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Sample records for broad tapeworm genus

  1. Update on the Human Broad Tapeworm (Genus Diphyllobothrium), Including Clinical Relevance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholz, Tomáš; Garcia, Hector H.; Kuchta, Roman; Wicht, Barbara

    2009-01-01

    Summary: Tapeworms (Cestoda) continue to be an important cause of morbidity in humans worldwide. Diphyllobothriosis, a human disease caused by tapeworms of the genus Diphyllobothrium, is the most important fish-borne zoonosis caused by a cestode parasite. Up to 20 million humans are estimated to be infected worldwide. Besides humans, definitive hosts of Diphyllobothrium include piscivorous birds and mammals, which represent a significant zoonotic reservoir. The second intermediate hosts include both freshwater and marine fish, especially anadromous species such as salmonids. The zoonosis occurs most commonly in countries where the consumption of raw or marinated fish is a frequent practice. Due to the increasing popularity of dishes utilizing uncooked fish, numerous cases of human infections have appeared recently, even in the most developed countries. As many as 14 valid species of Diphyllobothrium can cause human diphyllobothriosis, with D. latum and D. nihonkaiense being the most important pathogens. In this paper, all taxa from humans reported are reviewed, with brief information on their life history and their current distribution. Data on diagnostics, epidemiology, clinical relevance, and control of the disease are also summarized. The importance of reliable identification of human-infecting species with molecular tools (sequences of mitochondrial genes) as well as the necessity of epidemiological studies aimed at determining the sources of infections are pointed out. PMID:19136438

  2. Diphyllobothrium nihonkaiense sp. nov. (cestoda : Diphyllobothriidae) : Revised Identification of Japanese Broad Tapeworm

    OpenAIRE

    Yamane, Yosuke; Kamo, Hajime; Wikgren, Bo-Jungar P.

    1986-01-01

    The so-called broad tapeworm, which had been treated as Diphyllobothrium latum in Japan since 1889,was revised taxonomically and described as a new species, Diphyllobothrium nihonkaiense sp. nov., being distinguished from the original Diphyllobothrium latum in Finland. The taxonomic status of the new species among related species of the genus Diphyllobothrium is briefly discussed.

  3. Multiplex PCR for Differential Identification of Broad Tapeworms (Cestoda: Diphyllobothrium) Infecting Humans▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wicht, Barbara; Yanagida, Tetsuya; Scholz, Tomáš; Ito, Akira; Jiménez, Juan A.; Brabec, Jan

    2010-01-01

    The specific identification of broad tapeworms (genus Diphyllobothrium) infecting humans is very difficult to perform by morphological observation. Molecular analysis by PCR and sequencing represents the only reliable tool to date to identify these parasites to the species level. Due to the recent spread of human diphyllobothriosis in several countries, a correct diagnosis has become crucial to better understand the distribution and the life cycle of human-infecting species as well as to prevent the introduction of parasites to disease-free water systems. Nevertheless, PCR and sequencing, although highly precise, are too complicated, long, and expensive to be employed in medical laboratories for routine diagnostics. In the present study we optimized a cheap and rapid molecular test for the differential identification of the most common Diphyllobothrium species infecting humans (D. latum, D. dendriticum, D. nihonkaiense, and D. pacificum), based on a multiplex PCR with the cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene of mitochondrial DNA. PMID:20592146

  4. Pacific Broad Tapeworm Adenocephalus pacificus as a Causative Agent of Globally Reemerging Diphyllobothriosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuchta, Roman; Serrano-Martínez, Marcus Enrique; Scholz, Tomas

    2015-10-01

    The Pacific broad tapeworm Adenocephalus pacificus (syn. Diphyllobothrium pacificum) is the causative agent of the third most common fish-borne cestodosis among humans. Although most of the nearly 1,000 cases among humans have been reported in South America (Peru, Chile, and Ecuador), cases recently imported to Europe demonstrate the potential for spread of this tapeworm throughout the world as a result of global trade of fresh or chilled marine fish and travel or migration of humans. We provide a comprehensive survey of human cases of infection with this zoonotic parasite, summarize the history of this re-emerging disease, and identify marine fish species that may serve as a source of human infection when eaten raw or undercooked.

  5. Evolution of interspecific variation in size of attachment structures in the large tapeworm genus Acanthobothrium (Tetraphyllidea: Onchobothriidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randhawa, H S; Poulin, R

    2010-09-01

    Parasites have evolved a myriad of attachment structures closely adapted to their hosts and sites of attachment. Here, using members of the genus Acanthobothrium van Beneden, 1850 (Cestoda: Tetraphyllidea: Onchobothriidae), we (i) examined the influence of host body size and phylogeny, in addition to morphological features of these tapeworms, on the size of 3 structures used in attachment (bothridia, accessory suckers and hooks) by means of general linear models and phylogenetic-independent contrasts methods, and (ii) quantified the scaling exponents of relationships between size of attachment structures and tapeworm body size. Our results indicate that there exists a positive relationship, albeit not directly proportional, between size of attachment structures and Acanthobothrium spp. body size, and hook size and size of bothridia and accessory suckers. These results suggest that the resource investment in whole-body growth is greater than that in attachment structures, and that a greater investment in development of bothridia and accessory suckers is required to maintain an equivalent functional efficacy to hooks. In addition, host body size also influences, though less markedly, the size of attachment structures in Acanthobothrium spp. independently of parasite size itself. Acanthobothrium species have evolved a generalized mode of attachment that is successful in maintaining their position on various intestinal mucosal topographies across a variety of hosts exploiting different food resources.

  6. Floriparicapitus, a new genus of lecanicephalidean tapeworm (Cestoda) from sawfishes (Pristidae) and guitarfishes (Rhinobatidae) in the Indo-West Pacific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cielocha, Joanna J; Jensen, Kirsten; Caira, Janine N

    2014-08-01

    Floriparicapitus n. gen. (Cestoda: Lecanicephalidea), with Floriparicapitus euzeti n. gen., n. sp. as its type, is erected to house 3 new tapeworm species and 2 known species that are transferred to the new genus, all parasitizing sawfishes and guitarfishes (order Rhinopristiformes) in Indo-Pacific waters. The new genus differs from the 21 valid lecanicephalidean genera in its possession of a large scolex bearing a laterally expanded apical organ in the form of a rugose sheet in combination with a cirrus conspicuously armed with spinitriches and 3 pairs of excretory vessels. It most closely resembles Lecanicephalum, but differs conspicuously in its possession of 3, rather than 1, pair of excretory vessels. Two new species are described from sawfishes: Floriparicapitus euzeti n. sp., from Pristis clavata and Floriparicapitus juliani n. sp. from Pristis pristis, both from Australia. Floriparicapitus plicatilis n. sp. is described from the guitarfish Glaucostegus typus in Australia and the guitarfish Glaucostegus thouin in Malaysian Borneo. Two species formerly assigned to Cephalobothrium are transferred to the new genus; Floriparicapitus variabilis ( Southwell, 1911 ) n. comb. from the sawfish Anoxypristis cuspidata in Sri Lanka and Floriparicapitus rhinobatidis ( Subhapradha, 1955 ) n. comb. from the guitarfish Glaucostegus granulatus in India. The species from guitarfish differ conspicuously from those parasitizing sawfish in their possession of only 4 ( F. plicatilis n. sp.) or 5 (F. rhinobatidis n. comb.) testes per proglottid versus 9 or more in the 3 sawfish-parasitizing species. The latter 3 species differ from one another in scolex width, acetabular size, number of proglottids, and cirrus sac size. As it stands, the new genus appears to be restricted to a subclade of the Rhinopristiformes consisting of the sawfishes and species of Glaucostegus.

  7. First study of vitellogenesis of the broad fish tapeworm Diphyllobothrium latum (Cestoda, Diphyllobothriidea), a human parasite with extreme fecundity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoneva, Aneta; Kuchta, Roman; Scholz, Tomáš

    2014-12-01

    In the present study, the process of vitellogenesis of one of the most prolific organisms, the broad tapeworm, Diphyllobothrium latum, the causative agent of human diphyllobothriosis, was studied for the first time using transmission electron microscopy. Cytochemical staining with periodic acid-thiosemicarbazide-silver proteinate for detection of glycogen was applied. Starting from the periphery toward the center of the vitelline follicle four stages of vitellocytes are differentiated: immature vitellocytes, early maturing vitellocytes, advanced maturing and mature vitellocytes. Differentiation into mature vitellocytes involves the formation of shell globule clusters containing shell globules, large amount of saturated lipid droplets and glycogen. A peculiar ultrastructural feature of D. latum vitellogenesis is the presence of lamellar bodies in the cytoplasm of mature vitellocytes. This feature is similar to that present in the closely related caryophyllideans and spathebothriideans. Despite the great similarity observed in the embryonic development of diphylobothriideans, caryophyllideans and spathebothriideans, and the fact that their vitellocytes share a feature not reported from other cestode groups, there are substantial differences in the morphology of vitelline clusters, types, amount and localization of their nutritive reserves. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Tapeworm Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... tapeworm (Taenia solium) is greater in areas of Latin America, China, sub-Saharan Africa or Southeast Asia where ... as well as seizures, meningitis, hydrocephalus or dementia. Death can occur in severe cases of infection. Organ ...

  9. Complete mitochondrial genomes of Taenia multiceps, T. hydatigena and T. pisiformis: additional molecular markers for a tapeworm genus of human and animal health significance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background Mitochondrial genomes provide a rich source of molecular variation of proven and widespread utility in molecular ecology, population genetics and evolutionary biology. The tapeworm genus Taenia includes a diversity of tapeworm parasites of significant human and veterinary importance. Here we add complete sequences of the mt genomes of T. multiceps, T. hydatigena and T. pisiformis, to a data set of 4 published mtDNAs in the same genus. Seven complete mt genomes of Taenia species are used to compare and contrast variation within and between genomes in the genus, to estimate a phylogeny for the genus, and to develop novel molecular markers as part of an extended mitochondrial toolkit. Results The complete circular mtDNAs of T. multiceps, T. hydatigena and T. pisiformis were 13,693, 13,492 and 13,387 bp in size respectively, comprising the usual complement of flatworm genes. Start and stop codons of protein coding genes included those found commonly amongst other platyhelminth mt genomes, but the much rarer initiation codon GTT was inferred for the gene atp6 in T. pisiformis. Phylogenetic analysis of mtDNAs offered novel estimates of the interrelationships of Taenia. Sliding window analyses showed nad6, nad5, atp6, nad3 and nad2 are amongst the most variable of genes per unit length, with the highest peaks in nucleotide diversity found in nad5. New primer pairs capable of amplifying fragments of variable DNA in nad1, rrnS and nad5 genes were designed in silico and tested as possible alternatives to existing mitochondrial markers for Taenia. Conclusions With the availability of complete mtDNAs of 7 Taenia species, we have shown that analysis of amino acids provides a robust estimate of phylogeny for the genus that differs markedly from morphological estimates or those using partial genes; with implications for understanding the evolutionary radiation of important Taenia. Full alignment of the nucleotides of Taenia mtDNAs and sliding window analysis suggests

  10. Fish tapeworm infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fish tapeworm infection is an intestinal infection with the tapeworm parasite found in fish. ... The fish tapeworm ( Diphyllobothrium latum ) is the largest parasite that infects humans. Humans become infected when they eat raw or undercooked ...

  11. A new genus and species of proteocephalidean tapeworm (Cestoda) from Pangasius larnaudii (Siluriformes: Pangasiidae) in Southeast Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholz, Tomáš; de Chambrier, Alain

    2012-06-01

    A new proteocephalidean cestode is described from spot pangasius, Pangasius larnaudii (Siluriformes: Pangasiidae), from Tonle Sap Lake in Cambodia and a new genus, Pangasiocestus , is proposed to accommodate it. The genus is placed in the Gangesiinae because its scolex possesses a large rostellum-like apical organ and its genital organs (testes, ovary, vitellarium, and uterus) are situated in the medulla, with some vitelline follicles paramuscular. Pangasiocestus romani n. gen. and n. sp., the type and only species of the new genus, is characterized mainly by its rosette-like scolex composed of 4 lobes bearing a small sucker in their center, and the apical part with a large, discoidal, rostellum-like apical organ devoid of hooks, by weakly developed inner longitudinal musculature formed by very few isolated muscle fibers, uneven size of testes in immature and mature proglottids, with lateral testes smaller and more dense than median ones, by very narrow lateral bands of vitelline follicles, formed usually by single follicles, and by the vagina anterior to the cirrus sac. This is the first proteocephalidean cestode from a pangasiid catfish identified to the species level (proteocephalidean cestodes from 3 Pangasius spp. reported in an unpublished account from Vietnam, misidentified as Proteocephalus osculatus (Goeze, 1782) [ =  Glanitaenia osculata ], are not considered).

  12. Parasitism by larval tapeworms genus Spirometra in South American amphibians and reptiles: new records from Brazil and Uruguay, and a review of current knowledge in the region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oda, Fabrício H; Borteiro, Claudio; da Graça, Rodrigo J; Tavares, Luiz Eduardo R; Crampet, Alejandro; Guerra, Vinicius; Lima, Flávia S; Bellay, Sybelle; Karling, Letícia C; Castro, Oscar; Takemoto, Ricardo M; Pavanelli, Gilberto C

    2016-12-01

    Spargana are plerocercoid larvae of cestode tapeworms of the genus Spirometra, Family Diphyllobothriidae, parasitic to frogs, reptiles, birds and mammals. This parasitic disease in humans can be transmitted through the use and consumption of amphibians and reptiles. The available knowledge about Spirometra in South America is scarce, and there are only a few reports on the occurrence of sparganum in amphibians and reptiles, many of them published in old papers not easily available to researchers. In this work we present a review on this topic, provide new records in two species of amphibians and 7 species of reptiles from Brazil and Uruguay respectively. We also summarize current knowledge of Spirometra in the continent, along with an updated of host taxonomy. We could gather from the literature a total of 15 studies about amphibian and reptile hosts, published between 1850 and 2016, corresponding to 43 case reports, mostly from Brazil (29) and Uruguay (8), Argentina (3), Peru (2), and Venezuela (1); the majority of them related to reptiles (five lizards and 26 snake species), and 14 corresponded to amphibians (9 anurans). Plerocercoid larvae were located in different organs of the hosts, such as subcutaneous tissue, coelomic cavity, peritoneum, and musculature. The importance of amphibians and reptiles in the transmission of the disease to humans in South America is discussed. Relevant issues to be studied in the near future are the taxonomic characterization of Spirometra in the region and the biological risk of reptile meat for aboriginal and other rural communities. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. A New Genus and Two New Species of Proteocephalidean Tapeworms (Cestoda) from Cichlid Fish (Perciformes: Cichlidae) in the Neotropics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Chambrier, Alain; Pinacho-Pinacho, Carlos Daniel; Hernández-Orts, Jesus Servando; Scholz, Tomáš

    2017-02-01

    Cichlidocestus n. gen. is proposed to accommodate 2 new species of proteocephalidean cestodes, Cichlidocestus gillesi n. sp. from Cichlasoma amazonarum in Peru (type species) and Cichlidocestus janikae n. sp. from Hypsophrys nicaraguensis (all Perciformes: Cichlidae) in Costa Rica. The new genus is unique among all but 1 proteocephalidean genera in the position of the ovary that occupies the middle and posterior thirds of the median region of proglottids (vs. the ovary in the posterior third of proglottids near their posterior margin in all but 1 remaining taxa). In addition, Cichlidocestus is typified by the presence of a voluminous, spherical, internal seminal vesicle, several pairs of ventral excretory canals in the medulla, a pyramidal, quadrilobed scolex with an apical muscular sucker, and the posterior extent of the testes that may reach almost to the posterior margin of proglottids. The new genus shares the position of the ovary and its extension with Sciadocephalus (also a parasite of cichlids in the Neotropics as the new taxon); in all remaining proteocephalideans the ovary occupies the posterior third only. Sciadocephalus differs from Cichlidocestus by a different morphology of the scolex, which possesses an umbrella-like metascolex that is markedly wider than the strobila, the number of ventral osmoregulatory canals, and development of the uterus, which forms capsule-like formations filled with eggs in Sciadocephalus megalodiscus (vs. simple lateral diverticula in Cichlidocestus spp.). Both new species of Cichlidocestus can be easily distinguished from one another by the anterior extent of the poral vitelline follicles (anterior to the cirrus-sac, i.e., preporal, in C. gillesi vs. posterior, i.e., only postporal in C. janikae), size of the eggs (diameter of the external layer of the embryophore of C. gillesi 30-33 μm vs. 44-46 μm in C. janikae), and the number of uterine lateral diverticula (16-21 on 1 side in C. gillesi vs. only 8-12 in C. janikae

  14. Seussapex, a new genus of lecanicephalidean tapeworm (Platyhelminthes: Cestoda) from the stingray genus Himantura (Myliobatiformes: Dasyatidae) in the Indo-West Pacific with investigation of mode of attachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Kirsten; Russell, Shelbi L

    2014-06-01

    A new lecanicephalidean genus, Seussapex gen. n., is erected for specimens collected from stingrays from the Indo-West Pacific resembling the little known species Tenia [sic] narinari MacCallum, 1917 from the spotted eagle ray, Aetobatus narinari (Euphrasen). Members of this new genus are unique in their possession of a multi-tiered apical structure comprising a bipartite apical modification of the scolex proper, and an externally bipartite apical organ with anterior and posterior glandular compartments internally. The appearance of the scolex varies dramatically depending on state of protrusion and/or evagination of these different parts which appear to be able to function independently. Seussapex karybares sp. n. parasitizing Himantura uarnak 2 (sensu Naylor et al., 2012) in northern Australia is described as the type species and Tenia [sic] narinari is transferred to the new genus. The two species differ in scolex length and width of the posterior dome-shaped portion of the apical organ. Histological sections of scoleces stained using the periodic acid-Schiff(PAS) reaction showed the surface of the anterior part of the apical organ and the anterior glandular compartment to stain PAS positive, suggesting a chemical mode of attachment to the host's intestinal mucosal surface. Extensive collecting efforts of stingrays in the Indo-West Pacific shows Seussapex gen. n. to be restricted to species of Himantura Miller et Henle and suggests additional diversity in this group of hosts. In addition, the host identity of Seussapex narinari (MacCallum, 1917) comb. n. is called into question.

  15. Tapeworm infection - beef or pork

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teniasis; Pork tapeworm; Beef tapeworm; Tapeworm; Taenia saginata; Taenia solium; Taeniasis ... undercooked meat of infected animals. Cattle usually carry Taenia saginata ( T saginata ). Pigs carry Taenia solium (T solium) . ...

  16. Broad-spectrum transgenic resistance against distinct tospovirus species at the genus level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Jui-Chu; Chen, Tsung-Chi; Raja, Joseph A J; Yang, Ching-Fu; Chien, Wan-Chu; Lin, Chen-Hsuan; Liu, Fang-Lin; Wu, Hui-Wen; Yeh, Shyi-Dong

    2014-01-01

    Thrips-borne tospoviruses cause severe damage to crops worldwide. In this investigation, tobacco lines transgenic for individual WLm constructs containing the conserved motifs of the L RNA-encoded RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (L) gene of Watermelon silver mottle virus (WSMoV) were generated by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. The WLm constructs included: (i) translatable WLm in a sense orientation; (ii) untranslatable WLmt with two stop codons; (iii) untranslatable WLmts with stop codons and a frame-shift; (iv) untranslatable antisense WLmA; and (v) WLmhp with an untranslatable inverted repeat of WLm containing the tospoviral S RNA 3'-terminal consensus sequence (5'-ATTGCTCT-3') and an NcoI site as a linker to generate a double-stranded hairpin transcript. A total of 46.7-70.0% transgenic tobacco lines derived from individual constructs showed resistance to the homologous WSMoV; 35.7-100% plants of these different WSMoV-resistant lines exhibited broad-spectrum resistance against four other serologically unrelated tospoviruses Tomato spotted wilt virus, Groundnut yellow spot virus, Impatiens necrotic spot virus and Groundnut chlorotic fan-spot virus. The selected transgenic tobacco lines also exhibited broad-spectrum resistance against five additional tospoviruses from WSMoV and Iris yellow spot virus clades, but not against RNA viruses from other genera. Northern analyses indicated that the broad-spectrum resistance is mediated by RNA silencing. To validate the L conserved region resistance in vegetable crops, the constructs were also used to generate transgenic tomato lines, which also showed effective resistance against WSMoV and other tospoviruses. Thus, our approach of using the conserved motifs of tospoviral L gene as a transgene generates broad-spectrum resistance against tospoviruses at the genus level.

  17. Broad-spectrum transgenic resistance against distinct tospovirus species at the genus level.

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    Jui-Chu Peng

    Full Text Available Thrips-borne tospoviruses cause severe damage to crops worldwide. In this investigation, tobacco lines transgenic for individual WLm constructs containing the conserved motifs of the L RNA-encoded RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (L gene of Watermelon silver mottle virus (WSMoV were generated by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. The WLm constructs included: (i translatable WLm in a sense orientation; (ii untranslatable WLmt with two stop codons; (iii untranslatable WLmts with stop codons and a frame-shift; (iv untranslatable antisense WLmA; and (v WLmhp with an untranslatable inverted repeat of WLm containing the tospoviral S RNA 3'-terminal consensus sequence (5'-ATTGCTCT-3' and an NcoI site as a linker to generate a double-stranded hairpin transcript. A total of 46.7-70.0% transgenic tobacco lines derived from individual constructs showed resistance to the homologous WSMoV; 35.7-100% plants of these different WSMoV-resistant lines exhibited broad-spectrum resistance against four other serologically unrelated tospoviruses Tomato spotted wilt virus, Groundnut yellow spot virus, Impatiens necrotic spot virus and Groundnut chlorotic fan-spot virus. The selected transgenic tobacco lines also exhibited broad-spectrum resistance against five additional tospoviruses from WSMoV and Iris yellow spot virus clades, but not against RNA viruses from other genera. Northern analyses indicated that the broad-spectrum resistance is mediated by RNA silencing. To validate the L conserved region resistance in vegetable crops, the constructs were also used to generate transgenic tomato lines, which also showed effective resistance against WSMoV and other tospoviruses. Thus, our approach of using the conserved motifs of tospoviral L gene as a transgene generates broad-spectrum resistance against tospoviruses at the genus level.

  18. The Beef Tapeworm

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    COBBOLD, T. S

    1871-01-01

    ... structure in the first edition of my small work on "Tapeworms," published in 1866 (p. 33 et seq.). At least two other observers have figured and described this central depression, not only in the adult but also in the measle or cysticercal stage of the worm. Even Bremser recognised it, but his description was for a time overlooked.

  19. A new genus and species of proteocephalidean tapeworm (Cestoda), first parasite found in the driftwood catfish Tocantinsia piresi (Siluriformes: Auchenipteridae) from Brazil.

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    Alves, Philippe Vieira; Chambrier, Alain de; Scholz, Tomas; Luque, Jose Luis

    2015-01-01

    Frezella gen. n. is proposed to accommodate Frezella vaucheri sp. n. from poorly known auchenipterid fish, Tocantinsia piresi (Miranda Ribeiro), from the Xingú River, one of the principal tributaries of the lower Amazon River in Brazil. The new genus belongs to the Proteocephalinae because of the medullary position of the testes, ovary (yet some follicles penetrate to the cortex on the dorsal side), vitelline follicles and uterus. It differs from other proteocephaline genera in the morphology of the scolex, which includes a metascolex composed of two distinct zones: anterior, strongly wrinkled part posterior to the suckers, and posterior, sparsely folded zone. Frezella can also be differentiated by having the internal longitudinal musculature hypertrophied laterally on both sides, the presence of some ovarian follicles in the cortex on the dorsal side and the presence of additional pair of tiny, thin-walled osmoregulatory canals situated slightly dorsomedian to ventral canals. Frezella vaucheri is the first helminth parasite reported from T. piresi, which occurs in the lower reaches of the Amazon and Tocantins River basins in Brazil.

  20. A new genus of proteocephalid tapeworm (Cestoda) from the marbled swamp eel Synbranchus marmoratus Bloch (Synbranchiformes: Synbranchidae) in the River Paraná basin, Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arredondo, Nathalia J; Alves, Philippe Vieira; Gil de Pertierra, Alicia A

    2017-05-05

    Synbranchiella gen. n. is proposed to accommodate Synbranchiella mabelae sp. n. (Proteocephalidae: Monticelliinae) from the intestine of the marbled swamp eel Synbranchus marmoratus Bloch, in the River Colastiné, a tributary of the middle River Paraná in Argentina. The new genus is placed in the Monticelliinae because of the cortical position of the genital organs. It differs from all known monticelliine genera by the following combination of characters: (i) scolex robust, with a conical apex, without metascolex; (ii) biloculate suckers with a conspicuous septum separating unequally-sized loculi and a robust non-adherent area, lacking free posterior margin; (iii) vitelline follicles in two narrow lateral bands, extended throughout the nearly entire proglottid length; (iv) vagina always anterior to the cirrus-sac, with an inconspicuous vaginal sphincter; (v) a genital pore pre-equatorial. Scanning electron microscopy revealed three types of microtriches on the tegument surface: acicular and capiliform filitriches and gladiate spinitriches. A phylogenetic analysis of the large subunit nuclear ribosomal RNA gene (lsrDNA, D1-D3 domains) confirms that S. mabelae represents an independent lineage within a large clade comprised mainly from Neotropical taxa parasitising catfishes. This is the second proteocephalidean cestode described from a Neotropical synbranchiform fish host.

  1. Austromonticola, a new genus of broad-nosed weevil (Coleoptera, Curculionidae, Entiminae from montane areas of New Zealand

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    Samuel D. J. Brown

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Austromonticola gen. n. is proposed for a group of eight New Zealand alpine broad-nosed weevil species, all of which are here described: A. atriarius sp. n. (type locality: Umbrella Mountains, Central Otago, A. caelibatus sp. n. (type locality: Ohau Range, Mackenzie, A. furcatus sp. n. (type locality: Old Man Range, Central Otago, A. inflatus sp. n. (type locality: Hawkdun Range, Central Otago, A. planulatus sp. n. (type locality: St Marys Range, Central Otago, A. postinventus sp. n. (type locality: Kirkliston Range, South Canterbury, A. mataura sp. n. (type locality: Mt Dick, Otago Lakes and A. rotundus sp. n. (type locality: Old Man Range, Central Otago. All species occur exclusively above 1000 m elevation in the mountains of Central Otago and South Canterbury in the South Island. A phylogeny of the genus, including six outgroups, was inferred from 33 morphological characters. It resolved the genus as monophyletic, and revealed two strongly supported clades within Austromonticola. DNA sequences of four gene regions were obtained from five species. Of these, the 3' end of COI proved to be the most suitable for the identification of specimens. Females of all species have diagnostic secondary sexual structures on the elytra and ventrites. These structures are hypothesised to have evolved to assist with oviposition in and beside cushion plants or by selection for structures to mitigate the costs to females of prolonged mating.

  2. Abnormal Taenia saginata tapeworms in Thailand.

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    Maipanich, Wanna; Sato, Megumi; Pubampen, Somchit; Sanguankiat, Surapol; Kusolsuk, Teera; Thaenkham, Urusa; Waikagul, Jitra

    2011-09-01

    Sixty-eight residents of Ban Luang and Ban Pang Kae villages, in Nan Province, northern Thailand, visited our mobile field station in September 2006 and March 2007, seeking treatment for taeniasis. After treatment, 22 cases discharged tapeworm strobila in their fecal samples and 17 scolices were recovered. Among these, 3 were morphologically abnormal, with six suckers on the scolex. To confirm the species of these tapeworms, the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) gene was used as a molecular marker. The partial COI sequences (800 bp) of the abnormal tapeworms were identical to the sequences of Taenia saginata deposited in Genbank.

  3. Cavearhynchus, a new genus of tapeworm (Cestoda: Trypanorhyncha: Pterobothriidae) from Himantura lobistoma Manjaji-Matsumoto & Last, 2006 (Rajiformes) off Borneo, including redescriptions and new records of species of Pterobothrium Diesing, 1850.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaeffner, Bjoern C; Beveridge, Ian

    2012-06-01

    A new genus of trypanorhynch cestode is described from the tubemouth whipray Himantura lobistoma Manjaji-Matsumoto & Last, 2006 in the South China Sea off Malaysian Borneo. Cavearhynchus foveatus n. g., n. sp. possesses four pedicellate bothria in a cruciform arrangement, a heteroacanthous, heteromorphous metabasal tentacular armature with five hooks per principle row and an alternating longitudinal file of intercalary hooks on the bothrial surface of each tentacle, but lacks prebulbar organs and gland-cells within the bulbs. It, thus, closely resembles taxa belonging to the lacistorhynchoid family Pterobothriidae Pintner, 1931. However, the new genus differs from other genera within this family in the possession of bothrial pits. Although a distinguishing characteristic of the superfamily Otobothrioidea Dollfus, 1942, representatives of this group exhibit two bothria and the bothrial pits are lined with spiniform microtriches, whereas the pit-like structures.of C. foveatus n. g., n. sp. entirely lack microtriches. Redescriptions of two species of Pterobothrium, namely P. lesteri Campbell & Beveridge, 1996 and P. platycephalum (Shipley & Hornell, 1906) Dollfus, 1930 are provided from material collected off Borneo and several localities off Australia. Moreover, new host and locality records are added for P. australiense Campbell & Beveridge, 1996 and P. pearsoni (Southwell, 1929) Beveridge & Campbell, 1989.

  4. 9 CFR 311.24 - Hogs affected with tapeworm cysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Hogs affected with tapeworm cysts. 311.24 Section 311.24 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... affected with tapeworm cysts. Carcasses of hogs affected with tapeworm cysts (Cysticercus cellulosae) may...

  5. First record of the invasive Asian fish tapeworm Bothriocephalus acheilognathi in Honduras, Central America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salgado-Maldonado, Guillermo; Matamoros, Wilfredo A; Kreiser, Brian R; Caspeta-Mandujano, Juan Manuel; Mendoza-Franco, Edgar F

    2015-01-01

    This paper provides the first report of the invasive Asian fish tapeworm, Bothriocephalus acheilognathi Yamaguti, 1934, in Honduras. The cestode was found in Profundulus portillorum (Cyprinodontiformes: Profundulidae), which represents a new host record, and which is a member of a genus faced with a variety of conservation challenges, now potentially complicated by the presence of this pathogenic cestode. Nearly complete sequence data from the ITS-1 5.8S and ITS-2 regions corroborate the determination based on morphological characteristics. Several species of carp were introduced to Honduras for aquaculture purposes in the early 1980s and the presence of the Asian fish tapeworm in Honduras may be related to these introductions. In addition, this report documents the currently known geographical distribution of this parasite in Central America, first recorded from Panamá and now from Honduras. © G. Salgado-Maldonado et al., published by EDP Sciences, 2015.

  6. First record of the invasive Asian fish tapeworm Bothriocephalus acheilognathi in Honduras, Central America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salgado-Maldonado Guillermo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides the first report of the invasive Asian fish tapeworm, Bothriocephalus acheilognathi Yamaguti, 1934, in Honduras. The cestode was found in Profundulus portillorum (Cyprinodontiformes: Profundulidae, which represents a new host record, and which is a member of a genus faced with a variety of conservation challenges, now potentially complicated by the presence of this pathogenic cestode. Nearly complete sequence data from the ITS-1 5.8S and ITS-2 regions corroborate the determination based on morphological characteristics. Several species of carp were introduced to Honduras for aquaculture purposes in the early 1980s and the presence of the Asian fish tapeworm in Honduras may be related to these introductions. In addition, this report documents the currently known geographical distribution of this parasite in Central America, first recorded from Panamá and now from Honduras.

  7. First record of the invasive Asian fish tapeworm Bothriocephalus acheilognathi in Honduras, Central America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salgado-Maldonado, Guillermo; Matamoros, Wilfredo A.; Kreiser, Brian R.; Caspeta-Mandujano, Juan Manuel; Mendoza-Franco, Edgar F.

    2015-01-01

    This paper provides the first report of the invasive Asian fish tapeworm, Bothriocephalus acheilognathi Yamaguti, 1934, in Honduras. The cestode was found in Profundulus portillorum (Cyprinodontiformes: Profundulidae), which represents a new host record, and which is a member of a genus faced with a variety of conservation challenges, now potentially complicated by the presence of this pathogenic cestode. Nearly complete sequence data from the ITS-1 5.8S and ITS-2 regions corroborate the determination based on morphological characteristics. Several species of carp were introduced to Honduras for aquaculture purposes in the early 1980s and the presence of the Asian fish tapeworm in Honduras may be related to these introductions. In addition, this report documents the currently known geographical distribution of this parasite in Central America, first recorded from Panamá and now from Honduras. PMID:25654444

  8. Cryptic diversity in hymenolepidid tapeworms infecting humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nkouawa, Agathe; Haukisalmi, Voitto; Li, Tiaoying; Nakao, Minoru; Lavikainen, Antti; Chen, Xingwang; Henttonen, Heikki; Ito, Akira

    2016-04-01

    An adult hymenolepidid tapeworm was recovered from a 52-year-old Tibetan woman during a routine epidemiological survey for human taeniasis/cysticercosis in Sichuan, China. Phylogenetic analyses based on sequences of nuclear 28S ribosomal DNA and mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 showed that the human isolate is distinct from Hymenolepis diminuta and Hymenolepis nana, the common parasites causing human hymenolepiasis. Proglottids of the human isolate were unfortunately unsuitable for morphological identification. However, the resultant phylogeny demonstrated the human isolate to be a sister species to Hymenolepis hibernia from Apodemus mice in Eurasia. The present data clearly indicate that hymenolepidid tapeworms causing human infections are not restricted to only H. diminuta and H. nana. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Endangered fish threatened by Asian fish tapeworm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Rebecca A.

    2004-01-01

    The Asian fish tapeworm, an exotic parasite, has invaded the endangered humpback chub (Gila cypha) population from the Colorado and Little Colorado Rivers in Grand Canyon, Arizona. This parasite causes disease and death in carp in aquaculture settings and may retard growth in hatchery-reared roundtail chub (Gila robusta). Other consequences include destruction and dysfunction of the intestinal lining and adverse changes to certain blood parameters. Introduced into the U.S. in the 1970s with imported grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella), the Asian fish tapeworm (Bothriocephalus acheilognathi) was discovered in the Little Colorado River (LCR) by 1990. The LCR is the main tributary to the Colorado River in Grand Canyon and is an important spawning area for humpback chub.

  10. [The so-called "fox tapeworm"].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckert, J; Ammann, R

    1990-01-01

    The so-called "fox tapeworm" (Echinococcus multilocularis), the causative agent of a severe disease in man (alveolar echinococcosis), is presently under public discussion in Switzerland. Therefore, actual information is provided on the life cycle of the parasite, epidemiology, disease in humans, symptomatology, diagnosis, therapy and prophylaxis. It is recommended that in endemic regions hunters handling foxes should wear protective gloves, dead foxes should be transported in plastic bags and wild fruits, berries and vegetables should be carefully washed and--if possible--heated to more than 70 degrees C for some minutes prior to consumption. After contact with foxes or other final hosts (dogs, cats) infected with E. multilocularis, persons should be monitored with the highly sensitive and specific Em2-ELISA for serum antibodies aiming at an early diagnosis and treatment of a potential infection.

  11. Checklist of tapeworms (Platyhelminthes, Cestoda) of vertebrates in Finland

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Haukisalmi, Voitto

    2015-01-01

    A checklist of tapeworms (Cestoda) of vertebrates (fishes, birds and mammals) in Finland is presented, based on published observations, specimens deposited in the collections of the Finnish Museum of Natural History (Helsinki...

  12. Checklist of tapeworms (Platyhelminthes, Cestoda) of vertebrates in Finland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haukisalmi, Voitto

    2015-01-01

    Abstract A checklist of tapeworms (Cestoda) of vertebrates (fishes, birds and mammals) in Finland is presented, based on published observations, specimens deposited in the collections of the Finnish Museum of Natural History (Helsinki) and the Zoological Museum of the University of Turku, and additional specimens identified by the present author. The checklist includes 170 tapeworm species from 151 host species, comprising 447 parasite species/host species combinations. Thirty of the tapeworm species and 96 of the parasite/host species combinations have not been previously reported from Finland. The total number of tapeworm species in Finland (170 spp.) is significantly lower than the corresponding figure for the Iberian Peninsula (257 spp.), Slovakia (225 spp.) and Poland (279 spp.). The difference between Finland and the other three regions is particularly pronounced for anseriform, podicipediform, charadriiform and passeriform birds, reflecting inadequate and/or biased sampling of these birds in Finland. It is predicted that there are actually ca. 270 species of tapeworms in Finland, assuming that true number of bird tapeworms in Finland corresponds to that in other European countries with more comprehensive knowledge of the local tapeworm fauna. The other main pattern emerging from the present data is the seemingly unexplained absence in (northern) Fennoscandia of several mammalian tapeworms that otherwise have extensive distributions in the Holarctic region or in Eurasia, including the northern regions. Previously unknown type specimens, that is, the holotype of Bothrimonus nylandicus Schneider, 1902 (a junior synonym of Diplocotyle olrikii Krabbe, 1874) (MZH 127096) and the syntypes of Caryophyllaeides fennica (Schneider, 1902) (MZH 127097) were located in the collections of the Finnish Museum of Natural History. PMID:26668540

  13. Strong genetic structure over the American continents and transoceanic dispersal in the mangrove genus Rhizophora (Rhizophoraceae) revealed by broad-scale nuclear and chloroplast DNA analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takayama, Koji; Tamura, Mariko; Tateishi, Yoichi; Webb, Edward L; Kajita, Tadashi

    2013-06-01

    The global distribution of mangroves is attributed to interactions between long-distance propagule dispersal and geographical barriers, which are manifest in genetic structuring. Uncovering this genetic structure thus provides a window into the ecological, evolutionary, and phylogeographic history of mangroves. We used cpDNA and nuclear microsatellites to evaluate transbarrier (transoceanic and transisthmian) linkages in the genus Rhizophora in the Atlantic East Pacific (AEP) and South Pacific region. • Leaf samples of 756 individuals of Rhizophora mangle, R. racemosa, R. ×harrisonii, and R. samoensis from 36 populations across the AEP supplied material from which we used the cpDNA haplotypes and nine microsatellite markers for population analyses. • Clear genetic differentiation of cpDNA haplotypes was found between the Pacific and Atlantic populations in R. mangle and R. racemosa, supporting the hypothesis of the Central American Isthmus as a barrier to gene flow. Both cpDNA and microsatellite analyses support the hypothesis of recent and frequent transatlantic propagule dispersal for R. mangle. Finally, we provide strong evidence for genetic similarity of Pacific R. mangle and R. samoensis suggesting trans-Pacific dispersal of R. mangle. • The American continents are strong geographical barriers to dispersal of Rhizophora, to the point where the Pacific and Atlantic populations are distinct genealogical units, supporting the recommendation to treat the populations as separate conservation and management units. Trans-Pacific propagule dispersal of Rhizophora has occurred; R. mangle and R. samoensis might be the same species and this question should be resolved with further taxonomic study.

  14. The genomes of four tapeworm species reveal adaptations to parasitism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Isheng J; Zarowiecki, Magdalena; Holroyd, Nancy; Garciarrubio, Alejandro; Sánchez-Flores, Alejandro; Brooks, Karen L; Tracey, Alan; Bobes, Raúl J; Fragoso, Gladis; Sciutto, Edda; Aslett, Martin; Beasley, Helen; Bennett, Hayley M; Cai, Xuepeng; Camicia, Federico; Clark, Richard; Cucher, Marcela; De Silva, Nishadi; Day, Tim A; Deplazes, Peter; Estrada, Karel; Fernández, Cecilia; Holland, Peter W H; Hou, Junling; Hu, Songnian; Huckvale, Thomas; Hung, Stacy S; Kamenetzky, Laura; Keane, Jacqueline A; Kiss, Ferenc; Koziol, Uriel; Lambert, Olivia; Liu, Kan; Luo, Xuenong; Luo, Yingfeng; Macchiaroli, Natalia; Nichol, Sarah; Paps, Jordi; Parkinson, John; Pouchkina-Stantcheva, Natasha; Riddiford, Nick; Rosenzvit, Mara; Salinas, Gustavo; Wasmuth, James D; Zamanian, Mostafa; Zheng, Yadong; Cai, Jianping; Soberón, Xavier; Olson, Peter D; Laclette, Juan P; Brehm, Klaus; Berriman, Matthew

    2013-04-04

    Tapeworms (Cestoda) cause neglected diseases that can be fatal and are difficult to treat, owing to inefficient drugs. Here we present an analysis of tapeworm genome sequences using the human-infective species Echinococcus multilocularis, E. granulosus, Taenia solium and the laboratory model Hymenolepis microstoma as examples. The 115- to 141-megabase genomes offer insights into the evolution of parasitism. Synteny is maintained with distantly related blood flukes but we find extreme losses of genes and pathways that are ubiquitous in other animals, including 34 homeobox families and several determinants of stem cell fate. Tapeworms have specialized detoxification pathways, metabolism that is finely tuned to rely on nutrients scavenged from their hosts, and species-specific expansions of non-canonical heat shock proteins and families of known antigens. We identify new potential drug targets, including some on which existing pharmaceuticals may act. The genomes provide a rich resource to underpin the development of urgently needed treatments and control.

  15. Echinococcus spp.: Tapeworms that Pose a Danger to Both Animals and Humans – a Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brožová A.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Species of the genus Echinococcus (Cestoda; Taeniidae are minute tapeworms of carnivores. Their larvae are known as hydatids (metacestode, which proliferate asexually in various mammals. Like the majority of cestodes, Echinococcus spp. require two different host species to complete their life cycle. Definitive hosts harbouring the adult cestodes in the small intestine are exclusively carnivores of the Canidae and Felidae families. A wide range of mammal species including humans is susceptible to infection by the metacestode of Echinococcus spp., which develops in their viscera. The disease, caused by species of the genus Echinococcus, is called echinococcosis, and it is one of the most dangerous zoonoses in the world. The traditional species Echinococcus granulosus and Echinococcus multilocularis are agents of significant diseases due to the high number of cases and the wide geographical species range. The taxonomy of the genus is controversial; in the current state of ongoing complex revisions, the agent of cystic echinococcosis E. granulosus sensu lato is divided into five species (E. granulosus sensu stricto, E. felidis, E. equinus, E. ortleppi, E. canadensis, in addition to the agents of alveolar echinococcosis (E. multilocularis, E. shiquicus and polycystic/unicystic echinococcosis (E. vogeli, E. oligarthrus. Here we provide an overview of the current situation, which continues to develop.

  16. Validation of a novel saliva-based ELISA test for diagnosing tapeworm burden in horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lightbody, Kirsty L; Davis, Paul J; Austin, Corrine J

    2016-06-01

    Tapeworm infections pose a significant threat to equine health as they are associated with clinical cases of colic. Diagnosis of tapeworm burden using fecal egg counts (FECs) is unreliable, and, although a commercial serologic ELISA for anti-tapeworm antibodies is available, it requires a veterinarian to collect the blood sample. A reliable diagnostic test using an owner-accessible sample such as saliva could provide a cost-effective alternative for tapeworm testing in horses, and allow targeted deworming strategies. The purpose of the study was to statistically validate a saliva tapeworm ELISA test and compare to a tapeworm-specific IgG(T) serologic ELISA. Serum samples (139) and matched saliva samples (104) were collected from horses at a UK abattoir. The ileocecal junction and cecum were visually examined for tapeworms and any present were counted. Samples were analyzed using a serologic ELISA and the saliva tapeworm test. The test results were compared to tapeworm numbers and the various data sets were statistically analyzed. Saliva scores had strong positive correlations with both infection intensity (0.74) and serologic results (Spearman's rank coefficients; 0.74 and 0.86, respectively). The saliva tapeworm test was capable of identifying the presence of one or more tapeworms with 83% sensitivity and 85% specificity. Importantly, no high-burden (more than 20 tapeworms) horses were misdiagnosed. The saliva tapeworm test has statistical accuracy for detecting tapeworm burdens in horses with 83% sensitivity and 85% specificity, similar to those of the serologic ELISA (85% and 78%, respectively). © 2016 American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology.

  17. Fish tapeworm Khawia sinensis: an indicator of environmental microcystins?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palikova, Miroslava; Adamovsky, Ondrej; Blaha, Ludek; Mares, Jan; Kopp, Radovan; Navratil, Stanislav; Cutakova, Zdenka; Soukupova, Zdenka; Pikula, Jiri

    2013-01-01

    Parasites have recently been recognized as accumulation indicators that take up and bio-concentrate substances from environmental pollution. Interestingly, helminths of fish are known to accumulate metals from the ambient environment and to contain several orders of magnitude higher concentrations than hosts. While the majority of reports mention inorganic toxin accumulation in parasites, studies concerning effects of organic pollution are infrequent and little is known about the potential of parasites to bio-accumulate microcystins. The parasite-host system of tapeworm Khawia sinensis and common carp (Cyprinus carpio) was used to address this issue. Both the tapeworms and livers were dissected from experimental carps orally exposed to cyanobacterial biomass for 20 days. The total dose of microcystins amounted to 27 mg/kg of feed, i.e., 0.4 mg/kg of fish mass a day. Microcystin concentrations in tapeworms and carp liver tissues were measured using the LC-MS/MS method. Considering the three measured microcystin variants LR, YR and RR, only MC-RR was detected and its concentrations in tapeworms and carp liver tissue amounted to 5.78±3.78 ng/g and 2.11±0.74 ng/g fresh weight (ptapeworm Khawia sinensis, a parasite of common carp (Cyprinus carpio). As this is the first report addressing this issue, further studies will be necessary to examine this specific parasite-host system.

  18. Molecular phylogeny of anoplocephalid tapeworms (Cestoda: Anoplocephalidae) infecting humans and non-human primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doležalová, Jana; Vallo, Peter; Petrželková, Klára J; Foitová, Ivona; Nurcahyo, Wisnu; Mudakikwa, Antoine; Hashimoto, Chie; Jirků, Milan; Lukeš, Julius; Scholz, Tomáš; Modrý, David

    2015-09-01

    Anoplocephalid tapeworms of the genus Bertiella Stiles and Hassall, 1902 and Anoplocephala Blanchard, 1848, found in the Asian, African and American non-human primates are presumed to sporadic ape-to-man transmissions. Variable nuclear (5.8S-ITS2; 28S rRNA) and mitochondrial genes (cox1; nad1) of isolates of anoplocephalids originating from different primates (Callicebus oenanthe, Gorilla beringei, Gorilla gorilla, Pan troglodytes and Pongo abelii) and humans from various regions (South America, Africa, South-East Asia) were sequenced. In most analyses, Bertiella formed a monophyletic group within the subfamily Anoplocephalinae, however, the 28S rRNA sequence-based analysis indicated paraphyletic relationship between Bertiella from primates and Australian marsupials and rodents, which should thus be regarded as different taxa. Moreover, isolate determined as Anoplocephala cf. gorillae from mountain gorilla clustered within the Bertiella clade from primates. This either indicates that A. gorillae deserves to be included into the genus Bertiella, or, that an unknown Bertiella species infects also mountain gorillas. The analyses allowed the genetic differentiation of the isolates, albeit with no obvious geographical or host-related patterns. The unexpected genetic diversity of the isolates studied suggests the existence of several Bertiella species in primates and human and calls for revision of the whole group, based both on molecular and morphological data.

  19. History of Taenia saginata Tapeworms in Northern Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konyaev, Sergey V.; Nakao, Minoru; Ito, Akira

    2017-01-01

    Taenia saginata is the most common species of tapeworm infecting humans. Infection is acquired by eating cysticercus larvae in undercooked beef. A closely related species, T. asiatica, is found in eastern and southeastern Asia. The larvae of T. asiatica develop in viscera of pigs. In northern Russia, there is a third member of this morphologically indistinguishable group. Cysticerci of so-called northern T. saginata are found in cerebral meninges of reindeer, and the unique life cycle is dependent on a native custom of eating raw reindeer brain. We report the winding history of this mysterious tapeworm from the first reports to the present time. In addition, we confirm the position of this parasite as a strain of T. saginata by analyzing a mitochondrial DNA sequence of an archival specimen. The origin of this strain might date back to reindeer domestication and contacts between cattle-herding and reindeer-herding peoples in Asia.

  20. Rapid identification of nine species of diphyllobothriidean tapeworms by pyrosequencing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thanchomnang, Tongjit; Tantrawatpan, Chairat; Intapan, Pewpan M.; Sanpool, Oranuch; Lulitanond, Viraphong; Tourtip, Somjintana; Yamasaki, Hiroshi; Maleewong, Wanchai

    2016-01-01

    The identification of diphyllobothriidean tapeworms (Cestoda: Diphyllobothriidea) that infect humans and intermediate/paratenic hosts is extremely difficult due to their morphological similarities, particularly in the case of Diphyllobothrium and Spirometra species. A pyrosequencing method for the molecular identification of pathogenic agents has recently been developed, but as of yet there have been no reports of pyrosequencing approaches that are able to discriminate among diphyllobothriidean species. This study, therefore, set out to establish a pyrosequencing method for differentiating among nine diphyllobothriidean species, Diphyllobothrium dendriticum, Diphyllobothrium ditremum, Diphyllobothrium latum, Diphyllobothrium nihonkaiense, Diphyllobothrium stemmacephalum, Diplogonoporus balaenopterae, Adenocephalus pacificus, Spirometra decipiens and Sparganum proliferum, based on the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) gene as a molecular marker. A region of 41 nucleotides in the cox1 gene served as a target, and variations in this region were used for identification using PCR plus pyrosequencing. This region contains nucleotide variations at 12 positions, which is enough for the identification of the selected nine species of diphyllobothriidean tapeworms. This method was found to be a reliable tool not only for species identification of diphyllobothriids, but also for epidemiological studies of cestodiasis caused by diphyllobothriidean tapeworms at public health units in endemic areas. PMID:27853295

  1. The catholic taste of broad tapeworms multiple routes to human infection

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Waeschenbach, A.; Brabec, Jan; Scholz, Tomáš; Littlewood, D. T. J.; Kuchta, Roman

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 47, č. 13 (2017), s. 831-843 ISSN 0020-7519 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP506/12/1632 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Diphyllobothriidea * Diphyllobothriosis * Phylogeny * Sparganosis * Systematics * Taxonomic revision * Mitochondrial * Nuclear Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 3.730, year: 2016

  2. Pacific Broad Tapeworm Adenocephalus pacificus as a Causative Agent of Globally Reemerging Diphyllobothriosis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kuchta, Roman; Serrano-Martínez, M.E.; Scholz, Tomáš

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 21, č. 10 (2015), s. 1697-1703 ISSN 1080-6040 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP506/12/1632 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : megaloblastic anemia * identification * populations Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 6.994, year: 2015

  3. Elimination of Asian fish tapeworms from grass carp with praziquantel bath treatments: The need for 24 hour exposures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Several states require that imported fish be free of the Asian fish tapeworm Bothriocephalus acheilognathi. Praziquantel has been used for several years to treat fish with Asian fish tapeworms but rates and exposure periods necessary to eliminate these tapeworms from infected fish have not been ade...

  4. [Tapeworm Oochoristica tuberculata (Rudolphi, 1819)--parasite of the lizard Eremias argus Peters, 1869 in Zabaikalie].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugarov, Zh N; Baldanova, D R; Khamnueva, T R

    2012-01-01

    Morphological characteristics of the tapeworm Oochoristica tuberculata from the lizard Eremias argus is given from the northern border of the host areal. The complexes of most stable and most variable characters of this tapeworm are determined. The list of hosts is given for Oochoristica tuberculata.

  5. Definitive Hosts of Versteria Tapeworms (Cestoda: Taeniidae) Causing Fatal Infection in North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Laura M; Wallace, Roberta S; Clyde, Victoria L; Gendron-Fitzpatrick, Annette; Sibley, Samuel D; Stuchin, Margot; Lauck, Michael; O'Connor, David H; Nakao, Minoru; Lavikainen, Antti; Hoberg, Eric P; Goldberg, Tony L

    2016-04-01

    We previously reported fatal infection of a captive Bornean orangutan with metacestodes of a novel taeniid tapeworm, Versteria sp. New data implicate mustelids as definitive hosts of these tapeworms in North America. At least 2 parasite genetic lineages circulate in North America, representing separate introductions from Eurasia.

  6. A confocal microscopy-based atlas of tissue architecture in the tapeworm Hymenolepis diminuta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozario, Tania; Newmark, Phillip A

    2015-11-01

    Tapeworms are pervasive and globally distributed parasites that infect millions of humans and livestock every year, and are the causative agents of two of the 17 neglected tropical diseases prioritized by the World Health Organization. Studies of tapeworm biology and pathology are often encumbered by the complex life cycles of disease-relevant tapeworm species that infect hosts such as foxes, dogs, cattle, pigs, and humans. Thus, studies of laboratory models can help overcome the practical, ethical, and cost-related difficulties faced by tapeworm parasitologists. The rat intestinal tapeworm Hymenolepis diminuta is easily reared in the laboratory and has the potential to enable modern molecular-based experiments that will greatly contribute to our understanding of multiple aspects of tapeworm biology, such as growth and reproduction. As part of our efforts to develop molecular tools for experiments on H. diminuta, we have characterized a battery of lectins, antibodies, and common stains that label different tapeworm tissues and organ structures. Using confocal microscopy, we have assembled an "atlas" of H. diminuta organ architecture that will be a useful resource for helminthologists. The methodologies we describe will facilitate characterization of loss-of-function perturbations using H. diminuta. This toolkit will enable a greater understanding of fundamental tapeworm biology that may elucidate new therapeutic targets toward the eradication of these parasites. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. A new combination and a new species of onchobothriid tapeworm (Cestoda: Tetraphyllidea: Onchobothriidae) from triakid sharks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurashima, Akira; Shimizu, Toshiya; Mano, Nobuhiro; Ogawa, Kazuo; Fujita, Toshihiko

    2014-05-01

    A new combination and a new species of onchobothriid tapeworm are described from triakid sharks. We found Platybothrium xiamenensis Wang & Yang, 2001 and Erudituncus musteli (Yamaguti, 1952) from Hemitriakis japanica (Müller & Henle). Based on the morphology of the hooks P. xiamenensis is transferred to the genus Erudituncus Healy, Scholz & Caira, 2001. The specimens studied by us differ from the original description in the number of proglottids and testes and in the size of the cirrus-sac. However, we consider them conspecific with E. xiamenensis due to the consistent hook morphology and laciniations in both descriptions and believe the differences reflect intraspecific variation. The type-host of E. xiamenensis was reported as Mustelus griseus Pietschmann. However, in the present study, this parasite was found only in H. japanica and never in M. griseus although many specimens of the latter host were examined. This suggests that the type-host in the original description has probably been misidentified. We found another undescribed species in M. griseus, Calliobothrium shirozame n. sp., which is distinguished from the congeners by having a unique combination of the number of laciniations: four in the cephalic peduncle, six in the immature proglottids and four in the mature proglottids.

  8. Tapeworm Diphyllobothrium dendriticum (Cestoda)--neglected or emerging human parasite?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuchta, Roman; Brabec, Jan; Kubáčková, Petra; Scholz, Tomáš

    2013-01-01

    A total number of 14 valid species of Diphyllobothrium tapeworms have been described in literature to be capable of causing diphyllobothriosis, with D. latum being the major causative agent of all human infections. However, recent data indicate that some of these infections, especially when diagnosed solely on the basis of morphology, have been identified with this causative agent incorrectly, confusing other Diphyllobothrium species with D. latum. Another widely distributed species, D. dendriticum, has never been considered as a frequent parasite of man, even though it is found commonly throughout arctic and subarctic regions parasitizing piscivorous birds and mammals. Recent cases of Europeans infected with this cestode called into question the actual geographic distribution of this tapeworm, largely ignored by medical parasitologists. On the basis of revision of more than 900 available references and a description and revision of recent European human cases using morphological and molecular (cox1) data supplemented by newly characterized D. dendriticum sequences, we updated the current knowledge of the life-cycle, geographic distribution, epidemiological status, and molecular diagnostics of this emerging causal agent of zoonotic disease of man. The tapeworm D. dendriticum represents an example of a previously neglected, probably underdiagnosed parasite of man with a potential to spread globally. Recent cases of diphyllobothriosis caused by D. dendriticum in Europe (Netherlands, Switzerland and Czech Republic), where the parasite has not been reported previously, point out that causative agents of diphyllobothriosis and other zoonoses can be imported throughout the world. Molecular tools should be used for specific and reliable parasite diagnostics, and also rare or non-native species should be considered. This will considerably help improve our knowledge of the distribution and epidemiology of these human parasites.

  9. Tapeworm Diphyllobothrium dendriticum (Cestoda--neglected or emerging human parasite?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman Kuchta

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A total number of 14 valid species of Diphyllobothrium tapeworms have been described in literature to be capable of causing diphyllobothriosis, with D. latum being the major causative agent of all human infections. However, recent data indicate that some of these infections, especially when diagnosed solely on the basis of morphology, have been identified with this causative agent incorrectly, confusing other Diphyllobothrium species with D. latum. Another widely distributed species, D. dendriticum, has never been considered as a frequent parasite of man, even though it is found commonly throughout arctic and subarctic regions parasitizing piscivorous birds and mammals. Recent cases of Europeans infected with this cestode called into question the actual geographic distribution of this tapeworm, largely ignored by medical parasitologists. METHODOLOGY AND RESULTS: On the basis of revision of more than 900 available references and a description and revision of recent European human cases using morphological and molecular (cox1 data supplemented by newly characterized D. dendriticum sequences, we updated the current knowledge of the life-cycle, geographic distribution, epidemiological status, and molecular diagnostics of this emerging causal agent of zoonotic disease of man. CONCLUSIONS: The tapeworm D. dendriticum represents an example of a previously neglected, probably underdiagnosed parasite of man with a potential to spread globally. Recent cases of diphyllobothriosis caused by D. dendriticum in Europe (Netherlands, Switzerland and Czech Republic, where the parasite has not been reported previously, point out that causative agents of diphyllobothriosis and other zoonoses can be imported throughout the world. Molecular tools should be used for specific and reliable parasite diagnostics, and also rare or non-native species should be considered. This will considerably help improve our knowledge of the distribution and epidemiology of

  10. Photoreactivating enzyme activity in the rat tapeworm, Hymenolepis diminuta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woodhead, A.D. (Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY); Achey, P.M.

    1981-01-01

    There has been considerable speculation about the occurrence of photoreactivating enzyme in different organisms and about its biologic purpose. We have developed a simple, sensitive assay for estimating pyrimidine dimers in DNA which is useful in making a rapid survey for the presence of the enzyme. Using this method, we have found photoreactivating enzyme activity in the tissues of the rat tapeworm, Hymenolepis diminuta. This parasite spends the majority of its life span in the bodies of its definitive or intermediate hosts, but a period is spent externally. We suggest that photoreactivating enzyme may be important in perserving the integrity of embryonic DNA during this free-living stage.

  11. Photoreactivating enzyme activity in the rat tapeworm, Hymenolepis diminuta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woodhead, A.D.; Achey, P.M.

    1981-06-01

    There has been considerable speculation about the occurrence of photoreactivating enzyme in different organisms and about its biological purpose. We have developed a simple, sensitive assay for estimating pyrimidine dimers in DNA which is useful in making a rapid survey for the presence of the enzyme. Using this method, we have found photoreactivating enzyme activity in the tissues of the rat tapeworm Hymenolepis diminuta. This parasite spends the majority of its life span in the bodies of its definitive or intermediate hosts, but a period is spent externally. We suggest that photoreactivating enzyme may be important in preserving the integrity of embryonic DNA during this free-living stage.

  12. Orders out of chaos--molecular phylogenetics reveals the complexity of shark and stingray tapeworm relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caira, Janine N; Jensen, Kirsten; Waeschenbach, Andrea; Olson, Peter D; Littlewood, D Timothy J

    2014-01-01

    elasmobranch cestodes. Across analyses, the sister group to the clade of "terrestrial" cestode orders was found to be an elasmobranch-hosted genus, as was the sister to the freshwater fish- and tetrapod-hosted Proteocephalidea. Whilst further data are required to resolve outstanding nomenclatural and phylogenetic issues, the present analyses contribute significantly to an understanding of the evolutionary radiation of the entire Cestoda. Clearly, elasmobranch tapeworms comprise the backbone of cestode phylogeny. Copyright © 2013 Australian Society for Parasitology Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Orders out of chaos – molecular phylogenetics reveals the complexity of shark and stingray tapeworm relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caira, Janine N.; Jensen, Kirsten; Waeschenbach, Andrea; Olson, Peter D.; Littlewood, D. Timothy J.

    2014-01-01

    cestodes. Across analyses, the sister group to the clade of “terrestrial” cestode orders was found to be an elasmobranch-hosted genus; as was the sister to the freshwater fish and tetrapod-hosted Proteocephalidea. Whilst further data are required to resolve outstanding nomenclatural and phylogenetic issues, the present analyses contribute significantly to an understanding of the evolutionary radiation of the entire Cestoda. Clearly, elasmobranch tapeworms comprise the backbone of cestode phylogeny. PMID:24275646

  14. Spatial relationship between Taenia solium tapeworm carriers and necropsy cyst burden in pigs.

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    Ian W Pray

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Taenia solium, a parasite that affects humans and pigs, is the leading cause of preventable epilepsy in the developing world. Geographic hotspots of pigs testing positive for serologic markers of T. solium exposure have been observed surrounding the locations of human tapeworm carriers. This clustered pattern of seropositivity in endemic areas formed the basis for geographically targeted control interventions, which have been effective at reducing transmission. In this study, we further explore the spatial relationship between human tapeworm carriers and infected pigs using necroscopic examination as a quantitative gold-standard diagnostic to detect viable T. solium cyst infection in pigs.We performed necroscopic examinations on pigs from 7 villages in northern Peru to determine the number of viable T. solium cysts in each pig. Participating humans in the study villages were tested for T. solium tapeworm infection (i.e., taeniasis with an ELISA coproantigen assay, and the distances from each pig to its nearest human tapeworm carrier were calculated. We assessed the relationship between proximity to a tapeworm carrier and the prevalence of light, moderate, and heavy cyst burden in pigs. The prevalence of pig infection was greatest within 50 meters of a tapeworm carrier and decreased monotonically as distance increased. Pigs living less than 50 meters from a human tapeworm carrier were 4.6 times more likely to be infected with at least one cyst than more distant pigs. Heavier cyst burdens, however, were not more strongly associated with proximity to tapeworm carriers than light cyst burdens.Our study shows that human tapeworm carriers and pigs with viable T. solium cyst infection are geographically correlated in endemic areas. This finding supports control strategies that treat humans and pigs based on their proximity to other infected individuals. We did not, however, find sufficient evidence that heavier cyst burdens in pigs would serve as

  15. Spatial relationship between Taenia solium tapeworm carriers and necropsy cyst burden in pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pray, Ian W; Ayvar, Viterbo; Gamboa, Ricardo; Muro, Claudio; Moyano, Luz M; Benavides, Victor; Flecker, Robert H; Garcia, Hector H; O'Neal, Seth E

    2017-04-01

    Taenia solium, a parasite that affects humans and pigs, is the leading cause of preventable epilepsy in the developing world. Geographic hotspots of pigs testing positive for serologic markers of T. solium exposure have been observed surrounding the locations of human tapeworm carriers. This clustered pattern of seropositivity in endemic areas formed the basis for geographically targeted control interventions, which have been effective at reducing transmission. In this study, we further explore the spatial relationship between human tapeworm carriers and infected pigs using necroscopic examination as a quantitative gold-standard diagnostic to detect viable T. solium cyst infection in pigs. We performed necroscopic examinations on pigs from 7 villages in northern Peru to determine the number of viable T. solium cysts in each pig. Participating humans in the study villages were tested for T. solium tapeworm infection (i.e., taeniasis) with an ELISA coproantigen assay, and the distances from each pig to its nearest human tapeworm carrier were calculated. We assessed the relationship between proximity to a tapeworm carrier and the prevalence of light, moderate, and heavy cyst burden in pigs. The prevalence of pig infection was greatest within 50 meters of a tapeworm carrier and decreased monotonically as distance increased. Pigs living less than 50 meters from a human tapeworm carrier were 4.6 times more likely to be infected with at least one cyst than more distant pigs. Heavier cyst burdens, however, were not more strongly associated with proximity to tapeworm carriers than light cyst burdens. Our study shows that human tapeworm carriers and pigs with viable T. solium cyst infection are geographically correlated in endemic areas. This finding supports control strategies that treat humans and pigs based on their proximity to other infected individuals. We did not, however, find sufficient evidence that heavier cyst burdens in pigs would serve as improved targets for

  16. Target gene enrichment in the cyclophyllidean cestodes, the most diverse group of tapeworms

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Cyclophyllidea is the most diverse order of tapeworms, encompassing species that infect all classes of terrestrial tetrapods including humans and domesticated animals. Available phylogenetic reconstructions based either on morphology or molecular data lack the resolution to allow scientists to ...

  17. Immunogenicity and phylogenetic relationship of tapeworm antigens produced by Hymenolepis nana and Hymenolepis diminuta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, R. M.; Carty, Janice M.; Graziadei, W. D.

    1968-01-01

    The tapeworms Hymenolepis nana and H. diminuta share three major antigens in the cell sap. Two of these show identical specificity while the third exhibits common as well as uncommon determinants peculiar to the dwarf tapeworm, H. nana. Shared antigens are not, however, immunogenic during infection of mice with the dwarf tapeworm although there is a well defined response to specific antigens. On the other hand infection of rats with H. diminuta elicits a weak response yielding serum antibodies which cross-react with the dwarf tapeworm. Cross-reactive antibodies engendered in rabbits against worm homogenates are insensitive to mercaptoethanol treatment whereas non-cross-reactive antibodies present at 3 weeks post-infection with the dwarf tapeworm are primarily IgM globulins. The rapid formation and subsequent release of these antigens may relate to a persistence of immunogenicity. Antibody levels reach a peak after a 4-week period of infection and the drop in titre observed at 6 weeks is preceded by a reduction in worm load. Resistance to infection following artificial immunization with worm homogenates is consistent with that developed as a result of actual infection with the dwarf tapeworm. Over one-half of mice immunized did not become infected following challenge with ova. Worm loads of mice that did become infected were reduced to approximately 1 per cent that of non-immunized animals. PMID:5673286

  18. Asian fish tapeworm Bothriocephalus acheilognathi in the desert southwestern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archdeacon, Thomas P; Iles, Alison; Kline, S Jason; Bonar, Scott A

    2010-12-01

    The Asian fish tapeworm Bothriocephalus acheilognathi (Cestoda: Bothriocephalidea) is an introduced fish parasite in the southwestern United States and is often considered a serious threat to native desert fishes. Determining the geographic distribution of nonnative fish parasites is important for recovery efforts of native fishes. We examined 1,140 individuals belonging to nine fish species from southwestern U.S. streams and springs between January 2005 and April 2007. The Asian fish tapeworm was present in the Gila River, Salt River, Verde River, San Pedro River, Aravaipa Creek, and Fossil Creek, Arizona, and in Lake Tuendae at Zzyzx Springs and Afton Canyon of the Mojave River, California. Overall prevalence of the Asian fish tapeworm in Arizona fish populations was 19% (range = 0-100%) and varied by location, time, and fish species. In California, the prevalence, abundance, and intensity of the Asian fish tapeworm in Mohave tui chub Gila bicolor mohavensis were higher during warmer months than during cooler months. Three new definitive host species--Yaqui chub G. purpurea, headwater chub G. nigra, and longfin dace agosia chrysogaster--were identified. Widespread occurrence of the Asian fish tapeworm in southwestern U.S. waters suggests that the lack of detection in other systems where nonnative fishes occur is due to a lack of effort as opposed to true absence of the parasite. To limit further spread of diseases to small, isolated systems, we recommend treatment for both endo- and exoparasites when management actions include translocation of fishes.

  19. Tapeworm eggs in a 270 million-year-old shark coprolite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dentzien-Dias, Paula C; Poinar, George; de Figueiredo, Ana Emilia Q; Pacheco, Ana Carolina L; Horn, Bruno L D; Schultz, Cesar L

    2013-01-01

    Remains of parasites in vertebrates are rare from the Mesozoic and Paleozoic. Once most parasites that live in - or pass through - the gastrointestinal tract of vertebrates, fossil feces (coprolites) or even intestinal contents (enterolites) can eventually preserve their remains. Here we announce the discovery of a spiral shark coprolite from the Paleozoic bearing a cluster of 93 small oval-elliptical smooth-shelled structures, interpreted as eggs of a tapeworm.The eggs were found in a thin section of an elasmobranch coprolite. Most of the eggs are filled by pyrite and some have a special polar swelling (operculum), suggesting they are non-erupted eggs. One of the eggs contains a probable developing larva. The eggs are approximately 145-155 µm in length and 88-100 µm in width and vary little in size within the cluster. The depositional and morphological features of the eggs closely resemble those of cestodes. Not only do the individual eggs have features of extant tapeworms, but their deposition all together in an elongate segment is typical to modern tapeworm eggs deposited in mature segments (proglottids). This is the earliest fossil record of tapeworm parasitism of vertebrates and establishes a timeline for the evolution of cestodes. This discovery shows that the fossil record of vertebrate intestinal parasites is much older than was hitherto known and that the interaction between tapeworms and vertebrates occurred at least since the Middle-Late Permian.

  20. Tapeworm Eggs in a 270 Million-Year-Old Shark Coprolite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dentzien-Dias, Paula C.; Poinar, George; de Figueiredo, Ana Emilia Q.; Pacheco, Ana Carolina L.; Horn, Bruno L. D.; Schultz, Cesar L.

    2013-01-01

    Remains of parasites in vertebrates are rare from the Mesozoic and Paleozoic. Once most parasites that live in – or pass through – the gastrointestinal tract of vertebrates, fossil feces (coprolites) or even intestinal contents (enterolites) can eventually preserve their remains. Here we announce the discovery of a spiral shark coprolite from the Paleozoic bearing a cluster of 93 small oval-elliptical smooth-shelled structures, interpreted as eggs of a tapeworm.The eggs were found in a thin section of an elasmobranch coprolite. Most of the eggs are filled by pyrite and some have a special polar swelling (operculum), suggesting they are non-erupted eggs. One of the eggs contains a probable developing larva. The eggs are approximately 145–155 µm in length and 88–100 µm in width and vary little in size within the cluster. The depositional and morphological features of the eggs closely resemble those of cestodes. Not only do the individual eggs have features of extant tapeworms, but their deposition all together in an elongate segment is typical to modern tapeworm eggs deposited in mature segments (proglottids). This is the earliest fossil record of tapeworm parasitism of vertebrates and establishes a timeline for the evolution of cestodes. This discovery shows that the fossil record of vertebrate intestinal parasites is much older than was hitherto known and that the interaction between tapeworms and vertebrates occurred at least since the Middle-Late Permian. PMID:23383033

  1. Tapeworm eggs in a 270 million-year-old shark coprolite.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula C Dentzien-Dias

    Full Text Available Remains of parasites in vertebrates are rare from the Mesozoic and Paleozoic. Once most parasites that live in - or pass through - the gastrointestinal tract of vertebrates, fossil feces (coprolites or even intestinal contents (enterolites can eventually preserve their remains. Here we announce the discovery of a spiral shark coprolite from the Paleozoic bearing a cluster of 93 small oval-elliptical smooth-shelled structures, interpreted as eggs of a tapeworm.The eggs were found in a thin section of an elasmobranch coprolite. Most of the eggs are filled by pyrite and some have a special polar swelling (operculum, suggesting they are non-erupted eggs. One of the eggs contains a probable developing larva. The eggs are approximately 145-155 µm in length and 88-100 µm in width and vary little in size within the cluster. The depositional and morphological features of the eggs closely resemble those of cestodes. Not only do the individual eggs have features of extant tapeworms, but their deposition all together in an elongate segment is typical to modern tapeworm eggs deposited in mature segments (proglottids. This is the earliest fossil record of tapeworm parasitism of vertebrates and establishes a timeline for the evolution of cestodes. This discovery shows that the fossil record of vertebrate intestinal parasites is much older than was hitherto known and that the interaction between tapeworms and vertebrates occurred at least since the Middle-Late Permian.

  2. The invasive fish tapeworm Atractolytocestus huronensis (Cestoda), a parasite of carp, colonises Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholz, Tomáš; Tavakol, Sareh; Halajian, Ali; Luus-Powell, Wilmien J

    2015-09-01

    Biological invasions represent a serious threat for aquaculture because many of introduced parasites may negatively affect the health state of feral and cultured fish. In the present account, the invasive tapeworm Atractolytocestus huronensis Anthony, 1958 (Cestoda: Caryophyllidea), which was originally described from North America and has been introduced to Europe including the British Isles with its specific host, common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.), is reported from Africa for the first time. Its recent introduction to South Africa, where it was found in four localities where common carp is cultured, is another evidence of insufficient prophylactic measures and inadequate veterinary control during transfers of cultured fish, especially common carp, between continents. Together with the Asian fish tapeworm, Bothriocephalus acheilognathi, A. huronensis is another fish tapeworm with ability to spread throughout the globe as a result of man-made introductions of its fish hosts.

  3. Lanfrediella amphicirrus gen. nov. sp. nov. Nematotaeniidae (Cestoda: Cyclophyllidea), a tapeworm parasite of Rhinella marina (Linnaeus, 1758) (Amphibia: Bufonidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo, Francisco Tiago de Vasconcelos; Giese, Elane Guerreiro; Furtado, Adriano Penha; Soares, Maurílio José; Gonçalves, Evonnildo Costa; Vallinoto, Antonio Carlos Rosário; Santos, Jeannie Nascimento dos

    2011-09-01

    The family Nematotaeniidae, tapeworms commonly found in the small intestines of amphibians and reptiles, includes 27 recognised species distributed among four genera: Bitegmen Jones, Cylindrotaenia Jewell, Distoichometra Dickey and Nematotaenia Lühe. The taxonomy of these cestodes is poorly defined, due in part to the difficulties of observing many anatomical traits. This study presents and describes a new genus and species of nematotaeniid parasite found in cane toads (Rhinella marina) from eastern Brazilian Amazonia. The cestodes were collected during the necropsy of 20 hosts captured in the urban area of Belém, Pará. The specimens were fixed and processed for light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction. Samples were also collected for molecular analyses. The specimens presented a cylindrical body, two testes and paruterine organs. However, they could not be allocated to any of the four existing nematotaeniid genera due to the presence of two each of dorsal compact medullary testes, cirri, cirrus pouches, genital pores, ovaries and vitelline glands per mature segment. Lanfrediella amphicirrus gen. nov. sp. nov. is the first nematotaeniid studied using Historesin analysis, SEM and 3D reconstruction, and it is the second taxon for which molecular data have been deposited in GenBank.

  4. Lanfrediella amphicirrus gen. nov. sp. nov. Nematotaeniidae (Cestoda: Cyclophyllidea, a tapeworm parasite of Rhinella marina (Linnaeus, 1758 (Amphibia: Bufonidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Tiago de Vasconcelos Melo

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The family Nematotaeniidae, tapeworms commonly found in the small intestines of amphibians and reptiles, includes 27 recognised species distributed among four genera: Bitegmen Jones, Cylindrotaenia Jewell, Distoichometra Dickey and Nematotaenia Lühe. The taxonomy of these cestodes is poorly defined, due in part to the difficulties of observing many anatomical traits. This study presents and describes a new genus and species of nematotaeniid parasite found in cane toads (Rhinella marina from eastern Brazilian Amazonia. The cestodes were collected during the necropsy of 20 hosts captured in the urban area of Belém, Pará. The specimens were fixed and processed for light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM and three-dimensional (3D reconstruction. Samples were also collected for molecular analyses. The specimens presented a cylindrical body, two testes and paruterine organs. However, they could not be allocated to any of the four existing nematotaeniid genera due to the presence of two each of dorsal compact medullary testes, cirri, cirrus pouches, genital pores, ovaries and vitelline glands per mature segment. Lanfrediella amphicirrus gen. nov. sp. nov. is the first nematotaeniid studied using Historesin analysis, SEM and 3D reconstruction, and it is the second taxon for which molecular data have been deposited in GenBank.

  5. What is the genus?

    CERN Document Server

    Popescu-Pampu, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    Exploring several of the evolutionary branches of the mathematical notion of genus, this book traces the idea from its prehistory in problems of integration, through algebraic curves and their associated Riemann surfaces, into algebraic surfaces, and finally into higher dimensions. Its importance in analysis, algebraic geometry, number theory and topology is emphasized through many theorems. Almost every chapter is organized around excerpts from a research paper in which a new perspective was brought on the genus or on one of the objects to which this notion applies. The author was motivated by the belief that a subject may best be understood and communicated by studying its broad lines of development, feeling the way one arrives at the definitions of its fundamental notions, and appreciating the amount of effort spent in order to explore its phenomena.

  6. Anthelmintic efficacy of Clerodendrum viscosum on fowl tapeworm Raillietina tetragona.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandi, Suranjana; Ukil, Bidisha; Roy, Saptarshi; Kundu, Suman; Lyndem, Larisha Mawkhlieng

    2017-12-01

    Clerodendrum viscosum Vent. (Verbenaceae) is a shrub, widely used amongst the natives of India against various diseases. Crude extract of the plant was tested in vitro on a tapeworm Raillietina tetragona Molin (Davaineidae) to evaluate its potential anthelmintic efficacy and ultrastructural changes in the parasite. Parasites were exposed to different concentrations of ethanolic leaf extract (10-80 mg/mL) and praziquantel (0.0005-0.005 mg/mL) and incubated in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS). The pH was 7.4 at 37 °C, while one set of worms was incubated only with PBS as a control. Permanent immobilization of worms was determined visually when no motility occurred on physically disturbing them. The parasites exposed to high concentrations of leaf extract and praziquantel treatments were processed for histological and electron microscopic studies, as these concentrations took the least time for paralysis and death to occur. With an increase in the concentration of the leaf extract from 10 to 80 mg/mL and praziquantel from 0.0005 to 0.005 mg/mL, the time for the onset of paralysis and death was shortened. The treated parasites lost their spontaneous movement rapidly followed by death. Electron microscopic observations revealed disruptions in the tegument and parenchymal layer, accompanied by deformities in cell organelles. Extensive structural alterations in the tegument indicate that the plant-derived components cause permeability changes in the parasite leading to paralysis and subsequent death. These observations suggest that phytochemicals present in C. viscosum have vermifugal or vermicidal activity, and thus may be exploited as alternative chemotherapeutic agents.

  7. Annoying vacation souvenir: Fish tapeworm (Diphyllobothrium sp.) infestation in an Austrian fisherman.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stadlbauer, Vanessa; Haberl, Renate; Langner, Cord; Krejs, Günter J; Eherer, Andreas

    2005-11-01

    Diphyllobothriosis is infestation with the fish tapeworm. Although the worldwide incidence has decreased in recent decades, increased travel and the new popularity of dishes involving raw fish (e.g. sushi) may provide a higher risk of infestation in formerly low-risk areas. We report an Austrian fisherman who passed a 75 cm tapeworm segment in his stool. Infestation presumably occurred 14 months earlier during a fishing tour in Alaska. At presentation, the patient was asymptomatic, reported no weight loss and showed neither anaemia nor eosinophilia. He was cured with a single dose of 10 mg/kg body weight praziquantel.

  8. The complete mitochondrial genome of the tapeworm Cladotaenia vulturi (Cestoda: Paruterinidae): gene arrangement and phylogenetic relationships with other cestodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Aijiang

    2016-08-31

    Tapeworms Cladotaenia spp. are among the most important wildlife pathogens in birds of prey. The genus Cladotaenia is placed in the family Paruterinidae based on morphological characteristics and hosts. However, limited molecular information is available for studying the phylogenetic position of this genus in relation to other cestodes. In this study, the complete mitochondrial (mt) genome of Cladotaenia vulturi was amplified using "Long-PCR" and then sequenced by primer walking. Sequence annotation and gene identification were performed by comparison with published flatworm mt genomes. The phylogenetic relationships of C. vulturi with other cestode species were established using the concatenated amino acid sequences of 12 protein-coding genes with Bayesian Inference and Maximum Likelihood methods. The complete mitochondrial genome of the Cladotaenia vulturi is 13,411 kb in size and contains 36 genes. The gene arrangement of C. vulturi is identical to those in Anoplocephala spp. (Anoplocephalidae), Hymenolepis spp. (Hymenolepididae) and Dipylidium caninum (Dipylidiidae), but different from that in taeniids owing to the order shift between the tRNA (L1) and tRNA (S2) genes. Phylogenetic analyses based on the amino acid sequences of the concatenated 12 protein-coding genes showed that the species in the Taeniidae form a group and C. vulturi is a sister taxon to the species of the family Taeniidae. To our knowledge, the present study provides the first molecular data to support the early proposal from morphological evidence that the Taeniidae is a sister group to the family Paruterinidae. This novel mt genome sequence will be useful for further investigations into the population genetics, phylogenetics and systematics of the family Paruterinidae and inferring phylogenetic relationships among several lineages within the order Cyclophyllidea.

  9. Geographic Correlation between Tapeworm Carriers and Heavily Infected Cysticercotic Pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neal, Seth E.; Moyano, Luz M.; Ayvar, Viterbo; Gonzalvez, Guillermo; Diaz, Andre; Rodriguez, Silvia; Wilkins, Patricia P.; Tsang, Victor C. W.; Gilman, Robert H.; Garcia, Hector H.; Gonzalez, Armando E.

    2012-01-01

    Background Neurocysticercosis is a leading cause of preventable epilepsy in the developing world. Sustainable community-based interventions are urgently needed to control transmission of the causative parasite, Taenia solium. We examined the geospatial relationship between live pigs with visible cysticercotic cysts on their tongues and humans with adult intestinal tapeworm infection (taeniasis) in a rural village in northern Peru. The objective was to determine whether tongue-positive pigs could indicate high-risk geographic foci for taeniasis to guide targeted screening efforts. This approach could offer significant benefit compared to mass intervention. Methods We recorded geographic coordinates of all village houses, collected stool samples from all consenting villagers, and collected blood and examined tongues of all village pigs. Stool samples were processed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for presence of Taenia sp. coproantigens indicative of active taeniasis; serum was processed by enzyme-linked immunoelectrotransfer blot for antibodies against T. solium cysticercosis (EITB LLGP) and T. solium taeniasis (EITB rES33). Findings Of 548 pigs, 256 (46.7%) were positive for antibodies against cysticercosis on EITB LLGP. Of 402 fecal samples, 6 (1.5%) were positive for the presence of Taenia sp. coproantigens. The proportion of coproantigen-positive individuals differed significantly between residents living within 100-meters of a tongue-positive pig (4/79, 5.1%) and residents living >100 meters from a tongue-positive pig (2/323, 0.6%) (p = 0.02). The prevalence of taeniasis was >8 times higher among residents living within 100 meters of a tongue-positive pig compared to residents living outside this range (adjusted PR 8.1, 95% CI 1.4–47.0). Conclusions Tongue-positive pigs in endemic communities can indicate geospatial foci in which the risk for taeniasis is increased. Targeted screening or presumptive treatment for taeniasis within these high

  10. The complete mitochondrial genome of the dwarf tapeworm Hymenolepis nana--a neglected zoonotic helminth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Tian; Liu, Guo-Hua; Song, Hui-Qun; Lin, Rui-Qing; Zhu, Xing-Quan

    2016-03-01

    Hymenolepis nana, commonly known as the dwarf tapeworm, is one of the most common tapeworms of humans and rodents and can cause hymenolepiasis. Although this zoonotic tapeworm is of socio-economic significance in many countries of the world, its genetics, systematics, epidemiology, and biology are poorly understood. In the present study, we sequenced and characterized the complete mitochondrial (mt) genome of H. nana. The mt genome is 13,764 bp in size and encodes 36 genes, including 12 protein-coding genes, 2 ribosomal RNA, and 22 transfer RNA genes. All genes are transcribed in the same direction. The gene order and genome content are completely identical with their congener Hymenolepis diminuta. Phylogenetic analyses based on concatenated amino acid sequences of 12 protein-coding genes by Bayesian inference, Maximum likelihood, and Maximum parsimony showed the division of class Cestoda into two orders, supported the monophylies of both the orders Cyclophyllidea and Pseudophyllidea. Analyses of mt genome sequences also support the monophylies of the three families Taeniidae, Hymenolepididae, and Diphyllobothriidae. This novel mt genome provides a useful genetic marker for studying the molecular epidemiology, systematics, and population genetics of the dwarf tapeworm and should have implications for the diagnosis, prevention, and control of hymenolepiasis in humans.

  11. The effect of herbivore faeces on the edaphic mite community: implications for tapeworm transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Václav, Radovan; Kalúz, Stanislav

    2014-03-01

    Oribatid mites may be of epidemiological and medical importance because several species have been shown to serve as intermediate hosts for anoplocephalid tapeworms of wild and domestic animals. Despite their economic and conservation significance, relatively few studies examined factors influencing the effective number of oribatid mites that can serve as intermediate hosts. We examined variation in the structure of the edaphic arthropod community in functionally different territory parts of the Alpine marmot (Marmota marmota latirostris), a known definitive host of a prevalent anoplocephalid tapeworm, Ctenotaenia marmotae. We used a field experiment to test whether the abundance of oribatid mites in marmot pastures is affected by the presence of fresh herbivore faeces. We found that the abundance of soil and litter dwelling oribatid mites in marmot pastures did not change shortly after faeces addition. In contrast, numbers of other predominant soil-litter and phoretic microarthropods increased after faeces addition. The abundance of the two predominant phoretic mites colonizing the faeces was inversely related to the abundance of oribatid mites. In contrast, the abundance of a ubiquitous soil-litter mesostigmatid mite was a positive function of oribatid numbers. Although absolute numbers of oribatid mites did not change after faeces addition, our study suggests that, depending on soil quality or type, the probability of tapeworm egg ingestion by oribatid mites can be reduced due to increased interspecific prey-predatory and trophic interactions. Latrine site selection in Alpine marmots is consistent with a reduced probability of tapeworm transmission by oribatids.

  12. Data on the prevalence of tapeworm infestations in horses in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borgsteede, F.H.M.; Beek, van G.

    1996-01-01

    The prevalence of tapeworm infestations was investigated in 70 horses slaughtered in the period February 1994 - July 1994. Most horses were half-breed, young (1.5 - 3 years), and in good condition. They were bought for slaughter by dealers on local markets, and their treatment history was therefore

  13. Genetics of the pig tapeworm in Madagascar reveal a history of human dispersal and colonization

    Science.gov (United States)

    An intricate history of human dispersal and geographic colonization has strongly affected the distribution of obligate parasites circulating among people. Among these parasites, the pig tapeworm Taenia solium occurs throughout the world as the causative agent of cysticercosis, one of the most serio...

  14. Novel praziquantel treatment regime for controlling Asian tapeworm infections in pond-reared fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iles, Alison C.; Archdeacon, Thomas P.; Bonar, Scott A.

    2012-01-01

    The Asian tapeworm Bothriocephalus achelognathii is an intestinal fish parasite that is nonnative to but widespread throughout the southwestern United States. Praziquantel is an anthelminthic drug commonly used to treat fish for Asian tapeworm; however, it does not kill tapeworm eggs, so the water in ponds used for fish rearing must be exchanged after treatment. Our objective was to determine whether a system containing both an intermediate copepod host and a definitive fish host for Asian tapeworm could be treated without exchanging the water by using a follow-up treatment for any tapeworms that developed from eggs released before or during the first treatment. Here, we have described a new praziquantel treatment regimen to control Asian tapeworm infections in freshwater-reared fish. To evaluate the efficacy of this regimen, we stocked 50 red shiners Cyprinella lutrensis and an intermediate copepod host, Cyclops vernalis, into each of six pond mesocosms containing artificial macrophytes, sand, and gravel to simulate natural pools and provide suitable substrate for the copepod's life history. The test fish population had been naturally infected with B. achelognathii and had an initial infection prevalence of 14% and an infection intensity of 2.14 ± 2.19 (mean ± SD) worms per fish. Three mesocosms were treated twice, each with 2.5 mg/L praziquantel; 19 d passed between treatments to allow for possible reinfection to occur. After a 2.5-month posttreatment period to allow any remaining tapeworms to reestablish themselves, we killed and dissected all of the remaining fish. No worms were found in treated fish; however, the control group had an infection prevalence of 18 ± 6% and an infection intensity of 3.45 ± 2.1 worms per fish. Based on these results, we concluded that the praziquantel treatment regime administered was efficacious and suggest testing it on a larger scale. We caution that praziquantel has not been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration

  15. Insights using a molecular approach into the life cycle of a tapeworm infecting great white sharks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randhawa, Haseeb S

    2011-04-01

    The great white shark Carcharodon carcharias Linnaeus, 1758 is a versatile and fierce predator (and responsible for many shark attacks on humans). This apex predator feeds on a wide range of organisms including teleosts, other elasmobranchs, cephalopods, pinnipeds, and cetaceans. Although much is known about its diet, no trophic links have been empirically identified as being involved in the transmission of its tapeworm parasites. Recently, the use of molecular tools combined with phylogenetics has proven useful to identify larval and immature stages of marine tapeworms; utilization of the technique has been increasing rapidly. However, the usefulness of this approach remains limited by the availability of molecular data. Here, I employed gene sequence data from the D2 region of the large subunit of ribosomal DNA to link adults of the tapeworm Clistobothrium carcharodoni Dailey and Vogelbein, 1990 (Cestoda: Tetraphyllidea) to larvae for which sequence data for this gene are available. The sequences from the adult tapeworms were genetically identical (0% sequence divergence) to those available on GenBank for "SP" 'small' Scolex pleuronectis recovered from the striped dolphin (Stenella coeruleoalba) and Risso's dolphin (Grampus griseus). This study is the first to provide empirical evidence linking the trophic interaction between great white sharks and cetaceans as a definitive route for the successful transmission of a tetraphyllidean tapeworm. Using the intensity of infection data from this shark and from cetaceans as proxies for the extent of predation, I estimate that this individual shark would have consumed between 9 to 83 G. griseus , fresh, dead, or both, in its lifetime.

  16. New multiplex PCR method for the simultaneous diagnosis of the three known species of equine tapeworm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohórquez, G Alejandro; Luzón, Mónica; Martín-Hernández, Raquel; Meana, Aránzazu

    2015-01-15

    Although several techniques exist for the detection of equine tapeworms in serum and feces, the differential diagnosis of tapeworm infection is usually based on postmortem findings and the morphological identification of eggs in feces. In this study, a multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based method for the simultaneuos detection of Anoplocephala magna, Anoplocephala perfoliata and Anoplocephaloides mamillana has been developed and validated. The method simultaneously amplifies hypervariable SSUrRNA gene regions in the three tapeworm species in a single reaction using three pairs of primers, which exclusively amplify the internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS-2) in each target gene. The method was tested on three types of sample: (a) 1/10, 1/100, 1/500, 1/1000, 1/2000 and 1/5000 dilutions of 70 ng of genomic DNA of the three tapeworm species, (b) DNA extracted from negative aliquots of sediments of negative control fecal samples spiked with 500, 200, 100, 50 and 10 eggs (only for A. magna and A. perfoliata; no A. mamillana eggs available) and (c) DNA extracted from 80, 50, 40, 30, 10 and 1 egg per 2 μl of PCR reaction mix (only for A. magna and A. perfoliata; no A. mamillana eggs available). No amplification was observed against the DNA of Gasterophilus intestinalis, Parascaris equorum and Strongylus vulgaris. The multiplex PCR method emerged as specific for the three tapeworms and was able to identify as few as 50 eggs per fecal sample and as little as 0.7 ng of control genomic DNA obtained from the three species. The method proposed is able to differentiate infections caused by the two most frequent species A. magna or A. perfoliata when the eggs are present in feces and is also able to detect mixed infections by the three cestode species. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Development of microsatellite markers in Caryophyllaeus laticeps (Cestoda: Caryophyllidea), monozoic fish tapeworm, using next-generation sequencing approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Králová-Hromadová, Ivica; Minárik, Gabriel; Bazsalovicsová, Eva; Mikulíček, Peter; Oravcová, Alexandra; Pálková, Lenka; Hanzelová, Vladimíra

    2015-02-01

    Caryophyllaeus laticeps (Pallas 1781) (Cestoda: Caryophyllidea) is a monozoic tapeworm of cyprinid fishes with a distribution area that includes Europe, most of the Palaearctic Asia and northern Africa. Broad geographic distribution, wide range of definitive fish hosts and recently revealed high morphological plasticity of the parasite, which is not in an agreement with molecular findings, make this species to be an interesting model for population biology studies. Microsatellites (short tandem repeat (STR) markers), as predominant markers for population genetics, were designed for C. laticeps using a next-generation sequencing (NGS) approach. Out of 165 marker candidates, 61 yielded PCR products of the expected size and in 25 of the candidates a declared repetitive motif was confirmed by Sanger sequencing. After the fragment analysis, six loci were proved to be polymorphic and tested for heterozygosity, Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium and the presence of null alleles on 59 individuals coming from three geographically widely separated populations (Slovakia, Russia and UK). The number of alleles in particular loci and populations ranged from two to five. Significant deficit of heterozygotes and the presence of null alleles were found in one locus in all three populations. Other loci showed deviations from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium and the presence of null alleles only in some populations. In spite of relatively low polymorphism and the potential presence of null alleles, newly developed microsatellites may be applied as suitable markers in population genetic studies of C. laticeps.

  18. A Human Case of Zoonotic Dog Tapeworm, Dipylidium caninum (Eucestoda: Dilepidiidae), in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Peng; Zhang, Xi; Liu, Ruo Dan; Wang, Zhong Quan; Cui, Jing

    2017-02-01

    We described a human case of zoonotic dog tapeworm, Dipylidium caninum (Eucestoda: Dilepidiidae), rarely occurring in China. The mother of a 17 month-old boy noted the appearance of small white and active worms over a month period in her son's feces, but the boy was asymptomatic except mild diarrhea. We observed 3 tapeworm proglottids resembling cucumber seeds in his stool sample. Microscopically, each proglottid had 2 genital pores, 1 on each lateral edge, and numerous egg capsules in the uterus. The patient was successfully treated with a single oral dose of praziquantel. Adult worms were recovered in the diarrheic stool after praziquantel treatment and purgation. His family had household pet dogs for several years, and he might have acquired the infection by ingestion of infected fleas of his pet dogs. A history of dog or cat pets and flea bites may be important clues to diagnosis of D. caninum infection. The infected pets should also be treated.

  19. Comparative genomics reveals adaptive evolution of Asian tapeworm in switching to a new intermediate host.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shuai; Wang, Sen; Luo, Yingfeng; Xiao, Lihua; Luo, Xuenong; Gao, Shenghan; Dou, Yongxi; Zhang, Huangkai; Guo, Aijiang; Meng, Qingshu; Hou, Junling; Zhang, Bing; Zhang, Shaohua; Yang, Meng; Meng, Xuelian; Mei, Hailiang; Li, Hui; He, Zilong; Zhu, Xueliang; Tan, Xinyu; Zhu, Xing-Quan; Yu, Jun; Cai, Jianping; Zhu, Guan; Hu, Songnian; Cai, Xuepeng

    2016-09-22

    Taenia saginata, Taenia solium and Taenia asiatica (beef, pork and Asian tapeworms, respectively) are parasitic flatworms of major public health and food safety importance. Among them, T. asiatica is a newly recognized species that split from T. saginata via an intermediate host switch ∼1.14 Myr ago. Here we report the 169- and 168-Mb draft genomes of T. saginata and T. asiatica. Comparative analysis reveals that high rates of gene duplications and functional diversifications might have partially driven the divergence between T. asiatica and T. saginata. We observe accelerated evolutionary rates, adaptive evolutions in homeostasis regulation, tegument maintenance and lipid uptakes, and differential/specialized gene family expansions in T. asiatica that may favour its hepatotropism in the new intermediate host. We also identify potential targets for developing diagnostic or intervention tools against human tapeworms. These data provide new insights into the evolution of Taenia parasites, particularly the recent speciation of T. asiatica.

  20. New chromosome characteristics of the monozoic tapeworm Caryophyllaeus laticeps (Cestoda, Caryophyllidea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bombarová M.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The karyotype of a caryophyllidean tapeworm Caryophyllaeus laticeps (Pallas, 1781 from the freshwater bream Abramis brama (L. caught in the Slovak part of the River Tisa, was described and originally inspected for amount of heterochromatin and its chromosome localization. The chromosome set comprised nine metacentric and one submetacentric (No. 3 pairs (2n = 20. The chromosomes were up to 12.0 ± 2.5 μm long and the mean total length of haploid genome (TLC reached 80.6 μm that represents one of the highest yet recorded values among tapeworms. C-banding and staining with fl uorescent dyes DAPI and YOYO1 revealed a distinct banding pattern explicitly on chromosomes with centromeric bright heterochromatin bands present on all 10 chromosome pairs; no pair showed any interstitial heterochromatin. A complete course of spermatocyte meiosis and dynamics of nucleolus formation and degradation during meiotic division was described.

  1. Comparative genomics reveals adaptive evolution of Asian tapeworm in switching to a new intermediate host

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shuai; Wang, Sen; Luo, Yingfeng; Xiao, Lihua; Luo, Xuenong; Gao, Shenghan; Dou, Yongxi; Zhang, Huangkai; Guo, Aijiang; Meng, Qingshu; Hou, Junling; Zhang, Bing; Zhang, Shaohua; Yang, Meng; Meng, Xuelian; Mei, Hailiang; Li, Hui; He, Zilong; Zhu, Xueliang; Tan, Xinyu; Zhu, Xing-quan; Yu, Jun; Cai, Jianping; Zhu, Guan; Hu, Songnian; Cai, Xuepeng

    2016-01-01

    Taenia saginata, Taenia solium and Taenia asiatica (beef, pork and Asian tapeworms, respectively) are parasitic flatworms of major public health and food safety importance. Among them, T. asiatica is a newly recognized species that split from T. saginata via an intermediate host switch ∼1.14 Myr ago. Here we report the 169- and 168-Mb draft genomes of T. saginata and T. asiatica. Comparative analysis reveals that high rates of gene duplications and functional diversifications might have partially driven the divergence between T. asiatica and T. saginata. We observe accelerated evolutionary rates, adaptive evolutions in homeostasis regulation, tegument maintenance and lipid uptakes, and differential/specialized gene family expansions in T. asiatica that may favour its hepatotropism in the new intermediate host. We also identify potential targets for developing diagnostic or intervention tools against human tapeworms. These data provide new insights into the evolution of Taenia parasites, particularly the recent speciation of T. asiatica. PMID:27653464

  2. Taenia solium Cysticercosis Hotspots Surrounding Tapeworm Carriers: Clustering on Human Seroprevalence but Not on Seizures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lescano, Andres G.; Garcia, Hector H.; Gilman, Robert H.; Gavidia, Cesar M.; Tsang, Victor C. W.; Rodriguez, Silvia; Moulton, Lawrence H.; Villaran, Manuel V.; Montano, Silvia M.; Gonzalez, Armando E.

    2009-01-01

    Background Neurocysticercosis accounts for 30%–50% of all late-onset epilepsy in endemic countries. We assessed the clustering patterns of Taenia solium human cysticercosis seropositivity and seizures around tapeworm carriers in seven rural communities in Peru. Methodology The presence of T. solium–specific antibodies was defined as one or more positive bands in the enzyme-linked immunoelectrotransfer blot (EITB). Neurocysticercosis-related seizures cases were diagnosed clinically and had positive neuroimaging or EITB. Principal Findings Eleven tapeworm carriers were identified by stool microscopy. The seroprevalence of human cysticercosis was 24% (196/803). Seroprevalence was 21% >50 m from a carrier and increased to 32% at 1–50 m (p = 0.047), and from that distance seroprevalence had another significant increase to 64% at the homes of carriers (p = 0.004). Seizure prevalence was 3.0% (25/837) but there were no differences between any pair of distance ranges (p = 0.629, Wald test 2 degrees of freedom). Conclusion/Significance We observed a significant human cysticercosis seroprevalence gradient surrounding current tapeworm carriers, although cysticercosis-related seizures did not cluster around carriers. Due to differences in the timing of the two outcomes, seroprevalence may reflect recent T. solium exposure more accurately than seizure frequency. PMID:19172178

  3. Genetics of the pig tapeworm in madagascar reveal a history of human dispersal and colonization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanagida, Tetsuya; Carod, Jean-François; Sako, Yasuhito; Nakao, Minoru; Hoberg, Eric P; Ito, Akira

    2014-01-01

    An intricate history of human dispersal and geographic colonization has strongly affected the distribution of human pathogens. The pig tapeworm Taenia solium occurs throughout the world as the causative agent of cysticercosis, one of the most serious neglected tropical diseases. Discrete genetic lineages of T. solium in Asia and Africa/Latin America are geographically disjunct; only in Madagascar are they sympatric. Linguistic, archaeological and genetic evidence has indicated that the people in Madagascar have mixed ancestry from Island Southeast Asia and East Africa. Hence, anthropogenic introduction of the tapeworm from Southeast Asia and Africa had been postulated. This study shows that the major mitochondrial haplotype of T. solium in Madagascar is closely related to those from the Indian Subcontinent. Parasitological evidence presented here, and human genetics previously reported, support the hypothesis of an Indian influence on Malagasy culture coinciding with periods of early human migration onto the island. We also found evidence of nuclear-mitochondrial discordance in single tapeworms, indicating unexpected cross-fertilization between the two lineages of T. solium. Analyses of genetic and geographic populations of T. solium in Madagascar will shed light on apparently rapid evolution of this organism driven by recent (<2,000 yr) human migrations, following tens of thousands of years of geographic isolation.

  4. A New Genus and Two New Species of Proteocephalidean Tapeworms (Cestoda) from Cichlid Fish (Perciformes: Cichlidae) in the Neotropics

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    de Chambrier, A.; Pinacho-Pinacho, C.D.; Hernandez-Orts, J. S.; Scholz, Tomáš

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 103, č. 1 (2017), s. 83-94 ISSN 0022-3395 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP505/12/G112 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Amazon river * fresh water * Eucestoda * catfishes * molecular phylogeny * Parana river * parasite * Pimelodidae Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 1.326, year: 2016

  5. Tapeworm Diphyllobothrium dendriticum (Cestoda)—Neglected or Emerging Human Parasite?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuchta, Roman; Brabec, Jan; Kubáčková, Petra; Scholz, Tomáš

    2013-01-01

    Background A total number of 14 valid species of Diphyllobothrium tapeworms have been described in literature to be capable of causing diphyllobothriosis, with D. latum being the major causative agent of all human infections. However, recent data indicate that some of these infections, especially when diagnosed solely on the basis of morphology, have been identified with this causative agent incorrectly, confusing other Diphyllobothrium species with D. latum. Another widely distributed species, D. dendriticum, has never been considered as a frequent parasite of man, even though it is found commonly throughout arctic and subarctic regions parasitizing piscivorous birds and mammals. Recent cases of Europeans infected with this cestode called into question the actual geographic distribution of this tapeworm, largely ignored by medical parasitologists. Methodology and Results On the basis of revision of more than 900 available references and a description and revision of recent European human cases using morphological and molecular (cox1) data supplemented by newly characterized D. dendriticum sequences, we updated the current knowledge of the life-cycle, geographic distribution, epidemiological status, and molecular diagnostics of this emerging causal agent of zoonotic disease of man. Conclusions The tapeworm D. dendriticum represents an example of a previously neglected, probably underdiagnosed parasite of man with a potential to spread globally. Recent cases of diphyllobothriosis caused by D. dendriticum in Europe (Netherlands, Switzerland and Czech Republic), where the parasite has not been reported previously, point out that causative agents of diphyllobothriosis and other zoonoses can be imported throughout the world. Molecular tools should be used for specific and reliable parasite diagnostics, and also rare or non-native species should be considered. This will considerably help improve our knowledge of the distribution and epidemiology of these human parasites

  6. Proteocephalid tapeworms (Cestoda: Onchoproteocephalidea) of loaches (Cobitoidea): Evidence for monophyly and high endemism of parasites in the Far East.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholz, Tomáš; de Chambrier, Alain; Shimazu, Takeshi; Ermolenko, Alexey; Waeschenbach, Andrea

    2017-02-01

    The parasite fauna of loaches (Cypriniformes: Cobitoidea), a group of small bottom-dwelling freshwater fishes with a mostly Eurasian distribution, remains a largely unknown quantity. Here we revise the taxonomy of tapeworms of the genus Proteocephalus Weinland, 1858 (Cestoda: Proteocephalidae) that had been found in loaches from the Palaearctic Region (Central Europe, Japan and Russia [Primorsky Region]). Molecular phylogenetic analysis based on two nuclear (ssr- and lsrDNA) and two mitochondrial genes (cox1 and rrnL) revealed a monophyletic group consisting of four valid species nesting within the Proteocephalus-aggregate: (i) Proteocephalus sagittus (Grimm, 1872) from Barbatula barbatula (Europe, Russia and Tajikistan), (ii) Proteocephalus demshini n. sp. from Barbatula toni (Russian Far East - Primorsky Region), (iii) Proteocephalus midoriensis Shimazu, 1990 from Lefua echigonia (Japan) and L. costata (Russia) (new host and geographical record), and (iv) Proteocephalus misgurni n. sp. from Misgurnus anguillicaudatus (Russia; Primorsky Region). Proteocephalus sagittus and P. demshini, and P. midoriensis and P. misgurni were recovered as sister taxa, respectively. Proteocephalus sagittus and P. demshini are characterized by having proglottids that are wider than long, an elongate to pyriform cirrus-sac and the vitelline follicles that form wide lateral bands. Proteocephalus midoriensis and P. misgurni are characterized by having proglottids that are more elongate and an ovoid to almost spherical cirrus-sac and the vitelline follicles forming narrow lateral bands. Proteocephalus demshini differs from P. sagittus in the posterolateral extent of the vitelline follicles, whereas P. misgurni can be distinguished from P. midoriensis mainly by the relative size of the ovary, posterior extent of the vitelline follicles and width of the scolex. Unlike most species of the Proteocephalus-aggregate that possess an apical sucker, all species from loaches are devoid of any

  7. The 2010 Broad Prize

    Science.gov (United States)

    Education Digest: Essential Readings Condensed for Quick Review, 2011

    2011-01-01

    A new data analysis, based on data collected as part of The Broad Prize process, provides insights into which large urban school districts in the United States are doing the best job of educating traditionally disadvantaged groups: African-American, Hispanics, and low-income students. Since 2002, The Eli and Edythe Broad Foundation has awarded The…

  8. Broad ligament ectopic pregnancy

    OpenAIRE

    Rama C; Lepakshi G; Raju SN

    2015-01-01

    Pregnancy in the broad ligament is a rare form of ectopic pregnancy with a high risk of maternal mortality. Ultrasonography may help in the early diagnosis but mostly the diagnosis is established during surgery. We report the case of a patient with broad ligament ectopic pregnancy diagnosed intraoperatively. The patient had uneventful postoperative recovery.

  9. Validity of the bear tapeworm Diphyllobothrium ursi (Cestoda: Diphyllobothriidae) based on morphological and molecular markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamasaki, Hiroshi; Muto, Maki; Yamada, Minoru; Arizono, Naoki; Rausch, Robert L

    2012-12-01

    The bear tapeworm Diphyllobothrium ursi is described based upon the morphology of adult tapeworms recovered from the brown bear (Ursus arctos middendorffi) and larval plerocercoids found in sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) from Kodiak Island in Alaska in 1952. However, in 1987 D. ursi was synonymized with Diphyllobothrium dendriticum, and the taxonomic relationship between both species has not subsequently been revised. In this study mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene (cox1) sequences of holotype and paratype D. ursi specimens that had been preserved in a formalin-acetic acid-alcohol solution since the time the species was initially described approximately 60 yr ago were analyzed. Molecular and phylogenetic analysis of the cox1 sequences revealed that D. ursi is more closely related to D. dendriticum than it is to Diphyllobothrium nihonkaiense and Diphyllobothrium latum. In addition to molecular evidence, differences in the life cycle and ecology of the larval plerocercoids between D. ursi and D. dendriticum also suggest that D. ursi is a distinct species, separate from D. dendriticum and D. nihonkaiense, and also possibly from D. latum .

  10. Heavy metals in two host-parasite systems: tapeworm vs. fish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlastimil Baruš

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The tissue of two tapeworm species (Ligula intestinalis and Bathybothrium rectangulum and body muscles of their fish host species were analyzed for heavy metal concentrations by standard methods using atomic absorption spectrometry. Regarding the values of accumulation ratio, the L. intestinalis accumulated 12.5–18.9 × more lead, 2.3–3 × more cadmium, and 4.4–14.1 × more chrome, compared to respective metal concentrations in muscles of cyprinid intermediate fish hosts. The gravid strobila biomass of the B. rectangulum accumulated 2.2 × more lead, 1.2 × more nickel, and 2.3 × more chrome compared with the respective concentrations in the muscles of the barbel Barbus barbus. Metal concentrations in the muscles of uninfected fish and by tapeworm infected barbels showed that the uninfected individuals exhibited 1.4 × more lead, 1.6 × more nickel and 1.7 × more chrome than the infected ones. Our study suggests that parasites are a useful bioindicator when evaluating environmental pollution of aquatic ecosystems by heavy metals.

  11. Asian fish tapeworm, Khawia japonensis (Yamaguti, 1934), has expanded its European invasive range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oros, Mikuláš; Barčák, Daniel; Bazsalovicsová, Eva; Hanzelová, Vladimíra

    2015-05-01

    The invasive fish tapeworm, Khawia japonensis (Yamaguti, 1934) originally described in Japan, is reported for the first time in Slovakia. The tapeworm was found in farmed common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) from East-Slovakian breeding fish pond. This finding is registered 4 years after the first announcement of this parasite in Europe (Po River Basin in Italy) in 2010 and increases its distribution area within this continent. Morphological characterization of K. japonensis supplemented with DNA sequences of cox1 and ribosomal lsrDNA genes is provided. Specimens from Slovakia phenotypically corresponded with those from feral and farmed carps from China, Vietnam, and Italy. Moreover, 100 and 98.7% identity of partial ribosomal lsrDNA gene and mitochondrial cox1 genes, respectively, were detected with K. japonensis from Japan. The invasive and pathogenic potential of K. japonensis in commercial breeding fisheries and its possible further spread in natural habitats is difficult to estimate for now. As yet, K. japonensis appears to be without a major impact on commercial breeding fisheries, but calls for more attention to the problem of biological invasions.

  12. Biotransformation of anthelmintics and the activity of drug-metabolizing enzymes in the tapeworm Moniezia expansa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prchal, Lukáš; Bártíková, Hana; Bečanová, Aneta; Jirásko, Robert; Vokřál, Ivan; Stuchlíková, Lucie; Skálová, Lenka; Kubíček, Vladimír; Lamka, Jiří; Trejtnar, František; Szotáková, Barbora

    2015-04-01

    The sheep tapeworm Moniezia expansa is very common parasite, which affects ruminants such as sheep, goats as well as other species. The benzimidazole anthelmintics albendazole (ABZ), flubendazole (FLU) and mebendazole (MBZ) are often used to treat the infection. The drug-metabolizing enzymes of helminths may alter the potency of anthelmintic treatment. The aim of our study was to assess the activity of the main drug-metabolizing enzymes and evaluate the metabolism of selected anthelmintics (ABZ, MBZ and FLU) in M. expansa. Activities of biotransformation enzymes were determined in subcellular fractions. Metabolites of the anthelmintics were detected and identified using high performance liquid chromatography/ultra-violet/VIS/fluorescence or ultra-high performance liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry. Reduction of MBZ, FLU and oxidation of ABZ were proved as well as activities of various metabolizing enzymes. Despite the fact that the conjugation enzymes glutathione S-transferase, UDP-glucuronosyl transferase and UDP-glucosyl transferase were active in vitro, no conjugated metabolites of anthelmintics were identified either ex vivo or in vitro. The obtained results indicate that sheep tapeworm is able to deactivate the administered anthelmintics, and thus protects itself against their action.

  13. Description of Hymenolepis microstoma (Nottingham strain): a classical tapeworm model for research in the genomic era

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background Hymenolepis microstoma (Dujardin, 1845) Blanchard, 1891, the mouse bile duct tapeworm, is a rodent/beetle-hosted laboratory model that has been used in research and teaching since its domestication in the 1950s. Recent characterization of its genome has prompted us to describe the specific strain that underpins these data, anchoring its identity and bringing the 150+ year-old original description up-to-date. Results Morphometric and ultrastructural analyses were carried out on laboratory-reared specimens of the 'Nottingham' strain of Hymenolepis microstoma used for genome characterization. A contemporary description of the species is provided including detailed illustration of adult anatomy and elucidation of its taxonomy and the history of the specific laboratory isolate. Conclusions Our work acts to anchor the specific strain from which the H. microstoma genome has been characterized and provides an anatomical reference for researchers needing to employ a model tapeworm system that enables easy access to all stages of the life cycle. We review its classification, life history and development, and briefly discuss the genome and other model systems being employed at the beginning of a genomic era in cestodology. PMID:21194465

  14. Description of Hymenolepis microstoma (Nottingham strain: a classical tapeworm model for research in the genomic era

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olson Peter D

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hymenolepis microstoma (Dujardin, 1845 Blanchard, 1891, the mouse bile duct tapeworm, is a rodent/beetle-hosted laboratory model that has been used in research and teaching since its domestication in the 1950s. Recent characterization of its genome has prompted us to describe the specific strain that underpins these data, anchoring its identity and bringing the 150+ year-old original description up-to-date. Results Morphometric and ultrastructural analyses were carried out on laboratory-reared specimens of the 'Nottingham' strain of Hymenolepis microstoma used for genome characterization. A contemporary description of the species is provided including detailed illustration of adult anatomy and elucidation of its taxonomy and the history of the specific laboratory isolate. Conclusions Our work acts to anchor the specific strain from which the H. microstoma genome has been characterized and provides an anatomical reference for researchers needing to employ a model tapeworm system that enables easy access to all stages of the life cycle. We review its classification, life history and development, and briefly discuss the genome and other model systems being employed at the beginning of a genomic era in cestodology.

  15. Epidemiological understanding of Taenia tapeworm infections with special reference to Taenia asiatica in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eom, K S; Rim, H J

    2001-12-01

    In endemic areas of Taenia tapeworms in Korea, most of the reports showed that T. saginata was dominant over T. solium, but eating pigs is the dominant habit over eating cattle. Why do they have more T. saginata despite lower consumption of beef? This problem actually has long been recognized but until recently there has been no intensive trial to give a scientific explanation on this epidemiological enigma. By summing up the data published between the years 1963 and 1999, the ratio of armed versus unarmed tapeworms in humans was estimated at approximately 1:5. The ratio of pig-eaters versus cattle-eaters, however, was approximately 5:1. This inconsistency could be explained with the recently described T. asiatica, which infects humans through the eating of pig's viscera. We re-evaluate the importance of the consumption of visceral organ of pigs. leading us to an improved epidemiological understanding of the T. asiatica infection together with co-existing T. saginata and T. solium in Korea.

  16. Successful treatment of niclosamide- and praziquantel-resistant beef tapeworm infection with nitazoxanide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lateef, Mohammad; Zargar, Showkat Ali; Khan, Abdul Rashid; Nazir, Muzzaffar; Shoukat, Abid

    2008-01-01

    Beef tapeworm (Taenia saginata) infection is acquired by eating inadequately cooked beef that contains the larvae or cysticerci of T. saginata. Niclosamide and praziquantel have proved effective for its treatment but treatment failures are well known. We report herein the results of nitazoxanide therapy. A prospective study was conducted in 18 children and 34 adults to assess the efficacy and safety of nitazoxanide in the treatment of niclosamide- and praziquantel-resistant T. saginata infection. Nitazoxanide was administered twice daily for 3 days in 500-mg doses for those aged over 14 years and at 20mg/kg body weight/day in children aged 5-14 years. Post-treatment follow-up was undertaken at 1, 2, 4, 8, and 12 weeks for fecal samples for proglottides, and to check the presence, number, and viability of Taenia eggs. Nitazoxanide cured 51 of 52 (98.1%) patients. Mild side effects occurred in seven patients, which resolved spontaneously. There were no abnormalities in laboratory parameters. Nitazoxanide is a safe, effective, inexpensive, and well-tolerated drug for the treatment of niclosamide- and praziquantel-resistant beef tapeworm infection.

  17. Epidemiological understanding of Taenia tapeworm infections with special reference to Taenia asiatica in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rim, Han-Jong

    2001-01-01

    In endemic areas of Taenia tapeworms in Korea, most of the reports showed that T. saginata was dominant over T. solium, but eating pigs is the dominant habit over eating cattle. Why do they have more T. saginata despite lower consumption of beef? This problem actually has long been recognized but until recently there has been no intensive trial to give a scientific explanation on this epidemiological enigma. By summing up the data published between the years 1963 and 1999, the ratio of armed versus unarmed tapeworms in humans was estimated at approximately 1:5. The ratio of pig-eaters versus cattle-eaters, however, was approximately 5:1. This inconsistency could be explained with the recently described T. asiatica, which infects humans through the eating of pig's viscera. We re-evaluate the importance of the consumption of visceral organ of pigs, leading us to an improved epidemiological understanding of the T. asiatica infection together with co-existing T. saginata and T. solium in Korea. PMID:11775327

  18. Sympatric Distribution of Three Human Taenia Tapeworms Collected between 1935 and 2005 in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Hyeong-Kyu; Kim, Kyu-Heon; Chai, Jong-Yil; Yang, Hyun-Jong; Rim, Han-Jong

    2008-01-01

    Taeniasis has been known as one of the prevalent parasitic infections in Korea. Until recently, Taenia saginata had long been considered a dominant, and widely distributed species but epidemiological profiles of human Taenia species in Korea still remain unclear. In order to better understand distribution patterns of human Taenia tapeworms in Korea, partial nucleotide sequences of mitochondrial cox1 and ITS2 (internal transcribed spacer 2) were determined, along with morphological examinations, on 68 Taenia specimens obtained from university museum collections deposited since 1935. Genomic DNA was extracted from formalin-preserved specimens. Phylogenetic relationships among the genotypes (cox1 haplotype) detected in this study were inferred using the neighbor-joining method as a tree building method. Morphological and genetic analyses identified 3 specimens as T. solium, 51 specimens as T. asiatica, and 14 specimens as T. saginata. Our results indicate that all 3 Taenia tapeworms are sympatrically distributed in Korea with T. asiatica dominating over T. saginata and T. solium. PMID:19127329

  19. Morphologic and genetic identification of Taenia tapeworms in Tanzania and DNA genotyping of Taenia solium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eom, Keeseon S; Chai, Jong-Yil; Yong, Tai-Soon; Min, Duk-Young; Rim, Han-Jong; Kihamia, Charles; Jeon, Hyeong-Kyu

    2011-12-01

    Species identification of Taenia tapeworms was performed using morphologic observations and multiplex PCR and DNA sequencing of the mitochondrial cox1 gene. In 2008 and 2009, a total of 1,057 fecal samples were collected from residents of Kongwa district of Dodoma region, Tanzania, and examined microscopically for helminth eggs and proglottids. Of these, 4 Taenia egg positive cases were identified, and the eggs were subjected to DNA analysis. Several proglottids of Taenia solium were recovered from 1 of the 4 cases. This established that the species were T. solium (n = 1) and T. saginata (n = 3). One further T. solium specimen was found among 128 fecal samples collected from Mbulu district in Arusha, and this had an intact strobila with the scolex. Phylegenetic analysis of the mtDNA cox1 gene sequences of these 5 isolates showed that T. saginata was basal to the T. solium clade. The mitochondrial cox1 gene sequences of 3 of these Tanzanian isolates showed 99% similarity to T. saginata, and the other 2 isolates showed 100% similarity to T. solium. The present study has shown that Taenia tapeworms are endemic in Kongwa district of Tanzania, as well as in a previously identified Mbulu district. Both T. solium isolates were found to have an "African/Latin American" genotype (cox1).

  20. Histopathological and ultrastructural studies of the tapeworm Monobothrium wageneri (Caryophyllidea) in the intestinal tract of tench Tinca tinca.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, C F; Poddubnaya, L G; Scholz, T; Turnbull, J F; Ferguson, H W

    2011-12-06

    Monobothrium wageneri is a monozoic caryophyllidean tapeworm of tench Tinca tinca. The pathological changes caused by this parasite within the intestinal tract of wild tench are described for the first time. Parasites were found attached to the anterior third of the intestine in tight clusters comprising up to 109 tapeworms. Infection was associated with the formation of raised inflammatory swellings surrounding the parasites. This host response, combined with the deep penetration of the scolex into the gut wall, formed a very firm seat of parasite attachment. Histopathological changes were characterised by a pronounced fibrogranulomatous lesion that extended through all layers of the intestine. This was accompanied by haemorrhage, oedema, necrosis and degeneration of the muscularis. A marked eosinophilic interface layer between the scolex of the tapeworm and gut wall indicated intimate host-parasite contact. Ultrastructural examinations revealed coniform spinitriches covering the neck and lateral sides of the scolex and capilliform filitriches present on the apical end of the scolex. Numerous glandular cytons (tegumental glands) were recorded throughout the scolex tegument. Large numbers of secretory granules discharged from the glands through a network of processes onto the scolex surface were consistent with distancing the cellular responses of the host. Observations of severe inflammatory lesions, partial intestinal occlusion and the potential for intestinal perforation represent important pathological changes that are consistent with loss of normal gut function. The lesions associated with the attachment of M. wageneri are more severe than those recorded for any other tapeworm of British freshwater fish.

  1. Efficacy of 6-, 12-, and 24-h praziquantel bath treatments against Asian tapeworm Bothriocephalus acheilognathi in grass carp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Praziquantel is an effective antihelmintic that has been used in dogs and cats as a de-wormer. It has also been used successfully against tapeworms and trematodes in fish. The current study tested the efficacy of praziquantel bath treatments at various concentrations (0.187, 0.375, 0.75, 1.5, 3.0,...

  2. 9 CFR 311.25 - Parasites not transmissible to man; tapeworm cysts in sheep; hydatid cysts; flukes; gid bladder...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...; tapeworm cysts in sheep; hydatid cysts; flukes; gid bladder-worms. 311.25 Section 311.25 Animals and Animal... cysts in sheep; hydatid cysts; flukes; gid bladder-worms. (a) In the disposal of carcasses, edible... 315 of this subchapter, it shall be condemned. (b) In the case of sheep carcasses affected with...

  3. First identification of eggs of the Asian fish tapeworm Bothriocephalus acheilognathi (Cestoda: Bothriocephalidea) in human stool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yera, Hélène; Kuchta, Roman; Brabec, Jan; Peyron, François; Dupouy-Camet, Jean

    2013-06-01

    We report the first case of egg isolation of the Asian fish tapeworm Bothriocephalus acheilognathi (Bothriocephalidea) from human stool. A male patient from Saint Laurent du Maroni (French Guiana) presenting abdominal pain was examined in France for the diagnosis of intestinal parasites. Diphyllobothrium-like eggs were observed in his stool. However, molecular phylogenetic analyses based on sequences of rDNA and COI genes showed that the eggs observed belong to a bothriocephalidean cestode B. acheilognathi. The adult life stages of B. acheilognathi cestodes are known as invasive parasites of a wide spectrum of fish; however, they have not been described to parasitize any mammals. This human infection seems to be accidental and represents a parasite passage through human intestine after the consumption of an infected fish host. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  4. Discussion to several tapeworm species from the families Hymenolepididae, Anoplocephalidae and Davaineidae parasitizing rodents and man

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    František Tenora

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available With the more recent knowledge, the hypothesis by Joyeux and Baer (1929 is consulted: “... most of rarer species of tapeworms occurring in man are probably parasites of other mammals, specially of Rodentia .....“. In connection with that, the host specificity in several species from the families Hymenolepididae, Anoplocephalidae and Davaineidae is discussed. So far parasites of rodents are concerned, they are the species Rodentolepis straminea, R. fraterna, Hymenolepis diminuta, H. pseudodiminuta, H. hibernia and Inermicapsifer arvicanthidis. So far parasites of man are concerned, they are the species Rodentolepis nana, Hymenolepis flavopunctata and Inermicapsifer madagascariensis. Attention is drawn also to discrepancies in the opinions published on the views of hosts’ specificity or of zoogeographical distribution of several species from the family Davaineidae.

  5. Experimental parasite community ecology: intraspecific variation in a large tapeworm affects community assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benesh, Daniel P; Kalbe, Martin

    2016-07-01

    Non-random species associations occur in naturally sampled parasite communities. The processes resulting in predictable community structure (e.g. particular host behaviours, cross-immunity, interspecific competition) could be affected by traits that vary within a parasite species, like growth or antigenicity. We experimentally infected three-spined sticklebacks with a large tapeworm (Schistocephalus solidus) that impacts the energy needs, foraging behaviour and immune reactions of its host. The tapeworms came from two populations, characterized by high or low growth in sticklebacks. Our goal was to evaluate how this parasite, and variation in its growth, affects the acquisition of other parasites. Fish infected with S. solidus were placed into cages in a lake to expose them to the natural parasite community. We also performed a laboratory experiment in which infected fish were exposed to a fixed dose of a common trematode parasite. In the field experiment, infection with S. solidus affected the abundance of four parasite species, relative to controls. For two of the four species, changes occurred only in fish harbouring the high-growth S. solidus; one species increased in abundance and the other decreased. These changes did not appear to be directly linked to S. solidus growth though. The parasite exhibiting elevated abundance was the same trematode used in the laboratory infection. In that experiment, we found a similar infection pattern, suggesting that S. solidus affects the physiological susceptibility of fish to this trematode. Associations between S. solidus and other parasites occur and vary in direction. However, some of these associations were contingent on the S. solidus population, suggesting that intraspecific variability can affect the assembly of parasite communities. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Animal Ecology © 2016 British Ecological Society.

  6. Dwarf tapeworm (Hymenolepis nana): Characteristics in the Northern Territory 2002-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willcocks, Briony; McAuliffe, Gary N; Baird, Robert W

    2015-10-01

    Review of dwarf tapeworm (Hymenolepis nana) presentations to Northern Territory (NT) Government health-care facilities over 12 years. We postulated H. nana infections would remain unchanged despite the introduction of deworming programmes as H. nana is not eradicated with albendazole treatment. A retrospective observational analysis of consecutive microbiologically confirmed cases of H. nana identified by NT Government health-care facilities between 2002 and 2013. Four hundred sixty-one episodes of H. nana infection were identified over the 12-year period from 68 387 faecal samples. Infections were overwhelmingly in young children with a median age of patients being 3.0 years (interquartile range 2.25-4.67). Patients were predominantly Indigenous (98.9%, P = 0.001) and infections occurred across the entire NT. Infections were associated with anaemia (18.2%) and eosinophilia (39.6%). The annual prevalence of NT Government health-care facility diagnosed H. nana infection remains relatively constant from 6.9 {4.8-9.0 (confidence interval (CI))} cases per 10 000 Indigenous population in 2002, compared with 6.6 (4.7-8.4 CI) cases per 10 000 Indigenous population in 2013. Infection rates in Indigenous children <5 years of age were: 46.1 (16.4-75.8 CI) cases/10 000 in 2002, compared with 44.3 (15.3-73.3 CI) cases/10 000 Indigenous population in 2013. H. nana is the most frequently identified cestode (tapeworm) in NT Government health-care facilities. H. nana remains endemic throughout the NT, predominantly infecting Indigenous children less than 5 years of age. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health © 2015 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

  7. Determinants and consequences of interspecific body size variation in tetraphyllidean tapeworms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randhawa, Haseeb Sajjad; Poulin, Robert

    2009-10-01

    Tetraphyllidean cestodes are cosmopolitan, remarkably host specific, and form the most speciose and diverse group of helminths infecting elasmobranchs (sharks, skates and rays). They show substantial interspecific variation in a variety of morphological traits, including body size. Tetraphyllideans represent therefore, an ideal group in which to examine the relationship between parasite body size and abundance. The individual and combined effects of host size, environmental temperature, host habitat, host environment, host physiology, and host type (all likely correlates of parasite body size) on parasite length were assessed using general linear model analyses using data from 515 tetraphyllidean cestode species (182 species were included in analyses). The relationships between tetraphyllidean cestode length and intensity and abundance of infection were assessed using simple linear regression analyses. Due to the contrasting morphologies between shark and batoid hosts, and contrasting physiologies between sharks of the Lamnidae family and other sharks, analyses were repeated in different subsets based on host morphology and physiologies ("sharks" vs. batoids) to determine the influence of these variables on adult tetraphyllidean tapeworm body size. Results presented herein indicate that host body size, environmental temperature and host habitat are relatively important variables in models explaining interspecific variations in tetraphyllidean tapeworm length. In addition, a negative relationship between tetraphyllidean body size and intensity of infection was apparent. These results suggest that space constraints and ambient temperature, via their effects on metabolism and growth, determine adult tetraphyllidean cestode size. Consequently, a trade-off between size and numbers is possibly imposed by external forces influencing host size, hence limiting physical space or other resources available to the parasites.

  8. Target gene enrichment in the cyclophyllidean cestodes, the most diverse group of tapeworms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Hao; Jiang, Jiamei; Jiménez, Francisco Agustín; Hoberg, Eric P; Cook, Joseph A; Galbreath, Kurt E; Li, Chenhong

    2016-09-01

    The Cyclophyllidea is the most diverse order of tapeworms, encompassing species that infect all classes of terrestrial tetrapods including humans and domesticated animals. Available phylogenetic reconstructions based either on morphology or molecular data lack the resolution to allow scientists to either propose a solid taxonomy or infer evolutionary associations. Molecular markers available for the Cyclophyllidea mostly include ribosomal DNA and mitochondrial loci. In this study, we identified 3641 single-copy nuclear coding loci by comparing the genomes of Hymenolepis microstoma, Echinococcus granulosus and Taenia solium. We designed RNA baits based on the sequence of H. microstoma, and applied target enrichment and Illumina sequencing to test the utility of those baits to recover loci useful for phylogenetic analyses. We captured DNA from five species of tapeworms representing two families of cyclophyllideans. We obtained an average of 3284 (90%) of the targets from the test samples and then used captured sequences (2 181 361 bp in total; fragment size ranging from 301 to 6969 bp) to reconstruct a phylogeny for the five test species plus the three species for which genomic data are available. The results were consistent with the current consensus regarding cyclophyllidean relationships. To assess the potential for our method to yield informative genetic variation at intraspecific scales, we extracted 14 074 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from alignments of four Arostrilepis macrocirrosa and two A. cooki and successfully inferred their relationships. The results showed that our target gene tools yield data sets that provide robust inferences at a range of taxonomic scales in the Cyclophyllidea. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Infection level of the Asian tapeworm (Bothriocephalus acheilognathi) in the cyprinid fish, Schizothorax niger, from Anchar Lake, relative to season, sex, length and condition factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zargar, Ummer Rashid; Chishti, M Z; Yousuf, A R; Ahmed, Fayaz

    2012-01-01

    Various studies have shown that the Asian fish tapeworm, Bothriocephalus acheilognathi causes great economic loss in hatcheries, fish farms as well as in lakes. In order to understand the seasonal variation of infection in a nutrient-enriched lake, parasitological investigation was carried out in the indigenous cyprinid fish, Schizothorax niger Heckel 1838 from September, 2008 to August, 2009. Overall, this study revealed definite seasonality of infection (p tapeworm. A strong positive correlation (Pearson's correlation, r = 0.7; p = 0.02) between total length of S. niger and number of Asian fish tapeworms was observed. Similarly, a strong positive correlation existed between weight of fish and number of tapeworms (Pearson's correlation, r = 0.7; p = 0.005). Prevalence and mean abundance were positively and significantly correlated with water temperature (r = 0.8, p tapeworm infection. The above findings will be useful in devising the appropriate control strategies for the Asian tapeworm in wild fish in Kashmir valley as well as in similar climatic zones of other parts of the world. Also, information from this study will be used to assess the spread and extent of B. acheilognathi which is a potential threat to the indigenous fish fauna of Anchar Lake.

  10. A large 28S rDNA-based phylogeny confirms the limitations of established morphological characters for classification of proteocephalidean tapeworms (Platyhelminthes, Cestoda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alain de Chambrier

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Proteocephalidean tapeworms form a diverse group of parasites currently known from 315 valid species. Most of the diversity of adult proteocephalideans can be found in freshwater fishes (predominantly catfishes, a large proportion infects reptiles, but only a few infect amphibians, and a single species has been found to parasitize possums. Although they have a cosmopolitan distribution, a large proportion of taxa are exclusively found in South America. We analyzed the largest proteocephalidean cestode molecular dataset to date comprising more than 100 species (30 new, including representatives from 54 genera (80% and all subfamilies, thus significantly improving upon previous works to develop a molecular phylogeny for the group. The Old World origin of proteocephalideans is confirmed, with their more recent expansion in South America. The earliest diverging lineages are composed of Acanthotaeniinae and Gangesiinae but most of the presently recognized subfamilies (and genera appear not to be monophyletic; a deep systematic reorganization of the order is thus needed and the present subfamilial system should be abandoned. The main characters on which the classical systematics of the group has been built, such as scolex morphology or relative position of genital organs in relation to the longitudinal musculature, are of limited value, as demonstrated by the very weak support for morphologically-defined subfamilies. However, new characters, such as the pattern of uterus development, relative ovary size, and egg structure have been identified, which may be useful in defining phylogenetically well-supported subgroups. A strongly supported lineage infecting various snakes from a wide geographical distribution was found. Although several improvements over previous works regarding phylogenetic resolution and taxon coverage were achieved in this study, the major polytomy in our tree, composed largely of siluriform parasites from the Neotropics, remained

  11. A large 28S rDNA-based phylogeny confirms the limitations of established morphological characters for classification of proteocephalidean tapeworms (Platyhelminthes, Cestoda)

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Chambrier, Alain; Waeschenbach, Andrea; Fisseha, Makda; Scholz, Tomáš; Mariaux, Jean

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Proteocephalidean tapeworms form a diverse group of parasites currently known from 315 valid species. Most of the diversity of adult proteocephalideans can be found in freshwater fishes (predominantly catfishes), a large proportion infects reptiles, but only a few infect amphibians, and a single species has been found to parasitize possums. Although they have a cosmopolitan distribution, a large proportion of taxa are exclusively found in South America. We analyzed the largest proteocephalidean cestode molecular dataset to date comprising more than 100 species (30 new), including representatives from 54 genera (80%) and all subfamilies, thus significantly improving upon previous works to develop a molecular phylogeny for the group. The Old World origin of proteocephalideans is confirmed, with their more recent expansion in South America. The earliest diverging lineages are composed of Acanthotaeniinae and Gangesiinae but most of the presently recognized subfamilies (and genera) appear not to be monophyletic; a deep systematic reorganization of the order is thus needed and the present subfamilial system should be abandoned. The main characters on which the classical systematics of the group has been built, such as scolex morphology or relative position of genital organs in relation to the longitudinal musculature, are of limited value, as demonstrated by the very weak support for morphologically-defined subfamilies. However, new characters, such as the pattern of uterus development, relative ovary size, and egg structure have been identified, which may be useful in defining phylogenetically well-supported subgroups. A strongly supported lineage infecting various snakes from a wide geographical distribution was found. Although several improvements over previous works regarding phylogenetic resolution and taxon coverage were achieved in this study, the major polytomy in our tree, composed largely of siluriform parasites from the Neotropics, remained

  12. Genus Mikania: chemical composition and phytotherapeutical activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciane C. Rufatto

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The genus Mikania ranks high in the list of best-selling natural products in the world. Its main distribution is in South America, but some species are found in Asia, North America and Africa. It is used for treating fever, rheumatism, colds and respiratory diseases, as well as snake bites and scorpion stings, due to its broad spectrum of action. There are approximately 430 species of this genus and only 12% have been studied, highlighting their chemical and pharmacological diversity. The main chemical groups are: coumarins and derivatives, sesquiterpenes, sesquiterpenes lactones, diterpenes, phytosterols/terpenoids and flavonoids. This review aims to supply useful references for scientists interested in natural products and the search for new compounds, from over the 300 already described for the genus.

  13. Genus Mikania: chemical composition and phytotherapeutical activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciane C. Rufatto

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The genus Mikania ranks high in the list of best-selling natural products in the world. Its main distribution is in South America, but some species are found in Asia, North America and Africa. It is used for treating fever, rheumatism, colds and respiratory diseases, as well as snake bites and scorpion stings, due to its broad spectrum of action. There are approximately 430 species of this genus and only 12% have been studied, highlighting their chemical and pharmacological diversity. The main chemical groups are: coumarins and derivatives, sesquiterpenes, sesquiterpenes lactones, diterpenes, phytosterols/terpenoids and flavonoids. This review aims to supply useful references for scientists interested in natural products and the search for new compounds, from over the 300 already described for the genus.

  14. Spathebothriidea: survey of species, scolex and egg morphology, and interrelationships of a non-segmented, relictual tapeworm group (Platyhelminthes: Cestoda).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuchta, Roman; Pearson, Rebecca; Scholz, Tomás; Ditrich, Oleg; Olson, Peter D

    2014-08-01

    Tapeworms of the order Spathebothriidea Wardle et McLeod, 1952 (Cestoda) are reviewed. Molecular data made it possible to assess, for the first time, the phylogenetic relationships of all genera and to confirm the validity of Bothrimonus Duvernoy, 1842, Diplocotyle Krabbe, 1874 and Didymobothrium Nybelin, 1922. A survey of all species considered to be valid is provided together with new data on egg and scolex morphology and surface ultrastructure (i.e. microtriches). The peculiar morphology of the members of this group, which is today represented by five effectively monotypic genera whose host associations and geographical distribution show little commonality, indicate that it is a relictual group that was once diverse and widespread. The order potentially represents the earliest branch of true tapeworms (i.e. Eucestoda) among extant forms.

  15. The pathogenic Asian fish tapeworm, Bothriocephalus acheilognathi Yamaguti, 1934 (Cestoda in the Red discus (Symphysodon discus

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    Košuthová L.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The Asian fish tapeworm, Bothriocephalus acheilognathi Yamaguti, 1934, was detected for the first time in breeding of discus fish Symphysodon discus (Perciformes, Cichlidae, a popular South American cichlid. In examined samples, the adult and juvenile cestodes of B. acheilognathi with mean intensity of infection 30 (range 19 - 47 individuals per fish were found. The infected fish displayed acute behavioral symptoms. Mortality was significant; it reached almost 80 % in youngest age categories. As treatment, praziquantel immersions in dose 2 mg per liter were well tolerated and efficacious. The risk of spreading pathogens via imported fish is actual menace for ornamental breeding fish, therefore, thorough quarantine and prophylactic measures needs to be done by all fish imports and introductions. Import and subsequent release of infected ornamental fish into freshwater ecosystems may represent serious risk for spread and establishment of the parasite in native fish species. This case study illustrates that ornamental fish play also a key role in national and international movements of parasites in freshwater habitats.

  16. Lifetime inbreeding depression, purging, and mating system evolution in a simultaneous hermaphrodite tapeworm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benesh, Daniel P; Weinreich, Friederike; Kalbe, Martin; Milinski, Manfred

    2014-06-01

    Classical theory on mating system evolution suggests that simultaneous hermaphrodites should either outcross if they have high inbreeding depression (ID) or self-fertilize if they have low ID. However, a mixture of selfing and outcrossing persists in many species. Previous studies with the tapeworm Schistocephalus solidus have found worms to self-fertilize some of their eggs despite ID. The probability for selfing to spread depends on the relative fitness of selfers, as well as the genetic basis for ID and whether it can be effectively purged. We bred S. solidus through two consecutive generations of selfing and recorded several fitness correlates over the whole life cycle. After one round of selfing, ID was pronounced, particularly in early-life traits, and the conservatively estimated lifetime fitness of selfed progeny was only 9% that of the outcrossed controls. After a second generation of selfing, ID remained high but was significantly reduced in several traits, which is consistent with the purging of deleterious recessive alleles (the estimated load of lethal equivalents dropped by 48%). Severe ID, even if it can be rapidly purged, likely prevents transitions toward pure selfing in this parasite, although we also cannot exclude the possibility that low-level selfing has undetected benefits. © 2014 The Author(s). Evolution © 2014 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  17. An insect-tapeworm model as a proxy for anthelminthic effects in the mammalian host.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolsey, Ian David; Fredensborg, Brian L; Jensen, Per M; Kapel, Christian M O; Meyling, Nicolai V

    2015-07-01

    Invertebrate models provide several important advantages over their vertebrate counterparts including fewer legislative stipulations and faster, more cost-effective experimental procedures. Furthermore, various similarities between insect and mammalian systems have been highlighted. To obtain maximum use of invertebrate models in pharmacology, their fidelity as analogues of vertebrate systems requires verification. We utilised a flour beetle (Tenebrio molitor)-tapeworm (Hymenolepis diminuta) model to evaluate the efficacy of known anthelmintic compounds, praziquantel, mebendazole and levamisole against H. diminuta cysticercoid larvae in vitro. Inhibition of cysticercoid activity during the excystation procedure was used as a proxy for worm removal. The effects of the three compounds mirrored their relative efficacy in treatment against adult worms in mammalian systems; however, further study is required to determine the fidelity of this model in relation to dose administered. The model precludes comparison of consecutive daily administration of pharmaceuticals in mammals due to cysticercoids not surviving outside of the host for multiple days. Treatment of beetles in vivo, followed by excystation of cysticercoids postdissection could potentially allow for such comparisons. Further model validation will include analysis of pharmaceutical efficacy in varying H. diminuta isolates and pharmaceutical dilution in solvents other than water. Notwithstanding, our results demonstrate that this model holds promise as a method to efficiently identify promising new cestocidal candidates.

  18. Parental effects on the larval performance of a tapeworm in its copepod first host.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benesh, D P

    2013-08-01

    Parents can influence the phenotype of their offspring through various mechanisms, besides the direct effect of heredity. Such parental effects are little explored in parasitic organisms, perhaps because in many parasites, per capita investment into offspring is low. I investigated whether parental identity, beyond direct genetic effects, could explain variation in the performance of the tapeworm Schistocephalus solidus in its first intermediate host, a copepod. I first determined that two breeding worms could be separated from one another after ~48 h of in vitro incubation and that the isolated worms continued producing outcrossed eggs, that is, rates self-fertilization did not increase after separation. Thus, from a breeding pair, two sets of genetically comparable eggs can be collected that have unambiguous parental identities. In an infection experiment, I found that the development of larval worms tended to vary between the two parental worms within breeding pairs, but infection success and growth rate in copepods did not. Accounting for this parental effect decreased the estimated heritability for development by nearly half. These results suggest that larval performance is not simply a function of a worm's genotype; who mothered or fathered an offspring can also affect offspring fitness, contradicting the perhaps naïve idea that parasites simply produce large quantities of uniformly low-quality offspring. © 2013 The Author. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2013 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  19. Phylogenetic systematics of the genus Echinococcus (Cestoda: Taeniidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakao, Minoru; Lavikainen, Antti; Yanagida, Tetsuya; Ito, Akira

    2013-11-01

    Echinococcosis is a serious helminthic zoonosis in humans, livestock and wildlife. The pathogenic organisms are members of the genus Echinococcus (Cestoda: Taeniidae). Life cycles of Echinococcus spp. are consistently dependent on predator-prey association between two obligate mammalian hosts. Carnivores (canids and felids) serve as definitive hosts for adult tapeworms and their herbivore prey (ungulates, rodents and lagomorphs) as intermediate hosts for metacestode larvae. Humans are involved as an accidental host for metacestode infections. The metacestodes develop in various internal organs, particularly in liver and lungs. Each metacestode of Echinococcus spp. has an organotropism and a characteristic form known as an unilocular (cystic), alveolar or polycystic hydatid. Recent molecular phylogenetic studies have demonstrated that the type species, Echinococcus granulosus, causing cystic echinococcosis is a cryptic species complex. Therefore, the orthodox taxonomy of Echinococcus established from morphological criteria has been revised from the standpoint of phylogenetic systematics. Nine valid species including newly resurrected taxa are recognised as a result of the revision. This review summarises the recent advances in the phylogenetic systematics of Echinococcus, together with the historical backgrounds and molecular epidemiological aspects of each species. A new phylogenetic tree inferred from the mitochondrial genomes of all valid Echinococcus spp. is also presented. The taxonomic nomenclature for Echinococcus oligarthrus is shown to be incorrect and this name should be replaced with Echinococcus oligarthra. Copyright © 2013 Australian Society for Parasitology Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Senna leaf extracts induced Ca(+2) homeostasis in a zoonotic tapeworm Hymenolepis diminuta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Saptarshi; Kundu, Suman; Lyndem, Larisha M

    2016-10-01

    Context Plants and plant products have been used in traditional medicine as anthelmintic agents in human and veterinary medicine. Three species of Senna plant, S. alata (L), S. alexandrina (M) and S. occidentalis (L.) Link (Fabaceae) have been shown to have a vermicidal/vermifugal effect on a zoonotic tapeworm Hymenolepis diminuta (Rudolphi) (Cyclophyllidean). Objective The present study validates the mode of action of these Senna plants on the parasite. The alcoholic leaf extract was determined to obtain information on the intracellular free calcium concentration level. Materials and methods Hymenolepis diminuta was maintained in Sprague-Dawley rat model for 2 months. Live parasites collected from infected rat intestine were exposed to 40 mg/mL concentration of each plant extracts prepared in phosphate buffer saline at 37 °C, till parasite gets paralyzed. The rate of efflux of calcium from the parasite tissue to the medium and the level of intracellular Ca(2+ )concentration were determined by an atomic absorption spectroscopy. Results This study revealed that exposure of the worms to the plant extract leads to disruption in intracellular calcium homeostasis. A significant increase (44.6% and 25%) of efflux in Ca(2+ )from the tissue to the incubated medium was observed. Senna alata showed high rate of efflux (5.32 mg/g) followed by S. alexandria and S. occidentalis (both 4.6 mg/g) compared with control (3.68 mg/g). Discussion and conclusion These results suggest that leaf extracts caused membrane permeability to Ca(2+ )after vacuolization of the tegument under stress and the extracts may contain compound that can be used as a chemotherapeutic agent.

  1. IL-22 Restrains Tapeworm-Mediated Protection against Experimental Colitis via Regulation of IL-25 Expression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José L Reyes

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Interleukin (IL-22, an immune cell-derived cytokine whose receptor expression is restricted to non-immune cells (e.g. epithelial cells, can be anti-inflammatory and pro-inflammatory. Mice infected with the tapeworm Hymenolepis diminuta are protected from dinitrobenzene sulphonic acid (DNBS-induced colitis. Here we assessed expulsion of H. diminuta, the concomitant immune response and the outcome of DNBS-induced colitis in wild-type (WT and IL-22 deficient mice (IL-22-/- ± infection. Interleukin-22-/- mice had a mildly impaired ability to expel the worm and this correlated with reduced or delayed induction of TH2 immunity as measured by splenic and mesenteric lymph node production of IL-4, IL-5 and IL-13 and intestinal Muc-2 mRNA and goblet cell hyperplasia; in contrast, IL-25 increased in the small intestine of IL-22-/- mice 8 and 12 days post-infection compared to WT mice. In vitro experiments revealed that H. diminuta directly evoked epithelial production of IL-25 that was inhibited by recombinant IL-22. Also, IL-10 and markers of regulatory T cells were increased in IL-22-/- mice that displayed less DNBS (3 mg, ir. 72h-induced colitis. Wild-type mice infected with H. diminuta were protected from colitis, as were infected IL-22-/- mice and the latter to a degree that they were almost indistinguishable from control, non-DNBS treated mice. Finally, treatment with anti-IL-25 antibodies exaggerated DNBS-induced colitis in IL-22-/- mice and blocked the anti-colitic effect of infection with H. diminuta. Thus, IL-22 is identified as an endogenous brake on helminth-elicited TH2 immunity, reducing the efficacy of expulsion of H. diminuta and limiting the effectiveness of the anti-colitic events mobilized following infection with H. diminuta in a non-permissive host.

  2. Characterization of the complete mitochondrial genome of the cloacal tapeworm Cloacotaenia megalops (Cestoda: Hymenolepididae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Aijiang

    2016-09-05

    The cloacal tapeworm Cloacotaenia megalops (Hymenolepididae) is one of the most common cestode parasites of domestic and wild ducks worldwide. However, limited information is available regarding its epidemiology, biology, genetics and systematics. This study provides characterisation of the complete mitochondrial (mt) genome of C. megalops. The complete mt genome of C. megalops was obtained by long PCR, sequenced and annotated. The length of the entire mt genome of C. megalops is 13,887 bp; it contains 12 protein-coding, 2 ribosomal RNA and 22 transfer RNA genes, but lacks an atp8 gene. The mt gene arrangement of C. megalops is identical to that observed in Anoplocephala magna and A. perfoliata (Anoplocephalidae), Dipylidium caninum (Dipylidiidae) and Hymenolepis diminuta (Hymenolepididae), but differs from that reported in taeniids owing to the position shift between the tRNA (L1) and tRNA (S2) genes. The phylogenetic position of C. megalops was inferred using Maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference methods based on the concatenated amino acid data for 12 protein-coding genes. Phylogenetic trees showed that C. megalops is sister to Anoplocephala spp. (Anoplocephalidae) + Pseudanoplocephala crawfordi + Hymenolepis spp. (Hymenolepididae) indicating that the family Hymenolepididae is paraphyletic. The complete mt genome of C. megalops is sequenced. Phylogenetic analyses provided an insight into the phylogenetic relationships among the families Anoplocephalidae, Hymenolepididae, Dipylidiidae and Taeniidae. This novel genomic information also provides the opportunity to develop useful genetic markers for studying the molecular epidemiology, biology, genetics and systematics of C. megalops.

  3. The amphipod genus Acidostoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dahl, E.

    1964-01-01

    The genus Acidostoma was established by Lilljeborg (1865, p. 24) to receive Anonyx obesus Sp. Bate (1862, p. 74). Afterwards two further species have been added, viz. A. laticorne G. O. Sars (1879, p. 440) and A. nodiferum Stephensen (1923, p. 40). In the present paper it will be shown that A.

  4. Genus I. Leptospira

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leptospira comprise a diverse group of bacteria. Some species cause serious infections in animals and humans. These bacteria are aerobes that consume long-chain fatty acids and alcohols as carbon and energy sources. This genus is distinguished from Leptonema or Turneriella by lack of similarity u...

  5. The genus Mathewsia (Cruciferae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rollins, Reed C.

    1966-01-01

    Among the endemic and sometimes localized genera of the Cruciferae occurring in South America, Mathewsia stands apart as an element of the distinctive desert flora of southwestern Peru and western Chile. As far as present records show, the genus is confined to a relatively narrow strip wholly west

  6. The genus Lagenophora (Compositae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cabrera, Angel L.

    1966-01-01

    The genus Lagenophora was first described by Cassini under the name Lagenifera (in Bull. Soc. Philomat. 12, 1816, 199) with the following diagnosis: ‘Ce genre, de la tribus des astérées, comprend le calendula magellanicá, Willd. et le bellis stipitata, Labill. Son principal caractère reside dans la

  7. The ascomycete genus Sordaria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guarro, J.; Arx, von J.A.

    1987-01-01

    Sordaria is restricted to coprophilous, soil-, or seed-borne Pyrenomycetes with aseptate, elongate ascospores with a gelatinous, amorphous sheath. The genus is redescribed and a key to fourteen accepted species is given. A checklist of all taxa described as Sordaria is added.

  8. The genus Crateva (Capparaceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobs, M.

    1964-01-01

    The first concept of the genus Crateva was published by Linnaeus, Gen. Pl. ed. 1 (1737) 113 (n.v.). Presumably there is little difference with the text in the Hortus Cliffortianus (1738) 484. The protologue (here abbreviated and translated from the latter work) contains the following elements.

  9. Sciaphyllum, Genus Novum Acanthacearum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bremekamp, C.E.B.

    1942-01-01

    Among the Acanthaceae grown in the glasshouses of the University Botanic Garden, Utrecht, a plant labelled Aphelandra velutina drew my attention, first, because it obviously belonged to an entirely different genus, and secondly, because a description under this name could nowhere be found. The

  10. Phylogeny and species delimitation within the moss genus Dicranum Hedw.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lang, Annick Séverine

    2014-01-01

    Dicranum is a large genus essentially found in the Holarctic. More than 90 species are currently accepted and about 30 species are recorded for Europe. Dicranum species grow in a broad range of habitats, forming dense, tomentose tufts or cushions, and are easily recognized in the field by their

  11. The genus Ascodesmis (Pezizales, Ascomycetes)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brummelen, van J.

    1981-01-01

    In this taxonomic revision of the genus Ascodesmis the monotypic family Ascodesmidaceae and the genus Ascodesmis are delimited and defined. Six species are recognized, described, and illustrated from living material and specimens preserved in herbaria. The typifications of the genus Ascodesmis and

  12. In vitro screening for cestocidal activity of three species of Cassia plants against the tapeworm Raillietina tetragona.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kundu, S; Lyndem, L M

    2013-06-01

    Different species of Cassia plant are widely available in India and are commonly used either for their laxative, antimicrobial or antibacterial activity. In the present study the effectiveness in vitro of the crude alcoholic extracts of three species, namely Cassia alata, C. occidentalis and C. angustifolia, in the early paralysis and mortality of the fowl tapeworm Raillietina tetragona at concentrations ranging from 5 to 80 mg/ml was investigated. Time of paralysis and death were monitored frequently. Immediately after paralysis the tapeworms were processed for electron microscopic studies. While the untreated or control parasites survived for 81.93 ± 5.85 h, the parasites treated with C. alata took less time (1.68 ± 0.27 h) to be paralysed, followed by those treated with C. angustifolia (2.95 ± 0.29 h). Although C. occidentalis took more time (4.13 ± 0.31 h) to paralyse, in combination with either C. alata or C. angustifolia the time taken to paralyse became shorter. All the plant-treated parasites showed irrevocable changes in the scolex and proglottids as compared with the control, and these observations are comparable with those obtained with praziquantel. These results indicate that the three plants tested can be claimed to have anthelmintic activity in addition to their known properties, both when used individually and in combination. Further investigations will be required to evaluate their mechanism of action.

  13. The genus Syncolostemon (Lamiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. E. Codd

    1976-12-01

    Full Text Available The genus  Syncolostemon E. Mey. ex Benth. is revised and its relationship with  Hemizygia (Benth. Briq.f is discussed. A new species,  S. comptonii Codd is described and the following new combinations are made: S. parviflorus var. lanceolatus (Guerke Codd  (= S . lanceolatus Guerke and  S. latidens (N.E. Br. Codd ( = Orthosiphon latidens N.E. Br..

  14. Spatial and temporal distribution of the Asian fish tapeworm Bothriocephalus acheilognathi (Cestoda: Bothriocephalidea) in the Rio Grande (Río Bravo del Norte).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bean, Megan G; Bonner, Timothy H

    2010-09-01

    Recent collections of the Asian fish tapeworm Bothriocephalus acheilognathi in the Rio Grande have raised concern about the potential impacts on Rio Grande endemic and imperiled fishes. The objectives of this study were to determine distribution and definitive hosts of the Asian fish tapeworm within the Rio Grande drainage and to quantify occurrences and abundances. In total, 1,992 fish spanning 11 families were collected and examined for Asian fish tapeworms in the Rio Grande and the Pecos and Devils rivers. The parasite was collected from red shiners Cyprinella lutrensis, Tamaulipas shiners Notropis braytoni, sand shiners N. stramineus, river carpsuckers Carpiodes carpio, plains killifish Fundulus zebrinus, western mosquitofish Gambusia affinis, blue suckers Cycleptus elongatus, blacktail shiners Cyprinella venusta, proserpine shiners Cyprinella proserpina, and Manantial roundnose minnow Dionda argentosa, with the latter four species being new host records. Monthly collections of red shiners from Big Bend National Park exhibited prevalence levels above 15% in January-March and December and below 10% during April-June and October. With over 50% of the Rio Grande icthyofauna in Texas considered imperiled, the occurrence and pathological effects of the Asian fish tapeworm in combination with reduced water quantity and quality and increased habitat fragmentation are of concern for these taxa.

  15. The Asian fish tapeworm Schyzocotyle acheilognathi is widespread in baitfish retail stores in Michigan, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boonthai, Traimat; Herbst, Seth J; Whelan, Gary E; Van Deuren, Michelle Gunn; Loch, Thomas P; Faisal, Mohamed

    2017-12-22

    The Asian fish tapeworm Schyzocotyle acheilognathi (Yamaguti, 1934) is an important fish pathogen because of its wide range of intermediate and definitive hosts and its pathological consequences. This study was designed to determine if baitfish are a likely vector contributing to the expansion of the invasive Asian fish tapeworm. We collected live baitfish for examination from 78 retail stores in Michigan between September 2015 and June 2016. A total of 5400 baitfish (90 lots, 60 fish/lot) were examined, including 42 emerald shiners [Notropis atherinoides (Rafinesque, 1818)] lots, 30 fathead minnow [Pimephales promelas (Rafinesque, 1820)] lots, 11 golden shiners [Notemigonus crysoleucas (Mitchill, 1814)] lots, 3 sand shiners [Notropis stramineus (Cope, 1865)] lots, 1 lot each of spottail shiners [Notropis hudsonius (Clinton, 1824)], Northern redbelly dace [Phoxinus eos (Cope, 1861)], and blacknose dace [Rhinichthys atratulus (Hermann, 1804)] and 1 lot of mixed two species: weed shiners [Notropis texanus (Girard, 1856)] and sand shiners. Based on its scolex and strobilar morphology combined with gene sequence analysis, S. acheilognathi was only found in emerald shiners, golden shiners and sand shiners. The mean within lot prevalence and abundance of infection was highest in emerald shiners (20.3 ± 14.0 and 1.15 ± 1.34), followed by golden shiners (8.3 ± 10.7 and 0.89 ± 1.27) and sand shiners (1.3 ± 2.6 and 0.02 ± 0.05). However, the mean intensity of S. acheilognathi in emerald shiners was lower (4.3 ± 2.6) than that of golden shiners (6.6 ± 6.7). S. acheilognathi-infected fish exhibited enlargement of the abdomen, distension of the intestinal wall, and intestinal occlusion and hemorrhage. This finding suggests that live baitfish are a likely vector by which the invasive Asian tapeworm's range is expanding.

  16. A new genus and species of cestode (Rhinebothriidea) from Mobula kuhlii (Rajiformes: Mobulidae) from Malaysian Borneo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eyring, Kathryn L; Healy, Claire J; Reyda, Florian B

    2012-06-01

    The cestode fauna of the shortfin devilray, Mobula kuhlii (Müller & Henle, 1841) was examined for the first time. The work resulted in the discovery of a new genus and species of rhinebothriidean tapeworm. Crassuseptum pietrafacei, n. gen. n. sp. is erected here on the basis of its unique scolex and proglottid morphology. Histological sections and examination by light and scanning electron microscopy demonstrated that this new genus differs from all other rhinebothriidean genera in its possession of bothridia in which the proximal and distal sides are confluent, i.e., not separated by a rim of tissue, and in its possession of testes that extend to the posterior margin of the ovary. This new species is characterized in part by its possession of stalked, elongate bothridia lacking lateral constrictions, with 13-15 prominent transverse bothridial septa and 4 reduced transverse septa, craspedote proglottids, each with 2-3 layers of testes in cross section, and a vas deferens that joins the cirrus sac at its anterior margin. Histological and optical sections through bothridial septa revealed that the transverse septa are formed by septal muscles separate from bothridial radial musculature, extending from the anterior side to the posterior side of each septum. This is only the second species rhinebothriidean cestode reported from mobulids. This study adds to the number of new species and genera of elasmobranch cestodes discovered off of the island of Borneo.

  17. The first record of the invasive Asian fish tapeworm (Schyzocotyle acheilognathi from an endemic cichlid fish in Madagascar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scholz T.

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The Asian fish tapeworm, Schyzocotyle acheilognathi (Yamaguti, 1934 (Cestoda: Bothriocephalidea, is an invasive parasite of freshwater fishes that have been reported from more than 200 freshwater fish worldwide. It was originally described from a small cyprinid, Acheilognathus rombeus, in Japan but then has spread, usually with carp, minnows or guppies, to all continents including isolated islands such as Hawaii, Puerto Rico, Cuba or Sri Lanka. In the present account, we report the first case of the infection of a native cichlid fish, Ptychochromis cf. inornatus (Perciformes: Cichlidae, endemic to Madagascar, with S. acheilognathi. The way of introduction of this parasite to the island, which is one of the world’s biodiversity hotspots, is briefly discussed.

  18. Phylogenetic characterisation of Taenia tapeworms in spotted hyenas and reconsideration of the "Out of Africa" hypothesis of Taenia in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terefe, Yitagele; Hailemariam, Zerihun; Menkir, Sissay; Nakao, Minoru; Lavikainen, Antti; Haukisalmi, Voitto; Iwaki, Takashi; Okamoto, Munehiro; Ito, Akira

    2014-07-01

    The African origin of hominins suggests that Taenia spp. in African carnivores are evolutionarily related to the human-infecting tapeworms Taenia solium, Taenia saginata and Taenia asiatica. Nevertheless, the hypothesis has not been verified through molecular phylogenetics of Taenia. This study aimed to perform phylogenetic comparisons between Taenia spp. from African hyenas and the congeneric human parasites. During 2010-2013, 233 adult specimens of Taenia spp. were collected from 11 spotted hyenas in Ethiopia. A screening based on short DNA sequences of the cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene classified the samples into four mitochondrial lineages designated as I-IV. DNA profiles of nuclear genes for DNA polymerase delta (pold) and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (pepck) showed that lineages II and III can be assigned as two independent species. Common haplotypes of pold and pepck were frequently found in lineages I and IV, suggesting that they constitute a single species. Morphological observations suggested that lineage II is Taenia crocutae, but the other lineages were morphologically inconsistent with known species, suggesting the involvement of two new species. A phylogenetic tree of Taenia spp. was reconstructed by the maximum likelihood method using all protein-coding genes of their mitochondrial genomes. The tree clearly demonstrated that T. crocutae is sister to T. saginata and T. asiatica, whereas T. solium was confirmed to be sister to the brown bear tapeworm, Taenia arctos. The tree also suggested that T. solium and T. arctos are related to two species of Taenia in hyenas, corresponding to lineages I+IV and III. These results may partially support the African origin of human-infecting Taenia spp., but there remains a possibility that host switching of Taenia to hominins was not confined to Africa. Additional taxa from African carnivores are needed for further testing of the "Out of Africa" hypothesis of Taenia in humans. Copyright © 2014 Australian

  19. Phylogenetic Analysis of the Bifidobacterium Genus Using Glycolysis Enzyme Sequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Katelyn; Barrangou, Rodolphe

    2016-01-01

    Bifidobacteria are important members of the human gastrointestinal tract that promote the establishment of a healthy microbial consortium in the gut of infants. Recent studies have established that the Bifidobacterium genus is a polymorphic phylogenetic clade, which encompasses a diversity of species and subspecies that encode a broad range of proteins implicated in complex and non-digestible carbohydrate uptake and catabolism, ranging from human breast milk oligosaccharides, to plant fibers. Recent genomic studies have created a need to properly place Bifidobacterium species in a phylogenetic tree. Current approaches, based on core-genome analyses come at the cost of intensive sequencing and demanding analytical processes. Here, we propose a typing method based on sequences of glycolysis genes and the proteins they encode, to provide insights into diversity, typing, and phylogeny in this complex and broad genus. We show that glycolysis genes occur broadly in these genomes, to encode the machinery necessary for the biochemical spine of the cell, and provide a robust phylogenetic marker. Furthermore, glycolytic sequences-based trees are congruent with both the classical 16S rRNA phylogeny, and core genome-based strain clustering. Furthermore, these glycolysis markers can also be used to provide insights into the adaptive evolution of this genus, especially with regards to trends toward a high GC content. This streamlined method may open new avenues for phylogenetic studies on a broad scale, given the widespread occurrence of the glycolysis pathway in bacteria, and the diversity of the sequences they encode. PMID:27242688

  20. The genus Rivomarginella (Gastropoda, Marginellidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coomans, Henry E.; Clover, Phillip W.

    1972-01-01

    Rivomarginella Brandt, 1968, is the only genus of the Marginellidae living in freshwater. The type species, R. morrisoni Brandt, is known from rivers and lakes in Thailand. Marginella electrum Reeve, 1865, is assigned to the genus Rivomarginella. Specimens of R. electrum (Reeve) are mentioned from

  1. The genus Hexopetion Burret (Arecaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Christophe Pintaud

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The genus Hexopetion was described by Burret to accommodate a single species, H. mexicanum. We reinstate the genus on the basis of morphological and anatomical data, and enlarge it to include a second species, Astrocaryum alatum, for which a new combination is made.

  2. Modular polynomials for genus 2

    OpenAIRE

    Broker, Reinier; Lauter, Kristin

    2008-01-01

    Modular polynomials are an important tool in many algorithms involving elliptic curves. In this article we investigate their generalization to the genus 2 case following pioneering work by Gaudry and Dupont. We prove various properties of these genus 2 modular polynomials and give an improved way to explicitly compute them.

  3. The genus Xenophya Schott (Araceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nicolson, Dan H.

    1968-01-01

    Up to the present time Xenophya has been a monotypic genus known only from its type collection. It is closely related to the genus Alocasia from which it may be distinguished by its entirely persistent spathe and anatropous ovules. In Alocasia the upper part of the spathe quickly withers and is lost

  4. Flavonoids from the Genus Astragalus: Phytochemistry and Biological Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bratkov, Viktor M; Shkondrov, Aleksandar M; Zdraveva, Petranka K; Krasteva, Ilina N

    2016-01-01

    Flavonoids, the most common plant polyphenols are widely distributed in every species and possess a broad range of pharmacological activities. The genus Astragalus is the largest in the Fabaceae family with more than 2,500 species spread. They are known to contain different metabolites such as flavonoids, saponins, and polysaccharides. Plants from the genus have been used in the traditional medicine of many countries for centuries. This paper is focused on the large group of flavonoid compounds. Details on structure as well as information about the pharmacological properties of flavonoids, isolated from Astragalus species have been discussed. This review is based on publications until the first half of 2014 and includes also the results from our phytochemical investigations of the genus.

  5. The Broad Superintendents Academy, 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broad Foundation, 2007

    2007-01-01

    The Broad Superintendents Academy is an executive training program that identifies and prepares prominent leaders--executives with experience successfully leading large organizations and a passion for public service--then places them in urban school districts to dramatically improve the quality of education for America's students. This brochure…

  6. Paralogues of nuclear ribosomal genes conceal phylogenetic signals within the invasive Asian fish tapeworm lineage: evidence from next generation sequencing data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brabec, Jan; Kuchta, Roman; Scholz, Tomáš; Littlewood, D Timothy J

    2016-08-01

    Complete mitochondrial genomes and nuclear rRNA operons of eight geographically distinct isolates of the Asian fish tapeworm Schyzocotyle acheilognathi (syn. Bothriocephalus acheilognathi), representing the parasite's global diversity spanning four continents, were fully characterised using an Illumina sequencing platform. This cestode species represents an extreme example of a highly invasive, globally distributed pathogen of veterinary importance with exceptionally low host specificity unseen elsewhere within the parasitic flatworms. In addition to eight specimens of S. acheilognathi, we fully characterised its closest known relative and the only congeneric species, Schyzocotyle nayarensis, from cyprinids in the Indian subcontinent. Since previous nucleotide sequence data on the Asian fish tapeworm were restricted to a single molecular locus of questionable phylogenetic utility-the nuclear rRNA genes-separating internal transcribed spacers-the mitogenomic data presented here offer a unique opportunity to gain the first detailed insights into both the intraspecific phylogenetic relationships and population genetic structure of the parasite, providing key baseline information for future research in the field. Additionally, we identify a previously unnoticed source of error and demonstrate the limited utility of the nuclear rRNA sequences, including the internal transcribed spacers that has likely misled most of the previous molecular phylogenetic and population genetic estimates on the Asian fish tapeworm. Copyright © 2016 Australian Society for Parasitology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Inhibition of Tapeworm Thioredoxin and Glutathione Pathways by an Oxadiazole N-Oxide Leads to Reduced Mesocestoides vogae Infection Burden in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasquet, Vivian; Bisio, Hugo; López, Gloria V; Romanelli-Cedrez, Laura; Bonilla, Mariana; Saldaña, Jenny; Salinas, Gustavo

    2015-06-26

    Parasitic flatworms cause serious infectious diseases that affect humans and livestock in vast regions of the world, yet there are few effective drugs to treat them. Thioredoxin glutathione reductase (TGR) is an essential enzyme for redox homeostasis in flatworm parasites and a promising pharmacological target. We purified to homogeneity and characterized the TGR from the tapeworm Mesocestoides vogae (syn. M. corti). This purification revealed absence of conventional TR and GR. The glutathione reductase activity of the purified TGR exhibits a hysteretic behavior typical of flatworm TGRs. Consistently, M. vogae genome analysis revealed the presence of a selenocysteine-containing TGR and absence of conventional TR and GR. M. vogae thioredoxin and glutathione reductase activities were inhibited by 3,4-bis(phenylsulfonyl)-1,2,5-oxadiazole N2-oxide (VL16E), an oxadiazole N-oxide previously identified as an inhibitor of fluke and tapeworm TGRs. Finally, we show that mice experimentally infected with M. vogae tetrathyridia and treated with either praziquantel, the reference drug for flatworm infections, or VL16E exhibited a 28% reduction of intraperitoneal larvae numbers compared to vehicle treated mice. Our results show that oxadiazole N-oxide is a promising chemotype in vivo and highlights the convenience of M. vogae as a model for rapid assessment of tapeworm infections in vivo.

  8. Inhibition of Tapeworm Thioredoxin and Glutathione Pathways by an Oxadiazole N-Oxide Leads to Reduced Mesocestoides vogae Infection Burden in Mice

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    Vivian Pasquet

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Parasitic flatworms cause serious infectious diseases that affect humans and livestock in vast regions of the world, yet there are few effective drugs to treat them. Thioredoxin glutathione reductase (TGR is an essential enzyme for redox homeostasis in flatworm parasites and a promising pharmacological target. We purified to homogeneity and characterized the TGR from the tapeworm Mesocestoides vogae (syn. M. corti. This purification revealed absence of conventional TR and GR. The glutathione reductase activity of the purified TGR exhibits a hysteretic behavior typical of flatworm TGRs. Consistently, M. vogae genome analysis revealed the presence of a selenocysteine-containing TGR and absence of conventional TR and GR. M. vogae thioredoxin and glutathione reductase activities were inhibited by 3,4-bis(phenylsulfonyl-1,2,5-oxadiazole N2-oxide (VL16E, an oxadiazole N-oxide previously identified as an inhibitor of fluke and tapeworm TGRs. Finally, we show that mice experimentally infected with M. vogae tetrathyridia and treated with either praziquantel, the reference drug for flatworm infections, or VL16E exhibited a 28% reduction of intraperitoneal larvae numbers compared to vehicle treated mice. Our results show that oxadiazole N-oxide is a promising chemotype in vivo and highlights the convenience of M. vogae as a model for rapid assessment of tapeworm infections in vivo.

  9. THE GENUS DERMATOPHILUS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Morris A.

    1964-01-01

    Gordon, M. A. (New York State Department of Health, Albany). The genus Dermatophilus. J. Bacteriol. 88:509–522. 1964.—Seventeen strains of Dermatophilus originating in skin lesions of cattle, sheep, horses, deer, and man were compared as to conditions for growth, colonial characteristics under varying conditions, microscopic morphology, and biochemical reactions. All grew well aerobically at 37 C and were facultatively anaerobic. They were morphologically similar in both gross and microscopic appearance, and most produced motile spores. Stable gray variants often appeared among the orange-yellow “wild-type” colonies. Acid without gas was produced consistently from glucose and fructose, and transitorily from galactose, but was produced from none of eight other carbohydrates except belatedly by some strains from maltose. Almost all strains hydrolyzed casein, most of them digested BCP milk with varying rapidity, and the majority liquefied gelatin, but there was considerable variation in this last property. Differences crossed both host and geographic lines. It is concluded that all isolates can be accommodated in the species D. congolensis Van Saceghem 1915, emend. 1916, 1934, with D. dermatonomus and D. pedis falling into synonymy. Images PMID:14203370

  10. THE GENUS DERMATOPHILUS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    GORDON, M A

    1964-08-01

    Gordon, M. A. (New York State Department of Health, Albany). The genus Dermatophilus. J. Bacteriol. 88:509-522. 1964.-Seventeen strains of Dermatophilus originating in skin lesions of cattle, sheep, horses, deer, and man were compared as to conditions for growth, colonial characteristics under varying conditions, microscopic morphology, and biochemical reactions. All grew well aerobically at 37 C and were facultatively anaerobic. They were morphologically similar in both gross and microscopic appearance, and most produced motile spores. Stable gray variants often appeared among the orange-yellow "wild-type" colonies. Acid without gas was produced consistently from glucose and fructose, and transitorily from galactose, but was produced from none of eight other carbohydrates except belatedly by some strains from maltose. Almost all strains hydrolyzed casein, most of them digested BCP milk with varying rapidity, and the majority liquefied gelatin, but there was considerable variation in this last property. Differences crossed both host and geographic lines. It is concluded that all isolates can be accommodated in the species D. congolensis Van Saceghem 1915, emend. 1916, 1934, with D. dermatonomus and D. pedis falling into synonymy.

  11. Screening of cesticidal compounds on a tapeworm hymenolepis nana in vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, A. B.; Hawking, F.

    1960-01-01

    A simple and convenient in vitro technique is described for the screening of compounds for action against Hymenolepis nana and probably many other intestinal worms. The results obtained from this test are in broad agreement with the findings of clinical experience and of a small series of in vivo tests. Among the substances tested, the most active ones were oil of chenopodium, dichlorophen, extract of cashew nut (Anacardium occidentale), antimony potassium tartrate, and BIQ 20 [eicosamethylenebis(isoquinolinium iodide)]. PMID:13750047

  12. A new genus and species of proteocephalidean (Cestoda) from Clarias catfishes (Siluriformes: Clariidae) in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Chambrier, Alain; Scholz, Tomás; Beletew, Moges; Mariaux, Jean

    2009-02-01

    A new proteocephalidean cestode is described from 2 catfishes, Clarias gariepinus (type host) and C. cf. anguillaris (Siluriformes: Clariidae), from Ethiopia (type locality), Sudan, Tanzania, and Zimbabwe, and a new genus, Barsonella, is proposed to accommodate it. The genus belongs to the Proteocephalinae because its genital organs (testes, ovary, vitellarium, and uterus) are situated in the medulla. Barsonella lafoni, the type and only species of the new genus, is characterized mainly by the possession of an additional opening of each sucker; circular musculature on the anterior margin of suckers, serving as a sphincter; a small thin-walled glandular apical organ; absence of well-developed osmoregulatory canals in mature, pregravid, and gravid proglottids; and a large strobila, up to 173 mm long and 3.2 mm wide. Species of Marsypocephalus Wedl, 1861 (Marsypocephalinae), other large-sized proteocephalidean tapeworms occurring sympatrically in African catfishes (Clarias and Heterobranchus) and also possessing a sphincter-like, circular musculature on the anterior part of suckers, differ from B. lafoni in the absence of an additional sucker opening and glandular apical organ, the cortical position of the testes, well-developed osmoregulatory canals throughout the strobila, and a large cirrus sac. Proteocephalus glanduligerus (Janicki, 1928), another cestode parasitic in Clarias spp. in Africa, is much smaller than B. lafoni (maximum length 15 mm), has suckers without additional opening and circular musculature on the suckers, a large-sized glandular organ, much larger than suckers, and well-developed osmoregulatory canals. Comparison of partial sequences of the 28S rRNA gene for 7 samples of B. lafoni from 2 different hosts and 4 localities in Ethiopia, Sudan, and Tanzania has shown a very low genetic variability. In a limited phylogenetic analysis, B. lafoni formed a clade with Corallobothrium solidum Fritsch, 1886 (Proteocephalidae: Corallobothriinae), an African

  13. Ecological aspects of the occurrence of asian tapeworm, Bothriocephalus acheilognathi Yamaguti, 1934 infection in the largemouth yellowfish, Labeobarbus kimberleyensis ( Gilchrist and Thompson, 1913) in the Vaal Dam, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Retief, N.-R.; Avenant-Oldewage, A.; du Preez, H. H.

    Infection of fish by the Asian tapeworm can damage intestines and cause abnormal growth. Eighty largemouth yellowfish Labeobarbus kimberleyensis were collected in the Vaal Dam (26°52.249‧S, 28°10.249‧E) with the aid of gill nets during a study between April 2005 and February 2006. The fish were killed and the weight and length determined. Thereafter the intestines were removed, the length determined and the intestines opened to expose the tapeworms. The distance between the beginning of the intestine and the attachment position of the first tapeworm was measured, and thereafter all the worms were collected. The prevalence, abundance and mean intensity was calculated for all the surveys. Seasonality and intensity of tapeworms were compared to the intestine and total lengths of the fish. All the tapeworms were identified as the Asian Tapeworm Bothriocephalus acheilognathi Yamaguti, 1934. The position of the first tapeworm was located between 10% and 20% from the anterior end of the intestine in close proximity to the bile opening. A total of 100% prevalence was recorded for all the surveys and the highest mean intensity of 231.1 was recorded during the autumn survey. The lowest mean intensity of 73.7 was recorded during the summer survey. Although the infection rates were very high, the fish condition was good and apparently the fecundity of the fish was not negatively affected as young fish fry was collected during the summer survey. Parasite numbers are higher and differ from a study conducted in 2000 and this is attributed to water temperature and water quality. No correlation was observed between parasite intensity and total length of each fish. This indicates that intensity is not dependant on host size and that infection is not the result of a buildt of over years.

  14. A new monozoic tapeworm, Lobulovarium longiovatum n. g., n. sp. (Cestoda: Caryophyllidea), from barbs Puntius spp. (Teleostei: Cyprinidae) in the Indomalayan region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oros, Mikuláš; Ash, Anirban; Brabec, Jan; Kar, Pradip Kumar; Scholz, Tomáš

    2012-09-01

    A new caryophyllidean cestode is described from barbs Puntius spp. (Cypriniformes: Cyprinidae), with P. sophore (Hamilton) as its type-host, in the Ganges and Brahmaputra river basins in India and Bangladesh, and a new genus, Lobulovarium n. g., is proposed to accommodate it. The genus belongs to the Lytocestidae because its vitelline follicles are situated in the cortex. It is typified by: (i) a peculiar ovary, which is roughly H-shaped, but with asymmetrical, irregular lobes on its ventral and dorsal sides; (ii) an extensive vitellarium formed by numerous vitelline follicles scattered throughout the cortex; (iii) a long, conical postovarian part of the body with numerous vitelline follicles; (iv) a broadly digitate scolex with a slightly protrusible central cone; (v) a single gonopore (male and female genital ducts open via a single pore and a common genital atrium is absent); and (vi) a small number of testes (90 μm in L. longiovatum), which are spherical (length/width ratio 1:1 versus 2.5-3:1 in the new species), and the presence of vitelline follicles alongside the ovarian lobes (almost completely absent in L. longiovatum).

  15. New to Poland species of the broadly defined genus Coprinus (Basidiomycota, Agaricomycotina

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    Błażej Gierczyk

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a list of 19 coprinoid fungi, found in Poland, which have not been reported earlier from this area: Coprinellus bisporiger, C. dilectus, C. heterothrix, C. radicellus, Coprinopsis annulopora, C. bellulus, C. candidolanata, C. cinereofloccosa, C. coniophora, C. goudensis, C. idae, C. iocularis, C. krieglsteineri, C. pachyderma, C. phlyctidospora, C. rugosobispora, C. scobicola, C. spilospora, Coprinus palmeranus. Illustrations and short descriptions of the species, based on the specimens examined and literature data, are given.

  16. Revision of the genus Phaeanthus (Annonaceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mols, J.B.; Keßler, P.J.A.

    2000-01-01

    A revision of the genus Phaeanthus Hook.f. & Thomson (Annonaceae) is presented. The genus comprises 8 species. A key to the fruiting and/or flowering specimens of the genus is included. The genus consists of shrubs to small-sized trees from Malesia and Vietnam. It is characterised by sepals and

  17. Complete Sequence of the mitochondrial genome of the tapeworm Hymenolepis diminuta: Gene arrangements indicate that platyhelminths are eutrochozoans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    von Nickisch-Rosenegk, Markus; Brown, Wesley M.; Boore, Jeffrey L.

    2001-01-01

    Using ''long-PCR'' we have amplified in overlapping fragments the complete mitochondrial genome of the tapeworm Hymenolepis diminuta (Platyhelminthes: Cestoda) and determined its 13,900 nucleotide sequence. The gene content is the same as that typically found for animal mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) except that atp8 appears to be lacking, a condition found previously for several other animals. Despite the small size of this mtDNA, there are two large non-coding regions, one of which contains 13 repeats of a 31 nucleotide sequence and a potential stem-loop structure of 25 base pairs with an 11-member loop. Large potential secondary structures are identified also for the non-coding regions of two other cestode mtDNAs. Comparison of the mitochondrial gene arrangement of H. diminuta with those previously published supports a phylogenetic position of flatworms as members of the Eutrochozoa, rather than being basal to either a clade of protostomes or a clade of coelomates.

  18. Expression of gonadotropin subunits in roach (Rutilus rutilus, Cyprinidae) infected with plerocercoids of the tapeworm Ligula intestinalis (Cestoda).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trubiroha, Achim; Wuertz, Sven; Frank, Sabrina N; Sures, Bernd; Kloas, Werner

    2009-11-01

    Plerocercoids of the tapeworm Ligula intestinalis (Cestoda: Bothriocephalidea) have been reported to inhibit gametogenesis of their intermediate fish hosts. However, mechanistic studies are rare and the proximate cues leading to impaired reproduction still remain unknown. In the present study we investigated the effects of infection by L. intestinalis on reproductive parameters of roach (Rutilus rutilus, Cyprinidae), a common fish host of this parasite. Field studies on roach demonstrated that in both genders infection prevented gonad development. As revealed by quantitative PCR, infection was accompanied by essentially lower pituitary expression of follicle-stimulating hormone beta-subunit (FSHbeta) and luteinizing hormone beta-subunit (LHbeta) mRNA compared with uninfected roach, providing clear evidence for gonadotropin-insufficiency as the cause of arrested gametogenesis. Under controlled laboratory conditions infected roach showed lower mRNA levels of FSHbeta but not of LHbeta, despite histology revealing similar gonad stages as in uninfected conspecifics. These findings indicate the involvement of FSH rather than LH in mediating effects of infection early during gonad development in roach. Moreover, the impact of L. intestinalis on reproductive parameters of roach appeared to be independent of the parasite burden. Together, these data provide valuable information on the role of FSH and LH as mediators of parasite-induced sterilization in a vertebrate and implicate the selective inhibition of host reproduction by L. intestinalis as a natural source of endocrine disruption in fish.

  19. Establishment of the onset of host specificity in four phyllobothriid tapeworm species (Cestoda: Tetraphyllidea) using a molecular approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randhawa, H S; Saunders, G W; Burt, M D B

    2007-08-01

    A parasitological survey in the Bay of Fundy, Canada, resulted in the recovery of mature specimens from 5 species of phyllobothriid tapeworms (Cestoda: Tetraphyllidea) from 4 rajid skates: Echeneibothrium canadensis and E. dubium abyssorum specimens from Amblyraja radiata; E. vernetae and Pseudanthobothrium n.sp. from Leucoraja erinacea and L. ocellata; and P. hanseni from A. radiata and Malacoraja senta. Partial sequence data of a variable region (D2) from the large subunit ribosomal DNA (LSU) were used here to determine the host distribution of immature specimens for 4 of these 5 species (E. d. abyssorum was not included in the analyses). Immature specimens from both Pseudanthobothrium spp. were identified in the same hosts as recorded previously for mature specimens, thus suggesting that there are mechanisms that prevent the attachment of the parasite in an 'unsuitable' host species. Immature E. canadensis specimens were recovered exclusively from A. radiata, whereas immature E. vernetae specimens were recovered from L. erinacea and A. radiata, despite the latter host species not harbouring mature E. vernetae specimens. Their presence in the latter host species may be explained by host restriction or resistance, which allows the attachment of the parasites in the 'wrong' host species, but not establishment or development.

  20. Update on the distribution of the invasive Asian fish tapeworm, Bothriocephalus acheilognathi, in the U.S. and Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhury, A.; Charipar, E.; Nelson, P.; Hodgson, J.R.; Bonar, S.; Cole, Rebecca A.

    2006-01-01

    The documented range of the invasive and potentially pathogenic Asian fish tapeworm, Bothriocephalus acheilognathi Yamaguti, 1934 in the United States and Canada is updated based on examination of museum depositions and original field collections. Gravid specimens of B. acheilognathi were collected from the fathead minnow Pimephales promelas Rafinesque in Peter Lake, at the University of Notre Dame Environmental Research Center (UNDERC) Land o' Lakes, Wisconsin. A single immature specimen of the parasite was collected from a white bass, Morone chrysops (Rafinesque) in Lake Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada. This is the first record of B. acheilognathi in Canada and extends its northern range in the interior of the continent by more than 600 miles over the last documented record. The previous record of B. acheilognathi in Canada, from the northern pikeminnow, Ptychocheilus oregonensis in British Columbia, is a misidentification of Eubothrium tulipai. Examination of selected records of intestinal cestodes from native cyprinids, in the Harold W. Manter Laboratory of Parasitology (HWML, n = 9) collection and in the United States National Parasite Collection (USNPC, n = 8), provided evidence of the parasite in Nebraska and possibly in the upper Colorado River basin. Introductions into Wisconsin-Michigan were due to the stocking of golden shiners, whereas the source of the introduction in Manitoba remains unknown.

  1. Localization of glycoconjugates at the tegument of the tapeworms Hymenolepis nana and H. microstoma with gold labelled lectins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, J; Peters, W

    1987-01-01

    Gold labelled lectins were used for electron microscopic localization of carbohydrate components of the tegument surface of two tapeworm species, Hymenolepis nana and H. microstoma. WGA, succinylated WGA, SBA, APA, PNA and, to a lesser extent, Con A were preferentially bound to the spines of the microtrichs. UEA-I and DBA were not adsorbed. The results indicate that the surface coat of both species has exposed N-acetylglucosamine, galactose and perhaps glucose and/or mannose residues. The location of lectin-binding glycoconjugates within the tegument and parenchyma was found using the light microscope on sections of material embedded in Lowikryl K4M after lectin-gold labelling and silver enhancement of the gold grains. The tegument selectively adsorbs WGA and SBA and strongly; adsorbtion of PNA and Con A is less intense. Strong adsorbtion of DBA and PNA was confined to the basal lamina. The parenchyma adsorbed Con A, PNA and DBA, but little WGA and SBA. The results indicate that many glycoconjugates are present in the tegument. They have similar terminal sugar residues to those of the surface coat. The significance of these carbohydrates for host-parasite interactions is discussed.

  2. The anthelmintic efficacy of natural plant cysteine proteinases against the equine tapeworm, Anoplocephala perfoliata in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansur, F; Luoga, W; Buttle, D J; Duce, I R; Lowe, A E; Behnke, J M

    2016-09-01

    Papaya latex has been demonstrated to be an efficacious anthelmintic against murine, porcine, ovine and canine nematode parasites, and even those infecting poultry, and it has some efficacy against rodent cestodes. The active ingredients of papaya latex are known to be cysteine proteinases (CPs). The experiments described in this paper indicate that CPs in papaya latex, and also those in pineapples, are highly efficacious against the equine cestode Anoplocephala perfoliata in vitro, by causing a significant reduction in motility leading to death of the worms. The susceptibility of A. perfoliata to damage by CPs was considerably greater than that of the rodent cestodes Hymenolepis diminuta and H. microstoma. Our results are the first to report anthelmintic efficacy of CPs against an economically important equine helminth. Moreover, they provide further evidence that the spectrum of activity of CPs is not restricted to nematodes and support the idea that these plant-derived enzymes can be developed into useful broad-spectrum anthelmintics.

  3. THE GENUS CULLENIA Wight * (Bombacaceae

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    A. J. G. H. KOSTERMANS

    1956-12-01

    Full Text Available The monotypic genus Cullenia was established by Wight (IconesPI. Ind. or. 5 (1 : pi. 1761—62 & text, 1851, who differentiated it fromDurio Adans. mainly by the lack of a corolla and the position and shapeof the anthers. The only species, originally described as Durio ceylanicusby Gardner, was cited by Wight as Cullenia excelsa Wight. K. Schumanncorrected the specific epithet rather casually and atributed it (wronglyto Wight. Bentham (in Benth. & Hook., Gen. pi. 1: 212. 1867; Baillon(Hist. pi. 4: 159. 1872, Masters (in Hook, f., Fl. Br. Ind. 1: 350. 1874and Beccari (Malesia 3: 219. 1889 accepted the genus.Bakhuizen van den Brink (in Bull. Jard. bot. Buitenzorg III, 6: 228.1924 incorporated the genus in Durio.In my opinion Cullenia represents a "good" genus by its lack ofcorolla. Alston, although accepting Bakhuizen's reduction, informed mepersonally, that he, too, is inclined to consider Cullenia different fromDurio.The pollen were described as being naked and pedicellate by Gardner;this wrong statement was corrected by Wight; the anthers are pedicellateand one-celled.In this paper a new Cullenia species is described, which strengthensthe position of the genus; both species are restricted to the rain forestregion of Ceylon and the Southern Indian Peninsula.

  4. Chemistry of the Genus Plectranthus

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    S. M. Batterjee

    2002-02-01

    Full Text Available This review presents the phytochemical constituents of the genus Plectranthus reported up to 1999. Only a tetrameric derivative of caffeic acid was isolated from P. japonicus, but a group of long-chain alkylphenols, of possible taxonomic significance in the genus, was also isolated. As a genus of the subfamily Nepetoideae, Plectranthus is free from iridoid glycosides and rich in essential oil (i.e. > 0.5% volatile oil on a dry weight basis. Diterpenoids are the more common secondary metabolites in Plectranthus. The majority of them are highly modified abietanoids. This seems to be similar to the pattern of diterpenoids observed for Salvia, but no clerodane diterpenoids were found in Plectranthus.

  5. The genus Hexopetion Burret (Arecaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Jean-Christophe Pintaud; Betty Millán; Francis Kahn

    2008-01-01

    The genus Hexopetion was described by Burret to accommodate a single species, H. mexicanum. We reinstate the genus on the basis of morphological and anatomical data, and enlarge it to include a second species, Astrocaryum alatum, for which a new combination is made. El género Hexopetion definido por Burret con una única especie, H. mexicanum, se restablece a partir de datos morfológicos y anatómicos. Se incluye una segunda especie, Astrocaryum alatum, para la cual se hace una nueva combina...

  6. The tapeworm Ligula intestinalis (Cestoda: Pseudophyllidea) inhibits LH expression and puberty in its teleost host, Rutilus rutilus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, V; Pierce, R; Dufour, S; Arme, C; Hoole, D

    2005-12-01

    The tapeworm Ligula intestinalis occurs in the body cavity of its cyprinid second intermediate host, in this study the roach Rutilus rutilus, and inhibits host gonadal development. The mechanism by which infected fish are prevented from reproducing is unknown. Comparison of parameters, such as body length and weight, and condition factor and age, between infected and uninfected individuals, indicated only minor effects of parasitism on growth and condition. In contrast, seasonal gonadal development, as observed in uninfected fish, did not occur in infected fish, and gonads remained small and blocked at the primary oocyte stage in female roach. As immature ovaries and testes are still present, the parasite is presumed to act upon the brain-pituitary-gonadal axis of the fish to inhibit further development of reproductive organs. We investigated the Ligula/fish interaction at the level of the pituitary gland by determination of gonadotrophin (LH) content using a heterologous RIA for carp (Cyprinus carpio) LHbeta subunit. The results indicated that the pituitary glands of infected roach contained approximately 50% less LH than non-infected fish. After the cloning and sequencing of roach LHbeta subunit, we measured roach LHbeta mRNA levels by real-time RT-PCR. A corresponding 50% reduction in LHbeta mRNA pituitary levels was determined. These results reflect a significant and measurable effect of parasitism on the pituitary gland, and lend support to the hypothesis that excretory/secretory products released from the parasite interact with the brain-pituitary-gonadal axis of the fish host and thus inhibit gonadal development.

  7. Multiple isotope analyses of the pike tapeworm Triaenophorus nodulosus reveal peculiarities in consumer-diet discrimination patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrmann-Godel, J; Yohannes, E

    2015-03-01

    Previous studies of dietary isotope discrimination have led to the general expectation that a consumer will exhibit enriched stable isotope levels relative to its diet. Parasite-host systems are specific consumer-diet pairs in which the consumer (parasite) feeds exclusively on one dietary source: host tissue. However, the small numbers of studies previously carried out on isotopic discrimination in parasite-host (ΔXP-HT) systems have yielded controversial results, showing some parasites to be isotopically depleted relative to their food source, while others are enriched or in equilibrium with their hosts. Although the mechanism for these deviations from expectations remains to be understood, possible influences of specific feeding niche or selection for only a few nutritional components by the parasite are discussed. ΔXP-HT for multiple isotopes (δ13C, δ15N, δ34S) were measured in the pike tapeworm Triaenophorus nodulosus and two of its life-cycle fish hosts, perch Perca fluviatilis and pike Esox lucius, within which T. nodulosus occupies different feeding locations. Variability in the value of ΔXP-HT calculated for the parasite and its different hosts indicates an influence of feeding location on isotopic discrimination. In perch liver ΔXP-HT was relatively more negative for all three stable isotopes. In pike gut ΔXP-HT was more positive for δ13C, as expected in conventional consumer-diet systems. For parasites feeding on pike gut, however, the δ15N and δ34S isotope values were comparable with those of the host. We discuss potential causes of these deviations from expectations, including the effect of specific parasite feeding niches, and conclude that ΔXP-HT should be critically evaluated for trophic interactions between parasite and host before general patterns are assumed.

  8. Molecular analyses reveal two geographic and genetic lineages for tapeworms, Taenia solium and Taenia saginata, from Ecuador using mitochondrial DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solano, Danilo; Navarro, Juan Carlos; León-Reyes, Antonio; Benítez-Ortiz, Washington; Rodríguez-Hidalgo, Richar

    2016-12-01

    Tapeworms Taenia solium and Taenia saginata are the causative agents of taeniasis/cysticercosis. These are diseases with high medical and veterinary importance due to their impact on public health and rural economy in tropical countries. The re-emergence of T. solium as a result of human migration, the economic burden affecting livestock industry, and the large variability of symptoms in several human cysticercosis, encourage studies on genetic diversity, and the identification of these parasites with molecular phylogenetic tools. Samples collected from the Ecuadorian provinces: Loja, Guayas, Manabí, Tungurahua (South), and Imbabura, Pichincha (North) from 2000 to 2012 were performed under Maximum Parsimony analyses and haplotype networks using partial sequences of mitochondrial DNA, cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) and NADH subunit I (NDI), from Genbank and own sequences of Taenia solium and Taenia saginata from Ecuador. Both species have shown reciprocal monophyly, which confirms its molecular taxonomic identity. The COI and NDI genes results suggest phylogenetic structure for both parasite species from south and north of Ecuador. In T. solium, both genes gene revealed greater geographic structure, whereas in T. saginata, the variability for both genes was low. In conclusion, COI haplotype networks of T. solium suggest two geographical events in the introduction of this species in Ecuador (African and Asian lineages) and occurring sympatric, probably through the most common routes of maritime trade between the XV-XIX centuries. Moreover, the evidence of two NDI geographical lineages in T. solium from the north (province of Imbabura) and the south (province of Loja) of Ecuador derivate from a common Indian ancestor open new approaches for studies on genetic populations and eco-epidemiology. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. High mortality associated with tapeworm parasitism in geladas (Theropithecus gelada) in the Simien Mountains National Park, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider-Crease, India; Griffin, Randi H; Gomery, Megan A; Bergman, Thore J; Beehner, Jacinta C

    2017-09-01

    Despite increasing appreciation for parasitism as an important component of primate ecology and evolution, surprisingly few studies have demonstrated the costs of helminth parasitism in primates. Detecting parasite-related costs in primates is particularly difficult because it requires detailed, long-term data on individual host reproductive success, survival, and parasitism. The identification of the larval tapeworm Taenia serialis in geladas under intensive long-term study in the Ethiopian Highlands (Nguyen et al. [2015] American Journal of Primatology, 77:579-594; Schneider-Crease et al. [2013] Veterinary Parasitology 198:240-243) provides an opportunity to examine how an endemic parasite impacts host reproductive success and survival. We used survival analyses to assess the mortality risk associated with protuberant larval cysts characteristic of T. serialis using a decade of data from a gelada population in the Simien Mountains National Park (SMNP), Ethiopia. We demonstrated strikingly high mortality associated with T. serialis cysts in adult females, particularly for younger adults. The estimated effect of cysts on male mortality was similar, although the effect was not statistically significant, likely owing to the smaller sample size. Additionally, the offspring of mothers with cysts experienced increased mortality, which was driven almost entirely by maternal death. Mothers with cysts had such high mortality that they rarely completed an interbirth interval. Comparison with a study of this parasite in another gelada population on the Guassa Plateau (Nguyen et al. [2015] American Journal of Primatology, 77:579-594) revealed lower cyst prevalence in the SMNP and similar cyst-associated mortality. However, many more females with cysts completed interbirth intervals at Guassa than in the SMNP, suggesting that T. serialis cysts may kill hosts more rapidly in the SMNP. Our results point toward the underlying causes of individual and population

  10. The genus Babylonia (Prosobranchia, Buccinidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Regteren Altena, van C.O.; Gittenberger, E.

    1981-01-01

    INTRODUCTION The members of the Ivory Shell genus Babylonia Schlüter, 1838, belonging to the Buccinidae, are characterized by more or less slender buccinoid shells, mostly ornamented with a beautiful colour-pattern. Some species, e.g. the type species B. spirata, have a conspicuous sutural canal

  11. Bordasia Krapov., new Malvaceae genus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Krapovickas

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Bordasia bicornis Krapov. new genus and species is described from northwestern ParaguayanChaco. It is related to Sida from which it differs by the mericarp with two apical horns, by theleaves dimorphic and coriaceous and by the fannel-shaped calyx

  12. Revision of the Neotropical genus Pseudoxandra (Annonaceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maas, P.J.M.; Westra, L.Y.Th.

    2003-01-01

    A taxonomic revision is made of the Neotropical genus Pseudoxandra. This genus forms part of the Cremastosperma alliance which consists of Bocageopsis, Cremastosperma, Ephedranthus, Klarobelia, Malmea, Mosannona, Onychopetalum, Oxandra, Pseudephedranthus, Pseudomalmea, Pseudoxandra, Ruizodendron,

  13. Natural products from the genus tephrosia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yinning; Yan, Tao; Gao, Chenghai; Cao, Wenhao; Huang, Riming

    2014-01-27

    The genus Tephrosia, belonging to the Leguminosae family, is a large pantropical genus of more than 350 species, many of which have important traditional uses in agriculture. This review not only outlines the source, chemistry and biological evaluations of natural products from the genus Tephrosia worldwide that have appeared in literature from 1910 to December 2013, but also covers work related to proposed biosynthetic pathways and synthesis of some natural products from the genus Tephrosia, with 105 citations and 168 new compounds.

  14. Medicinal uses, phytochemistry and pharmacology of the genus Dictamnus (Rutaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Mengying; Xu, Ping; Tian, Yuan; Liang, Jingyu; Gao, Yiqiao; Xu, Fengguo; Zhang, Zunjian; Sun, Jianbo

    2015-08-02

    Seven species from the genus Dictamnus are distributed throughout Europe and North Asia and only two species grow in China. One is Dictamnus dasycarpus Turcz., which could be found in many areas of China and has been recorded in Chinese Pharmacopoeia. The other is Dictamnus angustifolius G. Don ex Sweet, which is only present in Xinjiang province and has been used as an alternative for Dictamnus dasycarpus in the local for the treatment of rheumatism, bleeding, itching, jaundice, chronic hepatitis and skin diseases. The present paper reviewed the traditional uses, phytochemistry, pharmacology and toxicology of the genus Dictamnus. Information on the Dictamnus species was collected from classic books about Chinese herbal medicine and globally accepted scientific databases including PubMed, Elsevier, ASC, Scopus, Google Scholar, Web of Science, CNKI and others. About 170 chemical compounds, which include quinoline alkaloids, limonoids, sesquiterpenes, coumarins, flavonoids and steroids, have been isolated from the genus Dictamnus. The characteristic and active constituents of Dictamnus species are considered to be quinoline alkaloids and limonoids, which exhibited a broad spectrum of biological activities such as anti-cancer, anti-inflammation, anti-microbe, anti-platelet-aggregation, vascular-relaxation, anti-insect, anti-HIV, anti-allergy and neuroprotection. Moreover, quinoline alkaloids and limonoids could be used as quality control markers to distinguish different species from the genus Dictamnus. However, there were also some reports on the toxic hepatitis and phototoxic effect of Dictamnus species, and the related research needs to be further studied. In this review, we summarized the chemical constituents, pharmacology, quality control and toxicology of the species from genus Dictamnus. Phytochemical investigations indicated that quinoline alkaloids and limonoids were the major bioactive components with potential cytotoxic, neuroprotective, anti

  15. Isolation and antimicrobial acitivity of anthraquinones from some species of the lichen genus Xanthoria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LJ. KRSTIC

    2000-08-01

    Full Text Available The isolation of six anthraquinones, erythroglaucin, physcion, xanthorin, emodin, fallacinal and teloschistin, from three species of the lichen genus Xanthoria (X. fallax, X. elegans and X. policarpa is reported. Physcion is the dominant anthraquinone in all species. the anthraquinones showed broad-spectrum antifingal activity and selective activity against some phytopathogenic bacterial species.

  16. Isolation and antimicrobial acitivity of anthraquinones from some species of the lichen genus Xanthoria

    OpenAIRE

    LJ. KRSTIC; S. SUKDOLAK; S. SOLUJIC; N. T. MANOJLOVIC

    2000-01-01

    The isolation of six anthraquinones, erythroglaucin, physcion, xanthorin, emodin, fallacinal and teloschistin, from three species of the lichen genus Xanthoria (X. fallax, X. elegans and X. policarpa) is reported. Physcion is the dominant anthraquinone in all species. the anthraquinones showed broad-spectrum antifingal activity and selective activity against some phytopathogenic bacterial species.

  17. The genus Epilobium in Malesia (Onagraceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raven, Peter H.

    1967-01-01

    The genus Epilobium (Onagraceae) comprises about 200 species, but is best represented at relatively high latitudes. Only eight species of the genus occur in Malesia, but they are interesting phytogeographically and shed considerable light on the overall patterns of differentiation in the genus.

  18. Symbiotic diversity in the cosmopolitan genus Acacia

    Science.gov (United States)

    James K. Leary; Paul W. Singleton; Paul G. Scowcroft; Dulal Borthakur

    2006-01-01

    Acacia is the second largest genus within the Leguminosae, with 1352 species identified. This genus is now known to be polyphyletic and the international scientific community will presumably split Acacia into five new genera. This review examines the diversity of biological nitrogen fixation symbiosis within Acacia as a single genus. Due to its global importance, an...

  19. Early intrauterine embryonic development in Khawia sinensis Hsü, 1935 (Cestoda, Caryophyllidea, Lytocestidae), an invasive tapeworm of carp (Cyprinus carpio): an ultrastructural study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruňanská, Magdaléna; Mackiewicz, John S; Młocicki, Daniel; Swiderski, Zdzisław; Nebesářová, Jana

    2012-02-01

    Intrauterine embryonic development in the caryophyllidean tapeworm Khawia sinensis has been investigated using transmission electron microscopy and cytochemical staining with periodic acid-thiosemicarbazide-silver proteinate for glycogen. Contrary to previous light microscopy findings that reported the release of non-embryonated eggs of K. sinenesis to the external environment, the present study documents various stages of embryonation (ovoviviparity) within the intrauterine eggs of this cestode. At the initial stage of embryonic development, each fertilised oocyte is accompanied by several vitellocytes that become enclosed within the operculate, electrondense shell. Cleavage divisions result in formation of blastomeres (up to about 24 cells) of various sizes. Mitotic divisions and apparent rosette arrangment of the blastomeres, the latter atypical within the Eucestoda, are observed for the first time in the intrauterine eggs of K. sinenesis. The early embryo enclosed within the electrondense shell is surrounded by a thin membraneous layer which in some enlarged regions shows presence of nuclei. Simultaneously to multiplication and differentiation, some of the blastomeres undergo deterioration. A progressive degeneration of the vitellocytes within eggs provides nutritive reserves, including lipids, for the developing embryo. The possible significance of this atypical timing of the intrauterine embryonic development to (1) the ecology of K. sinensis and that of a recent introduction of another invasive tapeworm, the caryophyllidean Atractolytocestus huronensis Anthony, 1958 to Europe; and (2) the affiliation of caryophyllideans with other lower cestodes, are discussed.

  20. Ultrastructural aspects of spermatogenesis, testes, and vas deferens in the parthenogenetic tapeworm Atractolytocestus huronensis Anthony, 1958 (Cestoda: Caryophyllidea), a carp parasite from Slovakia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruňanská, Magdaléna; Nebesářová, Jana; Oros, Mikuláš

    2011-01-01

    Spermatogenesis, testes, and vas deferens in the parthenogenetic monozoic tapeworm Atractolytocestus huronensis Anthony, 1958 (Cestoda: Caryophyllidea) from Slovakia, parasitizing the carp Cyprinus carpio L., have been investigated by means of transmission electron microscopy for the first time. The present results show that helminths with parthenogenetic and normal reproduction may share some common spermatology features, e.g., dense cytoplasm of the peripherally localized spermatogonia or a rosette type of spermatogenesis. In contrast to tapeworms with normal reproduction, the most prominent ultrastructural characteristic of the spermatocytes of A. huronensis is fragmentation of their nuclei. This clear feature of cell degeneration might be a consequence of the aberrant first meiotic division. Peripheral cortical microtubules and a single centriole, indicators of the ongoing spermiogenesis, were observed only very rarely in the early spermatids. Characteristics of normal spermiogenesis, i.e., apical dense material in the zone of differentiation in early stages of spermiogenesis, flagellar rotation, and proximo-distal fusion, were never found in the present study. The testes follicles are surrounded by a thin cytoplasmic sheath underlined by a basal lamina. Vas deferens is lined by flat epithelium with numerous surface lamellae and cilia. Mature, functional spermatozoa were not observed in the vas deferens of A. huronensis from Slovakia.

  1. The genus Phytophthora anno 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroon, Laurens P N M; Brouwer, Henk; de Cock, Arthur W A M; Govers, Francine

    2012-04-01

    Plant diseases caused by Phytophthora species will remain an ever increasing threat to agriculture and natural ecosystems. Phytophthora literally means plant destroyer, a name coined in the 19th century by Anton de Bary when he investigated the potato disease that set the stage for the Great Irish Famine. Phytophthora infestans, the causal agent of potato late blight, was the first species in a genus that at present has over 100 recognized members. In the last decade, the number of recognized Phytophthora species has nearly doubled and new species are added almost on a monthly basis. Here we present an overview of the 10 clades that are currently distinguished within the genus Phytophthora with special emphasis on new species that have been described since 1996 when Erwin and Ribeiro published the valuable monograph 'Phytophthora diseases worldwide' (35).

  2. The tapeworm Atractolytocestus tenuicollis (Cestoda: Caryophyllidea)--a sister species or ancestor of an invasive A. huronensis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Králová-Hromadová, Ivica; Štefka, Jan; Bazsalovicsová, Eva; Bokorová, Silvia; Oros, Mikuláš

    2013-10-01

    Atractolytocestus tenuicollis (Li, 1964) Xi, Wang, Wu, Gao et Nie, 2009 is a monozoic, non-segmented tapeworm of the order Caryophyllidea, parasitizing exclusively common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.). In the current work, the first molecular data, in particular complete ribosomal internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) and partial mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (cox1) on A. tenuicollis from Niushan Lake, Wuhan, China, are provided. In order to evaluate molecular interrelationships within Atractolytocestus, the data on A. tenuicollis were compared with relevant data on two other congeners, Atractolytocestus huronensis and Atractolytocestus sagittatus. Divergent intragenomic copies (ITS2 paralogues) were detected in the ITS2 ribosomal spacer of A. tenuicollis; the same phenomenon has previously been observed also in two other congeners. ITS2 structure of A. tenuicollis was very similar to that of A. huronensis from Slovakia, USA and UK; overall pairwise sequence identity was 91.7-95.2%. On the other hand, values of sequence identity between A. tenuicollis and A. sagittatus were lower, 69.7-70.9%. Cox1 sequence, analysed in five A. tenuicollis individuals, were 100 % identical and no intraspecific variation was observed. Comparison of A. tenuicollis cox1 with respective sequences of two other Atractolytocestus species showed that the mitochondrial haplotype found in Chinese A. tenuicollis is structurally specific (haplotype 4; Ha4) and differs from all so far determined Atractolytocestus haplotypes (Ha1 and Ha2 for A. huronensis; Ha3 for A. sagittatus). Pairwise sequence identity between A. tenuicollis cox1 haplotype and remaining three haplotypes followed the same pattern as in ITS2. The nucleotide and amino acide (aa) sequence comparison with A. huronensis Ha1 and Ha2 revealed higher sequence identity, 90.3-90.8% (96.9% in aa), while lower values were achieved between A. tenuicollis haplotype and Ha3 of Japanese A. sagittatus-75.2 % (81.9 % in aa). The

  3. An experimental approach to the immuno-modulatory basis of host-parasite local adaptation in tapeworm-infected sticklebacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamley, Madeleine; Franke, Frederik; Kurtz, Joachim; Scharsack, Jörn Peter

    2017-09-01

    The evolutionary arms race of hosts and parasites often results in adaptations, which may differ between populations. Investigation of such local adaptation becomes increasingly important to understand dynamics of host-parasite interactions and co-evolution. To this end we performed an infection experiment involving pairs of three-spined sticklebacks and their tapeworm parasite Schistocephalus solidus from three geographically separated origins (Germany, Spain and Iceland) in a fully-crossed design for sympatric and allopatric host/parasite combinations. We hypothesized that local adaptation of the hosts results in differences in parasite resistance with variation in parasite infection rates and leukocyte activation, whereas parasites from different origins might differ in virulence reflected in host exploitation rates (parasite indices) and S. solidus excretory-secretory products (SsESP) involved in immune manipulation. In our experimental infections, sticklebacks from Iceland were more resistant to S. solidus infection compared to Spanish and German sticklebacks. Higher resistance of Icelandic sticklebacks seemed to depend on adaptive immunity, whereas sticklebacks of German origin, which were more heavily afflicted by S. solidus, showed elevated activity of innate immune traits. German S. solidus were less successful in infecting and exploiting allopatric hosts compared to their Icelandic and Spanish conspecifics. Nevertheless, exclusively SsESP from German S. solidus triggered significant in vitro responses of leukocytes from naïve sticklebacks. Interestingly, parasite indices were almost identical across the sympatric combinations. Differences in host resistance and parasite virulence between the origins were most evident in allopatric combinations and were consistent within origin; i.e. Icelandic sticklebacks were more resistant and their S. solidus were more virulent in all allopatric combinations, whereas German sticklebacks were less resistant and

  4. [The broad bean's syndrome in ancient Egypt].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippi, D

    1989-01-01

    The problem of broad bean's syndrome and lathyrism in ancient Greece has been deeply studied, with particular referrement to the hypothetic medica and mystical reasons of the Pythagoric order not to eat broad beans. It is impossible to prove Egyptian influence of Phythagora's precept, but we can, however, consider the hypothesis that they had noticed the potential deadly effect of broad beans' use, too, and wonder if their interduction had the same motivations.

  5. Evidence for ecological flexibility in the cosmopolitan genus Curtobacterium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Bennett Chase

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Assigning ecological roles to bacterial taxa remains imperative to understanding how microbial communities will respond to changing environmental conditions. Here we analyze the genus Curtobacterium as it was found to be the most abundant taxon in a leaf litter community in southern California. Traditional characterization of this taxon predominantly associates it as the causal pathogen in the agricultural crops of dry beans. Therefore, we seek to conduct a broad investigation into this genus to ask whether its high abundance in our soil system is in accordance with its role as a plant pathogen or if alternative ecological roles are needed. By collating >24,000 16S rRNA sequences with 120 genomes across the Microbacteriaceae family, we show that Curtobacterium has a global distribution with a predominant presence in soil ecosystems globally. Moreover, this genus harbors a high diversity of genomic potential for the degradation of carbohydrates, specifically with regards to structural polysaccharides. We conclude that Curtobacterium may be responsible for the degradation of organic matter within litter communities.

  6. The anomalous tides near Broad Sound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middleton, Jason H.; Buchwald, V. T.; Huthnance, John M.

    Observations of tidal current and height, in conjunction with theoretical mathematical models are used to investigate the propagation of the tide near Broad Sound, a narrowing estuary situated on a wide section of continental shelf toward the southern end of the Great Barrier Reef. The observations indicate that the dense offshore reefs severely inhibit tidal flow, with the result that tides flood toward Broad Sound from the north and from the south, along the main lagoon. There is a local magnification of the semi-diurnal tides within Broad Sound itself. Models of flow across reefs confirm the effectiveness of dense, shallow, and broad reefs in acting as a barrier to the tide. The diffraction of tides through large gaps in the reef is modelled using conformal mapping techniques and with the inclusion of energy leakage, the diffraction model predicts magnification of the semi-diurnal tidal heights by a factor of about 4 and a phase lag of 3 h on the shelf near Broad Sound, these values being consistent with observation. The observed convergence of the tide close to, and within Broad Sound itself is consistent with the proximity of the semi-diurnal tidal period to the natural period for flow in Broad Sound, considered as a narrowing estuary. This results in further amplification, by an additional factor of about 1.5, so that the tides in Broad Sound are increased by a factor of between 5 and 6, altogether, compared with those elsewhere on the east Australian coast.

  7. Broad Prize: Do the Successes Spread?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuels, Christina A.

    2011-01-01

    When the Broad Prize for Urban Education was created in 2002, billionaire philanthropist Eli Broad said he hoped the awards, in addition to rewarding high-performing school districts, would foster healthy competition; boost the prestige of urban education, long viewed as dysfunctional; and showcase best practices. Over the 10 years the prize has…

  8. Broad Academy's Growing Reach Draws Scrutiny

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuels, Christina A.

    2011-01-01

    Billionaire businessman Eli Broad, one of the country's most active philanthropists, founded the "Broad Superintendents Academy" in 2002 with an extraordinarily optimistic goal: Find leaders from both inside and outside education, train them, and have them occupying the superintendencies in a third of the 75 largest school districts--all in just…

  9. THE GENUS DURIO Adans. (Bombac.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. J. G. H. KOSTERMANS

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The genus Durio comprises, as far as known, 27 species. The centre ofdistribution is Borneo with 19 species, followed by Malaya with 11 spe-cies and Sumatra with 7 species. It is likely, when Sumatra will be betterexplored, that this island will prove to have many more species. An exclave of the area of distribution is found in Burma, where one endemic species occurs. The common Durio zibethinus Murr. probably originated in Borneo or in Sumatra. It is now widely cultivated outside of its former area and in many places it has become spontaneous.The genus Durio is subdivided into two subgenera: Durio and BoschiaKosterm. & Soegeng, according to the way of dehiscence of the anthers(with a longitudinal slit in the former, with an apical pore in the latter.A key to the species is proposed. A map is added, to show distribution and endemism. Each species is amply described and provided with a drawing . Economic and ecological data are given.

  10. The lectotypification of two names referred by Linnaeus to the genus Illecebrum (Caryophyllales)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iamonico, Duilio; Friis, Ib

    2017-01-01

    Linnaeus had a broad concept of Illecebrum and, based on the current circumscription wherein the genus is considered  monotypic, only one out of the seventeen names Linnaeus treated in combination with Illecebrum – I. verticillatum – remains in the genus. The other sixteen names are now referred....... javanicum. Illecebrum bengalense is here lectotypified with a specimen preserved at LINN and is placed in synonymy with Nothosaerva brachiata. Illecebrum javanicum, based on Iresine javanica, is lectotypified with a Burman illustration. The name Aerva tomentosa is placed in synonymy of Iresine javanica. ...

  11. Aspidonepsis (Asclepiadaceae, a new southern African genus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Nicholas

    1992-10-01

    Full Text Available Aspidonepsis, an endemic southern African genus, is described and compared to the closely allied genus Aspidoglossum. This newly described genus is composed of two subgenera, Aspidonepsis and Unguilobium. consisting of three and two species respectively.  Asclepias diploglossa, A. flava, A. cognata and A. reneensis are transferred to Aspidonepsis. and A. shebae is newly described. All species are discussed, illustrated and a key is given to aid in their identification.

  12. Sex differences in frass production and weight change in Tenebrio molitor (Coleoptera) infected with cysticercoids of the tapeworm Hymenolepis diminuta (Cestoda).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shea, John F

    2005-11-11

    In their intermediate host, parasites alter aspects of host physiology including waste production and body weight. Further, this alteration may differ between female and male hosts. To study this, a beetle (Tenebrio molitor)-tapeworm (Hymenolepis diminuta) system was used. Infected and uninfected male and female beetles were individually housed in vials without food. Each beetle's weight change and frass production were measured over 24 h periods at 3, 7, 12 and 16 days post-infection. Treatment (infection) had no effect on weight change, but males lost more weight than females. Further, infected females produced more frass than control females. Males on the day of infection had a higher food intake than females. These results suggest that males will be more exposed to infection than females and could explain why males had a higher median cysticercoid infection level.

  13. Competitive, uncompetitive, and mixed inhibitors of the alkaline phosphatase activity associated with the isolated brush border membrane of the tapeworm Hymenolepis diminuta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pappas, P W; Leiby, D A

    1989-06-01

    Several compounds were tested as inhibitors of the alkaline phosphatase (AlkPase) activity associated with the isolated brush border membrane of the tapeworm, Hymenolepis diminuta. Molybdate, arsenate, arsenite and beta-glycerophosphate (BGP) were competitive inhibitors of the hydrolysis of p-nitrophenyl phosphate, while levamisole and clorsulon were uncompetitive and mixed inhibitors, respectively. Molybdate was also a competitive inhibitor of the hydrolysis of BGP and 5'-adenosine monophosphate, and levamisole was an uncompetitive inhibitor of BGP hydrolysis. The apparent inhibitor constants (Ki') for molybdate and levamisole were virtually identical regardless of the substrate, and these data support the hypothesis that the AlkPase activity is represented by a single membrane-bound enzyme with low substrate specificity. Quinacrine, Hg2+, and ethylenediaminetetraacetate were also potent inhibitors of the AlkPase activity, but the mechanisms by which these latter three inhibitors function were not clear.

  14. Isotopic discrimination of stable isotopes of nitrogen (δ15N) and carbon (δ13C) in a host-specific holocephalan tapeworm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, J; Albo-Puigserver, M; Coll, M; Saez, R; Forero, M G; Kutcha, R

    2014-09-01

    During the past decade, parasites have been considered important components of their ecosystems since they can modify food-web structures and functioning. One constraint to the inclusion of parasites in food-web models is the scarcity of available information on their feeding habits and host-parasite relationships. The stable isotope approach is suggested as a useful methodology to determine the trophic position and feeding habits of parasites. However, the isotopic approach is limited by the lack of information on the isotopic discrimination (ID) values of parasites, which is pivotal to avoiding the biased interpretation of isotopic results. In the present study we aimed to provide the first ID values of δ(15)N and δ(13)C between the gyrocotylidean tapeworm Gyrocotyle urna and its definitive host, the holocephalan Chimaera monstrosa. We also test the effect of host body size (body length and body mass) and sex of the host on the ID values. Finally, we illustrate how the trophic relationships of the fish host C. monstrosa and the tapeworm G. urna could vary relative to ID values. Similar to other studies with parasites, the ID values of the parasite-host system were negative for both isotopic values of N (Δδ(15)N = - 3.33 ± 0.63‰) and C (Δδ(13)C = - 1.32 ± 0.65‰), independent of the sex and size of the host. By comparing the specific ID obtained here with ID from other studies, we illustrate the importance of using specific ID in parasite-host systems to avoid potential errors in the interpretation of the results when surrogate values from similar systems or organisms are used.

  15. Identification of a Broadly Cross-Reactive Epitope in the Inner Shell of the Norovirus Capsid.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel I Parra

    Full Text Available Noroviruses are major pathogens associated with acute gastroenteritis. They are diverse viruses, with at least six genogroups (GI-GVI and multiple genotypes defined by differences in the major capsid protein, VP1. This diversity has challenged the development of broadly cross-reactive vaccines as well as efficient detection methods. Here, we report the characterization of a broadly cross-reactive monoclonal antibody (MAb raised against the capsid protein of a GII.3 norovirus strain. The MAb reacted with VLPs and denatured VP1 protein from GI, GII, GIV and GV noroviruses, and mapped to a linear epitope located in the inner shell domain. An alignment of all available VP1 sequences showed that the putative epitope (residues 52-56 is highly conserved across the genus Norovirus. This broadly cross-reactive MAb thus constitutes a valuable reagent for the diagnosis and study of these diverse viruses.

  16. Australian Marsh Beetles (Coleoptera: Scirtidae). 7. Genus Nothocyphon, new genus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwick, Peter

    2015-07-06

    The new genus Nothocyphon (type species: Helodes (Cyphon ?) lindensis Blackburn, 1892) is proposed for small Contacyphon-like Australian beetles. The included species exhibit a generalized body structure, lacking the derived character expressions of related genera. Male tergite 9 is very weakly developed, membranous and bare. This is derived but as a reduction only weakly supports the monophyly of Nothocyphon.The new genus includes 39 species, with 37 newly described herein: Nothocyphon alces, n. sp., N. amita, n. sp., N. amphora, n. sp., N. armatus, n. sp., N. armstrongi, n. sp., N. auritus, n. sp., N. banksiae, n. sp., N. biserratus, n. sp., N. brevihamatus, n. sp., N. crux, n. sp., N. denticulatus, n. sp., N. donnabuangi, n. sp., N. esau, n. sp., N. frater (Blackburn), n. comb., N. horridus, n. sp., N. ímitator, n. sp., N. isolaeregis, n. sp., N. lanceolatus, n. sp., N. lindensis (Blackburn), n. comb., N. multidentatus, n. sp., N. naso, n. sp., N. nungatta, n. sp., N. pacificus, n. sp., N. patruelis, n. sp., N. platyphallus, n. sp., N. plicatus, n. sp., N. radula, n. sp., N. sarcophilus, n. sp., N. scutiger, n. sp., N. serratipenis, n. sp., N. signatus, n. sp., N. soror, n. sp., N. taeniatus, n. sp., N. taurus, n. sp., N. thylacinus, n. sp., N. triangulum, n. sp., N. vandiemeni, n. sp., N. wattsi, n. sp., N. ypsilon, n. sp.Lectotypes are designated for N. frater (Blackburn) and N. lindensis (Blackburn). All species are redescribed or described, and illustrated. Several informal species groups are recognized, and identification keys to males are provided.

  17. Measuring Prevention More Broadly, An Empirical...

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Measuring Prevention More Broadly, An Empirical Assessment of CHIPRA Core Measures Differences in CHIP design and structure, across states and over time, may limit...

  18. [Pseudomonas genus bacteria on weeds].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gvozdiak, R I; Iakovleva, L M; Pasichnik, L A; Shcherbina, T N; Ogorodnik, L E

    2005-01-01

    It has been shown in the work that the weeds (couch-grass and ryegrass) may be affected by bacterial diseases in natural conditions, Pseudomonas genus bacteria being their agents. The isolated bacteria are highly-aggressive in respect of the host-plant and a wide range of cultivated plants: wheat, rye, oats, barley, apple-tree and pear-tree. In contrast to highly aggressive bacteria isolated from the affected weeds, bacteria-epi phytes isolated from formally healthy plants (common amaranth, orache, flat-leaved spurge, field sow thistle, matricary, common coltsfoot, narrow-leaved vetch) and identified as P. syringae pv. coronafaciens, were characterized by weak aggression. A wide range of ecological niches of bacteria evidently promote their revival and distribution everywhere in nature.

  19. Evolution of the Genus Homo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tattersall, Ian; Schwartz, Jeffrey H.

    2009-05-01

    Definition of the genus Homo is almost as fraught as the definition of Homo sapiens. We look at the evidence for “early Homo,” finding little morphological basis for extending our genus to any of the 2.5-1.6-myr-old fossil forms assigned to “early Homo” or Homo habilis/rudolfensis. We also point to heterogeneity among “early African Homo erectus,” and the lack of apomorphies linking these fossils to the Asian Homo erectus group, a cohesive regional clade that shows some internal variation, including brain size increase over time. The first truly cosmopolitan Homo species is Homo heidelbergensis, known from Africa, Europe, and China following 600 kyr ago. One species sympatric with it included the >500-kyr-old Sima de los Huesos fossils from Spain, clearly distinct from Homo heidelbergensis and the oldest hominids assignable to the clade additionally containing Homo neanderthalensis. This clade also shows evidence of brain size expansion with time; but although Homo neanderthalensis had a large brain, it left no unequivocal evidence of the symbolic consciousness that makes our species unique. Homo sapiens clearly originated in Africa, where it existed as a physical entity before it began (also in that continent) to show the first stirrings of symbolism. Most likely, the biological underpinnings of symbolic consciousness were exaptively acquired in the radical developmental reorganization that gave rise to the highly characteristic osteological structure of Homo sapiens, but lay fallow for tens of thousands of years before being “discovered” by a cultural stimulus, plausibly the invention of language.

  20. Prospects for broadly protective influenza vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treanor, John Jay

    2015-11-27

    The development of vaccines that could provide broad protection against antigenically variant influenza viruses has long been the ultimate prize in influenza research. Recent developments have pushed us closer to this goal, and such vaccines may now be within reach. This brief review outlines the current approaches to broadly protective vaccines, and the probable hurdles and roadblocks to achieving this goal. Copyright © 2015 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  1. Revision of the African genus Annickia (Annonaceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Versteegh, C.P.C.; Sosef, M.S.M.

    2007-01-01

    complete revision, including a key to the species, drawings and distribution maps, of the tropical African Annonaceae genus Annickia (= Enantia Oliv., non Falc.) is presented. The exact phylogenetic position of this genus within the family has long been, and in fact still is, unclear. The status of

  2. Typification of the genus Macropsidium Bl. (Myrtaceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenis, van C.G.G.J.

    1971-01-01

    In revising Myrtaceae Blume correctly concluded in 1849 that Psidium rubrum Lour, from Indo-China could not belong to that neotropical genus. He erected a new genus Macropsidium Bl., to accommodate it, adding at the same time the description of a second new species from the Moluccas. It is desirable

  3. A monograph of the Genus Aristida

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Henrard, J.Th.

    1929-01-01

    In a preliminary work: „A critical Revision of the genus Aristida”, I have given a review of all the hitherto described species of this genus with the citation of the literature, the exact copies of the authentic descriptions and the figures of the spikelet-characters, taken from the type specimens

  4. The genus Canna in Northern South America

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Segeren, W.; Maas, P.J.M.

    1971-01-01

    Since Kränzlin’s monograph (1912) very little taxonomical work on the genus Canna has been done. The work is now very much out of date also because cytological and pollenmorphological methods have become available since. The present work has been inspired by the problems pertaining to the genus as

  5. A monograph of the Genus Aristida

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Henrard, J.Th.

    1932-01-01

    We find the interpretation of the genus Aristida by BEAUVOIS in his work Essai d’une nouvelle Agrostographie on pag. 33. Aristida lanata is the only species mentioned by him and the genus is figured on Pl. VIII. fig. X. This figure is a rather rough sketch and represents Aristida ciliata DESF.. In

  6. A monograph of the genus Evolvulus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ooststroom, van S.J.

    1934-01-01

    The great difficulties arising in the identification of a number of plants belonging to the genus Evolvulus, which plants were found in several recent collections of Convolvulaceae and were kindly entrusted to me for study, induced me to submit this genus to a further examination. It soon proved how

  7. New Forms in the genus Erebia (Lepidoptera)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eisner, C.

    1946-01-01

    A revision of the material belonging to the genus Erebia Dalman in the Rijksmuseum van Natuurlijke Historie at Leiden, mainly based on the "Monograph of the genus Erebia" by B. C. S. Warren (London, 1936), induced me to describe a number of new subspecies and aberrations, and to make some remarks on

  8. Experimental infection of the endangered bonytail chub (Gila elegans) with the Asian fish tapeworm (Bothriocephalus acheilognathi): impacts on survival, growth, and condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, S.P.; Choudhury, A.; Heisey, D.M.; Ahumada, J.A.; Hoffnagle, T.L.; Cole, R.A.

    2006-01-01

    Bothriocephalus acheilognathi Yamaguti, 1934, a tapeworm known to be pathogenic to some fish species, has become established in the endangered humpback chub (Gila cypha Miller, 1964) in Grand Canyon, USA, following the tapeworm's introduction into the Colorado River system. The potential impact of this tapeworm on humpback chub was studied by exposing the closely related bonytail chub (Gila elegans Baird and Girard, 1853) to the parasite under a range of conditions that included potential stressors of humpback chub in their natal waters, such as abrupt temperature change and a limited food base. Survival of infected fish under low food rations was considerably lower than that of control fish, and mortality of infected fish began 20days earlier. Growth of infected fish was significantly reduced, and negative changes in health condition indices were found. No significant negative impacts were revealed from the synergistic effects between temperature shock and infection. Bothriocephalus acheilognathi does present a potential threat to humpback chub in Grand Canyon and should be considered, along with conventional concerns involving altered flow regimes and predation, when management decisions are made concerning conservation of this endangered species.// Bothriocephalus acheilognathi Yamaguti, 1934, un ver plat connu comme pathog??ne pour certaines esp??ces de poissons, s'est associ?? au A (Gila cypha Miller, 1964), une esp??ce menac??e du Grand Canyon, ??.-U., apr??s l'introduction du ver dans le r??seau hydrographique du Colorado. Nous avons ??tudi?? l'impact potentiel de ce ver plat sur le m??n?? bossu en exposant l'esp??ce proche Gila elegans Baird et Girard, 1853 au parasite sous une gamme de conditions qui incluent les facteurs potentiels de stress des m??n??s bossus dans leurs cours d'eau d'origine, tels que les changements abrupts de temp??rature et des ressources alimentaires limit??es. La survie des poissons infect??s dans des conditions de nourriture limit

  9. Industrial importance of the genus Brevibacterium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onraedt, Annelies; Soetaert, Wim; Vandamme, Erick

    2005-04-01

    The genus Brevibacterium has long been difficult for taxonomists to classify due to its close morphological similarity to other genera. Since it was proposed in 1953, the genus has often been redefined. The genus is best known for its important role in the ripening of certain cheeses (B. linens) and for its supposed over-production of L: -amino acids. Other interesting industrial applications, including the production of ectoine, have recently been proposed. The general characteristics, the occurrence and the recent taxonomy of Brevibacterium are reviewed here. Furthermore, known and potential industrial applications for Brevibacterium species are briefly discussed.

  10. Teaching the Broad, Interdisciplinary Impact of Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, David; Atlas, Pierre; Haberski, Raymond; Higgs, Jamie; Kiley, Patrick; Maxwell, Michael, Jr.; Mirola, William; Norton, Jamey

    2009-01-01

    As perhaps the most encompassing idea in biology, evolution has impacted not only science, but other academic disciplines as well. The broad, interdisciplinary impact of evolution was the theme of a course taught at Marian College, Indianapolis, Indiana in 2002, 2004, and 2006. Using a strategy that could be readily adopted at other institutions,…

  11. Giant Broad Line Regions in Dwarf Seyferts

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    High angular resolution spectroscopy obtained with the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) has revealed a remarkable population of galaxies hosting dwarf Seyfert nuclei with an unusually large broad-line region (BLR). These objects are remarkable for two reasons. Firstly, the size of the BLR can, in some cases, rival those ...

  12. The genus Hafnia: from soup to nuts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janda, J Michael; Abbott, Sharon L

    2006-01-01

    The genus Hafnia, a member of the family Enterobacteriaceae, consists of gram-negative bacteria that are occasionally implicated in both intestinal and extraintestinal infections in humans. Despite the fact that the genus currently contains only a single species (H. alvei), more extensive phylogenetic depth (two or more species) is apparent based upon DNA relatedness and 16S rRNA gene sequencing studies. Hafnia causes a variety of systemic infections, including septicemia and pneumonia; however, its role as a gastrointestinal pathogen is controversial. Many of the data supporting a role for hafniae as enteric pathogens were incorrectly attributed to this genus rather than to the actual pathogen, Escherichia albertii. There are numerous gaps in our understanding of this genus, including ecologic habitats and population genetics, disease-producing role in animals, phenetic and genetic methods useful in distinguishing genomospecies within the H. alvei complex, and bona fide pathogenicity factors.

  13. Genus Pouteria: chemistry and biological activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cíntia A. M. Silva

    Full Text Available The genus Pouteria belongs to the family Sapotaceae and can be widely found around the World. These plants have been used as building material, as food, because the eatable fruits, as well as remedies in folk medicine. Some biological activities have been reported to species of this genus such as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antibacterial and antifungal. However, the real potential of this genus as source of new drugs or phytomedicines remains unknown. Therefore, a review of the so far known chemical composition and biological activities of this genus is presented to stimulate new studies about the species already reported moreover that species have no reference about chemistry or biological activities could be found until now.

  14. Infinite genus surfaces and irrational polygonal billiards

    OpenAIRE

    Valdez, Ferran

    2008-01-01

    We prove that the natural invariant surface associated with the billiard game on an irrational polygonal table is homeomorphic to the Loch Ness monster, that is, the only orientable infinite genus topological real surface with exactly one end.

  15. The genus Crepidotus (Fr.) Staude in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Senn-Irlet, Beatrice

    1995-01-01

    The genus Crepidotus in Europe is considered. After an examination of 550 collections seventeen species and eight varieties are recognized. Two keys are supplied; all taxa accepted are typified. Morphological, ecological and chorological characters are critically evaluated. Descriptive statistics

  16. Papuan Hylid Frogs of the Genus Hyla

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tyler, M.J.

    1968-01-01

    CONTENTS Introduction............... 3 History of the study of Papuan Hyla......... 4 The Papuan frog fauna............ 6 Materials, methods and terminology.......... 8 Geographical nomenclature............ 11 Locality names.............. 14 The genus Hyla Laurenti............ 16 Checklist of Papuan

  17. Genus paracoccidioides: Species recognition and biogeographic aspects

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Theodoro, Raquel Cordeiro; Teixeira, Marcus de Melo; Felipe, Maria Sueli Soares; Paduan, Karina Dos Santos; Ribolla, Paulo Martins; San-Blas, Gioconda; Bagagli, Eduardo

    2012-01-01

    ... (species S1, PS2, PS3), and Paracoccidioides lutzii. This work aimed to differentiate species within the genus Paracoccidioides, without applying multilocus sequencing, as well as to obtain knowledge of the possible speciation processes...

  18. Phylogeny and taxonomy of the genus Gliocephalotrichum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lombard, L.; Serrato-Diaz, L.M.; Cheewangkoon, R.; French-Monar, R.D.; Decock, C.; Crous, P.W.

    2014-01-01

    Species in the genus Gliocephalotrichum (= Leuconectria) (Hypocreales, Nectriaceae) are soilborne fungi, associated with post-harvest fruit spoilage of several important tropical fruit crops. Contemporary taxonomic studies of these fungi have relied on morphology and DNA sequence comparisons of the

  19. Revision of the African genus Uvariastrum (Annonaceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couvreur, Thomas L.P.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The genus Uvariastrum (Annonaceae) is restricted to continental Africa and is characterized by sepals with folded margins, few carpels and numerous stamens. The genus is mainly found in the tropical lowland rain forests of Africa, with one species growing in a drier woodland habitat. The species name Uvariastrum pynaertii De Wild is reduced into synonymy with Uvariastrum zenkeri Engl. & Diels. Uvaraistrum neglectum Paiva and Uvariastrum modestum Dielsare transferred to the genus Uvaria leading to two new combinations: Uvaria modesta (Diels) Couvreur, comb. nov. and Uvaria paivana Couvreur, nom. nov. Five species are currently recognized in Uvariastrum. The present revision, the first of the genus for over 100 years, provides an overview of previously published information and discussions on morphology, taxonomy and palynology. Preliminary conservation status assessments are provided for each species, as well as diagnostic keys for fruiting and flowering material as well as detailed species descriptions. Furthermore, all species are illustrated by line drawings and all species are mapped. PMID:24526846

  20. The Genus Hafnia: from Soup to Nuts

    OpenAIRE

    Janda, J. Michael; Abbott, Sharon L.

    2006-01-01

    The genus Hafnia, a member of the family Enterobacteriaceae, consists of gram-negative bacteria that are occasionally implicated in both intestinal and extraintestinal infections in humans. Despite the fact that the genus currently contains only a single species (H. alvei), more extensive phylogenetic depth (two or more species) is apparent based upon DNA relatedness and 16S rRNA gene sequencing studies. Hafnia causes a variety of systemic infections, including septicemia and pneumonia; howev...

  1. Genus two Goeritz groups of lens spaces

    OpenAIRE

    Cho, Sangbum

    2012-01-01

    Given a genus-$g$ Heegaard splitting of a 3-manifold, the Goeritz group is defined to be the group of isotopy classes of orientation-preserving homeomorphisms of the manifold that preserve the splitting. In this work, we show that the Goeritz groups of genus-2 Heegaard splittings for lens spaces $L(p, 1)$ are finitely presented, and give explicit presentations of them.

  2. First ultrastructural data on the human tapeworm Taenia asiatica eggs by scanning and transmission electron microscopy (SEM, TEM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galán-Puchades, M Teresa; Yang, Yichao; Marcilla, Antonio; Choe, Seongjun; Park, Hansol; Osuna, Antonio; Eom, Keeseon S

    2016-09-01

    Humans are definitive hosts of three species of the Taenia genus, namely Taenia solium, Taenia saginata and Taenia asiatica. The relative novelty of the latter explains the lack of knowledge concerning certain relevant aspects related to this parasite, such as its definite geographical distribution and whether its eggs can infect humans or not. So far, only the eggs of T. solium are known to be infective for humans, producing cysticercosis. Although eggs contain the infective stage, the oncosphere, there is a lack of research on the ultrastructure of eggs of human taeniids. We show, for the first time, the ultrastructure of eggs of T. asiatica by means of SEM and TEM analyses. We detected all the envelopes, namely the egg shell, vitelline layer, outer embryophoric membrane, embryophore, granular layer, basal membrane, oncospheral membrane and oncospheral tegument. Hooks surrounded by myofibrils and glycogen-like particles, the two types of secretory granules of the penetration glands, as well as several nuclei and mitochondria were also revealed in the oncospheres. In addition to the already known structures in eggs from other Taenia species, the presence of two types of small vesicles is described herein, possibly corresponding to exosomes and ectosomes because of their shape and size, which could participate in the host/parasite intercellular communication.

  3. Molecular characterization of the Indian poultry nodular tapeworm, Raillietina echinobothrida (Cestoda: Cyclophyllidea: Davaineidae) based on rDNA internal transcribed spacer 2 region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramnath; Jyrwa, D B; Dutta, A K; Das, B; Tandon, V

    2014-03-01

    The nodular tapeworm, Raillietina echinobothrida is a well studied avian gastrointestinal parasite of family Davaineidae (Cestoda: Cyclophyllidea). It is reported to be the largest in size and second most prevalent species infecting chicken in north-east India. In the present study, morphometrical methods coupled with the molecular analysis of the second internal transcribed spacer (ITS2) region of ribosomal DNA were employed for precise identification of the parasite. The annotated ITS2 region was found to be 446 bp long and further utilized to elucidate the phylogenetic relationships and its species-interrelationships at the molecular level. In phylogenetic analysis similar topology was observed among the trees obtained by distance-based neighbor-joining as well as character-based maximum parsimony tree building methods. The query sequence R. echinobothrida is well aligned and placed within the Davaineidae group, with all Raillietina species well separated from the other cyclophyllidean (taeniid and hymenolepid) cestodes, while Diphyllobothrium latum (Pseudophyllidea: Diphyllobothriidae) was rooted as an out-group. Sequence similarities indeed confirmed our hypothesis that Raillietina spp. are neighboring the position with other studied species of order Cyclophyllidea against the out-group order Pseudophyllidea. The present study strengthens the potential of ITS2 as a reliable marker for phylogenetic reconstructions.

  4. Parallel evaluation of broad virus detection methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modrof, Jens; Berting, Andreas; Kreil, Thomas R

    2014-01-01

    The testing for adventitious viruses is of critical importance during development and production of biological products. The recent emergence and ongoing development of broad virus detection methods calls for an evaluation of whether these methods can appropriately be implemented into current adventitious agent testing procedures. To assess the suitability of several broad virus detection methods, a comparative experimental study was conducted: four virus preparations, which were spiked at two different concentrations each into two different cell culture media, were sent to four investigators in a blinded fashion for analysis with broad virus detection methods such as polymerase chain reaction-electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (PCR-ESI/MS), microarray, and two approaches utilizing massively parallel sequencing. The results that were reported by the investigators revealed that all methods were able to identify the majority of samples correctly (mean 83%), with a surprisingly narrow range among the methods, that is, between 72% (PCR-ESI/MS) and 95% (microarray). In addition to the correct results, a variety of unexpected assignments were reported for a minority of samples, again with little variation regarding the methods used (range 20-45%), while false negatives were reported for 0-25% of the samples. Regarding assay sensitivity, the viruses were detected by all methods included in this study at concentrations of about 4-5 log10 quantitative PCR copies/mL, and probably with higher sensitivity in some cases. In summary, the broad virus detection methods investigated were shown to be suitable even for detection of relatively low virus concentrations. However, there is also some potential for the production of false-positive as well as false-negative assignments, which indicates the requirement for further improvements before these methods can be considered for routine use. © PDA, Inc. 2014.

  5. Atomization of broad specification aircraft fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skifstad, J. G.; Lefebvre, A. H.

    1980-01-01

    The atomization properties of liquid fuels for the potential use in aircraft gas turbine engines are discussed. The significance of these properties are addressed with respect to the ignition and subsequent combustion behavior of the fuel spray/air mixture. It is shown that the fuel properties which affect the atomization behavior (viscosity, surface tension, and density) are less favorable for the broad specification fuels as compared to with those for conventional fuels.

  6. Genomic diversity within the haloalkaliphilic genus Thioalkalivibrio.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne-Catherine Ahn

    Full Text Available Thioalkalivibrio is a genus of obligate chemolithoautotrophic haloalkaliphilic sulfur-oxidizing bacteria. Their habitat are soda lakes which are dual extreme environments with a pH range from 9.5 to 11 and salt concentrations up to saturation. More than 100 strains of this genus have been isolated from various soda lakes all over the world, but only ten species have been effectively described yet. Therefore, the assignment of the remaining strains to either existing or novel species is important and will further elucidate their genomic diversity as well as give a better general understanding of this genus. Recently, the genomes of 76 Thioalkalivibrio strains were sequenced. On these, we applied different methods including (i 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, (ii Multilocus Sequence Analysis (MLSA based on eight housekeeping genes, (iii Average Nucleotide Identity based on BLAST (ANIb and MUMmer (ANIm, (iv Tetranucleotide frequency correlation coefficients (TETRA, (v digital DNA:DNA hybridization (dDDH as well as (vi nucleotide- and amino acid-based Genome BLAST Distance Phylogeny (GBDP analyses. We detected a high genomic diversity by revealing 15 new "genomic" species and 16 new "genomic" subspecies in addition to the ten already described species. Phylogenetic and phylogenomic analyses showed that the genus is not monophyletic, because four strains were clearly separated from the other Thioalkalivibrio by type strains from other genera. Therefore, it is recommended to classify the latter group as a novel genus. The biogeographic distribution of Thioalkalivibrio suggested that the different "genomic" species can be classified as candidate disjunct or candidate endemic species. This study is a detailed genome-based classification and identification of members within the genus Thioalkalivibrio. However, future phenotypical and chemotaxonomical studies will be needed for a full species description of this genus.

  7. The genus Isodon (Schrad. ex Benth. Spach in Africa and a new genus Rabdosiella Codd (Lamiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. E. Codd

    1984-12-01

    Full Text Available The typification of the genus Isodon (Schrad. ex Benth. Spach and its occurrence in Africa are discussed; an allied genus Rabdosiella Codd is described and the combinations R. calycina (Benth. Codd and R. ternifolia (D.Don Codd (the latter an Indian species are effected.

  8. The genus Hymenocrater: a comprehensive review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morteza-Semnani, Katayoun; Ahadi, Hamideh; Hashemi, Zahra

    2016-12-01

    The genus Hymenocrater Fisch. et Mey. (Lamiaceae) contains over 21 species in the world. Some species have been used in folk medicine around the world. The present review comprises the ethnopharmacological, phytochemical and therapeutic potential of various species of Hymenocrater. This review brings together most of the available scientific research regarding the genus Hymenocrater. Through this review, the authors hope to attract the attention of natural product researchers throughout the world to focus on the unexplored potential of Hymenocrater species. This review has been compiled using references from major databases such as Chemical Abstracts, Medicinal and Aromatic Plants Abstracts, ScienceDirect, SciFinder, Google Scholar, Scopus, PubMed, Springer Link and books, without limiting the dates of publication. General web searches were also carried out using Google and Yahoo search engines by applying some related search terms (e.g., Hymenocrater spp., phytochemical, pharmacological, extract, essential oil and traditional uses). The articles related to agriculture, ecology, and synthetic works and those using languages other than English or Persian have been excluded. The genus Hymenocrater contains essential oil. Flavonoids, phenolic acids and terpenoids are important constituents of this genus. The pharmacological studies confirmed that the species of the genus Hymenocrater showed antimicrobial, antiparasitic, antioxidant, anticancer and antidiabetic activities. This review discusses the current knowledge of Hymenocrater species that review therapeutic potential, especially their effects on the cancer cells and gaps offering opportunities for future research.

  9. Taxonomy and Chemotaxonomy of the Genus Hypericum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crockett, Sara L; Robson, Norman K B

    2011-01-01

    The genus Hypericum L. (St. John's Wort, Hypericaceae) includes, at the most recent count, 469 species that are either naturally occurring on, or which have been introduced to, every continent in the world, except Antarctica. These species occur as herbs, shrubs, and infrequently trees, and are found in a variety of habitats in temperate regions and in high mountains in the tropics, avoiding only zones of extreme aridity, temperature and/or salinity. Monographic work on the genus has resulted in the recognition and description of 36 taxonomic sections, delineated by specific combinations of morphological characteristics and biogeographic distribution ranges. Hypericum perforatum L. (Common St. John's wort, section Hypericum), one of the best-known members of the genus, is an important medicinal herb of which extracts are taken for their reported activity against mild to moderate depression. Many other species have been incorporated in traditional medicine systems in countries around the world, or are sold as ornamentals. Several classes of interesting bioactive secondary metabolites, including naphthodianthrones (e.g. hypericin and pseudohypericin), flavonol glycosides (e.g. isoquercitrin and hyperoside), biflavonoids (e.g. amentoflavone), phloroglucinol derivatives (e.g. hyperforin and adhyperforin) and xanthones have been identified from members of the genus. A general overview of the taxonomy of the genus and the distribution of relevant secondary metabolites is presented.

  10. Taxonomy and Chemotaxonomy of the Genus Hypericum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crockett, Sara L.; Robson, Norman K. B.

    2012-01-01

    The genus Hypericum L. (St. John’s Wort, Hypericaceae) includes, at the most recent count, 469 species that are either naturally occurring on, or which have been introduced to, every continent in the world, except Antarctica. These species occur as herbs, shrubs, and infrequently trees, and are found in a variety of habitats in temperate regions and in high mountains in the tropics, avoiding only zones of extreme aridity, temperature and/or salinity. Monographic work on the genus has resulted in the recognition and description of 36 taxonomic sections, delineated by specific combinations of morphological characteristics and biogeographic distribution ranges. Hypericum perforatum L. (Common St. John’s wort, section Hypericum), one of the best-known members of the genus, is an important medicinal herb of which extracts are taken for their reported activity against mild to moderate depression. Many other species have been incorporated in traditional medicine systems in countries around the world, or are sold as ornamentals. Several classes of interesting bioactive secondary metabolites, including naphthodianthrones (e.g. hypericin and pseudohypericin), flavonol glycosides (e.g. isoquercitrin and hyperoside), biflavonoids (e.g. amentoflavone), phloroglucinol derivatives (e.g. hyperforin and adhyperforin) and xanthones have been identified from members of the genus. A general overview of the taxonomy of the genus and the distribution of relevant secondary metabolites is presented. PMID:22662019

  11. Dragmacidin G, a Bioactive Bis-Indole Alkaloid from a Deep-Water Sponge of the Genus Spongosorites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy E. Wright

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A deep-water sponge of the genus Spongosorites has yielded a bis-indole alkaloid which we have named dragmacidin G. Dragmacidin G was first reported by us in the patent literature and has recently been reported by Hitora et al. from a sponge of the genus Lipastrotheya. Dragmacidin G is the first in this series of compounds to have a pyrazine ring linking the two indole rings. It also has a rare N-(2-mercaptoethyl-guanidine side chain. Dragmacidin G shows a broad spectrum of biological activity including inhibition of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Plasmodium falciparum, and a panel of pancreatic cancer cell lines.

  12. A new species of Nilothauma Kieffer from China, with a key to known species of the genus (Diptera: Chironomidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Xin; Lin, Xiaolong; Wang, Xinhua; Shao, Qingjun

    2014-10-03

    A new species of the genus Nilothauma Kieffer, N. pandum sp. n., is described, and its morphological descriptions and illustrations are also given. A key to the males of Nilothauma is given. The adult male of N. pandum sp. n. can be distinguished from known species of the genus by the following combination of characters: anal point very broadly lanceolate with microtrichia in median ridge and apical margin, rounded at apex; superior volsella pad-like, expanded distally; median volsella curved, rounded at apex, with 2 long basal setae and 1 long median seta. 

  13. A new species of Amphoropsyche (Trichoptera, Leptoceridae) from Ecuador, with a key to the species in the genus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holzenthal, Ralph W.; Rázuri-Gonzales, Luis Ernesto

    2011-01-01

    Abstract A new species of Amphoropsyche Holzenthal is described from Ecuador. It is similar to a group of species with dorsomesal processes on the preanal appendages (i.e., Amphoropsyche woodruffi Flint & Sykora, Amphoropsyche refugia Holzenthal, and Amphoropsyche aragua Holzenthal), but can be distinguished from these and other members of the genus by the short, digitate dorsomesal processes on the preanal appendages and the broad lateral processes of tergum X of the male genitalia. A key to males of the 14 species now known in the genus is presented based on characters of the genitalia. PMID:21852940

  14. A new species of the genus Calliaxina Ngoc-Ho, 2003 from the South China Sea (Crustacea, Decapoda, Axiidea, Callianassidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenliang Liu

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available A new species of the genus Calliaxina Ngoc-Ho, 2003, C. xishaensis sp. n., collected from the South China Sea is described and illustrated. It is distinguishable from C. thomassini Ngoc-Ho, 2014 by having the rostrum broadly triangular with pointed tip and is distinguishable from C. novaebritanniae (Borradaile, 1900 and C. punica (de Saint Laurent & Manning, 1982 by the posterior margin of telson being convex. It is also the first record of this genus from the China seas. A key to the species of Calliaxina is given.

  15. Broad-band semiconductor optical amplifiers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ding Ying [Institute of Semiconductors, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100083 (China)]. E-mail: yingding@red.semi.ac.cn; Kan Qiang [Institute of Semiconductors, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100083 (China); Wang Junling [Institute of Optoelectronic Technology, Beijing Jiaotong University, Beijing 100044 (China); Pan Jiaoqing [Institute of Semiconductors, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100083 (China); Zhou Fan [Institute of Semiconductors, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100083 (China); Chen Weixi [School of Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Wang Wei [Institute of Semiconductors, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100083 (China)

    2007-01-15

    Broad-band semiconductor optical amplifiers (SOAs) with different thicknesses and thin bulk tensile-strained active layers were fabricated and studied. Amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) spectra and gain spectra of SOAs were measured and analyzed at different CW biases. A maximal 3 dB ASE bandwidth of 136 nm ranging from 1480 to 1616 nm, and a 3 dB optical amplifier gain bandwidth of about 90 nm ranging from 1510 to 1600 nm, were obtained for the very thin bulk active SOA. Other SOAs characteristics such as saturation output power and polarization sensitivity were measured and compared.

  16. Broad spectrum antibiotic compounds and use thereof

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koglin, Alexander; Strieker, Matthias

    2016-07-05

    The discovery of a non-ribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS) gene cluster in the genome of Clostridium thermocellum that produces a secondary metabolite that is assembled outside of the host membrane is described. Also described is the identification of homologous NRPS gene clusters from several additional microorganisms. The secondary metabolites produced by the NRPS gene clusters exhibit broad spectrum antibiotic activity. Thus, antibiotic compounds produced by the NRPS gene clusters, and analogs thereof, their use for inhibiting bacterial growth, and methods of making the antibiotic compounds are described.

  17. Crx broadly modulates the pineal transcriptome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rovsing, Louise; Clokie, Samuel; Bustos, Diego M

    2011-01-01

    Cone-rod homeobox (Crx) encodes Crx, a transcription factor expressed selectively in retinal photoreceptors and pinealocytes, the major cell type of the pineal gland. In this study, the influence of Crx on the mammalian pineal gland was studied by light and electron microscopy and by use...... of microarray and qRTPCR technology, thereby extending previous studies on selected genes (Furukawa et al. 1999). Deletion of Crx was not found to alter pineal morphology, but was found to broadly modulate the mouse pineal transcriptome, characterized by a > 2-fold down-regulation of 543 genes and a > 2-fold up......-regulation of 745 genes (p pineal glands of wild...

  18. Revision of monotypic genus Llavea (Cryptogrammoideae: Pteridaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mónica Palacios-Rios

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Llavea Lag. is a genus of Cryptogrammoideae (Pteridaceae, whose only species is distributed from southern United States and Mexico to Guatemala and Costa Rica, although it lives mainly in Mesoamerica, inhabiting preferably calcicolous habitats associated with forests and mountains. The genus is easily recognized by the presence of fertile leaves hemi-dimorphic, with the fertile apical portion with longer and narrower segments than the sterile ones, with strongly revolute margin, and rhizome scales bicolorous, shiny, and black. This paper presents a revision of the genus, nomenclatural issues are resolved, and and palynological morphological diversity are reviewed, as well as its distribution, phenology, ecology, and applications, based on field and herbarium specimens studies. In addition, two names related to Llavea, Allosorus karwinskii Kunze and Ceratodactylis osmundioides J. Sm., were lectotypified.

  19. Molecular revision of the genus Wallaceina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostygov, Alexei Yu; Grybchuk-Ieremenko, Anastasiia; Malysheva, Marina N; Frolov, Alexander O; Yurchenko, Vyacheslav

    2014-09-01

    This work is focused on the molecular revision of the genus Wallaceina established in the very twilight of the classical morphotype-based approach to classification of the Trypanosomatidae. The genus was erected due to the presence of a unique variant of endomastigotes. In molecular phylogenetic studies four described species of Wallaceina were shown to be extremely close to each other and to some other undescribed isolates clustered within Leishmaniinae clade, while three recently included species formed a separate clade. Our results of morphological and molecular phylogenetic analyses demonstrated that all Leishmaniinae-bound wallaceinas are just different isolates of the same species that we rename back to Crithidia brevicula Frolov, Malysheva, 1989. To accommodate former Wallaceina spp. phylogenetically distant from the genus Crithidia, we propose a new generic name Wallacemonas Kostygov et Yurchenko, 2014. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  20. Therapeutic value of the genus Alpinia, Zingiberaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane P. Victório

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Plants containing bioactive substances have increasingly become the object of research studies, particularly those plants with therapeutic value. Many species of the genus Alpinia provide a variety of medicinal properties, such as, Alpinia zerumbet (Pers. Burtt et Smith and A. purpurata (Vieill K. Schum, which have a significant presence in Brazil. These species have been commercialized in the food and cosmetic industries. However, their greatest importance arises from the medicinal properties of their essential oils containing flavonoids, terpenoids and kavalactones which have been used in folk medicine to treat, for example, arterial hypertension and inflammatory processes. In addition, such species are also used in multidisciplinary studies, including phytochemistry, ethnobotany and biology, indicating the key pharmacological role of this genus in everyday life. Therefore, this work aims to present a bibliographic review of the genus Alpinia and its significance in therapeutic applications.

  1. Crx broadly modulates the pineal transcriptome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rovsing, Louise; Clokie, Samuel; Bustos, Diego M.; Rohde, Kristian; Coon, Steven L.; Litman, Thomas; Rath, Martin F.; Møller, Morten; Klein, David C.

    2011-01-01

    Cone-rod homeobox (Crx) encodes Crx, a transcription factor expressed selectively in retinal photoreceptors and pinealocytes, the major cell type of the pineal gland. Here, the influence of Crx on the mammalian pineal gland was studied by light and electron microscopy and by use of microarray and qRTPCR technology, thereby extending previous studies on selected genes (Furukawa et al. 1999). Deletion of Crx was not found to alter pineal morphology, but was found to broadly modulate the mouse pineal transcriptome, characterized by a >2-fold downregulation of 543 genes and a >2-fold upregulation of 745 genes (p pineal glands of wild-type animals; only eight of these were also day/night expressed in the Crx−/− pineal gland. However, in the Crx−/− pineal gland 41 genes exhibit differential night/day expression that is not seen in wild-type animals. These findings indicate that Crx broadly modulates the pineal transcriptome and also influences differential night/day gene expression in this tissue. Some effects of Crx deletion on the pineal transcriptome might be mediated by Hoxc4 upregulation. PMID:21797868

  2. Systematics of the genus Daubenya (Hyacinthaceae: Massonieae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. C. Manning

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Daubenya Lindl. was until recently thought to comprise the single species D. aurea Lindl. but is now considered to include the monotypic genera Androsiphon Schltr. and Amphisiphon W.F.Barker. as well as the species previously referred to the genus Neobakeria Schltr. Eight species are now recognized in the genus, including the new combinations Daubenya comata (Burch, ex Baker J.C.Manning & A.M.van der Merwe and D. zeyheri (Kunth J.C.Manning & A.M.van der Merwe. Each species is fully described and illustrated in black-and-white and in colour. A key to the species, and distribution maps are provided.

  3. Entanglement entropy for nonzero genus topologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, S. Santhosh; Ghosh, Suman; Shankaranarayanan, S.

    2014-03-01

    Over the last three decades, entanglement entropy has been obtained for quantum fields propagating in Genus-0 topologies (spheres). For scalar fields propagating in these topologies, it has been shown that the entanglement entropy scales as area. In the last few years, nontrivial topologies are increasingly relevant for different areas. For instance, in describing quantum phases, it has been realized that long-range entangled states are described by topological order. If quantum entanglement can plausibly provide explanation for these, it is then imperative to obtain entanglement entropy in these topologies. In this work, using two different methods, we explicitly show that the entanglement entropy scales as area of the Genus-1 geometry.

  4. Growth and ontogeny of the tapeworm Schistocephalus solidus in its copepod first host affects performance in its stickleback second intermediate host

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benesh Daniel P

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background For parasites with complex life cycles, size at transmission can impact performance in the next host, thereby coupling parasite phenotypes in the two consecutive hosts. However, a handful of studies with parasites, and numerous studies with free-living, complex-life-cycle animals, have found that larval size correlates poorly with fitness under particular conditions, implying that other traits, such as physiological or ontogenetic variation, may predict fitness more reliably. Using the tapeworm Schistocephalus solidus, we evaluated how parasite size, age, and ontogeny in the copepod first host interact to determine performance in the stickleback second host. Methods We raised infected copepods under two feeding treatments (to manipulate parasite growth, and then exposed fish to worms of two different ages (to manipulate parasite ontogeny. We assessed how growth and ontogeny in copepods affected three measures of fitness in fish: infection probability, growth rate, and energy storage. Results Our main, novel finding is that the increase in fitness (infection probability and growth in fish with larval size and age observed in previous studies on S. solidus seems to be largely mediated by ontogenetic variation. Worms that developed rapidly (had a cercomer after 9 days in copepods were able to infect fish at an earlier age, and they grew to larger sizes with larger energy reserves in fish. Infection probability in fish increased with larval size chiefly in young worms, when size and ontogeny are positively correlated, but not in older worms that had essentially completed their larval development in copepods. Conclusions Transmission to sticklebacks as a small, not-yet-fully developed larva has clear costs for S. solidus, but it remains unclear what prevents the evolution of faster growth and development in this species.

  5. Growth hormone-like factor produced by the tapeworm, Spirometra mansonoides, displaces human growth hormone (hGH) from its receptors on cultured human lymphocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watts, D.J.; Phares, C.K.

    1986-03-01

    An analogue of hGH isolated from plerocercoids of the tapeworm Spirometra mansonoides displaces (/sup 125/I)hGH from its receptors in rabbit, rat, and hamster liver membranes. Biologically, plerocercoid growth factor (PGF) is more similar to hGH than to other mammalian GH's but has not been shown to bond human cells. Receptors specific for hGH have been described on cultured human lymphocytes (IM-9). In this study, the authors compared the binding of PGF and hGH in IM-9 cells and in rabbit hepatic membranes. IM-9 lymphocytes (12 x 10/sup 6/ cells/tube) were incubated with (/sup 125/I)hGH and increasing concentrations of hGH (ng/ml) or PGF (serial dilutions) for 90 min at 30/sup 0/ C. Specific binding (B/sub 0/ - NSB) was determined for each dose of hGH or PGF and the binding curves were analyzed by logit-log regression. The results show that PGF displaced (/sup 125/I)hGH from human cells in a dose dependent manner (r = 0.98). Based on the IM-9 assay, 1 ml of the PGF had an activity equivalent to 625 ng of the hGH standard (ngE). However, the binding activity of the PGF in the rabbit liver RRA was 1653 ngE/ml, indicating that the binding potency of PGF in IM-9 cells was only 38% of that in the rabbit liver. These results clearly demonstrate that PGF binds hGH receptors in cells of human origin, suggesting that PGF will be effective in humans.

  6. Growth and ontogeny of the tapeworm Schistocephalus solidus in its copepod first host affects performance in its stickleback second intermediate host

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background For parasites with complex life cycles, size at transmission can impact performance in the next host, thereby coupling parasite phenotypes in the two consecutive hosts. However, a handful of studies with parasites, and numerous studies with free-living, complex-life-cycle animals, have found that larval size correlates poorly with fitness under particular conditions, implying that other traits, such as physiological or ontogenetic variation, may predict fitness more reliably. Using the tapeworm Schistocephalus solidus, we evaluated how parasite size, age, and ontogeny in the copepod first host interact to determine performance in the stickleback second host. Methods We raised infected copepods under two feeding treatments (to manipulate parasite growth), and then exposed fish to worms of two different ages (to manipulate parasite ontogeny). We assessed how growth and ontogeny in copepods affected three measures of fitness in fish: infection probability, growth rate, and energy storage. Results Our main, novel finding is that the increase in fitness (infection probability and growth in fish) with larval size and age observed in previous studies on S. solidus seems to be largely mediated by ontogenetic variation. Worms that developed rapidly (had a cercomer after 9 days in copepods) were able to infect fish at an earlier age, and they grew to larger sizes with larger energy reserves in fish. Infection probability in fish increased with larval size chiefly in young worms, when size and ontogeny are positively correlated, but not in older worms that had essentially completed their larval development in copepods. Conclusions Transmission to sticklebacks as a small, not-yet-fully developed larva has clear costs for S. solidus, but it remains unclear what prevents the evolution of faster growth and development in this species. PMID:22564512

  7. Extraction of nucleic acids from ancient formalin- and ethanol-preserved specimens of the tapeworm Bertiella studeri: which method works best?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taleb-Hossenkhan, Nawsheen; Bhagwant, Suress; Gourrege, Noelle

    2013-06-01

    In this study we show that intact DNA can be recovered from both alcohol- and formalin-preserved specimens of the parasitic tapeworm Bertiella studeri for >1 yr after the original fixation and can be successfully amplified and quantified using real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Three different DNA extraction techniques on formalin- and alcohol-fixed material were evaluated to determine which is best suited for obtaining DNA of sufficient yield and purity to be used in downstream applications such as RT-PCR. These techniques included a first organic extraction procedure with an extensive washing step based on a glycine-containing buffer, a second organic extraction procedure that omits the glycine-containing buffer and halves the number of washes in organic solvents, and a third procedure that involves the use of a silica-based DNA binding column from Qiagen(©). The quality of extracted DNA was first examined by agarose gel electrophoresis and ethidium bromide staining and the concentrations were evaluated by OD260. We then used an RT-PCR Applied Biosystems TaqMan® Fluorogenic 5' Nuclease Gene Expression Assay based on the detection of a universal eukaryotic 18S rRNA gene sequence to evaluate the efficiency of the 3 methods. Here we report that, first, the use of a silica column-based DNA extraction technique results in the maximum yield of DNA, on average 55% higher than for the organic extraction methods; second, the use of glycine as a formaldehyde-binding agent in the washing buffer does not necessarily result in a better DNA yield and; third, specimens preserved in ethanol result in significantly higher yields of amplifiable DNA than do specimens preserved in formalin. We, therefore, strongly recommend the use of ethanol as the appropriate fixative if specimens are to be used for molecular work. This is the first report of DNA extraction from preserved specimens of Bertiella studeri.

  8. Broad ion beam serial section tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winiarski, B., E-mail: b.winiarski@manchester.ac.uk [School of Materials, University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Materials Division, National Physical Laboratory, Teddington TW11 0LW (United Kingdom); Gholinia, A. [School of Materials, University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Mingard, K.; Gee, M. [Materials Division, National Physical Laboratory, Teddington TW11 0LW (United Kingdom); Thompson, G.E.; Withers, P.J. [School of Materials, University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom)

    2017-01-15

    Here we examine the potential of serial Broad Ion Beam (BIB) Ar{sup +} ion polishing as an advanced serial section tomography (SST) technique for destructive 3D material characterisation for collecting data from volumes with lateral dimensions significantly greater than 100 µm and potentially over millimetre sized areas. Further, the associated low level of damage introduced makes BIB milling very well suited to 3D EBSD acquisition with very high indexing rates. Block face serial sectioning data registration schemes usually assume that the data comprises a series of parallel, planar slices. We quantify the variations in slice thickness and parallelity which can arise when using BIB systems comparing Gatan PECS and Ilion BIB systems for large volume serial sectioning and 3D-EBSD data acquisition. As a test case we obtain 3D morphologies and grain orientations for both phases of a WC-11%wt. Co hardmetal. In our case we have carried out the data acquisition through the manual transfer of the sample between SEM and BIB which is a very slow process (1–2 slice per day), however forthcoming automated procedures will markedly speed up the process. We show that irrespective of the sectioning method raw large area 2D-EBSD maps are affected by distortions and artefacts which affect 3D-EBSD such that quantitative analyses and visualisation can give misleading and erroneous results. Addressing and correcting these issues will offer real benefits when large area (millimetre sized) automated serial section BIBS is developed. - Highlights: • In this work we examine how microstructures can be reconstructed in three-dimensions (3D) by serial argon broad ion beam (BIB) milling, enabling much larger volumes (>250×250×100µm{sup 3}) to be acquired than by serial section focused ion beam-scanning electron microscopy (FIB-SEM). • The associated low level of damage introduced makes BIB milling very well suited to 3D-EBSD acquisition with very high indexing rates. • We explore

  9. Conservation Strategies in the Genus Hypericum via Cryogenic Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruňáková, Katarína; Čellárová, Eva

    2016-01-01

    In the genus Hypericum, cryoconservation offers a strategy for maintenance of remarkable biodiversity, emerging from large inter- and intra-specific variability in morphological and phytochemical characteristics. Long-term cryostorage thus represents a proper tool for preservation of genetic resources of endangered and threatened Hypericum species or new somaclonal variants with unique properties. Many representatives of the genus are known as producers of pharmacologically important polyketides, namely naphthodianthrones and phloroglucinols. As a part of numerous in vitro collections, the nearly cosmopolitan Hypericum perforatum - Saint John's wort - has become a suitable model system for application of biotechnological approaches providing an attractive alternative to the traditional methods for secondary metabolite production. The necessary requirements for efficient cryopreservation include a high survival rate along with an unchanged biochemical profile of plants regenerated from cryopreserved cells. Understanding of the processes which are critical for recovery of H. perforatum cells after the cryogenic treatment enables establishment of cryopreservation protocols applicable to a broad number of Hypericum species. Among them, several endemic taxa attract a particular attention due to their unique characteristics or yet unrevealed spectrum of bioactive compounds. In this review, recent advances in the conventional two-step and vitrification-based cryopreservation techniques are presented in relation to the recovery rate and biosynthetic capacity of Hypericum spp. The pre-cryogenic treatments which were identified to be crucial for successful post-cryogenic recovery are discussed. Being a part of genetic predisposition, the freezing tolerance as a necessary precondition for successful post-cryogenic recovery is pointed out. Additionally, a beneficial influence of cold stress on modulating naphthodianthrone biosynthesis is outlined.

  10. Conservation Strategies in the Genus Hypericum via Cryogenic Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarína eBruňáková

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In the genus Hypericum, cryoconservation offers a strategy for maintenance of remarkable biodiversity, emerging from large inter- and intra-specific variability in morphological and phytochemical characteristics. Long-term cryostorage thus represents a proper tool for preservation of genetic resources of endangered and threatened Hypericum species or new somaclonal variants with unique properties. Many representatives of the genus are known as producers of pharmacologically important polyketides, namely naphthodianthrones and phloroglucinols. As a part of numerous in vitro collections, the nearly cosmopolitan H. perforatum – Saint John’s wort – has become a suitable model system for application of biotechnological approaches providing an attractive alternative to the traditional methods for secondary metabolite production. The necessary requirements for efficient cryopreservation include a high survival rate along with an unchanged biochemical profile of plants regenerated from cryopreserved cells. Understanding of the processes which are critical for recovery of H. perforatum cells after the cryogenic treatment enables establishment of cryopreservation protocols applicable to a broad number of Hypericum species. Among them, several endemic taxa attract a particular attention due to their unique characteristics or yet unrevealed spectrum of bioactive compounds. In this review, recent advances in the conventional two-step and vitrification-based cryopreservation techniques are presented in relation to the recovery rate and biosynthetic capacity of Hypericum spp. The pre-cryogenic treatments which were identified to be crucial for successful post-cryogenic recovery are discussed. Being a part of genetic predisposition, the freezing tolerance as a necessary precondition for successful post-cryogenic recovery is pointed out. Additionally, a beneficial influence of cold stress on modulating naphthodianthrone biosynthesis is outlined.

  11. Against a Broad Definition of "Empathy"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Songhorian

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper I will try to provide some arguments against a broad definition of “empathy”. Firstly, I will deal with attempts to define empathy as an umbrella concept. Then, I will try to point out the four main elements which contribute to the confusion that researchers in both the social and political as well as the scientific and philosophical domains face when dealing with empathy. In order to resolve this confusion, I suggest applying David Marr’s distinction to the field of empathy. Instead of providing an umbrella definition for empathy, which tries to account for all the data coming from different disciplines, I believe understanding that there are different levels of explanations and that different disciplines can contribute to each of them will provide a more detailed and less confused definition of empathy.

  12. Interspecific hybridization in the genus Tulipa L.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Creij, van M.G.M.

    1997-01-01

    The genus Tulipa L. comprises about 55 species. The tulip species are classified in two subgenera, Tulipa and Eriostemones, which are subdivided into five and three sections respectively. Commercial tulips are mainly cultivars

  13. Rhizochaete, a new genus of phanerochaetoid fungi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alina Greslebin; Karen K. Nakasone; Mario Rajchenberg

    2004-01-01

    A new basidiomycete genus, Rhizochaete (Phanerochaetaceae, polyporales) is described. Rhizochaete is characterized by a smooth to tuberculate, pellicular hymenophre and hyphal cords that turn red or violet in potassium hydroxide, monomitic hyphal system of simple or nodose septate hyphae, cystidia, and small, cylindrical to subglobose basidiospores. It morphologically...

  14. Remarks on the Curculionid genus Chalcocybebus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heller, K.M.

    1896-01-01

    In my last paper ¹) I described a new species of Coleoptera from New Guinea, Astrolabe Bay, viz. Eurhynchus superbus , supposing Aporhina bispinosa Boisd. to be identical with bispinosa Lac., which has four white spots on each elytron. Since then I have made further studies on this genus and my best

  15. The genus Malassezia and human disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inamadar A

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Sabouraud's Pityrosporum is now recognized as Malassezia. With taxonomic revision of the genus, newer species have been included. The role of this member of the normal human skin flora in different cutaneous and systemic disorders is becoming clearer. The immunological responses it induces in the human body are conflicting and their relevance to clinical features is yet to be explored.

  16. On the genus Galidia and its species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jentink, F.A.

    1879-01-01

    In the year 1839 Is. Geoff. St. Hilaire ¹) described and figured three species of his new genus Galidia, viz: elegans, concolor and olivacea, all natives of Madagascar. It seems that Galidia olivacea has not been captured by the travellers who visited Madagascar after Bernier and Goudot: the only

  17. The genus Kochia (Chenopodiaceae) in North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge-Lin Chu; Stewart Sanderson

    2008-01-01

    The genus Kochia and Bassia with which it has been combined, of Chenopodiaceae tribe Camphorosmeae, were at one time considered to include plants native to Eurasia, Australia, and North America, and included species of both C3 and C4 photosynthetic types. This aggregate has been reduced in size by removal of a large group of C3 Australian genera and species. Because of...

  18. Bark beetles in the genus Dendroctonus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbara J. Bentz

    2008-01-01

    The genus Dendroctonus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae), originally described by Erichson in 1836, currently includes 19 species that are widely distributed. Seventeen species occur between Arctic North America and northwestern Nicaragua, and an additional two species are in northern Europe and Asia. Dendroctonus species attack and infest conifer hosts (Pinaceae...

  19. Revision of the genus Bromheadia (Orchidaceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kruizinga, J.; Scheindelen, van H.J.; Vogel, de E.F.

    1997-01-01

    This paper is a taxonomic revision of the genus Bromheadia. In Bromheadia sect. Bromheadia seven species and two varieties are recognized. One species, B. pendek, and one variety, B. borneensis var. longiflora, are described as new. Bromheadia philippinensis Ames & Quisumb. is here reduced to

  20. Revision of the genus Mediocalcar (Orchidaceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuiteman, A.

    1997-01-01

    The genus Mediocalcar is revised. Fifteen species and five subspecies are recognized, of which the following are new: Mediocalcar congestion Schuit., M. umboiense Schuit., M. versteegii J.J. Smith subsp. amphigeneum Schuit., M. versteegii J.J. Smith subsp. intermedium Schuit. and M. versteegii J.J.

  1. Cladistic relationships within the genus Cinnamomum (Lauraceae ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-06-06

    Jun 6, 2011 ... insularimontanum and Cinnamomum macrostemon was supported by leaf morphology, ISSR and ITS data and the ITS analysis indicates that ... making, carving and structural uses. Tree species in the genus often ..... to resolve its taxonomic status, the result of chloroplast. DNA analysis indicated that C.

  2. The Mesozoic megafossil genus Linguifolium Arber 1917

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pattemore Gary A.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The plant megafossil genus Linguifolium Arber 1917 is chiefly known from the Middle and Upper Triassic of Gondwana. The range of Linguifolium extended beyond Gondwana by the Late Triassic, persisting there through the earliest Jurassic (Hettangian. The parent plants probably grew in a well-watered, canopied environment.

  3. Characteristic Classes for Curves of Genus One

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Taelman, L.

    2015-01-01

    We compute the cohomology of the stackM1 over C with coefficients in Z[12 ], and in low degrees with coefficients in Z. Cohomology classes onM1 give rise to characteristic classes, cohomological invariants of families of curves of genus one. We prove a number of vanishing results for those

  4. Phylogeny of the plant genus Pachypodium (Apocynaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burge, Dylan O; Mugford, Kaila; Hastings, Amy P; Agrawal, Anurag A

    2013-01-01

    Background. The genus Pachypodium contains 21 species of succulent, generally spinescent shrubs and trees found in southern Africa and Madagascar. Pachypodium has diversified mostly into arid and semi-arid habitats of Madagascar, and has been cited as an example of a plant group that links the highly diverse arid-adapted floras of Africa and Madagascar. However, a lack of knowledge about phylogenetic relationships within the genus has prevented testing of this and other hypotheses about the group. Methodology/Principal Findings. We use DNA sequence data from the nuclear ribosomal ITS and chloroplast trnL-F region for all 21 Pachypodium species to reconstruct evolutionary relationships within the genus. We compare phylogenetic results to previous taxonomic classifications and geography. Results support three infrageneric taxa from the most recent classification of Pachypodium, and suggest that a group of African species (P. namaquanum, P. succulentum and P. bispinosum) may deserve taxonomic recognition as an infrageneric taxon. However, our results do not resolve relationships among major African and Malagasy lineages of the genus. Conclusions/Significance. We present the first molecular phylogenetic analysis of Pachypodium. Our work has revealed five distinct lineages, most of which correspond to groups recognized in past taxonomic classifications. Our work also suggests that there is a complex biogeographic relationship between Pachypodium of Africa and Madagascar.

  5. A conspectus of the genus Bhesa (Celastraceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hou, Ding

    1958-01-01

    In his Numerical List Wallich inserted four specific epithets in the genus Kurrimia, viz 4334 K. pulcherrima Wall., 4335 K. calophylla Wall., 4336 K. paniculata Wall., and later 7200 K.? macrophylla Wall. The latter one was provided with a question mark; it was a new combination for Itea macrophylla

  6. Sarawakodendron, a new genus of Celastraceae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hou, Ding

    1967-01-01

    During my trip to Malaysia in 1966, sponsored by the Netherlands Foundation for the Advancement of Tropical Research (WOTRO), for doing field work on Anacardiaceae, a new tree genus was found in Sarawak belonging to the family Celastraceae which I have revised for the Flora Malesiana series I,

  7. The genus Lophopyxis Hook. f. (Lophopyxidaceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sleumer, H.

    1968-01-01

    When revising the Icacinaceae from SE. Asia and Malesia recently, my interest was drawn again to the genus Lophopyxis Hook. f. Designated by its author (1887) tentatively as a member of the Euphorbiaceae, it was rejected from this family by Pax as early as 1890. Engler (1893) transferred Lophopyxis

  8. The genus Lolium : taxonomy and genetic resources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loos, B.P.

    1994-01-01

    Several aspects of variation within the genus Lolium, and more in detail within Lolium perenne (perennial ryegrass) have been highlighted. As the results are extensively discussed in each chapter, the general discussion is focused on two aspects of

  9. Genomic Diversity in the Genus of Aspergillus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Jane Lind Nybo

    , and scientific model organisms. The phenotypic diversity in this genus is extraordinary and identifying the genetic basis for this diversity has great potential for academia and industry. When the genomic era began for Aspergillus in 2005 with the genome sequences of A. nidulans, A. oryzae and A. fumigatus...

  10. Phylogeny of the plant genus Pachypodium (Apocynaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dylan O. Burge

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Background. The genus Pachypodium contains 21 species of succulent, generally spinescent shrubs and trees found in southern Africa and Madagascar. Pachypodium has diversified mostly into arid and semi-arid habitats of Madagascar, and has been cited as an example of a plant group that links the highly diverse arid-adapted floras of Africa and Madagascar. However, a lack of knowledge about phylogenetic relationships within the genus has prevented testing of this and other hypotheses about the group.Methodology/Principal Findings. We use DNA sequence data from the nuclear ribosomal ITS and chloroplast trnL-F region for all 21 Pachypodium species to reconstruct evolutionary relationships within the genus. We compare phylogenetic results to previous taxonomic classifications and geography. Results support three infrageneric taxa from the most recent classification of Pachypodium, and suggest that a group of African species (P. namaquanum, P. succulentum and P. bispinosum may deserve taxonomic recognition as an infrageneric taxon. However, our results do not resolve relationships among major African and Malagasy lineages of the genus.Conclusions/Significance. We present the first molecular phylogenetic analysis of Pachypodium. Our work has revealed five distinct lineages, most of which correspond to groups recognized in past taxonomic classifications. Our work also suggests that there is a complex biogeographic relationship between Pachypodium of Africa and Madagascar.

  11. Phytochemical and Pharmacological Properties of the Genus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Melodinus is an important genus comprising of approximately 53 species of medicinal plants (Apocynaceae). Some species have been used in Chinese folk medicine for the treatment of meningitis in children, rheumatic heart diseases, and diuresis, as well as a decongestive against migraine and sinusitis. This paper is a ...

  12. Some genus 3 curves with many points

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Auer, R; Top, J; Fieker, C; Kohel, DR

    2002-01-01

    We explain a naive approach towards the problem of finding genus 3 curves C over any given finite field F-q of odd characteristic, with a number of rational points close to the Hasse-Weil-Serre upper bound q+1+3[2rootq]. The method turns out to be successful at least in characteristic 3.

  13. Palynology of the Genus Stachytarpheta Vahl. (Verbenaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olubukola ADEDEJI

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The exine morphology of pollen grains of Stachytarpheta indica (Linn. Vahl, Stachytarpheta cayennensis (Rich. Vahl and Stachytarpheta angustifolia (Mill. Vahl is reported. This study was carried out with a light microscope. Pollen grains from fresh anthers were collected and aceolysed. Statistical analysis used to analyse the data collected include cluster analysis, correlation analysis, similarity and distance indices. The pollen grains are spheroidal to oblate to sub-oblate in shape. They are aperturate, both colpate and porate. Tricolpate types occur most frequently, acolpate, monocolpate, bicolpate and tetracolpate types less frequently. The multicolpate and multiporate attributes in all the species indicate that the genus is not primitive in evolutionary history and this species probably, evolved around in the same time. According to the size, the pollen grains of the genus falls into groups permagna (pollen diameter 100-200 ?m and giganta (pollen diameter greater than 200 ?m. S. cayennensis and S. anguistifolia belong to group permagna and S. indica only in the group giganta. This separates S. indica from the other two species. The large pollen grain size in the genus clearly supports the fact that the flowers in the genus are more insect-and-bird pollinated than wind pollinated. The similarity and distance indices of the species showed that S. cayennensis and S. angustifolia are the closest. S. indica is closer to S. angustifolia but farther from S. cayennensis.

  14. Thermoregulation of the subterranean rodent genus Bathyergus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The thermoregulation of the largest subterranean rodent, genus Bathyergus, comprising two species, B. suillus and B. janetta,occurring in mesic and semiarid habitats respectively, was investigated and compared with that of other subterranean rodents. Both species display low resting metabolic rates and low body ...

  15. Fruit morphology of the genus Potamogeton L. in Kashmir Himalaya and its utility in taxonomic delimitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aijaz Hassan Ganie

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The fruit morphology of eight species of the genus Potamogeton L. in Kashmir Himalaya was examined, using stereomicroscopy and scanning electron microscopy, in order to determine their utility in taxonomic delimitation. During the study, both macro- and micromorphological characters, including the fruit shape, size, color, and nature of the fruit beak, were investigated. The results reveal that the broad- and linear-leaved species have keeled fruits, whereas in filiform-leaved species the dorsal and lateral keels are either absent or obscure. The present study clearly shows the potential utility of fruit features as delimiting characters in order to distinguish different species of the genus Potamogeton in this Himalayan region.

  16. Immoral Purposes: Marriage and the Genus of Illicit Sex

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ariela R. Dubler

    2006-01-01

    .... Lawrence, however, is also part of another historical narrative: the history of attempts by federal lawmakers and judges to define the relationships among the genus of illicit sex, the genus of licit sex, and marriage...

  17. Genus Phyllanthus for chronic hepatitis B virus infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, J; Lin, Haili; McIntosh, H

    2001-01-01

    To evaluate the efficacy and safety of genus Phyllanthus for chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection we performed a systematic review of randomized clinical trials. Randomized trials comparing genus Phyllanthus vs. placebo, no intervention, general nonspecific treatment, other herbal medicine...

  18. Certhiasomus, a new genus of woodcreeper (Aves: Passeriformes: Dendrocolaptidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derryberry, Elizabeth; Claramunt, Santiago; Chesser, R. Terry; Aleixo, Alexandre; Cracraft, Joel; Moyle, Robert G.; Brumfield, Robb T.

    2010-01-01

    Phylogenetic analysis of the family Dendrocolaptidae (Aves: Passeriformes) indicates that the two species traditionally placed in the genus Deconychura are not sister taxa. Certhiasomus, a new genus of woodcreeper, is described for one of these species, C. stictolaemus.

  19. Khmeriosicyos, a new monotypic genus of Cucurbitaceae from Cambodia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilde, de W.J.J.O.; Duyfjes, B.E.E.; Ham, van der R.W.J.M.

    2004-01-01

    A new monotypic genus from Cambodia is described. The genus is defined by a unique combination of characters and has distinct pollen features. The only species is Khmeriosicyos harmandii W.J. de Wilde & Duyfjes.

  20. Traditional uses, phytochemistry, and pharmacology of the genus Acer (maple): A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Wu; Gao, Ying; Shen, Jie; He, Chunnian; Liu, Haibo; Peng, Yong; Zhang, Chunhong; Xiao, Peigen

    2016-08-02

    The genus Acer (Aceraceae), commonly known as maple, comprises approximately 129 species that primarily grow in the northern hemisphere, especially in the temperate regions of East Asia, eastern North America, and Europe. These plants have been traditionally used to treat a wide range of diseases in East Asia and North America. Moreover, clinical studies have shown that medicinal plants belonging to Acer are highly effective in the treatment of rheumatism, bruises, hepatic disorders, eye disease, and pain, and in detoxification. This review provides a systematic and constructive overview of the traditional uses, chemical constituents, and pharmacological activities of plants of the genus Acer. This review is based on a literature study of scientific journals and books from libraries and electronic sources such as SciFinder, ScienceDirect, Springer, PubMed, CNKI, Google Scholar, Baidu Scholar, and Web of Science. The literature in this review related to chemical constituents and pharmacological activities dates from 1922 to the end of October 2015. Furthermore, ethnopharmacological information on this genus was obtained from libraries and herbaria in China and USA. In traditional medicine, 40 species, 11 subspecies, and one varieta of the genus Acer are known to exhibit a broad spectrum of biological activities. To date, 331 compounds have been identified from 34 species of the genus Acer, including flavonoids, tannins, phenylpropanoids, diarylheptanoids, terpenoids, benzoic acid derivatives, and several other types of compounds, such as phenylethanoid glycosides and alkaloids. Preliminary pharmacological studies have shown that the extracts and compounds isolated from this genus exhibit a broad spectrum of biological activities such as antioxidant, antitumor, anti-inflammatory, antidiabetic, hepatoprotective, and antiobesity activities, as well as promoting osteoblast differentiation. To date, reports on the toxicity of Acer species to humans are very limited, and

  1. SVSVGMKPSPRP: a broad range adhesion peptide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estephan, Elias; Dao, Jérôme; Saab, Marie-Belle; Panayotov, Ivan; Martin, Marta; Larroque, Christian; Gergely, Csilla; Cuisinier, Frédéric J G; Levallois, Bernard

    2012-12-01

    A combinatorial phage display approach was previously used to evolve a 12-mer peptide (SVSVGMKPSPRP) with the highest affinity for different semiconductor surfaces. The discovery of the multiple occurrences of the SVSVGMKPSPRP sequence in an all-against-all basic local alignment search tool search of PepBank sequences was unexpected, and a Google search using the peptide sequence recovered 58 results concerning 12 patents and 16 scientific publications. The number of patent and articles indicates that the peptide is perhaps a broad range adhesion peptide. To evaluate peptide properties, we conducted a study to investigate peptide adhesion on different inorganic substrates by mass spectrometry and atomic force microscopy for gold, carbon nanotubes, cobalt, chrome alloy, titanium, and titanium alloy substrates. Our results showed that the peptide has a great potential as a linker to functionalize metallic surfaces if specificity is not a key factor. This peptide is not specific to a particular metal surface, but it is a good linker for the functionalization of a wide range of metallic materials. The fact that this peptide has the potential to adsorb on a large set of inorganic surfaces suggests novel promising directions for further investigation. Affinity determination of SVSVGMKPSPRP peptide would be an important issue for eventual commercial uses.

  2. Broad-Band Activatable White-Opsin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subrata Batabyal

    Full Text Available Currently, the use of optogenetic sensitization of retinal cells combined with activation/inhibition has the potential to be an alternative to retinal implants that would require electrodes inside every single neuron for high visual resolution. However, clinical translation of optogenetic activation for restoration of vision suffers from the drawback that the narrow spectral sensitivity of an opsin requires active stimulation by a blue laser or a light emitting diode with much higher intensities than ambient light. In order to allow an ambient light-based stimulation paradigm, we report the development of a 'white-opsin' that has broad spectral excitability in the visible spectrum. The cells sensitized with white-opsin showed excitability at an order of magnitude higher with white light compared to using only narrow-band light components. Further, cells sensitized with white-opsin produced a photocurrent that was five times higher than Channelrhodopsin-2 under similar photo-excitation conditions. The use of fast white-opsin may allow opsin-sensitized neurons in a degenerated retina to exhibit a higher sensitivity to ambient white light. This property, therefore, significantly lowers the activation threshold in contrast to conventional approaches that use intense narrow-band opsins and light to activate cellular stimulation.

  3. Topological classification and enumeration of RNA structures by genus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jørgen Ellegaard; Penner, Robert; Reidys, C. M.

    2013-01-01

    To an RNA pseudoknot structure is naturally associated a topological surface, which has its associated genus, and structures can thus be classified by the genus. Based on earlier work of Harer-Zagier, we compute the generating function for the number of those structures of fixed genus and minimum...

  4. Modular functors are determined by their genus zero data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jørgen Ellegaard; Ueno, Kenji

    2012-01-01

    We prove in this paper that the genus zero data of a modular functor determines the modular functor. We do this by establishing that the S-matrix in genus one with one point labeled arbitrarily can be expressed in terms of the genus zero information and we give an explicit formula. We do not assume...

  5. Pseudasthenes, a new genus of ovenbird (Aves: Passeriformes: Furnariidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derryberry, Elizabeth; Claramunt, Santiago; O'Quin, Kelly E.; Aleixo, Alexandre; Chesser, R. Terry; Remsen, J.V.; Brumfield, Robb T.

    2010-01-01

    Phylogenetic analysis of the family Furnariidae (Aves: Passeriformes) indicates that the genus Asthenes is polyphyletic, consisting of two groups that are not sister taxa. Pseudasthenes, a new genus of ovenbird, is described for one of these groups. The four species included in the new genus, formerly placed in Asthenes, are P. humicola, P. patagonica, P. steinbachi, and P. cactorum.

  6. The oomycete broad-host-range pathogen Phytophthora capsici.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamour, Kurt H; Stam, Remco; Jupe, Julietta; Huitema, Edgar

    2012-05-01

    Phytophthora capsici is a highly dynamic and destructive pathogen of vegetables. It attacks all cucurbits, pepper, tomato and eggplant, and, more recently, snap and lima beans. The disease incidence and severity have increased significantly in recent decades and the molecular resources to study this pathogen are growing and now include a reference genome. At the population level, the epidemiology varies according to the geographical location, with populations in South America dominated by clonal reproduction, and populations in the USA and South Africa composed of many unique genotypes in which sexual reproduction is common. Just as the impact of crop loss as a result of P. capsici has increased in recent decades, there has been a similar increase in the development of new tools and resources to study this devastating pathogen. Phytophthora capsici presents an attractive model for understanding broad-host-range oomycetes, the impact of sexual recombination in field populations and the basic mechanisms of Phytophthora virulence. Kingdom Chromista; Phylum Oomycota; Class Oomycetes; Order Peronosporales; Family Peronosporaceae; Genus Phytophthora; Species capsici. Symptoms vary considerably according to the host, plant part infected and environmental conditions. For example, in dry areas (e.g. southwestern USA and southern France), infection on tomato and bell or chilli pepper is generally on the roots and crown, and the infected plants have a distinctive black/brown lesion visible at the soil line (Fig. 1). In areas in which rainfall is more common (e.g. eastern USA), all parts of the plant are infected, including the roots, crown, foliage and fruit (Fig. 1). Root infections cause damping off in seedlings, whereas, in older plants, it is common to see stunted growth, wilting and, eventually, death. For tomatoes, it is common to see significant adventitious root growth just above an infected tap root, and the stunted plants, although severely compromised, may not die

  7. A new genus and species of Heteromysini (Crustacea- Mysidacea) from the backwater of Kochi (Kerala, India)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Panampunnayil, S.U.; Buju, A.

    stream_size 12726 stream_content_type text/plain stream_name J_Nat_Hist_41_1955.pdf.txt stream_source_info J_Nat_Hist_41_1955.pdf.txt Content-Encoding UTF-8 Content-Type text/plain; charset=UTF-8 Downloaded By: [CSIR....1080/00222930701515553 Downloaded By: [CSIR Order] At: 10:52 24 October 2007 Genus Kochimysis gen. nov. Diagnosis General form small and slender. Carapace broadly triangular in front. Eyes normal. Male lobe of antennule reduced to small setiferous lobe; antennal scale oval...

  8. Arctic Change Information for a Broad Audience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soreide, N. N.; Overland, J. E.; Calder, J.

    2002-12-01

    Demonstrable environmental changes have occurred in the Arctic over the past three decades. NOAA's Arctic Theme Page is a rich resource web site focused on high latitude studies and the Arctic, with links to widely distributed data and information focused on the Arctic. Included is a collection of essays on relevant topics by experts in Arctic research. The website has proven useful to a wide audience, including scientists, students, teachers, decision makers and the general public, as indicated through recognition by USA Today, Science magazine, etc. (http://www.arctic.noaa.gov) Working jointly with NSF and the University of Washington's Polar Science Center as part of the Study of Environmental Arctic Change (SEARCH) program, NOAA has developed a website for access to pan-Arctic time series spanning diverse data types including climate indices, atmospheric, oceanic, sea ice, terrestrial, biological and fisheries. Modest analysis functions and more detailed analysis results are provided. (http://www.unaami.noaa.gov/). This paper will describe development of an Artic Change Detection status website to provide a direct and comprehensive view of previous and ongoing change in the Arctic for a broad climate community. For example, composite metrics are developed using principal component analysis based on 86 multivariate pan-Arctic time series for seven data types. Two of these metrics can be interpreted as a regime change/trend component and an interdecadal component. Changes can also be visually observed through tracking of 28 separate biophysical indicators. Results will be presented in the form of a web site with relevant, easily understood, value-added knowledge backed by peer review from Arctic scientists and scientific journals.

  9. Feedback from Broad Absorption Line Quasars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chartas, George; Saez, C.

    2008-03-01

    The fraction of the total bolometric energy released over an AGN's lifetime into the ISM and IGM in the form kinetic energy injection scales as the outflow velocity to the third power so we expect that powerful broad absorption line (BAL) quasars may have mass outflow rates that are large enough to influence significantly the formation of the host galaxy and to regulate the growth of the central black hole. One of the most promising radio quiet quasars for studying the properties of the outflow is the lensed BAL quasar APM 08279+5255. The large flux magnification by a factor of about 100 provided by the gravitational lens effect combined with the large redshift (z = 3.91) of the quasar have provided the highest S/N X-ray spectra of a quasar containing X-ray BALs. We present results from recent monitoring observations of APM 08279+5255. performed with the Suzaku, XMM-Newton and Chandra observatories. Significant variability of the X-ray BALs is detected on timescales as short as 4 days (proper time) implying launching radii of about 6 times the Schwarzschild radius. The fitted width of the X-ray absorption troughs imply a large gradient in the outflow velocity of the X-ray absorbers with projected outflow velocities of up to 0.5c. The notch-like shape of the detected X-ray BALs are similar to those produced in recent numerical simulations (i.e. Schurch & Done 2007) that include radiative transfer calculations through highly ionized X-ray absorbers outflowing at near relativistic velocities. We provide preliminary constraints of the outflows properties.

  10. Identification and nomenclature of the genus Penicillium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Visagie, C.M.; Houbraken, J.; Frisvad, Jens Christian

    2014-01-01

    Penicillium is a diverse genus occurring worldwide and its species play important roles as decomposers of organic materials and cause destructive rots in the food industry where they produce a wide range of mycotoxins. Other species are considered enzyme factories or are common indoor air allergens....... Although DNA sequences are essential for robust identification of Penicillium species, there is currently no comprehensive, verified reference database for the genus. To coincide with the move to one fungus one name in the International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi and plants, the generic concept...... of Penicillium was re-defined to accommodate species from other genera, such as Chromocleista, Eladia, Eupenicillium, Torulomyces and Thysanophora, which together comprise a large monophyletic clade. As a result of this, and the many new species described in recent years, it was necessary to update the list...

  11. Notes on the genus Punctelia in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Steen; Søchting, Ulrik

    2007-01-01

    Punctelia jeckeri (Roum.) Kalb was previously known as P. ulophylla (Ach.) van Herk & Aptroot. The taxon was described by Acharius (1810) as Parmelia caperata var. ulophylla. It was long overlooked or reduced to synonomy, i.a. with Parmelia subrudecta (Nyl.) Krog (e.g. Hale 1965). Krog (1982), wh...... name at species level, proposed the combination Punctelia jeckeri, and lectotypified the name. As a preparatory work to a forthcoming revision of the Danish lichen checklist (Søchting & Alstrup 2007) it was decided to examine the Danish material of the genus Punctelia....... establishing the genus Punctelia, did not re-combine P. ulophylla, nor include it in the accompanying key. She probably considered it as a synonym of P. subrudecta. In a study on European Punctelia species with lecanoric acid, van Herk & Aptroot (2000) accepted the taxon and made the combination Punctelia...

  12. Phytochemistry of the genus Skimmia (Rutaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epifano, Francesco; Fiorito, Serena; Genovese, Salvatore; Granica, Sebastian; Vitalini, Sara; Zidorn, Christian

    2015-07-01

    The genus Skimmia is a rich source of interesting secondary metabolites, including 20 alkaloids derived from anthranilic acid, 45 coumarins, 21 limonoids, four cholestane derivatives, six pentacyclic triterpenes, six flavonoids, and two unusual fatty acid derivatives. Skimmia is employed in folk medicine e.g. against fever, inflammations, and rheumatism. Skimmia extracts, Skimmia essential oils and pure compounds isolated from Skimmia extracts have been experimentally shown to have various bioactivities such as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, and insecticidal. In this review we discuss the exact structures of compounds isolated from members of the genus Skimmia, bioactivities of Skimmia extracts and pure compounds derived from them, and systematic implications of the patterns of occurrence of these compounds. Moreover, research gaps and interesting avenues for future research are discussed briefly. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Broadly protective influenza vaccines: Redirecting the antibody response through adjuvation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cox, F.

    2016-01-01

    Influenza virus infections are responsible for significant morbidity worldwide and current vaccines have limited coverage, therefore it remains a high priority to develop broadly protective vaccines. With the discovery of broadly neutralizing antibodies (bnAbs) against influenza these vaccines

  14. Taeniasis caused by Taenia saginata in Gianyar town and Taenia solium in Karangasem villages of Bali, Indonesia, 2011-2016: How to detect tapeworm carriers, anamnesis or microscopy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swastika, Kadek; Wandra, Toni; Dharmawan, Nyoman Sadra; Sudarmaja, I Made; Saragih, John Master; Diarthini, Luh Putu Eka; Ariwati, Luh; Damayanti, Putu Ayu Asri; Laksemi, Dewa Ayu Agus Sri; Kapti, Nengah; Sutisna, Putu; Yanagida, Tetsuya; Ito, Akira

    2017-10-01

    From January 2011 until September 2016, screening of taeniasis carriers was carried out in a town in Gianyar District (Taenia saginata) and in villages which consisted of several Banjars (the smallest community units) on the eastern slope of Mt. Agung, Karangasem District (Taenia solium) in Bali, Indonesia. Fecal samples from all community members who chose to participate were examined microscopically for detection of taeniid eggs each person completedwith a questionnaire to determine if they had seen whitish, noodle-like proglottids (anamnesis) in their feces. Members with egg positive feces, and those with anamnesis, were treated with niclosamide (Yomesan ® , Bayer). A total of 39T. saginata tapeworm carriers were confirmed in Gianyar after deworming based on anamnesis (100%, 39/39). Only three of them (3/39, 7.7%) and 3/173 participants (1.7%) were identified by fecal microscopy. In contrast, 20T. solium carriers including one migrated to Gianyar were confirmed from 12 patients with eggs in their feces and from another 8 persons of 12 persons suspected to be infected due anamnesis only (8/12,66.7%) in Karangasem. The majority of carriers (12/20, 60.0%) identified by microscopy included 4 (33.3%) and 8 (66.7%) carriers confirmed microscopically with and without anamnesis, respectively. The prevalence rate was 12/1090 (1.10%) of participants. The results indicate that anamnesis is reliable for detection of T. saginata carriers, whereas it is not so reliable for detection of T. solium taeniasis (8/12, 66.7%) and that microscopy is more informative than anamnesis for T. solium. Eggs were detected more frequently in T. solium carriers (4/12, 33.3%) than in patients infected with T. saginata (3/39, 7.7%). T. solium carriers have so far been confirmed from nine of 13 Banjars examined in Karangasem. This study reveals that anamnesis is highly useful for screening of T. saginata carriers, whereas microscopy is a more valuable tool for detection of T. solium carriers

  15. EmTIP, a T-Cell immunomodulatory protein secreted by the tapeworm Echinococcus multilocularis is important for early metacestode development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin Komguep Nono

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Alveolar echinococcosis (AE, caused by the metacestode of the tapeworm Echinococcus multilocularis, is a lethal zoonosis associated with host immunomodulation. T helper cells are instrumental to control the disease in the host. Whereas Th1 cells can restrict parasite proliferation, Th2 immune responses are associated with parasite proliferation. Although the early phase of host colonization by E. multilocularis is dominated by a potentially parasitocidal Th1 immune response, the molecular basis of this response is unknown. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We describe EmTIP, an E. multilocularis homologue of the human T-cell immunomodulatory protein, TIP. By immunohistochemistry we show EmTIP localization to the intercellular space within parasite larvae. Immunoprecipitation and Western blot experiments revealed the presence of EmTIP in the excretory/secretory (E/S products of parasite primary cell cultures, representing the early developing metacestode, but not in those of mature metacestode vesicles. Using an in vitro T-cell stimulation assay, we found that primary cell E/S products promoted interferon (IFN-γ release by murine CD4+ T-cells, whereas metacestode E/S products did not. IFN-γ release by T-cells exposed to parasite products was abrogated by an anti-EmTIP antibody. When recombinantly expressed, EmTIP promoted IFN-γ release by CD4+ T-cells in vitro. After incubation with anti-EmTIP antibody, primary cells showed an impaired ability to proliferate and to form metacestode vesicles in vitro. CONCLUSIONS: We provide for the first time a possible explanation for the early Th1 response observed during E. multilocularis infections. Our data indicate that parasite primary cells release a T-cell immunomodulatory protein, EmTIP, capable of promoting IFN-γ release by CD4+ T-cells, which is probably driving or supporting the onset of the early Th1 response during AE. The impairment of primary cell proliferation and the inhibition of metacestode

  16. Revision of the genus Bromheadia (Orchidaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Kruizinga, J.; Scheindelen, van, H.J.; Vogel, de, E.F.

    1997-01-01

    This paper is a taxonomic revision of the genus Bromheadia. In Bromheadia sect. Bromheadia seven species and two varieties are recognized. One species, B. pendek, and one variety, B. borneensis var. longiflora, are described as new. Bromheadia philippinensis Ames & Quisumb. is here reduced to synonymy. Bromheadia sect. Aporodes has 19 species; 12 species (B. cecieliae, B. coomansii, B. devogelii, B. gracilis, B. graminea, B. grandiflora, B. humilis, B. latifolia, B. lohaniensis, B. longifolia...

  17. Revision of the genus Mediocalcar (Orchidaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Schuiteman, A.

    1997-01-01

    The genus Mediocalcar is revised. Fifteen species and five subspecies are recognized, of which the following are new: Mediocalcar congestion Schuit., M. umboiense Schuit., M. versteegii J.J. Smith subsp. amphigeneum Schuit., M. versteegii J.J. Smith subsp. intermedium Schuit. and M. versteegii J.J. Smith subsp. vulcanicum Schuit. All species are illustrated by line drawings, several also with colour plates. Aspects of the ecology, biogeography, morphology and systematics of Mediocalcar are di...

  18. The Artemisia L. Genus: A Review of Bioactive Essential Oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulina Bermejo

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Numerous members of the Anthemideae tribe are important as cut flowers and ornamental crops, as well as being medicinal and aromatic plants, many of which produce essential oils used in folk and modern medicine and in the cosmetics and pharmaceutical industry. Essential oils generally have a broad spectrum of bioactivity, owing to the presence of several active ingredients that work through various modes of action. Due to their mode of extraction, mostly by distillation from aromatic plants, they contain a variety of volatile molecules such as terpenes, phenol-derived aromatic and aliphatic components. The large genus Artemisia L., from the tribe Anthemideae, comprises important medicinal plants which are currently the subject of phytochemical attention due to their biological and chemical diversity. Artemisia species, widespread throughout the world, are one of the most popular plants in Chinese traditional preparations and are frequently used for the treatment of diseases such as malaria, hepatitis, cancer, inflammation and infections by fungi, bacteria and viruses. Extensive studies of the chemical components of Artemisia have led to the identification of many compounds as well as essentials oils. This review summarizes some of the main reports on the chemistry and anti-infective activities of Artemisia. Li. essential oils from the data in the recent literature (2000–2011.

  19. The genus Crataegus: chemical and pharmacological perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinesh Kumar

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Traditional drugs have become a subject of world importance, with both medicinal and economical implications. A regular and widespread use of herbs throughout the world has increased serious concerns over their quality, safety and efficacy. Thus, a proper scientific evidence or assessment has become the criteria for acceptance of traditional health claims. Plants of the genus Crataegus, Rosaceae, are widely distributed and have long been used in folk medicine for the treatment of various ailments such as heart (cardiovascular disorders, central nervous system, immune system, eyes, reproductive system, liver, kidney etc. It also exhibits wide range of cytotoxic, gastroprotective, anti-inflammatory, anti-HIV and antimicrobial activities. Phytochemicals like oligomeric procyanidins, flavonoids, triterpenes, polysaccharides, catecholamines have been identified in the genus and many of these have been evaluated for biological activities. This review presents comprehensive information on the chemistry and pharmacology of the genus together with the traditional uses of many of its plants. In addition, this review discusses the clinical trials and regulatory status of various Crataegus plants along with the scope for future research in this aspect.

  20. Phytochemistry and pharmacognosy of the genus Acronychia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epifano, Francesco; Fiorito, Serena; Genovese, Salvatore

    2013-11-01

    The genus Acronychia (Rutaceae) comprise 44 species, most of which are represented by shrubs and small trees, distributed in a wide geographical area of South-Eastern Asia comprising China, India, Malaysia, Indonesia, Australia, and the islands of the western Pacific Ocean. Most of the species of the genus Acronychia have been used for centuries as natural remedies in the ethnomedical traditions of indigenous populations as anti-microbial, anti-fungal, anti-spasmodic, stomachic, anti-pyretic, and anti-haemorragic agent. Moreover fruits and aerial parts are used as food in salads and condiments, while the essential oil obtained from flowers and leaves has been employed in cosmetics production. Phytochemicals isolated from Acronychia spp. include acetophenones, quinoline and acridone alkaloids, flavonoids, cinnamic acids, lignans, coumarins, steroids, and triterpenes. The reported biological activities of the above mentioned natural compounds refer to anti-plasmodial, anti-cancer, anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-fungal, and neuroprotective effects. The aim of this review is to examine in detail from a phytochemical and pharmacologically point of view what is reported in the current literature about the properties of phytopreparations or individual active principles obtained from plants belonging to the Acronychia genus. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. The genus Crataegus: chemical and pharmacological perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinesh Kumar

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Traditional drugs have become a subject of world importance, with both medicinal and economical implications. A regular and widespread use of herbs throughout the world has increased serious concerns over their quality, safety and efficacy. Thus, a proper scientific evidence or assessment has become the criteria for acceptance of traditional health claims. Plants of the genus Crataegus, Rosaceae, are widely distributed and have long been used in folk medicine for the treatment of various ailments such as heart (cardiovascular disorders, central nervous system, immune system, eyes, reproductive system, liver, kidney etc. It also exhibits wide range of cytotoxic, gastroprotective, anti-inflammatory, anti-HIV and antimicrobial activities. Phytochemicals like oligomeric procyanidins, flavonoids, triterpenes, polysaccharides, catecholamines have been identified in the genus and many of these have been evaluated for biological activities. This review presents comprehensive information on the chemistry and pharmacology of the genus together with the traditional uses of many of its plants. In addition, this review discusses the clinical trials and regulatory status of various Crataegus plants along with the scope for future research in this aspect.

  2. The genus Capsicum (Solanaceae in Africa

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    W. H. Eshbaugh

    1983-12-01

    Full Text Available The genus Capsicum (Solanaceae includes approximately 20 wild species and 4-5 domesticated taxa commonly referred to as ‘chilies’ or ‘peppers’. The pre-Colombian distribution of the genus was New World. The evolutionary history of the genus is now envisaged as including three distinct lines leading to the domesticated taxa. The route of Capsicum to the Old World is thought to have followed three different courses. First, explorers introduced it to Europe with secondary introduction into Africa via further exploratory expeditions; second, botanical gardens played a major role in introduction; and third, introduction followed the slave trade routes. Today, pepper production in Africa is of two types, vegetable and spice. Statistical profiles on production are difficult to interpret, but the data available indicate that Nigeria, Egypt, Tunisia and Ghana are the leading producers. Production is mainly a local phenomenon and large acreage is seldom devoted to the growing of peppers. The primary peppers in Africa are C.  annuum and C.  frutescens.

  3. MICROLENSING OF QUASAR BROAD EMISSION LINES: CONSTRAINTS ON BROAD LINE REGION SIZE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guerras, E.; Mediavilla, E. [Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias, Via Lactea S/N, La Laguna E-38200, Tenerife (Spain); Jimenez-Vicente, J. [Departamento de Fisica Teorica y del Cosmos, Universidad de Granada, Campus de Fuentenueva, E-18071 Granada (Spain); Kochanek, C. S. [Department of Astronomy and the Center for Cosmology and Astroparticle Physics, The Ohio State University, 4055 McPherson Lab, 140 West 18th Avenue, Columbus, OH 43221 (United States); Munoz, J. A. [Departamento de Astronomia y Astrofisica, Universidad de Valencia, E-46100 Burjassot, Valencia (Spain); Falco, E. [Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Motta, V. [Departamento de Fisica y Astronomia, Universidad de Valparaiso, Avda. Gran Bretana 1111, Valparaiso (Chile)

    2013-02-20

    We measure the differential microlensing of the broad emission lines between 18 quasar image pairs in 16 gravitational lenses. We find that the broad emission lines are in general weakly microlensed. The results show, at a modest level of confidence (1.8{sigma}), that high ionization lines such as C IV are more strongly microlensed than low ionization lines such as H{beta}, indicating that the high ionization line emission regions are more compact. If we statistically model the distribution of microlensing magnifications, we obtain estimates for the broad line region size of r{sub s} = 24{sup +22} {sub -15} and r{sub s} = 55{sup +150} {sub -35} lt-day (90% confidence) for the high and low ionization lines, respectively. When the samples are divided into higher and lower luminosity quasars, we find that the line emission regions of more luminous quasars are larger, with a slope consistent with the expected scaling from photoionization models. Our estimates also agree well with the results from local reveberation mapping studies.

  4. Comparative proteomics in the genus Paracoccidioides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pigosso, Laurine Lacerda; Parente, Ana Flávia Alves; Coelho, Alexandre Siqueira Guedes; Silva, Luciano Paulino; Borges, Clayton Luiz; Bailão, Alexandre Melo; Soares, Célia Maria de Almeida

    2013-11-01

    The genus Paracoccidioides comprises a complex of phylogenetic species of dimorphic pathogenic fungi, the etiologic agents of paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM), a disease confined to Latin America and of marked relevance in its endemic areas due to its high frequency and severity. The members of the Paracoccidioides genus are distributed in distinct phylogenetic species (S1, PS2, PS3 and 01-like) that potentially differ in their biochemical and molecular characteristics. In this work, we performed the proteomic characterization of different members of the genus Paracoccidioides. We compared the proteomic profiles of Pb01 (01-like), Pb2 (PS2), Pb339 (S1) and PbEPM83 (PS3) using 2D electrophoresis and mass spectrometry. The proteins/isoforms were selected based on the staining intensity of the spots as determined by image analysis. The proteins/isoforms were in-gel digested and identified by peptide mass fingerprinting and ion fragmentation. A total of 714 spots were detected, of which 343 were analyzed. From these spots, 301 represented differentially expressed proteins/isoforms among the four analyzed isolates, as determined by ANOVA. After applying the FDR correction, a total of 267 spots were determined to be differentially expressed. From the total, 193 proteins/isoforms were identified by PMF and confirmed by ion fragmentation. Comparing the expression profiles of the isolates, the proteins/isoforms that were related to glycolysis/gluconeogenesis and to alcohol fermentation were more abundant in Pb01 than in other representatives of the genus Paracoccidioides, indicating ahigher use of anaerobic pathways for energy production. Those enzymes related to the oxidative stress response were more abundant in Pb01, Pb2 and Pb339, indicating a better response to ROS in these members of the Paracoccidioides complex. The enzymes of the pentose phosphate pathway were abundant in Pb2. Antigenic proteins, such as GP43 and a 27-kDa antigenic protein, were less abundant in Pb01

  5. Specificity of lipoxygenase pathways supports species delineation in the marine diatom genus Pseudo-nitzschia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadia Lamari

    Full Text Available Oxylipins are low-molecular weight secondary metabolites derived from the incorporation of oxygen into the carbon chains of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs. Oxylipins are produced in many prokaryotic and eukaryotic lineages where they are involved in a broad spectrum of actions spanning from stress and defense responses, regulation of growth and development, signaling, and innate immunity. We explored the diversity in oxylipin patterns in the marine planktonic diatom Pseudo-nitzschia. This genus includes several species only distinguishable with the aid of molecular markers. Oxylipin profiles of cultured strains were obtained by reverse phase column on a liquid chromatograph equipped with UV photodiode detector and q-ToF mass spectrometer. Lipoxygenase compounds were mapped on phylogenies of the genus Pseudo-nitzschia inferred from the nuclear encoded hyper-variable region of the LSU rDNA and the plastid encoded rbcL. Results showed that the genus Pseudo-nitzschia exhibits a rich and varied lipoxygenase metabolism of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, with a high level of specificity for oxylipin markers that generally corroborated the genotypic delineation, even among genetically closely related cryptic species. These results suggest that oxylipin profiles constitute additional identification tools for Pseudo-nitzschia species providing a functional support to species delineation obtained with molecular markers and morphological traits. The exploration of the diversity, patterns and plasticity of oxylipin production across diatom species and genera will also provide insights on the ecological functions of these secondary metabolites and on the selective pressures driving their diversification.

  6. Plants from The Genus Daphne: A Review of its Traditional Uses, Phytochemistry, Biological and Pharmacological Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sovrlić Miroslav M.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Plants have an important role in maintaining people’s health and improving the quality of human life. They are an important component of people’s diet, but they are also used in other spheres of human life as a therapeutic resources, ingredients of cosmetic products, paints and others. The Daphne genus belongs to family Thymeleaceae which includes 44 families with approximately 500 herbal species. The plant species of the genus Daphne are used in the traditional medicine in China and tropical part of Africa for the treatment of various conditions. Previous studies showed significant biological potential of these species as a source of pharmacologically active compounds. This indicates that this genus possess a broad spectrum of biological activity including antimicrobial, antioxidant, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, cytotoxic, anti-ulcerogenic, abortive, hypocholesterolemic and hemostatic effects. Additionally, Daphne plants are the source of valuable bioactive phytochemicals such as coumarins, flavonoids, lignans, steroids and different classes of terpenes. Different parts of the Daphne plants contain specific bioactive metabolites and can represent a source of new, natural, pharmacologically active compounds, which may potentially be used in pharmaceutical, cosmetic and food industries.

  7. Genomic characterization of the Taylorella genus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurent Hébert

    Full Text Available The Taylorella genus comprises two species: Taylorella equigenitalis, which causes contagious equine metritis, and Taylorella asinigenitalis, a closely-related species mainly found in donkeys. We herein report on the first genome sequence of T. asinigenitalis, analyzing and comparing it with the recently-sequenced T. equigenitalis genome. The T. asinigenitalis genome contains a single circular chromosome of 1,638,559 bp with a 38.3% GC content and 1,534 coding sequences (CDS. While 212 CDSs were T. asinigenitalis-specific, 1,322 had orthologs in T. equigenitalis. Two hundred and thirty-four T. equigenitalis CDSs had no orthologs in T. asinigenitalis. Analysis of the basic nutrition metabolism of both Taylorella species showed that malate, glutamate and alpha-ketoglutarate may be their main carbon and energy sources. For both species, we identified four different secretion systems and several proteins potentially involved in binding and colonization of host cells, suggesting a strong potential for interaction with their host. T. equigenitalis seems better-equipped than T. asinigenitalis in terms of virulence since we identified numerous proteins potentially involved in pathogenicity, including hemagluttinin-related proteins, a type IV secretion system, TonB-dependent lactoferrin and transferrin receptors, and YadA and Hep_Hag domains containing proteins. This is the first molecular characterization of Taylorella genus members, and the first molecular identification of factors potentially involved in T. asinigenitalis and T. equigenitalis pathogenicity and host colonization. This study facilitates a genetic understanding of growth phenotypes, animal host preference and pathogenic capacity, paving the way for future functional investigations into this largely unknown genus.

  8. Molecular phylogenetic study in genus Hydra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawaida, Hitomi; Shimizu, Hiroshi; Fujisawa, Toshitaka; Tachida, Hidenori; Kobayakawa, Yoshitaka

    2010-11-15

    Among 8000-9000 species of Cnidaria, only several dozens of species of Hydrozoa have been found in the fresh water. Hydra is such a fresh water polyp and has been used as a good material for research in developmental biology, regeneration and pattern formation. Although the genus Hydra has only a few ten species, its distribution is cosmopolitan. The phylogenetic relationship between hydra species is fascinating from the aspect of evolutionary biology and biogeography. However, only a few molecular phylogenetic studies have been reported on hydra. Therefore, we conducted a molecular phylogenetic study of the genus Hydra based on mitochondrial and nuclear nucleotide sequences using a hydra collection that has been kept in the National Institute of Genetics (NIG) of Japan. The results support the idea that four species groups comprise the genus Hydra. Within the viridissima group (green hydra) and braueri group, genetic distances between strains were relatively large. In contrast, genetic distances between strains among the vulgaris and oligactis groups were small irrespective of their geographic distribution. The vulgaris group strains were classified at least (as far as our investigated samples) into three sub-groups, vulgaris sub-group, carnea sub-group, and H. sp. (K5 and K6) sub-group. All of the vulgaris sub-group and H. sp. (K5 and K6) sub-group strains were collected in Eurasia. The carnea sub-group strains in NIG collection were all collected in North America. A few newly collected samples in Japan, however, suggested belonging to the carnea sub-group according to the molecular phylogenic analysis. This suggests a trans-Pacific distribution of the carnea sub-group hydra. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. The new phylogenesis of the genus Mycobacterium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrico Tortoli

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Phylogenetic knowledge of the genus Mycobacterium is based on comparative analysis of their genetic sequences. The 16S rRNA has remained for many years the only target of such analyses, but in the last few years, other housekeeping genes have been investigated and the phylogeny based on their concatenated sequences become a standard. It is now clear that the robustness of the phylogenetic analysis is strictly related to the size of the genomic target used. Whole genome sequencing (WGS is nowadays becoming widely accessible and comparatively cheap. It was decided, therefore, to use this approach to reconstruct the ultimate phylogeny of the genus Mycobacterium. Over 50 types of strains of the same number of species of Mycobacterium were sequenced using the Illumina HiSeq platform. The majority of the strains of which the whole sequence was already available in GenBank were excluded from this panel with the aim of maximizing the number of the species with genome available. Following assembling and annotation with proper software, the phylogenetic analysis was conducted with PhyloPhlAn and the pan-genome analysis pipeline. The phylogenetic three which emerged was characterized by a clear-cut distinction of slowly and rapidly growing species with the latter being more ancestral. The species of the Mycobacterium terrae complex occupied an intermediate position between rapid and slow growers. Most of the species revealed clearly related and occupied specific phylogenetic branches. Thanks to the WGS technology, the genus Mycobacterium is finally approaching its definitive location.

  10. A review of the genus Curtisia (Curtisiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. YU Yembaturova

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available A review of the monotypic southern African endemic genus Curtisia Aiton is presented. Detailed studies of the fruit and seed structure provided new evidence in support of a close relationship between the family Curtisiaceae and Comaceae. Comparisons with several other members of the Comales revealed carpological similarities to certain species of Comus s.I., sometimes treated as segregate genera Dendrobenthamia Hutch, and Benthamidia Spach. We also provide information on the history of the assegai tree, Curtisia dentata (Burm.f. C.A.Sm. and its uses, as well as a formal taxonomic revision, including nomenclature, typification, detailed description and geographical distribution.

  11. The genus Bryoerythrophyllum (Musci, Pottiaceae in Antarctica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sollman Philip

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Antarctic material of the genus Bryoerythrophyllum P. C. Chen was studied from all specimens present in KRAM. Bryoerythrophyllum recurvirostrum (Hedw. P. C. Chen var. antarcticum L. I. Savicz & Smirnova is treated as a distinct species: B. antarcticum (L. I. Savicz & Smirnova P. Sollman, stat. nov. Three species are now known in the Antarctic region: B. antarcticum, B. recurvirostrum and B. rubrum (Jur. ex Geh. P. C. Chen. Bryoerythrophyllum rubrum is reported for the first time from the Antarctic. It is a bipolar species. A key to the taxa is given. These species are described and briefly discussed, with notes on illustrations, reproduction, habitat, world range, distribution and elevation in Antarctica.

  12. Ecology and biotechnology of the genus Shewanella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hau, Heidi H; Gralnick, Jeffrey A

    2007-01-01

    The shewanellae are aquatic microorganisms with worldwide distribution. Their hallmark features include unparalleled respiratory diversity and the capacity to thrive at low temperatures. As a genus the shewanellae are physiologically diverse, and this review provides an overview of the varied roles they serve in the environment and describes what is known about how they might survive in such extreme and harsh environments. In light of their fascinating physiology, these organisms have several biotechnological uses, from bioremediation of chlorinated compounds, radionuclides, and other environmental pollutants to energy-generating biocatalysis. The ecology and biotechnology of these organisms are intertwined, with genomics playing a key role in our understanding of their physiology.

  13. Operators and higher genus mirror curves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Codesido, Santiago [Département de Physique Théorique et section de Mathématiques,Université de Genève,Genève, CH-1211 (Switzerland); Gu, Jie [Laboratoire de Physique Théorique de l’École Normale Supérieure,CNRS, PSL Research University,Sorbonne Universités, UPMC, 75005 Paris (France); Mariño, Marcos [Département de Physique Théorique et section de Mathématiques,Université de Genève,Genève, CH-1211 (Switzerland)

    2017-02-17

    We perform further tests of the correspondence between spectral theory and topological strings, focusing on mirror curves of genus greater than one with nontrivial mass parameters. In particular, we analyze the geometry relevant to the SU(3) relativistic Toda lattice, and the resolved ℂ{sup 3}/ℤ{sub 6} orbifold. Furthermore, we give evidence that the correspondence holds for arbitrary values of the mass parameters, where the quantization problem leads to resonant states. We also explore the relation between this correspondence and cluster integrable systems.

  14. Rust fungi on Annonaceae: the genus Sphaerophragmium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beenken, Ludwig; Berndt, Reinhard

    2010-01-01

    Seven species of the rust genus Sphaerophragmium occur on members of the tropical plant family Annonaceae. Uropyxis gerstneri is recombined to S. gerstneri. A new species, S. xylopiae, is described from Xylopia acutiflora. The host plant of S. boanense is identified as Mitrella sp. Sphaerophragmium pulchrum is transferred to Dicheirinia. The anatomy of telia with teliospores and parasitizing mycelium is described and illustrated in detail. A new type of M-haustorium, which emanates laterally from intracellular hypha, is detected in S. monodorae. An identification key is given.

  15. Broad-scale phylogenomics provides insights into retrovirus–host evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayward, Alexander; Grabherr, Manfred; Jern, Patric

    2013-01-01

    Genomic data provide an excellent resource to improve understanding of retrovirus evolution and the complex relationships among viruses and their hosts. In conjunction with broad-scale in silico screening of vertebrate genomes, this resource offers an opportunity to complement data on the evolution and frequency of past retroviral spread and so evaluate future risks and limitations for horizontal transmission between different host species. Here, we develop a methodology for extracting phylogenetic signal from large endogenous retrovirus (ERV) datasets by collapsing information to facilitate broad-scale phylogenomics across a wide sample of hosts. Starting with nearly 90,000 ERVs from 60 vertebrate host genomes, we construct phylogenetic hypotheses and draw inferences regarding the designation, host distribution, origin, and transmission of the Gammaretrovirus genus and associated class I ERVs. Our results uncover remarkable depths in retroviral sequence diversity, supported within a phylogenetic context. This finding suggests that current infectious exogenous retrovirus diversity may be underestimated, adding credence to the possibility that many additional exogenous retroviruses may remain to be discovered in vertebrate taxa. We demonstrate a history of frequent horizontal interorder transmissions from a rodent reservoir and suggest that rats may have acted as important overlooked facilitators of gammaretrovirus spread across diverse mammalian hosts. Together, these results demonstrate the promise of the methodology used here to analyze large ERV datasets and improve understanding of retroviral evolution and diversity for utilization in wider applications. PMID:24277832

  16. Broad-scale phylogenomics provides insights into retrovirus-host evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayward, Alexander; Grabherr, Manfred; Jern, Patric

    2013-12-10

    Genomic data provide an excellent resource to improve understanding of retrovirus evolution and the complex relationships among viruses and their hosts. In conjunction with broad-scale in silico screening of vertebrate genomes, this resource offers an opportunity to complement data on the evolution and frequency of past retroviral spread and so evaluate future risks and limitations for horizontal transmission between different host species. Here, we develop a methodology for extracting phylogenetic signal from large endogenous retrovirus (ERV) datasets by collapsing information to facilitate broad-scale phylogenomics across a wide sample of hosts. Starting with nearly 90,000 ERVs from 60 vertebrate host genomes, we construct phylogenetic hypotheses and draw inferences regarding the designation, host distribution, origin, and transmission of the Gammaretrovirus genus and associated class I ERVs. Our results uncover remarkable depths in retroviral sequence diversity, supported within a phylogenetic context. This finding suggests that current infectious exogenous retrovirus diversity may be underestimated, adding credence to the possibility that many additional exogenous retroviruses may remain to be discovered in vertebrate taxa. We demonstrate a history of frequent horizontal interorder transmissions from a rodent reservoir and suggest that rats may have acted as important overlooked facilitators of gammaretrovirus spread across diverse mammalian hosts. Together, these results demonstrate the promise of the methodology used here to analyze large ERV datasets and improve understanding of retroviral evolution and diversity for utilization in wider applications.

  17. Regeneration and genetic transformation in the Vitis genus = [Regeneratie en genetische transformatie in het genus Vitis =

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martinelli, L.

    1997-01-01


    This work is a contribution to the development of regeneration systems and genetic transformation in the Vitis genus and opens interesting perspectives to the application of molecular techniques for study interesting traits, as well as for genetic improvement of

  18. Aggressive behavior in the genus Gallus sp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SA Queiroz

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The intensification of the production system in the poultry industry and the vertical integration of the poultry agribusiness have brought profound changes in the physical and social environment of domestic fowls in comparison to their ancestors and have modified the expression of aggression and submission. The present review has covered the studies focusing on the different aspects linked to aggressiveness in the genus Gallus. The evaluated studies have shown that aggressiveness and subordination are complex behavioral expressions that involve genetic differences between breeds, strains and individuals, and differences in the cerebral development during growth, in the hormonal metabolism, in the rearing conditions of individuals, including feed restriction, density, housing type (litter or cage, influence of the opposite sex during the growth period, existence of hostile stimuli (pain and frustration, ability to recognize individuals and social learning. The utilization of fighting birds as experimental material in the study of mechanisms that have influence on the manifestation of aggressiveness in the genus Gallus might comparatively help to elucidate important biological aspects of such behavior.

  19. THE FERN-GENUS PLEOCNEMIA PRESL

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    R. E. HOLTTUM

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available 1. The genus Pleocnemia Presl is redefined and differentiated from Tectaria- Cav. and Arcypteris Underw., the latter genus being very closely related to Pleocne- mia. 2. The configuration of the perispore proved to be of importance for the characterisation of the .species. In this regard three types are distinguished, perispore 1 forming crisped anastomosing wings, perispore consisting of many slender spines, and, an intermediate type, perispore forming many small separate wings. 3. Tentatively 15 species are recognized. Of these, Pleocnemia winitii Holttum, P. acuminata Holttum, P. pleiotricha Holttum, P. presliana Holttum, P. dimidiolobata Holttum, P. tripinnata Holttum, and P. seranensis Holttum are described as new, aa well as one variety, P. conjugata var. elatior Holttum. 4. The following new combinations are made: P. hemiteliiformis (Racib. Holt- tum (basinym: Pleocnemia leuzeana var. hemiteliaeformis Racib., P. olivacea (Copel. Holttum (basinym: Tectaria olivacea Copel., P. kingii (Copel. Holttum (basinym: Tectaria kingii Copel., and P. chrysotricha (Bak. Holttum (basinym: Nephrodium chrysotrichum Bak.. 5. Reductions to synonymy are: Pleocnemia javanica Presl to P. conjugata (Bl. Presl, and Dictyopteris compitalis v. A. v. R. to P. hemiteliiformis (Racib. Holtt.

  20. CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS AND BIO ACTIVITIES OF GENUS SAPINDUS

    OpenAIRE

    Sharma A.; Sati S.C.; Sati O. P; Sati D. Maneesha; Kothiyal S.K

    2011-01-01

    The genus Sapindus has been reviewed for its chemical constituents and biological activities together with traditional importances. Trees of genus Sapindus are cultivated in many parts of India for ornamental purposes. The present review is based on chemical constituents and biological activities of known species of Sapindus. The different species of Sapindus are used for curing various diseases and commercially important. Over 103 compounds have been identified in the genus Sapindus and many...

  1. The orbifold cohomology of moduli of genus 3 curves

    OpenAIRE

    Pagani, Nicola; Tommasi, Orsola

    2011-01-01

    In this work we study the additive orbifold cohomology of the moduli stack of smooth genus g curves. We show that this problem reduces to investigating the rational cohomology of moduli spaces of cyclic covers of curves where the genus of the covering curve is g. Then we work out the case of genus g=3. Furthermore, we determine the part of the orbifold cohomology of the Deligne-Mumford compactification of the moduli space of genus 3 curves that comes from the Zariski closure of the inertia st...

  2. Green's canonical syzygy conjecture for generic curves of odd genus

    OpenAIRE

    Voisin, Claire

    2003-01-01

    We prove the Green conjecture for generic curves of odd genus. That is we prove the vanishing $K_{k,1}(X,K_X)=0$ for $X$ generic of genus $2k+1$. The curves we consider are smooth curves $X$ on a K3 surface whose Picard group has rank 2. This completes our previous work, where the Green conjecture for generic curves of genus $g$ with fixed gonality $d$ was proved in the range $d\\geq g/3$, with the possible exception of the generic curves of odd genus.

  3. A new genus of mellitid sand dollar (Echinoidea: Mellitidae) from the eastern Pacific coast of the Americas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coppard, Simon E

    2016-05-13

    Lanthonia gen. nov. Coppard 2016 is a genus of clypeasteroid sand dollar whose members inhabit shallow, sandy waters from Mexico (including the Gulf of California) to Colombia in the tropical and subtropical eastern Pacific. Lanthonia includes Lanthonia longifissa (Michelin, 1858) and Lanthonia grantii (Mortensen, 1948), with L. longifissa hereby designated as the type species. Both L. longifissa and L. grantii were previously placed in the genus Mellita (L. Agassiz, 1841). However, levels of genetic divergence between a lineage containing L. longifissa and L. grantii and a lineage containing all other species of Mellita, including the type species M. quinquiesperforata (Leske, 1778), indicate genus level differentiation. The systematic interpretation of this group also supports the designation of this new genus as it allows the tree topology to be recovered from the nomenclature and clarifies the historical biogeography of these clades. This has resulted in members of both lineages today being sympatric in the eastern Pacific. Members of Lanthonia are morphologically differentiated from the type species of Mellita and all Pacific Mellita in having very narrow ambulacral regions between the food grooves and the ambulacral lunules on the oral surface, these being very broad in both M. quinquiesperforata and M. notabilis. The dentation of the bidentate pedicellariae also differentiate these genera, with small peripheral teeth present along the edge of the blade in species of Lanthonia and one to three enlarged intersecting teeth present distally in all species of Mellita.

  4. Cytochrome c-based domain modularity governs genus-level diversification of electron transfer to dissimilatory nitrite reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aas, Finn Erik; Li, Xi; Edwards, James; Hongrø Solbakken, Monica; Deeudom, Manu; Vik, Åshild; Moir, James; Koomey, Michael; Aspholm, Marina

    2015-06-01

    The genus Neisseria contains two pathogenic species (N. meningitidis and N. gonorrhoeae) in addition to a number of commensal species that primarily colonize mucosal surfaces in man. Within the genus, there is considerable diversity and apparent redundancy in the components involved in respiration. Here, we identify a unique c-type cytochrome (cN ) that is broadly distributed among commensal Neisseria, but absent in the pathogenic species. Specifically, cN supports nitrite reduction in N. gonorrhoeae strains lacking the cytochromes c5 and CcoP established to be critical to NirK nitrite reductase activity. The c-type cytochrome domain of cN shares high sequence identity with those localized c-terminally in c5 and CcoP and all three domains were shown to donate electrons directly to NirK. Thus, we identify three distinct but paralogous proteins that donate electrons to NirK. We also demonstrate functionality for a N. weaverii NirK variant with a C-terminal c-type heme extension. Taken together, modular domain distribution and gene rearrangement events related to these respiratory electron carriers within Neisseria are concordant with major transitions in the macroevolutionary history of the genus. This work emphasizes the importance of denitrification as a selectable trait that may influence speciation and adaptive diversification within this largely host-restricted bacterial genus. © 2014 The Authors. Environmental Microbiology published by Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Social Cognition, Social Skill, and the Broad Autism Phenotype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasson, Noah J.; Nowlin, Rachel B.; Pinkham, Amy E.

    2013-01-01

    Social-cognitive deficits differentiate parents with the "broad autism phenotype" from non-broad autism phenotype parents more robustly than other neuropsychological features of autism, suggesting that this domain may be particularly informative for identifying genetic and brain processes associated with the phenotype. The current study…

  6. A Cointegration And Error Correction Approach To Broad Money ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study considered the stability of broad money demand function in Nigeria using data for 1970 to 2004. The study applied the Cointegration and error correction approach The Johansen Cointegration test shows that long run equilibrium relationship exists between broad money demand and its determinants. While the ...

  7. Broad-scale consequences of land management: Columbia basin example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard W. Haynes; Thomas M. Quigley

    2001-01-01

    Integrating management actions to consistently achieve broad ecological and socioeconomic goals is a challenge largely unmet. The presumed or real conflict between these goals establishes a forum for debate. Broad measures are needed to describe tradeoffs, trends in conditions under varying management scenarios, and a transparent science underpinning. The Interior...

  8. Boot Camp for Education CEOs: The Broad Foundation Superintendents Academy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jehlen, Alain

    2012-01-01

    The Broad Foundation Superintendents Academy is the most prominent and most controversial training institute for school chiefs. The Academy is the flagship program of the Eli and Edythe Broad Foundation, the smallest of a triumvirate of corporate foundations that are at the heart of the billionaire campaign to remake public education in the image…

  9. The genus Schoenoxiphium (Cyperaceae. A preliminary account

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Kukkonen

    1983-12-01

    Full Text Available The genus Schoenoxiphium of the tribe Cariceae of Cyperaceae is conservatively accepted as being restricted to the African continent and Madagascar. The special features of the inflorescence structure are described. The following species are provisionally recognized: S. basutorum Turrill, S. distinctum Kukkonen, S. ecklonii Nees, S.  filiforme Kükenthal, S. gracile Chermezon, S. lanceum (Thunberg Kukenthal, S. lehmannii (Nees Steudel, S.  madagascariense Chermezon, S. perdensum Kukkonen, S. rufum Nees, S. schweickerdtii Merxmiiller & Podlech, and  S. sparteum (Wahlenberg Kukenthal. A key to the species is provided and their distribution is roughly outlined. The morphological variation within the species suggests separation of taxa below specific level, or perhaps even at species level, but this will require more detailed information about the ecology, distribution and the cytology.

  10. The genus Schoenoxiphium (Cyperaceae. A preliminary account

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Kukkonen

    1983-11-01

    Full Text Available The genus Schoenoxiphium of the tribe Cariceae of Cyperaceae is conservatively accepted as being restricted to the African continent and Madagascar. The special features of the inflorescence structure are described. The following species are provisionally recognized: S. basutorum Turrill, S. distinctum Kukkonen, S. ecklonii Nees, S.  filiforme Kükenthal, S. gracile Chermezon, S. lanceum (Thunberg Kukenthal, S. lehmannii (Nees Steudel, S.  madagascariense Chermezon, S. perdensum Kukkonen, S. rufum Nees, S. schweickerdtii Merxmiiller & Podlech, and  S. sparteum (Wahlenberg Kukenthal. A key to the species is provided and their distribution is roughly outlined. The morphological variation within the species suggests separation of taxa below specific level, or perhaps even at species level, but this will require more detailed information about the ecology, distribution and the cytology.

  11. Environmental Origin of the Genus Bordetella

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamidou Soumana, Illiassou; Linz, Bodo; Harvill, Eric T.

    2017-01-01

    Members of the genus Bordetella include human and animal pathogens that cause a variety of respiratory infections, including whooping cough in humans. Despite the long known ability to switch between a within-animal and an extra-host lifestyle under laboratory growth conditions, no extra-host niches of pathogenic Bordetella species have been defined. To better understand the distribution of Bordetella species in the environment, we probed the NCBI nucleotide database with the 16S ribosomal RNA (16S rRNA) gene sequences from pathogenic Bordetella species. Bacteria of the genus Bordetella were frequently found in soil, water, sediment, and plants. Phylogenetic analyses of their 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that Bordetella recovered from environmental samples are evolutionarily ancestral to animal-associated species. Sequences from environmental samples had a significantly higher genetic diversity, were located closer to the root of the phylogenetic tree and were present in all 10 identified sequence clades, while only four sequence clades possessed animal-associated species. The pathogenic bordetellae appear to have evolved from ancestors in soil and/or water. We show that, despite being animal-adapted pathogens, Bordetella bronchiseptica, and Bordetella hinzii have preserved the ability to grow and proliferate in soil. Our data implicate soil as a probable environmental origin of Bordetella species, including the animal-pathogenic lineages. Soil may further constitute an environmental niche, allowing for persistence and dissemination of the bacterial pathogens. Spread of pathogenic bordetellae from an environmental reservoir such as soil may potentially explain their wide distribution as well as frequent disease outbreaks that start without an obvious infectious source. PMID:28174558

  12. Phytochemical and Ethno-Pharmacological Review of the Genus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Distribution, traditional uses, isolated chemical constituents and pharmacological activities of some common species of the genus Araucaria are reviewed in this paper. Almost 19 species belong to the genus, Araucaria. It is indigenous to North America. Biflavanoid, diterpene, phenyl propanoid and lignans are abundant in ...

  13. A taxonomic revision of the Genus Origanum (Labiatae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ietswaart, J.H.

    1980-01-01

    The present study deals with the systematics and taxonomy of the genus Origanum (Labiatae, Saturejeae). As this difficult genus was never before monographed, a revisional study was much needed. The data presented are mainly based on the study of herbarium specimens and in some cases of living ones.

  14. A partial revision of the genus Metabelba grandjean (Oribatei, Acari)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hammen, van der L.

    1953-01-01

    INTRODUCTION The genus Metabelba was created by Grandjean in 1936 for Belbidae of which the solenidions of tibiae II and III are coupled with protective hairs, but of which the solenidion of tibia IV is free, long, and tactile. The genus belongs to the group of rather small species that are never

  15. A monograph of the genus Pleiocarpidia K. Sch. (Rubiaceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bremekamp, C.E.B.

    1940-01-01

    The name Pleiocarpidia was coined by K. SCHUMANN (ENGLER und PRANTL, Natürliche Pflanzenfamilien, Nachträge I, p. 314, 1897) for a genus described in 1873 by HOOKER f. (BENTHAM et HOOKER, Genera Plantarum II (1), p. 71) as Aulacodiscus: HOOKER’S genus had to be rebaptized, because the name

  16. Australasian sequestrate fungi 17: the genus Hydnoplicata (Ascomycota, Pezizaceae) resurrected.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James M. Trappe; Andrew W. Claridge

    2006-01-01

    The genus Hydnoplicata and its type species, H. whitei, were described by Gilkey in 1954. Having discovered that it has amyloid asci and other characters that relate it to the genus Peziza, Trappe later proposed the new combination, Peziza whitei, even though the species is consistently...

  17. Karyotype evolution and species differentiation in the genus Rattus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dhananjoy

    2014-12-31

    Dec 31, 2014 ... Rattus is the most studied genus all over the world but species of the genus are not thoroughly reported from Manipur. The present paper deals with the morphometric, cytotaxonomic and phylogenetic studies of Manipur, India. The different species of Rattus namely Rattus rattus, Rattus brunneusculus, ...

  18. Karyotype evolution and species differentiation in the genus Rattus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rattus is the most studied genus all over the world but species of the genus are not thoroughly reported from Manipur. The present paper deals with the morphometric, cytotaxonomic and phylogenetic studies of Manipur, India. The different species of Rattus namely Rattus rattus, Rattus brunneusculus, Rattus tanezumi and ...

  19. Natural genetic variation in Calligonum Tunisian genus analyzed by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Calligonum genus is one of the most economically important resources of the Tunisian desert, playing an important role in the lives of desert local population. A great range of genetic diversity could be seen in diverse populations of this genus which are spread all over Tunisian areas. DNA-based molecular markers are ...

  20. The genus Cotula (Asteraceae) in New Guinea. Sertulum Papuanum 21

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Royen, van P.; Lloyd, D.

    1975-01-01

    In the course of studying the Asteraceae for a proposed Alpine Flora of New Guinea the first author selected the genus Cotula for this separate paper as it showed some variability that was not easily explained. While working on this, Dr. Lloyd’s paper on the genus in the New Zealand Journal of

  1. The genus Bryotropha in the Netherlands (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rutten, A.L.M.

    1999-01-01

    Het genus Bryotropha in Nederland (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) Het genus Bryotropha staat bekend als een notoir lastig geslacht van kleine bruine motjes. Die moeilijkheid komt door de variatie, maar vooral ook door gebrek aan bruikbare beschrijvingen. Met dit artikel zijn de negen Nederlandse soorten

  2. Revision of the genus Paratropus Gerstaecker (Coleoptera: Histeridae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kanaar, P.

    1997-01-01

    The myrmecophilous and termitophilous genus Paratropus Gerstaecker is revised and figured. A key to the species is given. The number of species in this genus has been brought up to 80, of which 31 species are described as new: P. arriagadai (Tanzania), P. bakxi (Zaire), P. baloghi (Congo, Zaire,

  3. A note on the genus Liocranium Ogilby (Pisces, Scorpaenidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mees, G.F.

    1964-01-01

    The genus Liocranium was established by Ogilby (1903) to contain a new species of scorpion-fish from the east coast of Queensland: L. praepositum. The genus remained monotypic until McCulloch (1921) placed Paracentropogan scorpio Ogilby in it, a species also described from the Queensland coast.

  4. Florae Malesianae Precursores XXVIII. The genus Vaccinium in Malaysia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sleumer, H.

    1961-01-01

    Within the genus Vaccinium L. this revision of its Malaysian species — which comprises more than half of the total number of species of the genus — is the last in a series of modern treatments made for North America by W. H. Camp, for the Pacific area by C. Skottsberg, and for tropical America and

  5. Revision of the genus Trypeticus Marseul (Coleoptera: Histeridae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kanaar, P.

    2003-01-01

    The genus Trypeticus Marseul, 1864 is revised and figured. A key to the species is given. Redescriptions of the hitherto described species are presented. The number of species in this genus has been brought up to 100, of which 72 species are described as new: T. adebratti (Sabah, Brunei), T.

  6. The genus Gloriosa (Colchicaceae) : ethnobotany, phylogeny and taxonomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maroyi, A.

    2012-01-01

    This thesis focuses on the ethnobotany, phylogeny and taxonomy of the genus Gloriosa L. over its distributional range. Some Gloriosa species are known to have economic and commercial value, but the genus is also well known for its complex alpha taxonomy. An appropriate taxonomy for this group is of

  7. Molecular phylogeny and taxonomy of the genus Veloporphyrellus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan-Chun Li; Beatriz Ortiz-Santana; Nian-Kai Zeng; Bang Feng; Zhu L. Yang

    2014-01-01

    Veloporphyrellus is a genus known from North and Central America, southeastern Asia, and Africa. Because species of this genus are phenotypically similar to some taxa in several genera, such as Boletellus, Leccinum, Strobilomyces, Suillus and Tylopilus s.l. belonging to Boletales, its phylogenetic disposition has...

  8. The neotropical genus Opeatocerata Melander (Díptera, Empididae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth G. V. Smith

    1989-01-01

    Full Text Available The Neotropical empidid genus Opeatocerata Melander, hitherto known from only a sigle female from Mexico, is redefined in the light of new material, including males. Three new species are described and illustrated, a key provided and the presence of the genus now additionally established in Costa Rica, Panama, Bolivia, Ecuador, Trinidad and Brazil.

  9. The Genus Gnaphalium L. (Compositae: Phytochemical and Pharmacological Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haibo Shi

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The genus Gnaphalium, a herb distributed worldwide, comprises approximately 200 species of the Compositae (Asteraceae family that belongs to the tribe Gnaphalieae. Some species are traditionally used as wild vegetables and in folk medicine. This review focuses on the phytochemical investigations and biological studies of plants from the genus Gnaphalium over the past few decades. More than 125 chemical constituents have been isolated from the genus Gnaphalium, including flavonoids, sesquiterpenes, diterpenes, triterpenes, phytosterols, anthraquinones, caffeoylquinic acid derivatives, and other compounds. The extracts of this genus, as well as compounds isolated from it, have been demonstrated to possess multiple pharmacological activities such as antioxidant, antibacterial and antifungal, anti-complement, antitussive and expectorant, insect antifeedant, cytotoxic, anti-inflammatory, antidiabetic and antihypouricemic properties. The present review compiles the information available on this genus because of its relevance to food and ethnopharmacology and the potential therapeutic uses of these species.

  10. Phytochemical, ethnomedicinal uses and pharmacological profile of genus Pistacia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauf, Abdur; Patel, Seema; Uddin, Ghias; Siddiqui, Bina S; Ahmad, Bashir; Muhammad, Naveed; Mabkhot, Yahia N; Hadda, Taibi Ben

    2017-02-01

    Pistacia genus belong to family Anacardiaceae and it is versatile in that its member species have food (P. vera), medicinal (P. lentiscus) and ornamental (P. chinensis) values. Various species of this genus have folkloric uses with credible mention in diverse pharmacopeia. As a trove of phenolic compounds, terpenoids, monoterpenes, flavonoids, alkaloids, saponins, fatty acids, and sterols, this genus has garnered pharmaceutical attention in recent times. With adequate clinical studies, this genus might be exploited for therapy of a multitude of inflammatory diseases, as promised by preliminary studies. In this regard, the ethnomedicinal, phytochemistry, biological potencies, risks, and scopes of Pistacia genus have been reviewed here. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. The systematics of the genus Anapagurus Henderson, 1886, and a new genus for Anapagurus drachi Forest, 1966 (Crustacea: Decapoda: Paguridae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    García-Gómez, J.

    1994-01-01

    A worldwide systematic review of the genus Anapagurus is presented. In addition to the rediagnoses of the genus and all known species, five new species, A. alboranensis, A. adriaticus, A. vossi, A. atlantidii, and A. congolensis, are described. All 18 species are illustrated and a key to the species

  12. Design of Metamaterial Surfaces with Broad-band Absorbance

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Chihhui; Shvets, Gennady

    2011-01-01

    A simple design paradigm for making broad-band ultra-thin plasmonic absorbers is introduced. The absorber's unit cell is composed of sub-units of various sizes, resulting in nearly 100% absorbance at multiple adjacent frequencies and high absorbance over a broad frequency range. A simple theoretical model for designing broad-band absorbers is presented. It uses a single-resonance model to describe the optical response of each sub-unit and employs the series circuit model to predict the overal...

  13. The Foraminiferal Genus Orbitolina in North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglass, Raymond Charles

    1960-01-01

    The foraminiferal genus Orbitolina has been useful as an index fossil in the Cretaceous rocks of the circumglobal equatorial belt for nearly a century. In Europe and the Near and Middle East enough work has been done on the species to allow their use for approximate correlations within the Cretaceous sedimentary rocks. The study of American specimens of Orbitolina, had been almost neglected although they were used in a rather cursory fashion for markers of the Lower Cretaceous Trinity strata. Three species had been described and assigned to Orbitolina in the United States, but the validity of each of the species had been questioned. A study of the genus Orbitolina, its type species, its morphology and the stratigraphic and geographic distribution in North America are presented in this report. Stratigraphic sections were measured throughout the area of Lower Cretaceous outcrop in Texas, New Mexico. and Arizona, and samples of Orbitolina were taken from these measured sections. Several thousand thin sections were prepared from which 8 species of Orbitolina, 7 of them new, were recognized. Orbitolina texana (Roemer) was found to be confined to the lower part of the Glen Rose limestone and its equivalents. Orbitolina, minuta n. sp. is essentially confined to the upper part of the Glen Rose limestone and its equivalents. Four of the species are known only from the Arizona and New Mexico region. The species of Orbitolina are useful stratigraphically, but all their characters-internal as well as external-must be considered. The use of thin sections for the study of Orbitolina is essential. One of the first things that had to be determined was the correct concept of the genus Orbitolina. The type species had not been determined by earlier authors, although four species had been suggested at various times. With careful study of the early literature, it became apparent that the type species is Orbitulites lenticulata Lamarck, 1816=Madreporites lenticularis Blumenbach, 1805

  14. Broad Spectrum Sanitizing Wipes with Food Additives Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Microcide proposes to develop novel multipurpose non-toxic sanitizing wipes that are aqueous based, have shelf life of 3-5 years, have broad spectrum microbicidal...

  15. The broad line region of AGN: Kinematics and physics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popović L.Č.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a discussion of kinematics and physics of the Broad Line Region (BLR is given. The possible physical conditions in the BLR and problems in determination of the physical parameters (electron temperature and density are considered. Moreover, one analyses the geometry of the BLR and the probability that (at least a fraction of the radiation in the Broad Emission Lines (BELs originates from a relativistic accretion disk.

  16. The Broad Line Region of AGN: Kinematics and Physics

    OpenAIRE

    Popović L.Č.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper a discussion of kinematics and physics of the Broad Line Region (BLR) is given. The possible physical conditions in the BLR and problems in determination of the physical parameters (electron temperature and density) are considered. Moreover, one analyses the geometry of the BLR and the probability that (at least) a fraction of the radiation in the Broad Emission Lines (BELs) originates from a relativistic accretion disk.

  17. Genomes-based phylogeny of the genus Xanthomonas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodriguez-R Luis M

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The genus Xanthomonas comprises several plant pathogenic bacteria affecting a wide range of hosts. Despite the economic, industrial and biological importance of Xanthomonas, the classification and phylogenetic relationships within the genus are still under active debate. Some of the relationships between pathovars and species have not been thoroughly clarified, with old pathovars becoming new species. A change in the genus name has been recently suggested for Xanthomonas albilineans, an early branching species currently located in this genus, but a thorough phylogenomic reconstruction would aid in solving these and other discrepancies in this genus. Results Here we report the results of the genome-wide analysis of DNA sequences from 989 orthologous groups from 17 Xanthomonas spp. genomes available to date, representing all major lineages within the genus. The phylogenetic and computational analyses used in this study have been automated in a Perl package designated Unus, which provides a framework for phylogenomic analyses which can be applied to other datasets at the genomic level. Unus can also be easily incorporated into other phylogenomic pipelines. Conclusions Our phylogeny agrees with previous phylogenetic topologies on the genus, but revealed that the genomes of Xanthomonas citri and Xanthomonas fuscans belong to the same species, and that of Xanthomonas albilineans is basal to the joint clade of Xanthomonas and Xylella fastidiosa. Genome reduction was identified in the species Xanthomonas vasicola in addition to the previously identified reduction in Xanthomonas albilineans. Lateral gene transfer was also observed in two gene clusters.

  18. Analysis of synonymous codon usage patterns in the genus Rhizobium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xinxin; Wu, Liang; Zhou, Ping; Zhu, Shengfeng; An, Wei; Chen, Yu; Zhao, Lin

    2013-11-01

    The codon usage patterns of rhizobia have received increasing attention. However, little information is available regarding the conserved features of the codon usage patterns in a typical rhizobial genus. The codon usage patterns of six completely sequenced strains belonging to the genus Rhizobium were analysed as model rhizobia in the present study. The relative neutrality plot showed that selection pressure played a role in codon usage in the genus Rhizobium. Spearman's rank correlation analysis combined with correspondence analysis (COA) showed that the codon adaptation index and the effective number of codons (ENC) had strong correlation with the first axis of the COA, which indicated the important role of gene expression level and the ENC in the codon usage patterns in this genus. The relative synonymous codon usage of Cys codons had the strongest correlation with the second axis of the COA. Accordingly, the usage of Cys codons was another important factor that shaped the codon usage patterns in Rhizobium genomes and was a conserved feature of the genus. Moreover, the comparison of codon usage between highly and lowly expressed genes showed that 20 unique preferred codons were shared among Rhizobium genomes, revealing another conserved feature of the genus. This is the first report of the codon usage patterns in the genus Rhizobium.

  19. Genomes-based phylogeny of the genus Xanthomonas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background The genus Xanthomonas comprises several plant pathogenic bacteria affecting a wide range of hosts. Despite the economic, industrial and biological importance of Xanthomonas, the classification and phylogenetic relationships within the genus are still under active debate. Some of the relationships between pathovars and species have not been thoroughly clarified, with old pathovars becoming new species. A change in the genus name has been recently suggested for Xanthomonas albilineans, an early branching species currently located in this genus, but a thorough phylogenomic reconstruction would aid in solving these and other discrepancies in this genus. Results Here we report the results of the genome-wide analysis of DNA sequences from 989 orthologous groups from 17 Xanthomonas spp. genomes available to date, representing all major lineages within the genus. The phylogenetic and computational analyses used in this study have been automated in a Perl package designated Unus, which provides a framework for phylogenomic analyses which can be applied to other datasets at the genomic level. Unus can also be easily incorporated into other phylogenomic pipelines. Conclusions Our phylogeny agrees with previous phylogenetic topologies on the genus, but revealed that the genomes of Xanthomonas citri and Xanthomonas fuscans belong to the same species, and that of Xanthomonas albilineans is basal to the joint clade of Xanthomonas and Xylella fastidiosa. Genome reduction was identified in the species Xanthomonas vasicola in addition to the previously identified reduction in Xanthomonas albilineans. Lateral gene transfer was also observed in two gene clusters. PMID:22443110

  20. A review of the genus Hyoscyamus (Solanaceae in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    شادی حاج رسولیها

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The genus Hyoscyamus is belonging to the family Solanaceae. This genus with 12-19 species has a wide range of distribution in Iran. In different flora, some species of this genus are synonym due the similar morphology. Three subgenera are introduced for genus namely Hyoscyamus, Parahyoscyamus and Dendrotrichon in Iran. For accurate survey done the general review on this genus. For morphological studies the images of calyx species were plotted with stereo microscope with specified enlarge. For numerical taxonomy studies 42 qualitative and quantitative morphological characters were selected and analyzed with SPSS software with three methods cluster, PCA and FA. Then the results of analysis compared and reconciled with data from various studies conducted on this genus. Survey data confirmed the approximation of two species H.tenuicaulis and H. bornmulleri and H. bornmulleri is the synonym of H. tenuicaulis. Also, H. malekianus transferred from subgen. Parahyoscyamus to subgen. Dendrotrichon. Finally, a key to all species of the genus Hyoscyamus in Iran is provided.

  1. Functional proteomics within the genus Lactobacillus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Angelis, Maria; Calasso, Maria; Cavallo, Noemi; Di Cagno, Raffaella; Gobbetti, Marco

    2016-03-01

    Lactobacillus are mainly used for the manufacture of fermented dairy, sourdough, meat, and vegetable foods or used as probiotics. Under optimal processing conditions, Lactobacillus strains contribute to food functionality through their enzyme portfolio and the release of metabolites. An extensive genomic diversity analysis was conducted to elucidate the core features of the genus Lactobacillus, and to provide a better comprehension of niche adaptation of the strains. However, proteomics is an indispensable "omics" science to elucidate the proteome diversity, and the mechanisms of regulation and adaptation of Lactobacillus strains. This review focuses on the novel and comprehensive knowledge of functional proteomics and metaproteomics of Lactobacillus species. A large list of proteomic case studies of different Lactobacillus species is provided to illustrate the adaptability of the main metabolic pathways (e.g., carbohydrate transport and metabolism, pyruvate metabolism, proteolytic system, amino acid metabolism, and protein synthesis) to various life conditions. These investigations have highlighted that lactobacilli modulate the level of a complex panel of proteins to growth/survive in different ecological niches. In addition to the general regulation and stress response, specific metabolic pathways can be switched on and off, modifying the behavior of the strains. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. The genus Echium (Boraginaceae in southern Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Retief

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available The genus Echium L. (Boraginaceae comprises about 60 species, mainly from Macaronesia. Europe, western Asia and North Africa. Two species E plantagineum L. and E. vulgare L. were introduced into southern Africa and have become naturalised. The species occur mainly as roadside weeds in the region. Echium is closely related to Lobostemon Lehm. (incl. Echiostachys Levyns, endemic in the southwestern Cape region. Pollen morphology shows a remarkable similarity between these genera, even suggesting that they could be merged. However, other characters, such as bilobed styles (Echium versus undivided ones (Lobostemon and the presence of an annulus, composed of a minute collar or 5-10 minute hairy lobules, at the bottom of the corolla tube inside (Echium, in contrast to hairs and/or scales at the base of the filaments (Lobostemon contradict the pollen structure, and Echium and Lobostemon are therefore regarded as two separate genera. Significant taxonomic characters, an identification key, full descriptions, illustrations and distribution maps of E. plantagineum and E. vulgare are given.

  3. Genetics and Genomics of the Genus Amycolatopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumari, Rashmi; Singh, Priya; Lal, Rup

    2016-09-01

    Actinobacteria are gram-positive filamentous bacteria which contains some of the most deadly human pathogens (Mycobacterium tuberculosis, M. leprae, Corynebacterium diphtheriae, Nocardia farcinica), plant pathogens (Streptomyces scabies, Leifsonia xyli) along with organisms that produces antibiotic (Streptomycetes, Amycolatopsis, Salinospora). Interestingly, these bacteria are equipped with an extraordinary capability of producing antibiotics and other metabolites which have medicinal properties. With the advent of inexpensive genome sequencing techniques and their clinical importance, many genomes of Actinobacteria have been successfully sequenced. These days, with the constant increasing number of drug-resistant bacteria, the urgent need for discovering new antibiotics has emerged as a major scientific challenge. And, unfortunately the traditional method of screening bacterial strains for the production of antibiotics has decreased leading to a paradigm shift in the planning and execution of discovery of novel biosynthetic gene clusters via genome mining process. The entire focus has shifted to the evaluation of genetic capacity of organisms for metabolite production and activation of cryptic gene clusters. This has been made possible only due to the availability of genome sequencing and has been augmented by genomic studies and new biotechnological approaches. Through this article, we present the analysis of the genomes of species belonging to the genus Amycolatopsis, sequenced till date with a focus on completely sequenced genomes and their application for further studies.

  4. Systematic Review of Chemical Constituents in the Genus Lycium (Solanaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Dan; Zhao, Yaxing; Yang, Guang; Huang, Luqi

    2017-06-08

    The Lycium genus is widely used as a traditional Chinese medicine and functional food. Many of the chemical constituents of the genus Lycium were reported previously. In this review, in addition to the polysaccharides, we have enumerated 355 chemical constituents and nutrients, including 22 glycerogalactolipids, 29 phenylpropanoids, 10 coumarins, 13 lignans, 32 flavonoids, 37 amides, 72 alkaloids, four anthraquinones, 32 organic acids, 39 terpenoids, 57 sterols, steroids, and their derivatives, five peptides and three other constituents. This comprehensive study could lay the foundation for further research on the Lycium genus.

  5. Systematic Review of Chemical Constituents in the Genus Lycium (Solanaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Qian

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The Lycium genus is widely used as a traditional Chinese medicine and functional food. Many of the chemical constituents of the genus Lycium were reported previously. In this review, in addition to the polysaccharides, we have enumerated 355 chemical constituents and nutrients, including 22 glycerogalactolipids, 29 phenylpropanoids, 10 coumarins, 13 lignans, 32 flavonoids, 37 amides, 72 alkaloids, four anthraquinones, 32 organic acids, 39 terpenoids, 57 sterols, steroids, and their derivatives, five peptides and three other constituents. This comprehensive study could lay the foundation for further research on the Lycium genus.

  6. Diversity of secondary metabolites from Genus Artocarpus (Moraceae

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    ALIEFMAN HAKIM

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Hakim A. 2010. The diversity of secondary metabolites from Genus Artocarpus (Moraceae. Nusantara Bioscience 2:146-156. Several species of the Artocarpus genus (Moraceae have been investigated their natural product. The secondary metabolites successfully being isolatad from Artocarpus genus consist of terpenoid, flavonoids, stilbenoid, arylbenzofuran, neolignan, and adduct Diels-Alder. Flavonoid group represent the compound which is the most found from Artocarpus plant. The flavonoids compound which are successfully isolated from Artocarpus plant consist of the varied frameworks like chalcone, flavanone, flavan-3-ol, simple flavone, prenylflavone, oxepinoflavone, pyranoflavone, dihydrobenzoxanthone, furanodihydrobenzoxanthone, pyranodihydrobenzoxanthone, quinonoxanthone, cyclopentenoxanthone, xanthonolide, dihydroxanthone.

  7. A systematic study of the genus Pseudopentameris (Arundinoideae: Poaceae

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    N. P. Barker

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available The genus Pseudopentameris Conert is examined morphologically and anatomically. A phenetic study of the morphologica ly  variable species  P. macrantha indicates that two taxa should be recognised. One of these.  P. caespitosa N.P. Barker, is described as new. In addition, the study supports the inclusion of  Pentameris obtusifolia in  Pseudopentameris. The genus Pseudopentameris is re-delimited to accommodate the new taxa, and a key to species is provided. Details of the cytology, phylogeny and conservation status of taxa in the genus are also discussed.

  8. Bheemamyces, a new genus of the family Asterinaceae (Ascomycetes

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    V.B. Hosagoudar

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Bheemamyces with its type B. argyreicola, a new genus and a new species of the family Asterinaceae, collected on the leaves of Argyreia nervosa from the Malabar Botanic Garden, Kozhikode, Kerala, has been described and illustrated in detail. This genus differs from other genera of the family Asterinaceae in having the mycelia originated from the main hyphae, lifted slightly above the host surface, appearing like a ‘whip’, possessing intercalary and sub intercalary or sub lateral appressoria. Another such taxon, Asterina argyreiae Hansf. has been brought under this genus as Bheemamyces argyreiae (Hansf. comb. nov.

  9. Isleria, a new genus of antwren (Aves: Passeriformes: Thamnophilidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravo, Gustavo A.; Chesser, R. Terry; Brumfield, Robb T.

    2012-01-01

    A comprehensive molecular phylogenetic analysis of the family Thamnophilidae indicated that the genus Myrmotherula is not monophyletic. The clade composed of M. guttata and M. hauxwelli is only distantly related to other members of the genus and should be removed from Myrmotherula. The phenotypic distinctiveness of the clade argues against merging it with its sister group Thamnomanes and no generic name is available for the guttata-hauxwelli clade. Consequently, we describe the genus Isleria for these two species, and designate Myrmothera guttata as its type species.

  10. A revision of the genus Mecistostethus Marseul (Histeridae, Histerinae, Exosternini

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    Michael Caterino

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available We revise the genus Mecistostethus Marseul, sinking the monotypic genus Tarsilister Bruch as a junior synonym. Mecistostethus contains six valid species: M. pilifer Marseul, M. loretoensis (Bruch, comb. n., M. seagorum sp. n., M. carltoni sp. n., M. marseuli sp. n., and M. flechtmanni sp. n. The few existing records show the genus to be widespread in tropical and subtropical South America, from northern Argentina to western Amazonian Ecuador and French Guiana. Only a single host record associates one species with the ant Pachycondyla striata Smith (Formicidae: Ponerinae, but it is possible that related ants host all the species.

  11. A revision of the genus Mecistostethus Marseul (Histeridae, Histerinae, Exosternini).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caterino, Michael S; Tishechkin, Alexey K; Dégallier, Nicolas

    2012-01-01

    We revise the genus Mecistostethus Marseul, sinking the monotypic genus Tarsilister Bruch as a junior synonym. Mecistostethus contains six valid species: Mecistostethus pilifer Marseul, Mecistostethus loretoensis (Bruch), comb. n., Mecistostethus seagorumsp. n., Mecistostethus carltonisp. n., Mecistostethus marseulisp. n., and Mecistostethus flechtmannisp. n. The few existing records show the genus to be widespread in tropical and subtropical South America, from northern Argentina to western Amazonian Ecuador and French Guiana. Only a single host record associates one species with the ant Pachycondyla striata Smith (Formicidae: Ponerinae), but it is possible that related ants host all the species.

  12. Revision of the South American wasp genus Alophophion Cushman, 1947 (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae: Ophioninae - Erratum

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    Mabel Alvarado

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In: Alvarado M. 2014. Revision of the South American wasp genus Alophophion Cushman, 1947 (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae: Ophioninae. Revista peruana de biología 21(1: 003 - 060 (Mayo 2014, doi: http://doi.org/10.15381/rpb.v21i1.8245The following information on depository of the type material was not provided: Holotype of Alophophion atahualpai is housed in the Museo de Historia Natural, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Peru (MUSM; and, the holotype of A. carcanchoi, A. coquimboensis and A. yestay are housed in the American Entomological Institute, USA (AEIC.I thank Gavin Broad for bringing this problem to my attention.

  13. Retention of functional variation despite extreme genomic erosion: MHC allelic repertoires in the Lynx genus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marmesat, Elena; Schmidt, Krzysztof; Saveljev, Alexander P; Seryodkin, Ivan V; Godoy, José A

    2017-07-04

    Demographic bottlenecks erode genetic diversity and may increase endangered species' extinction risk via decreased fitness and adaptive potential. The genetic status of species is generally assessed using neutral markers, whose dynamic can differ from that of functional variation due to selection. The MHC is a multigene family described as the most important genetic component of the mammalian immune system, with broad implications in ecology and evolution. The genus Lynx includes four species differing immensely in demographic history and population size, which provides a suitable model to study the genetic consequences of demographic declines: the Iberian lynx being an extremely bottlenecked species and the three remaining ones representing common and widely distributed species. We compared variation in the most variable exon of the MHCI and MHCII-DRB loci among the four species of the Lynx genus. The Iberian lynx was characterised by lower number of MHC alleles than its sister species (the Eurasian lynx). However, it maintained most of the functional genetic variation at MHC loci present in the remaining and genetically healthier lynx species at all nucleotide, amino acid, and supertype levels. Species-wide functional genetic diversity can be maintained even in the face of severe population bottlenecks, which caused devastating whole genome genetic erosion. This could be the consequence of divergent alleles being retained across paralogous loci, an outcome that, in the face of frequent gene conversion, may have been favoured by balancing selection.

  14. A new genus of highly specialized ants in Cretaceous Burmese amber (Hymenoptera: Formicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barden, Phillip; Grimaldi, David

    2013-01-01

    A new genus of ants, Zigrasimecia Barden and Grimaldi, is described for a new and uniquely specialized species, Z. tonsora Barden and Grimaldi n.sp., preserved in Cretaceous amber from Myanmar. The amber is radiometrically dated at 99 myo. Zigrasimecia is closely related to another basal genus of ants known only in Burmese and French Cretaceous amber, Sphecomyrmodes Engel and Grimaldi, based in part on the shared possession of a comb of pegs on the clypeal margin, as well as mandible structure. Highly specialized features of Zigrasimecia include extensive development of the clypeal comb, a thick brush of setae on the oral surface of the mandibles and on the labrum, and a head that is broad, flattened, and which bears a crown of blackened, rugose cuticle. Mouthparts are hypothesized to have functioned in a unique manner, showing no clear signs of dentition representative of "chewing" or otherwise processing solid food. Although all ants in Burmese amber are basal, stem-group taxa, there is an unexpected diversity of mouthpart morphologies and probable feeding modes.

  15. Taxonomic review of the ant genus Paratrechina, with a description of a new species from Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John LaPolla

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available With the recent finding of Paratrechina (broad sense paraphyly, only Paratrechina longicornis remained in a redefined genus. As one of the most widely distributed ant species due to human transfer around the world, there is much interest in the biology of P. longicornis. One issue concerning P. longicornis has been as to where exactly the species is native, with both African and Asian native ranges being invoked in the literature. Here we report the discovery of a second species within Paratrechina. This species, P. zanjensis, is native to Africa (known from Angola, Mozambique and Tanzania, where it appears to be a dry miombo woodland species. Given the discovery of this new species, a reevaluation of the morphological definition of Paratrechina is provided; also provided is an updated generic level identification key. Given the available distribution information on P. longicornis, we conclude that P. longicornis remains most likely native to southeastern Asia, and that the discovery of a new species native to Africa makes Paratrechina yet another example of an ant genus that possesses an Afro-Asian distribution.

  16. [Distribution of bacteria of Methylobacterium genus in the terrestrial biotopes of the Antarctic region].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanovskaia, V A; Rokitko, P V; Shilin, S O; Chernaia, N A; Tashirev, A B

    2009-01-01

    Methylotrophs distribution has been studied in the terrestrial biotopes (moss, lichen, grass, soil, sludge of lakes) on the islands of Galindez, Barkhans, Irizar, Uruguay, Jalour, Petermann, Berthelot, Cruls, King George, Corner, Skua located in the Pacific sector of the Antarctic Region, as well as in analogous biotopes on the western shore of the Antarctic peninsula Basing on a complex of diagnosis features the isolated pink-pigmented strains, which facultatively use methanol and realize the serine cycle of assimilation of one-carbon compounds, are attributed to Methylobacterium genus. Methylobacterium strains occur more often in mosses, grass Deschampsia antarctica and lichens, than in the soil and lake sludge. Some regions ofAntarctica are comparable by the number of Methylobacterium cells with the same in the regions with moderate climate. An analysis of gene sequences 16S rRNA of the Antarctic methylobacteria with those of GenBank has shown a high extent of similarity with Methylobacterium extorquens (99.4-99.7%). Notwithstanding that the strains of Methylobacterium are resistant to the broad range of extreme factors (gamma-irradiation, UV-irradiation, dehydration), the Antarctic and collection strains of the genus were sensitive to the ions of such heavy metals as Cu, Hg, Cd, Cr (10 mg/l).

  17. Two atypical new species of the genus Sectonema Thorne, 1930 (Nematoda, Dorylaimida, Aporcelaimidae from Vietnam

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    Thi Anh Duong Nguyen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Two new species of the genus Sectonema from natural habitats of northern Vietnam are studied. This paper includes their descriptions, measurements, line illustrations, and light microscope (LM and scanning electron microscope (SEM pictures. Sectonema tropicum sp. nov. is characterized by a 2.56–3.24 mm long body, 19–21 μm broad lip region, odontostyle 20–21 μm long at its ventral side, 730–834 μm long neck, pharyngeal expansion occupying 52–59% of total neck length, uterus a simple tube-like structure 150–242 μm long or 1.2–2.5 times the body diameter, pars refringens vaginae present, V = 48–52, short (31–40 μm, c = 70–91, c’ = 0.5–0.6 and rounded tail, 91–97 μm long spicules, and only one weakly developed ventromedian supplement. Sectonema vietnamense sp. nov. is characterized by its slender (a = 33–49 and 2.71–4.25 mm long body, 14–16 μm broad lip region, odontostyle 8–9 μm long at its ventral side, 716–918 μm long neck, pharyngeal expansion occupying 63–67% of total neck length, uterus simple and 209–242 μm long or 2.5–2.9 times the corresponding body diameter, pars refringens vaginae absent, V = 54, short (34–39 μm, c = 70–115, c’ = 0.6–0.8 and rounded tail, 59–75 μm long spicules, and three or four irregularly spaced ventromedian supplements bearing hiatus. Both species are also characterized by their nearly continuous lip region, an atypical feature in this genus. Molecular analysis of S. tropicum sp. nov. confirms that Sectonema is a natural (monophyletic taxon, very close to Metaporcelaimus.

  18. Enhanced primers for amplification of DNA barcodes from a broad range of marine metazoans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobo, Jorge; Costa, Pedro M; Teixeira, Marcos A L; Ferreira, Maria S G; Costa, Maria H; Costa, Filipe O

    2013-09-10

    Building reference libraries of DNA barcodes is relatively straightforward when specifically designed primers are available to amplify the COI-5P region from a relatively narrow taxonomic group (e.g. single class or single order). DNA barcoding marine communities have been comparatively harder to accomplish due to the broad taxonomic diversity and lack of consistently efficient primers. Although some of the so-called "universal" primers have been relatively successful, they still fail to amplify COI-5P of many marine animal groups, while displaying random success even among species within each group. Here we propose a new pair of primers designed to enhance amplification of the COI-5P region in a wide range of marine organisms. Amplification tests conducted on a wide range of marine animal taxa, rendered possible the first-time sequencing of DNA barcodes from eight separated phyla (Annelida, Arthropoda, Chordata, Cnidaria, Echinodermata, Mollusca, Nemertea and Platyhelminthes), comprising a total of 14 classes, 28 orders, 57 families, 68 genus and 76 species. These primers demonstrated to be highly cost-effective, which is of key importance for DNA barcoding procedures, such as for building comprehensive DNA barcode libraries of marine communities, where the processing of a large numbers of specimens from a wide variety of marine taxa is compulsory.

  19. Warionia (Asteraceae: a relict genus of Cichorieae?

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    Katinas, Liliana

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The genus Warionia, with its only species W. saharae, is endemic to the northwestern edge of the African Sahara desert. This is a somewhat thistle-like aromatic plant, with white latex, and fleshy, pinnately- partite leaves. Warionia is in many respects so different from any other genus of Asteraceae, that it has been tentatively placed in the tribes Cardueae, Cichorieae, Gundelieae, and Mutisieae. Until now, a comprehensive study of Warionia to have a complete context for discussing its taxonomic position is lacking. The general morphology, anatomy, palynology and chromosome number of W. saharae are investigated here, and the species is described and illustrated. Laticifers in leaves and stems indicate a relationship with Cichorieae, and are associated with the phloem, in contact with it or with the surrounding sclerenchyma sheath. The pollen features indicate a strong relation with Cardueae, namely the structure with Anthemoid pattern where the columellae are joined to the foot layer, the ectosexine with thin columellae, the endosexine with stout and ramified columellae, the conspicuous spines with globose bases and conspicuous apical channels, and the tectum surface very perforate. Chromosomal counts resulted in 2n = 34. The morphological and palynological evidence positions Warionia between the tribes Cardueae and Cichorieae suggesting that it could be a remnant of the ancestral stock that gave rise to both tribes.El género Warionia, y su única especie, W. saharae, es endémico del noroeste del desierto africano del Sahara. Es una planta semejante a un cardo, aromática, con látex blanco y hojas carnosas, pinnatipartidas. Warionia es tan diferente de otros géneros de Asteraceae que fue ubicada en las tribus Cardueae, Cichorieae, Gundelieae y Mutisieae. Hasta ahora, no existía un estudio global de Warionia como contexto para discutir su posición taxonómica. Se ha investigado aquí su morfología, anatomía, palinología y n

  20. Evolutionary prediction of medicinal properties in the genus Euphorbia L

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ernst, Madeleine; Saslis Lagoudakis, Haris; Grace, Olwen M.

    2016-01-01

    of medicinal plant use classification. In the cosmopolitan and pharmaceutically highly relevant genus Euphorbia L., identifying plant uses modulating the inflammatory response highlighted a greater phylogenetic diversity and number of potentially promising species than standardised categories. Our...

  1. Some adaptational peculiarities of introduced species of the genus Hydrangea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. N. Kuchma

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Among studied the Hydrangea L. genus the species, which most adapted to the environment of steppe conditions, were developed. H. cinerea Stall. and H. bretschneider Dipp. are recommended for use in laying out of parks, etc.

  2. [Molecular identification in genus of Lilium based on DNA barcoding].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Si-Hao; Li, Ya-Kang; Ren, Wei-Guang; Huang, Lin-Fang

    2014-12-01

    To establish a new method for identifying genus of Lilium by DNA barcoding technology, ITS, ITS2, psbA-trnH, matK and rbcL sequences were analyzed in term of variation of inter- and intra-species, barcoding gap, neighbor-joining tree to distinguish genus of Lilium based on 978 sequences from experimental and GenBank database, and identification efficiency was evaluated by Nearest distance and BLAST1 methods. The results showed that DNA barcoding could identify different species in genus of Lilium. ITS sequence performed higher identification efficiency, and had significant difference between intra- and inter-species. And NJ tree could also divide species into different clades. Results indicate that DNA barcoding can identify genus of Lilium accurately. ITS sequence can be the optimal barcode to identify species of Lilium.

  3. Ortholog prediction of the Aspergillus genus applicable for synthetic biology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Jane Lind Nybo; Vesth, Tammi Camilla; Theobald, Sebastian

    The Aspergillus genus contains leading industrial microorganisms, excelling in producing bioactive compounds and enzymes. Using synthetic biology and bioinformatics, we aim to re-engineer these organisms for applications within human health, pharmaceuticals, environmental engineering, and food...

  4. The Genus Tospovirus: Emerging Bunyaviruses that Threaten Food Security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, J E; Whitfield, A E

    2016-09-29

    The genus Tospovirus is unique within the family Bunyaviridae in that it is made up of viruses that infect plants. Initially documented over 100 years ago, tospoviruses have become increasingly important worldwide since the 1980s due to the spread of the important insect vector Frankliniella occidentalis and the discovery of new viruses. As a result, tospoviruses are now recognized globally as emerging agricultural diseases. Tospoviruses and their vectors, thrips species in the order Thysanoptera, represent a major problem for agricultural and ornamental crops that must be managed to avoid devastating losses. In recent years, the number of recognized species in the genus has increased rapidly, and our knowledge of the molecular interactions of tospoviruses with their host plants and vectors has expanded. In this review, we present an overview of the genus Tospovirus with particular emphasis on new understandings of the molecular plant-virus and vector-virus interactions as well as relationships among genus members.

  5. Complete Genome Sequences of Six Strains of the Genus Methylobacterium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marx, Christopher J [Harvard University; Bringel, Francoise O. [University of Strasbourg; Christoserdova, Ludmila [University of Washington, Seattle; Moulin, Lionel [UMR, France; UI Hague, Muhammad Farhan [University of Strasbourg; Fleischman, Darrell E. [Wright State University, Dayton, OH; Gruffaz, Christelle [CNRS, Strasbourg, France; Jourand, Philippe [UMR, France; Knief, Claudia [ETH Zurich, Switzerland; Lee, Ming-Chun [Harvard University; Muller, Emilie E. L. [CNRS, Strasbourg, France; Nadalig, Thierry [CNRS, Strasbourg, France; Peyraud, Remi [ETH Zurich, Switzerland; Roselli, Sandro [CNRS, Strasbourg, France; Russ, Lina [ETH Zurich, Switzerland; Goodwin, Lynne A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Ivanov, Pavel S. [University of Wyoming, Laramie; Ivanova, N [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Kyrpides, Nikos C [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Lajus, Aurelie [Genoscope/Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique-Unite Mixte de Recherche; Land, Miriam L [ORNL; Medigue, Claudine [Genoscope/Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique-Unite Mixte de Recherche; Mikhailova, Natalia [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Nolan, Matt [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Woyke, Tanja [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Stolyar, Sergey [University of Washington; Vorholt, Julia A. [ETH Zurich, Switzerland; Vuilleumier, Stephane [University of Strasbourg

    2012-01-01

    The complete and assembled genome sequences were determined for six strains of the alphaproteobacterial genus Methylobacterium, chosen for their key adaptations to different plant-associated niches and environmental constraints.

  6. Complete genome sequences of six strains of the genus methylobacterium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marx, Christopher J [Harvard University; Bringel, Francoise O. [University of Strasbourg; Christoserdova, Ludmila [University of Washington, Seattle; Moulin, Lionel [UMR, France; Farhan Ul Haque, Muhammad [CNRS, Strasbourg, France; Fleischman, Darrell E. [Wright State University, Dayton, OH; Gruffaz, Christelle [CNRS, Strasbourg, France; Jourand, Philippe [UMR, France; Knief, Claudia [ETH Zurich, Switzerland; Lee, Ming-Chun [Harvard University; Muller, Emilie E. L. [CNRS, Strasbourg, France; Nadalig, Thierry [CNRS, Strasbourg, France; Peyraud, Remi [ETH Zurich, Switzerland; Roselli, Sandro [CNRS, Strasbourg, France; Russ, Lina [ETH Zurich, Switzerland; Aguero, Fernan [Universidad Nacional de General San Martin; Goodwin, Lynne A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Ivanova, N [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Kyrpides, Nikos C [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Lajus, Aurelie [Genoscope/Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique-Unite Mixte de Recherche; Land, Miriam L [ORNL; Medigue, Claudine [Genoscope/Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique-Unite Mixte de Recherche; Mikhailova, Natalia [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Nolan, Matt [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Woyke, Tanja [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Stolyar, Sergey [University of Washington; Vorholt, Julia A. [ETH Zurich, Switzerland; Vuilleumier, Stephane [University of Strasbourg

    2012-01-01

    The complete and assembled genome sequences were determined for six strains of the alphaproteobacterial genus Methylobacterium, chosen for their key adaptations to different plant-associated niches and environmental constraints.

  7. Complete genome sequences of six strains of the genus Methylobacterium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marx, Christopher J; Bringel, Françoise; Chistoserdova, Ludmila; Moulin, Lionel; Farhan Ul Haque, Muhammad; Fleischman, Darrell E; Gruffaz, Christelle; Jourand, Philippe; Knief, Claudia; Lee, Ming-Chun; Muller, Emilie E L; Nadalig, Thierry; Peyraud, Rémi; Roselli, Sandro; Russ, Lina; Goodwin, Lynne A; Ivanova, Natalia; Kyrpides, Nikos; Lajus, Aurélie; Land, Miriam L; Médigue, Claudine; Mikhailova, Natalia; Nolan, Matt; Woyke, Tanja; Stolyar, Sergey; Vorholt, Julia A; Vuilleumier, Stéphane

    2012-09-01

    The complete and assembled genome sequences were determined for six strains of the alphaproteobacterial genus Methylobacterium, chosen for their key adaptations to different plant-associated niches and environmental constraints.

  8. Breviclypeus, a new South African Trichiina genus (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae, Cetoniinae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrico Ricchiardi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available A new genus, Breviclypeus gen. nov., endemic to South Africa, is erected. The type species is here designated to be Agenius rufipennis Gory & Percheron 1833 (comb. nov.. A second species, Campulipus plagosus (Pèringuey, 1885 is recognized to belong into this new genus (comb. nov.. Consequently, the genus Campulipus Kirby, 1827 is now represented by three species only, Campulipus limbatus (Olivier, 1789, Campulipus clavus (Schaum, 1844 and Campulipus suturalis (Waterhouse, 1885. A fourth taxon, Agenius nobilis J. Thomson, 1878 is here transferred to Campulipus (comb. nov. and synonymized with C. limbatus (syn. nov. The two genera not only exhibit key morphological differences, but also occupy different habitats and diverge substantially in their ecology. An updated key of the genera of South African Trichiina is also provided. A separate key is provided for the genus Breviclypeus.

  9. Contribution to the genus Xanthocorus Miyatake (Coleoptera, Coccinellidae, Chilocorini).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wenjing; Chen, Xiaosheng; Wang, Xingmin; Ren, Shunxiang

    2015-01-01

    The genus Xanthocorus Miyatake, 1970 consists of three species from China, including two new species described here: Xanthocorusnigrosuturalis sp. n. and Xanthocorusmucronatus sp. n. A key to identification of species is given. Diagnoses, detailed descriptions, illustrations, and distributions are provided.

  10. A review on phytochemistry and ethnopharmacological aspects of genus Calendula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, Disha; Rani, Anita; Sharma, Anupam

    2013-01-01

    This review includes 84 references on the genus Calendula (Asteraceae) and comprises ethnopharmacology, morphology and microscopy, phytoconstituents, pharmacological reports, clinical studies and toxicology of the prominent species of Calendula. Triterpene alcohols, triterpene saponins, flavonoids, carotenoids and polysaccharides constitute major classes of phytoconstituents of the genus. A few species of this genus have medicinal value, among these Calendula officinalis Linn., has been traditionally used in the treatment of various skin tumors, dermatological lesions, ulcers, swellings and nervous disorders as well as almost 200 cosmetic formulations, i.e., creams, lotions, shampoos. Despite a long tradition of use of some species, the genus has not been explored properly. In the concluding part, the future scope of Calendula species has been emphasized with a view to establish their multifarious biological activities and mode of action. PMID:24347926

  11. A revision of the spider genus Zaitunia (Araneae, Filistatidae)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sergei Zonstein; Yuri M. Marusik

    2016-01-01

    The spider genus Zaitunia Lehtinen, 1967 (Araneae, Filistatidae) is revised. It was found to include 24 species distributed in the Eastern Mediterranean, Middle East and Central Asia: ♀ Z. afghana (Roewer, 1962) (Afghanistan), ♀ Z...

  12. Occurrence of genus Monostroma (Ulvales, Chlorophyta) from Ratnagiri (Maharashtra)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Untawale, A.G.; Agadi, V.V.; Dhargalkar, V.K.

    The occurrence of a genus Monostroma has been recorded from the Shirgaon creek at Ratnagiri along the central west coast of India. The Monostroma sp. was found in the brackish water environment with low salinity, high nutrients and thick mangrove...

  13. Comparative Genomics Reveals High Genomic Diversity in the Genus Photobacterium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Machado, Henrique; Gram, Lone

    2017-01-01

    Vibrionaceae is a large marine bacterial family, which can constitute up to 50% of the prokaryotic population in marine waters. Photobacterium is the second largest genus in the family and we used comparative genomics on 35 strains representing 16 of the 28 species described so far, to understand...... the genomic diversity present in the Photobacterium genus. Such understanding is important for ecophysiology studies of the genus. We used whole genome sequences to evaluate phylogenetic relationships using several analyses (16S rRNA, MLSA, fur, amino-acid usage, ANI), which allowed us to identify two...... misidentified strains. Genome analyses also revealed occurrence of higher and lower GC content clades, correlating with phylogenetic clusters. Pan-and core-genome analysis revealed the conservation of 25% of the genome throughout the genus, with a large and open pan-genome. The major source of genomic diversity...

  14. Antiviral Therapy by HIV-1 Broadly Neutralizing and Inhibitory Antibodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiqing Zhang

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1 infection causes acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS, a global epidemic for more than three decades. HIV-1 replication is primarily controlled through antiretroviral therapy (ART but this treatment does not cure HIV-1 infection. Furthermore, there is increasing viral resistance to ART, and side effects associated with long-term therapy. Consequently, there is a need of alternative candidates for HIV-1 prevention and therapy. Recent advances have discovered multiple broadly neutralizing antibodies against HIV-1. In this review, we describe the key epitopes on the HIV-1 Env protein and the reciprocal broadly neutralizing antibodies, and discuss the ongoing clinical trials of broadly neutralizing and inhibitory antibody therapy as well as antibody combinations, bispecific antibodies, and methods that improve therapeutic efficacy by combining broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs with latency reversing agents. Compared with ART, HIV-1 therapeutics that incorporate these broadly neutralizing and inhibitory antibodies offer the advantage of decreasing virus load and clearing infected cells, which is a promising prospect in HIV-1 prevention and treatment.

  15. Epigenomic diversification within the genus Lupinus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susek, Karolina; Braszewska-Zalewska, Agnieszka; Bewick, Adam J; Hasterok, Robert; Schmitz, Robert J; Naganowska, Barbara

    2017-01-01

    Deciphering the various chemical modifications of both DNA and the histone compound of chromatin not only leads to a better understanding of the genome-wide organisation of epigenetic landmarks and their impact on gene expression but may also provide some insights into the evolutionary processes. Although both histone modifications and DNA methylation have been widely investigated in various plant genomes, here we present the first study for the genus Lupinus. Lupins, which are members of grain legumes (pulses), are beneficial for food security, nutrition, health and the environment. In order to gain a better understanding of the epigenetic organisation of genomes in lupins we applied the immunostaining of methylated histone H3 and DNA methylation as well as whole-genome bisulfite sequencing. We revealed variations in the patterns of chromatin modifications at the chromosomal level among three crop lupins, i.e. L. angustifolius (2n = 40), L. albus (2n = 50) and L. luteus (2n = 52), and the legume model plant Medicago truncatula (2n = 16). Different chromosomal patterns were found depending on the specific modification, e.g. H3K4me2 was localised in the terminal parts of L. angustifolius and M. truncatula chromosomes, which is in agreement with the results that have been obtained for other species. Interestingly, in L. albus and L. luteus this modification was limited to one arm in the case of all of the chromosomes in the complement. Additionally, H3K9me2 was detected in all of the analysed species except L. luteus. DNA methylation sequencing (CG, CHG and CHH contexts) of aforementioned crop but also wild lupins such as L. cosentinii (2n = 32), L. digitatus (2n = 36), L. micranthus (2n = 52) and L. pilosus (2n = 42) supported the range of interspecific diversity. The examples of epigenetic modifications illustrate the diversity of lupin genomes and could be helpful for elucidating further epigenetic changes in the evolution of the lupin genome.

  16. Revised group classification of the genus Spiroplasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, D L; Whitcomb, R F; Tully, J G; Gasparich, G E; Rose, D L; Carle, P; Bové, J M; Hackett, K J; Adams, J R; Henegar, R B; Konai, M; Chastel, C; French, F E

    1998-01-01

    Significant changes have been made in the systematics of the genus Spiroplasma (class Mollicutes) since it was expanded by revision in 1987 to include 23 groups and eight sub-groups. Since that time, two additional spiroplasmas have been assigned group numbers and species names. More recently, specific epithets have been assigned to nine previously designated groups and three sub-groups. Also, taxonomic descriptions and species names have been published for six previously ungrouped spiroplasmas. These six new organisms are: Spiroplasma alleghenense (strain PLHS-1T) (group XXVI), Spiroplasma lineolae (strain TALS-2T) (group XXVII), Spiroplasma platyhelix (strain PALS-1T) (group XXVIII), Spiroplasma montanense (strain HYOS-1T) (group XXXI), Spiroplasma helicoides (strain TABS-2T) (group XXXII) and Spiroplasma tabanidicola (strain TAUS-1T) (group XXXIII). Also, group XVII, which became vacant when strain DF-1T (Spiroplasma chrysopicola) was transferred to group VIII, has been filled with strain Tab 4c. The discovery of these strains reflects continuing primary search in insect reservoirs, particularly horse flies and deer files (Diptera: Tabanidae). In the current revision, new group designations for 10 spiroplasma strains, including six recently named organisms, are proposed. Three unnamed but newly grouped spiroplasmas are strain TIUS-1 (group XXIX; ATCC 51751) from a typhiid wasp (Hymenoptera: Tiphiidae), strain BIUS-1 (group XXX; ATCC 51750) from floral surfaces of the tickseed sunflower (Bidens sp.) and strain BARC 1901 (group XXXIV; ATCC 700283). Strain BARC 2649 (ATCC 700284) from Tabanus lineola has been proposed as a new sub-group of group VIII. Strains TIUS-1 and BIUS-1 have unusual morphologies, appearing as helices at only certain stages in culture. In this revision, potentially important intergroup serological relationships observed between strain DW-1 (group II) from a neotropical Drosophila species and certain sub-group representatives of group I

  17. The Exiguobacterium genus: biodiversity and biogeography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vishnivetskaya, Tatiana A [ORNL; Kathariou, Sophia [North Carolina State University; Tiedje, James M. [Michigan State University, East Lansing

    2009-01-01

    Abstract. Bacteria of the genus Exiguobacterium are low G + C, Gram-positive facultative anaerobes that have been repeatedly isolated from ancient Siberian permafrost. In addition, Exiguobacterium spp. have been isolated from markedly diverse sources, including Greenland Glacial ice, hot springs at Yellowstone National Park, the rhizosphere of plants, and the environment of food processing plants. Strains of this hereto little known bacterium that have been retrieved from such different (and often extreme) environments are worthy of attention as they are likely to be specifically adapted to such environments and to carry variations in the genome which may correspond to psychrophilic and thermophilic adaptations. However, comparative genomic investigations of Exiguobacterium spp. from different sources have been limited. In this study, we employed different molecular approaches for the comparative analysis of 24 isolates from markedly diverse environments including ancient Siberian permafrost and hot springs at Yellowstone National Park. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) with I-CeuI (an intron-encoded endonuclease), AscI and NotI were optimized for the determination of genomic fingerprints of nuclease-producing isolates. The application of a DNA macroarray for 82 putative stress-response genes yielded strain-specific hybridization profiles. Cluster analyses of 16S rRNA gene sequence data, PFGE I-CeuI restriction patterns and hybridization profiles suggested that Exiguobacterium strains formed two distinct divisions that generally agreed with temperature ranges for growth. With few exceptions (e.g., Greenland ice isolate GIC31), psychrotrophic and thermophilic isolates belonged to different divisions.

  18. Two new species of Litobothrium Dailey, 1969 (Cestoda: Litobothriidea) from thresher sharks in the Gulf of California, Mexico, with redescriptions of two species in the genus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, P D; Caira, J N

    2001-03-01

    As part of a survey of the metazoan parasites of elasmobranchs of the Gulf of California, Mexico, the spiral intestines of 10 pelagic thresher sharks Alopias pelagicus and one bigeye thresher shark A. superciliosus were examined for tapeworms. Eight of the A. pelagicus specimens examined were found to host Litobothrium amplifica and L. daileyi. Both tapeworm species are redescribed based on examination of this new material with light and scanning electron microscopy, and the ranges of most of the measurements for these species are expanded; scanning electron micrographs and detailed illustrations and measurements of their segment anatomy are presented for the first time. An argument is made that the identification of the original host specimens of these species was in error and that A. pelagicus is likely to be the correct original host. In addition, L. nickoli n. sp., a third species in the genus hosted by A. pelagicus, was found in three of the 10 individual hosts examined. This species differs from all six known Litobothrium species in the form of the pseudosegments of the scolex, the anterior two being essentially non-cruciform, while the latter three are distinctly cruciform. All other species possess either no non-cruciform or at most one non-cruciform segment anteriorly. The single specimen of A. superciliosus examined was found to host the new species, L. janovyi. This species differs from L. coniformis, L. gracile and L. amsichensis in its possession of four rather than three, three and five cruciform pseudosegments, respectively. It lacks the modificiations of the fourth pseudosegment seen in L. amplifica and lacks the anterior non-cruciform fifth pseudosegment found in L. daileyi. It most closely resembles L. alopias but differs among other features in its greater total length, greater number of segments and longer mature segments. SEM of the four species collected from the Gulf of California as well as material of L. amsichensis from the goblin shark

  19. Higher Genus Abelian Functions Associated with Cyclic Trigonal Curves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew England

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available We develop the theory of Abelian functions associated with cyclic trigonal curves by considering two new cases. We investigate curves of genus six and seven and consider whether it is the trigonal nature or the genus which dictates certain areas of the theory. We present solutions to the Jacobi inversion problem, sets of relations between the Abelian function, links to the Boussinesq equation and a new addition formula.

  20. Phylogenetic relationships of the flying lizards, genus Draco (Reptilia, Agamidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Honda, Masanao; Ota, Hidetoshi; Kobayashi, Mari; Nabhitabhata, Jarujin; Yong, Hoi-Sen; Hikida, Tsutomu

    1999-01-01

    Phylogenetic relationships among 12 species of the genus Draco were inferred from 779 base pairs of mitochondrial 12S and 16S rRNA genes and allozymes for 20 presumptive loci. Results indicated the presence of at least four distinct lineages within the genus. The first lineage consists of D. volans and D. cornutus, whereas the second only of D. lineatus, which exhibits a great genetic divergence between two subspecies. The third is monotypic with D. dussumieri, the only species distributed in...

  1. The effect of storage on quality of herbs genus Origanum

    OpenAIRE

    Lenka Kouřimská; Kateřina Ešlerová; Ynus Khatri

    2016-01-01

    Herbs of Origanum genus are rich in essential oils and contain large amounts of phenols, lipids, fatty acids, flavonoids and anthocyanins. Antioxidant activity of these herbs depends on many factors, including the type herbs, post-harvest processing and subsequent processing. The aim of this study was therefore to confirm the hypothesis that the composition of oils of these two herbs of the Origanum genus depends on the post-harvest treatment of herbs and that the dried herb antioxidant activ...

  2. The Representatives of Amelanchier Medik. Genus in Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Opalko Anatoliy Ivanovich

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The information on fruit and decorative value, honey and medicinal properties of the genus Amelanchier Medik. is generalized. Their biological characteristics, chemical composition and palatability traits of the fruit, the ways of consumption and processing, including drying, preparing juices, syrups, jams, candied fruit jellies, confiture, and fruit wine are specified. The environmental adaptability and effectiveness of using juneberry for phytomelioration are mentioned. Several versions of the origin of the genus Amelanchier name and interpretation of its specific epithets are described. The controversial issues of the genus Amelanchier system were discussed from the classical and molecular genetic approaches. The attention is focused on two main aspects of views on the place of the genus Amelanchier representatives of the family Rosaceae Juss. within the particular subfamily, namely the subfamily Pyroideae Burnett (Maloideae S. Weber or the subfamily Amygdaloideae Arn., which indicates the necessity for further comparative morphological and molecular genetic studies of the family Rosaceae. The directions of evolution, habitat and invasive ability of some species of the genus Amelanchier are characterised. The list of the genus Amelanchier representatives cultivated in Ukraine is given.

  3. Topological classification and enumeration of RNA structures by genus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, J E; Penner, R C; Reidys, C M; Waterman, M S

    2013-11-01

    To an RNA pseudoknot structure is naturally associated a topological surface, which has its associated genus, and structures can thus be classified by the genus. Based on earlier work of Harer-Zagier, we compute the generating function Dg,σ (z) = ∑n dg,σ (n)zn for the number dg,σ (n) of those structures of fixed genus g and minimum stack size σ with n nucleotides so that no two consecutive nucleotides are basepaired and show that Dg,σ (z) is algebraic. In particular, we prove that dg,2(n) ∼ kg n3(g−1/2 )γ n2, where γ2 ≈ 1.9685. Thus, for stack size at least two, the genus only enters through the sub-exponential factor, and the slow growth rate compared to the number of RNA molecules implies the existence of neutral networks of distinct molecules with the same structure of any genus. Certain RNA structures called shapes are shown to be in natural one-to-one correspondence with the cells in the Penner-Strebel decomposition of Riemann's moduli space of a surface of genus g with one boundary component, thus providing a link between RNA enumerative problems and the geometry of Riemann's moduli space.

  4. Shareholder, stakeholder-owner or broad stakeholder maximization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mygind, Niels

    2004-01-01

    including the shareholders of a company. Although it may be the ultimate goal for Corporate Social Responsibility to achieve this kind of maximization, broad stakeholder maximization is quite difficult to give a precise definition. There is no one-dimensional measure to add different stakeholder benefits...... not traded on the mar-ket, and therefore there is no possibility for practical application. Broad stakeholder maximization instead in practical applications becomes satisfying certain stakeholder demands, so that the practical application will be stakeholder-owner maximization un-der constraints defined...

  5. Fluorescence-based Broad Dynamic Range Viscosity Probes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dragan, Anatoliy; Graham, August E; Geddes, Chris D

    2014-03-01

    We introduce two new fluorescent viscosity probes, SYBR Green (SG) and PicoGreen (PG), that we have studied over a broad range of viscosity and in collagen solutions. In water, both dyes have low quantum yields and excited state lifetimes, while in viscous solvents or in complex with DNA both parameters dramatically (300-1000-fold) increase. We show that in log-log scale the dependence of the dyes' quantum yield vs. viscosity is linear, the slope of which is sensitive to temperature. Application of SG and PG, as a fluorescence-based broad dynamic range viscosity probes, to the life sciences is discussed.

  6. Rare case of giant broad ligament fibroid with myxoid degeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R R Godbole

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Giant fibroids are known to arise from the uterus, although very rarely from extra-uterine sites. Among extra-uterine fibroids, broad ligament fibroids generally achieve enormous size and generally present with pressure symptom like bladder and bowel dysfunction. Myxoid degeneration is a rare complication of benign fibroid, where presence of cystic changes mimics the metastatic malignant ovarian tumor. We report a case of true broad ligament fibroid measured about 13 kg. This case is reported for its rarity and the diagnostic difficulties in differentiating malignant ovarian tumor and benign fibroid with myxoid degeneration.

  7. An extremely broad band metamaterial absorber based on destructive interference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jingbo; Liu, Lingyun; Dong, Guoyan; Zhou, Ji

    2011-10-24

    We propose a design of an extremely broad frequency band absorber based on destructive interference mechanism. Metamaterial of multilayered SRRs structure is used to realize a desirable refractive index dispersion spectrum, which can induce a successive anti-reflection in a wide frequency range. The corresponding high absorptance originates from the destructive interference of two reflection waves from the two surfaces of the metamaterial. A strongly absorptive bandwidth of almost 60 GHz is demonstrated in the range of 0 to 70 GHz numerically. This design provides an effective and feasible way to construct broad band absorber in stealth technology, as well as the enhanced transmittance devices. © 2011 Optical Society of America

  8. A Taxonomic Study on the Burrowing Cricket Genus Velarifictorus with Morphologically Resembled Genus Lepidogryllus (Orthoptera: Gryllidae: Gryllinae in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tae-Woo Kim

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The burrowing-cricket genus Velarifictorus Randell, 1964 is reviewed in Korea, comparing with morphologically resembled genus Lepidogryllus Otte and Alexander, 1983 for the first time. First, Velarifictorus aspersus borealis Gorochov, 1985 is confirmed from only restricted area of southern regions in Gyeongsangnam- do and Jeollanam-do. Second, Velarifictorus micado (Saussure, 1877 is confirmed from nearly all around the Korean peninsula including North Korea. Third, the previously not recorded Velarifictorus ornatus (Shiraki, 1911 is newly recognized from South Korea. Relating to the genus Velarifictorus, the resembled genus Lepidogryllus Otte and Alexander, 1983 and its species Lepidogryllus siamensis (Chopard, 1961 com. & stat. nov. is studied and compared with Velarifictorus members. A key, descriptions, tables, photographs, figures, oscillograms and spectrograms of calling sounds are provided to aid identification between the four similar species.

  9. Onshore-offshore decrease in genus origination rate in Recent tropical bivalves (Red Sea)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomasovych, Adam; Zuschin, Martin

    2014-05-01

    Broad-scale macroevolutionary and macroecological studies show significant effects of latitude on diversification rates and the clustering of range limits, with temperature being one of the most important correlates of macroecological attributes in marine environments. Temperature, however, also varies predictably with depth, but variation in diversification along bathymetric gradients remains much less explored. Here we assess bathymetric gradients in range configuration (and thus in the clustering of range limits), in taxonomic structure and in age structure of bivalve communities in the Red Sea. We find that depth minima of bivalve species and genera do not cluster along bathymetric gradients while depth maxima significantly cluster at ~50 and 700 m. Therefore, bivalve species and genera show a marked nestedness of their bathymetric ranges: taxa restricted to shallow environments are nested within generalistic taxa that have broad bathymetric distribution. Nested ranges imply that extinction, origination and dispersal processes that structure bivalve metacommunities in the Red Sea change significantly with depth. In accord with this, bivalve genera show (1) a significant increase in median age towards deeper environments, implying that genus origination rate decreases with depth, and (2) a significant decrease in the proportion of monotypic genera and increase in the per-genus species richness towards deeper environments, implying that per-species genus origination and in species extinction rates decrease with depth. These patterns suggest that genera preferentially originated onshore and then expanded offshore in the Red Sea, but still kept their presence in onshore (i.e., offshore specialists are rare). The unique configuration of bathymetric ranges in the Red Sea with rarity of taxa restricted to deeper waters can be related to the lack of temperature stratification. Our analyses, however, indicate that bivalve metacommunities in tropical and warm

  10. Genus Microsternus Lewis (1887) from China, with description of a new genus Neosternus from Asia (Coleoptera, Erotylidae, Dacnini).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Cong-Chao; Zhao, Mei-Jun

    2013-01-01

    This work treats species of the genus Microsternus Lewis, 1887 from Asia and North America. A new genus is described: Neosternus (type species Microsternus higonius Lewis, 1887). A new species is described: Microsternus pengzhongi. A new synonym is provided: Microsternus tricolor taiwanicus Nakane (=Microsternus tricolor Lewis). Three species previously placed in Microsternus Lewis, 1887 are transferred to Neosternus resulting in the following three new combinations: Neosternus higonius (Lewis, 1887), Neosternus taiwanus (Chûjô, 1976), and Neosternus hisamatsui (Nakane, 1981).

  11. Gene family expansions and contractions are associated with host range in plant pathogens of the genus Colletotrichum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baroncelli, Riccardo; Amby, Daniel Buchvaldt; Zapparata, Antonio; Sarrocco, Sabrina; Vannacci, Giovanni; Le Floch, Gaétan; Harrison, Richard J; Holub, Eric; Sukno, Serenella A; Sreenivasaprasad, Surapareddy; Thon, Michael R

    2016-08-05

    Many species belonging to the genus Colletotrichum cause anthracnose disease on a wide range of plant species. In addition to their economic impact, the genus Colletotrichum is a useful model for the study of the evolution of host specificity, speciation and reproductive behaviors. Genome projects of Colletotrichum species have already opened a new era for studying the evolution of pathogenesis in fungi. We sequenced and annotated the genomes of four strains in the Colletotrichum acutatum species complex (CAsc), a clade of broad host range pathogens within the genus. The four CAsc proteomes and secretomes along with those representing an additional 13 species (six Colletotrichum spp. and seven other Sordariomycetes) were classified into protein families using a variety of tools. Hierarchical clustering of gene family and functional domain assignments, and phylogenetic analyses revealed lineage specific losses of carbohydrate-active enzymes (CAZymes) and proteases encoding genes in Colletotrichum species that have narrow host range as well as duplications of these families in the CAsc. We also found a lineage specific expansion of necrosis and ethylene-inducing peptide 1 (Nep1)-like protein (NLPs) families within the CAsc. This study illustrates the plasticity of Colletotrichum genomes, and shows that major changes in host range are associated with relatively recent changes in gene content.

  12. A new genus and two new species of dactylogyrid monogeneans from gills of Neotropical catfishes (Siluriformes: Doradidae and Loricariidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acosta, Aline Angelina; Scholz, Tomáš; Blasco-Costa, Isabel; Alves, Philippe Vieira; da Silva, Reinaldo José

    2017-09-20

    A new genus of dactylogyrid monogeneans (Ancyrocephalinae), Paracosmetocleithrum n. gen., is erected to accommodate P. trachydorasi n. sp. from Trachydoras paraguayensis (Siluriformes: Doradidae) in the Upper Paraná River basin, Brazil. The new genus differs from Neotropical dactylogyrids in the presence of a well-developed ornamentation in the middle portion of the ventral bar, and a sclerotized patch on the surface of the dorsal bar with an inconspicuous medial process that possesses two submedial projections arising from the tapered ends of this patch. In addition, Demidospermus rhinelepisi n. sp. is described from Rhinelepis aspera (Siluriformes: Loricariidae). The new species, which is the fifth species of the genus described from loricariids, can be differentiated from congeners by the possession of a sclerotized patch attached to the middle portion of the ventral bar, and by morphology of the accessory piece, which presents broad ends, tapering in the centre, rounded proximal end, distal end folding on both sides with folds extending to approximately ¾ of the accessory piece length. Molecular data on both new species are also provided and species composition of Demidospermus, recently revealed as polyphyletic by molecular studies including the present one, is discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Medicinal Properties of the Genus Clitocybe and of Lectins from the Clouded Funnel Cap Mushroom, C. nebularis (Agaricomycetes): A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohleven, Jure; Kos, Janko; Sabotic, Jerica

    2016-01-01

    Current knowledge of the medicinal properties of Basidiomycetes mushroom species of the genus Clitocybe and of the biological activity of C. nebularis fruiting bodies is reviewed. The main focus is the therapeutic potential of lectins from C. nebularis. Species of the genus Clitocybe, including C. nebularis, have not been traditionally considered as medicinal mushrooms; however, recent studies have demonstrated their antitumor, immunomodulatory, and antioxidative properties, their antimicrobial (antiviral, antibacterial, and antifungal) activities against various bacteria and fungi, as well as their potential use in therapy for alcoholism and as psychotropic agents. These activities have been shown to be due to various compounds, either isolated or in extracts, mainly polysaccharides but also phenols, ribonucleosides, and proteins. These include laccase, protease inhibitors, and lectins. C. nebularis has been shown to be rich in a variety of lectins and isolectins with distinct carbohydrate-binding specificities, showing versatile biological activities. They exhibit immunostimulatory and adhesion-/phagocytosis-promoting properties, as well as toxicity in various invertebrates. Mushroom species of the genus Clitocybe, including C. nebularis, thus constitute a valuable source of compounds showing diverse biological activities with a broad potential for applications in biomedicine or biotechnology. On the basis of such evidence reviewed here, we propose that C. nebularis and other Clitocybe species can be considered to be medicinal mushrooms.

  14. Revealing Hidden Diversity of the Underestimated Neotropical Ichthyofauna: DNA Barcoding in the Recently Described Genus Megaleporinus (Characiformes: Anostomidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge L. Ramirez

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Molecular studies have improved our knowledge on the neotropical ichthyofauna. DNA barcoding has successfully been used in fish species identification and in detecting cryptic diversity. Megaleporinus (Anostomidae is a recently described freshwater fish genus within which taxonomic uncertainties remain. Here we assessed all nominal species of this genus using a DNA barcode approach (Cytochrome Oxidase subunit I with a broad sampling to generate a reference library, characterize new molecular lineages, and test the hypothesis that some of the nominal species represent species complexes. The analyses identified 16 (ABGD and BIN to 18 (ABGD, GMYC, and PTP different molecular operational taxonomic units (MOTUs within the 10 studied nominal species, indicating cryptic biodiversity and potential candidate species. Only Megaleporinus brinco, Megaleporinus garmani, and Megaleporinus elongatus showed correspondence between nominal species and MOTUs. Within six nominal species, a subdivision in two MOTUs was found, while Megaleporinus obtusidens was divided in three MOTUs, suggesting that DNA barcode is a very useful approach to identify the molecular lineages of Megaleporinus, even in the case of recent divergence (< 0.5 Ma. Our results thus provided molecular findings that can be used along with morphological traits to better define each species, including candidate new species. This is the most complete analysis of DNA barcode in this recently described genus, and considering its economic value, a precise species identification is quite desirable and fundamental for conservation of the whole biodiversity of this fish.

  15. The genus Rhaponticum in East Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gorovoy, P.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The genus Rhaponticum in East Asia has always been a taxon for discussion. Rhaponticum carthamoides from East Siberia comprises three subspecies: carthamoides, chamarensis and orientale. Even though they differ in morphology, they do not have isolated areas. Rhaponticum satzyperovii was recently described and its author pointed out its affinity with Rh. uniflorum. Plant height, stem indumentum, and radical and stem leaf dissection were signaled as the diagnostic characters. Our present study on living and herbarium specimens of Rh. satzyperovii shows that the diagnostic characters are not consistent. The species area was also claimed to be an argument for considering Rh. satzyperovii a distinct species. This area covers the south of the Primorye Province in the Far East of Russia with some locations in the adjacent Jewish Autonomous Region and in China. In our study, the area of Rh. satzyperovii is found to be within the area of Rh. uniflorum and thereafter they turned out to have no disjunction. In East Asia, Rh. uniflorum is characterized by a wide range of morphological variability. We suggest that Rh. satzyperovii should be included within Rh. uniflorum without any taxonomic rank.El género Rhaponticum en el Este de Asia ha sido siempre un taxón discutido. Rhaponticum carthamoides del Este de Siberia incluye tres subespecies: carthamoides, chamarensis y orientale. Aunque difieren en su morfología, sus áreas no están aisladas. Rhaponticum satzyperovii fue descrito recientemente y su autor señaló su afinidad con Rh. uniflorum. Los caracteres diagnósticos fueron la altura de la planta, el indumento del tallo y las divisiones de las hojas basales y caulinares. Nuestro estudio de plantas vivas y muestras de herbario de Rh. satzyperovii muestra que los caracteres diagnósticos no son consistentes. El área de distribución también se argumentó para considerar Rh. satzyperovii una especie diferente. El área cubre el sur de la provincia de

  16. First report of a gryporhynchid tapeworm (Cestoda: Cyclophyllidea) from New Zealand and from an eleotrid fish, described from metacestodes and in vitro-grown worms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presswell, B; Poulin, R; Randhawa, H S

    2012-12-01

    Metacestodes are often found in the body cavity of the common bully (Gobiomorphus cotidianus McDowall), from freshwater habitats in Otago, New Zealand. Identification of metacestodes relies only on the number, size and shape of the rostellar hooks. To attempt species determination, we cultivated metacestodes in vitro for up to 23 days, during which they matured to at least the male stage of development, although female organs were not discernable. Identified as members of the genus Paradilepis Hsü, 1935 (family Gryporhynchidae), these specimens are compared to previously described species, in particular P. minima (Goss, 1940), from Australia, the closest species, both geographically and morphologically. Although the size of scolex, suckers and proglottids differ significantly from those of P. minima, we are cautious about interpreting 'adults' grown in vitro, because we are unsure whether the artificial conditions alter development. For this reason, and because of the lack of female organs, we refrain from erecting a new species, and refer to the specimens as Paradilepis cf. minima until such time as the adults are found in the definitive host. With this proviso we present here a description of the in vitro-grown worms and the metacestodes as a preliminary study of this cestode. A molecular analysis of small subunit (SSU) rDNA sequences, shows the position of P. cf. minima and another gryporhynchid, Neogryporhynchus cheilancristrotus (Wedl, 1855), to be equivocal, but confirms their exclusion from the Dilepididae and Hymenolepididae. This is the first record of a gryporhynchid from New Zealand, and the first from the fish family Eleotridae.

  17. Long-throated flumes and broad-crested weirs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, M.G.

    1985-01-01

    Vital for water management are structures that can measure the flow in a wide variety of channels. Chapter 1 introduces the long-throated flume and the broad-crested weir; it explains why this family of structures can meet the boundary conditions and hydraulic demands of most measuring

  18. Extra Ovarian Serous Cystadenocarcinoma in the Broad Ligament ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The embryonic remnants of the gonadal ridge and the genital duct apparatus, the Mullerian apparatus, remain atretic throughout the life of a woman. The definitive organs arising from these, the Ovary, Fallopian tubes, Uterus, Cervix and the Broad ligaments share common coelomic origin. Epithelial metaplasia in any of ...

  19. Development of a Broad-Spectrum Antiviral Agent with Activity ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Development of a Broad-Spectrum Antiviral Agent with. Activity Against Herpesvirus Replication .... deviation. The data were analyzed by SPSS software, version 16. Significant differences (p <. 0.01) between groups were determined using unpaired Student's t-test. RESULTS. Cytotoxic and optimum drug concentrations.

  20. Broad-band spectrophotometry of HAT-P-32 b

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mallonn, M.; Bernt, I.; Herrero, E.

    2016-01-01

    Multicolour broad-band transit observations offer the opportunity to characterize the atmosphere of an extrasolar planet with small- to medium-sized telescopes. One of the most favourable targets is the hot Jupiter HAT-P-32 b. We combined 21 new transit observations of this planet with 36 previou...

  1. Silver Nanoparticles with Broad Multiband Linear Optical Absorption

    KAUST Repository

    Bakr, Osman M.

    2009-07-06

    A simple one-pot method produces silver nanoparticles coated with aryl thiols that show intense, broad nonplasmonic optical properties. The synthesis works with many aryl-thiol capping ligands, including water-soluble 4-mercaptobenzoic acid. The nanoparticles produced show linear absorption that is broader, stronger, and more structured than most conventional organic and inorganic dyes.

  2. Post abortal broad ligament. abscess: report of a case

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    infrequently with endotoxic shock, pelvic abscess, anaemia. cervical incompetence, chronic pelvic pain, ectopic pregnancy and infertility. Deaths from unsafe abortions are principally attributed to haemorrhage, anaemia, sepsis and renal failure. 7'8. Broad ligament abscess is rare. lntraligamentous haematoma is however ...

  3. Broadly neutralizing antibodies against HIV-1: templates for a vaccine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Gils, Marit J.; Sanders, Rogier W.

    2013-01-01

    The need for an effective vaccine to prevent the global spread of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) is well recognized. Passive immunization and challenge studies in non-human primates testify that broadly neutralizing antibodies (BrNAbs) can accomplish protection against infection. In

  4. Three Broad Parental Feeding Styles and Young Children's Snack Intake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boots, Samantha B.; Tiggemann, Marika; Corsini, Nadia

    2017-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to identify broad overarching feeding styles that parents may use and their effects on pre-school-aged children's healthy and unhealthy snack intake. Design: Cross sectional study Methods: Mothers (n = 611) of children aged 2-7 years (mean age 3.9 years) completed an online survey assessing parent-feeding…

  5. Infusing Multiculturalism into the Curriculum Through Broad Themes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, William J.

    1978-01-01

    Appropriate curriculum development strategies can result in the organization of instructional objectives, content, and activities around broad themes and the students' real-life experiences. Four basic areas of living, with substantial culturally pluralistic elements, are family life, community life, human relations, and the American cultural…

  6. Broad-band spectrophotometry of HAT-P-32 b

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mallonn, M.; Bernt, I.; Herrero, E.

    2016-01-01

    Multicolour broad-band transit observations offer the opportunity to characterize the atmosphere of an extrasolar planet with small- to medium-sized telescopes. One of the most favourable targets is the hot Jupiter HAT-P-32 b. We combined 21 new transit observations of this planet with 36...

  7. Selection of common bean to broad environmental adaptation in Haiti

    Science.gov (United States)

    Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) cultivars in Haiti need adaptation to a broad range of environments and resistance to the most important diseases such as Bean Golden Yellow Mosaic Virus. The Legume Breeding Program (LBP), a collaborative effort of the AREA project (USAID funded through IFAS/Univ...

  8. Children and trauma : a broad perspective on exposure and recovery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alisic, E.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this dissertation was to generate a broad overview of children’s exposure to and recovery from trauma in order to promote theory building and the design of prevention and intervention activities. First, a general population study was conducted in 1770 primary school children. They

  9. Development of a Broad-Spectrum Antiviral Agent with Activity ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To evaluate the broad-spectrum antiviral activity of peptide H9 (H9) in vitro in order to gain insight into its underlying molecular mechanisms. Method: Antiviral activity against Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) was determined using thiazolyl blue (MTT) assay. Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) was employed to ...

  10. Formulation of a complementary food fortified with broad beans ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sixty percent of mothers did not provide bean-based food for their children, with the most frequently reported reason being lack of knowledge of its nutrient value for young children. To a typical complementary food of barley-maize porridge, 10, 20 and 30% of cereal was replaced by processed broad beans (Vicia faba), ...

  11. Implementation of Broad-Based Black Economic Empowerment in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The institution of Broad-Based Black Economic Empowerment (BBBEE) has had an impact on the economy in South Africa. Due to its extensive reliance on government procurement, BBBEE has had a substantial influence on the construction industry in terms of transformation imperatives. Although much has been ...

  12. The X-ray side of the Broad Line Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costantini, E.

    2017-10-01

    The broad line region (BLR) is very different from an idealised spherical region of gas in motion around the central black hole. Using traditional optical/UV data, different geometries, sometimes contrasting with each other, have been recently explored. The broad line emitting clouds however, do also emit in the X-rays. This emitting gas constitute the energetic portion of the same clouds emitting the UV (Costantini et al. 2007, 2010). Here we present a unique study, using broad line region data of the bright Seyfert1 Mrk509 (Kaastra et al. 2011), taken simultaneously by XMM-Newton RGS, HST-COS and XMM-Newton OM-Grism (Costantini et al. 2016). We use a synthetic, physically motivated, model to fit the multi-wavelength data. The results point to part of the emission (possibly disk-like) coming near the black hole, highlighted by highly-ionized lines. In addition, a larger scale height component, clearly confined by the dust sublimation radius, is characterised by lower ionization ions emission (a bowl-like geometry; Goad et al. 2012). It is the first time that the X-rays provide crucial constraints in the geometrical description of the broad line region.

  13. 48 CFR 2035.71 - Broad agency announcements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... CATEGORIES OF CONTRACTING RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT CONTRACTING 2035.71 Broad agency announcements. (a..., approaches, or concepts demonstrated by the proposal. (2) Overall scientific, technical, or economic merits... unique combinations of these which are integral factors for achieving the proposal objectives. (4) The...

  14. Socioeconomic evaluation of broad-scale land management strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisa K. Crone; Richard W. Haynes

    2001-01-01

    This paper examines the socioeconomic effects of alternative management strategies for Forest Service and Bureau of Land Management lands in the interior Columbia basin. From a broad-scale perspective, there is little impact or variation between alternatives in terms of changes in total economic activity or social conditions in the region. However, adopting a finer...

  15. Phylogenetic relationships, biogeography and speciation in the avian genus Saxicola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illera, Juan Carlos; Richardson, David S; Helm, Barbara; Atienza, Juan Carlos; Emerson, Brent C

    2008-09-01

    The avian genus Saxicola is distributed throughout Africa, Asia, Europe and various islands across Oceania. Despite the fact that the group has great potential as a model to test evolutionary hypotheses due to the extensive variability in life history patterns recorded between and within species, the phylogenetic relationships among species and subspecies of this genus are poorly understood. We undertook a systematic investigation of the relationships within this genus with three main objectives in mind, (1) to test the monophyly of the genus; (2) to ascertain geographical origin and dispersal sequence; and (3) to test for monophyly within the most morphologically diverse species, S. torquata and S. caprata. We studied sequence data from the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene from 11 of the 12 recognized species and 15 of the 45 described subspecies. Four clades, two exclusively Asian, one Eurasian, and the fourth encompassing Eurasia and Africa, were identified. Based on our analyses, monophyly of the genus Saxicola is not supported and an Asian origin for the genus can be inferred. Results from DIVA analyses, tree topology and nodal age estimates suggest independent colonisation events from Asia to Africa and from Asia to the Western Palearctic, with the Sahara desert acting as a natural barrier for S. torquata. Subspecies and populations of S. torquata are not monophyletic due to S. tectes, S. dacotiae and S. leucura grouping within this complex. Subspecies and populations of S. caprata are monophyletic. Importantly, within S. torquata and S. caprata, slight morphological traits and plumage colour pattern differences used to recognize subspecies are indicative of the greater cryptic diversification that has occurred within this genus.

  16. GENUS RUELLIA: PHARMACOLOGICAL AND PHYTOCHEMICAL IMPORTANCE IN ETHNOPHARMACOLOGY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afzal, Khurram; Uzair, Muhammad; Chaudhary, Bashir Ahmad; Ahmad, Ashfaq; Afzal, Samina; Saadullah, Malik

    2015-01-01

    Ruellia is a genus of flowering plants commonly known as Ruellias or Wild Petunias which belongs to the family Acanthaceae. It contains about 250 genera and 2500 species. Most of these are shrubs, or twining vines; some are epiphytes. Only a few species are distributed in temperate regions. They are distributed in Indonesia and Malaysia, Africa, Brazil, Central America and Pakistan. Some of these are used as medicinal plants. Many species of the genus has antinociceptive, antioxidant, analgesic, antispasmolytic, antiulcer, antidiabetic and anti-inflammatory properties. The phytochemicals constituents: glycosides, alkaloids, flavonoids and triterpenoids are present. The genus has been traditionally claimed to be used for the treatment of flu, asthma, fever, bronchitis, high blood pressure, eczema, and diabetes. The objective of this review article is to summarize all the pharmacological and phytochemical evaluations or investigations to find area of gap and endorse this genus a step towards commercial drug. Hence, further work required is to isolate and characterize the active compounds responsible for these activities in this plant and bring this genus plants to commercial health market to serve community with their potential benefits.

  17. Genotyping of clinical isolates of Acanthamoeba genus in Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Carolina; Reyes-Batlle, María; Ysea, María Alejandra Vethencourt; Pérez, Mónica V Galindo; de Rondón, Carmen Guzmán; Paduani, Anaibeth J Nessi; Pérez, Angelyseb Dorta; López-Arencibia, Atteneri; Sifaoui, Ines; de Galindo, María Virginia Pérez; de Suárez, Eva Pérez; Martínez-Carretero, Enrique; Valladares, Basilio; Piñero, José E; Lorenzo-Morales, Jacob

    2016-12-01

    Free-living amoebae of Acanthamoeba genus are opportunistic pathogens distributed worldwide. Strains included in this genus are causative agents of a fatal encephalitis and a sight-threating keratitis in humans and other animals. In this study, 550 clinical samples which were collected between 1984 and 2014 from different patients with suspected infections due to Acanthamoeba were initially screened for the presence of this amoebic genus at the Laboratorio de Amibiasis-Escuela de Bioanálisis at the Universidad Central de Venezuela. Samples were cultured in 2% Non-Nutrient agar plates seeded with a layer of heat killed Escherichia coli. From the 550 clinical samples included in this study, 18 of them were positive for Acanthamoeba genus after culture identification. Moreover, positive samples were confirmed after amplification of the Diagnostic Fragment 3 (DF3) of the Acanthamoeba18S rDNA genus and sequencing was carried out in order to genotype the isolated strains of Acanthamoeba. Furthermore, the pathogenic potential of the strains was checked by performing thermotolerance and osmotolerance assays. Sequencing of the DF3 region resulted in the identification of genotype T4 in all the isolated strains. Moreover, most isolates were thermotolerant or both thermotolerant and osmotolerant and thus were classified as potentially pathogenic strains. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on the molecular characterization at the genotype level of Acanthamoeba strains in Venezuela.

  18. Accessible ecology: synthesis of the long, deep, and broad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Debra P C

    2010-10-01

    Large volumes of data have been collected to document the many ways that ecological systems are responding to changing environmental drivers. A general buy-in on solutions to these problems can be reached only if these and future data are made easily accessible to and understood by a broad audience that includes the public, decision-makers, and other scientists. A developing framework for synthesis is reviewed that integrates three main strategies of ecological research (long-term studies; short-term, process-based studies; and broad-scale observations) with derived data products and additional sources of knowledge. This framework focuses on making data from multiple sources and disciplines easily understood by many, a prerequisite for finding synthetic solutions and predicting future dynamics in a changing world. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Flow characteristics at trapezoidal broad-crested side weir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Říha Jaromír

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Broad-crested side weirs have been the subject of numerous hydraulic studies; however, the flow field at the weir crest and in front of the weir in the approach channel still has not been fully described. Also, the discharge coefficient of broad-crested side weirs, whether slightly inclined towards the stream or lateral, still has yet to be clearly determined. Experimental research was carried out to describe the flow characteristics at low Froude numbers in the approach flow channel for various combinations of in- and overflow discharges. Three side weir types with different oblique angles were studied. Their flow characteristics and discharge coefficients were analyzed and assessed based on the results obtained from extensive measurements performed on a hydraulic model. The empirical relation between the angle of side weir obliqueness, Froude numbers in the up- and downstream channels, and the coefficient of obliqueness was derived.

  20. Broad-band hard X-ray reflectors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joensen, K.D.; Gorenstein, P.; Hoghoj, P.

    1997-01-01

    Interest in optics for hard X-ray broad-band application is growing. In this paper, we compare the hard X-ray (20-100 keV) reflectivity obtained with an energy-dispersive reflectometer, of a standard commercial gold thin-film with that of a 600 bilayer W/Si X-ray supermirror. The reflectivity...... that of the gold, Various other design options are discussed, and we conclude that continued interest in the X-ray supermirror for broad-band hard X-ray applications is warranted....... of the multilayer is found to agree extraordinarily well with theory (assuming an interface roughness of 4.5 Angstrom), while the agreement for the gold film is less, The overall performance of the supermirror is superior to that of gold, extending the band of reflection at least a factor of 2.8 beyond...

  1. Antibiofilm Peptides: Potential as Broad-Spectrum Agents

    OpenAIRE

    Pletzer, Daniel; Hancock, Robert E. W.

    2016-01-01

    The treatment of bacterial diseases is facing twin threats, with increasing bacterial antibiotic resistance and relatively few novel compounds or strategies under development or entering the clinic. Bacteria frequently grow on surfaces as biofilm communities encased in a polymeric matrix. The biofilm mode of growth is associated with 65 to 80% of all clinical infections. It causes broad adaptive changes; biofilm bacteria are especially (10- to 1,000-fold) resistant to conventional antibiotics...

  2. Broad spectrum antiangiogenic treatment for ocular neovascular diseases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ofra Benny

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Pathological neovascularization is a hallmark of late stage neovascular (wet age-related macular degeneration (AMD and the leading cause of blindness in people over the age of 50 in the western world. The treatments focus on suppression of choroidal neovascularization (CNV, while current approved therapies are limited to inhibiting vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF exclusively. However, this treatment does not address the underlying cause of AMD, and the loss of VEGF's neuroprotective can be a potential side effect. Therapy which targets the key processes in AMD, the pathological neovascularization, vessel leakage and inflammation could bring a major shift in the approach to disease treatment and prevention. In this study we have demonstrated the efficacy of such broad spectrum antiangiogenic therapy on mouse model of AMD.Lodamin, a polymeric formulation of TNP-470, is a potent broad-spectrum antiangiogenic drug. Lodamin significantly reduced key processes involved in AMD progression as demonstrated in mice and rats. Its suppressive effects on angiogenesis, vascular leakage and inflammation were studied in a wide array of assays including; a Matrigel, delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH, Miles assay, laser-induced CNV and corneal micropocket assay. Lodamin significantly suppressed the secretion of various pro-inflammatory cytokines in the CNV lesion including monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1/Ccl2. Importantly, Lodamin was found to regress established CNV lesions, unlike soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase-1 (sFlk-1. The drug was found to be safe in mice and have little toxicity as demonstrated by electroretinography (ERG assessing retinal and by histology.Lodamin, a polymer formulation of TNP-470, was identified as a first in its class, broad-spectrum antiangiogenic drug that can be administered orally or locally to treat corneal and retinal neovascularization. Several unique properties make Lodamin especially beneficial for ophthalmic

  3. Flow structure in front of the broad-crested weir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zachoval Zbyněk

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with research focused on description of flow structure in front of broad-crested weir. Based on experimental measurement, the flow structure in front of the weir (the recirculation zone of flow and tornado vortices and flow structure on the weir crest has been described. The determined flow character has been simulated using numerical model and based on comparing results the suitable model of turbulence has been recommended.

  4. Alloyed semiconductor nanocrystals with broad tunable band gaps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Daocheng; Weng, Ding; Wang, Xiaolei; Xiao, Qiangfeng; Chen, Wei; Xu, Chuanlai; Yang, Zhengzhong; Lu, Yunfeng

    2009-07-28

    Nearly monodisperse alloyed (CuInS2)x(ZnS)1-x nanocrystals with cubic and hexagonal phases were successfully synthesized for the first time, and the band gaps of these alloyed nanocrystals can be tuned in the broad range of 1.5 to 3.7 eV by changing the ratio of CuInS2 to ZnS.

  5. The Broad Autism Phenotype Questionnaire: Prevalence and Diagnostic Classification

    OpenAIRE

    Sasson, Noah J.; Lam, Kristen S. L.; Childress, Debra; Parlier, Morgan; Daniels, Julie L.; Piven, Joseph

    2013-01-01

    The Broad Autism Phenotype Questionnaire (BAPQ; Hurley et al, 2007) was administered to a large community-based sample of biological parents of children with autism (PCAs) and comparison parents (CPs) (n = 1692). Exploratory factor analysis and internal consistency parameters confirmed a robust three factor structure of the BAPQ, corresponding to the proposed aloof, pragmatic language and rigidity subscales. Based upon the distribution of BAP features in the general population, new normative ...

  6. Broad-Based Search for New and Practical Superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-31

    AFRL-OSR-VA-TR-2014-0296 BROAD-BASED SEARCH FOR NEW AND PRACTICAL SUPERCONDUCTORS Richard Greene MARYLAND UNIV COLLEGE PARK Final Report 10/31/2014...New and Practical Superconductors 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER FA9550-09-1-0603 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER MURI FY09 6. AUTHOR(S...grant. Many new superconductors were discovered, most with transition temperatures (Tc) below 10K. One noteworthy discovery was the superconductivity

  7. Fatigue failure of materials under broad band random vibrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, T. C.; Lanz, R. W.

    1971-01-01

    The fatigue life of material under multifactor influence of broad band random excitations has been investigated. Parameters which affect the fatigue life are postulated to be peak stress, variance of stress and the natural frequency of the system. Experimental data were processed by the hybrid computer. Based on the experimental results and regression analysis a best predicting model has been found. All values of the experimental fatigue lives are within the 95% confidence intervals of the predicting equation.

  8. Topological classification of genus 1 Morse functions on S^3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Андрей Валерьевич Сергеюк

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available We study the question about a topological classification of Morse functions on the 3-sphere, all critical points of which lie on a different level surfaces. The classification provides with respect to the group Diff0(S3 x Diff0(R - the group of orientation-preserving diffeomorphisms of the source and the target. We give a description of a corresponding oriented graphs (Kronrod-Reeb graphs. It is shown that these graphs completely classify genus 1 functions. These functions has a property that the genus of all the components of their level surfaces is not greater then 1. Moreover, all these graphs can be realized by a genus 1 functions, thus they can not distinguish a topological type of a more complex functions.

  9. The genus Cordia: botanists, ethno, chemical and pharmacological aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edinardo Fagner Ferreira Matias

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTSpecies of the genus Cordia, Boraginaceae, are widely studied with regard to the various ethnobotanical and ethnopharmacological aspects. They are found principally in tropical and subtropical regions of the American, Asian and African continents, where they occur in various countries. In the genus Cordia, there are many species cultivated for ornamental plants, wood and medicinal applications, where they are extensively utilized by traditional communities. In the last decades, scientific studies of Cordia species have intensified, demonstrating the great interest in phytochemical, biological and pharmacological studies. In this review, we describe the principal botanical aspects, ethnopharmacological information and evaluation of the bioactive and pharmacological properties of Cordia, its phytochemical constituents and the most common classes of secondary metabolites identified. The information reported in this work contributes scientifically to recognizing the importance of the genus Cordia as a target in the search for new biotechnological investments.

  10. Genetic variability assessment in the genus Passiflora by SSR markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Lougon Paiva

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The genus Passiflora encompasses many species that are endemic to the Brazilian territory, including some with economic value. Studies on genetic diversity in this genus are fundamental because they allow understanding genetic variability and distance. The present study aimed to determine the genetic variability and distances among 10 species of the genus Passiflora by using microsatellite markers (Simple Sequence Repeat, SSR. Twenty-eight heterologous microsatellite markers were tested, but only 12 were used in the diversity analysis because they amplified in at least 80% of the species. A clear separation was observed among the subgenuses studied, as well as wide variation among the accessions of Passiflora. This knowledge enables breeders to explore diversity and transfer favorable alleles found in wild species.

  11. Genus Monilinia on Pome and Stone Fruit Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovana Hrustić

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Different species of the genus Monilinia are common plant pathogens that endangerpome and stone fruit production worldwide. In Serbia, two species of this genus are widelydistributed – M. laxa and M. fructigena, while M. fructicola, which is officially on the A2 EPPOList of quarantine pest organisms in Europe and on the 1A part I List of quarantine pest organismsin Serbia, has so far been detected only on stored apple and nectarine fruits. The mostimportant control measures against these pathogens include chemical control in combinationwith adequate cultural practices, particularly under favourable conditions for diseasedevelopment. Concerning that species of this genus can cause significant economic losses,knowledge of the pathogen biology, disease epidemiology and pathogen-host interactionsis a necessary prerequisite for stable and profitable production of pome and stone fruits.

  12. Phylogenetic Analyses Support Validity of Genus Eodinium (Ciliophora, Entodiniomorphida, Ophryoscolecidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cedrola, Franciane; Senra, Marcus Vinicius Xavier; D'Agosto, Marta; Dias, Roberto Júnio Pedroso

    2017-03-01

    The validity of genus Eodinium has been historically disputed due to morphological similarities with Diplodinium (absence of skeletal plates as well as adoral and dorsal ciliary zones at the same body level). To address this issue, the 18S rDNA of four Eodinium posterovesiculatum morphotypes and four Diplodinium anisacanthum morphotypes were sequenced and phylogenetically analyzed. The different inference methods suggest the existence of a last common ancestor of Eodinium and Ostracodinium that is not shared with Diplodinium, strongly supporting the validity of genus Eodinium. Since skeletal plates are present in all members of genus Ostracodinium, the most parsimonious is a secondary loss of skeletal plates in E. posterovesiculatum. This work represents a breakthrough in the taxonomy and phylogeny of the family Ophryoscolecidae indicating that the skeletal plates may not reflect evolutionary divergence within this group of ciliates as traditionally proposed. © 2016 The Author(s) Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology © 2016 International Society of Protistologists.

  13. Phylogeny of ambrosia beetle symbionts in the genus Raffaelea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreaden, Tyler J; Davis, John M; de Beer, Z Wilhelm; Ploetz, Randy C; Soltis, Pamela S; Wingfield, Michael J; Smith, Jason A

    2014-12-01

    The genus Raffaelea was established in 1965 when the type species, Raffaelea ambrosia, a symbiont of Platypus ambrosia beetles was described. Since then, many additional ambrosia beetle symbionts have been added to the genus, including the important tree pathogens Raffaelea quercivora, Raffaelea quercus-mongolicae, and Raffaelea lauricola, causal agents of Japanese and Korean oak wilt and laurel wilt, respectively. The discovery of new and the dispersal of described species of Raffaelea to new areas, where they can become invasive, presents challenges for diagnosticians as well as plant protection and quarantine efforts. In this paper, we present the first comprehensive multigene phylogenetic analysis of Raffaelea. As it is currently defined, the genus was found to not be monophyletic. On the basis of this work, Raffaelea sensu stricto is defined and the affinities of undescribed isolates are considered. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. [Advances in chemical constituents and bioactivity of Salvia genus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Qing; Liu, Jian-xun

    2015-06-01

    The genus Salvia in the family Lamiaceae with nearly 1 000 species, is widespread in temperate and tropical regions around the world. Many species of genus Salvia are important medicinal plants with a long history of which Danshen (the dried roots and rhizomes of S. miltiorrhiza) is one of the most popular herbal traditional medicines in Asian countries. The chemical constituents from Salvia plants mainly contain sesquiterpenoids, diterpenoids, triterpenoids, steroids and polyphenols etc, which exhibit antibacterial, antidermatophytic, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antineoplastic, antiplatelet aggregation activities and so on. In this article, the development of new constituents and their biological activities of Salvia genus in the past five years were reviewed and summarized for its further development and utilization.

  15. Nutritional and technological characteristics of new broad bean flaked products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senesi, E; Duranti, M; Gervasini, M; Bertolo, G; Rizzolo, A

    1988-01-01

    The effects of the technological processes (soaking in water or alkaline solutions, drying, puree preparation) and the supplementation with maize flour on the nutritional value and on the organoleptic characteristics of broad bean (Vicia faba, L. major) flakes have been studied. Protein content was not affected by technological process. The addition of maize flour decreased the protein content of the final product depending on the amount of the maize flour added. Amino acid composition showed a decrease of tryptophan due to technological processing. Supplementation with maize flour improved the amino acid pattern and, except for tryptophan, the amount of essential amino acids in the flakes supplemented with 25% or more maize flour well compared with the provisional pattern by F.A.O. In vitro digestibility trials did not evidence significant changes due to technological processes or to integration of broad beans with maize flour. Broad bean toxic factors (vicine and convicine glycosides) were only slightly affected by the alkaline treatment of the flakes. Glycosides content decreased with the increasing supplementation with maize flour but the relationship was not linear. The organoleptic tests were positive for texture and taste, whereas the appearance of the products should be improved.

  16. Extreme Variability in a Broad Absorption Line Quasar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stern, Daniel; Jun, Hyunsung D. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Mail Stop 169-221, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Graham, Matthew J.; Djorgovski, S. G.; Donalek, Ciro; Drake, Andrew J.; Mahabal, Ashish A.; Steidel, Charles C. [California Institute of Technology, 1200 E. California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Arav, Nahum; Chamberlain, Carter [Department of Physics, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA 24061 (United States); Barth, Aaron J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, 4129 Frederick Reines Hall, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697 (United States); Glikman, Eilat, E-mail: daniel.k.stern@jpl.nasa.gov [Department of Physics, Middlebury College, Middlebury, VT 05753 (United States)

    2017-04-20

    CRTS J084133.15+200525.8 is an optically bright quasar at z = 2.345 that has shown extreme spectral variability over the past decade. Photometrically, the source had a visual magnitude of V ∼ 17.3 between 2002 and 2008. Then, over the following five years, the source slowly brightened by approximately one magnitude, to V ∼ 16.2. Only ∼1 in 10,000 quasars show such extreme variability, as quantified by the extreme parameters derived for this quasar assuming a damped random walk model. A combination of archival and newly acquired spectra reveal the source to be an iron low-ionization broad absorption line quasar with extreme changes in its absorption spectrum. Some absorption features completely disappear over the 9 years of optical spectra, while other features remain essentially unchanged. We report the first definitive redshift for this source, based on the detection of broad H α in a Keck/MOSFIRE spectrum. Absorption systems separated by several 1000 km s{sup −1} in velocity show coordinated weakening in the depths of their troughs as the continuum flux increases. We interpret the broad absorption line variability to be due to changes in photoionization, rather than due to motion of material along our line of sight. This source highlights one sort of rare transition object that astronomy will now be finding through dedicated time-domain surveys.

  17. Broad-Band Analysis of Polar Motion Excitations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, J.

    2016-12-01

    Earth rotational changes, i.e. polar motion and length-of-day (LOD), are driven by two types of geophysical excitations: 1) mass redistribution within the Earth system, and 2) angular momentum exchange between the solid Earth (more precisely the crust) and other components of the Earth system. Accurate quantification of Earth rotational excitations has been difficult, due to the lack of global-scale observations of mass redistribution and angular momentum exchange. The over 14-years time-variable gravity measurements from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) have provided a unique means for quantifying Earth rotational excitations from mass redistribution in different components of the climate system. Comparisons between observed Earth rotational changes and geophysical excitations estimated from GRACE, satellite laser ranging (SLR) and climate models show that GRACE-derived excitations agree remarkably well with polar motion observations over a broad-band of frequencies. GRACE estimates also suggest that accelerated polar region ice melting in recent years and corresponding sea level rise have played an important role in driving long-term polar motion as well. With several estimates of polar motion excitations, it is possible to estimate broad-band noise variance and noise power spectra in each, given reasonable assumptions about noise independence. Results based on GRACE CSR RL05 solutions clearly outperform other estimates with the lowest noise levels over a broad band of frequencies.

  18. Molecular Signatures and Phylogenomic Analysis of the Genus Burkholderia: Proposal for Division of this Genus into the Emended Genus Burkholderia Containing Pathogenic Organisms and a New Genus Paraburkholderia gen. nov. Harboring Environmental Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aman eSawana

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The genus Burkholderia contains large number of diverse species which are not reliably distinguished by the available biochemical or molecular characteristics. We report here results of detailed phylogenetic and comparative genomic analyses of 45 sequenced species of the genus Burkholderia. In phylogenetic trees based upon concatenated sequences for 21 conserved proteins as well as 16S rRNA gene sequences, Burkholderia species grouped into two major clades. Within these main clades a number of smaller clades were also clearly distinguished. Our comparative analysis of protein sequences from Burkholderia spp. has identified 42 highly specific molecular markers in the form of conserved sequence indels (CSIs that are uniquely found in different clades of Burkholderia spp. Six of these CSIs are specific for a group of Burkholderia spp. (referred to as Clade I which contains all clinically relevant members of the genus as well as the phytopathogenic Burkholderia species. The second main clade (Clade II composed of the environmental Burkholderia species, is also distinguished by 2 of the identified CSIs. Additionally, our work has also identified 3 CSIs that are specific for the Burkholderia cepacia complex, 4 CSIs that are uniquely found in the Burkholderia pseudomallei group, 5 CSIs that are specific for the phytopathogenic Burkholderia spp. and 22 other CSI that distinguish two groups within Clade II. The described molecular markers provide highly specific means for the demarcation of different groups of Burkholderia spp. and for development of novel diagnostic assays for the clinically important members of the group. Based upon the results from different lines of studies, a division of the genus Burkholderia into two genera is proposed. In this new proposal, the emended genus Burkholderia will contain only the clinically relevant and phytopathogenic Burkholderia species, whereas all other Burkholderia spp. are transferred to a new genus

  19. Note on twisted elliptic genus of K3 surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eguchi, Tohru, E-mail: eguchi@yukawa.kyoto-u.ac.j [Yukawa Institute for Theoretical Physics, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Hikami, Kazuhiro, E-mail: KHikami@gmail.co [Department of Mathematics, Naruto University of Education, Tokushima 772-8502 (Japan)

    2011-01-03

    We discuss the possibility of Mathieu group M{sub 24} acting as symmetry group on the K3 elliptic genus as proposed recently by Ooguri, Tachikawa and one of the present authors. One way of testing this proposal is to derive the twisted elliptic genera for all conjugacy classes of M{sub 24} so that we can determine the unique decomposition of expansion coefficients of K3 elliptic genus into irreducible representations of M{sub 24}. In this Letter we obtain all the hitherto unknown twisted elliptic genera and find a strong evidence of Mathieu moonshine.

  20. Safety assessment of dairy microorganisms: the Leuconostoc genus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogier, J-C; Casalta, E; Farrokh, C; Saïhi, A

    2008-09-01

    Although Leuconostoc genus is "generally recognized as safe" (GRAS), a few clinically human infections cases by this microorganism have been reported in the literature, leading to their classification as opportunistic pathogens. However, these reported cases concern only severe immunodepressed patients, and none direct relations have yet been proven between Leuconostoc isolation and human diseases. Moreover, no cases of infections have been directly linked to the consumption of fermented food. Considering the long history of use of Leuconostoc in dairy industry, and their poor incidence in human infections cases, this bacterial genus may be reasonably considered as " safe " for its use in fermented dairy products.

  1. Fricke Lie algebras and the genus zero property in Moonshine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnahan, Scott

    2017-10-01

    We give a new, simpler proof that the canonical actions of finite groups on Fricke-type Monstrous Lie algebras yield genus zero functions in generalized Monstrous Moonshine, using a Borcherds-Kac-Moody Lie algebra decomposition due to Jurisich. We describe a compatibility condition, arising from the no-ghost theorem in bosonic string theory, that yields the genus zero property. We give evidence for and against the conjecture that such a compatibility for symmetries of the Monster Lie algebra gives a characterization of the Monster group.

  2. Taxonomic review of the genus Atlantodesmus Hoffman, 2000 (Polydesmida: Chelodesmidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouzan, Rodrigo Salvador; Pena-Barbosa, João Paulo P; Brescovit, Antonio Domingos

    2017-02-22

    The chelodesmid genus Atlantodesmus Hoffman, 2000 is revised and considered a senior synonym of Iemanja Hoffman, 2000. Currently the genus contains five species, all of them are herein redescribed: Atlantodesmus eimeri (Attems, 1898), Atlantodesmus itapurensis (Schubart, 1943), Atlantodesmus pickeli (Schubart, 1946), Atlantodesmus pintoi (Schubart, 1946), and the transferred species from Iemanja, Atlantodesmus teresa (Hoffman, 2000), new combination. The female of Atlantodesmus teresa is described for the first time. Examination of the type material of Leptodesmus buecherli Schubart, 1955 revealed that this species is a junior synonym of A. itapurensis. A key to males and a distribution map of all species are included.

  3. Bioactive Natural Products of Marine Sponges from the Genus Hyrtios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nourhan Hisham Shady

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Marine sponges are known as a rich source for novel bioactive compounds with valuable pharmacological potential. One of the most predominant sponge genera is Hyrtios, reported to have various species such as Hyrtios erectus, Hyrtios reticulatus, Hyrtios gumminae, Hyrtios communis, and Hyrtios tubulatus and a number of undescribed species. Members of the genus Hyrtios are a rich source of natural products with diverse and valuable biological activities, represented by different chemical classes including alkaloids, sesterterpenes and sesquiterpenes. This review covers the literature until June 2016, providing a complete survey of all compounds isolated from the genus Hyrtios with their corresponding biological activities whenever applicable.

  4. Wood Anatomy of the Neotropical Sapotaceae. XXXVII. Genus Novo?

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-10-01

    anatomy of the secondary xylem of the neotropical Sapotaceae. The earlier papers, all by the same author and under the same general heading, include: I...L AD-R122 937 WIOOD ANATOMY OF THE NEOTROPICAL SAPOTACERE XXXVII GENUS i/i y NOVO?(U) FOREST-PRODUCTS LAB MADISON W~I B F KUKRCHKA OCT 82 FSRP-FPL...ja WOOD ANATOMY * OF THE NEOTROPICAL SAPOTACEAE .;\\. , XXXVII. GENUS NOVO? RESEARCH PAPER FPL 425 FOREST PRODUCTS LABORATORY FOREST SERVICE U.S

  5. [Taxonomy and evolution of the genus Pratylenchoides (Nematoda: Pratylenchidae)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryss, A Iu

    2007-01-01

    The amended diagnosis of the genus Pratylenchoides and list of its valid species with synonyms are given. All the efficient diagnostic characters are listed. Modern taxonomic standard for the description of Pratylenchoides species is proposed; it may be used also in taxonomic databases. Tabular and text keys for all species of the genus are given. Five following groups are considered within the genus Pratylenchoides. The group arenicola differs from other groups in the primitive adanal bursa type; the groups magnicauda, crenicauda, ritteri, and megalobatus differ from each other in the position of cardium along the body axis in relation to the pharyngeal gland nuclei, pharynx types are named according to the stages of its evolution from the primitive tylenchoid pharynx (cardium situated posteriorly) to the advanced hoplolaimoid one (cardium situated anteriorly). Diagnoses and species compositions of the groups are given. Basing on the matrix of species characters, the dendrogram has been generated for all species of Pratylenchoides and for all characters (UPGMA, distance, mean character difference, random, characters ordered). Taking in view that the PAUP software gives equal weights to all characters, including the most important ones which define the prognostic species groups, the separate dendrograms for each prognostic species group were generated using the same above mentioned tree parameters. On the base of the records of Pratylenchoides species the matrices of plant host ranges, geographic distribution, and preferred soil-climatic conditions were developed. The dendrograms of the faunal similarities were generated using these matrices, with conclusions on a possible origin and evolution of the genus. The genus evolved from the flood lands with swampy soils and prevalence of dicotyledons (herbaceous Lamiaceae and woody Salicaceae families) to the forest mainland communities with balanced humidity and predominance of herbaceous Poaceae and Fabaceae with woody

  6. Taxonomic review of the Neotropical genus Neopachylus (Arachnida, Opiliones, Gonyleptidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivian Moreira Montemor

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available A taxonomic review of the genus Neopachylus Roewer, 1913 together with keys to the species for both males and females are presented. Gephyropachylus marginatus Mello-Leitão, 1931 is considered a junior subjective synonym of Neopachylus serrinha Soares & Soares, 1947, and Huralvius incertus Mello-Leitão, 1935 is considered a synonym of Neopachylus nebulosus (Mello-Leitão, 1936. This genus is restricted to southern Brazil, occurring in states of Paraná, Santa Catarina and Rio Grande do Sul.

  7. Phylogenetic analysis of the genus Hordeum using repetitive DNA sequences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svitashev, S.; Bryngelsson, T.; Vershinin, A.

    1994-01-01

    over all chromosomes of H. vulgare and the wild barley species H. bulbosum, H. marinum and H. murinum. Southern blot hybridization revealed different levels of polymorphism among barley species and the RFLP data were used to generate a phylogenetic tree for the genus Hordeum. Our data are in a good......A set of six cloned barley (Hordeum vulgare) repetitive DNA sequences was used for the analysis of phylogenetic relationships among 31 species (46 taxa) of the genus Hordeum, using molecular hybridization techniques. In situ hybridization experiments showed dispersed organization of the sequences...

  8. Review of the genus Aulidiotis Meyrick, 1925 (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Linjie; Li, Houhun

    2016-01-04

    The genus Aulidiotis Meyrick, 1925 is reviewed. Aulidiotis trimaculata Li, sp. nov., A. recta Li, sp. nov. and A. biloba Li, sp. nov. are described as new. One possibly new species from Hainan is discussed but not formally named for lack of material. Aulidiotis bicolor Moriuti, 1977 is recorded for the first time in China, and A. phoxopterella (Snellen, 1903) is redescribed. Photographs of adults and genitalia are provided, along with a key to all the species of the genus and a map to exhibit the distribution of these species.

  9. The genus Boschniakia in China: An ethnopharmacological and phytochemical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Le; Zhao, Yunshan; Wang, Zhipeng A; Wei, Kunhua; Qiu, Bin; Zhang, Chunhong; Wang-Müller, QiYan; Li, Minhui

    2016-12-24

    As a group of important medicine plants, Boschniakia rossica (Cham. et Schltdl) Fedtsch. and B. himalaica Hook.f.et Thoms, which are the only two species in the genus Boschniakia (Orobanchaceae), have long been used in traditional Chinese medicine for their multiple therapeutic uses related to enhanced renal function, erectile dysfunction, defaecate and hepatoprotective. Additionally, the two species are also used as dietary supplements in wine, cosmetics, and other healthy food. By providing comprehensive information and data of genus Boschniakia on botany, traditional medicinal uses, phytochemistry, pharmacological research and toxicology, this review aims to summary the group of natural compounds from Boschniakia discovered so far. The other aims are to reference research findings of their biological activities and functions in medicine, physiology, and cell biology to highlight the compound candidates which can be used for further drug discovery in several pharmaceutical areas including antioxidation, anticancer, anti-inflammation, anti-senile, and immunology. All of the available information on B. rossica and B. himalaica was collected from the electronic resources (such as PubMed, SciFinder Scholar, CNKI, TPL (www.theplantlist.org), Google Scholar, Baidu Scholar, and Web of Science). After a comprehensive analysis of the literatures from available online sources, the results show that both species of genus Boschniakia are valuable and popular herbal medicines with potentials to cure various ailments. The phytochemical studies revealed that the chemical compositions of this genus were mainly iridoid glycosides and phenylpropanoid glycosides. To date, 112 compounds have been isolated from the genus, while their crude extracts and purified compounds have been found to possess a wide range of biological activities including anti-senile, antitumor and anticancer, anti-inflammatory, protecting liver, boost memory, anti-oxidation, anti-lipid peroxidative, and

  10. Revision of the genus Endochilus Weise (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae: Chilocorini).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Łączyński, Piotr; Tomaszewska, Wioletta

    2014-05-20

    The members of the endemic African genus Endochilus Weise, 1898 (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae: Chilocorini) are redescribed, diagnosed, and illustrated. Lectotypes are designated for Endochilus compater Weise, Endochilus minor Weise, Endochilus plagiatus Sicard, Endochilus rubicundus Weise, and Endochilus styx Sicard. One new species is described: Endochilus abdominalis sp nov. Notes on the genus and nomenclatural history for each species are provided. A key for identification of all species is presented. Adult characters concerning similarities of Endochilus to other genera of African Chilocorini are discussed. This is an open access paper. We use the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 license that permits unrestricted use, provided that the paper is properly attributed.

  11. Heterogeneity of genome sizes within the genus Spiroplasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carle, P; Laigret, F; Tully, J G; Bové, J M

    1995-01-01

    Organisms belonging to the genus Spiroplasma are currently classified into 23 groups, 17 of which have been assigned species epithets. We determined the genome sizes of representatives of 20 groups by using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. Each genome size was deduced from the mobility of linear nonrestricted DNA, as well as from the sum of the sizes of restriction fragments obtained after digestion with NotI, a restriction endonuclease with a limited number of restriction sites in spiroplasma DNA. The values which we obtained indicated that the genome sizes of members of the genus Spiroplasma range from 940 to 2,220 kbp.

  12. Beyond the Euler characteristic: Approximating the genus of general graphs

    OpenAIRE

    Kawarabayashi, Ken-ichi; Sidiropoulos, Anastasios

    2014-01-01

    Computing the Euler genus of a graph is a fundamental problem in graph theory and topology. It has been shown to be NP-hard by [Thomassen '89] and a linear-time fixed-parameter algorithm has been obtained by [Mohar '99]. Despite extensive study, the approximability of the Euler genus remains wide open. While the existence of an $O(1)$-approximation is not ruled out, the currently best-known upper bound is a trivial $O(n/g)$-approximation that follows from bounds on the Euler characteristic. I...

  13. Revision of the spider genus Gippsicola Hogg, 1900 (Araneae: Segestriidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giroti, André Marsola; Brescovit, Antonio Domingos

    2017-02-03

    Gippsicola Hogg is one of the four genera included in the family Segestriidae. Currently this monotypic Australian genus is represented by Gippsicola raleighi Hogg, 1900, a species described based on an immature specimen from Victoria, Australia. In this work we present a taxonomic revision of this genus, with an elucidative diagnosis, redescribing G. raleighi based on detailed morphologic characters of adult male specimens. Also, we are describing three new species: Gippsicola robusta n. sp. and G. lineata n. sp., both represented by males and females, and G. minuta n. sp., only known by the male. We provide some enlightenment on the systematics of Gippsicola and putative synapomorphies for the subfamily Segestriinae.

  14. Advances in Chemistry and Bioactivity of the Genus Chisocheton Blume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shilpi, Jamil A; Saha, Sanjib; Chong, Soon-Lim; Nahar, Lutfun; Sarker, Satyajit D; Awang, Khalijah

    2016-05-01

    Chisocheton is one of the genera of the family Meliaceae and consists of ca. 53 species; the distribution of most of those are confined to the Indo-Malay region. Species of broader geographic distribution have undergone extensive phytochemical investigations. Previous phytochemical investigations of this genus resulted in the isolation of mainly limonoids, apotirucallane, tirucallane, and dammarane triterpenes. Reported bioactivities of the isolated compounds include cytotoxic, anti-inflammatory, antifungal, antimalarial, antimycobacterial, antifeedant, and lipid droplet inhibitory activities. Aside from chemistry and biological activities, this review also deals briefly with botany, distribution, and uses of various species of this genus. © 2016 Verlag Helvetica Chimica Acta AG, Zürich.

  15. SPECIES OF THE GENUS TRIGONOCERA BECKER (DIPTERA: DOLICHOPODIDAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Ya. Grichanov

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Systematic information on the Old World diaphorine genus Trigonocera Becker is reviewed. It comprises nine species: T. rivosa Becker (=T. africana Naglis syn. nov., T. guizhouensis Wang, Yang et Grootaert, T. lucidiventris Becker, T. munroi (Curran, T. obscura De Meijere, T. specialis Becker, T. tongshiensis (Yang, T. ethiopiensis Grichanov sp. nov. from Ethiopia and T. madagascarensis Grichanov sp. nov. from Madagascar. T. biseta Olejníček is excluded from the genus [Chrysotus biseta (Olejníček comb. nov.]. The distribution and diagnostic features of Trigonocera are discussed.

  16. Phylogenetic analysis reveals an evolutionary transition from internal to external brooding in Epiactis Verrill (Cnidaria: Anthozoa: Actiniaria) and rejects the validity of the genus Cnidopus Carlgren.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Paul G; Daly, Marymegan

    2016-01-01

    Reproductive behaviors in the sea anemone genus Epiactis provide an opportunity for investigating the evolution of reproductive phenomena such as brooding and sex allocation (hermaphroditic vs. gonochoric) in a group of closely related and easily accessible species. However, given its broad geographic distribution, the striking diversity in reproductive behaviors, and the lack of synapomorphy for the genus, the monophyly of Epiactis is questionable. Here we perform phylogenetic analyses to test the monophyly of Epiactis and the validity of Cnidopus, which consists entirely of species once assigned to Epiactis. We use the large number of brooding species in Epiactis to investigate evolutionary patterns in brooding modes and characteristics associated with them. We find a monophyletic group of North Pacific Epiactis species: this group includes the type species of the genus and species that brood internally or externally, and that are hermaphroditic or gonochoric. Based on the results, we reject the genus Cnidopus because its circumscription renders Epiactis sensu stricto paraphyletic. Ancestral character state reconstruction indicates that in the North Pacific, externally brooding species evolved from internally brooding ancestors and that sex allocation is highly labile. Species relationships in Epiactis and Aulactinia appear to conform to geographic patterns more strongly than to taxonomic hypotheses. Contrary to expectations based on other invertebrates, we fail to find a strong correlation between brooding and hermaphroditism. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Characteristics of a broad lytic spectrum endolysin from phage BtCS33 of Bacillus thuringiensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Yihui; Peng, Qin; Gao, Meiying

    2012-12-19

    Endolysins produced by bacteriophages lyse bacteria, and are thus considered a novel type of antimicrobial agent. Several endolysins from Bacillus phages or prophages have previously been characterized and used to target Bacillus strains that cause disease in animals and humans. B. thuringiensis phage BtCS33 is a Siphoviridae family phage and its genome has been sequenced and analyzed. In the BtCS33 genome, orf18 was found to encode an endolysin protein (PlyBt33). Bioinformatic analyses showed that endolysin PlyBt33 was composed of two functional domains, the N-terminal catalytic domain and the C-terminal cell wall binding domain. In this study, the entire endolysin PlyBt33, and both the N- and C-termini,were expressed in Escherichia coli and then purified. The lytic activities of PlyBt33 and its N-terminus were tested on bacteria. Both regions exhibited lytic activity, although PlyBt33 showed a higher lytic activity than the N-terminus. PlyBt33 exhibited activity against all Bacillus strains tested from five different species, but was not active against Gram-negative bacteria. Optimal conditions for PlyBt33 reactivity were pH 9.0 and 50 °C. PlyBt33 showed high thermostability, with 40% of initial activity remaining following 1 h of treatment at 60 °C. The C-terminus of PlyBt33 bound to B. thuringiensis strain HD-73 and Bacillus subtilis strain 168. This cell wall binding domain might be novel, as its amino acid sequence showed little similarity to previously reported endolysins. PlyBt33 showed potential as a novel antimicrobial agent at a relatively high temperature and had a broad lytic spectrum within the Bacillus genus. The C-terminus of PlyBt33 might be a novel kind of cell wall binding domain.

  18. Characteristics of a broad lytic spectrum endolysin from phage BtCS33 of Bacillus thuringiensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Yihui

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Endolysins produced by bacteriophages lyse bacteria, and are thus considered a novel type of antimicrobial agent. Several endolysins from Bacillus phages or prophages have previously been characterized and used to target Bacillus strains that cause disease in animals and humans. B. thuringiensis phage BtCS33 is a Siphoviridae family phage and its genome has been sequenced and analyzed. In the BtCS33 genome, orf18 was found to encode an endolysin protein (PlyBt33. Results Bioinformatic analyses showed that endolysin PlyBt33 was composed of two functional domains, the N-terminal catalytic domain and the C-terminal cell wall binding domain. In this study, the entire endolysin PlyBt33, and both the N- and C-termini,were expressed in Escherichia coli and then purified. The lytic activities of PlyBt33 and its N-terminus were tested on bacteria. Both regions exhibited lytic activity, although PlyBt33 showed a higher lytic activity than the N-terminus. PlyBt33 exhibited activity against all Bacillus strains tested from five different species, but was not active against Gram-negative bacteria. Optimal conditions for PlyBt33 reactivity were pH 9.0 and 50°C. PlyBt33 showed high thermostability, with 40% of initial activity remaining following 1 h of treatment at 60°C. The C-terminus of PlyBt33 bound to B. thuringiensis strain HD-73 and Bacillus subtilis strain 168. This cell wall binding domain might be novel, as its amino acid sequence showed little similarity to previously reported endolysins. Conclusions PlyBt33 showed potential as a novel antimicrobial agent at a relatively high temperature and had a broad lytic spectrum within the Bacillus genus. The C-terminus of PlyBt33 might be a novel kind of cell wall binding domain.

  19. Lipopolysaccharides of anaerobic beer spoilage bacteria of the genus Pectinatus--lipopolysaccharides of a Gram-positive genus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helander, Ilkka M; Haikara, Auli; Sadovskaya, Irina; Vinogradov, Evgeny; Salkinoja-Salonen, Mirja S

    2004-11-01

    Bacteria of the genus Pectinatus emerged during the seventies as contaminants and spoilage organisms in packaged beer. This genus comprises two species, Pectinatus cerevisiiphilus and Pectinatus frisingensis; both are strict anaerobes. On the basis of genomic properties the genus is placed among low GC Gram-positive bacteria (phylum Firmicutes, class Clostridia, order Clostridiales, family Acidaminococcaceae). Despite this assignment, Pectinatus bacteria possess an outer membrane and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) typical of Gram-negative bacteria. The present review compiles the structural and compositional studies performed on Pectinatus LPS. These lipopolysaccharides exhibit extensive heterogeneity, i.e. several macromolecularly and structurally distinct LPS molecules are produced by each strain. Whereas heterogeneity is a common property in lipopolysaccharides, Pectinatus LPS have been shown to contain exceptional carbohydrate structures, consisting of a fairly conserved core region that carries a large non-repetitive saccharide that probably replaces the O-specific chain. Such structures represent a novel architectural principle of the LPS molecule.

  20. Species delimitation in the coral genus Goniopora (Scleractinia, Poritidae) from the Saudi Arabian Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Terraneo, Tullia Isotta

    2016-06-16

    Variable skeletal morphology, genotype induced plasticity, and homoplasy of skeletal structures have presented major challenges for scleractinian coral taxonomy and systematics since the 18th century. Although the recent integration of genetic and micromorphological data is helping to clarify the taxonomic confusion within the order, phylogenetic relationships and species delimitation within most coral genera are still far from settled. In the present study, the species boundaries in the scleractinian coral genus Goniopora were investigated using 199 colonies from the Saudi Arabian Red Sea and sequencing of four molecular markers: the mitochondrial intergenic spacer between CytB and NAD2, the nuclear ribosomal ITS region, and two single-copy nuclear genes (ATPsβ and CalM). DNA sequence data were analyzed using a variety of methods and exploratory species-delimitation tools. The results were broadly congruent in identifying five distinct molecular lineages within the sequenced Goniopora samples: G. somaliensis/G. savignyi, G. djiboutiensis/G. lobata, G. stokesi, G. albiconus/G. tenuidens, and G. minor/G. gracilis. Although the traditional macromorphological characters used to identify these nine morphospecies were not able to discriminate the obtained molecular clades, informative micromorphological and microstructural features (such as the micro-ornamentation and the arrangement of the columella) were recovered among the five lineages. Moreover, unique in vivo morphologies were associated with the genetic-delimited lineages, further supporting the molecular findings. This study represents the first attempt to identify species boundaries within Goniopora using a combined morpho-molecular approach. The obtained data establish a basis for future taxonomic revision of the genus, which should include colonies across its entire geographical distribution in the Indo-Pacific.

  1. Molecular systematics of the anchovy genus Encrasicholina in the Northwest Pacific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavoué, Sébastien; Bertrand, Joris A M; Wang, Hui-Yu; Chen, Wei-Jen; Ho, Hsuan-Ching; Motomura, Hiroyuki; Hata, Harutaka; Sado, Tetsuya; Miya, Masaki

    2017-01-01

    The anchovy genus Encrasicholina is an important coastal marine resource of the tropical Indo-West Pacific (IWP) region for which insufficient comparative data are available to evaluate the effects of current exploitation levels on the sustainability of its species and populations. Encrasicholina currently comprises nine valid species that are morphologically very similar. Only three, Encrasicholina punctifer, E. heteroloba, and E. pseudoheteroloba, occur in the Northwest Pacific subregion of the northeastern part of the IWP region. These species are otherwise broadly distributed and abundant in the IWP region, making them the most important anchovy species for local fisheries. In this study, we reconstructed the phylogeny of these three species of Encrasicholina within the Engraulidae. We sequenced 10 complete mitochondrial genomes (using high-throughput and Sanger DNA sequencing technologies) and compared those sequences to 21 previously published mitochondrial genomes from various engraulid taxa. The phylogenetic results showed that the genus Encrasicholina is monophyletic, and it is the sister group to the more-diverse "New World anchovy" clade. The mitogenome-based dating results indicated that the crown group Encrasicholina originated about 33.7 million years ago (nearby the limit Eocene/Oligocene), and each species of Encrasicholina has been reproductively isolated from the others for more than 20 million years, despite their morphological similarities. In contrast, preliminary population genetic analyses across the Northwest Pacific region using four mitogenomic sequences revealed very low levels of genetic differentiation within Encrasicholina punctifer. These molecular results combined with recent taxonomic revisions are important for designing further studies on the population structure and phylogeography of these anchovies.

  2. Genus Topology of Structure in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey: Model Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gott, J. Richard, III; Hambrick, D. Clay; Vogeley, Michael S.; Kim, Juhan; Park, Changbom; Choi, Yun-Young; Cen, Renyue; Ostriker, Jeremiah P.; Nagamine, Kentaro

    2008-03-01

    We measure the three-dimensional topology of large-scale structure in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). This allows the genus statistic to be measured with unprecedented statistical accuracy. The sample size is now sufficiently large to allow the topology to be an important tool for testing galaxy formation models. For comparison, we make mock SDSS samples using several state-of-the-art N-body simulations: the Millennium run of Springel et al. (10 billion particles), the Kim & Park CDM models (1.1 billion particles), and the Cen & Ostriker hydrodynamic code models (8.6 billion cell hydro mesh). Each of these simulations uses a different method for modeling galaxy formation. The SDSS data show a genus curve that is broadly characteristic of that produced by Gaussian random-phase initial conditions. Thus, the data strongly support the standard model of inflation where Gaussian random-phase initial conditions are produced by random quantum fluctuations in the early universe. But on top of this general shape there are measurable differences produced by nonlinear gravitational effects and biasing connected with galaxy formation. The N-body simulations have been tuned to reproduce the power spectrum and multiplicity function but not topology, so topology is an acid test for these models. The data show a "meatball" shift (only partly due to the Sloan Great Wall of galaxies) that differs at the 2.5 σ level from the results of the Millenium run and the Kim & Park dark halo models, even including the effects of cosmic variance.

  3. Hybridization among distantly related species: Examples from the polyploid genus Curcuma (Zingiberaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Záveská, Eliška; Fér, Tomáš; Šída, Otakar; Marhold, Karol; Leong-Škorničková, Jana

    2016-07-01

    Discerning relationships among species evolved by reticulate and/or polyploid evolution is not an easy task, although it is widely discussed. The economically important genus Curcuma (ca. 120 spp.; Zingiberaceae), broadly distributed in tropical SE Asia, is a particularly interesting example of a group of palaeopolyploid origin whose evolution is driven mainly by hybridization and polyploidization. Although a phylogeny and a new infrageneric classification of Curcuma, based on commonly used molecular markers (ITS and cpDNA), have recently been proposed, significant evolutionary questions remain unresolved. We applied a multilocus approach and a combination of modern analytical methods to this genus to distinguish causes of gene tree incongruence and to identify hybrids and their parental species. Five independent regions of nuclear DNA (DCS, GAPDH, GLOBOSA3, LEAFY, ITS) and four non-coding cpDNA regions (trnL-trnF, trnT-trnL, psbA-trnH and matK), analysed as a single locus, were employed to construct a species tree and hybrid species trees using (*)BEAST and STEM-hy. Detection of hybridogenous species in the dataset was also conducted using the posterior predictive checking approach as implemented in JML. The resulting species tree outlines the relationships among major evolutionary lineages within Curcuma, which were previously unresolved or which conflicted depending upon whether they were based on ITS or cpDNA markers. Moreover, by using the additional markers in tests of plausible topologies of hybrid species trees for C. vamana, C. candida, C. roscoeana and C. myanmarensis suggested by previous molecular and morphological evidence, we found strong evidence that all the species except C. candida are of subgeneric hybrid origin. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Systematics of the southern African genus Ixia (Iridaceae: Crocoideae: 4. Revision of sect. Dichone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Goldblatt

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The southern African genus Ixia L. comprises ± 90 species from the winter-rainfall zone of the subcontinent. Ixia sect. Dichone (Salisb. ex Baker Goldblatt & J.C.Manning, one of four sections in the genus and currently including 10 species and three varieties, is distinguished by the following floral characters: lower part of the perianth tube filiform and tightly clasping the style; filaments not decurrent; upper part of the perianth tube short to vestigial; style branches involute-tubular and stigmatic only at the tips; and so-called subdidymous anthers. We review the taxonomy of the section, providing complete descriptions and distribution maps, and a key to the species. I. amethystina Manning & Goldblatt is recognized to be a later synonym of I. brevituba G.J.Lewis. Most collections currently included under that name represent another species, here described as I. rigida. We recognize five additional species in the section: early summer-blooming I. altissima from the Cedarberg; I. bifolia from the Caledon District; I. flagellaris, a stoloniferous species from the Cedarberg; I. simulans from the western Langeberg; and I. tenuis from the Piketberg. We also raise to species rank I. micrandra var. confusa and var. minor, as I. confusa and I. minor respectively. Foliar and associated floral variation in the widespread I. scillaris has led us to recognize two new subspecies among its northern populations, broad leaved subsp. latifolia and the dwarfed, smaller flowered subsp. toximontana; subsp. scillaris is restricted to the immediate southwestern Cape, from Darling to Somerset West. Sect. Dichone now has 17 species and two subspecies.

  5. Revision and phylogenetic analysis of the orb-weaving spider genus Glenognatha Simon, 1887 (Araneae, Tetragnathidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabra-García, Jimmy; Brescovit, Antonio D

    2016-01-27

    A taxonomic revision and phylogenetic analysis of the spider genus Glenognatha Simon, 1887 is presented. This analysis is based on a data set including 24 Glenognatha species plus eight outgroups representing three related tetragnathine genera and one metaine as the root. These taxa were scored for 78 morphological characters. Parsimony was used as the optimality criterion and a sensitivity analysis was performed using different character weighting concavities. Seven unambiguous synapomorphies support the monophyly of Glenognatha. Some internal clades within the genus are well-supported and its relationships are discussed. Glenognatha as recovered includes 27 species, four of them only known from males. A species identification key and distribution maps are provided for all. New morphological data are also presented for thirteen previously described species. Glenognatha has a broad distribution occupying the Neartic, Afrotropic, Indo-Malaya, Oceania and Paleartic regions, but is more diverse in the Neotropics. The following eleven new species are described: G. vivianae n. sp., G. caaguara n. sp., G. boraceia n. sp. and G. timbira n. sp. from southeast Brazil, G. caparu n. sp., G. januari n. sp. and G. camisea n. sp. from the Amazonian region, G. mendezi n. sp., G. florezi n. sp. and G. patriceae n. sp. from northern Andes and G. gouldi n. sp. from Southern United States and central Mexico. Females of G. minuta Banks, 1898, G. gaujoni Simon, 1895 and G. gloriae (Petrunkevitch, 1930) and males of G. globosa (Petrunkevitch, 1925) and G. hirsutissima (Berland, 1935) are described for the first time. Three new combinations are proposed in congruence with the phylogenetic results: G. argyrostilba (O. P.-Cambridge, 1876) n. comb., G. dentata (Zhu & Wen, 1978) n. comb. and G. tangi (Zhu, Song & Zhang, 2003) n. comb., all previously included in Dyschiriognatha Simon, 1893. The following taxa are newly synonymized: Dyschiriognatha montana Simon, 1897, Glenognatha mira Bryant

  6. Oligotyping reveals community level habitat selection within the genus Vibrio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Thomas Schmidt

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The genus Vibrio is a metabolically and genetically diverse group of facultative anaerobic Bacteria, common in aquatic environments and marine hosts. The genus contains several species of importance to human health and aquaculture, including the causative agents of human cholera and fish vibriosis. Vibrios display a wide variety of known life histories, from opportunistic pathogens to long-standing symbioses with individual host species. Studying Vibrio ecology has been challenging as individual species often display a wide range of habitat preferences, and groups of vibrios can act as socially cohesive groups. Although strong associations with salinity, temperature and other environmental variables have been established, the degree of habitat or host specificity at both the individual and community levels is unknown. Here we use oligotyping analyses in combination with a large collection of existing Vibrio 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA gene sequence data to reveal patterns of Vibrio ecology across a wide range of environmental, host, and abiotic substrate associated habitats. Our data show that individual taxa often display a wide range of habitat preferences yet tend to be highly abundant in either substrate-associated or free-living environments. Our analyses show that Vibrio communities share considerable overlap between two distinct hosts (i.e., sponge and fish yet are distinct from the abiotic plastic substrates. Lastly, evidence for habitat specificity at the community level exists in some habitats, despite considerable stochasticity in others. In addition to providing insights into Vibrio ecology across a broad range of habitats, our study shows the utility of oligotyping as a facile, high-throughput and unbiased method for large scale analyses of publicly available sequence data repositories and suggests its wide application could greatly extend the range of possibilities to explore microbial ecology.

  7. Human monoclonal antibodies broadly neutralizing against influenza B virus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayo Yasugi

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Influenza virus has the ability to evade host immune surveillance through rapid viral genetic drift and reassortment; therefore, it remains a continuous public health threat. The development of vaccines producing broadly reactive antibodies, as well as therapeutic strategies using human neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (HuMAbs with global reactivity, has been gathering great interest recently. Here, three hybridoma clones producing HuMAbs against influenza B virus, designated 5A7, 3A2 and 10C4, were prepared using peripheral lymphocytes from vaccinated volunteers, and were investigated for broad cross-reactive neutralizing activity. Of these HuMAbs, 3A2 and 10C4, which recognize the readily mutable 190-helix region near the receptor binding site in the hemagglutinin (HA protein, react only with the Yamagata lineage of influenza B virus. By contrast, HuMAb 5A7 broadly neutralizes influenza B strains that were isolated from 1985 to 2006, belonging to both Yamagata and Victoria lineages. Epitope mapping revealed that 5A7 recognizes 316G, 318C and 321W near the C terminal of HA1, a highly conserved region in influenza B virus. Indeed, no mutations in the amino acid residues of the epitope region were induced, even after the virus was passaged ten times in the presence of HuMAb 5A7. Moreover, 5A7 showed significant therapeutic efficacy in mice, even when it was administered 72 hours post-infection. These results indicate that 5A7 is a promising candidate for developing therapeutics, and provide insight for the development of a universal vaccine against influenza B virus.

  8. Computing all integer solutions of a genus 1 equation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.J. Stroeker (Roel); N. Tzanakis (Nikos)

    2001-01-01

    textabstractThe Elliptic Logarithm Method has been applied with great success to the problem of computing all integer solutions of equations of degree 3 and 4 defining elliptic curves. We extend this method to include any equation f(u,v)=0 that defines a curve of genus 1. Here f is a polynomial with

  9. The genus Capparis (Capparaceae) from the Indus to the Pacific

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobs, M.

    1964-01-01

    This is a taxonomic revision of the genus Capparis in South and Southeast Asia, Malesia, Australia, and the Pacific. In this area, four sections are distinguished: 1. sect. Capparis, monotypic with C. spinosa, 2. sect. Sodada, monotypic with C. decidua, 3. sect. Monostichocalyx in a new

  10. Phylogeny, phylogeography and genetic diversity of Pisum genus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tribe Fabeae (formerly Vicieae) contains some of humanity's most important grain legume crops, namely Lathyrus; Lens; Pisum; Vicia and the monotypic genus Vavilovia. Our study based on molecular data, have positioned Pisum between Vicia and Lathyrus and being closely allied to Vavilovia. Study of p...

  11. Juvenile colonies of the genus Pyrostremma Garstang, 1929 (Tunicata, Thaliacea)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soest, van R.W.M.

    1974-01-01

    Four remarkable dome-shaped, apparently juvenile colonies, belonging to the genus Pyrostremma Garstang, 1929, are described from the Bermuda area. Comparison with juvenile colonies of P.agassizi (Ritter & Byxbee, 1905), and with larger colonies, fragments and loose zooids of P.agassizi and

  12. A Systematic Review of the Hispaniolan Snake Genus Hypsirhynchus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schwartz, Albert

    1971-01-01

    One of the least known of the endemic Hispaniolan colubrid snake genera is Hypsirhynchus. The genus was proposed by GUNTHER (1858) for one specimen of a new snake, purportedly from the island of Barbados, to which he gave the name H. ferox. COPE (1862) later described H. scalaris from Hispaniola

  13. Torsionfree sheaves over a nodal curve of arithmetic genus one

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Introduction. The isomorphism classes of algebraic vector bundles over a smooth elliptic curve defined over C were classified by Atiyah [At]. His classification extends to vector bundles over a smooth curve of genus one defined over R which admits a real point. In [BB], stable vector bundles over a Klein bottle were classified.

  14. Formulae for Arithmetic on Genus 2 Hyperelliptic Curves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lange, Tanja

    2005-01-01

    treat odd and even characteristic separately. We present 3 different coordinate systems which are suitable for different environments, e.g. on a smart card we should avoid inversions while in software a limited number is acceptable. The presented formulae render genus two hyperelliptic curves very...

  15. Phylogeny, identification and nomenclature of the genus Aspergillus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Samson, R.A.; Visagie, C.M.; Houbraken, J.

    2014-01-01

    . We introduce new combinations for accepted species presently lacking an Aspergillus name and provide an updated accepted species list for the genus, now containing 339 species. To add to the scientific value of the list, we include information about living ex-type culture collection numbers and Gen...

  16. Quantitative variation for apomictic reproduction in the genus Boechera (Brassicaceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aliyu, O.M.; Schranz, M.E.; Sharbel, T.F.

    2010-01-01

    • Premise of the study: The evolution of asexual seed production (apomixis) from sexual relatives is a great enigma of plant biology. The genus Boechera is ideal for studying apomixis because of its close relation to Arabidopsis and the occurrence of sexual and apomictic species at low ploidy levels

  17. Short Communications Vestigial teeth in the genus Scotoecus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1997-02-03

    Feb 3, 1997 ... (Mammalia: Chiroptera): adapted dental formulae for ... rounded with no signs of erosion (Figure I a). In some, how- ... The presence of an additional premolar in vestigial form in many bats belonging to this genus suggests the following dental formula: [ 1/3 C III P (1)1/2 M 3/3 ~ 30132 or. Incisors 1 Canines I ...

  18. A new genus of Staphylinidae (Coleoptera) from the Lower Cretaceous

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schomann, Andrea Maria; Solodovnikov, Alexey

    2012-01-01

    The fossil genus of rove beetles Apticaxgen.n. with two new species, A. volanssp.n. and A. solidussp.n., is described from the Nova Olinda Member of the Crato Formation in north-eastern Brazil (Aptian–Albian, dated as 125–99.6 Ma old). Both species belong to the clade Staphylininae + Paederinae i...

  19. Revision of the genus Diaphorocera Heyden, 1863 (Coleoptera, Meloidae, Cerocomini)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Turco, F.; Bologna, M.A.

    2007-01-01

    Diaphorocera, a Saharo-Sindian genus belonging to the tribe Cerocomini, is revised and a new synonymy is proposed. A cladistic classification is proposed as well, on a set of adult morphological characters. The available bionomical records, both original and from literature, concerning phenology,

  20. Australopithecus sediba and the earliest origins of the genus Homo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Lee

    2012-01-01

    Discovered in 2008, the site of Malapa has yielded a remarkable assemblage of early hominin remains attributed to the species Australopithecus sediba. The species shows unexpected and unpredicted mosaicism in its anatomy. Several commentators have questioned the specific status of Au. sediba arguing that it does not exceed the variation of Au. africanus. This opinion however, does not take into account that Au. sediba differs from Au. africanus in both craniodental and postcranial characters to a greater degree than Au.africanus differs from Au. afarensis in these same characters. Au. sediba has also been questioned as a potential ancestor of the genus Homo due to the perception that earlier specimens of the genus have been found than the c198 Ma date of the Malapa sample. This opinion however, does not take into account either the poor condition of these fossils, as well as the numerous problems with both the criteria used to associate them with the genus Homo, nor the questionable provenance of each of these specimens. This argument also does not acknowledge that Malapa is almost certainly not the first chronological appearance of Au. sediba, it is only the first known fossil occurrence. Au. sediba should therefore be considered a strong potential candidate ancestor of the genus Homo until better preserved specimens are discovered that would refute such a hypothesis.