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Sample records for broad tapeworm genus

  1. Tapeworms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgi, J R

    1987-11-01

    Dogs and cats become infected with tapeworms by ingesting intermediate hosts that contain encysted juvenile tapeworms called larvae. The dog or cat is said to be the definitive host because it shelters the sexually reproductive, egg-producing stage of the tapeworm. The intermediate hosts, which are vertebrates in the case of Taenia and Mesocestoides and insects in the case of Dipylidium and Hymenolepis, become infected by ingesting unhatched but infective tapeworm eggs discharged in the feces of the dog or cat. The relatively less common Diphyllobothrium and Spirometra tapeworms discharge eggs that are undeveloped when passed in the feces and must fall into water to undergo development to the coracidium stage. Diphyllobothrium and Spirometra may have two or three aquatic intermediate hosts in series. The first of these, a copepod, ingests the free-swimming coracidium or ciliated oncosphere that has hatched from the egg. The final intermediate host containing the larva (plerocercoid) infective for the dog or cat is an aquatic vertebrate (fish, frog, water snake). Thus, dogs and cats become infected with tapeworms by eating uncooked meat or fish or by ingesting certain insects. These intermediate hosts are infected with juvenile tapeworms called larvae, which are the infective form for the dog or cat. The intermediate hosts, in turn, become infected by ingesting tapeworm eggs discharged in the feces of the dog or cat or, in the case of Diphyllobothrium and Spirometra, by ingesting coracidia that have subsequently developed in and hatched from such eggs. By far the most common tapeworms of dogs and cats in North America are D. caninum, T. pisiformis, and T. hydatigena. Therefore, the most common sources of tapeworm infection are, respectively, fleas, wild rabbits, and the uncooked meat and offal of ruminants and swine. Whenever a dose of tapeworm remedy is administered or dispensed, the client should be informed of these potential sources of reinfection. There is

  2. Tapeworm Infection

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    Diseases and Conditions Tapeworm infection By Mayo Clinic Staff Tapeworm infection is caused by ingesting food or water contaminated with tapeworm eggs or larvae. If you ingest certain tapeworm eggs, they can migrate outside ...

  3. Fish tapeworm infection

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    Fish tapeworm infection is an intestinal infection with the tapeworm parasite found in fish. ... The fish tapeworm ( Diphyllobothrium latum ) is the largest parasite that infects humans. Humans become infected when they eat raw ...

  4. Parasitism by larval tapeworms genus Spirometra in South American amphibians and reptiles: new records from Brazil and Uruguay, and a review of current knowledge in the region.

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    Oda, Fabrício H; Borteiro, Claudio; da Graça, Rodrigo J; Tavares, Luiz Eduardo R; Crampet, Alejandro; Guerra, Vinicius; Lima, Flávia S; Bellay, Sybelle; Karling, Letícia C; Castro, Oscar; Takemoto, Ricardo M; Pavanelli, Gilberto C

    2016-12-01

    Spargana are plerocercoid larvae of cestode tapeworms of the genus Spirometra, Family Diphyllobothriidae, parasitic to frogs, reptiles, birds and mammals. This parasitic disease in humans can be transmitted through the use and consumption of amphibians and reptiles. The available knowledge about Spirometra in South America is scarce, and there are only a few reports on the occurrence of sparganum in amphibians and reptiles, many of them published in old papers not easily available to researchers. In this work we present a review on this topic, provide new records in two species of amphibians and 7 species of reptiles from Brazil and Uruguay respectively. We also summarize current knowledge of Spirometra in the continent, along with an updated of host taxonomy. We could gather from the literature a total of 15 studies about amphibian and reptile hosts, published between 1850 and 2016, corresponding to 43 case reports, mostly from Brazil (29) and Uruguay (8), Argentina (3), Peru (2), and Venezuela (1); the majority of them related to reptiles (five lizards and 26 snake species), and 14 corresponded to amphibians (9 anurans). Plerocercoid larvae were located in different organs of the hosts, such as subcutaneous tissue, coelomic cavity, peritoneum, and musculature. The importance of amphibians and reptiles in the transmission of the disease to humans in South America is discussed. Relevant issues to be studied in the near future are the taxonomic characterization of Spirometra in the region and the biological risk of reptile meat for aboriginal and other rural communities.

  5. Tapeworm infection - beef or pork

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    Teniasis; Pork tapeworm; Beef tapeworm; Tapeworm; Taenia saginata ; Taenia solium ; Taeniasis ... undercooked meat of infected animals. Cattle usually carry Taenia saginata ( T. saginata ). Pigs carry Taenia solium (T. ...

  6. Seussapex, a new genus of lecanicephalidean tapeworm (Platyhelminthes: Cestoda) from the stingray genus Himantura (Myliobatiformes: Dasyatidae) in the Indo-West Pacific with investigation of mode of attachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Kirsten; Russell, Shelbi L

    2014-06-01

    A new lecanicephalidean genus, Seussapex gen. n., is erected for specimens collected from stingrays from the Indo-West Pacific resembling the little known species Tenia [sic] narinari MacCallum, 1917 from the spotted eagle ray, Aetobatus narinari (Euphrasen). Members of this new genus are unique in their possession of a multi-tiered apical structure comprising a bipartite apical modification of the scolex proper, and an externally bipartite apical organ with anterior and posterior glandular compartments internally. The appearance of the scolex varies dramatically depending on state of protrusion and/or evagination of these different parts which appear to be able to function independently. Seussapex karybares sp. n. parasitizing Himantura uarnak 2 (sensu Naylor et al., 2012) in northern Australia is described as the type species and Tenia [sic] narinari is transferred to the new genus. The two species differ in scolex length and width of the posterior dome-shaped portion of the apical organ. Histological sections of scoleces stained using the periodic acid-Schiff(PAS) reaction showed the surface of the anterior part of the apical organ and the anterior glandular compartment to stain PAS positive, suggesting a chemical mode of attachment to the host's intestinal mucosal surface. Extensive collecting efforts of stingrays in the Indo-West Pacific shows Seussapex gen. n. to be restricted to species of Himantura Miller et Henle and suggests additional diversity in this group of hosts. In addition, the host identity of Seussapex narinari (MacCallum, 1917) comb. n. is called into question.

  7. Tapeworm infection - Hymenolepsis

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    ... by 1 of 2 species of tapeworm: Hymenolepis nana or Hymenolepis diminuta . The disease is also called ... bowel, so infection can last for years. Hymenolepis nana infections are much more common than Hymenolepis diminuta ...

  8. Broad-spectrum transgenic resistance against distinct tospovirus species at the genus level.

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    Jui-Chu Peng

    Full Text Available Thrips-borne tospoviruses cause severe damage to crops worldwide. In this investigation, tobacco lines transgenic for individual WLm constructs containing the conserved motifs of the L RNA-encoded RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (L gene of Watermelon silver mottle virus (WSMoV were generated by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. The WLm constructs included: (i translatable WLm in a sense orientation; (ii untranslatable WLmt with two stop codons; (iii untranslatable WLmts with stop codons and a frame-shift; (iv untranslatable antisense WLmA; and (v WLmhp with an untranslatable inverted repeat of WLm containing the tospoviral S RNA 3'-terminal consensus sequence (5'-ATTGCTCT-3' and an NcoI site as a linker to generate a double-stranded hairpin transcript. A total of 46.7-70.0% transgenic tobacco lines derived from individual constructs showed resistance to the homologous WSMoV; 35.7-100% plants of these different WSMoV-resistant lines exhibited broad-spectrum resistance against four other serologically unrelated tospoviruses Tomato spotted wilt virus, Groundnut yellow spot virus, Impatiens necrotic spot virus and Groundnut chlorotic fan-spot virus. The selected transgenic tobacco lines also exhibited broad-spectrum resistance against five additional tospoviruses from WSMoV and Iris yellow spot virus clades, but not against RNA viruses from other genera. Northern analyses indicated that the broad-spectrum resistance is mediated by RNA silencing. To validate the L conserved region resistance in vegetable crops, the constructs were also used to generate transgenic tomato lines, which also showed effective resistance against WSMoV and other tospoviruses. Thus, our approach of using the conserved motifs of tospoviral L gene as a transgene generates broad-spectrum resistance against tospoviruses at the genus level.

  9. A new genus with two new species of lecanicephalidean tapeworms (Cestoda) from the mangrove whipray, Urogymnus granulatus (Myliobatiformes: Dasyatidae),from the Solomon Islands and northern Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herzog, Kaylee S; Jensen, Kirsten

    2017-02-06

    A new lecanicephalidean genus is erected for cestodes previously recognised as "New Genus 12" (Polypocephalidae) in a phylogenetic analysis of the interrelationship of members of this order. Examination of the cestode fauna of the mangrove whipray, Urogymnus granulatus (Macleay) (Myliobatiformes: Dasyatidae) from the Solomon Islands and northern Australia revealed the existence of specimens representing two new species, consistent in morphology with "New Genus 12." Corollapex gen. n. is unique among the 24 valid lecanicephalidean genera in its possession of an apical organ in the form of an external retractable central disk surrounded by eight concave muscular, membrane-bound pads and an internal heterogeneous glandular component. The two new species described herein, Corollapex cairae sp. n. (type species) and Corollapex tingoi sp. n., differ from one another in overall size and number of mature and immature proglottids, and are noted to demonstrate a differential distribution between mature and juvenile host individuals. Additional species diversity in the new genus, beyond C. cairae sp. n., C. tingoi sp. n., and "New Genus 12 n. sp. 1" of Jensen et al. (2016) is suggested. Corollapex gen. n. appears to be restricted to dasyatid hosts in the Indo-West Pacific region.

  10. A REVIEW ON DIARRHOEA CAUSING HYMENOLEPIS NANA-DWARF TAPEWORM

    OpenAIRE

    Nazim Kanwal; Baig Mirza Tasawer; Haider Syeda Sadaf; Shah Muhammad Ajmal; Sherwani Sikander Khan

    2013-01-01

    Hymenolepis nana, the ‘dwarf tapeworm,’ is the smallest tapeworm found in the intestines of broad range of dogs, rats and humans. It is frequently in children than in adults. Although, the parasite has a wide distribution particularly more prevalent in warm areas. It exists in many parts of the world in Egypt, Sudan Portugal, Spain, Sicily, India, Japan, South America, Cuba and parts of Eastern Europe. The transmission of H. nana is mainly via anus to mouth and owing to this; the infection is...

  11. Dipylidium (Dog and Cat Flea Tapeworm) FAQs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the most common kind of tapeworm dogs and cats get? The most common tapeworm of dogs and cats in the United States is called Dipylidium caninum . ... infected with a tapeworm larvae. A dog or cat may swallow a flea while self-grooming. Once ...

  12. A REVIEW ON DIARRHOEA CAUSING HYMENOLEPIS NANA-DWARF TAPEWORM

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    Nazim Kanwal

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Hymenolepis nana, the ‘dwarf tapeworm,’ is the smallest tapeworm found in the intestines of broad range of dogs, rats and humans. It is frequently in children than in adults. Although, the parasite has a wide distribution particularly more prevalent in warm areas. It exists in many parts of the world in Egypt, Sudan Portugal, Spain, Sicily, India, Japan, South America, Cuba and parts of Eastern Europe. The transmission of H. nana is mainly via anus to mouth and owing to this; the infection is very common in children. The incidence of infection in humans ranges from less 1% to 25 %. Infection consists of a few worms but occasionally large numbers of worms are present in an individual. Diagnosis is usually based on finding eggs in stool specimens. The infection can be prevented by observing strict personal hygiene and good sanitation, killing of rats and mice and by treatment of infected persons with a suitable taenicide such as niclosamide.

  13. First record of the invasive Asian fish tapeworm Bothriocephalus acheilognathi in Honduras, Central America

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    Salgado-Maldonado Guillermo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides the first report of the invasive Asian fish tapeworm, Bothriocephalus acheilognathi Yamaguti, 1934, in Honduras. The cestode was found in Profundulus portillorum (Cyprinodontiformes: Profundulidae, which represents a new host record, and which is a member of a genus faced with a variety of conservation challenges, now potentially complicated by the presence of this pathogenic cestode. Nearly complete sequence data from the ITS-1 5.8S and ITS-2 regions corroborate the determination based on morphological characteristics. Several species of carp were introduced to Honduras for aquaculture purposes in the early 1980s and the presence of the Asian fish tapeworm in Honduras may be related to these introductions. In addition, this report documents the currently known geographical distribution of this parasite in Central America, first recorded from Panamá and now from Honduras.

  14. First record of the invasive Asian fish tapeworm Bothriocephalus acheilognathi in Honduras, Central America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salgado-Maldonado, Guillermo; Matamoros, Wilfredo A; Kreiser, Brian R; Caspeta-Mandujano, Juan Manuel; Mendoza-Franco, Edgar F

    2015-01-01

    This paper provides the first report of the invasive Asian fish tapeworm, Bothriocephalus acheilognathi Yamaguti, 1934, in Honduras. The cestode was found in Profundulus portillorum (Cyprinodontiformes: Profundulidae), which represents a new host record, and which is a member of a genus faced with a variety of conservation challenges, now potentially complicated by the presence of this pathogenic cestode. Nearly complete sequence data from the ITS-1 5.8S and ITS-2 regions corroborate the determination based on morphological characteristics. Several species of carp were introduced to Honduras for aquaculture purposes in the early 1980s and the presence of the Asian fish tapeworm in Honduras may be related to these introductions. In addition, this report documents the currently known geographical distribution of this parasite in Central America, first recorded from Panamá and now from Honduras.

  15. Cryptic diversity in hymenolepidid tapeworms infecting humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nkouawa, Agathe; Haukisalmi, Voitto; Li, Tiaoying; Nakao, Minoru; Lavikainen, Antti; Chen, Xingwang; Henttonen, Heikki; Ito, Akira

    2016-04-01

    An adult hymenolepidid tapeworm was recovered from a 52-year-old Tibetan woman during a routine epidemiological survey for human taeniasis/cysticercosis in Sichuan, China. Phylogenetic analyses based on sequences of nuclear 28S ribosomal DNA and mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 showed that the human isolate is distinct from Hymenolepis diminuta and Hymenolepis nana, the common parasites causing human hymenolepiasis. Proglottids of the human isolate were unfortunately unsuitable for morphological identification. However, the resultant phylogeny demonstrated the human isolate to be a sister species to Hymenolepis hibernia from Apodemus mice in Eurasia. The present data clearly indicate that hymenolepidid tapeworms causing human infections are not restricted to only H. diminuta and H. nana.

  16. Efficacy of fenbendazole against tapeworms in calves.

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    Ciordia, H; Stuedemann, J A; McCampbell, H C

    1983-06-01

    Forty-five commercial-grade Angus calves naturally infected with tapeworms (Moniezia sp) were used in 2 controlled experiments to evaluate the cestocidal efficacy of 3 dosage levels of fenbendazole, methyl-5-(phenylthio) -2-benzimidazolecarbamate. In the 1st trial, 15 calves were divided into 3 groups of 5 each. One group served as nonmedicated controls. Other groups were drenched with fenbendazole at dosage rates of 10 and 15 mg/kg of body weight. Thirty calves used in the 2nd experiment were divided into 3 equal groups. One group served as nonmedicated controls and the other 2 groups were drenched at dosage rates of 7.5 and 10 mg/kg. Calves were necropsied 13 days after treatment. Doses of 10 and 15 mg/kg were 100% efficacious in reducing the number of tapeworm scolices, and a dose of 7.5 mg/kg was 91.7% effective. Signs of toxicosis were not observed in medicated cattle from time of treatment to necropsy.

  17. Tapeworm identification in the fat sand rat (Psammomys obesus obesus).

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    Gruber, H E; Johnson, T L; Kinsella, J M; Greiner, E C; Gordon, B E

    2001-11-01

    The identification of a tapeworm (Rodentolepis nana, formerly named Hymenolepis nana) infection in a research breeding colony of sand rats (Psammomys obesus obesus) was complicated because of the unexpected long length (nana had been reported, thus supporting the final identification of the tapeworm. R. nana is important and interesting because of its zoonotic potential and because it is the only tapeworm that is able to infect its definitive host without use of an intermediate host. This report is presented to help clarify the ambiguity found in the laboratory animal literature about the differences in the size of R. nana among rodent species used in research.

  18. New genus and species of broad-nosed weevils from Baltic amber and notes on fossils of the subfamily Entiminae (Coleoptera, Curculionidae

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    Nikolai Yunakov

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Arostropsis groehni gen. et sp. n. is described from Baltic amber and temporarily placed in the tribe Naupactini. It differs from all recent Naupactini genera with open corbels by very short and flattened scape, distinct lateral carina of the pronotum and elytra, and the rostrum distinctly narrower than the head capsule. The shape of head in the extinct genus is somewhat similar to that of the extant Naupactini genera with enclosed corbels (Platyomus Sahlberg, 1823 and Aptolemus Schoenherr, 1842, but differs in the slender body, open corbels, very short antennal scape and epifrons without a median sulcus (only a longitudinal depression is slightly visible. It is also similar to the Tanymecine genus Pandeleteius Schoenherr, 1834 in general appearance, but distinct by the straight anterior edge of the pronotum, lack of postocular spurs, lobes, and vibrissae, a slightly sloping elytral declivity, lateral ridges on the pronotum, subflattened antennal scape, elongate rostrum, and sparsely setose epistome. A new synonymy of the generic names Protonaupactus Zherikhin, 1971 and Sucinophyllobius Wanat & Borowiec, 1986, syn. n., is established. The Madagascan genus Corecaulus Fairmaire, 1903 is transferred from the tribe Naupactini to the Brachyderini because of its connate claws and the similarity in chaetotaxy of the epistomal area with African and Madagascar Brachyderini genera. A key to the identification of known Baltic amber genera of Entiminae is proposed. A checklist of the prepleistocene fossil Entiminae, based on V.V. Zherikhin’s data, with remarks and corrections, is presented.

  19. Taenia solium tapeworms synthesize corticosteroids and sex steroids in vitro.

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    Valdez, R A; Jiménez, P; Fernández Presas, A M; Aguilar, L; Willms, K; Romano, M C

    2014-09-01

    Cysticercosis is a disease caused by the larval stage of Taenia solium cestodes that belongs to the family Taeniidae that affects a number of hosts including humans. Taeniids tapeworms are hermaphroditic organisms that have reproductive units called proglottids that gradually mature to develop testis and ovaries. Cysticerci, the larval stage of these parasites synthesize steroids. To our knowledge there is no information about the capacity of T. solium tapeworms to metabolize progesterone or other precursors to steroid hormones. Therefore, the aim of this paper was to investigate if T. solium tapeworms were able to transform steroid precursors to corticosteroids and sex steroids. T. solium tapeworms were recovered from the intestine of golden hamsters that had been orally infected with cysticerci. The worms were cultured in the presence of tritiated progesterone or androstenedione. At the end of the experiments the culture media were analyzed by thin layer chromatography. The experiments described here showed that small amounts of testosterone were synthesized from (3)H-progesterone by complete or segmented tapeworms whereas the incubation of segmented tapeworms with (3)H-androstenedione, instead of (3)H-progesterone, improved their capacity to synthesize testosterone. In addition, the incubation of the parasites with (3)H-progesterone yielded corticosteroids, mainly deoxicorticosterone (DOC) and 11-deoxicortisol. In summary, the results described here, demonstrate that T. solium tapeworms synthesize corticosteroid and sex steroid like metabolites. The capacity of T. solium tapeworms to synthesize steroid hormones may contribute to the physiological functions of the parasite and also to their interaction with the host.

  20. Cytogenetics and chromosomes of tapeworms (Platyhelminthes, Cestoda).

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    Spakulová, Marta; Orosová, Martina; Mackiewicz, John S

    2011-01-01

    Tapeworms (Cestoda, Platyhelminthes) are a highly diversified group of parasites that can have significant veterinary importance as well as medical impact as disease agents of human alveococcosis, hydatidosis, taeniosis/cysticercosis/neurocysticercosis, hymenolepidosis or diphyllobothriasis. Because of their great diversity, there has been keen interest in their phylogenetic relationships to other obligate parasitic platyhelminthes, as well as within the group itself. Recent phylogenetic analyses of cestodes, however, have focused on morphological, molecular, life cycle, embryology and host-specificity features and conspicuously omitted inclusion of karyological data. Here we review the literature from 1907 to 2010 and the current status of knowledge of the chromosomes and cytogenetics within all of the cestode orders and place it within an evolutionary perspective. Karyological data are discussed and tabulated for 115 species from nine eucestode orders with ideograms of 46 species, and a comparison of cytogenetic patterns between acetabulate and bothriate cestode lineages is made. Attention is drawn to gaps in our knowledge for seven remaining orders and cestodarian groups Gyrocotylidea and Amphilinidea. Among the cytogenetic aspects covered are: chromosome number, triploidy, classical karyotype cytogenetics (banding patterns, karyotype asymmetry, secondary constrictions), as well as advanced karyotype techniques allowing location of genes on chromosomes by fluorescence in situ hybridization. We demonstrate that further progress in cestode karyosystematics rests with new molecular approaches and the application of advanced cytogenetic markers facilitating intimate karyotype analysis.

  1. The genomes of four tapeworm species reveal adaptations to parasitism.

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    Tsai, Isheng J; Zarowiecki, Magdalena; Holroyd, Nancy; Garciarrubio, Alejandro; Sanchez-Flores, Alejandro; Brooks, Karen L; Tracey, Alan; Bobes, Raúl J; Fragoso, Gladis; Sciutto, Edda; Aslett, Martin; Beasley, Helen; Bennett, Hayley M; Cai, Jianping; Camicia, Federico; Clark, Richard; Cucher, Marcela; De Silva, Nishadi; Day, Tim A; Deplazes, Peter; Estrada, Karel; Fernández, Cecilia; Holland, Peter W H; Hou, Junling; Hu, Songnian; Huckvale, Thomas; Hung, Stacy S; Kamenetzky, Laura; Keane, Jacqueline A; Kiss, Ferenc; Koziol, Uriel; Lambert, Olivia; Liu, Kan; Luo, Xuenong; Luo, Yingfeng; Macchiaroli, Natalia; Nichol, Sarah; Paps, Jordi; Parkinson, John; Pouchkina-Stantcheva, Natasha; Riddiford, Nick; Rosenzvit, Mara; Salinas, Gustavo; Wasmuth, James D; Zamanian, Mostafa; Zheng, Yadong; Cai, Xuepeng; Soberón, Xavier; Olson, Peter D; Laclette, Juan P; Brehm, Klaus; Berriman, Matthew

    2013-04-01

    Tapeworms (Cestoda) cause neglected diseases that can be fatal and are difficult to treat, owing to inefficient drugs. Here we present an analysis of tapeworm genome sequences using the human-infective species Echinococcus multilocularis, E. granulosus, Taenia solium and the laboratory model Hymenolepis microstoma as examples. The 115- to 141-megabase genomes offer insights into the evolution of parasitism. Synteny is maintained with distantly related blood flukes but we find extreme losses of genes and pathways that are ubiquitous in other animals, including 34 homeobox families and several determinants of stem cell fate. Tapeworms have specialized detoxification pathways, metabolism that is finely tuned to rely on nutrients scavenged from their hosts, and species-specific expansions of non-canonical heat shock proteins and families of known antigens. We identify new potential drug targets, including some on which existing pharmaceuticals may act. The genomes provide a rich resource to underpin the development of urgently needed treatments and control.

  2. The Hamster Model for Identification of Specific Antigens of Taenia solium Tapeworms

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    Alicia Ochoa-Sánchez

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Humans acquire taeniasis by ingesting pork meat infected with Taenia solium cysticerci, which are the only definitive hosts of the adult stage (tapeworm and responsible for transmitting the human and porcine cysticercosis. Hence, detection of human tapeworm carriers is a key element in the development of viable strategies to control the disease. This paper presents the identification of specific antigens using sera from hamsters infected with T. solium tapeworms analyzed by western blot assay with crude extracts (CEs and excretion-secretion antigens (E/S Ag obtained from T. solium cysticerci and tapeworms and extracts from other helminthes as controls. The hamster sera infected with T. solium tapeworms recognized specific bands of 72, 48, 36, and 24 kDa, in percentages of 81, 81, 90, and 88%, respectively, using the T. solium tapeworms E/S Ag. The antigens recognized by these hamster sera could be candidates to improve diagnosis of human T. solium taeniasis.

  3. Immunohistochemical localization of sex hormone receptors in two Raillietina tapeworms.

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    Chen, L; Sun, Y M; Mu, L; Zeng, Y; Li, H Y; Yang, T H

    2017-03-08

    Sex hormone receptors play critical roles in development and reproduction. However, it is not known whether they exist in Raillietina tapeworms, and if they do, whether they have a similar function to that in vertebrates. We examined the immunohistochemical distributions of androgen receptors (ARs), estrogen receptors (ERs), and progesterone receptors (PRs) in the tissues of two tapeworm species: Raillietina echinobothrida and Raillietina tetragona. Immunopositive ARs were found in the entire reproductive system of R. echinobothrida, including the testes, ovaries, and oocysts, and weakly immunopositive ERs and PRs were found in the testes, ovaries, and oocysts. Immunopositive ARs were also found throughout the entire reproductive system of R. tetragona, including the testes, ovaries, and oocysts, and weakly immunopositive ERs were in the testes and oocysts; the PRs were distributed in an immunonegative manner. The results show that androgens and their receptors play critical roles in reproductive system development in the two tapeworms. The immunoreactivity and tissue localizations of the sex hormone receptors suggest that, in both species, they have similar functions as in vertebrates, and modulate reproduction.

  4. Notes from the field: identification of a Taenia tapeworm carrier - Los Angeles County, 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croker, Curtis; Soriano, Jan; Civen, Rachel; Larsen, Robert A; Schwartz, Benjamin

    2015-01-30

    Carriers of the pork tapeworm, Taenia solium, are the sole source of cysticercosis, a parasitic tissue infection. When tapeworm eggs excreted by the carrier are ingested, tapeworm larvae can form cysts. When cysts form in the brain, the condition is called neurocysticercosis and can be especially severe. In Los Angeles County an average of 136 county residents are hospitalized with neurocysticercosis each year. The prevalence of Taenia solium carriage is largely unknown because carriage is asymptomatic, making detection difficult. The identification and treatment of tapeworm carriers is an important public health measure that can prevent additional neurocysticercosis cases.

  5. A confocal microscopy-based atlas of tissue architecture in the tapeworm Hymenolepis diminuta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozario, Tania; Newmark, Phillip A

    2015-11-01

    Tapeworms are pervasive and globally distributed parasites that infect millions of humans and livestock every year, and are the causative agents of two of the 17 neglected tropical diseases prioritized by the World Health Organization. Studies of tapeworm biology and pathology are often encumbered by the complex life cycles of disease-relevant tapeworm species that infect hosts such as foxes, dogs, cattle, pigs, and humans. Thus, studies of laboratory models can help overcome the practical, ethical, and cost-related difficulties faced by tapeworm parasitologists. The rat intestinal tapeworm Hymenolepis diminuta is easily reared in the laboratory and has the potential to enable modern molecular-based experiments that will greatly contribute to our understanding of multiple aspects of tapeworm biology, such as growth and reproduction. As part of our efforts to develop molecular tools for experiments on H. diminuta, we have characterized a battery of lectins, antibodies, and common stains that label different tapeworm tissues and organ structures. Using confocal microscopy, we have assembled an "atlas" of H. diminuta organ architecture that will be a useful resource for helminthologists. The methodologies we describe will facilitate characterization of loss-of-function perturbations using H. diminuta. This toolkit will enable a greater understanding of fundamental tapeworm biology that may elucidate new therapeutic targets toward the eradication of these parasites.

  6. Definitive Hosts of Versteria Tapeworms (Cestoda: Taeniidae) Causing Fatal Infection in North America

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    We previously reported fatal infection of a captive Bornean orangutan with metacestodes of a novel taeniid tapeworm, Versteria sp. New data implicate mustelids as definitive hosts of these tapeworms in North America. At least 2 parasite genetic lineages circulate in North America, representing separate introductions from Eurasia.

  7. Sushi Lovers, Beware: Tapeworm Now Found in U.S. Salmon

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... his team has confirmed that the tapeworm is present in wild pink salmon from the Alaskan Pacific. The findings are published in the February issue of the CDC's journal Emerging Infectious Diseases . The risk of contracting the tapeworm from your sushi is low -- but it exists, said Dr. ...

  8. Tapeworm Diphyllobothrium dendriticum (Cestoda--neglected or emerging human parasite?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman Kuchta

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A total number of 14 valid species of Diphyllobothrium tapeworms have been described in literature to be capable of causing diphyllobothriosis, with D. latum being the major causative agent of all human infections. However, recent data indicate that some of these infections, especially when diagnosed solely on the basis of morphology, have been identified with this causative agent incorrectly, confusing other Diphyllobothrium species with D. latum. Another widely distributed species, D. dendriticum, has never been considered as a frequent parasite of man, even though it is found commonly throughout arctic and subarctic regions parasitizing piscivorous birds and mammals. Recent cases of Europeans infected with this cestode called into question the actual geographic distribution of this tapeworm, largely ignored by medical parasitologists. METHODOLOGY AND RESULTS: On the basis of revision of more than 900 available references and a description and revision of recent European human cases using morphological and molecular (cox1 data supplemented by newly characterized D. dendriticum sequences, we updated the current knowledge of the life-cycle, geographic distribution, epidemiological status, and molecular diagnostics of this emerging causal agent of zoonotic disease of man. CONCLUSIONS: The tapeworm D. dendriticum represents an example of a previously neglected, probably underdiagnosed parasite of man with a potential to spread globally. Recent cases of diphyllobothriosis caused by D. dendriticum in Europe (Netherlands, Switzerland and Czech Republic, where the parasite has not been reported previously, point out that causative agents of diphyllobothriosis and other zoonoses can be imported throughout the world. Molecular tools should be used for specific and reliable parasite diagnostics, and also rare or non-native species should be considered. This will considerably help improve our knowledge of the distribution and epidemiology of

  9. Immunogenicity and phylogenetic relationship of tapeworm antigens produced by Hymenolepis nana and Hymenolepis diminuta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, R. M.; Carty, Janice M.; Graziadei, W. D.

    1968-01-01

    The tapeworms Hymenolepis nana and H. diminuta share three major antigens in the cell sap. Two of these show identical specificity while the third exhibits common as well as uncommon determinants peculiar to the dwarf tapeworm, H. nana. Shared antigens are not, however, immunogenic during infection of mice with the dwarf tapeworm although there is a well defined response to specific antigens. On the other hand infection of rats with H. diminuta elicits a weak response yielding serum antibodies which cross-react with the dwarf tapeworm. Cross-reactive antibodies engendered in rabbits against worm homogenates are insensitive to mercaptoethanol treatment whereas non-cross-reactive antibodies present at 3 weeks post-infection with the dwarf tapeworm are primarily IgM globulins. The rapid formation and subsequent release of these antigens may relate to a persistence of immunogenicity. Antibody levels reach a peak after a 4-week period of infection and the drop in titre observed at 6 weeks is preceded by a reduction in worm load. Resistance to infection following artificial immunization with worm homogenates is consistent with that developed as a result of actual infection with the dwarf tapeworm. Over one-half of mice immunized did not become infected following challenge with ova. Worm loads of mice that did become infected were reduced to approximately 1 per cent that of non-immunized animals. PMID:5673286

  10. What is the genus?

    CERN Document Server

    Popescu-Pampu, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    Exploring several of the evolutionary branches of the mathematical notion of genus, this book traces the idea from its prehistory in problems of integration, through algebraic curves and their associated Riemann surfaces, into algebraic surfaces, and finally into higher dimensions. Its importance in analysis, algebraic geometry, number theory and topology is emphasized through many theorems. Almost every chapter is organized around excerpts from a research paper in which a new perspective was brought on the genus or on one of the objects to which this notion applies. The author was motivated by the belief that a subject may best be understood and communicated by studying its broad lines of development, feeling the way one arrives at the definitions of its fundamental notions, and appreciating the amount of effort spent in order to explore its phenomena.

  11. Thaumasioscolex didelphidis n. gen., n. sp. (Eucestoda: Proteocephalidae) from the black-eared opossum Didelphis marsupialis from Mexico, the first proteocephalidean tapeworm from a mammal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cañeda-Guzmán, I C; de Chambrier, A; Scholz, T

    2001-06-01

    Thaumasioscolex didelphidis n. gen., n. sp. is described from the intestine of the black-eared opossum Didelphis marsupialis L. (Marsupialia: Didelphidae) from Los Tuxtlas, Veracruz, Mexico. The new genus differs from all proteocephalidean genera in the morphology of the scolex that is formed by 4 well separated lobes each containing 1 noncircular sucker opening laterally inside the exterolateral cavity, a large-sized body (length up to 1 m), a large number of testes, the shape of gravid proglottids that are inversely craspedote (the anterior border of a proglottid overlaps the posterior border of a preceding proglottid), eggs in groups mostly of 4-6 eggs each, and an embryophore bearing digitiform projections on its external surface. This is the first tapeworm of the Proteocephalidea, the members of which were previously reported exclusively from poikilotherm vertebrates (freshwater fishes, amphibians, and reptiles), found in a homoiotherm vertebrate.

  12. Tapeworm Eggs in a 270 Million-Year-Old Shark Coprolite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dentzien-Dias, Paula C.; Poinar, George; de Figueiredo, Ana Emilia Q.; Pacheco, Ana Carolina L.; Horn, Bruno L. D.; Schultz, Cesar L.

    2013-01-01

    Remains of parasites in vertebrates are rare from the Mesozoic and Paleozoic. Once most parasites that live in – or pass through – the gastrointestinal tract of vertebrates, fossil feces (coprolites) or even intestinal contents (enterolites) can eventually preserve their remains. Here we announce the discovery of a spiral shark coprolite from the Paleozoic bearing a cluster of 93 small oval-elliptical smooth-shelled structures, interpreted as eggs of a tapeworm.The eggs were found in a thin section of an elasmobranch coprolite. Most of the eggs are filled by pyrite and some have a special polar swelling (operculum), suggesting they are non-erupted eggs. One of the eggs contains a probable developing larva. The eggs are approximately 145–155 µm in length and 88–100 µm in width and vary little in size within the cluster. The depositional and morphological features of the eggs closely resemble those of cestodes. Not only do the individual eggs have features of extant tapeworms, but their deposition all together in an elongate segment is typical to modern tapeworm eggs deposited in mature segments (proglottids). This is the earliest fossil record of tapeworm parasitism of vertebrates and establishes a timeline for the evolution of cestodes. This discovery shows that the fossil record of vertebrate intestinal parasites is much older than was hitherto known and that the interaction between tapeworms and vertebrates occurred at least since the Middle-Late Permian. PMID:23383033

  13. Phylogenetic relationships within Echinococcus and Taenia tapeworms (Cestoda: Taeniidae): an inference from nuclear protein-coding genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapp, Jenny; Nakao, Minoru; Yanagida, Tetsuya; Okamoto, Munehiro; Saarma, Urmas; Lavikainen, Antti; Ito, Akira

    2011-12-01

    The family Taeniidae of tapeworms is composed of two genera, Echinococcus and Taenia, which obligately parasitize mammals including humans. Inferring phylogeny via molecular markers is the only way to trace back their evolutionary histories. However, molecular dating approaches are lacking so far. Here we established new markers from nuclear protein-coding genes for RNA polymerase II second largest subunit (rpb2), phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (pepck) and DNA polymerase delta (pold). Bayesian inference and maximum likelihood analyses of the concatenated gene sequences allowed us to reconstruct phylogenetic trees for taeniid parasites. The tree topologies clearly demonstrated that Taenia is paraphyletic and that the clade of Echinococcus oligarthrus and Echinococcusvogeli is sister to all other members of Echinococcus. Both species are endemic in Central and South America, and their definitive hosts originated from carnivores that immigrated from North America after the formation of the Panamanian land bridge about 3 million years ago (Ma). A time-calibrated phylogeny was estimated by a Bayesian relaxed-clock method based on the assumption that the most recent common ancestor of E. oligarthrus and E. vogeli existed during the late Pliocene (3.0 Ma). The results suggest that a clade of Taenia including human-pathogenic species diversified primarily in the late Miocene (11.2 Ma), whereas Echinococcus started to diversify later, in the end of the Miocene (5.8 Ma). Close genetic relationships among the members of Echinococcus imply that the genus is a young group in which speciation and global radiation occurred rapidly.

  14. Lanfrediella amphicirrus gen. nov. sp. nov. Nematotaeniidae (Cestoda: Cyclophyllidea, a tapeworm parasite of Rhinella marina (Linnaeus, 1758 (Amphibia: Bufonidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Tiago de Vasconcelos Melo

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The family Nematotaeniidae, tapeworms commonly found in the small intestines of amphibians and reptiles, includes 27 recognised species distributed among four genera: Bitegmen Jones, Cylindrotaenia Jewell, Distoichometra Dickey and Nematotaenia Lühe. The taxonomy of these cestodes is poorly defined, due in part to the difficulties of observing many anatomical traits. This study presents and describes a new genus and species of nematotaeniid parasite found in cane toads (Rhinella marina from eastern Brazilian Amazonia. The cestodes were collected during the necropsy of 20 hosts captured in the urban area of Belém, Pará. The specimens were fixed and processed for light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM and three-dimensional (3D reconstruction. Samples were also collected for molecular analyses. The specimens presented a cylindrical body, two testes and paruterine organs. However, they could not be allocated to any of the four existing nematotaeniid genera due to the presence of two each of dorsal compact medullary testes, cirri, cirrus pouches, genital pores, ovaries and vitelline glands per mature segment. Lanfrediella amphicirrus gen. nov. sp. nov. is the first nematotaeniid studied using Historesin analysis, SEM and 3D reconstruction, and it is the second taxon for which molecular data have been deposited in GenBank.

  15. The invasive fish tapeworm Atractolytocestus huronensis (Cestoda), a parasite of carp, colonises Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholz, Tomáš; Tavakol, Sareh; Halajian, Ali; Luus-Powell, Wilmien J

    2015-09-01

    Biological invasions represent a serious threat for aquaculture because many of introduced parasites may negatively affect the health state of feral and cultured fish. In the present account, the invasive tapeworm Atractolytocestus huronensis Anthony, 1958 (Cestoda: Caryophyllidea), which was originally described from North America and has been introduced to Europe including the British Isles with its specific host, common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.), is reported from Africa for the first time. Its recent introduction to South Africa, where it was found in four localities where common carp is cultured, is another evidence of insufficient prophylactic measures and inadequate veterinary control during transfers of cultured fish, especially common carp, between continents. Together with the Asian fish tapeworm, Bothriocephalus acheilognathi, A. huronensis is another fish tapeworm with ability to spread throughout the globe as a result of man-made introductions of its fish hosts.

  16. Geographic correlation between tapeworm carriers and heavily infected cysticercotic pigs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seth E O'Neal

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Neurocysticercosis is a leading cause of preventable epilepsy in the developing world. Sustainable community-based interventions are urgently needed to control transmission of the causative parasite, Taenia solium. We examined the geospatial relationship between live pigs with visible cysticercotic cysts on their tongues and humans with adult intestinal tapeworm infection (taeniasis in a rural village in northern Peru. The objective was to determine whether tongue-positive pigs could indicate high-risk geographic foci for taeniasis to guide targeted screening efforts. This approach could offer significant benefit compared to mass intervention. METHODS: We recorded geographic coordinates of all village houses, collected stool samples from all consenting villagers, and collected blood and examined tongues of all village pigs. Stool samples were processed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA for presence of Taenia sp. coproantigens indicative of active taeniasis; serum was processed by enzyme-linked immunoelectrotransfer blot for antibodies against T. solium cysticercosis (EITB LLGP and T. solium taeniasis (EITB rES33. FINDINGS: Of 548 pigs, 256 (46.7% were positive for antibodies against cysticercosis on EITB LLGP. Of 402 fecal samples, 6 (1.5% were positive for the presence of Taenia sp. coproantigens. The proportion of coproantigen-positive individuals differed significantly between residents living within 100-meters of a tongue-positive pig (4/79, 5.1% and residents living >100 meters from a tongue-positive pig (2/323, 0.6% (p = 0.02. The prevalence of taeniasis was >8 times higher among residents living within 100 meters of a tongue-positive pig compared to residents living outside this range (adjusted PR 8.1, 95% CI 1.4-47.0. CONCLUSIONS: Tongue-positive pigs in endemic communities can indicate geospatial foci in which the risk for taeniasis is increased. Targeted screening or presumptive treatment for taeniasis within

  17. The complete mitochondrial genome of the dwarf tapeworm Hymenolepis nana--a neglected zoonotic helminth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Tian; Liu, Guo-Hua; Song, Hui-Qun; Lin, Rui-Qing; Zhu, Xing-Quan

    2016-03-01

    Hymenolepis nana, commonly known as the dwarf tapeworm, is one of the most common tapeworms of humans and rodents and can cause hymenolepiasis. Although this zoonotic tapeworm is of socio-economic significance in many countries of the world, its genetics, systematics, epidemiology, and biology are poorly understood. In the present study, we sequenced and characterized the complete mitochondrial (mt) genome of H. nana. The mt genome is 13,764 bp in size and encodes 36 genes, including 12 protein-coding genes, 2 ribosomal RNA, and 22 transfer RNA genes. All genes are transcribed in the same direction. The gene order and genome content are completely identical with their congener Hymenolepis diminuta. Phylogenetic analyses based on concatenated amino acid sequences of 12 protein-coding genes by Bayesian inference, Maximum likelihood, and Maximum parsimony showed the division of class Cestoda into two orders, supported the monophylies of both the orders Cyclophyllidea and Pseudophyllidea. Analyses of mt genome sequences also support the monophylies of the three families Taeniidae, Hymenolepididae, and Diphyllobothriidae. This novel mt genome provides a useful genetic marker for studying the molecular epidemiology, systematics, and population genetics of the dwarf tapeworm and should have implications for the diagnosis, prevention, and control of hymenolepiasis in humans.

  18. Cerebellar cysticercosis caused by larval Taenia crassiceps tapeworm in immunocompetent woman, Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ntoukas, Vasileios; Tappe, Dennis; Pfütze, Daniel; Simon, Michaela; Holzmann, Thomas

    2013-12-01

    Human cysticercosis caused by Taenia crassiceps tapeworm larvae involves the muscles and subcutis mostly in immunocompromised patients and the eye in immunocompetent persons. We report a successfully treated cerebellar infection in an immunocompetent woman. We developed serologic tests, and the parasite was identified by histologic examination and 12s rDNA PCR and sequencing.

  19. Genetics of the pig tapeworm in Madagascar reveal a history of human dispersal and colonization

    Science.gov (United States)

    An intricate history of human dispersal and geographic colonization has strongly affected the distribution of obligate parasites circulating among people. Among these parasites, the pig tapeworm Taenia solium occurs throughout the world as the causative agent of cysticercosis, one of the most serio...

  20. Data on the prevalence of tapeworm infestations in horses in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borgsteede, F.H.M.; Beek, van G.

    1996-01-01

    The prevalence of tapeworm infestations was investigated in 70 horses slaughtered in the period February 1994 - July 1994. Most horses were half-breed, young (1.5 - 3 years), and in good condition. They were bought for slaughter by dealers on local markets, and their treatment history was therefore

  1. Novel praziquantel treatment regime for controlling Asian tapeworm infections in pond-reared fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iles, Alison C.; Archdeacon, Thomas P.; Bonar, Scott A.

    2012-01-01

    The Asian tapeworm Bothriocephalus achelognathii is an intestinal fish parasite that is nonnative to but widespread throughout the southwestern United States. Praziquantel is an anthelminthic drug commonly used to treat fish for Asian tapeworm; however, it does not kill tapeworm eggs, so the water in ponds used for fish rearing must be exchanged after treatment. Our objective was to determine whether a system containing both an intermediate copepod host and a definitive fish host for Asian tapeworm could be treated without exchanging the water by using a follow-up treatment for any tapeworms that developed from eggs released before or during the first treatment. Here, we have described a new praziquantel treatment regimen to control Asian tapeworm infections in freshwater-reared fish. To evaluate the efficacy of this regimen, we stocked 50 red shiners Cyprinella lutrensis and an intermediate copepod host, Cyclops vernalis, into each of six pond mesocosms containing artificial macrophytes, sand, and gravel to simulate natural pools and provide suitable substrate for the copepod's life history. The test fish population had been naturally infected with B. achelognathii and had an initial infection prevalence of 14% and an infection intensity of 2.14 ± 2.19 (mean ± SD) worms per fish. Three mesocosms were treated twice, each with 2.5 mg/L praziquantel; 19 d passed between treatments to allow for possible reinfection to occur. After a 2.5-month posttreatment period to allow any remaining tapeworms to reestablish themselves, we killed and dissected all of the remaining fish. No worms were found in treated fish; however, the control group had an infection prevalence of 18 ± 6% and an infection intensity of 3.45 ± 2.1 worms per fish. Based on these results, we concluded that the praziquantel treatment regime administered was efficacious and suggest testing it on a larger scale. We caution that praziquantel has not been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration

  2. Insights using a molecular approach into the life cycle of a tapeworm infecting great white sharks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randhawa, Haseeb S

    2011-04-01

    The great white shark Carcharodon carcharias Linnaeus, 1758 is a versatile and fierce predator (and responsible for many shark attacks on humans). This apex predator feeds on a wide range of organisms including teleosts, other elasmobranchs, cephalopods, pinnipeds, and cetaceans. Although much is known about its diet, no trophic links have been empirically identified as being involved in the transmission of its tapeworm parasites. Recently, the use of molecular tools combined with phylogenetics has proven useful to identify larval and immature stages of marine tapeworms; utilization of the technique has been increasing rapidly. However, the usefulness of this approach remains limited by the availability of molecular data. Here, I employed gene sequence data from the D2 region of the large subunit of ribosomal DNA to link adults of the tapeworm Clistobothrium carcharodoni Dailey and Vogelbein, 1990 (Cestoda: Tetraphyllidea) to larvae for which sequence data for this gene are available. The sequences from the adult tapeworms were genetically identical (0% sequence divergence) to those available on GenBank for "SP" 'small' Scolex pleuronectis recovered from the striped dolphin (Stenella coeruleoalba) and Risso's dolphin (Grampus griseus). This study is the first to provide empirical evidence linking the trophic interaction between great white sharks and cetaceans as a definitive route for the successful transmission of a tetraphyllidean tapeworm. Using the intensity of infection data from this shark and from cetaceans as proxies for the extent of predation, I estimate that this individual shark would have consumed between 9 to 83 G. griseus , fresh, dead, or both, in its lifetime.

  3. Comparative genomics reveals adaptive evolution of Asian tapeworm in switching to a new intermediate host

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shuai; Wang, Sen; Luo, Yingfeng; Xiao, Lihua; Luo, Xuenong; Gao, Shenghan; Dou, Yongxi; Zhang, Huangkai; Guo, Aijiang; Meng, Qingshu; Hou, Junling; Zhang, Bing; Zhang, Shaohua; Yang, Meng; Meng, Xuelian; Mei, Hailiang; Li, Hui; He, Zilong; Zhu, Xueliang; Tan, Xinyu; Zhu, Xing-quan; Yu, Jun; Cai, Jianping; Zhu, Guan; Hu, Songnian; Cai, Xuepeng

    2016-01-01

    Taenia saginata, Taenia solium and Taenia asiatica (beef, pork and Asian tapeworms, respectively) are parasitic flatworms of major public health and food safety importance. Among them, T. asiatica is a newly recognized species that split from T. saginata via an intermediate host switch ∼1.14 Myr ago. Here we report the 169- and 168-Mb draft genomes of T. saginata and T. asiatica. Comparative analysis reveals that high rates of gene duplications and functional diversifications might have partially driven the divergence between T. asiatica and T. saginata. We observe accelerated evolutionary rates, adaptive evolutions in homeostasis regulation, tegument maintenance and lipid uptakes, and differential/specialized gene family expansions in T. asiatica that may favour its hepatotropism in the new intermediate host. We also identify potential targets for developing diagnostic or intervention tools against human tapeworms. These data provide new insights into the evolution of Taenia parasites, particularly the recent speciation of T. asiatica. PMID:27653464

  4. Sympatric distribution of three human Taenia tapeworms collected between 1935 and 2005 in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Hyeong-Kyu; Kim, Kyu-Heon; Chai, Jong-Yil; Yang, Hyun-Jong; Rim, Han-Jong; Eom, Keeseon S

    2008-12-01

    Taeniasis has been known as one of the prevalent parasitic infections in Korea. Until recently, Taenia saginata had long been considered a dominant, and widely distributed species but epidemiological profiles of human Taenia species in Korea still remain unclear. In order to better understand distribution patterns of human Taenia tapeworms in Korea, partial nucleotide sequences of mitochondrial cox1 and ITS2 (internal transcribed spacer 2) were determined, along with morphological examinations, on 68 Taenia specimens obtained from university museum collections deposited since 1935. Genomic DNA was extracted from formalin-preserved specimens. Phylogenetic relationships among the genotypes (cox1 haplotype) detected in this study were inferred using the neighbor-joining method as a tree building method. Morphological and genetic analyses identified 3 specimens as T. solium, 51 specimens as T. asiatica, and 14 specimens as T. saginata. Our results indicate that all 3 Taenia tapeworms are sympatrically distributed in Korea with T. asiatica dominating over T. saginata and T. solium.

  5. Tapeworms of rock dove and domestic chicken in Taif area, Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahrani, Mohammad R; Ashour, Ameen A; Shobrak, M Y

    2012-12-01

    The present study aimed to identify the tapeworms that parasitize the rock dove Columba livia palastinae and domestic chicken Gallus gallus domesticus in Taif governorate, Saudi Arabia. A total of 115 rock doves and 105 domestic chicken have been examined. Birds were brought in from the wells and farms inside and outside the city of Taif. In rock doves, the percentage of infection was recorded as Cotugnia digonopora 5.21%, Hymenolepis carioca 10.43%, Raillietina echinobothrida 27.82%, Raillietina tetragona 22.6%. The prevalence of infection recorded in Municipal chicken with different types of tapeworms was Cotugnia digonopora 7.61%, Choanotaenia infundibulum 12.38%, Amoebotaenia sphenoides 7.61%, Raillietina echinobothrida 11.42%, Raillietina tetragona 8.57%, Raillietina (Paroniella) kashiwarensis 4.76%. The overall percentage of infected rock pigeons Columba livia palastinae with tapeworms was 66.1% while the percentage of infected chicken Gallus gallus domestica was 52.3%. The study defined and described this species as classification keys in place.

  6. Taenia solium cysticercosis hotspots surrounding tapeworm carriers: clustering on human seroprevalence but not on seizures.

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    Andres G Lescano

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Neurocysticercosis accounts for 30%-50% of all late-onset epilepsy in endemic countries. We assessed the clustering patterns of Taenia solium human cysticercosis seropositivity and seizures around tapeworm carriers in seven rural communities in Peru. METHODOLOGY: The presence of T. solium-specific antibodies was defined as one or more positive bands in the enzyme-linked immunoelectrotransfer blot (EITB. Neurocysticercosis-related seizures cases were diagnosed clinically and had positive neuroimaging or EITB. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Eleven tapeworm carriers were identified by stool microscopy. The seroprevalence of human cysticercosis was 24% (196/803. Seroprevalence was 21% >50 m from a carrier and increased to 32% at 1-50 m (p = 0.047, and from that distance seroprevalence had another significant increase to 64% at the homes of carriers (p = 0.004. Seizure prevalence was 3.0% (25/837 but there were no differences between any pair of distance ranges (p = 0.629, Wald test 2 degrees of freedom. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: We observed a significant human cysticercosis seroprevalence gradient surrounding current tapeworm carriers, although cysticercosis-related seizures did not cluster around carriers. Due to differences in the timing of the two outcomes, seroprevalence may reflect recent T. solium exposure more accurately than seizure frequency.

  7. The genus Bipolaris

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Manamgoda, D.S.; Rossman, A.Y.; Castlebury, L.A.; Crous, P.W.; Madrid, H.; Chukeatirote, E.; Hyde, K.D.

    2014-01-01

    The genus Bipolaris includes important plant pathogens with worldwide distribution. Species recognition in the genus has been uncertain due to the lack of molecular data from ex-type cultures as well as overlapping morphological characteristics. In this study, we revise the genus Bipolaris based on

  8. Challenges and opportunities in detecting Taenia solium tapeworm carriers in Los Angeles County California, 2009-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croker, Curtis

    2015-12-01

    Carriers of the pork tapeworm, Taenia solium, are the sole source of neurocysticercosis, a parasitic tissue infection that can be chronic and severe. Identifying T. solium tapeworm carriers is challenging. Many are asymptomatic and go undetected and unreported. In addition, T. solium is difficult to distinguish from other Taenia species of less concern. From 2009 to 2014, 24 taeniasis cases were reported to the Los Angeles County (LAC) Department of Public Health. Twenty reports were received solely from our automated electronic laboratory reporting system (ELR), two from health care providers, and two were generated internally from investigation of households with a reported neurocysticercosis case. Further investigation identified one T. solium carrier originally reported by ELR and one identified from a neurocysticercosis case investigation. These results suggest that T. solium tapeworm carriers can be identified from investigation of ELR reports of unspeciated Taenia cases as well as from households of neurocysticercosis cases.

  9. [Influence of the selection of maternal Hymenolepis diminuta WMS il1 on the variability of descended tapeworms].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stradowski, Marek

    2002-01-01

    A continuation of a single-individual culture of Hymenolepis diminuta WMS ill from generations 37 to 66 revealed a very high infective ability of cysticercoids which is reflected in the percentage of tapeworms detected in relation to the number of cysticercoids given to rats (94.4%). The tapeworms investigated revealed a significant increase in the abundance of type 0p3a proglottids (those with no testes on the poral side and 3 on the aporal) in tapeworms of successive generation groups. Each group of tapeworms analysed statistically belonged to three successive generations and numbered 31-34 individuals. The mean abundances of 0p3a type proglottids in tapeworms of the first groups studied in experiment, including generations 37-39 and 40-42 were 9.2% and 9.5%, respectively. The last studied groups, including generations 61-63 and 64-66 had higher mean numbers of type 0p3a proglottids, at 11.1% and 11.5%, respectively. The quantitative figures of 1p3a type proglottids amounted to 1.6% and 1.3% in first generation groups and in the last two groups 0.8% and 1.0%, respectively. The probable cause of this significant (P < 0.01) relative increase in the numbers of 0p3a type proglottids and decrease (P < 0.01) in the numbers of 1p3a type proglottids was the deliberate selection of maternal tapeworms characterized by numbers of 0p3a type proglottids greater and 1p3a type proglottids smaller than the average for their generation.

  10. Solid lipid nanoparticle suspension enhanced the therapeutic efficacy of praziquantel against tapeworm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xie S

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Shuyu Xie1,*, Baoliang Pan1,*, Baoxin Shi2, Zhuangzhi Zhang2, Xu Zhang2, Ming Wang1, Wenzhong Zhou11Department of Preventive Veterinary Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, China Agricultural University, Beijing, People’s Republic of China; 2Veterinary Research Institute, Xinjiang Academy of Animal Science, Xinjiang, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this study Abstract: Hydatid disease caused by tapeworm is an increasing public health and socioeconomic concern. In order to enhance the therapeutic efficacy of praziquantel (PZQ against tapeworm, PZQ-loaded hydrogenated castor oil solid lipid nanoparticle (PZQ-HCO-SLN suspension was prepared by a hot homogenization and ultrasonication method. The stability of the suspension at 4°C and room temperature was evaluated by the physicochemical characteristics of the nanoparticles and in-vitro release pattern of the suspension. Pharmacokinetics was studied after subcutaneous administration of the suspension in dogs. The therapeutic effect of the novel formulation was evaluated in dogs naturally infected with Echinococcus granulosus. The results showed that the drug recovery of the suspension was 97.59% ± 7.56%. Nanoparticle diameter, polydispersivity index, and zeta potential were 263.00 ± 11.15 nm, 0.34 ± 0.06, and -11.57 ± 1.12 mV, respectively and showed no significant changes after 4 months of storage at both 4°C and room temperature. The stored suspensions displayed similar in-vitro release patterns as that of the newly prepared one. SLNs increased the bioavailability of PZQ 5.67-fold and extended the mean residence time of the drug from 56.71 to 280.38 hours. Single subcutaneous administration of PZQ-HCO-SLN suspension obtained enhanced therapeutic efficacy against tapeworm in infected dogs. At the dose of 5 mg/kg, the stool-ova reduction and negative conversion rates and tapeworm removal rate of the suspension were 100%, while the native PZQ were 91

  11. The 2010 Broad Prize

    Science.gov (United States)

    Education Digest: Essential Readings Condensed for Quick Review, 2011

    2011-01-01

    A new data analysis, based on data collected as part of The Broad Prize process, provides insights into which large urban school districts in the United States are doing the best job of educating traditionally disadvantaged groups: African-American, Hispanics, and low-income students. Since 2002, The Eli and Edythe Broad Foundation has awarded The…

  12. Asian fish tapeworm, Khawia japonensis (Yamaguti, 1934), has expanded its European invasive range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oros, Mikuláš; Barčák, Daniel; Bazsalovicsová, Eva; Hanzelová, Vladimíra

    2015-05-01

    The invasive fish tapeworm, Khawia japonensis (Yamaguti, 1934) originally described in Japan, is reported for the first time in Slovakia. The tapeworm was found in farmed common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) from East-Slovakian breeding fish pond. This finding is registered 4 years after the first announcement of this parasite in Europe (Po River Basin in Italy) in 2010 and increases its distribution area within this continent. Morphological characterization of K. japonensis supplemented with DNA sequences of cox1 and ribosomal lsrDNA genes is provided. Specimens from Slovakia phenotypically corresponded with those from feral and farmed carps from China, Vietnam, and Italy. Moreover, 100 and 98.7% identity of partial ribosomal lsrDNA gene and mitochondrial cox1 genes, respectively, were detected with K. japonensis from Japan. The invasive and pathogenic potential of K. japonensis in commercial breeding fisheries and its possible further spread in natural habitats is difficult to estimate for now. As yet, K. japonensis appears to be without a major impact on commercial breeding fisheries, but calls for more attention to the problem of biological invasions.

  13. Description of Hymenolepis microstoma (Nottingham strain: a classical tapeworm model for research in the genomic era

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olson Peter D

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hymenolepis microstoma (Dujardin, 1845 Blanchard, 1891, the mouse bile duct tapeworm, is a rodent/beetle-hosted laboratory model that has been used in research and teaching since its domestication in the 1950s. Recent characterization of its genome has prompted us to describe the specific strain that underpins these data, anchoring its identity and bringing the 150+ year-old original description up-to-date. Results Morphometric and ultrastructural analyses were carried out on laboratory-reared specimens of the 'Nottingham' strain of Hymenolepis microstoma used for genome characterization. A contemporary description of the species is provided including detailed illustration of adult anatomy and elucidation of its taxonomy and the history of the specific laboratory isolate. Conclusions Our work acts to anchor the specific strain from which the H. microstoma genome has been characterized and provides an anatomical reference for researchers needing to employ a model tapeworm system that enables easy access to all stages of the life cycle. We review its classification, life history and development, and briefly discuss the genome and other model systems being employed at the beginning of a genomic era in cestodology.

  14. Morphologic and genetic identification of Taenia tapeworms in Tanzania and DNA genotyping of Taenia solium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eom, Keeseon S; Chai, Jong-Yil; Yong, Tai-Soon; Min, Duk-Young; Rim, Han-Jong; Kihamia, Charles; Jeon, Hyeong-Kyu

    2011-12-01

    Species identification of Taenia tapeworms was performed using morphologic observations and multiplex PCR and DNA sequencing of the mitochondrial cox1 gene. In 2008 and 2009, a total of 1,057 fecal samples were collected from residents of Kongwa district of Dodoma region, Tanzania, and examined microscopically for helminth eggs and proglottids. Of these, 4 Taenia egg positive cases were identified, and the eggs were subjected to DNA analysis. Several proglottids of Taenia solium were recovered from 1 of the 4 cases. This established that the species were T. solium (n = 1) and T. saginata (n = 3). One further T. solium specimen was found among 128 fecal samples collected from Mbulu district in Arusha, and this had an intact strobila with the scolex. Phylegenetic analysis of the mtDNA cox1 gene sequences of these 5 isolates showed that T. saginata was basal to the T. solium clade. The mitochondrial cox1 gene sequences of 3 of these Tanzanian isolates showed 99% similarity to T. saginata, and the other 2 isolates showed 100% similarity to T. solium. The present study has shown that Taenia tapeworms are endemic in Kongwa district of Tanzania, as well as in a previously identified Mbulu district. Both T. solium isolates were found to have an "African/Latin American" genotype (cox1).

  15. Molecular Identification of Zoonotic Tissue-Invasive Tapeworm Larvae Other than Taenia solium in Suspected Human Cysticercosis Cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tappe, Dennis; Berkholz, Jörg; Mahlke, Uwe; Lobeck, Hartmut; Nagel, Thomas; Haeupler, Alexandra; Muntau, Birgit; Racz, Paul; Poppert, Sven

    2016-01-01

    Rarely, zoonotic Taenia species other than Taenia solium cause human cysticercosis. The larval stages are morphologically often indistinguishable. We therefore investigated 12 samples of suspected human cysticercosis cases at the molecular level and surprisingly identified one Taenia crassiceps and one Taenia serialis (coenurosis) infection, which were caused by tapeworm larvae normally infecting rodents and sheep via eggs released from foxes and dogs.

  16. 9 CFR 311.25 - Parasites not transmissible to man; tapeworm cysts in sheep; hydatid cysts; flukes; gid bladder...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Parasites not transmissible to man... DISEASED OR OTHERWISE ADULTERATED CARCASSES AND PARTS § 311.25 Parasites not transmissible to man; tapeworm... organs, and other parts of carcasses showing evidence of infestation with parasites not transmissible...

  17. Molecular Identification of Zoonotic Tissue-Invasive Tapeworm Larvae Other than Taenia solium in Suspected Human Cysticercosis Cases

    OpenAIRE

    Tappe, Dennis; Berkholz, Jörg; Mahlke, Uwe; Lobeck, Hartmut; Nagel, Thomas; Haeupler, Alexandra; Muntau, Birgit; Racz, Paul; Poppert, Sven

    2015-01-01

    Rarely, zoonotic Taenia species other than Taenia solium cause human cysticercosis. The larval stages are morphologically often indistinguishable. We therefore investigated 12 samples of suspected human cysticercosis cases at the molecular level and surprisingly identified one Taenia crassiceps and one Taenia serialis (coenurosis) infection, which were caused by tapeworm larvae normally infecting rodents and sheep via eggs released from foxes and dogs.

  18. Histopathological and ultrastructural studies of the tapeworm Monobothrium wageneri (Caryophyllidea) in the intestinal tract of tench Tinca tinca.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, C F; Poddubnaya, L G; Scholz, T; Turnbull, J F; Ferguson, H W

    2011-12-06

    Monobothrium wageneri is a monozoic caryophyllidean tapeworm of tench Tinca tinca. The pathological changes caused by this parasite within the intestinal tract of wild tench are described for the first time. Parasites were found attached to the anterior third of the intestine in tight clusters comprising up to 109 tapeworms. Infection was associated with the formation of raised inflammatory swellings surrounding the parasites. This host response, combined with the deep penetration of the scolex into the gut wall, formed a very firm seat of parasite attachment. Histopathological changes were characterised by a pronounced fibrogranulomatous lesion that extended through all layers of the intestine. This was accompanied by haemorrhage, oedema, necrosis and degeneration of the muscularis. A marked eosinophilic interface layer between the scolex of the tapeworm and gut wall indicated intimate host-parasite contact. Ultrastructural examinations revealed coniform spinitriches covering the neck and lateral sides of the scolex and capilliform filitriches present on the apical end of the scolex. Numerous glandular cytons (tegumental glands) were recorded throughout the scolex tegument. Large numbers of secretory granules discharged from the glands through a network of processes onto the scolex surface were consistent with distancing the cellular responses of the host. Observations of severe inflammatory lesions, partial intestinal occlusion and the potential for intestinal perforation represent important pathological changes that are consistent with loss of normal gut function. The lesions associated with the attachment of M. wageneri are more severe than those recorded for any other tapeworm of British freshwater fish.

  19. The genus Idertia (Ochnaceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sosef, M.S.M.

    2013-01-01

    Background and aims - The genus Idertia belongs to the subfamily Ochnoideae, tribe Ochneae, subtribe Ouratinae. This paper aims at a full taxonomic revision and a critical evaluation of the taxonomic position of the genus along with its diagnostic characters. Methods - All characters are studied usi

  20. Molecular evidence of host influences on the evolution and spread of human tapeworms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michelet, Lorraine; Dauga, Catherine

    2012-08-01

    The taeniasis/cysticercosis complex is included in the list of neglected zoonotic diseases by the World Health Organization due to its significant impact on public health in tropical areas. Cysticercosis is still endemic in many regions of Asia, Africa and Latin America. Long absent in Europe and in other developed countries, cysticercosis has recently re-emerged in the United States and Canada, due to immigration, travel and local transmission. This has encouraged the use of molecular data to understand better the influence of animal and human hosts on the emergence and spread of Taenia species. The increasing number of mitochondrial sequences now available from human tapeworms and recent advances in computational tools has enabled reconstruction of the biogeography and evolutionary history of these organisms. New molecular data have provided insights into the biogeography of T. solium, T. asiatica and T. saginata. A Bayesian statistical framework using variable evolutionary rates from lineage to lineage has allowed an improved timescale analysis of human tapeworms. The dates of divergence obtained were compared to the timing of evolutionary events in the history of their hosts, based on the hypothesis that Taenia spp. and their hosts share a common history. Herein, we review changes in the definitive and secondary hosts and human interactions that underlie the differentiation and evolution of tapeworms. Species diversification of Taenia seems to be closely linked with the evolution of intermediate hosts in response to climatic events during the Pleistocene. Different genotypes of T. solium emerged when European and Asian wild boar Sus spp. populations diverged. Taenia saginata emerged when wild cattle Bos primigenius evolved and when zebu Bos indicus and taurine Bos taurus ancestors separated. Humans through migrations and later with the development of farming and animal husbandry may have had a significant impact on the spread and diversification of tapeworms

  1. Genetic characteristics of Chinese isolates of the tapeworm Taenia pisiformis based on two mitochondrial genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, D Y; Ren, Y J; Fu, Y; Xie, Y; Nong, X; Gu, X B; Wang, S X; Peng, X R; Yang, G Y

    2015-07-01

    Cysticercosis is caused by infections with embryonated eggs of the tapeworm Taenia pisiformis. Knowledge of the genetic characteristics of T. pisiformis could be applied to study the epidemiology and transmission of this parasite. In this study, 61 isolates of intraperitoneal cysticerci from eight geographically distinct regions in Sichuan province, China, were subjected to a molecular analysis in order to determine their intra-regional genetic characteristics. Partial sequences of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (cox1, 1427 bp) and NADH dehydrogenase 1 (nad1, 738 bp) were concatenated. Five haplotypes were identified, and 89.04% of total genetic variation was found in collections of T. pisiformis isolates from a single region. According to the phylogenetic reconstruction, the T. pisiformis isolates from eight regions did not form geographical clusters. Our study highlights the genetic characteristics of T. pisiformis with the aim of accelerating the genetic research and control of cysticercosis.

  2. The Broad Foundations, 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broad Foundation, 2006

    2006-01-01

    The mission of the Broad Foundations is to transform K-12 urban public education through better governance, management, labor relations and competition; make significant contributions to advance major scientific and medical research; foster public appreciation of contemporary art by increasing access for audiences worldwide; and lead and…

  3. A large 28S rDNA-based phylogeny confirms the limitations of established morphological characters for classification of proteocephalidean tapeworms (Platyhelminthes, Cestoda

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    Alain de Chambrier

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Proteocephalidean tapeworms form a diverse group of parasites currently known from 315 valid species. Most of the diversity of adult proteocephalideans can be found in freshwater fishes (predominantly catfishes, a large proportion infects reptiles, but only a few infect amphibians, and a single species has been found to parasitize possums. Although they have a cosmopolitan distribution, a large proportion of taxa are exclusively found in South America. We analyzed the largest proteocephalidean cestode molecular dataset to date comprising more than 100 species (30 new, including representatives from 54 genera (80% and all subfamilies, thus significantly improving upon previous works to develop a molecular phylogeny for the group. The Old World origin of proteocephalideans is confirmed, with their more recent expansion in South America. The earliest diverging lineages are composed of Acanthotaeniinae and Gangesiinae but most of the presently recognized subfamilies (and genera appear not to be monophyletic; a deep systematic reorganization of the order is thus needed and the present subfamilial system should be abandoned. The main characters on which the classical systematics of the group has been built, such as scolex morphology or relative position of genital organs in relation to the longitudinal musculature, are of limited value, as demonstrated by the very weak support for morphologically-defined subfamilies. However, new characters, such as the pattern of uterus development, relative ovary size, and egg structure have been identified, which may be useful in defining phylogenetically well-supported subgroups. A strongly supported lineage infecting various snakes from a wide geographical distribution was found. Although several improvements over previous works regarding phylogenetic resolution and taxon coverage were achieved in this study, the major polytomy in our tree, composed largely of siluriform parasites from the Neotropics, remained

  4. Spermatological characteristics of the genus Taenia inferred from the ultrastructural study on Taenia hydatigena.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miquel, Jordi; Khallaayoune, Khalid; Azzouz-Maache, Samira; Pétavy, Anne-Françoise

    2015-01-01

    The present study attempts to establish the sperm ultrastructure baseline for Taenia hydatigena, which is essential for the future research on the location of specific proteins involved in spermatogenesis in this species. Thus, the ultrastructural organisation of the mature spermatozoon is described by means of transmission electron microscopy. Live tapeworms were obtained from an experimentally infected dog in the Department of Pathology and Public Health of the Agronomic and Veterinary Institute Hassan II of Rabat (Morocco). The spermatozoon of T. hydatigena is a filiform cell, which is tapered at both extremities and lacks mitochondria. It exhibits all the characteristics of type VII spermatozoon of tapeworms, namely a single axoneme, a crested body, spiralled cortical microtubules and nucleus, a periaxonemal sheath and intracytoplasmic walls. Other interesting characteristics are the presence of a 2000 nm long apical cone in its anterior extremity and only the axoneme in its posterior extremity. The ultrastructural characters of the spermatozoon of T. hydatigena are compared with those of other cestodes studied to date, with particular emphasis on representatives of the genus Taenia.

  5. [The biological and anatomical-morphological properties of Hymenolepis diminuta tapeworms of WMS il1 and the WMS "strain"].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stradowski, M; Grytner-Ziecina, B; Rebandel, H

    2001-01-01

    Crowded infrapopulations of H. diminuta obtained from the WMS il1 inbred line resembled those of the potentially non-inbred WMS strain in not showing either the abrupt reductions in the numbers of worms or the destrobilation described by other autors. Denser populations of both types of tapeworm have a greather abundance of 4 - testis proglottids of the 1p3a type (having 1 testis on the poral side and three on the aporal), and fewer of type 0p3a. Changes in the positioning of genital ducts and pores show a marked positive correlation with the abundance of type 2pla proglottids. Strobilae of H. diminuta WMS il1 contain a relatively greather number of type 0p3a proglottids and fewer of type 1p3a, than those of the WMS "strain"; something which is probably linked with the respective selection of the maternal tapeworms.

  6. Tapeworm Khawia sinensis: review of the introduction and subsequent decline of a pathogen of carp, Cyprinus carpio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oros, Mikulás; Hanzelová, Vladimíra; Scholz, Tomás

    2009-10-14

    The Asian tapeworm Khawia sinensis Hsü, 1935 (Cestoda: Caryophyllidea) is a large-sized (body length up to 11.5 cm) monozoic (unsegmented) parasite of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) that may cause mortality of young fish (fry). Since the 1960s, this cestode successfully colonized a large part of Europe, including the British Isles, North America and Japan. However, a review of published records provides evidence that the tapeworm K. sinensis, invasive parasite of carp, has become less common during the last two decades. Decline of K. sinensis may have been related to the recent introduction of another invasive tapeworm, the caryophyllidean Atractolytocestus huronensis Anthony, 1958 to Europe. Other factors that may have caused that K. sinensis is much less common than previously are also briefly discussed. A comparison of K. sinensis from feral and cultured carp, published to date, with those recently found for the first time in wild populations of carp in Slovakia did not reveal any marked differences in their morphology or measurements.

  7. Aspects of the ecology of the Asian tapeworm, Bothriocephalus acheilognathi Yamaguti, 1934 in yellowfish in the Vaal Dam, South Africa

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    A. Bertasso

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Seasonal surveys were conducted at the Vaal Dam between April 2000 and January 2001. Twenty smallmouth yellowfish (Labeobarbus aeneus and 20 largemouth yellowfish (Labeobarbus kimberleyensis were collected with the aid of gill nets. Surface water quality variables were included. The cestodes were identified as either Bothriocephalus acheilognathi Yamaguti, 1934 or "other cestode spp.". The majority (99.8 % of the cestodes found in both yellowfish species were identified as B. acheilognathi (Asian tapeworm. The prevalence, mean intensity and abundance of B. acheilognathi in both yellowfish species were calculated. Ecological parameters including species specificity, seasonality, gender specificity and relationships between fish size and the Asian tapeworm prevalence were also included. In this study, B. acheilognathi preferred L. kimberleyensis over L. aeneus although a low intensity was observed in smallmouth yellowfish. Furthermore, the infection (in terms of prevalence, abundance and mean intensity in largemouth yellowfish was markedly higher. Seasonal patterns observed in the Asian tapeworm's infection of smallmouth yellowfish are attributed to breeding and subsequent feeding patterns of this fish species with relatively high infections recorded in winter and spring. For L. kimberleyensis no explanation can be given regarding the seasonal patterns observed for the mean intensity and abundance of B. acheilognathi. The maximum and minimum mean intensity and abundance values in largemouth yellowfish were recorded in autumn and spring, respectively. In addition, the prevalence of B. acheilognathi was consistently high in all four seasons.

  8. Lifetime inbreeding depression, purging, and mating system evolution in a simultaneous hermaphrodite tapeworm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benesh, Daniel P; Weinreich, Friederike; Kalbe, Martin; Milinski, Manfred

    2014-06-01

    Classical theory on mating system evolution suggests that simultaneous hermaphrodites should either outcross if they have high inbreeding depression (ID) or self-fertilize if they have low ID. However, a mixture of selfing and outcrossing persists in many species. Previous studies with the tapeworm Schistocephalus solidus have found worms to self-fertilize some of their eggs despite ID. The probability for selfing to spread depends on the relative fitness of selfers, as well as the genetic basis for ID and whether it can be effectively purged. We bred S. solidus through two consecutive generations of selfing and recorded several fitness correlates over the whole life cycle. After one round of selfing, ID was pronounced, particularly in early-life traits, and the conservatively estimated lifetime fitness of selfed progeny was only 9% that of the outcrossed controls. After a second generation of selfing, ID remained high but was significantly reduced in several traits, which is consistent with the purging of deleterious recessive alleles (the estimated load of lethal equivalents dropped by 48%). Severe ID, even if it can be rapidly purged, likely prevents transitions toward pure selfing in this parasite, although we also cannot exclude the possibility that low-level selfing has undetected benefits.

  9. The genus Lagenophora (Compositae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cabrera, Angel L.

    1966-01-01

    The genus Lagenophora was first described by Cassini under the name Lagenifera (in Bull. Soc. Philomat. 12, 1816, 199) with the following diagnosis: ‘Ce genre, de la tribus des astérées, comprend le calendula magellanicá, Willd. et le bellis stipitata, Labill. Son principal caractère reside dans la

  10. The genus Faradaya (Labiatae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kok, de R.P.J.; Mabberley, D.J.

    1999-01-01

    A revision of the genus Faradaya F. Muell. (Labiatae) is presented with taxonomic history, keys, full descriptions, distribution maps and ecological and ethnobotanical notes. Only three species are recognised: F. amicorum (Seem.) Seem., F. lehuntei (Home ex Baker) A.C. Sm. and F. splendida F. Muell.

  11. The genus Cladosporium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bench, K.; Braun, U.; Groenewald, J.Z.; Crous, P.W.

    2012-01-01

    A monographic revision of the hyphomycete genus Cladosporium s. lat. (Cladosporiaceae, Capnodiales) is presented. It includes a detailed historic overview of Cladosporium and allied genera, with notes on their phylogeny, systematics and ecology. True species of Cladosporium s. str. (anamorphs of Dav

  12. IL-22 Restrains Tapeworm-Mediated Protection against Experimental Colitis via Regulation of IL-25 Expression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José L Reyes

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Interleukin (IL-22, an immune cell-derived cytokine whose receptor expression is restricted to non-immune cells (e.g. epithelial cells, can be anti-inflammatory and pro-inflammatory. Mice infected with the tapeworm Hymenolepis diminuta are protected from dinitrobenzene sulphonic acid (DNBS-induced colitis. Here we assessed expulsion of H. diminuta, the concomitant immune response and the outcome of DNBS-induced colitis in wild-type (WT and IL-22 deficient mice (IL-22-/- ± infection. Interleukin-22-/- mice had a mildly impaired ability to expel the worm and this correlated with reduced or delayed induction of TH2 immunity as measured by splenic and mesenteric lymph node production of IL-4, IL-5 and IL-13 and intestinal Muc-2 mRNA and goblet cell hyperplasia; in contrast, IL-25 increased in the small intestine of IL-22-/- mice 8 and 12 days post-infection compared to WT mice. In vitro experiments revealed that H. diminuta directly evoked epithelial production of IL-25 that was inhibited by recombinant IL-22. Also, IL-10 and markers of regulatory T cells were increased in IL-22-/- mice that displayed less DNBS (3 mg, ir. 72h-induced colitis. Wild-type mice infected with H. diminuta were protected from colitis, as were infected IL-22-/- mice and the latter to a degree that they were almost indistinguishable from control, non-DNBS treated mice. Finally, treatment with anti-IL-25 antibodies exaggerated DNBS-induced colitis in IL-22-/- mice and blocked the anti-colitic effect of infection with H. diminuta. Thus, IL-22 is identified as an endogenous brake on helminth-elicited TH2 immunity, reducing the efficacy of expulsion of H. diminuta and limiting the effectiveness of the anti-colitic events mobilized following infection with H. diminuta in a non-permissive host.

  13. IL-22 Restrains Tapeworm-Mediated Protection against Experimental Colitis via Regulation of IL-25 Expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, José L; Fernando, Maria R; Lopes, Fernando; Leung, Gabriella; Mancini, Nicole L; Matisz, Chelsea E; Wang, Arthur; McKay, Derek M

    2016-04-01

    Interleukin (IL)-22, an immune cell-derived cytokine whose receptor expression is restricted to non-immune cells (e.g. epithelial cells), can be anti-inflammatory and pro-inflammatory. Mice infected with the tapeworm Hymenolepis diminuta are protected from dinitrobenzene sulphonic acid (DNBS)-induced colitis. Here we assessed expulsion of H. diminuta, the concomitant immune response and the outcome of DNBS-induced colitis in wild-type (WT) and IL-22 deficient mice (IL-22-/-) ± infection. Interleukin-22-/- mice had a mildly impaired ability to expel the worm and this correlated with reduced or delayed induction of TH2 immunity as measured by splenic and mesenteric lymph node production of IL-4, IL-5 and IL-13 and intestinal Muc-2 mRNA and goblet cell hyperplasia; in contrast, IL-25 increased in the small intestine of IL-22-/- mice 8 and 12 days post-infection compared to WT mice. In vitro experiments revealed that H. diminuta directly evoked epithelial production of IL-25 that was inhibited by recombinant IL-22. Also, IL-10 and markers of regulatory T cells were increased in IL-22-/- mice that displayed less DNBS (3 mg, ir. 72h)-induced colitis. Wild-type mice infected with H. diminuta were protected from colitis, as were infected IL-22-/- mice and the latter to a degree that they were almost indistinguishable from control, non-DNBS treated mice. Finally, treatment with anti-IL-25 antibodies exaggerated DNBS-induced colitis in IL-22-/- mice and blocked the anti-colitic effect of infection with H. diminuta. Thus, IL-22 is identified as an endogenous brake on helminth-elicited TH2 immunity, reducing the efficacy of expulsion of H. diminuta and limiting the effectiveness of the anti-colitic events mobilized following infection with H. diminuta in a non-permissive host.

  14. Senna leaf extracts induced Ca(+2) homeostasis in a zoonotic tapeworm Hymenolepis diminuta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Saptarshi; Kundu, Suman; Lyndem, Larisha M

    2016-10-01

    Context Plants and plant products have been used in traditional medicine as anthelmintic agents in human and veterinary medicine. Three species of Senna plant, S. alata (L), S. alexandrina (M) and S. occidentalis (L.) Link (Fabaceae) have been shown to have a vermicidal/vermifugal effect on a zoonotic tapeworm Hymenolepis diminuta (Rudolphi) (Cyclophyllidean). Objective The present study validates the mode of action of these Senna plants on the parasite. The alcoholic leaf extract was determined to obtain information on the intracellular free calcium concentration level. Materials and methods Hymenolepis diminuta was maintained in Sprague-Dawley rat model for 2 months. Live parasites collected from infected rat intestine were exposed to 40 mg/mL concentration of each plant extracts prepared in phosphate buffer saline at 37 °C, till parasite gets paralyzed. The rate of efflux of calcium from the parasite tissue to the medium and the level of intracellular Ca(2+ )concentration were determined by an atomic absorption spectroscopy. Results This study revealed that exposure of the worms to the plant extract leads to disruption in intracellular calcium homeostasis. A significant increase (44.6% and 25%) of efflux in Ca(2+ )from the tissue to the incubated medium was observed. Senna alata showed high rate of efflux (5.32 mg/g) followed by S. alexandria and S. occidentalis (both 4.6 mg/g) compared with control (3.68 mg/g). Discussion and conclusion These results suggest that leaf extracts caused membrane permeability to Ca(2+ )after vacuolization of the tegument under stress and the extracts may contain compound that can be used as a chemotherapeutic agent.

  15. Ethnopharmacology of the plants of genus Ajuga.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Israili, Zafar H; Lyoussi, Badiâa

    2009-10-01

    The plants of genus Ajuga are evergreen, clump-forming rhizomatous perennial or annual herbaceous flowering species, with Ajuga being one of the 266 genera of the family Lamiaceae. There are at least 301 species of the genus Ajuga with many variations. These plants, growing in Europe, Asia, Africa, Australia and North America, are used in gardens as ground cover or border for their foliage and beautiful flowers. Many of these plants have been used in traditional medicine as a remedy for fever, toothache, dysentery, malaria, high blood pressure, diabetes, gastrointestinal disorders, as anthelmintic, diuretic and antifungal, anti-inflammatory, and antimycobacterial agents. They are also used as insect growth inhibitor s. A large number of compounds have been isolated from the Ajuga plants, including phytoecdysteroids, neo-clerodane-diterpenes and diterpenoids, triterpenes, sterols, anthocyanidin-glucosides and iridoid glycosides, withanolides, flavonoids, triglycerides and essential oils. These compounds possess a broad spectrum of biological, pharmacological and medicinal properties, such as anabolic, analgesic, antibacterial, antiestrogenic, antifungal, anti-inflammatory, antihypertensive, antileukemic, antimalarial, antimycobacterial, antioxidant, antipyretic, cardiotonic, cytotoxic, hypoglycemic, and vasorelaxing activity, as well as antifeedant and insect growth-inhibitory properties. Thus, genus Ajuga has significant medicinal and economic importance.

  16. In vitro screening for cestocidal activity of three species of Cassia plants against the tapeworm Raillietina tetragona.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kundu, S; Lyndem, L M

    2013-06-01

    Different species of Cassia plant are widely available in India and are commonly used either for their laxative, antimicrobial or antibacterial activity. In the present study the effectiveness in vitro of the crude alcoholic extracts of three species, namely Cassia alata, C. occidentalis and C. angustifolia, in the early paralysis and mortality of the fowl tapeworm Raillietina tetragona at concentrations ranging from 5 to 80 mg/ml was investigated. Time of paralysis and death were monitored frequently. Immediately after paralysis the tapeworms were processed for electron microscopic studies. While the untreated or control parasites survived for 81.93 ± 5.85 h, the parasites treated with C. alata took less time (1.68 ± 0.27 h) to be paralysed, followed by those treated with C. angustifolia (2.95 ± 0.29 h). Although C. occidentalis took more time (4.13 ± 0.31 h) to paralyse, in combination with either C. alata or C. angustifolia the time taken to paralyse became shorter. All the plant-treated parasites showed irrevocable changes in the scolex and proglottids as compared with the control, and these observations are comparable with those obtained with praziquantel. These results indicate that the three plants tested can be claimed to have anthelmintic activity in addition to their known properties, both when used individually and in combination. Further investigations will be required to evaluate their mechanism of action.

  17. Management of a chest-wall soft-tissue tumor caused by an infection with the larval tapeworm pathogen Taenia crassiceps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roesel, Christian; Welter, Stefan; Stamatis, Georgios; Theegarten, Dirk; Tappe, Dennis

    2014-09-01

    A chest-wall lesion of an immunocompetent patient was initially suspicious for a malignant tumor. Histopathological and polymerase chain reaction examinations revealed an infection with the larval stage of the tapeworm Taenia crassiceps. Curative resection of the tumorous lesion was performed. Treatment options for immunocompromised patients and patients without known immune defect are discussed, because most of the infections occur in immunocompromised individuals.

  18. Biodiversity of the genus Cladophialophora

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Badali, H.; Gueidan, C.; Najafzadeh, M.J.; Bonifaz, A.; Gerrits van den Ende, A.H.G.; de Hoog, G.S.

    2008-01-01

    Cladophialophora is a genus of black yeast-like fungi comprising a number of clinically highly significant species in addition to environmental taxa. The genus has previously been characterized by branched chains of ellipsoidal to fusiform conidia. However, this character was shown to have evolved s

  19. Genus Distributions of Moebius Ladders

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李德明

    2005-01-01

    The genus distribution of a graph is a polynomial whose coefficients are the partition of the number of embeddings with respect to the genera. In this paper,the genus distribution of Moebius ladders is provided which is an infinite class of 3-connected simple graphs.

  20. Broad-spectrum antiviral agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun-Da eZhu

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Development of highly effective, broad-spectrum antiviral agents is the major objective shared by the fields of virology and pharmaceutics. Antiviral drug development has focused on targeting viral entry and replication, as well as modulating cellular defense system. High throughput screening of molecules, genetic engineering of peptides, and functional screening of agents have identified promising candidates for development of optimal broad-spectrum antiviral agents to intervene in viral infection and control viral epidemics. This review discusses current knowledge, prospective applications, opportunities, and challenges in the development of broad-spectrum antiviral agents.

  1. Broad resonances in transport theory

    CERN Document Server

    Leupold, S

    2003-01-01

    The extension of the transport theoretical framework to include states with a broad mass distribution is discussed. The proper life-time and cross sections for a state with an arbitrarily given invariant mass is discussed in detail. (author)

  2. Phylogenetic characterisation of Taenia tapeworms in spotted hyenas and reconsideration of the "Out of Africa" hypothesis of Taenia in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terefe, Yitagele; Hailemariam, Zerihun; Menkir, Sissay; Nakao, Minoru; Lavikainen, Antti; Haukisalmi, Voitto; Iwaki, Takashi; Okamoto, Munehiro; Ito, Akira

    2014-07-01

    The African origin of hominins suggests that Taenia spp. in African carnivores are evolutionarily related to the human-infecting tapeworms Taenia solium, Taenia saginata and Taenia asiatica. Nevertheless, the hypothesis has not been verified through molecular phylogenetics of Taenia. This study aimed to perform phylogenetic comparisons between Taenia spp. from African hyenas and the congeneric human parasites. During 2010-2013, 233 adult specimens of Taenia spp. were collected from 11 spotted hyenas in Ethiopia. A screening based on short DNA sequences of the cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene classified the samples into four mitochondrial lineages designated as I-IV. DNA profiles of nuclear genes for DNA polymerase delta (pold) and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (pepck) showed that lineages II and III can be assigned as two independent species. Common haplotypes of pold and pepck were frequently found in lineages I and IV, suggesting that they constitute a single species. Morphological observations suggested that lineage II is Taenia crocutae, but the other lineages were morphologically inconsistent with known species, suggesting the involvement of two new species. A phylogenetic tree of Taenia spp. was reconstructed by the maximum likelihood method using all protein-coding genes of their mitochondrial genomes. The tree clearly demonstrated that T. crocutae is sister to T. saginata and T. asiatica, whereas T. solium was confirmed to be sister to the brown bear tapeworm, Taenia arctos. The tree also suggested that T. solium and T. arctos are related to two species of Taenia in hyenas, corresponding to lineages I+IV and III. These results may partially support the African origin of human-infecting Taenia spp., but there remains a possibility that host switching of Taenia to hominins was not confined to Africa. Additional taxa from African carnivores are needed for further testing of the "Out of Africa" hypothesis of Taenia in humans.

  3. Composite Genus One Belyi Maps

    CERN Document Server

    Vidunas, Raimundas

    2016-01-01

    Motivated by a demand for explicit genus 1 Belyi maps from physics, we give an efficient method of explicitly computing genus one Belyi maps by (1) composing covering maps from elliptic curves to the Riemann surface with the simpler, univariate, genus zero Belyi maps as well as by (2) composing further with isogenies of the elliptic curve. This gives many new explicit dessins on the doubly periodic plane, including several which have been realized in the physics literature as so-called brane-tilings in the context of quiver gauge theories.

  4. The genus Vitex: A review

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    Anita Rani

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The review includes 161 references on the genus Vitex, and comprises ethnopharmacology, morphology and microscopy, phytoconstituents, pharmacological reports, clinical studies, and toxicology of the prominent species of Vitex. Essential oils, flavonoids, iridoid glycosides, diterpenoides and ligans constitute major classes of phytoconstituents of the genus. A few species of this genus have medicinal value, among these, leaves and fruits of V. agnus-castus Linn. (Verbenaceae has been traditionally used in treatment of women complaints. V. agnus-castus has also been included in herbal remedies, which are in clinical use to regulate the menstrual cycle, reduce premenstrual symptom tension and anxiety, treat some menopausal symptoms as well as to treat hormonally induced acne. Despite a long tradition of use of some species, the genus has not been explored properly. In the concluding part, the future scope of Vitex species has been emphasized with a view to establish their multifarious biological activities and mode of action.

  5. A new genus and species of proteocephalidean (Cestoda) from Clarias catfishes (Siluriformes: Clariidae) in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Chambrier, Alain; Scholz, Tomás; Beletew, Moges; Mariaux, Jean

    2009-02-01

    A new proteocephalidean cestode is described from 2 catfishes, Clarias gariepinus (type host) and C. cf. anguillaris (Siluriformes: Clariidae), from Ethiopia (type locality), Sudan, Tanzania, and Zimbabwe, and a new genus, Barsonella, is proposed to accommodate it. The genus belongs to the Proteocephalinae because its genital organs (testes, ovary, vitellarium, and uterus) are situated in the medulla. Barsonella lafoni, the type and only species of the new genus, is characterized mainly by the possession of an additional opening of each sucker; circular musculature on the anterior margin of suckers, serving as a sphincter; a small thin-walled glandular apical organ; absence of well-developed osmoregulatory canals in mature, pregravid, and gravid proglottids; and a large strobila, up to 173 mm long and 3.2 mm wide. Species of Marsypocephalus Wedl, 1861 (Marsypocephalinae), other large-sized proteocephalidean tapeworms occurring sympatrically in African catfishes (Clarias and Heterobranchus) and also possessing a sphincter-like, circular musculature on the anterior part of suckers, differ from B. lafoni in the absence of an additional sucker opening and glandular apical organ, the cortical position of the testes, well-developed osmoregulatory canals throughout the strobila, and a large cirrus sac. Proteocephalus glanduligerus (Janicki, 1928), another cestode parasitic in Clarias spp. in Africa, is much smaller than B. lafoni (maximum length 15 mm), has suckers without additional opening and circular musculature on the suckers, a large-sized glandular organ, much larger than suckers, and well-developed osmoregulatory canals. Comparison of partial sequences of the 28S rRNA gene for 7 samples of B. lafoni from 2 different hosts and 4 localities in Ethiopia, Sudan, and Tanzania has shown a very low genetic variability. In a limited phylogenetic analysis, B. lafoni formed a clade with Corallobothrium solidum Fritsch, 1886 (Proteocephalidae: Corallobothriinae), an African

  6. Screening of cesticidal compounds on a tapeworm hymenolepis nana in vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, A. B.; Hawking, F.

    1960-01-01

    A simple and convenient in vitro technique is described for the screening of compounds for action against Hymenolepis nana and probably many other intestinal worms. The results obtained from this test are in broad agreement with the findings of clinical experience and of a small series of in vivo tests. Among the substances tested, the most active ones were oil of chenopodium, dichlorophen, extract of cashew nut (Anacardium occidentale), antimony potassium tartrate, and BIQ 20 [eicosamethylenebis(isoquinolinium iodide)]. PMID:13750047

  7. The Broad Autism Phenotype Questionnaire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurley, Robert S. E.; Losh, Molly; Parlier, Morgan; Reznick, J. Steven; Piven, Joseph

    2007-01-01

    The broad autism phenotype (BAP) is a set of personality and language characteristics that reflect the phenotypic expression of the genetic liability to autism, in non-autistic relatives of autistic individuals. These characteristics are milder but qualitatively similar to the defining features of autism. A new instrument designed to measure the…

  8. Inhibition of Tapeworm Thioredoxin and Glutathione Pathways by an Oxadiazole N-Oxide Leads to Reduced Mesocestoides vogae Infection Burden in Mice

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    Vivian Pasquet

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Parasitic flatworms cause serious infectious diseases that affect humans and livestock in vast regions of the world, yet there are few effective drugs to treat them. Thioredoxin glutathione reductase (TGR is an essential enzyme for redox homeostasis in flatworm parasites and a promising pharmacological target. We purified to homogeneity and characterized the TGR from the tapeworm Mesocestoides vogae (syn. M. corti. This purification revealed absence of conventional TR and GR. The glutathione reductase activity of the purified TGR exhibits a hysteretic behavior typical of flatworm TGRs. Consistently, M. vogae genome analysis revealed the presence of a selenocysteine-containing TGR and absence of conventional TR and GR. M. vogae thioredoxin and glutathione reductase activities were inhibited by 3,4-bis(phenylsulfonyl-1,2,5-oxadiazole N2-oxide (VL16E, an oxadiazole N-oxide previously identified as an inhibitor of fluke and tapeworm TGRs. Finally, we show that mice experimentally infected with M. vogae tetrathyridia and treated with either praziquantel, the reference drug for flatworm infections, or VL16E exhibited a 28% reduction of intraperitoneal larvae numbers compared to vehicle treated mice. Our results show that oxadiazole N-oxide is a promising chemotype in vivo and highlights the convenience of M. vogae as a model for rapid assessment of tapeworm infections in vivo.

  9. The genus Cyclidiopsis: an obituary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Matthew S; Triemer, Richard E

    2014-01-01

    Since its creation in 1917 the genus Cyclidiopsis, and its validity, has been a source of debate among euglenid taxonomists. While many authors have supported its legitimacy, various other authors have considered it to be a subgenus of Astasia or even promoted its complete dissolution. In this study, we have sequenced the small subunit and large subunit ribosomal DNA of Cyclidiopsis acus, the type species for the genus. Subsequent phylogenetic analyses showed that C. acus grouped with taxa from the genus Lepocinclis, which necessitated the removal of this taxon from Cyclidiopsis and into Lepocinclis as Lepocinclis cyclidiopsis nom. nov. After an extensive literature search it was determined that only two other previously described Cyclidiopsis taxa were morphologically distinct, and the rest were reassigned as synonyms of L. cyclidiopsis. These findings prompted a re-examination of the initial description of Cyclidiopsis, and it was determined that the morphological characters establishing the genus as a distinct group were no longer valid in light of current phylogenetic analyses and the emended generic description for Lepocinclis. Therefore, the remaining two taxa were formally moved to the genus Lepocinclis as L. crescentia comb. nov. and L. pseudomermis comb. nov.

  10. THE GENUS CULLENIA Wight * (Bombacaceae

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    A. J. G. H. KOSTERMANS

    1956-12-01

    Full Text Available The monotypic genus Cullenia was established by Wight (IconesPI. Ind. or. 5 (1 : pi. 1761—62 & text, 1851, who differentiated it fromDurio Adans. mainly by the lack of a corolla and the position and shapeof the anthers. The only species, originally described as Durio ceylanicusby Gardner, was cited by Wight as Cullenia excelsa Wight. K. Schumanncorrected the specific epithet rather casually and atributed it (wronglyto Wight. Bentham (in Benth. & Hook., Gen. pi. 1: 212. 1867; Baillon(Hist. pi. 4: 159. 1872, Masters (in Hook, f., Fl. Br. Ind. 1: 350. 1874and Beccari (Malesia 3: 219. 1889 accepted the genus.Bakhuizen van den Brink (in Bull. Jard. bot. Buitenzorg III, 6: 228.1924 incorporated the genus in Durio.In my opinion Cullenia represents a "good" genus by its lack ofcorolla. Alston, although accepting Bakhuizen's reduction, informed mepersonally, that he, too, is inclined to consider Cullenia different fromDurio.The pollen were described as being naked and pedicellate by Gardner;this wrong statement was corrected by Wight; the anthers are pedicellateand one-celled.In this paper a new Cullenia species is described, which strengthensthe position of the genus; both species are restricted to the rain forestregion of Ceylon and the Southern Indian Peninsula.

  11. Broad Diphotons from Narrow States

    CERN Document Server

    An, Haipeng; Zhang, Yue

    2015-01-01

    ATLAS and CMS have each reported a modest diphoton excess consistent with the decay of a broad resonance at ~ 750 GeV. We show how this signal can arise in a weakly coupled theory comprised solely of narrow width particles. In particular, if the decaying particle is produced off-shell, then the associated diphoton resonance will have a broad, adjustable width. We present simplified models which explain the diphoton excess through the three-body decay of a scalar or fermion. Our minimal ultraviolet completion is a weakly coupled and renormalizable theory of a singlet scalar plus a heavy vector-like quark and lepton. The smoking gun of this mechanism is an asymmetric diphoton peak recoiling against missing transverse energy, jets, or leptons.

  12. Lantibiotics, class I bacteriocins from the genus Bacillus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyungjae; Kim, Hae-Yeong

    2011-03-01

    Antimicrobial peptides exhibit high levels of antimicrobial activity against a broad range of spoilage and pathogenic microorganisms. Compared with bacteriocins produced by lactic acid bacteria, antimicrobial peptides from the genus Bacillus have been relatively less recognized despite their broad antimicrobial spectra. These peptides can be classified into two different groups based on whether they are ribosomally (bacteriocins) or nonribosomally (polymyxins and iturins) synthesized. Because of their broad spectra and high activity, antimicrobial peptides from Bacillus spp. may have great potential for applications in the food, agricultural, and pharmaceutical industries to prevent or control spoilage and pathogenic microorganisms. In this review, we introduce ribosomally synthesized antimicrobial peptides, the lantibiotic bacteriocins produced by members of Bacillus. In addition, the biosynthesis, genetic organization, mode of action, and regulation of subtilin, a well-investigated lantibiotic from Bacillus subtilis, are discussed.

  13. Ecological aspects of the occurrence of asian tapeworm, Bothriocephalus acheilognathi Yamaguti, 1934 infection in the largemouth yellowfish, Labeobarbus kimberleyensis ( Gilchrist and Thompson, 1913) in the Vaal Dam, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Retief, N.-R.; Avenant-Oldewage, A.; du Preez, H. H.

    Infection of fish by the Asian tapeworm can damage intestines and cause abnormal growth. Eighty largemouth yellowfish Labeobarbus kimberleyensis were collected in the Vaal Dam (26°52.249‧S, 28°10.249‧E) with the aid of gill nets during a study between April 2005 and February 2006. The fish were killed and the weight and length determined. Thereafter the intestines were removed, the length determined and the intestines opened to expose the tapeworms. The distance between the beginning of the intestine and the attachment position of the first tapeworm was measured, and thereafter all the worms were collected. The prevalence, abundance and mean intensity was calculated for all the surveys. Seasonality and intensity of tapeworms were compared to the intestine and total lengths of the fish. All the tapeworms were identified as the Asian Tapeworm Bothriocephalus acheilognathi Yamaguti, 1934. The position of the first tapeworm was located between 10% and 20% from the anterior end of the intestine in close proximity to the bile opening. A total of 100% prevalence was recorded for all the surveys and the highest mean intensity of 231.1 was recorded during the autumn survey. The lowest mean intensity of 73.7 was recorded during the summer survey. Although the infection rates were very high, the fish condition was good and apparently the fecundity of the fish was not negatively affected as young fish fry was collected during the summer survey. Parasite numbers are higher and differ from a study conducted in 2000 and this is attributed to water temperature and water quality. No correlation was observed between parasite intensity and total length of each fish. This indicates that intensity is not dependant on host size and that infection is not the result of a buildt of over years.

  14. Strong embeddings of minimum genus

    CERN Document Server

    Mohar, Bojan

    2009-01-01

    A "folklore conjecture, probably due to Tutte" (as described in [P.D. Seymour, Sums of circuits, Graph theory and related topics (Proc. Conf., Univ. Waterloo, 1977), pp. 341-355, Academic Press, 1979]) asserts that every bridgeless cubic graph can be embedded on a surface of its own genus in such a way that the face boundaries are cycles of the graph. In this paper we consider closed 2-cell embeddings of graphs and show that certain (cubic) graphs (of any fixed genus) have closed 2-cell embedding only in surfaces whose genus is very large (proportional to the order of these graphs), thus providing plethora of strong counterexamples to the above conjecture. The main result yielding such counterexamples may be of independent interest.

  15. Suppression of the tapeworm order Pseudophyllidea (Platyhelminthes: Eucestoda) and the proposal of two new orders, Bothriocephalidea and Diphyllobothriidea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuchta, R; Scholz, T; Brabec, J; Bray, R A

    2008-01-01

    Pseudophyllidea van Beneden in Carus, 1863, a well recognised order of tapeworms (Platyhelminthes: Eucestoda), is suppressed because it is composed of two phylogenetically unrelated groups, for which the new names Bothriocephalidea and Diphyllobothriidea are proposed. The new orders differ from each other in the following characters: (i) position of the genital pore: on the dorsal, dorso-lateral or lateral aspects and posterior to the ventral uterine pore in the Bothriocephalidea versus on the ventral aspect of segments and anterior to the uterine pore in the Diphyllobothriidea; (ii) the presence of a muscular external seminal vesicle in the Diphyllobothriidea, which is absent in the Bothriocephalidea; (iii) the presence of a uterine sac in the Bothriocephalidea, which is absent in the Diphyllobothriidea; and (iv) the spectrum of definitive hosts: mainly teleost fishes, never homoiothermic vertebrates in the Bothriocephalidea, versus tetrapods, most frequently mammals, in the Diphyllobothriidea, with species of Diphyllobothrium, Spirometra and Diplogonoporus parasitic in humans. The Diphyllobothriidea, which includes 17 genera in four families (Digramma is synonymised with Ligula), is associated with cestode groups that have a range of plesiomorphic characters (Haplobothriidea and Caryophyllidea), whereas the Bothriocephalidea, consisting of 41 genera grouped in four families, is the sister-group to the 'acetabulate' or 'tetrafossate' cestodes, which are generally regarded as having derived characters.

  16. Complete Sequence of the mitochondrial genome of the tapeworm Hymenolepis diminuta: Gene arrangements indicate that platyhelminths are eutrochozoans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    von Nickisch-Rosenegk, Markus; Brown, Wesley M.; Boore, Jeffrey L.

    2001-01-01

    Using ''long-PCR'' we have amplified in overlapping fragments the complete mitochondrial genome of the tapeworm Hymenolepis diminuta (Platyhelminthes: Cestoda) and determined its 13,900 nucleotide sequence. The gene content is the same as that typically found for animal mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) except that atp8 appears to be lacking, a condition found previously for several other animals. Despite the small size of this mtDNA, there are two large non-coding regions, one of which contains 13 repeats of a 31 nucleotide sequence and a potential stem-loop structure of 25 base pairs with an 11-member loop. Large potential secondary structures are identified also for the non-coding regions of two other cestode mtDNAs. Comparison of the mitochondrial gene arrangement of H. diminuta with those previously published supports a phylogenetic position of flatworms as members of the Eutrochozoa, rather than being basal to either a clade of protostomes or a clade of coelomates.

  17. Molecular characterization of the parasitic tapeworm Bertiella studeri from the island of Mauritius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taleb-Hossenkhan, Nawsheen; Bhagwant, Suress

    2012-02-01

    Specimens of Bertiella studeri (Cyclophyllidea, Anoplocephalidae) that have been preserved in ethanol or fixed permanently in formalin for >2 years were used for DNA extraction and molecular characterization. DNA was amplified via PCR from samples collected from different monkey and human hosts using eucestoda-specific primers. Phylogenetic trees were inferred from two sets of sequence data corresponding to the first and second halves of the 18S rDNA gene using two methods (distance-based NJ and maximum parsimony). We found that the second dataset was more suited for inferring phylogeny within the Cyclophyllidea. Both trees show that taxa belonging to the Anoplocephalidae, Hymenolepididae, Davaineidae, and Mesocestoididae are clearly monophyletic within their families and demonstrate sister-group relationships between the Anoplocephalidae and Mesocestoididae, contradicting previous reports of a basal placement of the Mesocestoididae within the Cyclophyllidea. The distance-based phylogeny support a taxonomical classification that groups members of the Bertiella genus, as well as other members of the Anoplocephalidae family, as being most closely related to the Hymenolepididae family and can be used to substantiate the use of uterine morphology as a valid homologous trait for taxonomical and phylogenetic classifications. On the other hand, the parsimony-based phylogeny places the Hymenolepididae closer to the outgroup and shows a closer relationship between the Mesocestoididae and the Taeniidae. This underlies the caution with which gene trees should be interpreted for inferring phylogeny and underlies the need to integrate both morphological and molecular data to represent the actual evolutionary pathway of the species involved.

  18. Mitochondrial genes and genomes support a cryptic species of tapeworm within Taenia taeniaeformis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Wanzhong; Yan, Hongbin; Lou, Zhongzi; Ni, Xingwei; Dyachenko, Viktor; Li, Hongmin; Littlewood, D Timothy J

    2012-09-01

    Taenia taeniaeformis is a globally distributed cestode, which uses felids as definitive and rodents as intermediate hosts. The complete mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) of T. taeniaeformis from Germany (Tt-GER) was sequenced, and compared with that of another isolate from China (GenBank NC_014768; Tt-CHN), both taken from cats. Analysis of the two mtDNAs indicated that the isolates are significantly different from one another with 12.6% and 9.9% nucleotide and amino acid divergence between them, for concatenated protein-coding genes; overall difference based on a pairwise nucleotide alignment of complete mtDNAs was 11.8%. A phylogenetic analysis based on the 12 protein-coding genes of all available taeniid mtDNAs confirmed the two T. taeniaeformis isolates as sister taxa (likely separate species) and early divergent members of the genus, as suggested previously by morphology. Phylogenetic analysis of published fragments of mt genes rrnS, cox1 and nad1, which represent multiple geographic isolates of T. taeniaeformis also resolve two distinct clades that at present do not seem to be geographically isolated. Mean pairwise (nucleotide) differences between the two clades of T. taeniaeformis were approximately 11%, 10% and 13% in partial rrnS (182bp), cox1 (371bp) and nad1 (459bp) genes, respectively. Differences between entire mtDNAs and partial mt genes of the two T. taeniaeformis isolates are of a similar magnitude between established taeniid sister species. Tt-CHN differs from all other Taenia mtDNAs in lacking a short (∼69bp) non-coding region between trnY and trnL1. Partial mt fragment analysis highlighted likely misidentifications of T. taeniaeformis on GenBank.

  19. The medicinal chemistry of genus Aralia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clement, Jason A; Clement, Ella S H

    2015-01-01

    The genus Aralia contains many plants used medicinally in Asia and the Americas. Although many members of this genus are used medicinally, the vast majority of this genus has not been explored chemically. The species of Aralia that have been explored chemically have yielded compounds of several classes, including triterpenoid saponins, sterols, diterpenoids, and acetylenic lipids. Many of the biologically active components found in genus Aralia have been evaluated for their potential as lead compounds for drug discovery. This review will explore the medicinal chemistry of compounds reported from genus Aralia, and future prospects for this genus will be considered.

  20. THE GENUS BURRETIODENDRON* Rehder (Tiliaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AJGH Kostermans

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Seven species of Burretwdendron are recognized, of which B. siamensis and B. yunnanensis are new to science. The distributional area of the genus covers Siam (one species, Yunnan (two species, Kweichow (one species;  Kwangsi (three species  and Tonkin (two species. B. tonkinensis is reduced to the synonymy of B. hsienmu. A key to the species is presented.

  1. Broad-spectrum antiviral therapeutics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todd H Rider

    Full Text Available Currently there are relatively few antiviral therapeutics, and most which do exist are highly pathogen-specific or have other disadvantages. We have developed a new broad-spectrum antiviral approach, dubbed Double-stranded RNA (dsRNA Activated Caspase Oligomerizer (DRACO that selectively induces apoptosis in cells containing viral dsRNA, rapidly killing infected cells without harming uninfected cells. We have created DRACOs and shown that they are nontoxic in 11 mammalian cell types and effective against 15 different viruses, including dengue flavivirus, Amapari and Tacaribe arenaviruses, Guama bunyavirus, and H1N1 influenza. We have also demonstrated that DRACOs can rescue mice challenged with H1N1 influenza. DRACOs have the potential to be effective therapeutics or prophylactics for numerous clinical and priority viruses, due to the broad-spectrum sensitivity of the dsRNA detection domain, the potent activity of the apoptosis induction domain, and the novel direct linkage between the two which viruses have never encountered.

  2. Ghost imaging with broad distance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    段德洋; 张路; 杜少将; 夏云杰

    2015-01-01

    We present a scheme that is able to achieve the ghost imaging with broad distance. The physical nature of our scheme is that the different wavelength beams are separated in free space by an optical media according to the slow light or dispersion principle. Meanwhile, the equality of the optical distance of the two light arms is not violated. The photon correlation is achieved by the rotating ground glass plate (RGGP) and spatial light modulator (SLM), respectively. Our work shows that a monochromic ghost image can be obtained in the case of RGGP. More importantly, the position (or distance) of the object can be ascertained by the color of the image. Thus, the imaging and ranging processes are combined as one process for the first time to the best of our knowledge. In the case of SLM, we can obtain a colored image regardless of where the object is.

  3. Rank and genus of 3-manifolds

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Tao

    2011-01-01

    We construct a counterexample to the Rank versus Genus Conjecture, i.e. a closed orientable hyperbolic 3-manifold with rank of its fundamental group smaller than its Heegaard genus. Moreover, we show that the discrepancy between rank and Heegaard genus can be arbitrarily large for hyperbolic 3-manifolds. We also construct toroidal such examples containing hyperbolic JSJ pieces.

  4. The genus Stixis (Capparaceae). A census

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobs, M.

    1963-01-01

    For a long time, the genus Stixis has been known in the Indian Floras under the name Roydsia, until Pierre monographed it in 1887. Several of Pierre’s species have in the present paper been reduced, leaving Stixis a genus comprising 7 species and 1 subspecies. The genus, which is very uniform, exten

  5. Multiple isotope analyses of the pike tapeworm Triaenophorus nodulosus reveal peculiarities in consumer-diet discrimination patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrmann-Godel, J; Yohannes, E

    2015-03-01

    Previous studies of dietary isotope discrimination have led to the general expectation that a consumer will exhibit enriched stable isotope levels relative to its diet. Parasite-host systems are specific consumer-diet pairs in which the consumer (parasite) feeds exclusively on one dietary source: host tissue. However, the small numbers of studies previously carried out on isotopic discrimination in parasite-host (ΔXP-HT) systems have yielded controversial results, showing some parasites to be isotopically depleted relative to their food source, while others are enriched or in equilibrium with their hosts. Although the mechanism for these deviations from expectations remains to be understood, possible influences of specific feeding niche or selection for only a few nutritional components by the parasite are discussed. ΔXP-HT for multiple isotopes (δ13C, δ15N, δ34S) were measured in the pike tapeworm Triaenophorus nodulosus and two of its life-cycle fish hosts, perch Perca fluviatilis and pike Esox lucius, within which T. nodulosus occupies different feeding locations. Variability in the value of ΔXP-HT calculated for the parasite and its different hosts indicates an influence of feeding location on isotopic discrimination. In perch liver ΔXP-HT was relatively more negative for all three stable isotopes. In pike gut ΔXP-HT was more positive for δ13C, as expected in conventional consumer-diet systems. For parasites feeding on pike gut, however, the δ15N and δ34S isotope values were comparable with those of the host. We discuss potential causes of these deviations from expectations, including the effect of specific parasite feeding niches, and conclude that ΔXP-HT should be critically evaluated for trophic interactions between parasite and host before general patterns are assumed.

  6. Molecular analyses reveal two geographic and genetic lineages for tapeworms, Taenia solium and Taenia saginata, from Ecuador using mitochondrial DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solano, Danilo; Navarro, Juan Carlos; León-Reyes, Antonio; Benítez-Ortiz, Washington; Rodríguez-Hidalgo, Richar

    2016-12-01

    Tapeworms Taenia solium and Taenia saginata are the causative agents of taeniasis/cysticercosis. These are diseases with high medical and veterinary importance due to their impact on public health and rural economy in tropical countries. The re-emergence of T. solium as a result of human migration, the economic burden affecting livestock industry, and the large variability of symptoms in several human cysticercosis, encourage studies on genetic diversity, and the identification of these parasites with molecular phylogenetic tools. Samples collected from the Ecuadorian provinces: Loja, Guayas, Manabí, Tungurahua (South), and Imbabura, Pichincha (North) from 2000 to 2012 were performed under Maximum Parsimony analyses and haplotype networks using partial sequences of mitochondrial DNA, cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) and NADH subunit I (NDI), from Genbank and own sequences of Taenia solium and Taenia saginata from Ecuador. Both species have shown reciprocal monophyly, which confirms its molecular taxonomic identity. The COI and NDI genes results suggest phylogenetic structure for both parasite species from south and north of Ecuador. In T. solium, both genes gene revealed greater geographic structure, whereas in T. saginata, the variability for both genes was low. In conclusion, COI haplotype networks of T. solium suggest two geographical events in the introduction of this species in Ecuador (African and Asian lineages) and occurring sympatric, probably through the most common routes of maritime trade between the XV-XIX centuries. Moreover, the evidence of two NDI geographical lineages in T. solium from the north (province of Imbabura) and the south (province of Loja) of Ecuador derivate from a common Indian ancestor open new approaches for studies on genetic populations and eco-epidemiology.

  7. Maximum Genus of Strong Embeddings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Er-ling Wei; Yan-pei Liu; Han Ren

    2003-01-01

    The strong embedding conjecture states that any 2-connected graph has a strong embedding on some surface. It implies the circuit double cover conjecture: Any 2-connected graph has a circuit double cover.Conversely, it is not true. But for a 3-regular graph, the two conjectures are equivalent. In this paper, a characterization of graphs having a strong embedding with exactly 3 faces, which is the strong embedding of maximum genus, is given. In addition, some graphs with the property are provided. More generally, an upper bound of the maximum genus of strong embeddings of a graph is presented too. Lastly, it is shown that the interpolation theorem is true to planar Halin graph.

  8. The genus Phytophthora anno 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroon, Laurens P N M; Brouwer, Henk; de Cock, Arthur W A M; Govers, Francine

    2012-04-01

    Plant diseases caused by Phytophthora species will remain an ever increasing threat to agriculture and natural ecosystems. Phytophthora literally means plant destroyer, a name coined in the 19th century by Anton de Bary when he investigated the potato disease that set the stage for the Great Irish Famine. Phytophthora infestans, the causal agent of potato late blight, was the first species in a genus that at present has over 100 recognized members. In the last decade, the number of recognized Phytophthora species has nearly doubled and new species are added almost on a monthly basis. Here we present an overview of the 10 clades that are currently distinguished within the genus Phytophthora with special emphasis on new species that have been described since 1996 when Erwin and Ribeiro published the valuable monograph 'Phytophthora diseases worldwide' (35).

  9. A loop-mediated isothermal amplification method for a differential identification of Taenia tapeworms from human: application to a field survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nkouawa, Agathe; Sako, Yasuhito; Li, Tiaoying; Chen, Xingwang; Nakao, Minoru; Yanagida, Tetsuya; Okamoto, Munehiro; Giraudoux, Patrick; Raoul, Francis; Nakaya, Kazuhiro; Xiao, Ning; Qiu, Jiamin; Qiu, Dongchuan; Craig, Philip S; Ito, Akira

    2012-12-01

    In this study, we applied a loop-mediated isothermal amplification method for identification of human Taenia tapeworms in Tibetan communities in Sichuan, China. Out of 51 proglottids recovered from 35 carriers, 9, 1, and 41 samples were identified as Taenia solium, Taenia asiatica and Taenia saginata, respectively. Same results were obtained afterwards in the laboratory, except one sample. These results demonstrated that the LAMP method enabled rapid identification of parasites in the field surveys, which suggested that this method would contribute to the control of Taenia infections in endemic areas.

  10. Multilocus phylogenetic analysis of the genus Aeromonas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Murcia, Antonio J; Monera, Arturo; Saavedra, M Jose; Oncina, Remedios; Lopez-Alvarez, Monserrate; Lara, Erica; Figueras, M Jose

    2011-05-01

    A broad multilocus phylogenetic analysis (MLPA) of the representative diversity of a genus offers the opportunity to incorporate concatenated inter-species phylogenies into bacterial systematics. Recent analyses based on single housekeeping genes have provided coherent phylogenies of Aeromonas. However, to date, a multi-gene phylogenetic analysis has never been tackled. In the present study, the intra- and inter-species phylogenetic relationships of 115 strains representing all Aeromonas species described to date were investigated by MLPA. The study included the independent analysis of seven single gene fragments (gyrB, rpoD, recA, dnaJ, gyrA, dnaX, and atpD), and the tree resulting from the concatenated 4705 bp sequence. The phylogenies obtained were consistent with each other, and clustering agreed with the Aeromonas taxonomy recognized to date. The highest clustering robustness was found for the concatenated tree (i.e. all Aeromonas species split into 100% bootstrap clusters). Both possible chronometric distortions and poor resolution encountered when using single-gene analysis were buffered in the concatenated MLPA tree. However, reliable phylogenetic species delineation required an MLPA including several "bona fide" strains representing all described species.

  11. Biodiversity of the genus Cladophialophora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badali, H; Gueidan, C; Najafzadeh, M J; Bonifaz, A; van den Ende, A H G Gerrits; de Hoog, G S

    2008-01-01

    Cladophialophora is a genus of black yeast-like fungi comprising a number of clinically highly significant species in addition to environmental taxa. The genus has previously been characterized by branched chains of ellipsoidal to fusiform conidia. However, this character was shown to have evolved several times independently in the order Chaetothyriales. On the basis of a multigene phylogeny (nucLSU, nucSSU, RPB1), most of the species of Cladophialophora (including its generic type C. carrionii) belong to a monophyletic group comprising two main clades (carrionii- and bantiana-clades). The genus includes species causing chromoblastomycosis and other skin infections, as well as disseminated and cerebral infections, often in immunocompetent individuals. In the present study, multilocus phylogenetic analyses were combined to a morphological study to characterize phenetically similar Cladophialophora strains. Sequences of the ITS region, partial Translation Elongation Factor 1-alpha and beta-Tubulin genes were analysed for a set of 48 strains. Four novel species were discovered, originating from soft drinks, alkylbenzene-polluted soil, and infected patients. Membership of the both carrionii and bantiana clades might be indicative of potential virulence to humans.

  12. Broad Leaves in Strong Flow

    CERN Document Server

    Miller, Laura

    2013-01-01

    Flexible broad leaves are thought to reconfigure in the wind and water to reduce the drag forces that act upon them. Simple mathematical models of a flexible beam immersed in a two-dimensional flow will also exhibit this behavior. What is less understood is how the mechanical properties of a leaf in a three-dimensional flow will passively allow roll up into a cone shape and reduce both drag and vortex induced oscillations. In this fluid dynamics video, the flows around the leaves are compared with those of simplified sheets using 3D numerical simulations and physical models. For some reconfiguration shapes, large forces and oscillations due to strong vortex shedding are produced. In the actual leaf, a stable recirculation zone is formed within the wake of the reconfigured cone. In physical and numerical models that reconfigure into cones, a similar recirculation zone is observed with both rigid and flexible tethers. These results suggest that the three-dimensional cone structure in addition to flexibility is ...

  13. 76 FR 34087 - Broad Stakeholder Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-10

    ... SECURITY Broad Stakeholder Survey AGENCY: National Protection and Programs Directorate, DHS. ACTION: 60-day... comments concerning the Broad Stakeholder Survey. DATES: Comments are encouraged and will be accepted until.... The Broad Stakeholder Survey is designed to gather stakeholder feedback on the effectiveness of...

  14. 78 FR 20119 - Broad Stakeholder Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-03

    ... SECURITY Broad Stakeholder Survey AGENCY: National Protection and Programs Directorate, DHS. ACTION: 30-day... soliciting comments concerning the Broad Stakeholder Survey. DHS previously published this ICR in the Federal... responders across the Nation. The Broad Stakeholder Survey is designed to gather stakeholder feedback on...

  15. 77 FR 50144 - Broad Stakeholder Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-20

    ... SECURITY Broad Stakeholder Survey AGENCY: National Protection and Programs Directorate, DHS. ACTION: 60-day... comments concerning the Broad Stakeholder Survey. DATES: Comments are encouraged and will be accepted until... across the Nation. The Broad Stakeholder Survey is designed to gather stakeholder feedback on...

  16. Chemodiversity in the genus Aspergillus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frisvad, Jens C; Larsen, Thomas O

    2015-10-01

    Isolates of Aspergillus species are able to produce a large number of secondary metabolites. The profiles of biosynthetic families of secondary metabolites are species specific, whereas individual secondary metabolite families can occur in other species, even those phylogenetically and ecologically unrelated to Aspergillus. Furthermore, there is a high degree of chemo-consistency from isolate to isolate in a species even though certain metabolite gene clusters are silenced in some isolates. Genome sequencing projects have shown that the diversity of secondary metabolites is much larger in each species than previously thought. The potential of finding even further new bioactive drug candidates in Aspergillus is evident, despite the fact that many secondary metabolites have already been structure elucidated and chemotaxonomic studies have shown that many new secondary metabolites have yet to be characterized. The genus Aspergillus is cladistically holophyletic but phenotypically polythetic and very diverse and is associated to quite different sexual states. Following the one fungus one name system, the genus Aspergillus is restricted to a holophyletic clade that include the morphologically different genera Aspergillus, Dichotomomyces, Phialosimplex, Polypaecilum and Cristaspora. Secondary metabolites common between the subgenera and sections of Aspergillus are surprisingly few, but many metabolites are common to a majority of species within the sections. We call small molecule extrolites in the same biosynthetic family isoextrolites. However, it appears that secondary metabolites from one Aspergillus section have analogous metabolites in other sections (here also called heteroisoextrolites). In this review, we give a genus-wide overview of secondary metabolite production in Aspergillus species. Extrolites appear to have evolved because of ecological challenges rather than being inherited from ancestral species, at least when comparing the species in the different

  17. The genus Lolium; taxonomy and genetic resources.

    OpenAIRE

    Loos, B.P.

    1994-01-01

    Several aspects of variation within the genus Lolium, and more in detail within Lolium perenne (perennial ryegrass) have been highlighted. As the results are extensively discussed in each chapter, the general discussion is focused on two aspects of the research.SpeciationIt is clear that the genus Lolium is a very variable genus. The variation within the species reduces the clarity of separation of the species. Stebbins (1956) found the differences between Lolium and Festuca not sufficient to...

  18. Aspidonepsis (Asclepiadaceae, a new southern African genus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Nicholas

    1992-12-01

    Full Text Available Aspidonepsis, an endemic southern African genus, is described and compared to the closely allied genus Aspidoglossum. This newly described genus is composed of two subgenera, Aspidonepsis and Unguilobium. consisting of three and two species respectively.  Asclepias diploglossa, A. flava, A. cognata and A. reneensis are transferred to Aspidonepsis. and A. shebae is newly described. All species are discussed, illustrated and a key is given to aid in their identification.

  19. THE GENUS DURIO Adans. (Bombac.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. J. G. H. KOSTERMANS

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The genus Durio comprises, as far as known, 27 species. The centre ofdistribution is Borneo with 19 species, followed by Malaya with 11 spe-cies and Sumatra with 7 species. It is likely, when Sumatra will be betterexplored, that this island will prove to have many more species. An exclave of the area of distribution is found in Burma, where one endemic species occurs. The common Durio zibethinus Murr. probably originated in Borneo or in Sumatra. It is now widely cultivated outside of its former area and in many places it has become spontaneous.The genus Durio is subdivided into two subgenera: Durio and BoschiaKosterm. & Soegeng, according to the way of dehiscence of the anthers(with a longitudinal slit in the former, with an apical pore in the latter.A key to the species is proposed. A map is added, to show distribution and endemism. Each species is amply described and provided with a drawing . Economic and ecological data are given.

  20. The genus Allium. Part 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenwick, G R; Hanley, A B

    1985-01-01

    Allium is a genus of some 500 species belonging to the family Liliaceae. However only a few of these are important as food plants, notably onion, garlic, chive, leek, and rakkyo. Such plants have been used for many centuries for the pungency and flavoring value, for their medicinal properties, and, in some parts of the world, their use also has religious connotations. The flavors of members of the genus Alliums, in addition to having certain characteristics, are also complex, being derived enzymically from a number of involatile precursors. In addition to there being variation of flavor between different alliums, there are also considerable changes that occur as a result of cooking and processing. Of course, these are of importance to the consumer and food technologist-processor. The review will introduce the subject by an historical perspective and will set this against data on the present cultivation and usage of commercially cultivated alliums. The chemical composition of these plants will be discussed, emphasis being given to nonvolatile constituents which are, perhaps, less often considered. Discussion of the volatile constituents, which will include mention of the methods currently used for their analysis and for the determination of "flavor strength", will be mainly concerned with literature taken from the last 5 years. In considering the extent and nature of allium cultivation and processing, factors affecting the nutritional value and quality will be highlighted. The medicinal properties of garlic and onion oils have been much studied over the last decade and the review will include critical assessment of this area and also will touch on the more general properties (antimicrobial, antifungal, antibacterial, and insecticidal) of these oils. Finally mention will be made of the antinutritional, toxic, or otherwise undesirable effects of alliums, for example, as inadvertent components of animal diets, tainting of milk and other food products. It is our

  1. Evolution of the Genus Homo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tattersall, Ian; Schwartz, Jeffrey H.

    2009-05-01

    Definition of the genus Homo is almost as fraught as the definition of Homo sapiens. We look at the evidence for “early Homo,” finding little morphological basis for extending our genus to any of the 2.5-1.6-myr-old fossil forms assigned to “early Homo” or Homo habilis/rudolfensis. We also point to heterogeneity among “early African Homo erectus,” and the lack of apomorphies linking these fossils to the Asian Homo erectus group, a cohesive regional clade that shows some internal variation, including brain size increase over time. The first truly cosmopolitan Homo species is Homo heidelbergensis, known from Africa, Europe, and China following 600 kyr ago. One species sympatric with it included the >500-kyr-old Sima de los Huesos fossils from Spain, clearly distinct from Homo heidelbergensis and the oldest hominids assignable to the clade additionally containing Homo neanderthalensis. This clade also shows evidence of brain size expansion with time; but although Homo neanderthalensis had a large brain, it left no unequivocal evidence of the symbolic consciousness that makes our species unique. Homo sapiens clearly originated in Africa, where it existed as a physical entity before it began (also in that continent) to show the first stirrings of symbolism. Most likely, the biological underpinnings of symbolic consciousness were exaptively acquired in the radical developmental reorganization that gave rise to the highly characteristic osteological structure of Homo sapiens, but lay fallow for tens of thousands of years before being “discovered” by a cultural stimulus, plausibly the invention of language.

  2. Resurrection of the genus Haplanthus (Acanthaceae: Andrographinae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gnanasekaran, G.; Murthy, G.V.S.; Deng, Y.F.

    2016-01-01

    A systematic morphological study of Andrographis (Acanthaceae: Andrographinae) in India has revealed that the genus Haplanthus is distinct from Andrographis. We resurrect the genus Haplanthus here with four species, one of which contains three varieties. Five new combinations are proposed: H. laxifl

  3. New Forms in the genus Erebia (Lepidoptera)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eisner, C.

    1946-01-01

    A revision of the material belonging to the genus Erebia Dalman in the Rijksmuseum van Natuurlijke Historie at Leiden, mainly based on the "Monograph of the genus Erebia" by B. C. S. Warren (London, 1936), induced me to describe a number of new subspecies and aberrations, and to make some remarks on

  4. Cytotaxonomic studies in the genus Campanula

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gadella, Th.W.J.

    1964-01-01

    De Candolle (1830) divided the genus Campanula into two large sections on basis of the presence or absence of calyx-appendages between the calyx-lobes. Boissier (1875) attached great value to the mode of dehiscence of the capsule, and divided the genus into two sections. None of the existing classif

  5. A monograph of the genus Evolvulus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ooststroom, van S.J.

    1934-01-01

    The great difficulties arising in the identification of a number of plants belonging to the genus Evolvulus, which plants were found in several recent collections of Convolvulaceae and were kindly entrusted to me for study, induced me to submit this genus to a further examination. It soon proved how

  6. A new genus of Lindsaeoid ferns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kramer, K.U.

    1957-01-01

    In revising the New World representatives of the genus Lindsaea, the author came across a fern specimen from Borneo preserved in the Rijksherbarium, Leiden, that did not seem to fit into any described genus. It had been described as Schizoloma stortii v. A. v. R., but in the author’s opinion the gen

  7. A monograph of the Genus Aristida

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Henrard, J.Th.

    1929-01-01

    In a preliminary work: „A critical Revision of the genus Aristida”, I have given a review of all the hitherto described species of this genus with the citation of the literature, the exact copies of the authentic descriptions and the figures of the spikelet-characters, taken from the type specimens

  8. A taxonomic revision of the genus Podocarpus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laubenfels, de D.J.

    1985-01-01

    In connection with the forthcoming revision of the Coniferae for the Flora Malesiana, the author thought it necessary to revise the genus Podocarpus. Although this genus has a substantial representation in Malesia (30 species), the revision is too involved to be appropriate with the Flora Malesiana

  9. Broad Prize: Do the Successes Spread?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuels, Christina A.

    2011-01-01

    When the Broad Prize for Urban Education was created in 2002, billionaire philanthropist Eli Broad said he hoped the awards, in addition to rewarding high-performing school districts, would foster healthy competition; boost the prestige of urban education, long viewed as dysfunctional; and showcase best practices. Over the 10 years the prize has…

  10. Sugawara construction for higher genus Riemann surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlichenmaier, Martin

    1999-04-01

    By the classical genus zero Sugawara construction one obtains representations of the Virasoro algebra from admissible representations of affine Lie algebras (Kac-Moody algebras of affine type). In this lecture, the classical construction is recalled first. Then, after giving a review on the global multi-point algebras of Krichever-Novikov type for compact Riemann surfaces of arbitrary genus, the higher genus Sugawara construction is introduced. Finally, the lecture reports on results obtained in a joint work with O. K. Sheinman. We were able to show that also in the higher genus, multi-point situation one obtains (from representations of the global algebras of affine type) representations of a centrally extended algebra of meromorphic vector fields on Riemann surfaces. The latter algebra is a generalization of the Virasoro algebra to higher genus.

  11. Mini review on chemotherapy of taeniasis and cysticercosis due to Taenia solium in Asia, and a case report with 20 tapeworms in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, A; Li, T; Chen, X; Long, C; Yanagida, T; Nakao, M; Sako, Y; Okamoto, M; Wu, Y; Raoul, F; Giraudoux, P; Craig, P S

    2013-06-01

    A 43-year-old Tibetan woman living in northwest Sichuan, China, confirmed to be a taeniasis carrier of Taenia solium was treated with pumpkin seeds combined with Areca nut extract in October 2009. All 20 tapeworms except one without scolex were expelled under good conditions. She was free of secondary cysticercosis within one year follow up. Although the first choice for treatment of taeniasis is still praziquantel, it may often cause serious side effect on asymptomatic cysticercosis cases to suddenly become symptomatic within a half day of the treatment. Therefore, the problems in treatment of taeniasis and/or cysticercosis in Asia are briefly overviewed, since other platyhelminthic diseases including schistosomiasis, opisthorchiasis etc. are more common and praziquantel is strongly recommended for mass treatment of these trematodiases with no idea on the co-infection with eggs of T. solium which cause asymptomatic cysticercosis.

  12. Detection of All Species of the Genus Alphavirus by Reverse Transcription-PCR with Diagnostic Sensitivity▿

    OpenAIRE

    Grywna, K.; Kupfer, B.; Panning, M.; Drexler, J. F.; Emmerich, P.; Drosten, C.; Kummerer, B. M.

    2010-01-01

    Clinical arbovirus screening requires exclusion of a broad range of viruses with as few assays as possible. We present a reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) for the detection of all species of the genus Alphavirus qualified for exclusion screening (limit of detection [LOD], 5 to 100 RNA copies per reaction across all Alphavirus species; detection of viremia down to ca. 10,000 copies per ml).

  13. Influenza virus antigenicity and broadly neutralizing epitopes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Air, Gillian M

    2015-04-01

    A vaccine formulation that would be effective against all strains of influenza virus has long been a goal of vaccine developers, but antibodies after infection or vaccination were seen to be strain specific and there was little evidence of cross-reactive antibodies that neutralized across subtypes. Recently a number of broadly neutralizing monoclonal antibodies have been characterized. This review describes the different classes of broadly neutralizing antibodies and discusses the potential of their therapeutic use or for design of immunogens that induce a high proportion of broadly neutralizing antibodies.

  14. Genus llex L.: Phytochemistry, Ethnopharmacology, and Pharmacology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fan Yi; Xiao-ling Zhao; Yong Peng; Pei-gen Xiao

    2016-01-01

    The genus llex L. has been used as remedies in traditional Chinese medicine in Aquifoliaceae and beverages for thousands of years due to abundant pharmaceutical bioactivities. There are 600 species in genus llex L. containing various compounds such as terpenoids, saponins, glycosides, etc. Three species, I. cornuta, I. chinensis, and I. rotunda have been admitted in Chinese Pharmacopoeia 2015 to treat dyspepsia, stomatitis, and hyperactivity cough and protect the liver and kidney. Recent studies showed that several species have been daily drunk to promote human health and prevent cardiovascular diseases in the folk. Here we reviewed the genus llex L. in phytochemistry, ethnopharmacology, and pharmacology.

  15. The genus of a type of graph

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Based on the joint tree model introduced by Liu, the genera of further types of graphs not necessary to have certain symmetry can be obtained. In this paper, we obtain the genus of a new type of graph with weak symmetry. As a corollary, the genus of complete tripartite graph K n,n,l (l≥n≥2) is also derived. The method used here is more direct than those methods, such as current graph, used to calculate the genus of a graph and can be realized in polynomial time.

  16. Keanekaragaman metabolit sekunder Genus Artocarpus (Moraceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALIEFMAN HAKIM

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Hakim A. 2011. Keanekaragaman metabolit sekunder Genus Artocarpus (Moraceae. Bioteknologi 8: 86-98. Beberaapa spesies dari genus Artocarpus (Moraceae telah diteliti kandungan bahan alamnya. Metabolit sekunder yang berhasil diisolasi dari genus Artocarpus terdiri dari terpenoid, flavonoid, stilbenoid, arilbenzofuran, neolignan, dan adduct Diels-Alder. Kelompok flavonoid merupakan senyawa yang paling banyak ditemukan dari tumbuhan Artocarpus. Senyawa flavonoid yang telah berhasil diisolasi dari tumbuhan Artocarpus memiliki kerangka yang beragam seperti calkon, flavanon, flavan-3-ol, flavon sederhana, prenilflavon, oksepinoflavon, piranoflavon, dihidrobenzosanton, furanodi hidrobenzosanton, piranodihidrobenzosanton, kuinonosanton, siklolopentenosanton, santonolid, dihidrosanton.

  17. Measuring Prevention More Broadly, An Empirical...

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Measuring Prevention More Broadly, An Empirical Assessment of CHIPRA Core Measures Differences in CHIP design and structure, across states and over time, may limit...

  18. Monograph of the genus Phylacium (Leguminosae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bresser, Mirjam

    1978-01-01

    In the genus Phylacium 2 species are recognized. Special attention is paid to the morphology of the inflorescence; full descriptions are given with plates and a map, showing the distribution of both species.

  19. Taxonomy of the genus Passerina (Thymelaeaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. L. Bredenkamp

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Passerina L. is mainly a southern African genus, comprising 20 species and four subspecies. A few species occur along the Great Escarpment, two extend into Zimbabwe and Mozambique, but most are concentrated in the Cape Floristic Region. Palynological. macromorphological and anatomical evidence was used in the delimitation of the genus and its infrageneric taxa. A cladistic study supports Passerina as a monophyletic genus. A genus treatment, key to species and a full species treatment are given. Each species treatment includes a taxonomic diagnosis, description and notes on taxonomy, etymology, economic value and distribution. Illustrations of representative species are provided and distribution maps are included for each species.  P. esterhuyseniae Bredenk. & A.E.van Wyk is newly described. A list of excluded species names highlights the previous cosmopolitan taxonomic interpretation of Passerina. as many names are now in synony my under other genera of the Thymelaeaceae.

  20. Synaptospory in the fern genus Pyrrosia (Polypodiaceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uffelen, van Gerda A.

    1985-01-01

    The correlation between sporoderm sculpture and life form of the sporophyte as postulated by Kramer (1977) is investigated for the fern genus Pyrrosia. This correlation is not found in Pyrrosia but may be present in other fern groups.

  1. Synaptospory in the fern genus Pyrrosia (Polypodiaceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uffelen, van Gerda A.

    1983-01-01

    The correlation between sporoderm sculpture and life form of the sporophyte as postulated by Kramer (1977) is investigated for the fern genus Pyrrosia. This correlation is not found in Pyrrosia but may be present in other fern groups.

  2. Phylogeny and taxonomy of the genus Gliocephalotrichum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lombard, L.; Serrato-Diaz, L.M.; Cheewangkoon, R.; French-Monar, R.D.; Decock, C.; Crous, P.W.

    2014-01-01

    Species in the genus Gliocephalotrichum (= Leuconectria) (Hypocreales, Nectriaceae) are soilborne fungi, associated with post-harvest fruit spoilage of several important tropical fruit crops. Contemporary taxonomic studies of these fungi have relied on morphology and DNA sequence comparisons of the

  3. Taxonomic novelties in the genus Campylospermum (Ochnaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Bissiengou, P.; Chatrou, L.W.; Wieringa, J. J.; Sosef, M.S.M.

    2013-01-01

    Four new species, one with two subspecies, of the genus Campylospermum are described, all endemic or sub-endemic to Gabon. These are C. auriculatum, C. gabonensis, C. gabonensis subsp. australis, C. glaucifolium and C. occidentalis. Distribution maps and scans of the holotypes are provided as well as preliminary IUCN Red List assessments. New combinations for nine species formerly assigned to the genus Ouratea and/or Gomphia are proposed: C. andongensis, C. glomeratum, C. longestipulatum, C. ...

  4. Cosmetic crossings of genus one knots

    CERN Document Server

    Balm, Cheryl

    2011-01-01

    We show that for genus one knots the Alexander polynomial and the homology of the double cover branching over the knot provide obstructions to cosmetic crossings. As an application we prove the nugatory crossing conjecture for the negatively twisted, positive Whitehead doubles of all knots. We also verify the conjecture for several families of pretzel knots and all genus one knots with up to 10 crossings.

  5. Two new species of Halysioncum Caira, Marques, Jensen, Kuchta et Ivanov, 2013 (Cestoda, Diphyllidea) from Indo-Pacific rays of the genus Aetomylaeus Garman (Myliobatiformes, Myliobatidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, Verónica A; Caira, Janine N

    2013-09-01

    Recent collections of cestode parasites from two species of the myliobatid genus Aetomylaeus Garman from several localities in the Pacific Ocean resulted in the discovery of two new species of Halysioncum Caira, Marques, Jensen, Kuchta et Ivanov, 2013. Halysioncum gibsoni sp. n. from Aetomylaeus maculatus (Gray) in the South China Sea off Borneo differs from all of its congeners in having the following combination of characters: 27 apical hooks (14 type A and 13 type B hooks), 11-12 lateral hooklets, 22-28 spines per column on the cephalic peduncle, testes distributed in a single column and an internal seminal vesicle. Halysioncum arafurense sp. n., recovered from Aetomylaeus cf. nichofii 2 (sensu Naylor et al. 2012b) in the Arafura Sea off the Wessel Islands, Northern Territory, Australia, can be distinguished from its congeners based on the following combination of characters: 23 apical hooks (12 type A and 11 type B hooks), the number of lateral hooklets (9-11), the number of spines per column on the cephalic peduncle (20-24), the number and distribution of the testes (13-15 testes in two irregular columns), and the distribution of vitelline follicles (interrupted dorsally at the level of the ovarian lobes). Both species represent the first verified records of diphyllideans from eagle rays of the genus Aetomylaeus and formally extend the host associations of diphyllideans to include a third genus of Myliobatiformes. The myliobatiforms are indeed an understudied group of available hosts for diphyllideans and represent interesting target hosts if the diversity of diphyllidean tapeworms is to be fully estimated and understood.

  6. Genus distribution of ladder type and cross type graphs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    In this paper a method is given to calculate the explicit expressions of embedding genus distribution for ladder type graphs and cross type graphs. As an example, we refind the genus distri- bution of the graph Jn which is the first class of graphs studied for genus distribution where its genus depends on n.

  7. Genus distribution of ladder type and cross type graphs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WAN LiangXia; FENG KeQin; LIU YanPei; WANG DianJun

    2009-01-01

    In this paper a method is given to calculate the explicit expressions of embedding genus distribution for ladder type graphs and cross type graphs.As an example,we refind the genus distribution of the graph Jn which is the first class of graphs studied for genus distribution where its genus depends on n.

  8. Experimental infection of the endangered bonytail chub (Gila elegans) with the Asian fish tapeworm (Bothriocephalus acheilognathi): impacts on survival, growth, and condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, S.P.; Choudhury, A.; Heisey, D.M.; Ahumada, J.A.; Hoffnagle, T.L.; Cole, R.A.

    2006-01-01

    Bothriocephalus acheilognathi Yamaguti, 1934, a tapeworm known to be pathogenic to some fish species, has become established in the endangered humpback chub (Gila cypha Miller, 1964) in Grand Canyon, USA, following the tapeworm's introduction into the Colorado River system. The potential impact of this tapeworm on humpback chub was studied by exposing the closely related bonytail chub (Gila elegans Baird and Girard, 1853) to the parasite under a range of conditions that included potential stressors of humpback chub in their natal waters, such as abrupt temperature change and a limited food base. Survival of infected fish under low food rations was considerably lower than that of control fish, and mortality of infected fish began 20days earlier. Growth of infected fish was significantly reduced, and negative changes in health condition indices were found. No significant negative impacts were revealed from the synergistic effects between temperature shock and infection. Bothriocephalus acheilognathi does present a potential threat to humpback chub in Grand Canyon and should be considered, along with conventional concerns involving altered flow regimes and predation, when management decisions are made concerning conservation of this endangered species.// Bothriocephalus acheilognathi Yamaguti, 1934, un ver plat connu comme pathog??ne pour certaines esp??ces de poissons, s'est associ?? au A (Gila cypha Miller, 1964), une esp??ce menac??e du Grand Canyon, ??.-U., apr??s l'introduction du ver dans le r??seau hydrographique du Colorado. Nous avons ??tudi?? l'impact potentiel de ce ver plat sur le m??n?? bossu en exposant l'esp??ce proche Gila elegans Baird et Girard, 1853 au parasite sous une gamme de conditions qui incluent les facteurs potentiels de stress des m??n??s bossus dans leurs cours d'eau d'origine, tels que les changements abrupts de temp??rature et des ressources alimentaires limit??es. La survie des poissons infect??s dans des conditions de nourriture limit

  9. Giant Broad Line Regions in Dwarf Seyferts

    CERN Document Server

    Devereux, Nick

    2015-01-01

    High angular resolution spectroscopy obtained with the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) has revealed a remarkable population of galaxies hosting dwarf Seyfert nuclei with an unusually large broad-line region (BLR). These objects are remarkable for two reasons. Firstly, the size of the BLR can, in some cases, rival those seen in the most luminous quasars. Secondly, the size of the BLR is not correlated with the central continuum luminosity, an observation that distinguishes them from their reverberating counterparts. Collectively, these early results suggest that non-reverberating dwarf Seyferts are a heterogeneous group and not simply scaled versions of each other. Careful inspection reveals broad H Balmer emission lines with single peaks, double peaks, and a combination of the two, suggesting that the broad emission lines are produced in kinematically distinct regions centered on the black hole (BH). Because the gravitational field strength is already known for these objects, by virtue of knowing their BH mass, ...

  10. Modelling Demand for Broad Money in Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Abbas Valadkhani

    2002-01-01

    The existence of a stable demand for money is very important for the conduct of monetary policy. It is argued that previous work on the demand for money in Australia has not been very satisfactory in a number of ways. This paper examines the long- and short-run determinants of the demand for broad money employing the Johansen cointegration technique and a short-run dynamic model. Using quarterly data for the period 1976:3-2002:2, this paper finds, inter alia, that the demand for broad money i...

  11. Genomic diversity within the haloalkaliphilic genus Thioalkalivibrio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Anne-Catherine; Meier-Kolthoff, Jan P.; Overmars, Lex; Richter, Michael; Woyke, Tanja; Sorokin, Dimitry Y.

    2017-01-01

    Thioalkalivibrio is a genus of obligate chemolithoautotrophic haloalkaliphilic sulfur-oxidizing bacteria. Their habitat are soda lakes which are dual extreme environments with a pH range from 9.5 to 11 and salt concentrations up to saturation. More than 100 strains of this genus have been isolated from various soda lakes all over the world, but only ten species have been effectively described yet. Therefore, the assignment of the remaining strains to either existing or novel species is important and will further elucidate their genomic diversity as well as give a better general understanding of this genus. Recently, the genomes of 76 Thioalkalivibrio strains were sequenced. On these, we applied different methods including (i) 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, (ii) Multilocus Sequence Analysis (MLSA) based on eight housekeeping genes, (iii) Average Nucleotide Identity based on BLAST (ANIb) and MUMmer (ANIm), (iv) Tetranucleotide frequency correlation coefficients (TETRA), (v) digital DNA:DNA hybridization (dDDH) as well as (vi) nucleotide- and amino acid-based Genome BLAST Distance Phylogeny (GBDP) analyses. We detected a high genomic diversity by revealing 15 new “genomic” species and 16 new “genomic” subspecies in addition to the ten already described species. Phylogenetic and phylogenomic analyses showed that the genus is not monophyletic, because four strains were clearly separated from the other Thioalkalivibrio by type strains from other genera. Therefore, it is recommended to classify the latter group as a novel genus. The biogeographic distribution of Thioalkalivibrio suggested that the different “genomic” species can be classified as candidate disjunct or candidate endemic species. This study is a detailed genome-based classification and identification of members within the genus Thioalkalivibrio. However, future phenotypical and chemotaxonomical studies will be needed for a full species description of this genus. PMID:28282461

  12. First ultrastructural data on the human tapeworm Taenia asiatica eggs by scanning and transmission electron microscopy (SEM, TEM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galán-Puchades, M Teresa; Yang, Yichao; Marcilla, Antonio; Choe, Seongjun; Park, Hansol; Osuna, Antonio; Eom, Keeseon S

    2016-09-01

    Humans are definitive hosts of three species of the Taenia genus, namely Taenia solium, Taenia saginata and Taenia asiatica. The relative novelty of the latter explains the lack of knowledge concerning certain relevant aspects related to this parasite, such as its definite geographical distribution and whether its eggs can infect humans or not. So far, only the eggs of T. solium are known to be infective for humans, producing cysticercosis. Although eggs contain the infective stage, the oncosphere, there is a lack of research on the ultrastructure of eggs of human taeniids. We show, for the first time, the ultrastructure of eggs of T. asiatica by means of SEM and TEM analyses. We detected all the envelopes, namely the egg shell, vitelline layer, outer embryophoric membrane, embryophore, granular layer, basal membrane, oncospheral membrane and oncospheral tegument. Hooks surrounded by myofibrils and glycogen-like particles, the two types of secretory granules of the penetration glands, as well as several nuclei and mitochondria were also revealed in the oncospheres. In addition to the already known structures in eggs from other Taenia species, the presence of two types of small vesicles is described herein, possibly corresponding to exosomes and ectosomes because of their shape and size, which could participate in the host/parasite intercellular communication.

  13. The genus Isodon (Schrad. ex Benth. Spach in Africa and a new genus Rabdosiella Codd (Lamiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. E. Codd

    1984-12-01

    Full Text Available The typification of the genus Isodon (Schrad. ex Benth. Spach and its occurrence in Africa are discussed; an allied genus Rabdosiella Codd is described and the combinations R. calycina (Benth. Codd and R. ternifolia (D.Don Codd (the latter an Indian species are effected.

  14. A new scorpion species of genus Diplocentrus Peters, 1861 (Scorpiones: Diplocentridae) endemic to Islas de la Bahia, Honduras.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagastume-Espinoza, Kevin O; Longhorn, Stuart J; Santibáñez-López, Carlos E

    2015-07-01

    Three species of genus Diplocentrus are found in north-northwestern Honduras. These species represent the southern east limits of Diplocentrus' distribution. In recent years, a broad survey of arachnids in Honduras has yielded a collection of several specimens of an undescribed species from two islands in northern Honduras. This new species represents the second species of the genus inhabiting an island. The present contribution describes this new species, and compares it against its most similar relatives. A dichotomous key for the identification of the species of Diplocentrus in Honduras is also included.

  15. Dragmacidin G, a Bioactive Bis-Indole Alkaloid from a Deep-Water Sponge of the Genus Spongosorites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Amy E.; Killday, K. Brian; Chakrabarti, Debopam; Guzmán, Esther A.; Harmody, Dedra; McCarthy, Peter J.; Pitts, Tara; Pomponi, Shirley A.; Reed, John K.; Roberts, Bracken F.; Rodrigues Felix, Carolina; Rohde, Kyle H.

    2017-01-01

    A deep-water sponge of the genus Spongosorites has yielded a bis-indole alkaloid which we have named dragmacidin G. Dragmacidin G was first reported by us in the patent literature and has recently been reported by Hitora et al. from a sponge of the genus Lipastrotheya. Dragmacidin G is the first in this series of compounds to have a pyrazine ring linking the two indole rings. It also has a rare N-(2-mercaptoethyl)-guanidine side chain. Dragmacidin G shows a broad spectrum of biological activity including inhibition of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Plasmodium falciparum, and a panel of pancreatic cancer cell lines. PMID:28085024

  16. A new species of Amphoropsyche (Trichoptera, Leptoceridae from Ecuador, with a key to the species in the genus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ralph Holzenthal

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available A new species of Amphoropsyche Holzenthal is described from Ecuador. It is similar to a group of species with dorsomesal processes on the preanal appendages (i.e., A. woodruffi Flint & Sykora, A. refugia Holzenthal, and A. aragua Holzenthal, but can be distinguished from these and other members of the genus by the short, digitate dorsomesal processes on the preanal appendages and the broad lateral processes of tergum X of the male genitalia. A key to males of the 14 species now known in the genus is presented based on characters of the genitalia.

  17. Teaching the Broad, Interdisciplinary Impact of Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, David; Atlas, Pierre; Haberski, Raymond; Higgs, Jamie; Kiley, Patrick; Maxwell, Michael, Jr.; Mirola, William; Norton, Jamey

    2009-01-01

    As perhaps the most encompassing idea in biology, evolution has impacted not only science, but other academic disciplines as well. The broad, interdisciplinary impact of evolution was the theme of a course taught at Marian College, Indianapolis, Indiana in 2002, 2004, and 2006. Using a strategy that could be readily adopted at other institutions,…

  18. The GREGOR Broad-Band Imager

    Science.gov (United States)

    von der Lühe, O.; Volkmer, R.; Kentischer, T. J.; Geißler, R.

    2012-11-01

    The design and characteristics of the Broad-Band Imager (BBI) of GREGOR are described. BBI covers the visible spectral range with two cameras simultaneously for a large field and with critical sampling at 390 nm, and it includes a mode for observing the pupil in a Foucault configuration. Samples of first-light observations are shown.

  19. A Genus Oblivious Approach to Cross Parameterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bennett, J C; Pascucci, V; Joy, K I

    2008-06-16

    In this paper we present a robust approach to construct a map between two triangulated meshes, M and M{prime} of arbitrary and possibly unequal genus. We introduce a novel initial alignment scheme that allows the user to identify 'landmark tunnels' and/or a 'constrained silhouette' in addition to the standard landmark vertices. To describe the evolution of non-landmark tunnels we automatically derive a continuous deformation from M to M{prime} using a variational implicit approach. Overall, we achieve a cross parameterization scheme that is provably robust in the sense that it can map M to M{prime} without constraints on their relative genus. We provide a number of examples to demonstrate the practical effectiveness of our scheme between meshes of different genus and shape.

  20. Revision of monotypic genus Llavea (Cryptogrammoideae: Pteridaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mónica Palacios-Rios

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Llavea Lag. is a genus of Cryptogrammoideae (Pteridaceae, whose only species is distributed from southern United States and Mexico to Guatemala and Costa Rica, although it lives mainly in Mesoamerica, inhabiting preferably calcicolous habitats associated with forests and mountains. The genus is easily recognized by the presence of fertile leaves hemi-dimorphic, with the fertile apical portion with longer and narrower segments than the sterile ones, with strongly revolute margin, and rhizome scales bicolorous, shiny, and black. This paper presents a revision of the genus, nomenclatural issues are resolved, and and palynological morphological diversity are reviewed, as well as its distribution, phenology, ecology, and applications, based on field and herbarium specimens studies. In addition, two names related to Llavea, Allosorus karwinskii Kunze and Ceratodactylis osmundioides J. Sm., were lectotypified.

  1. Systematics of the genus Daubenya (Hyacinthaceae: Massonieae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. C. Manning

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Daubenya Lindl. was until recently thought to comprise the single species D. aurea Lindl. but is now considered to include the monotypic genera Androsiphon Schltr. and Amphisiphon W.F.Barker. as well as the species previously referred to the genus Neobakeria Schltr. Eight species are now recognized in the genus, including the new combinations Daubenya comata (Burch, ex Baker J.C.Manning & A.M.van der Merwe and D. zeyheri (Kunth J.C.Manning & A.M.van der Merwe. Each species is fully described and illustrated in black-and-white and in colour. A key to the species, and distribution maps are provided.

  2. Slope equalities for genus 5 surface fibrations

    CERN Document Server

    Tenni, Elisa

    2010-01-01

    K. Konno proved a slope equality for fibred surfaces with fibres of odd genus and general fibre of maximal gonality. More precisely he found a relation between the invariants of the fibration and certain weights of special fibres (called the Horikawa numbers). We give an alternative and more geometric proof in the case of a genus 5 fibration, under generality assumptions. In our setting we are able to prove that the fibre with positive Horikawa numbers are precisely the trigonal ones, we compute their weights explicitly and thus we exhibit explicit examples of regular surfaces with assigned invariants and Horikawa numbers.

  3. Exponentially many maximum genus embeddings and genus embeddings for complete graphs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    REN Han; BAI Yun

    2008-01-01

    There are many results on the maximum genus,among which most are written for the existence of values of such embeddings,and few attention has been paid to the estimation of such embeddings and their applications.In this paper we study the number of maximum genus embeddings for a graph and find an exponential lower bound for such numbers.Our results show that in general case,a simple connected graph has exponentially many distinct maximum genus embeddings.In particular,a connected cubie graph G of order n always has at least (√2)m+n+α/2 distinct maximum genus embeddings,where α and m denote,respectively,the number of inner vertices and odd compo-nents of an optimal tree T.What surprise us most is that such two extremal embeddings (i.e.,the maximum genus embeddings and the genus embeddings) are sometimes closely related with each other.In fact,as applications,we show that for a sufficient large natural number n,there are at least C2n/4 many genus embeddings for complete graph Kn with n=4,7,10 (mod12),where C is a constance depending on the Value of n of residue 12.These results improve the bounds obtained by Korzhik and Voss and the methods used here are much simpler and straight.

  4. Broadly Neutralizing Antibodies for HIV Eradication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, Kathryn E; Barouch, Dan H

    2016-02-01

    Passive transfer of antibodies has long been considered a potential treatment modality for infectious diseases, including HIV. Early efforts to use antibodies to suppress HIV replication, however, were largely unsuccessful, as the antibodies that were studied neutralized only a relatively narrow spectrum of viral strains and were not very potent. Recent advances have led to the discovery of a large portfolio of human monoclonal antibodies that are broadly neutralizing across many HIV-1 subtypes and are also substantially more potent. These antibodies target multiple different epitopes on the HIV envelope, thus allowing for the development of antibody combinations. In this review, we discuss the application of broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs) for HIV treatment and HIV eradication strategies. We highlight bNAbs that target key epitopes, such as the CD4 binding site and the V2/V3-glycan-dependent sites, and we discuss several bNAbs that are currently in the clinical development pipeline.

  5. Multiple and broad frequency response Gunn diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilgrim, N. J.; Macpherson, R. F.; Khalid, A.; Dunn, G. M.; Cumming, D. R. S.

    2009-10-01

    Gunn diodes, operating in transit time mode, are usually thought of as incapable of generating power at multiple frequencies or over a broad frequency range. In this paper, we report experimental results showing that these diodes can generate power at several frequencies and, using Monte Carlo simulations of both planar and vertical devices, we offer an explanation of how this unusual behaviour may come into being and suggest possible applications for this novel device.

  6. The genus Alocasia (Araceae) in Australasia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hay, A.; Wise, Rosemary

    1991-01-01

    The genus Alocasia (Araceae) is revised for Australasia. Thirteen species are recognised and keyed; eleven are endemic to and one is thought to be introduced to and escaped in Papuasia; A. brisbanensis (F.M. Bailey) Domin is endemic to Australia, and is redescribed; five are new to science. The genu

  7. The genus Lolium; taxonomy and genetic resources.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loos, B.P.

    1994-01-01

    Several aspects of variation within the genus Lolium, and more in detail within Lolium perenne (perennial ryegrass) have been highlighted. As the results are extensively discussed in each chapter, the general discussion is focused on two aspects of the research.SpeciationIt is clear that the

  8. The genus Lophopyxis Hook. f. (Lophopyxidaceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sleumer, H.

    1968-01-01

    When revising the Icacinaceae from SE. Asia and Malesia recently, my interest was drawn again to the genus Lophopyxis Hook. f. Designated by its author (1887) tentatively as a member of the Euphorbiaceae, it was rejected from this family by Pax as early as 1890. Engler (1893) transferred Lophopyxis

  9. Sarawakodendron, a new genus of Celastraceae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hou, Ding

    1967-01-01

    During my trip to Malaysia in 1966, sponsored by the Netherlands Foundation for the Advancement of Tropical Research (WOTRO), for doing field work on Anacardiaceae, a new tree genus was found in Sarawak belonging to the family Celastraceae which I have revised for the Flora Malesiana series I, volum

  10. Interspecific hybridization in the genus Tulipa L.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Creij, van M.G.M.

    1997-01-01

    The genus Tulipa L. comprises about 55 species. The tulip species are classified in two subgenera, Tulipa and Eriostemones, which are subdivided into five and three sections respectively. Commercial tulips are mainly cultivars of T. gesneriana L . and of Darwin hybrids, the latter of which are obtai

  11. Taxonomic novelties in the genus Campylospermum (Ochnaceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bissiengou, P.; Chatrou, L.W.; Wieringa, J.J.; Sosef, M.S.M.

    2013-01-01

    Four new species, one with two subspecies, of the genus Campylospermum are described, all endemic or sub-endemic to Gabon. These are C. auriculatum, C. gabonensis, C. gabonensis subsp. australis, C. glaucifolium and C. occidentalis. Distribution maps and scans of the holotypes are provided as well a

  12. Phylogeny of the plant genus Pachypodium (Apocynaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dylan O. Burge

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Background. The genus Pachypodium contains 21 species of succulent, generally spinescent shrubs and trees found in southern Africa and Madagascar. Pachypodium has diversified mostly into arid and semi-arid habitats of Madagascar, and has been cited as an example of a plant group that links the highly diverse arid-adapted floras of Africa and Madagascar. However, a lack of knowledge about phylogenetic relationships within the genus has prevented testing of this and other hypotheses about the group. Methodology/Principal Findings. We use DNA sequence data from the nuclear ribosomal ITS and chloroplast trnL-F region for all 21 Pachypodium species to reconstruct evolutionary relationships within the genus. We compare phylogenetic results to previous taxonomic classifications and geography. Results support three infrageneric taxa from the most recent classification of Pachypodium, and suggest that a group of African species (P. namaquanum, P. succulentum and P. bispinosum may deserve taxonomic recognition as an infrageneric taxon. However, our results do not resolve relationships among major African and Malagasy lineages of the genus. Conclusions/Significance. We present the first molecular phylogenetic analysis of Pachypodium. Our work has revealed five distinct lineages, most of which correspond to groups recognized in past taxonomic classifications. Our work also suggests that there is a complex biogeographic relationship between Pachypodium of Africa and Madagascar.

  13. A revision of the genus Podococcus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valkenburg, van J.L.C.H.; Sunderland, T.

    2008-01-01

    A taxonomic revision of the palm genus Podococcus (Arecaceae) is presented. Two species are recognised: P. barteri, a species relatively widespread in a coastal band from Nigeria to the D. R. Congo and P. acaulis, a species previously considered conspecific to P. barteri, almost exclusively confined

  14. Farrowia, a new genus in the Chaetomiaceae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hawksworth, D.L.

    1975-01-01

    The new genus Farrowia D. Hawksw. is described to accommodate Chaetomium longicolleum Krzem. & Badura and C. longirostre (Farrow) L. Ames, species formerly incorrectly referred to Chaetoceratostoma Turc. & Maffei. These two species are united under the name F. longicollea (Krzem. & Badura) D. Hawksw

  15. A conspectus of the genus Bhesa (Celastraceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hou, Ding

    1958-01-01

    In his Numerical List Wallich inserted four specific epithets in the genus Kurrimia, viz 4334 K. pulcherrima Wall., 4335 K. calophylla Wall., 4336 K. paniculata Wall., and later 7200 K.? macrophylla Wall. The latter one was provided with a question mark; it was a new combination for Itea macrophylla

  16. Identification and nomenclature of the genus Penicillium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Visagie, C.M.; Houbraken, J.; Frisvad, Jens Christian

    2014-01-01

    Penicillium is a diverse genus occurring worldwide and its species play important roles as decomposers of organic materials and cause destructive rots in the food industry where they produce a wide range of mycotoxins. Other species are considered enzyme factories or are common indoor air allergens...

  17. Nomenclatural changes in the genus Bremeria (Rubiaceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Davis, A.P.; Razafimandimbison, S.G.; Andriambololonera, S.

    2011-01-01

    Five new combinations are made in the genus Bremeria: B. arachnocarpa, B. eriantha, B. scabrella, B. landia var. holosericea, and B. landia var. stadmanii. Bremeria gerrardii is conspecific with Gaertnera phanerophlebia, and thus excluded from Bremeria. Lectotypes are designated for Mussaenda erecti

  18. The position of the genus Thomandersia Bail

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bremekamp, C.E.B.

    1942-01-01

    Among the most aberrant types of pollen grains found in plants which have been referred to the family Acanthaceae, are those of the genera Meyenia N. ab E. and Thomandersia Baill. Although the pollen grains were described by LINDAU under different names, those of the first genus as cogwheel-shaped a

  19. Note on the Genus Microsicydium Bleeker

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koumans, F.P.

    1929-01-01

    This genus was established by Dr. P. BLEEKER in 1874 1) for fishes belonging to the phalanx Sicydiini having the caracteristics: „Dentes intermaxillares stipitati apice clavati obtusi, inframaxillares serie interna parvi aequales, serie externa aciculares. Maxilla inferior cirris nullis. Squamae cap

  20. Polyphasic taxonomy of the genus Talaromyces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yilmaz, N.; Visagie, C.M.; Houbraken, J.;

    2014-01-01

    The genus Talaromyces was described by Benjamin in 1955 as a sexual state of Penicillium that produces soft walled ascomata covered with interwoven hyphae. Phylogenetic information revealed that Penicillium subgenus Biverticillium and Talaromyces form a monophyletic clade distinct from the other ...

  1. The genus Alfonsiella Waterston (Hymenoptera, Chalcidoidea, Agaonidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiebes, J.T.

    1972-01-01

    This paper is a tribute to Prof. Dr. L. D. Brongersma, in remembrance of the years I served as his deputy in the Rijksmuseum van Natuurlijke Historie. The genus Alfonsiella was described by Waterston (1920) for A. fimbriata, a series of females of which were collected at Dar es Salaam, Tanganyika. I

  2. Paramyristica, a new genus of Myristicaceae

    OpenAIRE

    Wilde, de, J.G.S.

    1994-01-01

    The new genus Paramyristica from New Guinea, based on Myristica sepicana Foreman, is described and discussed, and included in keys to the Asian genera of Myristicaceae. Detailed drawings of the androecia of Paramyristica sepicana and of Myristica hooglandii and M. hollrungii are presented for comparison.

  3. Endocomia, a new genus of Myristicaceae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilde, de W.J.J.O.

    1984-01-01

    The new genus Endocomia, ranging from South China to New Guinea, is described, keyed out and discussed among the other four Southeast Asiatic genera of Myristicaceae, viz. Knema, Myristica, Gymnacranthera, and Horsfieldia. Endocomia was formerly included in Horsfieldia under the name H. macrocoma, a

  4. Revision of the genus Gymnacranthera (Myristicaceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schouten, R.T.A.

    1986-01-01

    In Gymnacranthera, a small genus of Southeast Asian Myristicaceae, at present 7 species have been accepted, one (G. forbesii) with 2 and another ( G. farquhariana) with 4 varieties. One species, G. canarica, occurs in S. India, the remainder of the species is distributed in the area from S. Thailand

  5. Paramyristica, a new genus of Myristicaceae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilde, de W.J.J.O.

    1994-01-01

    The new genus Paramyristica from New Guinea, based on Myristica sepicana Foreman, is described and discussed, and included in keys to the Asian genera of Myristicaceae. Detailed drawings of the androecia of Paramyristica sepicana and of Myristica hooglandii and M. hollrungii are presented for compar

  6. The composite genus Blumea, a taxonomic revision

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Randeria, Aban J.

    1960-01-01

    My first acquaintance with the genus Blumea was made in December of 1949. On one of my taxonomy field trips then, and many more subsequently, I encountered these weedy, yellow-flowered composites. Perhaps what most helped to attract my attention was their relative abundance and their characteristic

  7. To Broad-Match or Not to Broad-Match : An Auctioneer's Dilemma ?

    CERN Document Server

    Singh, Sudhir Kumar

    2008-01-01

    We initiate the study of an interesting aspect of sponsored search advertising, namely the consequences of broad match-a feature where an ad of an advertiser can be mapped to a broader range of relevant queries, and not necessarily to the particular keyword(s) that ad is associated with. Starting with a very natural setting for strategies available to the advertisers, and via a careful look through algorithmic and complexity theoretic glasses, we first propose a solution concept called broad match equilibrium(BME) for the game originating from the strategic behavior of advertisers as they try to optimize their budget allocation across various keywords. Next, we consider two broad match scenarios based on factors such as information asymmetry between advertisers and the auctioneer, and the extent of auctioneer's control on the budget splitting. In the first scenario, the advertisers have the full information about broad match and relevant parameters, and can reapportion their own budgets to utilize the extra i...

  8. Mitogenomic analysis of the genus Panthera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Lei; Wu, Xiaobing; Zhu, Lixin; Jiang, Zhigang

    2011-10-01

    The complete sequences of the mitochondrial DNA genomes of Panthera tigris, Panthera pardus, and Panthera uncia were determined using the polymerase chain reaction method. The lengths of the complete mitochondrial DNA sequences of the three species were 16990, 16964, and 16773 bp, respectively. Each of the three mitochondrial DNA genomes included 13 protein-coding genes, 22 tRNA, two rRNA, one O(L)R, and one control region. The structures of the genomes were highly similar to those of Felis catus, Acinonyx jubatus, and Neofelis nebulosa. The phylogenies of the genus Panthera were inferred from two combined mitochondrial sequence data sets and the complete mitochondrial genome sequences, by MP (maximum parsimony), ML (maximum likelihood), and Bayesian analysis. The results showed that Panthera was composed of Panthera leo, P. uncia, P. pardus, Panthera onca, P. tigris, and N. nebulosa, which was included as the most basal member. The phylogeny within Panthera genus was N. nebulosa (P. tigris (P. onca (P. pardus, (P. leo, P. uncia)))). The divergence times for Panthera genus were estimated based on the ML branch lengths and four well-established calibration points. The results showed that at about 11.3 MYA, the Panthera genus separated from other felid species and then evolved into the several species of the genus. In detail, N. nebulosa was estimated to be founded about 8.66 MYA, P. tigris about 6.55 MYA, P. uncia about 4.63 MYA, and P. pardus about 4.35 MYA. All these estimated times were older than those estimated from the fossil records. The divergence event, evolutionary process, speciation, and distribution pattern of P. uncia, a species endemic to the central Asia with core habitats on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau and surrounding highlands, mostly correlated with the geological tectonic events and intensive climate shifts that happened at 8, 3.6, 2.5, and 1.7 MYA on the plateau during the late Cenozoic period.

  9. A New Genus of Macropsinae (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) From Madagascar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Liyuan; Dietrich, C H; Zhang, Yalin

    2016-01-01

    Paragalboa acuta GEN & SP N: is described and illustrated from Madagascar. The new genus shows morphological affinities to the Macropsini genus Galboa Distant recorded from Seychelles. A checklist of all known genera of Macropsinae is provided.

  10. An account of the fern genus Belvisia Mirbel (Polypodiaceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hovenkamp, P.H.; Franken, N.A.P.

    1993-01-01

    The genus Belvisia is revised. Two species are transferred from Lemmaphyllum to Belvisia, and two species are reduced to varieties. The genus now includes eight species, reaching from tropical Africa to China, Polynesia, and Australia.

  11. Certhiasomus, a new genus of woodcreeper (Aves: Passeriformes: Dendrocolaptidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derryberry, Elizabeth; Claramunt, Santiago; Chesser, R. Terry; Aleixo, Alexandre; Cracraft, Joel; Moyle, Robert G.; Brumfield, Robb T.

    2010-01-01

    Phylogenetic analysis of the family Dendrocolaptidae (Aves: Passeriformes) indicates that the two species traditionally placed in the genus Deconychura are not sister taxa. Certhiasomus, a new genus of woodcreeper, is described for one of these species, C. stictolaemus.

  12. Genus Phyllanthus for chronic hepatitis B virus infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, J; Lin, Haili; McIntosh, H

    2001-01-01

    To evaluate the efficacy and safety of genus Phyllanthus for chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection we performed a systematic review of randomized clinical trials. Randomized trials comparing genus Phyllanthus vs. placebo, no intervention, general nonspecific treatment, other herbal medicine...

  13. Crx broadly modulates the pineal transcriptome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rovsing, Louise; Clokie, Samuel; Bustos, Diego M;

    2011-01-01

    Cone-rod homeobox (Crx) encodes Crx, a transcription factor expressed selectively in retinal photoreceptors and pinealocytes, the major cell type of the pineal gland. In this study, the influence of Crx on the mammalian pineal gland was studied by light and electron microscopy and by use......-regulation of 745 genes (p pineal glands of wild......-type animals; only eight of these were also day/night expressed in the Crx-/- pineal gland. However, in the Crx-/- pineal gland 41 genes exhibited differential night/day expression that was not seen in wild-type animals. These findings indicate that Crx broadly modulates the pineal transcriptome and also...

  14. Broad spectrum antibiotic compounds and use thereof

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koglin, Alexander; Strieker, Matthias

    2016-07-05

    The discovery of a non-ribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS) gene cluster in the genome of Clostridium thermocellum that produces a secondary metabolite that is assembled outside of the host membrane is described. Also described is the identification of homologous NRPS gene clusters from several additional microorganisms. The secondary metabolites produced by the NRPS gene clusters exhibit broad spectrum antibiotic activity. Thus, antibiotic compounds produced by the NRPS gene clusters, and analogs thereof, their use for inhibiting bacterial growth, and methods of making the antibiotic compounds are described.

  15. Exponentially many maximum genus embeddings and genus embeddings for complete graphs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    There are many results on the maximum genus, among which most are written for the existence of values of such embeddings, and few attention has been paid to the estimation of such embeddings and their applications. In this paper we study the number of maximum genus embeddings for a graph and find an exponential lower bound for such numbers. Our results show that in gen-eral case, a simple connected graph has exponentially many distinct maximum genus embeddings. In particular, a connected cubic graph G of order n always has at least 2~1/2m+n+ α2 distinct maximum genus embeddings, where α and m denote, respectively, the number of inner vertices and odd compo-nents of an optimal tree T . What surprise us most is that such two extremal embeddings (i.e., the maximum genus embeddings and the genus embeddings) are sometimes closely related with each other. In fact, as applications, we show that for a suffcient large natural number n, there are at least C2 n4 dmeapneyn dgienngu os ne mthbee vdadliuneg soffonrocf ormespidleutee 1g2r.a pThh eKsen rwesiuthlt sn i m≡p r4o,v 7e, 1th0e ( mbooudn1d2)s, owbthaeirnee dC b iys Ka ocroznhsikta anncde Voss and the methods used here are much simpler and straight.

  16. Taxonomy of the genus Passerina (Thymelaeaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    C. L. Bredenkamp; A. E. van Wyk

    2003-01-01

    Passerina L. is mainly a southern African genus, comprising 20 species and four subspecies. A few species occur along the Great Escarpment, two extend into Zimbabwe and Mozambique, but most are concentrated in the Cape Floristic Region. Palynological. macromorphological and anatomical evidence was used in the delimitation of the genus and its infrageneric taxa. A cladistic study supports Passerina as a monophyletic genus. A genus treatment, key to species and a full species treatment are give...

  17. Growth and ontogeny of the tapeworm Schistocephalus solidus in its copepod first host affects performance in its stickleback second intermediate host

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benesh Daniel P

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background For parasites with complex life cycles, size at transmission can impact performance in the next host, thereby coupling parasite phenotypes in the two consecutive hosts. However, a handful of studies with parasites, and numerous studies with free-living, complex-life-cycle animals, have found that larval size correlates poorly with fitness under particular conditions, implying that other traits, such as physiological or ontogenetic variation, may predict fitness more reliably. Using the tapeworm Schistocephalus solidus, we evaluated how parasite size, age, and ontogeny in the copepod first host interact to determine performance in the stickleback second host. Methods We raised infected copepods under two feeding treatments (to manipulate parasite growth, and then exposed fish to worms of two different ages (to manipulate parasite ontogeny. We assessed how growth and ontogeny in copepods affected three measures of fitness in fish: infection probability, growth rate, and energy storage. Results Our main, novel finding is that the increase in fitness (infection probability and growth in fish with larval size and age observed in previous studies on S. solidus seems to be largely mediated by ontogenetic variation. Worms that developed rapidly (had a cercomer after 9 days in copepods were able to infect fish at an earlier age, and they grew to larger sizes with larger energy reserves in fish. Infection probability in fish increased with larval size chiefly in young worms, when size and ontogeny are positively correlated, but not in older worms that had essentially completed their larval development in copepods. Conclusions Transmission to sticklebacks as a small, not-yet-fully developed larva has clear costs for S. solidus, but it remains unclear what prevents the evolution of faster growth and development in this species.

  18. Modular functors are determined by their genus zero data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jørgen Ellegaard; Ueno, Kenji

    2012-01-01

    We prove in this paper that the genus zero data of a modular functor determines the modular functor. We do this by establishing that the S-matrix in genus one with one point labeled arbitrarily can be expressed in terms of the genus zero information and we give an explicit formula. We do not assume...

  19. Notes on the genus Digitaria, with descriptions of new species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Henrard, J.Th.

    1934-01-01

    Some years ago I had the opportunity to study more extensively a very interesting group of grasses, belonging to what is now accepted as a distinct genus, the genus Digitaria, formerly belonging as a subgenus to the genus Panicum. As to living plants of this group I was familiar with two european sp

  20. Pseudasthenes, a new genus of ovenbird (Aves: Passeriformes: Furnariidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derryberry, Elizabeth; Claramunt, Santiago; O'Quin, Kelly E.; Aleixo, Alexandre; Chesser, R. Terry; Remsen, J.V.; Brumfield, Robb T.

    2010-01-01

    Phylogenetic analysis of the family Furnariidae (Aves: Passeriformes) indicates that the genus Asthenes is polyphyletic, consisting of two groups that are not sister taxa. Pseudasthenes, a new genus of ovenbird, is described for one of these groups. The four species included in the new genus, formerly placed in Asthenes, are P. humicola, P. patagonica, P. steinbachi, and P. cactorum.

  1. The strong symmetric genus of the finite Coxeter groups

    OpenAIRE

    2004-01-01

    The strong symmetric genus of a finite group G is the smallest genus of a closed orientable topological surface on which G acts faithfully as a group of orientation preserving automorphisms. In this paper we complete the calculation of the strong symmetric genus for each finite Coxeter group excluding the group E8.

  2. Remarks on the Lower Bounds for the Average Genus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yi-chao Chen

    2011-01-01

    Let G be a graph of maximum degree at most four. By using the overlap matrix method which is introduced by B. Mohar, we show that the average genus of G is not less than 1/3 of its maximum genus, and the bound is best possible. Also, a new lower bound of average genus in terms of girth is derived.

  3. XMM-Newton and Broad Iron Lines

    CERN Document Server

    Fabian, A C

    2007-01-01

    Iron line emission is common in the X-ray spectra of accreting black holes. When the line emission is broad or variable then it is likely to originate from close to the black hole. X-ray irradiation of the accretion flow by the power-law X-ray continuum produces the X-ray 'reflection' spectrum which includes the iron line. The shape and variability of the iron lines and reflection can be used as a diagnostic of the radius, velocity and nature of the flow. The inner radius of the dense flow corresponds to the innermost stable circular orbit and thus can be used to determine the spin of the black hole. Studies of broad iron lines and reflection spectra offer much promise for understanding how the inner parts of accretion flows (and outflows) around black holes operate. There remains great potential for XMM-Newton to continue to make significant progress in this work. The need for high quality spectra and thus for long exposure times is paramount.

  4. Phytochemistry of the genus Skimmia (Rutaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epifano, Francesco; Fiorito, Serena; Genovese, Salvatore; Granica, Sebastian; Vitalini, Sara; Zidorn, Christian

    2015-07-01

    The genus Skimmia is a rich source of interesting secondary metabolites, including 20 alkaloids derived from anthranilic acid, 45 coumarins, 21 limonoids, four cholestane derivatives, six pentacyclic triterpenes, six flavonoids, and two unusual fatty acid derivatives. Skimmia is employed in folk medicine e.g. against fever, inflammations, and rheumatism. Skimmia extracts, Skimmia essential oils and pure compounds isolated from Skimmia extracts have been experimentally shown to have various bioactivities such as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, and insecticidal. In this review we discuss the exact structures of compounds isolated from members of the genus Skimmia, bioactivities of Skimmia extracts and pure compounds derived from them, and systematic implications of the patterns of occurrence of these compounds. Moreover, research gaps and interesting avenues for future research are discussed briefly.

  5. Genus Tinospora: Ethnopharmacology, Phytochemistry, and Pharmacology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Sensen; She, Gaimei; Han, Dan; Wang, Weihua; Liu, Zhao; Liu, Bin

    2016-01-01

    The genus Tinospora includes 34 species, in which several herbs were used as traditional medicines by indigenous groups throughout the tropical and subtropical parts of Asia, Africa, and Australia. The extensive literature survey revealed Tinospora species to be a group of important medicinal plants used for the ethnomedical treatment of colds, headaches, pharyngitis, fever, diarrhea, oral ulcer, diabetes, digestive disorder, and rheumatoid arthritis. Indian ethnopharmacological data points to the therapeutic potential of the T. cordifolia for the treatment of diabetic conditions. While Tinospora species are confusing in individual ingredients and their mechanisms of action, the ethnopharmacological history of those plants indicated that they exhibit antidiabetic, antioxidation, antitumor, anti-inflammation, antimicrobial, antiosteoporosis, and immunostimulation activities. While the clinical applications in modern medicine are lacking convincing evidence and support, this review is aimed at summarizing the current knowledge of the traditional uses, phytochemistry, biological activities, and toxicities of the genus Tinospora to reveal its therapeutic potentials and gaps, offering opportunities for future researches.

  6. Gene order phylogeny of the genus Prochlorococcus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haiwei Luo

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Using gene order as a phylogenetic character has the potential to resolve previously unresolved species relationships. This character was used to resolve the evolutionary history within the genus Prochlorococcus, a group of marine cyanobacteria. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Orthologous gene sets and their genomic positions were identified from 12 species of Prochlorococcus and 1 outgroup species of Synechococcus. From this data, inversion and breakpoint distance-based phylogenetic trees were computed by GRAPPA and FastME. Statistical support of the resulting topology was obtained by application of a 50% jackknife resampling technique. The result was consistent and congruent with nucleotide sequence-based and gene-content based trees. Also, a previously unresolved clade was resolved, that of MIT9211 and SS120. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This is the first study to use gene order data to resolve a bacterial phylogeny at the genus level. It suggests that the technique is useful in resolving the Tree of Life.

  7. Genus Schistochila Dumort. (Schistochilaceae, Marchantiophyta in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanwisa Juengprayoon

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available A review of the genus Schistochila Dumort. in Thailand is presented, based on the study of fresh and herbarium specimens. Five species are recognized, namely S. aligera (Nees & Blume J.B. Jack & Steph., S. blumei (Nees Trevis., S. nuda Horik., S. sciurea (Nees Schiffn., and S. yakushimensis Ohnishi & Deguchi. In addition, a key to species, descriptions and line drawings are provided, and notes on the ecology and geographical distribution of the species.

  8. Operators and higher genus mirror curves

    CERN Document Server

    Codesido, Santiago; Marino, Marcos

    2016-01-01

    We perform further tests of the correspondence between spectral theory and topological strings, focusing on mirror curves of genus greater than one with nontrivial mass parameters. In particular, we analyze the geometry relevant to the SU(3) relativistic Toda lattice, and the resolved C^3/Z_6 orbifold. Furthermore, we give evidence that the correspondence holds for arbitrary values of the mass parameters, where the quantization problem leads to resonant states. We also explore the relation between this correspondence and cluster integrable systems.

  9. The minimal genus problem in rational surfaces

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO; Xu'an

    2006-01-01

    [1]Kronheimer P B,Mrowka T S.The genus of embedding surfaces in the projective plane.Math Res Lett,1994,1:797-808[2]Lawson T.The minimal genus problem.Expo Math,1997,15:385-431[3]Li B H.Representing nonnegative homology classes of CP2#n-CP2 by minimal genus smooth embedding.Trans Amer Soc,1999,352(9):4155-4169[4]Ruberman D.The minimal genus of an embedding surface of non-negative square in a rational surface.Turkish J Math,1996,20:129-133[5]Wall C T C.On the orthogonal groups of unimodular quadratic forms Ⅱ.Crelle Jour,1963,213:122-136[6]Gao H.Representing homology classes of almost definite 4-manifolds.Topology Appl,1993,52:109-120[7]Kikuchi K.Positive 2-spheres in 4-manifolds of signature (1,n).Pacific Jour Math,1993,160:245-258[8]Li B H,Li T J.Smooth minimal genera for small negative classes in CP2#n-CP2 with n ≤ 9.Topology Appl,2003,132(1):1-15[9]Friedman R,Morgan J.On the diffeomorphism types of certain algebraic surfaces.Journal of Differential Geometry,1988,27(3):371-398[10]Kac V G.Infinite-Dimensional Lie Algebras.3rd ed.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press,1990[11]Li T J,Liu A.Symplectic structure on ruled surfaces and generalized adjunction formula.Math Res Lett,1995,2:453-471

  10. Operators and higher genus mirror curves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Codesido, Santiago; Gu, Jie; Mariño, Marcos

    2017-02-01

    We perform further tests of the correspondence between spectral theory and topological strings, focusing on mirror curves of genus greater than one with nontrivial mass parameters. In particular, we analyze the geometry relevant to the SU(3) relativistic Toda lattice, and the resolved C{^3}/Z_6 orbifold. Furthermore, we give evidence that the correspondence holds for arbitrary values of the mass parameters, where the quantization problem leads to resonant states. We also explore the relation between this correspondence and cluster integrable systems.

  11. Concordance of Bing Doubles and Boundary Genus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livingston, Charles; van Cott, Cornelia A.

    2011-11-01

    Cha and Kim proved that if a knot K is not algebraically slice, then no iterated Bing double of K is concordant to the unlink. We prove that if K has nontrivial signature $\\sigma$, then the n-iterated Bing double of K is not concordant to any boundary link with boundary surfaces of genus less than $2^{n-1}\\sigma$. The same result holds with $\\sigma$ replaced by $2\\tau$, twice the Ozsvath-Szabo knot concordance invariant.

  12. The Artemisia L. Genus: A Review of Bioactive Essential Oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulina Bermejo

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Numerous members of the Anthemideae tribe are important as cut flowers and ornamental crops, as well as being medicinal and aromatic plants, many of which produce essential oils used in folk and modern medicine and in the cosmetics and pharmaceutical industry. Essential oils generally have a broad spectrum of bioactivity, owing to the presence of several active ingredients that work through various modes of action. Due to their mode of extraction, mostly by distillation from aromatic plants, they contain a variety of volatile molecules such as terpenes, phenol-derived aromatic and aliphatic components. The large genus Artemisia L., from the tribe Anthemideae, comprises important medicinal plants which are currently the subject of phytochemical attention due to their biological and chemical diversity. Artemisia species, widespread throughout the world, are one of the most popular plants in Chinese traditional preparations and are frequently used for the treatment of diseases such as malaria, hepatitis, cancer, inflammation and infections by fungi, bacteria and viruses. Extensive studies of the chemical components of Artemisia have led to the identification of many compounds as well as essentials oils. This review summarizes some of the main reports on the chemistry and anti-infective activities of Artemisia. Li. essential oils from the data in the recent literature (2000–2011.

  13. Alhagi: a plant genus rich in bioactives for pharmaceuticals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhammad, Gulzar; Hussain, Muhammad Ajaz; Anwar, Farooq; Ashraf, Muhammad; Gilani, Anwarul-Hassan

    2015-01-01

    Alhagi, a plant genus from family Fabaceae, is widely distributed in many countries of Asia, Australia and Europe. Commonly known as camel thorn, Alhagi has many species famous for feed and folk medicinal uses. Different species of Alhagi such as Alhagi pseudalhagi, A. graecorum, A. sparsifolia, A. kirgisorum, A. maurorum, A. camelorum and A. persarum have been explored for their antioxidant potential and nutritive value along with various medicinal properties. A wide array of pharmacologically active secondary metabolites such as flavonoids, alkaloids (alhacidin and alhacin), steroids, pseudalhagin A, phospholipids and polysaccharides have been reported from different parts of Alhagi species. A broad range of biological activities such as antioxidant, cardiovascular, anti-ulcer, hepatoprotective, antispasmodic, antidiarrheal, antinociceptive, antipyretic, anti-inflammatory, anti-rheumatic, antibacterial and antifungal have been ascribed to different parts of Alhagi. In addition, Alhagi plants are also valued as a rich source of digestible protein and important minerals. This review focuses on the medicinal applications and detailed profile of high-value bioactive phytochemicals along with pharmacological attributes and therapeutic potential of these multi-purpose plants.

  14. Phytochemical, ethnomedicinal uses and pharmacological profile of genus Pistacia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauf, Abdur; Patel, Seema; Uddin, Ghias; Siddiqui, Bina S; Ahmad, Bashir; Muhammad, Naveed; Mabkhot, Yahia N; Hadda, Taibi Ben

    2017-02-01

    Pistacia genus belong to family Anacardiaceae and it is versatile in that its member species have food (P. vera), medicinal (P. lentiscus) and ornamental (P. chinensis) values. Various species of this genus have folkloric uses with credible mention in diverse pharmacopeia. As a trove of phenolic compounds, terpenoids, monoterpenes, flavonoids, alkaloids, saponins, fatty acids, and sterols, this genus has garnered pharmaceutical attention in recent times. With adequate clinical studies, this genus might be exploited for therapy of a multitude of inflammatory diseases, as promised by preliminary studies. In this regard, the ethnomedicinal, phytochemistry, biological potencies, risks, and scopes of Pistacia genus have been reviewed here.

  15. The Pangenome of the genus Clostridium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udaondo, Zulema; Duque, Estrella; Ramos, Juan Luis

    2017-03-21

    We present the pangenome for the genus Clostridium sensu stricto, which was obtained using highly curated and annotated genomes from 16 species, some of these cause disease, while others are used for the production of added-value chemicals. Multilocus sequencing analysis revealed that species of this genus group into at least two clades that include non-pathogenic and pathogenic strains, suggesting that pathogenicity is dispersed across the phylogenetic tree. The core genome of the genus includes 546 protein families, which mainly comprise those involved in protein translation and DNA repair. The GS-GOGAT may represent the central pathway for generating organic nitrogen from inorganic nitrogen sources. Glycerol and glucose metabolism genes are well represented in the core genome together with a set of energy conservation systems. A metabolic network comprising proteins/enzymes, RNAs and metabolites, whose topological structure is a non-random and scale-free network with hierarchically structured modules was built. These modules shed light on the interactions between RNAs, proteins and metabolites, revealing biological features of transcription and translation, cell wall biosynthesis, C1 metabolism and N metabolism. Network analysis identified four nodes that function as hubs and bottlenecks, namely, coenzyme A, HPr kinases, S-adenosylmethionine and the ribonuclease P-protein, suggesting pivotal roles for them in Clostridium. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  16. Biodegradation of chlorpyrifos by bacterial genus Pseudomonas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilani, Razia Alam; Rafique, Mazhar; Rehman, Abdul; Munis, Muhammad Farooq Hussain; Rehman, Shafiq Ur; Chaudhary, Hassan Javed

    2016-02-01

    Chlorpyrifos is an organophosphorus pesticide commonly used in agriculture. It is noxious to a variety of organisms that include living soil biota along with beneficial arthropods, fish, birds, humans, animals, and plants. Exposure to chlorpyrifos may cause detrimental effects as delayed seedling emergence, fruit deformities, and abnormal cell division. Contamination of chlorpyrifos has been found about 24 km from the site of its application. There are many physico-chemical and biological approaches to remove organophosphorus pesticides from the ecosystem, among them most promising is biodegradation. The 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol (TCP) and diethylthiophosphate (DETP) as primary products are made when chlorpyrifos is degraded by soil microorganisms which further break into nontoxic metabolites as CO(2), H(2)O, and NH(3). Pseudomonas is a diversified genus possessing a series of catabolic pathways and enzymes involved in pesticide degradation. Pseudomonas putida MAS-1 is reported to be more efficient in chlorpyrifos degradation by a rate of 90% in 24 h among Pseudomonas genus. The current review analyzed the comparative potential of bacterial species in Pseudomonas genus for degradation of chlorpyrifos thus, expressing an ecofriendly approach for the treatment of environmental contaminants like pesticides.

  17. The genus Capsicum (Solanaceae in Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. H. Eshbaugh

    1983-12-01

    Full Text Available The genus Capsicum (Solanaceae includes approximately 20 wild species and 4-5 domesticated taxa commonly referred to as ‘chilies’ or ‘peppers’. The pre-Colombian distribution of the genus was New World. The evolutionary history of the genus is now envisaged as including three distinct lines leading to the domesticated taxa. The route of Capsicum to the Old World is thought to have followed three different courses. First, explorers introduced it to Europe with secondary introduction into Africa via further exploratory expeditions; second, botanical gardens played a major role in introduction; and third, introduction followed the slave trade routes. Today, pepper production in Africa is of two types, vegetable and spice. Statistical profiles on production are difficult to interpret, but the data available indicate that Nigeria, Egypt, Tunisia and Ghana are the leading producers. Production is mainly a local phenomenon and large acreage is seldom devoted to the growing of peppers. The primary peppers in Africa are C.  annuum and C.  frutescens.

  18. The genus Crataegus: chemical and pharmacological perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinesh Kumar

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Traditional drugs have become a subject of world importance, with both medicinal and economical implications. A regular and widespread use of herbs throughout the world has increased serious concerns over their quality, safety and efficacy. Thus, a proper scientific evidence or assessment has become the criteria for acceptance of traditional health claims. Plants of the genus Crataegus, Rosaceae, are widely distributed and have long been used in folk medicine for the treatment of various ailments such as heart (cardiovascular disorders, central nervous system, immune system, eyes, reproductive system, liver, kidney etc. It also exhibits wide range of cytotoxic, gastroprotective, anti-inflammatory, anti-HIV and antimicrobial activities. Phytochemicals like oligomeric procyanidins, flavonoids, triterpenes, polysaccharides, catecholamines have been identified in the genus and many of these have been evaluated for biological activities. This review presents comprehensive information on the chemistry and pharmacology of the genus together with the traditional uses of many of its plants. In addition, this review discusses the clinical trials and regulatory status of various Crataegus plants along with the scope for future research in this aspect.

  19. Revision of genus Steindachneridion (Siluriformes: Pimelodidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Cesar Garavello

    Full Text Available After several years collecting in the type-localities and studying representative samples of genus Steindachneridion Eigenmann & Eigenmann, 1919 from Brazilian and foreign museums, a taxonomic revision of the Recent species of the genus is presented, including the description of a new species from the rio Iguaçu, above the great falls. Steindachneridion species are large sized fishes, reaching 1000 mm total length or more, and sharing some anatomical characters that, at least tentatively, support the monophyly of the genus. In addition to the general features found in the Pimelodidae, the species S. amblyurum (Eigenmann & Eigenmann, 1888, S. parahybae (Steindachner, 1877, S. doceanum (Eigenmann & Eigenmann, 1889, S. scriptum (Miranda Ribeiro, 1918, S. punctatum (Miranda Ribeiro, 1918, and S. melanodermatum, new species, share the shape of the vomer tooth plates, six to eight branched rays in the dorsal-fin, and a low number of gill-rakers. All species, except fossil ones, are redescribed and a key for their identification is provided.

  20. Broad-band acoustic hyperbolic metamaterial

    CERN Document Server

    Shen, Chen; Sui, Ni; Wang, Wenqi; Cummer, Steven A; Jing, Yun

    2015-01-01

    Acoustic metamaterials (AMMs) are engineered materials, made from subwavelength structures, that exhibit useful or unusual constitutive properties. There has been intense research interest in AMMs since its first realization in 2000 by Liu et al. A number of functionalities and applications have been proposed and achieved using AMMs. Hyperbolic metamaterials are one of the most important types of metamaterials due to their extreme anisotropy and numerous possible applications, including negative refraction, backward waves, spatial filtering, and subwavelength imaging. Although the importance of acoustic hyperbolic metamaterials (AHMMs) as a tool for achieving full control of acoustic waves is substantial, the realization of a broad-band and truly hyperbolic AMM has not been reported so far. Here, we demonstrate the design and experimental characterization of a broadband AHMM that operates between 1.0 kHz and 2.5 kHz.

  1. Magnetohydrodynamic stability of broad line region clouds

    CERN Document Server

    Krause, Martin; Burkert, Andreas

    2012-01-01

    Hydrodynamic stability has been a longstanding issue for the cloud model of the broad line region in active galactic nuclei. We argue that the clouds may be gravitationally bound to the supermassive black hole. If true, stabilisation by thermal pressure alone becomes even more difficult. We further argue that if magnetic fields should be present in such clouds at a level that could affect the stability properties, they need to be strong enough to compete with the radiation pressure on the cloud. This would imply magnetic field values of a few Gauss for a sample of Active Galactic Nuclei we draw from the literature. We then investigate the effect of several magnetic configurations on cloud stability in axi-symmetric magnetohydrodynamic simulations. For a purely azimuthal magnetic field which provides the dominant pressure support, the cloud first gets compressed by the opposing radiative and gravitational forces. The pressure inside the cloud then increases, and it expands vertically. Kelvin-Helmholtz and colu...

  2. Spectrophotometry of six broad absorption line QSOs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junkkarinen, Vesa T.; Burbidge, E. Margaret; Smith, Harding E.

    1987-01-01

    Spectrophotometric observations of six broad absorption-line QSOs (BALQSOs) are presented. The continua and emission lines are compared with those in the spectra of QSOs without BALs. A statistically significant difference is found in the emission-line intensity ratio for (N V 1240-A)/(C IV 1549-A). The median value of (N V)/(C IV) for the BALQSOs is two to three times the median for QSOs without BALs. The absorption features of the BALQSOs are described, and the column densities and limits on the ionization structure of the BAL region are discussed. If the dominant ionization mechanism is photoionization, then it is likely that either the ionizing spectrum is steep or the abundances are considerably different from solar. Collisional ionization may be a significant factor, but it cannot totally dominate the ionization rate.

  3. A new species of broad-nosed bat Platyrrhinus Saussure, 1860 (Chiroptera:   Phyllostomidae) from the Guianan Shield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velazco, Paúl M; Lim, Burton K

    2014-05-16

    A new species of broad-nosed bat Platyrrhinus Saussure, 1860 (Chiroptera: Phyllostomidae: Stenodermatinae) from the Guianan Shield is described based on molecular and morphological data. Previously confused with P. helleri and P. recifinus, the new taxon is currently known from only Guyana and Suriname and is most closely related to P. recifinus from eastern Brazil and not to the two sympatric species (P. fusciventris and P. incarum) also recently recognized as distinct from P. helleri. Morphometrically the new taxon overlaps with the smaller species of the genus (P. angustirostris, P. brachycephalus, P. fusciventris, P. helleri, P. incarum, and P. matapalensis), but forms a different cluster from the larger P. recifinus. Morphologically the new taxon is distinguished from its congeners by a combination of external and craniodental characteristics. Platyrrhinus now includes 21 species making it the most speciose genus in the Neotropical family Phyllostomidae.

  4. Seven broad absorption line quasars with excess broad band absorption near 2250

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Shaohua; Jiang, Peng; Zhou, Hongyan; Ma, Jingzhe; Brandt, W N; York, Donald G; Noterdaeme, P; Schneider, Donald P

    2014-01-01

    We report the discovery of excess broad band absorption near 2250 A (EBBA) in the spectra of seven broad absorption line (BAL) quasars. By comparing with the statistical results from the control quasar sample, the significance for the detections are all above the > 4{\\sigma} level, with five above > 5{\\sigma}. The detections have also been verified by several other independent methods. The EBBAs present broader and weaker bumps at smaller wavenumbers than the Milky Way, and similar to the Large Magellanic Cloud. The EBBA bump may be related to the 2175 A bump seen in the Local Group and may be a counterpart of the 2175 A bump under different conditions in the early Universe. Furthermore, five objects in this sample show low-ionization broad absorption lines (LoBALs), such as Mg II and Al III, in addition to the high-ionization broad absorption lines (HiBALs) of C IV and Si IV. The fraction of LoBALs in our sample, ~70%, is surprisingly high compared to that of general BAL quasars, ~10%. Although the origin of...

  5. Specificity of lipoxygenase pathways supports species delineation in the marine diatom genus Pseudo-nitzschia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadia Lamari

    Full Text Available Oxylipins are low-molecular weight secondary metabolites derived from the incorporation of oxygen into the carbon chains of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs. Oxylipins are produced in many prokaryotic and eukaryotic lineages where they are involved in a broad spectrum of actions spanning from stress and defense responses, regulation of growth and development, signaling, and innate immunity. We explored the diversity in oxylipin patterns in the marine planktonic diatom Pseudo-nitzschia. This genus includes several species only distinguishable with the aid of molecular markers. Oxylipin profiles of cultured strains were obtained by reverse phase column on a liquid chromatograph equipped with UV photodiode detector and q-ToF mass spectrometer. Lipoxygenase compounds were mapped on phylogenies of the genus Pseudo-nitzschia inferred from the nuclear encoded hyper-variable region of the LSU rDNA and the plastid encoded rbcL. Results showed that the genus Pseudo-nitzschia exhibits a rich and varied lipoxygenase metabolism of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, with a high level of specificity for oxylipin markers that generally corroborated the genotypic delineation, even among genetically closely related cryptic species. These results suggest that oxylipin profiles constitute additional identification tools for Pseudo-nitzschia species providing a functional support to species delineation obtained with molecular markers and morphological traits. The exploration of the diversity, patterns and plasticity of oxylipin production across diatom species and genera will also provide insights on the ecological functions of these secondary metabolites and on the selective pressures driving their diversification.

  6. Candeocoris bistillatus, new genus and new species of Ochlerini from Ecuador (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Pentatomidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roell, Talita; Campos, Luiz Alexandre

    2015-09-17

    Recent examination of specimens from Ecuador revealed a series of males and females of an undescribed species clearly belonging to the Discocephalinae. The new species presents characteristics similar to genera of both Discocephalini and Ochlerini, preventing an undoubtful placement of the new species within any genus and tribe. We conducted a cladistic analysis to investigate the possible relationships of the new species within Discocephalinae. The new species was recovered as sister-group to the remaining Ochlerini, supporting the proposition of a new genus, so Candeocoris bistillatus Roell & Campos, gen. n. et sp. n. are described within Ochlerini. The new genus is recognized for its dark glossy aspect, tumid vertex of head, long and sinuous labrum, base of labium placed close to anterior limit of eyes, thick bristles on meso- and metatibiae, pygophore globose, and laterotergites 9 touching each other. The new species is recognized by a large yellow spot on each corium, yellow spots on each segment of the connexivum, bucculae with anterior tooth, laminar projections on superior layer of ventral rim of pygophore, vesica with a single median projection, and broad gonocoxites 8.

  7. Molecular phylogeny of the filaria genus Onchocerca with special emphasis on Afrotropical human and bovine parasites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krueger, A; Fischer, P; Morales-Hojas, R

    2007-01-01

    Filarial parasites of the genus Onchocerca are found in a broad spectrum of ungulate hosts. One species, O. volvulus, is a human parasite that can cause severe disease (onchocerciasis or 'river blindness'). The phylogenetic relationships and the bionomics of many of the nearly 30 known species remain dubious. Here, the phylogeny of 11 species representing most major lineages of the genus is investigated by analysing DNA sequences from three mitochondrial genes (ND5, 12S and 16S rRNA) and portions of the intergenic spacer of the nuclear 5s rRNA. Special emphasis is given to a clade containing a yet unassigned specimen from Uganda (O. sp. 'Siisa'), which appears to be intermediate between O. volvulus and O. ochengi. While the latter can be differentiated by the O-150 tandem repeat commonly used for molecular diagnostics, O. volvulus and O. sp.'Siisa' cannot be differentiated by this marker. In addition, a worm specimen from an African bushbuck appears to be closely related to the bovine O. dukei and represents the basal taxon of the human/bovine clade. At the base of the genus, our data suggest O. flexuosa (red deer), O. ramachandrini (warthog) and O. armillata (cow) to be the representatives of ancient lineages. The results provide better insight into the evolution and zoogeography of Onchocerca. They also have epidemiological and taxonomic implications by providing a framework for more accurate molecular diagnosis of filarial larvae in vectors.

  8. Photoionisation modelling of the broad line region

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Anthea

    2016-08-01

    Two of the most fundamental questions regarding the broad line region (BLR) are "what is its structure?" and "how is it moving?" Baldwin et al. (1995) showed that by summing over an ensemble of clouds at differing densities and distances from the ionising source we can easily and naturally produce a spectrum similar to what is observed for AGN. This approach is called the `locally optimally emitting clouds' (LOC) model. This approach can also explain the well-observed stratification of emission lines in the BLR (e.g. Clavel et al. 1991, Peterson et al. 1991, Kollatschny et al. 2001) and `breathing' of BLR with changes in the continuum luminosity (Netzer & Mor 1990, Peterson et al. 2014) and is therefore a generally accepted model of the BLR. However, LOC predictions require some assumptions to be made about the distribution of the clouds within the BLR. By comparing photoionization predictions, for a distribution of cloud properties, with observed spectra we can infer something about the structure of the BLR and distribution of clouds. I use existing reverberation mapping data to constrain the structure of the BLR by observing how individual line strengths and ratios of different lines change in high and low luminosity states. I will present my initial constraints and discuss the challenges associated with the method.

  9. Spatial relationships between polychaete assemblages and environmental variables over broad geographical scales.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisandro Benedetti-Cecchi

    Full Text Available This study examined spatial relationships between rocky shore polychaete assemblages and environmental variables over broad geographical scales, using a database compiled within the Census of Marine Life NaGISA (Natural Geography In Shore Areas research program. The database consisted of abundance measures of polychaetes classified at the genus and family levels for 74 and 93 sites, respectively, from nine geographic regions. We tested the general hypothesis that the set of environmental variables emerging as potentially important drivers of variation in polychaete assemblages depend on the spatial scale considered. Through Moran's eigenvector maps we indentified three submodels reflecting spatial relationships among sampling sites at intercontinental (>10,000 km, continental (1000-5000 km and regional (20-500 km scales. Using redundancy analysis we found that most environmental variables contributed to explain a large and significant proportion of variation of the intercontinental submodel both for genera and families (54% and 53%, respectively. A subset of these variables, organic pollution, inorganic pollution, primary productivity and nutrient contamination was also significantly related to spatial variation at the continental scale, explaining 25% and 32% of the variance at the genus and family levels, respectively. These variables should therefore be preferably considered when forecasting large-scale spatial patterns of polychaete assemblages in relation to ongoing or predicted changes in environmental conditions. None of the variables considered in this study were significantly related to the regional submodel.

  10. Genomic characterization of the Taylorella genus.

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    Laurent Hébert

    Full Text Available The Taylorella genus comprises two species: Taylorella equigenitalis, which causes contagious equine metritis, and Taylorella asinigenitalis, a closely-related species mainly found in donkeys. We herein report on the first genome sequence of T. asinigenitalis, analyzing and comparing it with the recently-sequenced T. equigenitalis genome. The T. asinigenitalis genome contains a single circular chromosome of 1,638,559 bp with a 38.3% GC content and 1,534 coding sequences (CDS. While 212 CDSs were T. asinigenitalis-specific, 1,322 had orthologs in T. equigenitalis. Two hundred and thirty-four T. equigenitalis CDSs had no orthologs in T. asinigenitalis. Analysis of the basic nutrition metabolism of both Taylorella species showed that malate, glutamate and alpha-ketoglutarate may be their main carbon and energy sources. For both species, we identified four different secretion systems and several proteins potentially involved in binding and colonization of host cells, suggesting a strong potential for interaction with their host. T. equigenitalis seems better-equipped than T. asinigenitalis in terms of virulence since we identified numerous proteins potentially involved in pathogenicity, including hemagluttinin-related proteins, a type IV secretion system, TonB-dependent lactoferrin and transferrin receptors, and YadA and Hep_Hag domains containing proteins. This is the first molecular characterization of Taylorella genus members, and the first molecular identification of factors potentially involved in T. asinigenitalis and T. equigenitalis pathogenicity and host colonization. This study facilitates a genetic understanding of growth phenotypes, animal host preference and pathogenic capacity, paving the way for future functional investigations into this largely unknown genus.

  11. Genus paracoccidioides: Species recognition and biogeographic aspects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Cordeiro Theodoro

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Paracoccidioidomycosis is a systemic mycosis caused by Paracoccidioides brasiliensis (species S1, PS2, PS3, and Paracoccidioides lutzii. This work aimed to differentiate species within the genus Paracoccidioides, without applying multilocus sequencing, as well as to obtain knowledge of the possible speciation processes. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Single nucleotide polymorphism analysis on GP43, ARF and PRP8 intein genes successfully distinguished isolates into four different species. Morphological evaluation indicated that elongated conidia were observed exclusively in P. lutzii isolates, while all other species (S1, PS2 and PS3 were indistinguishable. To evaluate the biogeographic events that led to the current geographic distribution of Paracoccidioides species and their sister species, Nested Clade and Likelihood Analysis of Geographic Range Evolution (LAGRANGE analyses were applied. The radiation of Paracoccidioides started in northwest South America, around 11-32 million years ago, as calculated on the basis of ARF substitution rate, in the BEAST program. Vicariance was responsible for the divergence among S1, PS2 and P. lutzii and a recent dispersal generated the PS3 species, restricted to Colombia. Taking into account the ancestral areas revealed by the LAGRANGE analysis and the major geographic distribution of L. loboi in the Amazon basin, a region strongly affected by the Andes uplift and marine incursions in the Cenozoic era, we also speculate about the effect of these geological events on the vicariance between Paracoccidioides and L. loboi. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The use of at least 3 SNPs, but not morphological criteria, as markers allows us to distinguish among the four cryptic species of the genus Paracoccidioides. The work also presents a biogeographic study speculating on how these species might have diverged in South America, thus contributing to elucidating evolutionary aspects of the genus Paracoccidioides.

  12. A review of the genus Curtisia (Curtisiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. YU Yembaturova

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available A review of the monotypic southern African endemic genus Curtisia Aiton is presented. Detailed studies of the fruit and seed structure provided new evidence in support of a close relationship between the family Curtisiaceae and Comaceae. Comparisons with several other members of the Comales revealed carpological similarities to certain species of Comus s.I., sometimes treated as segregate genera Dendrobenthamia Hutch, and Benthamidia Spach. We also provide information on the history of the assegai tree, Curtisia dentata (Burm.f. C.A.Sm. and its uses, as well as a formal taxonomic revision, including nomenclature, typification, detailed description and geographical distribution.

  13. Genus Microsporum dermatophytes in Eastern Bohemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dvorák, J; Otcenásek, M

    1976-01-01

    The authors presented a taxonomic survey of dermatophytes of the genus Microsporum. From the 19 species described so far, they isolated ten species in the region of Eastern Bohemia. Only the species Microsporum cookei and M. gypsem are considered to be endemic species. The remaining are regarded as imported dermatophytes which are not able to maintain their existence permanently in the conditions of the mentioned region. Data on the findings of the individual species were completed by the authors' remarks on their primary hosts and/or substrates of heterotrophy, frequency of occurrence and geographical distribution.

  14. Rust fungi on Annonaceae: the genus Sphaerophragmium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beenken, Ludwig; Berndt, Reinhard

    2010-01-01

    Seven species of the rust genus Sphaerophragmium occur on members of the tropical plant family Annonaceae. Uropyxis gerstneri is recombined to S. gerstneri. A new species, S. xylopiae, is described from Xylopia acutiflora. The host plant of S. boanense is identified as Mitrella sp. Sphaerophragmium pulchrum is transferred to Dicheirinia. The anatomy of telia with teliospores and parasitizing mycelium is described and illustrated in detail. A new type of M-haustorium, which emanates laterally from intracellular hypha, is detected in S. monodorae. An identification key is given.

  15. Validation, automatic generation and use of broad phonetic transcriptions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bael, Cristophe Patrick Jan Van

    2007-01-01

    Broad phonetic transcriptions represent the pronunciation of words as strings of characters from specifically designed symbol sets. In everyday life, broad phonetic transcriptions are often used as aids to pronounce (foreign) words. In addition, broad phonetic transcriptions are often used for lingu

  16. Broad spectrum anthelmintic potential of Cassia plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Suman Kundu; Saptarshi Roy; Larisha Mawkhleing Lyndem

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To study the in vitro anthelmintic efficacy of Cassia alata (C. alata), Cassia(C. angustifolia) and Cassia occidentalis (C. occidentalis). angustifolia Methods: Crude ethanol extract from leaves of the three plants were prepared in rotary evaporator and different concentrations (10, 20 and 40 mg/mL) of leaf extracts were used for treatment on different representatives of helminthes (Heterakis gallinarum, Raillietina tetragona and Catatropis sp.) from domestic fowl (Gallus gallus domesticus). Loss of motility and death were monitored frequently.Results: C. alata showed early paralysis in all worms treated followed by C. angustifolia. C. occidentalis in combination with C. alata together caused early paralysis in all treated worms than the combination of C. alata with C. angustfolia. While Heterakis gallinarum in control survived for (81.33±2.07) h, treated worms lost their motility at (5.71±0.10) h, (6.60±0.86) h and (13.95±0.43) h with C. angustifolia, C. alata and C. occidentalis respectively at a concentration of 40 mg/mL which showed better efficacy than albendazole. Catatropis sp. survival period was (26.49±1.38) h in control, but with plant treatment, it lost its motility in just (0.57±0.08) h, (1.00±0.12) h and (1.47±0.40) h at 40 mg/mL concentration of C. alata, C. angustifolia and C. occidentalis respectively.Raillietina tetragona on the other hand became paralysed at (1.68±0.27) h, (2.95±0.29) h and (4.13±0.31) h with above concentrations treated with three plants respectively, however in control it survived up to (81.93±4.71) h.Conclusions:This present study indicated broad spectrum vermifugal activity of all plants tested.

  17. Arctic Change Information for a Broad Audience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soreide, N. N.; Overland, J. E.; Calder, J.

    2002-12-01

    Demonstrable environmental changes have occurred in the Arctic over the past three decades. NOAA's Arctic Theme Page is a rich resource web site focused on high latitude studies and the Arctic, with links to widely distributed data and information focused on the Arctic. Included is a collection of essays on relevant topics by experts in Arctic research. The website has proven useful to a wide audience, including scientists, students, teachers, decision makers and the general public, as indicated through recognition by USA Today, Science magazine, etc. (http://www.arctic.noaa.gov) Working jointly with NSF and the University of Washington's Polar Science Center as part of the Study of Environmental Arctic Change (SEARCH) program, NOAA has developed a website for access to pan-Arctic time series spanning diverse data types including climate indices, atmospheric, oceanic, sea ice, terrestrial, biological and fisheries. Modest analysis functions and more detailed analysis results are provided. (http://www.unaami.noaa.gov/). This paper will describe development of an Artic Change Detection status website to provide a direct and comprehensive view of previous and ongoing change in the Arctic for a broad climate community. For example, composite metrics are developed using principal component analysis based on 86 multivariate pan-Arctic time series for seven data types. Two of these metrics can be interpreted as a regime change/trend component and an interdecadal component. Changes can also be visually observed through tracking of 28 separate biophysical indicators. Results will be presented in the form of a web site with relevant, easily understood, value-added knowledge backed by peer review from Arctic scientists and scientific journals.

  18. A Brief Chronicle of the Genus Cordyceps Fr., the Oldest Valid Genus in Cordycipitaceae (Hypocreales, Ascomycota)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Eiji; Han, Jae-Gu; Oh, Junsang; Han, Sang-Kuk; Lee, Kang-Hyo

    2014-01-01

    The earliest pre-Linnaean fungal genera are briefly discussed here with special emphasis on the nomenclatural connection with the genus Cordyceps Fr. Since its valid publication under the basidiomycetous genus Clavaria Vaill. ex L. (Clavaria militaris L. Sp. Pl. 2:1182, 1753), the genus Cordyceps has undergone nomenclatural changes in the post-Linnaean era, but has stood firmly for approximately 200 years. Synonyms of Cordyceps were collected from different literature sources and analyzed based on the species they represent. True synonyms of Cordyceps Fr. were defined as genera that represented species of Cordyceps Fr. emend. G. H. Sung, J. M. Sung, Hywel-Jones & Spatafora. The most common synonyms of Cordyceps observed were Clavaria and Sphaeria Hall, reported in the 18th and in the first half of the 19th century, respectively. Cordyceps, the oldest genus in the Cordyceps s. s. clade of Cordycipitaceae, is the most preferred name under the "One Fungus = One Name" principle on priority bases. PMID:25071376

  19. A MONOGRAPH OF THE GENUS DIPLODISCUS* Turcz. (TILIACEAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. J. G. H. KOSTERMANS

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available 1. Seven species of the genus Diplodiscus are described, of which three(D. microlepis, D. parviflorus and D. decumbens are new to science, and one (D. hookerianus was formerly described as Pentace (for the description of D. decumbens cf. p. 264.2. The area of distribution of the genus covers the Malay Peninsula,Borneo and the Philippines.3. The affinities of the genus are discussed.4. A key to the species is presented.

  20. The Genus Alpinia: A Review of Its Phytochemistry and Pharmacology

    OpenAIRE

    Wei-Jie Zhang; Jian-Guang Luo; Ling-Yi Kong

    2016-01-01

    Genus Alpinia consists of over 250 species, which are widely distributed in south and southeast Asia. Many plants of genus Alpinia have been used for thousands of years to treat digestive system diseases and as anti-inflammatory drugs. Phytochemical research on this genus has led to the isolation of different kinds of diarylheptanoids, terpenes triterpenoids, phenylbutanoids, lignans, and flavonoids. Experimental evidences revealed that both the crude extracts and pure constituents isolated f...

  1. Elliptic Genus of E-strings

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Joonho; Lee, Kimyeong; Park, Jaemo; Vafa, Cumrun

    2014-01-01

    We study a family of 2d N=(0,4) gauge theories which describes at low energy the dynamics of E-strings, the M2-branes suspended between a pair of M5 and M9 branes. The gauge theory is engineered using a duality with type IIA theory, leading to the D2-branes suspended between an NS5-brane and 8 D8-branes on an O8-plane. We compute the elliptic genus of this family of theories, and find agreement with the known results for single and two E-strings. The partition function can in principle be computed for arbitrary number of E-strings, and we compute them explicitly for low numbers. We test our predictions against the partially known results from topological strings, as well as from the instanton calculus of 5d Sp(1) gauge theory. Given the relation to topological strings, our computation provides the all genus partition function of the refined topological strings on the canonical bundle over 1/2 K3.

  2. Genus Tinospora: Ethnopharmacology, Phytochemistry, and Pharmacology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sensen Chi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The genus Tinospora includes 34 species, in which several herbs were used as traditional medicines by indigenous groups throughout the tropical and subtropical parts of Asia, Africa, and Australia. The extensive literature survey revealed Tinospora species to be a group of important medicinal plants used for the ethnomedical treatment of colds, headaches, pharyngitis, fever, diarrhea, oral ulcer, diabetes, digestive disorder, and rheumatoid arthritis. Indian ethnopharmacological data points to the therapeutic potential of the T. cordifolia for the treatment of diabetic conditions. While Tinospora species are confusing in individual ingredients and their mechanisms of action, the ethnopharmacological history of those plants indicated that they exhibit antidiabetic, antioxidation, antitumor, anti-inflammation, antimicrobial, antiosteoporosis, and immunostimulation activities. While the clinical applications in modern medicine are lacking convincing evidence and support, this review is aimed at summarizing the current knowledge of the traditional uses, phytochemistry, biological activities, and toxicities of the genus Tinospora to reveal its therapeutic potentials and gaps, offering opportunities for future researches.

  3. Aggressive behavior in the genus Gallus sp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SA Queiroz

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The intensification of the production system in the poultry industry and the vertical integration of the poultry agribusiness have brought profound changes in the physical and social environment of domestic fowls in comparison to their ancestors and have modified the expression of aggression and submission. The present review has covered the studies focusing on the different aspects linked to aggressiveness in the genus Gallus. The evaluated studies have shown that aggressiveness and subordination are complex behavioral expressions that involve genetic differences between breeds, strains and individuals, and differences in the cerebral development during growth, in the hormonal metabolism, in the rearing conditions of individuals, including feed restriction, density, housing type (litter or cage, influence of the opposite sex during the growth period, existence of hostile stimuli (pain and frustration, ability to recognize individuals and social learning. The utilization of fighting birds as experimental material in the study of mechanisms that have influence on the manifestation of aggressiveness in the genus Gallus might comparatively help to elucidate important biological aspects of such behavior.

  4. The genus Geobacillus and their biotechnological potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussein, Ali H; Lisowska, Beata K; Leak, David J

    2015-01-01

    The genus Geobacillus comprises a group of Gram-positive thermophilic bacteria, including obligate aerobes, denitrifiers, and facultative anaerobes that can grow over a range of 45-75°C. Originally classified as group five Bacillus spp., strains of Bacillus stearothermophilus came to prominence as contaminants of canned food and soon became the organism of choice for comparative studies of metabolism and enzymology between mesophiles and thermophiles. More recently, their catabolic versatility, particularly in the degradation of hemicellulose and starch, and rapid growth rates have raised their profile as organisms with potential for second-generation (lignocellulosic) biorefineries for biofuel or chemical production. The continued development of genetic tools to facilitate both fundamental investigation and metabolic engineering is now helping to realize this potential, for both metabolite production and optimized catabolism. In addition, this catabolic versatility provides a range of useful thermostable enzymes for industrial application. A number of genome-sequencing projects have been completed or are underway allowing comparative studies. These reveal a significant amount of genome rearrangement within the genus, the presence of large genomic islands encompassing all the hemicellulose utilization genes and a genomic island incorporating a set of long chain alkane monooxygenase genes. With G+C contents of 45-55%, thermostability appears to derive in part from the ability to synthesize protamine and spermine, which can condense DNA and raise its Tm.

  5. Genus Tinospora: Ethnopharmacology, Phytochemistry, and Pharmacology

    Science.gov (United States)

    She, Gaimei; Han, Dan; Wang, Weihua; Liu, Zhao

    2016-01-01

    The genus Tinospora includes 34 species, in which several herbs were used as traditional medicines by indigenous groups throughout the tropical and subtropical parts of Asia, Africa, and Australia. The extensive literature survey revealed Tinospora species to be a group of important medicinal plants used for the ethnomedical treatment of colds, headaches, pharyngitis, fever, diarrhea, oral ulcer, diabetes, digestive disorder, and rheumatoid arthritis. Indian ethnopharmacological data points to the therapeutic potential of the T. cordifolia for the treatment of diabetic conditions. While Tinospora species are confusing in individual ingredients and their mechanisms of action, the ethnopharmacological history of those plants indicated that they exhibit antidiabetic, antioxidation, antitumor, anti-inflammation, antimicrobial, antiosteoporosis, and immunostimulation activities. While the clinical applications in modern medicine are lacking convincing evidence and support, this review is aimed at summarizing the current knowledge of the traditional uses, phytochemistry, biological activities, and toxicities of the genus Tinospora to reveal its therapeutic potentials and gaps, offering opportunities for future researches. PMID:27648105

  6. Broad-Spectrum Solution-Processed Photovoltaics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ip, Alexander Halley

    High global demand for energy coupled with dwindling fossil fuel supply has driven the development of sustainable energy sources such as solar photovoltaics. Emerging solar technologies aim for low-cost, solution-processable materials which would allow wide deployment. Colloidal quantum dots (CQDs) are such a materials system which exhibits the ability to absorb across the entire solar spectrum, including in the infrared where many technologies cannot harvest photons. However, due to their nanocrystalline nature, CQDs are susceptible to surface-associated electronic traps which greatly inhibit performance. In this thesis, surface engineering of CQDs is presented through a combined ligand approach which improves the passivation of surface trap states. A metal halide treatment is found to passivate quantum dot surfaces in solution, while bifunctional organic ligands produce a dense film in solid state. This approach reduced midgap trap states fivefold compared with conventional passivation strategies and led to solar cells with a record certified 7.0% power conversion efficiency. The effect of this process on the electronic structure is studied through photoelectron spectroscopy. It is found that while the halide provides deep trap passivation, the nature of the metal cation on the CQD surface affects the density of band tail states. This effect is explored further through a wide survey of materials, and it is found that the coordination ability of the metal cation is responsible for the suppression of shallow traps. With this understanding of CQD surface passivation, broad spectral usage is then explored through a study of visible-absorbing organolead halide perovskite materials as well as narrow-bandgap CQD solar cells. Control over growth conditions and modification of electrode interfaces resulted in efficient perovskite devices with effective usages of visible photons. For infrared-absorbing CQDs, it is found that, in addition to providing surface trap

  7. Topological classification and enumeration of RNA structures by genus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jørgen Ellegaard; Penner, Robert; Reidys, C. M.

    2013-01-01

    To an RNA pseudoknot structure is naturally associated a topological surface, which has its associated genus, and structures can thus be classified by the genus. Based on earlier work of Harer-Zagier, we compute the generating function for the number of those structures of fixed genus and minimum...... stack size with nucleotides so that no two consecutive nucleotides are basepaired and show that is algebraic. In particular, we prove that , where . Thus, for stack size at least two, the genus only enters through the sub-exponential factor, and the slow growth rate compared to the number of RNA...

  8. Revision of genus Steindachneridion (Siluriformes: Pimelodidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Cesar Garavello

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available After several years collecting in the type-localities and studying representative samples of genus Steindachneridion Eigenmann & Eigenmann, 1919 from Brazilian and foreign museums, a taxonomic revision of the Recent species of the genus is presented, including the description of a new species from the rio Iguaçu, above the great falls. Steindachneridion species are large sized fishes, reaching 1000 mm total length or more, and sharing some anatomical characters that, at least tentatively, support the monophyly of the genus. In addition to the general features found in the Pimelodidae, the species S. amblyurum (Eigenmann & Eigenmann, 1888, S. parahybae (Steindachner, 1877, S. doceanum (Eigenmann & Eigenmann, 1889, S. scriptum (Miranda Ribeiro, 1918, S. punctatum (Miranda Ribeiro, 1918, and S. melanodermatum, new species, share the shape of the vomer tooth plates, six to eight branched rays in the dorsal-fin, and a low number of gill-rakers. All species, except fossil ones, are redescribed and a key for their identification is provided.Após vários anos coletando nas localidades tipo e estudando amostras representativas de museus brasileiros e estrangeiros, é apresentada uma revisão taxonômica das espécies Recentes do gênero Steindachneridion Eigenmann & Eigenmann, 1919, incluindo a descrição de uma espécie nova da bacia do rio Iguaçu, acima das Cataratas do Iguaçu. Em comum, os adultos de todas as espécies apresentam grande porte, até 1000 mm ou mais de comprimento padrão e compartilham alguns caracteres anatômicos discutidos neste estudo, que pelo menos preliminarmente suportam o monofiletismo do gênero. Além das características gerais de Pimelodidae, S. amblyurum (Eigenmann & Eigenmann, 1888, S. parahybae (Steindachner, 1877, S. doceanum (Eigenmann & Eigenmann, 1889, S. scriptum (Miranda Ribeiro, 1918, S. punctatum (Miranda Ribeiro, 1918 e S. melanodermatum, espécie nova, têm em comum a forma das placas dentígeras do

  9. [CITRULLINUREIDASE GENE DIVERSITY IN THE GENUS FRANCISELLA].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timofeev, V S; Bakhteeva, I V; Pavlov, V M; Mokrievich, A N

    2015-01-01

    This work describes the results, of the in silico analysis of the genetic diversity of the citrullinureidase gene (ctu) in two species of bacteria of the genus Francisella: tularensis (ssp. tularensis, holarctica, mediasiatica, novicida) and philomiragia. The strains of the Central Asiatic subspecies possessing the citrullinureidase activity differ in the gene ctu from the ssp tularensis Schu by three nucleotide substitutions leading to two insignificant amino acid substitutions in the encoded polypeptide. In the strain F. tularensis of the ssp. holarctica the gene ctu encodes inactive enzyme, which is probably due to amino acid substitutions: 151 Gly --> Asp, 183 Pro --> Leu, 222 Asp --> Asn. Except for the Japan biovar bacteria, in all strains of the Holarctic subspecies there are two stop codons in the gene ctu. The bacteria of the subspecies novicida contain the ctu gene only in the strain 3523, whereas the other strains contain the gene FTN_0827 encoding the C-N hydrolase, which probably provides the citrullinureidase activity.

  10. The genus Schoenoxiphium (Cyperaceae. A preliminary account

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Kukkonen

    1983-12-01

    Full Text Available The genus Schoenoxiphium of the tribe Cariceae of Cyperaceae is conservatively accepted as being restricted to the African continent and Madagascar. The special features of the inflorescence structure are described. The following species are provisionally recognized: S. basutorum Turrill, S. distinctum Kukkonen, S. ecklonii Nees, S.  filiforme Kükenthal, S. gracile Chermezon, S. lanceum (Thunberg Kukenthal, S. lehmannii (Nees Steudel, S.  madagascariense Chermezon, S. perdensum Kukkonen, S. rufum Nees, S. schweickerdtii Merxmiiller & Podlech, and  S. sparteum (Wahlenberg Kukenthal. A key to the species is provided and their distribution is roughly outlined. The morphological variation within the species suggests separation of taxa below specific level, or perhaps even at species level, but this will require more detailed information about the ecology, distribution and the cytology.

  11. Review: Natural products from Genus Selaginella (Selaginellaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AHMAD DWI SETYAWAN

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Setyawan AD. 2011. Natural products from Genus Selaginella (Selaginellaceae. Nusantara Bioscience 3: 44-58. Selaginella is a potent medicinal-stuff, which contains diverse of natural products such as alkaloid, phenolic (flavonoid, and terpenoid. This species is traditionally used to cure several diseases especially for wound, after childbirth, and menstrual disorder. Biflavonoid, a dimeric form of flavonoids, is the most valuable natural products of Selaginella, which constituted at least 13 compounds, namely amentoflavone, 2',8''-biapigenin, delicaflavone, ginkgetin, heveaflavone, hinokiflavone, isocryptomerin, kayaflavone, ochnaflavone, podocarpusflavone A, robustaflavone, sumaflavone, and taiwaniaflavone. Ecologically, plants use biflavonoid to response environmental condition such as defense against pests, diseases, herbivory, and competitions; while human medically use biflavonoid especially for antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti carcinogenic. Selaginella also contains valuable disaccharide, namely trehalose that has long been known for protecting from desiccation and allows surviving severe environmental stress. The compound has very prospects as molecular stabilizer in the industries based bioresources.

  12. Environmental Origin of the Genus Bordetella

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamidou Soumana, Illiassou; Linz, Bodo; Harvill, Eric T.

    2017-01-01

    Members of the genus Bordetella include human and animal pathogens that cause a variety of respiratory infections, including whooping cough in humans. Despite the long known ability to switch between a within-animal and an extra-host lifestyle under laboratory growth conditions, no extra-host niches of pathogenic Bordetella species have been defined. To better understand the distribution of Bordetella species in the environment, we probed the NCBI nucleotide database with the 16S ribosomal RNA (16S rRNA) gene sequences from pathogenic Bordetella species. Bacteria of the genus Bordetella were frequently found in soil, water, sediment, and plants. Phylogenetic analyses of their 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that Bordetella recovered from environmental samples are evolutionarily ancestral to animal-associated species. Sequences from environmental samples had a significantly higher genetic diversity, were located closer to the root of the phylogenetic tree and were present in all 10 identified sequence clades, while only four sequence clades possessed animal-associated species. The pathogenic bordetellae appear to have evolved from ancestors in soil and/or water. We show that, despite being animal-adapted pathogens, Bordetella bronchiseptica, and Bordetella hinzii have preserved the ability to grow and proliferate in soil. Our data implicate soil as a probable environmental origin of Bordetella species, including the animal-pathogenic lineages. Soil may further constitute an environmental niche, allowing for persistence and dissemination of the bacterial pathogens. Spread of pathogenic bordetellae from an environmental reservoir such as soil may potentially explain their wide distribution as well as frequent disease outbreaks that start without an obvious infectious source. PMID:28174558

  13. Small RNAs in the genus Clostridium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yili; Indurthi, Dinesh C; Jones, Shawn W; Papoutsakis, Eleftherios T

    2011-01-25

    The genus Clostridium includes major human pathogens and species important to cellulose degradation, the carbon cycle, and biotechnology. Small RNAs (sRNAs) are emerging as crucial regulatory molecules in all organisms, but they have not been investigated in clostridia. Research on sRNAs in clostridia is hindered by the absence of a systematic method to identify sRNA candidates, thus delegating clostridial sRNA research to a hit-and-miss process. Thus, we wanted to develop a method to identify potential sRNAs in the Clostridium genus to open up the field of sRNA research in clostridia. Using comparative genomics analyses combined with predictions of rho-independent terminators and promoters, we predicted sRNAs in 21 clostridial genomes: Clostridium acetobutylicum, C. beijerinckii, C. botulinum (eight strains), C. cellulolyticum, C. difficile, C. kluyveri (two strains), C. novyi, C. perfringens (three strains), C. phytofermentans, C. tetani, and C. thermocellum. Although more than one-third of predicted sRNAs have Shine-Dalgarno (SD) sequences, only one-sixth have a start codon downstream of SD sequences; thus, most of the predicted sRNAs are noncoding RNAs. Quantitative reverse transcription-PCR (Q-RT-PCR) and Northern analysis were employed to test the presence of a randomly chosen set of sRNAs in C. acetobutylicum and several C. botulinum strains, leading to the confirmation of a large fraction of the tested sRNAs. We identified a conserved, novel sRNA which, together with the downstream gene coding for an ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter gene, responds to the antibiotic clindamycin. The number of predicted sRNAs correlated with the physiological function of the species (high for pathogens, low for cellulolytic, and intermediate for solventogenic), but not with 16S rRNA-based phylogeny.

  14. Constant factor approximation to the bounded genus instances of ATSP

    CERN Document Server

    Gharan, Shayan Oveis

    2009-01-01

    We give a constant factor approximation algorithm for the asymmetric traveling salesman problem when the underlying undirected graph of the Held-Karp linear programming relaxation of the problem has orientable bounded genus. Our result also implies the weak version Goddyn's conjecture on the existence of thin trees on graphs with orientable bounded genus.

  15. Notes on the genus Pirdana Distant, 1886 (Lepidoptera: Hesperiidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, de R.; Treadaway, C.G.

    1993-01-01

    In the Oriental genus Pirdana Distant, 1886, the new species P. fusca is described from Samar (E Philippines). The phylogeny of the genus is discussed and as a consequence the endemic Sulawesi taxon P. hyela ismene (Felder & Felder, [1867]) is given back its species rank, bringing the total number o

  16. The phyletic status of the genus Planaria (Platyhelminthes, Turbellaria, Tricladida)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ball, Ian R.; Gourbault, Nicole

    1978-01-01

    The amphiatlantic distribution of the genus Planaria is incompatible with our current hypothesis of the historical biogeography of freshwater planarians. New anatomical studies suggest the possibility that the genus is not strictly monophyletic; new karyological data are strongly corroborative of th

  17. Genus-zero Whitham hierarchies in conformal-map dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez-Alonso, Luis [Departamento de Fisica Teorica II, Universidad Complutense, E-28040 Madrid (Spain)]. E-mail: luism@fis.ucm.es; Medina, Elena [Departamento de Matematicas, Universidad de Cadiz, E-11510 Puerto Real, Cadiz (Spain)

    2006-10-26

    A scheme for solving quasiclassical string equations is developed to prove that genus-zero Whitham hierarchies describe the deformations of planar domains determined by rational conformal maps. This property is applied in normal matrix models to show that deformations of simply-connected supports of eigenvalues under changes of coupling constants are governed by genus-zero Whitham hierarchies.

  18. Tsiangia, a new genus based on Gaertnera Hongkongensis (Rubiaceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    But, P. Pui-Hay; Hsue, Hsiang-hao; Li, Ping-T’ao

    1986-01-01

    Detailed examination of the holotype and isotype of Gaertnera hongkongensis Seemann led to the conclusion that this species does not belong to Gaertnera nor to Randia. A new genus, Tsiangia, is proposed to accommodate the new combination Tsiangia hongkongensis. This new genus is retained in Rubiacea

  19. Revision of the genus Trypeticus Marseul (Coleoptera: Histeridae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kanaar, P.

    2003-01-01

    The genus Trypeticus Marseul, 1864 is revised and figured. A key to the species is given. Redescriptions of the hitherto described species are presented. The number of species in this genus has been brought up to 100, of which 72 species are described as new: T. adebratti (Sabah, Brunei), T. alticol

  20. A revision of the genus Cratoxylum Bl. (Guttiferae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gogelein, A.J.F.

    1967-01-01

    A complete revision is given of the Indo-Malesian genus Cratoxylum. The subdivision of the genus into 3 sections, as given by Engler (1925) and Corner (1939), has been found correct. The characters by which these sections are discriminated concern the interpetiolar scars on the twig, the type of ven

  1. A note on the genus Liocranium Ogilby (Pisces, Scorpaenidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mees, G.F.

    1964-01-01

    The genus Liocranium was established by Ogilby (1903) to contain a new species of scorpion-fish from the east coast of Queensland: L. praepositum. The genus remained monotypic until McCulloch (1921) placed Paracentropogan scorpio Ogilby in it, a species also described from the Queensland coast. Whit

  2. The neotropical genus Opeatocerata Melander (Díptera, Empididae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth G. V. Smith

    1989-01-01

    Full Text Available The Neotropical empidid genus Opeatocerata Melander, hitherto known from only a sigle female from Mexico, is redefined in the light of new material, including males. Three new species are described and illustrated, a key provided and the presence of the genus now additionally established in Costa Rica, Panama, Bolivia, Ecuador, Trinidad and Brazil.

  3. Note on the genus Barteria Hook. f. (Flacourtiaceae or Passifloraceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sleumer, H.

    1974-01-01

    The discrimination of species in the genus Barteria has become more and more difficult with the increasing number of collections in recent years. To explain his treatment of the genus in the forthcoming 2nd part of the Flacourtiaceae in the ‘Flore d’Afrique Central (Zaire-Rwanda-Burundi)’, the autho

  4. Revision of the genus Paratropus Gerstaecker (Coleoptera: Histeridae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kanaar, P.

    1997-01-01

    The myrmecophilous and termitophilous genus Paratropus Gerstaecker is revised and figured. A key to the species is given. The number of species in this genus has been brought up to 80, of which 31 species are described as new: P. arriagadai (Tanzania), P. bakxi (Zaire), P. baloghi (Congo, Zaire, Rua

  5. Phylogeny of the Peckia-genus group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buenaventura Ruiz, Ingrid Eliana; Pape, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Peckia is the most species-rich necrophagous genus among the Neotropical sarcophagids, encompassing 67 species distributed in 5 subgenera. Recent phylogenetic studies have challenged the monophyly of this genus with regard to species of the genera Peckiamyia, Titanogrypa, and Villegasia, and the ...

  6. On the Operational Meaning of Broad-Spectrum Philosophy Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miao Yi

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This study analyze the Broad-spectrum Philosophy Methodology on the operational meaning, and discusses three relatively primary methods of Broad-spectrum Philosophy Methodologies. The methodology of Broad-spectrum philosophy cannot pursuit of accuracy of numerical sense, but it pursuits of the exact nature of the research questions, the accuracy of the sense of set theory and sums up the experience which we solve problems in real life and make it up to the generalized quantization and procedural level and thus the methodology of Broad-spectrum philosophy has a general guide and it is a broad operations research. We gets the results that along with deep exploration and development of Broad-spectrum Philosophy Methodology, its function as generalized operation research can be more powerful.

  7. Cross-reactive broadly neutralizing antibodies: timing is everything

    OpenAIRE

    Euler, Zelda; Schuitemaker, Hanneke

    2012-01-01

    The recent surge of research into new broadly neutralizing antibodies in HIV-1 infection has recharged the field of HIV-1 vaccinology. In this review we discuss the currently known broadly neutralizing antibodies and focus on factors that may shape these antibodies in natural infection. We further discuss the role of these antibodies in the clinical course of the infection and consider immunological obstacles in inducing broadly neutralizing antibodies with a vaccine.

  8. Cross-reactive broadly neutralizing antibodies: timing is everything.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Euler, Zelda; Schuitemaker, Hanneke

    2012-01-01

    The recent surge of research into new broadly neutralizing antibodies in HIV-1 infection has recharged the field of HIV-1 vaccinology. In this review we discuss the currently known broadly neutralizing antibodies and focus on factors that may shape these antibodies in natural infection. We further discuss the role of these antibodies in the clinical course of the infection and consider immunological obstacles in inducing broadly neutralizing antibodies with a vaccine.

  9. Log-concavity of the genus polynomials of Ringel Ladders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan L Gross

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available A Ringel ladder can be formed by a self-bar-amalgamation operation on a symmetric ladder, that is, by joining the root vertices on its end-rungs. The present authors have previously derived criteria under which linear chains of copies of one or more graphs have log-concave genus polyno- mials. Herein we establish Ringel ladders as the first significant non-linear infinite family of graphs known to have log-concave genus polynomials. We construct an algebraic representation of self-bar-amalgamation as a matrix operation, to be applied to a vector representation of the partitioned genus distribution of a symmetric ladder. Analysis of the resulting genus polynomial involves the use of Chebyshev polynomials. This paper continues our quest to affirm the quarter-century-old conjecture that all graphs have log-concave genus polynomials.

  10. The Genus Alpinia: A Review of Its Phytochemistry and Pharmacology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Jie Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Genus Alpinia consists of over 250 species, which are widely distributed in south and southeast Asia. Many plants of genus Alpinia have been used for thousands of years to treat digestive system diseases and as anti-inflammatory drugs. Phytochemical research on this genus has led to the isolation of different kinds of diarylheptanoids, terpenes triterpenoids, phenylbutanoids, lignans, and flavonoids. Experimental evidences revealed that both the crude extracts and pure constituents isolated from the genus Alpinia exhibit a wide range of bioactivities such as anti-cancer, anti-oxidant, anti-bacterial, anti-viral, cardiovascular, and digestive system protective effects. Here, we summarize the phytochemistry and pharmacology investigation of the genus Alpinia, which can provide reference for further research and drug development.

  11. Inclination of Broad Line Region in Narrow Line and Broad Line Seyfert 1 Galaxies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The sizes of the Broad Line Region (BLR) of some Seyfert 1 galax-ies and nearby quasars can be determined by the reverberation mapping method.Combining with the observed FWHM of Hβ emission line and assuming that themotion of BLR clouds is virialized, the black hole masses of these objects have beenestimated. However, this method strongly depends on the poorly-understood geom-etry and inclination of the BLR. On the other hand, a tight correlation between theblack hole mass and the bulge velocity dispersion was recently found for both activeand nearby inactive galaxies. This may provide another method, independent of theBLR geometry, for estimating the black hole mass. Using this method for estimatingthe black hole mass and combining with the measured BLR size and FWHM of Hβemission line, we derived the BLR inclination angles for 20 Seyfert I galaxies underthe assumption that the BLR is disk-like. The derived inclination angles agree wellwith those derived previously by fitting the UV continuum and Hβ emission lineprofiles. Adopting a relation between the FWHMs of [OⅢ]λ5007 forbidden line andthe stellar velocity dispersion, we also estimated the BLR inclinations for 50 nar-row line Seyfert 1 galaxies (NLSls). We found that the inclinations of broad LineSeyfert 1 galaxies (BLS1s) are systematically greater than those of NLS1s, whichseldom exceed 30. This may be an important factor that leads to the differencesbetween NLS1s and BLS1s if the BLR of NLS1s is really disk-like.

  12. Assessing Eli Broad's Assault on Public School System Leadership

    Science.gov (United States)

    English, Fenwick W.; Crowder, Zan

    2012-01-01

    Eli Broad's approach to reforming urban public education does not recognize his own self-interest in promoting changes within such educational systems, a classic problem of misrecognition. The Broad agenda is an assault on the notion of the mission of public education as a service instead of a for-profit enterprise concerned with making money for…

  13. Social Cognition, Social Skill, and the Broad Autism Phenotype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasson, Noah J.; Nowlin, Rachel B.; Pinkham, Amy E.

    2013-01-01

    Social-cognitive deficits differentiate parents with the "broad autism phenotype" from non-broad autism phenotype parents more robustly than other neuropsychological features of autism, suggesting that this domain may be particularly informative for identifying genetic and brain processes associated with the phenotype. The current study…

  14. Broadly protective influenza vaccines: Redirecting the antibody response through adjuvation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cox, F.

    2016-01-01

    Influenza virus infections are responsible for significant morbidity worldwide and current vaccines have limited coverage, therefore it remains a high priority to develop broadly protective vaccines. With the discovery of broadly neutralizing antibodies (bnAbs) against influenza these vaccines becam

  15. Boot Camp for Education CEOs: The Broad Foundation Superintendents Academy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jehlen, Alain

    2012-01-01

    The Broad Foundation Superintendents Academy is the most prominent and most controversial training institute for school chiefs. The Academy is the flagship program of the Eli and Edythe Broad Foundation, the smallest of a triumvirate of corporate foundations that are at the heart of the billionaire campaign to remake public education in the image…

  16. Genomes-based phylogeny of the genus Xanthomonas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodriguez-R Luis M

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The genus Xanthomonas comprises several plant pathogenic bacteria affecting a wide range of hosts. Despite the economic, industrial and biological importance of Xanthomonas, the classification and phylogenetic relationships within the genus are still under active debate. Some of the relationships between pathovars and species have not been thoroughly clarified, with old pathovars becoming new species. A change in the genus name has been recently suggested for Xanthomonas albilineans, an early branching species currently located in this genus, but a thorough phylogenomic reconstruction would aid in solving these and other discrepancies in this genus. Results Here we report the results of the genome-wide analysis of DNA sequences from 989 orthologous groups from 17 Xanthomonas spp. genomes available to date, representing all major lineages within the genus. The phylogenetic and computational analyses used in this study have been automated in a Perl package designated Unus, which provides a framework for phylogenomic analyses which can be applied to other datasets at the genomic level. Unus can also be easily incorporated into other phylogenomic pipelines. Conclusions Our phylogeny agrees with previous phylogenetic topologies on the genus, but revealed that the genomes of Xanthomonas citri and Xanthomonas fuscans belong to the same species, and that of Xanthomonas albilineans is basal to the joint clade of Xanthomonas and Xylella fastidiosa. Genome reduction was identified in the species Xanthomonas vasicola in addition to the previously identified reduction in Xanthomonas albilineans. Lateral gene transfer was also observed in two gene clusters.

  17. Analysis of synonymous codon usage patterns in the genus Rhizobium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xinxin; Wu, Liang; Zhou, Ping; Zhu, Shengfeng; An, Wei; Chen, Yu; Zhao, Lin

    2013-11-01

    The codon usage patterns of rhizobia have received increasing attention. However, little information is available regarding the conserved features of the codon usage patterns in a typical rhizobial genus. The codon usage patterns of six completely sequenced strains belonging to the genus Rhizobium were analysed as model rhizobia in the present study. The relative neutrality plot showed that selection pressure played a role in codon usage in the genus Rhizobium. Spearman's rank correlation analysis combined with correspondence analysis (COA) showed that the codon adaptation index and the effective number of codons (ENC) had strong correlation with the first axis of the COA, which indicated the important role of gene expression level and the ENC in the codon usage patterns in this genus. The relative synonymous codon usage of Cys codons had the strongest correlation with the second axis of the COA. Accordingly, the usage of Cys codons was another important factor that shaped the codon usage patterns in Rhizobium genomes and was a conserved feature of the genus. Moreover, the comparison of codon usage between highly and lowly expressed genes showed that 20 unique preferred codons were shared among Rhizobium genomes, revealing another conserved feature of the genus. This is the first report of the codon usage patterns in the genus Rhizobium.

  18. Mycorrhizal status of the genus Carex (Cyperaceae).

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, R. M.; Smith, C. I.; Jastrow, J. D.; Bever, J. D.; Environmental Research; Univ. of Chicago

    1999-01-01

    The Cyperaccae have generally been considered nonmycorrhizal, although recent evidence suggests that mycotrophy may be considerably more widespread among sedges than was previously realized. This study surveyed 23 species of Carex occurring in upland and wetland habitats in northeastern Illinois. Mycorrhizal infection by arbuscular fungi was found in the roots of 16 species of Carex and appears to occur in response to many factors, both environmental and phylogenetic. While some species appear to be obligately nonmycorrhizal, edaphic influences may be responsible for infection in others. In five of the seven Carex species that were nonmycorrrhizal, a novel root character, the presence of bulbous-based root hairs, was identified. The taxonomically patchy distribution of the distinctive root hair trait suggests that these structures may have evolved several times within the genus. Evidence of multiple independent origins of the root hair trait lends support to the hypothesis that root hairs represent an adaptation to nonmycotrophy. Although taxonomic position does seem to be of importance in determining the mycorrhizal dependence of sedges, the pattern may be a patchwork of both mycorrhizal clades and clades that have adapted to the nonmycorrhizal state.

  19. Functional proteomics within the genus Lactobacillus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Angelis, Maria; Calasso, Maria; Cavallo, Noemi; Di Cagno, Raffaella; Gobbetti, Marco

    2016-03-01

    Lactobacillus are mainly used for the manufacture of fermented dairy, sourdough, meat, and vegetable foods or used as probiotics. Under optimal processing conditions, Lactobacillus strains contribute to food functionality through their enzyme portfolio and the release of metabolites. An extensive genomic diversity analysis was conducted to elucidate the core features of the genus Lactobacillus, and to provide a better comprehension of niche adaptation of the strains. However, proteomics is an indispensable "omics" science to elucidate the proteome diversity, and the mechanisms of regulation and adaptation of Lactobacillus strains. This review focuses on the novel and comprehensive knowledge of functional proteomics and metaproteomics of Lactobacillus species. A large list of proteomic case studies of different Lactobacillus species is provided to illustrate the adaptability of the main metabolic pathways (e.g., carbohydrate transport and metabolism, pyruvate metabolism, proteolytic system, amino acid metabolism, and protein synthesis) to various life conditions. These investigations have highlighted that lactobacilli modulate the level of a complex panel of proteins to growth/survive in different ecological niches. In addition to the general regulation and stress response, specific metabolic pathways can be switched on and off, modifying the behavior of the strains.

  20. The genus Allium--Part 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenwick, G R; Hanley, A B

    1985-01-01

    Alliums have been grown for many centuries for their characteristic, pungent flavor and medicinal properties. The present review, which includes references published up to the middle of 1984, is primarily concerned with the chemical composition, flavor, and physiological properties of these crops, their extracts, and processed products. Special emphasis is placed upon the relationship between the organoleptically and biologically active components of onion and garlic. Following a brief historical introduction, current production of commercially important alliums is described and their botanical origins and interrelationships are explained. Following consideration of the major economic diseases and pests of alliums, the agronomic, husbandry, and practices associated with their cultivation are described, particular emphasis being placed upon the storage and processing of onion and garlic. The detailed, overall chemical composition and nutritional value of members of the genus Allium are presented in Section 7; after an outline of the origin and nature of flavor components and precursors, the flavor volatiles of individual members are presented. The effects of agronomic, environmental, and processing practices on chemical and flavor content and quality are considered in Section 9. The following section deals critically with the human and animal studies which have been conducted into the medical and therapeutic properties of alliums, emphasis being placed upon the studies into the antiatherosclerotic effect of onion and garlic and their essential oils. After a study of antimicrobial properties of alliums and their effects on insects and animals, an overview is presented which highlights unexplored or inadequately studied areas and suggests rewarding areas for future research.

  1. The medicinal properties and phytochemistry of plants of the genus Terminalia (Combretaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cock, I E

    2015-10-01

    Plants of the genus Terminalia are amongst the most widely used plants for traditional medicinal purposes worldwide. Many species are used for their antibacterial, antifungal, antiprotozoal, antiviral, antidiarrhoeal, analgesic, antimalarial, antioxidant, antiinflammatory and anticancer activities. Wound healing and cardiovascular effects have also been credited to some species. Many Terminalia species have multiple beneficial effects for multiple diseases and ailments. Indeed, the Indian species Terminalia chebula is known as the king of plants in Ayurveda due to its broad range of medicinal uses. However, apart from the reported ethnopharmacological uses of many Terminalia species, surprisingly few studies have rigorously examined this important genus for their medical properties/mechanisms and phytochemistry. This is likely due to the high tannin content common to many Terminalia species and the perception that these tannins may be responsible for much of their beneficial properties. As the complexities of tannins make them poor candidates for drug design, most interest in Terminalia species has been for their pharmacognostic and nutraceutical value and they have often been overlooked as potentials for drug discovery. However, recent reports have identified many other interesting phytochemicals and demonstrated that these may be responsible for several of the reported bioactivities of the Terminalia species used in traditional medicinal systems. The last decade has seen a large increase in the number of studies into the use of Terminalia species as therapeutic agents. Several species used in Ayurvedic medicine (Terminalia arjuna, Terminalia bellerica, Terminalia catappa, T. chebula) in particular have received much recent attention. Similarly, recent reports have also highlighted the medicinal potential of species from Africa, Australia and the Americas. The aim of this report is to summarise the recent research into the medicinal properties, phytochemistry and

  2. A revision of the genus Mecistostethus Marseul (Histeridae, Histerinae, Exosternini

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    Michael Caterino

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available We revise the genus Mecistostethus Marseul, sinking the monotypic genus Tarsilister Bruch as a junior synonym. Mecistostethus contains six valid species: M. pilifer Marseul, M. loretoensis (Bruch, comb. n., M. seagorum sp. n., M. carltoni sp. n., M. marseuli sp. n., and M. flechtmanni sp. n. The few existing records show the genus to be widespread in tropical and subtropical South America, from northern Argentina to western Amazonian Ecuador and French Guiana. Only a single host record associates one species with the ant Pachycondyla striata Smith (Formicidae: Ponerinae, but it is possible that related ants host all the species.

  3. Anangia, a new monotypic genus of Cucurbitaceae from East Moluccas

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    W.J.J.O. De Wilde

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available DE WILDE, W.J.J.O; DUYFEES, B.E.E. & VAN DER HAM, R.W.J.M. 2006. Anangia, a new monotypic genus of Cucurbitaceae from East Moluccas. Reinwardtia 12(3: 219 – 222.– A new monotypic genus of Cucurbitaceae from Morotai (Indonesia is described. The genus is defined by unique characters, including large sepals, much longer than the petals, and it has distinctly cucurbitoid pollen features. The only species is Anangia macrosepala W.J. de Wilde & Duyfjes. 

  4. Anangia, a new monotypic genus of Cucurbitaceae from East Moluccas

    OpenAIRE

    W.J.J.O. De Wilde; Brigitta E. E. Duyfjes; RWJM Van Der Ham

    2006-01-01

    DE WILDE, W.J.J.O; DUYFEES, B.E.E. & VAN DER HAM, R.W.J.M. 2006. Anangia, a new monotypic genus of Cucurbitaceae from East Moluccas. Reinwardtia 12(3): 219 – 222.– A new monotypic genus of Cucurbitaceae from Morotai (Indonesia) is described. The genus is defined by unique characters, including large sepals, much longer than the petals, and it has distinctly cucurbitoid pollen features. The only species is Anangia macrosepala W.J. de Wilde & Duyfjes. 

  5. Isleria, a new genus of antwren (Aves: Passeriformes: Thamnophilidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravo, Gustavo A.; Chesser, R. Terry; Brumfield, Robb T.

    2012-01-01

    A comprehensive molecular phylogenetic analysis of the family Thamnophilidae indicated that the genus Myrmotherula is not monophyletic. The clade composed of M. guttata and M. hauxwelli is only distantly related to other members of the genus and should be removed from Myrmotherula. The phenotypic distinctiveness of the clade argues against merging it with its sister group Thamnomanes and no generic name is available for the guttata-hauxwelli clade. Consequently, we describe the genus Isleria for these two species, and designate Myrmothera guttata as its type species.

  6. The genus Plectranthus in India and its chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldia, Shobha; Joshi, Bipin C; Pathak, Uma; Joshi, Mukesh C

    2011-02-01

    Phytochemical constituents isolated from Indian species of the genus Plectranthus reported up to 2009 are compiled. In India, the genus Plectranthus is found in all the habitats and altitudes, particularly in the Himalaya, the Southern Ghats, and the Nilgiri region. P. amboinicus, P. barbatus, P. caninus, P. mollis, P. coetsa, and P. incanus are the most common species found in India. Phytochemical studies of the genus revealed that Indian Plectranthus species are rich in essential oil, and that the most abundant secondary metabolites are diterpenoids, i.e., labdanes, abietanes, and ent-kauranes, as well as triterpenoids.

  7. toward a phylogeny of the kukri snakes, genus oligodon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    the south and southeast asian snake genus oligodon,known for its egg-eating feeding behavior,has been a taxonomically and systematically challenging group.this work provides the first phylogenetic hypothesis for the genus.we use approximately 1900 base pairs of mitochondrial dna sequence data to infer the relationships of these snakes,and we examine congruence between the phylogeny and hemipenial characters.a hypothesis for the position of oligodon within the colubridae is also proposed.we discuss the implications of the phylogeny for previous taxonomic groupings,and consider the usefulness of the trees in analysis of behavior and biogeography of this genus.

  8. Diversity of secondary metabolites from Genus Artocarpus (Moraceae

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    ALIEFMAN HAKIM

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Hakim A. 2010. The diversity of secondary metabolites from Genus Artocarpus (Moraceae. Nusantara Bioscience 2:146-156. Several species of the Artocarpus genus (Moraceae have been investigated their natural product. The secondary metabolites successfully being isolatad from Artocarpus genus consist of terpenoid, flavonoids, stilbenoid, arylbenzofuran, neolignan, and adduct Diels-Alder. Flavonoid group represent the compound which is the most found from Artocarpus plant. The flavonoids compound which are successfully isolated from Artocarpus plant consist of the varied frameworks like chalcone, flavanone, flavan-3-ol, simple flavone, prenylflavone, oxepinoflavone, pyranoflavone, dihydrobenzoxanthone, furanodihydrobenzoxanthone, pyranodihydrobenzoxanthone, quinonoxanthone, cyclopentenoxanthone, xanthonolide, dihydroxanthone.

  9. Bioactive phytoconstituents and plant extracts from genus Heliotropium

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    Naveen Goyal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Heliotropium is a genus of herbs and rarely shrubs of family Boraginaceae. Heliotropium species have been used in folk medicine for the treatment of gout, rheumatism and as antiseptic, febrifuge, cholagogue, anti-inflammatory and healing agents. The alkaloids mainly pyrrolizidine alkaloids are the main constituents of Heliotropium species, which are responsible for several biological activities viz. anti-tumoural, anti-microbial, and anti-viral effects. Phenolic compounds, terpenoids, and quinones have also been reported in this genus. The present review summarizes the various biological studies done on the extracts and bioactive phytoconstituents from the plants of the genus Heliotropium over the past few decades.

  10. [Advances of chemical constituents and pharmacological activities of Myristica genus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yong; Zhang, Juan-Juan; Kang, Wen-Yi; Yan, Wen-Yi

    2014-07-01

    The genus Myristica (Myristicaceae) consists of 120 species, which were distributed in South Asia, from west Polynesia, Oceania, eastern India to the Philippines. Phytochemical studies showed that 164 compounds including a majority of lignans, along with phenglpropanoids, flavonoids and phenolics, have been isolated from this genus, which exhibited anti-microbial, anti-inflammatory, anticancer, hyperglycemic and hepatic protective activities. This article summarizes research progress of the chemical compositions and their pharmacological activities from this genus, which could provide reference for the in-depth development and utilization of the Myristica plants.

  11. a new species of the genus tylototriton (amphibia, salamandridae) from hunan, china

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    a new species of the genus tylototriton is described in this article based on morphological and genetic evidence.the new species is identified belonging to the t.asperrimus group and is similar to t.wenxianensis.the diagnostic characters of the new species are as follows:dorsal ridge broad and thick,its width approximately equal to eye diameter (p < 0.001); tail height greater than width at base of tail (p < 0.001); no villous genital papilla found inside the male anal fissure; nodule-like warts,along lateral margin of the trunk,bulge and forming tubercles,and thin and transverse striae present between the tubercles.

  12. Revision of the South American wasp genus Alophophion Cushman, 1947 (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae: Ophioninae - Erratum

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    Mabel Alvarado

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In: Alvarado M. 2014. Revision of the South American wasp genus Alophophion Cushman, 1947 (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae: Ophioninae. Revista peruana de biología 21(1: 003 - 060 (Mayo 2014, doi: http://doi.org/10.15381/rpb.v21i1.8245The following information on depository of the type material was not provided: Holotype of Alophophion atahualpai is housed in the Museo de Historia Natural, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Peru (MUSM; and, the holotype of A. carcanchoi, A. coquimboensis and A. yestay are housed in the American Entomological Institute, USA (AEIC.I thank Gavin Broad for bringing this problem to my attention.

  13. Taxonomic review of the ant genus Paratrechina, with a description of a new species from Africa

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    John LaPolla

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available With the recent finding of Paratrechina (broad sense paraphyly, only Paratrechina longicornis remained in a redefined genus. As one of the most widely distributed ant species due to human transfer around the world, there is much interest in the biology of P. longicornis. One issue concerning P. longicornis has been as to where exactly the species is native, with both African and Asian native ranges being invoked in the literature. Here we report the discovery of a second species within Paratrechina. This species, P. zanjensis, is native to Africa (known from Angola, Mozambique and Tanzania, where it appears to be a dry miombo woodland species. Given the discovery of this new species, a reevaluation of the morphological definition of Paratrechina is provided; also provided is an updated generic level identification key. Given the available distribution information on P. longicornis, we conclude that P. longicornis remains most likely native to southeastern Asia, and that the discovery of a new species native to Africa makes Paratrechina yet another example of an ant genus that possesses an Afro-Asian distribution.

  14. A new genus of highly specialized ants in Cretaceous Burmese amber (Hymenoptera: Formicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barden, Phillip; Grimaldi, David

    2013-01-01

    A new genus of ants, Zigrasimecia Barden and Grimaldi, is described for a new and uniquely specialized species, Z. tonsora Barden and Grimaldi n.sp., preserved in Cretaceous amber from Myanmar. The amber is radiometrically dated at 99 myo. Zigrasimecia is closely related to another basal genus of ants known only in Burmese and French Cretaceous amber, Sphecomyrmodes Engel and Grimaldi, based in part on the shared possession of a comb of pegs on the clypeal margin, as well as mandible structure. Highly specialized features of Zigrasimecia include extensive development of the clypeal comb, a thick brush of setae on the oral surface of the mandibles and on the labrum, and a head that is broad, flattened, and which bears a crown of blackened, rugose cuticle. Mouthparts are hypothesized to have functioned in a unique manner, showing no clear signs of dentition representative of "chewing" or otherwise processing solid food. Although all ants in Burmese amber are basal, stem-group taxa, there is an unexpected diversity of mouthpart morphologies and probable feeding modes.

  15. A review on phytochemistry and medicinal properties of the genus Achillea

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    F Kiuchi

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Achillea L. (Compositae or Asteraceae is a widely distributed medicinal plant throughout the world and has been used since ancient time. Popular indications of the several species of this genus include treatment of wounds, bleedings, headache, infammation, pains, spasmodic diseases, fatulence and dyspepsia. Phytochemical investigations of Achillea species have revealed that many components from this genus are highly bioactive. There are many reports on the mentioned folk and traditional effects. Although, the medicinal properties of Achillea plants are recognized worldwide, there are only one review article mainly about the structures of the phytochemical constituents of Achillea. The present paper reviews the medicinal properties of various species of Achillea, which have been examined on the basis of the scientifc in vitro, in vivo or clinical evaluations. Various effects of these plants may be due to the presence of a broad range of secondary active metabolites such as favonoids, phenolic acids, coumarins, terpenoids (monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes, diterpenes, triterpenes and sterols which have been frequently reported from Achillea species

  16. Antimicrobial peptides of the genus Bacillus: a new era for antibiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumi, Chandra Datta; Yang, Byung Wook; Yeo, In-Cheol; Hahm, Young Tae

    2015-02-01

    The rapid onset of resistance reduces the efficacy of most conventional antimicrobial drugs and is a general cause of concern for human well-being. Thus, there is great demand for a continuous supply of novel antibiotics to combat this problem. Bacteria-derived antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) have long been used as food preservatives; moreover, prior to the development of conventional antibiotics, these AMPs served as an efficient source of antibiotics. Recently, peptides produced by members of the genus Bacillus were shown to have a broad spectrum of antimicrobial activity against pathogenic microbes. Bacillus-derived AMPs can be synthesized both ribosomally and nonribosomally and can be classified according to peptide biosynthesis, structure, and molecular weight. The precise mechanism of action of these AMPs is not yet clear; however, one proposed mechanism is that these AMPs kill bacteria by forming channels in and (or) disrupting the bacterial cell wall. Bacillus-derived AMPs have potential in the pharmaceutical industry, as well as the food and agricultural sectors. Here, we focus on Bacillus-derived AMPs as a novel alternative approach to antibacterial drug development. We also provide an overview of the biosynthesis, mechanisms of action, applications, and effectiveness of different AMPs produced by members of the Bacillus genus, including several recently identified novel AMPs.

  17. A new tapeworm, Postgangesia inarmata n. sp. (Eucestoda: Proteocephalidea: Gangesiinae), parasitic in Silurus glanis (Siluriformes) from Iraq and some comments on the Gangesiinae Mola, 1929.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Chambrier, Alain; Al-Kallak, Sundus N H; Mariaux, Jean

    2003-07-01

    We describe a new species of cestode belonging to Postgangesia Akhmerov, 1969 (Proteocephalidea: Gangesiinae) from the catfish Silurus glanis Linnaeus in Iraq. This is the second species known from this genus, and a redescription of the type-species, P. orientalis Akhmerov, 1969 (emend.), as well as a differential diagnosis are provided. The new species is characterised by the arrangement of its vitelline follicles, and various meristic and metrical characters. The systematic position of Postgangesia is discussed on the basis of both scolex and strobilar characters and arguments are presented for its placement within the Gangesiinae together with Electrotaenia Nybelin,1942, Gangesia Woodland,1924, Silurotaenia Nybelin, 1942 and Vermaia Nybelin, 1942. Finally, we illustrate and discuss some particular structures found in these taxa, especially in relation to the apical organs of the scolex.

  18. Two atypical new species of the genus Sectonema Thorne, 1930 (Nematoda, Dorylaimida, Aporcelaimidae from Vietnam

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    Thi Anh Duong Nguyen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Two new species of the genus Sectonema from natural habitats of northern Vietnam are studied. This paper includes their descriptions, measurements, line illustrations, and light microscope (LM and scanning electron microscope (SEM pictures. Sectonema tropicum sp. nov. is characterized by a 2.56–3.24 mm long body, 19–21 μm broad lip region, odontostyle 20–21 μm long at its ventral side, 730–834 μm long neck, pharyngeal expansion occupying 52–59% of total neck length, uterus a simple tube-like structure 150–242 μm long or 1.2–2.5 times the body diameter, pars refringens vaginae present, V = 48–52, short (31–40 μm, c = 70–91, c’ = 0.5–0.6 and rounded tail, 91–97 μm long spicules, and only one weakly developed ventromedian supplement. Sectonema vietnamense sp. nov. is characterized by its slender (a = 33–49 and 2.71–4.25 mm long body, 14–16 μm broad lip region, odontostyle 8–9 μm long at its ventral side, 716–918 μm long neck, pharyngeal expansion occupying 63–67% of total neck length, uterus simple and 209–242 μm long or 2.5–2.9 times the corresponding body diameter, pars refringens vaginae absent, V = 54, short (34–39 μm, c = 70–115, c’ = 0.6–0.8 and rounded tail, 59–75 μm long spicules, and three or four irregularly spaced ventromedian supplements bearing hiatus. Both species are also characterized by their nearly continuous lip region, an atypical feature in this genus. Molecular analysis of S. tropicum sp. nov. confirms that Sectonema is a natural (monophyletic taxon, very close to Metaporcelaimus.

  19. Identity of Baker's species described in the Oriental leafhopper genus Pythamus (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) with description of a new genus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Cong; Webb, Michael D; Zhang, Yalin

    2014-01-01

    Baker's (1915) species described in the Oriental leafhopper genus Pythamus Melichar are revised. One species, Pythamus melichari Baker 1915, is placed in a new genus, Pythochandra Wei & Webb, gen. n.. The four varieties of P. melichari described by Baker (1915, 1923) (borneensis, bilobatus, decoratus and singaporensis) are elevated to species level and placed in the new genus stat. n., comb. n.. All species are briefly described and a key is provided for their separation. Two other species, Pythamus productus Baker and P. decoratus Baker, known only from females, are retained in Pythamus pending further studies.

  20. Ultra-broad bandwidth parametric amplification at degeneracy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limpert, J; Aguergaray, C; Montant, S; Manek-Hönninger, I; Petit, S; Descamps, D; Cormier, E; Salin, F

    2005-09-19

    We report on a novel approach of ultra-broad bandwidth parametric amplification around degeneracy. A bandwidth of up to 400 nm centered around 800 nm is amplified in a BBO crystal by using chirped pump pulses with a bandwitdth as broad as 10 nm. A supercontinuum signal is generated in a microstructured fiber, having to first order a quadratic chirp, which is necessary to ensure temporal overlap of the interacting waves over this broad bandwidth. Furthermore, we discuss the potential of this approach for an octave-spanning parametric amplification.

  1. Some adaptational peculiarities of introduced species of the genus Hydrangea

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    V. N. Kuchma

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Among studied the Hydrangea L. genus the species, which most adapted to the environment of steppe conditions, were developed. H. cinerea Stall. and H. bretschneider Dipp. are recommended for use in laying out of parks, etc.

  2. Quaternion Algebras over Curves of Genus One Without Rational Points

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Susanne Pumpl(u)n

    2005-01-01

    Quaternion algebras over curves of genus one without rational points over perfect fields of characteristic not two are classified. As a consequence, all quaternion algebras over the function field of such a curve, which are unramified everywhere, are classified.

  3. Quadratic differentials in low genus: exceptional and non-varying

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Dawei

    2012-01-01

    We give an algebraic way of distinguishing the components of the exceptional strata of quadratic differentials in genus three and four. The complete list of these strata is (9, -1), (6,3,-1), (3,3,3, -1) in genus three and (12), (9,3), (6,6), (6,3,3) and (3,3,3,3) in genus four. This result is part of a more general investigation of disjointness of Teichmueller curves with divisors of Brill-Noether type on the moduli space of curves. As a result we show that for many strata of quadratic differentials in low genus the sum of Lyapunov exponents for the Teichmueller geodesic flow is the same for all Teichmueller curves in that stratum.

  4. A review on phytochemistry and ethnopharmacological aspects of genus Calendula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, Disha; Rani, Anita; Sharma, Anupam

    2013-07-01

    This review includes 84 references on the genus Calendula (Asteraceae) and comprises ethnopharmacology, morphology and microscopy, phytoconstituents, pharmacological reports, clinical studies and toxicology of the prominent species of Calendula. Triterpene alcohols, triterpene saponins, flavonoids, carotenoids and polysaccharides constitute major classes of phytoconstituents of the genus. A few species of this genus have medicinal value, among these Calendula officinalis Linn., has been traditionally used in the treatment of various skin tumors, dermatological lesions, ulcers, swellings and nervous disorders as well as almost 200 cosmetic formulations, i.e., creams, lotions, shampoos. Despite a long tradition of use of some species, the genus has not been explored properly. In the concluding part, the future scope of Calendula species has been emphasized with a view to establish their multifarious biological activities and mode of action.

  5. Notes on genus Eurydoxa Filipjev (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BYUN Bong-Kyu; YAN Shan-chun; LI Cheng-de

    2003-01-01

    Genus Eurydoxa Filipjev in China is reviewed and noted for the first time. Based on the present study, two species are recognized, including rhodopa Diakonoff and advena Filipjev. All available information for the species is reviewed and provided.

  6. Description of a new species of the Rhynchophorous genus Oxyrhynchus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelofs, W.

    1880-01-01

    Elongatus, fuliginosus, opacus, fossulis luteo-pulverosis sparsutus. Sutura alba, prothoracis basi atomis albis adspersa. — Long. 10 mm. rostr. excl. Of a narrower shape than the other known species of the genus.

  7. The second pluri-genus of smoothable Gorenstein surface singularities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAU; Stephen; S.; T.

    2010-01-01

    For complete intersection isolated surface singularities, Okuma gave a formula for the second plurigenus relating geometry genus, Milnor number and Tjurina number. We generalize Okuma’s theorem to Gorenstein smoothable surface singularities.

  8. A new Neotropical genus of Blastini (Psocodea: 'Psocoptera': Psocidae: Amphigerontiinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldrete, Alfonso N García; Román-P, Cristian

    2015-08-17

    A monotypic genus of Psocidae (Amphigerontiinae: Blastini) from Santiago de Cali, Colombia, is here described and illustrated. It differs from Chaetopsocidus Badonnel, from the Páramo de Monserrate, near Bogotá, in having setae on the forewing veins.

  9. Is Stringaspidiotus Macgillivray (Hemiptera: Coccoidea: Diaspididae) An Accepted Genus?

    Science.gov (United States)

    The genus Stringaspidiotus MacGillivray, 1921 is synonymized with Pseudaonidia Cockerell, 1897 as a junior subjective synonym and the type species of Stringaspidiotus (Aspidiotus (Pseudaonidia) curculiginis) is redescribed and illustrated....

  10. A new genus of Smiliini (Hemiptera: Membracidae) from Costa Rica

    Science.gov (United States)

    A new genus and species, Smilirhexia naranja, is described from Costa Rica, the southern limit of the tribe Smiliini, and represents a strong divergence from the morphology of the oak-feeding genera prevalent in North America....

  11. Warionia (Asteraceae: a relict genus of Cichorieae?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katinas, Liliana

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The genus Warionia, with its only species W. saharae, is endemic to the northwestern edge of the African Sahara desert. This is a somewhat thistle-like aromatic plant, with white latex, and fleshy, pinnately- partite leaves. Warionia is in many respects so different from any other genus of Asteraceae, that it has been tentatively placed in the tribes Cardueae, Cichorieae, Gundelieae, and Mutisieae. Until now, a comprehensive study of Warionia to have a complete context for discussing its taxonomic position is lacking. The general morphology, anatomy, palynology and chromosome number of W. saharae are investigated here, and the species is described and illustrated. Laticifers in leaves and stems indicate a relationship with Cichorieae, and are associated with the phloem, in contact with it or with the surrounding sclerenchyma sheath. The pollen features indicate a strong relation with Cardueae, namely the structure with Anthemoid pattern where the columellae are joined to the foot layer, the ectosexine with thin columellae, the endosexine with stout and ramified columellae, the conspicuous spines with globose bases and conspicuous apical channels, and the tectum surface very perforate. Chromosomal counts resulted in 2n = 34. The morphological and palynological evidence positions Warionia between the tribes Cardueae and Cichorieae suggesting that it could be a remnant of the ancestral stock that gave rise to both tribes.El género Warionia, y su única especie, W. saharae, es endémico del noroeste del desierto africano del Sahara. Es una planta semejante a un cardo, aromática, con látex blanco y hojas carnosas, pinnatipartidas. Warionia es tan diferente de otros géneros de Asteraceae que fue ubicada en las tribus Cardueae, Cichorieae, Gundelieae y Mutisieae. Hasta ahora, no existía un estudio global de Warionia como contexto para discutir su posición taxonómica. Se ha investigado aquí su morfología, anatomía, palinología y n

  12. The genus Allium--Part 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenwick, G R; Hanley, A B

    1985-01-01

    Allium is a genus of some 500 species belonging to the family Liliaceae. However, only a few of these are important as food plants, notably onion, garlic, chive, leek, and rakkyo. Such plants have been used for many centuries for their pungency and flavoring value, for their medicinal properties, and in some parts of the world, their use also has religious connotations. The flavors of members of alliums, in addition to being characteristic, are also complex, being derived enzymically from a number of involatile precursors. As well as there being variation of flavor between different alliums there are also considerable changes that occur as a result of cooking and processing. These are, of course, of importance to the consumer and food technologist/processor. The review will introduce the subject by an historical perspective and will set against this data on the present cultivation and usage of commercially cultivated alliums. The chemical composition of these plants will be discussed, emphasis being given to nonvolatile constituents which are, perhaps, less often considered. Discussion of the volatile constituents, which will include mention of the methods currently used for their analysis and for the determination of "flavor strength," will be mainly concerned with literature taken from the last 5 years. In considering the extent and nature of allium cultivation and processing, factors affecting the nutritional value and quality will be highlighted. The medicinal properties of garlic and onion oils have been extensively studied over the last decade and the review will include critical assessment of this area; it will also touch on the more general properties (antimicrobial, antifungal, antibacterial, and insecticidal) of these oils. Finally, mention will be made of the antinutritional, toxic, or otherwise undesirable effects of alliums, for example, as inadvertant components of animal diets, tainting of milk, and other food products. It is our intention to review

  13. The Genus Asparagus in Southern Africa*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. P. Jessop

    1966-12-01

    Full Text Available A revision of the genus Asparagus in South Africa, South West Africa, Bechuanaland, Basutoland, and Swaziland has been undertaken. Notes are given on the value of most o f the characters which have been used in the separation of species, recent literature on the nature of  Asparagus assimilatory organs, and a technique for the examination of chromosomes. Chromosome counts are listed for ten taxa. There is a key to the forty species and four varieties. In the main part of the work these taxa are described, and their synonymy, taxonomy, distribution and habitats dealt with. Six species and one variety are new. The following are the new species and combinations:  A. setaceus (Kunth (Asparagopsis setacea Kunth, A. mueronatus, A. macowanii Bak. var. zuluensis (N. E. Br.  (A. zuluensis N. E. Br., A. rigidus, A. densiflorus (Kunth  {Asparagopsis densiflora Kunth,  A. aethiopicus L. var. angusticladus, A. falcatus L. var. ternifolius (Bak.  (A. aethiopicus L. var.  ternifolius Bak.,  A. aspergillus,  A. obermeyerae,  A. krebsianus (Kunth (Asparagopsis krebsiana Kunth,  A. acocksii.  A. crassicladus. Several plants o f horticultural importance occur in South Africa. The three best known are A. plumosus, which is reduced here to synonymy under  A. setaceus (Kunth Jessop, and  A. sprengeri and  A. myersii. A. sprengeri is being reduced to synonymy under  A. densiflorus (Kunth Jessop,.  A. myersii, which is a  nomen nudum, is also regarded as belonging to  A. densiflorus.

  14. Higher Genus Abelian Functions Associated with Cyclic Trigonal Curves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew England

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available We develop the theory of Abelian functions associated with cyclic trigonal curves by considering two new cases. We investigate curves of genus six and seven and consider whether it is the trigonal nature or the genus which dictates certain areas of the theory. We present solutions to the Jacobi inversion problem, sets of relations between the Abelian function, links to the Boussinesq equation and a new addition formula.

  15. Bounds for Siegel Modular Forms of genus 2 modulo $p$

    CERN Document Server

    Choi, Dohoon; Kikuta, Toshiyuki

    2011-01-01

    Sturm obtained the bounds for the number of the first Fourier coefficients of elliptic modular form $f$ to determine vanishing of $f$ modulo a prime $p$. In this paper, we study analogues of Sturm's bound for Siegel modular forms of genus 2. We show the resulting bound is sharp. As an application, we study congruences involving Atkin's $U(p)$-operator for the Fourier coefficients of Siegel mdoular forms of genus 2.

  16. Revision of the genus Trypeticus Marseul (Coleoptera: Histeridae)

    OpenAIRE

    Kanaar, P.

    2003-01-01

    The genus Trypeticus Marseul, 1864 is revised and figured. A key to the species is given. Redescriptions of the hitherto described species are presented. The number of species in this genus has been brought up to 100, of which 72 species are described as new: T. adebratti (Sabah, Brunei), T. alticola (Indonesia: Irian Jaya), T. angustifrons (Indonesia: Irian Jaya?), T. arriagadai (Philippines), T. aukei (W. Malaysia, Sabah), T. bertiae (India), T. boukei (Sabah), T. brevis (Sabah), T. capilla...

  17. Torsionfree Sheaves over a Nodal Curve of Arithmetic Genus One

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Usha N Bhosle; Indranil Biswas

    2008-02-01

    We classify all isomorphism classes of stable torsionfree sheaves on an irreducible nodal curve of arithmetic genus one defined over $\\mathbb{C}$. Let be a nodal curve of arithmetic genus one defined over $\\mathbb{R}$, with exactly one node, such that does not have any real points apart from the node. We classify all isomorphism classes of stable real algebraic torsionfree sheaves over of even rank. We also classify all isomorphism classes of real algebraic torsionfree sheaves over of rank one.

  18. Morphometrics of genus Caluromys (Didelphimorphia : Didelphidae) in northern South America

    OpenAIRE

    López Fuster, María José; Pérez Hernández, Roger; Ventura Queija, Jacinto

    2008-01-01

    We reviewed the morphometric relationships between different forms of the woolly opossum, genus Caluromys, in northern South America by means of univariate and multivariate analyses of skull characters. Results revealed that specimens from Trinidad and northern Venezuela differ substantially in size and shape from other representatives of the genus. Thus, we propose that they should be attributed to Caluromys trinitatis rather to C. philander. Consequently, the specific name given by Thomas (...

  19. Chemical and pharmacological studies of the plants from genus Celastrus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Xiao-Hui; Zhang, Man-Li; Zhan, Wen-Hong; Huo, Chang-Hong; Shi, Qing-Wen; Gu, Yu-Cheng; Kiyota, Hiromasa

    2009-02-01

    The plants of genus Celastrus, distributed in Asia, have been used as natural insecticides and folk medicines to treat fever, chill, joint pain, edema, rheumatoid arthritis, and bacterial infection in China for a long time. This contribution reviews the chemical constituents, isolated from the plants in genus Celastrus in the past few decades, and their biological activities. The compounds listed are sesquiterpenes (beta-agarofurans), diterpenes, triterpenes, alkaloids, and flavonoids.

  20. A new genus Mesophlaeoba (Orthoptera: Acrididae: Acridinae from India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Kumar

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available A new genus of Acridinae, Mesophlaeoba Kumar and Usmani gen. n. based on type species Mesophlaeoba usmanii Kumar and Usmani sp. n., is described and illustrated from India. The description was based on both conventional morphological and genital characters. The new genus is closely related to Phlaeoba Stal, 1861 but differs from it in presence of filiform antennae, absence of median carinula of fastigium of vertex and rounded posterior margin of pronotum.

  1. AGN Broad Line Regions Scale with Bolometric Luminosity

    CERN Document Server

    Trippe, Sascha

    2015-01-01

    The masses of supermassive black holes in active galactic nuclei (AGN) can be derived spectroscopically via virial mass estimators based on selected broad optical/ultraviolet emission lines. These estimates commonly use the line width as a proxy for the gas speed and the monochromatic continuum luminosity as a proxy for the radius of the broad line region. However, if the size of the broad line region scales with bolometric rather than monochromatic AGN luminosity, mass estimates based on different emission lines will show a systematic discrepancy which is a function of the color of the AGN continuum. This has actually been observed in mass estimates based on H-alpha / H-beta and C IV lines, indicating that AGN broad line regions indeed scale with bolometric luminosity. Given that this effect seems to have been overlooked as yet, currently used single-epoch mass estimates are likely to be biased.

  2. Broad Spectrum Sanitizing Wipes with Food Additives Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Microcide proposes to develop novel multipurpose non-toxic sanitizing wipes that are aqueous based, have shelf life of 3-5 years, have broad spectrum microbicidal...

  3. Clues to Quasar Broad Line Region Geometry and Kinematics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Marianne; Wilkes, B. J.; Barthel, P. D.

    2000-01-01

    width to show significant inverse correlations with the fractional radio core-flux density, R, the radio axis inclination indicator. Highly inclined systems have broader line wings, consistent with a high-velocity field perpendicular to the radio axis. By contrast, the narrow line-core shows...... and with an accretion disk-wind emitting the broad lines. A spherical distribution of randomly orbiting broad-line clouds and a polar high-ionization outflow are ruled out....

  4. Identification and specificity of broadly neutralizing antibodies against HIV

    OpenAIRE

    McCoy, Laura E.; Burton, Dennis R.

    2017-01-01

    Summary Beginning in 2009, studies of the humoral responses of HIV‐positive individuals have led to the identification of scores, if not hundreds, of antibodies that are both broadly reactive and potently neutralizing. This development has provided renewed impetus toward an HIV vaccine and led directly to the development of novel immunogens. Advances in identification of donors with the most potent and broad anti‐HIV serum neutralizing responses were crucial in this effort. Equally, developme...

  5. Packaging and Performance of 980nm Broad Area Semiconductor Lasers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    High power broad area semiconductor lasers have found increasing applications in pumping of solid state laser systems and fiber amplifiers, frequency doubling, medical systems and material processing.Packaging including the assembly design, process and thermal management, has a significant impact on the optical performance and reliability of a high power broad area laser. In this paper, we introduce the package structures and assembling process of 980nm broad area lasers and report the performances including output power, thermal behavior and far fields.We will report two types of high power broad area laser assemblies.One is a microchannel liquid cooled assembly and the other is a conduction cooled CT-mount assembly. Optical powers of 15W and 10W were achieved from a 980nm broad area laser with a 120 μ m stripe width in a microchannel liquid cooled assembly and conduction cooled CT-mount assembly, respectively.Furthermore,a high power of 6.5W out of fiber was demonstrated from a pigtailed, fully packaged butterfly-type module without TEC (Thermoelectric cooler).The measurement results showed that thermal management is the key in not only improving output power, but also significantly improving beam divergence and far field distribution.The results also showed that the die attach solder can significant impact the reliability of high power broad area lasers and that indium solder is not suitable for high power laser applications due to electromigration at high current densities and high temperatures.

  6. The genus Rhaponticum in East Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gorovoy, P.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The genus Rhaponticum in East Asia has always been a taxon for discussion. Rhaponticum carthamoides from East Siberia comprises three subspecies: carthamoides, chamarensis and orientale. Even though they differ in morphology, they do not have isolated areas. Rhaponticum satzyperovii was recently described and its author pointed out its affinity with Rh. uniflorum. Plant height, stem indumentum, and radical and stem leaf dissection were signaled as the diagnostic characters. Our present study on living and herbarium specimens of Rh. satzyperovii shows that the diagnostic characters are not consistent. The species area was also claimed to be an argument for considering Rh. satzyperovii a distinct species. This area covers the south of the Primorye Province in the Far East of Russia with some locations in the adjacent Jewish Autonomous Region and in China. In our study, the area of Rh. satzyperovii is found to be within the area of Rh. uniflorum and thereafter they turned out to have no disjunction. In East Asia, Rh. uniflorum is characterized by a wide range of morphological variability. We suggest that Rh. satzyperovii should be included within Rh. uniflorum without any taxonomic rank.El género Rhaponticum en el Este de Asia ha sido siempre un taxón discutido. Rhaponticum carthamoides del Este de Siberia incluye tres subespecies: carthamoides, chamarensis y orientale. Aunque difieren en su morfología, sus áreas no están aisladas. Rhaponticum satzyperovii fue descrito recientemente y su autor señaló su afinidad con Rh. uniflorum. Los caracteres diagnósticos fueron la altura de la planta, el indumento del tallo y las divisiones de las hojas basales y caulinares. Nuestro estudio de plantas vivas y muestras de herbario de Rh. satzyperovii muestra que los caracteres diagnósticos no son consistentes. El área de distribución también se argumentó para considerar Rh. satzyperovii una especie diferente. El área cubre el sur de la provincia de

  7. Broad Escovopsis-inhibition activity of Pseudonocardia associated with Trachymyrmex ants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meirelles, Lucas A; Mendes, Thaís D; Solomon, Scott E; Bueno, Odair C; Pagnocca, Fernando C; Rodrigues, Andre

    2014-08-01

    Attine ants maintain an association with antibiotic-producing Actinobacteria found on their integuments. Evidence supports these bacteria as auxiliary symbionts that help ants to defend the fungus gardens against pathogens. Using Pseudonocardia strains isolated from Trachymyrmex ants, we tested whether the inhibitory capabilities of such strains are restricted to Escovopsis parasites that infect gardens of this ant genus. Twelve Pseudonocardia strains were tested in in vitro bioassays against Escovopsis strains derived from fungus gardens of Trachymyrmex (n = 1) and leaf-cutting ants (n = 3). Overall, significant differences were observed in the mycelial growth among each Escovopsis strain in the presence of Pseudonocardia. Particularly, Escovopsis from Acromyrmex and Trachymyrmex were the most inhibited strains in comparison to Escovopsis isolated from Atta. This result suggests that Pseudonocardia isolated from Trachymyrmex possibly secrete antimicrobial compounds effective against diverse Escovopsis strains. The fact that Trachymyrmex ants harbour Pseudonocardia strains with broad spectrum of activity and its defensive role on attine gardens are discussed.

  8. Levels of sparganum infections and phylogenetic analysis of the tapeworm Spirometra erinaceieuropaei sparganum in wild frogs from Henan Province in central China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, T; Zhang, X; Cui, J; Liu, L N; Jiang, P; Wang, Z Q

    2015-07-01

    Sparganosis is a serious food-borne parasitic zoonosis caused by infection with Spirometra spargana. The prevalence of sparganum infection in wild frogs (Rana nigromaculata, R. limmochari, R. temporaria and Bufo gargarizans) was investigated in Henan Province of central China during 2008-2012. Of 3482 caught wild frogs, 565 (16.23%) were found to be infected with plerocercoids (spargana) of the genus Spirometra. Spargana were found in 14.85% (320/2155) of R. nigromaculata, 20.82% (233/1119) of R. limmochari and 10.91% (12/110) of R. temporaria frogs. However, no sparganum was found in B. gargarizans. To investigate the phylogenetic position of collected spargana, three mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) regions, namely cytochrome c oxidase subunits 1 and 3 (cox1 and cox3), and NADH dehydrogenase subunit 4 (nad4), were amplified, sequenced and analysed. Sequences of cox1, cox3 and pnad4 were 417, 390 and 578 bp in length, respectively. The base composition of cox1, cox3 and pnad4 were generally AT rich with a mean of 63.5%, 68.3% and 67% AT, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis showed that all the sparganum isolates in Henan Province represented Spirometra erinaceieuropaei and were a well-supported clade. These findings demonstrated clearly the usefulness of the three mtDNA sequences for molecular identification and population genetics studies of S. erinaceieuropaei spargana of human and animal health significance.

  9. Habitat-driven variation in mycorrhizal communities in the terrestrial orchid genus Dactylorhiza.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacquemyn, Hans; Waud, Michael; Merckx, Vincent S F T; Brys, Rein; Tyteca, Daniel; Hedrén, Mikael; Lievens, Bart

    2016-11-24

    Orchid species are critically dependent on mycorrhizal fungi for completion of their life cycle, particularly during the early stages of their development when nutritional resources are scarce. As such, orchid mycorrhizal fungi play an important role in the population dynamics, abundance, and spatial distribution of orchid species. However, less is known about the ecology and distribution of orchid mycorrhizal fungi. In this study, we used 454 amplicon pyrosequencing to investigate ecological and geographic variation in mycorrhizal associations in fourteen species of the orchid genus Dactylorhiza. More specifically, we tested the hypothesis that variation in orchid mycorrhizal communities resulted primarily from differences in habitat conditions where the species were growing. The results showed that all investigated Dactylorhiza species associated with a large number of fungal OTUs, the majority belonging to the Tulasnellaceae, Ceratobasidiaceae and Sebacinales. Mycorrhizal specificity was low, but significant variation in mycorrhizal community composition was observed between species inhabiting different ecological habitats. Although several fungi had a broad geographic distribution, Species Indicator Analysis revealed some fungi that were characteristic for specific habitats. Overall, these results indicate that orchid mycorrhizal fungi may have a broad geographic distribution, but that their occurrence is bounded by specific habitat conditions.

  10. Bid Optimization in Broad-Match Ad auctions

    CERN Document Server

    Even-dar, Eyal; Mirrokni, Vahab; Muthukrishnan, S; Nadav, Uri

    2009-01-01

    Ad auctions in sponsored search support ``broad match'' that allows an advertiser to target a large number of queries while bidding only on a limited number. While giving more expressiveness to advertisers, this feature makes it challenging to optimize bids to maximize their returns: choosing to bid on a query as a broad match because it provides high profit results in one bidding for related queries which may yield low or even negative profits. We abstract and study the complexity of the {\\em bid optimization problem} which is to determine an advertiser's bids on a subset of keywords (possibly using broad match) so that her profit is maximized. In the query language model when the advertiser is allowed to bid on all queries as broad match, we present an linear programming (LP)-based polynomial-time algorithm that gets the optimal profit. In the model in which an advertiser can only bid on keywords, ie., a subset of keywords as an exact or broad match, we show that this problem is not approximable within any ...

  11. Antiviral Therapy by HIV-1 Broadly Neutralizing and Inhibitory Antibodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiqing Zhang

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1 infection causes acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS, a global epidemic for more than three decades. HIV-1 replication is primarily controlled through antiretroviral therapy (ART but this treatment does not cure HIV-1 infection. Furthermore, there is increasing viral resistance to ART, and side effects associated with long-term therapy. Consequently, there is a need of alternative candidates for HIV-1 prevention and therapy. Recent advances have discovered multiple broadly neutralizing antibodies against HIV-1. In this review, we describe the key epitopes on the HIV-1 Env protein and the reciprocal broadly neutralizing antibodies, and discuss the ongoing clinical trials of broadly neutralizing and inhibitory antibody therapy as well as antibody combinations, bispecific antibodies, and methods that improve therapeutic efficacy by combining broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs with latency reversing agents. Compared with ART, HIV-1 therapeutics that incorporate these broadly neutralizing and inhibitory antibodies offer the advantage of decreasing virus load and clearing infected cells, which is a promising prospect in HIV-1 prevention and treatment.

  12. Antiviral Therapy by HIV-1 Broadly Neutralizing and Inhibitory Antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhiqing; Li, Shaowei; Gu, Ying; Xia, Ningshao

    2016-11-18

    Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection causes acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS), a global epidemic for more than three decades. HIV-1 replication is primarily controlled through antiretroviral therapy (ART) but this treatment does not cure HIV-1 infection. Furthermore, there is increasing viral resistance to ART, and side effects associated with long-term therapy. Consequently, there is a need of alternative candidates for HIV-1 prevention and therapy. Recent advances have discovered multiple broadly neutralizing antibodies against HIV-1. In this review, we describe the key epitopes on the HIV-1 Env protein and the reciprocal broadly neutralizing antibodies, and discuss the ongoing clinical trials of broadly neutralizing and inhibitory antibody therapy as well as antibody combinations, bispecific antibodies, and methods that improve therapeutic efficacy by combining broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs) with latency reversing agents. Compared with ART, HIV-1 therapeutics that incorporate these broadly neutralizing and inhibitory antibodies offer the advantage of decreasing virus load and clearing infected cells, which is a promising prospect in HIV-1 prevention and treatment.

  13. Genotyping of clinical isolates of Acanthamoeba genus in Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Carolina; Reyes-Batlle, María; Ysea, María Alejandra Vethencourt; Pérez, Mónica V Galindo; de Rondón, Carmen Guzmán; Paduani, Anaibeth J Nessi; Pérez, Angelyseb Dorta; López-Arencibia, Atteneri; Sifaoui, Ines; de Galindo, María Virginia Pérez; de Suárez, Eva Pérez; Martínez-Carretero, Enrique; Valladares, Basilio; Piñero, José E; Lorenzo-Morales, Jacob

    2016-12-01

    Free-living amoebae of Acanthamoeba genus are opportunistic pathogens distributed worldwide. Strains included in this genus are causative agents of a fatal encephalitis and a sight-threating keratitis in humans and other animals. In this study, 550 clinical samples which were collected between 1984 and 2014 from different patients with suspected infections due to Acanthamoeba were initially screened for the presence of this amoebic genus at the Laboratorio de Amibiasis-Escuela de Bioanálisis at the Universidad Central de Venezuela. Samples were cultured in 2% Non-Nutrient agar plates seeded with a layer of heat killed Escherichia coli. From the 550 clinical samples included in this study, 18 of them were positive for Acanthamoeba genus after culture identification. Moreover, positive samples were confirmed after amplification of the Diagnostic Fragment 3 (DF3) of the Acanthamoeba18S rDNA genus and sequencing was carried out in order to genotype the isolated strains of Acanthamoeba. Furthermore, the pathogenic potential of the strains was checked by performing thermotolerance and osmotolerance assays. Sequencing of the DF3 region resulted in the identification of genotype T4 in all the isolated strains. Moreover, most isolates were thermotolerant or both thermotolerant and osmotolerant and thus were classified as potentially pathogenic strains. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on the molecular characterization at the genotype level of Acanthamoeba strains in Venezuela.

  14. F-theory on Genus-One Fibrations

    CERN Document Server

    Braun, Volker

    2014-01-01

    We argue that M-theory compactified on an arbitrary genus-one fibration, that is, an elliptic fibration which need not have a section, always has an F-theory limit when the area of the genus-one fiber approaches zero. Such genus-one fibrations can be easily constructed as toric hypersurfaces, and various $SU(5)\\times U(1)^n$ and $E_6$ models are presented as examples. To each genus-one fibration one can associate a $\\tau$-function on the base as well as an $SL(2,\\mathbb{Z})$ representation which together define the IIB axio-dilaton and 7-brane content of the theory. The set of genus-one fibrations with the same $\\tau$-function and $SL(2,\\mathbb{Z})$ representation, known as the Tate-Shafarevich group, supplies an important degree of freedom in the corresponding F-theory model which has not been studied carefully until now. Six-dimensional anomaly cancellation as well as Witten's zero-mode count on wrapped branes both imply corrections to the usual F-theory dictionary for some of these models. In particular, n...

  15. GENUS RUELLIA: PHARMACOLOGICAL AND PHYTOCHEMICAL IMPORTANCE IN ETHNOPHARMACOLOGY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afzal, Khurram; Uzair, Muhammad; Chaudhary, Bashir Ahmad; Ahmad, Ashfaq; Afzal, Samina; Saadullah, Malik

    2015-01-01

    Ruellia is a genus of flowering plants commonly known as Ruellias or Wild Petunias which belongs to the family Acanthaceae. It contains about 250 genera and 2500 species. Most of these are shrubs, or twining vines; some are epiphytes. Only a few species are distributed in temperate regions. They are distributed in Indonesia and Malaysia, Africa, Brazil, Central America and Pakistan. Some of these are used as medicinal plants. Many species of the genus has antinociceptive, antioxidant, analgesic, antispasmolytic, antiulcer, antidiabetic and anti-inflammatory properties. The phytochemicals constituents: glycosides, alkaloids, flavonoids and triterpenoids are present. The genus has been traditionally claimed to be used for the treatment of flu, asthma, fever, bronchitis, high blood pressure, eczema, and diabetes. The objective of this review article is to summarize all the pharmacological and phytochemical evaluations or investigations to find area of gap and endorse this genus a step towards commercial drug. Hence, further work required is to isolate and characterize the active compounds responsible for these activities in this plant and bring this genus plants to commercial health market to serve community with their potential benefits.

  16. PG 1411 + 442 - The nearest broad absorption line quasar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malkan, Matthew A.; Green, Richard F.; Hutchings, John B.

    1987-01-01

    IUE observations reveal strong, moderately broad absorption troughs in the blue wings of the C IV and N V emission lines of the quasar PG 1411 + 442. No absorption from weakly ionized gas is detected. The emission-line strengths and overall shape of the ultraviolet/optical/near-infrared/far-infrared continuum of the new broad absorption line quasar are within the range normally measured in quasars. Its redshift is low enough to allow the morphology of the host galaxy to be studied in deep broad-band and intermediate-band CCD images. The galaxy appears to be a large spiral with a very long arm or tail. The inclination angle is 57 deg, which rules out the possibility that the line of sight to the nucleus intersects a large path length in a galactic disk.

  17. Folded cavity angled-grating broad-area lasers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yunsong; Zhu, Lin

    2013-10-01

    The angled-grating broad-area laser is a promising candidate for high power, high brightness diode laser source. The key point in the design is the angled gratings which can simultaneously support the unique snake-like zigzag lasing mode and eliminate the direct Fabry-Perot (FP) feedback. Unlike a conventional laser waveguide mode, the phase front of the zigzag mode periodically changes along the propagation direction. By use of the mirror symmetry of the zigzag mode, we propose and demonstrate the folded cavity angled-grating broad-area lasers. One benefit of this design is to reduce the required wafer space compared to a regular angled-grating broad-area laser, especially in a long cavity laser for high power operation. Experimental results show that the folded cavity laser exhibits good beam quality in far field with a slightly larger threshold and smaller slope efficiency due to the additional interface loss.

  18. Surface Roughness Effects on Discharge Coefficient of Broad Crested Weir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaker A. Jalil

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of surface roughness sizes on the discharge coefficient for a broad crested weirs. For this purpose, three models having different lengths of broad crested weirs were tested in a horizontal flume. In each model, the surface was roughed four times. Experimental results of all models showed that the logical negative effect of roughness increased on the discharge (Q for different values of length. The performance of broad crested weir improved with decrease ratio of roughness to the weir height (Ks/P and with the increase of the total Head to the Length (H/L. An empirical equation was obtained to estimate the variation of discharge coefficient Cd in terms total head to length ratio, with total head to roughness ratio.

  19. Broad ligament pregnancy a diagnostic dilemma: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Gupta

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Broad ligament pregnancy is one of the rarest forms of ectopic pregnancy with high risk of maternal mortality. Although ultrasonography is usually helpful in making the diagnosis but it is mostly established during laparotomy. 34 year old G2P1 with previous caesarean section reported at 8th month of pregnancy with inability to perceive foetal movements. Ultrasonography confirmed intrauterine fetal demise. Patient was taken for caesarean section after failed induction. Intraoperative diagnosis of broad ligament pregnancy was made and broad ligament along with fetus, sac, fallopian tube and ovary was excised. Post-operative period was uneventful. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2016; 5(7.000: 2478-2480

  20. Genetic variability assessment in the genus Passiflora by SSR markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Lougon Paiva

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The genus Passiflora encompasses many species that are endemic to the Brazilian territory, including some with economic value. Studies on genetic diversity in this genus are fundamental because they allow understanding genetic variability and distance. The present study aimed to determine the genetic variability and distances among 10 species of the genus Passiflora by using microsatellite markers (Simple Sequence Repeat, SSR. Twenty-eight heterologous microsatellite markers were tested, but only 12 were used in the diversity analysis because they amplified in at least 80% of the species. A clear separation was observed among the subgenuses studied, as well as wide variation among the accessions of Passiflora. This knowledge enables breeders to explore diversity and transfer favorable alleles found in wild species.

  1. [Advances in chemical constituents and bioactivity of Salvia genus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Qing; Liu, Jian-xun

    2015-06-01

    The genus Salvia in the family Lamiaceae with nearly 1 000 species, is widespread in temperate and tropical regions around the world. Many species of genus Salvia are important medicinal plants with a long history of which Danshen (the dried roots and rhizomes of S. miltiorrhiza) is one of the most popular herbal traditional medicines in Asian countries. The chemical constituents from Salvia plants mainly contain sesquiterpenoids, diterpenoids, triterpenoids, steroids and polyphenols etc, which exhibit antibacterial, antidermatophytic, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antineoplastic, antiplatelet aggregation activities and so on. In this article, the development of new constituents and their biological activities of Salvia genus in the past five years were reviewed and summarized for its further development and utilization.

  2. Genus Monilinia on Pome and Stone Fruit Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovana Hrustić

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Different species of the genus Monilinia are common plant pathogens that endangerpome and stone fruit production worldwide. In Serbia, two species of this genus are widelydistributed – M. laxa and M. fructigena, while M. fructicola, which is officially on the A2 EPPOList of quarantine pest organisms in Europe and on the 1A part I List of quarantine pest organismsin Serbia, has so far been detected only on stored apple and nectarine fruits. The mostimportant control measures against these pathogens include chemical control in combinationwith adequate cultural practices, particularly under favourable conditions for diseasedevelopment. Concerning that species of this genus can cause significant economic losses,knowledge of the pathogen biology, disease epidemiology and pathogen-host interactionsis a necessary prerequisite for stable and profitable production of pome and stone fruits.

  3. Pollen morphology of the genus Cornukaempferia (Zingiberaceae) in Thailand

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Piyaporn SAENSOUK; Pranom CHANTARANOTHAI; Piyada THEERAKULPISUT

    2009-01-01

    Cornukaempferia is a recently described genus of Zingiberaceae which only occurs in Thailand as a rare genus with limited geographical distribution. Only three species have been described so far, including a recently described new species, C. larsenii. These three species are morphologically very similar and additional data on other biological aspects are useful for the elucidation of their relationship. Pollen morphology of all three species of genus Cornukaempferia has been studied by light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The pollen grains are monad, spherical, inaperturate. The exine sculpture is echinate with psilate between the spines for C. aurantiflora and C. longipetiolata, or echinate with regulate between the spines for C. larsenii. This obser-vation helps support the taxonomic status of C. larsenii.

  4. A palynotaxonomic study of the genus Filipendula (Rosaceae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sangtae LEE; Meekyung KANG; Kyeong-In HEO; Wen-Li CHEN; Chunghee LEE

    2009-01-01

    Pollen grains from 15 species (18 taxa) of the genus Filipendula were examined with light and scan-ning electron microscopy. It was revealed that the pollen grains are isopolar, tricolporate, with scabrate or scabrate-microechinate surface. The pollen morphology was compared with the conventional classification sys-tems of the genus by different authors, and supported Shimizu's system (1961), in which the genus was divided into three subgenera. The monotypic subgen. Hypogyna is characterized by pollen lacking fastigium and thickened costae colpi. The other monotypic subgen. Filipendula differs from others by pollen having larger grain, larger pore size, longitudinally elliptic fastigium and thickened costae colpi. The largest subgen. Ulmaria is distinguished by pollen having rounded or latitudinally elliptic fastigium and thickened costae colpi. Sectional classification was not supported by the pollen morphology due to insufficient variability.

  5. Fossil history and modern distribution of the genus Abies (Pinaceae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIANG Xiaoguo; CAO Ming; ZHOU Zhekun

    2007-01-01

    The plants of the genus Abies are dominant and key species in the dark coniferous forest in the Northern Hemisphere.There are 52 species,one subspecies and 12 varieties in the genus Abies in the world.The history and modern distribution of Abies were discussed.The genus has three modern distribution centers:South Europe,North America and East Asia.These areas are also rich in fossil records.The vertical distribution regions of Abies are from sea level to an elevation of 4,700 m,concentrated in 1,000-2,000 m(15 species).In China,the genus distributes in 20 provinces,especially abundant in the Hengduan Mountains.Meanwhile,endemic and relic phenomena are obvious in this genus.There are seven relic species with both limited individuals and limited distributed regions.Based on the fossil records and the latest phylogenetic data,the following hypothesis was proposed:Abies originated from the middle and high altitudes of the Northern Hemisphere in the middle Cretaceous and it was dispersed southward in the Eocene due to global climate cooling down.The distribution of Abies was deeply influenced by geological events such as the uplift of Himalaya,the Alps,the Rocky Mountains,the occurrence of the Asian Monsoon as well as the Quaternary glaciers.Finally,the current distribution pattern appeared in the Quaternary.The genus Abies has a fossil history and modern distribution pattern similar to that of Cathaya and Pseudolarix.

  6. Note on twisted elliptic genus of K3 surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eguchi, Tohru, E-mail: eguchi@yukawa.kyoto-u.ac.j [Yukawa Institute for Theoretical Physics, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Hikami, Kazuhiro, E-mail: KHikami@gmail.co [Department of Mathematics, Naruto University of Education, Tokushima 772-8502 (Japan)

    2011-01-03

    We discuss the possibility of Mathieu group M{sub 24} acting as symmetry group on the K3 elliptic genus as proposed recently by Ooguri, Tachikawa and one of the present authors. One way of testing this proposal is to derive the twisted elliptic genera for all conjugacy classes of M{sub 24} so that we can determine the unique decomposition of expansion coefficients of K3 elliptic genus into irreducible representations of M{sub 24}. In this Letter we obtain all the hitherto unknown twisted elliptic genera and find a strong evidence of Mathieu moonshine.

  7. Holographic partition functions and phases for higher genus Riemann surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Maxfield, Henry; Way, Benson

    2016-01-01

    We describe a numerical method to compute the action of Euclidean saddlepoints for the partition function of a two-dimensional holographic CFT on a Riemann surface of arbitrary genus, with constant curvature metric. We explicitly evaluate the action for the saddles for genus two and map out the phase structure of dominant bulk saddles in a two-dimensional subspace of the moduli space. We discuss spontaneous breaking of discrete symmetries, and show that the handlebody bulk saddles always dominate over certain non-handlebody solutions.

  8. Evolution of the leukotoxin operon in genus Mannheimia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, J.; Pedersen, A. G.; Christensen, H.;

    2005-01-01

    The leukotoxin protein of Mannheimia haemolytica belongs to the HlyA-like subfamily of cytotoxic RTX (repeats in toxin) proteins. To test the hypothesis that different lineages of genus Mannheimia gained the leukotoxin operon via horizontal gene transfer we used a strategy that combines compositi......The leukotoxin protein of Mannheimia haemolytica belongs to the HlyA-like subfamily of cytotoxic RTX (repeats in toxin) proteins. To test the hypothesis that different lineages of genus Mannheimia gained the leukotoxin operon via horizontal gene transfer we used a strategy that combines...

  9. Evolution of the Leukotoxin Operon in Genus Mannheimia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jesper; Pedersen, Anders Gorm; Christensen, Henrik;

    The leukotoxin protein of Mannheimia haemolytica belongs to the HlyA-like subfamily of cytotoxic RTX (repeats in toxin) proteins. To test the hypothesis that different lineages of genus Mannheimia gained the leukotoxin operon via horizontal gene transfer we used a strategy that combines compositi......The leukotoxin protein of Mannheimia haemolytica belongs to the HlyA-like subfamily of cytotoxic RTX (repeats in toxin) proteins. To test the hypothesis that different lineages of genus Mannheimia gained the leukotoxin operon via horizontal gene transfer we used a strategy that combines...

  10. Revision of the genus Altitatiayus Weinreich(Coleoptera, Lucanidae, Lucaninae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paschoal C. Grossi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Revision of the genus Altitatiayus Weinreich (Coleoptera, Lucanidae, Lucaninae. The South American genus Altitatiayus Weinreich is revised and now includes six species, A. rotundatus (Boileau, A. ruficollis (Lüderwaldt, A. godinhorum (Bomans & Arnaud, A. dulceae (Bomans & Arnaud, A. trifurcatus (Grossi & Racca-Filho and A. koikei sp. nov. (Minas Gerais, Brazil. All species are described and illustrated. For the first time male and female genitalia are illustrated for five species and observations on the behavior of two species are included.

  11. Revision of the genus Rennellia Korth. (Rubiaceae-Rubioideae)

    OpenAIRE

    Johansson, J.T.

    1989-01-01

    In this revision of the genus Rennellia Korth. four species are recognized: R. elliptica Korth., R. amoena (Bremek.) J.T. Johansson comb, nov., R. speciosa (Wall, ex Kurz) J.D. Hooker, and R. morindiformis (Korth.) Ridley. Rennellia includes shrubs and small trees with white to pale bluish or pale violet flowers in panicle-, umbel-, or spike-like cymes. The pedicels and ovaries are nearly always connate. Rennellia is confined to tropical rain forests in SE Asia, Sumatra, and Borneo. The genus...

  12. Taxonomic review of the Neotropical genus Neopachylus (Arachnida, Opiliones, Gonyleptidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivian Moreira Montemor

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available A taxonomic review of the genus Neopachylus Roewer, 1913 together with keys to the species for both males and females are presented. Gephyropachylus marginatus Mello-Leitão, 1931 is considered a junior subjective synonym of Neopachylus serrinha Soares & Soares, 1947, and Huralvius incertus Mello-Leitão, 1935 is considered a synonym of Neopachylus nebulosus (Mello-Leitão, 1936. This genus is restricted to southern Brazil, occurring in states of Paraná, Santa Catarina and Rio Grande do Sul.

  13. Holographic partition functions and phases for higher genus Riemann surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxfield, Henry; Ross, Simon F.; Way, Benson

    2016-06-01

    We describe a numerical method to compute the action of Euclidean saddle points for the partition function of a two-dimensional holographic CFT on a Riemann surface of arbitrary genus, with constant curvature metric. We explicitly evaluate the action for the saddles for genus two and map out the phase structure of dominant bulk saddles in a two-dimensional subspace of the moduli space. We discuss spontaneous breaking of discrete symmetries, and show that the handlebody bulk saddles always dominate over certain non-handlebody solutions.

  14. Silver Nanoparticles with Broad Multiband Linear Optical Absorption

    KAUST Repository

    Bakr, Osman M.

    2009-07-06

    A simple one-pot method produces silver nanoparticles coated with aryl thiols that show intense, broad nonplasmonic optical properties. The synthesis works with many aryl-thiol capping ligands, including water-soluble 4-mercaptobenzoic acid. The nanoparticles produced show linear absorption that is broader, stronger, and more structured than most conventional organic and inorganic dyes.

  15. Broad Band Photometric Reverberation Mapping of NGC 4395

    CERN Document Server

    Edri, Haim; Chelouche, Doron; Kaspi, Shai; Behar, Ehud

    2012-01-01

    We present results of broad band photometric reverberation mapping (RM) to measure the radius of the broad line region, and subsequently the black hole mass (M$_{\\rm BH}$), in the nearby, low luminosity active galactic nuclei (AGN) NGC 4395. Using the Wise Observatory's 1m telescope equipped with the SDSS g$'$, r$'$ and i$'$ broad band filters, we monitored NGC 4395 for 9 consecutive nights and obtained 3 light curves each with over 250 data points. The g$'$ and r$'$ bands include time variable contributions from H$\\beta$ and H$\\alpha$ (respectively) plus continuum. The i$'$ band is free of broad lines and covers exclusively continuum. We show that by looking for a peak in the difference between the cross-correlation and the auto-correlation functions for all combinations of filters, we can get a reliable estimate of the time lag necessary to compute M$_{\\rm BH}$. We measure the time lag for H$\\alpha$ to be $3.6 \\pm 0.8 $ hours, comparable to previous studies using the line resolved spectroscopic RM method. W...

  16. Mathematical Development: The Role of Broad Cognitive Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderón-Tena, Carlos O.

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the role of broad cognitive processes in the development of mathematics skills among children and adolescents. Four hundred and forty-seven students (age mean [M] = 10.23 years, 73% boys and 27% girls) from an elementary school district in the US southwest participated. Structural equation modelling tests indicated that…

  17. PRINCIPAR An Efficient, Broad-coverage, Principle-based Parser

    CERN Document Server

    Lin, D

    1994-01-01

    We present an efficient, broad-coverage, principle-based parser for English. The parser has been implemented in C++ and runs on SUN Sparcstations with X-windows. It contains a lexicon with over 90,000 entries, constructed automatically by applying a set of extraction and conversion rules to entries from machine readable dictionaries.

  18. Model Invariance across Genders of the Broad Autism Phenotype Questionnaire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broderick, Neill; Wade, Jordan L.; Meyer, J. Patrick; Hull, Michael; Reeve, Ronald E.

    2015-01-01

    ASD is one of the most heritable neuropsychiatric disorders, though comprehensive genetic liability remains elusive. To facilitate genetic research, researchers employ the concept of the broad autism phenotype (BAP), a milder presentation of traits in undiagnosed relatives. Research suggests that the BAP Questionnaire (BAPQ) demonstrates…

  19. Broad-band hard X-ray reflectors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joensen, K.D.; Gorenstein, P.; Hoghoj, P.;

    1997-01-01

    Interest in optics for hard X-ray broad-band application is growing. In this paper, we compare the hard X-ray (20-100 keV) reflectivity obtained with an energy-dispersive reflectometer, of a standard commercial gold thin-film with that of a 600 bilayer W/Si X-ray supermirror. The reflectivity of ...

  20. Broad-Band Spectroscopy of Hercules X-1 with Suzaku

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asami, Fumi; Enoto, Teruaki; Iwakiri, Wataru; Yamada, Shin'ya; Tamagawa, Toru; Mihara, Tatehiro; Nagase, Fumiaki

    2014-01-01

    Hercules X-1 was observed with Suzaku in the main-on state from 2005 to 2010. The 0.4- 100 keV wide-band spectra obtained in four observations showed a broad hump around 4-9 keV in addition to narrow Fe lines at 6.4 and 6.7 keV. The hump was seen in all the four observations regardless of the selection of the continuum models. Thus it is considered a stable and intrinsic spectral feature in Her X-1. The broad hump lacked a sharp structure like an absorption edge. Thus it was represented by two different spectral models: an ionized partial covering or an additional broad line at 6.5 keV. The former required a persistently existing ionized absorber, whose origin was unclear. In the latter case, the Gaussian fitting of the 6.5-keV line needs a large width of sigma = 1.0-1.5 keV and a large equivalent width of 400-900 eV. If the broad line originates from Fe fluorescence of accreting matter, its large width may be explained by the Doppler broadening in the accretion flow. However, the large equivalent width may be inconsistent with a simple accretion geometry.

  1. Broad spectral range synchronized flat-top arrayed waveguide grating

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akca, B. Imran; Doerr, Christopher R.; Pollnau, Markus; Ridder, de René M.

    2012-01-01

    A broad-band Mach-Zehnder-interferometer-synchronized flat-top arrayed waveguide grating is presented with a 0.5-dB bandwidth of 12 nm over 90 nm of spectral range and a central excess loss value of -0.5 dB.

  2. Broad-band spectrophotometry of HAT-P-32 b

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mallonn, M.; Bernt, I.; Herrero, E.

    2016-01-01

    Multicolour broad-band transit observations offer the opportunity to characterize the atmosphere of an extrasolar planet with small- to medium-sized telescopes. One of the most favourable targets is the hot Jupiter HAT-P-32 b. We combined 21 new transit observations of this planet with 36 previou...

  3. Species delimitation in the coral genus Goniopora (Scleractinia, Poritidae) from the Saudi Arabian Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Terraneo, Tullia Isotta

    2016-06-16

    Variable skeletal morphology, genotype induced plasticity, and homoplasy of skeletal structures have presented major challenges for scleractinian coral taxonomy and systematics since the 18th century. Although the recent integration of genetic and micromorphological data is helping to clarify the taxonomic confusion within the order, phylogenetic relationships and species delimitation within most coral genera are still far from settled. In the present study, the species boundaries in the scleractinian coral genus Goniopora were investigated using 199 colonies from the Saudi Arabian Red Sea and sequencing of four molecular markers: the mitochondrial intergenic spacer between CytB and NAD2, the nuclear ribosomal ITS region, and two single-copy nuclear genes (ATPsβ and CalM). DNA sequence data were analyzed using a variety of methods and exploratory species-delimitation tools. The results were broadly congruent in identifying five distinct molecular lineages within the sequenced Goniopora samples: G. somaliensis/G. savignyi, G. djiboutiensis/G. lobata, G. stokesi, G. albiconus/G. tenuidens, and G. minor/G. gracilis. Although the traditional macromorphological characters used to identify these nine morphospecies were not able to discriminate the obtained molecular clades, informative micromorphological and microstructural features (such as the micro-ornamentation and the arrangement of the columella) were recovered among the five lineages. Moreover, unique in vivo morphologies were associated with the genetic-delimited lineages, further supporting the molecular findings. This study represents the first attempt to identify species boundaries within Goniopora using a combined morpho-molecular approach. The obtained data establish a basis for future taxonomic revision of the genus, which should include colonies across its entire geographical distribution in the Indo-Pacific.

  4. Revision and phylogenetic analysis of the orb-weaving spider genus Glenognatha Simon, 1887 (Araneae, Tetragnathidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabra-García, Jimmy; Brescovit, Antonio D

    2016-01-27

    A taxonomic revision and phylogenetic analysis of the spider genus Glenognatha Simon, 1887 is presented. This analysis is based on a data set including 24 Glenognatha species plus eight outgroups representing three related tetragnathine genera and one metaine as the root. These taxa were scored for 78 morphological characters. Parsimony was used as the optimality criterion and a sensitivity analysis was performed using different character weighting concavities. Seven unambiguous synapomorphies support the monophyly of Glenognatha. Some internal clades within the genus are well-supported and its relationships are discussed. Glenognatha as recovered includes 27 species, four of them only known from males. A species identification key and distribution maps are provided for all. New morphological data are also presented for thirteen previously described species. Glenognatha has a broad distribution occupying the Neartic, Afrotropic, Indo-Malaya, Oceania and Paleartic regions, but is more diverse in the Neotropics. The following eleven new species are described: G. vivianae n. sp., G. caaguara n. sp., G. boraceia n. sp. and G. timbira n. sp. from southeast Brazil, G. caparu n. sp., G. januari n. sp. and G. camisea n. sp. from the Amazonian region, G. mendezi n. sp., G. florezi n. sp. and G. patriceae n. sp. from northern Andes and G. gouldi n. sp. from Southern United States and central Mexico. Females of G. minuta Banks, 1898, G. gaujoni Simon, 1895 and G. gloriae (Petrunkevitch, 1930) and males of G. globosa (Petrunkevitch, 1925) and G. hirsutissima (Berland, 1935) are described for the first time. Three new combinations are proposed in congruence with the phylogenetic results: G. argyrostilba (O. P.-Cambridge, 1876) n. comb., G. dentata (Zhu & Wen, 1978) n. comb. and G. tangi (Zhu, Song & Zhang, 2003) n. comb., all previously included in Dyschiriognatha Simon, 1893. The following taxa are newly synonymized: Dyschiriognatha montana Simon, 1897, Glenognatha mira Bryant

  5. Genus Topology of Structure in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey: Model Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gott, J. Richard, III; Hambrick, D. Clay; Vogeley, Michael S.; Kim, Juhan; Park, Changbom; Choi, Yun-Young; Cen, Renyue; Ostriker, Jeremiah P.; Nagamine, Kentaro

    2008-03-01

    We measure the three-dimensional topology of large-scale structure in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). This allows the genus statistic to be measured with unprecedented statistical accuracy. The sample size is now sufficiently large to allow the topology to be an important tool for testing galaxy formation models. For comparison, we make mock SDSS samples using several state-of-the-art N-body simulations: the Millennium run of Springel et al. (10 billion particles), the Kim & Park CDM models (1.1 billion particles), and the Cen & Ostriker hydrodynamic code models (8.6 billion cell hydro mesh). Each of these simulations uses a different method for modeling galaxy formation. The SDSS data show a genus curve that is broadly characteristic of that produced by Gaussian random-phase initial conditions. Thus, the data strongly support the standard model of inflation where Gaussian random-phase initial conditions are produced by random quantum fluctuations in the early universe. But on top of this general shape there are measurable differences produced by nonlinear gravitational effects and biasing connected with galaxy formation. The N-body simulations have been tuned to reproduce the power spectrum and multiplicity function but not topology, so topology is an acid test for these models. The data show a "meatball" shift (only partly due to the Sloan Great Wall of galaxies) that differs at the 2.5 σ level from the results of the Millenium run and the Kim & Park dark halo models, even including the effects of cosmic variance.

  6. Oligotyping reveals community level habitat selection within the genus Vibrio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Thomas Schmidt

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The genus Vibrio is a metabolically and genetically diverse group of facultative anaerobic Bacteria, common in aquatic environments and marine hosts. The genus contains several species of importance to human health and aquaculture, including the causative agents of human cholera and fish vibriosis. Vibrios display a wide variety of known life histories, from opportunistic pathogens to long-standing symbioses with individual host species. Studying Vibrio ecology has been challenging as individual species often display a wide range of habitat preferences, and groups of vibrios can act as socially cohesive groups. Although strong associations with salinity, temperature and other environmental variables have been established, the degree of habitat or host specificity at both the individual and community levels is unknown. Here we use oligotyping analyses in combination with a large collection of existing Vibrio 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA gene sequence data to reveal patterns of Vibrio ecology across a wide range of environmental, host, and abiotic substrate associated habitats. Our data show that individual taxa often display a wide range of habitat preferences yet tend to be highly abundant in either substrate-associated or free-living environments. Our analyses show that Vibrio communities share considerable overlap between two distinct hosts (i.e., sponge and fish yet are distinct from the abiotic plastic substrates. Lastly, evidence for habitat specificity at the community level exists in some habitats, despite considerable stochasticity in others. In addition to providing insights into Vibrio ecology across a broad range of habitats, our study shows the utility of oligotyping as a facile, high-throughput and unbiased method for large scale analyses of publicly available sequence data repositories and suggests its wide application could greatly extend the range of possibilities to explore microbial ecology.

  7. Species delimitation in the coral genus Goniopora (Scleractinia, Poritidae) from the Saudi Arabian Red Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terraneo, Tullia I; Benzoni, Francesca; Arrigoni, Roberto; Berumen, Michael L

    2016-09-01

    Variable skeletal morphology, genotype induced plasticity, and homoplasy of skeletal structures have presented major challenges for scleractinian coral taxonomy and systematics since the 18th century. Although the recent integration of genetic and micromorphological data is helping to clarify the taxonomic confusion within the order, phylogenetic relationships and species delimitation within most coral genera are still far from settled. In the present study, the species boundaries in the scleractinian coral genus Goniopora were investigated using 199 colonies from the Saudi Arabian Red Sea and sequencing of four molecular markers: the mitochondrial intergenic spacer between CytB and NAD2, the nuclear ribosomal ITS region, and two single-copy nuclear genes (ATPsβ and CalM). DNA sequence data were analyzed using a variety of methods and exploratory species-delimitation tools. The results were broadly congruent in identifying five distinct molecular lineages within the sequenced Goniopora samples: G. somaliensis/G. savignyi, G. djiboutiensis/G. lobata, G. stokesi, G. albiconus/G. tenuidens, and G. minor/G. gracilis. Although the traditional macromorphological characters used to identify these nine morphospecies were not able to discriminate the obtained molecular clades, informative micromorphological and microstructural features (such as the micro-ornamentation and the arrangement of the columella) were recovered among the five lineages. Moreover, unique in vivo morphologies were associated with the genetic-delimited lineages, further supporting the molecular findings. This study represents the first attempt to identify species boundaries within Goniopora using a combined morpho-molecular approach. The obtained data establish a basis for future taxonomic revision of the genus, which should include colonies across its entire geographical distribution in the Indo-Pacific.

  8. Systematics of the southern African genus Ixia (Iridaceae: Crocoideae: 4. Revision of sect. Dichone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Goldblatt

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The southern African genus Ixia L. comprises ± 90 species from the winter-rainfall zone of the subcontinent. Ixia sect. Dichone (Salisb. ex Baker Goldblatt & J.C.Manning, one of four sections in the genus and currently including 10 species and three varieties, is distinguished by the following floral characters: lower part of the perianth tube filiform and tightly clasping the style; filaments not decurrent; upper part of the perianth tube short to vestigial; style branches involute-tubular and stigmatic only at the tips; and so-called subdidymous anthers. We review the taxonomy of the section, providing complete descriptions and distribution maps, and a key to the species. I. amethystina Manning & Goldblatt is recognized to be a later synonym of I. brevituba G.J.Lewis. Most collections currently included under that name represent another species, here described as I. rigida. We recognize five additional species in the section: early summer-blooming I. altissima from the Cedarberg; I. bifolia from the Caledon District; I. flagellaris, a stoloniferous species from the Cedarberg; I. simulans from the western Langeberg; and I. tenuis from the Piketberg. We also raise to species rank I. micrandra var. confusa and var. minor, as I. confusa and I. minor respectively. Foliar and associated floral variation in the widespread I. scillaris has led us to recognize two new subspecies among its northern populations, broad leaved subsp. latifolia and the dwarfed, smaller flowered subsp. toximontana; subsp. scillaris is restricted to the immediate southwestern Cape, from Darling to Somerset West. Sect. Dichone now has 17 species and two subspecies.

  9. The genus Ontherus Erichson 1847 (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Scarabaeinae): description of a new species, and notes on the genus in Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Fabio Arturo; Medina U, Claudia Alejandra

    2015-04-23

    The state of knowledge of the genus Ontherus Erichson 1847 in Colombia is reviewed and updated since the revision of the genus by Génier (1996), and the species list for Colombia of Medina et al. (2001). Two new distributional records for Colombia are confirmed; Ontherus politus Génier 1996 and Ontherus gilli Génier 1996. An updated species list of Ontherus for Colombia is presented with comments on the species with doubtful distribution in Colombia. O. felicitae n. sp., a new species from the mexicanus species group, is described from Western Andes of Colombia.

  10. First fossil record of Discocephalinae (Insecta, Pentatomidae): a new genus from the middle Eocene of Río Pichileufú, Patagonia, Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrulevičius, Julián F.; Popov, Yuri A.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract A new genus and species of Discocephalini, Acanthocephalonotum martinsnetoi gen. n. et sp. n. is described from Río Pichileufú, middle Eocene of Patagonia, Argentina at palaeolatitude ~ 46°S. The new species is the first fossil representative of the Discocephalinae. This taxon is extant in equatorial to subtropical America, and some species reach warm temperate latitudes (Buenos Aires province). The new genus is distinguished from the other genera of Discocephalini by the combination of these characters: interocular width greater than head length; head massive and quadrangular with the anterior margin almost straight; juga touching each other; labrum thick and curved; triangular ante-ocular process extending beyond the eye; broad spine-like antero-lateral process of the pronotum; pronotum explanate and bean shaped; scutellum triangular with a circular tongue reaching the anterior side of abdominal segment 7; and wings well developed with membrane just surpassing end of abdomen. PMID:25061387

  11. Resurrection of Angelesia, a Southeast Asian genus of Chrysobalanaceae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sothers, C.A.; Prance, G.T.

    2014-01-01

    Licania subg. Angelesia is composed of only three species restricted to Southeast Asia and is currently delimited as one of four subgenera of Licania, a species-rich genus of mostly Neotropical taxa. Molecular phylogenetic studies involving Chrysobalanaceae have revealed that Licania is polyphyletic

  12. The Lesser Antillean scorpions of the genus Centruroides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Armas, de Luis F.

    1983-01-01

    The buthid scorpions of the genus Centruroides are widely distributed in the Antillean area. They are also the most common scorpions in the majority of these islands. Nevertheless they remained almost forgotten until recently (STAHNKE 1970; ARMAS 1976, 1977, 1980, 1981, 1982; FRANCKE & SISSOM 1980).

  13. Phylogenetic diversity and position of the genus Campylobacter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, P. P.; DeBrunner-Vossbrinck, B.; Dunn, B.; Miotto, K.; MacDonnell, M. T.; Rollins, D. M.; Pillidge, C. J.; Hespell, R. B.; Colwell, R. R.; Sogin, M. L.; Fox, G. E.

    1987-01-01

    RNA sequence analysis has been used to examine the phylogenetic position and structure of the genus Campylobacter. A complete 5S rRNA sequence was determined for two strains of Campylobacter jejuni and extensive partial sequences of the 16S rRNA were obtained for several strains of C. jejuni and Wolinella succinogenes. In addition limited partial sequence data were obtained from the 16S rRNAs of isolates of C. coli, C. laridis, C. fetus, C. fecalis, and C. pyloridis. It was found that W. succinogenes is specifically related to, but not included, in the genus Campylobacter as presently constituted. Within the genus significant diversity was noted. C. jejuni, C. coli and C. laridis are very closely related but the other species are distinctly different from one another. C. pyloridis is without question the most divergent of the Campylobacter isolates examined here and is sufficiently distinct to warrant inclusion in a separate genus. In terms of overall position in bacterial phylogeny, the Campylobacter/Wolinella cluster represents a deep branching most probably located within an expanded version of the Division containing the purple photosynthetic bacteria and their relatives. The Campylobacter/Wolinella cluster is not specifically includable in either the alpha, beta or gamma subdivisions of the purple bacteria.

  14. A revision of the genus Humboldtia Vahl (Leguminosae-Caesalpinioideae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sanjappa, M.

    1986-01-01

    The genus Humboldtia Vahl is revised and a key to the six species and one variety recognised; their descriptions and distributions are given. All the taxa are confined to Western Ghats in India, except H. laurifolia, which extends southwards into Sri Lanka.

  15. A REVISION OF THE GENUS SPATHOLOBUS (LEGUMINOSAE- PAPILIONOIDEAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeannette Jeannette

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In the S. E. Asiatic genus Spatholobus 28 species are recognized, 6 of which are never described before: S. albus^ S. auricomus, S. auritus, S. hirsutus, S. multiflorus and S. viridis. One variety (S. ferrugineus var. acutus is also newly described. A key and full descriptions with plates and maps to illustrate the distribution are given.

  16. Multilocus sequence analysis of phytopathogenic species of the genus Streptomyces

    Science.gov (United States)

    The identification and classification of species within the genus Streptomyces is difficult because there are presently 576 validly described species and this number increases every year. The value of the application of multilocus sequence analysis scheme to the systematics of Streptomyces species h...

  17. Protoplast culture of several members of the genus Physalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bapat, V A; Schieder, O

    1981-12-01

    High yields of protoplasts were obtained by enzymic treatment of mesophyll from five different species of the genus Physalis. Subsequent divisions and colony formation were achieved in all the species. However, numerous combinations of phytohormones failed to induce regeneration of shoots from callus tissue developed from protoplasts.

  18. Revision of the Genus Hybosorus Macleay (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae, Hybosorinae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuijten, P.J.

    1983-01-01

    A taxonomic revision of the scarabaeoid genus Hybosorus is given, including descriptions, nomenclatorial notes, figures of genital apparatus and other relevant parts, a key, and notes on distribution and bionomics. Lectotypes are designated for Hybosorus carolinus LeConte, H. crassus Klug, H. nitidu

  19. Studies in the family Thelypteridaceae X. The genus Coryphopteris

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holttum, R.E.

    1976-01-01

    All known species of this genus are described, with synonymy for each and a key for identification. Seventeen new species are described: C. andersonii, C. andreae, C. arthrotricha, C. atjehensis, C. athyrioides, C. borealis, C. brevipilosa, C. hubrechtensis, C. iwatsukii, C. kolombangarae, C. meioba

  20. New species of the stingless bee genus Schwarziana (Hymenoptera, Apidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel A.R. Melo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Two new species of the stingless bee genus Schwarziana from Brazil are described and illustrated. Schwarziana bocainensis sp. nov. is described from Serra da Bocaina, in São Paulo, and S. chapadensis sp. nov. is described from Chapada dos Veadeiros, in Goiás. An identification key to workers of the known species of Schwarziana is provided.

  1. The identity of the genus Austrobuxus Miq. (Euphorbiaceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenis, van C.G.G.J.

    1964-01-01

    During a geographical survey of the genus Buxus in Malaysia I came across the name Buxus nitidus (Miq.) Hall. ƒ. Med. Rijksherb. n. 37 (1918) 16. This is based on a plant from Sumatra, collected by Teysmann (HB 769) on the coast of Sibolga, and described by Miquel, Fl. Ind. Bat. Suppl. (1861) 444—44

  2. The Species of the genus Sacculina (Crustacea Rhizocephala)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boschma, H.

    1937-01-01

    The genus Sacculina was founded by Thompson (1836), who described the species Sacculina carcini, the parasite of the shore crab. A second species, Sacculina inflata, was described by Leuckart (1859). Anderson (1862) gave a description of a third species, Sacculina triangularis, and published importa

  3. Reassessing Vermisporium (Amphisphaeriaceae), a genus of foliar pathogens of eucalypts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barber, P.A.; Crous, P.W.; Groenewald, J.Z.; Pascoe, I.G.; Keane, P.

    2012-01-01

    The genus Vermisporium presently accommodates 13 species, 11 of which are associated with leaf spots of eucalypts in the Southern Hemisphere. Vermisporium is chiefly distinguished from Seimatosporium (Amphisphaeriaceae) on the basis of a short exogenous basal appendage, and the absence of a recognis

  4. Regeneration and genetic transformation in the Vitis genus.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martinelli, L.

    1997-01-01

    This work is a contribution to the development of regeneration systems and genetic transformation in the Vitis genus and opens interesting perspectives to the application of molecular techniques for study interesting traits, as well as for genetic improvement of grape.Somatic embryogenesis from leaf

  5. Notes on the genus Aphistogoniulus Silvestri (Diplopoda, Spirobolida, Trigoniulidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jeekel, C.A.W.

    1971-01-01

    In this paper the species referable to the genus Aphistogoniulus Silvestri, 1897, are enumerated and their status is briefly discussed. Mystalides Attems, 1910, is a junior subjective synonym. Two species from Madagascar, A. quadridentatus (Attems, 1910) and A. polleni nov. spec., are described afte

  6. Ruwenzoria, a new genus of the Xylariaceae from Central Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stadler, M.; Læssøe, Thomas; Fournier, J.;

    2010-01-01

    Abstract During a foray to the mountain rainforests of the Democratic Republic of the Congo, a peculiar species of Xylariaceae was found, which could not be accommodated in any of the existing genera. It is recognised as representative of a new genus, named Ruwenzoria, owing to the presence...

  7. On five new species of the genus Ichthyurus, Westw

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ritsema Cz., C.

    1879-01-01

    Of the above mentioned genus of Malacoderm Coleoptera, founded in 1848 by Westwood in his Cabinet of Oriental Entomology, twelve species have hitherto been described, all Natives of the Old World and distributed as follow: Sierra Leone (West Africa): one ¹); Moulmein (East-Indies): two ²); Ceylon: t

  8. Termites of the Genus Odontotermes are Optionally Keratophagous

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Freymann, Bernd P.; Visser, Sara N. de; Mayemba, Emilian P.; Olff, Han

    2007-01-01

    In this study we tested experimentally whether the consumption of mammalian hooves by termites of the genus Odontotermes is a mere incidental, previously overlooked event, or whether higher termites frequently exploit hooves of ungulates as a supplementary food source. The experiment was conducted i

  9. Revision of the genus Cleistanthus (Euphorbiaceae) in the Philippines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dressler, Stefan

    1999-01-01

    The Philippine species of the euphorbiaceous genus Cleistanthus are revised. Sixteen species are recognised for this archipelago of which two are recorded from there for the first time. The oldest available combination from the Philippines [C. orgyalis (Blanco) Merr.] remains obscure and three colle

  10. A Systematic Review of the Hispaniolan Snake Genus Hypsirhynchus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schwartz, Albert

    1971-01-01

    One of the least known of the endemic Hispaniolan colubrid snake genera is Hypsirhynchus. The genus was proposed by GUNTHER (1858) for one specimen of a new snake, purportedly from the island of Barbados, to which he gave the name H. ferox. COPE (1862) later described H. scalaris from Hispaniola (ty

  11. Composition law and nodal genus-2 curves in P$^{2}$

    CERN Document Server

    Katz, S; Ruan, Y; Katz, Sheldon; Qin, Zhenbo; Ruan, Yongbin

    1996-01-01

    Recently, there has been great interest in the application of composition laws to problems in enumerative geometry. Using the moduli space of stable maps, we compute the number of irreducible, reduced, nodal, degree-d genus-2 plane curves whose normalization has a fixed complex structure and which pass through 3d - 2 general points in \\Bbb P^2.

  12. Notes on the genus Punctelia in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Steen; Søchting, Ulrik

    2007-01-01

    establishing the genus Punctelia, did not re-combine P. ulophylla, nor include it in the accompanying key. She probably considered it as a synonym of P. subrudecta. In a study on European Punctelia species with lecanoric acid, van Herk & Aptroot (2000) accepted the taxon and made the combination Punctelia...

  13. A new genus of Staphylinidae (Coleoptera) from the Lower Cretaceous

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schomann, Andrea Maria; Solodovnikov, Alexey

    2012-01-01

    The fossil genus of rove beetles Apticaxgen.n. with two new species, A. volanssp.n. and A. solidussp.n., is described from the Nova Olinda Member of the Crato Formation in north-eastern Brazil (Aptian–Albian, dated as 125–99.6 Ma old). Both species belong to the clade Staphylininae + Paederinae i...

  14. On a new genus and species of Pythonidae from Salawatti

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hubrecht, A.A.W.

    1879-01-01

    The snake about to be described formed part of the collection which the late Dr. Bernstein brought together in the island of Salawatti. It must be regarded as the representative of a new and interesting genus, which takes its place between the existing genera Liasis and Nardoa. It differs from Nardo

  15. Revision of the Genus Heterometrus Hemprich & Ehrenberg (Scorpionidae, Arachnidea)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Couzijn, H.W.C.

    1981-01-01

    The author deals with taxonomy, character variation, phylogeny and biogeography of Heterometrus, a scorpion genus occurring in Southeast Asia. The taxonomic value of 131 characters is studied, including 75 biometric ones; 72 characters are selected to be used in the present revision for purposes of

  16. Sirdavidia, an extraordinary new genus of Annonaceae from Gabon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couvreur, Thomas L P; Niangadouma, Raoul; Sonké, Bonaventure; Sauquet, Hervé

    2015-01-01

    A distinctive new monotypic genus from Gabon is described in the tropical plant family Annonaceae: Sirdavidia, in honor to Sir David Attenborough. Molecular phylogenetic analyses confirm that Sirdavidia, which is very distinct from a morphological standpoint, is not nested in any existing genus of Annonaceae and belongs to tribe Piptostigmateae (subfamily Malmeoideae), which now contains a total of six genera. The genus is characterized by long acuminate leaves, fully reflexed red petals, 16-19 bright yellow, loosely arranged stamens forming a cone, and a single carpel topped by a conspicuous stigma. With just three known collections, a preliminary IUCN conservation status assessment is provided as "endangered" as well as a distribution map. The discovery of Sirdavidia is remarkable at several levels. First, it was collected near the road in one of the botanically best-known regions of Gabon: Monts de Cristal National Park. Second, its sister group is the genus Mwasumbia, also monotypic, endemic to a small area in a forest in Tanzania, some 3000 km away. Finally, the floral morphology is highly suggestive of a buzz pollination syndrome. If confirmed, this would be the first documentation of such a pollination syndrome in Magnoliidae and early-diverging angiosperms in general.

  17. Siegel modular forms of genus 2 with the simplest divisor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cléry, F.; Gritsenko, V.

    2011-01-01

    We prove that there exist exactly eight Siegel modular forms with respect to the congruence subgroups of Hecke type of the paramodular groups of genus 2 vanishing precisely along the diagonal of the Siegel upper half-plane. This is a solution of a question formulated during the conference ‘Black hol

  18. First report of the genus Retortamonas (Sarcomastigophora: Retortamonadidae in birds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael A Martínez-Díaz

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available In studies carried out on the parasites infecting ostriches (Struthio camelus in Spain, trophozoites of Retortamonas sp. have been found in the intestinal contents of 28 out of 146 slaughtered ostriches. The species infecting ostriches could not be determined from the morphological data available. However, these findings are important as they constitute the first report of the genus Retortamonas in birds.

  19. Pyrrolizidine alkaloids from Bulgarian species of the genus Senecio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NADEZHDA KOSTOVA

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Nine Bulgarian species from the genus Senecio were studied phytochemically and/or by GC-MS analysis. Senecivernine-N-oxide was isolated and identified by spectral data for the first time. Different types of pyrrolizidine alkaloids were tested for cytotoxicity on murine lymphocytes. At a concentration of 100 µg/ml, the alkaloid retroisosenine showed immunosuppressive effect.

  20. The tantulocarid genus Arcticotantalus removed from Basipodellidae into Deoterthridae (Crustacea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Steen Wilhelm; Kirkegaard, Maja; Olesen, JØrgen

    2009-01-01

    is tentatively placed in Deoterthridae based on the mode of formation of the male trunk sac, the pattern of ornamentation on the tergites and cephalic shield, and the number of setae on the thoracopods and caudal rami. It is suggested that the genus Arcticotantulus Kornev, Tchesunov & Rybnikov, 2004 is removed...

  1. Chamber behavior of double Hurwitz numbers in genus 0

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shadrin, S.; Shapiro, M.; Vainshtein, A.

    2008-01-01

    We study double Hurwitz numbers in genus zero counting the number of covers CP1 → CP1 with two branching points with a given branching behavior. By the recent result due to Goulden, Jackson and Vakil, these numbers are piecewise polynomials in the multiplicities of the preimages of the branching poi

  2. First case of neonatal bacteremia due to Dyella genus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakima, Nesrine; Bidet, Philippe; Lopez, Maureen; Rioualen, Stéphane; Carol, Agnès; Bonacorsi, Stéphane

    2017-02-01

    We describe the first case of sepsis due to a yet unnamed species of Dyella genus associated to gastrointestinal perforation in a premature newborn. The rarity of such environmental bacteria in human infection, their misidentification with classical methods and their antibiotic resistance represent real challenges for both microbiologists and clinicians.

  3. The genus Lentinus (Basidiomycetes from India - an annotated checklist

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sapan Kumar Sharma

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available An annotated checklist of species of genus Lentinus has been presented in this paper. On scrutiny of the latest authentic literature and mycobank record, out of a total of 41 documented species from India, 20 were found to be valid species while 21 were invalid species which were found to be synonyms. 

  4. New genus of diminutive microhylid frogs from Papua New Guinea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fred Kraus

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available A new genus of diminutive (10.1-11.3 mm microhylid frogs is described from New Guinea that is unique in its combination ofonly seven presacral vertebrae, a reduced phalangeal formula that leaves the first fingers and first toes as vestigial nubs, and reduction of the prepollex and prehallux to single elements. Relationships to other genera are unknown, but overall similarity suggests some relationship to Cophixalus, although that genus also differs in some muscle characters and likely remains paraphyletic. The new genus contains two species, which are among the smallest known frogs in the world. Their miniaturization may be related to their inhabiting leaf litter, exploitation of which may for small size. The new genus is currently known only from one mountaintop in the southeasternmost portion of New Guinea and another on a nearby island. This region is part of the East Papuan Composite Terrane and, should this lineage prove endemic to that region, it may suggest that it originated prior to that geological unit’s docking with mainland New Guinea at 23–29 MY.

  5. Revision of the genus Rennellia Korth. (Rubiaceae-Rubioideae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Johansson, J.T.

    1989-01-01

    In this revision of the genus Rennellia Korth. four species are recognized: R. elliptica Korth., R. amoena (Bremek.) J.T. Johansson comb, nov., R. speciosa (Wall, ex Kurz) J.D. Hooker, and R. morindiformis (Korth.) Ridley. Rennellia includes shrubs and small trees with white to pale bluish or pale v

  6. On the species of the Phalanger-genus Pseudochirus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jentink, F.A.

    1884-01-01

    Pseudochirus is a well-defined genus of Phalangers, which, up to this time, embraced three species: cookii, bernsteinii and albertisii. Pseudochirus viverrinus Ogilby (1837), from Van Diemen’s Land, is regarded as specifically distinct from Ps. cookii Desmarest (1817), from the Australian Continent.

  7. Revision of the genus Tropobracon Cameron (Hymenoptera: Braconidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Achterberg, van C.

    1993-01-01

    The genus Tropobracon Cameron, 1905 (Braconidae: Braconinae) is revised and its species are keyed. The type species is re-described and fully illustrated. Two new species are described: T. comorensis spec. nov. from the Comores and T. infuscatus spec. nov. from Hong-Kong. Bracon dorsalis Matsumura,

  8. Biosystematics of the Malagasy frogs. II. The genus Boophis (Rhacophoridae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blommers-Schlösser, R.M.A.

    1979-01-01

    This paper concerns the genus Boophis Tschudi, 1938 ( = Malagasy Rhacophorus Kuhl & Van Hasselt, 1822). Apart from a reconsidering of adult morphology, certain new taxonomic characters, such as the colouration in life, the morphology of the tadpole and some mating calls, are presented. Karyotypes an

  9. The structure of the tautological ring in genus one

    CERN Document Server

    Petersen, Dan

    2012-01-01

    We prove Getzler's claims about the tautological ring of stable curves of genus one, i.e. that the tautological ring coincides with the even cohomology ring, and that all relations between generators follow from the WDVV relation and Getzler's relation.

  10. Formulae for Arithmetic on Genus 2 Hyperelliptic Curves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lange, Tanja

    2005-01-01

    The ideal class group of hyperelliptic curves can be used in cryptosystems based on the discrete logarithm problem. In this article we present explicit formulae to perform the group operations for genus 2 curves. The formulae are completely general but to achieve the lowest number of operations w...

  11. Chemotaxonomy of the genus Stemphylium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Kresten Jon Kromphardt; Andersen, Birgitte

    The filamentous fungal genus Stemphylium (Anamophic Pleospora) is often found on various crops, and especially the common animal feed plant Medicago sativa (alfalfa) is often infected by this plant pathogen. With this in mind it is important to consider what consequences such a contamination can...

  12. The Genus Theba (Mollusca: Gastropoda: Helicidae), Systematics and Distribution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gittenberger, E.; Ripken, Th. E.J.

    1987-01-01

    Our knowledge concerning taxonomy and zoogeography of the fossil and recent species of the helicid genus Theba is summarized and enlarged. The fossil T. arinagae spec. nov. is described from Gran Canaria. The recent T. andalusica spec. nov. and T. sacchii spec. nov. are described from the southernmo

  13. Evolution and host specificity in the ectomycorrhizal genus Leccinum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, den H.C.; Zuccarello, G.C.; Kuyper, T.W.; Noordeloos, M.E.

    2004-01-01

    Species of the ectomycorrhizal genus Leccinum are generally considered to be host specialists. We determined the phylogenetic relationships between species of Leccinum from Europe and North America based on second internal transcribed spacer (ITS2) and glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (Gapdh

  14. ENDOPARASITIC NEMATODES OF THE GENUS PRATYLENCHUS ON SOYBEAN

    OpenAIRE

    Ivana Majić

    2010-01-01

    The aims of the study were to determine susceptibility of soybean cultivars to root lesion nematodes (genus Pratylenchus), effect of intensity of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) colonization on penetration of endoparasitic nematodes in soybean roots, and trophic biodiversity of nematode community in soybean. In the period 2005 - 2007, investigations were conducted at experimental sites of Agricultural Institute Osijek. Seven soybean cultivars were included (Korana, ...

  15. The genus Rhododendron L. in Indochina and Siam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sleumer, H.

    1958-01-01

    In the course of my recent revision of the genus Rhododendron in Malaysia it has become evident, that the subsect. Irrorata, regarded as purely South Eastern Asiatic up to now, is also represented in the Malay Peninsula and Sumatra, whilst the subsect. Euvireya, outside of its large Malaysian area,

  16. The Cape genus Micranthus (Iridaceae: Crocoideae, nomenclature and taxonomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Goldblatt

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The genus Micranthus (Pers. Eckl., has traditionally been treated as comprising three species, all with virtually identical, bilaterally symmetric, deep or pale blue to white flowers arranged in crowded, 2-ranked spikes and with divided style branches, but differing in their foliage. Examination of plants in the field and herbarium shows that there are four additional species. M. filifolius Goldblatt & J.C.Manning, from the Caledon District of the southwestern Western Cape, has up to six, filiform leaves, the blades of at least the lowermost terete and cross-shaped in section, and usually pale blue-mauve flowers. M. simplex Goldblatt & J.C.Manning from high elevations on Zebrakop, Piketberg, has the smallest flowers in the genus, white but tinged lilac as they age, linear leaves up to 1.5 mm wide, and undivided style branches. M. cruciatus Goldblatt & J.C.Manning, from the northern Cedarberg and Bokkeveld Mtns, has up to four leaves, the lower with linear or terete blades with heavily thickened margins and central vein and relatively large flowers, unusual in having the style dividing at the mouth of the perianth tube into particularly long branches, these deeply divided as is typical of the genus. M. thereianthoides Goldblatt & J.C.Manning, from the Paardeberg south of Malmesbury, is unique in the genus in having flowers with an elongate perianth tube. We also document the occurrence of large populations of putative hybrids at some sites. We provide a complete revision of Micranthus with original observations on leaf anatomy, pollen morphology and reproductive biology and discuss its confused taxonomic and nomenclatural history and that of the three common species of the genus, known for over 150 years. In so doing, we neotypify Gladiolus alopecuroides L. (1756 [= Micranthus alopecuroides (L. Eckl. (1827], type of the genus, and choose lectotypes for M. plantagineus Eckl. var. junceus Baker (1892 and Gladiolus fistulosus Jacq. Now with seven

  17. Permissiveness of soil microbial communities towards broad host range plasmids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klümper, Uli

    larger than previously assumed. I was able to show abundant plasmid transfer from the Gram negative donor strains to a wide diversity of Gram positive soil bacteria, formerly thought to constitute distinct clusters of gene transfer. Moreover, among the observed transconjugants, I identified a core super...... environmental factors that modulate plasmid transfer in soil microbial communities. In order to attain these goals, I developed a high-throughput method that enabled me to evaluate the permissiveness of bacterial communities towards introduced plasmids. This new approach is based on the introduction...... fraction of soil the bacteria (up to 1 in 10,000) were able to take up any of these broad host range conjugal plasmids. The transconjugal pools comprised 11 bacterial phyla. This finding indicates that the realized transfer range of broad host range plasmids in environmental microbial communities is much...

  18. 30 GHz monitoring of broad absorption line (BAL) quasars

    CERN Document Server

    Ceglowski, Maciej; Pazderska, Bogna; Gawronski, Marcin

    2014-01-01

    Broad absorption line (BAL) quasars have been studied for over thirty years. Yet it is still unclear why and when we observe broad absorption lines in quasars. Is this phenomenon caused by geometry or is it connected with the evolution process? Variability of the BAL quasars, if present, can give us information about their orientation, namely it can indicate whether they are oriented more pole-on. Using the Torun 32-metre dish equipped with the One Centimetre Receiver Array (OCRA) we have started a monitoring campaign of a sample of compact radio-loud BAL quasars. This 30 GHz variability monitoring program supplements the high-resolution interferometric observations of these objects we have carried out with the EVN and VLBA.

  19. Flow characteristics at trapezoidal broad-crested side weir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Říha Jaromír

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Broad-crested side weirs have been the subject of numerous hydraulic studies; however, the flow field at the weir crest and in front of the weir in the approach channel still has not been fully described. Also, the discharge coefficient of broad-crested side weirs, whether slightly inclined towards the stream or lateral, still has yet to be clearly determined. Experimental research was carried out to describe the flow characteristics at low Froude numbers in the approach flow channel for various combinations of in- and overflow discharges. Three side weir types with different oblique angles were studied. Their flow characteristics and discharge coefficients were analyzed and assessed based on the results obtained from extensive measurements performed on a hydraulic model. The empirical relation between the angle of side weir obliqueness, Froude numbers in the up- and downstream channels, and the coefficient of obliqueness was derived.

  20. Evolution of Broad-line Emission from Active Galactic Nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Elitzur, Moshe; Trump, Jonathan R

    2013-01-01

    Apart from viewing-dependent obscuration, intrinsic broad-line emission from active galactic nuclei (AGNs) follows an evolutionary sequence: Type $1 \\to 1.2/1.5 \\to 1.8/1.9 \\to 2$ as the accretion rate onto the central black hole is decreasing. This spectral evolution is controlled, at least in part, by the parameter $L_{\\rm bol}/M^{2/3}$, where $L_{\\rm bol}$ is the AGN bolometric luminosity and $M$ is the black hole mass. Both this dependence and the double-peaked profiles that emerge along the sequence arise naturally in the disk-wind scenario for the AGN broad-line region.

  1. Diverse Broad Line Region Kinematic Signatures From Reverberation Mapping

    CERN Document Server

    Denney, K D; Pogge, R W; Adair, A; Atlee, D W; Au-Yong, K; Bentz, M C; Bird, J C; Brokofsky, D J; Chisholm, E; Comins, M L; Dietrich, M; Doroshenko, V T; Eastman, J D; Efimov, Y S; Ewald, S; Ferbey, S; Gaskell, C M; Hedrick, C H; Jackson, K; Klimanov, S A; Klimek, E S; Kruse, A K; Ladéroute, A; Lamb, J B; Leighly, K; Minezaki, T; Nazarov, S V; Onken, C A; Petersen, E A; Peterson, P; Poindexter, S; Sakata, Y; Schlesinger, K J; Sergeev, S G; Skolski, N; Stieglitz, L; Tobin, J J; Unterborn, C; Vestergaard, M; Watkins, A E; Watson, L C; Yoshii, Y

    2009-01-01

    A detailed analysis of the data from a high sampling rate, multi-month reverberation mapping campaign, undertaken primarily at MDM Observatory with supporting observations from telescopes around the world, reveals that the Hbeta emission region within the broad line regions (BLRs) of several nearby AGNs exhibit a variety of kinematic behaviors. While the primary goal of this campaign was to obtain either new or improved Hbeta reverberation lag measurements for several relatively low luminosity AGNs (presented in a separate work), we were also able to unambiguously reconstruct velocity-resolved reverberation signals from a subset of our targets. Through high cadence spectroscopic monitoring of the optical continuum and broad Hbeta emission line variations observed in the nuclear regions of NGC 3227, NGC 3516, and NGC 5548, we clearly see evidence for outflowing, infalling, and virialized BLR gas motions, respectively.

  2. The broad autism phenotype: findings from an epidemiological survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micali, N; Chakrabarti, S; Fombonne, E

    2004-03-01

    This study aimed to determine if relatives of children with autism and less severe pervasive developmental disorders (PDDs) have higher rates of various components of the broad autistic phenotype. Psychiatric and medical disorders were investigated. Parents of children with PDDs were selected from an epidemiological survey and compared with parents of control children with non-autistic developmental problems. Rates of abnormalities and disorders were compared in relatives of 79 cases and 61 controls. Medical and autoimmune disorders in both groups were endorsed by few relatives. Specific developmental disorders were commoner in parents of controls. Depression and anxiety were significantly more prevalent in mothers of children with PDDs. Significantly more PDD children had at least one first-degree relative with anxiety and one second-degree relative with OCD. PDDs were commoner in first-degree relatives. The implications of the findings for the definition of the broad phenotype of autism are discussed.

  3. Broad-Band Molecular Polarization in White Dwarfs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berdyugina, S. V.; Berdyugin, A. V.; Piirola, V.; Shapiro, A.

    2007-09-01

    We present novel calculations of broad-band polarization due to the molecular Paschen--Back effect in a strong magnetic field. Based on that, we analyze new spectropolarimetric observations of the cool magnetic helium-rich white dwarf G 99-37 which shows strongly polarized molecular bands in its spectrum. Combining the polarimetric observations with our model calculations for the CH bands at 4300 Å, we deduce a magnetic field of 8 MG on this unique magnetic white dwarf.

  4. Flow structure in front of the broad-crested weir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zachoval Zbyněk

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with research focused on description of flow structure in front of broad-crested weir. Based on experimental measurement, the flow structure in front of the weir (the recirculation zone of flow and tornado vortices and flow structure on the weir crest has been described. The determined flow character has been simulated using numerical model and based on comparing results the suitable model of turbulence has been recommended.

  5. Broad Money Demand and Monetary Policy in Tunisia

    OpenAIRE

    Volker Treichel

    1997-01-01

    The development of empirical foundations to the conduct of monetary policy in Tunisia is the central concern of this paper. Finding stable money demand functions, it broadly corroborates the choice of monetary aggregates as intermediate targets of monetary policy by the Tunisian Central Bank. It finds, however, a lower income elasticity than the one currently applied by the Central Bank and proposes a different methodology for defining monetary growth targets. The paper also finds that both i...

  6. The broad spectrum revisited: Evidence from plant remains

    OpenAIRE

    Weiss, Ehud; Wetterstrom, Wilma; Nadel, Dani; Bar-Yosef, Ofer

    2004-01-01

    The beginning of agriculture is one of the most important developments in human history, with enormous consequences that paved the way for settled life and complex society. Much of the research on the origins of agriculture over the last 40 years has been guided by Flannery's [Flannery, K. V. (1969) in The Domestication and Exploitation of Plants and Animals, eds. Ucko, P. J. & Dimbleby, G. W. (Duckworth, London), pp. 73–100] “broad spectrum revolution” (BSR) hypothesis, which posits that the...

  7. Broad spectrum antiangiogenic treatment for ocular neovascular diseases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ofra Benny

    Full Text Available UNLABELLED: Pathological neovascularization is a hallmark of late stage neovascular (wet age-related macular degeneration (AMD and the leading cause of blindness in people over the age of 50 in the western world. The treatments focus on suppression of choroidal neovascularization (CNV, while current approved therapies are limited to inhibiting vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF exclusively. However, this treatment does not address the underlying cause of AMD, and the loss of VEGF's neuroprotective can be a potential side effect. Therapy which targets the key processes in AMD, the pathological neovascularization, vessel leakage and inflammation could bring a major shift in the approach to disease treatment and prevention. In this study we have demonstrated the efficacy of such broad spectrum antiangiogenic therapy on mouse model of AMD. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Lodamin, a polymeric formulation of TNP-470, is a potent broad-spectrum antiangiogenic drug. Lodamin significantly reduced key processes involved in AMD progression as demonstrated in mice and rats. Its suppressive effects on angiogenesis, vascular leakage and inflammation were studied in a wide array of assays including; a Matrigel, delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH, Miles assay, laser-induced CNV and corneal micropocket assay. Lodamin significantly suppressed the secretion of various pro-inflammatory cytokines in the CNV lesion including monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1/Ccl2. Importantly, Lodamin was found to regress established CNV lesions, unlike soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase-1 (sFlk-1. The drug was found to be safe in mice and have little toxicity as demonstrated by electroretinography (ERG assessing retinal and by histology. CONCLUSIONS: Lodamin, a polymer formulation of TNP-470, was identified as a first in its class, broad-spectrum antiangiogenic drug that can be administered orally or locally to treat corneal and retinal neovascularization. Several unique properties

  8. Insights into the genus Diaporthe: phylogenetic species delimitation in the D. eres species complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    The genus Diaporthe comprises pathogenic, endophytic and saprobic species with both temperate and tropical distributions. Cryptic diversification, phenotypic plasticity and extensive host associations have long complicated accurate identifications of species in this genus. The delimitation of the ge...

  9. Tarphonomus, a new genus of ovenbird (Aves : Passeriformes : Furnariidae) from South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chesser, R.T.; Brumfield, R.T.

    2007-01-01

    Tarphonomus, a new genus of ovenbird (Aves: Passeriformes: Furnariidae) from South America, is described. Species included in the new genus, formerly placed in Upucerthia, are T. certhioides and T. harterti.

  10. Vervoortihelcon, a new genus of the subfamily Helconinae Foerster (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) from Chile

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Achterberg, van C.

    1998-01-01

    A new genus of the tribe Helconini Foerster (Braconidae: Helconinae), Vervoortihelcon (type species: Vervoortihelcon scaramozzinoi spec, nov.) from Chile is described and illustrated. The new subtribe Vervoortihelconina is named to include the new genus.

  11. Description of a new species of the genus Litus Haliday (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea: Mymaridae from India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tabassum Rehmat

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available A new species of the genus Litus Haliday (Chalcidoidea: Mymaridae, Litus assamensis sp. nov., is described from Assam, India.  A key to the Indian species of the genus is also given. 

  12. A new genus and species of bopyrid isopod infesting alpheid shrimps of the genus Synalpheus in the western Atlantic Ocean

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bourdon, R.; Markham, J.C.

    1980-01-01

    Bopyrione synalphei, new genus, new species, a parasite of Synalpheus goodei Coutière in the northeastern Gulf of Mexico, S. bousfieldi Chace, S. pectiniger Coutière and Synalpheus spp. in Haiti and Synalpheus sp. in Curaçao, is described. A member of the bopyrid subfamily Bopyrinae, whose diagnosis

  13. A Simple Disk Wind Model for Broad Absorption Line Quasars

    CERN Document Server

    Higginbottom, N; Long, K S; Sim, S A; Matthews, J H

    2013-01-01

    Approximately 20% of quasi-stellar objects (QSOs) exhibit broad, blue-shifted absorption lines in their ultraviolet spectra. Such features provide clear evidence for significant outflows from these systems, most likely in the form of accretion disk winds. These winds may represent the "quasar" mode of feedback that is often invoked in galaxy formation/evolution models, and they are also key to unification scenarios for active galactic nuclei (AGN) and QSOs. To test these ideas, we construct a simple benchmark model of an equatorial, biconical accretion disk wind in a QSO and use a Monte Carlo ionization/radiative transfer code to calculate the ultraviolet spectra as a function of viewing angle. We find that for plausible outflow parameters, sightlines looking directly into the wind cone do produce broad, blue-shifted absorption features in the transitions typically seen in broad absorption line QSOs. However, our benchmark model is intrinsically X-ray weak in order to prevent overionization of the outflow, an...

  14. FTIR Spectroscopic Study of Broad Bean 3iseased Leaves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    [Objective] The aim was to indentify diseased leaves of broad bean by vibra- tional spectroscopy. [Method] In this paper, broad bean rust, fusarium rhizome rot, broad bean zonate spot, yellow leaf curl virus and normal leaves were studied using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy combined with chemometrics. [Result] The spectra of the samples were similar, only with minor differences in absorption inten- sity of several peaks. Second derivative analyses show that the significant difference of all samples was in the range of 1 200-700 cm2. The data in the range of 1 200- 700 cm' were selected to evaluate correlation coefficients, hierarchical cluster analy- sis (HCA) and principal component analysis (PCA). Results showed that the correla- tion coefficients are larger than 0.928 not only between the healthy leaves, but also between the same diseased leaves. The values between healthy and diseased leaves, and among diseased leaves, are all declined. HCA and PCA yielded about 73.3% and 82.2% accuracy, respectively. [Conclusion] This study demonstrated that FTIR techniques might be used to detect crop diseases.

  15. Confronting a morphological nightmare: revision of the Neotropical genus Guatteria (Annonaceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maas, P.J.M.; Westra, L.Y.T.; Guerrero, S. Arias; Lobão, A.Q.; Scharf, U.; Zamora, N.A.; Erkens, R.H.J.

    2015-01-01

    A taxonomic revision of the genus Guatteria, including the former genera Guatteriella, Guatteriopsis and Heteropetalum is given. Within the genus Guatteria 177 species are recognized, 25 of which are new. Included are chapters on the history of the taxonomy of the genus, morphology, wood anatomy, ka

  16. Aristofolia Ayala-Landa, a valid genus of Asilinae (Diptera, Asilidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Vieira

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Aristofolia Ayala-Landa, a valid genus of Asilinae (Diptera, Asilidae. The robber fly genus Aristofolia Ayala-Landa, 1978 is a monotypic taxon of Asilinae. The status of Aristofolia is revalidated, and addenda to the original description of the genus is provided. The habitus, wings, male and female terminalia are described and illustrated.

  17. Microarray-based Comparative Genomic Indexing of the Cronobacter genus (Enterobacter sakazakii)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cronobacter is a recently defined genus synonymous with Enterobacter sakazakii. This new genus currently comprises 6 genomospecies. To extend our understanding of the genetic relationship between Cronobacter sakazakii BAA-894 and the other species of this genus, microarray-based comparative genomi...

  18. Mitochondrial DNA-based genetic diversity of genus Lygus (Hemiptera: Miridae) in North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    The genus Lygus is widely distributed in North American and Eurasian continents. It is the most-studied genus in the family Miridae. However, very less information on the genetic diversity of this genus is available. Studying genetic variation among Lygus pest species and thereby constructing a ...

  19. Aristofolia Ayala-Landa, a valid genus of Asilinae (Diptera, Asilidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Rodrigo Vieira; José Manuel Ayala Landa

    2014-01-01

    Aristofolia Ayala-Landa, a valid genus of Asilinae (Diptera, Asilidae). The robber fly genus Aristofolia Ayala-Landa, 1978 is a monotypic taxon of Asilinae. The status of Aristofolia is revalidated, and addenda to the original description of the genus is provided. The habitus, wings, male and female terminalia are described and illustrated.

  20. Computational identification of strain-, species- and genus-specific proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiagarajan Rathi

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The identification of unique proteins at different taxonomic levels has both scientific and practical value. Strain-, species- and genus-specific proteins can provide insight into the criteria that define an organism and its relationship with close relatives. Such proteins can also serve as taxon-specific diagnostic targets. Description A pipeline using a combination of computational and manual analyses of BLAST results was developed to identify strain-, species-, and genus-specific proteins and to catalog the closest sequenced relative for each protein in a proteome. Proteins encoded by a given strain are preliminarily considered to be unique if BLAST, using a comprehensive protein database, fails to retrieve (with an e-value better than 0.001 any protein not encoded by the query strain, species or genus (for strain-, species- and genus-specific proteins respectively, or if BLAST, using the best hit as the query (reverse BLAST, does not retrieve the initial query protein. Results are manually inspected for homology if the initial query is retrieved in the reverse BLAST but is not the best hit. Sequences unlikely to retrieve homologs using the default BLOSUM62 matrix (usually short sequences are re-tested using the PAM30 matrix, thereby increasing the number of retrieved homologs and increasing the stringency of the search for unique proteins. The above protocol was used to examine several food- and water-borne pathogens. We find that the reverse BLAST step filters out about 22% of proteins with homologs that would otherwise be considered unique at the genus and species levels. Analysis of the annotations of unique proteins reveals that many are remnants of prophage proteins, or may be involved in virulence. The data generated from this study can be accessed and further evaluated from the CUPID (Core and Unique Protein Identification system web site (updated semi-annually at http://pir.georgetown.edu/cupid. Conclusion CUPID

  1. Population genetics of Agave cocui: evidence for low genetic diversity at the southern geographic limit of genus Agave.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueredo, Carmen J; Nassar, Jafet M

    2011-01-01

    The Agave genus embraces many species with outstanding ecological and economic importance in the arid regions of the Americas. Even though this genus covers a broad geographic distribution, our knowledge on the population genetics of species is concentrated in taxa located in North America. Recently, it has been demonstrated that plant domestication decreases levels of genetic diversity in managed populations and increases population structure with respect to wild populations. We examined levels of allozyme diversity (N = 17 loci) and population structure of Agave cocui, the species at the southern limit of distribution of the genus. We sampled 7 wild populations (N = 30-35 individuals per population) representative of the geographic distribution of the species in Venezuela. Among the agaves studied, A. cocui has some of the lowest estimates of genetic diversity (H(e)[species] = 0.059, H(e)[population] = 0.054) reported until present. We propose that this condition is probably linked to the recent origin of this species in arid and semiarid regions of Colombia and Venezuela, probably through one or a few founder events. The lowest estimates of genetic diversity were associated with small populations in very restricted arid patches; but also with overexploitation of rosettes for production of fermented drinks and fibers. Santa Cruz de Pecaya, one of the 2 centers of economic use of agaves in northwestern Venezuela presented one of the lowest values of genetic variability, a sign suggesting that human impact represents a significant threat to the available genetic pool that this species possesses in the region.

  2. Molecular phylogenetics and biogeography of the Neotropical skink genus Mabuya Fitzinger (Squamata: Scincidae) with emphasis on Colombian populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto-Sánchez, Nelsy Rocío; Calderón-Espinosa, Martha L; Miralles, Aurélien; Crawford, Andrew J; Ramírez-Pinilla, Martha Patricia

    2015-12-01

    Understanding the phylogenetic and geographical history of Neotropical lineages requires having adequate geographic and taxonomic sampling across the region. However, Colombia has remained a geographical gap in many studies of Neotropical diversity. Here we present a study of Neotropical skinks of the genus Mabuya, reptiles that are difficult to identify or delimit due to their conservative morphology. The goal of the present study is to propose phylogenetic and biogeographic hypotheses of Mabuya including samples from the previously under-studied territory of Colombia, and address relevant biogeographic and taxonomic issues. We combined molecular and morphological data sampled densely by us within Colombia with published data representing broad sampling across the Neotropical realm, including DNA sequence data from two mitochondrial (12S rRNA and cytochrome b) and three nuclear genes (Rag2, NGFB and R35). To evaluate species boundaries we employed a general mixed Yule-coalescent (GMYC) model applied to the mitochondrial data set. Our results suggest that the diversity of Mabuya within Colombia is higher than previously recognized, and includes lineages from Central America and from eastern and southern South America. The genus appears to have originated in eastern South America in the Early Miocene, with subsequent expansions into Central America and the Caribbean in the Late Miocene, including at least six oceanic dispersal events to Caribbean Islands. We identified at least four new candidate species for Colombia and two species that were not previously reported in Colombia. The populations of northeastern Colombia can be assigned to M. zuliae, while specimens from Orinoquia and the eastern foothills of the Cordillera Oriental of Colombia correspond to M. altamazonica. The validity of seven species of Mabuya sensu lato was not supported due to a combination of three factors: (1) non-monophyly, (2) <75% likelihood bootstrap support and <0.95 Bayesian posterior

  3. Comparative morphology and molecular phylogeny of Apicoporus n. Gen.: a new genus of marine benthic dinoflagellates formerly classified within Amphidinium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparmann, Sarah F; Leander, Brian S; Hoppenrath, Mona

    2008-07-01

    The composition of the dinoflagellate genus Amphidinium is currently polyphyletic and includes several species in need of re-evaluation using modern morphological and phylogenetic methods. We investigated a broad range of uncultured morphotypes extracted from marine sediments in the Eastern Pacific Ocean that were similar in morphology to Amphidinium glabrum Hoppenrath and Okolodkov. To determine the number of distinct species associated with this phenotypic diversity, we collected LM, SEM, TEM and small subunit ribosomal DNA sequence information from different morphotypes, including the previously described A. glabrum. Both comparative morphological and molecular phylogenetic data supported the establishment of a new genus, Apicoporus n. gen., including at least two species, A. glaber n. comb., and A. parvidiaboli n. sp. Apicoporus is characterized by having amphiesmal pores and an apical pore covered by a hook-like protrusion; neither of these characters has been observed in other athecate dinoflagellates. The posterior end of Apicoporus parvidiaboli possessed varying degrees of "horn formation", ranging from slight to prominent. By contrast, the posterior end of Apicoporus glaber was distinctively rounded and lacked evidence of horn formation. Although these species were previously interpreted to be obligate heterotrophs, TEM and epifluorescence microscopy demonstrated that some cells of both species had unusually small but otherwise typical dinoflagellate plastids. The number and density of plastids in any particular cell varied significantly in the genus, but the plastids were almost always concentrated at the posterior end of the cells or around the nucleus. The presence of cryptic photosynthetic plastids in these benthic species suggests that photosynthesis might be much more widespread in dinoflagellates than is currently assumed.

  4. Prevalence of the genus Cladosporium on the integument of leaf-cutting ants characterized by 454 pyrosequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, A P M; Ferro, M; Rodrigues, A; Bacci, M; Nagamoto, N S; Forti, L C; Pagnocca, F C

    2016-09-01

    The relationship of attine ants with their mutualistic fungus and other microorganisms has been studied during the last two centuries. However, previous studies about the diversity of fungi in the ants' microenvironment are based mostly on culture-dependent approaches, lacking a broad characterization of the fungal ant-associated community. Here, we analysed the fungal diversity found on the integument of Atta capiguara and Atta laevigata alate ants using 454 pyrosequencing. We obtained 35,453 ITS reads grouped into 99 molecular operational taxonomic units (MOTUs). Data analysis revealed that A. capiguara drones had the highest diversity of MOTUs. Besides the occurrence of several uncultured fungi, the mycobiota analysis revealed that the most abundant taxa were the Cladosporium-complex, Cryptococcus laurentii and Epicoccum sp. Taxa in the genus Cladosporium were predominant in all samples, comprising 67.9 % of all reads. The remarkable presence of the genus Cladosporium on the integument of leaf-cutting ants alates from distinct ant species suggests that this fungus is favored in this microenvironment.

  5. Differential Host Plant-Associated Genetic Variation Between Sympatric Mite Species of the Genus Oligonychus (Acari: Tetranychidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzman-Valencia, Stephanie; Santillán-Galicia, Ma Teresa; Guzmán-Franco, Ariel W; Vega-Muñoz, Ricardo

    2017-01-12

    Adaptation to different host plants can lead to host-associated differentiation (HAD). The mites Oligonychus perseae and Oligonychus punicae have a broad range of host plants, but, to date, records of them coexisting sympatrically had only been reported on avocado. However, our field observations showed both species coexisting on host plants other than avocado. The lack of previous records of these mites on the host plants studied here suggests only recent divergence to new host plant species. Previous studies showed that O. punicae had a limited migration capacity compared with O. perseae, suggesting that O. punicae is more likely to develop a close host plant relationship leading to HAD. Adults of both species were collected from trees hosting both mite species. Three genera of host plants considered were Persea, Salix, and Alnus; two species within one genus were Alnus jorullensis and Alnus acuminata; and three varieties within one species were Persea americana var. Fuerte, var. Hass, and var. Criollo, a noncommercial variety. Using sequence data from a segment of the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit I, the phylogenetic relationships and genetic population structure of both mite species in relation to the host plant were determined. Oligonychus perseae populations showed a significant population structure in relation to host plant at the species and genus level, but there was no effect of variety. In contrast, host plant explained none of the genetic variation among O. punicae populations. The potential role of coexistence mechanisms in the contrasting genetic population structure of both mite species is discussed.

  6. Ancestral Area Analysis of the Genus Caragara (Leguminosae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANGMing-Li

    2004-01-01

    Caragana has a temperate Asian distribution. Based on the phylogeny and 13 distributionalareas of this genus, its ancestral area was studied via the ancestral area analysis suggested by Bremer(1992), Ronquist (1994) and Hausdorf (1997). The results indicate that three areas, Far East-NortheastChina, Altai-Sayan and North China-Qinling Mountains (Mts) are likely the ancestral areas. Linking to theviewpoints of the Holarctic origin for north temperate flora, Far East-Northeast China seems more likely tobe the ancestral area. According to the three ancestral areas isolated geographically and the analysis inthe present study, as well as former biogeographical analysis of this genus, it is suggested that Caraganaspeciation is mainly in the mode of vicariance rather than dispersal, and dispersed is often in shortdistance.

  7. Nutrient partitioning and seedling development in the genus Leucaena

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dovel, R.L.

    1987-01-01

    Slow establishment of the genus Leucaena from seed has been attributed to law seedling vigor and late nodulation. Observation of early seedling growth indicated that partitioning of a large proportion of resources to the root of young Leucaena seedlings could account, in part, for the slow initial shoot growth observed in this genus. Therefore, a series of experiments were conducted to examine the partitioning of stored seed reserves, photosynthate, and nitrogen in developing Leucaena seedlings. The effects of nodulation and nitrogen fertilization on partitioning of nutrients in the seedling were also examined. Seed reserves were initially used for radicle growth in dark grown seedlings; however, partitioning soon shifted to the hypocotyl. By four days after imbibition, hypocotyl weight exceeded radicle weight in both species tested (L. leucocephala and L. retusa), at all temperatures above 20/sup 0/C. Two experiments were conducted examining the carbon partitioning of L. leucocephala cultivar K-8 using /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ pulse labeling techniques.

  8. Molecular Identification of a Species in Genus Nannochloropsis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Si; PAN Kehou; ZHU Baohua; MA Xiaolei; LIANG Xin; YANG Guanpin

    2011-01-01

    Nannochloropsis is a genus of marine eukaryotic unicellular algae,which belongs to class Eustigmatophyceae.The species of Nannochloropsis which are fine rotifer feed and rich in eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) are economically important.Species in this genus are usually 2-5μm in size and are morphologically similar,which makes their identification difficult.We obtained a monoclone of Nannochloropsis with plating method in this study.DNA was extracted and the quality was determined by restriction enzyme digestion and spectrophotometer analysis.The DNA extracted was used to amplify the sequences of 18S ribosomal RNA gene,ITS region of ribosomal RNA transcription unit and rbcL gene.The phylogenetic analysis was carried out by constructing the neighbor-joining trees with Tamura-Nei distances.The phylogenetic analysis showed that the monoclone is N.oceanica.

  9. [Adaptation of yeasts of the genus Debaryomyces to protocatechuic acid].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karasevich, Iu N

    1980-01-01

    Among five yeast strains belonging to the genus Debaryomyces that were unable of utilizing aromatic compounds (phenols and hydroxybenzoic acids), three strains, viz. D. kloeckeri BKM-Y-1044, D. marama BKM-Y-100 and D. marama BKM-Y-2045, were adapted to protocatechuic acid. The adapted yeasts utilized protocatechuic acid if its concentration in the medium was 0.1%, but did not utilize it, or did at a very low rate, if the concentration of protocatechuic acid was decreased to 0.05%. The mechanism of adaptation is rare mutations occurring in succession, and the process takes therefore several months. The adaptation seems to be based on reversion of inactivated genes for enzymes involved in the preparative metabolism of protocatechuic acid. Three typical yeast species of the Debaryomyces genus are proposed (D. hansenii, D. kloeckeri and D. konokotinae) which include all of the Debaryomyces species and strains available at the Institute of Microbiology of the USSR Academy of Sciences.

  10. Brachylophora, a new brachypterous genus of Rhopalophorini (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robin O. S. Clarke

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Brachylophora, a new brachypterous genus of Rhopalophorini (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae. Brachylophora auricollis (Bruch, 1918 comb. nov. = Pasiphyle auricollis Bruch, 1918, originally described from Argentina (Salta, is redescribed and illustrated. Although with reduced elytra, the genus is transferred from Rhinotragini to Rhopalophorini based on the following characters: eyes well separated in both sexes, frons between eyes depressed and lacking frontal suture; pro-, meso-, and metasternum planar; mesothorax parallel-sided, not at all declivous before mesosternal process; metasternum large, together with mesosternum twice length of prosternum, metepisternum very wide, entire suture separating it from metasternum clearly visible when viewed from below; female ovipositor shortened with short cylindrical styles; and, more generally, structural features of hind legs, and surface ornamentation. Habitus similar to Coremia group. Bolivian specimens were netted as they visited flowers of Croton sp. (Euphorbiaceae.

  11. Genomic encyclopedia of type strains of the genus Bifidobacterium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milani, Christian; Lugli, Gabriele Andrea; Duranti, Sabrina; Turroni, Francesca; Bottacini, Francesca; Mangifesta, Marta; Sanchez, Borja; Viappiani, Alice; Mancabelli, Leonardo; Taminiau, Bernard; Delcenserie, Véronique; Barrangou, Rodolphe; Margolles, Abelardo; van Sinderen, Douwe; Ventura, Marco

    2014-10-01

    Bifidobacteria represent one of the dominant microbial groups that are present in the gut of various animals, being particularly prevalent during the suckling stage of life of humans and other mammals. However, the overall genome structure of this group of microorganisms remains largely unexplored. Here, we sequenced the genomes of 42 representative (sub)species across the Bifidobacterium genus and used this information to explore the overall genetic picture of this bacterial group. Furthermore, the genomic data described here were used to reconstruct the evolutionary development of the Bifidobacterium genus. This reconstruction suggests that its evolution was substantially influenced by genetic adaptations to obtain access to glycans, thereby representing a common and potent evolutionary force in shaping bifidobacterial genomes.

  12. Entanglement entropy for non-zero genus topologies

    CERN Document Server

    Kumar, S Santhosh; Shankaranarayanan, S

    2014-01-01

    Over the last three decades entanglement entropy has been obtained for quantum fields propagating in genus zero topologies (Spheres). For scalar fields propagating in these topologies, it has been shown that the entanglement entropy scales as area. In the last few years non-trivial topologies are increasingly relevant for different areas. For instance, in describing quantum phases, it has been realized that long-range entangled states are described by topological order. If quantum entanglement can plausibly provide explanation for these, it then imperative to obtain entanglement entropy in these topologies. In this work, using two different methods, we explicitly show that the entanglement entropy scales as area of the genus-1 geometry.

  13. The genus Chlamydotheca Saussure (Crustacea: Ostracoda in northeastern Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Analía R. Díaz

    Full Text Available The genus Chlamydotheca Saussure, 1858 is a typical representative of the Neotropical ostracod fauna that occupies lotic and lentic environments including temporary and permanent ponds. Up to the present, four species have been recorded in Argentina: C. iheringi (Sars, C. incisa (Claus and C. leuckarti (Claus, and C. symmetrica (Vávra. Temporary and permanent ponds of this region were sampled for ostracods, using a fine mesh net. Three species belonging to the genus Chlamydotheca were collected of which C. arcuata (Sars is recorded for first time for the Chacoan region. Limb morphology was studied under light microscope and line drawings were made using camera lucida. Valves were photographed under scanning electron microscope and redescriptions of C. arcuata and C. iheringi are provided and distributional aspects of the species sampled are discussed.

  14. Sexual coevolution in the traumatically inseminating plant bug genus Coridromius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatarnic, Nikolai J; Cassis, G

    2010-06-01

    Sexual conflict has recently been proposed as a driving force behind the rapid diversification of genitalia among sexually reproducing organisms. In traumatically inseminating insects, males stab females in the side of the body with needle-like genitalia, ejaculating into their body cavity. Such mating is costly to females and has led to the evolution of cost-reducing 'paragenitalia' in some species. Whereas some consider this evidence of sexually antagonistic coevolution, others remain unconvinced. Variation in the reproductive morphology of both sexes - particularly males - is alleged to be negligible, contradicting the expectations of a coevolutionary arms race. Here, we use a phylogeny of the traumatically inseminating plant bug genus Coridromius to show that external female paragenitalia have evolved multiply across the genus and are correlated with changes in male genital shape. This pattern is characteristic of an evolutionary arms race driven by sexual conflict.

  15. Use of the genus Artemia in ecotoxicity testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nunes, Bruno S. [Instituto de Ciencias Biomedicas de Abel Salazar, Departamento de Estudos de Populacoes, Laboratorio de Ecotoxicologia, Universidade do Porto, Largo Prof. Abel Salazar 2, 4099-003 Porto (Portugal) and Centro Interdisciplinar de Investigacao Marinha e Ambiental, Rua dos Bragas 289, 4150-123 Porto (Portugal)]. E-mail: bruno@ufp.pt; Carvalho, Felix D. [REQUIMTE, Departamento de Toxicologia da Faculdade de Farmacia da Universidade do Porto, Rua Anibal Cunha, 164, 4050-047 Porto (Portugal); Guilhermino, Lucia M. [Instituto de Ciencias Biomedicas de Abel Salazar, Departamento de Estudos de Populacoes, Laboratorio de Ecotoxicologia, Universidade do Porto, Largo Prof. Abel Salazar 2, 4099-003 Porto (Portugal); Centro Interdisciplinar de Investigacao Marinha e Ambiental, Rua dos Bragas 289, 4150-123 Porto (Portugal); Van Stappen, Gilbert [Laboratory of Aquaculture and Artemia Reference Centre, Ghent University, Rozier 44, B-9000 Ghent (Belgium)

    2006-11-15

    Information related to varied uses of several species of the genus Artemia (commonly known as brine shrimp), is dispersed among literature from several scientific areas, such as Ecology, Physiology, Ecotoxicology, Aquaculture and Genetics. The present paper reviews information related to Artemia that may be considered relevant for ecotoxicity testing. Integration of different areas of scientific knowledge concerning biology, life cycle and environmental needs of Artemia is of crucial importance when considering the interpretation of results drawn from tests involving this genus. Furthermore, this paper provides suggestions to overcome problems related to toxicity assessment with the use of Artemia as test organism in bioassays, under the scope of estuarine, marine and hypersaline environments. Aspects related to variability in results, adoptable toxicity end-points, culture conditions, characteristics of species and strains, influence of geographical origins over physiological features and responses to exposure to chemical agents are considered. - The physiology, reproductive processes and general use of Artemia in modern ecotoxicological testing are reviewed.

  16. Revision of the genus Faucaria (Ruschioideae: Aizoaceae in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. E. Groen

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Faucaria Schwantes is a small genus of succulents, concentrated in south-central Eastern Cape. Distinguishing features of Faucaria are the characteristically dotted and toothed leaves and the structure of the seed capsule. A taxonomic review of the genus is presented, including relationship, diagnostic features, variation, distribution and ecology. The revision reduces the number of species from 33 to six:  F. bosschearui. F.felirui,  F. gratiae, F. nemorosa,  F. subintegra. and  F. tigrina. Two new subspecitic combinations,  F. felirtu subsp britteniae and  F. felina subsp tuberculosa have been made. A cladogram is included. A key to the taxa is provided and each species is described and illustrated.

  17. Ethno medicinal values of Citrus genus: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swapnil Y Chaudhari

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Fruits of Citrus genus play an important role as a dietary supplement and therapeutic assent as well since ages. The present review summarizes some such attributes of Citrus genus. Literature review was done through published works to gather information on nutritional and ethnic values, phytochemical and pharmacological properties of Citrus. Information about the plant and phytochemical constituents, pharmacological activities were collected from the published reports. The plant was found to possess significant analgesic, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, anthelmintic, antibacterial, antifungal, and hypolipidemic properties. They are found to be significant antihyperglycemic, antidiabetic, and hypoglycemic activity. The phytoconstituents which are present in the plant are mainly coumarins and flavonoids which are responsible for the actions. The phytochemical constituents and isolated bioactive compounds of Citrus can be investigated further to develop novel herbal drugs by using reverse pharmacological approaches especially in the treatment of liver diseases, arthritis, malignancies, and other inflammatory diseases.

  18. Phytochemicals and biological studies of plants in genus Hedysarum

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    In China, several species (Hedysarum polybotrys Hand.-Mazz., Hedysarum limprichtii Hlbr., Hedysarum vicioider Turcz. var. Taipeicum Hand.-Mazz. Liu, Hedysarum smithianum, et al.) of genus Hedysarum have a long history of use in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). In TCM, these plants are used to increase the energy of the body. To date, 155 compounds, including flavonoids, triterpenes, coumarins, lignanoids, nitrogen compounds, sterols, carbohydrates, fatty compounds, and benzofuran, have been isolated from plants of the genus Hedysarum. Various chemical constituents contribute to the antioxidant, anti-tumor, anti-aging, anti-diabetic, and anti-hypertensive properties of these plants. Hedysarum species are used to treat infestation with gastrointestinal nematodes and may support the immune system and peripheral nervous system. In the present review, we summarize the research on the phytochemistry and pharmacology of Hedysarum species, which will be useful for better utilization of these important species in TCM. PMID:23866043

  19. Water wave communication in the genus Bombina (amphibia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidel, B.; Yamashita, M.; Choi, I.-H.; Dittami, J.

    2001-01-01

    Amphibians were phylogenetically the first vertebrates to leave the aquatic environment and cope with terrestrial conditions including effects of gravity and substrate on movement and communication. Studies of extant primitive amphibians, which have conserved ancestral morphology and behavior, may help us to understand how gravitational adaptation from aquatic to terrestrial environments occurred. The anuran genus Bombina is a candidate for this type of investigation. In particular, a member of this genus, B. orientalis, is known for its low reaction threshold to minor changes of angular acceleration. We hypothesize that a heightened sensitivity to angular and mechanical accelerations evolved with wave communication. Comparisons of such behavior among B. variegata, B. bombina and B. orientalis may shed light on the evolution of reproductive systems based on water wave communication and relevant vestibular sensitivity. This may represent a transition to derived vocalization modes, which is seen in B. bombina to a certain degree.

  20. Relative symplectic caps, 4-genus and fibered knots

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Siddhartha Gadgil; Dheeraj Kulkarni

    2016-05-01

    We prove relative versions of the symplectic capping theorem and sufficiency of Giroux’s criterion for Stein fillability and use these to study the 4-genus of knots. More precisely, suppose we have a symplectic 4-manifold with convex boundary and a symplectic surface in such that is a transverse knot in . In this paper, we prove that there is a closed symplectic 4-manifold with a closed symplectic surface such that (, ) embeds into (, ) symplectically. As a consequence we obtain a relative version of the symplectic Thom conjecture. We also prove a relative version of the sufficiency part of Giroux’s criterion for Stein fillability, namely, we show that a fibered knot whose mondoromy is a product of positive Dehn twists bounds a symplectic surface in a Stein filling. We use this to study 4-genus of fibered knots in $\\mathbb S^3$. Further, we give a criterion for quasipositive fibered knots to be strongly quasipositive.

  1. What do we know by now about the genus Naegleria?

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Jonckheere, Johan F

    2014-11-01

    In this short overview of the genus Naegleria a brief historical sketch is given since the discovery of this amoeboflagellate in 1899 and the finding in 1970 that one species, Naegleria fowleri causes primary amoebic meningoencephalitis in man. Eight different types of this pathogen are known which have an uneven distribution over the world. Until now 47 different Naegleria spp. are described, of which two other species cause disease in experimental animals, and their geographical dispersal is indicated. The presence of group I introns in the SSU and in the LSU rDNA in the genus is discussed, as well as the possibility of sex or mating. It is also mentioned that the genome of N. fowleri should not be compared to that of Naegleria gruberi, to know why the former is pathogenic, but to the genome of its closest relative Naegleria lovaniensis.

  2. Ortholog prediction of the Aspergillus genus applicable for synthetic biology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Jane Lind Nybo; Vesth, Tammi Camilla; Theobald, Sebastian

    The Aspergillus genus contains leading industrial microorganisms, excelling in producing bioactive compounds and enzymes. Using synthetic biology and bioinformatics, we aim to re-engineer these organisms for applications within human health, pharmaceuticals, environmental engineering, and food...... production. In this project, we compare the genomes of +300 species from the Aspergillus genus to generate a high-resolution pan-genomic map, representing genetic diversity spanning ~200 million years. We are identifying genes specific to species and clades to allow for guilt-by-association-based mapping......-directional hits. The result is orthologous protein families describing the genomic and functional features of individual species, clades and the core/pan genome of Aspergillus; and applicable to genotype-to-phenotype analyses in other microbial genera....

  3. Fungal genus Hypocrea/Trichoderma: from barcodes to biodiversity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Christian P. KUBICEK; Monika KOMON-ZELAZOWSKA; Irina S. DRUZHININA

    2008-01-01

    Hypocrea/Trichoderma is a genus of soil-borne or wood-decaying fungi containing members important to mankind as producers of industrial enzymes and biocontrol agents against plant pathogens, but also as opportunistic pathogens of immuno-compromised humans and animals, while others can cause damage to cultivated mushroom. With the recent advent of a reliable, BarCode-aided identification system for all known taxa of Trichoderma and Hypocrea, it became now possible to study some of the biological fundamentals of the diversity in this fungal genus in more detail. In this article, we will therefore review recent progress in (1) the understanding of the geographic distribution of individual taxa; (2) mechanisms of speciation leading to development of mushroom diseases and facultative human mycoses; and (3) the possible correlation of specific traits of secondary metabolism and molecular phylogeny.

  4. Systematics and biology of the African genus Ferraria (Iridaceae: Irideae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Goldblatt

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Following field and herbarium investigation of the subequatorial African and mainly western southern African Ferraria Burm. ex Mill. (Iridaceae: Iridoideae, a genus of cormous geophytes, we recognize 18 species, eight more than were included in the 1979 account of the genus by M.P. de Vos. One of these, F. ovata, based on Moraea ovata Thunb. (1800, was only discovered to be a species of Ferraria in 2001, and three more are the result of our different view of De Vos’s taxonomy. In tropical Africa, F. glutinosa is recircumscribed to include only mid- to late summer-flowering plants, usually with a single basal leaf and with purple to brown flowers often marked with yellow. A second summer-flowering species, F. candelabrum, includes taller plants with several basal leaves. Spring and early summer-flowering plants lacking foliage leaves and with yellow flowers from central Africa are referred to F. spithamea or F. welwitschii respectively.

  5. Revision of the Neotropical spider genus Berlandiella (Araneae, Philodromidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arno Antonio Lise

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The spider genus Berlandiella Mello-Leitão, 1929 is revised and the three known species, Berlandiella insignis Mello-Leitão, 1929 (Rio de Janeiro, B. magna Mello-Leitão, 1929 (Pernambuco, Minas Gerais, Rio Grande do Sul, and B. polyacantha Mello-Leitão, 1929 (Rio de Janeiro, São Paulo, are redescribed and illustrated. Lectotypes for Berlandiella insignis, B. magna and B. polyacantha are designated. Descriptions and illustrations of three new species are presented: B. robertae sp. nov. (Brazil and Argentina, B. meridionalis sp. nov. (Brazil and B. querencia sp. nov. (Brazil. The geographical distribution of the representatives of the genus is presented.

  6. A simple disc wind model for broad absorption line quasars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higginbottom, N.; Knigge, C.; Long, K. S.; Sim, S. A.; Matthews, J. H.

    2013-12-01

    Approximately 20 per cent of quasi-stellar objects (QSOs) exhibit broad, blue-shifted absorption lines in their ultraviolet spectra. Such features provide clear evidence for significant outflows from these systems, most likely in the form of accretion disc winds. These winds may represent the `quasar' mode of feedback that is often invoked in galaxy formation/evolution models, and they are also key to unification scenarios for active galactic nuclei (AGN) and QSOs. To test these ideas, we construct a simple benchmark model of an equatorial, biconical accretion disc wind in a QSO and use a Monte Carlo ionization/radiative transfer code to calculate the ultraviolet spectra as a function of viewing angle. We find that for plausible outflow parameters, sightlines looking directly into the wind cone do produce broad, blue-shifted absorption features in the transitions typically seen in broad absorption line (BAL) QSOs. However, our benchmark model is intrinsically X-ray weak in order to prevent overionization of the outflow, and the wind does not yet produce collisionally excited line emission at the level observed in non-BAL QSOs. As a first step towards addressing these shortcomings, we discuss the sensitivity of our results to changes in the assumed X-ray luminosity and mass-loss rate, Ṁwind. In the context of our adopted geometry, Ṁwind ˜ Ṁacc is required in order to produce significant BAL features. The kinetic luminosity and momentum carried by such outflows would be sufficient to provide significant feedback.

  7. New focal plane detector system for the broad range spectrometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sjoreen, T.P.

    1984-01-01

    A focal plane detector system consisting of a vertical drift chamber, parallel plate avalanche counters, and an ionization chamber with segmented anodes has been installed in the Broad Range Spectrometer at the Holifield Facility at Oak Ridge. The system, which has been designed for use with light-heavy ions with energies ranging from 10 to 25 MeV/amu, has a position resolution of approx. 0.1 mm, a scattering angle resolution of approx. 3 mrad, and a mass resolution of approx. 1/60.

  8. VLBA imaging of radio-loud Broad Absorption Line QSOs

    CERN Document Server

    Montenegro-Montes, F M; Benn, C R; Carballo, R; Dallacasa, D; González-Serrano, J I; Holt, J; Jiménez-Luján, F

    2009-01-01

    Broad Absorption Line Quasars (BAL QSOs) have been found to be associated with extremely compact radio sources. These reduced dimensions can be either due to projection effects or these objects might actually be intrinsically small. Exploring these two hypotheses is important to understand the nature and origin of the BAL phenomenon because orientation effects are an important discriminant between the different models proposed to explain this phenomenon. In this work we present VLBA observations of 5 BAL QSOs and discuss their pc-scale morphology.

  9. Broad-band photometric evolution of star clusters

    OpenAIRE

    Girardi, Leo

    2001-01-01

    I briefly introduce a database of models that describe the evolution of star clusters in several broad-band photometric systems. Models are based on the latest Padova stellar evolutionary tracks - now including the alpha-enhanced case and improved AGB models - and a revised library of synthetic spectra from model atmospheres. As of today, we have revised isochrones in Johnson-Cousins-Glass, HST/WFPC2, HST/NICMOS, Thuan-Gunn, and Washington systems. Several other filter sets are included in a ...

  10. Calongea, a new genus of truffles in the Pezizaceae (Pezizales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trappe, James M.

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Phylogenetic analysis of the ITS and LSU rDNA of Pachyphloeus species from Europe and North America revealed a new truffle genus. These molecular analyses plus sequences downloaded from a BLAST search in GenBank indicated that Pachyphloeus prieguensis is within the Pezizaceae but well outside of the genus Pachyphloeus. Morphological differences in the peridial and glebal hyphae and spores distinguish this genus from Pachyphloeus. We here propose the monotypic new genus Calongea, with the type species C. prieguensis comb. nov., in honor of Prof. Francisco de Diego Calonge, who has long studied the truffle fungi of Spain and participated in describing the type species of Calongea.El análisis filogenético del ITS y LSU rDNA de especies europeas y norteamericanas de Pachyphloeus revelan un género nuevo de trufa. Los datos moleculares de este estudio, además de las secuencias obtenidas de una búsqueda BLAST en GenBank, indican que Pachyphloeus prieguensis es un miembro de la familia Pezizaceae pero no está relacionado con ninguna otra especie hipogea o epigea de dicha familia. Encontramos diferencias morfológicas en las hifas del peridio y gleba así como en las esporas que morfológicamente distinguen éste de Pachyphloeus. Proponemos el nuevo género monotípico Calongea, con C. prieguensis comb. nov. como la especie tipo, en honor a uno de los descubridores originales, Prof. Francisco de Diego Calonge.

  11. Chemistry and biological activities of the genus Dalbergia - A review

    OpenAIRE

    Neeru Vasudeva; Manisha Vats; Sharma, S.K.; Satish Sardana

    2009-01-01

    Dalbergia is a genus of trees, shrubs and woody climbers widely distributed in tropical and sub- tropical regions. It possesses immense traditional application. Various species are widely used as analgesic, anti-inflammatory, antipyretic, antimicrobial, anti-diarrheal, anti-ulcerogenic, anti-spermicidal, larvicidal and mosquito repellant in the traditional system of medicines. Chemical investigation has resulted in characterization and isolation of various phytoconstituents. This review is co...

  12. Bioactivities from Marine Algae of the Genus Gracilaria

    OpenAIRE

    José M. Barbosa-Filho; Maria de Fátima V. de Souza; Rodrigues, Luis C.; Athayde-Filho, Petrônio F.; Lira, Narlize S.; Camila De A. Montenegro; Gedson R. De M. Lima; Batista,Leônia M.; Heloina de S. Falcão; Cynthia Layse F. De Almeida

    2011-01-01

    Seaweeds are an important source of bioactive metabolites for the pharmaceutical industry in drug development. Many of these compounds are used to treat diseases like cancer, acquired immune-deficiency syndrome (AIDS), inflammation, pain, arthritis, as well as viral, bacterial, and fungal infections. This paper offers a survey of the literature for Gracilaria algae extracts with biological activity, and identifies avenues for future research. Nineteen species of this genus that were tested fo...

  13. Revision of the Genus Hybosorus Macleay (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae, Hybosorinae)

    OpenAIRE

    Kuijten, P.J.

    1983-01-01

    A taxonomic revision of the scarabaeoid genus Hybosorus is given, including descriptions, nomenclatorial notes, figures of genital apparatus and other relevant parts, a key, and notes on distribution and bionomics. Lectotypes are designated for Hybosorus carolinus LeConte, H. crassus Klug, H. nitidus Lansberge, H. pinguis Westwood, H. roei Westwood, and Hybosoroides alluaudi Benderitter. Hybosorus arator (Illiger), H. carolinus LeConte, H. nitidus Lansberge (nov. syn.), H. illigeri var. nossi...

  14. The genus Rhodosporidium: a potential source of beta-carotene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Miguel, T; Calo, P; Díaz, A; Villa, T G

    1997-03-01

    Four wild-type species of the genus Rhodosporidium have been studied as as possible sources for the industrial production of beta-carotene. HPLC-based studies showed that their carotenoid composition consisted of almost pure beta-carotene at concentrations ranging from 226 to 685 micrograms/g of dried yeast biomass. These results are consistent with those obtained by spectrophotometry at 480 nm.

  15. Termites of the Genus Odontotermes are Optionally Keratophagous

    OpenAIRE

    Freymann, Bernd P.; de Visser, Sara N.; Mayemba, Emilian P.; Olff, Han

    2007-01-01

    In this study we tested experimentally whether the consumption of mammalian hooves by termites of the genus Odontotermes is a mere incidental, previously overlooked event, or whether higher termites frequently exploit hooves of ungulates as a supplementary food source. The experiment was conducted in the open woodland savanna region of Serengeti National Park, Tanzania. In total, 88 hooves of wildebeest (Connochaetes taurinus) and zebra (Equus burchelli) – of two age classes – were offered to...

  16. A revision of the spirit loaches, genus Lepidocephalus (Cypriniformes, Cobitidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deein, Gridsada; Tangjitjaroen, Weerapongse; Page, Lawrence M

    2014-03-17

    Lepidocephalus has been assumed to include only two species and confined to peninsular Malaysia and Indonesia. However, based on records and collections reported herein, the genus contains five species and is most common in the Chao Phraya basin of Thailand. Large rivers seem to be the preferred habitat, and difficulty in collecting these rivers may account for the paucity of specimens in collections. The known range of these five species includes western and southern Borneo, Java, Sumatra, peninsular Malaysia, and central Thailand.

  17. The genus Weissella: taxonomy, ecology and biotechnological potential

    OpenAIRE

    Vincenzina eFusco; Grazia Marina Quero; Gyu-Sung eCho; Jan Kabisch eKabisch; Diana Meske eMeske; Horst eNeve; Wilhelm eBockelmann; Franz, Charles M. A. P.

    2015-01-01

    Bacteria assigned to the genus Weissella are Gram-positive, catalase-negative, non-endospore forming cells with coccoid or rod-shaped morphology (Collins et al., 1993; Björkroth et al., 2009, 2014) and belong to the group of bacteria generally known as lactic acid bacteria. Phylogenetically, the Weissella belong to the Firmicutes, class Bacilli, order Lactobacillales and family Leuconostocaceae (Collins et al., 1993). They are obligately heterofermentative, producing CO2 from carbohydrate met...

  18. Revision of the genus Pseudeurybata Hennig (Diptera, Micropezidae, Taeniapterinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, S A

    2016-06-29

    The previously monotypic genus Pseudeurybata Hennig is revised to include seven species from Central America and Mexico and one species from South America. Pseudeurybata rufilabris (Enderlein) and Pseudeurybata compeditus (Hennig) are given as new combinations and a lectotype is designated for P. rufilabris (Enderlein). Pseudeurybata browni and P. alces from Costa Rica, P. guatemalensis from Guatemala, P. dasypogon from Mexico, and P. zeta from Colombia and Ecuador are described as new. All species are keyed and illustrated.

  19. Phytochemicals and biological studies of plants in genus Hedysarum

    OpenAIRE

    Dong, Yinmao; Tang, Dongyan; Zhang, Na; Li, Yue; Zhang, Chunhong; Li, Li; Li, Minhui

    2013-01-01

    In China, several species (Hedysarum polybotrys Hand.-Mazz., Hedysarum limprichtii Hlbr., Hedysarum vicioider Turcz. var. Taipeicum Hand.-Mazz. Liu, Hedysarum smithianum, et al.) of genus Hedysarum have a long history of use in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). In TCM, these plants are used to increase the energy of the body. To date, 155 compounds, including flavonoids, triterpenes, coumarins, lignanoids, nitrogen compounds, sterols, carbohydrates, fatty compounds, and benzofuran, have bee...

  20. Conservation of Meningococcal Antigens in the Genus Neisseria

    OpenAIRE

    Muzzi, Alessandro; Mora, Marirosa; Pizza, Mariagrazia; Rappuoli, Rino; Donati, Claudio

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Neisseria meningitidis, one of the major causes of bacterial meningitis and sepsis, is a member of the genus Neisseria, which includes species that colonize the mucosae of many animals. Three meningococcal proteins, factor H-binding protein (fHbp), neisserial heparin-binding antigen (NHBA), and N. meningitidis adhesin A (NadA), have been described as antigens protective against N. meningitidis of serogroup B, and they have been employed as vaccine components in preclinical and clinic...

  1. Femeniasia, novus genus Carduearum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanna de la Serna, Alfonso

    1988-01-01

    Full Text Available The systematic position of Centaurea balearica Rodríguez Femenias (Asteraceae-Cardueae is studied. A detailed analysis or its anatomy, with special reference to the carpology, forces the author lo reject its inclusion in the genus Centaurea or in any other genus or the tribe. A new genus, Femeniasia Susanna. is hence described, and the new nomenclatural combinari en Femeniasia balearica (Rodríguez Femenías Susanna is proposed. The relationship or Femeniasia and the other genera of the tribe is discussed; the author concludes that Femeniasia is a quite isolated genus in the Cardueae-Carduinae .

    [ca] Estudi de la posició sistemàtica de Centaurea balearica Rodríguez Femenías (Asteraceae-Cardueae . De l'anàlisi minuciosa de la seva anatomia, especialment de les seves cípseles, resulta que l'esmentada espècie no és cap Centaurea; tampoc pot ésser inclosa en cap del altres gèneres de la tribu. En conseqüència, hom descriu un nou gènere, Femeniasia Susanna, i proposa la combinació Femeniasia balearica (Rodríguez Femenías Susanna. Son analitzades les possibles relacions de parentiu amb d'altres gèneres del grup i l'autor arriba a la conclusió que Femeniasia és un gènere clarament isolat entre les Cardueae-Carduinae.

  2. A novel member of the genus Nepovirus isolated from Cucumis melo in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomitaka, Yasuhiro; Usugi, Tomio; Yasuda, Fumitoshi; Okayama, Hiroshi; Tsuda, Shinya

    2011-03-01

    An unusual virus was isolated from a Japanese Cucumis melo cv. Prince melon plant showing mild mottling of the leaves. The virus had a broad experimental host range including at least 19 plant species in five families, with most infected plants showing no symptoms on inoculated and uninoculated systemically infected leaves. The virus particles were spherical, approximately 28 nm in diameter, and the coat protein (CP) had an apparent molecular mass of about 55 kDa. The virus possessed a bi-partite genome with two RNA species, of approximately 8,000 and 4,000 nucleotides. Both genome components for the new virus were sequenced. Amino acid sequence identities in CP between the new virus and previously characterized nepoviruses were found to be low (less than 27%); however, in phylogenetic reconstructions the closest relationship was revealed between the new virus and subgroup A nepoviruses. These results suggest that the new virus represents a novel member of the genus Nepovirus. A new name, Melon mild mottle virus, has been proposed for this new virus.

  3. The evolution of multi-component visual signals in darters (genus Etheostoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer M. GUMM, Tamra C. MENDELSON

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available As complex traits evolve, each component of the trait may be under different selection pressures and could respond independently to distinct evolutionary forces. We used comparative methods to examine patterns of evolution in multiple components of a complex courtship signal in darters, specifically addressing the question of how nuptial coloration evolves across different areas of the body. Using spectral reflectance, we defined 4 broad color classes present on the body and fins of 17 species of freshwater fishes (genus Etheostoma and quantified differences in hue within each color class. Ancestral state reconstruction suggests that most color traits were expressed in the most recent common ancestor of sampled species and that differences among species are mostly due to losses in coloration. The evolutionary lability of coloration varied across body regions; we found significant phylogenetic signal for orange color on the body but not for most colors on fins. Finally, patterns of color evolution and hue of the colors were correlated among the two dorsal fins and between the anterior dorsal and anal fins, but not between any of the fins and the body. The observed patterns support the hypothesis that different components of complex signals may be subject to distinct evolutionary pressures, and suggests that the combination of behavioral displays and morphology in communication may have a strong influence on patterns of signal evolution [Current Zoology 57 (2: 125–139, 2011].

  4. Lactobacillus rossiae, a vitamin B12 producer, represents a metabolically versatile species within the Genus Lactobacillus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria De Angelis

    Full Text Available Lactobacillus rossiae is an obligately hetero-fermentative lactic acid bacterium, which can be isolated from a broad range of environments including sourdoughs, vegetables, fermented meat and flour, as well as the gastrointestinal tract of both humans and animals. In order to unravel distinctive genomic features of this particular species and investigate the phylogenetic positioning within the genus Lactobacillus, comparative genomics and phylogenomic approaches, followed by functional analyses were performed on L. rossiae DSM 15814T, showing how this type strain not only occupies an independent phylogenetic branch, but also possesses genomic features underscoring its biotechnological potential. This strain in fact represents one of a small number of bacteria known to encode a complete de novo biosynthetic pathway of vitamin B12 (in addition to other B vitamins such as folate and riboflavin. In addition, it possesses the capacity to utilize an extensive set of carbon sources, a characteristic that may contribute to environmental adaptation, perhaps enabling the strain's ability to populate different niches.

  5. Who's getting around? Assessing species diversity and phylogeography in the widely distributed lichen-forming fungal genus Montanelia (Parmeliaceae, Ascomycota).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leavitt, Steven D; Divakar, Pradeep K; Ohmura, Yoshihito; Wang, Li-Song; Esslinger, Theodore L; Lumbsch, H Thorsten

    2015-09-01

    Brown parmelioid lichens comprise a number of distinct genera in one of the most species-rich families of lichen-forming fungi, Parmeliaceae (Ascomycota). In spite of their superficial similarity, a number of studies of brown parmelioids have provided important insight into diversification in lichen-forming fungi with cosmopolitan distributions. In this study we assess species diversity, biogeography and diversification of the genus Montanelia, which includes alpine to temperate saxicolous species. We sampled each of the five known species, four of which are known from broad, intercontinental distributions. In order to identify potential biogeographical patterns, each broadly distributed species was represented by individuals collected across their intercontinental distributions. Molecular sequence data were generated for six loci, including three nuclear protein-coding markers (MCM7, RPB1, and RPB2), two nuclear ribosomal markers (ITS and nrLSU), and a fragment of the mitochondrial small subunit. We used three sequence-based species delimitations methods to validate traditional, phenotype-based species and circumscribe previously unrecognized species-level lineages in Montanelia. Relationships among putative lineages and divergence times were estimated within a coalescent-based multi-locus species tree framework. Based on the results of the species delimitation analyses, we propose that the genus Montanelia is likely comprised of six to nine species-level lineages, including previously unrecognized species-level diversity in the nominal taxa M. panniformis and M. tominii. In contrast, molecular sequence data suggest that M. predisjuncta may be conspecific with the widespread taxon M. disjuncta in spite of distinct morphological differences. The rate-based age estimation of the most recent common ancestor of Montanelia (ca. 23.1Ma) was similar to previous estimates based on the fossil record. Furthermore, our data suggest that diversification in Montanelia occurred

  6. Taxonomy, Epidemiology, and Clinical Relevance of the Genus Arcobacter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collado, Luis; Figueras, Maria José

    2011-01-01

    Summary: The genus Arcobacter, defined almost 20 years ago from members of the genus Campylobacter, has become increasingly important because its members are being considered emergent enteropathogens and/or potential zoonotic agents. Over recent years information that is relevant for microbiologists, especially those working in the medical and veterinary fields and in the food safety sector, has accumulated. Recently, the genus has been enlarged with several new species. The complete genomes of Arcobacter butzleri and Arcobacter nitrofigilis are available, with the former revealing diverse pathways characteristic of free-living microbes and virulence genes homologous to those of Campylobacter. The first multilocus sequence typing analysis showed a great diversity of sequence types, with no association with specific hosts or geographical regions. Advances in detection and identification techniques, mostly based on molecular methods, have been made. These microbes have been associated with water outbreaks and with indicators of fecal pollution, with food products and water as the suspected routes of transmission. This review updates this knowledge and provides the most recent data on the taxonomy, species diversity, methods of detection, and identification of these microbes as well as on their virulence potential and implication in human and animal diseases. PMID:21233511

  7. 3D Genus Topology of Luminous Red Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Gott, J Richard; Park, Changbom; Kim, Juhan

    2008-01-01

    We measure the 3D genus topology of large scale structure using Luminous Red Galaxies (LRGs) in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey and find it consistent with the Gaussian random phase initial conditions expected from the simplest scenarios of inflation. This studies 3D topology on the largest scales ever obtained. The topology is sponge-like. We measure topology in two volume-limited samples: a dense shallow sample studied with smoothing length of 21h^{-1}Mpc, and a sparse deep sample studied with a smoothing length of 34h^{-1}Mpc. The amplitude of the genus curve is measured with 4% uncertainty. Small distortions in the genus curve expected from non-linear biasing and gravitational effects are well explained (to about 1-\\sigma accuracy) by N-body simulations using a subhalo-finding technique to locate LRGs. This suggests the formation of LRGs is a clean problem that can be modeled well without any free fitting parameters. This bodes well for using LRGs to measure the characteristic scales such as the baryon oscil...

  8. Clinical and epidemiological features of the genus Malassezia in Iran.

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    Elham Zeinali

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The genus Malassezia contains an expanding list of lipophilic yeasts involve in the etiology of various superficial fungal infections. Pityriasis versicolor (PV is the most prevalent Malassezia-related infection distributed worldwide. In the present study, clinical and epidemiological features of the genus Malassezia are discussed with special focus on PV in Iran.During June 2012 to April 2013, among 713 confirmed cases of fungal infections, 68 (9.5% were diagnosed as PV by positive direct microscopy results in 20% potassium hydroxide (KOH preparation of skin scrapings. All the specimens were cultured on modified Dixon agar and incubated at 32°C for 10 days. Identification of the isolated yeasts was carried out based on macro- and microscopic morphology, catalase test, utilization of Tweens, polyethoxylated castor oil (EL slant, and hydrolysis of esculin and utilization of Tween-60 (TE slant.Out of 68 skin scrapings, 55 (80.9% yielded yeast colonies on mDixon's agar which were finally identified as M. globosa (36.36%, M. pachydermatis (29.08%, M. furfur (23.65%, M. slooffiae (7.28% and M. obtusa (3.64%.Results of the present study further indicate clinico-epidemiological importance of the genus Malassezia with growing importance of M. pachydermatis as a major species involve in the etiology of pityriasis versicolor. These findings are of major concern in management of Malassezia-related diseases.

  9. Ecological Distribution Of The Genus Crotalaria In Nigeria

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    Odewo

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Geographical distribution and morphological features of the genus Crotalaria were studied. Methods follow conventional practice as reported by previous studies. Thirty six species of the genus Crotalaria were shown to be distributed in Nigeria. The genera were allopathic in nature. The species such as C. bongensis C. atrorubens C. cleomifolia C. anthyllopsis C. cuspidata C. bamendul C. calycina C. hyssopifolia C. incana C. graminicola and C. macrocalyx were prominent in savannah zones while C. acervata C. cylindrical C. cephalotes C. comosa C. retusa C.doniana C. glauca C. falcata C. goreensis among others were common in cultivated areas in forest zone of Nigeria. Qualitative leaf morphological features of selected crotalaria species in Nigeria were also revealed. It shows that the leaf margin leaf surface and leaf base are similar in features except in leaf shape that vary from lanceolate C. comosa and C. bongensis oblanceolate C. retusa C. goreensis C. ononoidea and C. lachnosema to obovate C. mucronata and C. naragutensis. This implies that most of the genus Crotalaria displays similar characteristic and the features among them shows overlap.

  10. An Approach to the Chemosystematics of the Genus Cucumis L.

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    A. J. A. Petrus

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Phylogenetic relationships in the order Cucurbitales as well as the phylogeny and classification of its taxonomically most problematic family, Cucurbitaceae, have been the focus of several studies. Taxonomists over the years have differed on the delimitation of Cucumis L. and numerous taxonomic treatments have been proposed since the pioneering work of Linnaeus (1753. Using maximum parsimony, maximum likelihood, and Bayesian inference analyses of sequence data from the nuclear and chloroplast genomes, the genus Cucumis has recently been recircumscribed. Among the various chemical classes elaborated in plants, the foliar phenolics express greater stability in general and contribute significantly to the chemosystematics of both, angiosperms and gymnosperms. Hence, it is felt that an evaluation of the available literature on the foliar flavonoid constitution of the recently defined Cucumis would be relevant. This paper, therefore, analyses the distribution of the phytophenols in the taxa to ascertain the characteristically common foliar marker biochemical of the genus in addition to an attempt to justify the inclusion of the genus Mukia within Cucumis.

  11. SCARDINIUS GENUS IN MOLECULAR STUDIES – A REVIEW

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    Ovidiu Popescul

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Scardinius is a genus of ray-finned fish in the Cyprinidae family commonly called rudds. The common rudd(Scardinius erithrophthalmus is a bentho-pelagic freshwater fish that occurs mainly in nutrient-rich, well vegetatedlowland rivers, backwaters, oxbows, ponds and lakes and it is widespread in Europe and middle Asia. It has a mediumlength of 20-30 cm, but it can reach 50 cm. The classification of cyprinids has always been controversial the morphologicaltraits have an unclear homology this led to the idea that the recognized monophyletic groups are surely misinterpreted. Thispaper aims to assess the current level of molecular data regarding Scardinius genera. Some of the molecular data obtainedfor Scardinius genus is from DNA barcoding studies on fresh water fishes, but studies regarding this genus and Cyprinidaefamily used mitochondrial genes like cytochrome b (cyt b and cytochrome oxidase (CO, but nuclear genes or nuclearmicrosatellites were also used. We found that molecular data exists for both nuclear and mitochondrial genes, but this genuswasn’t studied separately and as many of the researchers suggest more taxonomic studies are required in order to solve theuncertainties within it.

  12. Taxonomy, epidemiology, and clinical relevance of the genus Arcobacter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collado, Luis; Figueras, Maria José

    2011-01-01

    The genus Arcobacter, defined almost 20 years ago from members of the genus Campylobacter, has become increasingly important because its members are being considered emergent enteropathogens and/or potential zoonotic agents. Over recent years information that is relevant for microbiologists, especially those working in the medical and veterinary fields and in the food safety sector, has accumulated. Recently, the genus has been enlarged with several new species. The complete genomes of Arcobacter butzleri and Arcobacter nitrofigilis are available, with the former revealing diverse pathways characteristic of free-living microbes and virulence genes homologous to those of Campylobacter. The first multilocus sequence typing analysis showed a great diversity of sequence types, with no association with specific hosts or geographical regions. Advances in detection and identification techniques, mostly based on molecular methods, have been made. These microbes have been associated with water outbreaks and with indicators of fecal pollution, with food products and water as the suspected routes of transmission. This review updates this knowledge and provides the most recent data on the taxonomy, species diversity, methods of detection, and identification of these microbes as well as on their virulence potential and implication in human and animal diseases.

  13. Phylogenetic placement and taxonomy of the genus Hederorkis (Orchidaceae.

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    Joanna Mytnik-Ejsmont

    Full Text Available Three plastid regions, matK, rpl32-trnL and rpl16 intron and the ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 nuclear ribosomal DNA were used to demonstrate a phylogenetic placement of the genus Hederorkis (Orchidaceae for the first time. The taxonomic position of this genus has been unclear thus far. The phylogenetic and morphological relations of Hederorkis to the most closely related genera Sirhookera, Adrorhizon, Bromheadia and Polystachya are also discussed. A hypothesis concerning an origin and evolution of Hederorkis is proposed. Hederorkis is an epiphytic two-leaved orchid genus with lateral inflorescence, non-resupinate flowers, elongate gynostemium and rudimentary column foot. It is native to the Indian Ocean Islands. Two species of Hederorkis are recognized worldwide, H. scandens endemic to Mauritius and Réunion and H. seychellensis endemic to Seychelles. For each of the species treated a full synonymy, detailed description and illustration are included. The distribution map and dichotomous keys to the species have also been provided.

  14. Comparative Study of Volatile Compounds from Genus Ocimum

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    S. R. Vani

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available There are distinct varieties of basil types in the genus Ocimum which makes them very special. Genus Ocimum is widespread over Asia, Africa and Central & Southern America. All basils are member of the Lamiaceae family. The colors of the leaves vary from bright green to purple-green and sometimes almost black. Fresh basil leaves have a strong and characteristic aroma, not comparable to any other spice, although there is a hint of clove traceable. Ocimum Sanctum, also addressed as Ocimum Tenuiflorum is a sacred plant in the Hindu culture and known as Tulasi in Tamil or Holy Basil in English. Meanwhile Ocimum Basilicum, known as Common or Sweet Basil has very dark green leaves. The genus Ocimum is cultivated for its remarkable essential oil which exhibits many usages such as in medicinal application, herbs, culinary, perfume for herbal toiletries, aromatherapy treatment and as flavoring agent. Due to varying essential oil profiles even within the same species, plants may often be classified as a different species as a result of different scents. In the present study, volatile constituents of Ocimum Sanctum and Ocimum Basilicum were extracted using various solvents and their chemical constituents were identified and quantified by using GC-MS in optimized conditions. The profiles of extract from both species were compared in an effort to investigate effects of seasonal variation on their chemical compositions. The predominant species in Ocimum Sanctum and Ocimum Basilicum was found to be methyl eugenol and methyl chavicol, respectively, during different months of analysis.

  15. Prion protein degradation by lichens of the genus Cladonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, James P.; Rodriguez, Cynthia M.; Johnson, Christopher J.

    2012-01-01

    It has recently been discovered that lichens contain a serine protease capable of degrading the pathogenic prion protein, the etiological agent of prion diseases such as sheep scrapie and cervid chronic wasting disease. Limited methods are available to degrade or inactivate prion disease agents, especially in the environment, and lichens or their serine protease could prove important for management of these diseases. Scant information is available regarding the presence or absence of the protease responsible for degrading prion protein (PrP) in lichen species and, in this study, we tested the hypothesis that PrP degradation activity in lichens is phylogenetically-based by testing 44 species of Cladonia lichens, a genus for which a significant portion of the phylogeny is well established. We categorized PrP degradation activity among the 44 species (high, moderate, low or none) and found that activity in Cladonia species did not correspond with phylogenetic position of the species. Degradation of PrP did correspond, however, with three classical taxonomic characters within the genus: species with brown apothecia, no usnic acid, and the presence of a cortex. Of the 44 species studied, 18 (41%) had either high or moderate PrP degradation activity, suggesting the protease may be frequent in this genus of lichens.

  16. On the genus Bothrophyllum Trautschold, 1879 (Anthozoa, Rugosa)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedorowski, Jerzy

    2016-03-01

    The rugose coral genus Bothrophyllum Trautschold, 1879 is revised on the basis of data from the literature and the author's personal investigation of both topotypes of its type species B. conicum and related and/or similar taxa from other areas. The intraspecific variability of the type species, its neotype, the intra-generic framework and a new generic diagnosis are established. Many more than 100 taxa related and/or similar to Bothrophyllum were analyzed and the most important of them are discussed. Detailed analysis of the type species based on the neotype and supported by additional topotype specimens illustrated here, allows restriction of both the type species and the genus, and leads to the proposition that Bothrophyllum -like taxa with a shortened cardinal septum should be considered of subgeneric (not named) status. Detailed analysis of the specimens and species described and illustrated from the type site (Myachkovo Quarry, Moscow Basin) form the basis for further considerations. On the basis of that analysis and characters established for the type species, taxa from all other European, African, Asiatic and North American areas either named Bothrophyllum or bearing characters of that genus were analyzed. The supposed origin and discussion of the relationships conclude the paper. A list of synonyms and exclusions from Bothrophyllum and lists of species included, excluded, or possibly belonging to Bothrophyllum and Bothrophyllum -like corals with a shortened cardinal septum are presented.

  17. Multivalent dendritic molecules as broad spectrum bacteria agglutination agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Shuzhang; Abu-Esba, Lica; Turkyilmaz, Serhan; White, Alexander G; Smith, Bradley D

    2013-01-01

    This study reports the first set of synthetic molecules that act as broad spectrum agglutination agents and thus are complementary to the specific targeting of antibodies. The molecules have dendritic architecture and contain multiple copies of zinc(II)-dipicolylamine (ZnDPA) units that have selective affinity for the bacterial cell envelope. A series of molecular structures were evaluated, with the number of appended ZnDPA units ranging from four to thirty-two. Agglutination assays showed that the multivalent probes rapidly cross-linked ten different strains of bacteria, regardless of Gram-type and cell morphology. Fluorescence microscopy studies using probes with four ZnDPA units indicated a high selectivity for bacteria agglutination in the presence of mammalian cells and no measurable effect on the health of the cells. The high bacterial selectivity was confirmed by conducting in vivo optical imaging studies of a mouse leg infection model. The results suggest that multivalent ZnDPA molecular probes with dendritic structures have great promise as selective, broad spectrum bacterial agglutination agents for infection imaging and theranostic applications.

  18. Broad Ly alpha Emission from Three Nearby BL Lacertae Objects

    CERN Document Server

    Stocke, John T; Perlman, Eric S

    2011-01-01

    We present far-UV HST/COS spectra of four nearby BL Lac Objects. BL Lac spectra are dominated by a smooth, power-law continuum which arises in a relativistic jet. However, the spectra are not necessarily featureless; weak, broad- and/or narrow-line emission is sometimes seen in high-quality optical spectra. We present detections of Lya emission in HST/COS spectra of Mrk421 (z=0.030) and PKS2005-489 (z=0.071) as well as an archival HST/GHRS observation of Mrk501 (z=0.0337). Archival HST/STIS observations of PKS2155-304 (z=0.116) show no Lya emission to a very low upper limit. Using the assumption that the broad-line region (BLR) clouds are asymmetrically placed around the AGN, we use these measured Lya emission features to constrain either the relativistic Gamma values for the ionizing continuum produced by the jet (in the ionization-bounded case) or the mass of warm gas (in the density-bounded case). While realistic Gamma values can be obtained for all four cases, the values for Mrk421 and PKS2155-304 are hig...

  19. Broad spectrum microarray for fingerprint-based bacterial species identification

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    Frey Jürg E

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Microarrays are powerful tools for DNA-based molecular diagnostics and identification of pathogens. Most target a limited range of organisms and are based on only one or a very few genes for specific identification. Such microarrays are limited to organisms for which specific probes are available, and often have difficulty discriminating closely related taxa. We have developed an alternative broad-spectrum microarray that employs hybridisation fingerprints generated by high-density anonymous markers distributed over the entire genome for identification based on comparison to a reference database. Results A high-density microarray carrying 95,000 unique 13-mer probes was designed. Optimized methods were developed to deliver reproducible hybridisation patterns that enabled confident discrimination of bacteria at the species, subspecies, and strain levels. High correlation coefficients were achieved between replicates. A sub-selection of 12,071 probes, determined by ANOVA and class prediction analysis, enabled the discrimination of all samples in our panel. Mismatch probe hybridisation was observed but was found to have no effect on the discriminatory capacity of our system. Conclusions These results indicate the potential of our genome chip for reliable identification of a wide range of bacterial taxa at the subspecies level without laborious prior sequencing and probe design. With its high resolution capacity, our proof-of-principle chip demonstrates great potential as a tool for molecular diagnostics of broad taxonomic groups.

  20. Peculiar Broad Absorption Line Quasars found in DPOSS

    CERN Document Server

    Brunner, R J; Djorgovski, S G; Gal, R R; Mahabal, A A; Lopes, P A A; De Carvalho, R R; Odewahn, S C; Castro, S; Thompson, D; Chaffee, F; Darling, J; Desai, V; Brunner, Robert J.; Hall, Patrick B.

    2003-01-01

    With the recent release of large (i.e., > hundred million objects), well-calibrated photometric surveys, such as DPOSS, 2MASS, and SDSS, spectroscopic identification of important targets is no longer a simple issue. In order to enhance the returns from a spectroscopic survey, candidate sources are often preferentially selected to be of interest, such as brown dwarfs or high redshift quasars. This approach, while useful for targeted projects, risks missing new or unusual species. We have, as a result, taken the alternative path of spectroscopically identifying interesting sources with the sole criterion being that they are in low density areas of the g - r and r - i color-space defined by the DPOSS survey. In this paper, we present three peculiar broad absorption line quasars that were discovered during this spectroscopic survey, demonstrating the efficacy of this approach. PSS J0052+2405 is an Iron LoBAL quasar at a redshift z = 2.4512 with very broad absorption from many species. PSS J0141+3334 is a reddened...