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Sample records for broad-bandwidth backscattering spectra

  1. A method for the possible species discrimination of juvenile gadoids by broad-bandwidth backscattering spectra vs. angle of incidence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundgren, Bo; Nielsen, J. Rasmus

    2008-01-01

    Measurements were made of the broad-bandwidth (80-220 kHz) acoustic backscattering from free-swimming juvenile gadoids at various orientations and positions in an acoustic beam, under controlled conditions. The experimental apparatus consisted of a stereo-video camera system, a broad-bandwidth ec......Measurements were made of the broad-bandwidth (80-220 kHz) acoustic backscattering from free-swimming juvenile gadoids at various orientations and positions in an acoustic beam, under controlled conditions. The experimental apparatus consisted of a stereo-video camera system, a broad......-bandwidth echosounder and echo-processor system, a narrowband 120 kHz split-beam echosounder, a large tank, and a fishnet cage. The net cage was centred on the acoustic beams and was virtually transparent, both acoustically and optically. Accurate three-dimensional positions and angular orientations of individual fish......, alignment of acoustic and optical-reference frames, and automatic position-fitting of fish models to manually marked fix-points on fish images. The software also performs Fourier spectrum analysis and pulse-shape analysis of broad-bandwidth echoes. Therefore, several measurement series on free...

  2. Experimental spectra unfolding of fast ion backscattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Problems on processing of experimental spectra of fast light ion backscattering are considered to obtain information about element composition in thin films and surface layers of solids. Application of mathematical processing of the spectra is shown to allow considerably to improve analytical characteristics of the ion backscattering method and to expand the field for its application

  3. Techniques in molecular spectroscopy: from broad bandwidth to high resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cossel, Kevin C.

    This thesis presents a range of different experiments all seeking to extended the capabilities of molecular spectroscopy and enable new applications. The new technique of cavity-enhanced direct frequency comb spectroscopy (CE-DFCS) provides a unique combination of broad bandwidth, high resolution, and high sensitivity that can be useful for a wide range of applications. Previous demonstrations of CE-DFCS were confined to the visible or near-infrared and operated over a limited bandwidth: for many applications it is desirable to increase the spectral coverage and to extend to the mid-infrared where strong, fundamental vibrational modes of molecules occur. There are several key requirements for CE-DFCS: a frequency comb source that provides broad bandwidth and high resolution, an optical cavity for high sensitivity, and a detection system capable of multiplex detection of the comb spectrum transmitted through the cavity. We first discuss comb sources with emphasis on the coherence properties of spectral broadening in nonlinear fiber and the development of a high-power frequency comb source in the mid-infrared based on an optical-parametric oscillator (OPO). To take advantage of this new mid-infrared comb source for spectroscopy, we also discuss the development of a rapid-scan Fourier-transform spectrometer (FTS). We then discuss the first demonstration of CE-DFCS with spectrally broadened light from a highly nonlinear fiber with the application to measurements of impurities in semiconductor manufacturing gases. We also cover our efforts towards extending CE-DFCS to the mid-infrared using the mid-infrared OPO and FTS to measure ppb levels of various gases important for breath analysis and atmospheric chemistry and highlight some future applications of this system. In addition to the study of neutral molecules, broad-bandwidth and high-resolution spectra of molecular ions are useful for astrochemistry where many of the observed molecules are ionic, for studying

  4. Ultra-broad bandwidth parametric amplification at degeneracy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limpert, J; Aguergaray, C; Montant, S; Manek-Hönninger, I; Petit, S; Descamps, D; Cormier, E; Salin, F

    2005-09-19

    We report on a novel approach of ultra-broad bandwidth parametric amplification around degeneracy. A bandwidth of up to 400 nm centered around 800 nm is amplified in a BBO crystal by using chirped pump pulses with a bandwitdth as broad as 10 nm. A supercontinuum signal is generated in a microstructured fiber, having to first order a quadratic chirp, which is necessary to ensure temporal overlap of the interacting waves over this broad bandwidth. Furthermore, we discuss the potential of this approach for an octave-spanning parametric amplification. PMID:19498762

  5. Interactive computer analysis of nuclear backscattering spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A review will be made of computer-based interactive nuclear backscattering analysis system. Users without computer experience can develop moderate competence with the system after only brief instruction because of the menu-driven organization. Publishable quality figures can be obtained without any computer expertise. Among the quantities which can be displayed over the data are depth scales for any element, element identification, relative concentrations and theoretical spectra. Captions and titling can made from a selection of 30 font styles. Lettering is put on the graphs umder joy-stick control such that placement is exact without needing complicated commands. (orig.)

  6. Amplifying modeling for broad bandwidth pulse in Nd:glass based on hybrid-broaden mechanism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sujingqin; Lanqin, L; Wenyi, W; Feng, J; Xiaofeng, W; Xiaomin, Z [Research Center of Laser Fusion, China Academy of Engineering Physics, P. O. Box 919-988, Mianyang, China, 621900 (China); Bin, L [School of Computer and Communication Engineering, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu. China, 610031 (China)], E-mail: sujingqin@tom.com

    2008-05-15

    In this paper, the cross relaxation time is proposed to combine the homogeneous and inhomogeneous broaden mechanism for broad bandwidth pulse amplification model. The corresponding velocity equation, which can describe the response of inverse population on upper and low energy level of gain media to different frequency of pulse, is also put forward. The gain saturation and energy relaxation effect are also included in the velocity equation. Code named CPAP has been developed to simulate the amplifying process of broad bandwidth pulse in multi-pass laser system. The amplifying capability of multi-pass laser system is evaluated and gain narrowing and temporal shape distortion are also investigated when bandwidth of pulse and cross relaxation time of gain media are different. Results can benefit the design of high-energy PW laser system in LFRC, CAEP.

  7. Amplifying modeling for broad bandwidth pulse in Nd:glass based on hybrid-broaden mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, J.; Liu, L.; Luo, B.; Wang, W.; Jing, F.; Wei, X.; Zhang, X.

    2008-05-01

    In this paper, the cross relaxation time is proposed to combine the homogeneous and inhomogeneous broaden mechanism for broad bandwidth pulse amplification model. The corresponding velocity equation, which can describe the response of inverse population on upper and low energy level of gain media to different frequency of pulse, is also put forward. The gain saturation and energy relaxation effect are also included in the velocity equation. Code named CPAP has been developed to simulate the amplifying process of broad bandwidth pulse in multi-pass laser system. The amplifying capability of multi-pass laser system is evaluated and gain narrowing and temporal shape distortion are also investigated when bandwidth of pulse and cross relaxation time of gain media are different. Results can benefit the design of high-energy PW laser system in LFRC, CAEP.

  8. Amplifying modeling for broad bandwidth pulse in Nd:glass based on hybrid-broaden mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, the cross relaxation time is proposed to combine the homogeneous and inhomogeneous broaden mechanism for broad bandwidth pulse amplification model. The corresponding velocity equation, which can describe the response of inverse population on upper and low energy level of gain media to different frequency of pulse, is also put forward. The gain saturation and energy relaxation effect are also included in the velocity equation. Code named CPAP has been developed to simulate the amplifying process of broad bandwidth pulse in multi-pass laser system. The amplifying capability of multi-pass laser system is evaluated and gain narrowing and temporal shape distortion are also investigated when bandwidth of pulse and cross relaxation time of gain media are different. Results can benefit the design of high-energy PW laser system in LFRC, CAEP

  9. Broad-bandwidth and low-loss metamaterials:theory, design and realization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Le-wei; YAO Hai-ying; WU Qun; CHEN Zhi-ning

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we summarize some recent activities in the field ofmetamaterial research at the National University of Singapore (NUS). Integral equations are applied for electromagnetic modelling of supernatural materials. Some special characteristics of the metamaterials are shown. Moreover, quasi-static Lorentz theory and numerical method (i.e., the method of moments for solving the electric field integral equation) and the transmission line theory are both presented to obtain the effective constitutive relations of metamaterials, respectively. Finally, feasibility of fabricating metamaterials based on analysis of equivalent transmission line model in the microwave spectrum and even higher is also shown and correspondingly some broad-bandwidth and low-loss metamaterial structures are designed and synthesized.

  10. Mode-size converter with high coupling efficiency and broad bandwidth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Qing; Song, Junfeng; Luo, Xianshu; Yu, Mingbin; Lo, Guoqiang; Liu, Yuliang

    2011-10-24

    An ultralow coupling loss and broad bandwidth fiber-to-waveguide mode-size converter is demonstrated for nano-scale waveguides on SOI platform using CMOS technology in this paper. The mode-size converter consists of a cantilevered PECVD SiO(2) waveguide and a-Si nano-tapers by removing the adjacent SiO(2) layer and underlying substrate Si. The a-Si waveguide is located at the center of the cantilevered SiO(2) waveguide. We characterized the cantilevered mode-size converter using cleaved optical single mode fiber with 10.5 µm mode field diameter. With refractive index (1.375) matching oil, the measured coupling efficiencies between the cleaved optical fiber and this converter are higher than 80% per facet and 70% per facet for TE and TM modes at 1600 nm, respectively. The polarization dependent loss and the coupling loss variation of this converter are less than 1.0 dB at the wavelength range of 1520~1640 nm. The 1-dB bandwidths for both TE and TM modes are more than 120 nm. The alignment tolerances for TE and TM modes are ± 2.8 µm and ± 2.1 µm at 1-dB excess loss in horizontal direction and vertical direction, respectively. PMID:22109007

  11. Analysis of ion-implanted surface and interface structures by computer-simulated backscattering spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Computer codes for synthesizing random and channeling backscattering spectra have been elaborated to characterize the surface and interface structures formed or modified by ion implantation. Both effects of isotopes and energy fluctuation are taken into account in the spectrum simulation. This backscattering measurement combined with the simulation method is applied to characterization of the Ni+-implanted Al films and to quantitative analysis of chemical reaction and interdiffusion induced by ion-beam mixing. An ion-beam-induced damage profile and its epitaxial recovery of crystallinity are analyzed by the simulation of channeling spectra from ion-implanted Al2O3 substrates

  12. Investigation of electron spectra backscattered from polyethylene-terephthalate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Complete text of publication follows. Recently, guiding of medium energy electrons (a few hundred eV) through insulating polyethylene-terephthalate (PET) capillaries was observed. The poorly characterized spatial structure and, even more challenging, local charge-up of the material pose consideration of difficulties for a microscopic treatment of electron transport through PET. In order to identify the processes giving rise to guiding we investigate scattering from a flat PET surface both experimentally and theoretically. Reflection electron energy loss (REEL) and elastic peak electron spectra (EPES) were taken using a high-energy, high-resolution, home built ESA-31 electron spectrometer. Primary electron energies range from 200 eV to 1000 eV. The cleanliness of sample surfaces was monitored analyzing X-ray photoelectron spectra. Photoelectrons were excited using the K(α)1-line of Al (1486,67 eV). To interpret our experimental data, classical-transport simulations were performed to obtain electron-energy loss spectra, angular distributions, and the secondary-electron (SEE) yield for PET. Apart from elastic and inelastic scattering processes along the trajectory within the target material we also include the effect of charge-up of the surface based on the SEE yield of previously scattered trajectories which leads to a partial suppression of electron emission in later stages of the simulation. The inelastic mean free path (IMFP) of electrons in PET was determined from EPES spectra using Cu and Ni standards. Experimentally obtained IMFPs were compared with theoretical predictions derived from optical data. As Figure 1 shows good agreement between measured and simulated energy loss spectra is found

  13. Magnetic aspect angle dependence of spectra from coherent radio aurora backscatter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1981, a multiple path radar system was operated on the Canadian prairies with three 50-MHz transmitters and two receivers all separately located such as to establish six backscatter links. The radar beams illuminated the same scatter volume in the ionospheric E layer. Four of these links produced coherent backscatter signals from 3-m wavelength irregularities under different magnetic aspect angles ranging from 1.5 degree to 5.9 degree (reference height 110 km), but under almost identical drift flow angles. The radars were operated in the CW mode which yielded high time and spectral resolution but only moderate spatial resolution. In order to avoid confusion between spectral peaks from different locations within the backscatter volume, only single peaked spectra have been analyzed and compared. The Doppler shifts of both type I and type II spectra exhibit an aspect angle dependence which is much weaker than that predicted by existing linear and nonlinear theories

  14. Relaxor-PT single crystals for broad bandwidth, high power sonar projectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherlock, Nevin P.

    2010-06-01

    The high piezoelectric response of the ferroelectric relaxor (1 - x)Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3 - xPbTiO3 (PMNT) in single crystal form has generated significant interest in producing broad bandwidth SONAR systems. Both the piezoelectric coefficient (d33 > 2000 pC/N) and coupling coefficient (k33 > 0.90) are superior to those of conventional piezoelectric ceramics. Within the context of a high power acoustic projector, its high losses and low temperature stability have limited its development. Second generation single crystals with compositions modified from the base PMNT have been recently developed to decrease the electromechanical losses and mitigate the thermal property dependence. In this work, the electromechanical properties were measured using single crystals which have been modified in various ways. The modified crystals exhibit electromechanically "hard" behavior with lower losses (tan delta = 0.1--0.2% and QM = 230--950) than unmodified PMNT (tan delta = 0.26% and QM = 190). The measured d33 values of modified single crystals (d33 = 760--1490 pm/V) are also lower than unmodified PMNT (d33 = 1540 pm/V), but the lower piezoelectric response is compensated by the greater stability of the modified single crystals. These modified single crystal properties were also compared to conventional high power piezoelectric ceramics ( d33 = 240 pm/V and QM = 1050) to show similar losses but significantly greater response in the modified PMNT single crystals. Although most piezoelectric materials are measured under small signal conditions (small signal defined by a completely linear relationship between the input and output signals), the high power nature of SONAR projectors demands that these modified single crystals also be evaluated under high power conditions. A test procedure was developed to measure the electromechanical properties of each material as a function of applied electric field over a frequency range which includes the resonance frequency. Modified single crystals

  15. Analytical Model of Doppler Spectra of Light Backscattered from Rotating Convex Bodies of Revolution in the Global Cartesian Coordinate System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GONG Yan-Jun; WU Zhen-Sen; WU Jia-Ji

    2009-01-01

    We present an analytical model of Doppler spectra in backscattering from arbitrary rough convex bodies of revolution rotating around their axes in the global Cartesian coordinate system. This analytical model is applied to analyse Doppler spectra in backscatter from two cones and two cylinders, as well as two ellipsoids of revolution. We numerically analyse the influences of attitude and geometry size of objects on Doppler spectra. The analytical model can give contribution of the surface roughness, attitude and geometry size of convex bodies of revolution to Doppler spectra and may contribute to laser Doppler velocimetry as well as ladar applications.

  16. Design of high-efficiency broad-bandwidth pulse compression device based on composite transmission grating with high damage threshold

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xinrong; Li, Chaoming; Liu, Linyue; Li, Lin; Wu, Jianhong; Chang, Zenghu

    2014-11-01

    A novel pulse compression device has been developed for femto-second Ti: sapphire laser at 800nm center wavelength with 700nm~900nm bandwidth. This new kind of composite pulse compression device consists of two fused silica transmission gratings with 1250lp/mm and 3300lp/mm respectively and these two fused silica transmission gratings are located in two optical surfaces of the same fused silica plate. Owing to use anti-reflection transmission gratings with high space frequency (3300lp/mm), it can avoid the wave-front distort derived from coating antireflection film on one surface of the fused silica plate. Being made of fused silica, this new composite pulse compression device will be expected to have high laser damage threshold. The calculation results show that: the -1st order diffraction efficiency of 1250lp/mm grating is over 87% within the 700nm and 900nm broad-bandwidth for rectangular groove and TE polarization state. And the average diffraction efficiency within the 700nm and 900nm broad-bandwidth is more than 92%. At 800nm, the -1st transmitted order diffraction efficiency is great to 96% while the transmittance of 3300lp/mm grating is up to 99.9%.

  17. Validation of neutron data libraries by backscattered spectra of Pu-Be Neutrons

    CERN Document Server

    El-Agib, I

    1999-01-01

    Elastically backscattered spectra of Pu-Be neutrons have been measured for SiO sub 2 , water, graphite, paraffin oil and Al slabs using a proton recoil spectrometer. The results were compared with the calculated spectra obtained by the three-dimensional Monte-Carlo transport code MCNP-4B and point-wise cross sections from the ENDF/B-V, ENDF/B-VI, JENDL-3.1 and BROND-2 data libraries. The good agreement between the measured and calculated results indicates that this procedure can be used for validation of different data libraries. This simple method renders possible the detection of oxygen, carbon and hydrogen in bulk samples. (author)

  18. Broad-bandwidth near-shot-noise-limited intensity noise suppression of a single-frequency fiber laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Qilai; Xu, Shanhui; Zhou, Kaijun; Yang, Changsheng; Li, Can; Feng, Zhouming; Peng, Mingying; Deng, Huaqiu; Yang, Zhongmin

    2016-04-01

    A significant broad-bandwidth near-shot-noise-limited intensity noise suppression of a single-frequency fiber laser is demonstrated based on a semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA) with optoelectronic feedback. By exploiting the gain saturation effect of the SOA and the intensity feedback loop, a maximum noise suppression of over 50 dB around the relaxation oscillation frequencies and a suppression bandwidth of up to 50 MHz are obtained. The relative intensity noise of -150  dB/Hz in the frequency range from 0.8 kHz to 50 MHz is achieved, which approaches the shot-noise limit. The obtained optical signal-to-noise ratio is more than 70 dB. This near-shot-noise-limited laser source shows important implications for the advanced fields of high-precision frequency stabilization, quantum key distribution, and gravitational wave detection. PMID:27192229

  19. Mineralogy of SNC Meteorite EET79001 by Simultaneous Fitting of Moessbauer Backscatter Spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Richard V.; Agresti, D. G.

    2010-01-01

    We have acquired M ssbauer spectra for SNC meteorite EET79001 with a MIMOS II backscatter M ssbauer spectrometer [1] similar to those now operating on Mars as part of the Mars Exploration Rover (MER) missions. We are working to compare the Fe mineralogical composition of martian meteorites with in-situ measurements on Mars. Our samples were hand picked from the >1 mm size fraction of saw fines on the basis of lithology, color, and grain size (Table 1). The chips were individually analyzed at approx.300K by placing them on a piece of plastic that was in turn supported by the contact ring of the instrument (oriented vertically). Tungsten foil was used to mask certain areas from analysis. As shown in Figure 1, a variety of spectra was obtained, each resulting from different relative contributions of the Fe-bearing minerals present in the sample. Because the nine samples are reasonably mixtures of the same Fe-bearing phases in variable proportions, the nine spectra were fit simultaneously (simfit) with a common model, adjusting parameters to a single minimum chi-squared convergence criterion [2]. The starting point for the fitting model and values of hyperfine parameters was the work of Solberg and Burns [3], who identified olivine, pyroxene, and ferrous glass as major, and ilmenite and a ferric phase as minor (<5%), Fe-bearing phases in EET79001.

  20. Artificial neural networks for instantaneous analysis of real-time Rutherford backscattering spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports on the advantage of using artificial neural networks (ANNs) to analyze large sets of real-time Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS) data. Real-time RBS, i.e. collecting RBS spectra at periodic time intervals during a thermal treatment, probes the full response of a thin film to the annealing in situ. Although very valuable insights can be gained by this technique, the time-consuming analysis of the vast amount of RBS spectra acquired during real-time RBS measurements has so far prevented the widespread use of real-time RBS. Setting up an ANN is quite an intensive process as well, but once trained, these ANNs can handle the analysis of large data sets practically instantaneously. As such, the beneficial combination of real-time RBS and ANN analysis forms a perfect synergy. In this test case, a network was trained and applied to analyze the Ni silicide growth during annealing of a thin 80 nm Ni film on Si(1 0 0). The ANN performance was validated by comparing the ANN results with the conventional analysis performed on the same data set.

  1. Artificial neural networks for instantaneous analysis of real-time Rutherford backscattering spectra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demeulemeester, J., E-mail: Jelle.Demeulemeester@fys.kuleuven.b [Instituut voor Kern- en Stralingsfysica and INPAC, K.U. Leuven, Celestijnenlaan 200D, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Smeets, D. [Instituut voor Kern- en Stralingsfysica and INPAC, K.U. Leuven, Celestijnenlaan 200D, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Barradas, N.P. [Instituto Tecnologico e Nuclear, Estrada Nacional 10, Apartado 21, 2686-953 Sacavem (Portugal); Centro de Fisica Nuclear da Universidade de Lisboa, Av. Prof. Gama Pinto 2, 1699 Lisboa Codex (Portugal); Vieira, A. [Instituto Superior de Engenharia do Porto, Rua S. Tome, 4200 Porto (Portugal); Comrie, C.M. [Department of Physics, University of Cape Town, Rondebosch 7700 (South Africa); Temst, K.; Vantomme, A. [Instituut voor Kern- en Stralingsfysica and INPAC, K.U. Leuven, Celestijnenlaan 200D, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium)

    2010-05-15

    This paper reports on the advantage of using artificial neural networks (ANNs) to analyze large sets of real-time Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS) data. Real-time RBS, i.e. collecting RBS spectra at periodic time intervals during a thermal treatment, probes the full response of a thin film to the annealing in situ. Although very valuable insights can be gained by this technique, the time-consuming analysis of the vast amount of RBS spectra acquired during real-time RBS measurements has so far prevented the widespread use of real-time RBS. Setting up an ANN is quite an intensive process as well, but once trained, these ANNs can handle the analysis of large data sets practically instantaneously. As such, the beneficial combination of real-time RBS and ANN analysis forms a perfect synergy. In this test case, a network was trained and applied to analyze the Ni silicide growth during annealing of a thin 80 nm Ni film on Si(1 0 0). The ANN performance was validated by comparing the ANN results with the conventional analysis performed on the same data set.

  2. Scale invariance and scaling law of Thomson backscatter spectra by electron moving in laser-magnetic resonance regime

    CERN Document Server

    Fu, Yi-Jia; Wan, Feng; Sang, Hai-Bo; Xie, Bai-Song

    2016-01-01

    The Thomson scattering spectra by an electron moving in the laser-magnetic resonance acceleration regime are computed numerically and analytically. The dependence of fundamental frequency on the laser intensity and magnetic resonance parameter is examined carefully. By calculating the emission of a single electron in a circularly polarized plane-wave laser field and constant external magnetic field, the scale invariance of the radiation spectra is evident in terms of harmonic orders. The scaling law of backscattered spectra are exhibited remarkably for the laser intensity as well for the initial axial momentum of the electron when the cyclotron frequency of the electron approaches the laser frequency. The results indicate that the magnetic resonance parameter plays an important role on the strength of emission. And the rich features of scattering spectra found may be applicable to the radiation source tunability.

  3. Design of Track/Hold (T/H) Circuit of Broad Bandwidth and High Speed Pipeline Structure ADC Based on the Super Frequency Application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ji-An Wang; Wei Li; Zhao-Ji Li

    2007-01-01

    A track/hold (T/H) circuit of broad bandwidth high speed pipeline structure ADC based on the super frequency application is designed in the paper.Some main factors affecting SNR of high speed ADC, such as aperture uncertainty, switch capacitor, and MOS switch,are analyzed. In the circuit, the fulldifferential structure and the bottom plate sampling technique are adopted to optimize the switch capacitors and MOS switches. The result based on the Spectre simulation on 0.35μm BiCMOS technology indicate that the aperture uncertainty,chargeinjection, and nonlinearity of clock feedthrough are considerably restrained and the performance of T/H circuit is enhanced

  4. Measurement of backscattered x-ray spectra at the water surface in the energy range 60 kV to 120 kV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoki, Kiyoshi; Koyama, Masaki

    2002-04-01

    Backscattered x-ray spectra at the water surface have been measured by using a small silicon diode detector. The measurements have been made at tube voltages 60 kV to 120 kV (HVL 2.4-6.1 mm Al) and field sizes 5 x 5 cm2 to 30 x 30 cm2. The measured spectra are corrected for detector distortion and for the angular dependence of detector efficiency. The obtained backscattered spectrum has a lower mean energy and a narrower shape than the primary spectrum. The ratio of the mean energy of the backscattered spectrum to that of the primary spectrum is between 0.83 and 0.94. The ratio of the spectrum width at 10% of the continuous spectrum maximum is between 0.65 and 0.78. The change of spectral shape due to the field size is slight. In the high-voltage spectra, the peak due to the Compton scattering of tungsten Kalpha x-rays is observed. The backscatter factors (BSFs) calculated from the obtained spectra show a satisfactory agreement with other studies. The difference between the BSF defined as the ratio of air kerma and the BSF defined as the ratio of water kerma is also calculated; the maximum difference is 0.43%. The empirical equation showing the relation between the two BSFs is presented. PMID:11996064

  5. Monte Carlo study of electron spectra and dose from backscattered radiation in the vicinity of media interfaces for monoenergetic photons of 50-1250 keV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the present paper electron fluence spectra and backscatter dose factors for monoenergetic photons (50, 100, 250 and 1250 keV) are presented. The influence of the atomic number of the backscatter materials glass, bone, steel and titanium is studied. For all radiations increases in dose were found in the immediate vicinity of the interface in a region extending over a distance determined by the photon energy. In a thin layer extending several tens of micrometers from the interface, a large increase in dose was found for 50 and 100 keV photons. The largest backscatter dose factor (3.5) was found for 50 keV photons and a steel interface. This large effect was found to be due largely to backscattered photoelectrons. K-shell fluorescent photons from titanium and steel were also included but were found to have almost no effect on backscatter dose factors or electron spectra. With both K-shell fluorescence and sampling of the photoelectron angular distribution switched off, much smaller backscatter factors were obtained. Beyond the thin region near the interface where the dose is increased, significant dose depressions were found for photons of these energies in a region extending several centimeters from the interface. The effect was maximum of 50 keV photons, for which dose depressions of about 35% for steel and titanium and 15% for glass and bone were obtained. For 250 and 1250 keV photons a more modest dose enhancement was found close to the interface (40-50%) but extending over a larger region (e.g. 5 mm for 1250 keV photons). Small differences in radiation quality nearer to the interface were found as expressed by track-averaged and dose-averaged restricted linear energy transfer, rvec LET1000,T and rvec LET100,D, with a maximum effect for the 100 keV photons. For this radiation quality a decrease of 50% in rvec LET100,T was found close to the interface. 29 refs., 4 figs

  6. Search for an anomalous near-surface yield deficit in Rutherford backscattering spectra from implanted germanium and silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rutherford backscattering and channelling analysis of high-dose, room-temperature, ion-implanted germanium has revealed an anomalous near-surface yield deficit. Implant dose and species dependencies and the effect of annealing have been examined. A marked loss of implanted impurity was also noted. The yield deficit is attributed to the absorption of oxygen and other light mass contaminants into a highly porous implanted layer upon exposure to air. Loss of implant species is attributed to enhanced sputtering effects

  7. Experiments for possible hydroacoustic discrimination of free-swimming juvenile gadoid fish by analysis of broadband pulse spectra as well as 3D fish position form video images and split beam acoustics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundgren, Bo; Nielsen, J. Rasmus

    Measurements were made of the broad-bandwidth (80–220 kHz) acoustic backscattering from free-swimming juvenile gadoids at various orientations and positions in an acoustic beam, under controlled conditions. The experimental apparatus consisted of a stereo-video camera system, a broad-bandwidth ec......Measurements were made of the broad-bandwidth (80–220 kHz) acoustic backscattering from free-swimming juvenile gadoids at various orientations and positions in an acoustic beam, under controlled conditions. The experimental apparatus consisted of a stereo-video camera system, a broad...... were estimated from stereo-images captured synchronously when broad-bandwidth echoes were received from passing fish. Fish positions were also estimated from data collected with a synchronized split-beam echosounder. Software was developed for image analysis and modelling, including calibration......, alignment of acoustic and optical-reference frames, and automatic position-fitting of fish models to manually marked fix-points on fish images. The software also performs Fourier spectrum analysis and pulse-shape analysis of broad-bandwidth echoes. Therefore, several measurement series on free-swimming...

  8. Dynamic coherent backscattering mirror

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeylikovich, I.; Xu, M., E-mail: mxu@fairfield.edu [Physics Department, Fairfield University, Fairfield, CT 06824 (United States)

    2016-02-15

    The phase of multiply scattered light has recently attracted considerable interest. Coherent backscattering is a striking phenomenon of multiple scattered light in which the coherence of light survives multiple scattering in a random medium and is observable in the direction space as an enhancement of the intensity of backscattered light within a cone around the retroreflection direction. Reciprocity also leads to enhancement of backscattering light in the spatial space. The random medium behaves as a reciprocity mirror which robustly converts a diverging incident beam into a converging backscattering one focusing at a conjugate spot in space. Here we first analyze theoretically this coherent backscattering mirror (CBM) phenomenon and then demonstrate the capability of CBM compensating and correcting both static and dynamic phase distortions occurring along the optical path. CBM may offer novel approaches for high speed dynamic phase corrections in optical systems and find applications in sensing and navigation.

  9. Broad-Bandwidth FPGA-Based Digital Polyphase Spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamot, Robert F.; Monroe, Ryan M.

    2012-01-01

    With present concern for ecological sustainability ever increasing, it is desirable to model the composition of Earth s upper atmosphere accurately with regards to certain helpful and harmful chemicals, such as greenhouse gases and ozone. The microwave limb sounder (MLS) is an instrument designed to map the global day-to-day concentrations of key atmospheric constituents continuously. One important component in MLS is the spectrometer, which processes the raw data provided by the receivers into frequency-domain information that cannot only be transmitted more efficiently, but also processed directly once received. The present-generation spectrometer is fully analog. The goal is to include a fully digital spectrometer in the next-generation sensor. In a digital spectrometer, incoming analog data must be converted into a digital format, processed through a Fourier transform, and finally accumulated to reduce the impact of input noise. While the final design will be placed on an application specific integrated circuit (ASIC), the building of these chips is prohibitively expensive. To that end, this design was constructed on a field-programmable gate array (FPGA). A family of state-of-the-art digital Fourier transform spectrometers has been developed, with a combination of high bandwidth and fine resolution. Analog signals consisting of radiation emitted by constituents in planetary atmospheres or galactic sources are downconverted and subsequently digitized by a pair of interleaved analog-to-digital converters (ADCs). This 6-Gsps (gigasample per second) digital representation of the analog signal is then processed through an FPGA-based streaming fast Fourier transform (FFT). Digital spectrometers have many advantages over previously used analog spectrometers, especially in terms of accuracy and resolution, both of which are particularly important for the type of scientific questions to be addressed with next-generation radiometers.

  10. Amplifier similariton laser with extra-broad bandwidth output pulse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korobko, D. A.; Okhotnikov, O. G.; Zolotovskii, I. O.

    2016-03-01

    We propose an advanced scheme of amplifier similariton laser providing an output pulse spectrum much wider than the gain bandwidth. The upgrade is an additional dispersive element introduced into the cavity to locally increase the peak pulse power. The proposed scheme demonstrates a drastic increase in the output pulse spectrum width, reduction of the pulse duration, and an increase in the output peak pulse power after compression.

  11. Hybrid grating reflector with high reflectivity and broad bandwidth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taghizadeh, Alireza; Park, Gyeong Cheol; Mørk, Jesper; Chung, Il-Sug

    2014-01-01

    We suggest a new type of grating reflector denoted hybrid grating (HG) which shows large reflectivity in a broad wavelength range and has a structure suitable for realizing a vertical cavity laser with ultra-small modal volume. The properties of the grating reflector are investigated numerically......). By using an active III-V layer, a laser can be realized where the gain region is integrated into the mirror itself...

  12. THERMAL NEUTRON BACKSCATTER IMAGING.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    VANIER,P.; FORMAN,L.; HUNTER,S.; HARRIS,E.; SMITH,G.

    2004-10-16

    Objects of various shapes, with some appreciable hydrogen content, were exposed to fast neutrons from a pulsed D-T generator, resulting in a partially-moderated spectrum of backscattered neutrons. The thermal component of the backscatter was used to form images of the objects by means of a coded aperture thermal neutron imaging system. Timing signals from the neutron generator were used to gate the detection system so as to record only events consistent with thermal neutrons traveling the distance between the target and the detector. It was shown that this time-of-flight method provided a significant improvement in image contrast compared to counting all events detected by the position-sensitive {sup 3}He proportional chamber used in the imager. The technique may have application in the detection and shape-determination of land mines, particularly non-metallic types.

  13. Multiple scattering wavelength dependent backscattering of kaolin dust in the IR: Measurements and theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-David, Avishai

    1992-01-01

    Knowing the optical properties of aerosol dust is important for designing electro-optical systems and for modeling the effect on propagation of light in the atmosphere. As CO2 lidar technology becomes more advanced and is used for multiwavelength measurements, information on the wavelength dependent backscattering of aerosol dust particles is required. The volume backscattering coefficient of aerosols in the IR is relatively small. Thus, only a few field measurements of backscattering, usually at only a few wavelengths, are reported in the literature. We present spectral field measurements of backscattering of kaolin dust in the 9-11 micron wavelength range. As the quantity of dust increases, multiple scattering contributes more to the measured backscattered signal. The measurements show the effect of the dust quantity of the spectral backscatter measurements. A simple analytical two stream radiative transfer model is applied to confirm the measurements and to give insight to the multiple scattering spectra of backscattering.

  14. Backscatter imagery in Jobos Bay

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This image represents a 1x1 meter resolution backscatter mosaic of Jobos Bay, Puerto Rico (in NAD83 UTM 19 North). The backscatter values are in relative 8-bit (0 –...

  15. Analysis of multi-layer ERBS spectra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marmitt, G.G. [Atomic and Molecular Physics Laboratories, Research School of Physics and Engineering, The Australian National University, Canberra 0200 (Australia); Instituto de Fisica da Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Avenida Bento Goncalves 9500, 91501-970 Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Rosa, L.F.S. [Instituto de Fisica da Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Avenida Bento Goncalves 9500, 91501-970 Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Nandi, S.K. [Electronic Materials Engineering Department, Research School of Physics and Engineering, The Australian National University, Canberra 0200 (Australia); Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 2611 (Australia); Department of Physics, University of Chittagong, Chittagong 4331 (Bangladesh); Vos, M., E-mail: maarten.vos@anu.edu.au [Atomic and Molecular Physics Laboratories, Research School of Physics and Engineering, The Australian National University, Canberra 0200 (Australia)

    2015-07-15

    Highlights: • Electron Rutherford backscattering (ERBS) spectra are presented. • The spectra are fitted based on physical meaningful quantities. • Very consistent results are obtained for spectra taken under different conditions. • This establishes that ERBS can be used to measure film thicknesses. - Abstract: A systematic way of analysis of multi-layer electron Rutherford backscattering spectra is described. The approach uses fitting in terms of physical meaningful parameters. Simultaneous analysis then becomes possible for spectra taken at different incoming energies and measurement geometries. Examples are given to demonstrate the level of detail that can be resolved by this technique.

  16. Ultrasonic Characterization of Tissues via Backscatter Frequency Dependence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stetson, Paul F.; Sommer, F.G.

    1997-01-01

    Phantom and patient studies were performed to assess the potential of backscatter frequency dependence as a useful parameter for tissue characterization. A commercial phased-array ultrasonic scanner was adapted to allow digitization of the intermediate-frequency ultrasonic data, Studies of agar...... phantoms containing polystyrene microspheres with 3.5 and 5 MHz transducers indicated the ability for robust differentiation of phantoms having different scatterer size and frequency dependence, based on calculated differences in mean frequencies of backscattered spectra, Using a 3,5-MHz probe......, significantly lower mean frequency of ultrasound backscattered from cirrhotic, compared to normal, liver tissue was noted, Studies of benign and malignant liver tumors (hemangiomas and metastases, respectively) indicated differences in frequency content of these tumors, compared to the adjacent normal liver...

  17. The Harwell back-scattering spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neutron diffraction spectra in which both high resolution (Δ Q/Q approximately equal to 0.003) and high intensity are maintained up to scattering vectors as high as 30A-1(sin theta/lambda = 2.5) have been obtained with the back-scattering spectrometer (BSS) recently installed on the Harwell electron linac. The theory behind the spectrometer design is described, and it is shown how the above resolution requirement leads to its basic features of a 12m incident flight path, a 2m scattering flight path and a scattering angle (2theta) acceptance from 1650 to 1750. Examples of the resolution, intensity and background are given. It is shown that the problem of frame overlap may be overcome by using an absorbing filter. (author)

  18. On line ultrasonic integrated backscatter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new equipment for on-line evaluation of index based on two-dimensional integrated backscatter from ultrasonic images is described. The new equipment is fully integrated into a B-mode ultrasonic apparatus which provides a simultaneous display of conventional information together with parameters of tissue characterization. The system has been tested with a backscattering model of microbubbles in polysaccharide solution, characterized by a physiological exponential time decay. An exponential fitting to the experimental data was performed which yielded r=0.95

  19. Photoelectron backscattering in vacuum phototubes

    CERN Document Server

    Lubsandorzhiev, B K; Vyatchin, Y E; Shaibonov, B A J

    2006-01-01

    In this article we describe results of a photoelectron backscattering effect in vacuum phototubes: classical photomultipliers (PMT) and hybrid phototubes (PH). Late pulses occurring in PMTs are attributed to the photoelectron backscattering and distinguished from pulses due to an anode glow effect. The late pulses are measured in a number of PMTs and HPs with various photocathode sizes covering 1-50 cm range and different types of the first dynode materials and construction designs. It is shown that the late pulses are a generic feature of all vacuum photodetectors - PMTs and PHs and they don't deteriorate dramatically amplitude and timing responses of vacuum phototubes.

  20. X-ray backscatter imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinca, Dan-Cristian; Schubert, Jeffrey R.; Callerame, J.

    2008-04-01

    In contrast to transmission X-ray imaging systems where inspected objects must pass between source and detector, Compton backscatter imaging allows both the illuminating source as well as the X-ray detector to be on the same side of the target object, enabling the inspection to occur rapidly and in a wide variety of space-constrained situations. A Compton backscatter image is similar to a photograph of the contents of a closed container, taken through the container walls, and highlights low atomic number materials such as explosives, drugs, and alcohol, which appear as especially bright objects by virtue of their scattering characteristics. Techniques for producing X-ray images based on Compton scattering will be discussed, along with examples of how these systems are used for both novel security applications and for the detection of contraband materials at ports and borders. Differences between transmission and backscatter images will also be highlighted. In addition, tradeoffs between Compton backscatter image quality and scan speed, effective penetration, and X-ray source specifications will be discussed.

  1. Gravitational Laser Back-Scattering

    OpenAIRE

    Novaes, S. F.; Spehler, D.

    1993-01-01

    A possible way of producing gravitons in the laboratory is investigated. We evaluate the cross section electron + photon $\\rightarrow$ electron + graviton in the framework of linearized gravitation, and analyse this reaction considering the photon coming either from a laser beam or from a Compton back-scattering process.

  2. Analytical purpose electron backscattering system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work an analytical purposes electron backscattering system improved at the Center of Applied Studies for Nuclear Development is described. This system can be applied for fast, exact and nondestructive testing of binary and AL/Cu, AL/Ni in alloys and for other applications

  3. Radio-analysis of hydrogenous material using neutron back-scattering technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work, we have explored the possibility of using neutron back-scattering technique in performing radio analysis for samples of hydrogenous materials such as explosives, drugs, crude oil and water, looking for different signals that may be used to discriminate these samples. Monte Carlo simulations were carried out to model the detection system and select the optimal geometry as well. The results were determined in terms of the energy spectra of the back-scattered neutrons.(Author)

  4. BackscatterA [8101]--Offshore Pacifica, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the acoustic-backscatter map of Offshore of Pacifica map area, California. Backscatter data are provided as two separate grids...

  5. Backscatter B [8101]--Offshore Bolinas, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the acoustic-backscatter map of the Offshore of Bolinas map area, California. Backscatter data are provided as separate grids...

  6. Backscatter D [Snippets]--Offshore Bolinas, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the acoustic-backscatter map of the Offshore of Bolinas map area, California. Backscatter data are provided as separate grids...

  7. BackscatterB [7125]--Offshore Pacifica, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the acoustic-backscatter map of Offshore of Pacifica map area, California. Backscatter data are provided as two separate grids...

  8. Backscatter A [8101]--Offshore Bolinas, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the acoustic-backscatter map of the Offshore of Bolinas map area, California. Backscatter data are provided as separate grids...

  9. Backscatter A [8101]--Offshore San Gregorio, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of SIM 3306 presents data for the acoustic-backscatter map (see sheet 3, SIM 3306) of the Offshore of San Gregorio map area, California. Backscatter data...

  10. Backscatter E [Swath]--Offshore Bolinas, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the acoustic-backscatter map of the Offshore of Bolinas map area, California. Backscatter data are provided as separate grids...

  11. Backscatter [SWATH]--Offshore Santa Cruz, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the acoustic-backscatter map of Offshore of Santa Cruz map area, California. Backscatter data are provided as three separate...

  12. Backscatter B [7125]--Offshore San Gregorio, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of SIM 3306 presents data for the acoustic-backscatter map (see sheet 3, SIM 3306) of the Offshore of San Gregorio map area, California. Backscatter data...

  13. Nodule bottom backscattering study using multibeam echosounder

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chakraborty, B.; Raju, Y.S.N.; Nair, R.R.

    A study is carried out to observe the angular dependence of backscattering strength at nodule area where grab sample and photographic data is available. Theoretical study along with the experimentally observed data shows that the backscattering...

  14. Backscatter C [7125]--Offshore Bolinas, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the acoustic-backscatter map of the Offshore of Bolinas map area, California. Backscatter data are provided as separate grids...

  15. Improvements in backscatter measurement devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Improvements in measuring the thickness of a coating on a substrate by the technique of backscattered particles are described. These improvements enable the measurements to be carried out continuously as an integral part of the coating production line and also permit measurements where the coated elements are separated from one another by a predetermined distance. The former is achieved by situating the backscatter probe and detector on the rim of the measurement wheel and rotating this wheel at a speed such that the coated element and probe are stationary relative to one another. The latter improvement is achieved by an indexing apparatus which automatically positions the probe beside a coated element. (U.K.)

  16. Hanle effect in coherent backscattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We study the shape of the coherent-backscattering (CBS) cone obtained when resonant light illuminates a thick cloud of laser-cooled rubidium atoms in the presence of a homogenous magnetic field. We observe new magnetic field-dependent anisotropies in the CBS signal. We show that the observed behavior is due to the modification of the atomic-radiation pattern by the magnetic field (Hanle effect in the excited state)

  17. Mitigating the effect of optical back-scatter in multispectral underwater imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Multispectral imaging is a very useful technique for extracting information from the underwater world. However, optical back-scatter changes the intensity value in each spectral band and this distorts the estimated spectrum. In this work, a filter is used to detect the level of optical back-scatter in each spectral band from a set of multispectral images. Extraction of underwater object spectra can be done by subtracting the estimated level of optical back-scatter and scaling the remainder in each spectral band from the captured image in the corresponding band. An experiment has been designed to show the performance of the proposed filter for correcting the set of multispectral underwater images and recovering the pixel spectra. The multispectral images are captured by a B/W CCD digital camera with a fast tunable liquid-crystal filter in 33 narrow spectral bands in clear and different levels of turbid water. Reference estimates for the optical back-scatter spectra are found by comparing a clear and a degraded set of multispectral images. The accuracy and consistency of the proposed method, the extended Oakley–Bu cost function, is examined by comparing the estimated values with the reference level of an optical back-scatter spectrum. The same comparison is made for the simple estimation approach. The results show that the simple method is not reliable and fail to estimate the level of optical back-scatter spectrum accurately. The results from processing experimental images in turbid water show that the effect of optical back-scatter can be mitigated in the image of each spectral band and, as a result, the spectra of the object can be recovered. However, for a very high level of turbid water the recovery is limited because of the effect of extinction. (paper)

  18. Gamma-ray backscatter for body composition measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, H M; Shakeshaft, J T; Lillicrap, S C

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the potential of using backscatter information to assess regional body composition at selected sites. Two measurement techniques are examined: the measurement of the ratio of coherent to Compton scatter, and the measurement of the Compton scatter profile. Two possible applications are considered: the measurement of trabecular bone mineral density, and the measurement of the average fat/muscle ratio in a tissue volume. The results presented indicate that the analysis of coherent and Compton backscattered gamma-ray spectra from an 241Am source has the potential for measuring both trabecular bone mineral density and average fat/muscle ratio in a tissue volume, with a low absorbed dose to the subject. PMID:9569541

  19. Conductance and noise signatures of Majorana backscattering

    OpenAIRE

    Chung, Suk Bum; Qi, Xiao-Liang; Maciejko, Joseph; Zhang, Shou-Cheng

    2010-01-01

    We propose a conductance measurement to detect the backscattering of chiral Majorana edge states. Because normal and Andreev processes have equal probability for backscattering of a single chiral Majorana edge state, there is qualitative difference from backscattering of a chiral Dirac edge state, giving rise to half-integer Hall conductivity and decoupling of fluctuation in incoming and outgoing modes. The latter can be detected through thermal noise measurement. These experimental signature...

  20. Analysis of stimulated Raman backscatter and stimulated Brillouin backscatter in experiments performed on SG-III prototype facility with a spectral analysis code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hao, Liang; Zhao, Yiqing; Hu, Xiaoyan; Zou, Shiyang [Institute of Applied Physics and Computational Mathematics, Beijing 100094 (China); Yang, Dong; Wang, Feng; Peng, Xiaoshi; Li, Zhichao; Li, Sanwei; Xu, Tao; Wei, Huiyue [Research Center of Laser Fusion, China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang, Sichuan 621900 (China); Liu, Zhanjun; Zheng, Chunyang, E-mail: zheng-chunyang@iapcm.ac.cn [Institute of Applied Physics and Computational Mathematics, Beijing 100094 (China); Key Laboratory of HEDP of the Ministry of Education, CAPT, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)

    2014-07-15

    Experiments about the observations of stimulated Raman backscatter (SRS) and stimulated Brillouin backscatter (SBS) in Hohlraum were performed on Shenguang-III (SG-III) prototype facility for the first time in 2011. In this paper, relevant experimental results are analyzed for the first time with a one-dimension spectral analysis code, which is developed to study the coexistent process of SRS and SBS in Hohlraum plasma condition. Spectral features of the backscattered light are discussed with different plasma parameters. In the case of empty Hohlraum experiments, simulation results indicate that SBS, which grows fast at the energy deposition region near the Hohlraum wall, is the dominant instability process. The time resolved spectra of SRS and SBS are numerically obtained, which agree with the experimental observations. For the gas-filled Hohlraum experiments, simulation results show that SBS grows fastest in Au plasma and amplifies convectively in C{sub 5}H{sub 12} gas, whereas SRS mainly grows in the high density region of the C{sub 5}H{sub 12} gas. Gain spectra and the spectra of backscattered light are simulated along the ray path, which clearly show the location where the intensity of scattered light with a certain wavelength increases. This work is helpful to comprehend the observed spectral features of SRS and SBS. The experiments and relevant analysis provide references for the ignition target design in future.

  1. Efficient, designable, and broad-bandwidth optical extinction via aspect-ratio-tailored silver nanodisks

    OpenAIRE

    Anquillare, E. L.; Miller, O D; Hsu, C. W.; DeLacy, B. G.; Joannopoulos, J. D.; Johnson, S. G.; Soljacic, M.

    2016-01-01

    Subwavelength resonators, ranging from single atoms to metallic nanoparticles, typically exhibit a narrow-bandwidth response to optical excitations. We computationally design and experimentally synthesize tailored distributions of silver nanodisks to extinguish light over broad and varied frequency windows. We show that metallic nanodisks are two-to-ten-times more efficient in absorbing and scattering light than common structures, and can approach fundamental limits to broadband scattering fo...

  2. Nanometer resolution optical coherence tomography using broad bandwidth XUV and soft x-ray radiation

    OpenAIRE

    Silvio Fuchs; Christian Rödel; Alexander Blinne; Ulf Zastrau; Martin Wünsche; Vinzenz Hilbert; Leif Glaser; Jens Viefhaus; Eugene Frumker; Paul Corkum; Eckhart Förster; Paulus, Gerhard G.

    2016-01-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a non-invasive technique for cross-sectional imaging. It is particularly advantageous for applications where conventional microscopy is not able to image deeper layers of samples in a reasonable time, e.g. in fast moving, deeper lying structures. However, at infrared and optical wavelengths, which are commonly used, the axial resolution of OCT is limited to about 1 μm, even if the bandwidth of the light covers a wide spectral range. Here, we present extre...

  3. Nanometer resolution optical coherence tomography using broad bandwidth XUV and soft x-ray radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, Silvio; Rödel, Christian; Blinne, Alexander; Zastrau, Ulf; Wünsche, Martin; Hilbert, Vinzenz; Glaser, Leif; Viefhaus, Jens; Frumker, Eugene; Corkum, Paul; Förster, Eckhart; Paulus, Gerhard G

    2016-01-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a non-invasive technique for cross-sectional imaging. It is particularly advantageous for applications where conventional microscopy is not able to image deeper layers of samples in a reasonable time, e.g. in fast moving, deeper lying structures. However, at infrared and optical wavelengths, which are commonly used, the axial resolution of OCT is limited to about 1 μm, even if the bandwidth of the light covers a wide spectral range. Here, we present extreme ultraviolet coherence tomography (XCT) and thus introduce a new technique for non-invasive cross-sectional imaging of nanometer structures. XCT exploits the nanometerscale coherence lengths corresponding to the spectral transmission windows of, e.g., silicon samples. The axial resolution of coherence tomography is thus improved from micrometers to a few nanometers. Tomographic imaging with an axial resolution better than 18 nm is demonstrated for layer-type nanostructures buried in a silicon substrate. Using wavelengths in the water transmission window, nanometer-scale layers of platinum are retrieved with a resolution better than 8 nm. XCT as a nondestructive method for sub-surface tomographic imaging holds promise for several applications in semiconductor metrology and imaging in the water window. PMID:26860894

  4. Nanometer resolution optical coherence tomography using broad bandwidth XUV and soft x-ray radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, Silvio; Rödel, Christian; Blinne, Alexander; Zastrau, Ulf; Wünsche, Martin; Hilbert, Vinzenz; Glaser, Leif; Viefhaus, Jens; Frumker, Eugene; Corkum, Paul; Förster, Eckhart; Paulus, Gerhard G.

    2016-02-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a non-invasive technique for cross-sectional imaging. It is particularly advantageous for applications where conventional microscopy is not able to image deeper layers of samples in a reasonable time, e.g. in fast moving, deeper lying structures. However, at infrared and optical wavelengths, which are commonly used, the axial resolution of OCT is limited to about 1 μm, even if the bandwidth of the light covers a wide spectral range. Here, we present extreme ultraviolet coherence tomography (XCT) and thus introduce a new technique for non-invasive cross-sectional imaging of nanometer structures. XCT exploits the nanometerscale coherence lengths corresponding to the spectral transmission windows of, e.g., silicon samples. The axial resolution of coherence tomography is thus improved from micrometers to a few nanometers. Tomographic imaging with an axial resolution better than 18 nm is demonstrated for layer-type nanostructures buried in a silicon substrate. Using wavelengths in the water transmission window, nanometer-scale layers of platinum are retrieved with a resolution better than 8 nm. XCT as a nondestructive method for sub-surface tomographic imaging holds promise for several applications in semiconductor metrology and imaging in the water window.

  5. Efficient, designable, and broad-bandwidth optical extinction via aspect-ratio-tailored silver nanodisks

    CERN Document Server

    Anquillare, E L; Hsu, C W; DeLacy, B G; Joannopoulos, J D; Johnson, S G; Soljacic, M

    2016-01-01

    Subwavelength resonators, ranging from single atoms to metallic nanoparticles, typically exhibit a narrow-bandwidth response to optical excitations. We computationally design and experimentally synthesize tailored distributions of silver nanodisks to extinguish light over broad and varied frequency windows. We show that metallic nanodisks are two-to-ten-times more efficient in absorbing and scattering light than common structures, and can approach fundamental limits to broadband scattering for subwavelength particles. We measure broadband extinction per volume that closely approaches theoretical predictions over three representative visible-range wavelength windows, confirming the high efficiency of nanodisks and demonstrating the collective power of computational design and experimental precision for developing new photonics technologies.

  6. Broad Bandwidth Meta-Material Antireflection Coatings for Measurement of the Cosmic Microwave Background Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The effort's objective is to realize broadband low-reflectance coatings. The two key technical challenges are the design of the precision engineered materials...

  7. Broad-bandwidth Metamaterial Antireflection Coatings for Sub-Millimeter Astronomy and CMB Foreground Removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, Jeff

    Sub-millimeter observations are crucial for answering questions about star and galaxy formation; understanding galactic dust foregrounds; and for removing these foregrounds to detect the faint signature of inflationary gravitational waves in the polarization of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB). Achieving these goals requires improved, broad-band antireflection coated lenses and half-wave plates (HWPs). These optical elements will significantly boost the sensitivity and capability of future sub-millimeter and CMB missions. We propose to develop wide-bandwidth metamaterial antireflection coatings for silicon lenses and sapphire HWPs with 3:1 ratio bandwidth that are scalable across the sub-millimeter band from 300 GHz to 3 THz. This is an extension of our successful work on saw cut metamaterial AR coatings for silicon optics at millimeter wave lengths. These, and the proposed coatings consist of arrays of sub-wavelength scale features cut into optical surfaces that behave like simple dielectrics. We have demonstrated saw cut 3:1 bandwidth coatings on silicon lenses, but these coatings are limited to the millimeter wave band by the limitations of dicing saw machining. The crucial advance needed to extend these broad band coatings throughout the sub-millimeter band is the development of laser cut graded index metamaterial coatings. The proposed work includes developing the capability to fabricate these coatings, optimizing the design of these metamaterials, fabricating and testing prototype lenses and HWPs, and working with the PIPER collaboration to achieve a sub-orbital demonstration of this technology. The proposed work will develop potentially revolutionary new high performance coatings for the sub-millimeter bands, and cary this technology to TRL 7 paving the way for its use in space. We anticipate that there will be a wide range of applications for these coatings on future NASA balloons and satellites.

  8. Detector for high-energy photon backscatter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silver, Michael D.; Erker, Joseph W.; Duncan, Michael Z.; Hartford, Thomas J.; Sivers, E. A.; Hopkinson, James F.

    1993-12-01

    High energy photon backscatter uses pair production to probe deep beneath surfaces with single side accessibility or to image thick, radiographically opaque objects. At the higher photon energies needed to penetrate thick and/or highly attenuating objects, Compton backscatter becomes strongly forward peaked with relatively little backscatter flux. Furthermore, the downward energy shift of the backscattered photon makes it more susceptible to attenuation on its outbound path. Above 1.022 MeV, pair production is possible; at about 10 MeV, pari production crosses over Compton scatter as the dominant x-ray interaction mechanism. The backscattered photons can be hard x rays from the bremsstrahlung of the electrons and positrons or 0.511 MeV photons from the annihilation of the positron. Monte Carlo computer simulations of such a backscatter system were done to characterize the output signals and to optimize a high energy detector design. This paper touches on the physics of high energy backscatter imaging and describes at some length the detector design for tomographic and radiographic imaging.

  9. Harvesting backscatter electrons for radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: An innovative technique is used to harvest backscatter electrons for the treatment of superficial small lesions of skin, oral cavity, and rectum where a significant dose gradient and maximum surface dose is desired. Methods and Materials: Backscatter electrons are harvested out of the primary electron beams from the linear accelerators. The design consists of a short cylindrical cone that fits snugly over a long cylindrical electron cone. The short cylindrical cone has a thick circular plate of high atomic number medium (Pb) attached to the distal end, and a lateral slit of variable length and width. The width of the slit could be closed as desired by rotating the two cones and the length can be increased by lowering the short cylindrical cone. Primary electrons strike the Pb plate perpendicularly and produce backscatter electrons that pass through the lateral slit for treatment. Using film and a parallel plate ion chamber, backscattered electron dose characteristics are studied. Results: The depth dose characteristic of the backscatter electron is very similar to that of the 0.2 mm Al half-value layer x-ray beam that is commonly used for the intracavitary and superficial lesions. The backscatter electron energy is nearly constant and effectively ≤ 1 MeV from the clinical megavoltage beams. The backscatter electron dose rate of 0.32-0.8 Gy/min could be achieved from modern accelerators without any modification. The beam flatness is dependent on the slit size and the depth of treatment, but is satisfactory to treat small lesions. Conclusions: The measured data for backscatter electron energy, fluence, depth dose, flatness, dose rate, and absolute dose indicates that the harvested backscattered electrons are suitable for clinical use

  10. Depth dependence of electron backscatter: An energy spectral and dosimetry study using Monte Carlo simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chow, James C. L.; Owrangi, Amir M. [Department of Radiation Physics, Princess Margaret Hospital and Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M5G 2M9 (Canada); Department of Physics, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario N2L 3G1 (Canada) and Department of Physics, Ryerson University, Toronto, Ontario M5B 2K3 (Canada); Department of Radiation Physics, Princess Margaret Hospital, Toronto, Ontario M5G 2M9 (Canada)

    2009-02-15

    This study investigated the depth dependence of electron backscatter from a layer of lead (Pb) for clinical electron beams. The change in the electron backscatter with variation in the water depth above the Pb was determined. Electron energy spectra and relative depth doses as a function of depth in water over the Pb layer were calculated using a Monte Carlo simulation and studied. Phase-space files for 4 and 9 MeV electron beams (10x10 cm{sup 2} applicator and cutout) based on the Varian 21 EX linear accelerator were generated using the EGSnrc-based BEAMNRC code. 3 mm of Pb, at depths of 0.5 and 1 cm in water, was irradiated with electrons. The source-to-surface distance is equal to 100 cm. Electron energy spectra and relative depth doses with and without the presence of the Pb layer at different depths in water were determined using the BEAMNRC code. For the 4 MeV electron energy spectra at a depth of 0.5 cm in water, electron backscatter was found to originate at the Pb-water interface and extend to 0.5 cm above the Pb insert. However, at a depth of 1 cm in water, electron backscatter almost disappeared at 0.5 and 1 cm above th ePb insert. This is due to the increased attenuation of the incident 4 MeV electron beam in a thicker layer of water as well as increased attenuation of the electron backscatter above the Pb. This resulted in a 23% decrease in relative dose at a measurement point of 0.5 cm depth, when the depth of the Pb insert was changed from 1 to 0.5 cm. For the electron energy spectra of the 9 MeV beams with a 0.5 cm depth of water, only a small amount of electron backscatter was observed. However, more electron backscatter was found when the water depth was increased to 1 cm. This is because the electron beam energy was decreased more due to the increase in attenuation from the increased depth of water compared to 0.5 cm. Since the electron energy spectrum and relative depth dose above the Pb layer vary with depth of water on top of the Pb, the

  11. Depth dependence of electron backscatter: An energy spectral and dosimetry study using Monte Carlo simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study investigated the depth dependence of electron backscatter from a layer of lead (Pb) for clinical electron beams. The change in the electron backscatter with variation in the water depth above the Pb was determined. Electron energy spectra and relative depth doses as a function of depth in water over the Pb layer were calculated using a Monte Carlo simulation and studied. Phase-space files for 4 and 9 MeV electron beams (10x10 cm2 applicator and cutout) based on the Varian 21 EX linear accelerator were generated using the EGSnrc-based BEAMNRC code. 3 mm of Pb, at depths of 0.5 and 1 cm in water, was irradiated with electrons. The source-to-surface distance is equal to 100 cm. Electron energy spectra and relative depth doses with and without the presence of the Pb layer at different depths in water were determined using the BEAMNRC code. For the 4 MeV electron energy spectra at a depth of 0.5 cm in water, electron backscatter was found to originate at the Pb-water interface and extend to 0.5 cm above the Pb insert. However, at a depth of 1 cm in water, electron backscatter almost disappeared at 0.5 and 1 cm above th ePb insert. This is due to the increased attenuation of the incident 4 MeV electron beam in a thicker layer of water as well as increased attenuation of the electron backscatter above the Pb. This resulted in a 23% decrease in relative dose at a measurement point of 0.5 cm depth, when the depth of the Pb insert was changed from 1 to 0.5 cm. For the electron energy spectra of the 9 MeV beams with a 0.5 cm depth of water, only a small amount of electron backscatter was observed. However, more electron backscatter was found when the water depth was increased to 1 cm. This is because the electron beam energy was decreased more due to the increase in attenuation from the increased depth of water compared to 0.5 cm. Since the electron energy spectrum and relative depth dose above the Pb layer vary with depth of water on top of the Pb, the electron

  12. Depth dependence of electron backscatter: an energy spectral and dosimetry study using Monte Carlo simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, James C L; Owrangi, Amir M

    2009-02-01

    This study investigated the depth dependence of electron backscatter from a layer of lead (Pb) for clinical electron beams. The change in the electron backscatter with variation in the water depth above the Pb was determined. Electron energy spectra and relative depth doses as a function of depth in water over the Pb layer were calculated using a Monte Carlo simulation and studied. Phase-space files for 4 and 9 MeV electron beams (10 x 10 cm2 applicator and cutout) based on the Varian 21 EX linear accelerator were generated using the EGSnrc-based BEAMNRC code. 3 mm of Pb, at depths of 0.5 and 1 cm in water, was irradiated with electrons. The source-to-surface distance is equal to 100 cm. Electron energy spectra and relative depth doses with and without the presence of the Pb layer at different depths in water were determined using the BEAMNRC code. For the 4 MeV electron energy spectra at a depth of 0.5 cm in water, electron backscatter was found to originate at the Pb-water interface and extend to 0.5 cm above the Pb insert. However, at a depth of 1 cm in water, electron backscatter almost disappeared at 0.5 and 1 cm above th ePb insert. This is due to the increased attenuation of the incident 4 MeV electron beam in a thicker layer of water as well as increased attenuation of the electron backscatter above the Pb. This resulted in a 23% decrease in relative dose at a measurement point of 0.5 cm depth, when the depth of the Pb insert was changed from 1 to 0.5 cm. For the electron energy spectra of the 9 MeV beams with a 0.5 cm depth of water, only a small amount of electron backscatter was observed. However, more electron backscatter was found when the water depth was increased to 1 cm. This is because the electron beam energy was decreased more due to the increase in attenuation from the increased depth of water compared to 0.5 cm. Since the electron energy spectrum and relative depth dose above the Pb layer vary with depth of water on top of the Pb, the electron

  13. Monte-Carlo simulations of elastically backscattered neutrons from hidden explosives using three different neutron sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ElAgib, I. [College of Science, King Saud University, P.O. Box 2455 (Saudi Arabia)], E-mail: elagib@ksu.edu.sa; Elsheikh, N. [College of Applied and Industrial Science, University of Juba, Khartoum, P.O. Box 321 (Sudan); AlSewaidan, H. [College of Science, King Saud University, P.O. Box 2455 (Saudi Arabia); Habbani, F. [Faculty of Science, Physics Department, University of Khartoum, Khartoum, P.O. Box 321 (Sudan)

    2009-01-15

    Calculations of elastically backscattered (EBS) neutrons from hidden explosives buried in soil were performed using Monte-Carlo N-particle transport code MCNP5. Three different neutron sources were used in the study. The study re-examines the performance of the neutron backscattering methods in providing identification of hidden explosives through their chemical composition. The EBS neutron energy spectra of fast and slow neutrons of the major constituent elements in soil and an explosive material in form of TNT have shown definite structures that can be used for the identification of a buried landmine.

  14. Instrument for underwater measurement of optical backscatter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maffione, Robert A.; Dana, David R.; Honey, Richard C.

    1991-12-01

    A backscatter sensor has been developed for rapidly measuring, in situ, the volume scattering function (VSF) in the backward direction. The backscatter sensor uses a bistatic optical geometry to measure backscatter from a small volume of seawater over a range of scattering angles from approximately 115 degree(s) to 170 degree(s). The calibration of the sensor yields a weighted, angular averaged value of the VSF with a centroid located at a scattering angle of about 150 degree(s). The backscatter sensor design is based on a sensitive synchronous detector and pulsed, light-emitting diode that has been used at visible and near-infrared wavelengths. The entire sensor package, which includes circuitry for digitizing the signal, is contained in a compact, rugged housing. The sensor has been deployed both in towed arrays and in stationary profiling mode. Scattering profiles from two recent deployments are presented.

  15. Stimulated Raman backscattering at high laser intensities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skoric, M.M. [Vinca Inst. of Nuclear Sciences, Belgrade (Yugoslavia); Tajima, Toshiki; Sasaki, Akira; Maluckov, A.; Jovanovic, M.

    1998-03-01

    Signatures of Stimulated Raman backscattering of a short-pulse high-intensity laser interacting with an underdense plasma are discussed. We introduce a nonlinear three-wave interaction model that accounts for laser pump depletion and relativistic detuning. A mechanism is revealed based on a generic route to chaos, that predicts a progressive increase of the backscatter complexity with a growing laser intensity. Importance of kinetic effects is outlined and demonstrated in fluid-hybrid and particle simulations. As an application, we show that spectral anomalies of the backscatter, predicted by the above model, are consistent with recent sub-picosecond, high-intensity laser gas-target measurements at Livermore and elsewhere. Finally, a recently proposed scheme for generation of ultra-short, low-prepulse laser pulses by Raman backscattering in a thin foil target, is shown. (author)

  16. Skyshine spectra of gamma rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study of the spectra of gamma photons back-scattered in vertical direction by infinite air above ground (skyshine) is presented. The source for these measurements is a 650 Ci Cobalt-60 point-source and the skyshine spectra are reported for distances from 150 m to 325 m from the source, measured with a 5 cm x 5 cm NaI(Tl) detector collimated with collimators of 12 mm and 20 mm diameter and 5 cm length. These continuous spectra are unfolded with Gold's iterative technique. The photon-spectra so obtained have a distinct line at 72 keV due to multiply-scattered photons. This is an energy where photoelectric and Compton cross-sections for multiply-scattered photons balance each other. The intensity of the line(I) decreases exponentially with distance (d) from the source obeying a relation of the type I = Isub(o)esup(-μd) where μ is called as ''Multiply-Scatter Coefficient'', a constant of the medium which is air in these measurements. This relationship is explained in terms of a halo around the source comprising of multiply-scattered gamma photons, Isub(0) being the intensity of these scattered photons at the location of cobalt-source. A fraction called as ''Back-scattered Fraction'', the ratio of Isub(0) to the number of original photons from the cobalt-source entering the infinite air, is also calculated. It is shown that with a properly calibrated detector system, this fraction can be used to determine the strength of a large gamma source, viz. a nuclear explosion in air, and for mineral prospecting. These conclusions are general and can be applied to any other infinite medium. Some forward-scatter (transmission) spectra of cobalt-60 source through 10 cm of Pb and 2.5 cm of Al are also reported. (auth.)

  17. BETA SPECTRA. I. Negatrons spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using the Fermi theory of beta decay, the beta spectra for 62 negatrons emitters have been computed introducing a correction factor for unique forbidden transitions. These spectra are plotted vs. energy, once normal i sed, and tabulated with the related Fermi functions. The average and median energies are calculated. (Author)

  18. Measurement of laser-induced Compton backscattered photons with anti-Compton spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports on quasi-monochromatic photons of energies 1.6-8.7 MeV generated by the Compton backscattering of laser light on relativistic electrons in a storage ring TERAS installed at the Electrotechnical Laboratory. Spectra of the backscattered photons have been measured with an anti-Compton spectrometer system. The present system consists of a coaxial type pure Ge detector of 155 cm3 as a central detector and a well type NaI(Tl) scintillator of 8 in. φ x 8 in. as an outer one. With a usual anti-coincidence technique, clear photopeak spectra were obtained with the Compton suppression ration of 2-4. The maximum energy and the energy spread of photons show reasonable agreements with numerical calculations. The divergence and energy spread of the electron beam in the storage ring is estimated from the data

  19. Card controlled beta backscatter thickness measuring instrument

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An improved beta backscatter instrument for the nondestructive measurement of the thickness of thin coatings on a substrate is described. Included therein is the utilization of a bank of memory stored data representative of isotope, substrate, coating material and thickness range characteristics in association with a control card having predetermined indicia thereon selectively representative of a particular isotope, substrate material, coating material and thickness range for conditioning electronic circuit means by memory stored data selected in accord with the predetermined indicia on a control card for converting backscattered beta particle counts into indicia of coating thickness

  20. Interface defects in GaN/sapphire studied using Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy and channeling

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S K Sinha; P K Barhai

    2004-06-01

    GaN on sapphire was grown by MOCVD technique. Rutherford backscattering spectra together with channeling along [0 0 0 1] axis were recorded to study the defects at the interface. Detailed calculation shows that the defects at GaN/sapphire interface are due to dislocations which are distributed into the whole thickness of the film and are mainly aligned on the growth direction.

  1. Multibeam Sonar Backscatter Data Acquisition and Processing: Guidelines and Recommendations from the GEOHAB Backscatter Working Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heffron, E.; Lurton, X.; Lamarche, G.; Brown, C.; Lucieer, V.; Rice, G.; Schimel, A.; Weber, T.

    2015-12-01

    Backscatter data acquired with multibeam sonars are now commonly used for the remote geological interpretation of the seabed. The systems hardware, software, and processing methods and tools have grown in numbers and improved over the years, yet many issues linger: there are no standard procedures for acquisition, poor or absent calibration, limited understanding and documentation of processing methods, etc. A workshop organized at the GeoHab (a community of geoscientists and biologists around the topic of marine habitat mapping) annual meeting in 2013 was dedicated to seafloor backscatter data from multibeam sonars and concluded that there was an overwhelming need for better coherence and agreement on the topics of acquisition, processing and interpretation of data. The GeoHab Backscatter Working Group (BSWG) was subsequently created with the purpose of documenting and synthetizing the state-of-the-art in sensors and techniques available today and proposing methods for best practice in the acquisition and processing of backscatter data. Two years later, the resulting document "Backscatter measurements by seafloor-mapping sonars: Guidelines and Recommendations" was completed1. The document provides: An introduction to backscatter measurements by seafloor-mapping sonars; A background on the physical principles of sonar backscatter; A discussion on users' needs from a wide spectrum of community end-users; A review on backscatter measurement; An analysis of best practices in data acquisition; A review of data processing principles with details on present software implementation; and finally A synthesis and key recommendations. This presentation reviews the BSWG mandate, structure, and development of this document. It details the various chapter contents, its recommendations to sonar manufacturers, operators, data processing software developers and end-users and its implication for the marine geology community. 1: Downloadable at https://www.niwa.co.nz/coasts-and-oceans/research-projects/backscatter-measurement-guidelines

  2. Energy and angular distributions of backscattered electrons from collisions of 5 keV electrons with thick Al, Ti, Ag, W and Pt targets

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R K Yadav; R Shanker

    2007-03-01

    The energy and angular distributions of backscattered electrons produced under the impact of 5 keV electrons with thick Al, Ti, Ag, W and Pt targets are measured. The energy range of backscattered electrons is considered between B = 50 eV and 5000 eV. The angle of incidence α and take-off angle are chosen to have values = 0° and 10° and = 100°, 110° and 120° respectively. The measured energy spectra are compared with the available theoretical models for = 0° and 10°. The elastic peak intensity of backscattered electrons is found to be a function of angle of incidence, take-off angle and atomic number of the target material. The considered theories are reasonably in good agreement with experiment for the energy spectra of the backscattered electrons having their reduced energies (= B/0) in the range of 0.20 to 1.00.

  3. On Uncertainty of Compton Backscattering Process

    CERN Document Server

    Mo, X H

    2013-01-01

    The uncertainty of Compton backscattering process is studied by virtue of analytical formulas, and the special effects of variant energy spread and energy drift on the systematic uncertainty estimation are also studied with Monte Carlo sampling technique. These quantitative conclusions are especially important for the understanding the uncertainty of beam energy measurement system.

  4. The single backscattering of gamma rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper presents the results of the single backscattering investigations of gamma rays in various materials. A simplified mathematical model is given for determining the probability that a photon scattered back by a single Compton scattering is incident on the detector. The probability is calculated as a function of the primary photon energy and the atomic number Z of the scatterer. (Auth.)

  5. BackscatterC [SWATH]--Offshore Pigeon Point, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the acoustic-backscatter map of Offshore of Pigeon Point map area, California. Backscatter data are provided as three separate...

  6. BackscatterA [8101]--Offshore Pigeon Point, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the acoustic-backscatter map of Offshore of Pigeon Point map area, California. Backscatter data are provided as three separate...

  7. BackscatterB [7125]--Offshore Pigeon Point, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the acoustic-backscatter map of Offshore of Pigeon Point map area, California. Backscatter data are provided as three separate...

  8. BackscatterB [EM300]--Monterey Canyon and Vicinity, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the acoustic-backscatter map of Monterey Canyon and Vicinity map area, California. Backscatter data are provided as separate...

  9. BackscatterC [7125]--Monterey Canyon and Vicinity, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the acoustic-backscatter map of Monterey Canyon and Vicinity map area, California. Backscatter data are provided as separate...

  10. Backscatter D [USGS]--Offshore of Tomales Point, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the acoustic-backscatter map of the Offshore of Tomales Point map area, California. Backscatter data are provided as separate...

  11. BackscatterA [SWATH]--Offshore Aptos, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the acoustic-backscatter map of Offshore of Aptos map area, California. Backscatter data are provided as two separate grids...

  12. BackscatterB [7125]--Offshore Scott Creek, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the acoustic-backscatter map of Offshore of Scott Creek map area, California. Backscatter data are provided as three separate...

  13. Backscatter B [7125]--Offshore Half Moon Bay, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the acoustic-backscatter map of the Offshore of Half Moon Bay map area, California. Backscatter data are provided as two...

  14. BackscatterC [SWATH]--Offshore Scott Creek, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the acoustic-backscatter map of Offshore of Scott Creek map area, California. Backscatter data are provided as three separate...

  15. Backscatter C [8101]--Offshore of San Francisco, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the acoustic-backscatter map of the Offshore of San Francisco map area, California. Backscatter data are provided as separate...

  16. Backscatter D [7125]--Offshore of San Francisco, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the acoustic-backscatter map of the Offshore of San Francisco map area, California. Backscatter data are provided as separate...

  17. Backscatter C [Swath]--Offshore of Fort Ross, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the acoustic-backscatter map of the Offshore of Fort Ross map area, California. Backscatter data are provided as separate...

  18. Backscatter B [Swath]--Drakes Bay and Vicinity, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the acoustic-backscatter map of Drakes bay and Vicinity map area, California. Backscatter data are provided as separate grids...

  19. BackscatterA [8101]--Offshore Scott Creek, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the acoustic-backscatter map of Offshore of Scott Creek map area, California. Backscatter data are provided as three separate...

  20. BackscatterB [EM300]--Offshore Aptos, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the acoustic-backscatter map of Offshore of Aptos map area, California. Backscatter data are provided as two separate grids...

  1. Backscatter A [8101]--Offshore of Bodega Head, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the acoustic-backscatter map of the Offshore of Bodega Head map area, California. Backscatter data are provided as separate...

  2. Backscatter A [8101]--Offshore of Tomales Point, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the acoustic-backscatter map of the Offshore of Tomales Point map area, California. Backscatter data are provided as separate...

  3. Backscatter B [8101]--Offshore of San Francisco, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the acoustic-backscatter map of the Offshore of San Francisco map area, California. Backscatter data are provided as separate...

  4. Backscatter A [8101]--Offshore Half Moon Bay, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the acoustic-backscatter map of the Offshore of Half Moon Bay map area, California. Backscatter data are provided as two...

  5. Backscatter C [Swath]--Offshore of Tomales Point, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the acoustic-backscatter map of the Offshore of Tomales Point map area, California. Backscatter data are provided as separate...

  6. Backscatter B [7125]--Offshore of Tomales Point, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the acoustic-backscatter map of the Offshore of Tomales Point map area, California. Backscatter data are provided as separate...

  7. Study of multibeam techniques for bathymetry and seabottom backscatter applications

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nair, R.R.; Chakraborty, B.

    Indian ocean is presented using Hydrosweep-multibeam installed onboard ORV Sagarkanya. A seabottom classification model is proposed which can be applied for multibeam backscatter data. Certain aspects of the multibeam backscatter signal data processing...

  8. Backscatter A [8101]--Offshore of Fort Ross, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the acoustic-backscatter map of the Offshore of Fort Ross map area, California. Backscatter data are provided as separate...

  9. Backscatter B [7125]--Offshore of Fort Ross, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the acoustic-backscatter map of the Offshore of Fort Ross map area, California. Backscatter data are provided as separate...

  10. Backscatter C [Swath]--Offshore of Bodega Head, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the acoustic-backscatter map of the Offshore of Bodega Head map area, California. Backscatter data are provided as separate...

  11. Backscatter B [7125]--Offshore of Bodega Head, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the acoustic-backscatter map of the Offshore of Bodega Head map area, California. Backscatter data are provided as separate...

  12. Backscatter A [8101]--Offshore of San Francisco, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the acoustic-backscatter map of the Offshore of San Francisco map area, California. Backscatter data are provided as separate...

  13. Preliminary backscatter results from the hydrosweep multibeam system

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Hagen, R.A.; Chakraborty, B.; Schenke, H.W.

    of Oceanography to convert the measured electrical energy into acoustic backscatter energy. This conversion includes corrections for the position, slope, and area of the scattering surface. In this paper we present backscatter data from several areas surveyed...

  14. FTIR spectra

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Machovič, Vladimír; Novák, František; Madronová, L.; Novák, J.

    New York : Nova Science Publisher, 2011 - (Madronová, L.), s. 21-33 ISBN 978-1-61668-965-0. - ( Chemistry Research and Applications) Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30460519; CEZ:AV0Z60660521 Keywords : FTIR spectra * humic acids * soil Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy

  15. Inter-Technology Backscatter: Towards Internet Connectivity for Implanted Devices

    OpenAIRE

    Iyer, Vikram; Talla, Vamsi; Kellogg, Bryce; Gollakota, Shyamnath; Smith, Joshua R.

    2016-01-01

    We introduce inter-technology backscatter, a novel approach that transforms wireless transmissions from one technology to another, on the air. Specifically, we show for the first time that Bluetooth transmissions can be used to create Wi-Fi and ZigBee-compatible signals using backscatter communication. Since Bluetooth, Wi-Fi and ZigBee radios are widely available, this approach enables a backscatter design that works using only commodity devices. We build prototype backscatter hardware using ...

  16. Electromagnetic backscattering from one-dimensional drifting fractal sea surface II: Electromagnetic backscattering model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Xie; William, Perrie; Shang-Zhuo, Zhao; He, Fang; Wen-Jin, Yu; Yi-Jun, He

    2016-07-01

    Sea surface current has a significant influence on electromagnetic (EM) backscattering signals and may constitute a dominant synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imaging mechanism. An effective EM backscattering model for a one-dimensional drifting fractal sea surface is presented in this paper. This model is used to simulate EM backscattering signals from the drifting sea surface. Numerical results show that ocean currents have a significant influence on EM backscattering signals from the sea surface. The normalized radar cross section (NRCS) discrepancies between the model for a coupled wave-current fractal sea surface and the model for an uncoupled fractal sea surface increase with the increase of incidence angle, as well as with increasing ocean currents. Ocean currents that are parallel to the direction of the wave can weaken the EM backscattering signal intensity, while the EM backscattering signal is intensified by ocean currents propagating oppositely to the wave direction. The model presented in this paper can be used to study the SAR imaging mechanism for a drifting sea surface. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 41276187), the Global Change Research Program of China (Grant No. 2015CB953901), the Priority Academic Program Development of Jiangsu Higher Education Institutions, China, the Program for the Innovation Research and Entrepreneurship Team in Jiangsu Province, China, the Canadian Program on Energy Research and Development, and the Canadian World Class Tanker Safety Service Program.

  17. Preprocessing of ionospheric echo Doppler spectra

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FANG Liang; ZHAO Zhengyu; WANG Feng; SU Fanfan

    2007-01-01

    The real-time information of the distant ionosphere can be acquired by using the Wuhan ionospheric oblique backscattering sounding system(WIOBSS),which adopts a discontinuous wave mechanism.After the characteristics of the ionospheric echo Doppler spectra were analyzed,the signal preprocessing was developed in this paper,which aimed at improving the Doppler spectra.The results indicate that the preprocessing not only makes the system acquire a higher ability of target detection but also suppresses the radio frequency interference by 6-7 dB.

  18. Monte Carlo simulation of MOSFET dosimeter for electron backscatter using the GEANT4 code.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, James C L; Leung, Michael K K

    2008-06-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the influence of the body of the metal-oxide-semiconductor field effect transistor (MOSFET) dosimeter in measuring the electron backscatter from lead. The electron backscatter factor (EBF), which is defined as the ratio of dose at the tissue-lead interface to the dose at the same point without the presence of backscatter, was calculated by the Monte Carlo simulation using the GEANT4 code. Electron beams with energies of 4, 6, 9, and 12 MeV were used in the simulation. It was found that in the presence of the MOSFET body, the EBFs were underestimated by about 2%-0.9% for electron beam energies of 4-12 MeV, respectively. The trend of the decrease of EBF with an increase of electron energy can be explained by the small MOSFET dosimeter, mainly made of epoxy and silicon, not only attenuated the electron fluence of the electron beam from upstream, but also the electron backscatter generated by the lead underneath the dosimeter. However, this variation of the EBF underestimation is within the same order of the statistical uncertainties as the Monte Carlo simulations, which ranged from 1.3% to 0.8% for the electron energies of 4-12 MeV, due to the small dosimetric volume. Such small EBF deviation is therefore insignificant when the uncertainty of the Monte Carlo simulation is taken into account. Corresponding measurements were carried out and uncertainties compared to Monte Carlo results were within +/- 2%. Spectra of energy deposited by the backscattered electrons in dosimetric volumes with and without the lead and MOSFET were determined by Monte Carlo simulations. It was found that in both cases, when the MOSFET body is either present or absent in the simulation, deviations of electron energy spectra with and without the lead decrease with an increase of the electron beam energy. Moreover, the softer spectrum of the backscattered electron when lead is present can result in a reduction of the MOSFET response due to stronger

  19. Incoherent backscattering of radiowave radiation by a plasma taking into consideration particle collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This thesis treats the theory of incoherent backscattering of radiowave radiation by a plasma considering particle collisions. Unlike the F region (where the atmospheric density is so low that particle collisions can be neglected), in the D and E region the interactions between neutral and charged particles determine the shape of the backscattering spectra. The second chapter deals with the scattering formula of Dougherty and Farley (1961) applied to incoherent radiowave backscattering by a plasma. The scattering cross section is derived as a function of the electric conductivity of ions and electrons. The third chapter discusses the mathematical model by Dougherty and Farley taking into account particle collisions. The results of Stubbe (1985) are applied to incoherent backscattering. In the fourth chapter the collision interaction is described by the Fokker-Planck ansatz formulated by Hernandez (1987), specialized on the interactions of Maxwell molecules. In this way a relatively complicated, physically explainable collision term for ionospheric applications, dependent on the particle velocity, is to be examined. (orig./AH)

  20. [Backscattering Characteristics of Machining Surfaces and Retrieval of Surface Multi-Parameters].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Hui-rong; Zhang, Fu-min; Qu, Xing-hua

    2015-07-01

    For no cooperation target laser ranging, the backscattering properties of the long-range and real machined surfaces are uncertain which seriously affect the ranging accuracy. It is an important bottleneck restricting the development of no cooperation ranging technology. In this paper, the backscattering characteristics of three typical machining surfaces (vertidal milling processing method, horizontal milling processing method and plain grinding processing method) under the infrared laser irradiation with 1550 nm were measured. The relation between the surface nachining texture, incident azimuth, roughness and the backscattering distribution were analyzed and the reasons for different processing methods specific backscattering field formed were explored. The experimental results show that the distribution of backscattering spectra is greatly affected by the machined processing methods. Incident angle and roughness have regularity effect on the actual rough surface of each mode. To be able to get enough backscattering, knowing the surface texture direction and the roughness of machined metal is essential for the optimization of the non-contact measurement program in industry. On this basis, a method based on an artificial neural network (ANN) and genetic algorithm (GA), is proposed to retrieve the surface multi-parameters of the machined metal. The generalized regression neural network (GRNN) was investigated and used in this application for the backscattering modeling. A genetic algorithm was used to retrieve the multi-parameters of incident azimuth angle, roughness and processing methods of machined metal sur face. Another processing method of sample (planer processing method) was used to validate data. The final results demonstrated that the method presented was efficient in parameters retrieval tasks. This model can accurately distinguish processing methods and the relative error of incident azimuth and roughness is 1.21% and 1.03%, respectively. The inversion

  1. Sub-Doppler resonances in the back-scattered light from random porous media infused with Rb vapor

    CERN Document Server

    Villalba, S; Lenci, L; Bloch, D; Lezama, A; Failache, H

    2013-01-01

    We report on the observation of sub-Doppler resonances on the back-scattered light from a random porous glass medium with rubidium vapor filling its interstices. The sub-Doppler spectral lines are the consequence of saturated absorption where the incident laser beam saturates the atomic medium and the back-scattered light probes it. Some specificities of the observed spectra reflect the transient atomic evolution under confinement inside the pores. Simplicity, robustness and potential miniaturization are appealing features of this system as a spectroscopic reference.

  2. Auroral backscatter observed at HF from Ottawa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bistatic HF radar recordings of auroral scattering sources north of Ottawa are reported. Doppler frequency spreads over + or - 100 Hz were obtained at least 35 percent of the time. The peak of the Doppler frequency distribution was sometimes shifted from zero by as much as 50 Hz, and significant contributions often occurred at Doppler frequencies greater than 150 Hz. Signals received simultaneously on both arms of a two-arm direction-finding array were used to identify the specific elevations and bearings of the backscatter signals. A detailed study of a particular hour-long period is reported, and a large number of 'apparent' auroral backscatter sources are identified. The source regions, probably located in the F layer, were elongated mainly in the north-south direction and extended over at least 3 deg of latitude. North-south corridors were found between such sources in which echo returns were either absent or very weak. 14 references

  3. Implementation of Doppler backscattering for MAST

    CERN Document Server

    Hillesheim, J C; Peebles, W A; Meyer, H; Meakins, A; Field, A R; Dunai, D; Carr, M; Hawkes, N

    2014-01-01

    A sixteen channel millimeter-wave diagnostic system, covering the frequency range 30-75 GHz, has been installed on MAST [B. Lloyd et al., Nucl. Fusion 43, 1665 (2003)] and has been successfully used for both Doppler backscattering (DBS) and conventional (normal-incidence) fluctuation reflectometry. DBS has become a well-established and versatile diagnostic technique for the measurement of intermediate- k ($k_{\\bot} \\rho_i \\sim 1$, and higher) density fluctuations and flows in magnetically confined fusion experiments. The $180^{\\circ}$ backscattering for DBS requires three dimensional wave-vector matching between the launched beam and the plasma fluctuations inducing the scattering, which are expected to be highly elongated along the magnetic field. The large pitch angle in MAST means that DBS implementation depends strongly on the capability to accurately launch the probing beam at a toroidal and poloidal angle that is matched to the magnetic field at the scattering location. We report on the scattering consi...

  4. Demonstration of differential backscatter absorption gas imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Backscatter absorption gas imaging (BAGI) is a technique that uses infrared active imaging to generate real-time video imagery of gas plumes. We describe a method that employs imaging at two wavelengths (absorbed and not absorbed by the gas to be detected) to allow wavelength-differential BAGI. From the frames collected at each wavelength, an absorbance image is created that displays the differential absorbance of the atmosphere between the imager and the backscatter surface. This is analogous to a two-dimensional topographic differential absorption lidar or differential optical absorption spectroscopy measurement. Gas plumes are displayed, but the topographic scene image is removed. This allows a more effective display of the plume image, thus ensuring detection under a wide variety of conditions. The instrument used to generate differential BAGI is described. Data generated by the instrument are presented and analyzed to estimate sensitivity. (c) 2000 Optical Society of America

  5. Connecting forest ecosystem and microwave backscatter models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasischke, Eric S.; Christensen, Norman L., Jr.

    1990-01-01

    A procedure is outlined to connect data obtained from active microwave remote sensing systems with forest ecosystem models. The hierarchy of forest ecosystem models is discussed, and the levels at which microwave remote sensing data can be used as inputs are identified. In addition, techniques to utilize forest ecosystem models to assist in the validation of theoretical microwave backscatter models are identified. Several examples to illustrate these connecting processes are presented.

  6. SuperDARN backscatter during intense geomagnetic storms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currie, J. L.; Waters, C. L.; Menk, F. W.; Sciffer, M. D.; Bristow, W. A.

    2016-06-01

    It is often stated that high-frequency radars experience a loss of backscatter during geomagnetic storm events. The occurrence of backscatter during 25 intense geomagnetic storms was examined using data from the Bruny Island and Kodiak radars and a superposed epoch analysis. It was found that while a reduction of backscatter occurred in the middle to far ranges, there was an increase in the amount of backscatter from close range following storm onset. Ray tracing showed that an enhanced charge density in the E region can reduce the chance of F region and increase the chance of E region backscatter. It was also shown that reduction in backscatter cannot be explained by D region absorption. Using a normalized SYM-H value, percentage time through recovery phase can be estimated during storm progression which allows a prediction of backscatter return in real time that accounts for varying storm recovery phase duration.

  7. Monte Carlo investigation of backscatter factors for skin dose determination in interventional neuroradiology procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omar, Artur; Benmakhlouf, Hamza; Marteinsdottir, Maria; Bujila, Robert; Nowik, Patrik; Andreo, Pedro

    2014-03-01

    Complex interventional and diagnostic x-ray angiographic (XA) procedures may yield patient skin doses exceeding the threshold for radiation induced skin injuries. Skin dose is conventionally determined by converting the incident air kerma free-in-air into entrance surface air kerma, a process that requires the use of backscatter factors. Subsequently, the entrance surface air kerma is converted into skin kerma using mass energy-absorption coefficient ratios tissue-to-air, which for the photon energies used in XA is identical to the skin dose. The purpose of this work was to investigate how the cranial bone affects backscatter factors for the dosimetry of interventional neuroradiology procedures. The PENELOPE Monte Carlo system was used to calculate backscatter factors at the entrance surface of a spherical and a cubic water phantom that includes a cranial bone layer. The simulations were performed for different clinical x-ray spectra, field sizes, and thicknesses of the bone layer. The results show a reduction of up to 15% when a cranial bone layer is included in the simulations, compared with conventional backscatter factors calculated for a homogeneous water phantom. The reduction increases for thicker bone layers, softer incident beam qualities, and larger field sizes, indicating that, due to the increased photoelectric crosssection of cranial bone compared to water, the bone layer acts primarily as an absorber of low-energy photons. For neurointerventional radiology procedures, backscatter factors calculated at the entrance surface of a water phantom containing a cranial bone layer increase the accuracy of the skin dose determination.

  8. Reducing parametric backscattering by polarization rotation

    CERN Document Server

    Barth, Ido

    2016-01-01

    When a laser passes through underdense plasmas, Raman and Brillouin Backscattering can reflect a substantial portion of the incident laser energy. This is a major loss mechanism, for example, in inertial confinement fusion. However, by slow rotation of the incident linear polarization, the overall reflectivity can be reduced significantly. Particle in cell simulations show that, for parameters similar to those of indirect drive fusion experiments, polarization rotation reduces the reflectivity by a factor of $5$. A general, fluid-model based, analytical estimation for the reflectivity reduction agrees with simulations.

  9. Understanding the radar backscattering from flooded and nonflooded Amazonian forests: results from canopy backscatter modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To understand the potential of using multiwavelength imaging radars to detect flooding in Amazonian floodplain forests, we simulated the radar backscatter from a floodplain forest with a flooded or nonflooded ground condition at C-, L-, and P-bands. Field measurements of forest structure in the Anavilhanas archipelago of the Negro River, Brazil, were used as inputs to the model. Given the same wavelength or incidence angle, the ratio of backscatter from the flooded forest to that from the nonflooded forest was higher at HH polarization than at VV polarization. Given the same wavelength or polarization, the ratio was larger at small incidence angles than at large incidence angles. Given the same polarization or incidence angle, the ratio was larger at a long wavelength than at a short wavelength. As the surface soil moisture underneath the nonflooded forest increased from 10% to 50% of volumetric moisture, the flooded/nonflooded backscatter ratio decreased; the decreases were small at C- and L-band but large at P-band. When the leaf size was comparable to or larger than the wavelength of C-band, the leaf area index (LAI) had a large effect on the simulated C-band (not L-band or P-band) backscatter from the flooded and nonflooded forests. (author)

  10. Backscattering analysis of thin films on non-flat surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berning, Paul R.; Niiler, Andrus

    1993-02-01

    In order to allow for the analysis of contaminant layers on powder surfaces, methods of adapting ion beam analysis techniques for use on non-flat surfaces have been developed. In this work, particular attention is given to situations where the dimensions of the surface structures are much larger than the thickness of the film, but much smaller than the ion beam spot size. It is assumed that the surface material is conformal and evenly distributed across the surface. Two methods are discussed; both are designed to analyze backscattered ion energy spectra through the use of available simulation programs. These methods rely on knowledge of the distribution of surface-normal to beam-direction angles present on the surface shape to be studied. Examples of this and other relevant distribution functions corresponding to several types of surface shape will be shown. The methods described here are used to study oxide layers grown thermally on small (≈ 130 μm) spherical titanium powder particles. We also show examples of how to empirically determine the distribution of surface tilt angles present on a surface of unknown shape when the nature of the surface film is known.

  11. CRED Acoustic Backscatter Guam 2003, Imagery Extracted from Gridded Bathymetry

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Backscatter extracted from gridded bathymetry of the banktops and shelf environments of Guam, of the Mariana Islands Archipelago.

  12. Effect of Pressure on Intracardiac Backscatter from Microbubbles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DENG; Youbin; LI; Chunlei; CHANG; Qing

    2001-01-01

    The backscatter from sonicated albumin microbubbles (Albunex) was analyzed using acoustic densitometry in an in vitro pulsatile heart model to evaluate the effects of pressure on the backscatter from Albunex, and the cardiac cyclic changes of intracardiac backscatter from sonicated albumin microbubbles in 16 healthy persons were analyzed. It was found that the Albunex microbubbles were compressed in systole and decompressed in diastole, causing corresponding changes of backscatter in cardiac cycle. Although the intensities of backscatter in diastole and systole were related to the concentration of microbubbles, the concentration of microbubbles had no effect on the difference of end-diastolic and end-systolic backscatter. The difference of the backscatter was highly correlated with end-systolic pressure (r = 0. 96, P = 0. 001). In human studies, we also observed same intracardiac cyclic changes of backscatter from sonicated albumin microbubbles. Our study indicates that it is possible to evaluate the intracardiac pressure non-invasively by analyzing the intracardiac backscatter from the microbubbles with acoustic densitometry.

  13. Chiral Receiving Antenna With Low Backscattering Levels

    CERN Document Server

    Karilainen, Antti O

    2011-01-01

    Receiving antennas absorb power from incident waves, but they also re-radiate some power into surrounding space. If a receiving antenna is to be used as a sensor which should not disturb the object under study, it should scatter as little power as possible in the receiving direction. We propose to use a chiral element composed of two orthogonal chiral particles as a low-scattering sensor.The element can transmit and receive circular polarization in all directions with the Huygens' pattern. We derive the vector effective length for the antenna using the small dipole approximation for the chiral particles. We observe that the element does not backscatter, regardless of the polarization, when the incidence direction is normal to the plane of the particles. Scattered fields, scattered axial ratio, and the scattering cross section are presented. We show that the zero-backscattering property holds also for the antenna element when it is capable to receive all the available power with conjugate loading. The approxim...

  14. Compton backscattered and primary X-rays from solar flares: angle dependent Green's function correction for photospheric albedo

    CERN Document Server

    Kontar, E P; Schwartz, R A; Brown, J C; Kontar, Eduard P.; Kinnon, Alec L. Mac; Schwartz, Richard A.; Brown, John C.

    2006-01-01

    The observed hard X-ray (HXR) flux spectrum $I(\\epsilon)$ from solar flares is a combination of primary bremsstrahlung photons $I_P(\\epsilon)$ with a spectrally modified component from photospheric Compton backscatter of downward primary emission. The latter can be significant, distorting or hiding the true features of the primary spectrum which are key diagnostics for acceleration and propagation of high energy electrons and of their energy budget. For the first time in solar physics, we use a Green's function approach to the backscatter spectral deconvolution problem, constructing a Green's matrix including photoelectric absorption. This approach allows spectrum-independent extraction of the primary spectrum for several HXR flares observed by the {\\it Ramaty High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager} (RHESSI). We show that the observed and primary spectra differ very substantially for flares with hard spectra close to the disk centre. We show in particular that the energy dependent photon spectral index $\\gamm...

  15. Proton non-Rutherford backscattering study of oxidation kinetics in Cu and Fe sulphides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiari, M. [Padua Univ. (Italy). Dipt. di Fisica]|[INFN - Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, via Romea 4, 35020 Legnaro (Padova) (Italy); Giuntini, L. [INFN - Firenze, Largo Fermi 2, 50125 Firenze (Italy); Pratesi, G. [Museo di Mineralogia e Litologia, Universita di Firenze, via La Pira 4, 50121 Firenze (Italy); Santo, A.P. [Dipartimento di Scienze della Terra, Universita di Firenze, via La Pira 4, 50121 Firenze (Italy)

    1998-04-01

    Non-Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (NBS) with 2.4 MeV protons was performed for depth profiling of oxygen in three species of copper and iron sulphides - pyrite, chalcopyrite and bornite - on both altered and fresh surfaces. The tarnished surfaces were obtained by bathing samples in H{sub 2}O{sub 2} (35% vol.) for 100 and 1000 s. The spectra collected were compared to simulations to extract quantitative data on oxygen depth distributions for the different bathing times. The measurements have shown that the kinetics of oxidation has completely different patterns in the three investigated minerals. (orig.) 11 refs.

  16. Open-Air, Broad-Bandwidth Trace-Gas Sensing with a Mid-Infrared Optical Frequency Comb

    CERN Document Server

    Nugent-Glandorf, Lora; Diddams, Scott A

    2014-01-01

    A mid-Infrared frequency comb is produced via an optical parametric oscillator (OPO) pumped by an amplified 100 MHz Yb:fiber mode-locked laser. We use this source to make measurements of the concentration of the atmospherically-relevant species of CH4 and H2O over a bandwidth of 100 nm centered at 3.25 um. Multiple absorption lines for each species are detected with millisecond acquisition time using a virtually-imaged phased array (VIPA) spectrometer. The measured wavelength-dependent absorption profile is compared to and fitted by a model, yielding quantitative values of the atmospheric concentration of both CH4 and H2O in a controlled indoor environment, as well as over a 26 m open air outdoor path.

  17. Tandem photonic-crystal thin films surpassing Lambertian light-trapping limit over broad bandwidth and angular range

    CERN Document Server

    Oskooi, Ardavan; Noda, Susumu

    2013-01-01

    The maximum absorption of solar radiation over the broadest range of frequencies and incident angles using the thinnest material possible has important applications for renewable-energy generation. Complete random texturing of an optically-thick film's surface to increase the path length of scattered light rays, first proposed nearly thirty years ago, has thus far remained the most effective approach for photon absorption over the widest set of conditions. Recent thin-film nanostructured designs involving resonant wave effects of photons have explored the possibility of superior performance though as of yet no proposal satisfying the dual requirements of enhanced and robust absorption over a large fraction of the solar spectrum has been made. Here using recent advances in computational electrodynamics we describe a general strategy for the design of a silicon thin film applicable to photovoltaic cells based on a quasi-resonant approach to light trapping where two partially-disordered photonic-crystal slabs, s...

  18. Cosmic Microwave Background Polarization Detector with High Efficiency, Broad Bandwidth, and Highly Symmetric Coupling to Transition Edge Sensor Bolometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wollack, E.; Cao, N.; Chuss, D.; Denis, K.; Hsieh, W.-T.; Moseley, S. Harvey; Schneider, G.; Stevenson, T.; Travers, D.; U-yen, K.

    2008-01-01

    Four probe antennas transfer signals from waveguide to microstrip lines. The probes not only provide broadband impedance matching, but also thermally isolate waveguide and detector. In addition, we developed a new photonic waveguide choke joint design, with four-fold symmetry, to suppress power leakage at the interface. We have developed facilities to test superconducting circuit elements using a cryogenic microwave probe station, and more complete systems in waveguide. We used the ring resonator shown below to measure a dielectric loss tangent bolometers. The result below shows the planar circuit and waveguide interface can utilize the high beam symmetry of HE11 circular feedhorns with > 99% coupling efficiency over 30% fractional bandwidth.

  19. Nonlinear evolution of broad-bandwidth, laser-imprinted nonuniformities in planar targets accelerated by 351-nm laser light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Planar, 20 and 40 μm thick CH targets have been accelerated by 351 nm laser beams of the OMEGA laser system [Opt. Commun. 133, 495 (1997)]. Different beam-smoothing techniques were employed including distributed phase plates, smoothing by spectral dispersion, and distributed polarization rotators. The Rayleigh - Taylor evolution of three-dimensional (3D) broadband planar-target perturbations seeded by laser nonuniformities was measured using x-ray radiography at ∼1.3 keV. Fourier analysis shows that the perturbations evolve to longer wavelengths and the shorter wavelengths saturate. The saturation amplitudes and rates of growth of these features are consistent with the predictions of Haan [Phys. Rev. A 39, 5812 (1989)]. copyright 1999 American Institute of Physics

  20. Electron backscatter diffraction in materials characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dejan Stojakovic

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Electron Back-Scatter Diffraction (EBSD is a powerful technique that captures electron diffraction patterns from crystals, constituents of material. Captured patterns can then be used to determine grain morphology, crystallographic orientation and chemistry of present phases, which provide complete characterization of microstructure and strong correlation to both properties and performance of materials. Key milestones related to technological developments of EBSD technique have been outlined along with possible applications using modern EBSD system. Principles of crystal diffraction with description of crystallographic orientation, orientation determination and phase identification have been described. Image quality, resolution and speed, and system calibration have also been discussed. Sample preparation methods were reviewed and EBSD application in conjunction with other characterization techniques on a variety of materials has been presented for several case studies. In summary, an outlook for EBSD technique was provided.

  1. The dose from Compton backscatter screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rez, Peter; Metzger, Robert L; Mossman, Kenneth L

    2011-04-01

    Systems based on the detection of Compton backscattered X rays have been deployed for screening personnel for weapons and explosives. Similar principles are used for screening vehicles at border-crossing points. Based on well-established scattering cross sections and absorption coefficients in conjunction with reasonable estimates of the image contrast and resolution, the entrance skin dose and the dose at a depth of 1 cm can be calculated. The effective dose can be estimated using the same conversion coefficients as used to convert exposure measurements to the effective dose. It is shown that the effective dose is highly dependent on image resolution (i.e. pixel size).The effective doses for personnel screening systems are unlikely to be in compliance with the American National Standards Institute standard NS 43.17 unless the pixel sizes are >4 mm. Nevertheless, calculated effective doses are well below doses associated with health effects. PMID:21068018

  2. Simulation of ultrasound backscatter images from fish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pham, An Hoai; Stage, Bjarne; Hemmsen, Martin Christian;

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this work is to investigate ultrasound (US) backscatter in the MHz range from fis to develop a realistic and reliable simulation model. The long term objective of the work is to develop the needed signal processing for fis species differentiation using US. In in-vitro experiments......, a cod (Gadus morhua) was scanned with both a BK Medical ProFocus 2202 ultrasound scanner and a Toshiba Aquilion ONE computed tomography (CT) scanner. The US images of the fis were compared with US images created using the ultrasound simulation program Field II. The center frequency of the transducer...... is 10 MHz and the Full Width at Half Maximum (FWHM) at the focus point is 0.54 mm in the lateral direction. The transducer model in Field II was calibrated using a wire phantom to validate the simulated point spread function. The inputs to the simulation were the CT image data of the fis converted to...

  3. Strong Localization in Disordered Media: Analysis of the Backscattering Cone

    KAUST Repository

    Delgado, Edgar

    2012-06-01

    A very interesting effect in light propagation through a disordered system is Anderson localization of light, this phenomenon emerges as the result of multiple scattering of waves by electric inhomogeneities like spatial variations of index of refraction; as the amount of scattering is increased, light propagation is converted from quasi-diffusive to exponentially localized, with photons confined in a limited spatial region characterized by a fundamental quantity known as localization length. Light localization is strongly related to another interference phenomenon emerged from the multiple scattering effect: the coherent backscattering effect. In multiple scattering of waves, in fact, coherence is preserved in the backscattering direction and produces a reinforcement of the field flux originating an observable peak in the backscattered intensity, known as backscattering cone. The study of this peak provide quantitative information about the transport properties of light in the material. In this thesis we report a complete FDTD ab-initio study of light localization and coherent backscattering. In particular, we consider a supercontinuum pulse impinging on a sample composed of randomly positioned scatterers. We study coherent backscattering by averaging over several realizations of the sample properties. We study then the coherent backscattering cone properties as the relative permittivity of the sample is changed, relating the latter with the light localization inside the sample. We demonstrate important relationships between the width of the backscattering cone and the localization length, which shows a linear proportionality in the strong localization regime.

  4. Rutherford backscattering in an industrial environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rutherford Backscattering spectrometry (RBS) is a well established analytical technique, particularly in the university and major research oriented industrial laboratories. Historically, the accelerators used for RBS analysis have been renovated low energy nuclear physics rather than a dedicated optimally designed analytical instrument. It is this 'requirement' that each machine be individually rebuilt prior to use as a materials analysis tool that has contributed to the limited industrial use of RBS when compared with other analytical techniques such as Auger spectroscopy or Secondary Ion Mass spectrometry (SIMS). This paper will discuss the design criteria and applications of an RBS system for use in an industrial analytical environment. The design issues which are discussed include the backscattered particle detection, sample positioning, charge integration, vacuum, and automation systems. An RBS system for which the design of these systems has been optimized in light of many current industrial applications will be evaluated. The prototype of this system has been tested for the previous two years with a utilization factor of 4000-5000 individual analyses per year. The applications which have been investigated extend from the familiar electronics related topics to many other diverse fields such as polymeric chemistry, catalysis, and surface modification of synthetic fibers. Some of the electronics applications include high throughput 'production line' analysis of silicides, copper doped aluminium, and similar interconnect materials as well as the more sophisticated trace impurity mapping techniques which involve channeled line scans. Catalysis applications include the study of cage compound zeolite particle and the depth distribution of the active catalyst in these particles. Applications in the field of synthesis fibers include the study of the depth distribution of coloring agents and dyes in the near surface region of the fibers. (orig.)

  5. Simultaneous observations at different altitudes of ionospheric backscatter in the eastward electrojet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. E. Milan

    Full Text Available A common feature of evening near-range ionospheric backscatter in the CUTLASS Iceland radar field of view is two parallel, approximately L-shell-aligned regions of westward flow which are attributed to irregularities in the auroral eastward electrojet region of the ionosphere. These backscatter channels are separated by approximately 100–200 km in range. The orientation of the CUTLASS Iceland radar beams and the zonally aligned nature of the flow allows an approximate determination of flow angle to be made without the necessity of bistatic measurements. The two flow channels have different azimuthal variations in flow velocity and spectral width. The nearer of the two regions has two distinct spectral signatures. The eastern beams detect spectra with velocities which saturate at or near the ion-acoustic speed, and have low spectral widths (less than 100 m s–1, while the western beams detect lower velocities and higher spectral widths (above 200 m s–1. The more distant of the two channels has only one spectral signature with velocities above the ion-acoustic speed and high spectral widths. The spectral characteristics of the backscatter are consistent with E-region scatter in the nearer channel and upper-E-region or F-region scatter in the further channel. Temporal variations in the characteristics of both channels support current theories of E-region turbulent heating and previous observations of velocity-dependent backscatter cross-section. In future, observations of this nature will provide a powerful tool for the investigation of simultaneous E- and F-region irregularity generation under similar (nearly co-located or magnetically conjugate electric field conditions.

    Key words. Auroral ionosphere · Ionospheric irregularities · Plasma convection

  6. CHANGES OF BACKSCATTERING PARAMETERS DURING CHILLING INJURY IN BANANAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NORHASHILA HASHIM

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The change in backscattering parameters during the appearance of chilling injury in bananas was investigated. Bananas were stored at a chilling temperature for two days and the degrees of the chilling injuries that appeared were measured before, during and after storage using backscattering imaging and visual assessment. Laser lights at 660 nm and 785 nm wavelengths were shot consecutively onto the samples in a dark room and a camera was used to capture the backscattered lights that appeared on the samples. The captured images were analysed and the changes of intensity against pixel count were plotted into graphs. The plotted graph provides useful information of backscattering parameters such as inflection point (IP, slope after inflection point (SA, and full width at half maximum (FWHM and saturation radius (RSAT. Results of statistical analysis indicated that there were significant changes of these backscattering parameters as chilling injury developed.

  7. Backscattering at a pulsed neutron source, the MUSICAL instrument

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the first part the principles of the neutron backscattering method are described and some simple considerations about the energy resolution and the intensity are presented. A prototype of a backscattering instrument, the first Juelich instrument, is explained in some detail and a representative measurement is shown which was performed on the backscattering instrument IN10 at the ILL in Grenoble. In the second part a backscattering instrument designed for a pulsed neutron source is proposed. It is shown that a rather simple modification, which consists in the replacement of the Doppler drive of the conventional backscattering instrument by a multi silicon monochromator crystal (MUSICAL) leads to a very effective instrument, benefitting from the peak flux of the pulsed source. ((orig.))

  8. Very high latitude F-region irregularities observed by HF-radar backscatter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In February and March, 1982, a coherent scatter HF radar was operated from Cleary, Alaska to observe 7- to 15-m wavelength F-region plasma irregularities near the poleward edge of the auroral zone and in the polar cap. The radar operated for five days from February 25 to March 1 and produced approximately 700,000 Doppler spectra during that time. Of those nearly 700,000 spectra, approximately 10% showed backscattered power 3 dB or more above the noise level. A ray tracing technique using electron densities determined by the Chatanika incoherent scatter radar was used to predict locations where the HF waves were approximately normal to the magnetic field. If those locations were also to contain small scale electron density structure, then one would expect them to backscatter the HF waves. Several comparisons were made between predicted and observed locations of radiowave backscatter and excellent agreement was obtained. In addition, comparisons of the Doppler velocities observed by the coherent scatter HF radar and those observed by the Chatanika radar showed good agreement, suggesting that the plasma irregularities observed by the HF radar drift with the ambient plasma. In addition, average vector velocities calculated for the entire 5-day period show a flow pattern consistent with polar cap convection models. This again indicates that the irregularities drift with the plasma, as is predicted by a number of theories of F-region plasma irregularities. In the summer of 1983, the research program begun with those measurements will be continued with a steerable phased-array HF radar located at Goose Bay, Labrador, that will view the same ionospheric region as does the Sondre Stromfjord incoherent scatter radar

  9. Characterization of the backscattered radiation from petawatt laser matter interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The development of high peak power and energy laser systems require the assurance that any backscattered radiation will not lead to damage of the laser system. We present the characterization of the backscattered radiation for different target types and conditions at petawatt power levels and intensities (>1020W/cm2). We observe that radiation is generated between 700 and 900 nm, as well as the expected self emission and laser fundamental. The percentage of the incident light backscattered reduces as a function of the incident energy and is typically <1% for petawatt laser interactions

  10. Statistical simulation of multiple Compton backscattering process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potylitsyn, A. P.; Kolchuzhkin, A. M.

    2014-09-01

    A number of laboratories are currently developing monochromatic sources of X-rays and gamma quanta based on the Compton backscattering (CBS) of laser photons by relativistic electrons. Modern technologies are capable of providing a concentration of electrons and photons in the interaction point such that each primary electron can emit several hard photons. In contrast to the well-known nonlinear CBS process, in which an initial electron "absorbs" a few laser photons and emits a single hard one, the above-mentioned process can be called a multiple CBS process and is characterized by a mean number of emitted photons. The present paper is devoted to simulating the parameters of a beam of back scattered quanta based on the Monte Carlo technique. It is shown that, even in the case of strong collimation of a resulting photon beam, the radiation monochromaticity may deteriorate because of the contribution coming from the multiple photon emission, which is something that must be considered while designing new CBS sources.

  11. X-Ray Backscatter Machine Support Frame

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannon, Brooke

    2010-01-01

    This summer at Kennedy Space Center, I spent 10 weeks as an intern working at the Prototype Development Lab. During this time I learned about the design and machining done here at NASA. I became familiar with the process from where a design begins in Pro/Engineer and finishes at the hands of the machinists. As an intern I was given various small jobs to do and then one project of my own. My personal project was a job for the Applied Physics Lab; in their work they use an X-Ray Backscatter machine. Previously it was resting atop a temporary frame that limited the use of the machine. My job was to design a frame for the machine to rest upon that would allow a full range of sample sizes. The frame was required to support the machine and provide a strain relief for the cords attached to the machine as it moved in the x and y directions. Calculations also had to be done to be sure the design would be able to withstand any loads or outside sources of stress. After the calculations proved the design to be ready to withstand the requirements, the parts were ordered or fabricated, as required. This helped me understand the full process of jobs sent to the Prototype Development Lab.

  12. Estimating slash pine biomass using radar backscatter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussin, Yousif Ali; Reich, Robin M.; Hoffer, Roger M.

    1991-01-01

    L-band HV multiple-incidence-angle aircraft synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data were analyzed in relation to average stand biomass, basal area, and tree height for 55 slash pine plantations located in northern Florida. This information was used to develop a system of equations to predict average stand biomass as a function of L-band (24.5-cm) radar backscatter. The system of equations developed in this study using three-stage least-squares and combinatorial screening accounted for 97 percent of the variability observed in average stand biomass per hectare. When applied to an independent data set, the biomass equations had an average bias of less than 1 percent with a standard error of approximately 3 percent. These results indicate that future Shuttle Imaging Radar Systems (e.g., SIR-C, which will have cross-polarized radar sensors) should be able to obtain better estimates of forest biomass than were obtained with previous satellite radar missions, which utilized only HH-polarized SAR data.

  13. Backscatter B [USGS]--Offshore of Ventura, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of SIM 3254 presents data for part of the acoustic-backscatter map (see sheet 3, SIM 3254) of the Offshore Ventura map area, California. The raster data...

  14. Backscatter A [CSUMB]--Offshore of Ventura, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of SIM 3254 presents data for part of the acoustic-backscatter map (see sheet 3, SIM 3254) of the Offshore of Ventura map area, California. The raster...

  15. Backscatter B [USGS]--Offshore of Carpinteria, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of SIM 3261 presents data for part of the acoustic-backscatter map (see sheet 3, SIM 3261) of the Offshore of Carpinteria map area, California. The raster...

  16. Backscatter A [CSUMB]--Offshore of Carpinteria, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of SIM 3261 presents data for part of the acoustic-backscatter map (see sheet 3, SIM 3261) of the Offshore of Carpinteria map area, California. The raster...

  17. Backscatter A [CSUMB]--Offshore of Santa Barbara, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of SIM 3281 presents data for part of the acoustic-backscatter map (see sheet 3, SIM 3281) of the Offshore of Santa Barbara map area, California. The...

  18. Reson 8101 multibeam backscatter data from Galvez Bank.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Multibeam backscatter imagery extracted from gridded bathymetry of the Mariana archipelago between the U.S. Territory of Guam and Farallon De Pajaros Island in the...

  19. Bathymetry and Acoustic Backscatter: Northern Santa Barbara Channel, Southern California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This report presents bathymetry and acoustic backscatter data collected in July 2008 in the northern Santa Barbara Channel, California, using a bathymetric sidescan...

  20. An algorithm to determine backscattering ratio and single scattering albedo

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Suresh, T.; Desa, E.; Matondkar, S.G.P.; Mascarenhas, A.A.M.Q.; Nayak, S.R.; Naik, P.

    Algorithms to determine the inherent optical properties of water, backscattering probability and single scattering albedo at 490 and 676 nm from the apparent optical property, remote sensing reflectance are presented here. The measured scattering...

  1. LIDAR for atmospheric backscatter and temperature measurements Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The objectives of this effort are to measure atmospheric backscatter profiles and temperature using a zenith looking lidar, designed for a small lander.The lidar...

  2. Photoelectron backscattering from silicon anodes of hybrid photodetector tubes

    CERN Document Server

    D'Ambrosio, C

    2000-01-01

    The impact of photoelectron backscattering on spectral distributions measured with hybrid photodetector tubes has been calculated. The calculations are based on the backscattering coefficient mu , the average number of photoelectrons N/sub phel/ emitted from the photocathode, and on the distribution of the fractional photoelectron energy q absorbed in silicon during the backscattering process. We obtained the following results: the average number of absorbed (measured) photoelectrons N/sub meas/ in the silicon anode amounts to ~88% of the incident N/sub phel/. Photoelectron- and gamma-absorption peaks are broadened by a factor 1.043 due to backscattering. As an example, for photomultiplier tubes, this broadening can amount to an average factor of 1.18 due to statistic and gain fluctuations on the dynode chain. (15 refs).

  3. Detection of buried landmine with X-ray backscatter technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuk, Sunwoo; Kim, Kwang Hyun; Yi, Yun

    2006-11-01

    We describe a continuously operating scanning X-ray imaging system developed for landmine detection based on a backscatter X-ray principle, thus detection is done from the same side as the source. The source operates at 120 kV p and 3 mA. To study the physics of Compton X-ray backscattering, the photon transport factor, backscatter factor (BSF) and backscatter probability (BSP) were simulated using Monte-Carlo calculations using the generalized particle transport program MCNP. Based on the Monte-Carlo analyses results, a mine detecting system has been designed. It potentially has a low false alarm rate and a high detection probability, and a direct imaging facility.

  4. Detection of buried landmine with X-ray backscatter technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuk, Sunwoo [Department of Electronics and Information Engineering, Korea University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)]. E-mail: sunwoo@korea.ac.kr; Kim, Kwang Hyun [Chosun University, 375, Seosuk-Dong, Dong-Gu, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Yi, Yun [Department of Electronics and Information Engineering, Korea University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-11-30

    We describe a continuously operating scanning X-ray imaging system developed for landmine detection based on a backscatter X-ray principle, thus detection is done from the same side as the source. The source operates at 120 kV p and 3 mA. To study the physics of Compton X-ray backscattering, the photon transport factor, backscatter factor (BSF) and backscatter probability (BSP) were simulated using Monte-Carlo calculations using the generalized particle transport program MCNP. Based on the Monte-Carlo analyses results, a mine detecting system has been designed. It potentially has a low false alarm rate and a high detection probability, and a direct imaging facility.

  5. Backscatter--Offshore of Refugio Beach Area, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of SIM 3319 presents data for part of the acoustic-backscatter map (see sheet 3, SIM 3319) of Offshore Refugio Beach map area, California. The raster data...

  6. Reson 8101 Backscatter imagery of Penguin Bank, Molokai, Hawaii, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Backscatter imagery extracted from gridded bathymetry of Penguin Bank, Molokai, Hawaii, USA. These data provide almost complete coverage between 0 and 100 meters....

  7. Backscatter [8101]--Offshore of Monterey Map Area, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents 2-m-resolution Reson 8101 data for the acoustic-backscatter map of the Offshore of Monterey map area, California. These metadata...

  8. Backscatter [7125]-- Offshore of Monterey Map Area, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents 2-m-resolution Reson 7125 data for the acoustic-backscatter map of Offshore of Monterey map area, California. These metadata describe...

  9. Backscatter [Swath]-- Offshore of Monterey Map Area, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents 2-m-resolution SWATHPlus data for the acoustic-backscatter map of Offshore of Monterey map area, California. These metadata describe...

  10. Interlinking backscatter, grain size and benthic community structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGonigle, Chris; Collier, Jenny S.

    2014-06-01

    The relationship between acoustic backscatter, sediment grain size and benthic community structure is examined using three different quantitative methods, covering image- and angular response-based approaches. Multibeam time-series backscatter (300 kHz) data acquired in 2008 off the coast of East Anglia (UK) are compared with grain size properties, macrofaunal abundance and biomass from 130 Hamon and 16 Clamshell grab samples. Three predictive methods are used: 1) image-based (mean backscatter intensity); 2) angular response-based (predicted mean grain size), and 3) image-based (1st principal component and classification) from Quester Tangent Corporation Multiview software. Relationships between grain size and backscatter are explored using linear regression. Differences in grain size and benthic community structure between acoustically defined groups are examined using ANOVA and PERMANOVA+. Results for the Hamon grab stations indicate significant correlations between measured mean grain size and mean backscatter intensity, angular response predicted mean grain size, and 1st principal component of QTC analysis (all p response predicted mean grain size (r2 = 0.692; p response predicted grain size (p < 0.001), and QTC class (p = 0.009). Mean grain size (Clamshell) shows a significant difference between groups for mean backscatter (p = 0.001); other methods were not significant. PERMANOVA for the Hamon abundance shows benthic community structure was significantly different between acoustic groups for all methods (p ≤ 0.001). Overall these results show considerable promise in that more than 60% of the variance in the mean grain size of the Clamshell grab samples can be explained by mean backscatter or acoustically-predicted grain size. These results show that there is significant predictive capacity for sediment characteristics from multibeam backscatter and that these acoustic classifications can have ecological validity.

  11. Analysis of forest backscattering characteristics based on polarization coherence tomography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    It is difficult to make an inventory of vertical profiles of forest structure parameters in field measurements.However,analysis and understanding of forest backscattering characteristics contribute to estimation and detection of forest vertical structure because of the close relationships between backscattering characteristics and structure parameters.The vertical structure function in the complex interferometric coherence definition,which represents the vertical variation of microwave scattering with the penetration depth at a point in the 2-D radar image and can be used to analyze the forest backscattering characteristics,can be reconstructed from polarization coherence tomography(PCT).Based on PCT,the paper analyzes the forest backscattering characteristics and explores the inherent relationship between the result of PCT and the forest structure parameters from numerical simulation of Random Volume over Ground model(RVoG),Polarimetric SAR interferometry(PolInSAR)simulation of forest scene and PolInSAR data at L-band of the test site Traunstein.Firstly,the effects of the extinction coefficient and surface-to-volume scattering ratio in RVoG model on vertical backscattering characteristics are analyzed by means of numerical simulation.Secondly,by applying PCT to L-band POLInSAR simulations of forest scene,different variations of vertical backscattering due to different extinction coefficients and the ratios of surface-to-volume scattering resulting from different polarizations,forest types and densities are displayed and analyzed.Then a concept of relative average backscattering intensity is presented,and the factors which affect its vertical distribution are also discussed.Preliminary results show that there is high sensitivity of the vertical distribution of forest relative average backscattering intensity to the polarization,forest type and density.Finally,based on repeat pass DLR E-SAR L-band airborne POLInSAR data,the capability of PCT technology for detection

  12. Ultrasonic Backscattering from Suspended Erythrocytes: Dependence on Frequency and Size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Ihyuan

    The ultrasonic scattering properties of blood have been intensively investigated since the echo signal from red blood cells carries abundant diagnostic information for the study of blood flow and blood properties in the vessels. Recently, ultrasound of frequency higher than 20 MHz has been implemented in intravascular imaging to obtain better images of the vessel wall. In this research measurements were extended to 30 MHz to better understand the effect of blood on the operation of these intravascular devices. The experimentally measured backscatter of saline suspended porcine erythrocytes for frequency up to 30 MHz agrees very well with the theoretical analysis which indicate that Rayleigh scattering is still valid below this frequency. The analysis utilize the T-matrix method to calculate the backscattering cross section of an erythrocyte modeled as a fluid sphere, disk, and biconcave disk. Measurements on the backscattering coefficients of porcine, bovine, and lamb erythrocytes reveal that the backscatter has a square dependence on cell volume. The cell size dependent backscatter is also analyzed via a continuum approach. It is found that the echo intensity of high frequency ultrasound suffers greatly from the attenuation. The dilemma may be solved by using a spherically focused transducer. An analysis of the focused beam reflected from a perfect planar reflector leads to the modification of the standard substitution method for the backscatter measurement since the "image source" theory is found to be inappropriate for the focused beam. Reflection of the focused beam near the focal point is described based on Huygens' principle. Experimental and theoretical results indicate that the backscatter is dependent upon the position of the scatterer and the geometry of the transducer if a focused beam is used. Since ultrasound velocity information is needed for scattering measurements, an innovative method for measuring the acoustic speed and the attenuation coefficient

  13. Aerosol Lidar for the Relative Backscatter Amplification Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razenkov, Igor A.; Banakh, Victor A.; Nadeev, Alexander I.

    2016-06-01

    Backscatter amplification presents only in a turbulent atmosphere, when the laser beam is propagates twice through the same inhomogeneities. We proposed technical solution to detect backscatter amplification. An aerosol micro pulse lidar with a beam expansion via receiving telescope was built to study this effect. Our system allows simultaneous detection of two returns from the same scattering volume: exactly on the axis of the laser beam and off the axis.

  14. Radar backscatter modelling of forests using a macroecological approach

    OpenAIRE

    Brolly, Matthew

    2012-01-01

    This thesis provides a new explanation for the behaviour of radar backscatter of forests using vegetation structure models from the field of macroecology. The forests modelled in this work are produced using allometry-based ecological models with backscatter derived from the parameterisation of a radiative transfer model. This work is produced as a series of papers, each portraying the importance of macroecology in defining the forest radar response. Each contribution does so b...

  15. A relationship between ultrasonic integrated backscatter and myocardial contractile function.

    OpenAIRE

    Wickline, S. A.; Thomas, L J; Miller, J.G.; Sobel, B E; J. E. Perez

    1985-01-01

    We have shown previously that the physiologic, mechanical cardiac cycle is associated with a parallel, cardiac cycle-dependent variation of integrated backscatter (IB). However, the mechanisms responsible are not known. The mathematical and physiological considerations explored in the present study suggest that the relationship between backscatter and myocardial contractile function reflects cyclic alterations in myofibrillar elastic parameters, with the juxtaposition of intracellular and ext...

  16. Statistical weights as variance reduction method in back-scattered gamma radiation Monte Carlo spectrometry analysis of thickness gauge detector response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The possibility of determining physical quantities (such as the number of particles behind shields of given thickness, energy spectra, detector responses, etc.) with a satisfactory statistical uncertainty, in a relatively short computing time, can be used as a measure of the efficiency of a Monte Carlo method. The numerical simulation of rare events with a straightforward Monte Carlo method is inefficient due to the great number of histories, without scores. In this paper, for the specific geometry of a gamma backscattered thickness gauge, with 60Co and 137Cs as gamma sources, the back-scattered gamma spectrum, probabilities for back-scattering and the spectral characteristics of the detector response were determined using a nonanalog Monte Carlo game with statistical weights applied. (author)

  17. Compton backscattered and primary X-rays from solar flares: angle dependent Green's function correction for photospheric albedo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kontar, E. P.; MacKinnon, A. L.; Schwartz, R. A.; Brown, J. C.

    2006-02-01

    The observed hard X-ray (HXR) flux spectrum I(ɛ) from solar flares is a combination of primary bremsstrahlung photons I_P(ɛ) with a spectrally modified component from photospheric Compton backscatter of downward primary emission. The latter can be significant, distorting or hiding the true features of the primary spectrum which are key diagnostics for acceleration and propagation of high energy electrons and of their energy budget. For the first time in solar physics, we use a Green's function approach to the backscatter spectral deconvolution problem, constructing a Green's matrix including photoelectric absorption. This approach allows spectrum-independent extraction of the primary spectrum for several HXR flares observed by the Ramaty High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager (RHESSI). We show that the observed and primary spectra differ very substantially for flares with hard spectra close to the disk centre. We show in particular that the energy dependent photon spectral index γ (ɛ)=-d log I/d log ɛ is very different for I_P(ɛ) and for I(ɛ) and that inferred mean source electron spectra F(E) differ greatly. Even for a forward fitting of a parametric F(E) to the data, a clear low-energy cutoff required to fit I(ɛ) essentially disappears when the fit is to I_P(ɛ) - i.e. when albedo correction is included. The self-consistent correction for backscattered photons is thus shown to be crucial in determining the energy spectra of flare accelerated electrons, and hence their total number and energy.

  18. Coherent Backscattering Effect in Saturnian vs. Uranian Satellites: Effects on Band Depths and Shapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitman, Karly M.; Kolokolova, Ludmilla; Verbiscer, Anne J.; Gulotta, Charles; Joseph, Emily C. S.; Mackowski, Daniel W.; Buratti, Bonnie J.; Momary, Thomas W.

    2015-11-01

    In this work, we examine the changes in depth and shape of individual absorption bands as a function of solar phase angle that are caused by the coherent backscattering effect (CBE) in near-IR spectra of saturnian and uranian satellites. We have quantified band depths and shapes for real-world data (from Cassini Visual & Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (VIMS) and TripleSpec at Apache Point Observatory) and also modeled spectra of densely packed icy particulate surfaces with the MSTM (multisphere T-matrix) version 4.0 code specifically developed to model light scattering in regolith layers. MSTM4 allows us to calculate the brightness for thick fluffy layers on order of 20,000 particles (compared to 1000 with previous code versions). We have now obtained good matches between model and real-world data at specific bands for several higher albedo moons. We are finding that the normalized depth of the absorption band can increase or decrease with solar phase angle depending on the albedo at the wavelength of normalization; this is seen in all the data (VIMS, ground-based, and model spectra). We model the change in the phase-angle-dependent band depth in response to varying the size and packing of the constituent icy particles. Indeed, the coherent backscattering effect can be observed at some wavelengths and entirely disappear at others because CBE requires a specific range of size and packing (cf. Muinonen et al. 2014); we see this effect as well.This work is supported by NASA’s Outer Planets Research program (NNX12AM76G; PI Pitman), Planetary Astronomy program (NNX09AD06G; PI Verbiscer), and NASA’s Advanced Supercomputing Division. Calibrated Cassini VIMS data cubes appear courtesy of the Cassini VIMS team and the PDS.

  19. Beta spectra. II-Positron spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using the Fermi theory of beta decay, the beta spectra for 30 positron emitters have been computed, introducing a correction factor for unique forbidden transitions. The spectra are ploted vs. energy, once normalised, and tabulated with the related Fermi functions. The average and median energies are calculated. (author)

  20. On the collocation between dayside auroral activity and coherent HF radar backscatter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Moen

    Full Text Available The 2D morphology of coherent HF radar and optical cusp aurora has been studied for conditions of predominantly southward IMF conditions, which favours low-latitude boundary layer reconnection. Despite the variability in shape of radar cusp Doppler spectra, the spectral width criterion of > 220 m s–1 proves to be a robust cusp discriminator. For extended periods of well-developed radar backscatter echoes, the equatorward boundary of the > 220 m s–1 spectral width enhancement lines up remarkably well with the equatorward boundary of the optical cusp aurora. The spectral width boundary is however poorly determined during development and fading of radar cusp backscatter. Closer inspection of radar Doppler profile characteristics suggests that a combination of spectral width and shape may advance boundary layer identification by HF radar. For the two December days studied the onset of radar cusp backscatter occurred within pre-existing 630.0 nm cusp auroral activity and appear to be initiated by sunrise, i.e. favourable radio wave propagation conditions had to develop. Better methods are put forward for analysing optical data, and for physical interpretation of HF radar data, and for combining these data, as applied to detection, tracking, and better understanding of dayside aurora. The broader motivation of this work is to develop wider use by the scientific community, of results of these techniques, to accelerate understanding of dynamic high-latitude boundary-processes. The contributions in this work are: (1 improved techniques of analysis of observational data, yielding meaningfully enhanced accuracy for deduced cusp locations; (2 a correspondingly more pronounced validation of correlation of boundary locations derived from the observational data set; and (3 a firmer physical rationale as to why the good correlation observed should theoretically be expected.

    Key words: Ionosphere (ionospheric

  1. Monochromatic hard X-ray generators using laser-electron compton backscattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conventional hard X-ray sources for medical/industrial use such as X-ray tubes generate broadband white light. Such X-ray tubes are inefficient sources of radiation for medical imaging, because only a small part of radiation contributes to imaging and a large part of radiation causes radiation hazard. A tunable monochromatic hard X-ray source by laser-electron Compton backscattering would be an ideal source of radiation for medical imaging. Its energy spectrum can be optimized for the best absorption energy of contrast agent such as Iodine (33.17 keV), Indium (27.95 keV) or Gadolium (50.2 keV). It is also possible to upgrade contrast by digital subtract imaging technology. We present several schemes of Compton backscattering for the generation of high-flux tunable monochromatic X-ray: -photocathode X-band normal-conducting RF linac and pulse Nd:YAG/ (or Ti:Sapphire) laser -CW superconducting accelerator with energy recovery and CW diode-pumped solid-state laser -CW superconducting accelerator and free electron laser. Photon fluxes and energy spectra of the output hard X-ray for the various schemes have been estimated

  2. Strong Calcite-Like Spectra Cathodoluminescence Emission from Allende Meteorite Cai Phases

    OpenAIRE

    García Guinea, Javier; Tornos Arroyo, Fernando; Azumendi García, Oscar; Ruiz Pérez, Javier; Correcher Delgado, Virgilio

    2011-01-01

    Calcium–aluminum-rich inclusions (CAIs) of Allende CV3 chondrite were studied by Environmental Scanning Electron Microscopy (ESEM), Energy Dispersive Spectrometry (EDS), Backscattering (BS), and Spectra Cathodoluminescence (CL). CAI minerals show spectra CL curves exceeding the 450,000 a.u. with a large homogeneity along the white inclusions. CL curve features fit perfectly with terrestrial patterns of stressed specimens of weathered marble and limestone in which hydroxyl gr...

  3. Electron backscattering from solid targets: Elastic scattering calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Backscattering coefficient of low-energy electrons. • Elastic scattering cross sections. • Analytical expression of the numerical coefficient in the Nigam atomic screening factor. - Abstract: Analytical expression of the target atomic number dependence of the numerical coefficient in the Nigam atomic screening factor is proposed here to approximate the Rutherford elastic scattering cross sections for slow electron beams impinging on selected solid targets (from Be to Au) in the primary energy range 1–4 keV. Applications are then proposed in terms of Monte Carlo calculation of backscattering coefficient. In this respect, tabulations of backscattering coefficients are here reported for slow electrons in solid targets of interest pointing out a reasonable agreement with the data available in the literature. Analytical expressions of the target atomic number dependence of the electron backscattering coefficient is also suggested for selected electron primary energies ranging from 1 to 4 keV allowing thus an accurate determination of backscattering coefficients for low-energy electrons in solid targets without any resort in Monte Carlo type calculations

  4. Probabilities and statistics for backscatter estimates obtained by a scatterometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierson, Willard J., Jr.

    1989-01-01

    Methods for the recovery of winds near the surface of the ocean from measurements of the normalized radar backscattering cross section must recognize and make use of the statistics (i.e., the sampling variability) of the backscatter measurements. Radar backscatter values from a scatterometer are random variables with expected values given by a model. A model relates backscatter to properties of the waves on the ocean, which are in turn generated by the winds in the atmospheric marine boundary layer. The effective wind speed and direction at a known height for a neutrally stratified atmosphere are the values to be recovered from the model. The probability density function for the backscatter values is a normal probability distribution with the notable feature that the variance is a known function of the expected value. The sources of signal variability, the effects of this variability on the wind speed estimation, and criteria for the acceptance or rejection of models are discussed. A modified maximum likelihood method for estimating wind vectors is described. Ways to make corrections for the kinds of errors found for the Seasat SASS model function are described, and applications to a new scatterometer are given.

  5. Correction of energy shift in measurements of solute segregation by Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erck, R.A.

    1991-02-01

    Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS) is a sensitive technique for measuring the elemental composition of a specimen in the near-surface region. Studies of radiation effects in materials, such as radiation-induced segregation of solute elements to the external surface, often employ RBS to measure specimen composition because the high-energy ions can be used to produce radiation damage and also serve as the RBS profile ions. When small amounts of segregation are being measured, a shift in energy calibration renders the acquired data meaningless: the resulting edge shift in the spectra produces spurious contributions near the elemental leading edges that may greatly exceed the amount of segregation being measured. A simple method is proposed for correcting errors in measurement due to energy shift.

  6. A Micropulse eye-safe all-fiber molecular backscatter coherent temperature lidar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abari Cyrus F.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we analyze the performance of an all-fiber, micropulse, 1.5 μm coherent lidar for remote sensing of atmospheric temperature. The proposed system benefits from the recent advances in optics/electronics technology, especially an all-fiber image-reject homodyne receiver, where a high resolution spectrum in the baseband can be acquired. Due to the presence of a structured spectra resulting from the spontaneous Rayleigh-Brillouine scattering, associated with the relevant operating regimes, an accurate estimation of the temperature can be carried out. One of the main advantages of this system is the removal of the contaminating Mie backscatter signal by electronic filters at the baseband (before signal conditioning and amplification. The paper presents the basic concepts as well as a Monte-Carlo system simulation as the proof of concept.

  7. Quantitative analysis of the energy distributions of electrons backscattered elastically from polyethylene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tőkési, K., E-mail: tokesi@atomki.mta.hu; Varga, D.; Berényi, Z.

    2015-07-01

    We present results of theoretical and experimental studies of the spectra of electrons backscattered elastically from polyethylene in the primary energy range between 1 and 5 keV. The experiments were performed using a high energy resolution electron spectroscopy. The theoretical interpretation is based on a Monte Carlo simulation of the recoil and Doppler effects. The separation between the carbon and hydrogen peak in the energy distributions is shown as a function of the primary electron energy. The simulations give many partial distributions separately, depending on the number of elastic scatterings (single, and multiple scatterings of different types). We show our results for intensity ratios, peak shifts and broadenings. We also present detailed analytical calculations for the main parameters of a single scattering. Finally, we present a qualitative comparison with the experimental data. We find our resulting energy distribution of elastically scattered electrons to be in good agreement with our measurements.

  8. A Micropulse eye-safe all-fiber molecular backscatter coherent temperature lidar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abari, Cyrus F.; Chu, Xinzhao; Mann, Jakob; Spuler, Scott

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, we analyze the performance of an all-fiber, micropulse, 1.5 μm coherent lidar for remote sensing of atmospheric temperature. The proposed system benefits from the recent advances in optics/electronics technology, especially an all-fiber image-reject homodyne receiver, where a high resolution spectrum in the baseband can be acquired. Due to the presence of a structured spectra resulting from the spontaneous Rayleigh-Brillouine scattering, associated with the relevant operating regimes, an accurate estimation of the temperature can be carried out. One of the main advantages of this system is the removal of the contaminating Mie backscatter signal by electronic filters at the baseband (before signal conditioning and amplification). The paper presents the basic concepts as well as a Monte-Carlo system simulation as the proof of concept.

  9. BATS - Backscattering And Time-of-flight Spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The new backscattering spectrometer IN16b will go into commissioning end 2011, providing in its final state about ten times higher count rate than its predecessor, IN16. Here we propose to increase its dynamic range by a factor of 7 with the TOF mode extension, BATS. This will make IN16b the leading high resolution backscattering spectrometer for incoherent quasi-elastic and inelastic neutron scattering; it will be competitive to the coarser resolution inverted geometry backscattering spectrometers that are being brought online at spallation sources. The increased dynamic range will extend the scope of science addressed on IN16b, generating considerable potential in fields such as the hydrogen economy (proton conduction, fuel cells, hydrogen storage), soft matter, biology and nano-science (nano-scale confinement, functionalized polymers). Such a large impact can be achieved using only a moderate investment. (authors)

  10. Rutherford backscattering spectrometry: a possible high precision analytical tool for quantifying material transfer rates between machine components in contact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rutherford backscattering (RBS) is an ion beam-based analytical technique commonly used for materials analysis. It offers several possibilities of which we mention elemental identification, thickness measurements of layered structures and stoichiometric determinations. The principle and the specific features of the method are presented in this paper. The main aim of our experiments was to test the possibilities of RBS in material transfer determinations. As an illustration, experimental spectra obtained on both Falex (steel-brass) and Timken (steel-aluminium) sample are presented. Advantages as well as limitations of RBS for this particular purpose are discussed. (author) 4 Figs., 7 Refs

  11. Comparison of experimental and theoretical calculations of backscattering amplitude and phase shift functions for a number of fcc metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Extended x-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectra have been acquired experimentally for a number of fcc metals with atomic number Z between 28 (Ni) and 90 (Th). The backscattering amplitude and phase shift functions have been extracted from the data and compared with calculations based on a single scattering theory, using for the ejected electron, the exact curved wave function. The calculated functions obtained with the curved wave formalism provide increased accuracy, particularly at low k, i.e. k < 4 A/sup -1/, compared to those obtained with the plane wave approximation

  12. Bruce Thompson: Adventures and advances in ultrasonic backscatter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margetan, Frank J.

    2012-05-01

    Over the course of his professional career Dr. R. Bruce Thompson published several hundred articles on non-destructive evaluation, the majority dealing with topics in ultrasonics. One longtime research interest of Dr. Thompson, with applications both to microstructure characterization and defect detection, was backscattered grain noise in metals. Over a 20 year period he led a revolving team of staff members and graduate students investigating various aspects of ultrasonic backscatter. As a member of that team I had the privilege of working along side Dr. Thompson for many years, serving as a sort of Dr. Watson to Bruce's Sherlock Holmes. This article discusses Dr. Thompson's general approaches to modeling backscatter, the research topics he chose to explore to systematically elucidate a better understanding of the phenomena, and the many contributions to the field achieved under his leadership. The backscatter work began in earnest around 1990, motivated by a need to improve inspections of aircraft engine components. At that time Dr. Thompson launched two research efforts. The first led to the heuristic Independent Scatterer Model which could be used to estimate the average grain noise level that would be seen in any given ultrasonic inspection. There the contribution from the microstructure was contained in a measureable parameter known as the Figure-of-Merit or FOM. The second research effort, spearheaded by Dr. Jim Rose, led to a formal relationship between FOM and details of the metal microstructure. The combination of the Independent Scattering Model and Rose's formalism provided a powerful tool for investigating backscatter in metals. In this article model developments are briefly reviewed and several illustrative applications are discussed. These include: the determination of grain size and shape from ultrasonic backscatter; grain noise variability in engine-titanium billets and forgings; and the design of ultrasonic inspection systems to improve defect

  13. Flux maximization techniques for compton backscatter depth profilometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, L

    1993-01-01

    Resolution in x-ray backscatter imaging has often been hampered by low fluxes. But, for a given set of resolution requirements and geometric constraints, it is possible to define a maximization problem in the geometric parameters for which the solution is the maximum flux possible in those circumstances. In this way, resolution in noncritical directions can be traded for improved resolution in a desired direction. Making this the thickness, or surface normal direction, makes practicable the depth profiling of layered structures. Such techniques were applied to the problem of imaging the layered structure of corroding aircraft sheet metal joints using Compton backscatter. PMID:21307450

  14. Probing Molecular Dynamics by Laser-Induced Backscattering Holography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haertelt, Marko; Bian, Xue-Bin; Spanner, Michael; Staudte, André; Corkum, Paul B.

    2016-04-01

    We use differential holography to overcome the forward scattering problem in strong-field photoelectron holography. Our differential holograms of H2 and D2 molecules exhibit a fishbonelike structure, which arises from the backscattered part of the recolliding photoelectron wave packet. We demonstrate that the backscattering hologram can resolve the different nuclear dynamics between H2 and D2 with subangstrom spatial and subcycle temporal resolution. In addition, we show that attosecond electron dynamics can be resolved. These results open a new avenue for ultrafast studies of molecular dynamics in small molecules.

  15. Corrosion detection in aircraft by X-ray backscatter methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A limited-scan backscatter technique for detecting hidden corrosion and other flaws in aircraft has been demonstrated. Both simulation and experimental results indicate that as little as 5% material loss at depths up to 0.508 cm (0.200 in.) and 10% material loss at depths up to 0.635 cm (0.250 in.) beneath aircraft skin surfaces can be realiably detected. The technology involves analysis of backscattered photon data to yield a figure-of-merit whose value as a function of position indicates with high probability of detection whether or not flaws - such as corrosion, disbonding, macro-cracks, or voids - exist within scanned samples

  16. Coherent Effects in Microwave Backscattering Models for Forest Canopies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saatchi, Sasan; McDonald, Kyle

    1995-01-01

    In modeling forest canopies, several scattering mechanisms are taken into account: 1) volume scattering, 2) surface-volume interaction, and 3) surface scattering from forest floor. Depending on the structural and dielectric characteristics of forest canopies, the relative contribution of each mechanism in the total backscatter signal of an imaging radar can vary. In this paper, two commonly used first order discrete scattering models, Distorted Born Approximation (DBA) and Radiative Transfer (RT) are used to simulate the backscattered power received by polarimetric radars at P-, L-, and C-bands over coniferous and deciduous forests. The difference between the two models resides on the coherent effect in the surface-volume interaction terms.

  17. Investigation of Ar ion implant gettering of gold in silicon by m.o.s. ad Rutherford backscattering techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The gettering of Au in silicon has been investigated using m.o.s. techniques and Rutherford backscattering. Silicon wafers were intentionally contaminated with Au, and then Ar ion implant was performed on the back surface of the wafer and the damaged layer annealed at 10500C for times of 15 and 60 minutes. Comparison of generation lifetime between gold wafers and gold implant-gettered wafers, obtained from the response of m.o.s. capacitors to a linearly varying voltage showed a marked improvement for the implant gettered wafers. Rutherford backscattering using 14N+ ions was carried out on the wafers, both on the implant damaged layer and on some 30-40 μm, in the bulk of the material. The Au concentration in the implant damaged layer was higher than in the bulk of the same wafer for both anneal times, indicating that Au had been effectively gettered. The backscattering spectra also showed other impurities such as Br, Cu, Fe, Sb, Sn and Te present in higher concentration in the implant damaged layer than in the bulk. (author)

  18. Reactor Neutrino Spectra

    CERN Document Server

    Hayes, A C

    2016-01-01

    We present a review of the antineutrino spectra emitted from reactors. Knowledge of these and their associated uncertainties are crucial for neutrino oscillation studies. The spectra used to-date have been determined by either conversion of measured electron spectra to antineutrino spectra or by summing over all of the thousands of transitions that makeup the spectra using modern databases as input. The uncertainties in the subdominant corrections to beta-decay plague both methods, and we provide estimates of these uncertainties. Improving on current knowledge of the antineutrino spectra from reactors will require new experiments. Such experiments would also address the so-called reactor neutrino anomaly and the possible origin of the shoulder observed in the antineutrino spectra measured in recent high-statistics reactor neutrino experiments.

  19. About the origin of high-frequency ultrasonic backscattering signals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ultrasonic backscattering measurements allow to make a quick and nondestructive assessment of materials structures. As a qualitative assessment the homogeneity of structural states is determined, but also quantitative measurements are possible, like e.g. the determination of grain sizes in steels. But plottable measuring curves corresponding to the physically described interrelations will only be obtained as a result of a sufficiently large number (approx.= 1024) of averaging operations applied to equidirectional backscattering signals. The individual high-frequency signal is very strongly amplitude modulated. The signals required for averaging are obtained from different acoustic irradiation positions (position averaging), or by means of different center frequencies (frequency averaging). The present paper shows by means of numerical model calculations how the high-frequency backscattering signal is built up by superposition of the backscattering signals from all scattering objects lying in the acoustic beam. The improved understanding of the superposition of individual scattering processes opens up further opportunities of making a local structural analysis by means of ultrasonics. (orig.)

  20. Using Back-Scattering to Enhance Efficiency in Neutron Detectors

    OpenAIRE

    Kittelmann, Thomas; Klinkby, Esben; Cai, Xiao Xiao; Kanaki, Kalliopi; Cooper-Jensen, Carsten P.; Hall-Wilton, Richard

    2015-01-01

    The principle of using strongly scattering materials to recover efficiency in neutron detectors, via back-scattering of unconverted thermal neutrons, is discussed in general. Feasibility of the method is illustrated through Geant4-based simulations of a specific setup involving a moderator-like material placed behind a single layered boron-10 thin film gaseous detector.

  1. BACKSCATTER GUAGE DESCRIPTION FOR INSPECTION OF NEUTRON ABSORBER AND UNIFORMITY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dewberry, R.; Gibbs, K.; Couture, A.

    2012-05-23

    This paper describes design, calibration, and testing of a dual He-3 detector neutron backscatter gauge for use in the Savannah River Site Mixed Oxide Fuel project. The gauge is demonstrated to measure boron content and uniformity in concrete slabs used in the facility construction.

  2. Coherent backscattering of light by cold atoms: theory meets experiment

    OpenAIRE

    Labeyrie, Guillaume; Delande, Dominique; Mueller, Cord A.; Miniatura, Christian; Kaiser, Robin

    2002-01-01

    Coherent backscattering (CBS) of quasi-resonant light by cold atoms presents some specific features due to the internal structure of the atomic scatterers. We present the first quantitative comparison between the experimentally observed CBS cones and Monte-Carlo calculations which take into account the shape of the atomic cloud as well as the internal atomic structure.

  3. Exploring backscattered imaging in low voltage FE-SEM

    OpenAIRE

    Lewis, P.; Micklethwaite, S.; Harrington, J; Dixon, M.; Brydson, R; Hondow, N

    2015-01-01

    Contrast levels in backscattered SEM images were investigated, utilising stage deceleration for low voltage imaging and also electron energy filtering. Image contrast variations are explained via use of Monte Carlo simulations which can predict the optimum accelerating and filter voltages for imaging complex sample mixtures.

  4. Characterization of a γ-backscattering imaging device

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, N.; Fajardo, E.; Blanco, W.; Cristancho, F.

    2012-02-01

    The Compton Camera is a γ-backscattering imaging device that allows us to obtain images of hidden objects. In order to evaluate the factors that affect the quality of those images, experiments were carried out to determine its response to different materials. Mathematical methods have been developed to quantify the image quality.

  5. Analysis of a proposed Compton backscatter imaging technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, James M.; Jacoby, Barry A.

    1994-03-01

    One-sided imaging techniques are currently being used in nondestructive evaluation of surfaces and shallow subsurface structures. In this work we present both analytical calculations and detailed Monte Carlo simulations aimed at assessing the capability of a proposed Compton backscattering imaging technique designed to detect and characterize voids located several centimeters below the surface of a solid.

  6. Backscatter C [Fugro]--Offshore of Coal Oil Point, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of SIM 3302 presents data for part of the acoustic-backscatter map (see sheet 3, SIM 3302) of the Offshore of Coal Oil Point map area, California. The...

  7. Backscatter A [CSUMB]--Offshore Coal Oil Point, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of SIM 3302 presents data for part of the acoustic-backscatter map (see sheet 3, SIM 3302) of the Offshore of Coal Oil Point map area, California. The...

  8. Backscatter B [USGS]--Offshore of Coal Oil Point, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of SIM 3302 presents data for part of the acoustic-backscatter map (see sheet 3, SIM 3302) of the Offshore of Coal Oil Point map area, California. The...

  9. Coherent backscattering of light by cold atoms: theory meets experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coherent backscattering (CBS) of quasi-resonant light by cold atoms presents some specific features due to the internal structure of the atomic scatterers. We present the first quantitative comparison between the experimentally observed CBS cones and Monte Carlo calculations which take into account the shape of the atomic cloud as well as the internal atomic structure. (authors)

  10. Backscatter gauge description for inspection of neutron absorber content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewberry, R. A.; Gibbs, K. M.; Couture, A. H.

    2013-05-01

    This paper describes design, calibration, and testing of a dual He-3 detector neutron backscatter gauge for use in the Savannah River Site Mixed Oxide Fuel project. The gauge is demonstrated to measure boron content and uniformity in concrete slabs used in the facility construction.

  11. Coherent backscattering of light by resonant atomic dipole transitions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We study coherent backscattering (CBS) of resonant light by cold atomic vapors, both experimentally and theoretically. The theory predicts a drastic reduction of the CBS enhancement factor when a degenerate internal structure is present in the ground state. We test this prediction in experiments using different atoms and various transitions

  12. Source point calibration from an arbitrary electron backscattering pattern

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Niels Christian Krieger

    1999-01-01

    Precise knowledge of the position of the source point is a requirement if electron backscattering patterns (EBSPs) are to be used for crystal orientation measurements or other types of measurements which demand a geometrical analysis of the patterns. Today, possibly the most popular method for...

  13. BackscatterB [Swath]--Offshore of Salt Point Map Area, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the acoustic-backscatter map of the Offshore of Salt Point map area, California. Backscatter data are provided as separate...

  14. BackscatterC [7125]--Offshore of Point Reyes Map Map Area, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the acoustic-backscatter map of the Offshore of Point Reyes map area, California. Backscatter data are provided as separate...

  15. BackscatterA [8101]--Offshore of Point Reyes Map Map Area, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the acoustic-backscatter map of the Offshore of Point Reyes map area, California. Backscatter data are provided as separate...

  16. BackscatterC [7125]--Offshore of Salt Point Map Area, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the acoustic-backscatter map of the Offshore of Salt Point map area, California. Backscatter data are provided as separate...

  17. BackscatterA [8210]--Offshore of Salt Point Map Area, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the acoustic-backscatter map of the Offshore of Salt Point map area, California. Backscatter data are provided as separate...

  18. BackscatterB [Swath]--Offshore of Point Reyes Map Map Area, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the acoustic-backscatter map of the Offshore of Point Reyes map area, California. Backscatter data are provided as separate...

  19. Super-virtual Interferometric Separation and Enhancement of Back-scattered Surface Waves

    KAUST Repository

    Guo, Bowen

    2015-08-19

    Back-scattered surface waves can be migrated to detect near-surface reflectors with steep dips. A robust surface-wave migration requires the prior separation of the back-scattered surface-wave events from the data. This separation is often difficult to implement because the back-scattered surface waves are masked by the incident surface waves. We mitigate this problem by using a super-virtual interferometric method to enhance and separate the back-scattered surface waves. The key idea is to calculate the virtual back-scattered surface waves by stacking the resulting virtual correlated and convolved traces associated with the incident and back-scattered waves. Stacking the virtual back-scattered surface waves improves their signal-to-noise ratio and separates the back-scattered surface-waves from the incident field. Both synthetic and field data results validate the robustness of this method.

  20. BackscatterA [USGS SWATH]--Monterey Canyon and Vicinity, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the acoustic-backscatter map of Monterey Canyon and Vicinity map area, California. Backscatter data are provided as separate...

  1. BackscatterD [CSUMB Swath]--Monterey Canyon and Vicinity, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the acoustic-backscatter map of Monterey Canyon and Vicinity map area, California. Backscatter data are provided as separate...

  2. Multibeam Backscatter Data for Selected U.S. Locations in the Pacific

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Multibeam backscatter imagery extracted from gridded bathymetry for selected U.S. locations in the Pacific. The backscatter datasets include data collected using...

  3. Fiber optic backscatter spectroscopic sensor to monitor enamel demineralization and remineralization in vitro

    OpenAIRE

    Kishen, Anil; Shrestha, Annie; Rafique, Adeela

    2008-01-01

    In this study, a Fiber Optic Backscatter Spectroscopic Sensor (FOBSS) is used to monitor demineralization and remineralization induced changes in the enamel. A bifurcated fiber optic backscatter probe connected to a visible light source and a high resolution spectrophotometer was used to acquire the backscatter light spectrum from the tooth surface. The experiments were conducted in two parts. In Part 1, experiments were carried out using fiber optic backscatter spectroscopy on (1) sound enam...

  4. Measurement of conversion coefficients between air Kerma and personal dose equivalent and backscatter factors for diagnostic X-ray beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two sets of quantities are import in radiological protection: the protection and operational quantities. Both sets can be related to basic physical quantities such as kerma through conversion coefficients. For diagnostic x-ray beams the conversion coefficients and backscatter factors have not been determined yet, those parameters are need for calibrating dosimeters that will be used to determine the personal dose equivalent or the entrance skin dose. Conversion coefficients between air kerma and personal dose equivalent and backscatter factors were experimentally determined for the diagnostic x-ray qualities RQR and RQA recommended by the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC). The air kerma in the phantom and the mean energy of the spectrum were measured for such purpose. Harshaw LiF-100H thermoluminescent dosemeters (TLD) were used for measurements after being calibrated against an 180 cm3 Radcal Corporation ionization chamber traceable to a reference laboratory. A 300 mm x 300 mm x 150 mm polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) slab phantom was used for deep-dose measurements. Tl dosemeters were placed in the central axis of the x-ray beam at 5, 10, 15, 25 and 35 mm depth in the phantom upstream the beam direction Another required parameter for determining the conversion coefficients from was the mean energy of the x-ray spectrum. The spectroscopy of x-ray beams was done with a CdTe semiconductor detector that was calibrated with 133 Ba, 241 Am and 57 Co radiation sources. Measurements of the x-ray spectra were carried out for all RQR and RQA IEC qualities. Corrections due to the detector intrinsic efficiency, total energy absorption, escape fraction of the characteristic x-rays, Compton effect and attenuation in the detector were done aiming an the accurate determination of the mean energy. Measured x-ray spectra were corrected with the stripping method by using these response functions. The typical combined standard uncertainties of conversion coefficients and

  5. Tritium and helium analyses in thin films by enhanced proton backscattering

    CERN Document Server

    Fu, Tao; Zhu, Jing-Jun; Liu, Man-Tian; Mao, Li

    2013-01-01

    In order to perform quantitative tritium and helium analysis in thin film sample by using enhanced proton backscattering (EPBS), EPBS spectra for several samples consisting of non-RBS light elements (i.e., T, 4He, 12C, 16O, natSi), medium and heavy elements have been measured and analyzed by using analytical SIMNRA and Monte Carlo-based CORTEO codes. The CORTEO code used in this paper is modified and some non-RBS cross sections of proton scattering from T, 4He, 12C, 14N, 16O and natSi elements taken from ENDF/B-VII.1 database and the calculations of SigmaCalc code are incorporated. All cross section data needed in CORTEO code over the entire proton incident energy-scattering angle plane are obtained by interpolation. It is quantitatively observed that the multiple and plural scattering effects have little impact on energy spectra for light elements like T, He, C, O and Si, and the RBS cross sections of light elements, instead of the non-RBS cross sections, can be used in SIMNRA code for dual scattering calcul...

  6. Spectra of alkali atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emission spectra of alkali atoms has been determined by using spectrometer at the ultraviolet to infra red waves range. The spectra emission can be obtained by absorption spectrophotometric analysis. Comparative evaluations between experimental data and data handbook obtained by spark method were also presented. (author tr.)

  7. Determination of shallow core level spectra in selected compound semiconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Core level spectra of the M shells of Ga, Ge, As, and Se and of the L shell of S have been obtained from X-ray photoemission measurements on GaAs, GeSe, and GeS. Broadening contributions from the achromatic source, the analyzer momentum window, and the extrinsic losses experienced by the photoemitted electrons in traversing the solid, as well as satellite lines due to Kα3sub(,)4 emission, are removed by deconvolution of the data with a measured electron backscatter spectrum convoluted with a source function. The results are compared with theory where available. (orig.)

  8. Action spectra again?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coohill, T P

    1991-11-01

    Action spectroscopy has a long history and is of central importance to photobiological studies. Action spectra were among the first assays to point to chlorophyll as the molecule most responsible for plant growth and to DNA as the genetic material. It is useful to construct action spectra early in the investigation of new areas of photobiological research in an attempt to determine the wavelength limits of the radiation region causing the studied response. But due to the severe absorption of ultraviolet (UV) radiation by biological samples, UV action spectra were first limited to small cells (bacteria and fungi). Advances in techniques (e.g. single cell culture) and analysis allowed accurate action spectra to be reported even for mammalian cells. But precise analytical action spectra are often difficult to obtain when large, pigmented, or groups of cells are investigated. Here some action spectra are limited in interpretation and merely supply a wavelength vs effect curve. When polychromatic sources are employed, the interpretation of action spectra is even more complex and formidable. But such polychromatic action spectra can be more directly related to ambient responses. Since precise action spectra usually require the completion of a relatively large number of careful experiments using somewhat sophisticated equipment over a range of at least six wavelengths, they are often not pursued. But they remain central to the elucidation of the effect being studied. The worldwide community has agreed that stratospheric ozone is depleting, with the possibility of a consequent rise in the amount of UV-B (290-320 nm) reaching the earth's surface. It is therefore essential that new action spectra be completed for UV-B effects on a large variety of responses of human, animal, and aquatic plant systems. Combining these action spectra with the known amounts of UV-B reaching the biosphere can give rise to solar UV effectiveness spectra that, in turn, can give rise to estimates

  9. Detection and imaging in strongly backscattering randomly layered media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Echoes from small reflectors buried in the heavy clutter are weak and difficult to distinguish from the medium backscatter. Detection and imaging with sensor arrays in such media require filtering out the unwanted backscatter and enhancing the echoes from the reflectors that we wish to locate. We consider a filtering and detection approach based on the singular value decomposition of the local cosine transform of the array response matrix. The algorithm is general and can be used for detection and imaging in the heavy clutter, but its analysis depends on the model of the cluttered medium. This paper is concerned with the analysis of the algorithm in finely layered random media. We obtain a detailed characterization of the singular values of the transformed array response matrix and justify the systematic approach of the filtering algorithm for detecting and refining the time windows that contain the echoes that are useful in imaging

  10. Model for H- and D- production by hydrogen backscattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Marlowe Monte-Carlo backscattering code has been used to calculate particle reflection coefficients and energy distributions for H, D incident upon Li, K, Ni, Cu, Mo, Ag, Cs, Hf, W, Pt, and U surfaces. The backscattered energy and angular distributions are combined with a model for formation and survival probabilities for H-, D- leaving the surface. A least-squares fit of experimental measurements of H- yields from the composite surface, Cs/Cu, has been used to obtain two semi-empirical constants, α, β which enter into the formation and survival probabilities. These probabilities are used to calculate the production probability which in turn provides an upper limit to the negative ion yield. The choice of electrode material is discussed as a function of atomic number

  11. Radio-wave backscattering from artificial ionospheric turbulence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors present the characteristics of shortwave signals, backscattered from artificial ionospheric inhomogeneities. The diagnostic equipment is located at a distance of about 100 km from the perturbing transmitter. The experimental results are interpreted on the basis of trajectory computations. The feasibility of investigating the inhomogeneous structure of the perturbed region obtained with the use of a high-power ionospheric station located at a small distance from the heater station is demonstrated. It is shown that the test wave signals backscattered by the perturbed region in the 5-10 MHz frequency range have appreciable amplitudes. The experiments showed that the region occupied by the artificial inhomogeneities extends to more than 50 km below the level of reflection of the heater wave

  12. RFID tag modification for full depth backscatter modulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Jeffrey Wayne [Pasco, WA; Pratt, Richard M [Richland, WA

    2010-07-20

    A modulated backscatter radio frequency identification device includes a diode detector configured to selectively modulate a reply signal onto an incoming continuous wave; communications circuitry configured to provide a modulation control signal to the diode detector, the diode detector being configured to modulate the reply signal in response to be modulation control signal; and circuitry configured to increase impedance change at the diode detector which would otherwise not occur because the diode detector rectifies the incoming continuous wave while modulating the reply signal, whereby reducing the rectified signal increases modulation depth by removing the reverse bias effects on impedance changes. Methods of improving depth of modulation in a modulated backscatter radio frequency identification device are also provided.

  13. Theoretical Analysis of Rayleigh Backscattering Noise in Fiber Raman Amplifiers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, a new theoretical model for Rayleigh backscattering (RB) analysis of fiber Raman amplifiers is proposed. The model includes all the interactions among the pumps, signals, and all orders of RB. The results show that the higher order RB has a negligible influence on the performance of the amplifier. The co-propagating and counterpropagating RB power of the signal grow quadratically with the net-gain of the amplifier. The signal to double Rayleigh backscattering noise ratio (OSNRDRB ) of backward-pumped FRAs is better than that of the forward-pumped ones at high net-gain level (> 13 dB), while at low net-gain level the OSNRDrb of the forward-pumped FRAs is slightly better than that of the backward-pumped ones.

  14. Control of coherent backscattering by breaking optical reciprocity

    CERN Document Server

    Bromberg, Y; Popoff, S M; Cao, H

    2015-01-01

    Reciprocity is a universal principle that has a profound impact on many areas of physics. A fundamental phenomenon in condensed-matter physics, optical physics and acoustics, arising from reciprocity, is the constructive interference of quantum or classical waves which propagate along time-reversed paths in disordered media, leading to, for example, weak localization and metal-insulator transition. Previous studies have shown that such coherent effects are suppressed when reciprocity is broken. Here we show that by breaking reciprocity in a controlled manner, we can tune, rather than simply suppress, these phenomena. In particular, we manipulate coherent backscattering of light, also known as weak localization. By utilizing a non-reciprocal magneto-optical effect, we control the interference between time-reversed paths inside a multimode fiber with strong mode mixing, and realize a continuous transition from the well-known peak to a dip in the backscattered intensity. Our results may open new possibilities fo...

  15. Application of neutron backscatter techniques to level measurement problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have designed and built portable level detectors and fixed level monitors based on neutron scattering and detection principles. The main components of these devices, which we call neutron backscatter gauges, are a neutron emitting radioisotope, a neutron detector, and a ratemeter. The gauge is a good detector for hydrogen but is much less sensitive to most other materials. This allows level measurements of hydrogen bearing materials, such as hydrocarbons, to be made through the walls of metal vessels. Measurements can be made conveniently through steel walls which are a few inches thick. We have used neutron backscatter gauges in a wide variety of level measurement applications encountered in the petrochemical industry. In a number of cases, the neutron techniques have proven to be superior to conventional level measurement methods, including gamma ray methods

  16. ILC Beam Energy Measurement by means of Laser Compton Backscattering

    CERN Document Server

    Muchnoi, N; Viti, M

    2008-01-01

    A novel, non-invasive method of measuring the beam energy at the International Linear Collider is proposed. Laser light collides head-on with beam particles and either the energy of the Compton scattered electrons near the kinematic end-point is measured or the positions of the Compton backscattered $\\gamma$-rays, the edge electrons and the unscattered beam particles are recorded. A compact layout for the Compton spectrometer is suggested. It consists of a bending magnet and position sensitive detectors operating in a large radiation environment. Several options for high spatial resolution detectors are discussed. Simulation studies support the use of an infrared or green laser and quartz fiber detectors to monitor the backscattered photons and edge electrons. Employing a cavity monitor, the beam particle position downstream of the magnet can be recorded with submicrometer precision. Such a scheme provides a feasible and promising method to access the incident beam energy with precisions of $10^{-4}$ or bette...

  17. Characteristics of final particles in multiple Compton backscattering process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potylitsyn, A.; Kol‘chuzhkin, A.

    2013-08-01

    An electron passing through a counter propagating intense laser beam can interact with a few laser photons with emission of a hard photon in each collision event. In contrast with the well-known nonlinear Compton backscattering process the above mentioned process may be named as multiple Compton backscattering process (MCBS). In this paper we have investigated the evolution of the electron energy distribution during MCBS process using Monte-Carlo (M-C) simulation. The main characteristics of such a distribution as mean energy and variance obtained by M-C technique were compared with analytical solutions of kinetic equations. We found the kinematic region where the analytical solutions are applicable with a good accuracy. A photon spectrum, even for the case when each electron emits one photon (in average) differs significantly from that described by the Klein-Nishina formula.

  18. Backscatter, anisotropy, and polarization of solar hard X-rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, T.; Ramaty, R.

    1978-01-01

    The problems of anisotropy, polarization, center-to-limb variation of the X-ray spectrum, and Compton backscatter are investigated in a study of solar hard X-rays. Effect of backscatter are found particularly important for anisotropic sources which emit hard X-rays predominantly toward the photosphere; for such anisotropic primary X-ray sources, the observed X-ray flux near 30 keV does not depend significantly on the position of the flare. In addition, the degree of polarization of the sum of the primary and reflected X-rays with energies in the 15 to 30 keV range may be as high as 30%. Determination of the height and anisotropy of the primary X-ray sources from study of the albedo patch is also discussed.

  19. Characteristics of Final Particles in Multiple Compton Backscattering Process

    CERN Document Server

    Potylitsyn, A

    2013-01-01

    An electron passing through a counter propagating intense laser beam can interact with a few laser photons with emission of a hard photon in each collision event. In contrast with the well-known nonlinear Compton backscattering process the above mentioned process may be named as multiple Compton backscattering process (MCBS). In this paper we have investigated the evolution of the electron energy distribution during MCBS process using Monte-Carlo (M-C) simulation. The main characteristics of such a distribution as mean energy and variance obtained by M-C technique were compared with analytical solutions of kinetic equations. We found the kinematic region where the analytical solutions are applicable with a good accuracy. A photon spectrum, even for the case when each electron emits one photon (in average) differs significantly from that described by the Klein-Nishina formula.

  20. Present State of Electron Backscatter Diffraction and Prospective Developments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwarzer, R A; Field, D P; Adams, B L; Kumar, M; Schwartz, A J

    2008-10-24

    Electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD), when employed as an additional characterization technique to a scanning electron microscope (SEM), enables individual grain orientations, local texture, point-to-point orientation correlations, and phase identification and distributions to be determined routinely on the surfaces of bulk polycrystals. The application has experienced rapid acceptance in metallurgical, materials, and geophysical laboratories within the past decade (Schwartz et al. 2000) due to the wide availability of SEMs, the ease of sample preparation from the bulk, the high speed of data acquisition, and the access to complementary information about the microstructure on a submicron scale. From the same specimen area, surface structure and morphology of the microstructure are characterized in great detail by the relief and orientation contrast in secondary and backscatter electron images, element distributions are accessed by energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), wavelength dispersive spectroscopy (WDS), or cathodoluminescence analysis, and the orientations of single grains and phases can now be determined, as a complement, by EBSD.

  1. High-precision thickness measurements using beta backscatter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A two-axis, automated fixture for use with a high-intensity Pm-147 source and a photomultiplier-scintillation beta-backscatter probe for making thickness measurements has been designed and built. A custom interface was built to connect the system to a minicomputer, and software was written to position the tables, control the probe, and make the measurements. Measurements can be made in less time with much greater precision than by the method previously used

  2. Inspection of reinforced concrete samples by Compton backscattering technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reinforced concrete structures require frequent monitoring to ensure the concrete quality during its service life and for evaluation of in situ existing conditions. Compton backscattering of gamma rays is a nondestructive technique used for material characterization and detection of defects and inclusions in materials and can be employed on reinforced concrete. The methodology allows one-sided inspection of large structures, is relatively inexpensive and can be portable. The concept is based on detection of backscattered radiation produced from a collimated beam aimed at the sample. By measuring the spectrum of these scattered gamma rays it is possible to determine local density perturbations. In this work we used the Compton backscattering technique to locate and measure steel, defects and crushed stone inside concrete. The samples were irradiated with gamma rays from a Ø2 mm diameter collimated 241Am (100 mCi) source and the inelastically scattered photons were recorded at an angle of 135° by a high resolution CdTe semiconductor detector. Scanning was achieved by lateral movement of the sample blocks across the source and detector field of view in steps of 1 mm. A previous optimization of the experimental setup was performed with Monte Carlo simulation. The results showed that it was possible to locate inclusions and defects with Ø8 mm positioned at a depth of 20 mm below the surface of the sample. It was observed that aggregates such as crushed stone could mask defects at specific points due to high attenuation of the incident and scattered beam. - Highlights: ► Compton Backscattering was used to inspect reinforced concrete samples. ► The positioning of rebars, defects and crushed stone was achieved. ► High attenuation presented by crushed stone can mask defects at specific points

  3. Conservation of energy in coherent backscattering of light

    OpenAIRE

    Fiebig, Susanne; Aegerter, Christof M.; Bührer, Wolfgang; Störzer, Martin; Akkermans, Eric; Montambaux, Gilles; Maret, Georg

    2008-01-01

    Although conservation of energy is fundamental in physics, its principles seem to be violated in the field of wave propagation in turbid media by the energy enhancement of the coherent backscattering cone. In this letter we present experimental data which show that the energy enhancement of the cone is balanced by an energy cutback at all scattering angles. Moreover, we give a complete theoretical description, which is in good agreement with these data. The additional terms needed to enforce ...

  4. ILC Beam Energy Measurement by means of Laser Compton Backscattering

    OpenAIRE

    Muchnoi, N.; Schreiber, H. J.; Viti, M

    2008-01-01

    A novel, non-invasive method of measuring the beam energy at the International Linear Collider is proposed. Laser light collides head-on with beam particles and either the energy of the Compton scattered electrons near the kinematic end-point is measured or the positions of the Compton backscattered $\\gamma$-rays, the edge electrons and the unscattered beam particles are recorded. A compact layout for the Compton spectrometer is suggested. It consists of a bending magnet and position sensitiv...

  5. Electron backscattering rates of light elements in Moliere approximation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Electron backscattering rates of light elements (atomic number Z = 6, 13, 29) are evaluated for electron energies of E = 20 ... 60 keV. The scattering amplitude in Moliere approximation is expanded as a series. The series elements are calculated in closed form with the aid of substitute functions. By comparison with the first Born approximation this yields correction factors of 1 ... 1,25. (orig.) 891 WBU

  6. Combined backscatter and transmission method for nuclear density gauge

    OpenAIRE

    Golgoun Seyed Mohammad; Sardari Dariush; Sadeghi Mahdi; Ebrahimi Mohammad; Aminipour Mojtaba; Davarpanah Mohammad Reza

    2015-01-01

    Nowadays, the use of nuclear density gauges, due to the ability to work in harsh industrial environments, is very common. In this study, to reduce error related to the ρ of continuous measuring density, the combination of backscatter and transmission are used simultaneously. For this reason, a 137Cs source for Compton scattering dominance and two detectors are simulated by MCNP4C code for measuring the density of 3 materials. Important advantages of this combined radiometric gauge are diminis...

  7. Proton - deuteron elastic backscattering in the resonance region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to explain the proton - deuteron backscattering cross section, which show one peak for the incident proton kinetic energy at 600 MeV, the contribution of the Feynman diagram is calculated for the double pion exchange mechanism. This is due to the fact that the observed peak is exactly in the region where the Δ(1232) resonance can be excited in the πN-πN. (L.C.)

  8. Valley-protected backscattering suppression in silicon photonic graphene

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Xiao-Dong

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we study valley degree of freedom in all dielectric silicon photonic graphene. Photonic band gap opening physics under inversion symmetry breaking is revisited by the viewpoint of nonzero valley Chern number. Bulk valley modes with opposite orbital angular momentum are unveiled by inspecting time-varying electric fields. Topological transition is well illustrated through photonic Dirac Hamiltonian. Valley dependent edge states and the associated valley-protected backscattering suppression around Z-shape bend waveguide have been demonstrated.

  9. The effects of changes in loblolly pine biomass and soil moisture on ERS-1 SAR backscatter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For young (< 15 years old) loblolly pine stands at Duke Forest (North Carolina, USA), when the ground was wet, the observed ERS-1 SAR backscatter from short-grass fields of 0.05 kg/m 2 biomass was >~ the backscatter from the stands, and there was no significant correlation between the backscatter and biomass (r2 = 0.19). Under dry soil conditions, the backscatter increased about 2-3 dB as the biomass increased from 0.05 kg/m2 to about 0.5- 1.5 kg/m ~, and the backscatter may be saturated near a 0.5-1.5 kg / m ~ biomass level. The correlation coefficient between the backscatter and biomass was r2 = 0.46. When the Santa Barbara microwave canopy backscatter model was applied to simulate the ERS-1 SAR backscatter from the stands over dry ground, modeled and observed backscatter had similar trends with increasing biomass. For these stands, sensitivity analyses using the model showed that as the surface-soil moisture increased, the major contributor to the total backscatter was changed from canopy volume scattering to surface backscatter between 0.4 kg / m2 and about I kg/m2. Signal saturating at low standing biomass and high sensitivity to soil moisture conditions limit the value of a short-wave (C-band) and steep local incidence angle (23 °) microwave sensor such as the ERS-1 SAR for forest monitoring

  10. An adjusted location model for SuperDARN backscatter echoes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. X. Liu

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The radars that form the Super Dual Auroral Radar Network (SuperDARN receive scatter from ionospheric irregularities in both the E- and F-regions, as well as the Earth's surface, either ground or sea. For ionospheric scatter, the current SuperDARN standard software considers a straight-line propagation from the radar to the scattering zone with an altitude assigned by a standard height model. The knowledge of the group delay to a scatter volume is not sufficient for an exact determination of the location of the irregularities. In this study, the difference between the locations of the backscatter echoes determined by SuperDARN standard software and by ray tracing has been evaluated, using the ionosonde data collected at Sodankylä, which is in the field-of-view of Hankasalmi SuperDARN radar. By studying elevation angle information of backscattered echoes from the data sets of Hankasalmi radar in 2008, we have proposed an adjusted fitting location model determined by slant range and elevation angle. To test the reliability of the adjusted model, an independent data set is selected in 2009. The result shows that the difference between the adjusted model and the ray tracing is significantly reduced and the adjusted model could provide a more accurate location for backscatter targets.

  11. Inspection of reinforced concrete samples by Compton backscattering technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boldo, E. M.; Appoloni, C. R.

    2014-02-01

    Reinforced concrete structures require frequent monitoring to ensure the concrete quality during its service life and for evaluation of in situ existing conditions. Compton backscattering of gamma rays is a nondestructive technique used for material characterization and detection of defects and inclusions in materials and can be employed on reinforced concrete. The methodology allows one-sided inspection of large structures, is relatively inexpensive and can be portable. The concept is based on detection of backscattered radiation produced from a collimated beam aimed at the sample. By measuring the spectrum of these scattered gamma rays it is possible to determine local density perturbations. In this work we used the Compton backscattering technique to locate and measure steel, defects and crushed stone inside concrete. The samples were irradiated with gamma rays from a Ø2 mm diameter collimated 241Am (100 mCi) source and the inelastically scattered photons were recorded at an angle of 135° by a high resolution CdTe semiconductor detector. Scanning was achieved by lateral movement of the sample blocks across the source and detector field of view in steps of 1 mm. A previous optimization of the experimental setup was performed with Monte Carlo simulation. The results showed that it was possible to locate inclusions and defects with Ø8 mm positioned at a depth of 20 mm below the surface of the sample. It was observed that aggregates such as crushed stone could mask defects at specific points due to high attenuation of the incident and scattered beam.

  12. A backscattered x-ray imager for medical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Eric Jude L.; Dibianca, Frank A.; Shukla, Hemant; Gulabani, Daya

    2005-04-01

    Conventional X-ray radiographic systems rely on transmitted photons for the production of images. Backscatter imaging makes use of the more abundant scattered photons for image formation. Specifically, incoherently (Compton) scattered X-ray photons are detected and used for image formation in this modality of medical imaging. However, additional information is obtained when the transmitted X-ray photons are also detected and used. Transmission radiography produces a two-dimensional image of a three dimensional system, therefore image information from a shallower object is often contaminated by image information from underlying objects. Backscattered x-ray imaging largely overcomes this deficiency by imaging depth selectively, which reduces corruption of shallow imaging information by information from deeper objects lying under it. Backscattered x-ray imaging may be particularly useful for examining anatomical structures at shallow depths beneath the skin. Some typical applications for such imaging might be breast imaging, middle ear imaging, imaging of skin melanomas, etc. Previous investigations, by way of theoretical calculations and computational simulations into the feasibility of this kind of imaging have uncovered high-contrast and SNR parameters. Simulations indicate that this method can be used for imaging relatively high-density objects at depths of up to approximately five centimeters below the surface. This paper presents both theoretical and experimental SNR results on this new medical imaging modality.

  13. Simulation Studies of the Backscattering Signal in HSRL Technique

    CERN Document Server

    Georgakopoulou, Angelika

    2012-01-01

    The technique of High Spectral Resolution Lidar (HSRL) for atmospheric monitoring allows the determination of the aerosol to molecular ratio and can be used in UHECR Observatories using air fluorescence telescopes. By this technique a more accurate estimate of the Cherenkov radiation superimposed to the fluorescence signal can be achieved. A laboratory setup was developed to determine the backscattering coefficients using microparticles diluted in water and diffusion interfaces. In this setup we used a CW SLM laser at 532 nm and a 250 mm Newtonian telescope. Simulations of the above experimental configuration have been made using Scatlab\\c{opyright}, FINESSE\\c{opyright} 0.99.8 and MATLAB\\c{opyright} and are presented in this work. We compare the simulated 2-dimensional Fabry-Perot fringe images of the backscattering signal recorded in the CCD sensor with that of experimental ones. Additionally, we simulated the backscattering of the laser beam by the atmosphere at a height of 2000 m and we have studied the in...

  14. Relationships between multipolarized radar backscatter and slash pine stand parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussin, Yousif Ali; Hoffer, Roger M.

    1989-01-01

    Multipolarized L-band (24.5 cm) aircraft radar data was obtained for a primarily forested area in northern Florida. Based on the results of previous studies by Hoffer and Hussin (1989), a swath of medium incidence angle (35-25 deg) data was defined. Three groups of slash pine stands were located in the data: 4- to 17-year-old plantations, 18- to 48-year-old plantations, and 16- to 53-year-old natural stands. Stand data obtained from the forest-products companies operating in the area include age, tree height, diameter-at-breast height, basal area, volume (cords/acre), and density (trees/acre). Each of these stand parameters were compared to each of the four polarizations (HH, VV, VH, and HV) of the radar data for each group of stands. Statistically significant relationships were found between the radar backscatter and the forest stand parameters only for the 4- to 17-year-old slash pine plantation stands. In general, the cross-polarized radar backscatter was more highly correlated with the various stand parameters than the like-polarized backscatter, and the VV-polarized data were more highly correlated than the HH-polarized data.

  15. C-band backscattering characteristics of lake ice in northern Alaska during spring thaw period

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    C-band backscatter intensities from lake ice in Northern Alaska showed a reversal phenomenon from freezing period to spring thaw period. The backscattering mechanisms of this phenomenon have not been clearly explained yet. In order to understand a mechanism of this backscatter reversal, we conducted field observations from April to May in 1997. This paper describes a summary of field observation data analysis and a derived assumption for the backscattering mechanism for the spring thaw period. The backscattering increase of the grounded ice is caused by a roughness increase of the ice surface, while backscattering decrease of the floating ice is by a presence of water film of the ice surface. By using the IEM surface scattering model, a validity of the assumed backscattering mechanisms is confirmed. (author)

  16. Spectra for commutative algebraists

    OpenAIRE

    Greenlees, J. P. C.

    2006-01-01

    The article is designed to explain to commutative algebraists what spectra (in the sense of algebraic topology) are, why they were originally defined, and how they can be useful for commutative algebra.

  17. Retrieving forest stand parameters from SAR backscatter data using a neural network trained by a canopy backscatter model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It was possible to retrieve the stand mean dbh (tree trunk diameter at breast height) and stand density from the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) Airborne Synthetic Aperture Radar (AIRSAR) backscatter data by using threelayered perceptron neural networks (NNs). Two sets of NNs were trained by the Santa Barbara microwave canopy backscatter model. One set of the trained NNs was used to retrieve the stand mean dbh, and the other to retrieve the stand density. Each set of the NNs consisted of seven individual NNs for all possible combinations of one, two, and three radar wavelengths. Ground and multiple wavelength AIRSAR backscatter data from two ponderosa pine forest stands near Mt. Shasta, California (U.S.A.) were used to evaluate the accuracy of the retrievals. The r.m.s. and relative errors of the retrieval for stand mean dbh were 6.1 cm and 15.6 per cent for one stand (St2), and 3.1 cm and 6.7 per cent for the other stand (St11). The r.m.s. and relative errors of the retrieval for stand density were 71.2 treesha-1 and 23.0 per cent for St2, and 49.7 treesha-1 and 21.3 per cent for St11. (author)

  18. Absolute auger electron spectra obtained by a novel cylindrical mirror analyzer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A novel cylindrical mirror analyzer (CMA) has been developed to obtain standard spectra in Auger electron spectroscopy. We obtained Auger electron spectra of gold, nickel, and soot (carbon). For gold, the details of the spectra are shown and the possible Auger transitions are identified for the whole range of energy by subtracting a background of assumed simple polynomial function. The total range spectra of nickel and soot are reported for the primary accelerating voltages ranging 1-5000 V. In other words, the spectra of true secondary electron, Auger electron, loss electrons which excited shell electron and plasmon, and elastically backscattered primary electron are shown. It is found that the carbon (soot) as evacuated always presents clean surface without any ion sputtering treatment and the surface is quite stable. (author)

  19. Measurement of non-Rutherford cross sections of 4He ions on 14N at a laboratory backscattering angle of 171 deg. between 7.5 and 9.8 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ratio of the non-Rutherford to the Rutherford cross section of 14N was measured using 4He ions in the energy range between 7.5 and 9.8 MeV at a laboratory backscattering angle of 171 deg. in order to complete the data published by Foster et al. (Nucl. Instr. and Meth. B 79 (1993) 454), who measured the ratio at a lower backscattering angle of 167 deg. This is important because of the interest in using high energy helium ion backscattering to determine the nitrogen content in heavy substrates. Non-Rutherford backscattering spectra and 14N depth profiles of nitrogen-implanted titanium alloys, that serve as an application of the new cross sections, are shown in this work as well. The measurements were done at beam energies of 7.5-8.2 MeV and from 9 to 9.8 MeV. Results show a resonance around 9.3 MeV with cross sections that are about 100 times higher than the values for Rutherford backscattering

  20. Concentration measurement of yeast suspensions using high frequency ultrasound backscattering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elvira, Luis; Vera, Pedro; Cañadas, Francisco Jesús; Shukla, Shiva Kant; Montero, Francisco

    2016-01-01

    This work proposes the use of an ultrasound based technique to measure the concentration of yeasts in liquid suspension. This measurement was achieved by the detection and quantification of ultrasonic echoes backscattered by the cells. More specifically, the technique was applied to the detection and quantification of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. A theoretical approach was proposed to get the average density and sound speed of the yeasts, which were found to be 1116 kg/m(3) and 1679 m/s, respectively. These parameters were needed to model the waves backscattered by each single cell. A pulse-echo arrangement working around 50 MHz, being able to detect echoes from single yeasts was used to characterize experimentally yeast solutions from 10(2) to 10(7)cells/ml. The Non-negative Matrix Factorization denoising technique was applied for data analysis. This technique required a previous learning of the spectral patterns of the echoes reflected from yeasts in solution and the base noise from the liquid medium. Comparison between pulse correlation (without denoising) and theoretical and experimental pattern learning was made to select the best signal processing. A linear relation between ultrasound output and concentration was obtained with correlation coefficient R(2)=0.996 for the experimental learning. Concentrations from 10(4) to 10(7)cells/ml were detected above the base noise. These results show the viability of using the ultrasound backscattering technique to detect yeasts and measure their concentration in liquid cultures, improving the sensitivity obtained using spectrophotometric methods by one order of magnitude. PMID:26361271

  1. HAB detection based on absorption and backscattering properties of phytoplankton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Hui; Pan, Delu; Bai, Yan; Chen, Xiaoyan; Zhou, Yan; Zhu, Qiankun

    2011-11-01

    The coastal area of East China Sea (ECS) suffers from the harmful algal blooms (HAB) frequently every year in the warm season. The most common causative phytoplankton algal species of HAB in the ECS in recent years are Prorocentrum donghaiense (dinoflagellates), Karenia mikimotoi (dinoflagellates which could produce hemolytic and ichthyotoxins) and Skeletonema costatum (diatom). The discrimination between the dinoflagellates and diatom HAB through ocean color remote sensing approach can add the knowledge of HAB events in ECS and help to the precaution. A series of in-situ measurement consisted of absorption coefficient, total scattering and particulate backscattering coefficient was conducted in the southern coast of Zhejiang Province in May 2009, and the estuary of Changjiang River in August 2009 and December 2010, which encountered two HAB events and a moderate bloom. The Inherent Optical Properties (IOPs) of the bloom waters have significant difference between phytoplankton species in absorption and backscattering properties. The chlorophyll a specific absorption coefficient (a*phy(λ)) for the bloom patches (chlorophyll a concentration >6mg m-3) differ greatly from the adjacent normal seawater, with the a*phy(λ) of bloom water lower than 0.03 m2 mg-1 while the a*phy(λ) of the adjacent normal seawater is much higher (even up to 0.06 m2 mg-1). Meanwhile, the backscattering coefficients at 6 wavebands (420, 442, 470, 510, 590 and 700nm) are also remarkably lower for bloom waters ( 0.02 m-1). The backscattering coefficient ratio (Rbp(λ)) is much lower for diatom bloom waters than for dinoflagellates types (0.01079 vs. 0.01227). A discrimination model based on IOPs is established, and several typical dinoflagellates and diatom bloom events including Prorocentrum donghaiense, Karenia mikimotoi and Skeletonema costatum in the ECS are picked out for testing with the MODIS-L2 and L3 ocean color remote sensing products from NASA website. The result proves that the

  2. The diurnal pattern of microwave backscattering by wheat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A truck-mounted Ku-, C-, and L-band scatterometer system was used to obtain diurnal multiparameter radar backscatter measurements of wheat in August 1987 and June and July 1988. Concurrent field measurements of plant and soil moisture content were made in support of the radar data. Analyses of these data demonstrate the sensitivity of the microwave signals to the daily movement of water in the soil/plant system. The dependence of frequency, incidence angle, and polarization are discussed in relationship to the diurnal and seasonal changes in the soil and plant water content. The results are used to identify potential agronomic applications and future research requirements. (author)

  3. Development of landmine detection system by using backscattering neutron method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metal detector could not detect many kinds of Anti-Personal landmines which consist of plastic and explosive materials, for example TNT, RDX, etc, hence nuclear radiation detector, namely the gamma rays and neutron detectors, is prospect to be applied. One nuclear method for determining the landmine is measuring the backscattering neutron. The concept of radiation detection is detecting bulk material landmine which contains hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen, and/or carbon by irradiating the soil with neutrons and detecting the gamma rays and neutron radiation that appears on the soil surface as a result from neutron-soil/target interaction. The development of landmine detection system has been proposed by using thermal backscattering neutron method. However, some difficulties are caused by the complexity of conditions, for example humidity, soil contents, density of each material of landmines and others. The purpose of this study is to setup a detection system with high efficiency for detecting the landmine by utilizing backscattering neutron method. Previously, the landmine detection experiment has been based on measuring the difference in the total counts of neutron in two cases, which are with and without melamine target. Nevertheless, a detection problem still remains in the case of deeply location target to the surface and humid cases due to the domination of hydrogen effect. In the present work, in order to detect as efficient as possible the existence of landmine inside the soil, two methods are applied simultaneously. First, the total counts measurements are performed, and then the determination of epithermal and fast backscattering neutrons effect is measured by using the 3He detector with Cadmium covered. In order to obtain the dominant effect of hydrogen in all energy ranges, the total neutron count will be conducted firstly. The total neutron counts measurement is suitable when higher content hydrogen exist in the landmines rather than in the soil. The

  4. Rutherford backscattering and Auger spectroscopy of mercuric iodide detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Felter, T.E.; Stulen, R.H. (Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (USA)); Schnepple, W.F.; Ortale, C.; Van den Berg, L. (EG and G Energy Measurements, Inc., Goleta, CA (USA). Santa Barbara Operations)

    1989-11-01

    Palladium contacts on mercuric iodide have been studied using Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy and Auger electron spectroscopy. Results on actual detector contacts show some intermixing of both mercury and iodine with the palladium. To investigate the role of processing variables as a possible cause of this effect we have fabricated model contacts at low temperatures (T {approx equal} 100 K) and analyzed in situ. The results demonstrated that significant interdiffusion occurs at temperatures as low as 225 K. We conclude that excessive heating during contact deposition could prove to be detrimental to device performance and that the use of cooled substrates during processing should be explored. (orig.).

  5. Rutherford backscattering and Auger spectroscopy of mercuric iodide detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felter, T. E.; Stulen, R. H.; Schnepple, W. F.; Ortale, C.; van den Berg, L.

    1989-11-01

    Palladium contacts on mercuric iodide have been studied using Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy and Auger electron spectroscopy. Results on actual detector contacts show some intermixing of both mercury and iodine with the palladium. To investigate the role of processing variables as a possible cause of this effect we have fabricated model contacts at low temperatures (T ≈ 100 K) and analyzed in situ. The results demonstrated that significant interdiffusion occurs at temperatures as low as 225 K. We conclude that excessive heating during contact deposition could prove to be detrimental to device performance and that the use of cooled substrates during processing should be explored.

  6. Rutherford backscattering and Auger spectroscopy of mercuric iodide detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palladium contacts on mercuric iodide have been studied using Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy and Auger electron spectroscopy. Results on actual detector contacts show some intermixing of both mercury and iodine with the palladium. To investigate the role of processing variables as a possible cause of this effect we have fabricated model contacts at low temperatures (T ≅ 100 K) and analyzed in situ. The results demonstrated that significant interdiffusion occurs at temperatures as low as 225 K. We conclude that excessive heating during contact deposition could prove to be detrimental to device performance and that the use of cooled substrates during processing should be explored. (orig.)

  7. Backscattering from dental restorations and splint materials during therapeutic radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Models were constructed to simulate as closely as possible the human oral cavity. Radiation absorbed doses were determined for controls and various test situations involving the presence of dental restorative and splint materials during cobalt-60 irradiation of the models. Adjacent gold full crowns and adjacent solid dental silver amalgam cores both increased the dose to the interproximal gingivae by 20%. Use of orthodontic full bands for splinting the jaws increased the dose to the buccal tissues by an average of 10%. Augmentation of dose through backscatter radiation was determined to be only slight for intracoronal amalgam fillings and stainless steel or plastic bracket splints

  8. Statistical Parameter Estimation in Ultrasound Backscattering from Tissue Mimicking Media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jian-Feng

    Several tissue characterization parameters, including the effective scatterer number density and the backscatter coefficient, were derived from the statistical properties of ultrasonic echo signals. The effective scatterer number density is the actual scatterer number density in a medium multiplied by a frequency-dependent factor that depends on the differential scattering cross-sections of all scatterers. The method described in this thesis for determining the scatterer number density explicitly retains both the temporal nature of the data acquisition and the properties of the ultrasound field in the data reduction. Moreover, it accounts for the possibility that different sets of scatterers may dominate the echo signal at different frequencies. The random processes involved in forming ultrasound echo signals from random media give rise to an uncertainty in the estimated effective scatterer number density. This uncertainty is evaluated using error propagation. The statistical uncertainty depends on the effective number of scatterers contributing to the segmented echo signal, increasing when the effective number of scatterers increases. Tests of the scatterer number density data reduction method and the statistical uncertainty estimator were done using phantoms with known ultrasound scattering properties. Good agreement was found between measured values and those calculated from first-principles. The properties of the non-Gaussian and non-Rayleigh parameters of ultrasound echo signals are also studied. Both parameters depend on the measurement system, including the transducer field and pulse frequency content, as well as on the medium's properties. The latter is expressed in terms of the scatterer number density and the second and fourth moments of the medium's scattering function. A simple relationship between the non-Gaussian and non-Rayleigh parameters is derived and verified experimentally. Finally, a reference phantom method is proposed for measuring the

  9. Combined backscatter and transmission method for nuclear density gauge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golgoun, Seyed Mohammad; Sardari, Dariush; Sadeghi, Mahdi; Ebrahimi, Mohammad; Aminipour, Mojtaba; Davarpanah, Mohammad Reza

    2015-07-01

    Nowadays, the use of nuclear density gauges, due to the ability to work in harsh industrial environments, is very common. In this study, to reduce error related to the ρ of continuous measuring density, the combination of backscatter and transmission are used simultaneously. For this reason, a 137Cs source for Compton scattering dominance and two detectors are simulated by MCNP4C code for measuring the density of 3 materials. Important advantages of this combined radiometric gauge are diminished influence of μ and therefore improving linear regression.

  10. Combined backscatter and transmission method for nuclear density gauge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Golgoun Seyed Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, the use of nuclear density gauges, due to the ability to work in harsh industrial environments, is very common. In this study, to reduce error related to the ρ of continuous measuring density, the combination of backscatter and transmission are used simultaneously. For this reason, a 137Cs source for Compton scattering dominance and two detectors are simulated by MCNP4C code for measuring the density of 3 materials. Important advantages of this combined radiometric gauge are diminished influence of μ and therefore improving linear regression.

  11. Extinction-to-Backscatter Ratios of Saharan Dust Layers Derived from In-Situ Measurements and CALIPSO Overflights During NAMMA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omar, Ali H.; Liu, Zhaoyan; Vaughan, Mark A.; Hu, Yongxiang; Ismail, Syed; Powell, Kathleen A.; Winker, David M.; Trepte, Charles R.; Anderson, Bruce E.

    2010-01-01

    We determine the aerosol extinction-to-backscatter (Sa) ratios of dust using airborne in-situ measurements of microphysical properties, and CALIPSO observations during the NASA African Monsoon Multidisciplinary Analyses (NAMMA). The NAMMA field experiment was conducted from Sal, Cape Verde during Aug-Sept 2006. Using CALIPSO measurements of the attenuated backscatter of lofted Saharan dust layers, we apply the transmittance technique to estimate dust Sa ratios at 532 nm and a 2-color method to determine the corresponding 1064 nm Sa. Using this method, we found dust Sa ratios of 39.8 plus or minus 1.4 sr and 51.8 plus or minus 3.6 sr at 532 nm and 1064 nm, respectively. Secondly, Sa ratios at both wavelengths is independently calculated using size distributions measured aboard the NASA DC-8 and estimates of Saharan dust complex refractive indices applied in a T-Matrix scheme. We found Sa ratios of 39.1 plus or minus 3.5 sr and 50.0 plus or minus 4 sr at 532 nm and 1064 nm, respectively, using the T-Matrix calculations applied to measured size spectra. Finally, in situ measurements of the total scattering (550 nm) and absorption coefficients (532 nm) are used to generate an extinction profile that is used to constrain the CALIPSO 532 nm extinction profile.

  12. Investigations of Temperature and Backscatter Correlation in the Dry Snow Zone of the Greenland Ice Sheet

    OpenAIRE

    Moon, Kevin R.; Long, David G.

    2012-01-01

    Due to system degradation, satellite-borne scatterometers require post-launch calibrations to maintain accuracy. The dry snow zone of the Greenland ice sheet has been used for calibration due to its relatively constant backscatter properties. However, we recently discovered that some of the variation in the dry snow zone backscatter is seasonal. This paper uses correlation analysis to investigate the relationship between temperature and backscatter in the dry snow zone. The correlation coeffi...

  13. Comparative modelling of X-ray backscattering in the Novillo tokamak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flores, A.; Castillo, A.; Barocio, S.R.; Chavez, E.; Melendez, L.; Cruz, G.J.; Olayo, M.G.; Gonzalez, P.; Azorin, J. E-mail: azorin@xanum.uam.mx

    2001-08-01

    Results of X-ray backscattering studies on the Novillo tokamak using thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) are presented. Dose measurements were carried out on the equatorial plane of the tokamak along 12 radial directions. The backscattering can be due to the interaction of the radiation with the surrounding walls. Two kinds of phenomenological mathematical methods describing the X-ray backscattering were obtained from the experimental data and compared. Good agreement was found between the data and the predictions of the models.

  14. Multi-beam backscatter image data processing techniques employed to EM 1002 system

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Fernandes, W.A.; Chakraborty, B.

    backscatter intensities recorded in the raw (*.all) files are corrected during data acquisition for backscatter employing Lambert’s law (Simrad Model) [4]. However, for lower incidence angles (within the 0-25º) it was determined that the gain settings... of seabed during online data acquisition. Thus there will be image distortion, therefore, above correction is made during processing the raw backscatter strengths. • Lambert’s law removal: As discussed in preceding sections [4], the raw data is treated...

  15. Seabottom characterization using multibeam echosounder angular backscatter: An application of the composite roughness theory

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chakraborty, B.; Schenke, H.W.; Kodagali, V.N.; Hagen, R.

    of the contributions from the surface rough- ness and volume inhomogeneities. For an interface backscattering strength within the composite roughness theory, Jackson et al. [1] had applied power law properties of the seafloor roughness spectrum to a Helmholtz...-Kirchhoff’s theory) is employed. A visual examination to observe the match between the theoretical and measured backscattering strengths is performed. In order to determine accurate, unbiased power law parameters, we have avoided using the backscattering strength...

  16. Effect of the Photon's Brownian Doppler Shift on the Weak-Localization Coherent-Backscattering Cone

    OpenAIRE

    Lesaffre, Max; Atlan, Michael; Gross, Michel

    2006-01-01

    We report the first observation of the dependence of the coherent-backscattering (CBS) enhanced cone with the frequency of the backscattered photon. The experiment is performed on a diffusing liquid suspension and the Doppler broadening of light is induced by the Brownian motion of the scatterers. Heterodyne detection on a CCD camera is used to measure the complex field (i.e., the hologram) of the light that is backscattered at a given frequency. The analysis of the holograms yield the freque...

  17. Coherent Thomson backscattering from laser-driven relativistic ultra-thin electron layers

    CERN Document Server

    Meyer-ter-Vehn, Jürgen

    2008-01-01

    The generation of laser-driven dense relativistic electron layers from ultra-thin foils and their use for coherent Thomson backscattering is discussed, applying analytic theory and one-dimensional particle-in-cell simulation. The blow-out regime is explored in which all foil electrons are separated from ions by direct laser action. The electrons follow the light wave close to its leading front. Single electron solutions are applied to initial acceleration, phase switching, and second-stage boosting. Coherently reflected light shows Doppler-shifted spectra, chirped over several octaves. The Doppler shift is found to be proportional to \\gamma_x^2=1/(1-\\beta_x^2), where \\beta_x is the electron velocity component in normal direction of the electron layer which is also the direction of the driving laser pulse. Due to transverse electron momentum p_y, the Doppler shift by 4*\\gamma_x^2=4*\\gamma^2/(1+(p_y/mc)^2) ~= 2*\\gamma is significantly smaller than full shift of 4*\\gamma^2. Methods to turn p_y -> 0 and to recove...

  18. Moessbauer measurements backscattering technique (CXMS) of laser irradiated cold forming tool steel (X210Cr12)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conversion X-ray Moessbauer measurements (CXMS) in backscattering technique are performed on a commercial cold forming tool steel (X210Cr12), subjected to single-pass laser irradiation. The structure of the affected layer is examined for laser powers ranging from 2700 W to 3050 W at different depths. The results of the spectra analysis are discussed in connection with Vickers hardness and metallographic data. If a complete molten layer is quenched, a high carbon content austenite is retained down to room temperature. This phase is mixed with some low carbon martensite and (Cr0.5Fe0.5)7C3 carbide. The effects of carbon diffusion from the coating medium into the bulk are discussed. It is demonstrated that Moessbauer spectroscopy is a sensitive tool for phase analysis, including information about phase formation, and for delimiting the range of the quenched molten layer after laser treatment. It is thus a promising technique in this special kind of steel engineering. (orig.)

  19. Computer simulation program for medium-energy ion scattering and Rutherford backscattering spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishimura, Tomoaki

    2016-03-01

    A computer simulation program for ion scattering and its graphical user interface (MEISwin) has been developed. Using this program, researchers have analyzed medium-energy ion scattering and Rutherford backscattering spectrometry at Ritsumeikan University since 1998, and at Rutgers University since 2007. The main features of the program are as follows: (1) stopping power can be chosen from five datasets spanning several decades (from 1977 to 2011), (2) straggling can be chosen from two datasets, (3) spectral shape can be selected as Gaussian or exponentially modified Gaussian, (4) scattering cross sections can be selected as Coulomb or screened, (5) simulations adopt the resonant elastic scattering cross section of 16O(4He, 4He)16O, (6) pileup simulation for RBS spectra is supported, (7) natural and specific isotope abundances are supported, and (8) the charge fraction can be chosen from three patterns (fixed, energy-dependent, and ion fraction with charge-exchange parameters for medium-energy ion scattering). This study demonstrates and discusses the simulations and their results.

  20. Shape, size, and atomic composition analysis of nanostructures in 3D by Rutherford backscattering spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zolnai, Zsolt, E-mail: zolnai.zsolt@ttk.mta.hu

    2013-09-15

    The emergence of novel micro- and nanofabrication tools lead to the targeted research of highly ordered three-dimensional nanosystems, constructed from regular building blocks like spheres, cylinders, bricks, pyramids, which can be used in a wide range of applications. As a consequence, the exploration of the potential and limits of efficient analytical techniques to characterize structured nanosystems became a significant task. In this work the scope of conventional Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS) analysis is extended to investigate highly ordered periodic nanostructures in three dimensions. Hexagonally arranged spherical and ellipsoidal silica particles, rectangular gold nano-arrays, and embedded structures in Si substrates and silica particles are analyzed. It is shown that the shape of the measured spectra can be correlated with the shape of individual nano-objects through geometrical considerations. The evaluation of the recorded data for different sample tilt angles can be carried out with the Monte-Carlo type 3D simulation model cell concept considering the details of the applied measurement geometry. It is demonstrated that macrobeam 3D-RBS can provide valuable information on the shape, size, spacing, and atomic composition of nanostructured samples as well as on nanoscale atomic transport processes and consequently, it can be utilized as a highly precise, non-destructive characterization tool for nanotechnology.

  1. Photoneutron production and backscattering in high density concretes used for radiation therapy shielding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: → Photoneutrons are produced in radiation therapy with high energy photons. → We studied high density concretes for photoneutron production and scattering. → Photoneutron production was higher for high density concretes relative to the ordinary. → Neutron backscattering was lower for high density concretes relative to the ordinary concrete. - Abstract: In the current study, the effect of high density concretes on photoneutron productions in radiation therapy was studied using Monte Carlo simulations. The photon and neutron spectra of an 18 MeV photon beam of the Varian linac head were used for all simulations. Ordinary and five high density concretes made of high density elements were simulated. The studied concretes consisted of Magnetite, Datolite-Galena, Magnetite-Steel, Limonite-Steel, and Serpentine. Our results showed that photoneutron production in these concretes strongly depends on their composition. It appears that the application of high density elements with higher probability for photoneutron production, such as Fe and Pb, increases the photoneutron production in concrete walls of radiation therapy bunkers. Further studies on the effect of concrete composition on photoneutrons in radiation therapy room are recommended.

  2. Atomic Spectra Database (ASD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    SRD 78 NIST Atomic Spectra Database (ASD) (Web, free access)   This database provides access and search capability for NIST critically evaluated data on atomic energy levels, wavelengths, and transition probabilities that are reasonably up-to-date. The NIST Atomic Spectroscopy Data Center has carried out these critical compilations.

  3. Function spectra and continuous G-spectra

    CERN Document Server

    Davis, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    Let G be a profinite group, {X_alpha}_alpha a cofiltered diagram of discrete G-spectra, and Z a spectrum with trivial G-action. We show how to define the homotopy fixed point spectrum F(Z, holim_alpha X_alpha)^{hG} and that when G has finite virtual cohomological dimension (vcd), it is equivalent to F(Z, holim_alpha (X_alpha)^{hG}). With these tools, we show that the K(n)-local Spanier-Whitehead dual is always a homotopy fixed point spectrum, a well-known Adams-type spectral sequence is actually a descent spectral sequence, and, for a sufficiently nice k-local profinite G-Galois extension E, with K a closed normal subgroup of G, the equivalence (E^{h_kK})^{h_kG/K} \\simeq E^{h_kG} (due to Behrens and the author), where (-)^{h_k(-)} denotes k-local homotopy fixed points, can be upgraded to an equivalence that just uses ordinary (non-local) homotopy fixed points, when G/K has finite vcd.

  4. Observations of aspect sensitive RF-enhanced incoherent backscatter in the polar cap ionosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhillon, Ranvir; Robinson, T. R.; Yeoman, Timothy K.

    RF-induced plasma instabilities give rise to characteristic spectral enhancements in incoherent scatter spectra. The aspect sensitivity of these enhancements provides valuable information regarding the physical processes that occur within the RF-affected ionospheric patch. These direction-dependent signatures exhibit significant variability and help shed light on possible coupling between artificial field-aligned irregularities generated at the upper-hybrid height and RF-induced instabilities excited near the reflection height for O-mode-polarized radio waves. This directional dependence of RF-enhanced incoherent radar backscatter has been shown using data from the high-latitude ionosphere, and the significant features included consistent field-aligned signatures that may be related to the presence of artificial field-aligned irregularities. These earlier high-latitude results provided motivation for repeating the investigation in the different geophysical conditions that obtain in the polar cap ionosphere. The Space Plasma Exploration by Active Radar (SPEAR) facility is located within the polar cap and has provided observations of RF-enhanced ion and plasma line spectra recorded by the EISCAT Svalbard UHF incoherent scatter radar system (ESR), which is collocated with SPEAR. We present observations of aspect sensitive E-and F-region SPEAR-induced ion and plasma line enhance-ments from several directions in the magnetic meridian plane, centred on field-aligned. These enhancements indicate excitation of both the purely growing mode and the parametric decay instability, together with sporadic E-layer results that may indicate the presence of cavitons. We note consistent enhancements from field-aligned, vertical and also from 5 degrees south of field-aligned. We attribute the prevalence of vertical scatter to the importance of the Spitze region, and of that from field-aligned to possible wave/irregularity coupling.

  5. The measurement of concrete density by back-scattered γ-radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of γ backscattering techniques in the quality control of concrete are considered. The performance of an instrument using this technique, the Ekco N 711B, is reported. It was found that quick and accurate measurements could be obtained which were independent of the material chemical constitution and that good correlation existed between ultrasonic pulse velocity, and the backscatter methods. The disadvantage of measuring backscatter from thin concrete members was overcome by using a steel backing plate that compensated for the back-scatter if the concrete depth was less than the semi-infinite depth. (U.K.)

  6. Verification of terahertz-wave spectrophotometry by Compton backscattering of coherent synchrotron radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sei, Norihiro; Takahashi, Toshiharu

    2014-01-01

    We developed a continuous-spectrum light beam from Compton backscattering by using coherent synchrotron radiation in an L-band linac at the Kyoto University Research Reactor Institute. The ratio of Compton backscattered photons to background photons when coherent synchrotron radiation was used was three times larger than when coherent transition radiation was used. The transmission spectrum of a polystyrene film in the terahertz-wave region was evaluated by measuring the spectrum of the Compton backscattered photons and it roughly agreed with that measured by a Martin-Puplett-type interferometer. The spectrophotometry using Compton backscattering shows promise as a new tool for investigations in terahertz-wave science.

  7. Transport equation theory of electron backscattering and x-ray production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A transport equation theory of electron backscattering and x ray production is derived and applied to energy dissipation of 30-KeV electrons for copper as a function of depth and to the energy distribution of backscattered electrons for copper, aluminum, and gold. These results are plotted and compared with experiment. Plots for variations of backscattering with atomic number and with angle of incidence, and polar plots of backscattering for 30-keV electrons at normal incidence are also presented. 10 references, seven figures

  8. Data analysis of backscattering LIDAR system correlated with meteorological data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In these last years, we had an increase in the interest in the monitoring of the effect of the human activity being on the atmosphere and the climate in the planet. The remote sensing techniques has been used in many studies, also related the global changes. A backscattering LIDAR system, the first of this kind in Brazil, has been used to provide the vertical profile of the aerosol backscatter coefficient at 532 nm up to an altitude of 4-6 km above sea level. In this study, data has was collected in the year of 2005. These data had been correlated with data of solar photometer CIMEL and also with meteorological data. The main results had indicated to exist a standard in the behavior of these meteorological data and the vertical distribution of the extinction coefficient gotten through LIDAR. In favorable periods of atmospheric dispersion, that is, rise of the temperature of associated air the fall of relative humidity, increase of the atmospheric pressure and low ventilation tax, was possible to determine with good precision the height of the Planetary Boundary Layer, as much through the vertical profile of the extinction coefficient how much through the technique of the vertical profile of the potential temperature. The technique LIDAR showed to be an important tool in the determination of the thermodynamic structure of the atmosphere, assisting to characterize the evolution of the CLP throughout the day, which had its good space and secular resolution. (author)

  9. Observations of HF backscatter decay rates from HAARP generated FAI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bristow, William; Hysell, David

    2016-07-01

    Suitable experiments at the High-frequency Active Auroral Research Program (HAARP) facilities in Gakona, Alaska, create a region of ionospheric Field-Aligned Irregularities (FAI) that produces strong radar backscatter observed by the SuperDARN radar on Kodiak Island, Alaska. Creation of FAI in HF ionospheric modification experiments has been studied by a number of authors who have developed a rich theoretical background. The decay of the irregularities, however, has not been so widely studied yet it has the potential for providing estimates of the parameters of natural irregularity diffusion, which are difficult measure by other means. Hysell, et al. [1996] demonstrated using the decay of radar scatter above the Sura heating facility to estimate irregularity diffusion. A large database of radar backscatter from HAARP generated FAI has been collected over the years. Experiments often cycled the heater power on and off in a way that allowed estimates of the FAI decay rate. The database has been examined to extract decay time estimates and diffusion rates over a range of ionospheric conditions. This presentation will summarize the database and the estimated diffusion rates, and will discuss the potential for targeted experiments for aeronomy measurements. Hysell, D. L., M. C. Kelley, Y. M. Yampolski, V. S. Beley, A. V. Koloskov, P. V. Ponomarenko, and O. F. Tyrnov, HF radar observations of decaying artificial field aligned irregularities, J. Geophys. Res. , 101, 26,981, 1996.

  10. ILC beam energy measurement by means of laser Compton backscattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A novel, non-invasive method of measuring the beam energy at the International Linear Collider is proposed. Laser light collides head-on with beam particles and either the energy of the Compton scattered electrons near the kinematic end-point is measured or the positions of the Compton backscattered γ-rays, the edge electrons and the unscattered beam particles are recorded. A compact layout for the Compton spectrometer is suggested. It consists of a bending magnet and position sensitive detectors operating in a large radiation environment. Several options for high spatial resolution detectors are discussed. Simulation studies support the use of an infrared or green laser and quartz fiber detectors to monitor the backscattered photons and edge electrons. Employing a cavity monitor, the beam particle position downstream of the magnet can be recorded with submicrometer precision. Such a scheme provides a feasible and promising method to access the incident beam energy with precisions of 10-4 or better on a bunch-to-bunch basis while the electron and positron beams are in collision. (orig.)

  11. Classification of kidney and liver tissue using ultrasound backscatter data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aalamifar, Fereshteh; Rivaz, Hassan; Cerrolaza, Juan J.; Jago, James; Safdar, Nabile; Boctor, Emad M.; Linguraru, Marius G.

    2015-03-01

    Ultrasound (US) tissue characterization provides valuable information for the initialization of automatic segmentation algorithms, and can further provide complementary information for diagnosis of pathologies. US tissue characterization is challenging due to the presence of various types of image artifacts and dependence on the sonographer's skills. One way of overcoming this challenge is by characterizing images based on the distribution of the backscatter data derived from the interaction between US waves and tissue. The goal of this work is to classify liver versus kidney tissue in 3D volumetric US data using the distribution of backscatter US data recovered from end-user displayed Bmode image available in clinical systems. To this end, we first propose the computation of a large set of features based on the homodyned-K distribution of the speckle as well as the correlation coefficients between small patches in 3D images. We then utilize the random forests framework to select the most important features for classification. Experiments on in-vivo 3D US data from nine pediatric patients with hydronephrosis showed an average accuracy of 94% for the classification of liver and kidney tissues showing a good potential of this work to assist in the classification and segmentation of abdominal soft tissue.

  12. Investigation of sheared liquids by neutron backscattering and reflectivity

    CERN Document Server

    Wolff, M; Hock, R; Frick, B; Zabel, H

    2002-01-01

    We have investigated by neutron scattering structural and dynamical properties of water solutions of the triblock copolymer P85 under shear. To this end a shear cell that suits the requirements for neutron backscattering and another for reflectivity experiments have been built. In reflectivity measurements we find the polymer concentration (nominal concentration of 33% by weight) to vary right at the surface between 12% and 52% for hydrophilic or hydrophobic coated silicon wavers, for temperatures between 18 C and 73 C and for shear rates up to 2500 s sup - sup 1. Additional structural changes deeper in the bulk are also observed. On the backscattering instrument (IN10 at ILL) we find that the liquid appears to stick to the plates of the shear cell, implying an unusual macroscopic velocity distribution that differs from that found earlier for lubrication oils. We report further on changes of the quasielastic line width in the direction of the shear gradient for different temperatures and shear rates. (orig.)

  13. Backscatter Matrix Observations by The GV-HSRL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayman, Matthew; Spuler, Scott; Morley, Bruce

    2016-06-01

    The GV-HSRL is a high spectral resolution lidar capable of measuring calibrated backscatter, extinction and circular depolarization from the ground or NSF Gulfstream V platform. In the spring of 2012, the instrument was modified to measure the full backscatter matrix of atmospheric scatterers. This modification enabled us to investigate the polarization properties of oriented particles and further understand where particles orient and how they may impact depolarization lidar data. Observations were performed from the ground at different times with the lidar's tilt angle at 4°, 22° and 32° degrees off zenith. This instrument found oriented ice crystals only produced observable polarization effects at the 32° lidar tilt angle. By contrast, a significant fraction of rain observations have oriented scattering matrices at all three lidar tilt angles. Thus conventional depolarization lidar is generally well suited for characterizing ice crystals but not liquid precipitation. Oriented ice crystals are most commonly investigated by looking for specular scatter from horizontally oriented plates. While this method offers excellent sensitivity to small populations of oriented plats, it has very little capability to determine the fraction of oriented plates if the population is larger than about 1%. We show here that observing f12 scattering matrix element at 32° off zenith may be more effective for estimating the oriented fraction of particles in a volume.

  14. Trace contamination measurements using heavy ion backscattering spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heavy Ion Backscattering Spectrometry (HIBS) is a tool for measuring surface contamination at levels much lower than previously achievable with ion beam analyses. Many areas of materials research and development require very low levels of impurities, with advanced microelectronics as the best example. HIBS uses low-energy, heavy ions for analysis, taking advantage of the increased backscattering yield which can be obtained from high Z ion beams at low energy. Background due to increased yield from the substrate is eliminated by a thin carbon foil as part of the detector, with a thickness chosen to range out ions scattered from the substrate and allow only ions scattered from impurities heavier than the substrate to reach the detector. The authors research system, using 150-200 keV N+ beams and a single time-of-flight detector optimized for large solid angle, has achieved a sensitivity ranging from ∼5xl010 atoms/cm2 for Fe to ∼1x109 atoms/cm2 for Au on Si, without preconcentration. A stand-alone HIBS prototype which the authors have developed for SEMATECH is expected to reach detection limits of ∼5x109 atoms/cm2 for Fe and ∼1x108 atoms/cm2 for Au on Si. In this paper they discuss in detail the factors which affect sensitivity for HIBS

  15. Study of sporadic-E clouds by backscatter radar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Houminer

    Full Text Available It is shown that swept-frequency backscatter ionograms covering a range of azimuths can be used to study the dynamics of sporadic-E clouds. A simple technique based on analytic ray tracing can be used to simulate the observed narrow traces associated with Es patches. This enables the location and extent of the sporadic-E clouds to be determined. The motion of clouds can then be determined from a time sequence of records. In order to demonstrate the method, results are presented from an initial study of 5 days of backscatter ionograms from the Jindalee Stage B data base obtained during March-April 1990. Usually 2–3 clouds were observed each day, mainly during the evening and up to midnight. The clouds lasted from 1–4 h and extended between 30°–80° in azimuth and 150-800 km in range. The clouds were mostly stationary or drifted generally westward with velocities of up to 80 m s–1. Only one cloud was observed moving eastward.

  16. ILC beam energy measurement by means of laser Compton backscattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muchnoi, N. [Budker Inst. for Nuclear Physics, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Schreiber, H.J.; Viti, M. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany)

    2008-10-15

    A novel, non-invasive method of measuring the beam energy at the International Linear Collider is proposed. Laser light collides head-on with beam particles and either the energy of the Compton scattered electrons near the kinematic end-point is measured or the positions of the Compton backscattered {gamma}-rays, the edge electrons and the unscattered beam particles are recorded. A compact layout for the Compton spectrometer is suggested. It consists of a bending magnet and position sensitive detectors operating in a large radiation environment. Several options for high spatial resolution detectors are discussed. Simulation studies support the use of an infrared or green laser and quartz fiber detectors to monitor the backscattered photons and edge electrons. Employing a cavity monitor, the beam particle position downstream of the magnet can be recorded with submicrometer precision. Such a scheme provides a feasible and promising method to access the incident beam energy with precisions of 10{sup -4} or better on a bunch-to-bunch basis while the electron and positron beams are in collision. (orig.)

  17. Variation of backscatter as an indicator of boundary layer structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bennett, M. [UMIST, Dept. of Chemical Engineering, Manchester (United Kingdom); Hunter, G.C. [National Power, Swindon (United Kingdom)

    1997-10-01

    In this work we have developed software to display cross-sections of the variance of backscatter over a given sampling period in addition to its absolute mean. We have analyzed a series of Lidar cross-sections of elevated plumes dispersing into a convective BL and have then derived profiles both of the mean backscatter, , as a function of height and of its relative, shot-to-shot, variation, {radical} /. The latter is a measure of the homogeneity of the aerosol. There is no cheap device for measuring BL depths so we were interested in comparing depths estimated using our Lidar with those predicted by the current ADMS atmospheric dispersion model. This is based on integrating an energy budget to predict the BL development and as such relies on values for the initial lapse rate and for the surface sensible heat flux. A major shortcoming of the model appears to be that, in the absence of measurements, it must assume a default value for the former; the latter may be estimated from surface measurements but is very sensitive to the assumed availability of surface moisture. (LN)

  18. Observations of 2D Doppler backscattering on MAST

    CERN Document Server

    Thomas, D A; Freethy, S J; Huang, B K; Shevchenko, V F; Vann, R G L

    2015-01-01

    The Synthetic Aperture Microwave Imaging (SAMI) diagnostic has conducted proof-of-principle 2D Doppler backscattering (DBS) experiments on MAST. SAMI actively probes the plasma edge using a wide (+-40 degrees vertical and horizontal) and tuneable (10-35.5 GHz) beam. The Doppler backscattered signal is digitised in vector form using an array of eight Vivaldi PCB antennas. This allows the receiving array to be focused in any direction within the field of view simultaneously to an angular range of 6-24 degrees FWHM at 10-34.5 GHz. This capability is unique to SAMI and is an entirely novel way of conducting DBS experiments. In this paper the feasibility of conducting 2D DBS experiments is explored. Initial measurements of phenomena observed on conventional DBS experiments are presented; such as momentum injection from neutral beams and an abrupt change in power and turbulence velocity coinciding with the onset of H-mode. In addition, being able to carry out 2D DBS imaging allows a measurement of magnetic pitch an...

  19. Concept and realization of the A4 Compton backscattering polarimeter at MAMI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jeong Han

    2008-12-15

    The main concern of the A4 parity violation experiment at the Mainzer Microtron accelerator facility is to study the electric and magnetic contributions of strange quarks to the charge and magnetism of the nucleons at the low momentum transfer region. More precisely, the A4 collaboration investigates the strange quarks' contribution to the electric and magnetic vector form factors of the nucleons. Thus, it is important that the A4 experiment uses an adequate and precise non-destructive online monitoring tool for the electron beam polarization when measuring single spin asymmetries in elastic scattering of polarized electrons from unpolarized nucleons. As a consequence, the A4 Compton backscattering polarimeter was designed and installed such that we can take the absolute measurement of the electron beam polarization without interruption to the parity violation experiment. The present study shows the development of an electron beam line that is called the chicane for the A4 Compton backscattering polarimeter. The chicane is an electron beam transport line and provides an interaction region where the electron beam and the laser beam overlap. After studying the properties of beam line components carefully, we developed an electron beam control system that makes a beam overlap between the electron beam and the laser beam. Using the system, we can easily achieve the beam overlap in a short time. The electron control system, of which the performance is outstanding, is being used in production beam times. And the study presents the development of a scintillating fiber electron detector that reduces the statistical error in the electron polarization measurement. We totally redesigned the scintillating fiber detector. The data that were taken during a 2008 beam time shows a huge background suppression, approximately 80 percent, while leaving the Compton spectra almost unchanged when a coincidence between the fiber detector and the photon detector is used. Thus, the

  20. Concept and realization of the A4 Compton backscattering polarimeter at MAMI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main concern of the A4 parity violation experiment at the Mainzer Microtron accelerator facility is to study the electric and magnetic contributions of strange quarks to the charge and magnetism of the nucleons at the low momentum transfer region. More precisely, the A4 collaboration investigates the strange quarks' contribution to the electric and magnetic vector form factors of the nucleons. Thus, it is important that the A4 experiment uses an adequate and precise non-destructive online monitoring tool for the electron beam polarization when measuring single spin asymmetries in elastic scattering of polarized electrons from unpolarized nucleons. As a consequence, the A4 Compton backscattering polarimeter was designed and installed such that we can take the absolute measurement of the electron beam polarization without interruption to the parity violation experiment. The present study shows the development of an electron beam line that is called the chicane for the A4 Compton backscattering polarimeter. The chicane is an electron beam transport line and provides an interaction region where the electron beam and the laser beam overlap. After studying the properties of beam line components carefully, we developed an electron beam control system that makes a beam overlap between the electron beam and the laser beam. Using the system, we can easily achieve the beam overlap in a short time. The electron control system, of which the performance is outstanding, is being used in production beam times. And the study presents the development of a scintillating fiber electron detector that reduces the statistical error in the electron polarization measurement. We totally redesigned the scintillating fiber detector. The data that were taken during a 2008 beam time shows a huge background suppression, approximately 80 percent, while leaving the Compton spectra almost unchanged when a coincidence between the fiber detector and the photon detector is used. Thus, the

  1. Substrate-mediated zero backscattering from dielectric metasurfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Petrov, Mihail; Baryshnikova, Kseniia; Belov, Pavel

    2015-01-01

    In this work, we study optical properties of all-dielectric metasurfaces on top of the high-index substrate. We show that matching the magnitudes and setting the {\\pi}-phase difference of the electric and magnetic dipole moments in nanoparticles, one can obtain a suppression of reflection from the substrate coated with metasurface. In contrast to homogeneous environment, where zero backscattering, or Kerker effect, is observed when electric and magnetic moments are in-phase, the blooming of the substrate occurs when the out-of-phase condition is satisfied, i.e. for the wavelength between the resonances of electric and magnetic dipole moments. We perform numerical simulations of spherical and disk nanoparticle arrays for different permittivities of the substrate, and confirm our model by numerically separating the contributions into the total reflection from nanoparticle arrays and bare substrate. The influence of high-index substrate is crucial for designing optical metasurfaces and photovoltaic elements with...

  2. Spectral characteristics of Compton backscattering sources. Linear and nonlinear modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Compton backscattering (CBS) of laser photons by relativistic electrons is widely used to design X-ray and gamma sources with a bandwidth better than 1% using a tight collimation. In order to obtain a reasonable intensity of the resulting beam one has to increase power of a laser pulse simultaneously with narrowing of the waist in the interaction point. It can lead to nonlinearity of CBS process which is affected on spectral characteristics of the collimated gamma beam (so-called “red-shift” of the spectral line, emission of “soft” photons with energy much less than the spectral line energy). In this paper we have analyzed such an influence using Monte-Carlo technique and have shown that even weak nonlinearity should be taken into account if the gamma beam is formed by a narrow aperture

  3. Back-scatter based whispering gallery mode sensing

    CERN Document Server

    Knittel, Joachim; McAuslan, David L; Brawley, George A; Bowen, Warwick P

    2013-01-01

    Whispering gallery mode biosensors allow selective unlabelled detection of single proteins and, combined with quantum limited sensitivity, the possibility for noninvasive realtime observation of motor molecule motion. However, to date technical noise sources, most particularly low frequency laser noise, have constrained such applications. Here we introduce a new technique for whispering gallery mode sensing based on direct detection of back-scattered light. This experimentally straightforward technique is immune to frequency noise in principle, and further, acts to suppress thermorefractive noise. We demonstrate 27 dB of frequency noise suppression, eliminating frequency noise as a source of sensitivity degradation and allowing an absolute frequency shift sensitivity of 76 kHz. Our results open a new pathway towards single molecule biophysics experiments and ultrasensitive biosensors.

  4. Backscatter absorption gas imaging systems and light sources therefore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulp, Thomas Jan; Kliner, Dahv A. V.; Sommers, Ricky; Goers, Uta-Barbara; Armstrong, Karla M.

    2006-12-19

    The location of gases that are not visible to the unaided human eye can be determined using tuned light sources that spectroscopically probe the gases and cameras that can provide images corresponding to the absorption of the gases. The present invention is a light source for a backscatter absorption gas imaging (BAGI) system, and a light source incorporating the light source, that can be used to remotely detect and produce images of "invisible" gases. The inventive light source has a light producing element, an optical amplifier, and an optical parametric oscillator to generate wavelength tunable light in the IR. By using a multi-mode light source and an amplifier that operates using 915 nm pump sources, the power consumption of the light source is reduced to a level that can be operated by batteries for long periods of time. In addition, the light source is tunable over the absorption bands of many hydrocarbons, making it useful for detecting hazardous gases.

  5. Automated determination of crystal orientations from electron backscattering patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Niels Christian Krieger

    1994-01-01

    pattern recognition procedure which enables 8 to 12 bands to be localized in typical EBSPs from a modern system. It will be described, how these automatically localized bands can be indexed and used for optimal estimation of the unknown crystal orientations. A necessary prerequisite for precise......The electron backscattering pattern (EBSP) technique is widely accepted as being an extremely powerful tool for measuring the crystallographic orientation of individual crystallites in polycrystalline materials. Procedures which allow crystal orientations to be calculated on the bases of the...... determination of crystallographic orientations from EBSPs is accurate knowledge of three calibration parameters which describe the position of the point from which the patterns are emitted relative to the phosphor screen on which they are recorded. This thesis will describe a novel method by which these...

  6. Electron backscatter diffraction: Strategies for reliable data acquisition and processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) software packages there are many user choices both in data acquisition and in data processing and display. In order to extract maximum scientific value from an inquiry, it is helpful to have some guidelines for best practice in conducting an EBSD investigation. The purpose of this article therefore is to address selected topics of EBSD practice, in a tutorial manner. The topics covered are a brief summary on the principles of EBSD, specimen preparation, calibration of an EBSD system, experiment design, speed of data acquisition, data clean-up, microstructure characterisation (including grain size) and grain boundary characterisation. This list is not meant to cover exhaustively all areas where EBSD is used, but rather to provide a resource consisting of some useful strategies for novice EBSD users.

  7. Spectral characteristics of Compton backscattering sources. Linear and nonlinear modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potylitsyn, A. P.; Kolchuzhkin, A. M.

    2015-07-01

    Compton backscattering (CBS) of laser photons by relativistic electrons is widely used to design X-ray and gamma sources with a bandwidth better than 1% using a tight collimation. In order to obtain a reasonable intensity of the resulting beam one has to increase power of a laser pulse simultaneously with narrowing of the waist in the interaction point. It can lead to nonlinearity of CBS process which is affected on spectral characteristics of the collimated gamma beam (so-called "red-shift" of the spectral line, emission of "soft" photons with energy much less than the spectral line energy). In this paper we have analyzed such an influence using Monte-Carlo technique and have shown that even weak nonlinearity should be taken into account if the gamma beam is formed by a narrow aperture.

  8. Results from the Daresbury Compton backscattering X-ray source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laundy, D.; Priebe, G.; Jamison, S. P.; Graham, D. M.; Phillips, P. J.; Smith, S. L.; Saveliev, Y.; Vassilev, S.; Seddon, E. A.

    2012-10-01

    The Daresbury Compton Backscattering X-ray Source uses a high power Ti Sapphire laser interacting in head on geometry with electron bunches in the ALICE energy recovery linear accelerator. X-ray photons with peak energy of 21 keV were generated with the accelerator operating at an energy of 29.6 MeV. The spatial profile of the X-rays emitted near the electron beam axis was measured. The characteristics of the X-ray yield measured as a function of relative timing between the laser pulse and the interacting electron bunch was found to be consistent with the modelled intensity behaviour using measured electron and laser beam parameters.

  9. Compton Backscattering for the Calibration of KEDR Tagging System

    CERN Document Server

    Kaminskiy, V V; Zhilich, V N

    2014-01-01

    KEDR detector has the tagging system (TS) to study the gamma-gamma processes. To determine the two-photon invariant mass, the energies of the scattered at small angles electrons and positrons are measured by the magnetic spectrometer embedded into the lattice of the VEPP--4M collider. The energy resolution (scattered electron/positron energy resolution divided by the beam energy) of this spectrometer varies from 0.6% to 0.03% depending on the electron/positron energy. The Compton backscattering of laser radiation on the electron/positron beam is used for the accurate energy scale and resolution calibration of the tagging system. The report covers the design, recent results and current status of the KEDR TS calibration system.

  10. Compton backscattering for the calibration of KEDR tagging system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaminskiy, V. V.; Muchnoi, N. Yu; Zhilich, V. N.

    2014-08-01

    KEDR detector has the tagging system (TS) to study the gamma-gamma processes. To determine the two-photon invariant mass, the energies of the scattered at small angles electrons and positrons are measured by the magnetic spectrometer embedded into the lattice of the VEPP-4M collider. The energy resolution (scattered electron/positron energy resolution divided by the beam energy) of this spectrometer varies from 0.6% to 0.03% depending on the electron/positron energy. The Compton backscattering of laser radiation on the electron/positron beam is used for the accurate energy scale and resolution calibration of the tagging system. The report covers the design, recent results and current status of the KEDR TS calibration system.

  11. Monte Carlo simulations of landmine detection using neutron backscattering imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Datema, Cor P. E-mail: c.datema@iri.tudelft.nl; Bom, Victor R.; Eijk, Carel W.E. van

    2003-11-01

    Neutron backscattering is a technique that has successfully been applied to the detection of non-metallic landmines. Most of the effort in this field has concentrated on single detectors that are scanned across the soil. Here, two new approaches are presented in which a two-dimensional image of the hydrogen distribution in the soil is made. The first method uses an array of position-sensitive {sup 3}He-tubes that is placed in close proximity of the soil. The second method is based on coded aperture imaging. Here, thermal neutrons from the soil are projected onto a detector which is typically placed one to several meters above the soil. Both methods use a pulsed D/D neutron source. The Monte Carlo simulation package GEANT 4 was used to investigate the performance of both imaging systems.

  12. Results from the Daresbury Compton backscattering X-ray source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Daresbury Compton Backscattering X-ray Source uses a high power Ti Sapphire laser interacting in head on geometry with electron bunches in the ALICE energy recovery linear accelerator. X-ray photons with peak energy of 21 keV were generated with the accelerator operating at an energy of 29.6 MeV. The spatial profile of the X-rays emitted near the electron beam axis was measured. The characteristics of the X-ray yield measured as a function of relative timing between the laser pulse and the interacting electron bunch was found to be consistent with the modelled intensity behaviour using measured electron and laser beam parameters.

  13. Remote identification of a shipwreck site from MBES backscatter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masetti, Giuseppe; Calder, Brian

    2012-11-30

    The method described attempts to remotely identify the shape of an anthropogenic object, such as a wreck of a modern vessel, using reflectivity data from Multi-Beam Echosounder (MBES) systems. In the beam domain, the backscatter strength values - geometrically and radiometrically corrected - are used to extract a large number of Gray Level Co-occurrence Matrix (GLCM) features with different input parameters. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) is applied in order to achieve dimensionality reduction whilst a K-means algorithm clusters as "shipwreck site" a large number of beams for each line. After the geo-referencing process, a K-nearest-neighbors (K-NN) technique is applied as a filter for possible misclassifications. Finally, the shape of the shipwreck site is defined from the georeferenced beams using the α-shape method, constructing an output compatible with Geographic Information Systems (GIS). PMID:22820745

  14. Determination of RF source power in WPSN using modulated backscattering

    CERN Document Server

    Sreedhar, K

    2012-01-01

    A wireless sensor network (WSN) is a wireless network consisting of spatially distributed autonomous devices using sensors to cooperatively monitor physical or environmental conditions, such as temperature, sound, vibration, pressure, motion or pollutants, at different locations. During RF transmission energy consumed by critically energy-constrained sensor nodes in a WSN is related to the life time system, but the life time of the system is inversely proportional to the energy consumed by sensor nodes. In that regard, modulated backscattering (MB) is a promising design choice, in which sensor nodes send their data just by switching their antenna impedance and reflecting the incident signal coming from an RF source. Hence wireless passive sensor networks (WPSN) designed to operate using MB do not have the lifetime constraints. In this we are going to investigate the system analytically. To obtain interference-free communication connectivity with the WPSN nodes number of RF sources is determined and analyzed i...

  15. Many-beam dynamical simulation of electron backscatter diffraction patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkelmann, Aimo; Trager-Cowan, Carol; Sweeney, Francis; Day, Austin P; Parbrook, Peter

    2007-01-01

    We present an approach for the simulation of complete electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) patterns where the relative intensity distributions in the patterns are accurately reproduced. The Bloch wave theory is applied to describe the electron diffraction process. For the simulation of experimental patterns with a large field of view, a large number of reflecting planes has to be taken into account. This is made possible by the Bethe perturbation of weak reflections. Very good agreement is obtained for simulated and experimental patterns of gallium nitride GaN{0001} at 20kV electron energy. Experimental features like zone-axis fine structure and higher-order Laue zone rings are accurately reproduced. We discuss the influence of the diffraction of the incident beam in our experiment. PMID:17126489

  16. Nondestructive testing of concrete by gamma backscattering method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nondestructive testing (NDT) methods are used to examine objects without destroying it. In many situations like working industrial plants and fluid transportation system, inspection of huge or thick sized objects by destructive methods are not desirable. The Compton backscattering of gamma rays, one of NDT techniques could be used for material characterization and detection of defects in materials easily. Concrete structures require testing after the concrete has hardened, to determine whether the structure is suitable for its designed use. There is a possibility of defects in the constructed buildings and structures, and therefore, defects like voids and cracks, if any, have to be evaluated for the purpose. Further, periodic testing of old buildings and structures to know their integrity has become a necessity. These types of testings can be conducted only by employing nondestructive techniques

  17. Diffuse Backscattering Mueller Matrices Patterns from Turbid Media

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Lian-Shun; ZHU Chen; WANG Zhi-Ping; ZHANG Jing

    2006-01-01

    We present experimental measurements and theory of the diffusely backscattered Mueller matrix patterns that arise from illuminating a turbid medium with a polarized laser beam. Our technique employs polarized light from a He-Ne laser (λ= 632.8 nm) focused onto the surface of the scattering medium. A surface area of approximately 2×2 cm2 centred on the light input point is imaged through polarization analysis optics onto a CCD camera. The Mueller matrix is reconstructed by 49 intensity measurements with various orientations of polarizer and analyser. The measured Mueller matrix of polystyrene spheres is compared with the theory result of incoherent scattering of light by spheres. It shows that the azimuthal patterns of the Mueller matrix are determined by the symmetry of the turbid media and the shape of scattering particles. The result is further proved by experiments with polystyrene spheres of different concentrations in de-ionized water.

  18. Compton backscattering of intracavity storage ring free-electron laser radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We discuss the γ- ray production by Compton backscattering of intracavity S.R. FEL radiation. We use a semi-analytical model which provides the build up of the signal combined with the storage ring damping mechanism and derive simple relations yielding the connection between backscattered photons brightness and the intercavity laser equilibrium intensity

  19. Effect of the cortex on ultrasonic backscatter measurements of cancellous bone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ultrasonic backscatter techniques offer a promising new approach for detecting changes in bone caused by osteoporosis. However, several challenges impede clinical implementation of backscatter techniques. This study examines how the dense outer surface of bone (the cortex) affects backscatter measurements of interior regions of porous (cancellous) bone tissue. Fifty-two specimens of bone were prepared from 13 human femoral heads so that the same region of cancellous bone could be ultrasonically interrogated through the cortex or along directions that avoided the cortex. Backscatter signals were analyzed over a frequency range of 0.8-3.0 MHz to determine two ultrasonic parameters: apparent integrated backscatter (AIB) and frequency slope of apparent backscatter (FSAB). The term 'apparent' means that the parameters are sensitive to the frequency-dependent effects of diffraction and attenuation. Significant (p < 0.001) changes in AIB and FSAB indicated that measurements through the cortex decreased the apparent backscattered power and increased the frequency dependence of the power. However, the cortex did not affect the correlation of AIB and FSAB with the x-ray bone mineral density of the specimens. This suggests that results from many previous in vitro backscatter studies of specimens of purely cancellous bone may be extrapolated with greater confidence to in vivo conditions.

  20. Stratospheric backscatter, extinction, and lidar ratio profiling after the Mt. Pinatubo eruptions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since August 1991 the stratospheric aerosol layer is continuously monitored with a combination Raman elastic-backscatter lidar, groundbased systems. XeCl excimer laser is used as the radiation source. Signals elastically backscattered from air molecules and particles and inelastically Raman backscattered from nitrogen molecules are detected. The measurements of these two signal profiles up to 35 km height allows the separate and independent determination of aerosol extinction and backscatter properties in the perturbed lower stratosphere. The extinction coefficient is derived from the nitrogen Raman signal profile, while the backscatter coefficient is obtained from the elastic-to-inelastic backscatter signal ratio. In this way, also the extinction-to-backscatter, or lidar, ratio profile is determined. For the first time, lidar ratios are determined in the perturbed stratospheric layer by the use of remote sensing only. The lidar ratio contains information about the size range of the stratospheric particles which are assumed to be sulfuric acid droplets, and it is needed in the calculation of aerosol optical properties from data taken with a typical backscatter lidar

  1. Identification of major backscattering sources in trees and shrubs at 10 GHz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoughi, R.; Wu, L. K.; Moore, R. K.

    1986-01-01

    A short-range very-fine-resolution FM-CW radar scatterometer has been used to identify the primary contributors to 10-GHz radar backscatter from pine, pin oak, American sycamore and sugar maple trees, and from creeping juniper shrubs. This system provided a range resolution of 11 cm and gave a 16-cm diameter illumination area at the target range of about 4 m. For a pine tree, the needles caused the strongest backscatter as well as the strongest attenuation in the radar signal. Cones, although insignificant contributors to the total backscatter, were more important for backscattering than for attenuation. For the rest of the trees, leaves were the strongest cause of backscattering and attenuation. However, in the absence of leaves, the petioles, small twigs, and branches gave relatively strong backscatter. For American sycamore and sugar maple trees, the fruits did not affect the total backscatter unless they were packed in clusters. For creeping juniper the backscattered energy and attenuation in the radar signal were mainly due to the top two layers of the evergreen scales. The contribution of the tree trunks was not determined.

  2. The Low Backscattering Targets Classification in Urban Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, L.

    2012-07-01

    The Polarimetric and Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (POLINSAR) is widely used in urban area nowadays. Because of the physical and geometric sensitivity, the POLINSAR is suitable for the city classification, power-lines detection, building extraction, etc. As the new X-band POLINSAR radar, the china prototype airborne system, XSAR works with high spatial resolution in azimuth (0.1 m) and slant range (0.4 m). In land applications, SAR image classification is a useful tool to distinguish the interesting area and obtain the target information. The bare soil, the cement road, the water and the building shadow are common scenes in the urban area. As it always exists low backscattering sign objects (LBO) with the similar scattering mechanism (all odd bounce except for shadow) in the XSAR images, classes are usually confused in Wishart-H-Alpha and Freeman-Durden methods. It is very hard to distinguish those targets only using the general information. To overcome the shortage, this paper explores an improved algorithm for LBO refined classification based on the Pre-Classification in urban areas. Firstly, the Pre-Classification is applied in the polarimetric datum and the mixture class is marked which contains LBO. Then, the polarimetric covariance matrix C3 is re-estimated on the Pre-Classification results to get more reliable results. Finally, the occurrence space which combining the entropy and the phase-diff standard deviation between HH and VV channel is used to refine the Pre-Classification results. The XSAR airborne experiments show the improved method is potential to distinguish the mixture classes in the low backscattering objects.

  3. THE LOW BACKSCATTERING TARGETS CLASSIFICATION IN URBAN AREAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Shi

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The Polarimetric and Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (POLINSAR is widely used in urban area nowadays. Because of the physical and geometric sensitivity, the POLINSAR is suitable for the city classification, power-lines detection, building extraction, etc. As the new X-band POLINSAR radar, the china prototype airborne system, XSAR works with high spatial resolution in azimuth (0.1 m and slant range (0.4 m. In land applications, SAR image classification is a useful tool to distinguish the interesting area and obtain the target information. The bare soil, the cement road, the water and the building shadow are common scenes in the urban area. As it always exists low backscattering sign objects (LBO with the similar scattering mechanism (all odd bounce except for shadow in the XSAR images, classes are usually confused in Wishart-H-Alpha and Freeman-Durden methods. It is very hard to distinguish those targets only using the general information. To overcome the shortage, this paper explores an improved algorithm for LBO refined classification based on the Pre-Classification in urban areas. Firstly, the Pre-Classification is applied in the polarimetric datum and the mixture class is marked which contains LBO. Then, the polarimetric covariance matrix C3 is re-estimated on the Pre-Classification results to get more reliable results. Finally, the occurrence space which combining the entropy and the phase-diff standard deviation between HH and VV channel is used to refine the Pre-Classification results. The XSAR airborne experiments show the improved method is potential to distinguish the mixture classes in the low backscattering objects.

  4. Feasibility of using backscattered muons for archeological imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonal, N.; Preston, L. A.

    2013-12-01

    Use of nondestructive methods to accurately locate and characterize underground objects such as rooms and tools found at archeological sites is ideal to preserve these historic sites. High-energy cosmic ray muons are very sensitive to density variation and have been used to image volcanoes and archeological sites such as the Egyptian and Mayan pyramids. Muons are subatomic particles produced in the upper atmosphere that penetrate the earth's crust up to few kilometers. Their absorption rate depends on the density of the materials through which they pass. Measurements of muon flux rate at differing directions provide density variations of the materials between the muon source (cosmic rays and neutrino interactions) and the detector, much like a CAT scan. Currently, muon tomography can resolve features to the sub-meter scale making it useful for this type of work. However, the muon detector must be placed below the target of interest. For imaging volcanoes, the upper portion is imaged when the detector is placed on the earth's surface at the volcano's base. For sites of interest beneath the ground surface, the muon detector would need to be placed below the site in a tunnel or borehole. Placing the detector underground can be costly and may disturb the historical site. We will assess the feasibility of imaging the subsurface using upward traveling muons, to eliminate the current constraint of positioning the detector below the target. This work consists of three parts 1) determine the backscattered flux rate from theory, 2) distinguish backscattered from forward scattered muons at the detector, and 3) validate the theoretical results with field experimentation. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  5. Statistics of vertical backscatter profile of cirrus clouds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Veglio

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available A nearly global statistical analysis of vertical backscatter and extinction profiles of cirrus clouds collected by the CALIOP lidar, on-board of the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observation, is presented.

    Statistics on frequency of occurrence and distributions of bulk properties of cirrus clouds in general and, for the first time, of horizontally homogeneous (on a 5-km field of view cirrus clouds only are provided. Annual and seasonal backscatter profiles (BSP are computed for the horizontally homogeneous cirri. Differences found in the day/night cases and for midlatitudes and tropics are studied in terms of the mean physical parameters of the clouds from which they are derived.

    The relation between cloud physical parameters (optical depth, geometrical thickness and temperature and the shape of the BSP is investigated. It is found that cloud geometrical thickness is the main parameter affecting the shape of the mean CALIOP BSP. Specifically, cirrus clouds with small geometrical thicknesses show a maximum in mean BSP curve placed near cloud top. As the cloud geometrical thickness increases the BSP maximum shifts towards cloud base. Cloud optical depth and temperature have smaller effect on the shape of the CALIOP BSPs. In general a slight increase in the BSP maximum is observed as cloud temperature and optical depth increase.

    In order to fit mean BSPs, as functions of geometrical thickness and position within the cloud layer, polynomial functions are provided. The impact on satellite radiative transfer simulations in the infrared spectrum when using either a constant ice-content (IWC along the cloud vertical dimension or an IWC profile derived from the BSP fitting functions is evaluated. It is, in fact, demonstrated that, under realistic hypotheses, the mean BSP is linearly proportional to the IWC profile.

  6. HF radar observations of ionospheric backscatter during geomagnetically quiet periods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, T. A.; Makarevich, R. A.; Devlin, J. C.

    2012-01-01

    The quiet-time coherent backscatter from the F-region observed by the Tasman International Geospace Environment Radar (TIGER) Bruny Island HF radar is analysed statistically in order to determine typical trends and controlling factors in the ionospheric echo occurrence. A comparison of the F-region peak density values from the IRI-2007 model and ionosonde measurements in the vicinity of the radar's footprint shows a very good agreement, particularly at subauroral and auroral latitudes, and model densities within the radar's footprint are used in the following analyses. The occurrence of F-region backscatter is shown to exhibit distinct diurnal, seasonal and solar cycle variations and these are compared with model trends in the F-region peak electron density and Pedersen conductance of the underlying ionosphere. The solar cycle effects in occurrence are demonstrated to be strong and more complex than a simple proportionality on a year-to-year basis. The diurnal and seasonal effects are strongly coupled to each other, with diurnal trends exhibiting a systematic gradual variation from month to month that can be explained when both electron density and conductance trends are considered. During the night, the echo occurrence is suggested to be controlled directly by the density conditions, with a direct proportionality observed between the occurrence and peak electron density. During the day, the echo occurrence appears to be controlled by both conductance and propagation conditions. It is shown that the range of echo occurrence values is smaller for larger conductances and that the electron density determines what value the echo occurrence takes in that range. These results suggest that the irregularity production rates are significantly reduced by the highly conducting E layer during the day while F-region density effects dominate during the night.

  7. HF radar observations of ionospheric backscatter during geomagnetically quiet periods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. A. Kane

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The quiet-time coherent backscatter from the F-region observed by the Tasman International Geospace Environment Radar (TIGER Bruny Island HF radar is analysed statistically in order to determine typical trends and controlling factors in the ionospheric echo occurrence. A comparison of the F-region peak density values from the IRI-2007 model and ionosonde measurements in the vicinity of the radar's footprint shows a very good agreement, particularly at subauroral and auroral latitudes, and model densities within the radar's footprint are used in the following analyses. The occurrence of F-region backscatter is shown to exhibit distinct diurnal, seasonal and solar cycle variations and these are compared with model trends in the F-region peak electron density and Pedersen conductance of the underlying ionosphere. The solar cycle effects in occurrence are demonstrated to be strong and more complex than a simple proportionality on a year-to-year basis. The diurnal and seasonal effects are strongly coupled to each other, with diurnal trends exhibiting a systematic gradual variation from month to month that can be explained when both electron density and conductance trends are considered. During the night, the echo occurrence is suggested to be controlled directly by the density conditions, with a direct proportionality observed between the occurrence and peak electron density. During the day, the echo occurrence appears to be controlled by both conductance and propagation conditions. It is shown that the range of echo occurrence values is smaller for larger conductances and that the electron density determines what value the echo occurrence takes in that range. These results suggest that the irregularity production rates are significantly reduced by the highly conducting E layer during the day while F-region density effects dominate during the night.

  8. Elastic-backscatter-lidar-based characterization of the convective boundary layer and investigation of related statistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Pal

    2010-03-01

    can be used to investigate boundary layer turbulence since the aerosols act as tracers. We demonstrate that with our lidar measurements, vertical profiles of variance, skewness, and kurtosis of the fluctuations of the particle backscatter coefficient can be determined. The variance spectra at different altitudes inside the quasi-steady CBL showed an f−5/3 dependency. The integral scale varied from 40 to 90 s (depending on height, which was significantly larger than the temporal resolution of the lidar data. Thus, the major part of the inertial subrange was detected and turbulent fluctuations could be resolved. For the quasi-stationary case, negative values of skewness were found inside the CBL while positive values were observed in the entrainment zone near the top of the CBL. For the case of the rapidly growing CBL, the skewness profile showed both positive and negative values even inside the CBL.

  9. Elastic-backscatter-lidar-based characterization of the convective boundary layer and investigation of related statistics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pal, S.; Behrendt, A.; Wulfmeyer, V. [Hohenheim Univ., Stuttgart (DE). Inst. of Physics and Meteorology (IPM)

    2010-07-01

    investigate boundary layer turbulence since the aerosols act as tracers. We demonstrate that with our lidar measurements, vertical profiles of variance, skewness, and kurtosis of the fluctuations of the particle backscatter coefficient can be determined. The variance spectra at different altitudes inside the quasi-steady CBL showed an f{sup -5/3} dependency. The integral scale varied from 40 to 90 s (depending on height), which was significantly larger than the temporal resolution of the lidar data. Thus, the major part of the inertial subrange was detected and turbulent fluctuations could be resolved. For the quasi-stationary case, negative values of skewness were found inside the CBL while positive values were observed in the entrainment zone near the top of the CBL. For the case of the rapidly growing CBL, the skewness profile showed both positive and negative values even inside the CBL. (orig.)

  10. Profiling of back-scattered electrons in opposed magnetic field of a Twin Electron Beam Gun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Electron gun is extensively used in material processing, physical vapour deposition and atomic vapour based laser processes. In these processes where the electron beam is incident on the substrate, a significant fraction of electron beam gets back-scattered from the target surface. The trajectory of this back scattered electron beam depends on the magnetic field in the vicinity. The fraction of back-scattered depends on the atomic number of the target metal and can be as high as ∼40% of the incident beam current. These back-scattered electrons can cause undesired hot spots and also affect the overall process. Hence, the study of the trajectory of these back-scattered electrons is important. This paper provides the details of experimentally mapped back-scattered electrons of a 2×20kW Twin Electron Beam Gun (TEBG) in opposed magnetic field i.e. with these guns placed at 180° to each other.

  11. The relationship between VHF radar auroral backscatter amplitude and Doppler velocity: a statistical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. A. Shand

    Full Text Available A statistical investigation of the relationship between VHF radar auroral backscatter intensity and Doppler velocity has been undertaken with data collected from 8 years operation of the Wick site of the Sweden And Britain Radar-auroral Experiment (SABRE. The results indicate three different regimes within the statistical data set; firstly, for Doppler velocities <200 m s–1, the backscatter intensity (measured in decibels remains relatively constant. Secondly, a linear relationship is observed between the backscatter intensity (in decibels and Doppler velocity for velocities between 200 m s–1 and 700 m s–1. At velocities greater than 700 m s–1 the backscatter intensity saturates at a maximum value as the Doppler velocity increases. There are three possible geophysical mechanisms for the saturation in the backscatter intensity at high phase speeds: a saturation in the irregularity turbulence level, a maximisation of the scattering volume, and a modification of the local ambient electron density. There is also a difference in the dependence of the backscatter intensity on Doppler velocity for the flow towards and away from the radar. The results for flow towards the radar exhibit a consistent relationship between backscatter intensity and measured velocities throughout the solar cycle. For flow away from the radar, however, the relationship between backscatter intensity and Doppler velocity varies during the solar cycle. The geometry of the SABRE system ensures that flow towards the radar is predominantly associated with the eastward electrojet, and flow away is associated with the westward electrojet. The difference in the backscatter intensity variation as a function of Doppler velocity is attributed to asymmetries between the eastward and westward electrojets and the geophysical parameters controlling the backscatter amplitude.

  12. Deconvolution of Positrons' Lifetime spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, we explain the iterative method previously develop for the deconvolution of Doppler broadening spectra using the mathematical optimization theory. Also, we start the adaptation and application of this method to the deconvolution of positrons' lifetime annihilation spectra

  13. Interpretation of electron spectra in morningside pulsating aurorae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Energy spectra of precipitating electrons in morningside aurorae were obtained with instruments on the NOAA 6 satellite during several passes through the southern auroral zone in 1982. It is substantiated with the aid of coordinated data from particle detectors and a photometer in the Simulated Emission of Energetic Particles experiment payload on satellite S81-1 that the precipitation obserbed by NOAA 6 was probably in a region of pulsating aurorae. The particle detectors and forward/downward looking quadrant photometer onboard S81-1 all exhibited regular modulations at a period of about 5--15 s. The particle detectors on NOAA 6 showed fluctuating electron intensities over an energy range from several kiloelectronvolts to many tens of kiloelectronvolts, superimposed on a steady background component extending down to energies less than 1 keV. The NOAA 6 electron observations are in qualitative agreement with a time-dependent precipitation model that includes the production of backscattered and secondary electrons from the atmosphere. In this model the time variations imposed on the precipitation are restricted to the energetic portion of the electron spectrum, while the integrating effects inherent in the production of backscattered and secondary electrons, together with phase mixing introduced as those electrons transit between conjugate hemispheres, insure the existence of a nearly time independent population of low-energy electrons. A steady background precipitation is thereby created as a natural consequence of a time-variable primary precipitation. copyright American Geophysical Union 1987

  14. Delineation of estuarine fronts in the German Bight using airborne laser-induced water Raman backscatter and fluorescence of water column constituents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoge, F. E.; Swift, R. N.

    1982-01-01

    The acquisition and application of airborne laser induced emission spectra from German Bight water during the 1979 MARSEN experiment is detailed for the synoptic location of estuarine fronts. The NASA Airborne Oceanographic Lidar (AOL) was operated in the fluorosensing mode. A nitrogen laser transmitter at 337.1 nm was used to stimulate the water column to obtain Gelbstoff or organic material fluorescence spectra together with water Raman backscatter. Maps showing the location and relative strength of estuarine fronts are presented. The distribution of the fronts indicates that mixing within the German Bight takes place across a relatively large area. Reasonable agreement between the patterns observed by the AOL and published results are obtained. The limitations and constraints of this technique are indicated and improvements to the AOL fluorosensor are discussed with respect to future ocean mapping applications.

  15. Impact of diurnal variation in vegetation water content on radar backscatter of maize during water stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Emmerik, Tim; Steele-Dunne, Susan; Judge, Jasmeet; van de Giesen, Nick

    2014-05-01

    Microwave emission and backscatter of vegetated surfaces are influenced by vegetation water content (VWC), which varies in response to availability of soil moisture in the root zone. Understanding the influence of diurnal VWC dynamics on radar backscatter will improve soil moisture retrievals using microwave remote sensing, and will provide insight into the potential use for radar to directly monitor vegetation water status. The goal of this research is to investigate the effect of diurnal variation in VWC of an agricultural canopy on backscatter for different radar configurations. Water stress was induced in a corn (Zea mays) canopy near Citra, Florida, between September 1 and October 20, 2013. Diurnal destructive samples from the canopy were collected to determine leaf, stalk and total VWC. Water stress was quantified by calculating the evaporation deficit and measuring the soil water tension. The water-cloud model was used to model the influence of VWC and soil moisture variations on backscatter for a range of frequencies, polarizations and incidence angles. Furthermore, radar backscatter time series was simulated to show the effect of water stress on the diurnal variation in backscatter due to VWC. Results of this study show the very significant effects that VWC dynamics have on radar backscatter. We also highlight the potential for vegetation and soil water status monitoring using microwave remote sensing.

  16. Detection system and processing of signals originated by backscattering gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to answer to the requirements of some groups of work destined to carry out studies about soil density and position of steel bars in reinforced cement, using NaI solid scintillation detectors, the electronics required by this type of detectors has been designed and implemented. In this first phase, the construction and test of the 5 modules that constitute the spectrometry chain-which has a digital control: high-tension source, amplifier, control interphase, analog to digital converter (ADC) and multichannel analyzers (MCA) storage logic-were finished. For the development of the operation tests, a compatible computer was used, while the construction of the control logic was finished. This control logic, linked to the implemented analog phases, will provide a totally portable system. The system was evaluated, generating the spectra of some well-known radioactive samples using a 2 inch x 2 inch scintillation detector, having as a result a total resolution of 8,6% (related to the photopeak of Cs-137) The ADC Wilkinson type has a maximum resolution of 2048 channels. Because of the fulfillment of the above-mentioned studies with backscattered beams, all the related electronics was designed considering this criterion. That is why neither base line restoration circuits nor piling-up rebound circuits were included in the amplifier, because the radiation beam to be studied had low activity. By the same reason and in order to avoid the unnecessary complexity and the high cost of the electronics circuits, the ADC operates at a relatively low frequency of 16 MHz. Afterwards, it is expected to interconnect all the system to a laptop compatible computer. In this way, we would have a higher versatility for the modification of the operation parameters of the spectrometry chain during the field tests that may be carried out. (author). 26 refs., 29 tabs., 121 figs

  17. EBS/C proton spectra from a virgin diamond crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erich, M.; Kokkoris, M.; Fazinić, S.; Petrović, S.

    2016-08-01

    In the present work, elastic backscattering channeling spectra, EBS/C, of protons in a diamond crystal were experimentally and theoretically studied via a new computer simulation code. Proton incident energies for EBS/C spectra were in the energy range from 1.0 MeV to 1.9 MeV. The energy range was chosen in order to explore a distinct strong resonance of the 12C(p,p0)12C elastic scattering at 1737 keV. The computer simulation code applied for the fitting of the experimental spectra in the random mode was compared with the corresponding SIMNRA results. In the channeling mode, it assumes a Gompertz type sigmoidal dechanneling function, which has two fitting parameters, xc and k, the dechanneling range and rate, respectively. It also uses α, ratio of the channeling to random energy losses, as a fitting parameter. It was observed that xc increases, k decreases and α stays relatively constant with the proton incident energy. These observations confirm the physical interpretation of the fitting parameters. Also, they constitute the basics for the further development of the code for the quantification of induced amorphization and depth profiling of implanted ions.

  18. Sequencing BPS Spectra

    CERN Document Server

    Gukov, Sergei; Saberi, Ingmar; Stosic, Marko; Sulkowski, Piotr

    2015-01-01

    This paper provides both a detailed study of color-dependence of link homologies, as realized in physics as certain spaces of BPS states, and a broad study of the behavior of BPS states in general. We consider how the spectrum of BPS states varies as continuous parameters of a theory are perturbed. This question can be posed in a wide variety of physical contexts, and we answer it by proposing that the relationship between unperturbed and perturbed BPS spectra is described by a spectral sequence. These general considerations unify previous applications of spectral sequence techniques to physics, and explain from a physical standpoint the appearance of many spectral sequences relating various link homology theories to one another. We also study structural properties of colored HOMFLY homology for links and evaluate Poincar\\'e polynomials in numerous examples. Among these structural properties is a novel "sliding" property, which can be explained by using (refined) modular $S$-matrix. This leads to the identifi...

  19. Conditions for observation of the enhanced backscattering phenomenon in a turbulent atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chrzanowski, Janusz; Kirkiewicz, Jozef; Kravtsov, Yuri A.

    2003-11-01

    Influence of enhanced backscattering effect on laser measurements of dust and aerosols content in a turbulent atmosphere is discussed. It is shown that doubling of the backscattered light intensity, characteristic for enhanced backscattering, leads to overestimating dust content in the air. To avoid undesirable effect of overestimation, it is recommended to displace receiving aperture sidewise relatively to laser source. Other method to eliminate overestimation is to use wider laser beam and extended receiving aperture as compared to coherence radius of the scattered wave field.

  20. Backscatter amplification effect for a reflected partially coherent Gaussian beam in turbulent medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Ning-Jing; Wu, Zhen-Sen; Guo, Qiu-Fen; Wang, Ming-Jun

    2015-09-01

    The extended Huygens-Fresnel principle is used to develop a formulation for the backscattered intensity enhancement of a Gaussian Schell-model source beam through a weak turbulence. The results are shown that backscattered intensity enhancement factor of the reflected GSM beam is concerned with the coherence length of source, the wavelength, the size of target and wave structure function. In addition, the closed-form expressions can interpret backscattered intensity enhancement of plane and spherical wave scattered from a diffuse target. The results are illustrated by examples and compared with the previous work.

  1. The Monte Carlo calculation of gamma-ray backscattering from various materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The question is discussed of gamma backscattering on different materials. For coaxial geometry with a point source placed next to the material surface, using the Monte Carlo method the number of backscattered photons in variation with atomic number Z of the scatterer is calculated. A multiple scattering calculation is performed for 60Co and 137Cs. The obtained results are plotted in graphs showing the minima in each period of the periodic system, this for gases. For other elements the number of backscattered photons is dependent on the atomic number Z, primary gamma radiation energy, density, and the geometry of the experiment. (author)

  2. Suppressing Rayleigh backscatter and code noise from all-fiber digital interferometers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngo, Silvie; Shaddock, Daniel A; McRae, Terry G; Lam, Timothy T-Y; Chow, Jong H; Gray, Malcolm B

    2016-01-01

    We configure an all-fiber digital interferometer to eliminate both code noise and Rayleigh backscatter noise from bidirectional measurements. We utilize a sawtooth phase ramp to upconvert code noise beyond our signal bandwidth, demonstrating an in-band noise reduction of approximately two orders of magnitude. In addition, we demonstrate, for the first time to our knowledge, the use of relative code delays within a digital-interferometer system to eliminate Rayleigh-backscatter noise, resulting in a noise reduction of a factor of 50. Finally, we identify double Rayleigh-backscatter noise as our limiting noise source and suggest two methods to minimize this noise source. PMID:26696164

  3. Generation and Investigation of Backscatter Mosaics using TerraSAR-X Data

    OpenAIRE

    Rizzoli, Paola; Bräutigam, Benjamin; Wollstadt, Steffen; Mittermayer, Josef

    2010-01-01

    Global backscatter data is required for accurate performance estimation and instrument commanding inside the TerraSAR-X and TanDEM-X missions. The goal of this work is the generation of an X-Band backscatter map by assembling images acquired by the TSX satellite. The complete data ground coverage will be achievable with TanDEM-X mission data. An interpolator, that allows the estimation of the on ground backscatter for any required polarization and incidence angle from the available data, has ...

  4. Compton Backscattering Concept for the Production of Molybdenum-99

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L. Merminga, G.A. Krafft

    2009-05-01

    The medical isotope Molybdenum-99 is presently used for 80-85% of all nuclear medicine procedures and is produced by irradiating highly enriched uranium U-235 targets in NRU reactors. It was recently proposed that an electron linac be used for the production of 99Mo via photo-fission of a natural uranium target coming from the excitation of the giant dipole resonance around 15 MeV. The photons can be produced using the braking radiation (“bremsstrahlung”) spectrum of an electron beam impinged on a high Z material. In this paper we present an alternate concept for the production of 99Mo which is also based on photo-fission of U-238, but where the ~15 MeV gamma-rays are produced by Compton backscattering of laser photons from relativistic electrons. We assume a laser wavelength of 330 nm, resulting in 485 MeV electron beam energy, and 10 mA of average current. Because the induced energy spread on the electron beam is a few percent, one may recover most of the electron beam energy, which substantially increases the efficiency of the system. The accelerator concept, based on a three-pass recirculation system with energy recovery, is described and efficiency estimates are presented.

  5. 63Ni β range and backscattering in confined geometries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To know the spatial distribution of ion pairs resulting from 63Ni β radiation in the gas phase is important for the electron capture detector. The 63Ni-induced, initial ion pair distribution was therefore measured in a variety of gases with two techniques: a conventional one based on the electrical saturation current at variable interelectrode distances, and an unconventional one based on luminescence from a plastic scintillator. The data are analyzed in terms of two ranges, d50 and d95, that describe the distances from a planar radioactive foil within which 50% and 95% of the total gas-phase ionization occur. The data from the electrical measurement show unexpected evidence of strong β backscattering and secondary electron emission from the counter-electrode. Under these (non-exponential) conditions, d50 values in the common detector gases nitrogen and argon/methane vary from 0.5 to 1.0 mm, depending on the nature of the counter-electrode. Calculations based on the quasi-exponential range found at longer distances in electrical measurements yield values of about 2.5 mm (which are low because of geometric measurement bias). In contrast, the data from the luminescence measurement are almost completely exponential and d50 values for argon (+5% methane) and nitrogen are 2.8 and 3.8 mm, respectively. The d95 values vary from 12 to 16 mm for the luminescence, to 6 and 9 mm for the (less reliable) electrical measurement; all at ambient conditions

  6. Investigation of radar backscattering from second-year sea ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Guang-Tsai; Moore, Richard K.; Gogineni, S. P.

    1988-01-01

    The scattering properties of second-year ice were studied in an experiment at Mould Bay in April 1983. Radar backscattering measurements were made at frequencies of 5.2, 9.6, 13.6, and 16.6 GHz for vertical polarization, horizontal polarization and cross polarizations, with incidence angles ranging from 15 to 70 deg. The results indicate that the second-year ice scattering characteristics were different from first-year ice and also different from multiyear ice. The fading properties of radar signals were studied and compared with experimental data. The influence of snow cover on sea ice can be evaluated by accounting for the increase in the number of independent samples from snow volume with respect to that for bare ice surface. A technique for calculating the snow depth was established by this principle and a reasonable agreement has been observed. It appears that this is a usable way to measure depth in snow or other snow-like media using radar.

  7. Measurement of crystal misorientation distribution by electron backscatter diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is well known stress corrosion cracking in stainless steel and nickel based alloy is enhanced by plastic strain induced in the material, although the reason why has not been fully understood. Since stress corrosion cracking begins from small crack initiation and its growth, it is important to know the inhomogeneous distribution of plastic strain. Electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) enables us to measure crystal orientations on specimen surface with a spatial resolution of nano-meter order. The magnitude of local plastic strain can be estimated from change in crystal orientation (misorientation) obtained. In this study, distributions of the misorientation were evaluated by using EBSD. A tensile specimen made of pure copper was subjected to tensile test to introduce plastic strain. From changes in surface images of the specimen during the test, distribution of plastic strain was identified by using the image correlation technique and was compared with distribution of misorientation obtained by EBSD measurement. It was revealed that the misorientation correlates well with dislocation density introduced by deformation rather than with local plastic strain. A data processing technique for improving accuracy of measured data of crystal orientation was developed and was successfully applied to obtain distributions of misorientation. The improved misorientation map showed that the misorientation tended to concentrate at grain boundaries. Influence of setting parameters in the new processing technique was investigated. Also, other techniques for improving a quality of distribution map were discussed. Finally, a procedure was shown for getting qualified misorientation distribution. (author)

  8. Estimating the breast surface using UWB microwave monostatic backscatter measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winters, David W; Shea, Jacob D; Madsen, Ernest L; Frank, Gary R; Van Veen, Barry D; Hagness, Susan C

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents an algorithm for estimating the location of the breast surface from scattered ultrawideband (UWB) microwave signals recorded across an antenna array. Knowing the location of the breast surface can improve imaging performance if incorporated as a priori information into recently proposed microwave imaging algorithms. These techniques transmit low-power microwaves into the breast using an antenna array, which in turn measures the scattered microwave signals for the purpose of detecting anomalies or changes in the dielectric properties of breast tissue. Our proposed surface identification algorithm consists of three procedures, the first of which estimates M points on the breast surface given M channels of measured microwave backscatter data. The second procedure applies interpolation and extrapolation to these M points to generate N > M points that are approximately uniformly distributed over the breast surface, while the third procedure uses these N points to generate a 3-D estimated breast surface. Numerical as well as experimental tests indicate that the maximum absolute error in the estimated surface generated by the algorithm is on the order of several millimeters. An error analysis conducted for a basic microwave radar imaging algorithm (least-squares narrowband beamforming) indicates that this level of error is acceptable. A key advantage of the algorithm is that it uses the same measured signals that are used for UWB microwave imaging, thereby minimizing patient scan time and avoiding the need for additional hardware. PMID:18232368

  9. Ion beam polishing for three-dimensional electron backscattered diffraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saowadee, Nath; Agersted, Karsten; Ubhi, H.S.;

    2013-01-01

    Serial sectioning by focused ion beam milling for three-dimensional electron backscatter diffraction (3D-EBSD) can create surface damage and amorphization in certain materials and consequently reduce the EBSD signal quality. Poor EBSD signal causes longer data acquisition time due to signal...... averaging and/or poor 3D-EBSD data quality. In this work a low kV focused ion beam was successfully implemented to automatically polish surfaces during 3D-EBSD of La- and Nb-doped strontium titanate of volume 12.6 × 12.6 × 3.0 μm. The key to achieving this technique is the combination of a defocused low k......V high current ion beam and line scan milling. The line scan was used to restrict polishing to the sample surface and the ion beam was defocused to ensure the beam contacted the complete sample surface. In this study 1 min polishing time per slice increases total acquisition time by approximately 3...

  10. Compton-backscattered annihilation radiation from the Galactic Center region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, D. M.; Lin, R. P.; Feffer, P.; Slassi, S.; Hurley, K.; Matteson, J.; Bowman, H. B.; Pelling, R. M.; Briggs, M.; Gruber, D.

    1993-01-01

    On 1989 May 22, the High Energy X-ray and Gamma-ray Observatory for Nuclear Emissions, a balloon-borne high-resolution germanium spectrometer with an 18-deg FOV, observed the Galactic Center (GC) from 25 to 2500 keV. The GC photon spectrum is obtained from the count spectrum by a model-independent method which accounts for the effects of passive material in the instrument and scattering in the atmosphere. Besides a positron annihilation line with a flux of (10.0 +/- 2.4) x 10 exp -4 photons/sq cm s and a full width at half-maximum (FWHM) of (2.9 + 1.0, -1.1) keV, the spectrum shows a peak centered at (163.7 +/- 3.4) keV with a flux of (1.55 +/- 0.47) x 10 exp -3 photons/sq cm s and a FWHM of (24.4 +/- 9.2) keV. The energy range 450-507 keV shows no positronium continuum associated with the annihilation line, with a 2-sigma upper limit of 0.90 on the positronium fraction. The 164 keV feature is interpreted as Compton backscatter of broadened and redshifted annihilation radiation, possibly from the source 1E 1740.7-2942.

  11. Vacuum birefringence by Compton backscattering through a strong field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wistisen, Tobias N.; Uggerhøj, Ulrik I.

    2013-09-01

    We propose a novel scheme to measure nonlinear effects in electrodynamics arising from QED corrections. Our theoretical starting point is the Heisenberg-Euler-Schwinger effective Lagrangian which predicts that a vacuum with a strong static electromagnetic field turns birefringent. We propose to employ a pulsed laser to create Compton backscattered photons off a high energy electron beam. These photons will pass through a strong static magnetic field, which according to the QED prediction changes the state of polarization of the radiation—an effect proportional to the photon energy. This change will be measured by using an aligned single crystal, since a large difference in the pair production cross sections at high energies can be achieved with proper orientation of the crystal. As an example we will consider the machine, LHeC, under consideration at CERN as the source of these electrons, and an LHC dipole magnet as the source of the strong static magnetic field. In the proposed experimental setup the birefringence effect will be manifested in a difference in the number of pairs created in the polarizer crystal as the initial laser light has a varying state of polarization, achieved with a rotating quarter wave plate. This will be seen as a clear peak in the Fourier transform spectrum of the pair-production rate signal, which can be obtained with 3 hours of measurement. We also comment on the sensitivity of the experiment, to the existence of an axion, a hypothetical spin-0 particle that couples to two photons.

  12. Wide aperture periodic lens system for multiple Compton backscattering

    CERN Document Server

    Miyahara, Y

    2002-01-01

    Polarized gamma-ray generation by Compton backscattering in a periodic focusing system of electron and laser beams is discussed for the production of polarized positron beam in a linear collider. Circularly polarized CO sub 2 laser beams are focused by an optical lens series and collided with a 5.8 GeV electron beam to generate circularly polarized gamma-rays with 60 MeV at a maximum. In the present work, the basic concept of periodic lens system discussed previously is reconsidered to reduce the laser power required for a gamma-ray yield of 7x10 sup 1 sup 5 gamma/s and the peak laser power density at lenses as much as possible for technical practice. The electron beam is focused by a series of permanent quadrupole magnets with a FODO structure. The power is reduced to six sources with 5.6 kW each, and the peak power density is reduced to 1.4 GW/cm sup 2. These values can be reduced further by using a longer laser pulse length and a damping ring for the electron beam.

  13. Towards high accuracy calibration of electron backscatter diffraction systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mingard, Ken [National Physical Laboratory, Hampton Road, Teddington, TW11 0LW (United Kingdom); Day, Austin, E-mail: Austin.Day@ADSci.co.uk [Aunt Daisy Scientific Ltd., Claremont House, Lydney, GL15 5DX (United Kingdom); Maurice, Claire [Ecole des Mines, Centre SMS-UMR CNRS 5146, 158 cours Fauriel, 42023 Saint Etienne Cedex 2 (France); Quested, Peter [National Physical Laboratory, Hampton Road, Teddington, TW11 0LW (United Kingdom)

    2011-04-15

    For precise orientation and strain measurements, advanced Electron Backscatter Diffraction (EBSD) techniques require both accurate calibration and reproducible measurement of the system geometry. In many cases the pattern centre (PC) needs to be determined to sub-pixel accuracy. The mechanical insertion/retraction, through the Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) chamber wall, of the electron sensitive part of modern EBSD detectors also causes alignment and positioning problems and requires frequent monitoring of the PC. Optical alignment and lens distortion issues within the scintillator, lens and charge-coupled device (CCD) camera combination of an EBSD detector need accurate measurement for each individual EBSD system. This paper highlights and quantifies these issues and demonstrates the determination of the pattern centre using a novel shadow-casting technique with a precision of {approx}10 {mu}m or {approx}1/3 CCD pixel. -- Research highlights: {yields} Issues with accurate EBSD calibration are discussed. {yields} Optical distortion data for 17 EBSD detectors are tabulated. {yields} A new shadow-casting system is demonstrated; it gives a pattern centre precision of {approx}10 {mu}m and allows changes to be observed on the live EBSP.

  14. Surface roughness from MOLA backscatter pulse-widths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poole, W. D.; Muller, J.-P.; Gupta, S.; Grindrod, P. M.

    2013-09-01

    The time-spread of backscatter laser altimeter pulses, known as pulse-widths, are thought to be capable of being used to infer variations in topography within the footprint of the laser pulse. Here, Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA) pulse-widths have been compared to surface roughness and slope, as measured from high-resolution digital terrain models (DTMs), over different terrains in order to understand how this dataset can be used in the selection of landing and roving sites, and in inferring surface formation and evolution. The results are varied, and suggest that pulsewidths do not respond consistently to variations in terrain. The results show that over Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) candidate landing sites, the pulse-widths can be used as a rough estimate of surface roughness at baselines much larger than the footprint of the pulse. Over much rougher terrain, these pulse-widths respond best to footprint scale slope, which suggests that an additional slope correction for 75 m baselines slopes is required to infer finer scale roughness. However, this is shown not to be the case, as correcting the pulse-widths for 75 m slopes at the MSL candidate sites, and detrending the DTM data, produced poorer results.

  15. Neutral beam species measurements using in situ Rutherford backscatter spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work describes a new in situ method for measuring the neutral particle fractions in high power deuterium neutral beams, used to heat magnetically confined fusion plasmas. Deuterium beams, of variable energies, pulse lengths, and powers up to 47 keV, 100 msec, 1.6 MW, were Rutherford backscattered at 1350 from TiC inner neutral beam armor of the PDX, and detected using an electrostatic analyzer with microchannel plates. Complete energy scans were made every 20 msec and data were obtained simultaneously from five different positions across the beam profile. The neutral particle fractions were measured to be D0(E):D0(E/2):D0(E/3)=53:32:15. The corresponding neutral power fractions were P0(E):P0(E/2):P0(E/3)=72:21:7, and the associated ionic fractions at the output of the ion source were D1+(E):D2+(E):D3+(E)=74:20:6. The measured neutral particle fractions were relatively constant over more than 70% of the beam power distribution. A decrease in the yield of the full energy component in the outer regions of the beam was observed. Other possible experimental configurations and geometries are discussed

  16. Determination of RF Source Power in WPSN Using Modulated Backscattering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.Sreedhar

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available A wireless sensor network (WSN is a wireless network consisting of spatially distributed autonomous devices using sensors to cooperatively monitor physical or environmental conditions, such as temperature, sound, vibration, pressure, motion or pollutants, at different locations. During RF transmission energy consumed by critically energy-constrained sensor nodes in a WSN is related to the life time system, but the life time of the system is inversely proportional to the energy consumed by sensor nodes. In that regard, modulated backscattering (MB is a promising design choice, in which sensor nodes send their data just by switching their antenna impedance and reflecting the incident signal coming from an RF source. Hence wireless passive sensor networks (WPSN designed to operate using MB do not have the lifetime constraints. In this we are going to investigate the system analytically. To obtain interference-free communication connectivity with the WPSN nodes number of RF sources is determined and analyzed in terms of output power and the transmission frequency of RF sources, network size, RF source and WPSN node characteristics. The results of this paper reveal that communication coverage and RF Source Power can be practically maintained in WPSN through careful selection of design parameters

  17. Evaluation of the health risk of body backscatter x ray scanners; Evaluation du risque sanitaire des scanners corporels a rayons X backscatter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    Following the attempted attack between Amsterdam and Detroit on the 25 december 2009, the council of interior safety decided a quick display of equipment using more efficient imaging techniques than metals detectors usually in place in French airports. Two technologies of devices are susceptible to be implemented on the airports: scanners using non ionizing radiation, (called millimetric waves) or scanners using ionizing radiation (x radiation, measurement by backscattering called backscatter). This report evaluates the dosimetric impact and the sanitary risk of backscatter x ray scanners and formulates recommendations to authorities to allow them to rule on the type of technology to use. Then, this report gives leads to conceive elements of information to communicate to travelers susceptible to be controlled by a such scanner in a foreign airport. (N.C.)

  18. Spectra of hot stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillier, D. John

    2015-08-01

    Non-LTE modeling is essential for interpreting the spectra of O stars and their decendents, and much progress has been made. The major uncertainty associated with analyzing photospheric spectra of O stars arises from issues related to microturbulence and macroturbulence. Many supergiants, for example, have microturbulent velocities that approach the sound speed, while macroturbulent velocities are often several times the sound speed. The cause of this turbulence is unknown, but may be related to pulsation, an underlying convection zone associated with the Fe opacity bump, or feedback from the stellar wind. Determining accurate abundances in O stars is hampered by the lack of lines belonging to low-z elements. Many species only have a few observable lines, and some of these are subject to complex non-LTE effects. A characteristic of massive stars is the existence of a stellar wind which is driven by radiation pressure. Radiation driving is inherently unstable, and this leads to winds with an inhomogeneous structure. Major issues that are still unresolved include: How are winds driven through the sonic point? What is the nature of the inhomogeneities, and how do the properties of these inhomogeneities change with density and velocity? How important is spatial porosity, and porosity in velocity space? What is the structure of the shocks, and in what stars do the shocks fail to cool? With Wolf-Rayet (W-R) stars the major uncertainty arises because the classic spectroscopic radius (i.e., the location where τ = 2/3) often refers to a location in the wind — not necessarily the stellar radius associated with stellar evolution models. Derived radii are typically several times those predicted by stellar evolution calculations, although for strong-lined W-R stars it is possible to construct models that are consistent with evolution calculations. The driving of the winds in these stars is strongly coupled to the closeness of the stars to the Eddington limit and to their

  19. Obtaining of laue patterns of a copper crystal by backscattering method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diffraction patterns of neutrons were obtained by the Laue method of a copper crystal and using the direct and indirect neutrography techniques. Unlike the conventional diffraction method by transmission, neutrons backscattered were registered which also satisfy the Bragg relation

  20. Influence of lithium coating on the optics of Doppler backscatter system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents the first investigation of the effect of lithium coating on the optics of Doppler backscattering. A liquid lithium limiter has been applied in the Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak (EAST), and a Doppler backscattering has been installed in the EAST. A parabolic mirror and a flat mirror located in the vacuum vessel are polluted by lithium. An identical optical system of the Doppler backscattering is set up in laboratory. The power distributions of the emission beam after the two mirrors with and without lithium coating (cleaned before and after), are measured at three different distances under four incident frequencies. The results demonstrate that the influence of the lithium coating on the power distributions are very slight, and the Doppler backscattering can work normally under the dosage of lithium during the 2014 EAST campaign

  1. Sea Floor Topography and Backscatter Intensity of the Historic Area Remediation Site

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set includes topography and backscatter intensity of the sea floor of the Historic Area Remediation Site (HARS), located offshore of New York and New...

  2. Aerosol backscattering profiles of CO2 wavelengths: the NOAA data base

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    NOAA's data base for aerosol backscattering at lambda = 10.6 μm since May 1981, Boulder, Colorado, is presented together with seasonally averaged profiles and statistical analyses. Studies of the El Chichon event are included

  3. High-frequency over-the-horizon radar and ionospheric backscatter studies in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Le-Wei

    1998-09-01

    China is one of the countries that employs high-frequency over-the-horizon radars for both military and civil applications. The first Chinese high-frequency over-the horizon backscatter radar was developed in the 1970s. This paper briefly introduces the first Chinese over-the-horizon backscatter radar system and reviews ionospheric backscatter and propagation studies in China. The paper discusses the motivation for establishing over-the-horizon radar systems in China, the experimental system, target recognition and detection,and estimation of over-the-horizon radar availability. Observations of aircraft, large-scale traveling ionospheric disturbances, and the effects of a remote nuclear explosion are also presented. Finally, the real-time Chinese ionosonde network and frequency predictions using backscatter ionograms are discussed.

  4. Fine scale analyses of a coralline bank mapped using multi-beam backscatter data

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Menezes, A.A.A.; Naik, M.; Fernandes, W.A.; Haris, K.; Chakraborty, B.; Estiberio, S.; Lohani, R.B.

    In this work, we have developed a classification technique to characterize the seafloor of the Gaveshani (coralline) bank area using multi-beam backscatter data. Softcomputational techniques like the artificial neural networks (ANNs) based...

  5. NOAA TIFF Graphic- 0.5m Backscatter Mosaic of St. Thomas, US Virgin Islands, 2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This image represents a 0.5 meter resolution backscatter mosaic of the south shore of St. Thomas, US Virgin Islands.NOAA's NOS/NCCOS/CCMA Biogeography Team and...

  6. Backscatter 0.5m TIFF Mosaic of St. Croix (Buck Island), US Virgin Islands, 2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This image represents a 0.5 meter resolution backscatter mosaic of the north shore of Buck Island, St. Croix, US Virgin Islands. NOAA's NOS/NCCOS/CCMA Biogeography...

  7. Effect of grain size distribution on attenuation and backscattered grain noise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The attenuation and backscattered grain noises in pure irons were measured. From the backscattered grain noise FOM (Figure-of-merit) which is a material dependent parameter were obtained by using independent scattering model. Attenuation coefficients and FOM's were compared with the results calculated by LPM theory and the general scattering model, respectively. Although the absolute values were not exactly same between measured and calculated results, the dependencies of them on the average grain size could be confirmed. The effect of grain size distribution on attenuation and backscattered grain noise was analyzed. The different scattering mechanisms according to the ratio of wavelength to grain size were applied to the analysis of the attenuation and backscattering even in a specimen.

  8. The application possibilities of the gamma-ray Compton backscattering technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flechas, D.; Sarmiento, L. G.; González, N.; Gómez-Muñoz, J.; Garzón, C.; Fajardo, E.; Cristancho, F.

    2013-05-01

    The location of objects hidden in dense matter and the analysis of metallic surfaces using gamma backscattering are two possible applications strongly suggested here with experiments, highlevel Monte Carlo simulations, and some supporting basic theory.

  9. Assessment of Multiple Delamination in Laminated Composites for Aircrafts using X-ray Backscattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Noh Yu [College of Medicine, Hanyang University, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-02-15

    A Compton X-ray backscatter technique has been developed to quantitatively assess impact damage in quasi-isotropic laminated composites made by a drop-weight tester. X-ray backscatter imaging system with a slit-type camera is constructed to obtain a cross-sectional profile of impact-damaged laminated composites from the electron-density variation of the cross section. A nonlinear scattering model based on Boltsman equation is introduced to compute Compton X-ray backscattering field for the defect assessment. An adaptive filter is also used to reduce noises from many sources including quantum noise and irregular distributions of fibers and matrix in composites. Delaminations masked or distorted by the first delamination are detected and characterized effectively by the Compton X-ray backscatter technique, both in width and location, by application of error minimization algorithm

  10. Landmine detection method combined with backscattering neutrons and capture {gamma}-rays from hydrogen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, Yoshiyuki, E-mail: ytaka@rri.kyoto-u.ac.j [Graduate School of Energy Science, Kyoto University, Yoshida-honmachi, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8501 (Japan); Misawa, Tsuyoshi; Pyeon, Cheol Ho; Shiroya, Seiji [Research Reactor Institute, Kyoto University, Asashiro-nishi, Kumatori-cho, Sennan-gun, Osaka 590-0494 (Japan); Yoshikawa, Kiyoshi [Institute of Advanced Energy, Kyoto University, Gokashou, Uji-shi, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan)

    2011-07-15

    The usefulness of the measurements of the backscattering neutron and 2.22 MeV capture {gamma}-ray from hydrogen in the landmine detection method is described in this paper. When the soil moisture content is increased, the reaction rates of both the neutron scattering reaction and capture reaction are increased. However, the backscattering neutrons are more influenced than the capture {gamma}-rays by the soil moisture before the reaction with the detector. The facts that the backscattering neutron method is useful in the dry soil case and that the capture {gamma}-ray method is effective in well-wet soil case are confirmed by the experiments and the calculations. The landmine detection efficiency is improved in various soil moisture conditions by combining the backscattering neutron method together with the capture {gamma}-ray method. The effectiveness of the pulse mode operation was confirmed numerically.

  11. Backscatter 0.5m TIFF Mosaic of St. Thomas, US Virgin Islands, 2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This image represents a 0.5 meter resolution backscatter mosaic of the south shore of St. Thomas, US Virgin Islands. NOAA's NOS/NCCOS/CCMA Biogeography Team and...

  12. Backscattering Light Model of Seawater for Modulated Lidar Based on the Stationarity of Light Field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JI Hang; MA Yong; LIANG Kun; WANG Hong-yuan

    2007-01-01

    The backscattering signal, which arises from the pulsed laser traveling through water, has limited the lidar system sensitivity and underwater target contrast. The transmitted optical carrier is modulated to be ultrashort pulsed laser and i t is effective to suppress the backscattering to adopt the coherent detection technology by identifying the modulation envelope. A nonstationary light field is formed in seawater by the ultrashort pulsed laser. The inherent relationship between the nonstationary light field formed by modulated lidar and the stationary light field formed by conventional lidar was discussed and the backscattering light model of the stationary light field for the ultrashort pulsed laser was proposed. The backscattering signal in modulated lidar system was processed and analyzed in the frequency domain on the basis of the model.

  13. CRED Reson 8101 multibeam backscatter data from the islands and banks in the Mariana archipelago, 2007.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Multibeam backscatter imagery extracted from gridded bathymetry of the Mariana archipelago between the U.S. Territory of Guam and Uracas Island in the Commonwealth...

  14. Automatically determining the origin direction and propagation mode of high-frequency radar backscatter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrell, Angeline G.; Milan, Stephen E.; Perry, Gareth W.; Yeoman, Timothy K.; Lester, Mark

    2015-12-01

    Elevation angles of returned backscatter are calculated at Super Dual Auroral Radar Network radars using interferometric techniques. These elevation angles allow the altitude of the reflection point to be estimated, an essential piece of information for many ionospheric studies. The elevation angle calculation requires knowledge of the azimuthal return angle. This directional angle is usually assumed to lie along a narrow beam from the front of the radar, even though the signals are known to return from both in front of and behind the radar. If the wrong direction of return is assumed, large uncertainties will be introduced through the azimuthal return angle. This paper introduces a means of automatically determining the correct direction of arrival and the propagation mode of backscatter. The application of this method will improve the accuracy of backscatter elevation angle data and aid in the interpretation of both ionospheric and ground backscatter observations.

  15. Reson 8101 Backscatter imagery of Ni'ihau Island, Hawaii, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Backscatter imagery extracted from gridded bathymetry of Ni'ihau Island, Hawaii, USA. These data provide almost complete coverage between 0 and 100 meters. The...

  16. Extracting integrated and differential cross sections in low energy heavy-ion reactions from backscattering measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sargsyan, V. V.; Adamian, G. G.; Antonenko, N. V.; Diaz-Torres, A.; Gomes, P. R. S.; Lenske, H.

    2016-07-01

    We suggest new methods to extract elastic (quasi-elastic) scattering angular distribution and reaction (capture) cross sections from the experimental elastic (quasi-elastic) backscattering excitation function taken at a single angle.

  17. Vertical Aerosol Backscatter Variability from an Airborne Focused Continuous Wave CO2 Lidar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarzembski, Maurice A.; Srivastava, Vandana; Rothermel, Jeffry

    1998-01-01

    Atmospheric aerosol backscatter measurements using a continuous wave focused Doppler lidar at 9.1 micron wavelength were obtained over western North America and the Pacific Ocean during 13 - 26 September, 1995 as part of National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Multi-center Airborne Coherent Atmospheric Wind Sensor (MACAWS) mission on board the NASA DC8 aircraft. Backscatter variability was measured for approximately 52 flight hours, covering equivalent horizontal distance of approximately 25,000 km in the troposphere. Quasi-vertical backscatter profiles were also obtained during various ascents and descents which ranged between approximately 0.1 to 12.0 km altitude. Aerosol haze layers were encountered at different altitudes. Similarities and differences for aerosol loading over land and over ocean were observed. A mid-tropospheric aerosol backscatter background mode was found with modal value approximately 1O(exp -10)/m/sr, consistent with previous airborne and ground-based datasets.

  18. Influence of lithium coating on the optics of Doppler backscatter system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, X. H.; Liu, A. D., E-mail: lad@ustc.edu.cn; Zhou, C.; Hu, J. Q.; Wang, M. Y.; Yu, C. X.; Liu, W. D.; Li, H.; Lan, T.; Xie, J. L. [Department of Modern Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China)

    2015-10-15

    This paper presents the first investigation of the effect of lithium coating on the optics of Doppler backscattering. A liquid lithium limiter has been applied in the Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak (EAST), and a Doppler backscattering has been installed in the EAST. A parabolic mirror and a flat mirror located in the vacuum vessel are polluted by lithium. An identical optical system of the Doppler backscattering is set up in laboratory. The power distributions of the emission beam after the two mirrors with and without lithium coating (cleaned before and after), are measured at three different distances under four incident frequencies. The results demonstrate that the influence of the lithium coating on the power distributions are very slight, and the Doppler backscattering can work normally under the dosage of lithium during the 2014 EAST campaign.

  19. Correction of Doppler-broadened Rayleigh backscattering effects in H2O dial measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansmann, A.; Bosenberg, J.

    1986-01-01

    A general method of solutions for treating effects of Doppler-broadened Rayleigh backscattering in H2O Differential Absorption Lidar (DIAL) measurements are described and discussed. Errors in vertical DIAL measuremtns caused by this laser line broadening effect can be very large and, therfore, this effect has to be accounted for accurately. To analyze and correct effects of Doppler-broadened Rayleigh backscattering in DIAL experiments, a generalized DIAL approximation was derived starting from a lidar equation, which includes Doppler broadening. To evaluate the accuracy of H2O DIAL measurements, computer simulations were performed. It was concluded that correction of Doppler broadened Rayleigh backscattering is possible with good accuracy in most cases of tropospheric H2O DIAL measurements, but great care has to be taken when layers with steep gradients of Mie backscattering like clouds or inversion layers are present.

  20. A Compact In Situ Sensor for Measurement of Absorption and Backscattering in Natural Waters Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose to develop an active sensor for in situ measurement of the inherent optical properties (IOPs) absorption and backscattering at multiple wavelengths....

  1. Resolving subwavelength objects with a crossed wire mesh superlens operated in backscattering mode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silveirinha, Mario G [Department of Electrical Engineering-Instituto de Telecomunicacoes, University of Coimbra (Portugal); Medeiros, Carla R; Fernandes, Carlos A; Costa, Jorge R, E-mail: mario.silveirinha@co.it.pt [Technical University of Lisbon, Instituto Superior Tecnico-Instituto de Telecomunicacoes, 1049-001 Lisbon (Portugal)

    2011-05-15

    In this work, we demonstrate that a crossed-wires superlens operated in backscattering mode can resolve targets separated by a subwavelength distance. It is theoretically shown that the effect of the backscattered field on the return loss of a probe antenna is sufficiently strong to allow us to discriminate the targets over a broad range of frequencies. These properties have been experimentally confirmed at microwave frequencies.

  2. Resolving subwavelength objects with a crossed wire mesh superlens operated in backscattering mode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work, we demonstrate that a crossed-wires superlens operated in backscattering mode can resolve targets separated by a subwavelength distance. It is theoretically shown that the effect of the backscattered field on the return loss of a probe antenna is sufficiently strong to allow us to discriminate the targets over a broad range of frequencies. These properties have been experimentally confirmed at microwave frequencies.

  3. Theoretical analysis of backscattered polarization patterns of turbid media containing glucose

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lanqing Xu; Hui Li; Shusen Xie

    2007-01-01

    Single scattering model and Stokes-Mueller formalism are introduced to investigate the influence of glucose on backscattered polarization patterns in turbid media. Glucose molecules rotate the polarization plane and induce changes in backscattered Mueller matrix patterns. Some Mueller matrix elements present higher optical rotation as the concentration of glucose augments. Using image subtraction and integration,linear relationship between low glucose concentration in the physiological range and optical rotation degree can be derived.

  4. A Monte Carlo computer program for analysis of backscattering and sputtering in practical vacuum systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A Monte Carlo computer program originally developed for analysis of molecular gas flow in axi-symmetric vacuum systems has been extended to include modelling of high energy backscattering and sputtering processes. This report describes the input data required by the computer program together with the results produced. A general description is given of the program operation and the backscattering and sputtering modelling used. An example calculation is included to illustrate practical application of the program. (author)

  5. Climatology of the aerosol extinction to backscatter ratio from sun photometric measurements

    OpenAIRE

    Baldasano Recio, José María; Pedrós, Roberto; Estallés, Víctor; Sicard, Michaël; Gómez Amo, Jose Luis; Utrillas, Maria Pilar; Martínez Lozano, José Antonio; Rocadenbosch Burillo, Francisco; Pérez, C.

    2010-01-01

    The elastic lidar equation contains two unknown atmospheric parameters, namely, the particulate optical extinction and backscatter coefficients, which are related through the lidar ratio (i.e., the particulate-extinction-to-backscatter ratio). So far, independent inversion of the lidar signal has been carried out by means of Raman lidars (usually limited to nighttime measurements), high-spectral-resolution lidars, or scanning elastic lidars under the assumption of a homog...

  6. An analytical model for backscattered luminance in fog: comparisons with Monte Carlo computations and experimental results

    OpenAIRE

    Taillade, Frédéric; Belin, Etienne; Dumont, Eric

    2008-01-01

    We propose an analytical model for backscattered luminance in fog and derive an expression for the visibility signal-to-noise ratio as a function of meteorological visibility distance. The model uses single scattering processes. It is based on the Mie theory and the geometry of the optical device (emitter and receiver). In particular, we present an overlap function and take the phase function of fog into account. The results of the backscattered luminance obtained with our analytical model...

  7. Calculation of the backscattered ion energy and angular distributions during the grazing implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simulation of ion implantation into deep trenches demands the exact evaluation of ion fluxes backscattered from the sidewalls. In this paper an application of Boltzmann Transport Equation (BTE) to backscattered ion energy and angular distribution calculations is presented. Characteristic examples of grazing implantation of Sb, As and P in Si are considered and good agreement with Monte-Carlo (MC) calculations are found. It was also found that BTE gives a more smooth distribution without statistical fluctuations and essentially saves computational time. (author)

  8. An integral model for thermal backscattering from the exhaust plume of space-based HF laser

    OpenAIRE

    Falcovitz, Joseph; Fuhs, Allen E.

    1986-01-01

    The operation of a space-based HF laser may be hampered due to self contamination by corrosive exhaust products. We estimate one effect contributing to contaminating blackflow: thermal backscattering from the rarefaction fans flanking the exhaust ring-jet. Our computational model is based on a first-iterate approximation to the Boltzmann equation in integral form. Results indicate that thermal backscattering of corrosive speies (HF, DF) is negligible.

  9. Modeling the effects of laser-beam smoothing on filamentation and stimulated Brillouin backscattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berger, R.L.; Kaiser, T.B.; Lasinski, B.F. [and others

    1996-06-01

    Using the three-dimensional code (F3D), the authors compute the filamentation and backscattering of laser light. The results show that filamentation can be controlled and stimulated Brillouin backscattering (SBBS) can be reduced by using random phase plates (RPP) and small f-numbers or smoothing by spectral dispersion (SSD) with large bandwidth. An interesting result is that, for uniform plasmas, the SBBS amplification takes place over several laser axial coherence lengths (coherence length = speckle length).

  10. The backscatter cloud probe – a compact low-profile autonomous optical spectrometer

    OpenAIRE

    K. Beswick; Baumgardner, D; Gallagher, M; Volz-Thomas, A.; Nedelec, P.; K.-Y. Wang; LANCE, S.

    2014-01-01

    A compact (500 cm3), lightweight (500 g), near-field, single particle backscattering optical spectrometer is described that mounts flush with the skin of an aircraft and measures the concentration and optical equivalent diameter of particles from 5 to 75 μm. The backscatter cloud probe (BCP) was designed as a real-time qualitative cloud detector primarily for data quality control of trace gas instruments developed for the climate monitoring instrument packages that are being...

  11. Enhanced Doppler Effect in the Upper Hybrid Resonance Microwave Backscattering Experiment

    OpenAIRE

    Altukhov, A.B.; Gurchenko, A.D.; Gusakov, E. Z.; Esipov, L. A.; Lashkul, S. I.; Stepanov, A. Yu.

    2004-01-01

    Observations of enhanced Doppler frequency shift effect of the highly localized microwave backscattering in the upper hybrid resonance are reported. The experiment is performed at FT-2 tokamak, where a steerable focusing antenna set, allowing off equatorial plane plasma extraordinary wave probing from high magnetic field side, was installed. A separate line less than 1.5 MHz wide and shifted by up to 2 MHz is routinely observed in the backscattering spectrum under condition of accessible uppe...

  12. Diffusion of Sr in fluorphlogopite determined by Rutherford backscattering spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammouda, T.; Cherniak, D. J.

    2000-05-01

    We have measured the diffusivity of Sr in fluorphlogopite in a direction perpendicular to the basal planes (in the c direction). Annealing experiments were performed on single crystals, and most of them at ambient pressure. The penetration profiles of the diffusant were determined by Rutherford backscattering spectrometry. Sr diffusion parallel to c obeys an Arrhenius law, whose equation is: D Sr=2.7·10 -14 exp - 13 5900±3100/RTwhere DSr is given in m 2 s -1 and activation energy in J mol -1. The values measured in fluorphlogopite overlap the range previously determined in other silicates, but the activation energy for fluorphlogopite is approximately half that of the other minerals for which diffusion data exist. A summary of the available data on diffusion in micas of all compositions shows that activation energies for species such as Sr, O, Rb and K fall in the same range, i.e. 100-175 kJ per mol. When plotted together, these data define two groups of parallel Arrhenian lines. One group consists of the measurements performed in the c direction, the other of those performed normal to the c direction. The distinction between the two groups is clear, and diffusion parallel to the c direction is slower by several orders of magnitude. The corresponding closure temperature for fluorphlogopite, when diffusion occurs in the c direction, is of the order of 700°C, relatively close to that of feldspars. On the basis of some simple assumptions about diffusion anisotropy in micas, we also estimated the closure temperature when diffusion takes place in a direction parallel to the basal planes. In that case, the value is noticeably lower, of the order of 400°C. However, this value, if applicable to other micas, is higher than what is currently accepted, which could have some implications for models of thermal histories or uplift rates of rocks.

  13. Cavitation inception by the backscattering of pressure waves from a bubble interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahira, Hiroyuki; Ogasawara, Toshiyuki; Mori, Naoto; Tanaka, Moe

    2015-10-01

    The secondary cavitation that occurs by the backscattering of focused ultrasound from a primary cavitation bubble caused by the negative pressure part of the ultrasound (Maxwell, et al., 2011) might be useful for the energy exchange due to bubble oscillations in High Intensity Focused Ultrasound (HIFU). The present study is concerned with the cavitation inception by the backscattering of ultrasound from a bubble. In the present experiment, a laser-induced bubble which is generated by a pulsed focused laser beam with high intensity is utilized as a primary cavitation bubble. After generating the bubble, focused ultrasound is emitted to the bubble. The acoustic field and the bubble motion are observed with a high-speed video camera. It is confirmed that the secondary cavitation bubble clouds are generated by the backscattering from the laser-induced bubble. The growth of cavitation bubble clouds is analyzed with the image processing method. The experimental results show that the height and width of the bubble clouds grow in stepwise during their evolution. The direct numerical simulations are also conducted for the backscattering of incident pressure waves from a bubble in order to evaluate a pressure field near the bubble. It is shown that the ratio of a bubble collapse time t0 to a characteristic time of wave propagation tS, η = t0/ts, is an important determinant for generating negative pressure region by backscattering. The minimum pressure location by the backscattering in simulations is in good agreement with the experiment.

  14. Enhanced ion backscattering near 1800 scattering angles in the two-atom scattering model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An analytical two-atom scattering model has been developed to treat the recent discovery of the enhancement near 1800 of Rutherford backscattering yields from disordered solids. In contrast to conventional calculations of Rutherford backscattering that treat scattering from a single atom only (the backscattering atom), the present model includes the interaction of a second atom lying between the target surface and the backscattering atom. The projectile ion makes a glancing collision with this second atom both before and after it is backscattered. A weighted average is made over all possible positions of this second atom. The model predicts an enhancement effect whose physical origin arises from the tolerance of path for those ions whose ingoing and outgoing trajectories lie in the vicinity of the critical impact parameter. Results using Moliere scattering show how the yield enhancement depends on ion energy, backscattering depth, exit angle, scattering potential, atomic numbers of the projectile and target, and target density. In the model the critical impact parameter and critical angle play important roles. It is shown that these quantities depend on a single dimensionless parameter and formulas accurate to better than 1% are given for them

  15. Improvement of a 3D radar backscattering model using matrix-doubling method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Radiative transfer models have been widely used to simulate the radar backscattering from forested areas. A three-dimensional radar backscatter model of forest canopy developed in previous studies takes full account of spatial position of trees in a forest stand, and the interactions among crown, trunk and ground surface. The model predicted well for the co-polarized backscatter measurements, but underestimated the backscattering for cross-polarization, primarily because only the first-order scattering within tree crowns was considered in the model. The backscattering at cross-polarization depends strongly on multiple scatter- ing within tree crowns. To produce good estimations for cross-polarized component, the matrix-doubling method is employed here to compute multiple-scattering within the crown. The modified model is compared with the original model, and the field forest measurements and AIRSAR data are used for validation of the modified model. The cross-polarization backscattering is improved in different degrees for different crown structures and at different bands.

  16. Modeling and analysis of ultrasound backscattering by spherical aggregates and rouleaux of red blood cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teh, B G; Cloutier, G

    2000-01-01

    The present study concerns the modeling and analysis of ultrasound backscattering by red blood cell (RBC) aggregates, which under pathological conditions play a significant role in the rheology of blood within human vessels. A theoretical model based on the convolution between a tissue matrix and a point spread function, representing, respectively, the RBC aggregates and the characteristics of the ultrasound system, was used to examine the influence of the scatterer shape and size on the backscattered power. Both scatterers in the form of clumps of RBC aggregates and rouleaux were modeled. For all simulations, the hematocrit was kept constant at 10%, the ultrasound frequency was 10 MHz, the insonification angle was varied from 0 to 90 degrees , and the scatterer size (diameter for clumps and length for rouleaux) ranged from 4 mum to 120 mum. Under Rayleigh scattering by assuming a Poisson distribution of scatterers in space, the ultrasound backscattered power increased linearly with the particle volume. For non-Rayleigh scatterers, the intensity of the echoes diminished as the scatterer volume increased, with the exception of rouleaux at an angle of 90 degrees . As expected, the backscattered power was angularly dependent for anisotropic particles (rouleaux). The ultrasound backscattered power did not always increase with the size of the aggregates, especially when they were no longer Rayleigh scatterers. In the case of rouleaux, the anisotropy of the backscattered power is emphasized in the non-Rayleigh region. PMID:18238637

  17. Predicting seabed properties from acoustic backscatter on the UK continental shelf (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGonigle, C.; Collier, J.

    2010-12-01

    The relationship between backscatter imagery, sediment grain size and measures of biological community diversity are investigated using a quantitative approach at an aggregate extraction site in the Southern North Sea, UK. Previous work conducted at Oban in Scotland (Collier and Brown, 2005) showed the potential for estimating sediment grain size from first order backscatter statistics. In particular this study reported r2 correlation values of 0.531 between mean backscatter and mean sediment grain size, with r2=0.351 between standard deviation backscatter and sediment grain size sorting (n=19). Here we test these simple linear relationships in a different environment where the sediments are coarser and the degree of sorting is lower. We present the analysis of a dataset collected in 2008 off the coast of East Anglia, UK. Beam-time series backscatter imagery was acquired from a 300 kHz source MBES (Kongsberg Simard EM3000D), and ground-truth data obtained from a series of 100 Hamon and 16 Clamshell grabs processed for particle size analysis. Pixels were extracted from 32-bit backscatter imagery at 50 m2 window based on the ground-truth data locations. So far 19 of the 100 Hamon samples have been processed. These show a significant correlation between mean backscatter intensity and mean sediment grain size (r2=0.427). The level of agreement between standard deviation backscatter and grain size distribution however, was lower at r2=0.078. Correlation of univariate measures of biological diversity and mean backscatter were low for the 19 samples; the maximum observed value was r2=0.074 (Fisher’s diversity index). Relative to the standard deviation backscatter, the strongest correlation was r2=0.192 (Brillion’s). The analysis of the Clamshell samples is completed. In this case, the MBES backscatter imagery established a stronger positive correlation (r2=0.628) between the means. The level of agreement observed between the standard deviation of the backscatter and

  18. Use of SDWBA predictions for acoustic volume backscattering and the Self-Organizing Map to discern frequencies identifying Meganyctiphanes norvegica from mesopelagic fish species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peña, M.; Calise, L.

    2016-04-01

    To acoustically assess the biomass of multiple species or taxa within a survey region, the volume backscatter data should be apportioned to the constituent sound scatterers. Typically, measured backscatter is attributed to certain species using predictions at different frequencies, mostly based on the difference in scattering at the frequencies of 38 and 120 kHz (dual frequency method). We used the full version of the stochastic distortedwave Born approximation (SDWBA) model to predict backscatter spectra for Meganyctiphanes norvegica and to explore the sensitivities of ΔMVBS to the model parameters, e.g. acoustic frequency and incidence angle, and animal density and sound speed contrast, length, and shape. The orientation is almost the unique parameter responsible for variation, with fatness affecting longer lengths. We present a summary of ΔMVBS that can serve as the basis for identification algorithms. Next, we simulate the scenario encountered in the Balearic Sea (western Mediterranean) where Northern krill are mixed with mesopelagic fish species (bristlemouths and lanternfishes), which are modeled with a prolate spheroid model. Simulated numerical data are employed to emulate the discrimination process with the most common identification techniques and typical survey frequencies. The importance of using density-independent techniques for acoustic classification is highlighted. Finally, an unsupervised neural network, the Self-Organizing Map (SOM), is used to cluster these theoretical data and identify the frequencies that provide, in this case, the most classification potential. The simulation results confirm that pairs of frequencies spanning the Rayleigh and geometric scattering regimes of the targets are the most useful for clustering; a minimum of four frequencies are necessary to separate the three species, while three frequencies are able to differentiate krill from mesopelagic fish species.

  19. Polarized gamma-rays with laser-Compton backscattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohgaki, H.; Noguchi, T.; Sugiyama, S. [Electrotechnical Lab., Ibaraki (Japan)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    Polarized gamma-rays were generated through laser-Compton backscattering (LCS) of a conventional Nd:YAG laser with electrons circulating in the electron storage ring TERAS at Electrotechnical Laboratory. We measured the energy, the energy spread, and the yield of the gamma-rays to characterize our gamma-ray source. The gamma-ray energy can be varied by changing the energy of the electrons circulating the storage ring. In our case, the energy of electrons in the storage ring were varied its energy from 200 to 750 MeV. Consequently, we observed gamma-ray energies of 1 to 10 MeV with 1064 run laser photons. Furthermore, the gamma-ray energy was extended to 20 MeV by using the 2nd harmonic of the Nd:YAG laser. This shows a good agreement with theoretical calculation. The gamma-ray energy spread was also measured to be 1% FWHM for -1 MeV gamma-rays and to be 4% FWHM for 10 MeV gamma-rays with a narrow collimator that defined the scattering cone. The gamma-ray yield was 47.2 photons/mA/W/s. This value is consistent with a rough estimation of 59.5 photons/mA/W/s derived from theory. Furthermore, we tried to use these gamma-rays for a nuclear fluorescence experiment. If we use a polarized laser beam, we can easily obtain polarized gamma-rays. Elastically scattered photons from {sup 208} Pb were clearly measured with the linearly polarized gamma-rays, and we could assign the parity of J=1 states in the nucleus. We should emphasize that the polarized gamma-ray from LCS is quit useful in this field, because we can use highly, almost completely, polarized gamma-rays. We also use the LCS gamma-rays to measure the photon absorption coefficients. In near future, we will try to generate a circular polarized gamma-ray. We also have a plan to use an FEL, because it can produce intense laser photons in the same geometric configuration as the LCS facility.

  20. Solar Backscatter UV (SBUV total ozone and profile algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. K. Bhartia

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available We describe the algorithm that has been applied to develop a 42 yr record of total ozone and ozone profiles from eight Solar Backscatter UV (SBUV instruments launched on NASA and NOAA satellites since April 1970. The Version 8 (V8 algorithm was released more than a decade ago and has been in use since then at NOAA to produce their operational ozone products. The current algorithm (V8.6 is basically the same as V8, except for updates to instrument calibration, incorporation of new ozone absorption cross-sections, and new ozone and cloud height climatologies. Since the V8 algorithm has been optimized for deriving monthly zonal mean (MZM anomalies for ozone assessment and model comparisons, our emphasis in this paper is primarily on characterizing the sources of errors that are relevant for such studies. When data are analyzed this way the effect of some errors, such as vertical smoothing of short-term variability, and noise due to clouds and aerosols diminish in importance, while the importance of others, such as errors due to vertical smoothing of the quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO and other periodic and aperiodic variations, become more important. With V8.6 zonal mean data we now provide smoothing kernels that can be used to compare anomalies in SBUV profile and partial ozone columns with models. In this paper we show how to use these kernels to compare SBUV data with Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS ozone profiles. These kernels are particularly useful for comparisons in the lower stratosphere where SBUV profiles have poor vertical resolution but partial column ozone values have high accuracy. We also provide our best estimate of the smoothing errors associated with SBUV MZM profiles. Since smoothing errors are the largest source of uncertainty in these profiles, they can be treated as error bars in deriving interannual variability and trends using SBUV data and for comparing with other measurements. In the V8 and V8.6 algorithms we derive total

  1. A comparison of optical and coherent HF radar backscatter observations of a post-midnight aurora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. E. Milan

    Full Text Available A poleward-progressing 630 nm optical feature is observed between approximately 0100 UT and 0230 UT (0400 MLT to 0530 MLT by a meridian-scanning photometer (MSP located at Ny Ålesund, Svalbard. Simultaneous coherent HF radar measurements indicate a region of poleward-expanding backscatter with rapid sunward plasma flow velocity along the MSP meridian. Spatial maps of the backscatter indicate a stationary backscatter feature aligned obliquely with respect to the MSP meridian, which produces an impression of poleward-expansion as the MSP progresses to later MLT. Two interpretations of the observations are possible, depending on whether the arc system is considered to move (time-dependent or to be stationary in time and apparent motion is produced as the MSP meridian rotates underneath it (time-independent. The first interpretation is as a poleward motion of an east-west aligned auroral arc. In this case the appearance of the region of backscatter is not associated with the optical feature, though the velocities within it are enhanced when the two are co-located. The second interpretation is as a polar arc or theta aurora, common features of the polar cap under the prevailing IMF northwards conditions. In this case the backscatter appears as an approximately 150 km wide region adjacent to the optical arc. In both interpretations the luminosity of the optical feature appears related to the magnitude of the plasma flow velocity. The optical features presented here do not generate appreciable HF coherent backscatter, and are only identifiable in the backscatter data as a modification of the flow by the arc electrodynamics.

  2. Anisotropic spectra of acoustic turbulence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We found universal anizopropic spectra of acoustic turbulence with the linear dispersion law ω(k)=ck within the framework of generalized kinetic equation which takes into account the finite time of three-wave interactions. This anisotropic spectra can assume both scale-invariant and non-scale-invariant form. The implications for the evolution of the acoustic turbulence with nonisotropic pumping are discussed. The main result of the article is that the spectra of acoustic turbulence tend to become more isotropic. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society

  3. Influence of enhanced backscattering phenomenon on laser measurements of dust and aerosols content in a turbulent atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chrzanowski, J.; Kirkiewicz, J.; Kravtsov, Yu. A.

    2002-07-01

    Influence of enhanced backscattering effect on laser measurements of dust and aerosols content in a turbulent atmosphere is discussed. It is shown that doubling of the backscattered light intensity, characteristic for enhanced backscattering leads to overestimating dust content in the air. To avoid undesirable effect of overestimation of dust and aerosols it is recommended to displace receiving aperture sidewise relatively to source and to use wider laser beam and extended receiving aperture as compared to coherence radius of the scattered wave field.

  4. Seafloor classification of the mound and channel provinces of the Porcupine Seabight: An application of the multibeam angular backscatter data

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Beyer, A.; Chakraborty, B.; Schenke, H.W.

    for the angular backscatter data of GLORIA side scan sonar was implemented by [ ]. Such classification technique for the seafloor sections involves the shape, variance, and magnitude of the angular response of the measured multi-beam angular backscatter strength... in the section three along with a presentation of the shape invariant backscatter results from the mounds and the channel seafloor. An semi-empirical method is applied to the multi-beam dataset to employ seafloor classification in section four. 2 Multi...

  5. Quantitative Analysis of Venus Radar Backscatter Data in ArcGIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, S. M.; Grosfils, E. B.

    2005-01-01

    Ongoing mapping of the Ganiki Planitia (V14) quadrangle of Venus and definition of material units has involved an integrated but qualitative analysis of Magellan radar backscatter images and topography using standard geomorphological mapping techniques. However, such analyses do not take full advantage of the quantitative information contained within the images. Analysis of the backscatter coefficient allows a much more rigorous statistical comparison between mapped units, permitting first order selfsimilarity tests of geographically separated materials assigned identical geomorphological labels. Such analyses cannot be performed directly on pixel (DN) values from Magellan backscatter images, because the pixels are scaled to the Muhleman law for radar echoes on Venus and are not corrected for latitudinal variations in incidence angle. Therefore, DN values must be converted based on pixel latitude back to their backscatter coefficient values before accurate statistical analysis can occur. Here we present a method for performing the conversions and analysis of Magellan backscatter data using commonly available ArcGIS software and illustrate the advantages of the process for geological mapping.

  6. 3D leaf water content mapping using terrestrial laser scanner backscatter intensity with radiometric correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xi; Wang, Tiejun; Darvishzadeh, Roshanak; Skidmore, Andrew K.; Niemann, K. Olaf

    2015-12-01

    Leaf water content (LWC) plays an important role in agriculture and forestry management. It can be used to assess drought conditions and wildfire susceptibility. Terrestrial laser scanner (TLS) data have been widely used in forested environments for retrieving geometrically-based biophysical parameters. Recent studies have also shown the potential of using radiometric information (backscatter intensity) for estimating LWC. However, the usefulness of backscatter intensity data has been limited by leaf surface characteristics, and incidence angle effects. To explore the idea of using LiDAR intensity data to assess LWC we normalized (for both angular effects and leaf surface properties) shortwave infrared TLS data (1550 nm). A reflectance model describing both diffuse and specular reflectance was applied to remove strong specular backscatter intensity at a perpendicular angle. Leaves with different surface properties were collected from eight broadleaf plant species for modeling the relationship between LWC and backscatter intensity. Reference reflectors (Spectralon from Labsphere, Inc.) were used to build a look-up table to compensate for incidence angle effects. Results showed that before removing the specular influences, there was no significant correlation (R2 = 0.01, P > 0.05) between the backscatter intensity at a perpendicular angle and LWC. After the removal of the specular influences, a significant correlation emerged (R2 = 0.74, P ecology in vegetation.

  7. A geometry and collimation study of a Compton backscatter device for inclusions detection in materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boldo, Emerson M.; Prestes, Ana A.P.; Appoloni, Carlos R. [Universidade Estadual de Londrina (UEL), PR (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Full text: Compton backscattering of gamma rays is a nondestructive technique that can be used for material characterization and detection of defects and inclusions in materials. The methodology allows one-side inspection of large structures, is relatively inexpensive and can be portable. The concept is based on detection of backscattered radiation produced from a collimated beam aimed at the sample. The energy spectrum of backscattered photons can be used to determine local density perturbations. In this work we carried out a geometry and collimation study of the Compton backscatter device that consists of a {Phi} 2mm collimated {sup 241}Am (100mCi) gamma source and a high resolution CdTe semiconductor detector. Acrylic and plaster blocks with inclusions of materials with different densities were used as samples. Collimators in the detector with {phi} 7mm, {phi} 5mm, {phi} 3mm and {phi} 1.5mm were tested in two different scattering angles: 135 deg and 150 deg. The results showed that the backscatter geometry of 150 deg with the {Phi} 5mm collimator resulted in higher count rates in the intensity versus energy spectrum without loss of spatial resolution. The tests on plaster blocks with steel rods inclusions suggest that, for a low energy and activity gamma source, the effects of beam attenuation are more decisive to the scattered intensity than increasing of material density. With the density contrast analysis, size and deep of steel rods can be determined. (author)

  8. Modification of Spalart-Allmaras model with consideration of turbulence energy backscatter using velocity helicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The correlation between the velocity helicity and the energy backscatter is proved in a DNS case of 2563-grid homogeneous isotropic decaying turbulence. The helicity is then proposed to be employed to improve turbulence models and SGS models. Then Spalart-Allmaras turbulence model (SA) is modified with the helicity to take account of the energy backscatter, which is significant in the region of corner separation in compressors. By comparing the numerical results with experiments, it can be concluded that the modification for SA model with helicity can appropriately represent the energy backscatter, and greatly improves the predictive accuracy for simulating the corner separation flow in compressors. -- Highlights: → We study the relativity between the velocity helicity and the energy backscatter. → Spalart-Allmaras turbulence model is modified with the velocity helicity. → The modified model is employed to simulate corner separation in compressor cascade. → The modification can greatly improve the accuracy for predicting corner separation. → The helicity can represent the energy backscatter in turbulence and SGS models.

  9. A study of radar backscattering from water surface in response to rainfall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xinan; Zheng, Quanan; Liu, Ren; Wang, Dan; Duncan, James H.; Huang, Shih-Jen

    2016-03-01

    In this paper, radar backscattering from a water surface in response to rainfall was studied. The paper consists of two parts. First, the spatial characteristics of raindrops in rain fields were analyzed based on published data and the response of a water surface to rainfall was experimentally studied in the laboratory. Rain-generated surface features including stalks, crowns, ring waves, and secondary drops were measured. It was found that stalks and crowns are dominant in terms of their height and energy. Second, the radar signatures of a rainfall event simultaneously observed by C band ENVISAT (European satellite), ASAR (Advanced Synthetic Aperture Radar), and ground-based weather radar in the Northwest Pacific were investigated. The relationship between the radar return intensity extracted from the C band ASAR image and the reflectivity factor (rain rate) obtained from ground-based weather radar was analyzed. For light/moderate rain (with low reflectivity factors), the radar backscattering intensity increases as the reflectivity factor increases. For heavy rain (with high reflectivity factors), the radar backscattering intensity decreases as the reflectivity factor increases. The maximum radar backscattering intensity occurs at a reflectivity factor of 45 dBZ (with rain rate of 24 mm/h). It was found that the spaceborne radar backscattering intensity strongly correlates with the average distance between the stalks on the water surface in the rain field in a nonlinear manner. The physics of the radar signatures of the rain event are explored.

  10. The effect of leaf size on the microwave backscattering by corn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Attema and Ulaby (1978) proposed the cloud model to predict the microwave backscattering properties of vegetation. This paper describes a modification in which the biophysical properties and microwave properties of vegetation are related at the level of the individual scatterer (e.g., the leaf or the stalk) rather than at the level of the aggregated canopy (e.g., the green leaf area index). Assuming that the extinction cross section of an average leaf was proportional to its water content, that a power law relationship existed between the backscattering cross section of an average green corn leaf and its area, and that the backscattering coefficient of the surface was a linear function of its volumetric soil moisture content, the author found that the explicit inclusion of the effects of corn leaf size in the model led to an excellent fit (r2 of 0.93) between the observed and predicted backscattering coefficients. Also, an excellent (r2 of 0.98) power law relationship existed between the backscattering cross section of a corn leaf and its area. (author)

  11. Coherent Backscattering and Opposition Effects Observed in Some Atmosphereless Bodies of the Solar System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dlugach, Zh. M.; Mishchenko, M. I.

    2013-01-01

    The results of photometric and polarimetric observations carried out for some bright atmosphere-less bodies of the Solar system near the zero phase angle reveal the simultaneous existence of two spectacular optical phenomena, the so-called brightness and polarization opposition effects. In a number of studies, these phenomena were explained by the influence of coherent backscattering. However, in general, the interference concept of coherent backscattering can be used only in the case where the particles are in the far-field zones of each other, i.e., when the scattering medium is rather rarefied. Because of this, it is important to prove rigorously and to demonstrate that the coherent backscattering effect may also exist in densely packed scattering media like regolith surface layers of celestial bodies. From the results of the computer modeling performed with the use of numerically exact solutions of the macroscopic Maxwell equations for discrete random media with different packing densities of particles, we studied the origin and evolution of all the opposition phenomena predicted by the coherent backscattering theory for low-packing-density media. It has been shown that the predictions of this theory remain valid for rather high-packing densities of particles that are typical, in particular, of regolith surfaces of the Solar system bodies. The results allow us to conclude that both opposition effects observed simultaneously in some high-albedo atmosphereless bodies of the Solar system are caused precisely by coherent backscattering of solar light in the regolith layers composed of microscopic particles.

  12. Study of Pd--Ta on Si(100) using Auger electron spectroscopy, Rutherford backscattering spectrometry, and variable energy positron annihilation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    van der Kolk, G.J.; Kuiper, A.E.T.; Duchateau, J.P.W.B.; Willemsen, M.; Nielsen, B.; Lynn, K.G.

    1989-05-01

    The applicability of Pd/sub x/Ta/sub 1-//sub x/ as a diffusion barrier on Si has been investigated. For this purpose Pd/sub x/Ta/sub 1-//sub x/ films of 200-nm thickness (x ranges from 0 to 1) were deposited on Si(100), and the reaction between overlayer and substrate was studied as a function of temperature. Interaction was found to occur at temperatures increasing with the Ta content. The as-deposited Pd/sub x/Ta/sub 1-//sub x/ films with 0.2less than or equal toxless than or equal to0.6 were found to be amorphous. The amorphous phase had a higher reaction temperature than the crystalline one, causing a discontinuous step in the reaction temperature. Rutherford backscattering spectrometry spectra revealed that for the Pd-rich compositions, first a stoichiometric Pd/sub 2/Si layer formed underneath a pure Ta layer. At higher temperatures TaSi/sub 2/ formed at the surface. For Ta-rich compositions Pd/sub 2/Si formed first as well; however, the reaction temperature was so high that Pd/sub 2/Si grains formed in a Si matrix. The defect density of the Ta layer, which remained after outdiffusion of Pd, was investigated using variable energy positron annihilation. The defect concentration is very high, as deduced from the trapped positron fraction. A model is presented that describes the composition dependence of the reaction temperature.

  13. Pileup correction of microdosimetric spectra

    CERN Document Server

    Langen, K M; Lennox, A J; Kroc, T K; De Luca, P M

    2002-01-01

    Microdosimetric spectra were measured at the Fermilab neutron therapy facility using low pressure proportional counters operated in pulse mode. The neutron beam has a very low duty cycle (<0.1%) and consequently a high instantaneous dose rate which causes distortions of the microdosimetric spectra due to pulse pileup. The determination of undistorted spectra at this facility necessitated (i) the modified operation of the proton accelerator to reduce the instantaneous dose rate and (ii) the establishment of a computational procedure to correct the measured spectra for remaining pileup distortions. In support of the latter effort, two different pileup simulation algorithms using analytical and Monte-Carlo-based approaches were developed. While the analytical algorithm allows a detailed analysis of pileup processes it only treats two-pulse and three-pulse pileup and its validity is hence restricted. A Monte-Carlo-based pileup algorithm was developed that inherently treats all degrees of pileup. This algorithm...

  14. Correlation Functions and Power Spectra

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jan

    2006-01-01

    possible to define correlation functions and associated spectra for aperiodic, periodic and random signals although the interpretation is different. Moreover, we will discuss correlation functions when mixing these basic signal types. In addition, the note include several examples for the purpose of......The present lecture note is a supplement to the textbook Digital Signal Processing by J. Proakis and D.G. Manolakis used in the IMM/DTU course 02451 Digital Signal Processing and provides an extended discussion of correlation functions and power spectra. The definitions of correlation functions and...... spectra for discrete-time and continuous-time (analog) signals are pretty similar. Consequently, we confine the discussion mainly to real discrete-time signals. The Appendix contains detailed definitions and properties of correlation functions and spectra for analog as well as discrete-time signals. It is...

  15. Absorption Spectra of Astaxanthin Aggregates

    CERN Document Server

    Olsina, Jan; Minofar, Babak; Polivka, Tomas; Mancal, Tomas

    2012-01-01

    Carotenoids in hydrated polar solvents form aggregates characterized by dramatic changes in their absorption spectra with respect to monomers. Here we analyze absorption spectra of aggregates of the carotenoid astaxanthin in hydrated dimethylsulfoxide. Depending on water content, two types of aggregates were produced: H-aggregates with absorption maximum around 390 nm, and J-aggregates with red-shifted absorption band peaking at wavelengths >550 nm. The large shifts with respect to absorption maximum of monomeric astaxanthin (470-495 nm depending on solvent) are caused by excitonic interaction between aggregated molecules. We applied molecular dynamics simulations to elucidate structure of astaxanthin dimer in water, and the resulting structure was used as a basis for calculations of absorption spectra. Absorption spectra of astaxanthin aggregates in hydrated dimethylsulfoxide were calculated using molecular exciton model with the resonance interaction energy between astaxanthin monomers constrained by semi-e...

  16. CRED Acoustic Backscatter Saipan, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (CNMI) 2003, Imagery Extracted from Gridded Bathymetry

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Backscatter extracted from gridded bathymetry of the banktops and shelf environments of Saipan, of the Mariana Islands Archipelago.

  17. Measurement of changes in surface profile due to wear using a 147Pm β particle backscatter technique. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A 147Pm β particle backscatter instrument has been developed and its applications to the measurement of changes in the surface profiles, due to wear, of dental restorations is described. The response of the β particle backscatter instrument to small changes in surface profile are adequately described by a model based on the known behaviour of backscattered electrons. The simulated wear of dental amalgam restorations, composite resin restorations and metal-coated replicas has been studied using this technique. The β particle backscatter instrument is capable of detecting changes of the order of 15 μm in the profile of irregularly shaped surfaces. (Auth.)

  18. Correlation Functions and Power Spectra

    OpenAIRE

    Larsen, Jan

    2006-01-01

    The present lecture note is a supplement to the textbook Digital Signal Processing by J. Proakis and D.G. Manolakis used in the IMM/DTU course 02451 Digital Signal Processing and provides an extended discussion of correlation functions and power spectra. The definitions of correlation functions and spectra for discrete-time and continuous-time (analog) signals are pretty similar. Consequently, we confine the discussion mainly to real discrete-time signals. The Appendix contains detailed defin...

  19. Infrared spectra of some fructans

    OpenAIRE

    Grube, M.; Bekers, M.; Upite, D.; Kaminska, E.

    2002-01-01

    The FT–IR spectra of fructan – inulin (RAFTILINE), widely applied in the food industry and crystalline fructose as the main component of fructans, were studied. Special interest was to study the spectra of the levan precipitate and fructan syrup – produced by Zymomonas mobilis during the fermentation on sucrose–based medium.It was shown that levan precipitate and fructose syrup does not contain lipids and nucleic acids. Levan precipitate consists of ∼93% of fructose and admixture of glucose, ...

  20. Absorption Spectra of Astaxanthin Aggregates

    OpenAIRE

    Olsina, Jan; Durchan, Milan; Minofar, Babak; Polivka, Tomas; Mancal, Tomas

    2012-01-01

    Carotenoids in hydrated polar solvents form aggregates characterized by dramatic changes in their absorption spectra with respect to monomers. Here we analyze absorption spectra of aggregates of the carotenoid astaxanthin in hydrated dimethylsulfoxide. Depending on water content, two types of aggregates were produced: H-aggregates with absorption maximum around 390 nm, and J-aggregates with red-shifted absorption band peaking at wavelengths >550 nm. The large shifts with respect to absorption...

  1. Response spectra in alluvial soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For aseismic design of structures, the ground motion data is assumed either in the form of ground acceleration as a function of time or indirectly in the form of response spectra. Though the response spectra approach has limitations like not being applicable for nonlinear problems, it is usually used for structures like nuclear power plants. Fifty accelerograms recorded at alluvial sites have been processed. Since different empirical formulas relating acceleration with magnitude and distance give a wide scatter of values, peak ground acceleration alone cannot be the parameter as is assumed by a number of authors. The spectra corresponding to 5% damping have been normalised with respect to three parameters, namely, peak ground acceleration, peak ground velocity and a nondimensional quantity ad/v2. Envelopee of maxima and minima as well as average response spectra has been obtained. A comparison with the USAEC spectra has been made. A relation between ground acceleration, ground velocity and ad/v2 has been obtained which would nearly give the same magnification of the response. A design response spectra for alluvial soils has been recommended. (author)

  2. Diel vertical migration of zooplankton at the S1 biogeochemical mooring revealed from acoustic backscattering strength

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Ryuichiro; Kitamura, Minoru; Fujiki, Tetsuichi

    2016-02-01

    We examined the diel vertical migration of zooplankton by using the backscatter strength obtained from moored acoustic Doppler current profilers at mooring site S1 in the North Pacific subtropical gyre. There was seasonal variability in the vertical distribution and migration of the high-backscatter layers in that they became deeper than the euphotic zone (zooplankton near the surface by changing the light intensity. Physical events, such as mixed-layer deepening and restratification and the passage of a mesoscale eddy, also affected zooplankton behavior possibly by changing food environment in the euphotic zone. Since the comparison with net samples indicated that the backscatter likely represents the bulk biomass, the accuracy of biomass estimates based on net samples could be influenced by the high temporal variability of zooplankton distributions.

  3. Evaluation of the health risk of body backscatter x ray scanners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Following the attempted attack between Amsterdam and Detroit on the 25 december 2009, the council of interior safety decided a quick display of equipment using more efficient imaging techniques than metals detectors usually in place in French airports. Two technologies of devices are susceptible to be implemented on the airports: scanners using non ionizing radiation, (called millimetric waves) or scanners using ionizing radiation (x radiation, measurement by backscattering called backscatter). This report evaluates the dosimetric impact and the sanitary risk of backscatter x ray scanners and formulates recommendations to authorities to allow them to rule on the type of technology to use. Then, this report gives leads to conceive elements of information to communicate to travelers susceptible to be controlled by a such scanner in a foreign airport. (N.C.)

  4. Two-color short-pulse laser altimeter measurements of ocean surface backscatter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abshire, J B; McGarry, J F

    1987-04-01

    The timing and correlation properties of pulsed laser backscatter from the ocean surface have been measured with a two-color short-pulse laser altimeter. The Nd: YAG laser transmitted 70-and 35-ps wide pulses simultaneously at 532 and 355 nm at nadir, and the time-resolved returns were recorded by a receiver with 800-ps response time. The time-resolved backscatter measured at both 330- and 1291-m altitudes showed little pulse broadening due to the submeter laser spot size. The differential delay of the 355- and 532-nm backscattered waveforms were measured with a rms error of ~75 ps. The change in aircraft altitudes also permitted the change in atmospheric pressure to be estimated by using the two-color technique. PMID:20454319

  5. Direct detection of near-surface faults by migration of back-scattered surface waves

    KAUST Repository

    Yu, Han

    2014-08-05

    We show that diffraction stack migration can be used to estimate the distribution of near-surface faults. The assumption is that near-surface faults generate detectable back-scattered surface waves from impinging surface waves. The processing steps are to isolate the back-scattered surface waves, and then migrate them by diffraction migration using the surface wave velocity as the migration velocity. Instead of summing events along trial quasi-hyperbolas, surface wave migration sums events along trial quasi-linear trajectories that correspond to the moveout of back-scattered surface waves. A deconvolution filter derived from the data can be used to collapse a dispersive arrival into a non-dispersive event. Results with synthetic data and field records validate the feasibility of this method. Applying this method to USArray data or passively recorded exploration data might open new opportunities in mapping tectonic features over the extent of the array.

  6. Aspect angle dependence of backscatter intensity of 1-m auroral plasma waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The backscatter intensities of primary and secondary 1-m unstable plasma waves in the auroral E region have been measured as a function of magnetic aspect angle (α) for electric field values between 25 and 30 mV/m. The variation of the absorption A, measured in decibels, is of the form A = -IaCo cos2 α/(1 + Co cos2 α). The best fits to the observed attenuation yield parameter values of (Ia, Co) = (49.6, 530) and (48.8, 900) for primary and secondary waves, respectively. The backscatter intensity from primary waves has the same aspect angle dependence as the mean Doppler velocity aspect angle-dependence observed in previous auroral radar data sets (Nielsen, 1986). The observations suggest that the radar backscatter cross section of the primary waves maximizes a few kilometers higher in altitude than that of the secondary waves

  7. Comparison of measurements and theory for backscatter from bare and snow-covered saline ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bredow, Jonathan W.; Gogineni, Sivaprasad

    1990-01-01

    C-band radar backscatter measurements were made on artificially grown sea ice during the winters of 1987-1988 and 1988-1989. These measurements were made on smooth, rough, and snow-covered saline ice. The measured sigma-deg(theta) of smooth saline ice (rms height less than 0.05 cm) disagreed with small perturbation method (SPM) surface scattering predictions. Using physical parameters of the ice in a simple layer model, it us shown that this discrepancy can be explained by scattering from beneath the surface. A thin (7-cm) dry snow cover had a significant influence on backscatter from the smooth ice sheet. This influence was due to scattering from particles within the snow, and can be predicted by a commonly used empirical layer model for snow. The results of backscatter measurements of a moderately rough saline ice sheet were found to agree with SPM predictions.

  8. Monitoring Everglades freshwater marsh water level using L-band synthetic aperture radar backscatter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jin-Woo; Lu, Zhong; Jones, John W.; Shum, C.K.; Lee, Hyongki; Jia, Yuanyuan

    2014-01-01

    The Florida Everglades plays a significant role in controlling floods, improving water quality, supporting ecosystems, and maintaining biodiversity in south Florida. Adaptive restoration and management of the Everglades requires the best information possible regarding wetland hydrology. We developed a new and innovative approach to quantify spatial and temporal variations in wetland water levels within the Everglades, Florida. We observed high correlations between water level measured at in situ gages and L-band SAR backscatter coefficients in the freshwater marsh, though C-band SAR backscatter has no close relationship with water level. Here we illustrate the complementarity of SAR backscatter coefficient differencing and interferometry (InSAR) for improved estimation of high spatial resolution water level variations in the Everglades. This technique has a certain limitation in applying to swamp forests with dense vegetation cover, but we conclude that this new method is promising in future applications to wetland hydrology research.

  9. A composite L-band HH radar backscattering model for coniferous forest stands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Guoquing; Simonett, David S.

    1988-01-01

    The radar backscattering model developed by Richards et al. (1987), has been improved and further tested in this research. The trunk term may now be calculated from the exact solution to the electromagnetic wave equations instead of the corner reflector equation. Rough surface models have been introduced into the radar model, so that the forward reflectance and the backscattering from the ground surface are now calculated from the same model and, thus, are consistent. The number of trees in an individual pixel is assumed to be Poisson distributed, with tree height in a stand log-normally distributed. The simulated results show that the match of backscattering coefficients for eight forest stands between SIR-B image data and the simulated results are satisfying, and that the trunk term now seems to be convincingly established as the dominant term in the L-band HH radar return from coniferous forest stands.

  10. Boundary element simulation of backscattering properties for red blood with high frequency ultrasonic transducers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shih-Jeh; Kuo, Ihyuan; Shung, K Kirk

    2005-01-01

    High frequency ultrasonic imaging (e.g. >30 MHz) from blood is difficult due to its tenuous backscattered pressure and the interference from adjacent tissues as well. To increase the sensitivity focused transducer has to be used, thus raising the complexity of interpreting the received signals. A numerical simulation of the ultrasonic scattering property from erythrocyte and rouleaux based on boundary element method was performed with experimental results based on a modified substitution method. The results (proportional relationship between backscattered pressure and frequency and the frequency limit for Rayleigh scattering) closely coincide with experimental data for erythrocyte. Rouleaux model results also show the dependence of degree of red cell aggregation on backscattering properties. The boundary element method serves as a good means to calculate the acoustic scattering from blood cells under arbitrary incident waves. PMID:15556649

  11. High resolution Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry investigations of ZrO2 layer growth in the initial stage on native silicon oxide and titanium nitride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High Resolution Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry (HR-RBS) with a depth resolution of about 0.3 nm near the surface was used to analyse the interface between ultrathin high-k ZrO2-layers and the substrate. In order to improve the quality of the analysis, a method was developed that takes local thickness variations, obtained by atomic force microscopy, into account during simulation of the HR-RBS spectra. The initial stages of atomic layer deposition (ALD) growth processes on Si(100) covered with native silicon oxide (SiO2) or with TiN have been studied. In the first case the interface is sharp, except for a small intermediate ZrSiO4-layer, and no diffusion of Zr-atoms in SiO2 could be detected. A quite different behaviour could be derived from high resolution spectra for the growth of ZrO2 on TiN. In addition, measurements of the surface topography of the TiN-layer revealed non-negligible surface roughness. Diffusion of Zr into polycrystalline TiN was demonstrated after correction for surface roughness. This observation indicates that already during the first ALD reaction cycle a small proportion of the deposited Zr-atoms diffuses – probably along grain boundaries – into the TiN-layer up to a depth of 3 nm. - Highlights: ► Rutherford Backscattering has been used to study ultrathin high-k ZrO2-layers. ► Precise knowledge of the surface topography allows an accurate interpretation. ► For ZrO2 on native silicon oxide, Zr showed no diffusion into the substrate. ► At the interface ZrO2/SiO2 a monolayer of ZrSiO4 is formed. ► Deposited on polycrystalline TiN, Zr diffuses into the TiN-layer up to 3 nm deep.

  12. Laser remote sensing of tropospheric aerosol over Southern Ireland using a backscatter Raman LIDAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruth, Albert A.; Acheson, Karen; Apituley, Arnoud; Chaikovsky, Anatoli; Nicolae, Doina; Ortiz-Amezcua, Pablo; Stoyanov, Dimitar; Trickl, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    Raman backscatter coefficients, extinction coefficients and lidar ratios were measured with a ground based Raman lidar system at University College Cork, Ireland, during the periods of July 2012 - August 2012, April 2013 - December 2013 and March 2014 - May 2014. Statistical analysis of these parameters in this time provided information about seasonal effects of Raman backscatter coefficients and the altitude of the top of the planetary boundary layer. The mean of the altitude of the top of the planetary boundary layer over these time periods is 950 ± 302 m. The values are larger in summer, 1206 ± 367 m, than in winter, 735 m. The altitude of the top of the planetary boundary layer measured at Cork is lower than most EARLINET stations. Raman backscatter coefficients above and altitude of 2 km are highest in summer and spring where the values are greater than 0.28 Mm‑1 sr‑1. Winter values of Raman backscatter coefficient are less than 0.06 Mm‑1 sr‑1. These seasonal effects are consistent with most EARLINET stations. Large aerosol loads were detected in July 2013 due to a Canadian forest fire event. HYSPLIT air-mass back trajectory models were used to trace the origin of the detected aerosol layers. The aerosol forecast model, MACC, was used to further investigate and verify the propagation of the smoke. The Lidar ratio values and Klett and Raman backscatter coefficients at Cork, for the 4th July, the 7th to 9th of July and the 11th July were compared with observations at Cabauw, Minsk, Granada, Bucharest, Sofia and Garmisch. Lidar ratio values for the smoke detected at Cork were determined to be between 33 sr and 62 sr. The poster will discuss the seasonal changes of Raman backscatter coefficients and the altitude of the top of the planetary boundary layer at Cork. An investigation of a Canadian forest fire event measured at Cork will be compared with other data from the EARLINET database.

  13. Cavitation inception by the backscattering of pressure waves from a bubble interface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahira, Hiroyuki, E-mail: takahira@me.osakafu-u.ac.jp; Ogasawara, Toshiyuki, E-mail: oga@me.osakafu-u.ac.jp; Mori, Naoto, E-mail: su101064@edu.osakafu-u.ac.jp; Tanaka, Moe [Osaka Prefecture University, 1-1 Gakuen-cho, Naka-ku, Sakai-shi, Osaka 599-8531 (Japan)

    2015-10-28

    The secondary cavitation that occurs by the backscattering of focused ultrasound from a primary cavitation bubble caused by the negative pressure part of the ultrasound (Maxwell, et al., 2011) might be useful for the energy exchange due to bubble oscillations in High Intensity Focused Ultrasound (HIFU). The present study is concerned with the cavitation inception by the backscattering of ultrasound from a bubble. In the present experiment, a laser-induced bubble which is generated by a pulsed focused laser beam with high intensity is utilized as a primary cavitation bubble. After generating the bubble, focused ultrasound is emitted to the bubble. The acoustic field and the bubble motion are observed with a high-speed video camera. It is confirmed that the secondary cavitation bubble clouds are generated by the backscattering from the laser-induced bubble. The growth of cavitation bubble clouds is analyzed with the image processing method. The experimental results show that the height and width of the bubble clouds grow in stepwise during their evolution. The direct numerical simulations are also conducted for the backscattering of incident pressure waves from a bubble in order to evaluate a pressure field near the bubble. It is shown that the ratio of a bubble collapse time t{sub 0} to a characteristic time of wave propagation t{sub S}, η = t{sub 0}/t{sub s}, is an important determinant for generating negative pressure region by backscattering. The minimum pressure location by the backscattering in simulations is in good agreement with the experiment.

  14. Detecting spatial variations of erythrocytes by ultrasound backscattering statistical parameters under pulsatile flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chih-Chung

    2011-05-01

    The echogenicity of whole blood is known to vary during the flow cycle under pulsatile flow both in vitro and in vivo. However, the fundamental underlying mechanisms remain uncertain. The combined effects of flow acceleration and the shear rate were recently used to explain the cyclic variations of signals backscattered from flowing blood. However, testing this hypothesis requires determination of the spatial distributions of red blood cells (RBCs) in flowing blood. Recently, the Nakagami (m) and scaling (Ω) parameters have been used, respectively, to detect the spatial distributions of RBCs and the intensity of backscattering signal from blood under steady flow. For a better understanding of the relationship between the spatial distributions of RBCs and erythrocyte aggregation under pulsatile flow condition, these ultrasound backscattering statistical parameters were used, in this study, to characterize signals backscattered from both whole blood and RBC suspensions at different peak flow velocities (from 10 to 30 cm/s) and hematocrits (20% and 40%). The experiments were carried out by a 35-MHz ultrasound transducer. The m and Ω parameters were calculated for different blood properties and conditions, and the flow velocity in the center of blood flowing through a tube was measured synchronously. In whole blood, the results demonstrated that most RBCs were aggregated progressively toward the center of tube as the flow velocity started to accelerate, and that the increase in the intensity of the backscattered signal envelope to a maximum was attributable to larger rouleaux being formed in the center of tube. This phenomenon became apparent at a lower peak flow velocity with 40% hematocrit. However, there were no cyclic and spatial variations of the backscattering signal over a pulsatile cycle in RBC suspensions. PMID:21134805

  15. Experimental study of corrosion behavior for burnished aluminum alloy by EWF, EBSD, EIS and Raman spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of burnish process on 2024 aluminum alloy was studied by electron work function and electron backscattered diffraction (EBSD). Moreover, the corrosion resistance of thin passive films formed on 2024 aluminum alloy in borate buffer solutions was studied by the electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), the Mott–Schottky plots and the galvanostatic techniques. The composition of passive films was analyzed by Raman spectra. The results obtained indicated that the impedance increased due to burnish and this was attributed to decreased electron work function and higher current efficiency in the burnished aluminum alloy which led to thicker passive films. It was further supported by Raman spectra experiment. Moreover, the donor and acceptor concentration of passive films and their the semiconductor type have changed due to burnish.

  16. Experimental study of corrosion behavior for burnished aluminum alloy by EWF, EBSD, EIS and Raman spectra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jinlong, Lv, E-mail: ljlhit@126.com [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Beijing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Xueyuan Road 37, Beijing, 100191 (China); Hongyun, Luo, E-mail: luo7128@163.com [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Beijing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Xueyuan Road 37, Beijing, 100191 (China); Jinpeng, Xie [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Beijing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Xueyuan Road 37, Beijing, 100191 (China)

    2013-05-15

    The effect of burnish process on 2024 aluminum alloy was studied by electron work function and electron backscattered diffraction (EBSD). Moreover, the corrosion resistance of thin passive films formed on 2024 aluminum alloy in borate buffer solutions was studied by the electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), the Mott–Schottky plots and the galvanostatic techniques. The composition of passive films was analyzed by Raman spectra. The results obtained indicated that the impedance increased due to burnish and this was attributed to decreased electron work function and higher current efficiency in the burnished aluminum alloy which led to thicker passive films. It was further supported by Raman spectra experiment. Moreover, the donor and acceptor concentration of passive films and their the semiconductor type have changed due to burnish.

  17. Influence of single scattering and multiple scattering on backscattered Mueller matrix in turbid media

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lanqing Xu; Hui Li; Yongping Zheng

    2009-01-01

    Monte Carlo algorithm and Stokes-Mueller formalism are used to simulate the propagation behavior of polarized light in turbid media. The influence of single scattering and multiple scattering on backscattered Mueller matrix in turbid media is discussed. Single and double scattering photons form the major part of backscattered polarization patterns, while multiple scattering photons present more likely as background. Further quantitative analyses show that single scattering approximation and double scattering approxima tion are quite accurate when discussing the polarization patterns near the incident point.

  18. Super-resolved time-frequency analysis of wideband backscattered data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moore, John; Ling, H.

    1995-01-01

    A time-frequency super-resolution procedure is presented for processing wideband backscattered data containing both scattering center and natural resonance information. In this procedure, Prony's method is first applied in the frequency domain to locate scattering centers. The data is processed o......-frequency techniques, the time-frequencg display from the present super-resolution procedure is not constrained in resolution by the Fourier limit......A time-frequency super-resolution procedure is presented for processing wideband backscattered data containing both scattering center and natural resonance information. In this procedure, Prony's method is first applied in the frequency domain to locate scattering centers. The data is processed one...

  19. Calculations of Backscattering Mueller Matrices for Turbid Media with a Sphere Queue Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Qing-Hua; LI Zhen-Hua; LAI Jian-Cheng; ZHANG Ying-Ying; HE An-Zhi

    2006-01-01

    A sphere queue model is introduced to calculate Mueller matrices of turbid media. Combined with the single scattering approximation, the backscattering Mueller matrices of turbid media can be computed rapidly by Mie theory. The numerical results agree with the azimuthal dependences of backscattering Mueller matrices' patterns from turbid media, which indicates that the major contribution to the Mueller matrices' patterns comes from the single scattering of the sphere queue, and the multiple scattering considered as a high-order correction does not change the patterns. The numerical analysis reveals that the contrast of Mueller matrices' patterns will decrease with increase of the concentration of media and the distance from the incident point.

  20. X-ray backscatter imaging for radiography by selective detection and snapshot: Evolution, development, and optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shedlock, Daniel

    Compton backscatter imaging (CBI) is a single-sided imaging technique that uses the penetrating power of radiation and unique interaction properties of radiation with matter to image subsurface features. CBI has a variety of applications that include non-destructive interrogation, medical imaging, security and military applications. Radiography by selective detection (RSD), lateral migration radiography (LMR) and shadow aperture backscatter radiography (SABR) are different CBI techniques that are being optimized and developed. Radiography by selective detection (RSD) is a pencil beam Compton backscatter imaging technique that falls between highly collimated and uncollimated techniques. Radiography by selective detection uses a combination of single- and multiple-scatter photons from a projected area below a collimation plane to generate an image. As a result, the image has a combination of first- and multiple-scatter components. RSD techniques offer greater subsurface resolution than uncollimated techniques, at speeds at least an order of magnitude faster than highly collimated techniques. RSD scanning systems have evolved from a prototype into near market-ready scanning devices for use in a variety of single-sided imaging applications. The design has changed to incorporate state-of-the-art detectors and electronics optimized for backscatter imaging with an emphasis on versatility, efficiency and speed. The RSD system has become more stable, about 4 times faster, and 60% lighter while maintaining or improving image quality and contrast over the past 3 years. A new snapshot backscatter radiography (SBR) CBI technique, shadow aperture backscatter radiography (SABR), has been developed from concept and proof-of-principle to a functional laboratory prototype. SABR radiography uses digital detection media and shaded aperture configurations to generate near-surface Compton backscatter images without scanning, similar to how transmission radiographs are taken. Finally, a

  1. Verification of traceability and backscattering in surface entrance air kerma measurements with detector type ionizing chamber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teixeira, G.J.; Peixoto, J.G.P., E-mail: guilherm@ird.gov.br [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    Measurements of doses in radiology services by ionizing chambers are easier than those made by TLD, however the protocols for measurements differ regarding the calibration. The objectives were to verify the traceability in the measures of ESAK corrected by the inverse square law, due to the difference in position between the source and IC and the influence of the backscattered radiation in bringing the detector to the table. Was defined a procedure practiced by the radiological services and designed experimental arrangements for the same technique. Was noted that the approximation of the detector to the table generated a significant backscattered. (author)

  2. Experimental results and Monte Carlo simulations of a landmine localization device using the neutron backscattering method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Datema, C.P. E-mail: c.datema@iri.tudelft.nl; Bom, V.R.; Eijk, C.W.E. van

    2002-08-01

    Experiments were carried out to investigate the possible use of neutron backscattering for the detection of landmines buried in the soil. Several landmines, buried in a sand-pit, were positively identified. A series of Monte Carlo simulations were performed to study the complexity of the neutron backscattering process and to optimize the geometry of a future prototype. The results of these simulations indicate that this method shows great potential for the detection of non-metallic landmines (with a plastic casing), for which so far no reliable method has been found.

  3. Radar frequency effect on the relationship between surface soil moisture vertical profile and radar backscatter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zribi, Mehrez; Gorrab, Azza; Baghdadi, Nicolas; Lili-Chabaane, Zohra; Mougenot, Bernard; Boulet, Gilles

    2013-04-01

    Soil moisture plays a key role in hydrological and climatic studies. Considerable efforts have been devoted to the study of radar backscattering responses from natural surfaces in active microwave remote sensing. Electromagnetic analytical backscattering models (Kirchhoff models, the small perturbation method, and more recently the Integral Equation Model (IEM,the AIEM, …) have been used to estimate moisture parameter. However, various experimental measurements have shown that their use must be restricted to specific conditions. For studies in the L, C, and X frequency bands, empirical and semi-empirical models are often calibrated using soil samples collected down to a depth of five centimetres, in which the moisture content is assumed to be homogeneous. In recent years, some studies have revealed that using the actual, inhomogeneous soil moisture profile can make a significant difference in the results obtained from backscatter models. The aim of this paper is to discuss the influence of radar frequency on the relationship between surface soil moisture and the nature of radar backscatter over bare soils. In an attempt to answer this question, the Advanced Integral Equation Model (AIEM) was used to simulate backscatter from soil surfaces with various moisture vertical profiles, for three frequency bands: L, C and X. In these computations, we investigated the influence of the vertical heterogeneity of soil moisture on the characteristics of the backscattered signals. The influence of radar frequency is clearly demonstrated. A database produced from Envisat ASAR and TerraSAR-X data, acquired over bare soils with in situ measurements of moisture content and ground surface roughness, was used to validate the usefulness of taking the soil moisture heterogeneity into account in the backscattering model. These results confirm the significant influence of soil moisture heterogeneities on the strength of radar backscatter. It also highlights the sensitivity of inversion

  4. The laser-backscattering equations and their application to the study of the atmospheric structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work a method for interpreting backscattering signals acquired by a lidar is described. The method is based on the elastic scattering of laser radiation due to gases and particles suspended in the atmosphere (bulk effects). We propose a space-time diagram which helps to evaluate the arguments of the equation that serves to calculate the lidar signal in terms of the backscattering coefficient. We describe how the system detects gradients on this coefficient, along the laser optical path. To illustrate the method, we present some typical lidar results obtained in the neighborhood of Mexico City. (Author)

  5. Free-solution, label-free molecular interactions studied by back-scattering interferometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bornhop, D.J.; Latham, J.C.; Kussrow, A.;

    2007-01-01

    Free-solution, label-free molecular interactions were investigated with back-scattering interferometry in a simple optical train composed of a helium-neon laser, a microfluidic channel, and a position sensor. Molecular binding interactions between proteins, ions and protein, and small molecules and......, interleukin-2 with its monoclonal antibody, and calmodulin with calcium ion Ca2+, a small molecule inhibitor, the protein calcineurin, and the M13 peptide. The high sensitivity of back-scattering interferometry and small volumes of microfluidics allowed the entire calmodulin assay to be performed with 200...

  6. Coherent Backscattering by Polydisperse Discrete Random Media: Exact T-Matrix Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishchenko, Michael I.; Dlugach, Janna M.; Mackowski, Daniel W.

    2011-01-01

    The numerically exact superposition T-matrix method is used to compute, for the first time to our knowledge, electromagnetic scattering by finite spherical volumes composed of polydisperse mixtures of spherical particles with different size parameters or different refractive indices. The backscattering patterns calculated in the far-field zone of the polydisperse multiparticle volumes reveal unequivocally the classical manifestations of the effect of weak localization of electromagnetic waves in discrete random media, thereby corroborating the universal interference nature of coherent backscattering. The polarization opposition effect is shown to be the least robust manifestation of weak localization fading away with increasing particle size parameter.

  7. Coherent backscattering of inelastic photons from atoms and their mirror images

    CERN Document Server

    Moriya, P H; Teixeira, R Celistrino; Máximo, C E; Piovella, N; Bachelard, R; Kaiser, R; Courteille, Ph W

    2016-01-01

    Coherent backscattering is a coherence effect in the propagation of waves through disordered media involving two or more scattering events. Here, we report on the observation of coherent backscattering from individual atoms and their mirror images. This system displays two important advantages: First, the effect can be observed at low optical densities, which allows to work in very dilute clouds or far from resonance. Second, due to the fact that the radiation of an atom interferes constructively with that of its own image, the phenomenon is much more robust to dephasing induced by strong saturation. In particular, the contribution of inelastically scattered photons to the interference process is demonstrated.

  8. Coherent backscatter and the opposition effect for E-type asteroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishchenko, M. I.; Dlugach, J. M.

    1993-01-01

    Recently, Harris et al. (1989) have observed a strong and unusually narrow (HWHM approximately 0.8 deg in the yellow) opposition effect for high-albedo asteroids 44 Nysa and 64 Angelina. In this paper, we apply the theory of coherent backscattering of light from discrete random media to interpret this remarkable opposition brightening. It is shown that coherent backscattering of sunlight from a regolithic layer composed of submicrometer-sized grains with an index of refraction close to that of the mineral enstatite can be a reasonable explanation of the observed opposition effect.

  9. 2D Doppler backscattering using synthetic aperture microwave imaging of MAST edge plasmas

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas, D.A.; Brunner, K.J.; Freethy, S.J.; Huang, B.K.; Shevchenko, V. F.; Vann, R. G. L.

    2016-01-01

    Doppler backscattering (DBS) is already established as a powerful diagnostic; its extension to 2D enables imaging of turbulence characteristics from an extended region of the cut-off surface. The Synthetic Aperture Microwave Imaging (SAMI) diagnostic has conducted proof-of-principle 2D DBS experiments of MAST edge plasma. SAMI actively probes the plasma edge using a wide (±40° vertical and horizontal) and tuneable (10–34.5 GHz) beam. The Doppler backscattered signal is digitised in vector for...

  10. Three-dimensional imaging of hidden objects using positron emission backscatter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Positron emission backscatter imaging is a technique for interrogation and three-dimensional (3-D) reconstruction of hidden objects when we only have access to the objects from one side. Using time-of-flight differences in detected direct and backscattered positron-emitted photons, we construct 3-D images of target objects. Recently at Los Alamos National Laboratory, a fully three-dimensional imaging system has been built and the experimental results are discussed in this paper. Quantitative analysis of images reconstructed in both two- and three-dimensions are also presented.

  11. Statistical Properties of a Ring Laser with Injected Signal and Backscattering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LENG Feng; ZHU Shi-Qun

    2001-01-01

    The statistical properties of a homogeneously broadened ring laser with an injected signal are investigated and the normalized two-mode intensity auto- and cross-correlation functions are calculated by a full saturation laser theory with backscattering. The theoretical predictions are in good agreement with the experimental measurements.Further investigation reveals that the backscattering can reduce the fluctuations in the system while the full saturation effect plays a major role when the laser is operated above threshold. It is also quite important to notice that the injected signal can drive the weak mode from incoherent light to coherent light.``

  12. A method for generating floor response spectra through power spectra/response spectra relationship

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work a method is proposed for deriving floor response spectra using probabilistic techniques. By modelling an earthquake as a stationary random process, a relationship may be derived between its power spectral density function (PSDF) and the response spectrum. Thus, given a set of base response spectra, a set of consistent PSDF's can be generated for the base of the structure. Then, making use of standard random vibration theory, PSDF's for points of interest in the structure can be obtained by appropriate multiplication of complex frequency response (transfer) functions with the derived base PSDF's. Finally, response spectra for the points of interest are obtained using the inverse form of the relationship between a PSDF and a response spectrum. To date, the approach outlined above has been used to generate response spectra of points in some actual three-dimensional structures, and comparisons with response spectra for the same points generated by the time history method have been quite favorable. The limited number of cases performed have demonstrated that the method provides close correspondence of results throughout the frequency domain. While more work is needed to completely qualify this approach, initial results have been very promising. If the approach can be completely verified and found acceptable to the appropriate regulatory bodies, considerable savings in the computation of floor response spectra would result. (orig./RW)

  13. Test spectra experimental construction for evaluating gamma-spectrometry computer codes for the 235U determination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karfopoulos Konstantinos L.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The determination of 235U in environmental samples from its 185.72 keV photons may require the deconvolution of the multiplet photopeak at ~186 keV, due to the co-existence of the 186.25 keV photons of 226Ra in the spectrum. Successful deconvolution depends on many parameters, such as the detector characteristics, the activity concentration of the 235U and 226Ra in the sample, the background continuum in the 186 keV energy region and the gamma-spectrometry computer code used. In this work two sets of experimental test spectra were constructed for examining the deconvolution of the multiplet photopeak performed by different codes. For the construction of the test spectra, a high-resolution low energy germanium detector was used. The first series consists of 140 spectra and simulates environmental samples containing various activity concentration levels of 235U and 226Ra. The second series consists of 280 spectra and has been derived by adding 137Cs, corresponding to various activity concentration levels, to specific first series test spectra. As the 137Cs backscatter edge is detected in the energy region of the multiplet photopeak at ~186 keV, this second series of test spectra tests the analysis of the multiplet photopeak in high background continuum conditions. The analysis of the test spectra is performed by two different g-spectrometry analysis codes: (a spectrum unix analysis code, a computer code developed in-house and (b analysis of germanium detector spectra, a program freely available from the IAEA. The results obtained by the two programs are compared in terms of photopeak detection and photopeak area determination.

  14. Computer analysis of ESR spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Author. Isotropic ESR spectra often display complicated patterns which are difficult to analyze for their hyperfine splitting constants (HSC). To simplify the analysis, we have written a program suitable for PC's for sufficiently iterating simulations of isotropic ESR spectra and determining the simulation which fits the experimental spectra. Chapter one gives a brief introduction to the theory of electron spin resonance (ESR). In chapter two the main concepts of the program are presented. Auto simulate is the main algorithm. It calculates the entire field of valid simulations to ensure that the solution set contains all parameter combinations which produce satisfactory spectra. Auto simulate requires prior knowledge of the HSCs and other parameters needed for the simulation such as the line width, the spectrum width, and the number of magnetic nuclei. Proton Coupling Constant Extraction (PCCE) and autocorrelation are two methods complementing each other to determine the HSCs. Another iterative method based on a systematic application of Monte Carlo method can be applied to generate more accurate values of the line width. In chapter three, the spectra of Naphthalene, Tetracene, Indigo, Ox-indigo semi quinone, thio-indigo and 2,2'-dipyridyl-Na complex free radicals are analyzed. The results are compared to the literature value, good agreement is obtained for different resolution and noise to signal ratios. In the last chapter a print out of the program is presented. The programming language used is Microsoft QuickBASIC version 7.1

  15. Qualitative interpretation of galaxy spectra

    CERN Document Server

    Almeida, J Sanchez; Terlevich, E; Fernandes, R Cid; Morales-Luis, A B

    2012-01-01

    We describe a simple step-by-step guide to qualitative interpretation of galaxy spectra. Rather than an alternative to existing automated tools, it is put forward as an instrument for quick-look analysis, and for gaining physical insight when interpreting the outputs provided by automated tools. Though the recipe is of general application, it was developed for understanding the nature of the Automatic Spectroscopic K-means based (ASK) template spectra. They resulted from the classification of all the galaxy spectra in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey data release 7 (SDSS-DR7), thus being a comprehensive representation of the galaxy spectra in the local universe. Using the recipe, we give a description of the properties of the gas and the stars that characterize the ASK classes, from those corresponding to passively evolving galaxies, to HII galaxies undergoing a galaxy-wide starburst. The qualitative analysis is found to be in excellent agreement with quantitative analyses of the same spectra. A number of byprodu...

  16. Accelerated Fitting of Stellar Spectra

    CERN Document Server

    Ting, Yuan-Sen; Rix, Hans-Walter

    2016-01-01

    Stellar spectra are often modeled and fit by interpolating within a rectilinear grid of synthetic spectra to derive the stars' labels: stellar parameters and elemental abundances. However, the number of synthetic spectra needed for a rectilinear grid grows exponentially with the label space dimensions, precluding the simultaneous and self-consistent fitting of more than a few elemental abundances. Shortcuts such as fitting subsets of parameters separately can introduce unknown systematics and do not produce correct error covariances in the derived labels. In this paper we present a new approach -- CHAT (Convex Hull Adaptive Tessellation) -- which includes several new ideas for inexpensively generating a sufficient stellar synthetic library, using linear algebra and the concept of an adaptive, data-driven grid. A convex hull approximates the region where the data lie in the label space. A variety of tests with mock datasets demonstrate that CHAT can reduce the number of required synthetic model calculations by...

  17. QUALITATIVE INTERPRETATION OF GALAXY SPECTRA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We describe a simple step-by-step guide to qualitative interpretation of galaxy spectra. Rather than an alternative to existing automated tools, it is put forward as an instrument for quick-look analysis and for gaining physical insight when interpreting the outputs provided by automated tools. Though the recipe is for general application, it was developed for understanding the nature of the Automatic Spectroscopic K-means-based (ASK) template spectra. They resulted from the classification of all the galaxy spectra in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey data release 7, thus being a comprehensive representation of the galaxy spectra in the local universe. Using the recipe, we give a description of the properties of the gas and the stars that characterize the ASK classes, from those corresponding to passively evolving galaxies, to H II galaxies undergoing a galaxy-wide starburst. The qualitative analysis is found to be in excellent agreement with quantitative analyses of the same spectra. We compare the mean ages of the stellar populations with those inferred using the code STARLIGHT. We also examine the estimated gas-phase metallicity with the metallicities obtained using electron-temperature-based methods. A number of byproducts follow from the analysis. There is a tight correlation between the age of the stellar population and the metallicity of the gas, which is stronger than the correlations between galaxy mass and stellar age, and galaxy mass and gas metallicity. The galaxy spectra are known to follow a one-dimensional sequence, and we identify the luminosity-weighted mean stellar age as the affine parameter that describes the sequence. All ASK classes happen to have a significant fraction of old stars, although spectrum-wise they are outshined by the youngest populations. Old stars are metal-rich or metal-poor depending on whether they reside in passive galaxies or in star-forming galaxies.

  18. QUALITATIVE INTERPRETATION OF GALAXY SPECTRA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez Almeida, J.; Morales-Luis, A. B. [Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias, E-38205 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Terlevich, R.; Terlevich, E. [Instituto Nacional de Astrofisica, Optica y Electronica, Tonantzintla, Puebla (Mexico); Cid Fernandes, R., E-mail: jos@iac.es, E-mail: abml@iac.es, E-mail: rjt@ast.cam.ac.uk, E-mail: eterlevi@inaoep.mx, E-mail: cid@astro.ufsc.br [Departamento de Fisica-CFM, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, P.O. Box 476, 88040-900 Florianopolis, SC (Brazil)

    2012-09-10

    We describe a simple step-by-step guide to qualitative interpretation of galaxy spectra. Rather than an alternative to existing automated tools, it is put forward as an instrument for quick-look analysis and for gaining physical insight when interpreting the outputs provided by automated tools. Though the recipe is for general application, it was developed for understanding the nature of the Automatic Spectroscopic K-means-based (ASK) template spectra. They resulted from the classification of all the galaxy spectra in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey data release 7, thus being a comprehensive representation of the galaxy spectra in the local universe. Using the recipe, we give a description of the properties of the gas and the stars that characterize the ASK classes, from those corresponding to passively evolving galaxies, to H II galaxies undergoing a galaxy-wide starburst. The qualitative analysis is found to be in excellent agreement with quantitative analyses of the same spectra. We compare the mean ages of the stellar populations with those inferred using the code STARLIGHT. We also examine the estimated gas-phase metallicity with the metallicities obtained using electron-temperature-based methods. A number of byproducts follow from the analysis. There is a tight correlation between the age of the stellar population and the metallicity of the gas, which is stronger than the correlations between galaxy mass and stellar age, and galaxy mass and gas metallicity. The galaxy spectra are known to follow a one-dimensional sequence, and we identify the luminosity-weighted mean stellar age as the affine parameter that describes the sequence. All ASK classes happen to have a significant fraction of old stars, although spectrum-wise they are outshined by the youngest populations. Old stars are metal-rich or metal-poor depending on whether they reside in passive galaxies or in star-forming galaxies.

  19. Ultraviolet spectra of planetary nebulae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Features observed in infrared spectra suggest that certain very low excitation (VLE) nebulae have low C/O abundance ratios (Cohen and Barlow 1980; Aitken and Roche 1982). Fluxes in the multiplets [O II] lambda 2470 and C II] lambda 2326 have been measured for the VLE nebula He He 2-131 = HD 138403 using IUE high-dispersion spectra. An analysis similar to that of Harrington et al. (1980) for IC 418 gives C/O = 0.3 for He 2-131, compared with C/O = 1.3 for IC 418 and 0.6 for the Sun. (author)

  20. Automatic identification of mass spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several approaches to preprocessing and comparison of low resolution mass spectra have been evaluated by various test methods related to library search. It is shown that there is a clear correlation between the nature of any contamination of a spectrum, the basic principle of the transformation or distance measure, and the performance of the identification system. The identification of functionality from low resolution spectra has also been evaluated using several classification methods. It is shown that there is an upper limit to the success of this approach, but also that this can be improved significantly by using a very limited amount of additional information. 10 refs

  1. Energy scale in inclusive spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basing on a model, valid in a limited domain of the phase space, it is shown that there is a universal dependence of the inclusive spectra that is not related to the types of initial and detected particles. The only dependence on the reaction quantum numbers is that present in the scale coefficient of the total energy. The presented experimental data provide with an evidence to that the scale coefficient is universal in the whole region of the variables and its value is related to the behaviour of spectra in the central region

  2. Energy scale in inclusive spectra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Likhoded, A.K.; Tolstenkov, A.N.

    1976-07-01

    It is shown, on the basis of a model that is valid in a certain limited phase-space region, that a universal relation exists for the inclusive spectra which is not connected with the type of the initial and detected particles. The entire dependence on the quantum numbers of the reaction is contained in a redefined scale coefficient for the total energy. The experimental data presented favor the assumption that the scale coefficient is universal in the entire range of the variables and that its value is connected with the behavior of the spectra in the central region. (AIP)

  3. Excitation spectra in Kondo insulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is shown that the exotic strong local characters in the Kondo insulator are difficult to understand based on the band model and the localized Kondo electron model based on the local picture can explain the essential characteristics, in particular characteristic excitation spectra with two peak structure, which is caused through the transition of the localized Kondo electron. Excitation spectra in SmB6, YbB12 and Ce3Bi4Pt3 are shown to be explained by the above model. On the other hand, that of the pseudo gap Kondo insulator CeNiSn is shown to be substantially different. (orig.)

  4. Investigation of gamma spectra analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the investigation of radiation fingerprint comparison, it is found out that the popular gamma spectra analysis softwares are faultful, which decrease the precision of radiation fingerprint comparison. So a new analysis software is development for solving the problems. In order to display the advantage of new program, some typical simulative gamma spectra of radiation source are analyzed respectively by our software and GAMMAVISION and GENNIE2000. The software can be applied not only in nuclear warheads deep-cuts verification, but also in any radiation measurement field. (authors)

  5. AVIRIS spectra of California wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Michael F.; Ustin, Susan L.; Klemas, Vytautas

    1988-01-01

    Spectral data gathered by the AVIRIS from wetlands in the Suisun Bay area of California on 13 October 1987 were analyzed. Spectra representing stands of numerous vegetation types (including Sesuvium verrucosum, Scirpus acutus and Scirpus californicus, Xanthium strumarium, Cynadon dactylon, and Distichlis spicata) and soil were isolated. Despite some defects in the data, it was possible to detect vegetation features such as differences in the location of the chlorophyll red absorption maximum. Also, differences in cover type spectra were evident in other spectral regions. It was not possible to determine if the observed features represent noise, variability in canopy architecture, or chemical constituents of leaves.

  6. Electron Backscattering Diffraction Analysis of Secondary Crack Propagation in Low-Alloy Bainitic Steel

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Nohava, Jiří; Haušild, P.; Bompard, P.

    Vol. A. Praha : CVUT, 2002, s. 592-593. [Workshop 2002. Praha (CZ), 11.02.2002-13.02.2002] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z2043910 Keywords : electron backscattering difraction, bainitic steel , crack propagation Subject RIV: JK - Corrosion ; Surface Treatment of Materials

  7. Energy Filtering and Coaxial Detection of the Backscattered Electrons in Scanning Electron Microscope

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Chang-Zhong; P. Morin; N. Rosenberg

    2000-01-01

    A new detection system in scanning electron microscope, which filters in energy and detects the backscattered electrons close to the microscope axis, is described. This technique ameliorates the dependence of the back. scat tering coefficient on atomic number, and suppresses effectively the relief contrast at the same time. Therefore this new method is very suitable to the composition analysis.

  8. Field-aligned electric currents and their measurement by the incoherent backscatter technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, P.; Cole, K. D.; Lejeume, G.

    1975-01-01

    Field aligned electric currents flow in the magnetosphere in many situations of fundamental geophysical interest. It is shown here that the incoherent backscatter technique can be used to measure these currents when the plasma line can be observed. The technique provides a ground based means of measuring these currents which complements the rocket and satellite ones.

  9. Designing scheme of a γ-ray ICT system using compton back-scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The designing scheme of a γ ray ICT system by using Compton back-scattering is put forward. The technical norms, detector system, γ radioactive source, mechanical scanning equipment, and data acquisition and image reconstruction principle of this ICT are described

  10. Depth profiling of metal ions in polymer inclusion membranes by backscattering spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of the first ion beam analysis (IDA) experiment using folded tandem ion accelerator (FOTIA) at Trombay have been reported in this paper. The polymer inclusion membranes were analysed for the depth profile of metal ions using backscattering spectrometry (BS). (author)

  11. Flat ended steel wires, backscattering targets for calibrating over a large dynamic range

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lubbers, Jaap; Graaff, Reindert

    2006-01-01

    A series of flat ended stainless steel wires was constructed and experimentally evaluated as point targets giving a calibrated backscattering over a large range (up to 72 dB) for ultrasound frequencies in the range 2 to 10 MHz. Over a range of 36 dB, theory was strictly followed (within 1 dB), givin

  12. Quantitative microstructure characterization of self-annealed copper films with electron backscatter diffraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pantleon, Karen; Gholinia, A.; Somers, Marcel A. J.

    2008-01-01

    Electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) was applied to analyze cross sections of self-annealed copper electrodeposits, for which earlier the kinetics of self-annealing had been investigated by in-situ X-ray diffraction (XRD). The EBSD investigations on the grain size, grain boundary character and...... microstructure evolution at room temperature (self-annealing)....

  13. Importance of the radiometric ash content determination by means of beta backscattering for coal transformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radiometric method for ash content determination based on beta backscattering has been evaluated from the point of view of quality control and quality assurance in lignite mining and use of lignite. Applying the method, optimum control and distribution to generation of power, briquetting or coal transformation depending on ash content is possible

  14. Characterizing biogenous sediments using multibeam echosounder backscatter data - Estimating power law parameter utilizing various models

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chakraborty, B.; Kodagali, V.N.

    is operable at 15.5 kHz, is used in this study Estimated power law parameters using H-K and composite roughness models are compared from the same areas. Interestingly, multibeam backscatter study result establishes a relationship between the power law...

  15. Studies for the determination of the beam energy with Compton backscattered photons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Cheng; Judin, Vitali; Huttel, Erhard; Schuh, Marcel; Streichert, Max; Papash, Alexander; Nasse, Michael J.; Hertle, Edmund; Mueller, Anke-Susanne [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (Germany)

    2013-07-01

    The method of resonant depolarization which is now used for determination of beam energy (2.5 GeV) at ANKA becomes cumbersome for lower beam energies. As an alternative method, a compact Compton backscattering setup with a storage cavity of laser and appropriate detection system is proposed. In the presentation, the preliminary design of the setup and simulation results are present.

  16. Carbon/Hydrogen ratio determination in hydrocarbons and its mixtures by electron backscattering technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method carbon/hydrogen ratio (C/H) determination in hydrocarbons and its mixtures was improved using the electron backscattering technique. Besides the hetero atoms (S,O and N) influence in petroleum is studied for being able to determinate the C/H ratio in cuban petroleum with high sulphur contents

  17. Retrieval of aerosol backscatter and extinction from airborne coherent Doppler wind lidar measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Chouza

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available A novel method for calibration and quantitative aerosol optical properties retrieval from Doppler wind lidars (DWL is presented in this work. Due to the strong wavelength dependence of the atmospheric molecular backscatter and the low sensitivity of the coherent detection to spectrally broad signals, calibration methods for aerosol lidars cannot be applied to a coherent DWLs usually operating at wavelengths between 1.5–2 μm. Instead, concurrent measurements of an airborne DWL at 2 μm and the POLIS ground-based aerosol lidar at 532 nm are used in this work, in combination with sun photometer measurements, for the calibration and retrieval of aerosol backscatter and extinction profiles. The proposed method was applied to measurements from the SALTRACE experiment in June–July 2013, which aimed at quantifying the aerosol transport and change in aerosol properties from the Sahara desert to the Caribbean. The retrieved backscatter and extinction coefficient profiles from the airborne DWL are within 20% of POLIS aerosol lidar and CALIPSO satellite measurements. Thus the proposed method extends the capabilities of coherent DWL to measure profiles of the horizontal and vertical wind towards aerosol backscatter and extinction profiles, which is of high benefit for aerosol transport studies.

  18. Some Theoretical Estimations of Spatial Distribution of Compton Backscattered Laser Photons Beam

    CERN Document Server

    Peresunko, Yu P

    2003-01-01

    Spatial distribution of intensity, degree and direction of linear polarization of tagged photon beam, which is obtained due to Compton backscattering of laser light on high-energy electron beam, are calculated. Effects of angular dispersion and spatial spread of electron beam are taken into account. Calculations have been carried out for the example of LEGS facility.

  19. Characterizing Indian Ocean manganese nodule-bearing seafloor using multi-beam angular backscatter

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chakraborty, B.; Kodagali, V.N.

    and sediment volume roughness parameters. The application of a composite roughness model to a nodule-bearing region (6,600 km2) of the CIOB, to determine seafloor interface roughness parameters from a multi-beam backscatter dataset, shows only four power law...

  20. The energy-dependent electron loss model: backscattering and application to heterogeneous slab media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Tae Kyu; Sandison, George A [School of Health Sciences, Purdue University, 1338 Civil Engineering Building, West Lafayette, IN (United States)

    2003-01-21

    Electron backscattering has been incorporated into the energy-dependent electron loss (EL) model and the resulting algorithm is applied to predict dose deposition in slab heterogeneous media. This algorithm utilizes a reflection coefficient from the interface that is computed on the basis of Goudsmit-Saunderson theory and an average energy for the backscattered electrons based on Everhart's theory. Predictions of dose deposition in slab heterogeneous media are compared to the Monte Carlo based dose planning method (DPM) and a numerical discrete ordinates method (DOM). The slab media studied comprised water/Pb, water/Al, water/bone, water/bone/water, and water/lung/water, and incident electron beam energies of 10 MeV and 18 MeV. The predicted dose enhancement due to backscattering is accurate to within 3% of dose maximum even for lead as the backscattering medium. Dose discrepancies at large depths beyond the interface were as high as 5% of dose maximum and we speculate that this error may be attributed to the EL model assuming a Gaussian energy distribution for the electrons at depth. The computational cost is low compared to Monte Carlo simulations making the EL model attractive as a fast dose engine for dose optimization algorithms. The predictive power of the algorithm demonstrates that the small angle scattering restriction on the EL model can be overcome while retaining dose calculation accuracy and requiring only one free variable, {chi}, in the algorithm to be determined in advance of calculation.

  1. Ultrasound backscatter from free-swimming fish at 1 MHz for fish identification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pham, An Hoai; Lundgren, Bo; Stage, Bjarne;

    2012-01-01

    In the frequency range well below 1 MHz, the swimbladder is often considered the most important part for acoustic fish detection. In this work a portable system was developed to not only detect but also try to identify free-swimming fish. It has been used to measure the ultrasound backscatter at 1...

  2. Bathymetry, acoustic backscatter, and seafloor character of Farallon Escarpment and Rittenburg Bank, northern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dartnell, Peter; Cochrane, Guy R.; Finlayson, David P.

    2014-01-01

    In 2011, scientists from the U.S. Geological Survey’s Coastal and Marine Geology Program acquired bathymetry and acoustic-backscatter data along the upper slope of the Farallon Escarpment and Rittenburg Bank within the Gulf of the Farallones National Marine Sanctuary offshore of the San Francisco Bay area. The surveys were funded by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration’s Deep Sea Coral Research and Technology Program to identify potential deep sea coral habitat prior to planned sampling efforts. Bathymetry and acoustic-backscatter data can be used to map seafloor geology (rock, sand, mud), and slope of the sea floor, both of which are useful for the prediction of deep sea coral habitat. The data also can be used for the prediction of sediment and contaminant budgets and transport, and for the assessment of earthquake and tsunami hazards. The surveys were conducted aboard National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration’s National Marine Sanctuary Program’s 67-foot-long research vessel Fulmar outfitted with a U.S. Geological Survey 100-kHz Reson 7111 multibeam-echosounder system. This report provides the bathymetry and backscatter data acquired during these surveys, interpretive seafloor character maps in several formats, a summary of the mapping mission, maps of bathymetry and backscatter, and Federal Geographic Data Committee metadata.

  3. Dependence of light attenuation and backscattering on collagen concentration and chondrocyte density in agarose scaffolds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) has been applied for high resolution imaging of articular cartilage. However, the contribution of individual structural elements of cartilage on OCT signal has not been thoroughly studied. We hypothesize that both collagen and chondrocytes, essential structural components of cartilage, act as important light scatterers and that variation in their concentrations can be detected by OCT through changes in backscattering and attenuation. To evaluate this hypothesis, we established a controlled model system using agarose scaffolds embedded with variable collagen concentrations and chondrocyte densities. Using OCT, we measured the backscattering coefficient (µb) and total attenuation coefficient (µt) in these scaffolds. Along our hypothesis, light backscattering and attenuation in agarose were dependent on collagen concentration and chondrocyte density. Significant correlations were found between µt and chondrocyte density (ρ = 0.853, p < 0.001) and between µt and collagen concentration (ρ = 0.694, p < 0.001). µb correlated significantly with chondrocyte density (ρ = 0.504, p < 0.001) but not with collagen concentration (ρ = 0.103, p = 0.422) of the scaffold. Thus, quantitation of light backscattering and, especially, attenuation could be valuable when evaluating the integrity of soft tissues, such as articular cartilage with OCT. (paper)

  4. Tropical and Midlatitude Cirrus Cloud Extinction and Backscatter From Multiyear Raman Lidar Measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorsen, T. J.; Fu, Q.

    2014-12-01

    Lidars have the capability to provide unparalleled range-resolved observations of particulate extinction. However, lidars fundamentally measure backscattered energy, not extinction, and for widely prevalent single-channel elastic backscatter lidars extinction must be obtained by assuming a backscatter-extinction relationship. Our knowledge of this relationship, known as the lidar ratio, mainly consists values determined via the transmission-loss method: which can only provide layer-averaged values and is only applicable to a subset of all cloud layers. Directly-retrieved, vertically resolved extinction coefficients and lidar ratios are obtainable through the use of more advance high spectral resolution lidars (HSRL) or Raman lidars (RL). However, the complexity of operating a HSRL or RL has limited their use for cloud observations to very limited time periods: typical only a few months or less. In this work, we present a newly developed retrieval for the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program's Raman lidars for Feature detection and EXtinction retrieval (FEX). FEX improves upon existing ARM products by using multiple, complimentary quantities to identify both clouds and aerosols and retrieve their extinction and backscatter profiles. Multiple years of data are examined at both the Lamont, Oklahoma and Darwin, Australia ARM sites; providing the most comprehensive climatology to date of cirrus extinction and lidar ratios. Variations in these optical properties with classification of the synoptic state and their relationship with microphysical parameters (temperature, relative humidity and depolarization) are examined.

  5. Experimental study and theoretical model of high-resolution radar backscatter from the sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, B. L.; Olin, I. D.

    1980-08-01

    The temporal characteristics of radar backscatter from the sea depend on the pulse width for surface resolutions less than about 20 m. While low-resolution backscatter appears continuously noise-like, as the resolution is increased, the backscatter is punctuated by substantially quieter periods. This results in a noticeably 'spikey' characteristic. Measurements at 3 cm using several different pulse widths have been made near grazing incidence together with synchronized television views of the radar-illuminated surface. These observations confirm that the largest backscatter is due to whitecaps. However, even the quieter periods disclose spikes, although they are about 3 orders of magnitude lower in power. A simple model of the salient scattering regions consists of a random collection of effective scattering centers which change in number with whitecap growth or decay. By comparing modeled surface realization with radar data it is concluded that the decorrelation time of the surface and scatterers within the surface are each about 0.01 s at X band.

  6. Characteristics of CALIOP attenuated backscatter noise: implication for cloud/aerosol detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. L. Wu

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available A research algorithm is developed for noise evaluation and feature detection of the CALIOP (Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization Level 1 (L1 backscatter data with an emphasis on cloud/aerosol features in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere (UT/LS. CALIOP measurement noise of the version v2.01 and v2.02 L1 backscatter data aggregated to (5 km horizontal resolution is analyzed with two approaches in this study. One is to compare the observed and modeled molecular scatter profiles by scaling the modeled profile (with a fitted scaling factor α to the observed clear-sky backscatter profiles. This scaling α value is sensitive to errors in the calibrated backscatter and the atmospheric model used. Most of the nighttime 532-nm α values are close to unity, as expected, but an abrupt drop occurred in October 2008 in the daytime 532-nm α, which is likely indicative of a problem in the v2.02 daytime calibrated data. The 1064-nm night α is generally close to 2 while its day α is ~3. The other approach to evaluate the lidar measurement noise is to use the calibrated lidar backscatter data at altitudes above 19 km. With this method, the 532-nm and 1064-nm measurement noises are analyzed and characterized individually for each profile in terms of the mean (μ and standard deviation (σ, showing larger σ values in general over landmasses or bright surfaces during day and in radiation-hard regions during night. A significant increasing trend is evident in the nighttime 1064-nm σ, which is likely responsible for the increasing difference between the feature occurrence frequencies (532-nm vs. 1064-nm derived from this study. For feature detection with the research algorithm, we apply a σ–based method to the aggregated L1 data. The derived morphology of feature occurrence frequency is in general agreement with that obtained from the Level 2 (L2 05 km_CLAY+05 km_ALAY products at 5 km horizontal resolution. Finally, a normalized

  7. Squeezed States and Helmholtz Spectra

    CERN Document Server

    Francisco Delgado, C; Reyes, M A; Mielnik, Bogdan; Reyes, Marco A

    1997-01-01

    The 'classical interpretation' of the wave function psi(x) reveals an interesting operational aspect of the Helmholtz spectra. It is shown that the traditional Sturm-Liouville problem contains the simplest key to predict the squeezing effect for charged particle states.

  8. Field description of nuclear spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We discuss the two-nucleon spectra of light and medium nuclei in terms of the meson exchange picture. In particular we compare the OBEP results with a more complete description including higher order processes. Also preliminary results on neutron single particle energies and total binding energies are presented

  9. Inclusive Particle Spectra at RHIC

    OpenAIRE

    Kahana, D. E.; Kahana, S. H.

    2000-01-01

    A simulation is performed of the recently reported data from PHOBOS at energies of 56 and 130 A GeV using the relativistic heavy ion cascade LUCIFER which had previously given a good description of the NA49 inclusive spectra at E=17.2 A GeV. The results compare well with these early measurements at RHIC.

  10. Electron spectra of adatomic structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Within the framework of statistical theory of line-shape in electron elastic scattering and high resolution electron energy loss spectroscopy electronic spectra are studied concerning the problem of the detection of scattering from adatomic complexes and determination of parameters of simple models for the surface structure. 20 refs

  11. Three years of routine Raman lidar measurements of tropospheric aerosols: Backscattering, extinction, and residual layer height

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Schneider

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available We have performed a three-year series of routine lidar measurements at preselected times. The measurements were performed between 1 December 1997, and 30 November 2000, at Kühlungsborn, Germany (54°07' N, 11°46' E. Using a Rayleigh/Mie/Raman lidar system, we measured the aerosol backscatter coefficients at three wavelengths and the extinction coefficient at one wavelength. The present data analysis focuses on after-sunset Raman measurements obtained on cloud-free days. Aerosol backscatter profiles are available for altitudes above 100 m, while the majority of the extinction measurements has been restricted to heights above the residual layer. The residual layer shows an annual cycle with its maximum height in summer (2000 m and minimum height in winter (850 m. The backscatter coefficients in the residual layer were found to be about 10 times higher than above. The mean aerosol optical depth above the residual layer and below 5 km is 0.3(±1.0 x10-2 in summer, and 1.5(±1.0 x10-2 in winter, which almost is negligible compared to values measured in during daytime in the planetary boundary layer. A cluster analysis of the backward trajectories yielded two major directions of air mass origin above the residual layer and 4 major directions inside. A marked difference between the aerosol properties dependent on the air mass origin could be found for air masses originating from the west and travelling at high wind speeds. Comparing the measured spectral dependence of the backscatter coefficients with data from the Global Aerosol Data Set, we found a general agreement, but only a few conclusions with respect to the aerosol type could be drawn due to the high variability of the measured backscatter coefficients.

  12. Multi-Polarization ASAR Backscattering from Herbaceous Wetlands in Poyang Lake Region, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huiyong Sang

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Wetlands are one of the most important ecosystems on Earth. There is an urgent need to quantify the biophysical parameters (e.g., plant height, aboveground biomass and map total remaining areas of wetlands in order to evaluate the ecological status of wetlands. In this study, Environmental Satellite/Advanced Synthetic Aperture Radar (ENVISAT/ASAR dual-polarization C-band data acquired in 2005 is tested to investigate radar backscattering mechanisms with the variation of hydrological conditions during the growing cycle of two types of herbaceous wetland species, which colonize lake borders with different elevation in Poyang Lake region, China. Phragmites communis (L. Trin. is semi-aquatic emergent vegetation with vertical stem and blade-like leaves, and the emergent Carex spp. has rhizome and long leaves. In this study, the potential of ASAR data in HH-, HV-, and VV-polarization in mapping different wetland types is examined, by observing their dynamic variations throughout the whole flooding cycle. The sensitivity of ASAR backscattering coefficients to vegetation parameters of plant height, fresh and dry biomass, and vegetation water content is also analyzed for Phragmites communis (L. Trin. and Carex spp. The research for Phragmites communis (L. Trin. shows that HH polarization is more sensitive to plant height and dry biomass than HV polarization. ASAR backscattering coefficients are relatively less sensitive to fresh biomass, especially in HV polarization. However, both are highly dependent on canopy water content. In contrast, the dependence of HH- and HV- backscattering from Carex community on vegetation parameters is poor, and the radar backscattering mechanism is controlled by ground water level.

  13. Backscattered Acoustic Energy by Monobubbles Experimental Approach and Statistical Study of the Attenuation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Khelil

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: As the number of air bubbles in the sea is very high, they are so many acoustic diffusers who make illegible the recordings the purpose of which is to quantify the alive bodies. The signals backscattered by air bubbles constitute a parasite in offshore recordings and must be eliminated. It is planned to finalize techniques allowing the localization and the identification of a signal backscattered by an air bubble. Once this type of signal was localized and identified on an offshore recording, it is easy to eliminate it. From then, we could have recordings where the only diffusers would be alive bodies like the zooplankton. Approach: We began a work of characterization of signals of bubbles to discriminate between them and those backscattered by alive diffusers. We realized in laboratory a bench test then we finalized an original method of production of air bubbles with known size in a liquid medium. Five types of monobubbles were generated in a water column by a technique using a peristaltic pump. This technique allowed obtaining a continuous water flow carrying same-sized air bubble. The bubbles radii were calculated from the measure of rise limit speed. The acoustic responses of these bubbles (to a frequent wide bandwidth ultrasonic wave were studied by statistical methods in order to determine the variation of the energy backscattered by a calibrated bubble according to its depth. Results: Besides the production technique of calibrated bulles that was finalized, we established that the variation of backscattered energy according to depth can be explained by simple exponential models which permitted to estimate the constant of absorption. Conclusion: The coming step will be to correct the signal of the effect of the absorption of energy by the middle, then to elaborate a protocol of localization of the signals of bubbles on recordings where multiple diffusers appear. The results had to be refined and adapted for in

  14. Variations in daily quality assurance dosimetry from device levelling, feet position and backscatter material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daily quality assurance procedures are an essential part of radiotherapy medical physics. Devices such as the Sun Nuclear, DQA3 are effective tools for analysis of daily dosimetry including flatness, symmetry, energy, field size and central axis radiation dose measurement. The DQA3 can be used on the treatment couch of the linear accelerator or on a dedicated table/bed for superficial and orthovoltage x-ray machines. This device is levelled using its dedicated feet. This work has shown that depending on the quantity of backscatter material behind the DQA3 device, the position of the levelling feet can affect the measured central axis dose by up to 1.8 % (250 kVp and 6 MV) and that the introduction of more backscatter material behind the DQA3 can lead to up to 7.2 % (6 MV) variations in measured central axis dose. In conditions where no backscatter material is present, dose measurements can vary up to 1 %. As such this work has highlighted the need to keep the material behind the DQA3 device constant as well as maintaining the accuracy of the feet position on the device to effectively measure the most accurate daily constancy achievable. Results have also shown that variations in symmetry and energy calculations of up to 1 % can occur if the device is not levelled appropriately. As such, we recommend the position of the levelling feet on the device be as close as possible to the device so that a constant distance is kept between the DQA3 and the treatment couch and thus minimal levelling variations also occur. We would also recommend having no extra backscattering material behind the DQA3 device during use to minimise any variations which might occur from these backscattering effects.

  15. Seabed habitat mapping employing single and multi-beam backscatter data: A case study from the western continental shelf of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Haris, K.; Chakraborty, B.; Ingole, B.S.; Menezes, A.A.A.; Srivastava, R.

    acoustic backscatter strength, grain size, and benthic macro-fauna abundance were demonstrated employing clustering technique (PCA) and Geographic Information System (GIS) based mapping. The clustering analysis delineated that the backscatter values...

  16. NIST Databases on Atomic Spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reader, J.; Wiese, W. L.; Martin, W. C.; Musgrove, A.; Fuhr, J. R.

    2002-11-01

    The NIST atomic and molecular spectroscopic databases now available on the World Wide Web through the NIST Physics Laboratory homepage include Atomic Spectra Database, Ground Levels and Ionization Energies for the Neutral Atoms, Spectrum of Platinum Lamp for Ultraviolet Spectrograph Calibration, Bibliographic Database on Atomic Transition Probabilities, Bibliographic Database on Atomic Spectral Line Broadening, and Electron-Impact Ionization Cross Section Database. The Atomic Spectra Database (ASD) [1] offers evaluated data on energy levels, wavelengths, and transition probabilities for atoms and atomic ions. Data are given for some 950 spectra and 70,000 energy levels. About 91,000 spectral lines are included, with transition probabilities for about half of these. Additional data resulting from our ongoing critical compilations will be included in successive new versions of ASD. We plan to include, for example, our recently published data for some 16,000 transitions covering most ions of the iron-group elements, as well as Cu, Kr, and Mo [2]. Our compilations benefit greatly from experimental and theoretical atomic-data research being carried out in the NIST Atomic Physics Division. A new compilation covering spectra of the rare gases in all stages of ionization, for example, revealed a need for improved data in the infrared. We have thus measured these needed data with our high-resolution Fourier transform spectrometer [3]. An upcoming new database will give wavelengths and intensities for the stronger lines of all neutral and singly-ionized atoms, along with energy levels and transition probabilities for the persistent lines [4]. A critical compilation of the transition probabilities of Ba I and Ba II [5] has been completed and several other compilations of atomic transition probabilities are nearing completion. These include data for all spectra of Na, Mg, Al, and Si [6]. Newly compiled data for selected ions of Ne, Mg, Si and S, will form the basis for a new

  17. Chandrayaan-1 observations of backscattered solar wind protons from the lunar regolith: Dependence on the solar wind speed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lue, Charles; Futaana, Yoshifumi; Barabash, Stas; Wieser, Martin; Bhardwaj, Anil; Wurz, Peter

    2014-05-01

    We study the backscattering of solar wind protons from the lunar regolith using the Solar Wind Monitor of the Sub-keV Atom Reflecting Analyzer on Chandrayaan-1. Our study focuses on the component of the backscattered particles that leaves the regolith with a positive charge. We find that the fraction of the incident solar wind protons that backscatter as protons, i.e., the proton-backscattering efficiency, has an exponential dependence on the solar wind speed that varies from ~0.01% to ~1% for solar wind speeds of 250 km/s to 550 km/s. We also study the speed distribution of the backscattered protons in the fast (~550 km/s) solar wind case and find both a peak speed at ~80% of the solar wind speed and a spread of ~85 km/s. The observed flux variations and speed distribution of the backscattered protons can be explained by a speed-dependent charge state of the backscattered particles.

  18. Effect of suspended particulate-size distribution on the backscattering ratio in the remote sensing of seawater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risović, Dubravko

    2002-11-20

    Mie theory is used to study the influence of the particle-size distribution (PSD) on the backscattering ratio for case 1 and 2 waters. Several in situ measured PSDs from coastal water and the open ocean, representing typical case 2 and 1 waters, were used in this investigation. Calculation of the backscattering ratio requires integration of the PSD over a much broader size range than is usually measured. Consequently extrapolation from fitted data is necessary. To that purpose the measured data are fitted with hyperbolic (Junge) and the two-component model of the PSD. It is shown that the result of extrapolation, hence the backscattering ratio, critically depends on the chosen PSD model. For a particular PSD model the role of submicrometer particles and the applied integration limits on the backscattering ratio is discussed. The use of the hyperbolic PSD model largely overestimates the number of small (submicrometer) particles that significantly contribute to backscattering and consequently leads to an erroneously high backscattering ratio. The two-component model proves to be an adequate PSD model for use in backscattering/scattering calculations providing satisfactory results complying with experimental data. The results are relevant for the inversion of remotely sensed data and the prediction of optical properties and the concentration of phytoplankton pigments, suspended sediment, and yellow substance. PMID:12463257

  19. Novel X-ray backscatter technique for detection of dangerous materials: application to aviation and port security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiological inspections, in general, are the nondestructive testing (NDT) methods to detect the bulk of explosives in large objects. In contrast to personal luggage, cargo or building components constitute a complexity that may significantly hinder the detection of a threat by conventional X-ray transmission radiography. In this article, a novel X-ray backscatter technique is presented for detecting suspicious objects in a densely packed large object with only a single sided access. It consists of an X-ray backscatter camera with a special twisted slit collimator for imaging backscattering objects. The new X-ray backscatter camera is not only imaging the objects based on their densities but also by including the influences of surrounding objects. This unique feature of the X-ray backscatter camera provides new insights in identifying the internal features of the inspected object. Experimental mock-ups were designed imitating containers with threats among a complex packing as they may be encountered in reality. We investigated the dependence of the quality of the X-ray backscatter image on (a) the exposure time, (b) multiple exposures, (c) the distance between object and slit camera, and (d) the width of the slit. At the end, the significant advantages of the presented X-ray backscatter camera in the context of aviation and port security are discussed

  20. Phonon spectra in quantum wires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilić Dušan

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Green's function method, adjusted to bound crystalline structures, was applied to obtain the phonon dispersion law in quantum wires. The condition of the existence of small mechanical atom movements defining phonon spectra can be found by solving the secular equation. This problem was presented graphically for different boundary parameters. The presence of boundaries, as well as the change of boundary parameters, leads to the appearance of new properties of the layered structure. The most important feature is that, beside the allowed energy zones (which are continuous as in the bulk structure, zones of forbidden states appear. Different values of the boundary parameters lead to the appearance of lower and upper energy gaps, or dispersion branches spreading out of the bulk energy zone. The spectra of phonons in corresponding unbound structures were correlated to those in bound structures.