeds respectively after 40 days after spaying. Diflufenican 50% WG had no significant effect on spring wheat growth and the yield increasing rate of spring wheat is 6.44%~8.52%after sparing. The proper period of spraying is 2 leaves in weeds(3 leaves in wheat).

  8. Ecosystemic, climatic and temporal differences in oribatid communities (Acari: Oribatida) from forest soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corral-Hernández, E; Balanzategui, I; Iturrondobeitia, J C

    2016-08-01

    Oribatid mite communities from 18 natural autochthonous forest soils in the Basque Country, belonging to five forest types, distributed along an ombrothermic gradient of five climatic regions were broadly studied. Forest type and climatic region together (45 % of the total variability) were important factors influencing the oribatid community. The local scale variable (forest type, 28 %) was about as determinant a factor as the regional scale (climatic region, 26 %), though together they accounted for just 9 %. By contrast, the influence of spatial distribution (geography) was not significant by itself but played an important role as a co-variable. Differences in community indices were detected only for species abundances, with holm oak showing the highest oribatid density and beech the lowest. The effect of the passage of time on oribatid communities was also analyzed by comparing recent communities to those of 19-26 years ago in the same forests. The community indices are influenced by the course of time when separate periods of time are compared. Although the recently studied forests apparently show the same conservational conditions as those studied in the past, they are less diverse. PMID:27193341

  9. Response of clonal plasticity of Fargesia nitida to different canopy conditions of subalpine coniferous forest

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jianping TAO; Lixia SONG; Yongjian WANG; Weiyin ZHANG

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study is to explore the effects of canopy conditions on clump and culm numbers, and the morphological plasticity and biomass distribution patterns of the dwarf bamboo species Fargesia nitida. Specifically, we investigated the effects of canopy condi-tions on the growth and morphological characteristics of F. nitida, and the adaptive responses of F. nitida to dif-ferent canopy conditions and its ecological senses. The results indicate that forest canopy had a significant effect on the genet density and culm number per clump, while it did not affect the ramet density. Clumps tended to be few and large in gaps and forest edge plots, and small under forest understory plots. The ramets showed an even distribution under the closed canopy, and clus-ter distribution under gaps and forest edge plots. The forest canopy had a significant effect on both the ramets'biomass and biomass allocation. Favourable light conditions promoted ramet growth and biomass accumulation. Greater amounts of biomass in gaps and forest edge plots were shown by the higher number of culms per clump and the diameter of these culms. Under closed canopy, the bamboos increased their branching angle, leaf biomass allocation, specific leaf area and leaf area ratio to exploit more favourable light conditions in these locations. The spacer length, specific spacer length and spacer branching angles all showed significant differences between gaps and closed canopy conditions. The larger specific spacer length and spacer branching angle were beneficial for bamboo growth, scattering the ramets and exploiting more favourable light conditions. In summary, this study shows that to varying degrees, F nitida exhibits both a wide ecological amplitude and high degree of morphological plasticity in response to differing forest canopy conditions. More-over, the changes in plasticity enable the plants to optimize their light usage efficiency to promote growth and increase access to resources available in

  10. Diversity of Ixodes ricinus tick-associated bacterial communities from different forests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Overbeek, van L.S.; Gassner, F.; Lombaers-van der Plas, C.H.; Kastelein, P.; Nunes da Rocha, U.; Takken, W.

    2008-01-01

    Nymphal Ixodes ricinus ticks (n=180) were collected from three different areas in the Netherlands to investigate the effect of forest composition on tick-associated microbial communities. Sampled habitats differed in thickness of leaf litter and humus layers and vegetation associations and were loca

  11. NORMALIZED DIFFERENCE SNOW INDEX SIMULATION FOR SNOW-COVER MAPPING IN FOREST BY GEOSAIL MODEL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAO Yun-gang; LIU Chuang

    2006-01-01

    The snow-cover mapping in forest area is always one of the difficult points for optical satellite remote sensing. To investigate reflectance variability and to improve the mapping of snow in forest area, GeoSail model was used to simulate the reflectance of a snow-covered forest. Using this model, the effects of varying canopy density, solar illumination and view geometry on the performance of the MODIS (Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer)snow-cover mapping algorithm were investigated. The relationship between NDSI (Normalized Difference Snow Index), NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index) and snow fraction was discussed in detail. Results indicated that the weak performance would be achieved if fixed criteria were used for different regions especially in the complicated land cover components. Finally, some suggestions to MODIS SNOWMAP algorithm were put forward to improve snow mapping precision in forest area based on the simulation, for example, new criteria should be used in coniferous forest, that is, NDSI greater than 0.3 and NDVI greater than zero. Otherwise, a threshold on view zenith angle may be used in the criteria such as 45°.

  12. SELECTIVE FORAGING ON WOODY SPECIES BY THE BEAVER CASTOR FIBER, AND ITS IMPACT ON A RIPARIAN WILLOW FOREST

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    NOLET, BA; HOEKSTRA, A; OTTENHEIM, MM

    1994-01-01

    Beavers were re-introduced in the Biesbosch, The Netherlands, a wood dominated by willows Salix spp. Conservationists expected that herbivory by beavers would enhance succession to a mixed broad-leaved forest. Willows formed the staple food of the beavers, but they removed only 1.4% of the standing

  13. Effects of different forest practices on Pinus tabulaeformis population dynamics and species diversity in the Huanglongshan forest region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Tao; ZHANG Wenhui; LU Yuanchang; FAN Shaohui

    2007-01-01

    Three Pinus tabulaeformis populations which experienced tending,shelterwood cutting,and closed tending were separately investigated to study the effects of these three forest practices on the age structures,static life tables,survivorship curves,and species diversities of P.tabulaeformis populations in Huanglongshan Mountain.Time sequence model was adopted to predict the dynamic population numbers of different P tabulaeformis populations with different forest practices.The results revealed that the three populations are essentially identical in population structure,their young and old individuals make up a small proportion and their mid-aged individuals make up a large proportion and consequentially P.tabulaeformis populations generally stand stable.In the P tabulaeformis communities with three tending practices,the highest species abundance index appears with tending and shelterwood cutting and the highest evenness index and species diversity appears with closed tending.The P.tabulaeformis populations with tending and shelterwood cutting practices belong to one developmental type and the P.tabulaeformis populations with closed tending practices belong to a stable type.It indicated that in the future,closed tending as the major practice and tending and shelterwood cutting as the supporting practices should be applied for P tabulaeformis populations in Huanglongshan Mountain so that the communities will develop continuously.

  14. Changes in dissolved organic carbon and total dissolved nitrogen fluxes across subtropical forest ecosystems at different successional stages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Junhua; Li, Kun; Wang, Wantong; Zhang, Deqiang; Zhou, Guoyi

    2015-05-01

    Lateral transports of carbon and nitrogen are important processes linking terrestrial ecosystems and aquatic systems. Most previous studies made in temperate forests found that fluxes of carbon and nitrogen by runoff water varied in different forests, but few studies have been made in subtropical forests. This study was to investigate dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and total dissolved nitrogen (TDN) fluxes at the catchment scale along a subtropical forest succession gradient from pine forest (pioneer) to coniferous and broadleaved mixed forest (transitional) to broadleaved forest (mature). Our results showed that DOC concentration significantly decreased (pforests, which in turn resulted in a decrease in DOC flux and an increase in TDN flux, as mean annual runoff did not vary significantly among three succession forest catchments. The mean (±standard deviation) annual DOC flux was 118.1±43.6, 88.3±16.7 and 77.2±11.7 kg ha-1 yr-1for pioneer, transitional and mature forest catchments, respectively; and the mean annual TDN flux was 9.9 ±2.7, 18.2±3.0 and 21.2 ±4.5 kg ha-1 yr-1for pioneer, transitional and mature forest catchments, respectively. The mature forest reduced DOC flux by increased soil chemical adsorption and physical protection. An increase in TDN flux from pioneer to mature forests was consistent with the previous finding that mature forest was nitrogen saturated while pioneer forest was nitrogen limited. Therefore large-scale conversion of pioneer forests to transitional or mature forests in subtropical China will reduce DOC concentration and increase TDN concentration in the down-stream water, which may have significant impact on its water quality and aquatic biological activities.

  15. Classifying Complex Mountainous Forests with L-Band SAR and Landsat Data Integration: A Comparison among Different Machine Learning Methods in the Hyrcanian Forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Attarchi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Forest environment classification in mountain regions based on single-sensor remote sensing approaches is hindered by forest complexity and topographic effects. Temperate broadleaf forests in western Asia such as the Hyrcanian forest in northern Iran have already suffered from intense anthropogenic activities. In those regions, forests mainly extend in rough terrain and comprise different stand structures, which are difficult to discriminate. This paper explores the joint analysis of Landsat7/ETM+, L-band SAR and their derived parameters and the effect of terrain corrections to overcome the challenges of discriminating forest stand age classes in mountain regions. We also verified the performances of three machine learning methods which have recently shown promising results using multisource data; support vector machines (SVM, neural networks (NN, random forest (RF and one traditional classifier (i.e., maximum likelihood classification (MLC as a benchmark. The non-topographically corrected ETM+ data failed to differentiate among different forest stand age classes (average classification accuracy (OA = 65%. This confirms the need to reduce relief effects prior data classification in mountain regions. SAR backscattering alone cannot properly differentiate among different forest stand age classes (OA = 62%. However, textures and PolSAR features are very efficient for the separation of forest classes (OA = 82%. The highest classification accuracy was achieved by the joint usage of SAR and ETM+ (OA = 86%. However, this shows a slight improvement compared to the ETM+ classification (OA = 84%. The machine learning classifiers proved t o be more robust and accurate compared to MLC. SVM and RF statistically produced better classification results than NN in the exploitation of the considered multi-source data.

  16. 137Cs availability for soil to understory transfer in different types of forest ecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A quantitative analysis of 137Cs bioavailability in forest soils in the long term after the Chernobyl NPP accident based on a 3-year (1996-1998) investigation is presented. Five forest sites with different trees, composition and properties of soil were studied to identify factors determining radiocaesium transfer to different understory species. The following parameters were investigated: 137Cs activity concentrations and its speciation in various horizons of forest soil, accumulation of this radionuclide by different species of understory vegetation and distribution of root biomass in the soil profile. It has been shown that one decade after the deposition maximum 137Cs activity in soil of the experimental sites considered is located in different soil layers dependent on moisture regime, characteristics of litter and soil properties. A linear dependence between aggregated transfer factors for different species and groups of species of understory vegetation and exchangeable and available fractions of radiocaesium in soil was found. The vertical distribution of 137Cs activity, percentage of exchangeable radiocaesium in each horizon of litter and soil, as well as distribution of root systems (mycelia) over the soil profile are key factors governing variations in the availability of 137Cs for transfer to all forest understory components

  17. Operational efficiency of forest energy supply chains in different operational environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roeser, D.

    2012-06-15

    Ambitious international efforts to combat climate change have lead to a large interest about the use of forest biomass for energy in many countries. In order to meet the expected growing demand in the future, it will be necessary to improve operational efficiency of existing forest energy supply chains and support the establishment of efficient supply chains in new operational environments. The thesis applied a three-dimensional approach which examines forest energy supply chains from a technical, social and economic viewpoint. Four case studies in different operational environments have been carried out to investigate the applicability of the three dimensional approach to improve operational efficiency. The technical dimension was investigated in Paper 1 and 2. In Paper 1, the effects of climatic conditions, covering of piles, and partial debarking on drying of roundwood were studied in four experimental trials located in Scotland, Finland and Italy. In Paper 2, the chipping of forest biomass was studied in two different operational environments. The investigation of the social dimension in Paper 3 provides insights into the setup of two different supply chains through business process mapping and simulation. Finally, in paper 4, which investigated the economic dimension, an analysis of the effect of the operational environment on technology selection and design of supply chains, is presented. The thesis demonstrates that the chosen approach was practical to investigate the complex relationships between the chosen technologies and different supply chain actors and stakeholders thereby contributing to maintain or improve operational efficiency of forest energy supply chains. Due to its applicability in different operational environments, the approach is also suitable in a more global context. Furthermore, it captures the effect of different aspects and characteristics of the various operational environments on the setup and organization of supply chains. This will

  18. Sampling Ozone Exposure of Canadian Forests at Different Scales: Some Case Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.M. Cox

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of passive samplers in extensive monitoring, such as that used in national forest health monitoring plots, indicates that these devices are able to determine both spatial and temporal differences in ozone exposure of the plots. This allows for categorisation of the plots and the potential for cause-effect analysis of certain forest health responses. Forest exposure along a gradient of air pollution deposition demonstrates large variation in accumulated exposures. The efficacy of using passive samplers for in situ monitoring of forest canopy exposure was also demonstrated. The sampler data produced weak relationships with ozone values from the nearest �continuous� monitor, even though data from colocated samplers showed strong relationships. This spatial variation and the apparent effect of elevation on ozone exposure demonstrate the importance of topography and tree canopy characteristics in plant exposure on a regional scale. In addition, passive sampling may identify the effects of local pollutant gases, such as NO, which may scavenge ozone locally only to increase the production of this secondary pollutant downwind, as atmospheric reactions redress the equilibrium between concentrations of this precursor and those of the generated ozone. The use of passive samplers at the stand level is able to resolve vertical profiles within the stand and edge effects that are important in exposure of understorey and ground flora. Recent case studies using passive samplers to determine forest exposure to ozone indicate a great potential for the development of spatial models on a regional, landscape, and stand level scale.

  19. Calcium weathering in forested soils and the effedt of different tree species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, F.A.; Breemen, van N.; Jongmans, A.G.; Davies, G.R.; Likens, G.E.

    2003-01-01

    Soil weathering can be an important mechanism to neutralize acidity in forest soils. Tree species may differ in their effect on or response to soil weathering. We used soil mineral data and the natural strontium isotope ratio Sr-87/Sr-86 as a tracer to identify the effect of tree species on the Ca w

  20. Photosynthetic acclimation to light changes in tropical monsoon forest woody species differing in adult stature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cai, Z.Q.; Rijkers, A.J.M.; Bongers, F.J.J.M.

    2005-01-01

    We studied morphological and physiological leaf and whole-plant features of seedlings of six late-successional woody species common in the Xishuangbanna lowland rain forest in southwest China. Study species differed in adult stature and shade tolerance and included the shrubs Lasianthus attenuatus J

  1. Functional trait strategies of trees in dry and wet tropical forests are similar but differ in their consequences for succession.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohbeck, Madelon; Lebrija-Trejos, Edwin; Martínez-Ramos, Miguel; Meave, Jorge A; Poorter, Lourens; Bongers, Frans

    2014-01-01

    Global plant trait studies have revealed fundamental trade-offs in plant resource economics. We evaluated such trait trade-offs during secondary succession in two species-rich tropical ecosystems that contrast in precipitation: dry deciduous and wet evergreen forests of Mexico. Species turnover with succession in dry forest largely relates to increasing water availability and in wet forest to decreasing light availability. We hypothesized that while functional trait trade-offs are similar in the two forest systems, the successful plant strategies in these communities will be different, as contrasting filters affect species turnover. Research was carried out in 15 dry secondary forest sites (5-63 years after abandonment) and in 17 wet secondary forest sites (species to make species-trait PCA biplots for dry and wet forest and compare trait trade-offs. We evaluated whether multivariate plant strategies changed during succession, by calculating a 'Community-Weighted Mean' plant strategy, based on species scores on the first two PCA-axes. Trait spectra reflected two main trade-off axes that were similar for dry and wet forest species: acquisitive versus conservative species, and drought avoiding species versus evergreen species with large animal-dispersed seeds. These trait associations were consistent when accounting for evolutionary history. Successional changes in the most successful plant strategies reflected different functional trait spectra depending on the forest type. In dry forest the community changed from having drought avoiding strategies early in succession to increased abundance of evergreen strategies with larger seeds late in succession. In wet forest the community changed from species having mainly acquisitive strategies to those with more conservative strategies during succession. These strategy changes were explained by increasing water availability during dry forest succession and increasing light scarcity during wet forest succession. Although

  2. Tree species composition affects the abundance of rowan (Sorbus aucuparia L.) in urban forests in Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamberg, Leena; Lehvävirta, Susanna; Kotze, D Johan; Heikkinen, Juha

    2015-03-15

    Recent studies have shown a considerable increase in the abundance of rowan (Sorbus aucuparia) saplings in urban forests in Finland, yet the reasons for this increase are not well understood. Here we investigated whether canopy cover or tree species composition, i.e., the basal areas of different tree species in Norway spruce dominated urban forests, affects the abundances of rowan seedlings, saplings and trees. Altogether 24 urban forest patches were investigated. We sampled the number of rowan and other saplings, and calculated the basal areas of trees. We showed that rowan abundance was affected by tree species composition. The basal area of rowan trees (≥ 5 cm in diameter at breast height, dbh) decreased with increasing basal area of Norway spruce, while the cover of rowan seedlings increased with an increase in Norway spruce basal area. However, a decrease in the abundance of birch (Betula pendula) and an increase in the broad-leaved tree group (Acer platanoides, Alnus glutinosa, Alnus incana, Amelanchier spicata, Prunus padus, Quercus robur, Rhamnus frangula and Salix caprea) coincided with a decreasing number of rowans. Furthermore, rowan saplings were scarce in the vicinity of mature rowan trees. Although it seems that tree species composition has an effect on rowan, the relationship between rowan saplings and mature trees is complex, and therefore we conclude that regulating tree species composition is not an easy way to keep rowan thickets under control in urban forests in Finland.

  3. 辽宁清原山区3种林型地表蜘蛛多样性比较研究%Biodiversity of ground-dwelling spiders in three forest types in Qingyuan Mountain Area, Liaoning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    佟艳丰; 赵丽; 刘悦

    2013-01-01

    2008年5月,采用陷阱法在辽宁省清原县大苏河乡大湖生态站选取杂木林、红松林和落叶松林3种森林植被类型收集地表蜘蛛.共采集成熟蜘蛛标本1 825头,隶属于13科49种.调查发现:1)皿蛛科、漏斗蛛科及平腹蛛科是该地区的优势科,旋卷隙蛛Alloclubionoides circinalis 及皿蛛科一未定种为该地区的优势种;2)3种森林植被类型的地表蜘蛛群落组成存在明显的差异,杂木林中物种最丰富,分布有13科39种,红松林中分布有10科29种,而落叶松林中有8科28种;平腹蛛科在杂木林中最丰富,而在红松林、落叶松林中数量稀少;3)多样性指数存在一定差异,杂木林中个体数量最多,红松林中个体数量最少,Margalef指数及Menhinick指数最低值均出现在红松林,而最高值出现在落叶松林.%In May 2008, the composition and distribution of ground-dwelling spiders were investigated using pitfall trapped method to assess the impact of forest type on spider diversity. Three forest types, i. e. , miscellaneous wood forest, broad-leaved Korean pine forest and deciduous Korean Pine forest were surveyed in Dahu Ecological Station in Dasuhe Town, Qingyuan County, Liaoning Province. A total of 1825 adult individuals were collected, belonging to 13 families and 49 species. The results showed: 1) Linyphiidae, Agelenidae and Gnaphosidae were dominant families, Alloclubionoid.es circinalis and one unidentified species of Linyphiidae were the dominant species; 2) the ground spider community composition were significantly different in the three forest types, 13 families and 39 species were collected from miscellaneous wood forest, 10 families and 29 species were collected from broad-leaved Korean pine forest and 8 families and 28 species were from deciduous Korean Pine forest; gnaphosid spiders were most abundant in miscellaneous wood forest, but sparse in the other two forest types; 3) the diversity indices were also different; the

  4. Quantifying differences in biodiversity between a tropical forest area and a grassland area subject to traditional burning

    OpenAIRE

    Nangendo, G.; A. Stein; Gelens, M.; de Gier, A.; Albricht, R.

    2002-01-01

    Mosaics of natural forest and grassland tracts in sub-Saharan Africa provide differences in woody species biodiversity. These mosaics are of considerable interest as they are a major biodiversity bank. Their richness is felt to be threatened, for example by local burning. This study focuses on the impact of burning on biodiversity in the Budongo Forest Reserve in Uganda. Woody species at different development stages are compared between a forest stratum and the adjacent grassland stratum. Spa...

  5. Abundance and Dynamics of Soil Labile Carbon Pools Under Different Types of Forest Vegetation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Pei-Kun; XU Qiu-Fang

    2006-01-01

    Soil organic matter (SOM) in forest ecosystems is not only important to global carbon (C) storage but also to sustainable management of forestland with vegetation types, being a critical factor in controlling the quantity and dynamics of SOM. In this field experiment soil plots with three replicates were selected from three forest vegetation types: broadleaf,Masson pine (Pinus massoniana Lamb.), and Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata Hook.). Soil total organic C (TOC),two easily oxidizable C levels (EOC1 and EOC2, which were oxidized by 66.7 mmol L-1 K2Cr2O7 at 130-140 ℃ and333 mmol L-1 KMnO4 at 25 ℃, respectively), microbial biomass C (MBC), and water-soluble organic C (WSOC)were analyzed for soil samples. Soil under the broadleaf forest stored significantly higher TOC (P ≤ 0.05). Because of its significantly larger total soil C storage, the soil under the broadleaf forest usually had significantly higher levels (P ≤ 0.05)of the different labile organic carbons, EOC1, EOC2, MBC, and WSOC; but when calculated as a percentage of TOC each labile C fraction of the broadleaf forest was significantly lower (P ≤ 0.05) than one of the other two forests. Under all the three vegetation types temperature as well as quality and season of litter input generally affected the dynamics of different organic C fractions in soils, with EOC1, EOC2, and MBC increasing closely following increase in temperature,whereas WSOC showed an opposite trend.

  6. Effects of fire disturbance on the forest structure and succession in the natural broad-leaved/Korean pine forest

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIULi-juan; GEJian-ping

    2003-01-01

    Investigations on charcoal in the soil, fire-scarred trees, stand composition, forest structure as well as regeneration status were carried out in the natural broad-leaved/Korean pine (Pinus koraiensis) forest after fire disturbance at Liangshui Nature Reserve on the mid-north of Xiaoxing'an Mountains from 1990 to 1992, and the ecological effects of fire disturbance on the formation and succession of this kind of forest were analyzed according to the survey results. The average depth of charcoal in the soil was related to the timing of the fire. According to the characteristic of fire-scarred trees, the dynamic map of the fire behavior was drawn onto the topographic map. It showed that the dimension and extent of the fire disturbance was closely related with site conditions. Fire disturbance only led to a significant difference in stand composition and diameter class structurefor the stands at different locations, rather than completely destroying the forest. After fire disturbance, the horizontal community structure was a mosaic of different patches, which were made up of different deciduous species or different sizes of Korean pines, and the succession trend of each patch was also different. In the sites with the heavy fire disturbance, the intolerant hardwood species were dominant, and there were a large number of regenerative Korean pine saplings under the canopy. In the moderate -disturbed sites, the tolerant hardwood species were dominant, and a small number of large size Korean pines still survived. In the light-disturbed sites, large size Korean pines were dominant.

  7. 陕北黄龙山林区景观格局动态%Dynamics of Landscape Pattern in Huanglong Mountain Forest Region of Northern Shaanxi Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李敏; 赵鹏祥; 郝红科; 杨延征; 袁飞

    2012-01-01

    Based on the forest inventory data of Huanglong Mountain in 1986 , 1997 and 2006, we analyzed the changes of landscape types and landscape structure.The landscape was changed greatly during the 20 years.The area of forested land continuously was increased, while the shrub land and wasteland were gradually decreased.The area of the cultivated land and immature forest land increased from 1986 to 1997, while decreased from 1997 to 2006.Changes in Cupressus forest land and nursery land, which accounted for only a small part of the entire landscape, were not significant.At the landscape level, the area of hard broad-leaved forests and coniferous forests was increased by 40% from 1986 to 2006.The area of Cupressus forest land remained unchanged at approximate 2 000 hm during the two periods, while the area of soft broad-leaved forest land continuously decreased.Moreover, the age-class structure of the major species significantly varied.The hard broad-leaved forests and coniferous forests merged with a block which had the largest patch index and was much greater than that of the other landscape types in each period.The landscape diversity decreased, while the landscape heterogeneity, fragmentation and dominance increased.The patch types tended to distribute in reunion state.

  8. Biogeographic Distribution Patterns of Bacteria in Typical Chinese Forest Soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Zongwei; Bai, Edith; Wang, Qingkui; Gao, Decai; Zhou, Jidong; Jiang, Ping; Wu, Jiabing

    2016-01-01

    Microbes are widely distributed in soils and play a very important role in nutrient cycling and ecosystem services. To understand the biogeographic distribution of forest soil bacteria, we collected 115 soil samples in typical forest ecosystems across eastern China to investigate their bacterial community compositions using Illumina MiSeq high throughput sequencing based on 16S rRNA. We obtained 4,667,656 sequences totally and more than 70% of these sequences were classified into five dominant groups, i.e., Actinobacteria, Acidobacteria, Alphaproteobacteria, Verrucomicrobia, and Planctomycetes (relative abundance >5%). The bacterial diversity showed a parabola shape along latitude and the maximum diversity appeared at latitudes between 33.50°N and 40°N, an area characterized by warm-temperate zones and moderate temperature, neutral soil pH and high substrate availability (soil C and N) from dominant deciduous broad-leaved forests. Pairwise dissimilarity matrix in bacterial community composition showed that bacterial community structure had regional similarity and the latitude of 30°N could be used as the dividing line between southern and northern forest soils. Soil properties and climate conditions (MAT and MAP) greatly accounted for the differences in the soil bacterial structure. Among all soil parameters determined, soil pH predominantly affected the diversity and composition of the bacterial community, and soil pH = 5 probably could be used as a threshold below which soil bacterial diversity might decline and soil bacterial community structure might change significantly. Moreover, soil exchangeable cations, especially Ca(2+) (ECa(2+)) and some other soil variables were also closely related to bacterial community structure. The selected environmental variables (21.11%) explained more of the bacterial community variation than geographic distance (15.88%), indicating that the edaphic properties and environmental factors played a more important role than

  9. Factors controlling regional differences in forest soil emission of nitrogen oxides (NO and N2O)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pilegaard, K.; Skiba, U.; Ambus, P.;

    2006-01-01

    Soil emissions of NO and N2O were measured continuously at high frequency for more than one year at 15 European forest sites as part of the EU-funded project NOFRETETE. The locations represent different forest types (coniferous/deciduous) and different nitrogen loads. Geoaphically they range from...

  10. Relationships between Forest Community Secondary Succession and Soil Fertility in Kanas Tourist Area,Xinjiang%新疆喀纳斯旅游区森林群落次生演替与土壤肥力的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程平; 潘存德; 朱跃峰; 康剑; 魏秋生; 寇福堂; 余戈壁

    2011-01-01

    从土壤理化性质出发,利用多元统计方法和土壤肥力综合评价体系,对新疆喀纳斯旅游区森林群落次生演替过程中土壤肥力的变化特征进行了综合评价.结果表明,不同森林类型的土壤肥力综合指标值为阔叶林>阔叶针叶混交林>针叶阔叶混交林>针叶混交林;不同森林演替阶段的土壤肥力综合指标值为演替前期>演替中期>演替后期.%Based on soil physical and chemical properties, the variation characteristics of soil fertility at different succession series of the forest communities in Kanas Tourist Areas was evaluated by the integra-tive evaluation system. The result showed that the descending order of the integrated index value of soil fertility among different forest types was as follows:broad-leaved forest>broadleaved-needleleaved mixed forest> needleleaved-broadleaved mixed forest >needleleaved mixed forest. The descending order of soil fertility among different succession series was as follows; the earlier stage>the middle stage>the later stage.

  11. [Effects of Different Altitudes on Soil Microbial PLFA and Enzyme Activity in Two Kinds of Forests].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Qing-ping; He, Bing-hui; Mao, Qiao-zhi; Wu, Yao-peng; Huang, Qi; Li, Yuan

    2015-12-01

    The soil microbial community is an important part in soil ecosystem, and it is sensitive to the ecological environment. Phospholipid-derived fatty acids ( PLFA ) analysis was used to examine variations in soil microbial community diversity and its influencing factors. The results showed that: there existed 48 PLFAs that were significant in the soil samples from six altitudes. The PLFAs of six altitudes with the highest contents were i16:0, 10Me17:0, 10Me18:0 TBSA. The citrus forest exhibited richer soil PLFAs distribution both in type and amount than those in masson pine. The microbial activity and functional diversity of masson pine were increased with increasing altitudes, and citrus forest gradually decreased, the PLFA content of different microbial groups in each altitude were significantly different. The richness index, Shannon-Wiener index and Pielou evenness index of masson pine in low elevation were holistically higher than those in high elevation. However, the highest richness index of citrus forest was in low altitude, the highest Shannon-Wiener index and Pielou evenness index were in high altitude. The PLFAs content of different microbial groups were closely correlated to the soil enzyme activities and environmental factors. The PLFAs of bacteria, actinomycetes, G⁻ (Gram- positive), G⁺ (Gram-negative) were positively correlated with Ure(urease) , Ive(invertase) , CAT( catalase activity) and forest type, the PLFAs of fungi was significantly correlated with Ure, Ive, CAT, the PLFAs of bacteria, fungi, actinomycetes, G⁻ , G⁺ were significantly negatively or less correlated with elevation. Ure, Ive, CAT, forest type and elevation are the pivotal factors controlling the soil microbial biomass and activities. PMID:27012007

  12. Evaluation of Soil Fertility Under Different Cupressus chengiana Forests Using Multivariate Approach

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PANG Xue-Yong; BAO Wei-Kai; ZHANG Yong-Mei

    2006-01-01

    The distribution and growing conditions of Cupressus chengiana forests along with the physical and chemical properties of soils in Northwest Sichuan were studied in 2002 to investigate the conditions and characteristics of soil fertility of C.chengiana and to compare and investigate differences of soil fertility for six C. chengiana populations and their relationships with vegetation, climate and disturbance. The results of the study at 0-20 cm soil depth showed that 1) significant differences (P<0.05) existed among populations for soil bulk density, soil total porosity, capillary porosity, maximum water-holding capacity, capillary water-holding capacity and topsoil natural water content; 2) chemical characteristics of soil organic matter, total N, total P, alkali-hydrolyzable N, available P, available K and cation exchange capacity were significantly different among the populations; and 3) based on the significant effect of soil fertility factors on forest growth,soil physical and chemical characteristics could be selected as an integrated fertility index (IFI) for evaluation of different C. chengiana populations. Principal component and cluster analyses showed significant differences probably due to the difference of vegetation conditions, management measurements, human-induced disturbances and environmental factors.In order to protect the soil ecological functions in fragile ecological regions, C. chengiana could be used in programs enclosing the hill for natural afforestation, natural forest protection programs, and programs replacing agriculture with afforestation measures.

  13. Variability of alder-dominated forest vegetation along a latitudinal gradient in Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Slezák

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Syntaxonmical revision of azonal forest vegetation with dominance of Alnus glutinosa and A. incana was done along a latitudinal transect of Slovakia. A data matrix consisting of 240 phytosociological relevés was obtained in accordance with the standard Zürich-Montpellier approach. Detrended correspondence analysis was used to clarify the relationships between the vegetation composition and environmental variables, whereas one-way ANOVA was applied to quantify the differences in site requirements of particular vegetation types. The unsupervised numerical classification resulted in identification of five clusters corresponding to the traditionally described and ecologically interpretable associations within the Euro-Siberian alder carr forests of Alnion glutinosae and the European broad-leaved floodplain forests of Alnion incanae: Carici elongatae-Alnetum glutinosae Schwickerath 1933 (alder carr forests on permanently waterlogged soils, Stellario-Alnetum glutinosae Lohmeyer 1957 (riparian alder vegetation on mesic to humid sites along small brooks, Piceo-Alnetum Mráz 1959 (submontane and montane oligotrophic spruce-alder forests on waterlogged habitats, Cardamino amarae-Alnetum incanae Šomšák 1961 (grey alder vegetation in spring fed areas and Alnetum incanae Lüdi 1921 (submontane and montane streamside grey alder forests on mesic sites. They significantly (P < 0.05 differed in the Ellenberg's indicator values for nutrients, moisture, temperature and altitude. These environmental variables were also established by DCA analysis as underlying sources of variation in alder-dominated forest composition. Special attention was given to discussion of their syntaxonomy, nomenclature, floristic structure, ecological features and distribution.

  14. Mercury, cadmium and lead concentrations in different ecophysiological groups of earthworms in forest soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ernst, Gregor; Zimmermann, Stefan [Soil Sciences, Swiss Federal Research Institute WSL, Zuercherstrasse 111, CH-8903 Birmensdorf (Switzerland); Christie, Peter [Agricultural and Environmental Science Department, Queen' s University Belfast, Newforge Lane, Belfast BT9 5PX (United Kingdom); Frey, Beat [Soil Sciences, Swiss Federal Research Institute WSL, Zuercherstrasse 111, CH-8903 Birmensdorf (Switzerland)], E-mail: beat.frey@wsl.ch

    2008-12-15

    Bioaccumulation of Hg, Cd and Pb by eight ecophysiologically distinct earthworm species was studied in 27 polluted and uncontaminated forest soils. Lowest tissue concentrations of Hg and Cd occurred in epigeic Lumbricus rubellus and highest in endogeic Octolasion cyaneum. Soils dominated by Dendrodrilus rubidus possess a high potential of risk of Pb biomagnification for secondary predators. Bioconcentration factors (soil-earthworm) followed the sequence ranked Cd > Hg > Pb. Ordination plots of redundancy analysis were used to compare HM concentrations in earthworm tissues with soil, leaf litter and root concentrations and with soil pH and CEC. Different ecological categories of earthworms are exposed to Hg, Cd and Pb in the topsoil by atmospheric deposition and accumulate them in their bodies. Species differences in HM concentrations largely reflect differences in food selectivity and niche separation. - Accumulation of non-essential heavy metals by earthworms is species-dependent and is affected by soil characteristics in natural forest soils.

  15. Mercury, cadmium and lead concentrations in different ecophysiological groups of earthworms in forest soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bioaccumulation of Hg, Cd and Pb by eight ecophysiologically distinct earthworm species was studied in 27 polluted and uncontaminated forest soils. Lowest tissue concentrations of Hg and Cd occurred in epigeic Lumbricus rubellus and highest in endogeic Octolasion cyaneum. Soils dominated by Dendrodrilus rubidus possess a high potential of risk of Pb biomagnification for secondary predators. Bioconcentration factors (soil-earthworm) followed the sequence ranked Cd > Hg > Pb. Ordination plots of redundancy analysis were used to compare HM concentrations in earthworm tissues with soil, leaf litter and root concentrations and with soil pH and CEC. Different ecological categories of earthworms are exposed to Hg, Cd and Pb in the topsoil by atmospheric deposition and accumulate them in their bodies. Species differences in HM concentrations largely reflect differences in food selectivity and niche separation. - Accumulation of non-essential heavy metals by earthworms is species-dependent and is affected by soil characteristics in natural forest soils

  16. The amount and quality of dead trees in a mixed beech forest with different management histories in northern Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KIOMARS SEFIDI

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Sefidi K, Etemad V. 2014. The amount and quality of dead trees in a mixed beech forest with different management histories in northern Iran. Biodiversitas 15: 162-168. Dead tree (fallen logs and snags, is regarded as an important ecological component of forests on which many forest dwelling species depend, yet its relation to management history in Caspian forest has gone unreported. The aim of research aim was to compare the amounts of dead tree in the forests with historically different intensities of management, including: forests with the long term implication of management (Patom, the short term implication of management (Namekhaneh which were compared with semi virgin forest (Gorazbon. The number of 215 individual dead trees were recorded and measured at 79 sampling locations. ANOVA revealed volume of dead tree in the form and decay classes significantly differ within sites and dead volume in the semi virgin forest significantly higher than managed sites. Comparing the amount of dead tree in three sites showed that, dead tree volume related with management history and significantly differ in three study sites. Reaching their highest in virgin site and their lowest in the site with the long term implication of management, it was concluded that forest management cause reduction of the amount of dead tree. Forest management history affect the forest's ability to generate dead tree specially in a large size, thus managing this forest according to ecological sustainable principles require a commitment to maintaining stand structure that allow, continued generation of dead tree in a full range of size.

  17. Planning Forest Opening with Forest Roads

    OpenAIRE

    Krč, Janez; Beguš, Jurij

    2013-01-01

    The article presents the model for determining inaccessible forest areas by density of forest roads. The model is based on the GIS analysis of the distances between the existing network of public and forest roads and inaccessible forest areas, sizes of excluded forest areas, and forest site potentials. In order to increase forest road density, the following must be done: (1) construct connecting roads to the inaccessible forest areas and (2) construct new forest roads with different density i...

  18. Efficiency of different forest types in carbon storage depends on their internal structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iuliana F. Gheorghe

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Forest vegetation is a key factor in the maintenance of global carbon cycle balance under the present climate change conditions. Forest ecosystems are both buffers against extreme climatic events accompanying climate change and carbon sinks diminishing the environmental impact of anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions. We investigated the influence of stand structure and site characteristics on the productivity and carbon storage capacity of temperate forest types. Predictors of species productivity were parameters such as stand density, age, height, average diameter and wood density. Morus alba (L. was more productive than average both in terms of annual volume increment and annual biomass gain, while Quercus sessiliflora (Matt. Lieb. and Quercus frainetto (Ten. were significantly less productive than average. Differences in stand productivity were explained by stand density, age, height, altitude, type of regeneration and species composition. Statistically significant differences were measured between the productivity of stands dominated by different woody species, with low productive stands dominated by slow growing species with high wood density like Quercus or Fagus, and highly productive stands rich in fast growing species with low wood density like Populus or Salix. Stands with different plant communities in the underlying herbaceous layer also tended to have different levels of productivity.

  19. Assemblages of carabid beetles (Coleoptera, Carabidae in humid forest habitats of different stages of succession in the Puszcza Knyszyńska Forest (northeastern Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Kwiatkowski

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available During a period of three years (2006–2008 the carabid fauna in wet and humid forest habitats of different stages of succession was studied at the Puszcza Knyszynska (north-east part of Poland. The aim of this study was to determine how the assemblages of the carabid fauna change in relation to the ongoing process of succession. Using pitfall traps, 24 plots were sampled. The plots were located in stands of different age, from two year old plantations to more than 100 year old forests. Additionally, the stands were ordered in three moisture classes (wet, humid and very humid and two classes of soil richness. As indicators for change in the carabid fauna in relation to age of the stands Mean Individual Biomass (MIB, species diversity and share of forest species were used. By applying multivariate statistics the relation of the different habitat characteristics to changes in the carabid fauna was examined. During the study 8903 individuals belonging to 57 species were collected. Pterostichus niger represented 28% of the total catches and therefore the most common species. Another common species, Pterostichus melanarius, contributed to 13% of the total catch. This species was caught at every plot, even in the old forests. In contrast to the results obtained by Szyszko (1990 for fresh and dry pine stands, in this study the relation of MIB with the age of forest was not significant. Although the number of species was rather constant, the number of individuals belonging to the group of forest species significantly increased with the ageing of the forest. The multivariate analysis showed a relationship with ageing of the stands and soil richness rather than with moisture and size of the forest. According to the present paper, clear cuttings in wet and humid habitats do not cause a strong degradation of the carabid fauna.

  20. Assemblages of carabid beetles (Coleoptera, Carabidae) in humid forest habitats of different stages of succession in the Puszcza Knyszyńska Forest (northeastern Poland).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwiatkowski, Adam

    2011-01-01

    During a period of three years (2006-2008) the carabid fauna in wet and humid forest habitats of different stages of succession was studied at the Puszcza Knyszynska (north-east part of Poland). The aim of this study was to determine how the assemblages of the carabid fauna change in relation to the ongoing process of succession. Using pitfall traps, 24 plots were sampled. The plots were located in stands of different age, from two year old plantations to more than 100 year old forests. Additionally, the stands were ordered in three moisture classes (wet, humid and very humid) and two classes of soil richness. As indicators for change in the carabid fauna in relation to age of the stands Mean Individual Biomass (MIB), species diversity and share of forest species were used. By applying multivariate statistics the relation of the different habitat characteristics to changes in the carabid fauna was examined. During the study 8903 individuals belonging to 57 species were collected. Pterostichus niger represented 28% of the total catches and therefore the most common species. Another common species, Pterostichus melanarius, contributed to 13% of the total catch. This species was caught at every plot, even in the old forests. In contrast to the results obtained by Szyszko (1990) for fresh and dry pine stands, in this study the relation of MIB with the age of forest was not significant. Although the number of species was rather constant, the number of individuals belonging to the group of forest species significantly increased with the ageing of the forest. The multivariate analysis showed a relationship with ageing of the stands and soil richness rather than with moisture and size of the forest. According to the present paper, clear cuttings in wet and humid habitats do not cause a strong degradation of the carabid fauna. PMID:21738426

  1. Modeling carbon dynamics in two adjacent spruce forests with different soil conditions in Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Kurbatova

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Net ecosystem carbon exchange (NEE were measured with eddy covariance method for two adjacent forests located at the southern boundary of European taiga in Russia in 1999–2004. The two spruce forests shared similar vegetation composition but differed in soil conditions. The wet spruce forest (WSF possessed a thick peat layer (60 cm with a high water table seasonally close to or above the soil surface. The dry spruce forest (DSF had a relatively thin organic layer (5 cm with a deep water table (>60 cm. The measured NEE fluxes (2000 and −1440 kg C ha−1 yr−1 for WSF and DSF, respectively indicated that WSF was a source while DSF a sink of atmospheric carbon dioxide during the experimental years. A process-based model, Forest-DNDC, was employed in the study to interpret the observations. The modeled NEE fluxes were 1800 and −2200 kg C ha−1 yr−1 for WSF and DSF, respectively, which were comparable with the observations. The modeled data indicated that WSF and DSF had similar rates of photosynthesis and plant autotrophic respiration but differed in soil heterotrophic respiration. The simulations resulted in a hypothesis that the water table fluctuation at WSF could play a key role in determining the negative C balance in the ecosystem. A sensitivity test was conducted by running Forest-DNDC with varied water table scenarios for WSF. The results proved that the NEE fluxes from WSF were highly sensitive to the water table depth. When the water table dropped, the length of flooding season became shorter and more organic matter in the soil profile suffered from rapid decomposition that converted the ecosystem into a source atmospheric C. The conclusion from this modeling study could be applicable for a wide range of wetland and forest ecosystems that have accumulated soil organic C while face hydrological changes under certain climatic or land-use change scenarios.

  2. Effects of different land-uses on soil organic carbon pools in the Peruvian tropical forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, V.; Kala, J.; Lever, R.; Teh, Y.

    2013-12-01

    Tropical soils are a large carbon reservoir, acting as both a source and a sink of CO2. Changes to these soil environments have major implications for long term carbon storage and rising atmospheric CO2 concentrations. Enhanced CO2 emissions originate, in large part, from the decomposition and loss of soil organic matter (SOM) following anthropogenic disturbances such as deforestation or agricultural conversion. Therefore, quantitative knowledge of the stabilisation and decomposition of SOM is necessary in order to understand, assess and predict the impact of land use change in the tropics. In particular, labile SOM is an early and sensitive indicator of how SOM responds to changes in land use and management practices. The main focus of this study is to explore the relationship between soil respiration, decomposition and soil C pools in order to estimate the turnover times of soil C on a suite of different land uses in the Peruvian tropical forests. Three major C pools (light fractions, occluded light fractions and heavy fractions) were separated using sodium polytungstate in a density fraction technique, soil CO2 flux was measured bimonthly over a year using a closed-chamber technique and decomposition rates were estimated using buried birch wood sticks acting as a common substrate across the sites. Our results showed that CO2 flux ranged from 0.237-7.676 μmol m-2s-1 for the banana plantation, 2.773-11.1 μmol m-2s-1 for the mature forest, 1.718-17.005 μmol m-2s-1 for pasture and 2.931-5.216 μmol m-2s-1 for the secondary forest. On an annual basis, the soil CO2 flux was highest in the pasture ecosystem with an estimated production of 2.3 kg C m-2yr-1 followed by the banana plantation with 1.3 kg C m-2yr-1 and the mature forest site with 1.0 kg C m-2yr-1. Land use affected soil temperature and bulk density, which also showed positive correlations with CO2 flux. The stick decomposition rate was significantly faster on the pasture site in comparison to the forest

  3. Influences of Different Habitats on Asexual Propagation of Wild Gastrodia elata f. glauca being Domesticated in Ganzi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xueqiang XIE

    2015-01-01

    Objective] The influences of different habitats on asexual propagation of wild Geg (abbreviation for Gastrodia elata Bl. f. glauca S. Chow) being domesticat-ed in Ganzi prefecture was studied. [Method] The research trial was carried out in the fol owing three kinds of habitats at the same time: the plastic greenhouses, the birch forest of shady slope and the shrubbery of sunny slope, and the results were analyzed with group data average hypothesis test method. [Result] The overal tuber (the juvenile tuber, the immature tuber and the mature tuber) yield and the mature tuber yield were both very significantly higher in the plastic greenhouses than in the other two types of habitats, and respectively reached 9.52 and 6.70 kg/m2; the ma-ture tuber drying rate was dramatical y or very dramatical y lower in the plastic greenhouses than in the other two types of habitats, and was 23.84%; the stabilities of the overal tuber yield, the mature tuber yield and the drying rate were al re-duced in the order of greenhouses, birch forest and shrubbery; and the dry mature tuber yield of the plastic greenhouses was the highest in the three kinds of habi-tats, and was 1.60 kg/m2. [Conclusion] A good habitat had to be created or chosen in the domesticating cultivation of the wild Geg in Ganzi prefecture. The preferred choice was the plastic greenhouse, the alternative one was the deciduous broad-leaved forest of shady slope. The imitating wild planting of the wild Geg should be done in the warm moist deciduous broad-leaved forest of shady slope.

  4. Forest protection as a climate measure. Valuable forest types for biodiversity and carbon storage; Skogvern som klimatiltak. Verdifulle skogtyper for biologisk mangfold og karbonlagring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Framstad, E.; Stokland, J.N.; Hylen, G.

    2011-07-01

    the area of each forest type, however, mature deciduous, unproductive and productile forests, as well as old spruce and pine forests represent the largest carbon stocks. An nu-al Co2 uptake per unit area is related to the more productive forests, such as rich deciduous and coniferous forests and productive mature deciduous forest, and is lowest for unproductive deciduous forest. Old spruce and pine forests and mature coastal forests have medium Co2 uptake. Summed over the area of each forest type, mature boreal forests and rich deciduous forests have the highest annual Co2 uptake. Assessed value for biodiversity of the respective forest types coincides rather well with their value for Co2 uptake per unit area and, with some exceptions, also for carbon stocks per unit area. Rich coniferous and broad-leaved deciduous forests, in particular, have great value for biodiversity, carbon and uptake of Co2 per unit area. Relative to the profitability of forestry, potential conflicts seem to be greatest for rich and old coniferous forests, and less so for rich deciduous forest, mature productive deciduous forest, and coastal forest. Conflict with forestry is least likely for un-productive deciduous forest, but here values for biodiversity or carbon stocks are lower. Conservation of old forest is generally beneficial for biodiversity and carbon stocks in old broadleaved deciduous forest, where conflicts with forestry will be moderate. Rich deciduous forest, productive deciduous forest and coastal forest have rather high values for biodiversity and moderate potential conflict with forestry, but the value of carbon storage is lower. Rich coniferous forests are important for both biodiversity and carbon stock, but have great potential conflict with forestry, as most of this area will be economically suitable for forestry. Old spruce and partly old pine forests are important for carbon storage and somewhat less important for biodiversity, but may have significant conflicts with

  5. Comparative efficacy of three epigeic earthworms under different deciduous forest litters decomposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manna, M C; Jha, S; Ghosh, P K; Acharya, C L

    2003-07-01

    An experiment was conducted during 1998-1999, in a deciduous forest located in the semi-arid tropics of central India, to evaluate the suitability of different forest litters as food material for the tropical epigeic earthworms i.e. Eisenia fetida (Savigny), Perionyx excavatus (Perrier) and Dicogaster bolaui (michaelsen). The aim was to examine the influence of these earthworms on the decomposition processes of three types of forest litters i.e. Tectona grandis (teak), Madhuca indica (mahua) and Butea monosperma (palas), on the maintenance of quality in a vermicomposting system, and to assess the effect of applications of in situ prepared vermicomposts on the growth of forest trees. The results indicated that T. grandis litter was the most suitable food material for the earthworms possibly because it contained high reserves of mineral nutrients. Comparisons of the survival and reproduction rates of the three epigeic earthworm species indicated that a higher reproduction rate was maintained for E. fetida compared to P. excavatus and D. bolaui in the decomposition of these forest litters. The rates of growth and population increases of E. fetida approximately doubled after 12 weeks of litter decomposition. The litter decomposition process was associated strongly with the quality of the materials and their chemical composition. Irrespective of earthworm inoculations, the levels of available nutrient such as NH(4)-N, NO(3)-N, available P and K increased significantly (pM. indica litter compost>B. monosperma litter compost. The mature decomposed litter had lower C/N ratios (11.3-24.8:1), water-soluble carbon (0.30-0.58%), water-soluble carbohydrates (0.35-0.71%) and larger cation exchange capacity/total organic carbon ratios than the values in the parent forest litter. The lignin content increased with maturation with a concomitant decrease in cellulose resulting in higher lignin/cellulose ratios. Application of all three vermicomposts to forest trees significantly

  6. Effect of Forest Fire on Vegetation in Tahe Forestry Bureau%塔河林业局林火对植被的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙明学; 贾炜玮

    2009-01-01

    针对大兴安岭地区塔河林业局不同林型下,不同火烧强度的火烧迹地的森林植被更新及恢复情况进行了调查研究.结果表明:(1)针叶林过火迹地上,落叶松幼苗较少,阔叶树萌条更新强度同火烧程度成正比;火烧前生长有白桦、赤杨的林地上,火烧后阔叶树成为主导树种,林相完全发生变化.(2)重度火烧下有利于天然更新,促使白桦、山杨萌生.中度火烧最初形成以杨桦为优势树种的阔叶林,后逐渐演变为针阔混交林.轻度火烧有利于针叶林的更新.(3)火烧后不同林型下灌木草本植被种类变化不同.从盖度方面来看,杜鹃落叶松林型中林下灌木草本更新最为良好.%This paper studied the regeneration and restoration of vegetation in the burned area of different forest types and fire intensities. The results showed that there are few larch seedlings in the burned area of coniferous forest and the sprout of broad-leaved tree is positive related with burned intensity. In the burned area of birch and alder stand, the broad-leaved trees have become the dominant species. Severely burning is benefit for natural regeneration and promoting the sprout of birth and alder. The forest in moderately burned area is mainly composed by birch and alder at first and become mixed forest finally. The lightly burning is benefit for the regeneration of conifer forest. The kind of shrubbery and herbage is different in different forest after fire. The regeneration in the forest of Ass. Rhododendron dauricum, Larix gmelinii is the best.

  7. Assessment of soil erodibility and aggregate stability for different parts of a forest road

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Aidin Parsakhoo; Majid Lotfalian; Ataollah Kavian; Seyed Ataollah Hosseini

    2014-01-01

    We measured erodibility and mean weight diameter (MWD) of soil aggregates in different parts of a forest road. Samples of topsoil were collected from cutslope, fillslope, road surface and forest ground to assess the texture, bulk density, moisture, CaCO3 and organic matter. Soil aggregate stability was determined by wet sieving. Soil erodibility on the road surface was 2.3 and 1.3 times higher than on the fillslope and cutslope, respectively. The forest soil had the lowest erodibility. Aggregate stability of cutslope and road surface were low and very low, respectively. There was a significant negative relationship between cutslope erodibility with CaCO3 and sand content. Cutslope erodibility increased with increasing silt, clay and moisture content. On fillslopes, MWD increased with in-creasing rock fragment cover, plant cover, litter cover, organic matter and sand. There was a strong negative correlation between fillslope erodibility and organic matter, sand and MWD. There was no significant difference between erodibility of bare soil and soils beneathRubus hyrcanusL. and Philonotis marchica (Hedw.) Brid.

  8. Nitrification and denitrification as sources of gaseous nitrogen emission from different forest soils in Changbai Mountain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The contributions of nitrification and denitrification to N2O and N2 emissions from four forest soils on northern slop of Changbai Mountain were measured with acetylene inhibition methods. In incubation experiments, 0.06% and 3% C2H2 were used to inhibit nitrification and denitrification in these soils, respectively. Both nitrification and denitification existed in these soils except tundra soil, where only denitrification was found. The annually averaged rates of nitrification and denitrification in mountain dark brown forest soil were much higher than that in other three soils. In mountain brown coniferous soil, contributions of different processes to gaseous nitrogen emissions were Denitrification N2O > Nitrification N2O > Denitrification N2. The same sequence exists in mountain soddy soil as that in the mountain brown coniferous soil. The sequence in mountain tundra soil was Denitrification N2O > Denitrification N2.

  9. Effect of leaf litter quantity and type on forest soil fauna and biological quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhizhong Yuan

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available It is important to assess forest litter management. Here we examined the effects of leaf litter addition on the soil faunal community in Huitong subtropical forest region in Hunan Province, China. The microcosm experiment involving leaf-litter manipulation using a block and nested experimental design, respectively, was established in May, 2011. In the block design, the effects of litter quantity and its control were examined, while in the nested design a comparison was made of litter quality by adding broad-leaved litter or needle litter to soils. In July, 2012, we measured the abundance, diversity, and community composition of soil fauna across these treatments. Significant differences in abundance of springtails were found due to litter addition and of Diptera larvae due to litter type treatment. However, the diversity, community composition and abundance of other taxa did not vary significantly across treatments. We also calculated soil biological quality based on soil fauna data. Its value increased significantly by 32.45% due to litter addition, but was unaffected by litter type based on nested ANOVA. The results indicate that litter quantity plays an more important role than litter type in determining soil quality in the earlier stages of soil evolution in the study region. Because soil biological quality based on soil fauna was more sensitive than abundance and diversity of soil fauna, we suggest it is used as an indicator for evaluating the effectiveness of forest litter management.

  10. Characteristics of CO2 flux over a forest on complex topography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The CO2 flux over a mixed forest of evergreen and deciduous broad-leave trees on complex topography was measured by using an eddy covariance method. To evaluate the CO2 flux over such a forest and to ascertain the effect of topography, the eddy covariance measurement was conducted at the top of each of two meteorological towers erected in a basin (1.6 ha). The CO2 flux measured by the eddy covariance method was also evaluated by comparing it with the CO2 flux from leaf photosynthesis and soil respiration as continuously measured by automatic chamber methods on the forest floor and in the foliage. The daily variations in the daytime CO2 flux values measured at the two towers were each quite similar. However, for the night-time CO2 flux values, there was about 36% difference between the towers, even though the flux was measured in the same basin. The CO2 flux as measured by eddy covariance and including CO2 storage change (Fn) was 60% lower than that estimated by the chamber methods (Fchm). The CO2 flux as measured by using the relation between Fn and soil temperature at 2 cm depth obtained only under conditions of low stability was 32% lower than Fchm

  11. Nitrification and denitrification in subalpine coniferous forests of different restoration stages in western Sichuan,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Yi; CHEN Jinsong; LIU Qing; WU Yan

    2007-01-01

    Nitrification is the biological conversion of organic or inorganic nitrogen compounds from a reduced to a more oxidized state.Denitrification is generally referred to as the microbial reduction of nitrate to nitrite and further gaseous forms of nitric oxide,nitrous oxide and molecular nitrogen.They are functionally interconnected processes in the soil nitrogen cycle that are involved in the control of longterm nitrogen losses in ecosystems through nitrate leaching and gaseous N losses.In" order to better understand how nitrification and denitrification change during the process of ecosystem restoration and how they are affected by various controlling factors,gross nitrification rates and denitrification rates were determined using the barometric process separation (BaPS) technique in subalpine coniferous forests of different restoration stages.The results showed that forest restoration stage had no significant effects on gross nitrification rates or denitrification rates (One-way ANOVA (analysis of variance),p < 0.05).There was no significant difference in the temperature coefficient (Q10) for gross nitrification rate among all the forest sites (One-wayANOVA,p < 0.05).Gross nitrification rates were positively correlated with water content (p <0.05),but not with soil pH,organic matter,total nitrogen,or C/N ratios.Denitrification rates in all the forest soils were low and not closely correlated with water content,soil pH,organic matter,or total nitrogen.Nevertheless,we found that C/N ratios obviously affected denitrification rates (p < 0.05).Results from this research suggest that gross nitrification is more responsible for the nitrogen loss from soils compared with denitrification.

  12. Modeling soil moisture dynamics in different forest types in semiarid areas%半干旱地区不同森林类型土壤水分动态模拟

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓学; 沈会涛; 周玥; 景峰; 李叙勇; 陈国鹏

    2015-01-01

    linked to the non-linearity of the infiltration process ) , Ks ( the field-saturated hydraulic conductivity) ,λ ( the pore size distribution index linked to the structure of soil layers) ) played important roles in rainfall infiltration, deep percolation and evaporative processes. In addition, differences in soil moisture flux among forest types suggested that both annual evapotranspiration in deciduous/coniferous forest plantations and infiltration in deciduous broad-leaved forest were greater than those in other forestlands;in addition, deep percolation in all three forestlands was low. We demonstrate that a simple, robust, parametric model is capable of simulating the temporal dynamics of soil moisture content in different forest types. The study of soil moisture in forest plantations in semiarid regions helps researchers clearly recognize the fundamental role of the soil-atmosphere-vegetation continuum. In addition, it provides a theoretical basis for selecting forest plantation species. It also aids the selection and design of studies that analyze the ecohydrological effects of plantations in semiarid regions. Moreover, due to its simple structure and good performance the proposed model may be incorporated in continuous-time rainfall runoff models. Similar thorough investigations should also be conducted in other basins.%采用暖温带落叶阔叶次生林、油松人工林和华北落叶松人工林样地土壤水分的生长季内观测数据和其他辅助观测数据,检验了Georgakakos等提出的土壤水分模型在半干旱林地的适用性。结果表明,该模型用于模拟半干旱林地日尺度土壤水分动态具有一定的可信度,且能够较好的反映不同森林类型的水文效应。模型参数的敏感性分析表明,不同目标函数的参数敏感度信息反映了该模型“异参同效”现象不显著,模型结构不确定性也较小。各参数的敏感度结果揭示了各参数在降雨入渗、深层渗漏和

  13. The biomasss distribution of different Phyllostachys edulis forest types in Northwest of Fujian Province%闽西北不同类型毛竹林生物量分布格局

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范少辉; 刘广路; 苏文会; 杜满义; 吴继林

    2011-01-01

    The distribution pattern of biomass was studied in pure bamboo stand (I), bamboo stand mixed with broadleaves trees (II), and bamboo stand mixed with coniferous trees(III) in Yong'an county, Fujian Prov ince. The result showed that the biomass and productivity of bamboo forest was in the order of I > II >III . The biomass of I, II ,and III was 143 418.06, 135 469.53, and 131 782.78 kg·hm-2, respectively. The productivity of Ⅰ,Ⅱ,and Ⅲ was 59 786.55, 54 921.44, and 38 418.68 kghm-2·a-1, respectively. The productivity of pure bam boo stand was higher than that of other bamboo forest types. The biomass distribution was different with different bamboo forests types. The stem mass fraction in pure bamboo forest was higher than the fraction in forest II and III, while the mass fraction of bamboo root and leaf was lower. The more economic benefits come from the higher stem mass fraction in forest I. The characteristics of bamboo number and biomass were different in different bamboo forest types. The DBH of I and II forest was mainly between 10.5 cm and 12.5 cm and biomass ac counted for 54.25% and 53.71% of forest I and Ⅱ. The DBH of Ⅲ was mainly between 9.5 cm and 11.5 cm and biomass accounted for 54.34% in forest HI. The biomass and productivity of bamboo stand mixed with broad-leaves trees was higher, meanwhile the bamboo stand mixed with broadleaves trees had better physical and chemical properties of soil and better nutrient cycling characteristics. The bamboo stand mixed with broadleaves trees may be a better cultivation pattern.%以福建省天宝岩自然保护区的毛竹纯林(Ⅰ)、竹阔混交林(Ⅱ)和竹针混交林(Ⅲ)为研究对象,对其生物量分布格局进行研究.结果表明,不同类型毛竹林生物量和生产力不同,林分Ⅰ、Ⅱ和Ⅲ的生物量分别为143 418.06.135 469.53和131 782.78 kg·hm-2,生产力分别为59 786.55、54 921.44和38 418.68 kg·hm-2·a-1,毛竹林纯林化经营可以提高竹林的生产力.经

  14. CARBON STOCK IN SOIL UNDER DIFFERENT FOREST FORMATIONS, CHAPECÓ, SANTA CATARINA STATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosiane Berenice Nicoloso Denardin

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5902/1980509813323The adoption of management practices that ensure the stability of soil organic matter also maintain the stabilityor quantitative increase of carbon (C in the lithosphere, reducing the amount of CO2 in theatmosphere. You can also minimize the losses of C to the atmosphere by using conservation practices,or using cover crops to keep the soil C stocks, and the forest cover are considered great abductionand forest systems considered large reservoirs of C. This work was performed on a property located inChapecó, Santa Catarina state, where soils were sampled from different forest formations distributedin a homogeneous soil range. The local climate is mesothermal, rainy, and the soil was characterizedas an association Cambissolo Háplico/Neossolo Litólico. The objectives were to estimate the C stocksin soils and estimate the C losses occurred due to the change of soil cover. It was evaluated soils undernatural forest (FN, of secondary stage, with a high degree of preservation; planted forest of eucalyptus(Eucalyptus saligna (PE, with eight years of cultivation, preceded by 17 years under crop conventionaltillage; and a planted forest of herb mate (Ilex paraguariensis (EM, with 25 years of cultivation underconventional system (cutting interval of 18 months, with removal of all waste produced and maintenanceof the ground without cover, with periodic use of herbicide - glyphosate. In each area were opened fourtrenches with 50 cm deep, where soil samples were collected in depths of: 0-5 cm, 5-10 cm, 10-20 cm,20-30 cm, 30-40 cm, and 40-50 cm, with kopeck rings. It was possible to determine the bulk density (Mgm-3, the soil volume per layer (depth and per hectare, and the concentration of soil C in the differentstudied areas. To quantify the C stocks equal amounts of soil were used for each depth evaluated. Itwas observed higher densities of soils and under PE and EM, to FN the lowest density are explained bythe

  15. Forest operations in coppice: Environmental assessment of two different logging methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laschi, Andrea; Marchi, Enrico; González-García, Sara

    2016-08-15

    Wood is a renewable resource and it actively contributes to enhance energy production under a sustainable perspective. However, harvesting, transport and use of wood imply several consequences and impacts on environment. There are different ways for managing forests dedicated to wood production and a sustainable approach is fundamental to preserve the resource. In this context, Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is a useful tool for estimating the environmental impacts related to renewable resources. Traditional coppice is a common approach for forest management in several areas, including southern Europe and, specifically, Italy, Spain and the Balkans. Due to different terrain conditions, different types of forest operations are considered for wood extraction from coppices, where the main product is firewood used in domestic heating. The aim of this work was to compare the main common systems for firewood production in two different terrain conditions ('flat/low steep' and 'steep/very steep' terrains), in a representative environment for Mediterranean area, located in central Italy, by means of LCA. Seven different impact categories were evaluated in a cradle-to-gate perspective taking into account all the operations carried out from the trees felling to the firewood storage at factory. Results showed that the extraction phase was the most important in terms of environmental burdens in firewood production and the use of heavy and high-power machines negatively influenced the emissions compared with manual operations. Finally, considering the general low-inputs involved in wood production in coppice, the transport of workers by car to the work site resulted on consistent contributions into environmental burdens. An additional analysis about the modifications of CH4 and N2O exchanges between soil and atmosphere, due to soil compaction in the extraction phase, was made and based on bibliographic information. Results showed a sensible difference between disturbed and

  16. Forest operations in coppice: Environmental assessment of two different logging methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laschi, Andrea; Marchi, Enrico; González-García, Sara

    2016-08-15

    Wood is a renewable resource and it actively contributes to enhance energy production under a sustainable perspective. However, harvesting, transport and use of wood imply several consequences and impacts on environment. There are different ways for managing forests dedicated to wood production and a sustainable approach is fundamental to preserve the resource. In this context, Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is a useful tool for estimating the environmental impacts related to renewable resources. Traditional coppice is a common approach for forest management in several areas, including southern Europe and, specifically, Italy, Spain and the Balkans. Due to different terrain conditions, different types of forest operations are considered for wood extraction from coppices, where the main product is firewood used in domestic heating. The aim of this work was to compare the main common systems for firewood production in two different terrain conditions ('flat/low steep' and 'steep/very steep' terrains), in a representative environment for Mediterranean area, located in central Italy, by means of LCA. Seven different impact categories were evaluated in a cradle-to-gate perspective taking into account all the operations carried out from the trees felling to the firewood storage at factory. Results showed that the extraction phase was the most important in terms of environmental burdens in firewood production and the use of heavy and high-power machines negatively influenced the emissions compared with manual operations. Finally, considering the general low-inputs involved in wood production in coppice, the transport of workers by car to the work site resulted on consistent contributions into environmental burdens. An additional analysis about the modifications of CH4 and N2O exchanges between soil and atmosphere, due to soil compaction in the extraction phase, was made and based on bibliographic information. Results showed a sensible difference between disturbed and

  17. Modeling carbon dynamics in two adjacent spruce forests with different soil conditions in Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Kurbatova

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Net ecosystem carbon exchange (NEE was measured with eddy covariance method for two adjacent forests located at the southern boundary of European taiga in Russia in 1999–2004. The two spruce forests shared similar vegetation composition but differed in soil conditions. The wet spruce forest (WSF possessed a thick peat layer (60 cm with a high water table seasonally close to or above the soil surface. The dry spruce forest (DSF had a relatively thin organic layer (5 cm with a deep water table (>60 cm. The measured multi-year average NEE fluxes (2000 and –1440 kg C ha−1yr−1 for WSF and DSF, respectively indicated that WSF was a source while DSF a sink of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2 during the experimental years. A process-based model, Forest-DNDC, was employed in the study to interpret the observations. The modeled multi-year average NEE fluxes were 1800 and –2200 kg C ha−1yr−1 for WSF and DSF, respectively, which were comparable with observations. The modeled data also showed high soil heterotrophic respiration rates at WSF that suggested that the water table fluctuation at WSF could have played a key role in determining the negative carbon balance in the wetland ecosystem. A sensitivity test was conducted by running Forest-DNDC with varied water table scenarios for WSF. The results indicated that the NEE fluxes from WSF were highly sensitive to the water table depth. When the water table was high, the WSF ecosystem maintained as a sink of atmospheric CO2; while along with the drop of the water table the length of the flooded period reduced and more organic matter in the soil profile suffered from rapid decomposition that gradually converted the ecosystem into a source of atmospheric CO2. The general effect of water table variation on wetland carbon balance observed from this modeling study could be applicable for a wide range of wetland ecosystems that

  18. Responses of Grassland and Forest to Temperature and Precipitation Changes in Northeast China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PENG Jing; DONG Wenjie; YUAN Wenping; ZHANG Yong

    2012-01-01

    Using the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) as an indicator of vegetation growth,we explored the characteristics and differences in the response to drought of five vegetation biomes in Northeast China,including typical steppe,desert steppe,meadow steppe,deciduous coniferous forest and deciduous broad-leaved forest during the period 1982 2009.The results indicate that growing season precipitation may be the primary vegetation growth-limiting factor in grasslands.More than 70% of the temporal variations in NDVI can be explained by the amount of precipitation during the growing season in typical and desert steppes.During the same period,the mean temperature in the growing season could explain nearly 43% of the variations in the mean growing season NDVI and is therefore a dominant growth-limiting factor for forest ecosystems.Therefore,the NDVI trends differ largely due to differences in the vegetation growth-limiting factors of the different vegetation biomes.The NDVI responses to droughts vary in magnitude and direction and depend on the drought-affected areas of the five vegetation types.Specifically,the changes in NDVI are consistent with the variations in precipitation for grassland ecosystems.A lack of precipitation resulted in decreases in NDVI,thereby reducing vegetation growth in these regions.Conversely,increasing precipitation decreased the NDVI of forest ecosystems.The results also suggest that grasslands under arid and semi-arid environments may be more sensitive to drought than forests under humid environments.Among grassland ecosystems,desert steppe was most sensitive to drought,followed by typical steppe; meadow steppe was the least sensitive.

  19. Plant hydraulics and photosynthesis of 34 woody species from different successional stages of subtropical forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Shi-Dan; Song, Juan-Juan; Li, Rong-Hua; Ye, Qing

    2013-04-01

    It is important to understand the ecophysiological characters of plants when exploring mechanisms underlying species substitution in the process of plant succession. In the present study, we selected 34 woody species from different stages of secondary succession in subtropical forests of southern China, and measured their hydraulic conductivity, gas exchange rates, leaf nutrients and drought-tolerance traits such as xylem resistance to cavitation, turgor loss point and carbon isotope ratio. Principal component analysis revealed that early-, mid- and late-successional species were significantly separated along axis 1, which was strongly associated with hydraulic-photosynthetic coordination. In contrast to species distributed in late-successional forest, early-successional species had the highest hydraulic conductivity, net photosynthetic rates, photosynthetic nitrogen and phosphorus use efficiencies, but had the lowest photosynthetic water-use efficiency. However, changes of the measured drought-tolerance traits of the 34 species along the succession did not demonstrate a clear trend - no significant correlations between these traits and plant successional stages were found. Moreover, the trade-off between hydraulic efficiency and safety was not identified. Taken together, our results suggested that hydraulic efficiency and photosynthetic function, rather than drought tolerance, play an important role in species distributions along plant succession in subtropical forests. PMID:23057774

  20. Runoff and sediment production in a Mediterranean basin under two different land uses after forest maintenance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacheco, Edinson; Rallo, Elena; Úbeda, Xavier; Farguell, Joaquim; Outeiro, Luís

    2013-04-01

    This study analyses the influence of two different land uses on the hydrology of the Vernegà experimental basin between the years 1993 and 2012. The basin is located in the Northeast of the Iberian Peninsula and it is influenced by a Mediterranean climate, with an average annual rainfall of 688 mm. The study of rainfall distribution shows that the majority occurs during autumn and spring, with a 34% and 25% of total annual rainfall respectively. Surface runoff flows from October to June. In this catchment, flash floods may represent 70% of the total water yield, though they only occur 6% of the time. It is important to emphasize that agricultural practices within the study area have been maintained, which is the contrary to the general trend in Mediterranean rural areas. The introduction of forest management practices between 2003 and 2005 has resulted in important hydrological changes in the watershed: Between 2005 and 2012 an increase of the runoff coefficient has been detected. In Bosc the increase represents 38% while in Campàs is 12% in relation with the 1993-2005 period. Campàs yields a greater total runoff than Bosc as a consequence of a greater catchment surface, greater agricultural surface and the existence of forest roads and forest management practices. Part of this phenomenon may be due to the decrease of interception of rainfall and plant biomass in the forested area of the basin. In relation to the sediment yield, it is concentrated during floods (more than 80%) and there is an increase of available sediment after extraordinary events, as it is the case of October 2005 flood, where the total sediment yield was 7 Tkm¯²yr¯¹ and in November 2005 it was 10 Tkm¯²yr¯¹.

  1. Functional trait strategies of trees in dry and wet tropical forests are similar but differ in their consequences for succession.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madelon Lohbeck

    Full Text Available Global plant trait studies have revealed fundamental trade-offs in plant resource economics. We evaluated such trait trade-offs during secondary succession in two species-rich tropical ecosystems that contrast in precipitation: dry deciduous and wet evergreen forests of Mexico. Species turnover with succession in dry forest largely relates to increasing water availability and in wet forest to decreasing light availability. We hypothesized that while functional trait trade-offs are similar in the two forest systems, the successful plant strategies in these communities will be different, as contrasting filters affect species turnover. Research was carried out in 15 dry secondary forest sites (5-63 years after abandonment and in 17 wet secondary forest sites (<1-25 years after abandonment. We used 11 functional traits measured on 132 species to make species-trait PCA biplots for dry and wet forest and compare trait trade-offs. We evaluated whether multivariate plant strategies changed during succession, by calculating a 'Community-Weighted Mean' plant strategy, based on species scores on the first two PCA-axes. Trait spectra reflected two main trade-off axes that were similar for dry and wet forest species: acquisitive versus conservative species, and drought avoiding species versus evergreen species with large animal-dispersed seeds. These trait associations were consistent when accounting for evolutionary history. Successional changes in the most successful plant strategies reflected different functional trait spectra depending on the forest type. In dry forest the community changed from having drought avoiding strategies early in succession to increased abundance of evergreen strategies with larger seeds late in succession. In wet forest the community changed from species having mainly acquisitive strategies to those with more conservative strategies during succession. These strategy changes were explained by increasing water availability during

  2. Trends over time in tree and seedling phylogenetic diversity indicate regional differences in forest biodiversity change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, Kevin M; Woodall, Christopher W

    2012-03-01

    Changing climate conditions may impact the short-term ability of forest tree species to regenerate in many locations. In the longer term, tree species may be unable to persist in some locations while they become established in new places. Over both time frames, forest tree biodiversity may change in unexpected ways. Using repeated inventory measurements five years apart from more than 7000 forested plots in the eastern United States, we tested three hypotheses: phylogenetic diversity is substantially different from species richness as a measure of biodiversity; forest communities have undergone recent changes in phylogenetic diversity that differ by size class, region, and seed dispersal strategy; and these patterns are consistent with expected early effects of climate change. Specifically, the magnitude of diversity change across broad regions should be greater among seedlings than in trees, should be associated with latitude and elevation, and should be greater among species with high dispersal capacity. Our analyses demonstrated that phylogenetic diversity and species richness are decoupled at small and medium scales and are imperfectly associated at large scales. This suggests that it is appropriate to apply indicators of biodiversity change based on phylogenetic diversity, which account for evolutionary relationships among species and may better represent community functional diversity. Our results also detected broadscale patterns of forest biodiversity change that are consistent with expected early effects of climate change. First, the statistically significant increase over time in seedling diversity in the South suggests that conditions there have become more favorable for the reproduction and dispersal of a wider variety of species, whereas the significant decrease in northern seedling diversity indicates that northern conditions have become less favorable. Second, we found weak correlations between seedling diversity change and latitude in both zones

  3. Assessing risks and uncertainties in forest dynamics under different management scenarios and climate change

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Matthias; Albert; Jan; Hansen; Jürgen; Nagel; Matthias; Schmidt; Hermann; Spellmann

    2015-01-01

    Background: Forest management faces a climate induced shift in growth potential and increasing current and emerging new risks. Vulnerability analysis provides decision support based on projections of natural resources taking risks and uncertainties into account. In this paper we(1) characterize differences in forest dynamics under three management scenarios,(2) analyse the effects of the three scenarios on two risk factors, windthrow and drought stress, and(3) quantify the effects and the amount of uncertainty arising from climate projections on height increment and drought stress.Methods: In four regions in northern Germany, we apply three contrasting management scenarios and project forest development under climate change until 2070. Three climate runs(minimum, median, maximum) based on the emission scenario RCP 8.5 control the site-sensitive forest growth functions. The minimum and maximum climate run define the range of prospective climate development.Results: The projections of different management regimes until 2070 show the diverging medium-term effects of thinnings and harvests and long-term effects of species conversion on a regional scale. Examples of windthrow vulnerability and drought stress reveal how adaptation measures depend on the applied management path and the decision-maker’s risk attitude. Uncertainty analysis shows the increasing variability of drought risk projections with time. The effect of climate projections on height growth are quantified and uncertainty analysis reveals that height growth of young trees is dominated by the age-trend whereas the climate signal in height increment of older trees is decisive.Conclusions: Drought risk is a serious issue in the eastern regions independent of the applied silvicultural scenario,but adaptation measures are limited as the proportion of the most drought tolerant species Scots pine is already high. Windthrow risk is no serious overall threat in any region, but adequate counter-measures such as

  4. Seedling Growth in Lower-Quality Forests After Transformation in Greater Xing' an Mountains%大兴安岭地区低质林改造后苗木生长状况

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李勇; 宋启亮; 董希斌; 李芝茹

    2012-01-01

    2009年对大兴安岭地区的阔叶混交次生林及白桦萌生低质林进行不同宽度效应带和不同面积林窗改造,分别种植西伯利亚红松、落叶松和樟子松,2011年8月调查实验区内每株苗木的成活和生长状况,研究不同改造方式苗木的成活率及生长率.结果表明:在阔叶混交次生林改造中,西伯利亚红松成活率效应带改造高于林窗改造,而生长率林窗改造高于效应带改造;樟子松成活率林窗改造高于效应带改造,生长率效应带改造高于林窗改造;落叶松改造与樟子松表现相同.在白桦萌生林改造中,西伯利亚红松成活率与生长率效应带改造均高于林窗改造;樟子松成活率和生长率林窗改造均高于效应带改造;落叶松成活率和生长率林窗改造均高于效应带改造.综合分析两类型低质林改造,不论是效应带改造还是林窗改造,对阔叶混交次生林改造的目的树种成活率和生长率均大于白桦萌生林改造.%Broad-leaved mixed secondary forests and birch coppice low-quality stands in Greater Xing' an Mountains in 2009 were transformed by different widths of effect belt or areas of forest gaps. Pinus koraiensis, Larix gmelinii and Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica were planted in the transformed stands respectively. The survival rate and growth rate of the seedlings in different transformed stands were surveyed in August 2011. In the broad-leaved mixed secondary forests after transformation , the survival rate of P. koraiensis for the transformation mode of effect belt was higher than that for the forest gap, while the growth rate for the transformation mode of forest gap was higher than that for the effect belt; the survival rate of P. sylvestris var. mongolica for the forest gap transformation was higher than that for the effect belt transformation, while the growth rate for the effect belt transformation was higher than that for the forest gap transformation; L

  5. Factors controlling regional differences in forest soil emission of nitrogen oxides (NO and N2O)

    OpenAIRE

    K. Pilegaard; Skiba, U.; Ambus, P.; Beier, C.; N. Brüggemann; K. Butterbach-Bahl; Dick, J.; Dorsey, J.; J. Duyzer; Gallagher, M; Gasche, R.; Horvath, L; Kitzler, B.; A. Leip; Pihlatie, M. K.

    2006-01-01

    Soil emissions of NO and N2O were measured continuously at high frequency for more than one year at 15 European forest sites as part of the EU-funded project NOFRETETE. The locations represent different forest types (coniferous/deciduous) and different nitrogen loads. Geographically they range from Finland in the north to Italy in the south and from Hungary in the east to Scotland in the west. The highest NO emissions were observed from coniferous forests, whereas the lowest NO emissions wer...

  6. Spatial pattern and compositive structure of forests in Guizhou

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Remote-sensing and field data of Guizhou forest resources in 2000 are processed usingArcGIS, with the production of forest resource distribution map, forest age class structure map, andforest canopy distribution map. Analysis of these data shows that: (1) though there are multiple typesof forest resources, forest coverage is low (only 25.27%, excluding sparse woodland, shrub andunderage-forest); (2) the geographical distribution of forests is quite uneven, mainly in the southeastof the province and in Zunyi prefecture; (3) the zonal evergreen broad-leaved forests have beenseriously destroyed, with striking secondary features, i.e., coniferous forest and shrubbery account forthe greatest proportion of Guizhou forests; (4) the timber-forest is much larger in area thanshelter-forest and economic forest; (5) young-and-middle aged forests are more widely distributed thannear-and-over matured forest; and (6) the forest of Guizhou is not enough to effectively protect theenvironment of karst mountain areas of the province.

  7. Blow Flies from Forest Fragments Embedded in Different Land Uses: Implications for Selecting Indicators in Forensic Entomology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Mirian S; Pepinelli, Mateus; de Almeida, Eduardo C; Ochoa-Quintero, Jose M; Roque, Fabio O

    2016-01-01

    Given the general expectation that forest loss can alter biodiversity patterns, we hypothesize that blow fly species abundances differ in a gradient of native vegetation cover. This study was conducted in 17 fragments across different landscapes in central Brazil. Different land cover type proportions were used to represent landscape structure. In total, 2334 specimens of nine species of Calliphoridae were collected. We used principal component analysis (PCA) to reduce dimensionality and multicollinearity of the landscape data. The first component explained 70%, and it represented a gradient of forest-pasture land uses. Alien species showed a wide distribution in different fragments with no clear relationship between the abundance values and the scores of PCA axes, whereas native species occurred only in areas with a predominance of forest cover. Our study revealed that certain native species may be sensitive to forest loss at the landscape scale, and they represent a bioindicator in forensic entomology.

  8. Distribution and eco-coenotic patterns of the forest orchid Epipactis pontica in Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Hrivnák

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The present study is aimed at characterising the ecological niche of a typical forest orchid (Epipactis pontica in Slovakia. Vegetation-environmental data were collected across mountain ranges and  their foothills in the Western Carpathians in 2011. Numerical classification was performed to delimit the main forest vegetation types and a linear mixed effect model was applied to reveal differences between plots with versus without E. pontica. This endangered species of Slovak flora grows in thermophilous turkey oak forests (Quercion confertae-cerris, mesophilous broad-leaved mixed oak-hornbeam forests (Carpinion betuli, but most stands correspond to the acidic (Luzulo-Fagion sylvaticae and mesotrophic beech forests (Fagion sylvaticae. Principal component analysis supported the floristic separation of plant communities and showed some significant vegetation environmental relationships. E. pontica prefers forests with closed canopy (mean canopy openness: 8.5–15.1% occurring especially on slightly acidic (soil reaction: 4.48–5.65 and nutrient-poor soils (soil conductivity: 43.1–72.6 μS/cm. The proposed Ellenberg indicator values for light (4, temperature (5, continentality (4, moisture (5, soil reaction (6 and nutrients (5 follow species composition pattern of vascular plants in Slovak phytosociological relevés with E. pontica occurrence. They are also in accordance with its habitat conditions and ecological requirements in other parts of its range. The linear mixed effect model did not confirm any environmental peculiarity of plots with the presence of E. pontica at a microscale level and this result was consistent across the studied sites.

  9. Estimating the SCS runoff curve number in forest catchments of Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hyung Tae; Kim, Jaehoon; Lim, Hong-geun

    2016-04-01

    To estimate flood runoff discharge is a very important work in design for many hydraulic structures in streams, rivers and lakes such as dams, bridges, culverts, and so on. So, many researchers have tried to develop better methods for estimating flood runoff discharge. The SCS runoff curve number is an empirical parameter determined by empirical analysis of runoff from small catchments and hillslope plots monitored by the USDA. This method is an efficient method for determining the approximate amount of runoff from a rainfall even in a particular area, and is very widely used all around the world. However, there is a quite difference between the conditions of Korea and USA in topography, geology and land use. Therefore, examinations in adaptability of the SCS runoff curve number need to raise the accuracy of runoff prediction using SCS runoff curve number method. The purpose of this study is to find the SCS runoff curve number based on the analysis of observed data from several experimental forest catchments monitored by the National Institute of Forest Science (NIFOS), as a pilot study to modify SCS runoff curve number for forest lands in Korea. Rainfall and runoff records observed in Gwangneung coniferous and broad leaves forests, Sinwol, Hwasoon, Gongju and Gyeongsan catchments were selected to analyze the variability of flood runoff coefficients during the last 5 years. This study shows that runoff curve numbers of the experimental forest catchments range from 55 to 65. SCS Runoff Curve number method is a widely used method for estimating design discharge for small ungauged watersheds. Therefore, this study can be helpful technically to estimate the discharge for forest watersheds in Korea with more accuracy.

  10. CoFoLaMo: Comparing forest landscape model simulations under different climate, interaction- and land use scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lischke, Heike; Speich, Matthias; Schmatz, Dirk; Vacchiano, Giorgio; Mairota, Paola; Leronni, Vincenzo; Schuler, Laura; Bugmann, Harald; Bruna, Josef; Thom, Dominik; Seidl, Rupert; Reineking, Björn

    2016-04-01

    Forests play an important role in the global climate system, and are themselves strongly affected by the changing climate. Forest dynamics do not only act at the stand scale, but are also influenced by larger scale drivers, such as landscape management, and by spatial interactions, such as fire spread or seed dispersal. Forest landscape models run on areas larger than a stand and interact spatially and thus are capable of taking into account these effects. We present the setup of the forest landscape model intercomparison CoFoLaMo (which is based on the setup of the ISI-MIP forest stand model comparison), where we examine several forest landscape models- LandClim, ForHyCS, TreeMig, LANDIS II and iLand - in terms of their usefulness for different kinds of applications. We compare the models with respect to their general approach, scales, resolution, and data requirements, processes, interactions, drivers, disturbances, outputs, and uncertainties. We run simulations in different test regions across temperate Europe, e.g., in the northern(Davos)and southern Alps (Valle d'Aosta), the Bavarian Forest and southern Italy (Puglia). Climate drivers (mostly daily T and P) are downscaled to 100 m resolution in the respective regions. For spinup and model testing we use past observed climate, extrapolated back to 1600 AD, for future simulations a set of different RCPs of different model chains from the ISI-MIP community. For model testing we use appropriate spatial forest data available for each region, ranging from NFI data, terrestrial vegetation type maps, or remote sensing derived forest types and high resolution canopy height. To address the landscape aspect of the models, we compare them in different scenarios of spatially interacting disturbances, spatial interactions by seed dispersal and land use.

  11. 土壤温度和水分对长白山3种温带森林土壤呼吸的影响%Effects of soil temperature and soil water content on soil respiration in three forest types in Changbai Mountain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王淼; 李秋荣; 肖冬梅; 董百丽

    2004-01-01

    为了研究土壤温度和土壤含水量对阔叶红松林(山地暗棕壤)、云冷杉暗针叶林(山地棕针叶林土壤)和岳桦林(生草森林土)的土壤呼吸的影响,于2001年9月在长白山进行了土壤实验.利用增加土壤样柱的含水量,将土壤含水量分为9%,、21%、30%、37%和43% 5个等级,土壤样品分别在0、5、15、25和35 ℃的温度下保持24小时.阔叶红松林土壤在0(35 ℃范围内,土壤呼吸速率与温度呈正相关.在一定的含水量范围内(21%(37%),土壤呼吸随含水量的增加而升高,当含水量超出该范围,土壤呼吸速率则随含水量的变化而降低.土壤温度和水分对土壤呼吸作用存在明显的交互作用.不同森林类型土壤呼吸作用强弱存在显著差异,大小顺序为阔叶红松林>岳桦林>云冷杉暗针叶林.红松阔叶林土壤呼吸作用的最佳条件是土壤温度35 ℃,含水量37%;云冷杉暗针叶林下的山地棕色针叶土壤呼吸作用的最佳条件是25 ℃,21%;岳桦林土壤呼吸作用的最佳条件是35 ℃,含水量37%.但是,由于长白山阔叶红松林,云冷杉林和岳桦林处在不同的海拔带上,同期不同森林类型土壤温度各不相同,相差4~5 ℃,所以野外所测的同期的山地棕色针叶林土呼吸速率应低于暗棕色森林土呼吸速率,山地生草森林土呼吸速率应高于山地棕色针叶林土的呼吸速率.图2表1参25.%Soil incubation experiments were conducted in lab to delineate the effect of soil temperature and soil water content on soil respirations in broad-leaved/Korean pine forest(mountain dark brown forest soil),dark coniferous forest(mountain brown coniferous forest soil)and erman's birch forest(mountain soddy forest soil)in Changbai Mountain in September 2001.The soil water content was adjusted to five different levels(9%,21%,30%,37% and 43%)by adding certain amount of water into the soil cylinders,and the soil sample was incubated at 0,5,15,25 and 35 ℃ for

  12. Different fire-climate relationships on forested and non-forested landscapes in the Sierra Nevada ecoregion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeley, Jon E.; Syphard, Alexandra D.

    2015-01-01

    In the California Sierra Nevada region, increased fire activity over the last 50 years has only occurred in the higher-elevation forests on US Forest Service (USFS) lands, and is not characteristic of the lower-elevation grasslands, woodlands and shrublands on state responsibility lands (Cal Fire). Increased fire activity on USFS lands was correlated with warmer and drier springs. Although this is consistent with recent global warming, we found an equally strong relationship between fire activity and climate in the first half of the 20th century. At lower elevations, warmer and drier conditions were not strongly tied to fire activity over the last 90 years, although prior-year precipitation was significant. It is hypothesised that the fire–climate relationship in forests is determined by climatic effects on spring and summer fuel moisture, with hotter and drier springs leading to a longer fire season and more extensive burning. In contrast, future fire activity in the foothills may be more dependent on rainfall patterns and their effect on the herbaceous fuel load. We predict spring and summer warming will have a significant impact on future fire regimes, primarily in higher-elevation forests. Lower elevation ecosystems are likely to be affected as much by global changes that directly involve land-use patterns as by climate change.

  13. Community structure, life histories and secondary production of stoneflies in two small mountain streams with different degree of forest cover

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Beracko

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Our study examines community structure and nymphal biology (life cycles and secondary production of stoneflies in two adjacent mountain streams with different degree of forest cover in the Prosiečanka River Basin (Chočské Vrchy Mts., West Carpathians. One of the streams has non-forested catchment, converted to meadows and pastures, while the other one has catchment with 60% covered by spruce forest. Differences in forest cover and in thermal regime of the streams were reflected by the difference of stonefly communities at their structural and functional level. Species Nemoura cinerea and Leuctra aurita created stonefly assemblage in non-forested stream, whereas Nemoura cinerea also occurred in naturally forested stream together with species Leuctra armata, Leuctra nigra, Leuctra prima, Siphonoperla neglecta and Arcynopteryx dichroa. All examined species had maximally annual life cycle and in eudominant species Nemoura cinerea one month shift was found in nymphal hatching and adult emergence between streams. Total secondary production of stoneflies in undisturbed stream (126.46 mg DW m-2 y-1 was more than two times higher than the production in non-forested stream (47.39 mg DW m-2 y-1. 

  14. Ecosystem carbon balance of temperate forests differing in elevation and nitrogen availability

    OpenAIRE

    Caprez, Riccarda

    2014-01-01

    This PhD thesis addressed the carbon (C) balance of temperate deciduous forests across natural gradients of temperature and nitrogen (N) availability, the major drivers of net primary production (NPP) and the soil C balance. A mean annual temperature difference of 6 K across a 1200 m change in elevation from the Swiss Plateau to the Central Swiss Alps, and the presence or absence of the N2-fixing tree species Alnus glutinosa or Alnus incana within each elevation, offered the framework (1) to ...

  15. Different harvest intensity and soil CO2 efflux in sessile oak coppice forests

    OpenAIRE

    Darenova E; Cater M; Pavelka M

    2016-01-01

    Soil CO2 efflux accounts for about 45-80% of total ecosystem respiration and is therefore an important part of the ecosystem carbon cycle. Soil CO2 efflux has been poorly studied in forests managed in the ancient coppicing manner. In our study, soil CO2 efflux, temperature, and moisture were measured in sessile oak stands with different harvesting intensity (control: 0% intensity; V1: 75%; V2: 80 %; V3: 85%; and V4: 100%) during the fifth and sixth years after harvesting. Soil CO2 efflux was ...

  16. Litter production in different successional stages of a subtropical secondary rain forest, in Antonina, PR

    OpenAIRE

    Kauana Melissa Cunha Dickow; Renato Marques; Carolina Benghi Pinto; Hubert Höfer

    2012-01-01

    This study was conducted in the Cachoeira River Natural Reserve, in Antonina, Paraná state, Brazil. The main goal was to assess the litter production of secondary tropical rain forests in different sucessional stages (initial, medium and advanced stages). The litter fall was collected every 3 weeks during four years (2004 to 2007), in circular litter traps of 0.25m2, distributed in 30 plots of 100m2 of area. A total of 60 litter traps were installed in an area of 3000m2. The litter fall colle...

  17. Generation of runoff characteristics over three time period for four typical forests in Jinyun Mountain, Chongqing City southwest China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaoyuan CHU; Yujie WANG; Yiping XIA; Yun WU; Lin CHEN

    2009-01-01

    In order to provide a basis for water conservation in the restoration of vegetation for an urban water resource area, we studied the generation of runoff characteristics in four typical forests over three time periods in Jinyun Mountain, Chongqing City, based on the observation data of rainfall and runoff processes during the period 2002-2005. The results show that: 1) Rainfall was distributed evenly during the years 2002-2005. Annual rainfall variability was 4.46% and coefficient of variation was 0.0618. Average monthly rainfall tended towards a normal distribution N (113.8, 45972). 2) Both precipitation and runoff can be clearly divided into a dry and a wet season. The dry season was from October to March and the wet season from April to September. Most of annual runoff of the four forest stands occurred in the wet season. The surface runoff in the wet season accounted for more than 85% of the annual runoff, and more than 75% of underground runoff. 3) Both peak values of surface runoff and underground runoff occurred in June. The relation between monthly rainfall and surface/underground runoff was fitted by the model W = aP2 + bP + c. The order of annual surface runoff was as follows: Phyllostachys pub-escens forest > shrub forest > mixed Pinus massoniana-broadleaf forest > evergreen broad-leaved forest. The annual underground runoff was evergreen broad-leaved forest > mixed Pinus massoniana-broadleaf forest >Phyl-lostachys pubescens forest > shrub forest. 4) Under similar rainstorms events, the order of the surface runoff coefficient was: evergreen broad-leaved forest mixed Pinus massoniana-broadleaf forest > Phyllostachys pubescens forest > shrub forest. The relation between rainstorms and surface runoff was fitted by the linear relationship: Q = mp-n. Both mixed Pinus massoniana-broadleaf forest and evergreen broad-leaved forest have better flood regulation effects on an annual and monthly basis and per individual rainstorm. The function of Phyllostachys

  18. Red-cockaded woodpecker male/female foraging differences in young forest stands.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franzreb, Kathleen, E.

    2010-07-01

    ABSTRACT The Red-cockaded Woodpecker (Picoides borealis) is an endangered species endemic to pine (Pinus spp.) forests of the southeastern United States. I examined Red-cockaded Woodpecker foraging behavior to learn if there were male/female differences at the Savannah River Site, South Carolina. The study was conducted in largely young forest stands (,50 years of age) in contrast to earlier foraging behavior studies that focused on more mature forest. The Redcockaded Woodpecker at the Savannah River site is intensively managed including monitoring, translocation, and installation of artificial cavity inserts for roosting and nesting. Over a 3-year period, 6,407 foraging observations covering seven woodpecker family groups were recorded during all seasons of the year and all times of day. The most striking differences occurred in foraging method (males usually scaled [45% of observations] and females mostly probed [47%]),substrate used (females had a stronger preference [93%] for the trunk than males [79%]), and foraging height from the ground (mean 6 SE foraging height was higher for males [11.1 6 0.5 m] than females [9.8 6 0.5 m]). Niche overlap between males and females was lowest for substrate (85.6%) and foraging height (87.8%), and highest for tree species (99.0%), tree condition (98.3%), and tree height (96.4%). Both males and females preferred to forage in older, large pine trees. The habitat available at the Savannah River Site was considerably younger than at most other locations, but the pattern of male/female habitat partitioning observed was similar to that documented elsewhere within the range attesting to the species’ ability to adjust behaviorally.

  19. Soil Quality under Riparian Forest at Different Stages of Ecological Succession and Cultivated with Sugarcane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Luiz Gabriel; Casagrande, José Carlos; Colato, Alexandre; Soares, Marcio Roberto; Perissatto Meneghin, Silvana

    2014-05-01

    This work aimed at evaluating the quality of the soil through its chemical, physical and microbiological attributes, using additive pondered model, as well as studying the characteristics of the linear method of combination of data, figures of merit (FoMs), the process of assigning weights and standard score functions, using measurements collected in three areas (two riparian forests and a commercial crop of sugarcane) in two soil types (Oxisol and Podzol) located on the dam shores of Sugar Mill Saint Lucia-Araras/SP. The soil was sampled in the depths of 0-0.2 and 0.2-0.4m, and was determined some of its chemical attributes (nutrient content and organic matter, cationic exchange capacity - CEC, etc.), physical (particle size distribution, density and porosity) and microbiological (microbial biomass and basal respiration). Two models were built, one containing two hierarchical levels of FoMs (Mod1), and another containing three levels (Mod2), in order to try to isolate FoMs highly correlated from each other within a top-level FoM. At FoMs of Mod1 were assigned various combinations of weights, and those of Mod2 were assigned weights from three methods, distribution from fixed value, classification and pair-wise comparison. In the Mod1, in virtually all combinations of weights used, values of Soil Quality Index (SQI) were superior in older forests, while the most recent forest presented the lowest SQI, for both types of soil. The variation of SQI values obtained from the sets of weights used also differed between the combinations tested, with the set of values of the ancient forest showing smaller amplitude. It could also be observed that the sets of values of Oxisol showed higher SQI and lower amplitude in relation to that of Podzol. It was observed that these facts are due mainly to the soil organic matter content (MO), which differs between the vegetations and soil types, and influences many parameters used in the model. Thus, in the structures where MO had

  20. Restinga forests of the Brazilian coast: richness and abundance of tree species on different soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz F.S. Magnago

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine changes in composition, abundance and richness of species along a forest gradient with varying soils and flood regimes. The forests are located on the left bank of the lower Jucu River, in Jacarenema Natural Municipal Park, Espírito Santo. A survey of shrub/tree species was done in 80 plots, 5x25 m, equally distributed among the forests studied. We included in the sampling all individuals with >3.2 cm diameter at breast height (1.30 m. Soil samples were collected from the surface layer (0-10 cm in each plot for chemical and physical analysis. The results indicate that a significant pedological gradient occurs, which is influenced by varying seasonal groundwater levels. Restinga forest formations showed significant differences in species richness, except for Non-flooded Forest and Non-flooded Forest Transition. The Canonical Correlation Analysis (CCA showed that some species are distributed along the gradient under the combined influence of drainage, nutrient concentration and physical characteristics of the soil. Regarding the variables tested, flooding seems to be a more limiting factor for the establishment of plant species in Restinga forests than basic soil fertility attributes.O objetivo deste estudo foi o de determinar as mudanças na composição, abundância e riqueza de espécies ao longo de um gradiente de floresta com variações de solo e inundações. As florestas localizam-se na margem esquerda do Rio Jucu, no Parque Natural Municipal de Jacarenema, Espírito Santo. O levantamento das espécies arbustivo/arbóreas foi realizado em 80 parcelas de 5x25m, distribuídas equitativamente entre as florestas estudadas. Foram incluídos na amostragem todos os indivíduos com >3,2 cm diâmetro à altura do solo (1,30 m. Foram coletadas amostras de solo superficial (0-10 cm em cada parcela para análise química e física. Os resultados mostraram a existência de gradiente pedológico significativo, que

  1. Depth distribution and composition of seed banks under different tree layers in a managed temperate forest ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godefroid, Sandrine; Phartyal, Shyam S.; Koedam, Nico

    2006-05-01

    In the present work we examined the composition and distribution across three soil layers of the buried soil seed bank under three different overstory types ( Fagus sylvatica, Quercus robur, Pinus sylvestris) and in logging areas in a 4383-ha forest in central Belgium. The objectives were: (1) to investigate whether species composition and species richness of soil seed banks are affected by different forest stands; (2) to examine how abundant are habitat-specific forest species in seed banks under different planted tree layers. The study was carried out in stands which are replicated, managed in the same way (even-aged high forest), and growing on the same soil type with the same land-use history. In the investigated area, the seed bank did show significant differences under oak, beech, pine and in logging areas, respectively in terms of size, composition and depth occurrence. All species and layers taken together, the seed bank size ranked as follows: oakwood > beechwood > logging area > pinewood. The same pattern was found for forest species. Seed numbers of Betula pendula, Calluna vulgaris, Dryopteris dilatata and Rubus fruticosus were significantly higher under the beech canopy. Carex remota, Impatiens parviflora and Lotus sp. showed a significantly denser seed bank in logging areas, while Digitalis purpurea seeds were significantly more abundant in soils under the oak canopy. The fact that the seed bank of an originally homogeneous forest varies under different planted stands highlights that a long period of canopy conversion can affect the composition and depth of buried seeds.

  2. Forest Cover Change and Soil Erosion in Toledo's Rio Grande Watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chicas, S.; Omine, K.

    2015-04-01

    Toledo, the southernmost district, is the hub of Belize's Mayan population, descendants of the ancient Mayan civilization. The Toledo District is primarily inhibited by Kekchi and Mopan Mayans whose subsistence needs are met by the Milpa slash-and-burn agricultural system and the extraction of forest resources. The poverty assessment in the country indicates that Toledo is the district with the highest percentage of household an individual indigence of 37.5 % and 49.7 % respectively. Forest cover change in the area can be attributed to rapid population growth among the Maya, together with increase in immigration from neighboring countries, logging, oil exploration and improvement and construction of roads. The forest cover change analysis show that from 2001 to 2011 there was a decrease of Lowland broad-leaved wet forest of 7.53 km sq, Shrubland of 4.66 km sq, and Wetland of 0.08 km sq. Forest cover change has resulted in soil erosion which is causing the deterioration of soils. The land cover types that are contributing the most to total erosion in the Rio Grande watershed are no-forest, lowland broad-leaved wet forest and submontane broad-leaved wet forest. In this study the Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE) was employed in a GIS platform to quantify and assess forest cover change and soil erosion. Soil erosion vulnerability maps in Toledo's Rio Grande watershed were also created. This study provides scientifically sound information in order to understand and respond effectively to the impacts of soil erosion in the study site.

  3. Long-term forecast of Sr 90 migration in forest ecosystems of different types

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathematical model of Sr 90 migration in forest ecosystems is described and forecast of its content in forest components is calculated for several types of biogeocenoses. Results of modeling are satisfactorily agreeable to the experimental data. (authors)

  4. Forest resilience and tipping points at different spatio-temporal scales: approaches and challenges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reyer, C.P.O.; Brouwers, N.; Rammig, A.; Brook, B.W.; Holmgren, M.; Villela, D.M.

    2015-01-01

    1. Anthropogenic global change compromises forest resilience, with profound impacts to ecosystem functions and services. This synthesis paper reflects on the current understanding of forest resilience and potential tipping points under environmental change and explores challenges to assessing respon

  5. Nutrient dynamics in different sub-types of peat swamp forest in central Kalimantan, Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Sulistiyanto, Yustinus

    2005-01-01

    Nutrient dynamics of two sub-types of peat swamp forest, mixed swamp forest and low pole forest, in the upper catchment of the Sebangau River in Central Kalimantan, Indonesia were studied. Three permanent study plots, 50 x 50 m, were established in each forest sub-type to facilitate collection of throughfall, stemflow, litterfall, decomposition, above ground and below ground biomass, peat and water samples. Graphical presentation, Wilm's method, and analysis of variance were carried out for b...

  6. Effect of Different Ages of a Rehabilitated Forest on Selected Physico-chemical Properties

    OpenAIRE

    Rajeswari A.P. Murugayah; Seca Gandaseca; Osumanu H. Ahmed; Nik M.A. Majid

    2009-01-01

    Problem statement: This research was important because of still lack of information about rehabilitated tropical forest age effect on infiltration rate. The objectives of this study were to determine the influence of age of forest on soil water infiltration rate and to evaluate the influence of forest age on the relationship between water infiltration rate, soil organic matter and soil texture. Approach: This study was conducted under a rehabilitated forest at Bukit Nyabau (University Putra M...

  7. Initial growth of six forest tree species in differents spacing conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Ferreira do Nascimento

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This work veriflied the influence of planting spacing on the initial growth of six forest species, at the age of 22 months, in plantations of forest recomposition in the Guandu River Basin. The experiment was installed in the SFE - thermoelectric power plants Barbosa Lima Sobrinho, located in the City of Seropédica-RJ. Forty eight tree species were planted, using the spacings, 1.0 x 1.0, 1.5 x 1.5, 2.0 and 2.0 x 3.0 x 2.0 m, which are the study treatments. At 22 months after planting, it was evaluated the growth in height, diameter at ground level (DNS and area of the canopy for the species, Anadenanthera macrocarpa Benth. Brenan (angico vermelho, Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi (aroeira pimenteira, Schizolobium parahyba Blake (guapuruvu Chorisia speciosa St. Hill (paineira, Cordia sp. (babosa branca and Inga marginata (ingá. It was found that the studied species behaved in a different way in the differents spacing of planting, and that the planting density significantly influenced on the initial growth of all the species. In general, in wider planting spacings, the plants had higher growth.

  8. Variability of 40K isotopic composition in forest soils under different environmental conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiopotassium isotopic composition (40K/K, %) of several forest soils did not show a constant value of generally known 1.17 × 10-2 %, but they were varied significantly from 0.4 × 10-2 to 1.3 × 10-2 % at different locations under different environmental conditions. Surface portion of a soil (2-4 cm in depth) gave always lower 40K/K values compared with those of deeper soil layer (35-40 cm in depth). Ion exchange of K+ with NH4+ did not affects the 40K/K value in any soils, which revealed with chemical leaching experiments in the laboratory. Some plant species showed much lower 40K/K values than those in the surface soil. Possible reasons for varying 40K/K values obtained in this study may result from a dynamic behavior of potassium in soil, probably due to biological activity including root uptake and decomposing soil organic matter by microorganisms in the forest floor. (author)

  9. Integrating different knowledge sources and disciplines for practical applications in Forest and Agricultural Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzmán, Gema; Castillo, Carlos; Taguas, Encarnación

    2013-04-01

    One of the aims of 'The Bologna Process' is to promote among the students the acquisition of practical, social and creative skills to face real-life situations and to solve the difficulties they might find during their professional life. It involves an important change in the educational system, from a traditional approach focused on teaching, towards a new one that encourages learning. Under this context, University teaching implies the design of activities addressed to the dissemination of "know-how" to solve different problems associated with two technical disciplines: Forest and Agricultural Engineering. This study presents a preliminary experience where a group of information and communication technologies (ICT) such as, audiovisual resources (videos, reports and photo gallery), virtual visits to blogs and interactive activities have been used to provide a comprehensive knowledge of the environmental and sociocultural components of the landscape in order to facilitate the decision-making process in the engineering project context . With these tools, the students must study and characterize all these aspects in order to justify the chosen solutions and the project design. This approach was followed in the analysis of the limiting factors of practical cases in projects about forestation, landscape restoration and hydrological planning. This communication shows how this methodology has been applied in Forest and Agricultural Engineering and the students' experience with these innovative tools. The use of ICTs involved a friendly framework that stimulated students' interest and made subjects more attractive, since it allowed to assess the complex relationships between landscape, history and economy. Furthermore, this type of activities promotes the interdisciplinary training and the acquisition of creative and autonomous skills which are not included in many cases into the main objectives of the subjects.

  10. Development of the tree and shrub component and recovery techniques in a burnt pine forest, Castel Fusano, Rome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manetti MC

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A five-year study (2000-2005 was established in a part of Castel Fusano (Rome pinewood burned in 2000. The aims of the research were: i to analyse the behaviour of the coenoses after fire; ii to verify the post-fire growth and canopy recovery of the Mediterranean maquis; iii to evaluate natural regeneration of italian stone pine (Pinus pinea L.; iv to verify the effectiveness of italian stone pine plantation in enhancing the establishment of the forest cover. Permanent research plots were established to evaluate features and dynamics of the Mediterranean maquis as well as mortality and development of 1-year-old italian stone pine (ca.500 ha-1 seedlings. Two different plantation systems were applied: blocks of three seedlings at 8x8 m distance; one seedling at 5x5 m distance. After five growing seasons from the fire, only 700 stools ha-1 have resprouted, mainly holm oak (48%, whose only 38% of good vigour. Canopy cover of the broad-leaved species is not enough to assure a quick forest establishment. Combined pine plantation with the maquis species, has given satisfactory results, though the mortality was quite high because of the game damages. The block planting performed better for growth and survival of seedlings. This last plantation system could be a rational choice to assure, in a relative short time, forest recovery and mixed stands characterised by a considerable presence of natural vegetation.

  11. Evaporation and transpiration differences among successional stages of Tropical Dry Forest, Santa Rosa National Park, Costa Rica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Rodríguez, César D.; Calvo-Alvarado, Julio

    2016-04-01

    Seasonal environments in the tropics show strong responses to changes in precipitation regimes. The monthly water availability is the main trigger for ecological responses as flowering, fructification, leaf sprouting and senescence. Among these environments, the tropical dry forests (TDF) depends directly on the soil water availability, defining the forest growing season despite the forest characteristics. However, within the same ecosystem is possible to find differences in the water fluxes due to forest age. The TDF located in Santa Rosa National Park (SRNP) in Costa Rica; shows a particular matrix of secondary forest patches varying in age, structure, and species composition allowing us to evaluate the water fluxes differences among successional stages of TDF. Three permanent plots of 1000.0 m2 were selected from the Tropi-Dry project. Each plot characterized a specific successional stage of this ecosystem varying in forest structure and age. Every location was equipped to measure the hourly soil water content and forest growth, while the meteorological conditions were collected by the meteorological station of the national park. The data was collected from December 2005 to June 2009 however, due to data gaps and quality control the data analysis includes only the hydrological years between 2006 and 2009. The soil water content was measured at three depths in each plot (10, 30 and 40 cm) to determine the real evapotranspiration from the forest. The precipitation along these three years shows strong variations registering 326.5 mm-1yr-1 in the first year up to 3004.0 mm-1yr-1 during the last year, these strong changes are influenced by the ENOS phenomena in the region. Regardless the precipitation amounts the evapotranspiration do not differ strongly on a yearly basis, were 726.7 mm-1yr-1, 675.1 mm-1yr-1 and 751.6 mm-1yr-1 were exported to the atmosphere by the early, intermediate and late stages of TDF secondary forest. The yearly strong differences in

  12. Differences in the impacts of formal and informal recreational trails on urban forest loss and tree structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballantyne, Mark; Pickering, Catherine Marina

    2015-08-15

    Recreational trails are one of the most common types of infrastructure used for nature-based activities such as hiking and mountain biking worldwide. Depending on their design, location, construction, maintenance and use, these trails differ in their environmental impacts. There are few studies, however, comparing the impacts of different trail types including between formal management-created trails and informal visitor-created trails. Although both types of trails can be found in remote natural areas, dense networks of them often occur in forests close to cities where they experience intense visitor use. To assess the relative impacts of different recreational trails in urban forests, we compared the condition of the trail surface, loss of forest strata and changes in tree structure caused by seven types of trails (total network 46.1 km) traversing 17 remnants of an endangered urban forest in Australia. After mapping and classifying all trails, we assessed their impact on the forest condition at 125 sites (15 sites per trail type, plus 15 control sites within undisturbed forest). On the trail sites, the condition of the trail surface, distance from the trail edge to four forest strata (litter, understory, midstorey and tree cover) and structure of the tree-line were assessed. Informal trails generally had poorer surface conditions and were poorly-designed and located. Per site, formal and informal trails resulted in similar loss of forest strata, with wider trails resulting in greater loss of forest. Because there were more informal trails, however, they accounted for the greatest cumulative forest loss. Structural impacts varied, with the widest informal trails and all formal hardened trails resulting in similar reductions in canopy cover and tree density but an increase in saplings. These structural impacts are likely a function of the unregulated and intense use of large informal trails, and disturbance from the construction and maintenance of formal trails

  13. CO2 efflux from different forest soils and impact factors in Dinghu Mountain, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Cunyu; ZHOU Guoyi; ZHANG Deqiang; WANG Yinghong; LIU Shizhong

    2005-01-01

    CO2 fluxes from soils and related environmental factors were measured in three forest ecosystems of Dinghu Mountain using static chamber-gas chromatograph technique for one year. The seasonal pattern of CO2 flux, contribution of litter on total CO2 flux and the correlations of CO2 flux with soil temperature and soil water content were examined for each type of forest. The results were given as followings: (1) The seasonal patterns of CO2 flux from soil of the three types of forest were similar, with a higher CO2 flux in rainy season than in dry season. The comparative relations of mean annual CO2 fluxes between the three sites were expressed as:monsoon forest > mixed forest > pine forest. (2) CO2 fluxes from litter decomposition in monsoon forest, mixed forest and pine forest accounted for 24.43%, 41.75% and 29.23% of the corresponding total CO2 fluxes from forest floor, respectively. (3) Significant relationships were found between CO2 fluxes and soil temperatures at 5 cm depth for the three types of forest, which could be best described by exponential equations. The calculated Q10 values based on soil temperature at 5 cm depth ranged from 1.86 to 3.24. More significant relationships were found between CO2 fluxes and soil water content when the annual variation coefficients of soil moisture were higher.

  14. Relationship between radiocesium and stable cesium in plants and mushrooms collected from forest ecosystems with different contamination levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiocesium contamination of forest products is still high in contrast to agricultural products, even more than 10 years after the Chernobyl accident. Since the removal of radiocesium from a contaminated forest is not feasible on a large scale, studies on the distribution and transfer of radiocesium in forest ecosystems are important from radiation protection viewpoint. However, the long-term fate of radiocesium in forest ecosystems is still difficult to predict because of the changes in vertical profiles and availability with time of radiocesium in soil, and particularly because of varying stand characteristics. As the chemical behavior of radiocesium is expected to be almost identical to that of stable Cs, analysis of stable Cs should be useful to understand the long-term behavior of radiocesium and its equilibrium distribution. In this study, the concentrations of stable Cs and related alkali and alkaline earth elements in mushrooms, plants and soils were determined by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) or inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES). Samples were collected in forests with different contamination levels in Japan, Germany, Finland, Italy, Ireland and Belarus. Data of stable elements were summarized together with those of radiocesium. A good correlation between Cs-137 and stable Cs in mushrooms was observed for each site independently, suggesting that mushrooms take up Cs-137 together with stable Cs. The Cs-137/Cs ratios were almost constant for samples collected at the same site except a German forest. A detailed study on the transfer of Cs-134 from organic soil horizons to fungal fruit bodies in a German forest showed that the Cs-134/Cs ratio reflected the ratios of those soil layers, from which the corresponding mushroom species takes up Cs-134. Different Cs-137/Cs ratios at different sites might be attributable to different depositions of Cs-137 and different forest (soil and vegetation) types. Positive

  15. The effects of different fertilizers on the ciliate communities of forests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The influence of lime, mineral fertilizers and different composts on the ciliate communities (Protozoa: Ciliophora) of very acidified spruce forests were tested. In succession culture experiments species range, total numbers, abundance and dominance structure of the ciliate communities showed continued changes over a 90 day period. This method offers the opportunity not only to diagnose, but also to quantify effects of soil treatments. Investigations at the ARINUS-site Schluchsee (Black Forest) showed the following results: Liming led to a greater change in the ciliate communities than fertilization with magnesium-sulphate and ammonia-sulphate. Liming and treatment with compost, made from household garbage, and compost, made from chopped wood on the Beimerstetten site (Swabian Alb) led also to remarkably changes in the ciliate communities. The total ciliate numbers of the household garbage area were very low. In contrast, the ciliate community of the chopped wood compost areas were characterized by a great species number and high abundances of spirotrichuous ciliates, especially Halteria grandinella. (orig./UWA)

  16. Comparative phytosociology of tree sinusiae between contiguous forests in different stages of succession.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavalcante, A; Soares, J J; Figueiredo, M A

    2000-11-01

    The Baturité Mountain Range, located in the State of Ceará (BRA), displays on its highest levels a vegetation viewed as a disjunction from the Atlantic Forest in the East of Brazil. Among the various attributes associated with this vegetation, the abundance of water resources and a high biodiversity have a more outstanding relevance. However, in view of the current accelerated deforestation process, those attributes may be threatened in a near future. Therefore, the present work is a comparative study with its focus on vegetal community organization (tree sinusiae) and the floristic similarity and the phytodiversity of two areas in different successive stages, preserved and deforested 24 years ago. The aim of that intent was to obtain information that could essentially shed light on the deforestation effects on tree vegetation and which could suggest scientific support regarding urgent projects of habitat reconstruction. The methodology used folowed the model utilized for rain forest, i.e. consisting of a random distribution of 10 x 20 m plots surveying the living woody species with DBH >/= 5 cm. The results obtained suggest that a possible new physiognomy type is emerging on the Baturite Mountain Range because of deforestation. The Myrtaceae and Mimosaceae families were the ones that contributed most significantly to species richness, being the most outstanding for Areas 1 and 2, respectively. The deforestation which occurred in Area 2 eliminated 28 species and gave birth to a current densely distinct floristic composition. PMID:11241952

  17. Changes of Soil Enzyme Activities in Different Restoration Ages of Spruce Forests on the Eastern Qinghai-Tibet Plateau

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Yong-mei; BAO Wei-kai; PANG Xue-yong; WU Ning; ZHOU Guo-yi

    2005-01-01

    Six soil enzymes (invertase, acid phosphatase, proteinase, catalase, peroxidase and polyphenoloxidase ) were chosen for investigation under different spruce forests with restoration ages of 4,10,16 years and an old-growth spruce forest over 400 years old in the eastern Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, China. Results showed that the activities of invertase, phosphatase, proteinase, catalase and peroxidase decreased in newly restored forests except for pholyphenoloxidase. With the development of forests after restoration, the activities of invertase, acid phosphadase, proteinase increased gradually. Our study also indicated that the soil enzyme activities were associated with surface soils and decreased with depths. This result suggested that in the earlier restoration stage the application of organic fertilizer may be more effective by surface addition to soils than deep addition.

  18. Hydrological and erosive response of a Mediterranean forest soil in recovery after different impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreu, Vicente; Gonzalez-Pelayo, Oscar; Campo, Julian; Gimeno-García, Eugenia; Luís Rubio, Jose

    2010-05-01

    Land use changes, including land abandonment, and forest fires have been two key factors that have characterized the evolution of Mediterranean ecosystems. This work studies the evolution of the hydrologic dynamics and the erosive response of a Mediterranean forest soil (Rendzic Leptosol), which has undergone during years changes in its forest use and the fire impact. This soil is in recovering since the last disturbance (experimental fire) in 1996. The study has been carried out in the Experimental Station of Porta-Coeli (Valencia, Spain) in a system of four erosion plots of 320 m2 (40 x 8 m) of closed type. Each of the plots suffered different impacts: Plot 1 (T1) sustained the original shrub vegetation and suffered an experimental fire in 1997; Plot 2 (T2) and Plot 3 (T3) were used since 1988 to test different plant species to control erosion, in 1996 plot 3 was affected by fire in a 30% of its surface; Plot 4 (T4) was maintained bare of vegetation since 1987. All plots were left to recover since 1996. The climatic characteristics and the hydrologic and erosive parameters of these plots have been studied in each rain event of the period 2004-2008. This period reflects the great variations in rain quantity and distribution that characterize the Mediterranean climate. During this period a total of 562 rains were monitored, from which 66 showed runoff generation, and only in 14 events sediment production was detected. After 12 years in state of recovery, the vegetation cover has reached similar values in all plots but differences in the hydrologic response between them have been observed. The behaviour of T1 and T4 becomes similar mainly in rain events with intensities higher than 15 mm h-1, producing always the maximum values on runoff generation. However, the improvement in their conditions regarding erosion is clear, giving in all cases very low soil losses (the maximum observed was 8.62 g m2 in T4, 9/6/2004). Acknowledgements: this study has been developed

  19. Genetic structures of forest trees with different levels of damage on permanent observation plots on forest decline in Baden-Wuerttemberg

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The genetic structures of forest trees (Picea abies (L.) Karst., Abies alba Mill., Quercus petraea (Matt.) Liebl., Quercus robur L.) with different levels of damage, growing on permanent observation plots of forest decline in Baden-Wuerttemberg, were studied by isoenzyme analysis. In order to prove supposed interactions between the genetic structures and the level of damage, statistical methods were used. Statistically significant differences were detected between the genetic structure of 'tolerant' and 'sensitive' tree subpopulations, whereas these deviations had not the same tendency for all stands. For the first time the genetic variation within and between populations of Quercus robur and Quercus petraea in Baden-Wuerttemberg was described. Similar examinations on firs which had been published in 1992 are summarized briefly. (orig./UWA). 13 figs., 25 tabs., 84 refs

  20. Seasonal dynamics of water use efficiency of typical forest and grassland ecosystems in China

    CERN Document Server

    Zhu, Xianjin; Wang, Qiufeng; Hu, Zhongmin; Han, Shijie; Yan, Junhua; Wang, Yanfen; Zhao, Liang

    2014-01-01

    We selected four sites of ChinaFLUX representing four major ecosystem types in China-Changbaishan temperate broad-leaved Korean pine mixed forest (CBS), Dinghushan subtropical evergreen broadleaved forest (DHS), Inner Mongolia temperate steppe (NM), and Haibei alpine shrub-meadow (HBGC)-to study the seasonal dynamics of ecosystem water use efficiency (WUE = GPP/ET, where GPP is gross primary productivity and ET is evapotranspiration) and factors affecting it. Our seasonal dynamics results indicated single-peak variation of WUE in CBS, NM, and HBGC, which were affected by air temperature (Ta) and leaf area index (LAI), through their effects on the partitioning of evapotranspiration (ET) into transpiration (T) (i.e., T/ET). In DHS, WUE was higher at the beginning and the end of the year, and minimum in summer. Ta and soil water content affected the seasonal dynamics of WUE through their effects on GPP/T. Our results indicate that seasonal dynamics of WUE were different because factors affecting the seasonal dyn...

  1. Mean age of carbon in fine roots from temperate forests and grasslands with different management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Solly

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Fine roots are the most dynamic portion of a plant's root system and a major source of soil organic matter. By altering plant species diversity and composition, soil conditions and nutrient availability, and consequently belowground allocation and dynamics of root carbon (C inputs, land-use and management changes may influence organic C storage in terrestrial ecosystems. In three German regions we measured fine root radiocarbon (14C content to estimate the mean time since C in root tissues was fixed from the atmosphere in 54 grassland and forest plots with different management and soil conditions. Although root biomass was on average greater in grasslands 5.1 ± 0.8 g (mean ± SE, n = 27 than in forests 3.1 ± 0.5 g (n = 27, the mean age of C in fine roots in forests averaged 11.3 ± 1.8 yr and was significantly older and more variable compared to grasslands 1.7 ± 0.4 yr. We further found that management affects the mean age of fine root C in temperate grasslands mediated by changes in plant species diversity and composition. Fine root mean C age is positively correlated to plant diversity (r = 0.65 and to the number of perennial species (r = 0.77. In temperate grasslands the mean age of fine root C is also influenced by the study region mainly driven by differences in soil characteristics and climate which reflect in plant composition variations, with averages of 0.7 ± 0.1 yr (n = 9 on mostly organic sandy soils in northern Germany and of 1.8 ± 0.3 yr (n = 9 and 2.6 ± 0.3 (n = 9 in more silty and clayey soils respectively in central and southern Germany. Our results indicate an internal redistribution of C in perennial species and suggest linkages between fine root C age and management in grasslands. These findings improve our ability to predict and model belowground C fluxes across broader spatial scales.

  2. Comparison of different methods for the in situ measurement of forest litter moisture content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schunk, C.; Ruth, B.; Leuchner, M.; Wastl, C.; Menzel, A.

    2016-02-01

    Dead fine fuel (e.g., litter) moisture content is an important parameter for both forest fire and ecological applications as it is related to ignitability, fire behavior and soil respiration. Real-time availability of this value would thus be a great benefit to fire risk management and prevention. However, the comprehensive literature review in this paper shows that there is no easy-to-use method for automated measurements available. This study investigates the applicability of four different sensor types (permittivity and electrical resistance measuring principles) for this measurement. Comparisons were made to manual gravimetric reference measurements carried out almost daily for one fire season and overall agreement was good (highly significant correlations with 0.792 management. However, they may be interesting for scientific studies when some manual fuel moisture measurements are made anyway. Additionally, a number of potential methodological improvements are suggested.

  3. Application of 13C NMR spectroscopy to characterize organic chemical components of decomposing coarse woody debris from different climatic regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takuya Hishinuma

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Solid-state 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR spectroscopy was applied to coarse woody debris (CWD in different stages of decomposition and collected from forest floor of a subtropical, a cool temperate, and a subalpine forest in Japan. The purpose was to test its applicability to characterize organic chemical composition of CWD of broad-leaved and coniferous trees from different climatic conditions. O-alkyl-C, mainly representing carbohydrates, was the predominant component of CWD at the three sites, accounting for 43.5-58.1% of the NMR spectra. Generally, the relative area under the signals for aromatic-C and phenolic-C, mainly representing lignin, increased, whereas the relative area for O-alkyl-C decreased, as the decay class advanced. The relative area under NMR chemical shift regions was significantly correlated with the chemical properties examined with proximate analyses. That is, O-alkyl-C and di-O-alkyl-C NMR signal areas were positively correlated with the volumetric density of CWD and the content of total carbohydrates. Methoxyl-C, aromatic-C, phenolic-C, carboxyl-C, and carbonyl-C were positively correlated with the contents of acid-unhydrolyzable residues (lignin, tannins, and cutin and nitrogen. Lignin-C calculated from NMR signals increased, and polysaccharide-C decreased, with the decay class of CWD at the three study sites. A review of previous studies on 13C NMR spectroscopy for decomposing CWD suggested further needs of its application to broad-leaved trees from tropical and subtropical regions.

  4. Impacts of Climate Change on Forest Ecosystems in Northeast China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xiao-Ying; ZHAO Chun-Yu; JIA Qing-Yu

    2013-01-01

    This paper reviews the studies and research on climate change impacts on the forest ecosystems in Northeast China. The results show that in the context of global and regional warming, the growing season of coniferous forests has been increasing at an average rate of 3.9 d per decade. Regional warming favors the growth of temperate broad-leaved forests and has a detrimental effect on the growth of boreal coniferous forests. Over the past hundred years, the forest edge of the cool temperate zone in the southern Daxing’anling region has retreated 140 km northward. From 1896 to 1986, the northern boundary of broad-leaved forests in Heilongjiang province has extended northwestward about 290 km. Future climatic changes (until 2060) may lead to the northern deciduous needle forests moving out of China’s territory altogether. The occurrence cycles of pests and diseases have shortened; their distribution ranges have expanded. The life cycle of tent caterpillars (Malacosoma neustria testacea Motschulsky) has shortened from 14-15 years in the past to 8-10 years now. The pine caterpillar (Dendrolimus tabulaeformis Tsai et Liu), which has spread within western Liaoning province and the nearby areas, can now be found in the north and west. Lightning fires in the Daxing’anling region have significantly increased since 1987, and August has become the month when lightning fires occur most frequently. Overall, the net primary productivity (NPP) of forest in Northeast China has increased. The NPP in 1981 was around 0.27 Pg C, and increased to approximately 0.40 Pg C in 2002. With the current climate, the broad-leaved Korean pine forest ecosystem acts as a carbon sink, with a carbon sink capacity of 2.7 Mg C hm-2. Although the carbon sink capacity of the forest ecosystems in Northeast China has been weakened since 2003, the total carbon absorption will still increase. The forest ecosystems in Northeast China are likely to remain a significant carbon sink, and will play a

  5. Mean age of carbon in fine roots from temperate forests and grasslands with different management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Solly

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Fine roots are the most dynamic portion of a plant's root system and a major source of soil organic matter. By altering plant species diversity and composition, soil conditions and nutrient availability, and consequently belowground allocation and dynamics of root carbon (C inputs, land-use and management changes may influence organic C storage in terrestrial ecosystems. In three German regions, we measured fine root radiocarbon (14C content to estimate the mean time since C in root tissues was fixed from the atmosphere in 54 grassland and forest plots with different management and soil conditions. Although root biomass was on average greater in grasslands 5.1 ± 0.8 g (mean ± SE, n = 27 than in forests 3.1 ± 0.5 g (n = 27 (p p r = 0.65 and with the number of perennial species (r = 0.77. Fine root mean C age in grasslands was also affected by study region with averages of 0.7 ± 0.1 yr (n = 9 on mostly organic soils in northern Germany and of 1.8 ± 0.3 yr (n = 9 and 2.6 ± 0.3 (n = 9 in central and southern Germany (p < 0.05. This was probably due to differences in soil nutrient contents and soil moisture conditions between study regions, which affected plant species diversity and the presence of perennial species. Our results indicate more long-lived roots or internal redistribution of C in perennial species and suggest linkages between fine root C age and management in grasslands. These findings improve our ability to predict and model belowground C fluxes across broader spatial scales.

  6. Combining Geomatics and Conventional Methods for Monitoring Forest Conditions under Different Governance Arrangements

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ambika P. Gautam

    2006-01-01

    This study employed an innovative methodological framework that combines geomatics and conventional survey methods to monitor changes in forest conditions and examine their associations with local forest governance parameters in a mountain watershed covering 153.3 km2 in the middle mountains of Nepal. The study involved two spatial scales and analytical steps. First, geomatics techniques were used to map and detect changes in major land cover types in the watershed between 1976 and 2000 and to analyze relationships between forest cover changes and governance arrangements. This was followed by micro-level analysis of the relationships between the biological conditions of selected forests within the watershed and their governance arrangements, using conventional survey methods and analytical tools. The findings show that forest cover in the watershed increased by about 15 per cent during the period. The rate of increase in forest cover was highest in areas under a semi-government type of governance arrangement, while the community forests were generally better in terms of current biological conditions compared to the semi-government forests. This inconsistency between the findings from the two analyscs does not allow us to draw any firm conclusions regarding the role of property rights in determining forest condition, but it indicates that the outcomes of local forest management initiatives may be more dependent on local institutional arrangements regulating forest use and maintenance of forest resources than on the type of property rights arrangements. The findings also provide evidence of the methodological suitability of the research approach adopted, which may be useful for addressing many other research questions related to forestry and natural resources management, particularly those involving multiple spatial scales.

  7. Differences in Soil Physical and Chemical Properties of Rehabilitated and Secondary Forests

    OpenAIRE

    M. H. Akbar; Ahmed, O.H.; A. S. Jamaluddin; N. M.N.A. Majid; H. Abdul-Hamid; S. Jusop; A Hassan; K. H. Yusof; Arifin Abdu

    2010-01-01

    Problem statement: The soil properties of tropical rain forest in Southeast Asia have been characterized by several researchers; however empirical data on soil characteristics under rehabilitation program are still limited or even lacking. This research is important to determine the soil physical and chemical properties of a rehabilitated degraded forest land 19 years after planting with various indigenous species in comparison with adjacent secondary forests and to elucidate the soil fertili...

  8. Species Turnover across Different Life Stages from Seedlings to Canopy Trees in Swamp Forests of Central Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clarissa G. Fontes

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Processes driving the assembly of swamp forest communities have been poorly explored. We analyzed natural regeneration and adult tree communities data of a swamp gallery forest in Central Brazil to discuss the role of ecological filters in shaping plant species turnover in a successional gradient. Species data of 120 plots were used to assess species turnover between natural regeneration and adult tree communities. Our analyses were based on 4995 individuals belonging to 72 species. Community patterns were discerned using ordination analyses. A clear floristic turnover among plant life stages was distinguished. Regeneration community of swamp forests was richer in species composition than the adult community. Tree species commonly found in nonflooded gallery forests were present in the regeneration plots but not in the adult community. Differences in the floristic composition of these two strata suggest that not all species in the seedling stage can stand permanent flooding conditions and only a few tolerant species survive to become adult trees. We propose that natural disturbances play an important role by altering limiting resources, allowing seeds of nonflooded forest species to germinate. This paper elucidates the turnover between plant life stages in swamp forests and suggests mechanisms that may shape these communities.

  9. Spatial aspects of tree mortality strongly differ between young and old-growth forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Andrew J; Lutz, James A; Donato, Daniel C; Freund, James A; Swanson, Mark E; HilleRisLambers, Janneke; Sprugel, Douglas G; Franklin, Jerry F

    2015-11-01

    Rates and spatial patterns of tree mortality are predicted to change during forest structural development. In young forests, mortality should be primarily density dependent due to competition for light, leading to an increasingly spatially uniform pattern of surviving trees. In contrast, mortality in old-growth forests should be primarily caused by contagious and spatially autocorrelated agents (e.g., insects, wind), causing spatial aggregation of surviving trees to increase through time. We tested these predictions by contrasting a three-decade record of tree mortality from replicated mapped permanent plots located in young ( 300-year-old) Abies amabilis forests. Trees in young forests died at a rate of 4.42% per year, whereas trees in old-growth forests died at 0.60% per year. Tree mortality in young forests was significantly aggregated, strongly density dependent, and caused live tree patterns to become more uniform through time. Mortality in old-growth forests was spatially aggregated, but was density independent and did not change the spatial pattern of surviving trees. These results extend current theory by demonstrating that density-dependent competitive mortality leading to increasingly uniform tree spacing in young forests ultimately transitions late in succession to a more diverse tree mortality regime that maintains spatial heterogeneity through time.

  10. Bryophyte species diversity in seven typical forests of the West Tianmu Mountain in Zhejiang, China%浙江西天目山主要森林类型的苔藓多样性比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪岱华; 王幼芳; 左勤; 李敏; 吴文英; 黄建花; 赵明水

    2012-01-01

    苔藓是森林的重要组分,是森林保护区的重要保护对象,在物种资源和生态系统功能维护中有重要作用.该研究以浙江西天目山国家自然保护区内7种主要森林类型(落叶矮林、落叶阔叶林、常绿-落叶阔叶混交林、常绿阔叶林、针阔混交林、针叶林和竹林)内的苔藓植物为对象,调查了32个10m× 10m的样地,记录地面生苔藓植物盖度和树附生苔藓植物多度,采用重要值、相似性系数、多样性指数分析了森林类型间的苔藓植物多样性差异.共采集969份标本,隶属41科84属142种,其中苔类植物13科18属33种,藓类植物28科66属109种,优势科为灰藓科、青藓科和羽藓科.2种混交林(常绿-落叶阔叶混交林和针阔混交林)的物种丰富度和多样性指数均高于其余5种森林,其中物种丰富度以针阔混交林最高,苔藓植物多样性则以常绿-落叶阔叶混交林最高,竹林两者均为最低.海拔等环境因子较为接近的植被类型的苔藓植物多样性相似性较高,常绿阔叶林与针叶林相似性最高,而落叶矮林和竹林相似性最小.%Aims Bryophytes are an important component of forest vegetation. Their species diversity is vital to protecting plant resources and ecosystem diversity. Our objective was to explore the diversity and distribution of bryophytes and the relationship between bryophyte diversity and environment factors in seven dominant forest vegetation types (deciduous broad-leaved shrubs, DBS; deciduous broad-leaved forest, DBF; evergreen and deciduous broad-leaved mixed forest, EDF; evergreen broad-leaved forest, EBF; coniferous broad-leaved mixed forest, CBF; coniferous forest, CF; bamboo forest, BF) of West Tianmu Mountain, Zhejiang Province, China. Methods Thirty-two sites (10 m × 10 m) were established in the seven forest vegetation types. Sixteen plots were selected by systematic sampling in each sampling site. Coverage of floor bryophytes and abundance of

  11. Tree Species Linked to Large Differences in Ecosystem Carbon Distribution in the Boreal Forest of Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melvin, A. M.; Mack, M. C.; Johnstone, J. F.; Schuur, E. A. G.; Genet, H.; McGuire, A. D.

    2014-12-01

    In the boreal forest of Alaska, increased fire severity associated with climate change is altering plant-soil-microbial feedbacks and ecosystem carbon (C) dynamics. The boreal landscape has historically been dominated by black spruce (Picea mariana), a tree species associated with slow C turnover and large soil organic matter (SOM) accumulation. Historically, low severity fires have led to black spruce regeneration post-fire, thereby maintaining slow C cycling rates and large SOM pools. In recent decades however, an increase in high severity fires has led to greater consumption of the soil organic layer (SOL) during fire and subsequent establishment of deciduous tree species in areas previously dominated by black spruce. This shift to a more deciduous dominated landscape has many implications for ecosystem structure and function, as well as feedbacks to global C cycling. To improve our understanding of how boreal tree species affect C cycling, we quantified above- and belowground C stocks and fluxes in adjacent, mid-successional stands of black spruce and Alaska paper birch (Betula neoalaskana) that established following a 1958 fire near Fairbanks, Alaska. Although total ecosystem C pools (aboveground live tree biomass + dead wood + SOL + top 10 cm of mineral soil) were similar for the two stand types, the distribution of C among pools was markedly different. In black spruce, 78% of measured C was found in soil pools, primarily in the SOL, where spruce contained twice the C stored in paper birch (4.8 ± 0.3 vs. 2.4 ± 0.1 kg C m-2). In contrast, aboveground biomass dominated ecosystem C pools in birch forest (6.0 ± 0.3 vs. 2.5 ± 0.2 kg C m-2 in birch and spruce, respectively). Our findings suggest that tree species exert a strong influence over plant-soil-microbial feedbacks and may have long-term effects on ecosystem C sequestration and storage that feedback to the climate system.

  12. Environmental change controls postglacial forest dynamics through interspecific differences in life-history traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacourse, Terri

    2009-08-01

    interact significantly with life-history and stress tolerance traits over long ecological timescales to determine forest composition. Climate is the ultimate control on postglacial forest composition and species abundances, but long-term community assembly is also constrained through interspecific differences in plant traits.

  13. Extreme differences in forest degradation in Borneo: comparing practices in Sarawak, Sabah, and Brunei.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane E Bryan

    Full Text Available The Malaysian states of Sabah and Sarawak are global hotspots of forest loss and degradation due to timber and oil palm industries; however, the rates and patterns of change have remained poorly measured by conventional field or satellite approaches. Using 30 m resolution optical imagery acquired since 1990, forest cover and logging roads were mapped throughout Malaysian Borneo and Brunei using the Carnegie Landsat Analysis System. We uncovered ∼364,000 km of roads constructed through the forests of this region. We estimated that in 2009 there were at most 45,400 km(2 of intact forest ecosystems in Malaysian Borneo and Brunei. Critically, we found that nearly 80% of the land surface of Sabah and Sarawak was impacted by previously undocumented, high-impact logging or clearing operations from 1990 to 2009. This contrasted strongly with neighbouring Brunei, where 54% of the land area remained covered by unlogged forest. Overall, only 8% and 3% of land area in Sabah and Sarawak, respectively, was covered by intact forests under designated protected areas. Our assessment shows that very few forest ecosystems remain intact in Sabah or Sarawak, but that Brunei, by largely excluding industrial logging from its borders, has been comparatively successful in protecting its forests.

  14. Public Preferences Across Europe for Different Forest Stand Types as Sites for Recreation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Peace

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available A Delphi survey involving experts in forest preference research was carried out to derive scores for the recreational value of 240 forest stand types across Europe. The survey was organized around four regional panels: Great Britain, Nordic Region, Central Europe, and Iberia. In each region, 60 forest stand types were defined according to five forest management alternatives (FMAs on a continuum of management intensity, four phases of development (establishment, young, medium, and adult, and three tree species types (conifer, broadleaved, and mixed stands of conifer and broadleaved. The resulting scores were examined using conjoint analysis to determine the relative importance of the three structural attributes (FMA, phase of development, and tree species type, and each level or component of the attributes. The findings quantify the extent to which forest visitors prefer a degree of management to unmanaged forest nature reserves across the four regions. Phase of development was shown to make the highest contribution to the recreational value of forests while the contribution of tree species type was shown to be relatively unimportant. While the results are indicative, they provide evidence to support long-term retention and low-impact silviculture in forests where recreation is a primary objective of management.

  15. Assemblages of carabid beetles (Coleoptera, Carabidae) in humid forest habitats of different stages of succession in the Puszcza Knyszyńska Forest (northeastern Poland)

    OpenAIRE

    Adam Kwiatkowski

    2011-01-01

    Abstract During a period of three years (2006–2008) the carabid fauna in wet and humid forest habitats of different stages of succession was studied at the Puszcza Knyszynska (north-east part of Poland). The aim of this study was to determine how the assemblages of the carabid fauna change in relation to the ongoing process of succession. Using pitfall traps, 24 plots were sampled. The plots were located in stands of different age, from two year old plantations to more than 100 year old fores...

  16. Changes of forest stands vulnerability to future wind damage resulting from different management methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Panferov, O.; Sogachev, Andrey; Ahrends, B.

    2010-01-01

    to wind damage. The driving force behind the damage is the climate, but the magnitude and sign of resulting effect depend on tree species, management method and soil conditions. The projected increasing frequency of weather extremes in the whole and severe storms in particular might produce wide area......The structure of forests stands changes continuously as a result of forest growth and both natural and anthropogenic disturbances like windthrow or management activities – planting/cutting of trees. These structure changes can stabilize or destabilize forest stands in terms of their resistance...... damage in European forest ecosystems during the 21st century. To assess the possible wind damage and stabilization/destabilization effects of forest management a number of numeric experiments are carried out for the region of Solling, Germany. The coupled small-scale process-based model combining Brook90...

  17. Soil respiration rate on the contrasting north- and south-facing slopes of a larch forest in central Siberia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In an attempt to evaluate global warming effects, we measured the soil respiration of the contrasting north- and south- facing slopes of a larch forest in central Siberia, located at Tura City in the Krasnoyarsk District, Russia. The north-facing slope is assumed to be the present condition while the south-facing slope may stand for the future warm condition. As a result of differences in solar radiation, there were clear differences between the north- and south- facing slopes in terms, for example, of the active layer as the growth rate of larch trees. The soil respiration rate was higher on the south-facing slope than on the north-facing slope. At the temperature of 15°C, soil respiration rate of the south-facing slope was ca. 6.2 μ mol CO2 * m-2s-1, which was about 0.6 times lower than that of broad-leaved forests in Hokkaido. There was an exponential correlation between soil temperature at 10 cm depth and the efflux of CO2 from the soil surface. Various conditions (soil temperature,. nitrogen content and soil water content) seemed to be more favorable for soil respiration on the south-facing slope. (author)

  18. Estimation of autotrophic soil respiration in a boreal forest using three different approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulmala, Liisa; Pumpanen, Jukka; Heinonsalo, Jussi

    2016-04-01

    It is generally challenging to separate autotrophic and heterotrophic soil respiration. The reason for these difficulties is connected with the intimate interaction of the key processes in soil. Root-associated microbes practically colonize the whole soil volume while decomposition processes occur in the same matrix. Therefore, autotrophic and heterotrophic processes cannot be separated in natural systems. However, there are several methods that can be used to better understand the dynamics of these two. A classical method is called 'trenching' where a trench is dug around a known volume of soil and the roots entering the soil are cut from the living trees thus blocking the C flow from them. The second way to separate autotrophic and heterotrophic respiration relies on the difference in the isotopic signature (13C) of plant-derived or decomposition-derived CO2. The third way to separate the sources is to study the differences in the short- and long-term temperature dependencies in CO2 soil emissions. This is possible especially in boreal forests where the biological activity has a strong seasonal cycle. We compared these three methods in an experiment conducted in a southern boreal middle-aged Scots pine stand in Finland. Our data provides a unique possibility to critically evaluate current methods for estimating autotrophic and heterotrophic soil respiration. The knowledge is needed to study further plant physiology and plant-microbe interactions in soil.

  19. A Geosimulation Approach for Data Scarce Environments: Modeling Dynamics of Forest Insect Infestation across Different Landscapes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taylor Anderson

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Insect infestation behaves as a complex system, characterized by non-linear spatial dynamics and emergent patterns that evolve from smaller to larger spatial scales. The emerald ash borer (EAB is an invasive species that has infested and killed millions of ash trees across North America. Existing EAB models use traditional statistical approaches that often cannot address the spatiotemporal complexity emerging from EAB infestation processes. Moreover, these studies of insect infestation are limited by a lack of sufficient time series data. The objective of this study is to develop a geosimulation approach to overcome the challenge of data scarcity and represent EAB infestation at a regional scale. Geographic information systems (GIS, multi-criteria evaluation (MCE, and cellular automata (CA are used to model EAB spread across different hypothetical landscape types. Simulation results represent EAB propagation and indicate different dynamics of spread for each landscape. Urban environments are identified as being at the greatest risk to the infestation. The proposed approach offers a theoretical framework and a modeling tool to represent the propagation of EAB infestation that can be applied with real geospatial datasets and potentially used in forest management strategies.

  20. ORGANIC MATTER AND AGGREGATION OF A PLANOSOL UNDER DIFFERENT FOREST COVERINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Kishida Bochner

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The litter quality can alter soil aggregation, modifying the transformation dynamics and allocation of soil carbon (Cin different compartments. This study evaluated the aggregate stability and its relation with litter chemical characteristics, organiccarbon and free light fraction (FLL from the organic matter under three different types of vegetation covering: secondary forest (FSand plantings of Mimosa Caesalpiniaefolia (PM and Carapa guianenses (PA with subsequently natural regeneration. Litter sampleswere characterized using polyfenols, lignin, suberine, tannin and holocelulose content and C/N relationship. Soil samples werecollected in two depths (0-10 and 10-20 cm and soil aggregation were estimate using mean weight diameter (DMP, mean geometricdiameter (DMG and index of aggregate stability (IEA analysis . Soil samples in the same depths were also characterized using C andFLL content. The highest suberine and polyfenols content of the litter found in the areas FS and PM reduced the speed of residuesdecomposition in the soil causing larger FLL content in both coverings. Those compositions contributed to the stabilization of C in themineral phase, because the highest C content was found in those areas. This fact is confirmed by the values of DMP, DMG and IEAamong the areas. They are higher in the coverings, PM and FS. It can be concluded that the polyfenols and suberine content weredecisive in the subdivision of C and in the aggregation of the soil in the areas of FS and PM.

  1. Exploring different forest definitions and their impact on developing REDD+ reference emission levels: A case study for Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Romijn, J.E.; Ainembabazi, J.H.; Wijaya, A.; Herold, M.; Angelsen, A.; Verchot, L.; Murdiyarso, D.

    2013-01-01

    Developing countries participating in the mitigation mechanism of reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation and the role of conservation, sustainable management of forests and enhancement of forest carbon stocks (REDD+), need to determine a national forest reference emission level

  2. Nitrogen oxides emission from two beech forests subjected to different nitrogen loads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Kitzler

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available We analysed nitrogen oxides (N2O, NO and carbon dioxide (CO2 emissions from two beech forest soils close to Vienna, Austria, which were exposed to different nitrogen input from the atmosphere. The site Schottenwald (SW received 20.2 kg N ha−1 y−1 and Klausenleopoldsdorf (KL 12.6 kg N ha−1 y−1 through wet deposition. Nitric oxide emissions from soil were measured hourly with an automatic dynamic chamber system. Daily N2O measurements were carried out by an automatic gas sampling system. Measurements of nitrous oxide (N2O and CO2 emissions were conducted over larger areas on a biweekly (SW or monthly (KL basis by manually operated chambers. We used an autoregression procedure (time-series analysis for establishing time-lagged relationships between N-oxides emissions and different climate, soil chemistry and N-deposition data. It was found that changes in soil moisture and soil temperature significantly effected CO2 and N-oxides emissions with a time lag of up to two weeks and could explain up to 95% of the temporal variations of gas emissions. Event emissions after rain or during freezing and thawing cycles contributed significantly (for NO 50% to overall N-oxides emissions. In the two-year period of analysis the annual gaseous N2O emissions at SW ranged from 0.64 to 0.79 kg N ha−1 y−1 and NO emissions were 0.24 to 0.49 kg N ha−1 per vegetation period. In KL significantly lower annual N2O emissions (0.52 to 0.65 kg N2O-N kg ha−1 y−1 as well as considerably lower NO-emissions were observed. During a three-month measurement campaign NO emissions at KL were 0.02 kg N ha−1, whereas in the same time period significantly more NO was emitted in SW (0.32 kg NO-N ha−1. Higher N-oxides emissions, especially NO emissions from the high N-input site (SW may indicate that atmospheric deposition has an impact on emissions of gaseous N from our forest soils. At KL there was a strong correlation between N-deposition and N-emission over time

  3. Restinga forests of the Brazilian coast: richness and abundance of tree species on different soils

    OpenAIRE

    Luiz F.S. Magnago; Sebastião V. Martins; Carlos E. G. R. Schaefer; Andreza V. Neri

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine changes in composition, abundance and richness of species along a forest gradient with varying soils and flood regimes. The forests are located on the left bank of the lower Jucu River, in Jacarenema Natural Municipal Park, Espírito Santo. A survey of shrub/tree species was done in 80 plots, 5x25 m, equally distributed among the forests studied. We included in the sampling all individuals with >3.2 cm diameter at breast height (1.30 m). Soil samples were...

  4. Carbon balance of an old hemi-boreal pine forest in Southern Estonia determined by different methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soosaar, Kaido; Repp, Kalev; Lõhmus, Krista; Uri, Veiko; Rannik, Kaire; Krasnova, Alisa; Ostonen, Ivika; Kukumägi, Mai; Maddison, Martin; Mander, Ülo

    2016-04-01

    The Soontaga Forest Station is located in hemi-boreal 200-years old pine forest (South Estonia; 58o01'N 26o04'E) with a second layer of spruce. The station has the instrumentation to assess the exchange of carbon dioxide (net ecosystem exchange, NEE), soil respiration, tree biomass (above and below ground biomass) and different environmental and meteorological parameters. In this study we quantified carbon balance by analyzing eddy-covariance CO2 flux data (carbon exchange) vs chamber-based measurements (ecosystem respiration) and CO2assimilation (soil and biomass). The annual NEE in this mature coniferous forest was -2.3 t C ha yr‑1, showing a clear diurnal and seasonal trend. During the daytime in summer the forest sequestered CO2, while during the night and late night CO2 emitted from the ecosystem to the atmosphere. Within the growing period, the sequestration of CO2 by plants was greater than soil respiration. Thus, the ecosystem sequestered carbon. Most of the carbon is bound in tree biomass (above and below ground biomass) but as well into soil, while the sequestration in soil increases with stand age. In addition, the biomass of understory, especially belowground litter, is playing essential part in carbon input. A modelling approach of long-term C budget in the Soontaga pine forest is presented.

  5. Study on Biological Diversity of Several Different Forest Community Types in Northern Subtropical Region%北亚热带不同森林群落类型的生物多样性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁增发; 张瑶; 刘俊龙; 马永春; 吴中能

    2011-01-01

    北亚热带地区的人工针叶纯林可以通过抚育间伐或者封山育林等措施大大加快其向着该地区的顶级群落方向演替。该地区几种典型群落的乔木层生物多样性指数大小依次为:针阔混交林〉〉常绿阔叶纯林〉马尾松纯林(郁0.5)〉马尾松纯林(CK组)〉杉木纯林(修枝)〉杉木纯林(间伐10%);灌木层生物多样性指数大小排序为:马尾松纯林(CK组)〉杉木纯林(间伐10%)〉杉木纯林(修枝)〉常绿阔叶纯林〉马尾松纯林(郁0.5)〉针阔混交林。%The succession process from artificial pure coniferous forests to climax communities could be accelerated greatly by tending thinning or mountain closure for forest recovery in the northern subtropical region.The sequence of the tree layer diversity indexes of several typical forest communities is: Mixed coniferous and broadleaved forest Evergreen broadleaved pure forest Masson pine pure forest(crown density 0.5) Masson pine pure forest(CK group) Chinese fir pure forest(pruned) Chinese fir pure forest(thinned by 10%).The sequence of shrub layer diversity indexes is: Masson pine pure forest(CK group) Chinese fir pure forest(thinned by 10%) Chinese fir pure forest(pruned) Evergreen broadleaved pure forest Masson pine pure forest(crown density 0.5) Mixed coniferous and broad leaved forest.

  6. Quantifying the Implications of Different Land Users' Priorities in the Management of Boreal Multiple-Use Forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horstkotte, Tim; Lind, Torgny; Moen, Jon

    2016-04-01

    In the management of natural resources, conflicting interests and objectives among different stakeholders often need to be considered. Here, we examine how two contrasting management scenarios of boreal forests in northern Sweden differ in their consequences on forest structural composition and the economic gains at harvest. Management strategies prioritize either (i) forest characteristics that promote grazing resources for reindeer herded by the indigenous Sámi, or (ii) timber production as practiced in Sweden today. When prioritizing reindeer grazing, forest stands develop a higher abundance of older age classes with larger trees and lower stem density, which reduces harvest and revenue levels by approximately 20 % over a 100-year period. The differences between these strategies illustrate the complexity in finding a trade-off for coexistence between industrial land users and other livelihoods that share the same landscape. Political support and institutional solutions are necessary to initiate changes in policy in finding such trade-offs in the management of environmental resources and thereby influence the optimal distribution of costs and benefits between different actors.

  7. Quantifying differences in biodiversity between a tropical forest area and a grassland area subject to traditional burning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nangendo, G.; Stein, A.; Gelens, M.; Gier, de A.; Albricht, R.

    2002-01-01

    Mosaics of natural forest and grassland tracts in sub-Saharan Africa provide differences in woody species biodiversity. These mosaics are of considerable interest as they are a major biodiversity bank. Their richness is felt to be threatened, for example by local burning. This study focuses on the i

  8. Differences between Pygmy and Non-Pygmy Hunting in Congo Basin Forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fa, John E; Olivero, Jesús; Farfán, Miguel Angel; Lewis, Jerome; Yasuoka, Hirokazu; Noss, Andrew; Hattori, Shiho; Hirai, Masaaki; Kamgaing, Towa O W; Carpaneto, Giuseppe; Germi, Francesco; Márquez, Ana Luz; Duarte, Jesús; Duda, Romain; Gallois, Sandrine; Riddell, Michael; Nasi, Robert

    2016-01-01

    We use data on game harvest from 60 Pygmy and non-Pygmy settlements in the Congo Basin forests to examine whether hunting patterns and prey profiles differ between the two hunter groups. For each group, we calculate hunted animal numbers and biomass available per inhabitant, P, per year (harvest rates) and killed per hunter, H, per year (extraction rates). We assess the impact of hunting of both hunter groups from estimates of numbers and biomass of prey species killed per square kilometre, and by examining the proportion of hunted taxa of low, medium and high population growth rates as a measure of their vulnerability to overhunting. We then map harvested biomass (kg-1P-1Yr-1) of bushmeat by Pygmies and non-Pygmies throughout the Congo Basin. Hunting patterns differ between Pygmies and non-Pygmies; Pygmies take larger and different prey and non-Pygmies sell more for profit. We show that non-Pygmies have a potentially more severe impact on prey populations than Pygmies. This is because non-Pygmies hunt a wider range of species, and twice as many animals are taken per square kilometre. Moreover, in non-Pygmy settlements there was a larger proportion of game taken of low population growth rate. Our harvest map shows that the non-Pygmy population may be responsible for 27 times more animals harvested than the Pygmy population. Such differences indicate that the intense competition that may arise from the more widespread commercial hunting by non-Pygmies is a far more important constraint and source of conflict than are protected areas.

  9. Litter production in different successional stages of a subtropical secondary rain forest, in Antonina, PR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kauana Melissa Cunha Dickow

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted in the Cachoeira River Natural Reserve, in Antonina, Paraná state, Brazil. The main goal was to assess the litter production of secondary tropical rain forests in different sucessional stages (initial, medium and advanced stages. The litter fall was collected every 3 weeks during four years (2004 to 2007, in circular litter traps of 0.25m2, distributed in 30 plots of 100m2 of area. A total of 60 litter traps were installed in an area of 3000m2. The litter fall collected at each retrieval date was dried, separated into fractions (leaves, twigs, reproductive organs and miscellaneous and weighed. Leaves of some tree species were selected from the total litter for a specific study of their contribution to the total litter. The average annual litter production for the three years was 5201, 5399 and 5323 kg.ha-1.year-1, and the percentage contribution of the leaf fraction was 77, 75 and 68%, in the initial, medium and advanced sucessional stages, respectively. The leaf litter fraction produced in the initial stage was dominated by the species Tibouchina pulchra (jacatirão (75%, but in the medium and advanced stages the dominance of only one tree species in leaf litter fraction did not occur. The production of twigs and reproductive organs did not differ statistically among the sucessional stages. The production of miscellaneous fraction was higher in the advanced stage and did not differ between the initial and medium stages. In general, the differences in litter production were little along the sucessional stage in the area of the study.

  10. Differences between Pygmy and Non-Pygmy Hunting in Congo Basin Forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fa, John E; Olivero, Jesús; Farfán, Miguel Angel; Lewis, Jerome; Yasuoka, Hirokazu; Noss, Andrew; Hattori, Shiho; Hirai, Masaaki; Kamgaing, Towa O W; Carpaneto, Giuseppe; Germi, Francesco; Márquez, Ana Luz; Duarte, Jesús; Duda, Romain; Gallois, Sandrine; Riddell, Michael; Nasi, Robert

    2016-01-01

    We use data on game harvest from 60 Pygmy and non-Pygmy settlements in the Congo Basin forests to examine whether hunting patterns and prey profiles differ between the two hunter groups. For each group, we calculate hunted animal numbers and biomass available per inhabitant, P, per year (harvest rates) and killed per hunter, H, per year (extraction rates). We assess the impact of hunting of both hunter groups from estimates of numbers and biomass of prey species killed per square kilometre, and by examining the proportion of hunted taxa of low, medium and high population growth rates as a measure of their vulnerability to overhunting. We then map harvested biomass (kg-1P-1Yr-1) of bushmeat by Pygmies and non-Pygmies throughout the Congo Basin. Hunting patterns differ between Pygmies and non-Pygmies; Pygmies take larger and different prey and non-Pygmies sell more for profit. We show that non-Pygmies have a potentially more severe impact on prey populations than Pygmies. This is because non-Pygmies hunt a wider range of species, and twice as many animals are taken per square kilometre. Moreover, in non-Pygmy settlements there was a larger proportion of game taken of low population growth rate. Our harvest map shows that the non-Pygmy population may be responsible for 27 times more animals harvested than the Pygmy population. Such differences indicate that the intense competition that may arise from the more widespread commercial hunting by non-Pygmies is a far more important constraint and source of conflict than are protected areas. PMID:27589384

  11. Pyrosequencing-Based Assessment of Bacterial Community Structure Along Different Management Types in German Forest and Grassland Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nacke, Heiko; Thürmer, Andrea; Wollherr, Antje; Will, Christiane; Hodac, Ladislav; Herold, Nadine; Schöning, Ingo; Schrumpf, Marion; Daniel, Rolf

    2011-01-01

    Background Soil bacteria are important drivers for nearly all biogeochemical cycles in terrestrial ecosystems and participate in most nutrient transformations in soil. In contrast to the importance of soil bacteria for ecosystem functioning, we understand little how different management types affect the soil bacterial community composition. Methodology/Principal Findings We used pyrosequencing-based analysis of the V2-V3 16S rRNA gene region to identify changes in bacterial diversity and community structure in nine forest and nine grassland soils from the Schwäbische Alb that covered six different management types. The dataset comprised 598,962 sequences that were affiliated to the domain Bacteria. The number of classified sequences per sample ranged from 23,515 to 39,259. Bacterial diversity was more phylum rich in grassland soils than in forest soils. The dominant taxonomic groups across all samples (>1% of all sequences) were Acidobacteria, Alphaproteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Betaproteobacteria, Deltaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria, and Firmicutes. Significant variations in relative abundances of bacterial phyla and proteobacterial classes, including Actinobacteria, Firmicutes, Verrucomicrobia, Cyanobacteria, Gemmatimonadetes and Alphaproteobacteria, between the land use types forest and grassland were observed. At the genus level, significant differences were also recorded for the dominant genera Phenylobacter, Bacillus, Kribbella, Streptomyces, Agromyces, and Defluviicoccus. In addition, soil bacterial community structure showed significant differences between beech and spruce forest soils. The relative abundances of bacterial groups at different taxonomic levels correlated with soil pH, but little or no relationships to management type and other soil properties were found. Conclusions/Significance Soil bacterial community composition and diversity of the six analyzed management types showed significant differences between the land use types grassland

  12. Pyrosequencing-based assessment of bacterial community structure along different management types in German forest and grassland soils.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heiko Nacke

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Soil bacteria are important drivers for nearly all biogeochemical cycles in terrestrial ecosystems and participate in most nutrient transformations in soil. In contrast to the importance of soil bacteria for ecosystem functioning, we understand little how different management types affect the soil bacterial community composition. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We used pyrosequencing-based analysis of the V2-V3 16S rRNA gene region to identify changes in bacterial diversity and community structure in nine forest and nine grassland soils from the Schwäbische Alb that covered six different management types. The dataset comprised 598,962 sequences that were affiliated to the domain Bacteria. The number of classified sequences per sample ranged from 23,515 to 39,259. Bacterial diversity was more phylum rich in grassland soils than in forest soils. The dominant taxonomic groups across all samples (>1% of all sequences were Acidobacteria, Alphaproteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Betaproteobacteria, Deltaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria, and Firmicutes. Significant variations in relative abundances of bacterial phyla and proteobacterial classes, including Actinobacteria, Firmicutes, Verrucomicrobia, Cyanobacteria, Gemmatimonadetes and Alphaproteobacteria, between the land use types forest and grassland were observed. At the genus level, significant differences were also recorded for the dominant genera Phenylobacter, Bacillus, Kribbella, Streptomyces, Agromyces, and Defluviicoccus. In addition, soil bacterial community structure showed significant differences between beech and spruce forest soils. The relative abundances of bacterial groups at different taxonomic levels correlated with soil pH, but little or no relationships to management type and other soil properties were found. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Soil bacterial community composition and diversity of the six analyzed management types showed significant differences between the land

  13. 模拟氮沉降对森林土壤化学性质的影响%Effects of simulated nitrogen deposition on soil chemical properties of forests

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李秋玲; 肖辉林; 曾晓舵; 冯乙晴; 莫江明

    2013-01-01

    下,与对照相比,这3种林型的土壤交换性Na+含量分别下降了40.0%、68.4%、50.0%,差异达显著性水平(p<0.05)。氮沉降对人工幼林土壤盐基离子含量无明显的影响。由此可得出结论:在近2年至4年的时间内,氮沉降的增加能引起鼎湖山3种林型土壤尤其是阔叶林土壤加速酸化,引起交换性Na+明显淋失,以及马尾松林土壤水解性氮含量明显下降;但氮沉降的增加对木荷人工幼林土壤化学性质暂无明显的影响。后者可能与该林型模拟氮沉降时间较短、林龄较轻而处于快速生长期等因素有关。%The effects of the increasing atmospheric nitrogen deposition on forest soils have become one of the major issues in ecological research recently. The authors used the method of simulating atmospheric nitrogen deposition in situ, set up three levels of nitrogen deposition:N0 (CK, N:0 g·m-2·a-1), N5(N:5 g·m-2·a-1), and N10(N:10 g·m-2·a-1)for a monsoon evergreen broad-leaved forest (called“broad-leaved forest”for short in the following), a Pinus massoniana forest, and a coniferous and broad-leaved mixed forest (called “mixed forest” for short in the following) in Dinghushan Mountain, and for a young Schima superba plantation in Zengcheng, Guangdong province, China, collected the soil samples of 0~20 cm soil layer after simulating atmospheric nitrogen deposition for 42 months (broad-leaved forest), 31 months (Pinus massoniana forest), 50 months (mixed forest), and 20 months (the young plantation), and analysed the soil properties, to discuss the effects of different nitrogen deposition levels on the soil properties of different forest types. The results showed that, (1) the simulated nitrogen deposition appeared the similar tendency towards the effects on soil pH values of the broad-leaved forest, Pinus massoniana forest, and mixed forest in Dinghushan Mountain, forcing the pH values to drop. Among them, when the nitrogen deposition was at N10 level

  14. [Seasonal dynamics of soil organic carbon mineralization for two forest types in Xiaoxing'an Mountains, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Fei; Lin, Wei; Cui, Xiao-yang

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the seasonal dynamics of soil organic carbon (SOC) mineralization in Xiaoxing'an Mountain, we incubated soil samples collected from virgin Korean pine forest and broad-leaved secondary forest in different seasons in the laboratory and measured the SOC mineralization rate and cumulative SOC mineralization (Cm). We employed simultaneous reaction model to describe C mineralization kinetics and estimated SOC mineralization parameters including soil easily mineralizable C (C1), potentially mineralizable C (C₀). We also analyzed the relations between Cm, C₁and their influencing factors. Results showed that the incubated SOC mineralization rate and Cm for 0-5 cm soil layer decreased from early spring to late autumn, while for 5-10 cm soil layer the seasonal variation was not statistically significant for both forest types. The C₁ in 0-5 and 5-10 cm soil layers varied from 42.92-92.18 and 19.23-32.95 mg kg⁻¹, respectively, while the C₀ in 0-5 and 5-10 cm soil layers varied from 863.92-3957.15 and 434.15-865.79 mg · kg⁻¹, respec- tively. Both C₁ and C₀ decreased from early spring to late autumn. The proportions of C₀ in SOC for two forest types were 0.74%-2.78% and 1.11%-1.84% in 0-5 and 5-10 cm soil layers, respectively, and decreased from early spring to late autumn, indicating that SOC tended to become more stable as a whole from spring to autumn. The Cm and C₀ were significantly positively correlated to in situ soil water content and hot water-extractable carbohydrate content, but were not correlated to in situ soil temperature and cool water-extractable carbohydrate content. We concluded that soil labile organic carbon, soil physical and chemical properties contributed to the seasonal dynamics of SOC mineralization in the forests. PMID:27228587

  15. [Seasonal dynamics of soil organic carbon mineralization for two forest types in Xiaoxing'an Mountains, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Fei; Lin, Wei; Cui, Xiao-yang

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the seasonal dynamics of soil organic carbon (SOC) mineralization in Xiaoxing'an Mountain, we incubated soil samples collected from virgin Korean pine forest and broad-leaved secondary forest in different seasons in the laboratory and measured the SOC mineralization rate and cumulative SOC mineralization (Cm). We employed simultaneous reaction model to describe C mineralization kinetics and estimated SOC mineralization parameters including soil easily mineralizable C (C1), potentially mineralizable C (C₀). We also analyzed the relations between Cm, C₁and their influencing factors. Results showed that the incubated SOC mineralization rate and Cm for 0-5 cm soil layer decreased from early spring to late autumn, while for 5-10 cm soil layer the seasonal variation was not statistically significant for both forest types. The C₁ in 0-5 and 5-10 cm soil layers varied from 42.92-92.18 and 19.23-32.95 mg kg⁻¹, respectively, while the C₀ in 0-5 and 5-10 cm soil layers varied from 863.92-3957.15 and 434.15-865.79 mg · kg⁻¹, respec- tively. Both C₁ and C₀ decreased from early spring to late autumn. The proportions of C₀ in SOC for two forest types were 0.74%-2.78% and 1.11%-1.84% in 0-5 and 5-10 cm soil layers, respectively, and decreased from early spring to late autumn, indicating that SOC tended to become more stable as a whole from spring to autumn. The Cm and C₀ were significantly positively correlated to in situ soil water content and hot water-extractable carbohydrate content, but were not correlated to in situ soil temperature and cool water-extractable carbohydrate content. We concluded that soil labile organic carbon, soil physical and chemical properties contributed to the seasonal dynamics of SOC mineralization in the forests.

  16. Study on complexity of plant communities at different altitudes on the Northern Slope of Changbai Mountain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    By the method of gradient pattern analysis, twenty plots were set at altitudes of 700-2600 m with an interval of 100 m on the northern slope of the Changbai Mountain. The dissimilarity of respective sub-plots in the same community was measured and the complexity of plant communities at different altitudes was analyzed. The result from binary data of tree species in canopy tree indicated that the sub-plots in the communities, except subalpine Betula ermanii forest, showed comparatively high dissimilarity in species composition. Especially, the dissimilarity index (0.7) of broadleaved/Korean pine forest at low altitudes was obviously higher than other communities. The differences are not obvious between communities referring to dark coniferous forest. Comparatively, the dissimilarity in sub-plots of the communities at altitude of 1400 m was slightly higher than that of other communities, which reflected the complexity of tree species compositions of transitory-type communities. For subalpine Betula ermanii forest, tree species composition was simple and showed a high similarity between sub-plots. The results derived from binary data of shrub showed that the dissimilarity index of shrub species in broadleaved/Korean pine forest at low altitudes was higher than that in other communities, but the divergence tendency wasn't so obvious as that of arbor species. The dissimilarity derived from binary data of herb and all plant species at different altitudes showed greatly close tendency, and the differences in herb and all plant species between sub-plots were the greatest for the communities of broad-leaved-Korean pine forest and alpine tundra zone.

  17. Random Forests Are Able to Identify Differences in Clotting Dynamics from Kinetic Models of Thrombin Generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arumugam, Jayavel; Bukkapatnam, Satish T S; Narayanan, Krishna R; Srinivasa, Arun R

    2016-01-01

    Current methods for distinguishing acute coronary syndromes such as heart attack from stable coronary artery disease, based on the kinetics of thrombin formation, have been limited to evaluating sensitivity of well-established chemical species (e.g., thrombin) using simple quantifiers of their concentration profiles (e.g., maximum level of thrombin concentration, area under the thrombin concentration versus time curve). In order to get an improved classifier, we use a 34-protein factor clotting cascade model and convert the simulation data into a high-dimensional representation (about 19000 features) using a piecewise cubic polynomial fit. Then, we systematically find plausible assays to effectively gauge changes in acute coronary syndrome/coronary artery disease populations by introducing a statistical learning technique called Random Forests. We find that differences associated with acute coronary syndromes emerge in combinations of a handful of features. For instance, concentrations of 3 chemical species, namely, active alpha-thrombin, tissue factor-factor VIIa-factor Xa ternary complex, and intrinsic tenase complex with factor X, at specific time windows, could be used to classify acute coronary syndromes to an accuracy of about 87.2%. Such a combination could be used to efficiently assay the coagulation system. PMID:27171403

  18. Atlantic forest bird communities provide different but not fewer functions after habitat loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Coster, Greet; Banks-Leite, Cristina; Metzger, Jean Paul

    2015-07-22

    Habitat loss often reduces the number of species as well as functional diversity. Dramatic effects to species composition have also been shown, but changes to functional composition have so far been poorly documented, partly owing to a lack of appropriate indices. We here develop three new community indices (i.e. functional integrity, community integrity of ecological groups and community specialization) to investigate how habitat loss affects the diversity and composition of functional traits and species. We used data from more than 5000 individuals of 137 bird species captured in 57 sites in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest, a highly endangered biodiversity hotspot.Results indicate that habitat loss leads to a decrease in functional integrity while measures of functional diversity remain unchanged or are even positively affected. Changes to functional integrity were caused by (i) a decrease in the provisioning of some functions, and an increase in others; (ii) strong within-guild species turnover; and (iii) a replacement of specialists by generalists. Hence, communities from more deforested sites seem to provide different but not fewer functions. We show the importance of investigating changes to both diversity and composition of functional traits and species, as the effects of habitat loss on ecosystem functioning may be more complex than previously thought. Crucially, when only functional diversity is assessed, important changes to ecological functions may remain undetected and negative effects of habitat loss underestimated, thereby imperiling the application of effective conservation actions.

  19. Random Forests Are Able to Identify Differences in Clotting Dynamics from Kinetic Models of Thrombin Generation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayavel Arumugam

    Full Text Available Current methods for distinguishing acute coronary syndromes such as heart attack from stable coronary artery disease, based on the kinetics of thrombin formation, have been limited to evaluating sensitivity of well-established chemical species (e.g., thrombin using simple quantifiers of their concentration profiles (e.g., maximum level of thrombin concentration, area under the thrombin concentration versus time curve. In order to get an improved classifier, we use a 34-protein factor clotting cascade model and convert the simulation data into a high-dimensional representation (about 19000 features using a piecewise cubic polynomial fit. Then, we systematically find plausible assays to effectively gauge changes in acute coronary syndrome/coronary artery disease populations by introducing a statistical learning technique called Random Forests. We find that differences associated with acute coronary syndromes emerge in combinations of a handful of features. For instance, concentrations of 3 chemical species, namely, active alpha-thrombin, tissue factor-factor VIIa-factor Xa ternary complex, and intrinsic tenase complex with factor X, at specific time windows, could be used to classify acute coronary syndromes to an accuracy of about 87.2%. Such a combination could be used to efficiently assay the coagulation system.

  20. Satellite Derived Forest Phenology and Its Relation with Nephropathia Epidemica in Belgium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Miguel Barrios

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The connection between nephropathia epidemica (NE and vegetation dynamics has been emphasized in recent studies. Changing climate has been suggested as a triggering factor of recently observed epidemiologic peaks in reported NE cases. We have investigated whether there is a connection between the NE occurrence pattern in Belgium and specific trends in remotely sensed phenology parameters of broad-leaved forests. The analysis of time series of the MODIS Enhanced Vegetation Index revealed that changes in forest phenology, considered in literature as an effect of climate change, may affect the mechanics of NE transmission.

  1. Snow gliding and loading under two different forest stands:a case study in the north-western Italian Alps

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Davide Viglietti; Margherita Maggioni; Enrico Bruno; Ermanno Zanini; Michele Freppaz

    2013-01-01

    The presence of a thick snowpack could interfere with forest stability, especially on steep slopes with potential damages for young and old stands. The study of snow gliding in forests is rather complex be-cause this phenomenon could be influenced not only by forest features, but also by snow/soil interface characteristics, site morphology, meteoro-logical conditions and snow physical properties. Our starting hypothesis is that different forest stands have an influence on the snowpack evolu-tion and on the temperature and moisture at the snow/soil interface, which subsequently could affect snow gliding processes and snow forces. The aim of this work is therefore to analyse the snowpack evolution and snow gliding movements under different forest covers, in order to deter-mine the snow forces acting on single trees. The study site is located in a subalpine forest in Aosta Valley (NW-Italy) and includes two plots at the same altitude, inclination and aspect but with different tree composition:Larch (Larix decidua) and Spruce (Picea abies). The plots were equipped with moisture and temperature sensors placed at the snow/soil interface and glide shoes for continuous monitoring of snow gliding. The recorded data were related to periodically monitored snowpack and snow/soil in-terface properties. Data were collected during two winter seasons (2009-10 and 2010-11). The snow forces on trees were analytically calculated either from snowpack data and site morphology or also from measured snow gliding rates. Different snow accumulations were observed under the two different forest stands, with a significant effect on temperature and moisture at the snow/soil interface. The highest snow gliding rates were observed under Larch and were related to rapid increases in mois-ture at the snow/soil interface. The calculated snow forces were generally lower than the threshold values reported for tree uprooting due to snow gliding, as confirmed by the absence of tree damages in the

  2. Structure of the herb stratum under different light regimes in the Submontane Atlantic Rain Forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, R A F; Gandolfi, S

    2009-05-01

    This study aimed to characterize the structure of the herb stratum in relation to light availability in the Submontane Atlantic Rain Forest at the Carlos Botelho State Park, SP, Brazil. Fortyone 10 x10 m plots were established under the closed canopy (18 plots), small and medium canopy gaps (11) and large canopy gaps dominated by Guadua tagoara (Ness) Kunth (12). Inside each plot, the line intercept method was applied to assess soil coverage as an estimate of density of herb stratum vegetation. Hemispherical photographs were taken at the centre of the plots to evaluate the annual light regime. Overall, Calathea communis Wanderley and S. Vieira had the greater mean coverage, followed by woody seedlings, ground ferns and other herbs (mainly, Araceae, Acanthaceae, Amaranthaceae and Cyperaceae). There were strong correlations among several groups of the herb stratum, such as the negative correlations between woody seedlings with the coverage of C. communis and with rocks. The analysis of the hemispherical photographs confirmed the difference among environments that led to significant differences in the soil coverage of the herb stratum vegetation but woody seedlings. For instance, C. communis showed great coverage in large gaps while ferns were more abundant in small and medium gaps and in the understorey. Other herbs, in turn, demonstrated bigger soil coverage in small and medium gaps. Although this study represents a rough assessment of the structure and composition of the herb stratum, the results found here illustrated the evident relation between herb species density and the environmental variation promoted by changes on canopy structure and topography. PMID:19675929

  3. Forest area assessment in the Slovenian forest inventory design

    OpenAIRE

    Hladnik, David; Žižek Kulovec, Laura

    2012-01-01

    In Slovenia, data on forest area are obtained within the framework of forest management planning and data of the actual agriculture and forest land use. The article shows the differences in the assessment methodology of forest cover and spatial structure of forests. In accordance with the concept of national forest inventories, the article suggests upgrading of the existing concept of forest inventories which, in the last decade, have been subordinate to forest management areas and difference...

  4. Beauveria brongniartii Sacc. (Petch against Melolontha spp. white grubs in forest nurseries with different soil pH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sierpińska Alicja

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In 2011, the General Directorate of State Forests in Poland managed 669 forest nurseries on the total area of 2411 ha that produced forest tree seedlings bare root systems, hence vulnerable to Melolontha spp. white grubs. Up to date, no chemical or biological plant protection product for control of cockchafer grubs in forests has been registered in Poland. The study was carried out with the aim to evaluate the efficacy of a biocontrol product Bovecol with BP strain of Beauveria brongniartii on sterilized wheat grain in control of Melolontha spp. white grubs in forest nurseries, established on acidic soils (with pH analogous to that of forest soils as well as on those alkaline. The active substance of Bovecol was 108 fungal conidia per 1g of the product. Study plots were established in 3 bareroot nurseries, situated in the areas with different soil reaction values and abundant populations of Melolontha spp. white grubs (assessed before Bovecol treatments. The product was applied against L1 larvae (rates in the Czerniawka and Bałtów nurseries: 120 kg/ha and 240 kg/ha and against L2 larvae (the Iłki nursery: 240 kg/ha. Grub population numbers were assessed 2, 3 and 4 months after the treatments. Application of Bovecol against L1 into the soil with neutral reaction (pH 6.8 caused the reduction of white grub numbers in 2 months, down to the threshold recommended by the Instruction of the protection of forests (mandatory guidelines for the protection of Poland’s State Forests, i.e. less than 1 grub/sampling pit. Bovecol treatment against L1 cockchafer larvae into acidic soil (pH 4.8 had no statistically significant effect on the reduction of grub population numbers, even 4 months after product application. Bovecol treatment against L2 larvae applied into the soil with medium pH value (5.3 gave poorer results when compared to the soil with pH 6.8, but considerably better – when compared to the soil with pH 4.8. The selection of a fungal strain

  5. Association of extinction risk of saproxylic beetles with ecological degradation of forests in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seibold, Sebastian; Brandl, Roland; Buse, Jörn; Hothorn, Torsten; Schmidl, Jürgen; Thorn, Simon; Müller, Jörg

    2015-04-01

    To reduce future loss of biodiversity and to allocate conservation funds effectively, the major drivers behind large-scale extinction processes must be identified. A promising approach is to link the red-list status of species and specific traits that connect species of functionally important taxa or guilds to resources they rely on. Such traits can be used to detect the influence of anthropogenic ecosystem changes and conservation efforts on species, which allows for practical recommendations for conservation. We modeled the German Red List categories as an ordinal index of extinction risk of 1025 saproxylic beetles with a proportional-odds linear mixed-effects model for ordered categorical responses. In this model, we estimated fixed effects for intrinsic traits characterizing species biology, required resources, and distribution with phylogenetically correlated random intercepts. The model also allowed predictions of extinction risk for species with no red-list category. Our model revealed a higher extinction risk for lowland and large species as well as for species that rely on wood of large diameter, broad-leaved trees, or open canopy. These results mirror well the ecological degradation of European forests over the last centuries caused by modern forestry, that is the conversion of natural broad-leaved forests to dense conifer-dominated forests and the loss of old growth and dead wood. Therefore, conservation activities aimed at saproxylic beetles in all types of forests in Central and Western Europe should focus on lowlands, and habitat management of forest stands should aim at increasing the amount of dead wood of large diameter, dead wood of broad-leaved trees, and dead wood in sunny areas.

  6. [Distribution characteristics of soil organic carbon under different forest restoration modes on opencast coal mine dump].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Yue-rong; Dang, Ting-hui; Tang, Jun; Li, Jun-chao

    2016-01-01

    The content and storage of soil organic carbon (SOC) were compared in six wood restoration modes and adjacent abandoned land on opencast coal mine dump, and the mechanisms behind the differences and their influencing factors were analyzed. Results showed that the contents of SOC in six wood lands were significantly higher (23.8%-53.2%) than that of abandoned land (1.92 g · kg⁻¹) at 0-10 cm soil depth, the index were significantly higher (5.8%-70.4%) at 10-20 cm soil depth than the abandoned land (1.39 g · kg⁻¹), and then the difference of the contents of SOC in the deep soil (20-100 cm) were not significant. The contents of SOC decreased with increase of soil depth, but the decreasing magnitude of the topsoil (0-20 cm) was higher than that of the deep soil (20-100 cm). Compared with the deep soil, the topsoil significant higer storage of SOC in different woods, the SOC storage decreased with the soil depth. Along the 0-100 cm soil layer, the storage of SOC in six wood lands higher (18.1%-42.4%) than that of the abandoned land (17.52 t · hm⁻²). The SOC storage of Amorpha fruticosa land (24.95 t · hm⁻²) was obviously higher than that in the other wood lands. The SOC storage in the shrub lands was 12.4% higher than that of the arbor woods. There were significantly positive correlations among forest litter, fine root biomass, soil water content and SOC on the dump. Consequently, different plantation restorations significantly improved the SOC level on the dump in 0-100 cm soil, especially the topsoil. But there was still a big gap about SOC level between the wood restoration lands and the original landform. To improve the SOC on opencast coal mine dump, A. fruticosa could be selected as the main wood vegetation.

  7. ECOLOGICAL FEATURES OF ALGAE COMMUNITIES IN FOREST FLOOR OF PINE PLANTATIONS OF DIFFERENT TYPES OF LANDSCAPES IN STEPPE AREA OF UKRAINE

    OpenAIRE

    Maltsev Yevhen

    2013-01-01

    The steppe zone of Ukraine features a large variety of types of natural landscapes that together significantly differ in microclimatic, soil, hydrological and geobotanic conditions. Such a diversity of forest conditions affects not only the trees, but also on all biotic components of forest ecosystems including algae. Purpose of the study was establish systematic position of species, dominant and subdominant, leading families of algae for plantings in forest floor of pine plantations of the v...

  8. Narrowband Bio-Indicator Monitoring of Temperate Forest Carbon Fluxes in Northeastern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quanzhou Yu

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Developments in hyperspectral remote sensing techniques during the last decade have enabled the use of narrowband indices to evaluate the role of forest ecosystem variables in estimating carbon (C fluxes. In this study, narrowband bio-indicators derived from EO-1 Hyperion data were investigated to determine whether they could capture the temporal variation and estimate the spatial variability of forest C fluxes derived from eddy covariance tower data. Nineteen indices were divided into four categories of optical indices: broadband, chlorophyll, red edge, and light use efficiency. Correlation tests were performed between the selected vegetation indices, gross primary production (GPP, and ecosystem respiration (Re. Among the 19 indices, five narrowband indices (Chlorophyll Index RedEdge 710, scaled photochemical reflectance index (SPRI*enhanced vegetation index (EVI, SPRI*normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI, MCARI/OSAVI[705, 750] and the Vogelmann Index, and one broad band index (EVI had R-squared values with a good fit for GPP and Re. The SPRI*NDVI has the highest significant coefficients of determination with GPP and Re (R2 = 0.86 and 0.89, p < 0.0001, respectively. SPRI*NDVI was used in atmospheric inverse modeling at regional scales for the estimation of C fluxes. We compared the GPP spatial patterns inversed from our model with corresponding results from the Vegetation Photosynthesis Model (VPM, the Boreal Ecosystems Productivity Simulator model, and MODIS MOD17A2 products. The inversed GPP spatial patterns from our model of SPRI*NDVI had good agreement with the output from the VPM model. The normalized difference nitrogen index was well correlated with measured C net ecosystem exchange. Our findings indicated that narrowband bio-indicators based on EO-1 Hyperion images could be used to predict regional C flux variations for Northeastern China’s temperate broad-leaved Korean pine forest ecosystems.

  9. Nitrogen oxides emission from two beech forests subjected to different nitrogen loads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Kitzler

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available We analysed nitrogen oxides (N2O, NO and NO2 and carbon dioxide (CO2 emissions from two beech forest soils close to Vienna, Austria, which were exposed to different nitrogen input from the atmosphere. The site Schottenwald (SW received 22.6 kg N y-1 and Klausenleopoldsdorf (KL 13.5 kg N y-1 through wet and dry deposition. Nitrogen oxide emissions from soil were measured hourly with an automatic dynamic chamber system. Daily N2O measurements were carried out by an automatic gas sampling system. Measurements of nitrous oxide (N2O and CO2 emissions were conducted over larger areas on a biweekly (SW or monthly (KL basis by manually operated chambers. We used an autoregression procedure (time-series analysis for establishing time-lagged relationships between N-oxide emissions and different climate, soil chemistry and N-deposition data. It was found that changes in soil moisture and soil temperature significantly effected CO2 and N-oxide emissions with a time lag of up to two weeks and could explain up to 95% of the temporal variations of gas emissions. Event emissions after rain or during freezing and thawing cycles contributed significantly (for NO 50% to overall N-oxides emissions. In the two-year period of analysis the annual gaseous N2O losses at SW ranged from 0.65 to 0.77 kg N ha-1 y-1 and NO losses were 0.18 to 0.67 kg N ha-1 per vegetation period. In KL significantly lower annual N2O emissions (0.52 kg N2O-N kg ha-1 y-1 as well as considerably lower NO-losses were observed. During a three-month measurement campaign NO losses at KL were 0.02 kg, whereas in the same time period significantly more NO was emitted in SW (0.32 kg NO-N ha-1. Higher N-oxide emissions, especially NO emissions from the high N-input site (SW indicate that atmospheric

  10. The effects of disturbance on forest structure and diversity at different altitudes in Garhwal Himalaya

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Munesh KUMA; Chandra Mohan SHARMA; Govind Singh RAJWAR

    2009-01-01

    The effects of disturbance on forest structure and diversity along an altitudinal gradient in the temperate, sub-tropical, and tropical regions of Garhwal Himalaya were assessed. Each region was further categorized into undisturbed (UD), mildly disturbed (MD), and highly disturbed (HD) sites on the basis of magnitude of disturbance in these forests. On UD sites of temperate, sub-tropical and tropical regions, Quercus leucotrichophora, Anogeissus latifolia and Holoptelea integrifolia were the dominant tree species respectively. The highest values of tree density (1028 ind*hm-2) and total basal cover at breast height (31.70 m2 *hm-2) were recorded for UD site of temperate region, whereas maximum species diversity (3.128) and equitability (14.09) values were observed for HD site of tropical region. The structure and composition of the forests were greatly affected by the degree of disturbance.

  11. Migration of 137Cs and 134Cs in different forest soil layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caesium-134 and 137Cs measurements in about 250 samples from L-, Of-, Oh-, Ah- and B-horizons of a Bavarian forest from 1987 to 1994 are analysed with respect to migration by using a compartment model. The derived ecological half-lives are 2.8 years, 3.8 years, 4.4 years and 7.7 years, respectively. By using these results, caesium behaviour can be predicted for about 25 years. The resulting profile is similar to that found nowadays for weapons fallout caesium, migrating within about 25 years in the same forest. Therefore, the model is suitable for the estimation of future behaviour of radiocaesium in the forest investigated for a period of about 25 years after deposition. (Author)

  12. Different harvest intensity and soil CO2 efflux in sessile oak coppice forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darenova E

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Soil CO2 efflux accounts for about 45-80% of total ecosystem respiration and is therefore an important part of the ecosystem carbon cycle. Soil CO2 efflux has been poorly studied in forests managed in the ancient coppicing manner. In our study, soil CO2 efflux, temperature, and moisture were measured in sessile oak stands with different harvesting intensity (control: 0% intensity; V1: 75%; V2: 80 %; V3: 85%; and V4: 100% during the fifth and sixth years after harvesting. Soil CO2 efflux was in the range 2-8 µmol CO2 m-2 s-1 and indicated an increasing pattern with increasing harvesting intensity. The slope of that pattern became less steep from the fifth to the sixth year after harvesting, thus indicating gradual recovery of soil carbon dynamics in the coppiced stand toward the equilibrium state existing before harvesting. Temperature sensitivity of soil CO2 efflux ranged between 2.1 and 2.8, with the lowest values measured in the control stand. Soil CO2 efflux in the control stand was more sensitive to changes in soil moisture than was that on harvested plots. By our calculations, 6.2 tC ha-1 was released from the control stand and 6.2-6.8 tC ha-1 from the harvested stands during the sixth year after harvesting. If mean temperature were to rise by 1 °C, the amount of soil carbon released would increase by 7.7% in the control stand and, depending on harvesting intensity, by 9.0-10.8% in the harvested stands.

  13. Calibration and assessment of seasonal changes in leaf area index of a tropical dry forest in different stages of succession.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalácska, M; Calvo-Alvarado, J C; Sánchez-Azofeifa, G A

    2005-06-01

    A simple measure of the amount of foliage present in a forest is leaf area index (LAI; the amount of foliage per unit ground surface area), which can be determined by optical estimation (gap fraction method) with an instrument such as the Li-Cor LAI-2000 Plant Canopy Analyzer. However, optical instruments such as the LAI-2000 cannot directly differentiate between foliage and woody components of the canopy. Studies investigating LAI and its calibration (extracting foliar LAI from optical estimates) in tropical forests are rare. We calibrated optical estimates of LAI from the LAI-2000 with leaf litter data for a tropical dry forest. We also developed a robust method for determining LAI from leaf litter data in a tropical dry forest environment. We found that, depending on the successional stage of the canopy and the season, the LAI-2000 may underestimate LAI by 17% to over 40%. In the dry season, the instrument overestimated LAI by the contribution of the woody area index. Examination of the seasonal variation in LAI for three successional stages in a tropical dry forest indicated differences in timing of leaf fall according to successional stage and functional group (i.e., lianas and trees). We conclude that when calculating LAI from optical estimates, it is necessary to account for the differences between values obtained from optical and semi-direct techniques. In addition, to calculate LAI from litter collected in traps, specific leaf area must be calculated for each species rather than from a mean value for multiple species. PMID:15805093

  14. Quantifying Forest Spatial Pattern Trends at Multiple Extents: An Approach to Detect Significant Changes at Different Scales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludovico Frate

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available We propose a procedure to detect significant changes in forest spatial patterns and relevant scales. Our approach consists of four sequential steps. First, based on a series of multi-temporal forest maps, a set of geographic windows of increasing extents are extracted. Second, for each extent and date, specific stochastic simulations that replicate real-world spatial pattern characteristics are run. Third, by computing pattern metrics on both simulated and real maps, their empirical distributions and confidence intervals are derived. Finally, multi-temporal scalograms are built for each metric. Based on cover maps (1954, 2011 with a resolution of 10 m we analyze forest pattern changes in a central Apennines (Italy reserve at multiple spatial extents (128, 256 and 512 pixels. We identify three types of multi-temporal scalograms, depending on pattern metric behaviors, describing different dynamics of natural reforestation process. The statistical distribution and variability of pattern metrics at multiple extents offers a new and powerful tool to detect forest variations over time. Similar procedures can (i help to identify significant changes in spatial patterns and provide the bases to relate them to landscape processes; (ii minimize the bias when comparing pattern metrics at a single extent and (iii be extended to other landscapes and scales.

  15. Soil Enzyme Activity Changes in Different-Aged Spruce Forests of the Eastern Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Yong-Mei; ZHOU Guo-Yi; WU Ning; BAO Wei-Kai

    2004-01-01

    Activities of selected soil enzymes (invertase, acid phosphatase, proteinase, catalase, peroxidase and polyphenoloxidase) were determined under different spruce forests with restoration histories of 5, 13, 18, 23, 27 years and an old growth forest over 400 years old in the eastern Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau, China, and their possible use as indicators of ecosystems health were analyzed. Plots 10 × 10 m with 4 replications were established to investigate three hypotheses: soil enzyme activities a) would increase with the restoration process; b) would be greater in surface soils than at lower depths; and c)would be correlated to selected physicochemical properties. Results showed that as the forests developed after restoration,invertase and peroxidase activities usually increased up to the 23 year point. Also soil enzyme activities were associated with surface soils and decreased with depths, suggesting that in earlier restoration stages surface addition of organic fertilizer to soils might be more effective than additions at depth. In the 0-20 cm soil, there were significant correlations (P < 0.01 or < 0.05) between some soil enzyme activities and some selected chemical properties. Therefore, temporal changes in enzyme activities should be included as an indicator when evaluating sustainable forest management practices.

  16. Comparison of different real time VOC measurement techniques in a ponderosa pine forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Kaser

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Volatile organic compound (VOC mixing ratios measured by five independent instruments are compared at a forested site dominated by ponderosa pine (Pinus Ponderosa during the BEACHON-ROCS field study in summer 2010. The instruments included a Proton Transfer Reaction Time of Flight Mass Spectrometer (PTR-TOF-MS, a Proton Transfer Reaction Quadrupole Mass Spectrometer (PTR-MS, a Fast Online Gas-Chromatograph coupled to a Mass Spectrometer (GC/MS; TOGA, a Thermal Dissociation Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometer (PAN-CIMS and a Fiber Laser-Induced Fluorescence Instrument (FILIF. The species discussed in this comparison include the most important biogenic VOCs and a selected suite of oxygenated VOCs that are thought to dominate the VOC reactivity at this particular site as well as typical anthropogenic VOCs that showed low mixing ratios at this site. Good agreement was observed for methanol, the sum of the oxygenated hemiterpene 2-methyl-3-buten-2-ol (MBO and the hemiterpene isoprene, acetaldehyde, the sum of acetone and propanal, benzene and the sum of methyl ethyl ketone (MEK and butanal. Measurements of the above VOCs conducted by different instruments agree within 20%. The ability to differentiate the presence of toluene and cymene by PTR-TOF-MS is tested based on a comparison with GC-MS measurements, suggesting a study-average relative contribution of 74% for toluene and 26% for cymene. Similarly, 2-hydroxy-2-methylpropanal (HMPR is found to interfere with the sum of methyl vinyl ketone and methacrolein (MVK+MAC using PTR-(TOF-MS at this site. A study-average relative contribution of 85% for MVK+MAC and 15% for HMPR was determined. The sum of monoterpenes measured by PTR-MS and PTR-TOF-MS was generally 20–25% higher than the sum of speciated monoterpenes measured by TOGA, which included α-pinene, β-pinene, camphene, carene, myrcene, limonene, cineole as well as other terpenes. However, this difference is consistent throughout the

  17. Comparison of different real time VOC measurement techniques in a ponderosa pine forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Kaser

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Volatile organic compound (VOC mixing ratios measured by five independent instruments are compared at a forested site dominated by ponderosa pine (Pinus Ponderosa during the BEACHON-ROCS field study in summer 2010. The instruments included a Proton Transfer Reaction Time of Flight Mass Spectrometer (PTR-TOF-MS, a Proton Transfer Reaction Quadrupole Mass Spectrometer (PTR-MS, a Fast Online Gas-Chromatograph coupled to a Mass Spectrometer (GC/MS; TOGA, a Thermal Dissociation Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometer (PAN-CIMS and a Fiber Laser-Induced Fluorescence Instrument (FILIF. The species discussed in this comparison include the most important biogenic VOCs and a selected suite of oxygenated VOCs that are thought to dominate the VOC reactivity at this particular site as well as typical anthropogenic VOCs that showed low mixing ratios at this site. Good agreement was observed for methanol, the sum of the oxygenated hemiterpene 2-methyl-3-buten-2-ol (MBO and the hemiterpene isoprene, acetaldehyde, the sum of acetone and propanal, benzene and the sum of methyl ethyl ketone (MEK and butanal. Measurements of the above VOCs conducted by different instruments agree within 20%. The ability to differentiate the presence of toluene and cymene by PTR-TOF-MS is tested based on a comparison with GC-MS measurements, suggesting a study-average relative contribution of 74% for toluene and 26% for cymene. Similarly, 2-hydroxy-2-methylpropanal (HMPR is found to interfere with the sum of methyl vinyl ketone and methacrolein (MVK + MAC using PTR-(TOF-MS at this site. A study-average relative contribution of 85% for MVK + MAC and 15% for HMPR was determined. The sum of monoterpenes measured by PTR-MS and PTR-TOF-MS was generally 20–25% higher than the sum of speciated monoterpenes measured by TOGA, which included α-pinene, β-pinene, camphene, carene, myrcene, limonene, cineole as well as other terpenes. However, this difference is consistent throughout the study

  18. 广东南岭国家级自然保护森林景观格局分析%Analysis of Forest Landscape Pattern in Nanling National Nature Reserve, Guangdong

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    廖芳均; 何嘉

    2013-01-01

    [Objective] The study was to analyze the forest landscape in Nanling Na-tional Nature Reserve to provide information for the protection of local forest ecosys-tems. [Method] With the documents of 1∶10 000 topographic maps, updated Forest Resource Inventory Data, based on the GIS platform and Fragstats software, the paper analyzed the patterns and heterogeneity of forest landscapes by adopting the landscape ecological theory and the method of landscape index. [Result] The forest landscape types, in terms of area occupation from large to smal , are in the order of evergreen broad-leaved forest, coniferous mixed forest, evergreen and deciduous broad-leaved mixed forest, shrubs, mixed needle leaf forest, suitable land for forest deciduous broad-leaved forest and non-forest. [Conclusion] Overal , the Reserve had maintained sufficient forest landscape diversity with a low level fragmentation. The distribution of various types of forest landscape was extremely uneven, dominated by several types such as evergreen broad-leaved forest, coniferous forest, etc.%[目的]分析南岭国家级自然保护区森林景观格局,为该保护区的森林生态系统的保护提供支持。[方法]以1∶10000地形图、森林资源二类调查数据和实地补充调查数据为基础资料,基于GIS平台和 Fragstats软件,运用景观生态学原理和景观指数分析方法,对研究区内森林景观的格局和异质性进行分析。[结果]森林景观类型面积大小依次为常绿阔叶林、针叶林、针阔混交林、阔叶混交林、灌丛、针叶混交林、宜林地、落叶阔叶林和非林地。[结论]研究区域森林景观格局分析表明,保护区景观异质性较高,连通性较好,破碎化程度不明显,各景观组分的面积和比例分布极不均衡,常绿阔叶林和针叶林等少数几种组分在景观中占绝对优势。

  19. Gap phase regeneration recruitment of mixed conifer-broadleaf forests in Wolong Nature Reserve

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Juan YANG; Jianping GE; Lijuan LIU; Yi DING; Yingchun TAN

    2009-01-01

    Wolong Nature Reserve is the largest reserve for protecting the endangered wild giant panda. Due to historical factors, even in many sections of the core protection area, the forests have been seriously destroyed and natural forests are poorly restored. However, the relative importance of the determinants for recruitment of communities under disturbance is rarely explored. In our study the endogenous and exterior factors in a forest gap that affect the conifer-broad-leaved mixed forest regeneration were investigated near Wuyipeng, one of the observation stations at Wolong, to explore which determinant had the greatest effect on gap regeneration and to discover the recruitment of seedling establishment in forest gaps. With a linear sampling method, environmental factors, gap characteristics and recruitment of new individuals were measured and examined in every forest gap along three sampling lines. Data of environmental factors in the gaps were collected for a Pearson correlation analysis in order to explore the disturbance and prepro-cessed characteristics of the gaps, using principal component analysis in SPSS. Correlation analysis was applied to further explore the relationship between changes in the gaps and the response of the regenerating seedlings. The results show that a range of natural and human disturbances affected the pattern and characteristics of the forest gaps in this area. The richness in the composition of the seedlings was higher than that of gap makers, but the order of dominance of the composition was different between seedlings and gap makers. The success of dominant species in establishing themselves was affected by different environmental factors. For instance, the establishment of Betula spp. was correlated significantly with topographic factors, while that of Abies faxoniana was affected by soil characteristics and that of Rhododendron spp. correlated significantly with topographic factors and characteristics of gap makers. Moreover, all

  20. Soil Water Contents of Different Vegetation Types in the Ecotone between Dry-hot Valleys and Mountain Forest in the Upper Reaches of the Minjiang River%岷江上游山地森林/干旱河谷交错带几种植被类型土壤含水量研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡天钧; 周义贵; 冯毅; 宋鹏

    2011-01-01

    The soil water content is an important mark of the soil quality. It affects not only the physicochemical properties hut also distribution and absorption of mineral nutrients of plant, and at the same time it has the influence on the change of soil heat flux. The drying method and cutting-ring method were used to determine the physical properties of soil, and emphasis was to know the change of 0 - 40cm soil water content under different vegetation types in this area. Through determining soil water content in April, July, September and November, the results showed that the soil water content reached maximum value in September under the same vegetation types except the shrub land, and displayed positive correlation with the rainy season of this area, under the shrub land it continued to increase from April to November in 2007. In the same month,the status of soil water content under different vegetation types was: secondary forest 〉 Populus mixed with Salix 〉 shrub land 〉 needle-broad leaved mixed forest 〉 black locust forest 〉 steep waste land 〉 fiat waste land 〉 Cupressus chengiana forest, but in September and November, the soil water content under the shrub land was more than that under the other vegetation types.%采用烘干法和环刀法对土壤物理性质进行了测定,目的是为了重点了解岷江上游山地森林/干旱河谷交错带的不同植被类型下0~40cm土壤含水量的变化。经过2007年4月、7月、9月、11月四个不同时期的测定,结果表明:同一植被类型下(除灌木林地)土壤含水量9月份的最大,与当地的雨季呈现同增同减的关系,而灌木林地下的呈现从4月到11月的持续增加的变化。在同一月份中,不同植被下的土壤含水状况为:次生林地〉杨柳混交林地〉灌木林地〉针阔混交林地〉刺槐林地〉陡荒地〉平荒地〉岷江柏林地的变化关系,但是在9月和11月中,灌木林地下的

  1. Differences in arthropod communities between island and inland Masson pine forests infested by pine wilt disease in Zhejiang Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Hai-wei; LUO You-qing; SHI Juan; YAN Xiao-su; CHEN Wei-ping; JIANG Ping

    2008-01-01

    The invasion of Bursaphelenchus xylophilus (pine wood nematode, PWN) carried by Monochamus alternatus predominately attacks Masson pine (Pinus massoniana) forests and causes great economic losses in China. In this study, we assessed whether the effect of the invasion of PWN is different between island and inland forests. Arthropods were sampled in Fuyang (inland) and Zhoushan (island) counties in Zhejiang Province with sweep netting and light traps at four plots. During two field periods (May to June 2004 and September to October 2005) a total of 21,916 insects, representing 384 species belonging to 99 families and 15 orders,were collected in the sample plots from the island, whereas, from the inland forest a total of 29,262 insects, representing 308 species belonging to 96 families and 13 orders, were found. A hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) and one-way ANOVA, based on the composition of different arthropod guilds, were performed. The results showed that there was no significant difference in the composition of arthropod communities at the family level between inland and island. But these two habitats had a significant effect on the composition of species, individuals, sub-communities and energy class levels. Statistically, the composition of the two orders, Lepidoptera and Diptera, in the two habitats were significantly different.

  2. Effects of precipitation on soil acid phosphatase activity in three successional forests in southern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Huang

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Phosphorus (P is often a limiting nutrient for plant growth in tropical and subtropical forests. Global climate change has led to alterations in precipitation in the recent years, which inevitably influences P cycling. Soil acid phosphatase plays a vital role in controlling P mineralization, and its activity reflects the capacity of organic P mineralization potential in soils. In order to study the effects of precipitation on soil acid phosphatase activity, an experiment with precipitation treatments (no precipitation, natural precipitation and doubled precipitation in three successional forests in southern China was carried out. The three forests include Masson pine forest (MPF, coniferous and broad-leaved mixed forest (MF and monsoon evergreen broad-leaved forest (MEBF. Results showed that driven by seasonality of precipitation, changes in soil acid phosphatase activities coincided with the seasonal climate pattern, with significantly higher values in the wet season than in the dry season. Soil acid phosphatase activities were closely linked to forest successional stages, with enhanced values in the later stages of forest succession. In the dry season, soil acid phosphatase activities in the three forests showed a rising trend with increasing precipitation treatments. In the wet season, soil acid phosphatase activity was depressed by no precipitation treatment in the three forests. However, doubled precipitation treatment exerted a significantly negative effect on it only in MEBF. These results indicate that the potential transformation rate of organic P might be more dependent on water in the dry season than in the wet season. A decrease in organic P turnover would occur in the three forests if there was a drought in a whole year in the future. More rainfall in the wet season would also be adverse to organic P turnover in MEBF due to its high soil moisture.

  3. Leaf