WorldWideScience

Sample records for broad tapeworm genus

  1. Pacific Broad Tapeworm Adenocephalus pacificus as a Causative Agent of Globally Reemerging Diphyllobothriosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuchta, Roman; Serrano-Martínez, Marcus Enrique; Scholz, Tomas

    2015-10-01

    The Pacific broad tapeworm Adenocephalus pacificus (syn. Diphyllobothrium pacificum) is the causative agent of the third most common fish-borne cestodosis among humans. Although most of the nearly 1,000 cases among humans have been reported in South America (Peru, Chile, and Ecuador), cases recently imported to Europe demonstrate the potential for spread of this tapeworm throughout the world as a result of global trade of fresh or chilled marine fish and travel or migration of humans. We provide a comprehensive survey of human cases of infection with this zoonotic parasite, summarize the history of this re-emerging disease, and identify marine fish species that may serve as a source of human infection when eaten raw or undercooked. PMID:26402440

  2. Tapeworm infection - beef or pork

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teniasis; Pork tapeworm; Beef tapeworm; Tapeworm; Taenia saginata ; Taenia solium ; Taeniasis ... or through the anus. Adults and children with pork tapeworm can infect themselves if they have poor ...

  3. Fish tapeworm infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fish tapeworm infection is an intestinal infection with the tapeworm parasite found in fish. ... The fish tapeworm ( Diphyllobothrium latum ) is the largest parasite that infects humans. Humans become infected when they eat raw ...

  4. Seussapex, a new genus of lecanicephalidean tapeworm (Platyhelminthes: Cestoda) from the stingray genus Himantura (Myliobatiformes: Dasyatidae) in the Indo-West Pacific with investigation of mode of attachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Kirsten; Russell, Shelbi L

    2014-06-01

    A new lecanicephalidean genus, Seussapex gen. n., is erected for specimens collected from stingrays from the Indo-West Pacific resembling the little known species Tenia [sic] narinari MacCallum, 1917 from the spotted eagle ray, Aetobatus narinari (Euphrasen). Members of this new genus are unique in their possession of a multi-tiered apical structure comprising a bipartite apical modification of the scolex proper, and an externally bipartite apical organ with anterior and posterior glandular compartments internally. The appearance of the scolex varies dramatically depending on state of protrusion and/or evagination of these different parts which appear to be able to function independently. Seussapex karybares sp. n. parasitizing Himantura uarnak 2 (sensu Naylor et al., 2012) in northern Australia is described as the type species and Tenia [sic] narinari is transferred to the new genus. The two species differ in scolex length and width of the posterior dome-shaped portion of the apical organ. Histological sections of scoleces stained using the periodic acid-Schiff(PAS) reaction showed the surface of the anterior part of the apical organ and the anterior glandular compartment to stain PAS positive, suggesting a chemical mode of attachment to the host's intestinal mucosal surface. Extensive collecting efforts of stingrays in the Indo-West Pacific shows Seussapex gen. n. to be restricted to species of Himantura Miller et Henle and suggests additional diversity in this group of hosts. In addition, the host identity of Seussapex narinari (MacCallum, 1917) comb. n. is called into question. PMID:25065129

  5. Tapeworm infection - beef or pork

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teniasis; Pork tapeworm; Beef tapeworm; Tapeworm; Taenia saginata ; Taenia solium ; Taeniasis ... usually carry Taenia saginata ( T. saginata ). Pigs carry Taenia solium (T. solium) . In the human intestine, the young ...

  6. Dipylidium (Dog and Cat Flea Tapeworm) FAQs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... if my pet has a tapeworm infection? Although cats and dogs are rarely ill as a result of a ... and outdoor environments. Have your veterinarian treat your dogs and cats promptly if they have tapeworms. Clean up after ...

  7. A REVIEW ON DIARRHOEA CAUSING HYMENOLEPIS NANA-DWARF TAPEWORM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazim Kanwal

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Hymenolepis nana, the ‘dwarf tapeworm,’ is the smallest tapeworm found in the intestines of broad range of dogs, rats and humans. It is frequently in children than in adults. Although, the parasite has a wide distribution particularly more prevalent in warm areas. It exists in many parts of the world in Egypt, Sudan Portugal, Spain, Sicily, India, Japan, South America, Cuba and parts of Eastern Europe. The transmission of H. nana is mainly via anus to mouth and owing to this; the infection is very common in children. The incidence of infection in humans ranges from less 1% to 25 %. Infection consists of a few worms but occasionally large numbers of worms are present in an individual. Diagnosis is usually based on finding eggs in stool specimens. The infection can be prevented by observing strict personal hygiene and good sanitation, killing of rats and mice and by treatment of infected persons with a suitable taenicide such as niclosamide.

  8. Cryptic diversity in hymenolepidid tapeworms infecting humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nkouawa, Agathe; Haukisalmi, Voitto; Li, Tiaoying; Nakao, Minoru; Lavikainen, Antti; Chen, Xingwang; Henttonen, Heikki; Ito, Akira

    2016-04-01

    An adult hymenolepidid tapeworm was recovered from a 52-year-old Tibetan woman during a routine epidemiological survey for human taeniasis/cysticercosis in Sichuan, China. Phylogenetic analyses based on sequences of nuclear 28S ribosomal DNA and mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 showed that the human isolate is distinct from Hymenolepis diminuta and Hymenolepis nana, the common parasites causing human hymenolepiasis. Proglottids of the human isolate were unfortunately unsuitable for morphological identification. However, the resultant phylogeny demonstrated the human isolate to be a sister species to Hymenolepis hibernia from Apodemus mice in Eurasia. The present data clearly indicate that hymenolepidid tapeworms causing human infections are not restricted to only H. diminuta and H. nana. PMID:26537836

  9. Lanfrediella amphicirrus gen. nov. sp. nov. Nematotaeniidae (Cestoda: Cyclophyllidea), a tapeworm parasite of Rhinella marina (Linnaeus, 1758) (Amphibia: Bufonidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Francisco Tiago de Vasconcelos Melo; Elane Guerreiro Giese; Adriano Penha Furtado; Maurílio José Soares; Evonnildo Costa Gonçalves; Antonio Carlos Rosário Vallinoto; Jeannie Nascimento dos Santos

    2011-01-01

    The family Nematotaeniidae, tapeworms commonly found in the small intestines of amphibians and reptiles, includes 27 recognised species distributed among four genera: Bitegmen Jones, Cylindrotaenia Jewell, Distoichometra Dickey and Nematotaenia Lühe. The taxonomy of these cestodes is poorly defined, due in part to the difficulties of observing many anatomical traits. This study presents and describes a new genus and species of nematotaeniid parasite found in cane toads (Rhinella marina) from ...

  10. New genus and species of broad-nosed weevils from Baltic amber and notes on fossils of the subfamily Entiminae (Coleoptera, Curculionidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolai Yunakov

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Arostropsis groehni gen. et sp. n. is described from Baltic amber and temporarily placed in the tribe Naupactini. It differs from all recent Naupactini genera with open corbels by very short and flattened scape, distinct lateral carina of the pronotum and elytra, and the rostrum distinctly narrower than the head capsule. The shape of head in the extinct genus is somewhat similar to that of the extant Naupactini genera with enclosed corbels (Platyomus Sahlberg, 1823 and Aptolemus Schoenherr, 1842, but differs in the slender body, open corbels, very short antennal scape and epifrons without a median sulcus (only a longitudinal depression is slightly visible. It is also similar to the Tanymecine genus Pandeleteius Schoenherr, 1834 in general appearance, but distinct by the straight anterior edge of the pronotum, lack of postocular spurs, lobes, and vibrissae, a slightly sloping elytral declivity, lateral ridges on the pronotum, subflattened antennal scape, elongate rostrum, and sparsely setose epistome. A new synonymy of the generic names Protonaupactus Zherikhin, 1971 and Sucinophyllobius Wanat & Borowiec, 1986, syn. n., is established. The Madagascan genus Corecaulus Fairmaire, 1903 is transferred from the tribe Naupactini to the Brachyderini because of its connate claws and the similarity in chaetotaxy of the epistomal area with African and Madagascar Brachyderini genera. A key to the identification of known Baltic amber genera of Entiminae is proposed. A checklist of the prepleistocene fossil Entiminae, based on V.V. Zherikhin’s data, with remarks and corrections, is presented.

  11. Tapeworm Diphyllobothrium dendriticum (Cestoda)-Neglected or Emerging Human Parasite?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kuchta, Roman; Brabec, Jan; Kubáčková, P.; Scholz, Tomáš

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 7, č. 12 (2013), e2535. ISSN 1935-2727 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP506/12/1632 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : tapeworm * human disease * cox1 gene Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 4.716, year: 2011

  12. Molecular phylogeny of anoplocephalid tapeworms (Cestoda: Anoplocephalidae) infecting humans and non-human primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doležalová, Jana; Vallo, Peter; Petrželková, Klára J; Foitová, Ivona; Nurcahyo, Wisnu; Mudakikwa, Antoine; Hashimoto, Chie; Jirků, Milan; Lukeš, Julius; Scholz, Tomáš; Modrý, David

    2015-09-01

    Anoplocephalid tapeworms of the genus Bertiella Stiles and Hassall, 1902 and Anoplocephala Blanchard, 1848, found in the Asian, African and American non-human primates are presumed to sporadic ape-to-man transmissions. Variable nuclear (5.8S-ITS2; 28S rRNA) and mitochondrial genes (cox1; nad1) of isolates of anoplocephalids originating from different primates (Callicebus oenanthe, Gorilla beringei, Gorilla gorilla, Pan troglodytes and Pongo abelii) and humans from various regions (South America, Africa, South-East Asia) were sequenced. In most analyses, Bertiella formed a monophyletic group within the subfamily Anoplocephalinae, however, the 28S rRNA sequence-based analysis indicated paraphyletic relationship between Bertiella from primates and Australian marsupials and rodents, which should thus be regarded as different taxa. Moreover, isolate determined as Anoplocephala cf. gorillae from mountain gorilla clustered within the Bertiella clade from primates. This either indicates that A. gorillae deserves to be included into the genus Bertiella, or, that an unknown Bertiella species infects also mountain gorillas. The analyses allowed the genetic differentiation of the isolates, albeit with no obvious geographical or host-related patterns. The unexpected genetic diversity of the isolates studied suggests the existence of several Bertiella species in primates and human and calls for revision of the whole group, based both on molecular and morphological data. PMID:26046952

  13. Fish tapeworm infections (diphyllobothriasis) in Canada, particularly British Columbia.

    OpenAIRE

    Ching, H. L.

    1984-01-01

    Although the risk of diphyllobothriasis is generally low in Canada, fish tapeworm infections seem to have become more frequent in recent years. This increase is probably a consequence of the growing popularity of raw or inadequately cooked ethnic fish dishes or of a preference for lightly cooked fish, especially salmon. Only freshwater fish become infected with the larvae, but not everyone may realize that salmon can acquire the parasites before they leave their native lakes and rivers for th...

  14. Elimination of Asian fish tapeworms from grass carp with praziquantel bath treatments: The need for 24 hour exposures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Several states require that imported fish be free of the Asian fish tapeworm Bothriocephalus acheilognathi. Praziquantel has been used for several years to treat fish with Asian fish tapeworms but rates and exposure periods necessary to eliminate these tapeworms from infected fish have not been ade...

  15. Orders out of chaos--molecular phylogenetics reveals the complexity of shark and stingray tapeworm relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caira, Janine N; Jensen, Kirsten; Waeschenbach, Andrea; Olson, Peter D; Littlewood, D Timothy J

    2014-01-01

    elasmobranch cestodes. Across analyses, the sister group to the clade of "terrestrial" cestode orders was found to be an elasmobranch-hosted genus, as was the sister to the freshwater fish- and tetrapod-hosted Proteocephalidea. Whilst further data are required to resolve outstanding nomenclatural and phylogenetic issues, the present analyses contribute significantly to an understanding of the evolutionary radiation of the entire Cestoda. Clearly, elasmobranch tapeworms comprise the backbone of cestode phylogeny. PMID:24275646

  16. Pacific Broad Tapeworm Adenocephalus pacificus as a Causative Agent of Globally Reemerging Diphyllobothriosis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kuchta, Roman; Serrano-Martínez, M.E.; Scholz, Tomáš

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 21, č. 10 (2015), s. 1697-1703. ISSN 1080-6059 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP506/12/1632 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : megaloblastic anemia * identification * populations Subject RIV: EG - Zoology

  17. Multiplex PCR for Differential Identification of Broad Tapeworms (Cestoda: Diphyllobothrium) Infecting Humans

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Wicht, B.; Yanagida, T.; Scholz, Tomáš; Ito, A.; Jiménez, J. A.; Brabec, Jan

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 48, č. 9 (2010), s. 3111-3116. ISSN 0095-1137 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC522 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : MOLECULAR EVIDENCE * PACIFIC SALMON * NIHONKAIENSE * Diphyllobothrium * multiplex PCR * the cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 * mitochondrial DNA Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 4.220, year: 2010

  18. On the position of Archigetes and its bearing on the early evolution of the tapeworms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, P D; Poddubnaya, L G; Littlewood, D T J; Scholz, T

    2008-08-01

    The tapeworm Archigetes sieboldi Leuckart, 1878 (Platyhelminthes: Cestoda: Caryophyllidea) has been cited as a likely representative of the "protocestode" condition, owing to its lack of segmentation and ability to attain sexual maturity in the invertebrate host (aquatic oligochaetes). The idea has been variously amplified or rejected in the literature, although the actual phylogenetic position of the species has not been investigated until now. New collections of Archigetes sp. from both its vertebrate and invertebrate hosts provided the opportunity to estimate its phylogenetic position with the use of molecular systematics, while prompting new analyses aimed at assessing the early diversification of the Cestoda. Additional collections representing the Amphilinidea, Caryophyllidea, and Gyrocotylidea were combined with published gene sequences to construct data sets of complete 18S (110 taxa) and partial (D1-D3) 28S (107 taxa) rDNA sequences, including 8 neodermatan outgroup taxa. Estimates resulting from Bayesian inference, maximum likelihood, and maximum parsimony analyses of the separate and combined data sets supported a derived position of the genus within the Caryophyllidea, and thus reject the idea that Archigetes sp. may exemplify a "primitive" condition. Topological constraint analyses rejected the hypothesis that Archigetes represents the most basal lineage of the Eucestoda, but did not rule out that it could represent the earliest branching taxon of the Caryophyllidea. In all analyses, the Eucestoda were monophyletic and supported basal positions of the nonsegmented Caryophyllidea and Spathebothriidea relative to other major lineages of the Eucestoda, implying that segmentation is a derived feature of the common ancestor of the di- and tetrafossate eucestodes. However, constraint analyses could not provide unequivocal evidence as to the precise branching patterns of the cestodarian, spathebothriidean, and caryophyllidean lineages. Phylogenetic analyses

  19. Caryophyllidean tapeworms (Platyhelminthes: Eucestoda) from freshwater fishes in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholz, T; Shimazu, T; Olson, P D; Nagasawa, K

    2001-01-01

    The following caryophyllidean tapeworms were found in freshwater fishes from Japan (species reported from Japan for the first time marked with an asterisk): family Caryophyllaeidae: Paracaryophyllaeus gotoi (Motomura, 1927) from Misgurnus anguillicaudatus (Cantor); Archigetes sieboldi Leuckart, 1878 from Pseudorasbora parva (Temminck et Schlegel) and Sarcocheilichthys variegatus microoculus Mori (new hosts); family Lytocestidae: *Caryophyllaeides ergensi Scholz, 1990 from Tribolodon hakuensis (Günther), T. ezoe Okada et Ikeda, Hemibarbus barbus (Temminck et Schlegel) and Chaenogobius sp. (new hosts); Khawia japonensis (Yamaguti, 1934) from Cyprinus carpio Linnaeus; K. sinensis Hsü, 1935 from H. barbus (new host) and C. carpio; *K. parva (Zmeev, 1936) from Carassius auratus langsdorfii Valenciennes in Cuvier et Valenciennes and Carassius sp. (new hosts); and *Atractolytocestus sagittatus (Kulakovskaya et Akhmerov, 1962) from C. carpio; family Capingentidae: *Breviscolex orientalis Kulakovskaya, 1962 from H. barbus (new host); and Caryophyllidea gen. sp. (probably Breviscolex orientalis) from C. carpio. The validity of C. ergensi, originally described from Leuciscus leuciscus baicalensis from Mongolia, is confirmed on the basis of an evaluation of extensive material from Japan. Atractolytocestus sagittatus (syn. Markevitschia sagittata) is tentatively considered a valid species, differing from the only congener, A. huronensis Anthony, 1958, in its considerably greater number of testes. PMID:11817451

  20. Thaumasioscolex didelphidis n. gen., n. sp. (Eucestoda: Proteocephalidae) from the black-eared opossum Didelphis marsupialis from Mexico, the first proteocephalidean tapeworm from a mammal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cañeda-Guzmán, I C; de Chambrier, A; Scholz, T

    2001-06-01

    Thaumasioscolex didelphidis n. gen., n. sp. is described from the intestine of the black-eared opossum Didelphis marsupialis L. (Marsupialia: Didelphidae) from Los Tuxtlas, Veracruz, Mexico. The new genus differs from all proteocephalidean genera in the morphology of the scolex that is formed by 4 well separated lobes each containing 1 noncircular sucker opening laterally inside the exterolateral cavity, a large-sized body (length up to 1 m), a large number of testes, the shape of gravid proglottids that are inversely craspedote (the anterior border of a proglottid overlaps the posterior border of a preceding proglottid), eggs in groups mostly of 4-6 eggs each, and an embryophore bearing digitiform projections on its external surface. This is the first tapeworm of the Proteocephalidea, the members of which were previously reported exclusively from poikilotherm vertebrates (freshwater fishes, amphibians, and reptiles), found in a homoiotherm vertebrate. PMID:11426729

  1. Lanfrediella amphicirrus gen. nov. sp. nov. Nematotaeniidae (Cestoda: Cyclophyllidea, a tapeworm parasite of Rhinella marina (Linnaeus, 1758 (Amphibia: Bufonidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Tiago de Vasconcelos Melo

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The family Nematotaeniidae, tapeworms commonly found in the small intestines of amphibians and reptiles, includes 27 recognised species distributed among four genera: Bitegmen Jones, Cylindrotaenia Jewell, Distoichometra Dickey and Nematotaenia Lühe. The taxonomy of these cestodes is poorly defined, due in part to the difficulties of observing many anatomical traits. This study presents and describes a new genus and species of nematotaeniid parasite found in cane toads (Rhinella marina from eastern Brazilian Amazonia. The cestodes were collected during the necropsy of 20 hosts captured in the urban area of Belém, Pará. The specimens were fixed and processed for light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM and three-dimensional (3D reconstruction. Samples were also collected for molecular analyses. The specimens presented a cylindrical body, two testes and paruterine organs. However, they could not be allocated to any of the four existing nematotaeniid genera due to the presence of two each of dorsal compact medullary testes, cirri, cirrus pouches, genital pores, ovaries and vitelline glands per mature segment. Lanfrediella amphicirrus gen. nov. sp. nov. is the first nematotaeniid studied using Historesin analysis, SEM and 3D reconstruction, and it is the second taxon for which molecular data have been deposited in GenBank.

  2. Genetics of the pig tapeworm in Madagascar reveal a history of human dispersal and colonization

    Science.gov (United States)

    An intricate history of human dispersal and geographic colonization has strongly affected the distribution of obligate parasites circulating among people. Among these parasites, the pig tapeworm Taenia solium occurs throughout the world as the causative agent of cysticercosis, one of the most serio...

  3. Novel praziquantel treatment regime for controlling Asian tapeworm infections in pond-reared fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iles, Alison C.; Archdeacon, Thomas P.; Bonar, Scott A.

    2012-01-01

    The Asian tapeworm Bothriocephalus achelognathii is an intestinal fish parasite that is nonnative to but widespread throughout the southwestern United States. Praziquantel is an anthelminthic drug commonly used to treat fish for Asian tapeworm; however, it does not kill tapeworm eggs, so the water in ponds used for fish rearing must be exchanged after treatment. Our objective was to determine whether a system containing both an intermediate copepod host and a definitive fish host for Asian tapeworm could be treated without exchanging the water by using a follow-up treatment for any tapeworms that developed from eggs released before or during the first treatment. Here, we have described a new praziquantel treatment regimen to control Asian tapeworm infections in freshwater-reared fish. To evaluate the efficacy of this regimen, we stocked 50 red shiners Cyprinella lutrensis and an intermediate copepod host, Cyclops vernalis, into each of six pond mesocosms containing artificial macrophytes, sand, and gravel to simulate natural pools and provide suitable substrate for the copepod's life history. The test fish population had been naturally infected with B. achelognathii and had an initial infection prevalence of 14% and an infection intensity of 2.14 ± 2.19 (mean ± SD) worms per fish. Three mesocosms were treated twice, each with 2.5 mg/L praziquantel; 19 d passed between treatments to allow for possible reinfection to occur. After a 2.5-month posttreatment period to allow any remaining tapeworms to reestablish themselves, we killed and dissected all of the remaining fish. No worms were found in treated fish; however, the control group had an infection prevalence of 18 ± 6% and an infection intensity of 3.45 ± 2.1 worms per fish. Based on these results, we concluded that the praziquantel treatment regime administered was efficacious and suggest testing it on a larger scale. We caution that praziquantel has not been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration

  4. Insights using a molecular approach into the life cycle of a tapeworm infecting great white sharks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randhawa, Haseeb S

    2011-04-01

    The great white shark Carcharodon carcharias Linnaeus, 1758 is a versatile and fierce predator (and responsible for many shark attacks on humans). This apex predator feeds on a wide range of organisms including teleosts, other elasmobranchs, cephalopods, pinnipeds, and cetaceans. Although much is known about its diet, no trophic links have been empirically identified as being involved in the transmission of its tapeworm parasites. Recently, the use of molecular tools combined with phylogenetics has proven useful to identify larval and immature stages of marine tapeworms; utilization of the technique has been increasing rapidly. However, the usefulness of this approach remains limited by the availability of molecular data. Here, I employed gene sequence data from the D2 region of the large subunit of ribosomal DNA to link adults of the tapeworm Clistobothrium carcharodoni Dailey and Vogelbein, 1990 (Cestoda: Tetraphyllidea) to larvae for which sequence data for this gene are available. The sequences from the adult tapeworms were genetically identical (0% sequence divergence) to those available on GenBank for "SP" 'small' Scolex pleuronectis recovered from the striped dolphin (Stenella coeruleoalba) and Risso's dolphin (Grampus griseus). This study is the first to provide empirical evidence linking the trophic interaction between great white sharks and cetaceans as a definitive route for the successful transmission of a tetraphyllidean tapeworm. Using the intensity of infection data from this shark and from cetaceans as proxies for the extent of predation, I estimate that this individual shark would have consumed between 9 to 83 G. griseus , fresh, dead, or both, in its lifetime. PMID:21506792

  5. What is the genus?

    CERN Document Server

    Popescu-Pampu, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    Exploring several of the evolutionary branches of the mathematical notion of genus, this book traces the idea from its prehistory in problems of integration, through algebraic curves and their associated Riemann surfaces, into algebraic surfaces, and finally into higher dimensions. Its importance in analysis, algebraic geometry, number theory and topology is emphasized through many theorems. Almost every chapter is organized around excerpts from a research paper in which a new perspective was brought on the genus or on one of the objects to which this notion applies. The author was motivated by the belief that a subject may best be understood and communicated by studying its broad lines of development, feeling the way one arrives at the definitions of its fundamental notions, and appreciating the amount of effort spent in order to explore its phenomena.

  6. The Stable Concordance Genus

    OpenAIRE

    Kearney, M. Kate

    2013-01-01

    The concordance genus of a knot is the least genus of any knot in its concordance class. Although difficult to compute, it is a useful invariant that highlights the distinction between the three-genus and four-genus. In this paper we define and discuss the stable concordance genus of a knot, which describes the behavior of the concordance genus under connected sum.

  7. Spermatozoa of tapeworms (Platyhelminthes, Eucestoda): advances in ultrastructural and phylogenetic studies

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Levron, Céline; Miquel, J.; Oros, Mikuláš; Scholz, Tomáš

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 85, č. 3 (2010), s. 523-543. ISSN 1464-7931 R&D Projects: GA ČR GP524/07/P039; GA ČR GA524/08/0885; GA MŠk LC522 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : spermatozoon * spermiogenesis * ultrastructure * phylogeny * classification * Eucestoda * Platyhelminthes * tapeworm Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 6.574, year: 2010

  8. Tapeworms (Cestoda: Proteocephalidea) of fishes from the Amazon River in Peru

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    de Chambrier, A.; Scholz, Tomáš; Kuchta, Roman; Posel, P.; Mortenthaler, M.; Chuquipiondo-Guardia, C.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 73, č. 1 (2006), s. 111-120. ISSN 1525-2647 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC522; GA ČR GA524/04/0342; GA ČR GD524/03/H133 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : fish tapeworms * Peru * faunal survey Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 0.659, year: 2006

  9. Parasites in Kentucky Thoroughbreds at necropsy: emphasis on stomach worms and tapeworms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, E T; Tolliver, S C; Drudge, J H; Swerczek, T W; Crowe, M W

    1983-05-01

    A total of 363 Thoroughbreds (62 males, 292 females, and 9 geldings), 1 to 26 years of age, were examined at necropsy for internal parasites for about a 12-month period from February 1981 through February 1982. Emphasis was on examining the stomach for nematodes and the small intestine and cecum for tapeworms. Parasites recovered from the stomach and infection rates were: Habronema spp--immature (24%), H muscae--adult (38%), Draschia megastoma--immature (13%), D megastoma--adult (62%), and Trichostrongylus axei--adult (4%); lesions caused by D megastoma were found upon gross observation in 58% of the stomachs. The tapeworm, Anoplocephala perfoliata, was recovered from 54% of the horses; A magna was not found. There was no obvious difference in infection rates of the stomach worms and tapeworms according to age or sex of the horses. Seasonal differences were apparent only for immature Habronema spp and immature D megastoma for which infection rates began increasing in June, peaking in October, and declining thereafter. Presence of 4 additional species of parasites was recorded, but only a cursory examination was made for them. These were the large strongyles, Strongylus vulgaris, S edentatus, and S equinus, from the cecum and a filariid, Setaria spp (probably S equina), from the abdominal cavity, for which recovery rates from the horses were 8%, 8%, 1%, and 7%, respectively. PMID:6869991

  10. First study of vitellogenesis of the broad fish tapeworm Diphyllobothrium latum (Cestoda, Diphyllobothriidea), a human parasite with extreme fecundity

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Yoneva, Aneta; Kuchta, Roman; Scholz, Tomáš

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 63, č. 6 (2014), s. 747-753. ISSN 1383-5769 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP506/12/1632 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : cytochemistry * Diphyllobothriosis * Diphyllobothrium latum * ultrastructure * vitellogenesis Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 1.859, year: 2014

  11. Conflict between morphology and molecular data: a case of the genus Caryophyllaeus (Cestoda: Caryophyllidea), monozoic tapeworms of cyprinid fishes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bazsalovicsová, E.; Kráľová-Hromadová, I.; Brabec, Jan; Hanzelová, V.; Oros, M.; Scholz, Tomáš

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 61, č. 4 (2014), s. 347-354. ISSN 0015-5683 R&D Projects: GA ČR GBP505/12/G112 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : scolex morphology * morphological plasticity * Caryophyllaeus laticeps * Caryophyllaeus brachycollis * mitochondrial haplotypes * cox1 * lsrDNA * morphotypes Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 1.147, year: 2014

  12. Redescription of Corallobothrium solidum (Cestoda: Proteocephalidea) and erection of a new genus, Essexiella, for tapeworms from channel catfish (Ictaluridae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Scholz, Tomáš; de Chambrier, A.; Mariaux, J.; Kuchta, Roman

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 97, č. 6 (2011), 1142–1151. ISSN 0022-3395 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA524/04/0342; GA ČR GA524/08/0885; GA AV ČR KJB600960902; GA MŠk LC522 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : MALAPTERURUS-ELECTRICUS * PARASITE * SILURIFORMES * Eucestoda * MONTICELLIIDAE * FRITSCH * FISHES * MORPHOLOGY Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 1.405, year: 2011

  13. A New Genus and Species of Proteocephalidean Tapeworm (Cestoda) From Pangasius larnaudii (Siluriformes: Pangasiidae) In Southeast Asia

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Scholz, Tomáš; de Chambrier, A.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 98, č. 3 (2012), s. 648-653. ISSN 0022-3395 R&D Projects: GA ČR GBP505/12/G112 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : PALEARCTIC REGION * REDESCRIPTION * EUCESTODA * PARASITES * FISHES Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 1.321, year: 2012 http://www.bioone.org/doi/pdf/10.1645/GE-2992.1

  14. Description of Hymenolepis microstoma (Nottingham strain: a classical tapeworm model for research in the genomic era

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olson Peter D

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hymenolepis microstoma (Dujardin, 1845 Blanchard, 1891, the mouse bile duct tapeworm, is a rodent/beetle-hosted laboratory model that has been used in research and teaching since its domestication in the 1950s. Recent characterization of its genome has prompted us to describe the specific strain that underpins these data, anchoring its identity and bringing the 150+ year-old original description up-to-date. Results Morphometric and ultrastructural analyses were carried out on laboratory-reared specimens of the 'Nottingham' strain of Hymenolepis microstoma used for genome characterization. A contemporary description of the species is provided including detailed illustration of adult anatomy and elucidation of its taxonomy and the history of the specific laboratory isolate. Conclusions Our work acts to anchor the specific strain from which the H. microstoma genome has been characterized and provides an anatomical reference for researchers needing to employ a model tapeworm system that enables easy access to all stages of the life cycle. We review its classification, life history and development, and briefly discuss the genome and other model systems being employed at the beginning of a genomic era in cestodology.

  15. Molecular Identification of Zoonotic Tissue-Invasive Tapeworm Larvae Other than Taenia solium in Suspected Human Cysticercosis Cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tappe, Dennis; Berkholz, Jörg; Mahlke, Uwe; Lobeck, Hartmut; Nagel, Thomas; Haeupler, Alexandra; Muntau, Birgit; Racz, Paul; Poppert, Sven

    2016-01-01

    Rarely, zoonotic Taenia species other than Taenia solium cause human cysticercosis. The larval stages are morphologically often indistinguishable. We therefore investigated 12 samples of suspected human cysticercosis cases at the molecular level and surprisingly identified one Taenia crassiceps and one Taenia serialis (coenurosis) infection, which were caused by tapeworm larvae normally infecting rodents and sheep via eggs released from foxes and dogs. PMID:26491175

  16. Histopathological and ultrastructural studies of the tapeworm Monobothrium wageneri (Caryophyllidea) in the intestinal tract of tench Tinca tinca

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Williams, C. F.; Poddubnaya, L. G.; Scholz, Tomáš; Turnbull, J. F.; Ferguson, H. W.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 97, č. 2 (2011), 143-154. ISSN 0177-5103 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC522; GA ČR GA524/08/0885 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : Monobothrium wageneri * Pathology * Tapeworm * Tench * Fisheries Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 2.201, year: 2011

  17. 9 CFR 311.25 - Parasites not transmissible to man; tapeworm cysts in sheep; hydatid cysts; flukes; gid bladder...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Parasites not transmissible to man... DISEASED OR OTHERWISE ADULTERATED CARCASSES AND PARTS § 311.25 Parasites not transmissible to man; tapeworm... organs, and other parts of carcasses showing evidence of infestation with parasites not transmissible...

  18. Efficacy of 6-, 12-, and 24-h praziquantel bath treatments against Asian tapeworm Bothriocephalus acheilognathi in grass carp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Praziquantel is an effective antihelmintic that has been used in dogs and cats as a de-wormer. It has also been used successfully against tapeworms and trematodes in fish. The current study tested the efficacy of praziquantel bath treatments at various concentrations (0.187, 0.375, 0.75, 1.5, 3.0,...

  19. The eradication of tapeworms in pork and beef carcasses by irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this investigation was to determine the potential role that the γ irradiation of carcasses infested with pork and beef tape worms can play in the eradication of these parasites. Irradiated cysticerci were examined to determine the effect of various radiation doses on the evagination of the cysticerci. Such irradiated cysticerci were also fed to hamsters in order to study the effect of the treatment on their infectivity and the longevity of the resulting tapeworms. The results showed that carcasses infested with cysticercosis can be rendered fit for human consumption by exposing them to radiation doses of 20 to 60 krad. Irradiation at these low doses does not affect the taste of the meat, and, moreover, enhances its shelf life. The low irradiation doses required, together with the possibility of high irradiator utilization, favours the economy of such radiation processing and could lead to appreciable monetary savings as compared to present freezing techniques. (author)

  20. [Original procreation or generational change? The investigation of cysticercus and tapeworms].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geus, A

    2007-01-01

    The doctrine of the abiogenesis postulated the origin of human and animal intestinal worms from "not complete digested ingesta". Indeed Peter Simon Pallas (1741-1811) defined already 1760 in his dissertation that endoparasitic worms reproduce themselves by eggs. But he characterised the nature of cysticercus as "pathologically degenerated tail bladder". In 1856 Rudolf Leuckart (1822-1898) paraphrased the alternation of generation with "marvellous metamorphoses and peculiar form of development". The Dane Johannes Japetus Smith Steenstrup (1813-1897) recognised finally the principle of the alternation of generation and Gottlob Friedrich Heinrich Küchenmeister (1821-1890), a physician at the Saxon city Zittau realised the special correlation between the alternate and end host of tapeworms. Both, Leuckart and Küchenmeister proved their insights by animal and human experimentations. PMID:17243446

  1. Target gene enrichment in the cyclophyllidean cestodes, the most diverse group of tapeworms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Hao; Jiang, Jiamei; Jiménez, Francisco Agustín; Hoberg, Eric P; Cook, Joseph A; Galbreath, Kurt E; Li, Chenhong

    2016-09-01

    The Cyclophyllidea is the most diverse order of tapeworms, encompassing species that infect all classes of terrestrial tetrapods including humans and domesticated animals. Available phylogenetic reconstructions based either on morphology or molecular data lack the resolution to allow scientists to either propose a solid taxonomy or infer evolutionary associations. Molecular markers available for the Cyclophyllidea mostly include ribosomal DNA and mitochondrial loci. In this study, we identified 3641 single-copy nuclear coding loci by comparing the genomes of Hymenolepis microstoma, Echinococcus granulosus and Taenia solium. We designed RNA baits based on the sequence of H. microstoma, and applied target enrichment and Illumina sequencing to test the utility of those baits to recover loci useful for phylogenetic analyses. We captured DNA from five species of tapeworms representing two families of cyclophyllideans. We obtained an average of 3284 (90%) of the targets from the test samples and then used captured sequences (2 181 361 bp in total; fragment size ranging from 301 to 6969 bp) to reconstruct a phylogeny for the five test species plus the three species for which genomic data are available. The results were consistent with the current consensus regarding cyclophyllidean relationships. To assess the potential for our method to yield informative genetic variation at intraspecific scales, we extracted 14 074 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from alignments of four Arostrilepis macrocirrosa and two A. cooki and successfully inferred their relationships. The results showed that our target gene tools yield data sets that provide robust inferences at a range of taxonomic scales in the Cyclophyllidea. PMID:27037792

  2. Experimental parasite community ecology: intraspecific variation in a large tapeworm affects community assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benesh, Daniel P; Kalbe, Martin

    2016-07-01

    Non-random species associations occur in naturally sampled parasite communities. The processes resulting in predictable community structure (e.g. particular host behaviours, cross-immunity, interspecific competition) could be affected by traits that vary within a parasite species, like growth or antigenicity. We experimentally infected three-spined sticklebacks with a large tapeworm (Schistocephalus solidus) that impacts the energy needs, foraging behaviour and immune reactions of its host. The tapeworms came from two populations, characterized by high or low growth in sticklebacks. Our goal was to evaluate how this parasite, and variation in its growth, affects the acquisition of other parasites. Fish infected with S. solidus were placed into cages in a lake to expose them to the natural parasite community. We also performed a laboratory experiment in which infected fish were exposed to a fixed dose of a common trematode parasite. In the field experiment, infection with S. solidus affected the abundance of four parasite species, relative to controls. For two of the four species, changes occurred only in fish harbouring the high-growth S. solidus; one species increased in abundance and the other decreased. These changes did not appear to be directly linked to S. solidus growth though. The parasite exhibiting elevated abundance was the same trematode used in the laboratory infection. In that experiment, we found a similar infection pattern, suggesting that S. solidus affects the physiological susceptibility of fish to this trematode. Associations between S. solidus and other parasites occur and vary in direction. However, some of these associations were contingent on the S. solidus population, suggesting that intraspecific variability can affect the assembly of parasite communities. PMID:27061288

  3. Genus $n$ Banach spaces

    OpenAIRE

    Casazza, Peter G.; Lammers, Mark C.

    1999-01-01

    We show that the classification problem for genus $n$ Banach spaces can be reduced to the unconditionally primary case and that the critical case there is $n=2$. It is further shown that a genus $n$ Banach space is unconditionally primary if and only if it contains a complemented subspace of genus $(n-1)$. We begin the process of classifying the genus 2 spaces by showing they have a strong decomposition property.

  4. Genus four superstring measures

    OpenAIRE

    Cacciatori, Sergio L.; Piazza, Francesco Dalla; Geemen, Bert van

    2008-01-01

    A main issue in superstring theory are the superstring measures. D'Hoker and Phong showed that for genus two these reduce to measures on the moduli space of curves which are determined by modular forms of weight eight and the bosonic measure. They also suggested a generalisation to higher genus. We showed that their approach works, with a minor modification, in genus three and we announced a positive result also in genus four. Here we give the modular form in genus four explicitly. Recently S...

  5. A large 28S rDNA-based phylogeny confirms the limitations of established morphological characters for classification of proteocephalidean tapeworms (Platyhelminthes, Cestoda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alain de Chambrier

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Proteocephalidean tapeworms form a diverse group of parasites currently known from 315 valid species. Most of the diversity of adult proteocephalideans can be found in freshwater fishes (predominantly catfishes, a large proportion infects reptiles, but only a few infect amphibians, and a single species has been found to parasitize possums. Although they have a cosmopolitan distribution, a large proportion of taxa are exclusively found in South America. We analyzed the largest proteocephalidean cestode molecular dataset to date comprising more than 100 species (30 new, including representatives from 54 genera (80% and all subfamilies, thus significantly improving upon previous works to develop a molecular phylogeny for the group. The Old World origin of proteocephalideans is confirmed, with their more recent expansion in South America. The earliest diverging lineages are composed of Acanthotaeniinae and Gangesiinae but most of the presently recognized subfamilies (and genera appear not to be monophyletic; a deep systematic reorganization of the order is thus needed and the present subfamilial system should be abandoned. The main characters on which the classical systematics of the group has been built, such as scolex morphology or relative position of genital organs in relation to the longitudinal musculature, are of limited value, as demonstrated by the very weak support for morphologically-defined subfamilies. However, new characters, such as the pattern of uterus development, relative ovary size, and egg structure have been identified, which may be useful in defining phylogenetically well-supported subgroups. A strongly supported lineage infecting various snakes from a wide geographical distribution was found. Although several improvements over previous works regarding phylogenetic resolution and taxon coverage were achieved in this study, the major polytomy in our tree, composed largely of siluriform parasites from the Neotropics, remained

  6. The parasite's long arm: a tapeworm parasite induces behavioural changes in uninfected group members of its social host.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beros, Sara; Jongepier, Evelien; Hagemeier, Felizitas; Foitzik, Susanne

    2015-11-22

    Parasites can induce alterations in host phenotypes in order to enhance their own survival and transmission. Parasites of social insects might not only benefit from altering their individual hosts, but also from inducing changes in uninfected group members. Temnothorax nylanderi ant workers infected with the tapeworm Anomotaenia brevis are known to be chemically distinct from nest-mates and do not contribute to colony fitness, but are tolerated in their colonies and well cared for. Here, we investigated how tapeworm- infected workers affect colony aggression by manipulating their presence in ant colonies and analysing whether their absence or presence resulted in behavioural alterations in their nest-mates. We report a parasite-induced shift in colony aggression, shown by lower aggression of uninfected nest-mates from parasitized colonies towards conspecifics, potentially explaining the tolerance towards infected ants. We also demonstrate that tapeworm-infected workers showed a reduced flight response and higher survival, while their presence caused a decrease in survival of uninfected nest-mates. This anomalous behaviour of infected ants, coupled with their increased survival, could facilitate the parasites' transmission to its definitive hosts, woodpeckers. We conclude that parasites exploiting individuals that are part of a society not only induce phenotypic changes within their individual hosts, but in uninfected group members as well. PMID:26582019

  7. Knots of genus two

    OpenAIRE

    Stoimenow, A.

    2003-01-01

    We classify all knot diagrams of genus two and three, and give applications to positive, alternating and homogeneous knots, including a classification of achiral genus 2 alternating knots, slice or achiral 2-almost positive knots, a proof of the 3- and 4-move conjectures, and the calculation of the maximal hyperbolic volume for weak genus two knots. We also study the values of the link polynomials at roots of unity, extending denseness results of Jones. Using these values, examples of knots w...

  8. Beyond the string genus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In an earlier work we used a path integral analysis to propose a higher genus generalization of the elliptic genus. We found a cobordism invariant parametrized by Teichmuller space. Here we simplify the formula and study the behavior of our invariant under the action of the mapping class group of the Riemann surface. We find that our invariant is a modular function with multiplier just as in genus one.

  9. The genus Bipolaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manamgoda, D S; Rossman, A Y; Castlebury, L A; Crous, P W; Madrid, H; Chukeatirote, E; Hyde, K D

    2014-09-01

    The genus Bipolaris includes important plant pathogens with worldwide distribution. Species recognition in the genus has been uncertain due to the lack of molecular data from ex-type cultures as well as overlapping morphological characteristics. In this study, we revise the genus Bipolaris based on DNA sequence data derived from living cultures of fresh isolates, available ex-type cultures from worldwide collections and observation of type and additional specimens. Combined analyses of ITS, GPDH and TEF gene sequences were used to reconstruct the molecular phylogeny of the genus Bipolaris for species with living cultures. The GPDH gene is determined to be the best single marker for species of Bipolaris. Generic boundaries between Bipolaris and Curvularia are revised and presented in an updated combined ITS and GPDH phylogenetic tree. We accept 47 species in the genus Bipolaris and clarify the taxonomy, host associations, geographic distributions and species' synonymies. Modern descriptions and illustrations are provided for 38 species in the genus with notes provided for the other taxa when recent descriptions are available. Bipolaris cynodontis, B. oryzae, B. victoriae, B. yamadae and B. zeicola are epi- or neotypified and a lectotype is designated for B. stenospila. Excluded and doubtful species are listed with notes on taxonomy and phylogeny. Seven new combinations are introduced in the genus Curvularia to accomodate the species of Bipolaris transferred based on the phylogenetic analysis. A taxonomic key is provided for the morphological identification of species within the genus. PMID:25492990

  10. Genus Mikania: chemical composition and phytotherapeutical activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciane C. Rufatto

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The genus Mikania ranks high in the list of best-selling natural products in the world. Its main distribution is in South America, but some species are found in Asia, North America and Africa. It is used for treating fever, rheumatism, colds and respiratory diseases, as well as snake bites and scorpion stings, due to its broad spectrum of action. There are approximately 430 species of this genus and only 12% have been studied, highlighting their chemical and pharmacological diversity. The main chemical groups are: coumarins and derivatives, sesquiterpenes, sesquiterpenes lactones, diterpenes, phytosterols/terpenoids and flavonoids. This review aims to supply useful references for scientists interested in natural products and the search for new compounds, from over the 300 already described for the genus.

  11. The 2010 Broad Prize

    Science.gov (United States)

    Education Digest: Essential Readings Condensed for Quick Review, 2011

    2011-01-01

    A new data analysis, based on data collected as part of The Broad Prize process, provides insights into which large urban school districts in the United States are doing the best job of educating traditionally disadvantaged groups: African-American, Hispanics, and low-income students. Since 2002, The Eli and Edythe Broad Foundation has awarded The…

  12. Partial characterization of the carbohydrates of the eggs (oncospheres) of the tapeworm, Hymenolepis diminuta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pappas, P W; Durka, G M

    1995-02-01

    The carbohydrate constituents of whole eggs and fractions derived from the eggs of Hymenolepis diminuta were partly characterized. Whole eggs contained 9.6 ng of carbohydrate (phenol-sulphuric acid-positive material) per egg, and 3.6 ng of glucose. Analysis of hydrolysed eggs by HPLC demonstrated the presence of glucose, galactose, glycerol, N-acetylgalactosamine, and 2-deoxyribose. Isolated egg shells and the KOH-stable, ethanol-precipitable fraction (putative glycogen) of eggs contained 26 and 76%, respectively, of the total carbohydrate associated with eggs. Glucose and galactose were present in both of these samples, but only glucose was present in the KOH-stable, ethanol-precipitable fraction isolated from chemically deshelled eggs; thus, the source of the galactose in the KOH-stable, ethanol-precipitable fraction isolated from whole eggs was the egg-shells. These data confirm earlier reports that the shells contain carbohydrate; the data demonstrate further that only two monosaccharides (glucose and galactose) are present in the shells, and that they are present as high molecular weight polymers. The ethanol-soluble fraction of eggs contained 2.5% of the total carbohydrate in eggs, and glucose accounted for < 1% of the ethanol-soluble carbohydrate. Analysis of the ethanol-soluble fraction by HPLC demonstrated that the predominant monosaccharides were glycerol and mannose, with smaller quantities of 2-deoxyribose and 2-deoxyglucose. The absence of a 'free pool' of glucose in eggs, and the presence of large amounts of glycerol and mannose, suggest that the pathways of intermediary carbohydrate metabolism in eggs might be very different from those in adult tapeworms. PMID:7885741

  13. IL-22 Restrains Tapeworm-Mediated Protection against Experimental Colitis via Regulation of IL-25 Expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, José L.; Fernando, Maria R.; Lopes, Fernando; Leung, Gabriella; Mancini, Nicole L.; Matisz, Chelsea E.; Wang, Arthur; McKay, Derek M.

    2016-01-01

    Interleukin (IL)-22, an immune cell-derived cytokine whose receptor expression is restricted to non-immune cells (e.g. epithelial cells), can be anti-inflammatory and pro-inflammatory. Mice infected with the tapeworm Hymenolepis diminuta are protected from dinitrobenzene sulphonic acid (DNBS)-induced colitis. Here we assessed expulsion of H. diminuta, the concomitant immune response and the outcome of DNBS-induced colitis in wild-type (WT) and IL-22 deficient mice (IL-22-/-) ± infection. Interleukin-22-/- mice had a mildly impaired ability to expel the worm and this correlated with reduced or delayed induction of TH2 immunity as measured by splenic and mesenteric lymph node production of IL-4, IL-5 and IL-13 and intestinal Muc-2 mRNA and goblet cell hyperplasia; in contrast, IL-25 increased in the small intestine of IL-22-/- mice 8 and 12 days post-infection compared to WT mice. In vitro experiments revealed that H. diminuta directly evoked epithelial production of IL-25 that was inhibited by recombinant IL-22. Also, IL-10 and markers of regulatory T cells were increased in IL-22-/- mice that displayed less DNBS (3 mg, ir. 72h)-induced colitis. Wild-type mice infected with H. diminuta were protected from colitis, as were infected IL-22-/- mice and the latter to a degree that they were almost indistinguishable from control, non-DNBS treated mice. Finally, treatment with anti-IL-25 antibodies exaggerated DNBS-induced colitis in IL-22-/- mice and blocked the anti-colitic effect of infection with H. diminuta. Thus, IL-22 is identified as an endogenous brake on helminth-elicited TH2 immunity, reducing the efficacy of expulsion of H. diminuta and limiting the effectiveness of the anti-colitic events mobilized following infection with H. diminuta in a non-permissive host. PMID:27055194

  14. Minimal Genus One Curves

    OpenAIRE

    Sadek, Mohammad

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we consider genus one equations of degree $n$, namely a (generalised) binary quartic when $n=2$, a ternary cubic when $n=3$, and a pair of quaternary quadrics when $n=4$. A new definition for the minimality of genus one equations of degree $n$ over local fields is introduced. The advantage of this definition is that it does not depend on invariant theory of genus one curves. We prove that this definition coincides with the classical definition of minimality for all $n\\le4$. As a...

  15. Unimodality and genus distributions

    OpenAIRE

    Wan, Liangxia

    2014-01-01

    New criteria are shown that certain combinations of finite unimodal polynomials are unimodal. %Given unimodal polynomials with explicit expressions and dependent recursion relations, we propose an approach to determine their modes. As applications, unimodality of several polynomial sequences satisfying dependent recurrence relations and their modes are provided. Then unimodality of genus distributions for some ladders and crosses can be determined. As special cases, that of genus distribution...

  16. A New Tapeworm Dipilidium Singhi N.sp. (EUCESTODA : DIPYLIDIDAE) From Canis Familiaris

    OpenAIRE

    D. P. Patil

    2012-01-01

    The present communication deals with description of a new species of the genus, Dipylidium Leuckart (1863) with its type species, Dipylidium crassum Millzner (1926), Dipylidium longutum Millzner (1926) Dipylidium gracile Millzner (1926), Dipylidium wakleri Sandhi (1923), in having the number of testes, but differs from them, in many characters.

  17. Is the human-infecting Diphyllobothrium pacificum a valid species or just a South American population of the Holarctic fish broad tapeworm, D. latum?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Škeříková, Andrea; Brabec, Jan; Kuchta, Roman; Jiménez, J. A.; García, H. H.; Scholz, Tomáš

    Roč. 75, č. 2 ( 2006 ), s. 307-310. ISSN 0002-9637 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC522; GA ČR GA524/04/0342; GA ČR GD524/03/H133 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : Cestoda * Pseudophyllidea * human parasite Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 2.546, year: 2006

  18. High morphological plasticity and global geographical distribution ofthe Pacific broad tapeworm Adenocephalus pacificus (syn.Diphyllobothrium pacificum): Molecular and morphological survey

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hernández-Orts, Jesús S.; Scholz, Tomáš; Brabec, Jan; Kuzmina, T.; Kuchta, Roman

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 149, SEP 2015 (2015), s. 168-178. ISSN 0001-706X R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP506/12/1632 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : biogeography * Cestoda * cox1 * lsrDNA * helminth * Diphyllobothriidea * diphyllobothriosis * phylogeny * Pseudophyllidea * seals Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 2.270, year: 2014

  19. Zyzyura, a new genus of Eupatorieae (Asteraceae from Belize

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harold Robinson

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A new Genus, Zyzyura is named to accommodate Fleischmannia mayana Pruski that has an eximbricate involucre, a high-conical receptacle, a corolla with a slender base closely investing the style and with a broadly campanulate limb, enlarged elongate cells in the carpopodium, short and broad distally protruding cells in the corolla lobes, and broad rounded anther appendages.

  20. The human genus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, B; Collard, M

    1999-04-01

    A general problem in biology is how to incorporate information about evolutionary history and adaptation into taxonomy. The problem is exemplified in attempts to define our own genus, Homo. Here conventional criteria for allocating fossil species to Homo are reviewed and are found to be either inappropriate or inoperable. We present a revised definition, based on verifiable criteria, for Homo and conclude that two species, Homo habilis and Homo rudolfensis, do not belong in the genus. The earliest taxon to satisfy the criteria is Homo ergaster, or early African Homo erectus, which currently appears in the fossil record at about 1.9 million years ago. PMID:10102822

  1. Genus I. Leptospira

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leptospira comprise a diverse group of bacteria. Some species cause serious infections in animals and humans. These bacteria are aerobes that consume long-chain fatty acids and alcohols as carbon and energy sources. This genus is distinguished from Leptonema or Turneriella by lack of similarity u...

  2. The genus Lagenophora (Compositae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cabrera, Angel L.

    1966-01-01

    The genus Lagenophora was first described by Cassini under the name Lagenifera (in Bull. Soc. Philomat. 12, 1816, 199) with the following diagnosis: ‘Ce genre, de la tribus des astérées, comprend le calendula magellanicá, Willd. et le bellis stipitata, Labill. Son principal caractère reside dans la

  3. Evolution of the trypanorhynch tapeworms: parasite phylogeny supports independent lineages of sharks and rays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Peter D; Caira, Janine N; Jensen, Kirsten; Overstreet, Robin M; Palm, Harry W; Beveridge, Ian

    2010-02-01

    Trypanorhynch tapeworms (Platyhelminthes: Cestoda) are among the most diverse and abundant groups of metazoan parasites of elasmobranchs and are a ubiquitous part of the marine food webs that include these apex predators. Here we present a comprehensive analysis of their phylogeny, character evolution and host associations based on 10years of sampling effort, including representatives of 12 of 15 and 44 of 66 currently recognized trypanorhynch families and genera, respectively. Using a combination of ssrDNA and lsrDNA (Domains 1-3) for 79 and 80 taxa, respectively, we maintain one-to-one correspondence between molecules and morphology by scoring 45 characters from the same specimens used for sequencing, and provide museum vouchers for this material. Host associations are examined through likelihood-based ancestral character state reconstructions (ACSRs) and by estimating dates of divergence using strict and relaxed molecular clock models in a Bayesian context. Maximum parsimony and Bayesian inference analyses of rDNA produced well-resolved and strongly supported trees in which the trypanorhynchs formed two primary lineages and were monophyletic with respect to the diphyllidean outgroup taxa. These lineages showed marked differences in their rates of divergence which in turn resulted in differing support and stability characteristics within the lineages. Mapping of morphological characters onto the tree resulting from combined analysis of rDNA showed most traits to be highly plastic, including some previously considered of key taxonomic importance such as underlying symmetries in tentacular armature. The resulting tree was found to be congruent with the most recent morphologically based superfamily designations in the order, providing support for four proposed superfamilies, but not for the Tentacularioidea and Eutetrarhynchoidea. ACSRs based on the combined analysis of rDNA estimated the original hosts of the two primary parasite lineages to be alternatively

  4. A new genus and species of proteocephalidean tapeworm (Cestoda), first parasite found in the driftwood catfish Tocantinsia piresi (Siluriformes: Auchenipteridae) from Brazil

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Alves, P.V.; de Chambrier, A.; Scholz, Tomáš; Luque, J.L.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 62, January 2015 (2015), 006. ISSN 0015-5683 R&D Projects: GA ČR GBP505/12/G112 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : taxonomy * morphology * Proteocephalidea * metascolex * Amazon River basin * Xingú River * Neotropical Region Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 1.147, year: 2014

  5. Sequence structure and intragenomic variability of ribosomal ITS2 in monozoic tapeworms of the genus Khawia (Cestoda: Caryophyllidea), parasites of cyprinid fish

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kraľová-Hromadová, I.; Bazsalovicsová, E.; Oros, M.; Scholz, Tomáš

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 111, č. 4 (2012), s. 1621-1627. ISSN 0932-0113 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA524/08/0885; GA ČR GD206/09/H026; GA ČR GBP505/12/G112 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : INTERNAL TRANSCRIBED SPACER-1 * ATRACTOLYTOCESTUS-HURONENSIS * SYMPATRIC SPECIATION * SINENSIS HSU * RDNA * DNA * PLATYHELMINTHES * PARALOGUES * EVOLUTION * carp Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 2.852, year: 2012 http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs00436-012-3001-z

  6. Studies in the family Thelypteridaceae V. The genus Pneumatopteris Nakai

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holttum, R.E.

    1973-01-01

    I re-described this genus in Blumea 19 (1971) 42. The principal characters there enumerated are: rhizome-scales broad, thin, with marginal hairs (some bearing mucilage glands) but rarely superficial hairs; lower pinnae, usually several pairs, reduced, the transition to reduced pinnae abrupt or gradu

  7. Spiky higher genus strings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports that it is clear from both the non-perturbative and perturbative approaches to two-dimensional quantum gravity that a new strong coupling regime is setting in at d = 1, independent of the genus of the worldsheet being considered. It has been suggested that a Kosterlitz-Thouless (KT) phase transition in the Liouville theory is the cause of this behavior. However, it has recently been pointed out that the XY-model, which displays a KT transition on the plane and the sphere, is always in the strong coupling, disordered phase on a surface of constant negative curvature. A higher genus worldsheet can be represented as a fundamental region on just such a surface, which might seem to suggest that the KT picture predicts a strong coupling region for arbitrary d, contradicting the known results. The authors resolve the apparent paradox

  8. The genus Syncolostemon (Lamiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. E. Codd

    1976-12-01

    Full Text Available The genus  Syncolostemon E. Mey. ex Benth. is revised and its relationship with  Hemizygia (Benth. Briq.f is discussed. A new species,  S. comptonii Codd is described and the following new combinations are made: S. parviflorus var. lanceolatus (Guerke Codd  (= S . lanceolatus Guerke and  S. latidens (N.E. Br. Codd ( = Orthosiphon latidens N.E. Br..

  9. Inhibition of Tapeworm Thioredoxin and Glutathione Pathways by an Oxadiazole N-Oxide Leads to Reduced Mesocestoides vogae Infection Burden in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivian Pasquet

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Parasitic flatworms cause serious infectious diseases that affect humans and livestock in vast regions of the world, yet there are few effective drugs to treat them. Thioredoxin glutathione reductase (TGR is an essential enzyme for redox homeostasis in flatworm parasites and a promising pharmacological target. We purified to homogeneity and characterized the TGR from the tapeworm Mesocestoides vogae (syn. M. corti. This purification revealed absence of conventional TR and GR. The glutathione reductase activity of the purified TGR exhibits a hysteretic behavior typical of flatworm TGRs. Consistently, M. vogae genome analysis revealed the presence of a selenocysteine-containing TGR and absence of conventional TR and GR. M. vogae thioredoxin and glutathione reductase activities were inhibited by 3,4-bis(phenylsulfonyl-1,2,5-oxadiazole N2-oxide (VL16E, an oxadiazole N-oxide previously identified as an inhibitor of fluke and tapeworm TGRs. Finally, we show that mice experimentally infected with M. vogae tetrathyridia and treated with either praziquantel, the reference drug for flatworm infections, or VL16E exhibited a 28% reduction of intraperitoneal larvae numbers compared to vehicle treated mice. Our results show that oxadiazole N-oxide is a promising chemotype in vivo and highlights the convenience of M. vogae as a model for rapid assessment of tapeworm infections in vivo.

  10. The genus Gelsemium: An update

    OpenAIRE

    Dutt, V.; Thakur, S.; V J Dhar; Sharma, A.

    2010-01-01

    The review includes 103 references on the genus Gelsemium, and comprises ethnopharmacology, morphology, phytoconstituents, pharmacological reports, clinical studies and toxicology of the prominent species of Gelsemium. Alkaloids and iridoids constitute major classes of phytoconstituents of the genus. Most popular species of the genus are the Asian G. elegans and the two North American related species, G. sempervirens and G. rankinii. Gelsemium species are categorized under medicinal as well a...

  11. Genus two trisections are standard

    OpenAIRE

    Meier, Jeffrey; Zupan, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    We show that the only closed 4-manifolds admitting genus two trisections are $S^2 \\times S^2$ and connected sums of $S^1 \\times S^3$, $\\mathbb{CP}^2$, and $\\overline{\\mathbb{CP}}^2$ with two summands. Moreover, each of these manifolds admits a unique genus two trisection up to diffeomorphism. The proof relies heavily on the combinatorics of genus two Heegaard diagrams of $S^3$. As a corollary, we classify two-component links contained in a genus two Heegaard surface for $S^3$ with a surface-s...

  12. Phylogenetic analysis of the Bifidobacterium genus using glycolysis enzyme sequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katelyn eBrandt

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Bifidobacteria are important members of the human gastrointestinal tract that promote the establishment of a healthy microbial consortium in the gut of infants. Recent studies have established that the Bifidobacterium genus is a polymorphic phylogenetic clade, which encompasses a diversity of species and subspecies that encode a broad range of proteins implicated in complex and non-digestible carbohydrate uptake and catabolism, ranging from human breast milk oligosaccharides, to plant fibers. Recent genomic studies have created a need to properly place Bifidobacterium species in a phylogenetic tree. Current approaches, based on core-genome analyses come at the cost of intensive sequencing and demanding analytical processes. Here, we propose a typing method based on sequences of glycolysis genes and the proteins they encode, to provide insights into diversity, typing, and phylogeny in this complex and broad genus. We show that glycolysis genes occur broadly in these genomes, to encode the machinery necessary for the biochemical spine of the cell, and provide a robust phylogenetic marker. Furthermore, glycolytic sequences-based trees are congruent with both the classical 16S rRNA phylogeny, and core genome-based strain clustering. Furthermore, these glycolysis markers can also be used to provide insights into the adaptive evolution of this genus, especially with regards to trends towards a high GC content. This streamlined method may open new avenues for phylogenetic studies on a broad scale, given the widespread occurrence of the glycolysis pathway in bacteria, and the diversity of the sequences they encode.

  13. Complete Sequence of the mitochondrial genome of the tapeworm Hymenolepis diminuta: Gene arrangements indicate that platyhelminths are eutrochozoans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    von Nickisch-Rosenegk, Markus; Brown, Wesley M.; Boore, Jeffrey L.

    2001-01-01

    Using ''long-PCR'' we have amplified in overlapping fragments the complete mitochondrial genome of the tapeworm Hymenolepis diminuta (Platyhelminthes: Cestoda) and determined its 13,900 nucleotide sequence. The gene content is the same as that typically found for animal mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) except that atp8 appears to be lacking, a condition found previously for several other animals. Despite the small size of this mtDNA, there are two large non-coding regions, one of which contains 13 repeats of a 31 nucleotide sequence and a potential stem-loop structure of 25 base pairs with an 11-member loop. Large potential secondary structures are identified also for the non-coding regions of two other cestode mtDNAs. Comparison of the mitochondrial gene arrangement of H. diminuta with those previously published supports a phylogenetic position of flatworms as members of the Eutrochozoa, rather than being basal to either a clade of protostomes or a clade of coelomates.

  14. Flavonoids from the genus Astragalus: Phytochemistry and biological activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktor M Bratkov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Flavonoids, the most common plant polyphenols are widely distributed in every species and possess a broad range of pharmacological activities. The genus Astragalus is the largest in the Fabaceae family with more than 2,500 species spread. They are known to contain different metabolites such as flavonoids, saponins, and polysaccharides. Plants from the genus have been used in the traditional medicine of many countries for centuries. This paper is focused on the large group of flavonoid compounds. Details on structure as well as information about the pharmacological properties of flavonoids, isolated from Astragalus species have been discussed. This review is based on publications until the first half of 2014 and includes also the results from our phytochemical investigations of the genus.

  15. Flavonoids from the Genus Astragalus: Phytochemistry and Biological Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bratkov, Viktor M; Shkondrov, Aleksandar M; Zdraveva, Petranka K; Krasteva, Ilina N

    2016-01-01

    Flavonoids, the most common plant polyphenols are widely distributed in every species and possess a broad range of pharmacological activities. The genus Astragalus is the largest in the Fabaceae family with more than 2,500 species spread. They are known to contain different metabolites such as flavonoids, saponins, and polysaccharides. Plants from the genus have been used in the traditional medicine of many countries for centuries. This paper is focused on the large group of flavonoid compounds. Details on structure as well as information about the pharmacological properties of flavonoids, isolated from Astragalus species have been discussed. This review is based on publications until the first half of 2014 and includes also the results from our phytochemical investigations of the genus. PMID:27041870

  16. Phylogenetic placement of the ectomycorrhizal genus Cenococcum in Gloniaceae (Dothideomycetes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spatafora, Joseph W; Owensby, C Alisha; Douhan, Greg W; Boehm, Eric W A; Schoch, Conrad L

    2012-01-01

    Cenococcum is a genus of ectomycorrhizal Ascomycota that has a broad host range and geographic distribution. It is not known to produce either meiotic or mitotic spores and is known to exist only in the form of hyphae, sclerotia and host-colonized ectomycorrhizal root tips. Due to its lack of sexual and asexual spores and reproductive structures, it has proven difficult to incorporate into traditional classification within Ascomycota. Molecular phylogenetic studies of ribosomal RNA placed Cenococcum in Dothideomycetes, but the definitive identification of closely related taxa remained elusive. Here we report a phylogenetic analysis of five nuclear loci (SSU, LSU, TEF1, RPB1, RPB2) of Dothideomycetes that placed Cenococcum as a close relative of the genus Glonium of Gloniaceae (Pleosporomycetidae incertae sedis) with strong statistical support. Glonium is a genus of saprobic Dothideomycetes that produces darkly pigmented, carbonaceous, hysteriate apothecia and is not known to be biotrophic. Evolution of ectomycorhizae, Cenococcum and Dothideomycetes is discussed. PMID:22453119

  17. The anthelmintic efficacy of natural plant cysteine proteinases against the rat tapeworm Hymenolepis diminuta in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansur, F; Luoga, W; Buttle, D J; Duce, I R; Lowe, A; Behnke, J M

    2016-05-01

    Hymenolepis diminuta is a natural parasite of the common brown rat Rattus norvegicus, and provides a convenient model system for the assessment of the anthelmintic activity of novel drugs against cestodes. The experiments described in this paper indicate that treatment of rats infected with H. diminuta with a supernatant extract of papaya latex, containing a mixture of four cysteine proteinases, was moderately efficacious, resulting in a significant, but relatively small, reduction in worm burden and biomass. However, faecal egg output was not affected by treatment. In our experiments these effects were only partially dose-dependent, although specific inhibition by E-64 confirmed the role of cysteine proteinases as the active principles in papaya latex affecting worm growth but not statistically reducing worm burden. Data collected for a further 7 days after treatment indicated that the effects of papaya latex supernatant on worm loss and on worm growth were not enhanced. Our findings provide a starting point for further refinement in formulation and delivery, or assessment of alternative natural plant-derived cysteine proteinases in efforts to develop these naturally occurring enzymes into broad-spectrum anthelmintics, with efficacy against cestodes as well as nematodes. PMID:25761568

  18. Integrating Hot and Cool Intelligences: Thinking Broadly about Broad Abilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Joel Schneider

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Although results from factor-analytic studies of the broad, second-stratum abilities of human intelligence have been fairly consistent for decades, the list of broad abilities is far from complete, much less understood. We propose criteria by which the list of broad abilities could be amended and envision alternatives for how our understanding of the hot intelligences (abilities involving emotionally-salient information and cool intelligences (abilities involving perceptual processing and logical reasoning might be integrated into a coherent theoretical framework.

  19. The genus Vitex: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Rani

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The review includes 161 references on the genus Vitex, and comprises ethnopharmacology, morphology and microscopy, phytoconstituents, pharmacological reports, clinical studies, and toxicology of the prominent species of Vitex. Essential oils, flavonoids, iridoid glycosides, diterpenoides and ligans constitute major classes of phytoconstituents of the genus. A few species of this genus have medicinal value, among these, leaves and fruits of V. agnus-castus Linn. (Verbenaceae has been traditionally used in treatment of women complaints. V. agnus-castus has also been included in herbal remedies, which are in clinical use to regulate the menstrual cycle, reduce premenstrual symptom tension and anxiety, treat some menopausal symptoms as well as to treat hormonally induced acne. Despite a long tradition of use of some species, the genus has not been explored properly. In the concluding part, the future scope of Vitex species has been emphasized with a view to establish their multifarious biological activities and mode of action.

  20. Abelian Duality at Higher Genus

    CERN Document Server

    Beasley, Chris

    2014-01-01

    In three dimensions, a free, periodic scalar field is related by duality to an abelian gauge field. Here I explore aspects of this duality when both theories are quantized on a Riemann surface of genus g. At higher genus, duality involves an identification of winding with momentum on the Jacobian variety of the Riemann surface. I also consider duality for monopole and loop operators on the surface and exhibit the operator algebra, a refinement of the Wilson-'t Hooft algebra.

  1. The Concordance Genus of 11--Crossing Knots

    OpenAIRE

    Kearney, M. Kate

    2012-01-01

    The concordance genus of a knot is the least genus of any knot in its concordance class. It is bounded above by the genus of the knot, and bounded below by the slice genus, two well-studied invariants. In this paper we consider the concordance genus of 11--crossing prime knots. This analysis resolves the concordance genus of 533 of the 552 prime 11--crossing knots. The appendix to the paper gives concordance diagrams for 59 knots found to be concordant to knots of lower genus, including null-...

  2. A descendent relation in genus 2

    OpenAIRE

    Belorousski, Pasha; Pandharipande, Rahul

    1998-01-01

    A new codimension 2 relation among descendent strata in the moduli space of stable, 3-pointed, genus 2 curves is found. The space of pointed admissible double covers is used in the calculation. The resulting differential equations satisfied by the genus 2 gravitational potentials of varieties in Gromov-Witten theory are described. These are analogous to the WDVV-equations in genus 0 and Getzler's equations in genus 1. As an application, genus 2 descendent invariants of the projective plane ar...

  3. [Population biology of cestode genus Triaenophorus in natural and man-made water bodies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ieshko, E P; Anikieva, L V; Lebedeva, D I; Il'mast, N V

    2012-01-01

    A comparative study of the frequencies of occurrence and distribution of the abundances of pike parasites, tapeworms of the genus Triaenophorus, was carried out in natural lakes and water bodies contaminated by the Kostomuksha mining and concentration mill (Northern Karelia). We demonstrate that the wide presence of T. crassus and T. nodulosus in natural northern lakes is due to the diversity of aquatic organisms and the structure of trophic relations. The abundance of both species is modeled by the negative binomial distribution. Relations in the host-parasite system are stable. Estimates of the parameter k of the negative binomial distribution reflect the changes in the interactions in the host-parasite system. T. nodulosus has survived in the man-made water body storing the highly mineralized recirculated water from the mill. Disturbance-related distinctions were detected in the parameters of the T. nodulosus abundance distribution in the host population. In the Okunevoye Lake, where the water discharged from the tailings dump is more diluted, the infection rates in pike did not differ from those in undisturbed water bodies. PMID:23458019

  4. Chemistry of the Genus Plectranthus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. Batterjee

    2002-02-01

    Full Text Available This review presents the phytochemical constituents of the genus Plectranthus reported up to 1999. Only a tetrameric derivative of caffeic acid was isolated from P. japonicus, but a group of long-chain alkylphenols, of possible taxonomic significance in the genus, was also isolated. As a genus of the subfamily Nepetoideae, Plectranthus is free from iridoid glycosides and rich in essential oil (i.e. > 0.5% volatile oil on a dry weight basis. Diterpenoids are the more common secondary metabolites in Plectranthus. The majority of them are highly modified abietanoids. This seems to be similar to the pattern of diterpenoids observed for Salvia, but no clerodane diterpenoids were found in Plectranthus.

  5. On genus expansion of superpolynomials

    CERN Document Server

    Mironov, A; Sleptsov, A; Smirnov, A

    2013-01-01

    Recently it was shown that the (Ooguri-Vafa) generating function of HOMFLY polynomials is the Hurwitz partition function, i.e. that the dependence of the HOMFLY polynomials on representation is naturally captured by symmetric group characters (cut-and-join eigenvalues). The genus expansion and expansion through Vassiliev invariants explicitly demonstrate this phenomenon. In the present letter we claim that the superpolynomials are not functions of such a type: symmetric group characters do not provide an adequate linear basis for their expansions. Deformation to superpolynomials is, however, straightforward in the multiplicative basis:the Casimir operators are beta-deformed to Hamiltonians of the Calogero-Moser-Sutherland system. Applying this trick to the genus and Vassiliev expansions, we observe that the deformation is rather straightforward only for the thin knots. Beyond this family additional algebraically independent terms appear in the Vassiliev and genus expansions. This can suggest that the superpol...

  6. The genus Gelsemium: An update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V Dutt

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The review includes 103 references on the genus Gelsemium, and comprises ethnopharmacology, morphology, phytoconstituents, pharmacological reports, clinical studies and toxicology of the prominent species of Gelsemium. Alkaloids and iridoids constitute major classes of phytoconstituents of the genus. Most popular species of the genus are the Asian G. elegans and the two North American related species, G. sempervirens and G. rankinii. Gelsemium species are categorized under medicinal as well as poisonous plants. Amongst various species, G. elegans and G. sempervirens possess medicinal value, and have been traditionally used as nervous system relaxant. These plants have been explored exhaustively for their anticancer activity. In the concluding part, the future scope of Gelsemium species has been emphasized with a view to establish their multifarious biological activities and mode of actions

  7. Twists of genus three Jacobians

    OpenAIRE

    Meagher, Stephen

    2007-01-01

    We give a criterion to distinguish between a genus three Jacobian and its [-1] twist in terms of the product of the 36 even theta nulls. We also express the product of the 36 theta nulls in terms of the discriminant of a genus three curve. The results are arithmetic in nature and thus add to previous work over C on the product of the even theta nulls. They generalize previous work of Ritzenthaler and Lachaud for Abelian threefolds which are (2,2,2) isogenous to a product of elliptic curves. T...

  8. Pseudovirgaria, a fungicolous hyphomycete genus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Braun, U.; Crous, P.W.; Groenewald, J.Z.; Scheuer, C.

    2011-01-01

    The genus Pseudovirgaria, based on P. hyperparasitica, was recently introduced for a mycoparasite of rust sori of various species of Frommeella, Pucciniastrum and Phragmidium in Korea. In the present study, an older name introduced by Saccardo based on European material, Rhinotrichum griseum, is sho

  9. Pseudovirgaria, a fungicolous hyphomycete genus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Braun, U.; Crous, P.W.; Groenewald, J.Z.; Scheuer, C.

    2011-01-01

    The genus Pseudovirgaria, based on P. hyperparasitica, was recently introduced for a mycoparasite of rust sori of various species of Frommeëlla, Pucciniastrum and Phragmidium in Korea. In the present study, an older name introduced by Saccardo based on European material, Rhinotrichum griseum, is sho

  10. Broad Diphotons from Narrow States

    CERN Document Server

    An, Haipeng; Zhang, Yue

    2015-01-01

    ATLAS and CMS have each reported a modest diphoton excess consistent with the decay of a broad resonance at ~ 750 GeV. We show how this signal can arise in a weakly coupled theory comprised solely of narrow width particles. In particular, if the decaying particle is produced off-shell, then the associated diphoton resonance will have a broad, adjustable width. We present simplified models which explain the diphoton excess through the three-body decay of a scalar or fermion. Our minimal ultraviolet completion is a weakly coupled and renormalizable theory of a singlet scalar plus a heavy vector-like quark and lepton. The smoking gun of this mechanism is an asymmetric diphoton peak recoiling against missing transverse energy, jets, or leptons.

  11. Fiber sums of genus 2 Lefschetz fibrations

    OpenAIRE

    Auroux, Denis

    2003-01-01

    Using the recent results of Siebert and Tian about the holomorphicity of genus 2 Lefschetz fibrations with irreducible singular fibers, we show that any genus 2 Lefschetz fibration becomes holomorphic after fiber sum with a holomorphic fibration.

  12. Cochlear microphonic broad tuning curves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayat, Mohammad; Teal, Paul D.; Searchfield, Grant D.; Razali, Najwani

    2015-12-01

    It is known that the cochlear microphonic voltage exhibits much broader tuning than does the basilar membrane motion. The most commonly used explanation for this is that when an electrode is inserted at a particular point inside the scala media, the microphonic potentials of neighbouring hair cells have different phases, leading to cancelation at the electrodes location. In situ recording of functioning outer hair cells (OHCs) for investigating this hypothesis is exceptionally difficult. Therefore, to investigate the discrepancy between the tuning curves of the basilar membrane and those of the cochlear microphonic, and the effect of phase cancellation of adjacent hair cells on the broadness of the cochlear microphonic tuning curves, we use an electromechanical model of the cochlea to devise an experiment. We explore the effect of adjacent hair cells (i.e., longitudinal phase cancellation) on the broadness of the cochlear microphonic tuning curves in different locations. The results of the experiment indicate that active longitudinal coupling (i.e., coupling with active adjacent outer hair cells) only slightly changes the broadness of the CM tuning curves. The results also demonstrate that there is a π phase difference between the potentials produced by the hair bundle and the soma near the place associated with the characteristic frequency based on place-frequency maps (i.e., the best place). We suggest that the transversal phase cancellation (caused by the phase difference between the hair bundle and the soma) plays a far more important role than longitudinal phase cancellation in the broadness of the cochlear microphonic tuning curves. Moreover, by increasing the modelled longitudinal resistance resulting the cochlear microphonic curves exhibiting sharper tuning. The results of the simulations suggest that the passive network of the organ of Corti determines the phase difference between the hair bundle and soma, and hence determines the sharpness of the

  13. Genus Reducing Knots in 3-Manifolds

    OpenAIRE

    Rieck, Yo’av

    2001-01-01

    A genus reducing knot is a knot that has infinitely many surgeries after which the Heegaard genus of the manifold reduces. We study certain aspects of this question, in particular solving it for totally orientable Seifert Fibered Spaces, where we find examples of manifolds of arbitrarily high genus containing no such knot.

  14. Singular elliptic genus of normal surfaces

    OpenAIRE

    Waelder, Robert

    2007-01-01

    We define the singular elliptic genus for arbitrary normal surfaces, prove that it is a birational invariant, and show that it generalizes the singular elliptic genus of Borisov and Libgober and the stringy $\\chi_y$ genus of Batyrev and Veys.

  15. Isolation and antimicrobial acitivity of anthraquinones from some species of the lichen genus Xanthoria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LJ. KRSTIC

    2000-08-01

    Full Text Available The isolation of six anthraquinones, erythroglaucin, physcion, xanthorin, emodin, fallacinal and teloschistin, from three species of the lichen genus Xanthoria (X. fallax, X. elegans and X. policarpa is reported. Physcion is the dominant anthraquinone in all species. the anthraquinones showed broad-spectrum antifingal activity and selective activity against some phytopathogenic bacterial species.

  16. On the concordance genus of topologically slice knots

    OpenAIRE

    Hom, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    The concordance genus of a knot K is the minimum Seifert genus of all knots smoothly concordant to K. Concordance genus is bounded below by the 4-ball genus and above by the Seifert genus. We give a lower bound for the concordance genus of K coming from the knot Floer complex of K. As an application, we prove that there are topologically slice knots with 4-ball genus equal to one and arbitrarily large concordance genus.

  17. The genus Enterococcus as probiotic: safety concerns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiane Ferreira Araújo

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Species from the genus Enterococcus have been used as probiotic for humans or animals, although this genus is not considered "generally recognized as safe" (GRAS. While enterococci are considered "positive" in food technology, isolates of this genus have emerged as opportunistic pathogens for the humans. The aim of this review is to summarize the characteristics that can determine the use of this genus as probiotics. According to the guidelines used to define the genus Enterococcus strains as probiotic a case-by-case evaluation of each potential technological strain is presented and research perspectives for using enterococci as probiotic is also discussed.

  18. On genus expansion of superpolynomials

    OpenAIRE

    Mironov, Andrei; Morozov, Alexei; Sleptsov, Alexei; Smirnov, Andrey(ITEP, Moscow, 117218, Russia)

    2013-01-01

    Recently it was shown that the (Ooguri-Vafa) generating function of HOMFLY polynomials is the Hurwitz partition function, i.e. that the dependence of the HOMFLY polynomials on representation R is naturally captured by symmetric group characters (cut-and-join eigenvalues). The genus expansion and expansion through Vassiliev invariants explicitly demonstrate this phenomenon. In the present letter we claim that the superpolynomials are not functions of such a type: symmetric group characters do ...

  19. CYANOBACTERIA OF THE GENUS PROCHLOROTHRIX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NataliaValeryevnaIvanikova

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Green cyanobacteria are distinguished from blue-green ones by the possession of a chlorophyll-containing light harvesting antenna. Three genera of green cyanobacteria, namely Acaryochloris, Prochlorococcus and Prochloron, are unicellular and of marine habitat; Prochlorococcus marinus attracts most attention due to its outstanding role in prime productivity. The fourth genus, Prochlorothrix, is represented by filamentous freshwater strains. Unlike the rest of green cyanobacteria, Prochlorothrix is paradoxically rare: it has been isolated from two European locations only. Taking into account fluctuating blooms, morphological resemblance with Planktothrix and Pseudanabaena, and unsuccessful enrichment of Prochlorothrix, the preferred strategy of search for this cyanobacterium is based on PCR with natural DNA and specific primers. This approach already demonstrates a broader distribution of Prochlorothrix: marker genes have been found in at least two additional locations. Despite the growing evidence for naturally occurring Prochlorothrix, there are only a few cultivated strains, and only one of them (PCC 9006 is claimed to be axenic. In multixenic cultures, Prochlorothrix is accompanied by heterotrophic bacteria, indicating a consortium-type association. The genus Prochlorothrix includes two species: P. hollandica and P. scandica based on distinctions in genomic DNA, cell size, temperature optimum, and fatty acid composition of membrane lipids. In this short review, the properties of cyanobacteria of the genus Prochlorothrix are described, and the evolutionary scenario of green cyanobacteria, especially taking into account their role in the origin of simple chloroplast is given.

  20. On genus expansion of superpolynomials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mironov, Andrei, E-mail: mironov@itep.ru [Lebedev Physics Institute, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation); ITEP, Moscow 117218 (Russian Federation); National Research Nuclear University MEPhI, Moscow 115409 (Russian Federation); Morozov, Alexei, E-mail: morozov@itep.ru [ITEP, Moscow 117218 (Russian Federation); National Research Nuclear University MEPhI, Moscow 115409 (Russian Federation); Sleptsov, Alexei, E-mail: sleptsov@itep.ru [ITEP, Moscow 117218 (Russian Federation); Laboratory of Quantum Topology, Chelyabinsk State University, Chelyabinsk 454001 (Russian Federation); KdVI, University of Amsterdam (Netherlands); Smirnov, Andrey, E-mail: asmirnov@math.columbia.edu [ITEP, Moscow 117218 (Russian Federation); Columbia University, Department of Mathematics, New York (United States)

    2014-12-15

    Recently it was shown that the (Ooguri–Vafa) generating function of HOMFLY polynomials is the Hurwitz partition function, i.e. that the dependence of the HOMFLY polynomials on representation R is naturally captured by symmetric group characters (cut-and-join eigenvalues). The genus expansion and expansion through Vassiliev invariants explicitly demonstrate this phenomenon. In the present paper we claim that the superpolynomials are not functions of such a type: symmetric group characters do not provide an adequate linear basis for their expansions. Deformation to superpolynomials is, however, straightforward in the multiplicative basis: the Casimir operators are β-deformed to Hamiltonians of the Calogero–Moser–Sutherland system. Applying this trick to the genus and Vassiliev expansions, we observe that the deformation is fully straightforward only for the thin knots. Beyond the family of thin knots additional algebraically independent terms appear in the Vassiliev and genus expansions. This can suggest that the superpolynomials do in fact contain more information about knots than the colored HOMFLY and Kauffman polynomials. However, even for the thin knots the beta-deformation is non-innocent: already in the simplest examples it seems inconsistent with the positivity of colored superpolynomials in non-(anti)symmetric representations, which also happens in I. Cherednik's (DAHA-based) approach to the torus knots.

  1. On genus expansion of superpolynomials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recently it was shown that the (Ooguri–Vafa) generating function of HOMFLY polynomials is the Hurwitz partition function, i.e. that the dependence of the HOMFLY polynomials on representation R is naturally captured by symmetric group characters (cut-and-join eigenvalues). The genus expansion and expansion through Vassiliev invariants explicitly demonstrate this phenomenon. In the present paper we claim that the superpolynomials are not functions of such a type: symmetric group characters do not provide an adequate linear basis for their expansions. Deformation to superpolynomials is, however, straightforward in the multiplicative basis: the Casimir operators are β-deformed to Hamiltonians of the Calogero–Moser–Sutherland system. Applying this trick to the genus and Vassiliev expansions, we observe that the deformation is fully straightforward only for the thin knots. Beyond the family of thin knots additional algebraically independent terms appear in the Vassiliev and genus expansions. This can suggest that the superpolynomials do in fact contain more information about knots than the colored HOMFLY and Kauffman polynomials. However, even for the thin knots the beta-deformation is non-innocent: already in the simplest examples it seems inconsistent with the positivity of colored superpolynomials in non-(anti)symmetric representations, which also happens in I. Cherednik's (DAHA-based) approach to the torus knots

  2. Nominal species of the genus Gyrodactylus von Nordmann 1832 (Monogenea: Gyrodactylidae), with a list of principal host species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, P D; Shinn, A P; Cable, J; Bakke, T A

    2004-09-01

    The total diversity of the monogenean genus Gyrodactylus is evaluated. There are 409 potentially valid species names within the genus, recorded from c. 400 host species. Five species have been placed within Fundulotrema and an additional 51 Gyrodactylus species names represent synonyms, nomina nuda or have been reassigned to other non-viviparous monogenean genera. While the majority of Gyrodactylus species (59%) are recorded from single hosts, some have a much broader broad range. PMID:15318017

  3. Ghost imaging with broad distance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    段德洋; 张路; 杜少将; 夏云杰

    2015-01-01

    We present a scheme that is able to achieve the ghost imaging with broad distance. The physical nature of our scheme is that the different wavelength beams are separated in free space by an optical media according to the slow light or dispersion principle. Meanwhile, the equality of the optical distance of the two light arms is not violated. The photon correlation is achieved by the rotating ground glass plate (RGGP) and spatial light modulator (SLM), respectively. Our work shows that a monochromic ghost image can be obtained in the case of RGGP. More importantly, the position (or distance) of the object can be ascertained by the color of the image. Thus, the imaging and ranging processes are combined as one process for the first time to the best of our knowledge. In the case of SLM, we can obtain a colored image regardless of where the object is.

  4. Evolution of corallivory in the gastropod genus Drupella

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claremont, M.; Reid, D. G.; Williams, S. T.

    2011-12-01

    Although muricid gastropods in the genus Drupella are well-known consumers of Indo-Pacific corals, their evolutionary and ecological history is unclear, as is their relationship to the apparently facultative coral-feeder Ergalatax margariticola, which has been reported to feed upon corals in Hong Kong. We use a well resolved molecular phylogeny (reconstructed from one nuclear and two mitochondrial genes) to show that the monophyletic genus Drupella falls into the muricid subfamily Ergalataxinae and that the genus includes ` E. margariticola', which is composed of two cryptic species. We show that genetic structure within the here reassigned ` Drupella margariticola' species complex does not relate to feeding mode, but instead seems to correspond to broad patterns of habitat ecology found in other gastropod taxa. Our analyses suggest that Drupella originated in the late Miocene (approximately 9.6 Ma) and diversified approximately 5.0 Ma, much later than the appearance of modern coral reefs in the early Cenozoic. Thus, it is possible that corallivory in Drupella evolved in response to the major expansion and reorganization of reefs that took place in the early Miocene.

  5. Vortices on higher genus surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We consider the topological interactions of vortices on general surfaces. If the genus of the surface is greater than zero, the handles can carry magnetic flux. The classical state of the vortices and the handles can be described by a mapping from the fundamental group to the unbroken gauge group. The allowed configurations must satisfy a relation induced by the fundamental group. Upon quantization, the handles can carry ''Cheshire charge.'' The motion of the vortices can be described by the braid group of the surface. How the motion of the vortices affects the state is analyzed in detail

  6. NSR superstring measures in genus 5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Currently there are two proposed ansätze for NSR superstring measures: the Grushevsky ansatz and the OPSMY ansatz, which for genera g⩽4 are known to coincide. However, neither the Grushevsky nor the OPSMY ansatz leads to a vanishing two-point function in genus four, which can be constructed from the genus five expressions for the respective ansätze. This is inconsistent with the known properties of superstring amplitudes. In the present paper we show that the Grushevsky and OPSMY ansätze do not coincide in genus five. Then, by combining these ansätze, we propose a new ansatz for genus five, which now leads to a vanishing two-point function in genus four. We also show that one cannot construct an ansatz from the currently known forms in genus 6 that satisfies all known requirements for superstring measures

  7. Ghost imaging with broad distance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, De-Yang; Zhang, Lu; Du, Shao-Jiang; Xia, Yun-Jie

    2015-10-01

    We present a scheme that is able to achieve the ghost imaging with broad distance. The physical nature of our scheme is that the different wavelength beams are separated in free space by an optical media according to the slow light or dispersion principle. Meanwhile, the equality of the optical distance of the two light arms is not violated. The photon correlation is achieved by the rotating ground glass plate (RGGP) and spatial light modulator (SLM), respectively. Our work shows that a monochromic ghost image can be obtained in the case of RGGP. More importantly, the position (or distance) of the object can be ascertained by the color of the image. Thus, the imaging and ranging processes are combined as one process for the first time to the best of our knowledge. In the case of SLM, we can obtain a colored image regardless of where the object is. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61178012, 11204156, 11304179, and 11247240), the Specialized Research Fund for the Doctoral Program of Higher Education of China (Grant Nos. 20133705110001 and 20123705120002), the Scientific Research Foundation for Outstanding Young Scientists of Shandong Province, China (Grant No. BS2013DX034), and the Natural Science Foundation of Shandong Province, China (Grant No. ZR2012FQ024).

  8. Integrable systems in the infinite genus limit

    OpenAIRE

    Gesztesy, Fritz

    2001-01-01

    We provide an elementary approach to integrable systems associated with hyperelliptic curves of infinite genus. In particular, we explore the extent to which the classical Burchnall-Chaundy theory generalizes in the infinite genus limit, and systematically study the effect of Darboux transformations for the KdV hierarchy on such infinite genus curves. Our approach applies to complex-valued periodic solutions of the KdV hierarchy and naturally identifies the Riemann surface familiar from stand...

  9. Geometric Registration of High-genus Surfaces

    OpenAIRE

    Wen, Chengfeng; Lui, Lok Ming

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a method to obtain geometric registrations between high-genus ($g\\geq 1$) surfaces. Surface registration between simple surfaces, such as simply-connected open surfaces, has been well studied. However, very few works have been carried out for the registration of high-genus surfaces. The high-genus topology of the surface poses great challenge for surface registration. A possible approach is to partition surfaces into simply-connected patches and registration is done patch ...

  10. The genus Lolium; taxonomy and genetic resources.

    OpenAIRE

    Loos, B.P.

    1994-01-01

    Several aspects of variation within the genus Lolium, and more in detail within Lolium perenne (perennial ryegrass) have been highlighted. As the results are extensively discussed in each chapter, the general discussion is focused on two aspects of the research.SpeciationIt is clear that the genus Lolium is a very variable genus. The variation within the species reduces the clarity of separation of the species. Stebbins (1956) found the differences between Lolium and Festuca not sufficient to...

  11. Phylogenetic Analysis of the Genus Pistacia (Anacardiaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    AL-Saghir, Mohannad Ghazi

    2006-01-01

    Pistacia is an economically important genus because it contains the pistachio crop, P. vera, which has edible seeds of considerable commercial importance. The evolutionary history of the genus and the taxonomic relationships among the species are controversial and not well understood. This study that has been conducted on this genus to refine taxonomic and evolutionary relationship utilizing different types of data (including morphology, anatomy and molecular) The studied species were the fol...

  12. On the slice genus of links

    OpenAIRE

    Florens, Vincent; Gilmer, Patrick M.

    2003-01-01

    We define Casson-Gordon sigma-invariants for links and give a lower bound of the slice genus of a link in terms of these invariants. We study as an example a family of two component links of genus h and show that their slice genus is h, whereas the Murasugi-Tristram inequality does not obstruct this link from bounding an annulus in the 4-ball.

  13. The genus chenopodium: Phytochemistry, ethnopharmacology and pharmacology

    OpenAIRE

    Zlatina Kokanova-Nedialkova, , , , , and; Paraskev T Nedialkov; Stefan D. Nikolov

    2009-01-01

    The review includes 154 references on the genus Chenopodium covered up to December 2008 and has been compiled using references mainly from Chemical Abstracts and Pubmed. This article briefly reviews the phytochemistry, ethnopharmacology and pharmacology of Chenopodium genus. Three hundred seventy nine compounds isolated from different species are reported. Fenolics, flavonoids, saponins, ecdysteroids and triterpenoids were the major classes of phytoconstituents of this genus. The detailed dis...

  14. First ultrastructural data on the human tapeworm Taenia asiatica eggs by scanning and transmission electron microscopy (SEM, TEM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galán-Puchades, M Teresa; Yang, Yichao; Marcilla, Antonio; Choe, Seongjun; Park, Hansol; Osuna, Antonio; Eom, Keeseon S

    2016-09-01

    Humans are definitive hosts of three species of the Taenia genus, namely Taenia solium, Taenia saginata and Taenia asiatica. The relative novelty of the latter explains the lack of knowledge concerning certain relevant aspects related to this parasite, such as its definite geographical distribution and whether its eggs can infect humans or not. So far, only the eggs of T. solium are known to be infective for humans, producing cysticercosis. Although eggs contain the infective stage, the oncosphere, there is a lack of research on the ultrastructure of eggs of human taeniids. We show, for the first time, the ultrastructure of eggs of T. asiatica by means of SEM and TEM analyses. We detected all the envelopes, namely the egg shell, vitelline layer, outer embryophoric membrane, embryophore, granular layer, basal membrane, oncospheral membrane and oncospheral tegument. Hooks surrounded by myofibrils and glycogen-like particles, the two types of secretory granules of the penetration glands, as well as several nuclei and mitochondria were also revealed in the oncospheres. In addition to the already known structures in eggs from other Taenia species, the presence of two types of small vesicles is described herein, possibly corresponding to exosomes and ectosomes because of their shape and size, which could participate in the host/parasite intercellular communication. PMID:27277232

  15. 77 FR 50144 - Broad Stakeholder Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-20

    ... SECURITY Broad Stakeholder Survey AGENCY: National Protection and Programs Directorate, DHS. ACTION: 60-day... comments concerning the Broad Stakeholder Survey. DATES: Comments are encouraged and will be accepted until... across the Nation. The Broad Stakeholder Survey is designed to gather stakeholder feedback on...

  16. 76 FR 34087 - Broad Stakeholder Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-10

    ... SECURITY Broad Stakeholder Survey AGENCY: National Protection and Programs Directorate, DHS. ACTION: 60-day... comments concerning the Broad Stakeholder Survey. DATES: Comments are encouraged and will be accepted until.... The Broad Stakeholder Survey is designed to gather stakeholder feedback on the effectiveness of...

  17. 78 FR 20119 - Broad Stakeholder Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-03

    ... SECURITY Broad Stakeholder Survey AGENCY: National Protection and Programs Directorate, DHS. ACTION: 30-day... soliciting comments concerning the Broad Stakeholder Survey. DHS previously published this ICR in the Federal... responders across the Nation. The Broad Stakeholder Survey is designed to gather stakeholder feedback on...

  18. Generating the genus g+1 Goeritz group of a genus g handlebody

    OpenAIRE

    Scharlemann, Martin

    2011-01-01

    A specific set of 4g+1 elements is shown to generate the Goeritz group of the genus g+1 Heegaard splitting of a genus g handlebody. These generators are consistent with Powell's proposed generating set for the Goeritz group of the genus g+1 splitting of S^3. There are two proofs: one using purely classical techniques and one using thin position.

  19. Evolution of the Genus Homo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tattersall, Ian; Schwartz, Jeffrey H.

    2009-05-01

    Definition of the genus Homo is almost as fraught as the definition of Homo sapiens. We look at the evidence for “early Homo,” finding little morphological basis for extending our genus to any of the 2.5-1.6-myr-old fossil forms assigned to “early Homo” or Homo habilis/rudolfensis. We also point to heterogeneity among “early African Homo erectus,” and the lack of apomorphies linking these fossils to the Asian Homo erectus group, a cohesive regional clade that shows some internal variation, including brain size increase over time. The first truly cosmopolitan Homo species is Homo heidelbergensis, known from Africa, Europe, and China following 600 kyr ago. One species sympatric with it included the >500-kyr-old Sima de los Huesos fossils from Spain, clearly distinct from Homo heidelbergensis and the oldest hominids assignable to the clade additionally containing Homo neanderthalensis. This clade also shows evidence of brain size expansion with time; but although Homo neanderthalensis had a large brain, it left no unequivocal evidence of the symbolic consciousness that makes our species unique. Homo sapiens clearly originated in Africa, where it existed as a physical entity before it began (also in that continent) to show the first stirrings of symbolism. Most likely, the biological underpinnings of symbolic consciousness were exaptively acquired in the radical developmental reorganization that gave rise to the highly characteristic osteological structure of Homo sapiens, but lay fallow for tens of thousands of years before being “discovered” by a cultural stimulus, plausibly the invention of language.

  20. Three New Species of the Genus Ochroconis

    OpenAIRE

    Samerpitak, K.; Gerrits van den Ende, A. H. G.; Menken, S.B.J.; Hoog, de, G.S.

    2015-01-01

    Ochroconis bacilliformis, O. phaeophora and O. robusta, three novel species of the melanized genus Ochroconis (Sympoventuriaceae, Venturiales), are described, illustrated and distinguished phenotypically and molecularly from previously described species in the genus Ochroconis. Their potential significance for infection of cold-blooded vertebrates is discussed.

  1. Positive curvature and the elliptic genus

    OpenAIRE

    Weisskopf, Nicolas

    2013-01-01

    We prove several results about the vanishing of the elliptic genus on positively curved Spin manifolds with logarithmic symmetry rank. The proofs are based on the rigidity of the elliptic genus and Kennard's improvement of the Connectedness Lemma for transversely intersecting, totally geodesic submanifolds.

  2. Revision of the genus Labisia (Myrsinaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Sunarno, B.

    2005-01-01

    The genus Labisia (Myrsinaceae) is revised for the Flora Malesiana region. Seven species are recognised. Several earlier described species are synonymous to L. pumila and reduced to varieties of that species: var. alata, var. lanceolata, var. neriifolia and var. sessilifolia. A new record of L. longistyla is mentioned. Labisia malouiana and L. obtusifolia are excluded from the genus.

  3. Phenetic relationships in the genus Myotis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Findley, James S.

    1970-01-01

    The genus Myotis is of interest to the evolutionist because of its diversity and because of its nearly cosmopolitan distribution. An understanding of the biology of this remarkable genus may provide insight into its success, as well as the success of other expansive groups of mammals. As part of an

  4. The elliptic genus and Hidden symmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We study the elliptic genus (a partition function) in certain interacting, twist quantum field theories. Without twists, these theories have N=2 supersymmetry. The twists provide a regularization, and also partially break the supersymmetry. In spite of the regularization, one can establish a homotopy of the elliptic genus in a coupling parameter. Our construction relies on a priori estimates and other methods from constructive quantum field theory; this mathematical underpinning allows us to justify evaluating the elliptic genus at one endpoint of the homotopy. We obtain a version of Witten's proposed formula for the elliptic genus in terms of classical theta functions. As a consequence, the elliptic genus has a hidden SL(2,Z) symmetry characteristic of conformal theory, even though the underlying theory is not conformal. (orig.)

  5. [Immunochemical Detection of Azospirilla in Soil with Genus-Specific Antibodies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirokov, A A; Krasov, A I; Selivanov, N Yu; Burygin, G L; Shchegolev, S Yu; Matora, L Yu

    2015-01-01

    Immunoelectrophoresis and immunodiffusion analysis with antibodies to whole intact cells of the type strain of nitrogen-fixing soil bacteria Azospirillum brasilense Sp7 revealed at least three conservative surface immunogenic proteins of azospirilla. Cross-reactions with these proteins made it possible to use the above antibodies for detection of azospirilla as a genus-specific probe conjugated with horseradish peroxidase as an enzymatic label. Direct immune-enzyme analysis of soil suspensions (typical chernozem, Saratov oblast) confirmed applicability of the conjugates based on genus-specific antibodies to the surface proteins of azospirilla for direct detection of this bacterial genus in environmental samples. These results provide a basis for broad application of this method for analysis of Azospirillum occurrence in soil. PMID:26263631

  6. The genus chenopodium: Phytochemistry, ethnopharmacology and pharmacology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zlatina Kokanova-Nedialkova

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The review includes 154 references on the genus Chenopodium covered up to December 2008 and has been compiled using references mainly from Chemical Abstracts and Pubmed. This article briefly reviews the phytochemistry, ethnopharmacology and pharmacology of Chenopodium genus. Three hundred seventy nine compounds isolated from different species are reported. Fenolics, flavonoids, saponins, ecdysteroids and triterpenoids were the major classes of phytoconstituents of this genus. The detailed distribution of these compounds among the different Chenopodium species with the related references is given in tables. In addition, this review discusses the traditional medicinal uses of different Chenopodium species as well as recent developments done in this aspect.

  7. PHYSICS OF NON-GAUSSIAN FIELDS AND THE COSMOLOGICAL GENUS STATISTIC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report a technique to calculate the impact of distinct physical processes inducing non-Gaussianity on the cosmological density field. A natural decomposition of the cosmic genus statistic into an orthogonal polynomial sequence allows complete expression of the scale-dependent evolution of the topology of large-scale structure, in which effects including galaxy bias, nonlinear gravitational evolution, and primordial non-Gaussianity may be delineated. The relationship of this decomposition to previous methods for analyzing the genus statistic is briefly considered and the following applications are made: (1) the expression of certain systematics affecting topological measurements, (2) the quantification of broad deformations from Gaussianity that appear in the genus statistic as measured in the Horizon Run simulation, and (3) the study of the evolution of the genus curve for simulations with primordial non-Gaussianity. These advances improve the treatment of flux-limited galaxy catalogs for use with this measurement and further the use of the genus statistic as a tool for exploring non-Gaussianity.

  8. Broad Prize: Do the Successes Spread?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuels, Christina A.

    2011-01-01

    When the Broad Prize for Urban Education was created in 2002, billionaire philanthropist Eli Broad said he hoped the awards, in addition to rewarding high-performing school districts, would foster healthy competition; boost the prestige of urban education, long viewed as dysfunctional; and showcase best practices. Over the 10 years the prize has…

  9. Growth hormone-like factor produced by the tapeworm, Spirometra mansonoides, displaces human growth hormone (hGH) from its receptors on cultured human lymphocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An analogue of hGH isolated from plerocercoids of the tapeworm Spirometra mansonoides displaces [125I]hGH from its receptors in rabbit, rat, and hamster liver membranes. Biologically, plerocercoid growth factor (PGF) is more similar to hGH than to other mammalian GH's but has not been shown to bond human cells. Receptors specific for hGH have been described on cultured human lymphocytes (IM-9). In this study, the authors compared the binding of PGF and hGH in IM-9 cells and in rabbit hepatic membranes. IM-9 lymphocytes (12 x 106 cells/tube) were incubated with [125I]hGH and increasing concentrations of hGH (ng/ml) or PGF (serial dilutions) for 90 min at 300 C. Specific binding (B0 - NSB) was determined for each dose of hGH or PGF and the binding curves were analyzed by logit-log regression. The results show that PGF displaced [125I]hGH from human cells in a dose dependent manner (r = 0.98). Based on the IM-9 assay, 1 ml of the PGF had an activity equivalent to 625 ng of the hGH standard (ngE). However, the binding activity of the PGF in the rabbit liver RRA was 1653 ngE/ml, indicating that the binding potency of PGF in IM-9 cells was only 38% of that in the rabbit liver. These results clearly demonstrate that PGF binds hGH receptors in cells of human origin, suggesting that PGF will be effective in humans

  10. Growth and ontogeny of the tapeworm Schistocephalus solidus in its copepod first host affects performance in its stickleback second intermediate host

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benesh Daniel P

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background For parasites with complex life cycles, size at transmission can impact performance in the next host, thereby coupling parasite phenotypes in the two consecutive hosts. However, a handful of studies with parasites, and numerous studies with free-living, complex-life-cycle animals, have found that larval size correlates poorly with fitness under particular conditions, implying that other traits, such as physiological or ontogenetic variation, may predict fitness more reliably. Using the tapeworm Schistocephalus solidus, we evaluated how parasite size, age, and ontogeny in the copepod first host interact to determine performance in the stickleback second host. Methods We raised infected copepods under two feeding treatments (to manipulate parasite growth, and then exposed fish to worms of two different ages (to manipulate parasite ontogeny. We assessed how growth and ontogeny in copepods affected three measures of fitness in fish: infection probability, growth rate, and energy storage. Results Our main, novel finding is that the increase in fitness (infection probability and growth in fish with larval size and age observed in previous studies on S. solidus seems to be largely mediated by ontogenetic variation. Worms that developed rapidly (had a cercomer after 9 days in copepods were able to infect fish at an earlier age, and they grew to larger sizes with larger energy reserves in fish. Infection probability in fish increased with larval size chiefly in young worms, when size and ontogeny are positively correlated, but not in older worms that had essentially completed their larval development in copepods. Conclusions Transmission to sticklebacks as a small, not-yet-fully developed larva has clear costs for S. solidus, but it remains unclear what prevents the evolution of faster growth and development in this species.

  11. Revision of the African genus Uvariastrum (Annonaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couvreur, Thomas L P

    2014-01-01

    The genus Uvariastrum (Annonaceae) is restricted to continental Africa and is characterized by sepals with folded margins, few carpels and numerous stamens. The genus is mainly found in the tropical lowland rain forests of Africa, with one species growing in a drier woodland habitat. The species name Uvariastrum pynaertii De Wild is reduced into synonymy with Uvariastrum zenkeri Engl. & Diels. Uvaraistrum neglectum Paiva and Uvariastrum modestum Dielsare transferred to the genus Uvaria leading to two new combinations: Uvaria modesta (Diels) Couvreur, comb. nov. and Uvaria paivana Couvreur, nom. nov. Five species are currently recognized in Uvariastrum. The present revision, the first of the genus for over 100 years, provides an overview of previously published information and discussions on morphology, taxonomy and palynology. Preliminary conservation status assessments are provided for each species, as well as diagnostic keys for fruiting and flowering material as well as detailed species descriptions. Furthermore, all species are illustrated by line drawings and all species are mapped. PMID:24526846

  12. Synaptospory in the fern genus Pyrrosia (Polypodiaceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uffelen, van Gerda A.

    1983-01-01

    The correlation between sporoderm sculpture and life form of the sporophyte as postulated by Kramer (1977) is investigated for the fern genus Pyrrosia. This correlation is not found in Pyrrosia but may be present in other fern groups.

  13. The geometric genus of hypersurface singularities

    OpenAIRE

    Andras Nemethi; Baldur Sigurdsson

    2014-01-01

    Using the path lattice cohomology we provide a conceptual topological characterization of the geometric genus for certain complex normal surface singularities with rational homology sphere links, which is uniformly valid for all superisolated and Newton non--degenerate hypersurface singularities.

  14. Evolutionary history of the genus Trisopterus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Elena G; Cunha, Regina L; Sevilla, Rafael G; Ghanavi, Hamid R; Krey, Grigorios; Bautista, José M

    2012-03-01

    The group of small poor cods and pouts from the genus Trisopterus, belonging to the Gadidae family, comprises four described benthopelagic species that occur across the North-eastern Atlantic, from the Baltic Sea to the coast of Morocco, and the Mediterranean. Here, we combined molecular data from mitochondrial (cytochrome b) and nuclear (rhodopsin) genes to confirm the taxonomic status of the described species and to disentangle the evolutionary history of the genus. Our analyses supported the monophyly of the genus Trisopterus and confirmed the recently described species Trisopterus capelanus. A relaxed molecular clock analysis estimated an Oligocene origin for the group (~30 million years ago; mya) indicating this genus as one of the most ancestral within the Gadidae family. The closure and re-opening of the Strait of Gibraltar after the Messinian Salinity Crisis (MSC) probably triggered the speciation process that resulted in the recently described T. capelanus. PMID:22178361

  15. The genus Calappa in the Ionian Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pastore, M. [Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Taranto (Italy). Ist. Sperimentale Talassografico

    1995-12-31

    Until now the genus Calappa in the Mediterranean sea was represented by Calappa granulata (l., 1758). With the present paper, two new species, Calappa rissoana and Calappa tuerkajana and Calappa pelii Herklots (1851) too, are signaled in such basin.

  16. Pollen morphology of the genus Malus Mill.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Dyakova

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The study of pollen morphology of some species of the genus Malus (Rosaceae was carried out. All investigated species are characterized by tricolpate pollen grains, but differ by their size and coloration.

  17. A Brief Chronicle of the Genus Cordyceps Fr., the Oldest Valid Genus in Cordycipitaceae (Hypocreales, Ascomycota)

    OpenAIRE

    Shrestha, Bhushan; Tanaka, Eiji; Han, Jae-Gu; Oh, Junsang; Han, Sang-Kuk; Lee, Kang-Hyo; Sung, Gi-Ho

    2014-01-01

    The earliest pre-Linnaean fungal genera are briefly discussed here with special emphasis on the nomenclatural connection with the genus Cordyceps Fr. Since its valid publication under the basidiomycetous genus Clavaria Vaill. ex L. (Clavaria militaris L. Sp. Pl. 2:1182, 1753), the genus Cordyceps has undergone nomenclatural changes in the post-Linnaean era, but has stood firmly for approximately 200 years. Synonyms of Cordyceps were collected from different literature sources and analyzed bas...

  18. Standardized gene nomenclature for the Brassica genus

    OpenAIRE

    King Graham J; Østergaard Lars

    2008-01-01

    Abstract The genus Brassica (Brassicaceae, Brassiceae) is closely related to the model plant Arabidopsis, and includes several important crop plants. Against the background of ongoing genome sequencing, and in line with efforts to standardize and simplify description of genetic entities, we propose a standard systematic gene nomenclature system for the Brassica genus. This is based upon concatenating abbreviated categories, where these are listed in descending order of significance from left ...

  19. Symmetry of Embedded Genus-One Helicoids

    OpenAIRE

    Bernstein, Jacob; Breiner, Christine

    2010-01-01

    In this note, we use the Lopez-Ros deformation introduced in [9] to show that any embedded genus-one helicoid must be symmetric with respect to rotation by 180 degrees around a normal line. This partially answers a conjecture of Bobenko from [3]. We also show this symmetry holds for an embedded genus-k helicoid $\\Sigma$, provided the underlying conformal structure of $\\Sigma$ is hyperelliptic.

  20. Cosmetic crossings of genus one knots

    CERN Document Server

    Balm, Cheryl

    2011-01-01

    We show that for genus one knots the Alexander polynomial and the homology of the double cover branching over the knot provide obstructions to cosmetic crossings. As an application we prove the nugatory crossing conjecture for the negatively twisted, positive Whitehead doubles of all knots. We also verify the conjecture for several families of pretzel knots and all genus one knots with up to 10 crossings.

  1. Constructing Numerical Semigroups of a Given Genus

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Yufei

    2009-01-01

    Let n_g denote the number of numerical semigroups of genus g. Bras-Amoros conjectured that n_g possesses certain Fibonacci-like properties. Almost all previous attempts at proving this conjecture were based on analyzing the semigroup tree. We offer a new, simpler approach to counting numerical semigroups of a given genus. Our method gives direct constructions of families of numerical semigroups, without referring to the generators or the semigroup tree. In particular, we give an improved asym...

  2. Remarks on Superstring amplitudes in higher genus

    OpenAIRE

    Manni, Riccardo Salvati

    2008-01-01

    Very recently, Grushevsky continued D'Hoker and Phong's program of finding the chiral superstring measure from first principles by constructing modular forms satisfying certain factorization constraints. He has proposed an ansatz in genus 4 and conjectured a possible formula for the superstring measure in any genus, subject to the condition that certain modular forms admit holomorphic roots. In this note we want to give some evidence that Grushevsky's approach seems to be very fruitful.

  3. Kops genus - en værkstedsrapport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gudiksen, Asgerd

     Inden for Ømålsområdet optræder ordet kop både i genus femininum, masku­linum og neutrum. På Sjælland, hvor trekønssystemet er under af­vikling, kan ordet desuden være genus commune. Der kan konstateres en vis dialektgeografisk fordeling af de tre (fire) genera, men især på Sjælland er...

  4. Phylogeography of genus Squalius in Albania

    OpenAIRE

    Radek Šanda; Miroslav Švátora

    2015-01-01

    This study is focused on the issue of the Squalius genus phylogeography in Albania in the Balkan region. Phylogenetic analyses of sequence variation at mitochondrial DNA (cytochrome b gene) were used to examine these issues for the freshwater fish of the genus Squalius from various river systems in the Adriatic Sea region. There were identified three genetic lineages of unclear taxonomic position, where the genetic variation between identified clades range from 1.6 to 2.1 %. The first lineage...

  5. Revision of the genus Gymnacranthera (Myristicaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Schouten, R.T.A.

    1986-01-01

    In Gymnacranthera, a small genus of Southeast Asian Myristicaceae, at present 7 species have been accepted, one (G. forbesii) with 2 and another ( G. farquhariana) with 4 varieties. One species, G. canarica, occurs in S. India, the remainder of the species is distributed in the area from S. Thailand east to E. New Guinea and the Bismarck Archipelago; the genus is absent from Java and the Lesser Sunda Islands. Species distinction is difficult because the androecium, which provides good charact...

  6. Genus 2 Curves with Complex Multiplication

    CERN Document Server

    Goren, Eyal Z

    2010-01-01

    Genus 2 curves are useful in cryptography for both discrete-log based and pairing-based systems, but a method is required to compute genus 2 curves such that the Jacobian has a given number of points. Currently, all known methods involve constructing genus 2 curves with complex multiplication via computing their three Igusa class polynomials. These polynomials have rational coefficients and require extensive computation and precision to compute. Both the computation and the complexity analysis of these algorithms can be improved by a more precise understanding of the denominators of the coefficients of the polynomials. The main goal of this paper is to give a bound on the denominators of Igusa class polynomials of genus 2 curves with CM by a primitive quartic CM field. We give an overview of Igusa's results on the moduli space of genus two curves and the method to construct genus 2 curves via their Igusa invariants. We also give a complete characterization of the reduction type of a CM abelian surface, for bi...

  7. The genus Isodon (Schrad. ex Benth. Spach in Africa and a new genus Rabdosiella Codd (Lamiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. E. Codd

    1984-12-01

    Full Text Available The typification of the genus Isodon (Schrad. ex Benth. Spach and its occurrence in Africa are discussed; an allied genus Rabdosiella Codd is described and the combinations R. calycina (Benth. Codd and R. ternifolia (D.Don Codd (the latter an Indian species are effected.

  8. The Genus Coelocrania and the Resurrection of the Genus Pseudosastra (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Galerucinae)

    OpenAIRE

    Mohamed S. Mohamedsaid

    1993-01-01

    The genus Coelocrania Jacoby is reviewed, with the resurrection of the genus Pseudosastra Jacoby. Four new species are herein described from Malaysia: Pseudosastra depressa, P. ghazallyi , P. indah, and P. latiffi. Keys to the species of Coelocrania and Pseudosastra are provided.

  9. Higher-genus Gromov-Witten invariants as genus 0 invariants of symmetric products

    OpenAIRE

    Costello, Kevin

    2003-01-01

    I prove a formula expressing the descendent genus g Gromov-Witten invariants of a projective variety X in terms of genus 0 invariants of its symmetric product stack S^{g+1}(X). When X is a point, the latter are structure constants of the symmetric group, and we obtain a new way of calculating the Gromov-Witten invariants of a point.

  10. A Genus Oblivious Approach to Cross Parameterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bennett, J C; Pascucci, V; Joy, K I

    2008-06-16

    In this paper we present a robust approach to construct a map between two triangulated meshes, M and M{prime} of arbitrary and possibly unequal genus. We introduce a novel initial alignment scheme that allows the user to identify 'landmark tunnels' and/or a 'constrained silhouette' in addition to the standard landmark vertices. To describe the evolution of non-landmark tunnels we automatically derive a continuous deformation from M to M{prime} using a variational implicit approach. Overall, we achieve a cross parameterization scheme that is provably robust in the sense that it can map M to M{prime} without constraints on their relative genus. We provide a number of examples to demonstrate the practical effectiveness of our scheme between meshes of different genus and shape.

  11. The genus curve of the Abell clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhoads, James E.; Gott, J. Richard, III; Postman, Marc

    1994-01-01

    We study the topology of large-scale structure through a genus curve measurement of the recent Abell catalog redshift survey of Postman, Huchra, and Geller (1992). The structure is found to be spongelike near median density and to exhibit isolated superclusters and voids at high and low densities, respectively. The genus curve shows a slight shift toward 'meatball' topology, but remains consistent with the hypothesis of Gaussian random phase initial conditions. The amplitude of the genus curve corresponds to a power-law spectrum with index n = 0.21(sub -0.47 sup +0.43) on scales of 48/h Mpc or to a cold dark matter power spectrum with omega h = 0.36(sub -0.17 sup +0.46).

  12. Matrix models as CFT: Genus expansion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We show how the formulation of the matrix models as conformal field theories on a Riemann surfaces can be used to compute the genus expansion of the observables. Here we consider the simplest example of the Hermitian matrix model, where the classical solution is described by a hyperelliptic Riemann surface. To each branch point of the Riemann surface we associate an operator which represents a twist field dressed by the modes of the twisted boson. The partition function of the matrix model is computed as a correlation function of such dressed twist fields. The perturbative construction of the dressing operators yields a set of Feynman rules for the genus expansion, which involve vertices, propagators and tadpoles. The vertices are universal, the propagators and the tadpoles depend on the Riemann surface. As a demonstration we evaluate the genus-two free energy using the Feynman rules.

  13. The lichen genus parmotrema in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayalal, Udeni; Divakar, Pradeep K; Joshi, Santosh; Oh, Soon-Ok; Koh, Young Jin; Hur, Jae-Seoun

    2013-03-01

    Parmotrema A. Massal. is a common lichen genus scattered throughout the Korean Peninsula; however, no detailed taxonomic or revisionary study of this genus has been conducted for nearly two decades. Therefore, this study revised the taxonomy of this genus based on specimens deposited in the lichen herbarium at the Korean Lichen Research Institute and samples wereidentified using recent literature. In this revisionary study, a total of eighteen species of Parmotrema including eight new records [Parmotrema cetratum (Ach.) Hale, Parmotrema cristiferum (Taylor) Hale, Parmotrema grayanum (Hue) Hale, Parmotrema defectum (Hale) Hale, Parmotrema dilatatum (Vain.) Hale, Parmotrema margaritatum (Hue) Hale, Parmotrema pseudocrinitum (Abbayes) Hale, and Parmotrema subsumptum (Nyl.) Hale] are documented. Detailed descriptions of each species with their morphological, anatomical and chemical characteristics are also given and a key to the known Parmotrema species of the Korean Peninsula is presented. PMID:23610536

  14. BROAD PHONEME CLASSIFICATION USING SIGNAL BASED FEATURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deekshitha G

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Speech is the most efficient and popular means of human communication Speech is produced as a sequence of phonemes. Phoneme recognition is the first step performed by automatic speech recognition system. The state-of-the-art recognizers use mel-frequency cepstral coefficients (MFCC features derived through short time analysis, for which the recognition accuracy is limited. Instead of this, here broad phoneme classification is achieved using features derived directly from the speech at the signal level itself. Broad phoneme classes include vowels, nasals, fricatives, stops, approximants and silence. The features identified useful for broad phoneme classification are voiced/unvoiced decision, zero crossing rate (ZCR, short time energy, most dominant frequency, energy in most dominant frequency, spectral flatness measure and first three formants. Features derived from short time frames of training speech are used to train a multilayer feedforward neural network based classifier with manually marked class label as output and classification accuracy is then tested. Later this broad phoneme classifier is used for broad syllable structure prediction which is useful for applications such as automatic speech recognition and automatic language identification.

  15. The toroidal block and the genus expansion

    CERN Document Server

    Kashani-Poor, Amir-Kian

    2012-01-01

    We study the correspondence between four-dimensional supersymmetric gauge theories and two-dimensional conformal field theories in the case of N=2* gauge theory. We emphasize the genus expansion on the gauge theory side, as obtained via geometric engineering from the topological string. This point of view uncovers modular properties of the one-point conformal block on a torus with complexified intermediate momenta: in the large intermediate weight limit, it is a power series whose coefficients are quasi-modular forms. The all-genus viewpoint that the conformal field theory approach lends to the topological string yields insight into the analytic structure of the topological string partition function.

  16. Constructing Numerical Semigroups of a Given Genus

    CERN Document Server

    Zhao, Yufei

    2009-01-01

    Let n_g denote the number of numerical semigroups of genus g. Bras-Amoros conjectured that n_g possesses certain Fibonacci-like properties. Almost all previous attempts at proving this conjecture were based on analyzing the semigroup tree. We offer a new, simpler approach to counting numerical semigroups of a given genus. Our method gives direct constructions of families of numerical semigroups, without referring to the generators or the semigroup tree. In particular, we give an improved asymptotic lower bound for n_g.

  17. Phylogenetic position of the spirochetal genus Cristispira

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paster, B.J.; Pelletier, D.A.; Dewhirst, F.E.; Weisburg, W.G.; Fussing, V.; Poulsen, Lars K.; Dannenberg, S.; Schroeder, I.

    1996-01-01

    Comparative sequence analysis of 16S rRNA genes was used to determine the phylogenetic relationship of the genus Cristispira to other spirochetes. Since Cristispira organisms cannot presently be grown in vitro, 16S rRNA genes were amplified directly from bacterial DNA isolated from Cristispira a...... genus within this family. A fluorescently labeled DNA probe designed from the CP1 sequence was used for in situ hybridization experiments to verify that the sequence obtained was derived from the observed Cristispira cells....

  18. Identification and nomenclature of the genus Penicillium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Visagie, C.M.; Houbraken, J.; Frisvad, Jens Christian;

    2014-01-01

    Penicillium is a diverse genus occurring worldwide and its species play important roles as decomposers of organic materials and cause destructive rots in the food industry where they produce a wide range of mycotoxins. Other species are considered enzyme factories or are common indoor air allergens...... on each accepted species MycoBank number, living ex-type strains and provide GenBank accession numbers to ITS, β-tubulin, calmodulin and RPB2 sequences, thereby supplying a verified set of sequences for each species of the genus. In addition to the nomenclatural list, we recommend a standard working...

  19. Slope equalities for genus 5 surface fibrations

    CERN Document Server

    Tenni, Elisa

    2010-01-01

    K. Konno proved a slope equality for fibred surfaces with fibres of odd genus and general fibre of maximal gonality. More precisely he found a relation between the invariants of the fibration and certain weights of special fibres (called the Horikawa numbers). We give an alternative and more geometric proof in the case of a genus 5 fibration, under generality assumptions. In our setting we are able to prove that the fibre with positive Horikawa numbers are precisely the trigonal ones, we compute their weights explicitly and thus we exhibit explicit examples of regular surfaces with assigned invariants and Horikawa numbers.

  20. Giant Broad Line Regions in Dwarf Seyferts

    CERN Document Server

    Devereux, Nick

    2015-01-01

    High angular resolution spectroscopy obtained with the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) has revealed a remarkable population of galaxies hosting dwarf Seyfert nuclei with an unusually large broad-line region (BLR). These objects are remarkable for two reasons. Firstly, the size of the BLR can, in some cases, rival those seen in the most luminous quasars. Secondly, the size of the BLR is not correlated with the central continuum luminosity, an observation that distinguishes them from their reverberating counterparts. Collectively, these early results suggest that non-reverberating dwarf Seyferts are a heterogeneous group and not simply scaled versions of each other. Careful inspection reveals broad H Balmer emission lines with single peaks, double peaks, and a combination of the two, suggesting that the broad emission lines are produced in kinematically distinct regions centered on the black hole (BH). Because the gravitational field strength is already known for these objects, by virtue of knowing their BH mass, ...

  1. The genus of curve, pants and flip graphs

    OpenAIRE

    Parlier, Hugo; Petri, Bram

    2014-01-01

    This article is about the graph genus of certain well studied graphs in surface theory: the curve, pants and flip graphs. We study both the genus of these graphs and the genus of their quotients by the mapping class group. The full graphs, except for in some low complexity cases, all have infinite genus. The curve graph once quotiented by the mapping class group has the genus of a complete graph so its genus is well known by a theorem of Ringel and Youngs. For the other two graphs we are able...

  2. Conservation Strategies in the Genus Hypericum via Cryogenic Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruňáková, Katarína; Čellárová, Eva

    2016-01-01

    In the genus Hypericum, cryoconservation offers a strategy for maintenance of remarkable biodiversity, emerging from large inter- and intra-specific variability in morphological and phytochemical characteristics. Long-term cryostorage thus represents a proper tool for preservation of genetic resources of endangered and threatened Hypericum species or new somaclonal variants with unique properties. Many representatives of the genus are known as producers of pharmacologically important polyketides, namely naphthodianthrones and phloroglucinols. As a part of numerous in vitro collections, the nearly cosmopolitan Hypericum perforatum - Saint John's wort - has become a suitable model system for application of biotechnological approaches providing an attractive alternative to the traditional methods for secondary metabolite production. The necessary requirements for efficient cryopreservation include a high survival rate along with an unchanged biochemical profile of plants regenerated from cryopreserved cells. Understanding of the processes which are critical for recovery of H. perforatum cells after the cryogenic treatment enables establishment of cryopreservation protocols applicable to a broad number of Hypericum species. Among them, several endemic taxa attract a particular attention due to their unique characteristics or yet unrevealed spectrum of bioactive compounds. In this review, recent advances in the conventional two-step and vitrification-based cryopreservation techniques are presented in relation to the recovery rate and biosynthetic capacity of Hypericum spp. The pre-cryogenic treatments which were identified to be crucial for successful post-cryogenic recovery are discussed. Being a part of genetic predisposition, the freezing tolerance as a necessary precondition for successful post-cryogenic recovery is pointed out. Additionally, a beneficial influence of cold stress on modulating naphthodianthrone biosynthesis is outlined. PMID:27200032

  3. Palynology of the Genus Stachytarpheta Vahl. (Verbenaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olubukola ADEDEJI

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The exine morphology of pollen grains of Stachytarpheta indica (Linn. Vahl, Stachytarpheta cayennensis (Rich. Vahl and Stachytarpheta angustifolia (Mill. Vahl is reported. This study was carried out with a light microscope. Pollen grains from fresh anthers were collected and aceolysed. Statistical analysis used to analyse the data collected include cluster analysis, correlation analysis, similarity and distance indices. The pollen grains are spheroidal to oblate to sub-oblate in shape. They are aperturate, both colpate and porate. Tricolpate types occur most frequently, acolpate, monocolpate, bicolpate and tetracolpate types less frequently. The multicolpate and multiporate attributes in all the species indicate that the genus is not primitive in evolutionary history and this species probably, evolved around in the same time. According to the size, the pollen grains of the genus falls into groups permagna (pollen diameter 100-200 ?m and giganta (pollen diameter greater than 200 ?m. S. cayennensis and S. anguistifolia belong to group permagna and S. indica only in the group giganta. This separates S. indica from the other two species. The large pollen grain size in the genus clearly supports the fact that the flowers in the genus are more insect-and-bird pollinated than wind pollinated. The similarity and distance indices of the species showed that S. cayennensis and S. angustifolia are the closest. S. indica is closer to S. angustifolia but farther from S. cayennensis.

  4. Revision of the African genus Uvariastrum (Annonaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Couvreur

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The genus Uvariastrum (Annonaceae is restricted to continental Africa and is characterized by sepals with folded margins, few carpels and numerous stamens. The genus is mainly found in the tropical lowland rain forests of Africa, with one species growing in a drier woodland habitat. The species name U. pynaertii De Wild is reduced into synonymy with U. zenkeri Engl. & Diels. Uvaraistrum neglectum Paiva and U. modestum Diels are transferred to the genus Uvaria leading to two new combinations: Uvaria modesta (Diels Couvreur, comb. nov. and Uvaria paivana Couvreur, nom. nov.. Five species are currently recognized in Uvariastrum. The present revision, the first of the genus for over 100 years, provides an overview of previously published information and discussions on morphology, taxonomy and palynology. Preliminary conservation status assessments are provided for each species, as well as diagnostic keys for fruiting and flowering material as well as detailed species descriptions. Furthermore, all species are illustrated by line drawings and all species are mapped.

  5. The genus Lolium; taxonomy and genetic resources.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loos, B.P.

    1994-01-01

    Several aspects of variation within the genus Lolium, and more in detail within Lolium perenne (perennial ryegrass) have been highlighted. As the results are extensively discussed in each chapter, the general discussion is focused on two aspects of the research.SpeciationIt is clear that the

  6. Polyphasic taxonomy of the genus Talaromyces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yilmaz, N.; Visagie, C.M.; Houbraken, J.;

    2014-01-01

    The genus Talaromyces was described by Benjamin in 1955 as a sexual state of Penicillium that produces soft walled ascomata covered with interwoven hyphae. Phylogenetic information revealed that Penicillium subgenus Biverticillium and Talaromyces form a monophyletic clade distinct from the other ...

  7. Counting plane curves of any genus

    OpenAIRE

    Caporaso, Lucia; Harris, Joe

    1996-01-01

    We obtain a recursive formula answering the following question: How many irreducible, plane curves of degree d and (geometric) genus g pass through 3d-1+g general points in the plane? The formula is proved by studying suitable degenerations of plane curves.

  8. Chemotaxonomy of the genus Nuxia (Buddlejaceae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Søren Rosendal

    An investigation of two species of Nuxia (Buddlejaceae) showed that this genus is characterised by the presence of the eight-carbon iridoid glucoside unedoside and/or its derivatives. From N. floribunda was isolated unedoside, nuxioside (6-O-a-L-rhamnopyranosyl-unedoside) and 2''-acetyl-3...

  9. Eremophilane Sesquiterpenes from the Genus Ligularia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ling; Liao, Zhixin; Liu, Chao; Jia, Haiyang; Sun, Jinyue

    2016-06-01

    Ligularia speices are widely used in Asian folk medicines for the treatment of various human diseases. Eremophilane-type sesquiterpenes are abundant and typical secondary metabolites found in this genus. Over 500 eremophilanes reported from members of Ligularia are reviewed in this article together with bioactivity data in an effort to highlight the development in this field. PMID:27161126

  10. The genus Echinostelium (Myxomycetes in Lithuania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gražina Adamonytė

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Seven species of the genus – Echinostelium apitectum, E. arboreum, E. brooksii, E. colliculosum, E. corynophorum, E. aff. elachiston, E. minutum – are reported from Lithuania. Their morphological peculiarities are discussed; a key to the species, pictures and distribution maps are given.

  11. The genus Echinostelium (Myxomycetes) in Lithuania

    OpenAIRE

    Gražina Adamonytė

    2013-01-01

    Seven species of the genus – Echinostelium apitectum, E. arboreum, E. brooksii, E. colliculosum, E. corynophorum, E. aff. elachiston, E. minutum – are reported from Lithuania. Their morphological peculiarities are discussed; a key to the species, pictures and distribution maps are given.

  12. The genus Alocasia (Araceae) in Australasia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hay, A.; Wise, Rosemary

    1991-01-01

    The genus Alocasia (Araceae) is revised for Australasia. Thirteen species are recognised and keyed; eleven are endemic to and one is thought to be introduced to and escaped in Papuasia; A. brisbanensis (F.M. Bailey) Domin is endemic to Australia, and is redescribed; five are new to science. The genu

  13. A study in the genus Vulpia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Henrard, J.Th.

    1937-01-01

    In conclusion, we propose the following nomenclatural alterations. For a good classification, the genus Vulpia is to be accepted as a member of the Festuceae. Various names of Vulpia are fixed according to our present rules of nomenclature, viz. V. bromoides (L.) GRAY, V. membranacea (L.) LINK, V. g

  14. Cosmetic surgeries on genus one knots

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Jiajun

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, we prove that there are no truly cosmetic surgeries on genus one classical knots. If the two surgery slopes have the same sign, we give the only possibilities of reflectively cosmetic surgeries. The result is an application of Heegaard Floer theory and number theory.

  15. Sarawakodendron, a new genus of Celastraceae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hou, Ding

    1967-01-01

    During my trip to Malaysia in 1966, sponsored by the Netherlands Foundation for the Advancement of Tropical Research (WOTRO), for doing field work on Anacardiaceae, a new tree genus was found in Sarawak belonging to the family Celastraceae which I have revised for the Flora Malesiana series I, volum

  16. Revision of the genus Fordia (Papilionaceae: Millettieae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buijsen, J.R.M.

    1988-01-01

    In Fordia, a small genus of Southeast Asian Papilionaceae, 8 species are accepted and 2 subspecies, one of which is newly described (F. splendidissima subsp. rheophytica). The name of F. splendidissima is a new combination of an old name proposed by Miquel. Six names (among which F. coriacea, F. gib

  17. Revision of the genus Gymnacranthera (Myristicaceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schouten, R.T.A.

    1986-01-01

    In Gymnacranthera, a small genus of Southeast Asian Myristicaceae, at present 7 species have been accepted, one (G. forbesii) with 2 and another ( G. farquhariana) with 4 varieties. One species, G. canarica, occurs in S. India, the remainder of the species is distributed in the area from S. Thailand

  18. Nomenclatural changes in the genus Bremeria (Rubiaceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Davis, A.P.; Razafimandimbison, S.G.; Andriambololonera, S.

    2011-01-01

    Five new combinations are made in the genus Bremeria: B. arachnocarpa, B. eriantha, B. scabrella, B. landia var. holosericea, and B. landia var. stadmanii. Bremeria gerrardii is conspecific with Gaertnera phanerophlebia, and thus excluded from Bremeria. Lectotypes are designated for Mussaenda erecti

  19. Tunnel number one, genus one fibered knots

    OpenAIRE

    Baker, Kenneth L.; Johnson, Jesse E.; Klodginski, Elizabeth A.

    2006-01-01

    We determine the genus one fibered knots in lens spaces that have tunnel number one. We also show that every tunnel number one, once-punctured torus bundle is the result of Dehn filling a component of the Whitehead link in the 3-sphere.

  20. Plasma Redshift in the Broad Line Region

    CERN Document Server

    Hansen, Peter M

    2013-01-01

    Astronomical properties of the broad line emission region (BLR) of active galactic nuclei (AGN) and quasi-stellar objects (QSO) are used to formulate a model of dynamic and electromagnetic scattering characteristics. The results of this modeling show that the observed redshift of these objects may be more complex than that from recession alone due to ionization or plasma effects.

  1. Broad resonances and beta-decay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riisager, K.; Fynbo, H. O. U.; Hyldegaard, S.;

    2015-01-01

    Beta-decay into broad resonances gives a distorted lineshape in the observed energy spectrum. Part of the distortion arises from the phase space factor, but we show that the beta-decay matrix element may also contribute. Based on a schematic model for p-wave continuum neutron states it is argued...

  2. Rhynchorhina mauritaniensis, a new genus and species of wedgefish from the eastern central Atlantic (Elasmobranchii: Batoidea: Rhinidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Séret, Bernard; Naylor, Gavin J P

    2016-01-01

    A new wedgefish, Rhynchorhina mauritaniensis gen. et sp. nov., is described from three specimens collected in the shallow waters of the shoal "Banc d'Arguin", off Mauritania (Eastern Central Atlantic). The new genus is mainly distinguished from its close relatives, members of the genus Rhynchobatus, by its snout shape, more broadly rounded like that of the shark-ray Rhina ancylostoma, instead of being typically wedge-shaped as in Rhynchobatus species. The new species resembles the common West African wedgefish, Rhynchobatus lubberti, in having a similar colour pattern, but differs in snout shape. The new genus is supported as genetically distinct by comparative analysis of the mitochondrial NADH2 gene. PMID:27470765

  3. Genus two Heegaard splittings of exteriors of 1-genus 1-bridge knots II

    CERN Document Server

    Goda, Hiroshi

    2010-01-01

    A knot K is called a 1-genus 1-bridge knot in a 3-manifold M if (M,K) has a Heegaard splitting (V_1,t_1)\\cup (V_2,t_2) where V_i is a solid torus and t_i is a boundary parallel arc properly embedded in V_i. If the exterior of a knot has a genus 2 Heegaard splitting, we say that the knot has an unknotting tunnel. Naturally the exterior of a 1-genus 1-bridge knot K allows a genus 2 Heegaard splitting, i.e., K has an unknotting tunnel. But, in general, there are unknotting tunnels which are not derived form this procedure. Some of them may be levelled with the torus \\partial V_1=\\partial V_2, whose case was studied in our previous paper. In this paper, we consider the remaining case.

  4. Control of tapeworms by irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cysticerci of Taenia solium were exposed to gamma radiation in doses varying from 20-140 krad. Radiation had an adverse effect on the ability of the cysticerci to evaginate in vitro after a time lag of 9 days. This effect was most marked at doses of 100 krad and higher, thus no cysticerci exposed to 140, 120 and 100 krad evaginated after 12, 18 and 21 days, respectively. On Day + 24, when 60% of the control cysticerci evaginated, 55%, 50%, 30% and 40% of the cysticerci exposed to 20, 40, 60, and 80 krad, respectively, evaginated in vitro. Cysticerci exposed to radiation doses of 20-120 krad are as infective to golden hamsters as are unirradiated cysticerci. Cestodes resulting from irradiated cysticerci, however, cannot maintain themselves indefinitely, and are excreted or digested at varying times from Day + 12 onwards. Moreover, cestodes resulting from such irradiated cysticerci do not grow, but are resorbed, and finally consist of only a scolex. By Day + 30 the mean length of the worms resulting from the unirradiated cysticerci is 173,8 mm, while those resulting from cysticerci exposed to 20 and 40 krad consist of scolices only and the hamsters fed material exposed to 60 krad were negative. It appears, therefore, that radiation inhibits the ability of the cells in the neck region to divide and thus form new proglottids. Carcasses infested with cysticercosis can possibly be rendered fit for human consumption by exposure to gamma radiation at doses between 20 and 60 krad

  5. A New Genus of Macropsinae (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) From Madagascar

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Liyuan; Dietrich, C.H.; Zhang, Yalin

    2016-01-01

    Paragalboa acuta gen. & sp. n. is described and illustrated from Madagascar. The new genus shows morphological affinities to the Macropsini genus Galboa Distant recorded from Seychelles. A checklist of all known genera of Macropsinae is provided.

  6. Genus Phyllanthus for chronic hepatitis B virus infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, J; Lin, Haili; McIntosh, H

    2001-01-01

    To evaluate the efficacy and safety of genus Phyllanthus for chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection we performed a systematic review of randomized clinical trials. Randomized trials comparing genus Phyllanthus vs. placebo, no intervention, general nonspecific treatment, other herbal medicine, ...

  7. Certhiasomus, a new genus of woodcreeper (Aves: Passeriformes: Dendrocolaptidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derryberry, Elizabeth; Claramunt, Santiago; Chesser, R. Terry; Aleixo, Alexandre; Cracraft, Joel; Moyle, Robert G.; Brumfield, Robb T.

    2010-01-01

    Phylogenetic analysis of the family Dendrocolaptidae (Aves: Passeriformes) indicates that the two species traditionally placed in the genus Deconychura are not sister taxa. Certhiasomus, a new genus of woodcreeper, is described for one of these species, C. stictolaemus.

  8. Albendazole, a broad-spectrum anthelmintic, in the treatment of intestinal nematode and cestode infection: a multicenter study in 480 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagota, S C

    1986-01-01

    The anthelmintic activity of and patient tolerance to albendazole, a broad-spectrum anthelmintic, were studied in a multicenter trial involving 480 patients ranging in age from 2 to 60 years. The patients had single or mixed infections caused by pinworms, roundworms, hookworms, whipworms, threadworms, or tapeworms. The stools were examined by the direct method, and ova were counted by means of the Kato-Katz technique. A Graham-Scotch test was also done in patients infected with Enterobius vermicularis. Most patients received a single 400-mg dose of albendazole; adults were given two tablets, and children were given a 2% suspension. All patients with Hymenolepis nana and about half of those with Taenia infections were treated for three successive days. Patients were carefully evaluated before and after treatment to assess the efficacy and safety of the drug. After a single dose of albendazole, the cure rate was 95.3% in ascariasis, 92.2% in ancylostomiasis, 90.5% in trichuriasis, 64.9% in taeniasis, and 100% in enterobiasis. Among patients receiving 400 mg of albendazole for three days, the cure rate was 63.4% in hymenolepiasis and 86.1% in taeniasis. The drug was well tolerated, and no significant side effects were reported. PMID:3516398

  9. Elliptic genus of phases of N=2 theories

    OpenAIRE

    Libgober, A.

    2014-01-01

    We discuss an algebro-geometric description of Witten's phases of N=2 theories and propose a definition of their elliptic genus provided some conditions on singularities of the phases are met. For Landau-Ginzburg phase one recovers elliptic genus of LG models proposed in physics literature in early 90s. For certain transitions between phases we derive invariance of elliptic genus from an equivariant form of McKay correspondence for elliptic genus. As special cases one obtains Landau-Giznburg/...

  10. A review on phytochemistry and ethnopharmacological aspects of genus Calendula

    OpenAIRE

    Disha Arora; Anita Rani; Anupam Sharma

    2013-01-01

    This review includes 84 references on the genus Calendula (Asteraceae) and comprises ethnopharmacology, morphology and microscopy, phytoconstituents, pharmacological reports, clinical studies and toxicology of the prominent species of Calendula. Triterpene alcohols, triterpene saponins, flavonoids, carotenoids and polysaccharides constitute major classes of phytoconstituents of the genus. A few species of this genus have medicinal value, among these Calendula officinalis Linn., has been tradi...

  11. The strong symmetric genus of the finite Coxeter groups

    OpenAIRE

    Jackson, Michael A.

    2004-01-01

    The strong symmetric genus of a finite group G is the smallest genus of a closed orientable topological surface on which G acts faithfully as a group of orientation preserving automorphisms. In this paper we complete the calculation of the strong symmetric genus for each finite Coxeter group excluding the group E8.

  12. Positive braid knots of maximal topological 4-genus

    OpenAIRE

    Liechti, Livio

    2015-01-01

    We show that a positive braid knot has maximal topological 4-genus exactly if it has maximal signature invariant. As an application, we determine all positive braid knots with maximal topological 4-genus and compute the topological 4-genus for all positive braid knots with up to 12 crossings.

  13. Redefinition of the genus Triophtydeus Thor, 1932 (Acari: Actinedida)

    OpenAIRE

    André, H.M.

    1985-01-01

    The genus Triophtydeus Thor, 1932 is redefined from the study of the type-species, T. triophthalmus (Oudemans, 1929). The genus Metatriophtydeus André, 1980 is a junior synonym of Triophtydeus. Species belonging or likely to belong to the genus Triophtydeus are listed and generic and specific characters are discussed.

  14. Limit groups, positive-genus towers and measure equivalence

    OpenAIRE

    Bridson, Martin R.; Tweedale, Michael; Wilton, Henry

    2005-01-01

    By definition, an $\\omega$-residually free tower is positive-genus if all surfaces used in its construction are of positive genus. We prove that every limit group is virtually a subgroup of a positive-genus $\\omega$-residually free tower. By combining this with results of Gaboriau, we prove that elementarily free groups are measure equivalent to free groups.

  15. A taxonomic revision of the genus Ixonanthes (Linaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Kool, R.

    1980-01-01

    In this revision 3 species are recognized for the Southeast Asian, mainly Malesian, genus Ixonanthes Jack (Linaceae). No new species are described, while 29 names have been placed into synonymy. It is proposed to unite the African genus Phyllocosmus Klotzsch with the American genus Ochthocosmus Benth.

  16. Create the genus Pelarspovirus in the family Tombusviridae

    Science.gov (United States)

    In 2014 we submitted a proposal to create this new genus with six members. The Executive Committee (EC) of the ICTV did not support its creation at that time due to the placement of the pelarspovirus genus branch within a larger monophyletic lineage of many of the members of the carmovirus genus wh...

  17. Crossoliparis - a new genus of Malaxidinae (Orchidaceae, Malaxideae), from neotropic

    OpenAIRE

    Hanna B. Margońska

    2011-01-01

    A new genus Crossoliparis of the subtribe Malaxidinae (Orchidaceae), from tropical area of Central America is proposed. The new genus type species is described and illustrated. Keys to species of genus Crossoliparis and its close related genera of subtribe Malaxidinae from Americas, is added.

  18. Crossoliparis - a new genus of Malaxidinae (Orchidaceae, Malaxideae, from neotropic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanna B. Margońska

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available A new genus Crossoliparis of the subtribe Malaxidinae (Orchidaceae, from tropical area of Central America is proposed. The new genus type species is described and illustrated. Keys to species of genus Crossoliparis and its close related genera of subtribe Malaxidinae from Americas, is added.

  19. Topological classification and enumeration of RNA structures by genus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jørgen Ellegaard; Penner, Robert; Reidys, C. M.; Waterman, M.S.

    2013-01-01

    To an RNA pseudoknot structure is naturally associated a topological surface, which has its associated genus, and structures can thus be classified by the genus. Based on earlier work of Harer-Zagier, we compute the generating function for the number of those structures of fixed genus and minimum...

  20. Pseudasthenes, a new genus of ovenbird (Aves: Passeriformes: Furnariidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derryberry, Elizabeth; Claramunt, Santiago; O'Quin, Kelly E.; Aleixo, Alexandre; Chesser, R. Terry; Remsen, J.V., Jr.; Brumfield, Robb T.

    2010-01-01

    Phylogenetic analysis of the family Furnariidae (Aves: Passeriformes) indicates that the genus Asthenes is polyphyletic, consisting of two groups that are not sister taxa. Pseudasthenes, a new genus of ovenbird, is described for one of these groups. The four species included in the new genus, formerly placed in Asthenes, are P. humicola, P. patagonica, P. steinbachi, and P. cactorum.

  1. Flow over an Erodible Broad Crested Weir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. K. C.Sahu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The overtopping flow of water over an earthen embankment causes erosion of soil from its surfaces and the eroded surface of the embankment acts as a Broad crest weir. But the longitudinal profile of the weir goes on changing with time of erosion. Hence crest height of the weir goes changing in accelerated flow condition. In this paper, the discharge equation for this type of flow situation is established for different types of soils used in the embankment. Then, the experiments have been carried out as the analogous rigid beds of the captured eroded profiles at any time of erosion of the broad crested weir to compare the discharge equation and to study the energy loss in dislodging the soil from the surface of the weir and transporting them down stream.

  2. Broad line regions in Seyfert-1 galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To reproduce observed emission profiles of Seyfert galaxies, rotation in an accretion disk has been proposed. In this thesis, the profiles emitted by such an accretion disk are investigated. Detailed comparison with the observed profiles yields that a considerable fraction can be fitted with a power-law function, as predicted by the model. The author analyzes a series of high quality spectra of Seyfert galaxies, obtained with the 2.5m telescope at Las Campanas. He presents detailed analyses of two objects: Mkn335 and Akn120. In both cases, strong evidence is presented for the presence of two separate broad line zones. These zones are identified with an accretion disk and an outflowing wind. The disk contains gas with very high densities and emits predominantly the lower ionization lines. He reports on the discovery of very broad wings beneath the strong forbidden line 5007. (Auth.)

  3. Broad iron lines in Active Galactic Nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Fabian, A C; Reynolds, C S; Young, A J

    2000-01-01

    An intrinsically narrow line emitted by an accretion disk around a black hole appears broadened and skewed as a result of the Doppler effect and gravitational redshift. The fluorescent iron line in the X-ray band at 6.4-6.9keV is the strongest such line and is seen in the X-ray spectrum of many active galactic nuclei and, in particular, Seyfert galaxies. It is an important diagnostic with which to study the geometry and other properties of the accretion flow very close to the central black hole. The broad iron line indicates the presence of a standard thin accretion disk in those objects, often seen at low inclination. The broad iron line has opened up strong gravitational effects around black holes to observational study with wide-reaching consequences for both astrophysics and physics.

  4. Fourier evaluation of broad Moessbauer spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is shown by the Fourier analysis of broad Moessbauer spectra that the even part of the distribution of the dominant hyperfine interaction (hyperfine field or quadrupole splitting) can be obtained directly without using least-square fitting procedures. Also the odd part of this distribution correlated with other hyperfine parameters (e.g. isomer shift) can be directly determined. Examples for amorphous magnetic and paramagnetic iron-based alloys are presented. (author)

  5. A Broad View of Macroeconomic Stability

    OpenAIRE

    José Antonio Ocampo

    2005-01-01

    This paper recommends a broad concept of macroeconomic stability, whereby “sound macroeconomic frameworks” include not only price stability and sound fiscal policies, but also a well-functioning real economy, sustainable debt ratios and healthy public and private sector balance sheets. These multiple dimensions imply using multiple policy instruments. The paper elaborates a framework for developing countries that involves active use of counter-cyclical macroeconomic policies (exchange rate, m...

  6. Crx broadly modulates the pineal transcriptome

    OpenAIRE

    Rovsing, Louise; Clokie, Samuel; Bustos, Diego M.; Rohde, Kristian; Steven L Coon; Litman, Thomas; Rath, Martin F.; Møller, Morten; Klein, David C.

    2011-01-01

    Cone-rod homeobox (Crx) encodes Crx, a transcription factor expressed selectively in retinal photoreceptors and pinealocytes, the major cell type of the pineal gland. Here, the influence of Crx on the mammalian pineal gland was studied by light and electron microscopy and by use of microarray and qRTPCR technology, thereby extending previous studies on selected genes (Furukawa et al. 1999). Deletion of Crx was not found to alter pineal morphology, but was found to broadly modulate the mouse p...

  7. Relativistic redshifts in quasar broad lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The broad emission lines commonly seen in quasar spectra have velocity widths of a few percent of the speed of light, so special- and general-relativistic effects have a significant influence on the line profile. We have determined the redshift of the broad Hβ line in the quasar rest frame (determined from the core component of the [O III] line) for over 20,000 quasars from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 7 quasar catalog. The mean redshift as a function of line width is approximately consistent with the relativistic redshift that is expected if the line originates in a randomly oriented Keplerian disk that is obscured when the inclination of the disk to the line of sight exceeds ∼30°-45°, consistent with simple active galactic nucleus unification schemes. This result also implies that the net line-of-sight inflow/outflow velocities in the broad-line region are much less than the Keplerian velocity when averaged over a large sample of quasars with a given line width.

  8. Relativistic redshifts in quasar broad lines

    CERN Document Server

    Tremaine, Scott; Liu, Xin; Loeb, Abraham

    2014-01-01

    The broad emission lines commonly seen in quasar spectra have velocity widths of a few per cent of the speed of light, so special- and general-relativistic effects have a significant influence on the line profile. We have determined the redshift of the broad H-beta line in the quasar rest frame (determined from the core component of the [OIII] line) for over 20,000 quasars from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey DR7 quasar catalog. The mean redshift as a function of line width is approximately consistent with the relativistic redshift that is expected if the line originates in a randomly oriented Keplerian disk that is obscured when the inclination of the disk to the line of sight exceeds ~30-45 degrees, consistent with simple AGN unification schemes. This result also implies that the net line-of-sight inflow/outflow velocities in the broad-line region are much less than the Keplerian velocity when averaged over a large sample of quasars with a given line width.

  9. Bothriocephalidean tapeworms (Cestoda) of freshwater fish in Africa, including erection of Kirstenella n. gen. and description of Tetracampos martinae n. sp

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kuchta, Roman; Burianová, Alena; Jirků, Miloslav; de Chambrier, A.; Oros, Mikuláš; Brabec, Jan; Scholz, Tomáš

    -, č. 3309 (2012), s. 1-35. ISSN 1175-5326 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC522; GA ČR GA524/08/0885; GA ČR GD206/09/H026; GA AV ČR KJB600960813; GA ČR GBP505/12/G112; GA ČR GAP506/12/1632; GA AV ČR KJB600960902 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : Taxonomic revision * morphology * redescriptions * new genus * new species * phylogeny * identification key * zoogeography * host specificity Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 0.974, year: 2012

  10. Depth as a driver of evolution in the deep sea: Insights from grenadiers (Gadiformes: Macrouridae) of the genus Coryphaenoides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaither, Michelle R; Violi, Biagio; Gray, Howard W I; Neat, Francis; Drazen, Jeffrey C; Grubbs, R Dean; Roa-Varón, Adela; Sutton, Tracey; Hoelzel, A Rus

    2016-11-01

    Here we consider the role of depth as a driver of evolution in a genus of deep-sea fishes. We provide a phylogeny for the genus Coryphaenoides (Gadiformes: Macrouridae) that represents the breadth of habitat use and distributions for these species. In our consensus phylogeny species found at abyssal depths (>4000m) form a well-supported lineage, which interestingly also includes two non-abyssal species, C. striaturus and C. murrayi, diverging from the basal node of that lineage. Biogeographic analyses suggest the genus may have originated in the Southern and Pacific Oceans where contemporary species diversity is highest. The abyssal lineage seems to have arisen secondarily and likely originated in the Southern/Pacific Oceans but diversification of this lineage occurred in the Northern Atlantic Ocean. All abyssal species are found in the North Atlantic with the exception of C. yaquinae in the North Pacific and C. filicauda in the Southern Ocean. Abyssal species tend to have broad depth ranges and wide distributions, indicating that the stability of the deep oceans and the ability to live across wide depths may promote population connectivity and facilitate large ranges. We also confirm that morphologically defined subgenera do not agree with our phylogeny and that the Giant grenadier (formerly Albatrossia pectoralis) belongs to Coryphaenoides, indicating that a taxonomic revision of the genus is needed. We discuss the implications of our findings for understanding the radiation and diversification of this genus, and the likely role of adaptation to the abyss. PMID:27475496

  11. The toroidal block and the genus expansion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashani-Poor, Amir-Kian; Troost, Jan

    2013-03-01

    We study the correspondence between four-dimensional supersymmetric gauge theories and two-dimensional conformal field theories in the case of {N}={2^{*}} gauge theory. We emphasize the genus expansion on the gauge theory side, as obtained via geometric engineering from the topological string. This point of view uncovers modular properties of the one-point conformal block on a torus with complexified intermediate momenta: in the large intermediate weight limit, it is a power series whose coefficients are quasimodular forms. The all-genus viewpoint that the conformal field theory approach lends to the topological string yields insight into the analytic structure of the topological string partition function in the field theory limit.

  12. On the genus of a maximal curve

    OpenAIRE

    Korchmaros, Gabor; Torres, Fernando

    2000-01-01

    Previous results on genera g of F_{q^2}-maximal curves are improved: (1) Either g\\leq (q^2-q+4)/6, or g=\\lfloor(q-1)^2/4\\rfloor, or g=q(q-1)/2; (2) The hypothesis on the existence of a particular Weierstrass point in \\cite{at} is proved; (3) For q\\equiv 1\\pmod{3}, q\\ge 13, no F_{q^2}-maximal curve of genus (q-1)(q-2)/3 exists; (4) For q\\equiv 2\\pmod{3}, q\\ge 11, the non-singular F_{q^2}-model of the plane curve of equation y^q+y=x^{(q+1)/3} is the unique F_{q^2}-maximal curve of genus g=(q-1)...

  13. Phylogeny and taxonomy of the genus Gliocephalotrichum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombard, L; Serrato-Diaz, L M; Cheewangkoon, R; French-Monar, R D; Decock, C; Crous, P W

    2014-06-01

    Species in the genus Gliocephalotrichum (= Leuconectria) (Hypocreales, Nectriaceae) are soilborne fungi, associated with post-harvest fruit spoilage of several important tropical fruit crops. Contemporary taxonomic studies of these fungi have relied on morphology and DNA sequence comparisons of the internal transcribed spacer region of the nuclear rDNA (ITS) and the β-tubulin gene regions. Employing DNA sequence data from four loci (β-tubulin, histone H3, ITS, and translation elongation factor 1-alpha) and morphological comparisons, the taxonomic status of the genus Gliocephalotrichum was re-evaluated. As a result five species are newly described, namely G. humicola (Taiwan, soil), G. mexicanum (rambutan fruit from Mexico), G. nephelii (rambutan fruit from Guatemala), G. queenslandicum (Australia, endophytic isolations) and G. simmonsii (rambutan fruit from Guatemala). Although species of Gliocephalotrichum are generally not regarded as important plant pathogens, their ability to cause post-harvest fruit rot could have an impact on fruit export and storage. PMID:25264387

  14. Elliptic Genus of Phases of N = 2 Theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libgober, Anatoly

    2015-12-01

    We discuss an algebro-geometric description of Witten's phases of N = 2 theories and propose a definition of their elliptic genus provided some conditions on singularities of the phases are met. For Landau-Ginzburg phase one recovers elliptic genus of LG models proposed in physics literature in early 1990s. For certain transitions between phases we derive invariance of elliptic genus from an equivariant form of McKay correspondence for elliptic genus. As special cases one obtains Landau-Giznburg/Calabi-Yau correspondence for elliptic genus of weighted homogeneous potentials as well as certain hybrid/CY correspondences.

  15. Chemical Constituents of Plants from the Genus Ixora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Li-Jun; Zhang, Yan; Chen, Ye-Gao

    2016-03-01

    Ixora is a genus of ca. 400 species in the family Rubiaceae. Since the 1940s, eighty-one compounds including phenolics, peptides, terpenoids, and sterols have been isolated from six species of the genus Ixora. Pharmacological studies have shown that these compounds and extracts from the Ixora genus have extensive activities, such as antitumor, chemoprotective, and antioxidant activities. In this review, we summarize the phytochemical progress and list the compounds isolated from the genus Ixora. The biological activities of this genus are also covered. PMID:26916522

  16. Perturbations of quadratic centers of genus one

    OpenAIRE

    Gautier, Sebastien; Gavrilov, Lubomir; Iliev, Iliya D.

    2007-01-01

    We propose a program for finding the cyclicity of period annuli of quadratic systems with centers of genus one. As a first step, we classify all such systems and determine the essential one-parameter quadratic perturbations which produce the maximal number of limit cycles. We compute the associated Poincare-Pontryagin-Melnikov functions whose zeros control the number of limit cycles. To illustrate our approach, we determine the cyclicity of the annuli of two particular reversible systems.

  17. Cyanobacteria of the Genus Prochlorothrix †

    OpenAIRE

    Pinevich, Alexander; Velichko, Natalia; Ivanikova, Natalia

    2012-01-01

    Green cyanobacteria differ from the blue–green cyanobacteria by the possession of a chlorophyll-containing light-harvesting antenna. Three genera of the green cyanobacteria namely Acaryochloris, Prochlorococcus, and Prochloron are unicellular and inhabit marine environments. Prochlorococcus marinus attracts most attention due to its prominent role in marine primary productivity. The fourth genus Prochlorothrix is represented by the filamentous freshwater strains. Unlike the other green cyanob...

  18. The toroidal block and the genus expansion

    OpenAIRE

    Kashani-Poor, Amir-Kian; Troost, Jan

    2012-01-01

    We study the correspondence between four-dimensional supersymmetric gauge theories and two-dimensional conformal field theories in the case of N=2* gauge theory. We emphasize the genus expansion on the gauge theory side, as obtained via geometric engineering from the topological string. This point of view uncovers modular properties of the one-point conformal block on a torus with complexified intermediate momenta: in the large intermediate weight limit, it is a power series whose coefficient...

  19. The diatom genus Proboscia in subarctic waters

    OpenAIRE

    Takahashi, Kozo; Jordan, Richard; Priddle, Julian

    1994-01-01

    A study of modem pelagic subarctic Pacific phytoplankton has revealed the presence of three distinct species of Proboscia Sundstrom, including the type species P. alata and two new species with historical complications, P. subarctica (= Rhizosolenia alata f. curvirostris Gran) is markedly different in proboscis and valve morphology from the type species and in fact bears more resemblance to fossil members of the genus. P. eumorpha (= R. obtusa Hensen sensu Ostenfeld) resembles the austral spe...

  20. Phylogeny and taxonomy of the genus Gliocephalotrichum

    OpenAIRE

    Lombard, L.; Serrato-Diaz, L.M.; Cheewangkoon, R.; French-Monar, R.D.; Decock, C.; Crous, P.W.

    2014-01-01

    Species in the genus Gliocephalotrichum (= Leuconectria) (Hypocreales, Nectriaceae) are soilborne fungi, associated with post-harvest fruit spoilage of several important tropical fruit crops. Contemporary taxonomic studies of these fungi have relied on morphology and DNA sequence comparisons of the internal transcribed spacer region of the nuclear rDNA (ITS) and the β-tubulin gene regions. Employing DNA sequence data from four loci (β-tubulin, histone H3, ITS, and translation elongation facto...

  1. Concordance of Bing Doubles and Boundary Genus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livingston, Charles; van Cott, Cornelia A.

    2011-11-01

    Cha and Kim proved that if a knot K is not algebraically slice, then no iterated Bing double of K is concordant to the unlink. We prove that if K has nontrivial signature $\\sigma$, then the n-iterated Bing double of K is not concordant to any boundary link with boundary surfaces of genus less than $2^{n-1}\\sigma$. The same result holds with $\\sigma$ replaced by $2\\tau$, twice the Ozsvath-Szabo knot concordance invariant.

  2. The genus Crataegus: chemical and pharmacological perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Dinesh Kumar; Vikrant Arya; Zulfiqar Ali Bhat; Nisar Ahmad Khan; Deo Nandan Prasad

    2012-01-01

    Traditional drugs have become a subject of world importance, with both medicinal and economical implications. A regular and widespread use of herbs throughout the world has increased serious concerns over their quality, safety and efficacy. Thus, a proper scientific evidence or assessment has become the criteria for acceptance of traditional health claims. Plants of the genus Crataegus, Rosaceae, are widely distributed and have long been used in folk medicine for the treatment of various ailm...

  3. Genomic characterization of the Taylorella genus

    OpenAIRE

    Hebert, Laurent; Moumen, Bouziane; Pons, Nicolas; Duquesne, Fabien; Breuil, Marie-France; Goux, Didier; Batto, Jean-Michel; Laugier, Claire; Renault, Pierre; Petry, Sandrine

    2012-01-01

    The Taylorella genus comprises two species: Taylorella equigenitalis, which causes contagious equine metritis, and Taylorella asinigenitalis, a closely-related species mainly found in donkeys. We herein report on the first genome sequence of T. asinigenitalis, analyzing and comparing it with the recently-sequenced T. equigenitalis genome. The T. asinigenitalis genome contains a single circular chromosome of 1,638,559 bp with a 38.3% GC content and 1,534 coding sequences (CDS). While 212 CDSs ...

  4. Operators and higher genus mirror curves

    CERN Document Server

    Codesido, Santiago; Marino, Marcos

    2016-01-01

    We perform further tests of the correspondence between spectral theory and topological strings, focusing on mirror curves of genus greater than one with nontrivial mass parameters. In particular, we analyze the geometry relevant to the SU(3) relativistic Toda lattice, and the resolved C^3/Z_6 orbifold. Furthermore, we give evidence that the correspondence holds for arbitrary values of the mass parameters, where the quantization problem leads to resonant states. We also explore the relation between this correspondence and cluster integrable systems.

  5. The genus Crataegus: chemical and pharmacological perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinesh Kumar

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Traditional drugs have become a subject of world importance, with both medicinal and economical implications. A regular and widespread use of herbs throughout the world has increased serious concerns over their quality, safety and efficacy. Thus, a proper scientific evidence or assessment has become the criteria for acceptance of traditional health claims. Plants of the genus Crataegus, Rosaceae, are widely distributed and have long been used in folk medicine for the treatment of various ailments such as heart (cardiovascular disorders, central nervous system, immune system, eyes, reproductive system, liver, kidney etc. It also exhibits wide range of cytotoxic, gastroprotective, anti-inflammatory, anti-HIV and antimicrobial activities. Phytochemicals like oligomeric procyanidins, flavonoids, triterpenes, polysaccharides, catecholamines have been identified in the genus and many of these have been evaluated for biological activities. This review presents comprehensive information on the chemistry and pharmacology of the genus together with the traditional uses of many of its plants. In addition, this review discusses the clinical trials and regulatory status of various Crataegus plants along with the scope for future research in this aspect.

  6. Phylogeography of genus Squalius in Albania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radek Šanda

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This study is focused on the issue of the Squalius genus phylogeography in Albania in the Balkan region. Phylogenetic analyses of sequence variation at mitochondrial DNA (cytochrome b gene were used to examine these issues for the freshwater fish of the genus Squalius from various river systems in the Adriatic Sea region. There were identified three genetic lineages of unclear taxonomic position, where the genetic variation between identified clades range from 1.6 to 2.1 %. The first lineage is distributed in the Neretva River drainage in Bosnia and Hercegovina, i.e. north of Albania and in the whole remaining Periadriatic regions, whereas the second lineage is especially spread in the northern part of Albania and the third lineage occurs especially in the zone of the European ancient lake systems on the Balkan Peninsula (lakes Ohrid and Prespa, from where expands to the southern part of Albania. Both lineages sympatrically coincide in the hydrological river-lake system of Ohrid-Drin-Skadar. The phylogenetic and taxonomic position of the Squalius genus in the region seems to be interesting topic for subsequent and more detailed study.

  7. The genus Capsicum (Solanaceae in Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. H. Eshbaugh

    1983-12-01

    Full Text Available The genus Capsicum (Solanaceae includes approximately 20 wild species and 4-5 domesticated taxa commonly referred to as ‘chilies’ or ‘peppers’. The pre-Colombian distribution of the genus was New World. The evolutionary history of the genus is now envisaged as including three distinct lines leading to the domesticated taxa. The route of Capsicum to the Old World is thought to have followed three different courses. First, explorers introduced it to Europe with secondary introduction into Africa via further exploratory expeditions; second, botanical gardens played a major role in introduction; and third, introduction followed the slave trade routes. Today, pepper production in Africa is of two types, vegetable and spice. Statistical profiles on production are difficult to interpret, but the data available indicate that Nigeria, Egypt, Tunisia and Ghana are the leading producers. Production is mainly a local phenomenon and large acreage is seldom devoted to the growing of peppers. The primary peppers in Africa are C.  annuum and C.  frutescens.

  8. Standardized gene nomenclature for the Brassica genus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    King Graham J

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The genus Brassica (Brassicaceae, Brassiceae is closely related to the model plant Arabidopsis, and includes several important crop plants. Against the background of ongoing genome sequencing, and in line with efforts to standardize and simplify description of genetic entities, we propose a standard systematic gene nomenclature system for the Brassica genus. This is based upon concatenating abbreviated categories, where these are listed in descending order of significance from left to right (i.e. genus – species – genome – gene name – locus – allele. Indicative examples are provided, and the considerations and recommendations for use are discussed, including outlining the relationship with functionally well-characterized Arabidopsis orthologues. A Brassica Gene Registry has been established under the auspices of the Multinational Brassica Genome Project that will enable management of gene names within the research community, and includes provisional allocation of standard names to genes previously described in the literature or in sequence repositories. The proposed standardization of Brassica gene nomenclature has been distributed to editors of plant and genetics journals and curators of sequence repositories, so that it can be adopted universally.

  9. The Artemisia L. Genus: A Review of Bioactive Essential Oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulina Bermejo

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Numerous members of the Anthemideae tribe are important as cut flowers and ornamental crops, as well as being medicinal and aromatic plants, many of which produce essential oils used in folk and modern medicine and in the cosmetics and pharmaceutical industry. Essential oils generally have a broad spectrum of bioactivity, owing to the presence of several active ingredients that work through various modes of action. Due to their mode of extraction, mostly by distillation from aromatic plants, they contain a variety of volatile molecules such as terpenes, phenol-derived aromatic and aliphatic components. The large genus Artemisia L., from the tribe Anthemideae, comprises important medicinal plants which are currently the subject of phytochemical attention due to their biological and chemical diversity. Artemisia species, widespread throughout the world, are one of the most popular plants in Chinese traditional preparations and are frequently used for the treatment of diseases such as malaria, hepatitis, cancer, inflammation and infections by fungi, bacteria and viruses. Extensive studies of the chemical components of Artemisia have led to the identification of many compounds as well as essentials oils. This review summarizes some of the main reports on the chemistry and anti-infective activities of Artemisia. Li. essential oils from the data in the recent literature (2000–2011.

  10. Broad spectrum antibiotic compounds and use thereof

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koglin, Alexander; Strieker, Matthias

    2016-07-05

    The discovery of a non-ribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS) gene cluster in the genome of Clostridium thermocellum that produces a secondary metabolite that is assembled outside of the host membrane is described. Also described is the identification of homologous NRPS gene clusters from several additional microorganisms. The secondary metabolites produced by the NRPS gene clusters exhibit broad spectrum antibiotic activity. Thus, antibiotic compounds produced by the NRPS gene clusters, and analogs thereof, their use for inhibiting bacterial growth, and methods of making the antibiotic compounds are described.

  11. The myxomycete genus Schenella: morphological and DNA sequence evidence for synonymy with the gasteromycete genus Pyrenogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrada-Torres, Arturo; Gaither, Thomas W; Miller, Dennis L; Lado, Carlos; Keller, Harold W

    2005-01-01

    The genus Schenella has proven difficult to classify since its description as a new genus in 1911. Macbride placed it with the Myxomycetes but it was unclear with which myxomycete, if any, it should be grouped. Recent identification of abundant samples of Schenella has aided a re-evaluation of its classification as a myxomycete. Morphological evidence based on light and scanning electron microscopy of recently collected specimens and on the type specimen of Macbride suggested that it might be synonymous with the gasteromycete Pyrenogaster Analysis of DNA sequences from freshly isolated samples indicates that the genus Schenella is related closely to an anciently diverged, monophyletic group of fungi that includes several gasteromycete genera, among them Geastrum, Sphaerobolus and Pseudocolus. Comparisons of the morphology and DNA sequences of authentically identified specimens of Pyrenogaster atrogleba indicate that it is synonymous with Schenella simplex. The nomenclatural implications of this discovery are discussed. PMID:16389965

  12. A new species of broad-nosed bat Platyrrhinus Saussure, 1860 (Chiroptera:   Phyllostomidae) from the Guianan Shield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velazco, Paúl M; Lim, Burton K

    2014-01-01

    A new species of broad-nosed bat Platyrrhinus Saussure, 1860 (Chiroptera: Phyllostomidae: Stenodermatinae) from the Guianan Shield is described based on molecular and morphological data. Previously confused with P. helleri and P. recifinus, the new taxon is currently known from only Guyana and Suriname and is most closely related to P. recifinus from eastern Brazil and not to the two sympatric species (P. fusciventris and P. incarum) also recently recognized as distinct from P. helleri. Morphometrically the new taxon overlaps with the smaller species of the genus (P. angustirostris, P. brachycephalus, P. fusciventris, P. helleri, P. incarum, and P. matapalensis), but forms a different cluster from the larger P. recifinus. Morphologically the new taxon is distinguished from its congeners by a combination of external and craniodental characteristics. Platyrrhinus now includes 21 species making it the most speciose genus in the Neotropical family Phyllostomidae. PMID:24870671

  13. Genus two Heegaard splittings of exteriors of 1-genus 1-bridge knots

    CERN Document Server

    Goda, Hiroshi

    2010-01-01

    A knot K in a closed connected orientable 3-manifold M is called a 1-genus 1-bridge knot if (M,K) has a splitting into two pairs of a solid torus V_i (i=1,2) and a boundary parallel arc in it. The splitting induces a genus two Heegaard splitting of the exterior of K naturally, i.e., K has an unknotting tunnel. However the converse is not true in general. Then we study such general case in this paper. One of the conclusions is that the unknotting tunnel may be levelled with the torus \\partial V_1=\\partial V_2.

  14. Genomic characterization of the Taylorella genus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurent Hébert

    Full Text Available The Taylorella genus comprises two species: Taylorella equigenitalis, which causes contagious equine metritis, and Taylorella asinigenitalis, a closely-related species mainly found in donkeys. We herein report on the first genome sequence of T. asinigenitalis, analyzing and comparing it with the recently-sequenced T. equigenitalis genome. The T. asinigenitalis genome contains a single circular chromosome of 1,638,559 bp with a 38.3% GC content and 1,534 coding sequences (CDS. While 212 CDSs were T. asinigenitalis-specific, 1,322 had orthologs in T. equigenitalis. Two hundred and thirty-four T. equigenitalis CDSs had no orthologs in T. asinigenitalis. Analysis of the basic nutrition metabolism of both Taylorella species showed that malate, glutamate and alpha-ketoglutarate may be their main carbon and energy sources. For both species, we identified four different secretion systems and several proteins potentially involved in binding and colonization of host cells, suggesting a strong potential for interaction with their host. T. equigenitalis seems better-equipped than T. asinigenitalis in terms of virulence since we identified numerous proteins potentially involved in pathogenicity, including hemagluttinin-related proteins, a type IV secretion system, TonB-dependent lactoferrin and transferrin receptors, and YadA and Hep_Hag domains containing proteins. This is the first molecular characterization of Taylorella genus members, and the first molecular identification of factors potentially involved in T. asinigenitalis and T. equigenitalis pathogenicity and host colonization. This study facilitates a genetic understanding of growth phenotypes, animal host preference and pathogenic capacity, paving the way for future functional investigations into this largely unknown genus.

  15. The genus Platychara from the Western Hemisphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peck, R.E.; Forester, R.M.

    1979-01-01

    The systematics of four species belonging to the genus Platychara (Charophyta) from the Western Hemisphere is discussed. Three of the species, as defined herein, occur in Cretaceous and Paleocene rocks from Mexico through South America. The type species, P. compressa (Peck and Reker) Grambast, also of Cretaceous and Paleocene age, is herein restricted to deposits north of Mexico. These latter restrictions geographically separate P. compressa and P. perlata as presently defined but the relationship between these two species is still uncertain. A new species, P. grambastii, is proposed for specimens from Maestrichtian sediments in Jamaica. ?? 1979.

  16. Double genus expansion for general Ω background

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prudenziati, Andrea

    2016-07-01

    We will show how the refined holomorphic anomaly equation obeyed by the Nekrasov partition function at generic 𝜖1, 𝜖2 values becomes compatible, in a certain two-parameter expansion, with the assumption that both parameters are associated to genus counting. The underlying worldsheet theory will be analyzed and constrained in various ways, and we will provide both physical interpretation and some alternative evidence for this model. Finally, we will use the Gopakumar-Vafa formulation for the refined topological string in order to give a more quantitative description.

  17. Elliptic Genus of E-strings

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Joonho; Kim, Seok; Lee, Kimyeong; Park, Jaemo; Vafa, Cumrun

    2014-01-01

    We study a family of 2d N=(0,4) gauge theories which describes at low energy the dynamics of E-strings, the M2-branes suspended between a pair of M5 and M9 branes. The gauge theory is engineered using a duality with type IIA theory, leading to the D2-branes suspended between an NS5-brane and 8 D8-branes on an O8-plane. We compute the elliptic genus of this family of theories, and find agreement with the known results for single and two E-strings. The partition function can in principle be com...

  18. Non-gravitational effects on genus penicillium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loup, Mackenzie

    1995-01-01

    In September 1994, Shuttle Orbiter Discovery, STS-64, launched into space. Aboard that shuttle was a payload containing Fungi spores, genus Penicillium. With the over looking help of Dr. Audrey Gabel, Associate Professor of Biology at Black Hills State University, investigations on differing media types began. Basis for this experimentation was to determine if there was any differences between the space exposed spores and control spores. Studies concluded that there were differences and those differences were then recorded. It was hypothesized the spores may have been effected causing differences in growth rate, colony size, depth and margins, coloring, germination, and growth on different media.

  19. A review of the genus Curtisia (Curtisiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. YU Yembaturova

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available A review of the monotypic southern African endemic genus Curtisia Aiton is presented. Detailed studies of the fruit and seed structure provided new evidence in support of a close relationship between the family Curtisiaceae and Comaceae. Comparisons with several other members of the Comales revealed carpological similarities to certain species of Comus s.I., sometimes treated as segregate genera Dendrobenthamia Hutch, and Benthamidia Spach. We also provide information on the history of the assegai tree, Curtisia dentata (Burm.f. C.A.Sm. and its uses, as well as a formal taxonomic revision, including nomenclature, typification, detailed description and geographical distribution.

  20. A broad view of model validation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The safety assessment of a nuclear waste repository requires the use of models. Such models need to be validated to ensure, as much as possible, that they are a good representation of the actual processes occurring in the real system. In this paper we attempt to take a broad view by reviewing step by step the modeling process and bringing out the need to validating every step of this process. This model validation includes not only comparison of modeling results with data from selected experiments, but also evaluation of procedures for the construction of conceptual models and calculational models as well as methodologies for studying data and parameter correlation. The need for advancing basic scientific knowledge in related fields, for multiple assessment groups, and for presenting our modeling efforts in open literature to public scrutiny is also emphasized. 16 refs

  1. Buildup factors for broad gamma beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper deals with buildup factors for the photon number and the exposure in broad conical beams penetrating through iron slabs. Using the Monte Carlo method, the dependence on the thickness of the slabs is calculated for various geometrical configurations of the 137Cs radiation source, the slab and the detector. The same dependence has also been measured for 137Cs and 60Co. The results show the dependence of the buildup factor B on the collimation angle α (B increases with increasing α), on the distance a between the source and the slab (B increases with increasing a), and on the distance b between the detector and the slab (B decreases with increasing b). Comparison of the obtained results with those from model configurations shows that in the latter case errors may range up to nearly 100%. (author)

  2. Broad-band acoustic hyperbolic metamaterial

    CERN Document Server

    Shen, Chen; Sui, Ni; Wang, Wenqi; Cummer, Steven A; Jing, Yun

    2015-01-01

    Acoustic metamaterials (AMMs) are engineered materials, made from subwavelength structures, that exhibit useful or unusual constitutive properties. There has been intense research interest in AMMs since its first realization in 2000 by Liu et al. A number of functionalities and applications have been proposed and achieved using AMMs. Hyperbolic metamaterials are one of the most important types of metamaterials due to their extreme anisotropy and numerous possible applications, including negative refraction, backward waves, spatial filtering, and subwavelength imaging. Although the importance of acoustic hyperbolic metamaterials (AHMMs) as a tool for achieving full control of acoustic waves is substantial, the realization of a broad-band and truly hyperbolic AMM has not been reported so far. Here, we demonstrate the design and experimental characterization of a broadband AHMM that operates between 1.0 kHz and 2.5 kHz.

  3. Crx broadly modulates the pineal transcriptome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rovsing, Louise; Clokie, Samuel; Bustos, Diego M;

    2011-01-01

    microarray and qRTPCR technology, thereby extending previous studies on selected genes (Furukawa et al. 1999). Deletion of Crx was not found to alter pineal morphology, but was found to broadly modulate the mouse pineal transcriptome, characterized by a > 2-fold down-regulation of 543 genes and a > 2-fold up-regulation...... of 745 genes (p < 0.05). Of these, one of the most highly up-regulated (18-fold) was Hoxc4, a member of the Hox gene family, members of which are known to control gene expression cascades. During a 24-h period, a set of 51 genes exhibited differential day/night expression in pineal glands of wild...... influences differential night/day gene expression in this tissue. Some effects of Crx deletion on the pineal transcriptome might be mediated by Hoxc4 up-regulation....

  4. Magnetohydrodynamic stability of broad line region clouds

    CERN Document Server

    Krause, Martin; Burkert, Andreas

    2012-01-01

    Hydrodynamic stability has been a longstanding issue for the cloud model of the broad line region in active galactic nuclei. We argue that the clouds may be gravitationally bound to the supermassive black hole. If true, stabilisation by thermal pressure alone becomes even more difficult. We further argue that if magnetic fields should be present in such clouds at a level that could affect the stability properties, they need to be strong enough to compete with the radiation pressure on the cloud. This would imply magnetic field values of a few Gauss for a sample of Active Galactic Nuclei we draw from the literature. We then investigate the effect of several magnetic configurations on cloud stability in axi-symmetric magnetohydrodynamic simulations. For a purely azimuthal magnetic field which provides the dominant pressure support, the cloud first gets compressed by the opposing radiative and gravitational forces. The pressure inside the cloud then increases, and it expands vertically. Kelvin-Helmholtz and colu...

  5. Chemodiversity in the genus Aspergillus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frisvad, Jens Christian; Larsen, Thomas Ostenfeld

    2015-01-01

    characterized. The genus Aspergillus is cladistically holophyletic but phenotypically polythetic and very diverse and is associated to quite different sexual states. Following the one fungus one name system, the genus Aspergillus is restricted to a holophyletic clade that include the morphologically different...... biosynthetic family isoextrolites. However, it appears that secondary metabolites from one Aspergillus section have analogous metabolites in other sections (here also called heteroisoextrolites). In this review, we give a genus-wide overview of secondary metabolite production in Aspergillus species. Extrolites...

  6. Yucca: A medicinally significant genus with manifold therapeutic attributes

    OpenAIRE

    Patel, Seema

    2012-01-01

    The genus Yucca comprising of several species is dominant across the chaparrals, canyons and deserts of American South West and Mexico. This genus has long been a source of sustenance and drugs for the Native Americans. In the wake of revived interest in drug discovery from plant sources, this genus has been investigated and startling nutritive and therapeutic capacities have come forth. Apart from the functional food potential, antioxidant, antiinflammation, antiarthritic, anticancer, antidi...

  7. Microsatellites in the genus Xiphophorus, developed in Xiphophorus montezumae

    OpenAIRE

    Seckinger, Jens; Brinkmann, Henner; Meyer, Axel

    2002-01-01

    Species of the genus Xiphophorus (swordtails and platies) are of great interest for the study of evolution of sexually selected traits like the sword, which is an elongation of ventral fin rays of the male caudal fin, that has evolved in several species within this genus. The detection of 10 microsatellites within the genus Xiphophorus will enable studies about the correlation of this trait with sexual reproductive success of males possessing swords of different lengths. These microsatellites...

  8. Variance Analysis of Genus Ipomoea based on Morphological Characters

    OpenAIRE

    DWI PRIYANTO; SURATMAN; AHMAD DWI SETYAWAN

    2000-01-01

    The objective of this research was to find out the variability of morphological characters of genus Ipomoea, including coefficient variance and phylogenetic relationships. Genus Ipomoea has been identified consisting of four species i.e. Ipomoea crassicaulis Rob, Ipomoea aquatica Forsk., Ipomoea reptans Poir and Ipomoea leari. Four species of the genus took from surround the lake inside the campus of Sebelas Maret University, Surakarta. Comparison of species variability was based on the varia...

  9. Elliptic Genus of E-strings

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Joonho; Lee, Kimyeong; Park, Jaemo; Vafa, Cumrun

    2014-01-01

    We study a family of 2d N=(0,4) gauge theories which describes at low energy the dynamics of E-strings, the M2-branes suspended between a pair of M5 and M9 branes. The gauge theory is engineered using a duality with type IIA theory, leading to the D2-branes suspended between an NS5-brane and 8 D8-branes on an O8-plane. We compute the elliptic genus of this family of theories, and find agreement with the known results for single and two E-strings. The partition function can in principle be computed for arbitrary number of E-strings, and we compute them explicitly for low numbers. We test our predictions against the partially known results from topological strings, as well as from the instanton calculus of 5d Sp(1) gauge theory. Given the relation to topological strings, our computation provides the all genus partition function of the refined topological strings on the canonical bundle over 1/2 K3.

  10. Spatial relationships between polychaete assemblages and environmental variables over broad geographical scales.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisandro Benedetti-Cecchi

    Full Text Available This study examined spatial relationships between rocky shore polychaete assemblages and environmental variables over broad geographical scales, using a database compiled within the Census of Marine Life NaGISA (Natural Geography In Shore Areas research program. The database consisted of abundance measures of polychaetes classified at the genus and family levels for 74 and 93 sites, respectively, from nine geographic regions. We tested the general hypothesis that the set of environmental variables emerging as potentially important drivers of variation in polychaete assemblages depend on the spatial scale considered. Through Moran's eigenvector maps we indentified three submodels reflecting spatial relationships among sampling sites at intercontinental (>10,000 km, continental (1000-5000 km and regional (20-500 km scales. Using redundancy analysis we found that most environmental variables contributed to explain a large and significant proportion of variation of the intercontinental submodel both for genera and families (54% and 53%, respectively. A subset of these variables, organic pollution, inorganic pollution, primary productivity and nutrient contamination was also significantly related to spatial variation at the continental scale, explaining 25% and 32% of the variance at the genus and family levels, respectively. These variables should therefore be preferably considered when forecasting large-scale spatial patterns of polychaete assemblages in relation to ongoing or predicted changes in environmental conditions. None of the variables considered in this study were significantly related to the regional submodel.

  11. Neutralization of low energy broad ion beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper is devoted to experimental and theoretical investigation of a low energy broad ion beam space charge and current compensation and ion-beam plasma (IBP), which would be created in transport space of the beam. The beam had cylindrical symmetry. The continuous uniform and hole tube like ion beams are used in the experiments. Different channels of electron appearing have been investigated for cases of neutralization due to secondary γ-electrons from the target and by electrons from glow cathode-neutralizer with metal or dielectric target. Results of neutralizing electrons energy distributions function measurements are presented as well as dependences of electron temperature and self-consisted plasma potential vs. beam parameters, ambient gas pressure, neutralizer parameters. Role of the thermoelectrons and dependence of IBP parameters on neutralizer area, location and potential are discussed. Significant role in neutralization of spatial collisional processes has been revealed even in neutralization by thermocathode. On the base of the experimental results self-consistent theoretical model have been developed, which describes the behavior of intense ion beam passing through the neutral gas at low pressure within conductive walls. The collisionless approach is used which means absence of collisional relaxation of the beam. This theory is used to derive the plasma potential and electron temperature within the beam

  12. Transfer of Methanolobus siciliae to the genus Methanosarcina, naming it Methanosarcina siciliae, and emendation of the genus Methanosarcina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, S.; Woese, C. R.; Aldrich, H. C.; Boone, D. R.

    1994-01-01

    A sequence analysis of the 16S rRNA of Methanolobus siciliae T4/M(T) (T = type strain) showed that this strain is closely related to members of the genus Methanosarcina, especially Methanosarcina acetivorans C2A(T). Methanolobus siciliae T4/M(T) and HI350 were morphologically more similar to members of the genus Methanosarcina than to members of the genus Methanolobus in that they both formed massive cell aggregates with pseudosarcinae. Thus, we propose that Methanolobus siciliae should be transferred to the genus Methanosarcina as Methanosarcina siciliae.

  13. A new genus of mellitid sand dollar (Echinoidea: Mellitidae) from the eastern Pacific coast of the Americas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coppard, Simon E

    2016-01-01

    Lanthonia gen. nov. Coppard 2016 is a genus of clypeasteroid sand dollar whose members inhabit shallow, sandy waters from Mexico (including the Gulf of California) to Colombia in the tropical and subtropical eastern Pacific. Lanthonia includes Lanthonia longifissa (Michelin, 1858) and Lanthonia grantii (Mortensen, 1948), with L. longifissa hereby designated as the type species. Both L. longifissa and L. grantii were previously placed in the genus Mellita (L. Agassiz, 1841). However, levels of genetic divergence between a lineage containing L. longifissa and L. grantii and a lineage containing all other species of Mellita, including the type species M. quinquiesperforata (Leske, 1778), indicate genus level differentiation. The systematic interpretation of this group also supports the designation of this new genus as it allows the tree topology to be recovered from the nomenclature and clarifies the historical biogeography of these clades. This has resulted in members of both lineages today being sympatric in the eastern Pacific. Members of Lanthonia are morphologically differentiated from the type species of Mellita and all Pacific Mellita in having very narrow ambulacral regions between the food grooves and the ambulacral lunules on the oral surface, these being very broad in both M. quinquiesperforata and M. notabilis. The dentation of the bidentate pedicellariae also differentiate these genera, with small peripheral teeth present along the edge of the blade in species of Lanthonia and one to three enlarged intersecting teeth present distally in all species of Mellita. PMID:27394905

  14. Molecular systematics and biogeography of the Neotropical monkey genus, Alouatta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortés-Ortiz, L; Bermingham, E; Rico, C; Rodríguez-Luna, E; Sampaio, I; Ruiz-García, M

    2003-01-01

    We take advantage of the broad distribution of howler monkeys from Mexico to Argentina to provide a historical biogeographical analysis on a regional scale that encompasses the entire Neotropics. The phylogenetic relationships among 9 of the 10 recognized Alouatta species were inferred using three mitochondrial and two nuclear genes. The nuclear gene regions provided no phylogenetic resolution among howler monkey species, and were characterized by very low levels of sequence divergence between Alouatta and the Ateles outgroup. The mtDNA genes, on the other hand, produced a well-resolved phylogeny, which indicated that the earliest split among howler monkeys separated cis- and trans-Andean clades. Eight monophyletic mtDNA haplotype clades were identified, representing six named species in South America, including Alouatta seniculus, Alouatta sara, Alouatta macconelli, Alouatta caraya, Alouatta belzebul, and Alouatta guariba, and two in Mesoamerica, Alouatta pigra and Alouatta palliata. Molecular clock-based estimates of branching times indicated that contemporary howler monkey species originated in the late Miocene and Pliocene, not the Pleistocene. The causes of Alouatta diversification were more difficult to pin down, although we posit that the initial cis-, trans-Andean split in the genus was caused by the late Miocene completion of the northern Andes. Riverine barriers to dispersal and putative forest refuges can neither be discounted nor distinguished as causes of speciation in many cases, and one, the other or both have likely played a role in the diversification of South American howler monkeys. Finally, we estimated the separation of Mesoamerican A. pigra and A. palliata at 3Ma, which corresponds to the completion date of the Panama Isthmus promoting a role for this earth history event in the speciation of Central American howler monkeys. PMID:12470939

  15. Phylogenetic position of the spirochetal genus Cristispira

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paster, B.J.; Pelletier, D.A.; Dewhirst, F.E.;

    1996-01-01

    a cell-laden crystalline styles of the oyster Crassostrea virginica. The amplified products were then cloned into Escherichia coli plasmids. Sequence comparisons of the gene coding for 16S rRNA (rDNA) insert of one clone, designated CP1, indicated that it was spirochetal. The sequence of the 16S rDNA...... insert of another clone was mycoplasmal. The CP1 sequence possessed most of the individual base signatures that are unique to 16S rRNA (or rDNA) sequences of known spirochetes. CP1 branched deeply among other spirochetal genera within the family Spirochaetaceae, and accordingly, it represents a separate......Comparative sequence analysis of 16S rRNA genes was used to determine the phylogenetic relationship of the genus Cristispira to other spirochetes. Since Cristispira organisms cannot presently be grown in vitro, 16S rRNA genes were amplified directly from bacterial DNA isolated from Cristispira...

  16. Chromosome studies in the genus Jatropha L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.Sasikala and M.Paramathma

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The inflorescences of ten species of the genus Jatropha were fixed in Cornoy’s fluid (6:3:1. Acetocarmine stain (2% wasused for staining the pollen mother cells. Seven species exhibited 11 bivalents and 2n =22 and x=11. But the two otherspecies, J.villosa var. villosa and J.villosa var. ramnadensis showed only 10 bivalents and 2n number of 20 chromosomesand x=10. The study concluded the occurrence of two kinds of haploid chromosome numbers of n =10 and n =11. ExceptJatropha tanjorensis, cytological investigation in all species exhibited normal and complete pairing and bivalent formationin metaphase I and equal separation of chromosome in anaphase and indicated that the course of meiosis was normal.Jatropha tanjorensis did not exhibit normal course of meiosis and no proper count of chromosomes could be made. Presentchromosomal studies in Jatropha revealed the existence of two basic chromosomes numbers x = 5 and x = 6.

  17. Anomaly cancelling terms from the elliptic genus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We calculate the heterotic string one-loop diagram in 2n+2 dimensions with one external Bμν and n external gravitons and/or gauge bosons. The result is a modular integral over the weight zero terms of the character valued partition function (or elliptic genus) of the theory, and can be directly expressed in terms of the factor which multiplies Tr F2-Tr R2 in the field theory anomaly. The integrands have a non-trivial dependence on the modular parameter τ, reflecting contributions not only from the physical massless states but also from an infinity of 'unphysical' modes. Some of them are identical to integrands which have been discussed recently in relation with Atkin-Lehner symmetry and the cosmological constant. As a corollary we find a method to compute these integrals without using Atkin-Lehner transformations. (orig.)

  18. The genus Schoenoxiphium (Cyperaceae. A preliminary account

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Kukkonen

    1983-12-01

    Full Text Available The genus Schoenoxiphium of the tribe Cariceae of Cyperaceae is conservatively accepted as being restricted to the African continent and Madagascar. The special features of the inflorescence structure are described. The following species are provisionally recognized: S. basutorum Turrill, S. distinctum Kukkonen, S. ecklonii Nees, S.  filiforme Kükenthal, S. gracile Chermezon, S. lanceum (Thunberg Kukenthal, S. lehmannii (Nees Steudel, S.  madagascariense Chermezon, S. perdensum Kukkonen, S. rufum Nees, S. schweickerdtii Merxmiiller & Podlech, and  S. sparteum (Wahlenberg Kukenthal. A key to the species is provided and their distribution is roughly outlined. The morphological variation within the species suggests separation of taxa below specific level, or perhaps even at species level, but this will require more detailed information about the ecology, distribution and the cytology.

  19. Broad spectrum anthelmintic potential of Cassia plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Suman Kundu; Saptarshi Roy; Larisha Mawkhleing Lyndem

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To study the in vitro anthelmintic efficacy of Cassia alata (C. alata), Cassia(C. angustifolia) and Cassia occidentalis (C. occidentalis). angustifolia Methods: Crude ethanol extract from leaves of the three plants were prepared in rotary evaporator and different concentrations (10, 20 and 40 mg/mL) of leaf extracts were used for treatment on different representatives of helminthes (Heterakis gallinarum, Raillietina tetragona and Catatropis sp.) from domestic fowl (Gallus gallus domesticus). Loss of motility and death were monitored frequently.Results: C. alata showed early paralysis in all worms treated followed by C. angustifolia. C. occidentalis in combination with C. alata together caused early paralysis in all treated worms than the combination of C. alata with C. angustfolia. While Heterakis gallinarum in control survived for (81.33±2.07) h, treated worms lost their motility at (5.71±0.10) h, (6.60±0.86) h and (13.95±0.43) h with C. angustifolia, C. alata and C. occidentalis respectively at a concentration of 40 mg/mL which showed better efficacy than albendazole. Catatropis sp. survival period was (26.49±1.38) h in control, but with plant treatment, it lost its motility in just (0.57±0.08) h, (1.00±0.12) h and (1.47±0.40) h at 40 mg/mL concentration of C. alata, C. angustifolia and C. occidentalis respectively.Raillietina tetragona on the other hand became paralysed at (1.68±0.27) h, (2.95±0.29) h and (4.13±0.31) h with above concentrations treated with three plants respectively, however in control it survived up to (81.93±4.71) h.Conclusions:This present study indicated broad spectrum vermifugal activity of all plants tested.

  20. Microlensing of Quasar Broad Emission Lines: Constraints on Broad Line Region Size

    CERN Document Server

    Guerras, E; Jimenez-Vicente, J; Kochanek, C S; Muñoz, J A; Falco, E; Motta, V

    2012-01-01

    We measure the differential microlensing of the broad emission lines between 18 quasar image pairs in 16 gravitational lenses. We find that high ionization lines such as CIV are more strongly microlensed than low ionization lines, indicating that the high ionization line emission regions are more compact. If we statistically model the distribution of microlensing magnifications, we obtain estimates for the broad line region radius of 24 (-15/+22) and 55 (-35/+150) light-days (90% confidence) for the high and low ionization lines, respectively. When the sample is divided attending to quasar luminosity, we find that the line emission regions of more luminous quasars are larger, with a slope consistent with the expected scaling from photoionization models. Our estimates also agree well with the results from local reveberation mapping studies.

  1. The neotropical genus Opeatocerata Melander (Díptera, Empididae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth G. V. Smith

    1989-01-01

    Full Text Available The Neotropical empidid genus Opeatocerata Melander, hitherto known from only a sigle female from Mexico, is redefined in the light of new material, including males. Three new species are described and illustrated, a key provided and the presence of the genus now additionally established in Costa Rica, Panama, Bolivia, Ecuador, Trinidad and Brazil.

  2. Phylogeny of the Peckia-genus group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buenaventura Ruiz, Ingrid Eliana; Pape, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Peckia is the most species-rich necrophagous genus among the Neotropical sarcophagids, encompassing 67 species distributed in 5 subgenera. Recent phylogenetic studies have challenged the monophyly of this genus with regard to species of the genera Peckiamyia, Titanogrypa, and Villegasia, and the ...

  3. Polyakov relation for the sphere and higher genus surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Menotti, Pietro

    2015-01-01

    The Polyakov relation, which in the sphere topology gives the changes of the Liouville action under the variation of the position of the sources, in the case of higher genus is related also to the dependence of the action on the moduli of the surface. We write and prove such a relation for genus 1 and for all hyperelliptic surfaces.

  4. The Polyakov relation for the sphere and higher genus surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menotti, Pietro

    2016-05-01

    The Polyakov relation, which in the sphere topology gives the changes of the Liouville action under the variation of the position of the sources, is also related in the case of higher genus to the dependence of the action on the moduli of the surface. We write and prove such a relation for genus 1 and for all hyperelliptic surfaces.

  5. A path integral derivation of χy-genus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The formula for the Hirzebruch χy-genus of complex manifolds is a consequence of the Hirzebruch-Riemann-Roch formula. The classical index formulae for Todd genus, Euler number and signature correspond to the case when the complex variable y=0, -1 and 1 respectively. Here we give a direct derivation of this nice formula based on supersymmetric quantum mechanics

  6. The Polyakov relation for the sphere and higher genus surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Polyakov relation, which in the sphere topology gives the changes of the Liouville action under the variation of the position of the sources, is also related in the case of higher genus to the dependence of the action on the moduli of the surface. We write and prove such a relation for genus 1 and for all hyperelliptic surfaces. (paper)

  7. Tsiangia, a new genus based on Gaertnera Hongkongensis (Rubiaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    But, P. Pui-Hay; Hsue, Hsiang-hao; Li, Ping-T’ao

    1986-01-01

    Detailed examination of the holotype and isotype of Gaertnera hongkongensis Seemann led to the conclusion that this species does not belong to Gaertnera nor to Randia. A new genus, Tsiangia, is proposed to accommodate the new combination Tsiangia hongkongensis. This new genus is retained in Rubiaceae.

  8. Chemical Constituents of Plants from the Genus Psychotria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hongmei; Zhang, Hongmei; Yang, Caiqiong; Chen, Yegao

    2016-07-01

    Psychotria is a genus of ca. 1500 species in the family Rubiaceae. Up to now, 41 species of the Psychotria genus have been chemically investigated, and 159 compounds, including alkaloids of indole, quinoline and benzoquinolizidine type, terpenoids, steroids, phenolics and aliphatic compounds have been isolated. These compounds show potent bioactivities, such as antimicrobial, antiviral, and antiparasitic activities. PMID:27206020

  9. The genus Gloriosa (Colchicaceae) : ethnobotany, phylogeny and taxonomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maroyi, A.

    2012-01-01

    This thesis focuses on the ethnobotany, phylogeny and taxonomy of the genus Gloriosa L. over its distributional range. Some Gloriosa species are known to have economic and commercial value, but the genus is also well known for its complex alpha taxonomy. An appropriate taxonomy for this group is of

  10. Quantum field theory on higher-genus Riemann surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quantum field theory for b-c systems is formulated on Riemann surfaces with arbitrary genus. We make use of the formalism recently developed by Krichever and Novikov. Hamiltonian is defined properly, and the Ward-Takahashi identities are derived on higher-genus Riemann surfaces. (author)

  11. A taxonomic revision of the Genus Origanum (Labiatae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ietswaart, J.H.

    1980-01-01

    The present study deals with the systematics and taxonomy of the genus Origanum (Labiatae, Saturejeae). As this difficult genus was never before monographed, a revisional study was much needed. The data presented are mainly based on the study of herbarium specimens and in some cases of living ones.

  12. Refined Chern-Simons Theory in Genus Two

    CERN Document Server

    Arthamonov, Semeon

    2015-01-01

    Reshetikhin-Turaev (a.k.a. Chern-Simons) TQFT is a functor that associates vector spaces to two-dimensional genus g surfaces and linear operators to automorphisms of surfaces. The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate that there exists a Macdonald q,t-deformation -- refinement -- of these operators that preserves the defining relations of the mapping class groups beyond genus 1. For this we explicitly construct the refined TQFT representation of the genus 2 mapping class group in the case of rank one TQFT. This is a direct generalization of the original genus 1 construction of arXiv:1105.5117, opening a question if it extends to any genus. Our construction is built upon a q,t-deformation of the square of q-6j symbol of U_q(sl_2), which we define using the Macdonald version of Fourier duality. This allows to compute the refined Jones polynomial for arbitrary knots in genus 2. In contrast with genus 1, the refined Jones polynomial in genus 2 does not appear to agree with the Poincare polynomial of the triply ...

  13. Studies in the Ericoideae. II. The new genus Stokoeanthus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. G. H. Oliver

    1976-12-01

    Full Text Available The new monotypic genus Stokoeanthus is described, its type and only species being the new species S. chionophilus E. G. H. Oliver. The position of the genus in the subfamily, its relationships and the reasons for its establishment are given.

  14. Validation, automatic generation and use of broad phonetic transcriptions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bael, Cristophe Patrick Jan Van

    2007-01-01

    Broad phonetic transcriptions represent the pronunciation of words as strings of characters from specifically designed symbol sets. In everyday life, broad phonetic transcriptions are often used as aids to pronounce (foreign) words. In addition, broad phonetic transcriptions are often used for lingu

  15. Genus Two Zhu Theory for Vertex Operator Algebras

    CERN Document Server

    Gilroy, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    We consider correlation functions for a vertex operator algebra on a genus two Riemann surface formed by sewing two tori together. We describe a generalisation of genus one Zhu recursion expressing an arbitrary genus two $n$--point correlation function in terms of $(n-1)$--point functions. We consider several applications including the correlation functions for the Heisenberg vertex operator algebra and its modules, Virasoro correlation functions and genus two Ward identities. We derive novel differential equations in terms of a differential operator on the genus two Siegel upper half plane for holomorphic $1$--forms, the normalised bidifferential of the second kind and the Heisenberg partition function. We also prove that the holomorphic mapping from the sewing parameter domain to the Siegel upper half plane is injective but not surjective.

  16. Broad-Spectrum Solution-Processed Photovoltaics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ip, Alexander Halley

    High global demand for energy coupled with dwindling fossil fuel supply has driven the development of sustainable energy sources such as solar photovoltaics. Emerging solar technologies aim for low-cost, solution-processable materials which would allow wide deployment. Colloidal quantum dots (CQDs) are such a materials system which exhibits the ability to absorb across the entire solar spectrum, including in the infrared where many technologies cannot harvest photons. However, due to their nanocrystalline nature, CQDs are susceptible to surface-associated electronic traps which greatly inhibit performance. In this thesis, surface engineering of CQDs is presented through a combined ligand approach which improves the passivation of surface trap states. A metal halide treatment is found to passivate quantum dot surfaces in solution, while bifunctional organic ligands produce a dense film in solid state. This approach reduced midgap trap states fivefold compared with conventional passivation strategies and led to solar cells with a record certified 7.0% power conversion efficiency. The effect of this process on the electronic structure is studied through photoelectron spectroscopy. It is found that while the halide provides deep trap passivation, the nature of the metal cation on the CQD surface affects the density of band tail states. This effect is explored further through a wide survey of materials, and it is found that the coordination ability of the metal cation is responsible for the suppression of shallow traps. With this understanding of CQD surface passivation, broad spectral usage is then explored through a study of visible-absorbing organolead halide perovskite materials as well as narrow-bandgap CQD solar cells. Control over growth conditions and modification of electrode interfaces resulted in efficient perovskite devices with effective usages of visible photons. For infrared-absorbing CQDs, it is found that, in addition to providing surface trap

  17. Genomes-based phylogeny of the genus Xanthomonas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodriguez-R Luis M

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The genus Xanthomonas comprises several plant pathogenic bacteria affecting a wide range of hosts. Despite the economic, industrial and biological importance of Xanthomonas, the classification and phylogenetic relationships within the genus are still under active debate. Some of the relationships between pathovars and species have not been thoroughly clarified, with old pathovars becoming new species. A change in the genus name has been recently suggested for Xanthomonas albilineans, an early branching species currently located in this genus, but a thorough phylogenomic reconstruction would aid in solving these and other discrepancies in this genus. Results Here we report the results of the genome-wide analysis of DNA sequences from 989 orthologous groups from 17 Xanthomonas spp. genomes available to date, representing all major lineages within the genus. The phylogenetic and computational analyses used in this study have been automated in a Perl package designated Unus, which provides a framework for phylogenomic analyses which can be applied to other datasets at the genomic level. Unus can also be easily incorporated into other phylogenomic pipelines. Conclusions Our phylogeny agrees with previous phylogenetic topologies on the genus, but revealed that the genomes of Xanthomonas citri and Xanthomonas fuscans belong to the same species, and that of Xanthomonas albilineans is basal to the joint clade of Xanthomonas and Xylella fastidiosa. Genome reduction was identified in the species Xanthomonas vasicola in addition to the previously identified reduction in Xanthomonas albilineans. Lateral gene transfer was also observed in two gene clusters.

  18. Notes on hyperelliptic fibrations of genus 3, II

    OpenAIRE

    Murakami, Masaaki

    2013-01-01

    This is the part II of the series under the same title. In part I, using the approach developed by Catanese--Pignatelli arXiv:math/0503294, we gave a structure theorem for hyperelliptic genus 3 fibrations all of whose fibers are 2-connected (arXiv:1209.6278 [math.AG]). In this part II, we shall give a structure theorem for smooth deformation families of these to non-hyperelliptic genus 3 fibrations. As an application, we shall give a set of sufficient conditions for our genus 3 hyperelliptic ...

  19. Bheemamyces, a new genus of the family Asterinaceae (Ascomycetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.B. Hosagoudar

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Bheemamyces with its type B. argyreicola, a new genus and a new species of the family Asterinaceae, collected on the leaves of Argyreia nervosa from the Malabar Botanic Garden, Kozhikode, Kerala, has been described and illustrated in detail. This genus differs from other genera of the family Asterinaceae in having the mycelia originated from the main hyphae, lifted slightly above the host surface, appearing like a ‘whip’, possessing intercalary and sub intercalary or sub lateral appressoria. Another such taxon, Asterina argyreiae Hansf. has been brought under this genus as Bheemamyces argyreiae (Hansf. comb. nov.

  20. The genus Plectranthus in India and its chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldia, Shobha; Joshi, Bipin C; Pathak, Uma; Joshi, Mukesh C

    2011-02-01

    Phytochemical constituents isolated from Indian species of the genus Plectranthus reported up to 2009 are compiled. In India, the genus Plectranthus is found in all the habitats and altitudes, particularly in the Himalaya, the Southern Ghats, and the Nilgiri region. P. amboinicus, P. barbatus, P. caninus, P. mollis, P. coetsa, and P. incanus are the most common species found in India. Phytochemical studies of the genus revealed that Indian Plectranthus species are rich in essential oil, and that the most abundant secondary metabolites are diterpenoids, i.e., labdanes, abietanes, and ent-kauranes, as well as triterpenoids. PMID:21337498

  1. toward a phylogeny of the kukri snakes, genus oligodon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    the south and southeast asian snake genus oligodon,known for its egg-eating feeding behavior,has been a taxonomically and systematically challenging group.this work provides the first phylogenetic hypothesis for the genus.we use approximately 1900 base pairs of mitochondrial dna sequence data to infer the relationships of these snakes,and we examine congruence between the phylogeny and hemipenial characters.a hypothesis for the position of oligodon within the colubridae is also proposed.we discuss the implications of the phylogeny for previous taxonomic groupings,and consider the usefulness of the trees in analysis of behavior and biogeography of this genus.

  2. Abradeosporangium, a new genus of Mucorales (Fungi: Zygomycetes from India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Subrahmanyam

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abradeosporangium, a new genus of Mucorales with its type species A. variosporum, is described from India. The new genus is distinct in producing dimorphic sporangia and multispored, acolumellate and globose macrosporangia with persistent, thin peridium. Sparingly, portions of the sporangial wall at the top and bottom of the sporangia are dissolved at maturity to release the sporangiospores whilst, in its close ally Gilbertella, the sporangium breaks open via a longitudinal suture. Further, the smaller sporangia (microsporangia are without a longitudinal suture and produce variable number of spores. The sporangiospores are pale brown, longitudinally striated without any appendages. Besides, the new genus produces neither rhizoids nor zygospores.

  3. Isleria, a new genus of antwren (Aves: Passeriformes: Thamnophilidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravo, Gustavo A.; Chesser, R. Terry; Brumfield, Robb T.

    2012-01-01

    A comprehensive molecular phylogenetic analysis of the family Thamnophilidae indicated that the genus Myrmotherula is not monophyletic. The clade composed of M. guttata and M. hauxwelli is only distantly related to other members of the genus and should be removed from Myrmotherula. The phenotypic distinctiveness of the clade argues against merging it with its sister group Thamnomanes and no generic name is available for the guttata-hauxwelli clade. Consequently, we describe the genus Isleria for these two species, and designate Myrmothera guttata as its type species.

  4. The mapping glass group for genus 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article represents joint work with Tullio Regge and essentially concerns the symmetries of the hexagon. When space Σ is a genus 2 Riemann surface the observable of the theory are the gauge-invariant normalized traces of the SL(2,R) matrices which form the spinor representation of π1(Σ). It was extremely difficult to find a suitable notation for the 15 possible traces, in fact we shall simultaneously use two equivalent (and hopefully not too ambiguous) notations which are now described. First, define Bn = c(U1aV1bU2cV2d) where c(x) = 1/2 Tr(x), x element of π1, and n = a + 2b +4c + 8d = 1 . . . 15. There are two exception to ???, namely B3 = c (U1V1-1) and B12 = c(U2V2-1). SL(2,R) identities will reduce all other traces. These can be arranged to fit on a hexagon where each line, internal or on the border, represents one of the Bn. Instead of numbering the lines number the points so that, for example, B1 is equivalent to A12, B5 to A36, with Aij = Aji, where we use different letters A,B, to avoid confusion. This is the second notation. They can be related through the 6 x 6 symmetric matrix Aij whose components are precisely the elements Aij and Aii (no sum) = 1

  5. American Tertiary mollusks of the genus Clementia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodring, W.P.

    1927-01-01

    Aside from its value as an aid in determining the age of Tertiary beds, the chief interest of the genus Clementia lies in the anomalous features of its present and former distribution. An attempt is made in this paper to trace its geologic history, to point out its paleobiologic significance, and to describe all the known American Tertiary species. The fossils from Colombia used in preparing this report were collected during explorations made under the direction of Dr. 0. B. Hopkins, chief geologist of the Imperial Oil Co. (Ltd.), who kindly donated them to the United States National Museum. Dr. T. Wayland Vaughan, of the Scripps Institution of Oceanography, furnished information relating to specimens collected by him in Mexico. Dr. Bruce L. Clark, of the University of California; Dr. G. Dallas Hanna, of the California Academy of Sciences; Dr. H. A. Pilsbry, of the Philadelphia Academy of Natural Sciences; and Dr. W. D. Matthew, of the American Museum of Natural History, generously loaned type specimens and other material. Doctor Clark and Doctor Hanna also gave information concerning the Tertiary species from California. Mr. Ralph B. Stewart, of the University of California, read the manuscript, and I have taken advantage of his suggestions. I am also indebted to Mr. L. R. Cox, of the British Museum, for information relating to the fossil species from Persia, Zanzibar, and Burma, and to Dr. Axel A. Olsson, of the International Petroleum Co., for data concerning undescribed Tertiary species from Peru.

  6. The genus Echium (Boraginaceae in southern Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Retief

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available The genus Echium L. (Boraginaceae comprises about 60 species, mainly from Macaronesia. Europe, western Asia and North Africa. Two species E plantagineum L. and E. vulgare L. were introduced into southern Africa and have become naturalised. The species occur mainly as roadside weeds in the region. Echium is closely related to Lobostemon Lehm. (incl. Echiostachys Levyns, endemic in the southwestern Cape region. Pollen morphology shows a remarkable similarity between these genera, even suggesting that they could be merged. However, other characters, such as bilobed styles (Echium versus undivided ones (Lobostemon and the presence of an annulus, composed of a minute collar or 5-10 minute hairy lobules, at the bottom of the corolla tube inside (Echium, in contrast to hairs and/or scales at the base of the filaments (Lobostemon contradict the pollen structure, and Echium and Lobostemon are therefore regarded as two separate genera. Significant taxonomic characters, an identification key, full descriptions, illustrations and distribution maps of E. plantagineum and E. vulgare are given.

  7. A Cytotaxonomic Study in the Genus Zingiber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AHMAD DWI SETYAWAN

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study was to know the taxonomic structure of the genus of Zingiber based on cytological characters such as ratio of number, shape and size of chromosome. Zingiber specimens were mainly from Bogor botanical garden. There were seven species studied, Z. amaricans Nor., Z. aromaticum Val., Z. cassumunar Roxb., Z. gramineum Bl., Z. officinale Roxb., Z. ottensii Val. and Z. zerumbet (L. J.E. Smith. Z. officinale (local name: Jahe consinsting of 4 varieties, big ginger (jahe gajah, red ginger (jahe merah, small ginger (jahe emprit and blue-dark browny ginger (jahe wulung. Species identification was based on the literature such as of Backer and Bakhuizen van den Brink (1968, Holttum (1950, and Burkill (1935. Semi permanent squash method using acetoorcein dye was used to prepare the sample (Darnaedi, 1991; Okada, 1981; Robert and Short, 1979. The results of the study indicate that the number of chromosomes of all species studied were the same, 2n=32. The length size of the first chromosome pair was about 2m. The shape of the chromosomes was mostly metacentric. Length and shape of each pair of chromosomes were hard to be determined accurately using this method, so that the chromosomal karyotype map unable to be constructed in this study. Giemsa C-banding method might be used to solve the problems. ©

  8. Functional proteomics within the genus Lactobacillus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Angelis, Maria; Calasso, Maria; Cavallo, Noemi; Di Cagno, Raffaella; Gobbetti, Marco

    2016-03-01

    Lactobacillus are mainly used for the manufacture of fermented dairy, sourdough, meat, and vegetable foods or used as probiotics. Under optimal processing conditions, Lactobacillus strains contribute to food functionality through their enzyme portfolio and the release of metabolites. An extensive genomic diversity analysis was conducted to elucidate the core features of the genus Lactobacillus, and to provide a better comprehension of niche adaptation of the strains. However, proteomics is an indispensable "omics" science to elucidate the proteome diversity, and the mechanisms of regulation and adaptation of Lactobacillus strains. This review focuses on the novel and comprehensive knowledge of functional proteomics and metaproteomics of Lactobacillus species. A large list of proteomic case studies of different Lactobacillus species is provided to illustrate the adaptability of the main metabolic pathways (e.g., carbohydrate transport and metabolism, pyruvate metabolism, proteolytic system, amino acid metabolism, and protein synthesis) to various life conditions. These investigations have highlighted that lactobacilli modulate the level of a complex panel of proteins to growth/survive in different ecological niches. In addition to the general regulation and stress response, specific metabolic pathways can be switched on and off, modifying the behavior of the strains. PMID:27001126

  9. Genetics and Genomics of the Genus Amycolatopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumari, Rashmi; Singh, Priya; Lal, Rup

    2016-09-01

    Actinobacteria are gram-positive filamentous bacteria which contains some of the most deadly human pathogens (Mycobacterium tuberculosis, M. leprae, Corynebacterium diphtheriae, Nocardia farcinica), plant pathogens (Streptomyces scabies, Leifsonia xyli) along with organisms that produces antibiotic (Streptomycetes, Amycolatopsis, Salinospora). Interestingly, these bacteria are equipped with an extraordinary capability of producing antibiotics and other metabolites which have medicinal properties. With the advent of inexpensive genome sequencing techniques and their clinical importance, many genomes of Actinobacteria have been successfully sequenced. These days, with the constant increasing number of drug-resistant bacteria, the urgent need for discovering new antibiotics has emerged as a major scientific challenge. And, unfortunately the traditional method of screening bacterial strains for the production of antibiotics has decreased leading to a paradigm shift in the planning and execution of discovery of novel biosynthetic gene clusters via genome mining process. The entire focus has shifted to the evaluation of genetic capacity of organisms for metabolite production and activation of cryptic gene clusters. This has been made possible only due to the availability of genome sequencing and has been augmented by genomic studies and new biotechnological approaches. Through this article, we present the analysis of the genomes of species belonging to the genus Amycolatopsis, sequenced till date with a focus on completely sequenced genomes and their application for further studies. PMID:27407288

  10. Mycorrhizal status of the genus Carex (Cyperaceae).

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, R. M.; Smith, C. I.; Jastrow, J. D.; Bever, J. D.; Environmental Research; Univ. of Chicago

    1999-01-01

    The Cyperaccae have generally been considered nonmycorrhizal, although recent evidence suggests that mycotrophy may be considerably more widespread among sedges than was previously realized. This study surveyed 23 species of Carex occurring in upland and wetland habitats in northeastern Illinois. Mycorrhizal infection by arbuscular fungi was found in the roots of 16 species of Carex and appears to occur in response to many factors, both environmental and phylogenetic. While some species appear to be obligately nonmycorrhizal, edaphic influences may be responsible for infection in others. In five of the seven Carex species that were nonmycorrrhizal, a novel root character, the presence of bulbous-based root hairs, was identified. The taxonomically patchy distribution of the distinctive root hair trait suggests that these structures may have evolved several times within the genus. Evidence of multiple independent origins of the root hair trait lends support to the hypothesis that root hairs represent an adaptation to nonmycotrophy. Although taxonomic position does seem to be of importance in determining the mycorrhizal dependence of sedges, the pattern may be a patchwork of both mycorrhizal clades and clades that have adapted to the nonmycorrhizal state.

  11. Studies on dormancy tribal cultures of filamentous green algae of the genus Klebsormidium isolated from the polar regions and from Slovakia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Communities of microscopic algae are subject of different levels of biotic and abiotic stress, where they show a strong potential for acclimatization and adaptation. Filamentous green algae of the genus Klebsormidium is pervasive, it has an internal subordinated broad ecological amplitude and equally broad biological plasticity that allows it to survive in adverse conditions. Probably just a set of dormant cells represents itself as a potential component of natural genetic diversity. So they can be responsible for a long-term durability and protection, which allows them to grow again in suitable conditions. (authors)

  12. New resources for functional analysis of omics data for the genus Aspergillus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meyer Vera

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Detailed and comprehensive genome annotation can be considered a prerequisite for effective analysis and interpretation of omics data. As such, Gene Ontology (GO annotation has become a well accepted framework for functional annotation. The genus Aspergillus comprises fungal species that are important model organisms, plant and human pathogens as well as industrial workhorses. However, GO annotation based on both computational predictions and extended manual curation has so far only been available for one of its species, namely A. nidulans. Results Based on protein homology, we mapped 97% of the 3,498 GO annotated A. nidulans genes to at least one of seven other Aspergillus species: A. niger, A. fumigatus, A. flavus, A. clavatus, A. terreus, A. oryzae and Neosartorya fischeri. GO annotation files compatible with diverse publicly available tools have been generated and deposited online. To further improve their accessibility, we developed a web application for GO enrichment analysis named FetGOat and integrated GO annotations for all Aspergillus species with public genome sequences. Both the annotation files and the web application FetGOat are accessible via the Broad Institute's website (http://www.broadinstitute.org/fetgoat/index.html. To demonstrate the value of those new resources for functional analysis of omics data for the genus Aspergillus, we performed two case studies analyzing microarray data recently published for A. nidulans, A. niger and A. oryzae. Conclusions We mapped A. nidulans GO annotation to seven other Aspergilli. By depositing the newly mapped GO annotation online as well as integrating it into the web tool FetGOat, we provide new, valuable and easily accessible resources for omics data analysis and interpretation for the genus Aspergillus. Furthermore, we have given a general example of how a well annotated genome can help improving GO annotation of related species to subsequently facilitate the

  13. Taxonomic review of the ant genus Paratrechina, with a description of a new species from Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John LaPolla

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available With the recent finding of Paratrechina (broad sense paraphyly, only Paratrechina longicornis remained in a redefined genus. As one of the most widely distributed ant species due to human transfer around the world, there is much interest in the biology of P. longicornis. One issue concerning P. longicornis has been as to where exactly the species is native, with both African and Asian native ranges being invoked in the literature. Here we report the discovery of a second species within Paratrechina. This species, P. zanjensis, is native to Africa (known from Angola, Mozambique and Tanzania, where it appears to be a dry miombo woodland species. Given the discovery of this new species, a reevaluation of the morphological definition of Paratrechina is provided; also provided is an updated generic level identification key. Given the available distribution information on P. longicornis, we conclude that P. longicornis remains most likely native to southeastern Asia, and that the discovery of a new species native to Africa makes Paratrechina yet another example of an ant genus that possesses an Afro-Asian distribution.

  14. Taxonomic revision of Parasarus (Hymenoptera: Apidae s.l.: Protandrenini, a South American genus of bees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelli dos Santos Ramos

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Parasarus Ruz, 1993 comprises small black bees (3-5 mm long endemic to xeric regions of South America, mainly along of the Andean Cordillera. Prior to this study, the genus included only the type-species P. atacamensis Ruz, 1993 (from northern Chile which has mesoscutum strongly reticulated and inner hind tibial spur curved apically. In this paper, a taxonomic revision of Parasarus is presented and two new species are described: P. specularis sp. nov. (from central to northwest Argentina diagnosed mainly by pygidial plate of female extremely acute apically and labral plate yellow in male; and P. spiniventris sp. nov. (only recorded from central portion of Chile diagnosed by antennal socket below middle of face, subantennal area as long as broad, metapostnotum smooth, and sternum 3 of male with a tuft of stiff hairs. The morphological variation related to the type-species was studied and not considered sufficiently to recognized distinct species into P. atacamensis. Distribution maps, floral associations, key to species of the genus, and illustrations of general external morphology and genitalia are also provided.

  15. Diterpenoids from Roots and Aerial Parts of the Genus Stachys

    OpenAIRE

    Franco Piozzi; Maurizio Bruno

    2011-01-01

    The occurrence of diterpenoids from roots and aerial parts of the species of the genus Stachys (Lamiaceae, Labiatae) is reviewed. The presence of these diterpenoids in other taxa and their biological properties have been also reviewed.

  16. A new genus of Smiliini (Hemiptera: Membracidae) from Costa Rica

    Science.gov (United States)

    A new genus and species, Smilirhexia naranja, is described from Costa Rica, the southern limit of the tribe Smiliini, and represents a strong divergence from the morphology of the oak-feeding genera prevalent in North America....

  17. A review on phytochemistry and ethnopharmacological aspects of genus Calendula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Disha Arora

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This review includes 84 references on the genus Calendula (Asteraceae and comprises ethnopharmacology, morphology and microscopy, phytoconstituents, pharmacological reports, clinical studies and toxicology of the prominent species of Calendula. Triterpene alcohols, triterpene saponins, flavonoids, carotenoids and polysaccharides constitute major classes of phytoconstituents of the genus. A few species of this genus have medicinal value, among these Calendula officinalis Linn., has been traditionally used in the treatment of various skin tumors, dermatological lesions, ulcers, swellings and nervous disorders as well as almost 200 cosmetic formulations, i.e., creams, lotions, shampoos. Despite a long tradition of use of some species, the genus has not been explored properly. In the concluding part, the future scope of Calendula species has been emphasized with a view to establish their multifarious biological activities and mode of action.

  18. A review on phytochemistry and ethnopharmacological aspects of genus Calendula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, Disha; Rani, Anita; Sharma, Anupam

    2013-07-01

    This review includes 84 references on the genus Calendula (Asteraceae) and comprises ethnopharmacology, morphology and microscopy, phytoconstituents, pharmacological reports, clinical studies and toxicology of the prominent species of Calendula. Triterpene alcohols, triterpene saponins, flavonoids, carotenoids and polysaccharides constitute major classes of phytoconstituents of the genus. A few species of this genus have medicinal value, among these Calendula officinalis Linn., has been traditionally used in the treatment of various skin tumors, dermatological lesions, ulcers, swellings and nervous disorders as well as almost 200 cosmetic formulations, i.e., creams, lotions, shampoos. Despite a long tradition of use of some species, the genus has not been explored properly. In the concluding part, the future scope of Calendula species has been emphasized with a view to establish their multifarious biological activities and mode of action. PMID:24347926

  19. The Genus Austroleptis from South Chile and Patagonia (Diptera, Rhagionidae)

    OpenAIRE

    NAGATOMI, Akira; NAGATOMI, Hisako; ナガトミ, アキラ; ナガトミ, ヒサコ; 永冨, 昭; 永冨, 尚子

    1988-01-01

    The genus Austroleptis from South Chile and Patagonia is revised and three new species are added. So, there are eight known species, five of which are from South Chile and Patagonia and three from Australia and Tasmania.

  20. Higher genus correlators from the hermitian one-matrix model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We develop an iterative algorithm for the genus expansion of the hermitian NxN one-matrix model (is the Penner model in an external field). By introducing moments of the external field, we prove that the genus g contribution to the m-loop correlator depends only on 3g-2+m lower moments (3g-2 for the partition function). We present the explicit results for the partition function and the one-loop correlator in genus one. We compare the correlators for the hermitian one-matrix model with those at zero momenta for c=1 CFT and show an agreement of the one-loop correlators for genus zero. (orig.)

  1. Spectral Theory and Mirror Curves of Higher Genus

    CERN Document Server

    Codesido, Santiago; Marino, Marcos

    2015-01-01

    Recently, a correspondence has been proposed between spectral theory and topological strings on toric Calabi-Yau manifolds. In this paper we develop in detail this correspondence for mirror curves of higher genus, which display many new features as compared to the genus one case studied so far. Given a curve of genus g, our quantization scheme leads to g different trace class operators. Their spectral properties are encoded in a generalized spectral determinant, which is an entire function on the Calabi-Yau moduli space. We conjecture an exact expression for this spectral determinant in terms of the standard and refined topological string amplitudes. This conjecture provides a non-perturbative definition of the topological string on these geometries, in which the genus expansion emerges in a suitable 't Hooft limit of the spectral traces of the operators. In contrast to what happens in quantum integrable systems, our quantization scheme leads to a single quantization condition, which is elegantly encoded by t...

  2. BRST quantization of superconformal theories on higher genus Riemann surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A complex contour integral method is constructed and applied to the Becchi-Rouet-Stora-Tyutin (BRST) quantization procedure of string theories on higher genus Riemann surfaces with N=0 and 1 Krichever-Novikov (KN) algebras. This method makes calculations very simple. It is shown that the critical spacetime dimension of the string theories on a genus-g Riemann surface equals that of the string theories on a genus-zero Riemann surface, and that the 'Regge intercepts' in the genus-g case are α(g)=1-3/4g-9/8g2 and 1/2-3/4g-17/16g2 for bosonic strings and superstrings, respectively. (orig.)

  3. Some adaptational peculiarities of introduced species of the genus Hydrangea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. N. Kuchma

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Among studied the Hydrangea L. genus the species, which most adapted to the environment of steppe conditions, were developed. H. cinerea Stall. and H. bretschneider Dipp. are recommended for use in laying out of parks, etc.

  4. Separating Curve Complex of the Genus Two Surface is Hyperbolic

    OpenAIRE

    Sultan, Harold Mark

    2011-01-01

    A proof that the separating curve complex of the closed genus two surface has a quasi-distance formula and is delta hyperbolic using tools of Masur and Schleimer. This answers in the affirmative a Conjecture of Schleimer.

  5. Notes on genus Eurydoxa Filipjev (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BYUN Bong-Kyu; YAN Shan-chun; LI Cheng-de

    2003-01-01

    Genus Eurydoxa Filipjev in China is reviewed and noted for the first time. Based on the present study, two species are recognized, including rhodopa Diakonoff and advena Filipjev. All available information for the species is reviewed and provided.

  6. Phylogeny and systematics of the anamorphic, entomopathogenic genus Beauveria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beauveria is a cosmopolitan anamorph genus of arthropod pathogens that includes the agronomically important species B. bassiana and B. brongniartii, which are used as mycoinsecticides for the biological control of pest insects. Recent phylogenetic evidence demonstrates that Beauveria is monophyletic...

  7. Seidenforchis - a new genus of Malaxidinae (Orchidaceae) from Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Hanna B. Margońska

    2011-01-01

    A new genus Seidenforchis of the subtribe Malaxidinae (Orchidaceae) from Southeast Asia is proposed. Three species are transferred from Crepidium to Seidenforchis. Keys for determination of Seidenforchis species and related genera of subtribe Malaxidinae from Asia, are proposed.

  8. NOMENCLATURAL NOTE ON A GENUS OF ORIENTAL RHAMPHINI (Coleoptera, Curculionidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Enzo Colonnelli

    2013-01-01

    The name Megorchestes Kojima, 2011 is here selected as the correct original spelling over Magorchestes (alternative original spelling, here rejected) and Megorchsetes (alternative original spelling, here rejected) of a recently described genus of Oriental Rhamphini.

  9. Complete Genome Sequences of Six Strains of the Genus Methylobacterium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marx, Christopher J [Harvard University; Bringel, Francoise O. [University of Strasbourg; Christoserdova, Ludmila [University of Washington, Seattle; Moulin, Lionel [UMR, France; UI Hague, Muhammad Farhan [University of Strasbourg; Fleischman, Darrell E. [Wright State University, Dayton, OH; Gruffaz, Christelle [CNRS, Strasbourg, France; Jourand, Philippe [UMR, France; Knief, Claudia [ETH Zurich, Switzerland; Lee, Ming-Chun [Harvard University; Muller, Emilie E. L. [CNRS, Strasbourg, France; Nadalig, Thierry [CNRS, Strasbourg, France; Peyraud, Remi [ETH Zurich, Switzerland; Roselli, Sandro [CNRS, Strasbourg, France; Russ, Lina [ETH Zurich, Switzerland; Goodwin, Lynne A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Ivanov, Pavel S. [University of Wyoming, Laramie; Ivanova, N [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Kyrpides, Nikos C [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Lajus, Aurelie [Genoscope/Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique-Unite Mixte de Recherche; Land, Miriam L [ORNL; Medigue, Claudine [Genoscope/Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique-Unite Mixte de Recherche; Mikhailova, Natalia [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Nolan, Matt [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Woyke, Tanja [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Stolyar, Sergey [University of Washington; Vorholt, Julia A. [ETH Zurich, Switzerland; Vuilleumier, Stephane [University of Strasbourg

    2012-01-01

    The complete and assembled genome sequences were determined for six strains of the alphaproteobacterial genus Methylobacterium, chosen for their key adaptations to different plant-associated niches and environmental constraints.

  10. Complete genome sequences of six strains of the genus methylobacterium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marx, Christopher J [Harvard University; Bringel, Francoise O. [University of Strasbourg; Christoserdova, Ludmila [University of Washington, Seattle; Moulin, Lionel [UMR, France; Farhan Ul Haque, Muhammad [CNRS, Strasbourg, France; Fleischman, Darrell E. [Wright State University, Dayton, OH; Gruffaz, Christelle [CNRS, Strasbourg, France; Jourand, Philippe [UMR, France; Knief, Claudia [ETH Zurich, Switzerland; Lee, Ming-Chun [Harvard University; Muller, Emilie E. L. [CNRS, Strasbourg, France; Nadalig, Thierry [CNRS, Strasbourg, France; Peyraud, Remi [ETH Zurich, Switzerland; Roselli, Sandro [CNRS, Strasbourg, France; Russ, Lina [ETH Zurich, Switzerland; Aguero, Fernan [Universidad Nacional de General San Martin; Goodwin, Lynne A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Ivanova, N [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Kyrpides, Nikos C [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Lajus, Aurelie [Genoscope/Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique-Unite Mixte de Recherche; Land, Miriam L [ORNL; Medigue, Claudine [Genoscope/Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique-Unite Mixte de Recherche; Mikhailova, Natalia [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Nolan, Matt [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Woyke, Tanja [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Stolyar, Sergey [University of Washington; Vorholt, Julia A. [ETH Zurich, Switzerland; Vuilleumier, Stephane [University of Strasbourg

    2012-01-01

    The complete and assembled genome sequences were determined for six strains of the alphaproteobacterial genus Methylobacterium, chosen for their key adaptations to different plant-associated niches and environmental constraints.

  11. Primary description, new combinations and synonyms in the genus Laccaria

    OpenAIRE

    Denes PAZMANY

    1994-01-01

    This paper is a comprehensive enumeration of the primary descriptions and new combinations of the species, varieties, forms and supraspecific taxons of the genus Laccaria and their synonyms, on the base of the published literature.

  12. Quaternion Algebras over Curves of Genus One Without Rational Points

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Susanne Pumpl(u)n

    2005-01-01

    Quaternion algebras over curves of genus one without rational points over perfect fields of characteristic not two are classified. As a consequence, all quaternion algebras over the function field of such a curve, which are unramified everywhere, are classified.

  13. Two atypical new species of the genus Sectonema Thorne, 1930 (Nematoda, Dorylaimida, Aporcelaimidae from Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thi Anh Duong Nguyen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Two new species of the genus Sectonema from natural habitats of northern Vietnam are studied. This paper includes their descriptions, measurements, line illustrations, and light microscope (LM and scanning electron microscope (SEM pictures. Sectonema tropicum sp. nov. is characterized by a 2.56–3.24 mm long body, 19–21 μm broad lip region, odontostyle 20–21 μm long at its ventral side, 730–834 μm long neck, pharyngeal expansion occupying 52–59% of total neck length, uterus a simple tube-like structure 150–242 μm long or 1.2–2.5 times the body diameter, pars refringens vaginae present, V = 48–52, short (31–40 μm, c = 70–91, c’ = 0.5–0.6 and rounded tail, 91–97 μm long spicules, and only one weakly developed ventromedian supplement. Sectonema vietnamense sp. nov. is characterized by its slender (a = 33–49 and 2.71–4.25 mm long body, 14–16 μm broad lip region, odontostyle 8–9 μm long at its ventral side, 716–918 μm long neck, pharyngeal expansion occupying 63–67% of total neck length, uterus simple and 209–242 μm long or 2.5–2.9 times the corresponding body diameter, pars refringens vaginae absent, V = 54, short (34–39 μm, c = 70–115, c’ = 0.6–0.8 and rounded tail, 59–75 μm long spicules, and three or four irregularly spaced ventromedian supplements bearing hiatus. Both species are also characterized by their nearly continuous lip region, an atypical feature in this genus. Molecular analysis of S. tropicum sp. nov. confirms that Sectonema is a natural (monophyletic taxon, very close to Metaporcelaimus.

  14. Warionia (Asteraceae: a relict genus of Cichorieae?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katinas, Liliana

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The genus Warionia, with its only species W. saharae, is endemic to the northwestern edge of the African Sahara desert. This is a somewhat thistle-like aromatic plant, with white latex, and fleshy, pinnately- partite leaves. Warionia is in many respects so different from any other genus of Asteraceae, that it has been tentatively placed in the tribes Cardueae, Cichorieae, Gundelieae, and Mutisieae. Until now, a comprehensive study of Warionia to have a complete context for discussing its taxonomic position is lacking. The general morphology, anatomy, palynology and chromosome number of W. saharae are investigated here, and the species is described and illustrated. Laticifers in leaves and stems indicate a relationship with Cichorieae, and are associated with the phloem, in contact with it or with the surrounding sclerenchyma sheath. The pollen features indicate a strong relation with Cardueae, namely the structure with Anthemoid pattern where the columellae are joined to the foot layer, the ectosexine with thin columellae, the endosexine with stout and ramified columellae, the conspicuous spines with globose bases and conspicuous apical channels, and the tectum surface very perforate. Chromosomal counts resulted in 2n = 34. The morphological and palynological evidence positions Warionia between the tribes Cardueae and Cichorieae suggesting that it could be a remnant of the ancestral stock that gave rise to both tribes.El género Warionia, y su única especie, W. saharae, es endémico del noroeste del desierto africano del Sahara. Es una planta semejante a un cardo, aromática, con látex blanco y hojas carnosas, pinnatipartidas. Warionia es tan diferente de otros géneros de Asteraceae que fue ubicada en las tribus Cardueae, Cichorieae, Gundelieae y Mutisieae. Hasta ahora, no existía un estudio global de Warionia como contexto para discutir su posición taxonómica. Se ha investigado aquí su morfología, anatomía, palinología y n

  15. Ecua, a new genus op Apocynaceae from Malesia

    OpenAIRE

    Middleton, David J.

    1996-01-01

    Whilst examining the specimens of Apocynaceae in Herbarium Bogoriense I came upon two unknown specimens which appeared to be species of Parsonsia. On further examination they turned out to belong to a new genus related to Parsonsia but differing from it in the stamens which are included within the corolla tube and the shape of the corolla, filaments and anthers. This is the second new genus recently discovered in Malesia, the first being Baharuia D.J. Middleton described from plants collected...

  16. Molecular signatures and phylogenomic analysis of the genus Burkholderia: proposal for division of this genus into the emended genus Burkholderia containing pathogenic organisms and a new genus Paraburkholderia gen. nov. harboring environmental species

    OpenAIRE

    Sawana, Amandeep; Adeolu, Mobolaji; Gupta, Radhey S.

    2014-01-01

    The genus Burkholderia contains large number of diverse species which include many clinically important organisms, phytopathogens, as well as environmental species. However, currently, there is a paucity of biochemical or molecular characteristics which can reliably distinguish different groups of Burkholderia species. We report here the results of detailed phylogenetic and comparative genomic analyses of 45 sequenced species of the genus Burkholderia. In phylogenetic trees based upon concate...

  17. The set of numerical semigroups of a given genus

    CERN Document Server

    Blanco, V

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we present a new approach to construct the set of numerical semigroups with a fixed genus. Our methodology is based on the construction of the set of numerical semigroups with fixed Frobenius number and genus. An equivalence relation is given over this set and a tree structure is defined for each equivalence class. We also provide a more efficient algorithm based in the translation of a numerical semigroup to its so-called Kunz-coordinates vector.

  18. Genus Two Stable Maps, Local Equations and Modular Resolutions

    OpenAIRE

    Hu, Yi; Li, Jun

    2012-01-01

    We describe a canonical sequence of modular blowups of the Artin stack of stable weighted genus-two curves that diagonalize certain canonical derived objects of the original Artin stack. This provides a resolution of the primary component of the moduli space of genus two stable maps to projective space, and a partial desingularization of the same moduli space. Our approach should extend to higher genera.

  19. Debatten om begreppen : genus i Kvinnovetenskaplig tidskrift 1980-1998

    OpenAIRE

    Åsberg, Cecilia

    1998-01-01

      "Concepts up for discussion: On the concept of genus in Swedish Gender Studies" This article concerns a lively conceptual debatethat took place in Kvinnovetenskaplig tidskrift (Swedish Journal of Women's Studies) between 1980-1998. When Yvonne Hirdman, a Swedish historian, in 1988 introduced the concepts of gender and gender system in KVT (in Swedish: genus and genussystem), this sparked off intense discussions and caused theoretical divisions within Swedish feminism. Opinions were divided ...

  20. A MONOGRAPH OF THE GENUS NEOCINNAMOMUM LIOU HO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. J. G. H. KOSTERMANS

    1974-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTThe Asiatic Genus Neocinamomum comprises 6 species, of whichN. atjehense is described here for the first time. cinnamomum fargesiiLee. is moved to Neocinnamomum, N. willsonii Allen is consideredto be conspeeific with it. N. delavayi var.Mekongense hand.Mazz israised to specific rank. N. hainanianum  Allen  is reduced to N. lecomtei.Excluded from the genus is N. confertiflorum, which is moved toLitsea.

  1. The effect of storage on quality of herbs genus Origanum

    OpenAIRE

    Lenka Kouřimská; Kateřina Ešlerová; Ynus Khatri

    2016-01-01

    Herbs of Origanum genus are rich in essential oils and contain large amounts of phenols, lipids, fatty acids, flavonoids and anthocyanins. Antioxidant activity of these herbs depends on many factors, including the type herbs, post-harvest processing and subsequent processing. The aim of this study was therefore to confirm the hypothesis that the composition of oils of these two herbs of the Origanum genus depends on the post-harvest treatment of herbs and that the dried herb antioxidant activ...

  2. Shifted genus expanded W ∞ algebra and shifted Hurwitz numbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Quan

    2016-05-01

    We construct the shifted genus expanded W ∞ algebra, which is isomorphic to the central subalgebra A ∞ of infinite symmetric group algebra and to the shifted Schur symmetrical function algebra Λ* defined by Okounkov and Olshanskii. As an application, we get some differential equations for the generating functions of the shifted Hurwitz numbers; thus, we can express the generating functions in terms of the shifted genus expanded cut-and-join operators.

  3. Torsionfree Sheaves over a Nodal Curve of Arithmetic Genus One

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Usha N Bhosle; Indranil Biswas

    2008-02-01

    We classify all isomorphism classes of stable torsionfree sheaves on an irreducible nodal curve of arithmetic genus one defined over $\\mathbb{C}$. Let be a nodal curve of arithmetic genus one defined over $\\mathbb{R}$, with exactly one node, such that does not have any real points apart from the node. We classify all isomorphism classes of stable real algebraic torsionfree sheaves over of even rank. We also classify all isomorphism classes of real algebraic torsionfree sheaves over of rank one.

  4. Notes on the Lichen Genus Hypotrachyna (Parmeliaceae) from South Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Jayala, Udenil; Joshi, Santosh; Oh, Soon-Ok; Park, Jung-Shin; Koh, Young Jin; Hur, Jae-Seoun

    2013-01-01

    Hypotrachyna (Vainio) Hale is a somewhat rare lichen genus found on the Korean Peninsula. Since it was first recorded more than two decades ago, no detailed taxonomic or revisionary study of the genus has been conducted. Thus, the present study was conducted to carry out a detailed taxonomic and revisionary study of Hypotrachyna in South Korea. This study was based on specimens deposited in the Korean Lichen Research Institute (KoLRI). Detailed taxonomic studies and a literature review confir...

  5. A Taxonomic Study of the Genus Myelochroa in South Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Jayalal, Udeni; Joshi, Santosh; Oh, Soon-Ok; Koh, Young Jin; Hur, Jae-Seoun

    2012-01-01

    Myelochroa (Asahina) Elix & Hale is a common foliose lichen genus found on the Korean Peninsula. Since it was first recorded nearly two decades ago, no detailed taxonomic or revisionary study of the genus has been conducted. Thus, the current study was conducted to carry out a detailed taxonomic and revisionary study of Myelochroa in South Korea. This study was based on specimens deposited in the Korean Lichen Research Institute (KoLRI). Detailed taxonomic studies and a literature review conf...

  6. Chemical and pharmacological studies of the plants from genus Celastrus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Xiao-Hui; Zhang, Man-Li; Zhan, Wen-Hong; Huo, Chang-Hong; Shi, Qing-Wen; Gu, Yu-Cheng; Kiyota, Hiromasa

    2009-02-01

    The plants of genus Celastrus, distributed in Asia, have been used as natural insecticides and folk medicines to treat fever, chill, joint pain, edema, rheumatoid arthritis, and bacterial infection in China for a long time. This contribution reviews the chemical constituents, isolated from the plants in genus Celastrus in the past few decades, and their biological activities. The compounds listed are sesquiterpenes (beta-agarofurans), diterpenes, triterpenes, alkaloids, and flavonoids. PMID:19235157

  7. Revision of the genus Caelospermum Blume (Rubiaceae, Rubioideae, Morindeae)

    OpenAIRE

    Johansson, J.T.

    1988-01-01

    The genus Caelospermum Blume is revised, and a key to the 7 species recognized is presented. Caelospermum consists of lianas and, sometimes, shrubs. The genus is distributed in SE. Asia, Indonesia, the Philippines, the Caroline Islands, Papua New Guinea, the Solomon Islands, E. Australia and New Caledonia. Caelospermum is closely related to Morinda, Pogonolobus and Gynochthodes, from which it differs by inflorescence and pollen morphology, etc. Caelospermum paniculatum F. Muell. var. syncarpu...

  8. Higher Genus Abelian Functions Associated with Cyclic Trigonal Curves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew England

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available We develop the theory of Abelian functions associated with cyclic trigonal curves by considering two new cases. We investigate curves of genus six and seven and consider whether it is the trigonal nature or the genus which dictates certain areas of the theory. We present solutions to the Jacobi inversion problem, sets of relations between the Abelian function, links to the Boussinesq equation and a new addition formula.

  9. A new genus of Rhytirrhinini from Colombia (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Morrone Juan J.

    1995-01-01

    Rupanius, new genus, comprises the single species R. carinatus, new species, endemic to the Paramo biogeographic province of Colombia. It is diagnosed based on the elytra subquadrate and with a conspicuous declivital carina, and is considered similar to Puranlus Germain and Acrorius Kirsch. The genus and species are described, illustrated, and compared with the other Colombian Rhytirrhinini.Rupanius, gen. n., comprende la única especie R. carinatus, sp. n., endémica de la provincia biogeográf...

  10. An atlas of reproductive development in rockfishes, genus Sebastes

    OpenAIRE

    Shaw, Franklin R.; Morado, J. Frank; Lowe, Vanessa C.; McDermott, Susanne F.

    2012-01-01

    The genus Sebastes consists of over 100 fish species, all of which are viviparous and long-lived. Previous studies have presented schemes on the reproductive biology of a single targeted species of the genus Sebastes, but all appear to possess a similar reproductive biology as evidenced by this and other studies. This atlas stages major events during spermatogenesis, oogenesis, and embryogenesis, including atresia, in six species of Sebastes (S. alutus, S. elongatus, S. helvomaculatus, S. ...

  11. The Exiguobacterium genus: biodiversity and biogeography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vishnivetskaya, Tatiana A [ORNL; Kathariou, Sophia [North Carolina State University; Tiedje, James M. [Michigan State University, East Lansing

    2009-01-01

    Abstract. Bacteria of the genus Exiguobacterium are low G + C, Gram-positive facultative anaerobes that have been repeatedly isolated from ancient Siberian permafrost. In addition, Exiguobacterium spp. have been isolated from markedly diverse sources, including Greenland Glacial ice, hot springs at Yellowstone National Park, the rhizosphere of plants, and the environment of food processing plants. Strains of this hereto little known bacterium that have been retrieved from such different (and often extreme) environments are worthy of attention as they are likely to be specifically adapted to such environments and to carry variations in the genome which may correspond to psychrophilic and thermophilic adaptations. However, comparative genomic investigations of Exiguobacterium spp. from different sources have been limited. In this study, we employed different molecular approaches for the comparative analysis of 24 isolates from markedly diverse environments including ancient Siberian permafrost and hot springs at Yellowstone National Park. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) with I-CeuI (an intron-encoded endonuclease), AscI and NotI were optimized for the determination of genomic fingerprints of nuclease-producing isolates. The application of a DNA macroarray for 82 putative stress-response genes yielded strain-specific hybridization profiles. Cluster analyses of 16S rRNA gene sequence data, PFGE I-CeuI restriction patterns and hybridization profiles suggested that Exiguobacterium strains formed two distinct divisions that generally agreed with temperature ranges for growth. With few exceptions (e.g., Greenland ice isolate GIC31), psychrotrophic and thermophilic isolates belonged to different divisions.

  12. The Genus Asparagus in Southern Africa*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. P. Jessop

    1966-12-01

    Full Text Available A revision of the genus Asparagus in South Africa, South West Africa, Bechuanaland, Basutoland, and Swaziland has been undertaken. Notes are given on the value of most o f the characters which have been used in the separation of species, recent literature on the nature of  Asparagus assimilatory organs, and a technique for the examination of chromosomes. Chromosome counts are listed for ten taxa. There is a key to the forty species and four varieties. In the main part of the work these taxa are described, and their synonymy, taxonomy, distribution and habitats dealt with. Six species and one variety are new. The following are the new species and combinations:  A. setaceus (Kunth (Asparagopsis setacea Kunth, A. mueronatus, A. macowanii Bak. var. zuluensis (N. E. Br.  (A. zuluensis N. E. Br., A. rigidus, A. densiflorus (Kunth  {Asparagopsis densiflora Kunth,  A. aethiopicus L. var. angusticladus, A. falcatus L. var. ternifolius (Bak.  (A. aethiopicus L. var.  ternifolius Bak.,  A. aspergillus,  A. obermeyerae,  A. krebsianus (Kunth (Asparagopsis krebsiana Kunth,  A. acocksii.  A. crassicladus. Several plants o f horticultural importance occur in South Africa. The three best known are A. plumosus, which is reduced here to synonymy under  A. setaceus (Kunth Jessop, and  A. sprengeri and  A. myersii. A. sprengeri is being reduced to synonymy under  A. densiflorus (Kunth Jessop,.  A. myersii, which is a  nomen nudum, is also regarded as belonging to  A. densiflorus.

  13. The Representatives of Amelanchier Medik. Genus in Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Opalko Anatoliy Ivanovich

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The information on fruit and decorative value, honey and medicinal properties of the genus Amelanchier Medik. is generalized. Their biological characteristics, chemical composition and palatability traits of the fruit, the ways of consumption and processing, including drying, preparing juices, syrups, jams, candied fruit jellies, confiture, and fruit wine are specified. The environmental adaptability and effectiveness of using juneberry for phytomelioration are mentioned. Several versions of the origin of the genus Amelanchier name and interpretation of its specific epithets are described. The controversial issues of the genus Amelanchier system were discussed from the classical and molecular genetic approaches. The attention is focused on two main aspects of views on the place of the genus Amelanchier representatives of the family Rosaceae Juss. within the particular subfamily, namely the subfamily Pyroideae Burnett (Maloideae S. Weber or the subfamily Amygdaloideae Arn., which indicates the necessity for further comparative morphological and molecular genetic studies of the family Rosaceae. The directions of evolution, habitat and invasive ability of some species of the genus Amelanchier are characterised. The list of the genus Amelanchier representatives cultivated in Ukraine is given.

  14. A Taxonomic Study on the Burrowing Cricket Genus Velarifictorus with Morphologically Resembled Genus Lepidogryllus (Orthoptera: Gryllidae: Gryllinae in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tae-Woo Kim

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The burrowing-cricket genus Velarifictorus Randell, 1964 is reviewed in Korea, comparing with morphologically resembled genus Lepidogryllus Otte and Alexander, 1983 for the first time. First, Velarifictorus aspersus borealis Gorochov, 1985 is confirmed from only restricted area of southern regions in Gyeongsangnam- do and Jeollanam-do. Second, Velarifictorus micado (Saussure, 1877 is confirmed from nearly all around the Korean peninsula including North Korea. Third, the previously not recorded Velarifictorus ornatus (Shiraki, 1911 is newly recognized from South Korea. Relating to the genus Velarifictorus, the resembled genus Lepidogryllus Otte and Alexander, 1983 and its species Lepidogryllus siamensis (Chopard, 1961 com. & stat. nov. is studied and compared with Velarifictorus members. A key, descriptions, tables, photographs, figures, oscillograms and spectrograms of calling sounds are provided to aid identification between the four similar species.

  15. A closed orientable 3-manifold with distinct distance three genus two Heegaard splittings

    CERN Document Server

    Berge, John

    2009-01-01

    We describe an example of a closed orientable 3-manifold with distinct distance three genus two Heegaard splittings. This demonstrates that the constructions of alternate genus two Heegaard splittings of closed orientable 3-manifolds described by Rubinstein and Scharlemann in their 1998 paper Genus Two Heegaard Splittings of Orientable 3-Manifolds, does not yield all alternate genus two splittings and must be augmented.

  16. The genus Rhaponticum in East Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gorovoy, P.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The genus Rhaponticum in East Asia has always been a taxon for discussion. Rhaponticum carthamoides from East Siberia comprises three subspecies: carthamoides, chamarensis and orientale. Even though they differ in morphology, they do not have isolated areas. Rhaponticum satzyperovii was recently described and its author pointed out its affinity with Rh. uniflorum. Plant height, stem indumentum, and radical and stem leaf dissection were signaled as the diagnostic characters. Our present study on living and herbarium specimens of Rh. satzyperovii shows that the diagnostic characters are not consistent. The species area was also claimed to be an argument for considering Rh. satzyperovii a distinct species. This area covers the south of the Primorye Province in the Far East of Russia with some locations in the adjacent Jewish Autonomous Region and in China. In our study, the area of Rh. satzyperovii is found to be within the area of Rh. uniflorum and thereafter they turned out to have no disjunction. In East Asia, Rh. uniflorum is characterized by a wide range of morphological variability. We suggest that Rh. satzyperovii should be included within Rh. uniflorum without any taxonomic rank.El género Rhaponticum en el Este de Asia ha sido siempre un taxón discutido. Rhaponticum carthamoides del Este de Siberia incluye tres subespecies: carthamoides, chamarensis y orientale. Aunque difieren en su morfología, sus áreas no están aisladas. Rhaponticum satzyperovii fue descrito recientemente y su autor señaló su afinidad con Rh. uniflorum. Los caracteres diagnósticos fueron la altura de la planta, el indumento del tallo y las divisiones de las hojas basales y caulinares. Nuestro estudio de plantas vivas y muestras de herbario de Rh. satzyperovii muestra que los caracteres diagnósticos no son consistentes. El área de distribución también se argumentó para considerar Rh. satzyperovii una especie diferente. El área cubre el sur de la provincia de

  17. Ultra-broad bandwidth parametric amplification at degeneracy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limpert, J; Aguergaray, C; Montant, S; Manek-Hönninger, I; Petit, S; Descamps, D; Cormier, E; Salin, F

    2005-09-19

    We report on a novel approach of ultra-broad bandwidth parametric amplification around degeneracy. A bandwidth of up to 400 nm centered around 800 nm is amplified in a BBO crystal by using chirped pump pulses with a bandwitdth as broad as 10 nm. A supercontinuum signal is generated in a microstructured fiber, having to first order a quadratic chirp, which is necessary to ensure temporal overlap of the interacting waves over this broad bandwidth. Furthermore, we discuss the potential of this approach for an octave-spanning parametric amplification. PMID:19498762

  18. A new genus and species of mandibulate nasute termite (Isoptera, Termitidae, Syntermitinae from Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauricio Rocha

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Acangaobitermes krishnai gen. et sp. n., is described here, based on soldiers and workers collected in Brazil. Some characteristics suggest a close kinship with Noirotitermes Cancello & Myles, and both genera share the following traits absent in all other Syntermitinae: the microsculpturing on the soldier head capsule surface with internal granulations; the piercing mandibles with a single very reduced marginal tooth and the worker very similar in both genera. The most conspicuous differences between Acangaobitermes and Noirotitermes are the shape of the soldier head, the frontal tube and pronotum. The shape of the soldier head in Noirotitermes is unusual, with a very broad and short frontal tube, four conspicuous protuberances like sharp corners at the rear, while in the new genus the posterior contour of the head is devoid of these protuberances. The frontal tube of Acangaobitermes is elongate and conical, while in Noirotitermes it is short and very broad. The pronotum of Acangaobitermes is saddle-shaped as is usual in other Syntermitinae, while it is aberrant in Noirotitermes.

  19. A new genus and species of xenodermatid snake (Squamata: Caenophidia: Xenodermatidae) from northern Lao People's Democratic Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teynié, Alexandre; David, Patrick; Lottier, Anne; Le, Minh Duc; Vidal, Nicolas; Nguyen, Truong Quang

    2015-01-01

    A male snake collected in Louangphabang Province and a second specimen observed in Houaphan Province, North Laos, share morphological characters with the Asian genus Fimbrios Smith, 1921, including erected edges on the first supra- and infralabial scales, but differ in the following morphological characters: fewer dorsal scale rows (25-27 vs. 30-33), fewer maxillary teeth (27 vs. 30-35), posterior teeth progressively slightly enlarged, and especially the correspondence of two dorsal scale rows per ventral plate throughout the body (i.e. the first dorsal scale row made of a small scale above the fore part of a ventral, followed by a much larger scale above its hind part), a condition known only in Xenodermus Reinhardt, 1836. As the Laotian specimens differ in morphological characters from other genera and species in the family Xenodermatidae, and on the basis of molecular analyses showing a large genetic divergence from the genus Fimbrios (p-distance ≥14.7 %, mitochondrial COI gene), we place these specimens in a new genus, Parafimbrios gen. nov., and describe them as a new species, Parafimbrios lao sp. nov. Besides the characters mentioned above, the new species is diagnosed by a combination of the following ones: small, strongly keeled dorsal scales; rostral and first four supra- and infralabials with raised, erected edges; horizontal tissue ridges above the rostral; loreal single, large, elongate; ventral scales 177-189; subcaudals 55-56, undivided; dorsal colour purplish-grey, neck with a broad, very pale grey collar reaching downwards the pale grey colour of the venter. The morphological characters of the new genus are compared with those of the genera Fimbrios Smith, 1921, Xenodermus Reinhardt, 1836, Stoliczkaia Jerdon, 1870, Achalinus Peters, 1869, and Xylophis Beddome, 1878. A key to the genera Achalinus, Fimbrios and Parafimbrios gen. nov. is provided. Parafimbrios laos spec. nov. is the 111th snake species currently recorded from Laos. PMID:25781800

  20. A dated phylogeny of the papilionoid legume genus Canavalia reveals recent diversification by a pantropical liana lineage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snak, Cristiane; Vatanparast, Mohammad; Silva, Christian; Lewis, Gwilym Peter; Lavin, Matt; Kajita, Tadashi; Queiroz, Luciano Paganucci de

    2016-05-01

    Canavalia is a pantropical legume genus of lianas comprising approximately 60 species distributed in a wide range of habitats. In the last taxonomic revision, the genus was divided into four subgenera: Canavalia (Pantropical), Catodonia (Neotropical, excepting one species also found in the Old World), Maunaloa (Hawaiian), and Wenderothia (Neotropical). In this study, we reconstructed the phylogeny of Canavalia using a broad taxon sampling and analyses of nuclear (ETS and ITS) and plastid markers (trnK/matK). We evaluated the infrageneric classification of the genus and investigated its biogeographical history using molecular dating analyses and ancestral area reconstructions. The phylogenetic analyses resolved subgenus Wenderothia as monophyletic. Subgenus Catodonia needs to be recircumscribed and the relationships between subgenera Canavalia and Maunaloa remain unclear. Canavalia arose during the Miocene with a mean stem age estimate of 13.8Ma and mean crown age estimate of 8.7Ma, and most extant species evolved during the Pleistocene. Several climatic and geological events are chronologically coincident with the divergence of the major clades of Canavalia (glacial/interglacial periods, Andes uplift and the formation of Pebas and post-Pebas systems, closure of the Isthmus of Panama, and change in the direction of ocean currents). Ancestral area reconstructions for the early divergence of the genus are equivocal, although, some evidence suggests Canavalia originated in the wet forests of South America and achieved its current pantropical distribution through recent transoceanic dispersal. The evolution of Canavalia is better explained by a series of several processes than by discrete historical events. PMID:26860339

  1. F-theory on Genus-One Fibrations

    CERN Document Server

    Braun, Volker

    2014-01-01

    We argue that M-theory compactified on an arbitrary genus-one fibration, that is, an elliptic fibration which need not have a section, always has an F-theory limit when the area of the genus-one fiber approaches zero. Such genus-one fibrations can be easily constructed as toric hypersurfaces, and various $SU(5)\\times U(1)^n$ and $E_6$ models are presented as examples. To each genus-one fibration one can associate a $\\tau$-function on the base as well as an $SL(2,\\mathbb{Z})$ representation which together define the IIB axio-dilaton and 7-brane content of the theory. The set of genus-one fibrations with the same $\\tau$-function and $SL(2,\\mathbb{Z})$ representation, known as the Tate-Shafarevich group, supplies an important degree of freedom in the corresponding F-theory model which has not been studied carefully until now. Six-dimensional anomaly cancellation as well as Witten's zero-mode count on wrapped branes both imply corrections to the usual F-theory dictionary for some of these models. In particular, n...

  2. Broad Spectrum Sanitizing Wipes with Food Additives Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Microcide proposes to develop novel multipurpose non-toxic sanitizing wipes that are aqueous based, have shelf life of 3-5 years, have broad spectrum microbicidal...

  3. AGN Broad Line Regions Scale with Bolometric Luminosity

    CERN Document Server

    Trippe, Sascha

    2015-01-01

    The masses of supermassive black holes in active galactic nuclei (AGN) can be derived spectroscopically via virial mass estimators based on selected broad optical/ultraviolet emission lines. These estimates commonly use the line width as a proxy for the gas speed and the monochromatic continuum luminosity as a proxy for the radius of the broad line region. However, if the size of the broad line region scales with bolometric rather than monochromatic AGN luminosity, mass estimates based on different emission lines will show a systematic discrepancy which is a function of the color of the AGN continuum. This has actually been observed in mass estimates based on H-alpha / H-beta and C IV lines, indicating that AGN broad line regions indeed scale with bolometric luminosity. Given that this effect seems to have been overlooked as yet, currently used single-epoch mass estimates are likely to be biased.

  4. A Review on the Terpenes from Genus Vitex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Jin-Long; Fang, Shi-Ming; Liu, Rui; Oppong, Mahmood Brobbey; Liu, Er-Wei; Fan, Guan-Wei; Zhang, Han

    2016-01-01

    The genus Vitex, which belongs to the Verbenaceae family, includes approximately 250 species. Some species of the genus Vitex have traditionally been used for the treatment of headaches, ophthalmodynia, coughs, asthma, premenopausal syndrome, etc. Chemical investigations indicate that the characteristic constituents of the genus Vitex are terpenes, and 210 of these compounds, including monoterpenoids, sesquiterpenoids, diterpenoids and triterpenoids, have been obtained from 12 species. Pharmacological studies had shown that these terpenes possess anti-inflammatory, antitumor, antibacterial, antioxidant activities, and so on. In this paper, the identity of these terpenes and their pharmacological effects are reviewed, which can provide references for further research regarding the chemistry and utilization of the Vitex species. PMID:27608002

  5. Phylogeny of ambrosia beetle symbionts in the genus Raffaelea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreaden, Tyler J; Davis, John M; de Beer, Z Wilhelm; Ploetz, Randy C; Soltis, Pamela S; Wingfield, Michael J; Smith, Jason A

    2014-12-01

    The genus Raffaelea was established in 1965 when the type species, Raffaelea ambrosia, a symbiont of Platypus ambrosia beetles was described. Since then, many additional ambrosia beetle symbionts have been added to the genus, including the important tree pathogens Raffaelea quercivora, Raffaelea quercus-mongolicae, and Raffaelea lauricola, causal agents of Japanese and Korean oak wilt and laurel wilt, respectively. The discovery of new and the dispersal of described species of Raffaelea to new areas, where they can become invasive, presents challenges for diagnosticians as well as plant protection and quarantine efforts. In this paper, we present the first comprehensive multigene phylogenetic analysis of Raffaelea. As it is currently defined, the genus was found to not be monophyletic. On the basis of this work, Raffaelea sensu stricto is defined and the affinities of undescribed isolates are considered. PMID:25457944

  6. Phytochemistry and pharmacological activities of the genus Prunella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Yubing; Xia, Bohou; Xie, Wenjian; Zhou, Yamin; Xie, Jiachi; Li, Hongquan; Liao, Duanfang; Lin, Limei; Li, Chun

    2016-08-01

    Prunella is a genus of perennial herbaceous plants in the Labiatae family. There are approximately 15 species worldwide, distributed widely in the temperate regions and tropical mountains of Europe and Asia. In the genus Prunella, P. vulgaris is the most studied, following a several thousand-year history as a traditional antipyretic and antidotal Chinese herb. Furthermore, since ancient times, P. vulgaris has been widely used as a cool tea ingredient and consumed as a vegetable. The genus Prunella contains triterpenoids and their saponins, phenolic acids, sterols and associated glycosides, flavonoids, organic acids, volatile oil and saccharides. Modern pharmacological studies have revealed that Prunella possess antiviral, antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, immunoregulatory, anti-oxidative, anti-tumor, antihypertensive and hypoglycemic functions. The active components related to these functions are mainly triterpenoids, phenolic acids, flavonoids and polysaccharides. This review mainly summarizes recent advances in traditional usage, chemical components and pharmacological functions. PMID:26988527

  7. Evolution of the leukotoxin operon in genus Mannheimia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, J.; Pedersen, A. G.; Christensen, H.; Bisgaard, M.; Angen, Øystein; Ahrens, Peter; Olsen, J. E.

    The leukotoxin protein of Mannheimia haemolytica belongs to the HlyA-like subfamily of cytotoxic RTX (repeats in toxin) proteins. To test the hypothesis that different lineages of genus Mannheimia gained the leukotoxin operon via horizontal gene transfer we used a strategy that combines compositi......The leukotoxin protein of Mannheimia haemolytica belongs to the HlyA-like subfamily of cytotoxic RTX (repeats in toxin) proteins. To test the hypothesis that different lineages of genus Mannheimia gained the leukotoxin operon via horizontal gene transfer we used a strategy that combines......RNA sequences; (iii) phylogeny of 24 leukotoxin gene sequences and 16 homologous genes retrieved from SWISS-PROT by using PSI-BLAST. Our data show no evidence for horizontal gene transfer into this clade. We propose that vertical descent from the common ancestor of genus Mannheimia, with subsequent loss of...

  8. Higher genus correlators for the complex matrix model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, the authors describe an iterative scheme which allows us to calculate any multi-loop correlator for the complex matrix model to any genus using only the first in the chain of loop equations. The method works for a completely general potential and the results contain no explicit reference to the couplings. The genus g contribution to the m-loop correlator depends on a finite number of parameters, namely at most 4g - 2 + m. The authors find the generating functional explicitly up to genus three. The authors show as well that the model is equivalent to an external field problem for the complex matrix model with a logarithmic potential

  9. Obtaining genus 2 Heegaard splittings from Dehn surgery

    CERN Document Server

    Baker, Kenneth L; Luecke, John

    2012-01-01

    Let K' be a hyperbolic knot in S^3 and suppose that some Dehn surgery on K' with distance at least 3 from the meridian yields a 3-manifold M of Heegaard genus 2. We show that if M does not contain an embedded Dyck's surface (the closed non-orientable surface of Euler characteristic -1), then the knot dual to the surgery is either 0-bridge or 1-bridge with respect to a genus 2 Heegaard splitting of M. In the case M does contain an embedded Dyck's surface, we obtain similar results. As a corollary, if M does not contain an incompressible genus 2 surface, then the tunnel number of K' is at most 2.

  10. Genetic variability assessment in the genus Passiflora by SSR markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Lougon Paiva

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The genus Passiflora encompasses many species that are endemic to the Brazilian territory, including some with economic value. Studies on genetic diversity in this genus are fundamental because they allow understanding genetic variability and distance. The present study aimed to determine the genetic variability and distances among 10 species of the genus Passiflora by using microsatellite markers (Simple Sequence Repeat, SSR. Twenty-eight heterologous microsatellite markers were tested, but only 12 were used in the diversity analysis because they amplified in at least 80% of the species. A clear separation was observed among the subgenuses studied, as well as wide variation among the accessions of Passiflora. This knowledge enables breeders to explore diversity and transfer favorable alleles found in wild species.

  11. The versatility and adaptation of bacteria from the genus Stenotrophomonas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryan, R.P.; van der Lelie, D.; Monchy, S.; Cardinale, M.; Taghavi, S.; Crossman, L.; Avison, M. B.; Berg, G.; Dow, J. M.

    2009-07-01

    The genus Stenotrophomonas comprises at least eight species. These bacteria are found throughout the environment, particularly in close association with plants. Strains of the most predominant species, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, have an extraordinary range of activities that include beneficial effects for plant growth and health, the breakdown of natural and man-made pollutants that are central to bioremediation and phytoremediation strategies and the production of biomolecules of economic value, as well as detrimental effects, such as multidrug resistance, in human pathogenic strains. Here, we discuss the versatility of the bacteria in the genus Stenotrophomonas and the insight that comparative genomic analysis of clinical and endophytic isolates of S. maltophilia has brought to our understanding of the adaptation of this genus to various niches.

  12. [Advances in chemical constituents and bioactivity of Salvia genus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Qing; Liu, Jian-xun

    2015-06-01

    The genus Salvia in the family Lamiaceae with nearly 1 000 species, is widespread in temperate and tropical regions around the world. Many species of genus Salvia are important medicinal plants with a long history of which Danshen (the dried roots and rhizomes of S. miltiorrhiza) is one of the most popular herbal traditional medicines in Asian countries. The chemical constituents from Salvia plants mainly contain sesquiterpenoids, diterpenoids, triterpenoids, steroids and polyphenols etc, which exhibit antibacterial, antidermatophytic, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antineoplastic, antiplatelet aggregation activities and so on. In this article, the development of new constituents and their biological activities of Salvia genus in the past five years were reviewed and summarized for its further development and utilization. PMID:26552163

  13. Packaging and Performance of 980nm Broad Area Semiconductor Lasers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    High power broad area semiconductor lasers have found increasing applications in pumping of solid state laser systems and fiber amplifiers, frequency doubling, medical systems and material processing.Packaging including the assembly design, process and thermal management, has a significant impact on the optical performance and reliability of a high power broad area laser. In this paper, we introduce the package structures and assembling process of 980nm broad area lasers and report the performances including output power, thermal behavior and far fields.We will report two types of high power broad area laser assemblies.One is a microchannel liquid cooled assembly and the other is a conduction cooled CT-mount assembly. Optical powers of 15W and 10W were achieved from a 980nm broad area laser with a 120 μ m stripe width in a microchannel liquid cooled assembly and conduction cooled CT-mount assembly, respectively.Furthermore,a high power of 6.5W out of fiber was demonstrated from a pigtailed, fully packaged butterfly-type module without TEC (Thermoelectric cooler).The measurement results showed that thermal management is the key in not only improving output power, but also significantly improving beam divergence and far field distribution.The results also showed that the die attach solder can significant impact the reliability of high power broad area lasers and that indium solder is not suitable for high power laser applications due to electromigration at high current densities and high temperatures.

  14. Broad Escovopsis-inhibition activity of Pseudonocardia associated with Trachymyrmex ants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meirelles, Lucas A; Mendes, Thaís D; Solomon, Scott E; Bueno, Odair C; Pagnocca, Fernando C; Rodrigues, Andre

    2014-08-01

    Attine ants maintain an association with antibiotic-producing Actinobacteria found on their integuments. Evidence supports these bacteria as auxiliary symbionts that help ants to defend the fungus gardens against pathogens. Using Pseudonocardia strains isolated from Trachymyrmex ants, we tested whether the inhibitory capabilities of such strains are restricted to Escovopsis parasites that infect gardens of this ant genus. Twelve Pseudonocardia strains were tested in in vitro bioassays against Escovopsis strains derived from fungus gardens of Trachymyrmex (n = 1) and leaf-cutting ants (n = 3). Overall, significant differences were observed in the mycelial growth among each Escovopsis strain in the presence of Pseudonocardia. Particularly, Escovopsis from Acromyrmex and Trachymyrmex were the most inhibited strains in comparison to Escovopsis isolated from Atta. This result suggests that Pseudonocardia isolated from Trachymyrmex possibly secrete antimicrobial compounds effective against diverse Escovopsis strains. The fact that Trachymyrmex ants harbour Pseudonocardia strains with broad spectrum of activity and its defensive role on attine gardens are discussed. PMID:24992532

  15. Three new species in the genus Wilkinsonellus (Braconidae, Microgastrinae) from the Neotropics, and the first host record for the genus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias-Penna, Diana Carolina; Whitfield, James B; Janzen, Daniel H; Hallwachs, Winnie

    2013-01-01

    The genus Wilkinsonellus Mason is a poorly sampled but widely distributed tropical genus of Microgastrinae (Braconidae), parasitoid wasps that exclusively attack caterpillars (Lepidoptera). Currently, species of Wilkinsonellus have been described only from the Palaeotropics, but the genus was known to occur in the Neotropics. Here we describe the first three species from Central and South America: Wilkinsonellus alexsmithi sp. n., Wilkinsonellus kogui sp. n.,and Wilkinsonellus panamaensis sp. n. These species descriptions confirm that Wilkinsonellus is a Pantropical genus. A dichotomous key for the three new Neotropical species is given. The first recorded host for the genus, Microthyris prolongalis (Crambidae), is also reported, for Wilkinsonellus alexsmithi. PMID:23794899

  16. Three new species in the genus Wilkinsonellus (Braconidae, Microgastrinae from the Neotropics, and the first host record for the genus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Arias

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The genus Wilkinsonellus Mason is a poorly sampled but widely distributed tropical genus of Microgastrinae (Braconidae, parasitoid wasps that exclusively attack caterpillars (Lepidoptera. Currently, species of Wilkinsonellus have been described only from the Palaeotropics, but the genus was known to occur in the Neotropics. Here we describe the first three species from Central and South America: Wilkinsonellus alexsmithi sp. n., Wilkinsonellus kogui sp. n., and Wilkinsonellus panamaensis sp. n. These species descriptions confirm that Wilkinsonellus is a Pantropical genus. A dichotomous key for the three new Neotropical species is given. The first recorded host for the genus, Microthyris prolongalis (Crambidae, is also reported, for Wilkinsonellus alexsmithi.

  17. Molecular Signatures and Phylogenomic Analysis of the Genus Burkholderia: Proposal for Division of this Genus into the Emended Genus Burkholderia Containing Pathogenic Organisms and a New Genus Paraburkholderia gen. nov. Harboring Environmental Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aman eSawana

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The genus Burkholderia contains large number of diverse species which are not reliably distinguished by the available biochemical or molecular characteristics. We report here results of detailed phylogenetic and comparative genomic analyses of 45 sequenced species of the genus Burkholderia. In phylogenetic trees based upon concatenated sequences for 21 conserved proteins as well as 16S rRNA gene sequences, Burkholderia species grouped into two major clades. Within these main clades a number of smaller clades were also clearly distinguished. Our comparative analysis of protein sequences from Burkholderia spp. has identified 42 highly specific molecular markers in the form of conserved sequence indels (CSIs that are uniquely found in different clades of Burkholderia spp. Six of these CSIs are specific for a group of Burkholderia spp. (referred to as Clade I which contains all clinically relevant members of the genus as well as the phytopathogenic Burkholderia species. The second main clade (Clade II composed of the environmental Burkholderia species, is also distinguished by 2 of the identified CSIs. Additionally, our work has also identified 3 CSIs that are specific for the Burkholderia cepacia complex, 4 CSIs that are uniquely found in the Burkholderia pseudomallei group, 5 CSIs that are specific for the phytopathogenic Burkholderia spp. and 22 other CSI that distinguish two groups within Clade II. The described molecular markers provide highly specific means for the demarcation of different groups of Burkholderia spp. and for development of novel diagnostic assays for the clinically important members of the group. Based upon the results from different lines of studies, a division of the genus Burkholderia into two genera is proposed. In this new proposal, the emended genus Burkholderia will contain only the clinically relevant and phytopathogenic Burkholderia species, whereas all other Burkholderia spp. are transferred to a new genus

  18. Fossil history and modern distribution of the genus Abies (Pinaceae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIANG Xiaoguo; CAO Ming; ZHOU Zhekun

    2007-01-01

    The plants of the genus Abies are dominant and key species in the dark coniferous forest in the Northern Hemisphere.There are 52 species,one subspecies and 12 varieties in the genus Abies in the world.The history and modern distribution of Abies were discussed.The genus has three modern distribution centers:South Europe,North America and East Asia.These areas are also rich in fossil records.The vertical distribution regions of Abies are from sea level to an elevation of 4,700 m,concentrated in 1,000-2,000 m(15 species).In China,the genus distributes in 20 provinces,especially abundant in the Hengduan Mountains.Meanwhile,endemic and relic phenomena are obvious in this genus.There are seven relic species with both limited individuals and limited distributed regions.Based on the fossil records and the latest phylogenetic data,the following hypothesis was proposed:Abies originated from the middle and high altitudes of the Northern Hemisphere in the middle Cretaceous and it was dispersed southward in the Eocene due to global climate cooling down.The distribution of Abies was deeply influenced by geological events such as the uplift of Himalaya,the Alps,the Rocky Mountains,the occurrence of the Asian Monsoon as well as the Quaternary glaciers.Finally,the current distribution pattern appeared in the Quaternary.The genus Abies has a fossil history and modern distribution pattern similar to that of Cathaya and Pseudolarix.

  19. Genus distributions of graphs under self-edge-amalgamations

    OpenAIRE

    Khan, Imran F.; Poshni, Mehvish Irfan; Gross, Jonathan L.

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the well-known problem of counting graph imbeddings on all oriented surfaces with a focus on graphs that are obtained by pasting together two root-edges of another base graph. We require that the partitioned genus distribution of the base graph with respect to these root-edges be known and that both root-edges have two 2-valent endpoints. We derive general formulas for calculating the genus distributions of graphs that can be obtained either by self-co-amalgamating or by self-c...

  20. Holographic partition functions and phases for higher genus Riemann surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxfield, Henry; Ross, Simon F.; Way, Benson

    2016-06-01

    We describe a numerical method to compute the action of Euclidean saddle points for the partition function of a two-dimensional holographic CFT on a Riemann surface of arbitrary genus, with constant curvature metric. We explicitly evaluate the action for the saddles for genus two and map out the phase structure of dominant bulk saddles in a two-dimensional subspace of the moduli space. We discuss spontaneous breaking of discrete symmetries, and show that the handlebody bulk saddles always dominate over certain non-handlebody solutions.

  1. Note on twisted elliptic genus of K3 surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We discuss the possibility of Mathieu group M24 acting as symmetry group on the K3 elliptic genus as proposed recently by Ooguri, Tachikawa and one of the present authors. One way of testing this proposal is to derive the twisted elliptic genera for all conjugacy classes of M24 so that we can determine the unique decomposition of expansion coefficients of K3 elliptic genus into irreducible representations of M24. In this Letter we obtain all the hitherto unknown twisted elliptic genera and find a strong evidence of Mathieu moonshine.

  2. N=2 gauged WZW models and the elliptic genus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Witten recently gave further evidence for the conjectured relationship between the A-series of the N = 2 minimal models and certain Landau-Ginzburg models by computing the elliptic genus for the latter. The results agree with those of the N = 2 minimal models, as can be calculated from the known characters of the discrete series representations of the N = 2 superconformal algebra. The N = 2 minimal models also have a lagrangian representation as supersymmetric gauged WZW models. We calculate the elliptic genera, interpreted as a genus one path integral with twisted boundary conditions, for such models and recover the previously known result. (orig.)

  3. The genus cicerbita wallr. (cichorieae- asteraceae) in Pakistan and Kashmir

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The genus Cicerbita Wallr. of the tribe Cichorieae-Asteraceae is revised for Pakistan and Kashmir. A broader generic concept of the genus is accepted and in all 11 species have been recognized including 3 new species viz. Cicerbita astorensis, Roohi Bano and Qaiser, C. alii, Roohi Bano and Qaiser and C. gilgitensis Roohi Bano and Qaiser. 5 new combinations, including 3 at species and 2 at varietal level have also been proposed. An artificial key to all the species is provided. Latin diagnosis, illustrations of newly described species, world wide and local distribution and ecological notes of all the species are also furnished. (author)

  4. Large N elliptic genus and AdS/CFT correspondence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    According to one of Maldacena's dualities, type IIB string theory on AdS3XS3XK3 is equivalent to a certain N=(4,4) superconformal field theory. In this note we compute the elliptic genus of the boundary theory in the supergravity approximation. A finite quantity is obtained once we introduce a particular exclusion principle. In the regime where the supergravity approximation is reliable, we find exact agreement with the elliptic genus of a σ model with target space K3N/SN. (author)

  5. Notes on the genus Punctelia in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Steen; Søchting, Ulrik

    2007-01-01

    establishing the genus Punctelia, did not re-combine P. ulophylla, nor include it in the accompanying key. She probably considered it as a synonym of P. subrudecta. In a study on European Punctelia species with lecanoric acid, van Herk & Aptroot (2000) accepted the taxon and made the combination Punctelia...... name at species level, proposed the combination Punctelia jeckeri, and lectotypified the name. As a preparatory work to a forthcoming revision of the Danish lichen checklist (Søchting & Alstrup 2007) it was decided to examine the Danish material of the genus Punctelia....

  6. Shape transitions of high-genus fluid vesicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noguchi, Hiroshi

    2015-12-01

    The morphologies of genus-2 to -8 fluid vesicles are studied by using dynamically triangulated membrane simulations with area-difference elasticity. It is revealed that the alignments of the membrane pores alter the vesicle shapes and the types of shape transitions for the genus g ≥ 3 . At a high reduced volume, a stomatocyte with a circular alignment of g + 1 pores continuously transforms into a discocyte with a line of g pores with increasing intrinsic area difference. In contrast, at a low volume, a stomatocyte transforms into a (g+1) -hedral shape and subsequently exhibits a discrete phase transition to a discocyte.

  7. Taxonomic Study of the Genus Apalacris Walker (Orthoptera: Catantopidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Z M; Lin, L L; Niu, Y

    2016-02-01

    The research history of the genus Apalacris is reviewed; a key to all known species of the genus is given, and one new species, Apalacris eminifronta n. sp., and one new combination, Apalacris maculifemura (Lin & Zheng), are described. The new species is very closely related to Apalacris antennata Liang, but differs in the following characters: (1) tegmen longer, reaching apex of hind femur; (2) basal part of inner side of hind femur orange red; (3) frontal ridge more protruded, obviously depressed under median ocellus in lateral view; and (4) epiphallus bridge prominent, ancora shorter than anterior projection. PMID:26514365

  8. Large N elliptic genus and AdS/CFT Correspondence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    According to one of Maldacena's dualities, type IIB string theory on AdS3 x S3 x K3 is equivalent to a certain N = (4, 4) superconformal field theory. In this note we compute the elliptic genus of the boundary theory in the supergravity approximation. A finite quantity is obtained once we introduce a particular exclusion principle. In the regime where the supergravity approximation is reliable, we find exact agreement with the elliptic genus of a sigma model with target space K3N/SN

  9. Holographic partition functions and phases for higher genus Riemann surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Maxfield, Henry; Way, Benson

    2016-01-01

    We describe a numerical method to compute the action of Euclidean saddlepoints for the partition function of a two-dimensional holographic CFT on a Riemann surface of arbitrary genus, with constant curvature metric. We explicitly evaluate the action for the saddles for genus two and map out the phase structure of dominant bulk saddles in a two-dimensional subspace of the moduli space. We discuss spontaneous breaking of discrete symmetries, and show that the handlebody bulk saddles always dominate over certain non-handlebody solutions.

  10. Approximation algorithms for Euler genus and related problems

    OpenAIRE

    Chekuri, Chandra; Sidiropoulos, Anastasios

    2013-01-01

    The Euler genus of a graph is a fundamental and well-studied parameter in graph theory and topology. Computing it has been shown to be NP-hard by [Thomassen '89 & '93], and it is known to be fixed-parameter tractable. However, the approximability of the Euler genus is wide open. While the existence of an O(1)-approximation is not ruled out, only an O(sqrt(n))-approximation [Chen, Kanchi, Kanevsky '97] is known even in bounded degree graphs. In this paper we give a polynomial-time algorithm wh...

  11. Frigitilla gen. nov., a new genus of Amazonian Mutillidae (Hymenoptera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartholomay, Pedro R; Williams, Kevin A; Luz, David R; Morato, Elder F

    2015-01-01

    Mutilla frigidula Cresson, 1902 was transferred to Tobantilla by Williams et al. (2011), based on morphological similarities with females of that genus. Discovery of the male of this species indicated significant morphological differences from Tobantilla. We therefore erect the genus, Frigitilla gen. nov., for Mutilla frigidula. Herein, we describe the male of F. frigidula (Cresson, 1902), comb. nov., associate it with its host (Trypoxylon spp.), and discuss its relations to other mutillid genera. The impact of collecting method and specimen age on the integumental coloration of specimens is discussed, emphasizing the need to diagnose species on consistent structural features rather than differences in color pattern. PMID:26249052

  12. Bid Optimization in Broad-Match Ad auctions

    CERN Document Server

    Even-dar, Eyal; Mirrokni, Vahab; Muthukrishnan, S; Nadav, Uri

    2009-01-01

    Ad auctions in sponsored search support ``broad match'' that allows an advertiser to target a large number of queries while bidding only on a limited number. While giving more expressiveness to advertisers, this feature makes it challenging to optimize bids to maximize their returns: choosing to bid on a query as a broad match because it provides high profit results in one bidding for related queries which may yield low or even negative profits. We abstract and study the complexity of the {\\em bid optimization problem} which is to determine an advertiser's bids on a subset of keywords (possibly using broad match) so that her profit is maximized. In the query language model when the advertiser is allowed to bid on all queries as broad match, we present an linear programming (LP)-based polynomial-time algorithm that gets the optimal profit. In the model in which an advertiser can only bid on keywords, ie., a subset of keywords as an exact or broad match, we show that this problem is not approximable within any ...

  13. Hybridization among distantly related species: Examples from the polyploid genus Curcuma (Zingiberaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Záveská, Eliška; Fér, Tomáš; Šída, Otakar; Marhold, Karol; Leong-Škorničková, Jana

    2016-07-01

    Discerning relationships among species evolved by reticulate and/or polyploid evolution is not an easy task, although it is widely discussed. The economically important genus Curcuma (ca. 120 spp.; Zingiberaceae), broadly distributed in tropical SE Asia, is a particularly interesting example of a group of palaeopolyploid origin whose evolution is driven mainly by hybridization and polyploidization. Although a phylogeny and a new infrageneric classification of Curcuma, based on commonly used molecular markers (ITS and cpDNA), have recently been proposed, significant evolutionary questions remain unresolved. We applied a multilocus approach and a combination of modern analytical methods to this genus to distinguish causes of gene tree incongruence and to identify hybrids and their parental species. Five independent regions of nuclear DNA (DCS, GAPDH, GLOBOSA3, LEAFY, ITS) and four non-coding cpDNA regions (trnL-trnF, trnT-trnL, psbA-trnH and matK), analysed as a single locus, were employed to construct a species tree and hybrid species trees using (*)BEAST and STEM-hy. Detection of hybridogenous species in the dataset was also conducted using the posterior predictive checking approach as implemented in JML. The resulting species tree outlines the relationships among major evolutionary lineages within Curcuma, which were previously unresolved or which conflicted depending upon whether they were based on ITS or cpDNA markers. Moreover, by using the additional markers in tests of plausible topologies of hybrid species trees for C. vamana, C. candida, C. roscoeana and C. myanmarensis suggested by previous molecular and morphological evidence, we found strong evidence that all the species except C. candida are of subgeneric hybrid origin. PMID:27090448

  14. Species delimitation in the coral genus Goniopora (Scleractinia, Poritidae) from the Saudi Arabian Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Terraneo, Tullia Isotta

    2016-06-16

    Variable skeletal morphology, genotype induced plasticity, and homoplasy of skeletal structures have presented major challenges for scleractinian coral taxonomy and systematics since the 18th century. Although the recent integration of genetic and micromorphological data is helping to clarify the taxonomic confusion within the order, phylogenetic relationships and species delimitation within most coral genera are still far from settled. In the present study, the species boundaries in the scleractinian coral genus Goniopora were investigated using 199 colonies from the Saudi Arabian Red Sea and sequencing of four molecular markers: the mitochondrial intergenic spacer between CytB and NAD2, the nuclear ribosomal ITS region, and two single-copy nuclear genes (ATPsβ and CalM). DNA sequence data were analyzed using a variety of methods and exploratory species-delimitation tools. The results were broadly congruent in identifying five distinct molecular lineages within the sequenced Goniopora samples: G. somaliensis/G. savignyi, G. djiboutiensis/G. lobata, G. stokesi, G. albiconus/G. tenuidens, and G. minor/G. gracilis. Although the traditional macromorphological characters used to identify these nine morphospecies were not able to discriminate the obtained molecular clades, informative micromorphological and microstructural features (such as the micro-ornamentation and the arrangement of the columella) were recovered among the five lineages. Moreover, unique in vivo morphologies were associated with the genetic-delimited lineages, further supporting the molecular findings. This study represents the first attempt to identify species boundaries within Goniopora using a combined morpho-molecular approach. The obtained data establish a basis for future taxonomic revision of the genus, which should include colonies across its entire geographical distribution in the Indo-Pacific.

  15. Taxonomic and Environmental Variation of Metabolite Profiles in Marine Dinoflagellates of the Genus Symbiodinium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anke Klueter

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Microorganisms in terrestrial and marine ecosystems are essential to environmental sustainability. In the marine environment, invertebrates often depend on metabolic cooperation with their endosymbionts. Coral reefs, one of the most important marine ecosystems, are based on the symbiosis between a broad diversity of dinoflagellates of the genus Symbiodinium and a wide phyletic diversity of hosts (i.e., cnidarian, molluscan, poriferan. This diversity is reflected in the ecology and physiology of the symbionts, yet the underlying biochemical mechanisms are still poorly understood. We examined metabolite profiles of four cultured species of Symbiodinium known to form viable symbioses with reef-building corals, S. microadriaticum (cp-type A194, S. minutum (cp-type B184, S. psygmophilum (cp-type B224 and S. trenchii (cp-type D206. Metabolite profiles were shown to differ among Symbiodinium species and were found to be affected by their physiological response to growth in different temperatures and light regimes. A combined Random Forests and Bayesian analysis revealed that the four Symbiodinium species examined primarily differed in their production of sterols and sugars, including a C29 stanol and the two sterols C28Δ5 and C28Δ5,22, as well as differences in metabolite abundances of a hexose and inositol. Inositol levels were also strongly affected by changes in temperature across all Symbiodinium species. Our results offer a detailed view of the metabolite profile characteristic of marine symbiotic dinoflagellates of the genus Symbiodinium, and identify patterns of metabolites related to several growth conditions.

  16. Systematics of the southern African genus Ixia (Iridaceae: Crocoideae: 4. Revision of sect. Dichone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Goldblatt

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The southern African genus Ixia L. comprises ± 90 species from the winter-rainfall zone of the subcontinent. Ixia sect. Dichone (Salisb. ex Baker Goldblatt & J.C.Manning, one of four sections in the genus and currently including 10 species and three varieties, is distinguished by the following floral characters: lower part of the perianth tube filiform and tightly clasping the style; filaments not decurrent; upper part of the perianth tube short to vestigial; style branches involute-tubular and stigmatic only at the tips; and so-called subdidymous anthers. We review the taxonomy of the section, providing complete descriptions and distribution maps, and a key to the species. I. amethystina Manning & Goldblatt is recognized to be a later synonym of I. brevituba G.J.Lewis. Most collections currently included under that name represent another species, here described as I. rigida. We recognize five additional species in the section: early summer-blooming I. altissima from the Cedarberg; I. bifolia from the Caledon District; I. flagellaris, a stoloniferous species from the Cedarberg; I. simulans from the western Langeberg; and I. tenuis from the Piketberg. We also raise to species rank I. micrandra var. confusa and var. minor, as I. confusa and I. minor respectively. Foliar and associated floral variation in the widespread I. scillaris has led us to recognize two new subspecies among its northern populations, broad leaved subsp. latifolia and the dwarfed, smaller flowered subsp. toximontana; subsp. scillaris is restricted to the immediate southwestern Cape, from Darling to Somerset West. Sect. Dichone now has 17 species and two subspecies.

  17. On a new species of the genus Testudo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lidth de Jeude, van Th.W.

    1893-01-01

    On arranging the tortoises of the genus Testudo in the collections of the Leyden Museum I met with a mounted specimen, collected at the Cape of Good Hope by the late Kuhl and van Hasselt, which though having much in common with Testudo geometrica L., yet in other points differs from that species and

  18. Recursion Relation of Hyperelliptic Psi-Functions of Genus Two

    OpenAIRE

    MATSUTANI, Shigeki

    2001-01-01

    A recursion relation of hyperelliptic psi functions of genus two, which was derived by D.G. Cantor (J. reine angew. Math. 447 (1994) 91-145), is studied. As Cantor's approach is algebraic, another derivation is presented as a natural extension of the analytic derivation of the recursion relation of the elliptic psi function.

  19. Quantum cohomology of moduli spaces of genus zero stable curves

    OpenAIRE

    Fontanari, Claudio

    2007-01-01

    We investigate the (small) quantum cohomology ring of the moduli spaces of stable n-pointed curves of genus 0. In particular, we determine an explicit presentation in the case n=5 and we outline a computational approach to the case n=6.

  20. On the Genus of a Random Riemann Surface

    OpenAIRE

    Gamburd, Alexander; Makover, Eran

    2001-01-01

    Brooks and Makover introduced an approach to random Riemann surfaces based on associating a dense set of them - Belyi surfaces - with random cubic graphs. In this paper, using Bollobas model for random regular graphs, we examine the topological structure of these surfaces, obtaining in particular an estimate for the expected value of their genus.

  1. Phylogenetic diversity and position of the genus Campylobacter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, P. P.; DeBrunner-Vossbrinck, B.; Dunn, B.; Miotto, K.; MacDonnell, M. T.; Rollins, D. M.; Pillidge, C. J.; Hespell, R. B.; Colwell, R. R.; Sogin, M. L.; Fox, G. E.

    1987-01-01

    RNA sequence analysis has been used to examine the phylogenetic position and structure of the genus Campylobacter. A complete 5S rRNA sequence was determined for two strains of Campylobacter jejuni and extensive partial sequences of the 16S rRNA were obtained for several strains of C. jejuni and Wolinella succinogenes. In addition limited partial sequence data were obtained from the 16S rRNAs of isolates of C. coli, C. laridis, C. fetus, C. fecalis, and C. pyloridis. It was found that W. succinogenes is specifically related to, but not included, in the genus Campylobacter as presently constituted. Within the genus significant diversity was noted. C. jejuni, C. coli and C. laridis are very closely related but the other species are distinctly different from one another. C. pyloridis is without question the most divergent of the Campylobacter isolates examined here and is sufficiently distinct to warrant inclusion in a separate genus. In terms of overall position in bacterial phylogeny, the Campylobacter/Wolinella cluster represents a deep branching most probably located within an expanded version of the Division containing the purple photosynthetic bacteria and their relatives. The Campylobacter/Wolinella cluster is not specifically includable in either the alpha, beta or gamma subdivisions of the purple bacteria.

  2. Termites of the Genus Odontotermes are Optionally Keratophagous

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Freymann, Bernd P.; Visser, Sara N. de; Mayemba, Emilian P.; Olff, Han

    2007-01-01

    In this study we tested experimentally whether the consumption of mammalian hooves by termites of the genus Odontotermes is a mere incidental, previously overlooked event, or whether higher termites frequently exploit hooves of ungulates as a supplementary food source. The experiment was conducted i

  3. FLORAE MALESIANAE PRAECURSORES XV*THE GENUS GAULTHERIA IN MALAYSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. SLEUMER

    1957-09-01

    Full Text Available In this revision of the Malaysian species of the genus GaultheriaKalm ex L. 24 species and 9 varieties resp. forms are recognized. Among the new taxa described are 9 species and 1 variety. The localities of the revised material are given in detail. An index to specimens is added.

  4. Taxonomic studies of nectrioid fungi in Japan: The genus Cosmospora

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seven species of the genus Cosmospora collected in Japan are reported in this article. Among them, Cosmospora japonica is described as a new species. Cosmospora henanensis, C. rubrisetosa and C. triqua, all of which are known only from their type localities, are added to the Japanese mycoflora. Othe...

  5. A Finite Genus Solution of the Veselov's Discrete Neumann System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Veselov's discrete Neumann system is derived through nonlinearization of a discrete spectral problem. Based on the commutative relation between the Lax matrix and the Darboux matrix with finite genus potentials, a special solution is calculated with the help of the Baker—Akhiezer—Kriechever function.

  6. Ruwenzoria, a new genus of the Xylariaceae from Central Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stadler, M.; Læssøe, Thomas; Fournier, J.; Decock, C.; Persoh, D.; Rambold, G.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract During a foray to the mountain rainforests of the Democratic Republic of the Congo, a peculiar species of Xylariaceae was found, which could not be accommodated in any of the existing genera. It is recognised as representative of a new genus, named Ruwenzoria, owing to the presence of a...

  7. PIXE analysis of trace elements in Genus Hippophae L

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trace elements in four kinds of the Genus Hippophae L pulps were analysed by PIXE. Optimization of the system performance was done by carefully selecting the absorbers. Analytical sensitivities of the PIXE system were obtained by means of 'external standard method'

  8. Genus Zero Graph Segmentation: Estimation of Intracranial Volume

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Rasmus Ramsbøl; Thorup, Signe Strann; Paulsen, Rasmus Reinhold; Darvann, Tron A.; Hermann, Nuno V.; Larsen, Per; Kreiborg, Sven; Larsen, Rasmus

    present a fully automatic 3D graph-based method for segmentation of the ICV in non-contrast CT scans. We reformulate the ICV segmentation problem as an optimal genus 0 segmentation problem in a volumetric graph. The graph is the result of a volumetric spherical subsample from the data connected using...

  9. Formulae for Arithmetic on Genus 2 Hyperelliptic Curves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lange, Tanja

    2005-01-01

    The ideal class group of hyperelliptic curves can be used in cryptosystems based on the discrete logarithm problem. In this article we present explicit formulae to perform the group operations for genus 2 curves. The formulae are completely general but to achieve the lowest number of operations we...

  10. Studies in the family Thelypteridaceae X. The genus Coryphopteris

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holttum, R.E.

    1976-01-01

    All known species of this genus are described, with synonymy for each and a key for identification. Seventeen new species are described: C. andersonii, C. andreae, C. arthrotricha, C. atjehensis, C. athyrioides, C. borealis, C. brevipilosa, C. hubrechtensis, C. iwatsukii, C. kolombangarae, C. meioba

  11. The transfer of the genus Lytocaryum to Syagrus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Technical Abstract In this paper we formally transfer all four known species of Lytocaryum to the genus Syagrus based on recent molecular analyses, which show it as a monophyletic group either nested within Syagrus making Syagrus paraphyletic or sister to it. Because of these conflicting results bet...

  12. Evolution of the leukotoxin operon in genus Mannheimia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, J.; Pedersen, A. G.; Christensen, H.;

    2005-01-01

    The leukotoxin protein of Mannheimia haemolytica belongs to the HlyA-like subfamily of cytotoxic RTX (repeats in toxin) proteins. To test the hypothesis that different lineages of genus Mannheimia gained the leukotoxin operon via horizontal gene transfer we used a strategy that combines...

  13. A revision of the genus Odontolejeunea (Spruce) Schiffn. (Leujeuneaceae, Hepaticae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teeuwen, M.

    1988-01-01

    A taxonomic revision is presented for the epiphyllous liverwort genus Odontolejeunea (Lejeuneaceae subf. Ptychantoideae). Three species are accepted: O. decemdentata (Spruce) Steph.; O. lunulata (Web.) Schiffn. and O. rhomalea (Spruce) Steph. All three species occur in tropical America, and O. lunul

  14. A revision of the genus Odontolejeunea (Spruce) Schiffn. (Leujeuneaceae, Hepaticae)

    OpenAIRE

    Teeuwen, M

    1988-01-01

    A taxonomic revision is presented for the epiphyllous liverwort genus Odontolejeunea (Lejeuneaceae subf. Ptychantoideae). Three species are accepted: O. decemdentata (Spruce) Steph.; O. lunulata (Web.) Schiffn. and O. rhomalea (Spruce) Steph. All three species occur in tropical America, and O. lunulata occurs also in tropical Africa.

  15. Water-Striders of the American Genus Trochopus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drake, Carl J.; Doesburg , van P.H.

    1966-01-01

    In April 1898 the veliid genus Trochopus Carpenter was erected to hold a new halophilous water-strider from Jamaica, described as marinus. The specimens were netted in numbers on standing salt waters beneath mangrove trees in swamps near the head of Kingston Harbour. In August of the same year CHAMP

  16. The genus Nervilia (Orchidaceae) in Africa and the Arabian Peninsula

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pettersson, Börge

    1991-01-01

    The orchidaceous genus Nervilia Comm. ex Gaud, is revised for Africa, including Madagascar and other islands, and the Arabian peninsula. Sixteen species are recognized, two of which are each subdivided into two varieties. Keys are presented for all taxa. Lectotypes or neotypes are given for all rele

  17. The genus Rhododendron L. in Indochina and Siam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sleumer, H.

    1958-01-01

    In the course of my recent revision of the genus Rhododendron in Malaysia it has become evident, that the subsect. Irrorata, regarded as purely South Eastern Asiatic up to now, is also represented in the Malay Peninsula and Sumatra, whilst the subsect. Euvireya, outside of its large Malaysian area,

  18. Sesquiterpene lactones. XXXIV. Guaianolides in the genus Leuzea DC.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerard Nowak

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Guaianolides were found in three species of the genus Leuzea DC. Chlorojanerin, cynaropicrin and janerin were isolated from L. rhapontica subg. helenifolia (Gren, Gordon Holub and L. rhaponticoides Graells. From L. carthamoides (Willd. DC., chlorojanerin, cynaropicrin, janerin, cebellin E and repdiolide were obtained.

  19. On a new species of the Longicorn genus Zonopterus, Hope

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ritsema Cz., C.

    1889-01-01

    This species, of which I have three female specimens before me, is most nearly allied to and strongly resembles the type of the genus: Zonopterus flavitarsis Hope 1). It is of the same size and general form, but the sides of the prothorax, which are distinctly bisinuate in flavitarsis, are more regu

  20. The genus filtration in the smooth concordance group

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Shida

    2015-01-01

    We define a filtration of the smooth concordance group based on the genus of representative knots. We use the Heegaard Floer epsilon and Upsilon invariants to prove the quotient groups with respect to this filtration are infinitely generated. Results are applied to three infinite families of topologically slice knots.

  1. New species of the stingless bee genus Schwarziana (Hymenoptera, Apidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel A.R. Melo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Two new species of the stingless bee genus Schwarziana from Brazil are described and illustrated. Schwarziana bocainensis sp. nov. is described from Serra da Bocaina, in São Paulo, and S. chapadensis sp. nov. is described from Chapada dos Veadeiros, in Goiás. An identification key to workers of the known species of Schwarziana is provided.

  2. Pyrrolizidine alkaloids from Bulgarian species of the genus Senecio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NADEZHDA KOSTOVA

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Nine Bulgarian species from the genus Senecio were studied phytochemically and/or by GC-MS analysis. Senecivernine-N-oxide was isolated and identified by spectral data for the first time. Different types of pyrrolizidine alkaloids were tested for cytotoxicity on murine lymphocytes. At a concentration of 100 µg/ml, the alkaloid retroisosenine showed immunosuppressive effect.

  3. A new genus of Staphylinidae (Coleoptera) from the Lower Cretaceous

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schomann, Andrea Maria; Solodovnikov, Alexey

    2012-01-01

    The fossil genus of rove beetles Apticaxgen.n. with two new species, A. volanssp.n. and A. solidussp.n., is described from the Nova Olinda Member of the Crato Formation in north-eastern Brazil (Aptian–Albian, dated as 125–99.6 Ma old). Both species belong to the clade Staphylininae + Paederinae in...

  4. Australopithecus sediba and the earliest origins of the genus Homo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Lee

    2012-01-01

    Discovered in 2008, the site of Malapa has yielded a remarkable assemblage of early hominin remains attributed to the species Australopithecus sediba. The species shows unexpected and unpredicted mosaicism in its anatomy. Several commentators have questioned the specific status of Au. sediba arguing that it does not exceed the variation of Au. africanus. This opinion however, does not take into account that Au. sediba differs from Au. africanus in both craniodental and postcranial characters to a greater degree than Au.africanus differs from Au. afarensis in these same characters. Au. sediba has also been questioned as a potential ancestor of the genus Homo due to the perception that earlier specimens of the genus have been found than the c198 Ma date of the Malapa sample. This opinion however, does not take into account either the poor condition of these fossils, as well as the numerous problems with both the criteria used to associate them with the genus Homo, nor the questionable provenance of each of these specimens. This argument also does not acknowledge that Malapa is almost certainly not the first chronological appearance of Au. sediba, it is only the first known fossil occurrence. Au. sediba should therefore be considered a strong potential candidate ancestor of the genus Homo until better preserved specimens are discovered that would refute such a hypothesis. PMID:23011933

  5. Revision of the Palaearctic genus Trachyusa Ruthe (Hymenoptera: Braconidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Achterberg, van, T.; O'Connor, J P

    1990-01-01

    The Palaearctic genus Trachyusa Ruthe, 1854 (Braconidae: Alysiinae: Alysiini) is revised and one new species, T. nigrothoracica spec. nov., is described and fully illustrated. A key to the species is added. Lectotypes are designated of Alysia aurora Haliday, 1838 and of Trachyusa nigriceps Ruthe, 1854.

  6. Revision of the Palaearctic genus Trachyusa Ruthe (Hymenoptera: Braconidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Achterberg, van C.; O'Connor, J.P.

    1990-01-01

    The Palaearctic genus Trachyusa Ruthe, 1854 (Braconidae: Alysiinae: Alysiini) is revised and one new species, T. nigrothoracica spec. nov., is described and fully illustrated. A key to the species is added. Lectotypes are designated of Alysia aurora Haliday, 1838 and of Trachyusa nigriceps Ruthe, 18

  7. THE GENUS SCLERIA (CYPERACEAE) IN COLOMBIA. AN UPDATED CHECKLIST

    OpenAIRE

    CAMELBEKE KONRAED; GOETGHEBEUR PAUL

    2002-01-01

    An updated, annotated checklist of the genus Scleria (Cyperaceae) for Colombia ispresented. An identification key to the 32 species recognized in this treatment isincluded. Following species are new records for Colombia: Scleria huberi, S.longigluma, S. macrogyne, S. martii, S. setuloso-ciliata, S. splitgerberiana, S.stipularis and S. tepuiensis.

  8. A new species of the genus Aphanisticus (Coleoptera: Buprestidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ritsema Cz., C.

    1897-01-01

    In 1889 I described (Notes Leyd. Mus. XI, p. 237) a Buprestid of the genus Aphanisticus the larva of which was found at Kagob (Tegal: West-Java) mining in the under surface of the leaves of sugar-cane. I named it after its discoverer Aphanisticus Krügeri. At the same time I gave in the »Nederlandsch

  9. Twists of genus three curves and their Jacobians

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meagher, Stephen

    2008-01-01

    An algebraic curve is a curve defined over by polynomial equations with coefficients in a given field. This thesis treats problems which arise from genus three curves over finite fields. An important tool for treating such curves is the Jacobian variety of the curve. One problem is how many points s

  10. The tantulocarid genus Arcticotantalus removed from Basipodellidae into Deoterthridae (Crustacea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Steen Wilhelm; Kirkegaard, Maja; Olesen, JØrgen

    2009-01-01

    is tentatively placed in Deoterthridae based on the mode of formation of the male trunk sac, the pattern of ornamentation on the tergites and cephalic shield, and the number of setae on the thoracopods and caudal rami. It is suggested that the genus Arcticotantulus Kornev, Tchesunov & Rybnikov, 2004 is removed...

  11. On the genus of triply periodic minimal surfaces

    OpenAIRE

    Traizet, Martin

    2008-01-01

    We prove the existence of embedded minimal surfaces of arbitrary genus at least 3 in any flat 3-torus. In fact we construct a sequence of such surfaces converging to a planar foliation of the 3-torus. In particular, the area of the surface can be chosen arbitrarily large.

  12. The Cape genus Micranthus (Iridaceae: Crocoideae, nomenclature and taxonomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Goldblatt

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The genus Micranthus (Pers. Eckl., has traditionally been treated as comprising three species, all with virtually identical, bilaterally symmetric, deep or pale blue to white flowers arranged in crowded, 2-ranked spikes and with divided style branches, but differing in their foliage. Examination of plants in the field and herbarium shows that there are four additional species. M. filifolius Goldblatt & J.C.Manning, from the Caledon District of the southwestern Western Cape, has up to six, filiform leaves, the blades of at least the lowermost terete and cross-shaped in section, and usually pale blue-mauve flowers. M. simplex Goldblatt & J.C.Manning from high elevations on Zebrakop, Piketberg, has the smallest flowers in the genus, white but tinged lilac as they age, linear leaves up to 1.5 mm wide, and undivided style branches. M. cruciatus Goldblatt & J.C.Manning, from the northern Cedarberg and Bokkeveld Mtns, has up to four leaves, the lower with linear or terete blades with heavily thickened margins and central vein and relatively large flowers, unusual in having the style dividing at the mouth of the perianth tube into particularly long branches, these deeply divided as is typical of the genus. M. thereianthoides Goldblatt & J.C.Manning, from the Paardeberg south of Malmesbury, is unique in the genus in having flowers with an elongate perianth tube. We also document the occurrence of large populations of putative hybrids at some sites. We provide a complete revision of Micranthus with original observations on leaf anatomy, pollen morphology and reproductive biology and discuss its confused taxonomic and nomenclatural history and that of the three common species of the genus, known for over 150 years. In so doing, we neotypify Gladiolus alopecuroides L. (1756 [= Micranthus alopecuroides (L. Eckl. (1827], type of the genus, and choose lectotypes for M. plantagineus Eckl. var. junceus Baker (1892 and Gladiolus fistulosus Jacq. Now with seven

  13. Characterization of a novel circo-like virus in Aedes vexans mosquitoes from Germany: evidence for a new genus within the family Circoviridae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garigliany, Mutien-Marie; Börstler, Jessica; Jöst, Hanna; Badusche, Marlis; Desmecht, Daniel; Schmidt-Chanasit, Jonas; Cadar, Daniel

    2015-04-01

    Over recent decades, metagenomic studies have expanded the number of newly described, often unclassified, viruses within the family Circoviridae. Using broad-spectrum circovirus and cyclovirus PCRs, we characterized a novel circo-like virus in Aedes vexans mosquitoes from Germany whose main putative ORFs shared very low amino acid identity with those of previously characterized circoviruses and cycloviruses. Phylogenetic and genetic distance analysis revealed that this new virus species defined, together with previously described mosquito- and bat faeces-derived circo-like viruses, a different genus, tentatively called Krikovirus, within the family Circoviridae. We further demonstrated that viruses of the putative genus Krikovirus all shared a genomic organization that was unique among the family Circoviridae. Further investigations are needed to determine the host range, tissue tropism and transmission route(s). This report increases the current knowledge of the genetic diversity and evolution of the members of the family Circoviridae. PMID:25535324

  14. Broad-coverage molecular epidemiology of Orientia tsutsugamushi in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wongprompitak, Patimaporn; Anukool, Wichittra; Wongsawat, Ekkarat; Silpasakorn, Saowalak; Duong, Veasna; Buchy, Philippe; Morand, Serge; Frutos, Roger; Ekpo, Pattama; Suputtamongkol, Yupin

    2013-04-01

    Orientia tsutsugamushi, an obligate intracellular bacterium closely related to the genus Rickettsia, is the causative agent of scrub typhus, a major cause of febrile illness in rural areas of Asia-Pacific region. Scrub typhus is transmitted by the bite of infected mites of the genus Leptotrombidium. The region of the 56-kDa TSA gene spanning from variable domain I (VDI) to variable domain IV (VDIV) was sequenced and used for genotyping 77 O. tsutsugamushi samples from human patients confirmed with scrub typhus from 2001 to 2003 and 2009 to 2010 in different regions of Thailand. These sequences were also compared to previously published 56-kDa TSA sequences. Only 4 genotypes out of 8 previously reported in Thailand were identified, i.e. Karp, JG-v, TA763 and Kato, respectively. Two strains were not associated with known genotypes but were closely related to Taiwanese strains. The Karp genotype was confirmed as the predominant clade. The JG-v and TA763 genotypes, in contrast to other studies, also were found. The genotype TA716 was not found, except for one strain previously described. PMID:21712103

  15. The sub-millimeter properties of broad absorption line quasars

    OpenAIRE

    Willott, Chris J.; Rawlings, Steve; Grimes, Jennifer A.

    2003-01-01

    We have carried out the first systematic survey of the sub-millimeter properties of broad absorption line (BAL) quasars. 30 BAL quasars drawn from a homogeneously selected sample from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey at redshifts 2 3 sigma significance. The far-infrared luminosities of these quasars are > 10^{13} L_solar. There is no correlation of sub-millimeter flux with either the strength of the broad absorption feature or with absolute magnitude in our sample. We compare the sub-millimeter f...

  16. Analysis of fuel system technology for broad property fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffinberry, G. A.

    1984-01-01

    An analytical study was performed in order to assess relative performance and economic factors involved with alternative advanced fuel systems for future commercial aircraft operating with broad property fuels. Significant results, with emphasis on design practicality from the engine manufacturer' standpoint, are highlighted. Several advanced fuel systems were modeled to determine as accurately as possible the relative merits of each system from the standpoint of compatibility with broad property fuel. Freezing point, thermal stability, and lubricity were key property issues. A computer model was formulated to determine the investment incentive for each system. Results are given.

  17. Broad-band hard X-ray reflectors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joensen, K.D.; Gorenstein, P.; Hoghoj, P.;

    1997-01-01

    Interest in optics for hard X-ray broad-band application is growing. In this paper, we compare the hard X-ray (20-100 keV) reflectivity obtained with an energy-dispersive reflectometer, of a standard commercial gold thin-film with that of a 600 bilayer W/Si X-ray supermirror. The reflectivity of...... that of the gold, Various other design options are discussed, and we conclude that continued interest in the X-ray supermirror for broad-band hard X-ray applications is warranted....

  18. Development of broad-view camera unit for laparoscopic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawahara, Tomohiro; Takaki, Takeshi; Ishii, Idaku; Okajima, Masazumi

    2009-01-01

    A disadvantage of laparoscopic surgery is the narrow operative field provided by the endoscope camera. This paper describes a newly developed broad-view camera unit for use with the Broad-View Camera System, which is capable of providing a wider view of the internal organs during laparoscopic surgery. The developed camera unit is composed of a miniature color CMOS camera, an indwelling needle, and an extra-thin connector. The specific design of the camera unit and the method for positioning it are shown. The performance of the camera unit has been confirmed through basic and animal experiments. PMID:19963983

  19. A new genus of Podonominae (Diptera: Chironomidae) in Late Eocene Rovno amber from Ukraine

    OpenAIRE

    Baranov, Viktor; Andersen, Trond; Perkovsky, Evgeny

    2014-01-01

    The genus Palaeoboreochlus Baranov et Andersen, n. gen. is erected based on P. inornatus Baranov et Andersen, n. sp. described from a male found in Late Eocene Rovno amber. The new genus groups with Boreochlus Edwards in the tribe "Boreochlini".

  20. Vervoortihelcon, a new genus of the subfamily Helconinae Foerster (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) from Chile

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Achterberg, van C.

    1998-01-01

    A new genus of the tribe Helconini Foerster (Braconidae: Helconinae), Vervoortihelcon (type species: Vervoortihelcon scaramozzinoi spec, nov.) from Chile is described and illustrated. The new subtribe Vervoortihelconina is named to include the new genus.

  1. Genus Indiopius Fischer, 1966 (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Opiinae) in Iran with a key to the world species

    OpenAIRE

    Francisco Javier Peris Felipo; Zahra Rahmani; Sergey Belokobylskij; Ehsan Rakhshani,

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The Iranian species belonging to the genus Indiopius Fischer are reviewed. A description of the first recorded female of I. cretensis Fischer, 1966 is provided. A key to the world species of the genus Indiopius is given.

  2. Genus Indiopius Fischer, 1966 (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Opiinae) in Iran with a key to the world species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peris-Felipo, Francisco Javier; Rahmani, Zahra; Belokobylskij, Sergey A.; Rakhshani, Ehsan

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The Iranian species belonging to the genus Indiopius Fischer are reviewed. A description of the first recorded female of I. cretensis Fischer, 1966 is provided. A key to the world species of the genus Indiopius is given. PMID:24478581

  3. A new genus of the tribe Pambolini from Australia (Hymenoptera: Braconidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Achterberg, van C.; Quicke, D.L.J.

    1990-01-01

    A new genus of the tribe Pambolini (Braconidae: Rhyssalinae), Notiopambolus gen. nov. (typespecies: N. depressicauda spec. nov.) from Australia is described and fully illustrated. The new taxon is related to the Palaearctic genus Dimeris Ruthe, 1854.

  4. Tarphonomus, a new genus of ovenbird (Aves : Passeriformes : Furnariidae) from South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chesser, R.T.; Brumfield, R.T.

    2007-01-01

    Tarphonomus, a new genus of ovenbird (Aves: Passeriformes: Furnariidae) from South America, is described. Species included in the new genus, formerly placed in Upucerthia, are T. certhioides and T. harterti.

  5. Broad habitat range of the phylogenetically narrow R-BT065 cluster, representing a core group of the Betaproteobacterial genus .i.Limnohabitans./i

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šimek, Karel; Kasalický, Vojtěch; Jezbera, Jan; Jezberová, Jitka; Hejzlar, Josef; Hahn, M.W.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 76, č. 3 (2010), s. 631-639. ISSN 0099-2240 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA206/08/0015; GA MŠk(CZ) MEB060702 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60170517 Keywords : R-BT065 cluster * Betaproteobacteria * freshwater habitats * pH * DOC * algal-derived substrates Subject RIV: DA - Hydrology ; Limnology Impact factor: 3.778, year: 2010

  6. A new genus and species of Heteromysini (Crustacea- Mysidacea) from the backwater of Kochi (Kerala, India)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Panampunnayil, S.U.; Buju, A.

    Order] At: 10:52 24 October 2007 A new genus and species of Heteromysini (Crustacea- Mysidacea) from the backwater of Kochi (Kerala, India) S.U. PANAMPUNNAYIL & A. BIJU National Institute of Oceanography, Regional Centre, Kochi, India (Accepted 3 May... 2007) Abstract Kochimysis pillaii, a new genus and species of Heteromysini collected from the backwater of Kochi, is described. The new genus is closely related to the genus Deltamysis but is distinguishable from the latter by the following characters...

  7. Revisiting species delimitation within the genus Oxystele using DNA barcoding approach

    OpenAIRE

    Herman Van Der Bank; Dai Herbert; Richard Greenfield; Kowiyou Yessoufou

    2013-01-01

    Abstract The genus Oxystele, a member of the highly diverse marine gastropod superfamily Trochoidea, is endemic to southern Africa. Members of the genus include some of the most abundant molluscs on southern African shores and are important components of littoral biodiversity in rocky intertidal habitats. Species delimitation within the genus is still controversial, especially regarding the complex O. impervia / O. variegata. Here, we assessed species boundaries within the genus using DNA bar...

  8. The Genus Crataegus L. (Rosaceae) with Special Reference to Hybridisation and Biodiversity in Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Ali A. Dönmez

    2004-01-01

    The genus Crataegus L. has approximately 200 species worldwide. However, the number of the species is increased to 1200 species by some taxonomists. Traditionally, the genus is placed in the subfamily Maloideae and it is closely related to the genera Pyracantha M.Roem., Mespilus L. and Hesperomeles Lindl. The latest phylogenetic analysis of the genus shows that it is closest to the genus Osteomeles Lind. Crataegus is divided into 40 sections by various taxonomists. The genetic diversity centr...

  9. Taeniid tapeworm responses to in vitro glucose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willms, Kaethe; Presas, Ana María Fernández; Jiménez, José Agustín; Landa, Abraham; Zurabián, Rimma; Ugarte, María Eugenia Juárez; Robert, Lilia

    2005-07-01

    Experimental taeniid strobilae from Taenia solium and T. crassiceps (WFU strain) were incubated for 0-72 h in 0, 5 or 20 mM glucose solutions and further exposed for 15 min to the gap junction fluorochrome Lucifer Yellow. Frozen sections were obtained from each worm and observed under an epifluorescent microscope. Worm sections from strobilae incubated with glucose, revealed intense fluorescence in the base of the tegumentary surface, suggesting that this tissue behaves as a gap junction complex. Fluorescence intensity differences between control worms not exposed to glucose and worms incubated with glucose, were highly significant. The results demonstrate that under in vitro conditions, glucose is taken up along the whole strobilar tegument in both taeniid species, suggesting, that although taeniids attached to the duodenum probably take up most of their nutrients directly from the mucosal wall, the capacity for absorbing glucose along the tegumentary surface is always active and may increase the survival capacity of these intestinal worms by promoting glucose absorption at other points in the intestinal lumen. PMID:15918070

  10. Cytogenetics and Chromosomes of Tapeworms (Platyhelminthes, Cestoda)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Špakulová, M.; Orosová, Martina; Mackiewicz, J. S.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 74, - (2011), 177-230. ISSN 0065-308X R&D Projects: GA ČR GA524/08/0885; GA MŠk LC522 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : PROTEOCEPHALUS-PERCAE CESTODA * RIBOSOMAL-RNA GENES * CARYOPHYLLIDEA CESTOIDEA * ATRACTOLYTOCESTUS-HURONENSIS * EMBRYONIC - DEVELOPMENT * ECHINOCOCCUS-MULTILOCULARIS * HYMENOLEPIS MICROSTOMA * NIPPOTAENIA-MOGURNDAE * PHYLOGENETIC ANALYSIS Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 4.390, year: 2011

  11. Broad-Band Spectroscopy of Hercules X-1 with Suzaku

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asami, Fumi; Enoto, Teruaki; Iwakiri, Wataru; Yamada, Shin'ya; Tamagawa, Toru; Mihara, Tatehiro; Nagase, Fumiaki

    2014-01-01

    Hercules X-1 was observed with Suzaku in the main-on state from 2005 to 2010. The 0.4- 100 keV wide-band spectra obtained in four observations showed a broad hump around 4-9 keV in addition to narrow Fe lines at 6.4 and 6.7 keV. The hump was seen in all the four observations regardless of the selection of the continuum models. Thus it is considered a stable and intrinsic spectral feature in Her X-1. The broad hump lacked a sharp structure like an absorption edge. Thus it was represented by two different spectral models: an ionized partial covering or an additional broad line at 6.5 keV. The former required a persistently existing ionized absorber, whose origin was unclear. In the latter case, the Gaussian fitting of the 6.5-keV line needs a large width of sigma = 1.0-1.5 keV and a large equivalent width of 400-900 eV. If the broad line originates from Fe fluorescence of accreting matter, its large width may be explained by the Doppler broadening in the accretion flow. However, the large equivalent width may be inconsistent with a simple accretion geometry.

  12. Document understanding for a broad class of documents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aiello, Marco; Monz, Christof; Todoran, Leon; Worring, Marcel

    2002-01-01

    We present a document analysis system able to assign logical labels and extract the reading order in a broad set of documents. All information sources, from geometric features and spatial relations to the textual features and content are employed in the analysis. To deal effectively with these infor

  13. Broad-Area Laser Diode With Fiber-Optic Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazel, Geoffrey; Mead, Patricia; Davis, Christopher; Cornwell, Donald

    1992-01-01

    Fiber-optic injection-locked broad-area laser diode features single-mode output via fiber-optic injection and serves as compact, rugged, high-power near-infrared source. Useful in free-space and fiber-optic communication links, as communication-receiver preamplifier, and pump source for solid-state lasers.

  14. Silver Nanoparticles with Broad Multiband Linear Optical Absorption

    KAUST Repository

    Bakr, Osman M.

    2009-07-06

    A simple one-pot method produces silver nanoparticles coated with aryl thiols that show intense, broad nonplasmonic optical properties. The synthesis works with many aryl-thiol capping ligands, including water-soluble 4-mercaptobenzoic acid. The nanoparticles produced show linear absorption that is broader, stronger, and more structured than most conventional organic and inorganic dyes.

  15. Children and trauma : a broad perspective on exposure and recovery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alisic, E.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this dissertation was to generate a broad overview of children’s exposure to and recovery from trauma in order to promote theory building and the design of prevention and intervention activities. First, a general population study was conducted in 1770 primary school children. They fil

  16. Dusty origin of the Broad Line Region in active galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Czerny, Bozena; Kaluzny, Janusz; Maity, Ishita

    2012-01-01

    The most characteristic property of active galaxies, including quasars, are prominent broad emission lines. I will discuss an interesting possibility that dust is responsible for this phenomenon. The dust is known to be present in quasars in the form of a dusty/molecular torus which results in complexity of the appearance of active galaxies. However, this dust is located further from the black hole than the Broad Line Region. We propose that the dust is present also closer in and it is actually responsible for formation of the broad emission lines. The argument is based on determination of the temperature of the disk atmosphere underlying the Broad Line Region: it is close to 1000 K, independently from the black hole mass and accretion rate of the object. The mechanism is simple and universal but leads to a considerable complexity of the active nucleus surrounding. The understanding the formation of BLR opens a way to use it reliably - in combination with reverberation measurement of its size - as standard ca...

  17. Evaluation of methods to detect oxidase activity in the genus Pasteurella.

    OpenAIRE

    Gadberry, J L; Clemmons, K; Drumm, K

    1980-01-01

    Several oxidase reagents and commercial products were evaluated as to their efficacy in detecting oxidase activity in species of the genus Pasteurella. Recommendations are made concerning the reagent of choice for determining oxidase activity in the genus Pasteurella. Recommendations are made also concerning the use of commercial products and their efficacy in detecting oxidase activity in this genus.

  18. Three new species in the genus Wilkinsonellus (Braconidae, Microgastrinae) from the Neotropics, and the first host record for the genus

    OpenAIRE

    Diana Arias; James Whitfield; Daniel Janzen; Winnie Hallwachs

    2013-01-01

    Abstract The genus Wilkinsonellus Mason is a poorly sampled but widely distributed tropical genus of Microgastrinae (Braconidae), parasitoid wasps that exclusively attack caterpillars (Lepidoptera). Currently, species of Wilkinsonellus have been described only from the Palaeotropics, but the genus was known to occur in the Neotropics. Here we describe the first three species from Central and South America: Wilkinsonellus alexsmithi sp. n., Wilkinsonellus kogui sp. n.,and Wilkinsonellus panama...

  19. Taxonomy of the genus Lycalopex (Carnivora: Canidae) in Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zunino, G.E.; Vaccaro, O.B.; Canevari, M.; Gardner, A.L.

    1995-01-01

    Previously treated as species of Pseudalopex, Argentine members of the genus Lycalopex (L. griseus, L. gymnocercus, and L. culpaeus) are examined to clarify the taxonomic status of each named form. Principal components analyses of 26 cranial measurements of 151 adult specimens and 11 pelage characters of 111 specimens, clearly distinguish L. culpaeus from the other two taxa. Lycalopex griseus and L. gymnocercus show clinal variation in cranial measurements and pelage characters. Qualitative cranial characters, used as diagnostic for L. griseus and L. gymnocercus, revealed great nongeographic variation. We conclude that L. griseus and L. gymnocercus are conspecific, and should be known as L. gymnocercus. Therefore, we recognize only two species of the genus Lycalopex (L. culpaeus and L. gymnocercus) in Argentina. We also use this opportunity to review synonymies of the recognized species of Lycalopex.

  20. Revision of the genus Vampirolepis Spasskij, 1954 (Cestoda: Hymenolepididae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claude Vaucher

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available The genus Vampirolepis Spasskij, 1954 is re-defined on the basis of the original description and the first detailed redescription by Andreiko et al. (1969. A restricted definitions is proposed, the main features being the arrangement of testicles on a straight line snd numerous hooks of fraternoid shape. Other important characters are the strobila with numerous proglottids, the cirrus pouch of moderate size and the cirrus, smooth or armed with minute spines. Formerly included Hymenolepidid cestodes with reduced strobila, particularly long cirrus pouch and different arrangement of gonads do not belong to Vampirolepis. Members of Vampirolepis in the restricted sense show a cosmopolitan repartition and parasitize only bats. The author does not accept the synonymy of Rodentolepis Spasskiji, 1954 with Vampirolepis. A tentative list of the species belonging to the genus is proposed.

  1. Fungal genus Hypocrea/Trichoderma: from barcodes to biodiversity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Christian P. KUBICEK; Monika KOMON-ZELAZOWSKA; Irina S. DRUZHININA

    2008-01-01

    Hypocrea/Trichoderma is a genus of soil-borne or wood-decaying fungi containing members important to mankind as producers of industrial enzymes and biocontrol agents against plant pathogens, but also as opportunistic pathogens of immuno-compromised humans and animals, while others can cause damage to cultivated mushroom. With the recent advent of a reliable, BarCode-aided identification system for all known taxa of Trichoderma and Hypocrea, it became now possible to study some of the biological fundamentals of the diversity in this fungal genus in more detail. In this article, we will therefore review recent progress in (1) the understanding of the geographic distribution of individual taxa; (2) mechanisms of speciation leading to development of mushroom diseases and facultative human mycoses; and (3) the possible correlation of specific traits of secondary metabolism and molecular phylogeny.

  2. Counting higher genus curves in a Calabi-Yau manifold

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We explicitly evaluate the low energy coupling Fg in a d = 4, N = 2 compactification of the heterotic string. The holomorphic piece of this expression provides the information not encoded in the holomorphic anomaly equations, and we find that it is given by an elementary polylogarithm with index 3 - 2g, thus generalizing in a natural way the known results for g = 0, 1. The heterotic model has a dual Calabi-Yau compactification of the type 11 string. We compare the answer with the general form expected from curve-counting formulae and find good agreement. As a corollary of this comparison we predict some numbers of higher genus curves in a specific Calabi-Yau, and extract some intersection numbers on the moduli space of genus-g Riemann surfaces

  3. Landau-Ginzburg orbifolds, mirror symmetry and the elliptic genus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We compute the elliptic genus for arbitrary two-dimensional N=2 Landau-Ginzburg orbifolds. This is used to search for possible mirror pairs of such models. We show that if two Landau-Ginzburg models are conjugate to each other in a certain sense, then to every orbifold of the first theory corresponds an orbifold of the second theory with the same elliptic genus (up to a sign) and with the roles of the chiral and anti-chiral rings interchanged. These orbifolds thus constitute a possible mirror pair. Furthermore, new pairs of conjugate models may be obtained by taking the product of old ones. We also give a sufficient (and possibly necessary) condition for two models to be conjugate, and show that it is satisfied by the mirror pairs proposed by one of the authors and Huebsch. ((orig.))

  4. Relative symplectic caps, 4-genus and fibered knots

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Siddhartha Gadgil; Dheeraj Kulkarni

    2016-05-01

    We prove relative versions of the symplectic capping theorem and sufficiency of Giroux’s criterion for Stein fillability and use these to study the 4-genus of knots. More precisely, suppose we have a symplectic 4-manifold with convex boundary and a symplectic surface in such that is a transverse knot in . In this paper, we prove that there is a closed symplectic 4-manifold with a closed symplectic surface such that (, ) embeds into (, ) symplectically. As a consequence we obtain a relative version of the symplectic Thom conjecture. We also prove a relative version of the sufficiency part of Giroux’s criterion for Stein fillability, namely, we show that a fibered knot whose mondoromy is a product of positive Dehn twists bounds a symplectic surface in a Stein filling. We use this to study 4-genus of fibered knots in $\\mathbb S^3$. Further, we give a criterion for quasipositive fibered knots to be strongly quasipositive.

  5. Use of the genus Artemia in ecotoxicity testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Information related to varied uses of several species of the genus Artemia (commonly known as brine shrimp), is dispersed among literature from several scientific areas, such as Ecology, Physiology, Ecotoxicology, Aquaculture and Genetics. The present paper reviews information related to Artemia that may be considered relevant for ecotoxicity testing. Integration of different areas of scientific knowledge concerning biology, life cycle and environmental needs of Artemia is of crucial importance when considering the interpretation of results drawn from tests involving this genus. Furthermore, this paper provides suggestions to overcome problems related to toxicity assessment with the use of Artemia as test organism in bioassays, under the scope of estuarine, marine and hypersaline environments. Aspects related to variability in results, adoptable toxicity end-points, culture conditions, characteristics of species and strains, influence of geographical origins over physiological features and responses to exposure to chemical agents are considered. - The physiology, reproductive processes and general use of Artemia in modern ecotoxicological testing are reviewed

  6. Taxonomy of mayapple rust: the genus Allodus resurrected.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minnis, Andrew M; McTaggart, Alistair R; Rossman, Amy Y; Aime, M Catherine

    2012-01-01

    Mayapple rust is a common, disfiguring disease that is widespread in temperate eastern North America wherever the host, Podophyllum peltatum, occurs. Puccinia podophylli, the etiological agent of this rust, has been shown to be distantly related to both Puccinia and Uromyces as exemplified by their types. A systematic study was made to determine the generic classification of P. podophylli. Phylogenetic analyses of two rDNA loci from multiple specimens support the recognition of this taxon as a separate genus of Pucciniaceae. Based on historical literature and type material, P. podophylli was found to represent the type of the forgotten genus Allodus and it is correctly named Allodus podophylli. A neotype is designated for Puccinia podophylli Schwein. (≡ Allodus podophylli) and a lectotype is designated for Aecidium podophylli. PMID:22495446

  7. Systematics and biology of the African genus Ferraria (Iridaceae: Irideae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Goldblatt

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Following field and herbarium investigation of the subequatorial African and mainly western southern African Ferraria Burm. ex Mill. (Iridaceae: Iridoideae, a genus of cormous geophytes, we recognize 18 species, eight more than were included in the 1979 account of the genus by M.P. de Vos. One of these, F. ovata, based on Moraea ovata Thunb. (1800, was only discovered to be a species of Ferraria in 2001, and three more are the result of our different view of De Vos’s taxonomy. In tropical Africa, F. glutinosa is recircumscribed to include only mid- to late summer-flowering plants, usually with a single basal leaf and with purple to brown flowers often marked with yellow. A second summer-flowering species, F. candelabrum, includes taller plants with several basal leaves. Spring and early summer-flowering plants lacking foliage leaves and with yellow flowers from central Africa are referred to F. spithamea or F. welwitschii respectively.

  8. Genus Sisymbrium L. (Rockets In The Flora Of Latvia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rūrāne Ieva

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available One of the largest genera in the Cruciferae family in Latvia is Sisymbrium L. The genus includes not only native, but also some alien species. The distributions of the Sisymbrium species were reviewed for the first time in the last 50th years in Latvia. The distribution data were compiled from herbarium material, literature and field surveys. An identification key for the Sisymbrium species in Latvia and detailed scientific nomenclature are presented in the current study. In total, seven species of Sisymbrium were found in Latvia — S. supinum L., S. loeselii L., S. polymorphum (Murray Roth, S. volgense M. Bieb. ex E. Fourn., S. altissimum L., S. orientale L. and S. officinale (L. Scop. The mainly were recorded in railway verges, roadsides, waste dumps and wasteland. Five species of the genus are alien to the flora of Latvia — S. loeselii, S. altissimum, S. polymorphum, S. orientale, and S. volgense; two are native — S. supinum and S. officinale.

  9. [Screening potential DNA barcode regions of genus Papaver].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shuang; Liu, Yu-jing; Wu, Yan-sheng; Cao, Ying; Yuan, Yuan

    2015-08-01

    DNA barcoding is an effective technique in species identification. To determine the candidate sequences which can be used as DNA barcode to identify in Papaver genus, five potential sequences (ITS, matK, psbA-trnH, rbcL, trnL-trnF) were screened. 69 sequences were downloaded from Genbank, including 21 ITS sequences, 10 matK sequences, 8 psbA-trnH sequences, 14 rbcL sequences and 16 trnL-trnF sequences. Mega 6.0 was used to analysis the comparison of sequences. By the methods of calculating the distances in intraspecific and interspecific divergences, evaluating DNA barcoding gap and constructing NJ and UPMGA phylogenetic trees. The sequence trnL-trnF performed best. In conclusion, trnL-trnF can be considered as a novel DNA barcode in Papaver genus, other four sequences can be as combination barcode for identification. PMID:26677693

  10. The lichen family Parmeliaceae in Poland. II. The genus Cetrelia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Kukwa

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In a study of the genus Cetrelia in Poland, four taxa have been identified, two of which, C. chicitae and C. monachorum, are reported for the first time from the country. All taxa differ in chemistry and subtle morphological characters. Cetrelia monachorum is the commonest member of the genus in Poland (237 records, whereas C. chicitae is known only from 6 records. All taxa are endangered, and three, C. cetrarioides, C. chicitae and C. olivetorum, appear to be critically so, thus deserving the category CR; although C. monachorum is the most frequent, it is not common and should be treated as endangered (EN. The distribution of all taxa, their habitat requirements, as well as morphology and secondary chemistry, are discussed.

  11. Use of the genus Artemia in ecotoxicity testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nunes, Bruno S. [Instituto de Ciencias Biomedicas de Abel Salazar, Departamento de Estudos de Populacoes, Laboratorio de Ecotoxicologia, Universidade do Porto, Largo Prof. Abel Salazar 2, 4099-003 Porto (Portugal) and Centro Interdisciplinar de Investigacao Marinha e Ambiental, Rua dos Bragas 289, 4150-123 Porto (Portugal)]. E-mail: bruno@ufp.pt; Carvalho, Felix D. [REQUIMTE, Departamento de Toxicologia da Faculdade de Farmacia da Universidade do Porto, Rua Anibal Cunha, 164, 4050-047 Porto (Portugal); Guilhermino, Lucia M. [Instituto de Ciencias Biomedicas de Abel Salazar, Departamento de Estudos de Populacoes, Laboratorio de Ecotoxicologia, Universidade do Porto, Largo Prof. Abel Salazar 2, 4099-003 Porto (Portugal); Centro Interdisciplinar de Investigacao Marinha e Ambiental, Rua dos Bragas 289, 4150-123 Porto (Portugal); Van Stappen, Gilbert [Laboratory of Aquaculture and Artemia Reference Centre, Ghent University, Rozier 44, B-9000 Ghent (Belgium)

    2006-11-15

    Information related to varied uses of several species of the genus Artemia (commonly known as brine shrimp), is dispersed among literature from several scientific areas, such as Ecology, Physiology, Ecotoxicology, Aquaculture and Genetics. The present paper reviews information related to Artemia that may be considered relevant for ecotoxicity testing. Integration of different areas of scientific knowledge concerning biology, life cycle and environmental needs of Artemia is of crucial importance when considering the interpretation of results drawn from tests involving this genus. Furthermore, this paper provides suggestions to overcome problems related to toxicity assessment with the use of Artemia as test organism in bioassays, under the scope of estuarine, marine and hypersaline environments. Aspects related to variability in results, adoptable toxicity end-points, culture conditions, characteristics of species and strains, influence of geographical origins over physiological features and responses to exposure to chemical agents are considered. - The physiology, reproductive processes and general use of Artemia in modern ecotoxicological testing are reviewed.

  12. Entanglement entropy for non-zero genus topologies

    CERN Document Server

    Kumar, S Santhosh; Shankaranarayanan, S

    2014-01-01

    Over the last three decades entanglement entropy has been obtained for quantum fields propagating in genus zero topologies (Spheres). For scalar fields propagating in these topologies, it has been shown that the entanglement entropy scales as area. In the last few years non-trivial topologies are increasingly relevant for different areas. For instance, in describing quantum phases, it has been realized that long-range entangled states are described by topological order. If quantum entanglement can plausibly provide explanation for these, it then imperative to obtain entanglement entropy in these topologies. In this work, using two different methods, we explicitly show that the entanglement entropy scales as area of the genus-1 geometry.

  13. Notes on the genus Cussonia in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. G. Strey

    1973-09-01

    Full Text Available Information gathered during studies of the genus Cussonia under field conditions is presented. The development of the inflorescences, and branch and leaf initiation, is given special attention. The subdivision of the genus  Cussonia is discussed and the following new subgeneric taxa are created: Subgenus  Cussonia (type species: C.  spicata  Thunb. with two sections: Sect.  Cussonia and Sect. Capitata  Strey; Subgenus  Paniculata  Strey (type species: C.  paniculata Eckl. & Zeyh.; Subgenus Protocussonia  (type species: C.  natalensis Sond.. It is pointed out that the names C. kraussii Hochst. and C.  chartacea Schinz have been misapplied to two undescribed species, and are synonyms of C. spicata Thunb. and  Schefflera umbellifera  (Sond. Baill., respectively. Four new species are described viz. C. arenicola Strey, C. zuluensis Strey, C. nicholsonii Strey and C. sphaerocephala Strey.

  14. Classification of Groups with Strong Symmetric Genus up to Twenty-Five

    OpenAIRE

    Fieldsteel, Nathan; Lindberg, Tova; London, Tyler; Tran, Holden; Xu, Haokun

    2011-01-01

    The strong symmetric genus of a finite group is the minimum genus of a compact Riemann surface on which the group acts as a group of automorphisms preserving orientation. A characterization of the infinite number of groups with strong symmetric genus zero and one is well-known and the problem is finite for each strong symmetric genus greater than or equal to two. May and Zimmerman have published papers detailing the classification of all groups with strong symmetric genus two through four. Us...

  15. Systematics and biogeography of the pantropical genus Manilkara Adans. (Sapotaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Armstrong, Kate

    2011-01-01

    Mechanisms for the generation of biodiversity in species-rich biomes such as rain forests remain unclear. Molecular phylogenies using DNA sequence data, calibrated with a temporal dimension offer a means of addressing this question, enabling the testing of different hypotheses on biogeographic histories and causes of diversification. Manilkara is a genus of trees in the Sapotaceae consisting of ~79 species distributed throughout the tropics (30 South and Central American, 35 African and 14 So...

  16. Importance of Clover (Trifolium sp.) Genus for Black Sea Region

    OpenAIRE

    Özlem Önal Aşcı

    2016-01-01

    There is a high level of forage deficit in Turkey. It is necessary that cultivation and productivity of forage plant should be increase to close forage deficit in a short time, further, pastures should also be improved. Clover genus involves both annual and perennial species, it has some species are grown different soil conditions. Clover species are grown in cool temperate and humid regions have thin stem and abundant leaf, thus, their hay is very nutritive feed for animals. They can use bot...

  17. Metabolite variability in Caribbean sponges of the genus Aplysina

    OpenAIRE

    Monica Puyana; Joseph Pawlik; James Blum; William Fenical

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Sponges of the genus Aplysina are among the most common benthic animals on reefs of the Caribbean, and display a wide diversity of morphologies and colors. Tissues of these sponges lack mineralized skeletal elements, but contain a dense spongin skeleton and an elaborate series of tyrosine-derived brominated alkaloid metabolites that function as chemical defenses against predatory fishes, but do not deter some molluscs. Among the earliest marine natural products to be isolated and ide...

  18. Bioactivities from Marine Algae of the Genus Gracilaria

    OpenAIRE

    José M. Barbosa-Filho; Maria de Fátima V. de Souza; Luis C. Rodrigues; Athayde-Filho, Petrônio F.; Lira, Narlize S.; Camila De A. Montenegro; Lima, Gedson R. de M.; Batista, Leônia M.; Falcão, Heloina de S.; de Almeida, Cynthia Layse F.

    2011-01-01

    Seaweeds are an important source of bioactive metabolites for the pharmaceutical industry in drug development. Many of these compounds are used to treat diseases like cancer, acquired immune-deficiency syndrome (AIDS), inflammation, pain, arthritis, as well as viral, bacterial, and fungal infections. This paper offers a survey of the literature for Gracilaria algae extracts with biological activity, and identifies avenues for future research. Nineteen species of this genus that were tested fo...

  19. Genus statistics on CMB polarization maps and cosmological parameters degeneracy

    OpenAIRE

    Popa, L.; Stefanescu, P.; Fabbri, R

    1998-01-01

    We applay the genus statistics to simulated CMB polarization maps, constructed from the secondary-ionization cosmological models in experimental situations comparable to those of forthcoming space experiments. We find that both the cosmic baryon density and the spectral index of density perturbations are strongly anicorrelated to the reionization redshift. Using the Fisher matrix approach we show that the accuracy on the spectral index and optical depth to the last scattering are improved in ...

  20. Anyons on Higher Genus Surfaces - a Constructive Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Hansson, T. H.; Karlhede, Anders; Westerberg, Erik

    1993-01-01

    We reconsider the problem of anyons on higher genus surfaces by embedding them in three dimensional space. From a concrete realization based on three dimensional flux tubes bound to charges moving on the surface, we explicitly derive all the representations of the spinning braid group. The component structure of the wave functions arises from winding the flux tubes around the handles. We also argue that the anyons in our construction must fulfil the generalized spin-statistics relation.

  1. Molecular phylogeny of the desert ant genus Cataglyphis (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Knaden, M.; Tinaut, A.; Stökl, J.; Cerdá, Xim; Wehner, R

    2012-01-01

    Since the middle of the 20 th century ants of the genus Cataglyphis - inhabiting the southern part of the Palearctic region - have become model organisms for insect navigation and various other fields of biological research. Currently ca. 100 Cataglyphis species are described. However, although molecular-based phylogenetic analyses are common practice in ant systematics, to date phylogenetic analyses of Cataglyphis have been strictly morphology-based. Here we present the first molecular phylo...

  2. Lie Symmetries of Birational Maps Preserving Genus 0 Fibrations

    OpenAIRE

    Llorens, Mireia; Mañosa, Víctor

    2015-01-01

    We prove that any planar birational integrable map, which preserves a fibration given by genus $0$ curves has a Lie symmetry and some associated invariant measures. The obtained results allow to study in a systematic way the global dynamics of these maps. Using this approach, the dynamics of several maps is described. In particular we are able to give, for particular examples, the explicit expression of the rotation number function, and the set of periods of the considere...

  3. Quantum field theory on higher-genus Riemann surfaces, 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quantum field theory for closed bosonic string systems is formulated on arbitrary higher-genus Riemann surfaces in global operator formalism. Canonical commutation relations between bosonic string field Xμ and their conjugate momenta Pν are derived in the framework of conventional quantum field theory. Problems arising in quantizing bosonic systems are considered in detail. Applying the method exploited in the preceding paper we calculate Ward-Takahashi identities. (author)

  4. Termites of the Genus Odontotermes are Optionally Keratophagous

    OpenAIRE

    Freymann, Bernd P.; Visser, Sara N. de; Mayemba, Emilian P.; Olff, Han

    2007-01-01

    In this study we tested experimentally whether the consumption of mammalian hooves by termites of the genus Odontotermes is a mere incidental, previously overlooked event, or whether higher termites frequently exploit hooves of ungulates as a supplementary food source. The experiment was conducted in the open woodland savanna region of Serengeti National Park, Tanzania. In total, 88 hooves of wildebeest (Connochaetes taurinus) and zebra (Equus burchelli) – of two age classes – were offered to...

  5. Revision of the neotropical Anacharitinae genus Acanthaegilips (Hym., Cynipoidea, Figitidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palmira Ros-Farré

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available We revise the genus Acanthaegilips, a genus of anacharitine figitids ocurring in South America. Members of this genus are characterized by having a long scutellar spine, a unique character in the Anacharitinae. The only previously known species (A. brasiliensis is redescribed and eleven new species are described: A. macropennis, A. ashmeadi, A. levis, A. masneri, A. diazi, A. dentis, A. occultus, A. alienus, A. exiguus, A. huggerti, and A. carinatus. A key to species is presented and distribution records are given for each species. The known records of the genus extend from the southern Neotropics to Mexico. The biology of Acanthaegilips remains unknown; other members of the Anacharitinae are parasitoids of aphid-feeding Neuroptera larvae.Revisamos Acanthaegilips, um gênero de figitídeos anacharitíneos que ocorre na América do Sul. Membros desse gênero são caracterizados por apresentar um longo espinho escutelar, caráter único entre os Anacharitinae. A única espécie conhecida anteriormente (A. brasiliensis é redescrita e onze espécies novas descritas: A. macropennis, A. ashmeadi, A. levis, A. masneri, A. diazi, A. dentis, A. occultus, A. alienus, A. exiguus, A. huggerti e A. carinatus. Uma chave para a identificação das espécies é apresentada e registros de distribuição apresentados para cada espécie. Os registros para o gênero estendem-se do Sul da Neotrópica ao México. A biologia de Acanthaegilips permanece desconhecida; outros membros de Anacharitinae são parasitóides de larvas de Neuroptera que alimentam-se de afídeos.

  6. The genus and the Lyusternik-Schnirelmann category of preimages

    CERN Document Server

    Karasev, R N

    2010-01-01

    In this paper some axiomatic generalization (function of open subsets) of the relative Lyusternik-Schnirelmann category is considered, incorporating the sectional category and the Schwarz genus as well. For this function and a given continuous map of the underlying space to a finite-dimensional metric space some lower bounds on the value of this function on the (neighborhood of) preimage of some point are given.

  7. Two new records of the genus Orobanche (Orobanchaceae) from Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    ZARE, Golshan; DÖNMEZ, Ali Aslan

    2013-01-01

    Two new records of Orobanche L. have been added to the 37 species of this genus previously reported from Turkey. Orobanche owerini (Beck) Beck is reported as a new record to flora of Turkey for the first time, and the existence of O. reticulata Wall. that was mentioned as a doubtful record for Turkey has been confirmed. Macro- and micromorphology of the taxa are discussed, geographical distributions in Turkey are mapped, and details of their habitat, ecology, and taxonomic remarks of the stud...

  8. Femeniasia, novus genus Carduearum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanna de la Serna, Alfonso

    1988-01-01

    Full Text Available The systematic position of Centaurea balearica Rodríguez Femenias (Asteraceae-Cardueae is studied. A detailed analysis or its anatomy, with special reference to the carpology, forces the author lo reject its inclusion in the genus Centaurea or in any other genus or the tribe. A new genus, Femeniasia Susanna. is hence described, and the new nomenclatural combinari en Femeniasia balearica (Rodríguez Femenías Susanna is proposed. The relationship or Femeniasia and the other genera of the tribe is discussed; the author concludes that Femeniasia is a quite isolated genus in the Cardueae-Carduinae .

    [ca] Estudi de la posició sistemàtica de Centaurea balearica Rodríguez Femenías (Asteraceae-Cardueae . De l'anàlisi minuciosa de la seva anatomia, especialment de les seves cípseles, resulta que l'esmentada espècie no és cap Centaurea; tampoc pot ésser inclosa en cap del altres gèneres de la tribu. En conseqüència, hom descriu un nou gènere, Femeniasia Susanna, i proposa la combinació Femeniasia balearica (Rodríguez Femenías Susanna. Son analitzades les possibles relacions de parentiu amb d'altres gèneres del grup i l'autor arriba a la conclusió que Femeniasia és un gènere clarament isolat entre les Cardueae-Carduinae.

  9. [Isolation frequency of the Mycobacterium genus in urine samples].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mederos, Lilian M; Sardiñas, Misleidis; García, Grechen; Martínez, María Rosarys; Reyes, Angélica; Díaz, Raúl

    2015-10-01

    Kidney infections caused by Mycobacterium genus are torpid and chronic evolution. In this study were analyzed 177 urine samples (included 110 from HIV patients) received between January 2006 and July 2014 in the National Reference Laboratory of Tuberculosis at Tropical Medicine Institute "Pedro Kourí" (IPK). The results were 17 isolates Mycobacterium tuberculosis, and 30 isolates of nontuberculous mycobacteria were detected. This study confirms the diagnostic importance of these infections especially in HIV/AIDS patients. PMID:26633121

  10. Abelian functions associated with genus three algebraic curves

    OpenAIRE

    Eilbeck, J. C.; England, M.; Onishi, Y.

    2011-01-01

    We develop the theory of Abelian functions associated with algebraic curves. The growth in computer power and an advancement of efficient symbolic computation techniques has allowed for recent progress in this area. In this paper we focus on the genus three cases, comparing the two canonical classes of hyperelliptic and trigonal curves. We present new addition formulae, derive bases for the spaces of Abelian functions and discuss the differential equations such functions satisfy.

  11. The laophontid genus Loureirophonte Jakobi, 1953 (Copepoda, Harpacticoida) *

    OpenAIRE

    FIERS, F

    1993-01-01

    So far, only three species are known in the laophontid genus Loureirophonte Jakobi. In the present contribution five new species are described, and two species formerly attributed to other laophontid genera (Paraiaophonte subterranea Lang and Laophonte cesareae Por), are allocated to Loureirophonte. A redescription of L. cesareae, based on type-material, is included. Relying on the increased understanding of loureirophontid morphology, the diagnoses of L. catharinensis, type-species of the ge...

  12. Surface proteins of bacteria of the genus Bifidobacterium 

    OpenAIRE

    Ewa Dylus; Barbara Buda; Sabina Górska-Frączek; Ewa Brzozowska; Andrzej Gamian

    2013-01-01

    Beneficial effects due to the presence of probiotic bacteria of the genus Bifidobacterium in the human intestinal tract are still an interesting object of study. So far activities have been confirmed of bifidobacteria in stimulation of the host immune system, stimulation of tumor cell apoptosis, improvement of bowel motility, alleviation of symptoms of lactose intolerance, cholesterol lowering capacity, prevention and treatment of diarrhea and irritable bowel syndrome, alleviation of allergy ...

  13. Notes on the genus nymphoides (menyanthaceae) of colombia

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Nymphoides, a cosmopolitan genus, comprises to date 22 aquatic species. Two species are actually known to occur in Colombia, Nymphoides indica with a pantropical distribution and Nymphoides flaccida, an endemic species of the Colombian Llanos. Recently I got the opportunity to collect flowering and fruiting material of N. flaccida, which I take for presenting a broader description of the mentioned species. A key for the Colombian species is given. The geographical distribution, ecological pre...

  14. Parameterizing the Permanent: Genus, Apices, Minors, Evaluation mod 2^k

    OpenAIRE

    Curticapean, Radu; Xia, Mingji

    2015-01-01

    We identify and study relevant structural parameters for the problem PerfMatch of counting perfect matchings in a given input graph $G$. These generalize the well-known tractable planar case, and they include the genus of $G$, its apex number (the minimum number of vertices whose removal renders $G$ planar), and its Hadwiger number (the size of a largest clique minor). To study these parameters, we first introduce the notion of combined matchgates, a general technique that bridges parameteriz...

  15. Calongea, a new genus of truffles in the Pezizaceae (Pezizales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trappe, James M.

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Phylogenetic analysis of the ITS and LSU rDNA of Pachyphloeus species from Europe and North America revealed a new truffle genus. These molecular analyses plus sequences downloaded from a BLAST search in GenBank indicated that Pachyphloeus prieguensis is within the Pezizaceae but well outside of the genus Pachyphloeus. Morphological differences in the peridial and glebal hyphae and spores distinguish this genus from Pachyphloeus. We here propose the monotypic new genus Calongea, with the type species C. prieguensis comb. nov., in honor of Prof. Francisco de Diego Calonge, who has long studied the truffle fungi of Spain and participated in describing the type species of Calongea.El análisis filogenético del ITS y LSU rDNA de especies europeas y norteamericanas de Pachyphloeus revelan un género nuevo de trufa. Los datos moleculares de este estudio, además de las secuencias obtenidas de una búsqueda BLAST en GenBank, indican que Pachyphloeus prieguensis es un miembro de la familia Pezizaceae pero no está relacionado con ninguna otra especie hipogea o epigea de dicha familia. Encontramos diferencias morfológicas en las hifas del peridio y gleba así como en las esporas que morfológicamente distinguen éste de Pachyphloeus. Proponemos el nuevo género monotípico Calongea, con C. prieguensis comb. nov. como la especie tipo, en honor a uno de los descubridores originales, Prof. Francisco de Diego Calonge.

  16. Multiple genus 2 Heegaard splittings: a missed case

    CERN Document Server

    Berge, John

    2009-01-01

    A gap in a paper of Rubinstein-Scharlemann is explored: new examples are found of closed orientable 3-manifolds with possibly multiple genus 2 Heegaard splittings. Properties common to all the examples in the original paper are not universally shared by the new examples: some of the new examples have Hempel distance 3, and it is not clear that a single stabilization always makes the multiple splittings isotopic.

  17. Species-specific accumulation of interspersed sequences in genus Saccharum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakayama, Shigeki

    2004-12-01

    The genus Saccharum consists of two wild and four cultivated species. Novel interspersed sequences were isolated from cultivated sugar cane S. officinarum. These sequences were accumulated in all four cultivated species and their wild ancestral species S. robustum, but were not detected in the other wild species S. spontaneum and the relative Erianthus arundinaceus. The species-specific accumulation of interspersed sequences would correlate to the domestication of sugar canes. PMID:15729004

  18. The genus Rubus in South Africa. II. Meiotic chromosome behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. J. Spies

    1984-12-01

    Full Text Available Meiotic chromosome behaviour in the genus Rubus is relatively normal Polyploidy occurs in both South African subgenera, i.e. Eubatus and Idaeobatus. The subgenus Eubatus contains plants tending mostly towards autoploidy. whereas the subgenus  Idaeobatus varies from autoploid, through segmental alloploid to alloploid. It is concluded that this apparent difference might be due to the study of a statistically insufficient number of plants and that alloploidy originated from imersubgeneric hybridization.

  19. Directed Random Walk on the Lattices of Genus Two

    OpenAIRE

    Nazarenko, A. V.

    2011-01-01

    The object of the present investigation is an ensemble of self-avoiding and directed graphs belonging to eight-branching Cayley tree (Bethe lattice) generated by the Fucsian group of a Riemann surface of genus two and embedded in the Pincar\\'e unit disk. We consider two-parametric lattices and calculate the multifractal scaling exponents for the moments of the graph lengths distribution as functions of these parameters. We show the results of numerical and statistical computations, where the ...

  20. The genus Teuchophorus (Diptera: Dolichopodidae) in Singapore

    OpenAIRE

    Grootaert, P.

    2006-01-01

    Thirteen species of Teuchophorus (Dolichopodidae: Sympycninae) are reported from Singapore. Nine species are new to science and are described and illustrated. Only one species from the T. conspicuus - notabilis group was found: T. ornatulus Meuffels & Grootaert. Three species belong to the T. gratiosus group (former genus Mastigomyia Becker) that is supposed to be arboricolous: T. temasek, new species, T. neesoonensis, new species, and T. antennatus, new species, T. spinulosus new species, an...

  1. Flow Cytometric Analysis of Microsporidia Belonging to the Genus Encephalitozoon

    OpenAIRE

    Moss, Delynn M.; Croppo, Gian P.; Wallace, Sara; Visvesvara, Govinda S.

    1999-01-01

    Flow cytometry was used in the identification of human microsporidia belonging to the genus Encephalitozoon. Microsporidian spores of Encephalitozoon hellem, E. cuniculi, and E. intestinalis were propagated in axenic cultures of monkey kidney E6 cells, purified with Percoll, and exposed to homologous and heterologous rabbit antiserum and monoclonal antibody prepared against E. hellem spores. After reaction to goat anti-rabbit immunoglobulin G (IgG) or goat anti-mouse IgG conjugated to fluores...

  2. First report of partial albinism in genus Thrichomys (Rodentia: Echimyidae)

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Reports about albinism in rodents are common. In the family Echimyidae, however, albinism is very rare. This is the second case of coat color variation reported within Echimyidae and the first for the genus Thrichomys. The pelages of Thrichomys pachyurus individuals with normal and variant coat color were observed under a fluorescent artificial light and were examined with a stereoscopic microscope. The descriptions of pelage color were based on the book "Color Standards and Color Nomenclatur...

  3. Repeated parallel evolution of parental care strategies within Xenotilapia, a genus of cichlid fishes from Lake Tanganyika.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael R Kidd

    Full Text Available The factors promoting the evolution of parental care strategies have been extensively studied in experiment and theory. However, most attempts to examine parental care in an evolutionary context have evaluated broad taxonomic categories. The explosive and recent diversifications of East African cichlid fishes offer exceptional opportunities to study the evolution of various life history traits based on species-level phylogenies. The Xenotilapia lineage within the endemic Lake Tanganyika cichlid tribe Ectodini comprises species that display either biparental or maternal only brood care and hence offers a unique opportunity to study the evolution of distinct parental care strategies in a phylogenetic framework. In order to reconstruct the evolutionary relationships among 16 species of this lineage we scored 2,478 Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphisms (AFLPs across the genome. We find that the Ectodini genus Enantiopus is embedded within the genus Xenotilapia and that during 2.5 to 3 million years of evolution within the Xenotilapia clade there have been 3-5 transitions from maternal only to biparental care. While most previous models suggest that uniparental care (maternal or paternal arose from biparental care, we conclude from our species-level analysis that the evolution of parental care strategies is not only remarkably fast, but much more labile than previously expected.

  4. Prevalence of the genus Cladosporium on the integument of leaf-cutting ants characterized by 454 pyrosequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, A P M; Ferro, M; Rodrigues, A; Bacci, M; Nagamoto, N S; Forti, L C; Pagnocca, F C

    2016-09-01

    The relationship of attine ants with their mutualistic fungus and other microorganisms has been studied during the last two centuries. However, previous studies about the diversity of fungi in the ants' microenvironment are based mostly on culture-dependent approaches, lacking a broad characterization of the fungal ant-associated community. Here, we analysed the fungal diversity found on the integument of Atta capiguara and Atta laevigata alate ants using 454 pyrosequencing. We obtained 35,453 ITS reads grouped into 99 molecular operational taxonomic units (MOTUs). Data analysis revealed that A. capiguara drones had the highest diversity of MOTUs. Besides the occurrence of several uncultured fungi, the mycobiota analysis revealed that the most abundant taxa were the Cladosporium-complex, Cryptococcus laurentii and Epicoccum sp. Taxa in the genus Cladosporium were predominant in all samples, comprising 67.9 % of all reads. The remarkable presence of the genus Cladosporium on the integument of leaf-cutting ants alates from distinct ant species suggests that this fungus is favored in this microenvironment. PMID:27307255

  5. Nujiangia (Orchidaceae: Orchideae): A new genus from the Himalayas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-Hua JIN; De-Zhu LI; Xiao-Guo XIANG; Yang-Jun LAI; Xiao-Chun SHI

    2012-01-01

    The phylogenetic positions of the enigmatic “wildcard” taxon,Habenaria griffithii,were inferred from molecular data and morphological evidence.Morphologically,H.griffithii is quite “isolated” in Habenaria; instead,it is close to Gennaria,Diphylax,Peristylus,and Platanthera.It can be distinguished from these four genera by its slender staminodes conspicuously longer than the anther,rostellum having two relatively long arms,lip and lateral sepals connate in the basal part,and a transverse cushion-shaped stigma.An analysis of combined plastid and nuclear data (rbcL,matK,and internal transcribed spacer) using Bayesian and parsimony methods revealed that H.griffithii is closest to Gennaria,a monotypic genus restricted to the western Mediterranean and Canary Islands.On this basis,a new genus,Nujiangia,is tentatively proposed to accommodate this taxon.In addition to the taxonomic treatment of this genus,the delimitation of many related genera in Orchideae is discussed.

  6. Comparative Study of Volatile Compounds from Genus Ocimum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. R. Vani

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available There are distinct varieties of basil types in the genus Ocimum which makes them very special. Genus Ocimum is widespread over Asia, Africa and Central & Southern America. All basils are member of the Lamiaceae family. The colors of the leaves vary from bright green to purple-green and sometimes almost black. Fresh basil leaves have a strong and characteristic aroma, not comparable to any other spice, although there is a hint of clove traceable. Ocimum Sanctum, also addressed as Ocimum Tenuiflorum is a sacred plant in the Hindu culture and known as Tulasi in Tamil or Holy Basil in English. Meanwhile Ocimum Basilicum, known as Common or Sweet Basil has very dark green leaves. The genus Ocimum is cultivated for its remarkable essential oil which exhibits many usages such as in medicinal application, herbs, culinary, perfume for herbal toiletries, aromatherapy treatment and as flavoring agent. Due to varying essential oil profiles even within the same species, plants may often be classified as a different species as a result of different scents. In the present study, volatile constituents of Ocimum Sanctum and Ocimum Basilicum were extracted using various solvents and their chemical constituents were identified and quantified by using GC-MS in optimized conditions. The profiles of extract from both species were compared in an effort to investigate effects of seasonal variation on their chemical compositions. The predominant species in Ocimum Sanctum and Ocimum Basilicum was found to be methyl eugenol and methyl chavicol, respectively, during different months of analysis.

  7. Flavonoids as chemotaxonomic markers in the genus Drosera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braunberger, Christina; Zehl, Martin; Conrad, Jürgen; Wawrosch, Christoph; Strohbach, Jaqueline; Beifuss, Uwe; Krenn, Liselotte

    2015-10-01

    The botanical classification of the huge genus Drosera remains controversial since long. In the present study, the pattern of major phenolic compounds in ten Drosera species belonging to seven different subgenera and/or sections of the genus was investigated for chemotaxonomic allocation. The composition of flavonoids and ellagic acid derivatives in Drosera adelae, Drosera burmannii, Drosera dielsiana, Drosera hilaris, Drosera montana, Drosera petiolaris, and Drosera pygmaea was elucidated for the first time. The scarce data on these compounds in Drosera binata, Drosera aliciae, and Drosera spatulata were complemented significantly. Detailed LC-DAD-MS, LC-NMR, and offline 1D and 2D NMR analyses resulted in the unambiguous identification of around 40 different substances, three of them (8-hydroxy-luteolin-8-O-arabinopyranoside, tricetin-7-O-xylopyranoside and 8-hydroxytricetin-8-O-arabinopyranoside) being natural products described for the first time. The distribution of the compounds characterized underlines their potential to serve as chemotaxonomic markers in this genus. PMID:26342620

  8. An Approach to the Chemosystematics of the Genus Cucumis L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. J. A. Petrus

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Phylogenetic relationships in the order Cucurbitales as well as the phylogeny and classification of its taxonomically most problematic family, Cucurbitaceae, have been the focus of several studies. Taxonomists over the years have differed on the delimitation of Cucumis L. and numerous taxonomic treatments have been proposed since the pioneering work of Linnaeus (1753. Using maximum parsimony, maximum likelihood, and Bayesian inference analyses of sequence data from the nuclear and chloroplast genomes, the genus Cucumis has recently been recircumscribed. Among the various chemical classes elaborated in plants, the foliar phenolics express greater stability in general and contribute significantly to the chemosystematics of both, angiosperms and gymnosperms. Hence, it is felt that an evaluation of the available literature on the foliar flavonoid constitution of the recently defined Cucumis would be relevant. This paper, therefore, analyses the distribution of the phytophenols in the taxa to ascertain the characteristically common foliar marker biochemical of the genus in addition to an attempt to justify the inclusion of the genus Mukia within Cucumis.

  9. Clinical and epidemiological features of the genus Malassezia in Iran.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elham Zeinali

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The genus Malassezia contains an expanding list of lipophilic yeasts involve in the etiology of various superficial fungal infections. Pityriasis versicolor (PV is the most prevalent Malassezia-related infection distributed worldwide. In the present study, clinical and epidemiological features of the genus Malassezia are discussed with special focus on PV in Iran.During June 2012 to April 2013, among 713 confirmed cases of fungal infections, 68 (9.5% were diagnosed as PV by positive direct microscopy results in 20% potassium hydroxide (KOH preparation of skin scrapings. All the specimens were cultured on modified Dixon agar and incubated at 32°C for 10 days. Identification of the isolated yeasts was carried out based on macro- and microscopic morphology, catalase test, utilization of Tweens, polyethoxylated castor oil (EL slant, and hydrolysis of esculin and utilization of Tween-60 (TE slant.Out of 68 skin scrapings, 55 (80.9% yielded yeast colonies on mDixon's agar which were finally identified as M. globosa (36.36%, M. pachydermatis (29.08%, M. furfur (23.65%, M. slooffiae (7.28% and M. obtusa (3.64%.Results of the present study further indicate clinico-epidemiological importance of the genus Malassezia with growing importance of M. pachydermatis as a major species involve in the etiology of pityriasis versicolor. These findings are of major concern in management of Malassezia-related diseases.

  10. SCARDINIUS GENUS IN MOLECULAR STUDIES – A REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ovidiu Popescul

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Scardinius is a genus of ray-finned fish in the Cyprinidae family commonly called rudds. The common rudd(Scardinius erithrophthalmus is a bentho-pelagic freshwater fish that occurs mainly in nutrient-rich, well vegetatedlowland rivers, backwaters, oxbows, ponds and lakes and it is widespread in Europe and middle Asia. It has a mediumlength of 20-30 cm, but it can reach 50 cm. The classification of cyprinids has always been controversial the morphologicaltraits have an unclear homology this led to the idea that the recognized monophyletic groups are surely misinterpreted. Thispaper aims to assess the current level of molecular data regarding Scardinius genera. Some of the molecular data obtainedfor Scardinius genus is from DNA barcoding studies on fresh water fishes, but studies regarding this genus and Cyprinidaefamily used mitochondrial genes like cytochrome b (cyt b and cytochrome oxidase (CO, but nuclear genes or nuclearmicrosatellites were also used. We found that molecular data exists for both nuclear and mitochondrial genes, but this genuswasn’t studied separately and as many of the researchers suggest more taxonomic studies are required in order to solve theuncertainties within it.

  11. Prion protein degradation by lichens of the genus Cladonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, James P.; Rodriguez, Cynthia M.; Johnson, Christopher J.

    2012-01-01

    It has recently been discovered that lichens contain a serine protease capable of degrading the pathogenic prion protein, the etiological agent of prion diseases such as sheep scrapie and cervid chronic wasting disease. Limited methods are available to degrade or inactivate prion disease agents, especially in the environment, and lichens or their serine protease could prove important for management of these diseases. Scant information is available regarding the presence or absence of the protease responsible for degrading prion protein (PrP) in lichen species and, in this study, we tested the hypothesis that PrP degradation activity in lichens is phylogenetically-based by testing 44 species of Cladonia lichens, a genus for which a significant portion of the phylogeny is well established. We categorized PrP degradation activity among the 44 species (high, moderate, low or none) and found that activity in Cladonia species did not correspond with phylogenetic position of the species. Degradation of PrP did correspond, however, with three classical taxonomic characters within the genus: species with brown apothecia, no usnic acid, and the presence of a cortex. Of the 44 species studied, 18 (41%) had either high or moderate PrP degradation activity, suggesting the protease may be frequent in this genus of lichens.

  12. On the genus Bothrophyllum Trautschold, 1879 (Anthozoa, Rugosa)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedorowski, Jerzy

    2016-03-01

    The rugose coral genus Bothrophyllum Trautschold, 1879 is revised on the basis of data from the literature and the author's personal investigation of both topotypes of its type species B. conicum and related and/or similar taxa from other areas. The intraspecific variability of the type species, its neotype, the intra-generic framework and a new generic diagnosis are established. Many more than 100 taxa related and/or similar to Bothrophyllum were analyzed and the most important of them are discussed. Detailed analysis of the type species based on the neotype and supported by additional topotype specimens illustrated here, allows restriction of both the type species and the genus, and leads to the proposition that Bothrophyllum -like taxa with a shortened cardinal septum should be considered of subgeneric (not named) status. Detailed analysis of the specimens and species described and illustrated from the type site (Myachkovo Quarry, Moscow Basin) form the basis for further considerations. On the basis of that analysis and characters established for the type species, taxa from all other European, African, Asiatic and North American areas either named Bothrophyllum or bearing characters of that genus were analyzed. The supposed origin and discussion of the relationships conclude the paper. A list of synonyms and exclusions from Bothrophyllum and lists of species included, excluded, or possibly belonging to Bothrophyllum and Bothrophyllum -like corals with a shortened cardinal septum are presented.

  13. Phylogenetic placement and taxonomy of the genus Hederorkis (Orchidaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mytnik-Ejsmont, Joanna; Szlachetko, Dariusz L; Baranow, Przemysław; Jolliffe, Kevin; Górniak, Marcin

    2015-01-01

    Three plastid regions, matK, rpl32-trnL and rpl16 intron and the ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 nuclear ribosomal DNA were used to demonstrate a phylogenetic placement of the genus Hederorkis (Orchidaceae) for the first time. The taxonomic position of this genus has been unclear thus far. The phylogenetic and morphological relations of Hederorkis to the most closely related genera Sirhookera, Adrorhizon, Bromheadia and Polystachya are also discussed. A hypothesis concerning an origin and evolution of Hederorkis is proposed. Hederorkis is an epiphytic two-leaved orchid genus with lateral inflorescence, non-resupinate flowers, elongate gynostemium and rudimentary column foot. It is native to the Indian Ocean Islands. Two species of Hederorkis are recognized worldwide, H. scandens endemic to Mauritius and Réunion and H. seychellensis endemic to Seychelles. For each of the species treated a full synonymy, detailed description and illustration are included. The distribution map and dichotomous keys to the species have also been provided. PMID:25902058

  14. Variance Analysis of Genus Ipomoea based on Morphological Characters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DWI PRIYANTO

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to find out the variability of morphological characters of genus Ipomoea, including coefficient variance and phylogenetic relationships. Genus Ipomoea has been identified consisting of four species i.e. Ipomoea crassicaulis Rob, Ipomoea aquatica Forsk., Ipomoea reptans Poir and Ipomoea leari. Four species of the genus took from surround the lake inside the campus of Sebelas Maret University, Surakarta. Comparison of species variability was based on the variance coefficient of vegetative and generative morphological characters. The vegetative characters observed were roots, steams and leaves, while the generative characters observed were flowers, fruits, and seeds. Phylogenetic relationship was determined by clustering association coefficient. Coefficient variance analysis of vegetative and generative morphological characters resulted in several groups based on the degree of variability i.e. low, enough, high, very high or none. The phylogenetic relationship showed that Ipomoea aquatica Forsk. and Ipomoea reptans Poir. have higher degree of phylogenetic than Ipomoea leari and Ipomoea crassicaulis Rob.

  15. Flow characteristics at trapezoidal broad-crested side weir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Říha Jaromír

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Broad-crested side weirs have been the subject of numerous hydraulic studies; however, the flow field at the weir crest and in front of the weir in the approach channel still has not been fully described. Also, the discharge coefficient of broad-crested side weirs, whether slightly inclined towards the stream or lateral, still has yet to be clearly determined. Experimental research was carried out to describe the flow characteristics at low Froude numbers in the approach flow channel for various combinations of in- and overflow discharges. Three side weir types with different oblique angles were studied. Their flow characteristics and discharge coefficients were analyzed and assessed based on the results obtained from extensive measurements performed on a hydraulic model. The empirical relation between the angle of side weir obliqueness, Froude numbers in the up- and downstream channels, and the coefficient of obliqueness was derived.

  16. Experimental evaluation of combustor concepts for burning broad property fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasper, J. M.; Ekstedt, E. E.; Dodds, W. J.; Shayeson, M. W.

    1980-01-01

    A baseline CF6-50 combustor and three advanced combustor designs were evaluated to determine the effects of combustor design on operational characteristics using broad property fuels. Three fuels were used in each test: Jet A, a broad property 13% hydrogen fuel, and a 12% hydrogen fuel blend. Testing was performed in a sector rig at true cruise and simulated takeoff conditions for the CF6-50 engine cycle. The advanced combustors (all double annular, lean dome designs) generally exhibited lower metal temperatures, exhaust emissions, and carbon buildup than the baseline CF6-50 combustor. The sensitivities of emissions and metal temperatures to fuel hydrogen content were also generally lower for the advanced designs. The most promising advanced design used premixing tubes in the main stage. This design was chosen for additional testing in which fuel/air ratio, reference velocity, and fuel flow split were varied.

  17. Broad-band characteristics of circular button pickups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A broad-band.theory of the circular button pickup is presented. Expressions for the longitudinal and transverse transfer impedance of a pair of such pickups are derived in the frequency domain. The broad-band expressions are shown to reduce to the standard electrostatic transfer functions for wavelengths large compared to the button diameter. The theory is shown to be in reasonable agreement with measurements performed on standard LEP button electrodes. In particular, the theory explains a resonance in the response of the LEP buttons which made them unsuitable, in standard form, for their intended application as pickups in the LBL Advanced Light Source feedback system. The buttons were modified to suppress the resonance and subsequently incorporated into the feedback system

  18. Spectral Decomposition of Broad-Line AGNs and Host Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Vanden Berk, Daniel E; Yip, C W; Schneider, D P; Connolly, A J; Burton, R E; Jester, S; Hall, P B; Szalay, A S; Brinkmann, J; Berk, Daniel E. Vanden; Shen, Jiajian; Yip, Ching-Wa; Schneider, Donald P.; Connolly, Andrew J.; Burton, Ross E.; Jester, Sebastian; Hall, Patrick B.; Szalay, Alex S.; Brinkmann, John

    2005-01-01

    Using an eigenspectrum decomposition technique, we separate the host galaxy from the broad line active galactic nucleus (AGN) in a set of 4666 spectra from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS), from redshifts near zero up to about 0.75. The decomposition technique uses separate sets of galaxy and quasar eigenspectra to efficiently and reliably separate the AGN and host spectroscopic components. The technique accurately reproduces the host galaxy spectrum, its contributing fraction, and its classification. We show how the accuracy of the decomposition depends upon S/N, host galaxy fraction, and the galaxy class. Based on the eigencoefficients, the sample of SDSS broad-line AGN host galaxies spans a wide range of spectral types, but the distribution differs significantly from inactive galaxies. In particular, post-starburst activity appears to be much more common among AGN host galaxies. The luminosities of the hosts are much higher than expected for normal early-type galaxies, and their colors become increasing...

  19. Diverse Broad Line Region Kinematic Signatures From Reverberation Mapping

    CERN Document Server

    Denney, K D; Pogge, R W; Adair, A; Atlee, D W; Au-Yong, K; Bentz, M C; Bird, J C; Brokofsky, D J; Chisholm, E; Comins, M L; Dietrich, M; Doroshenko, V T; Eastman, J D; Efimov, Y S; Ewald, S; Ferbey, S; Gaskell, C M; Hedrick, C H; Jackson, K; Klimanov, S A; Klimek, E S; Kruse, A K; Ladéroute, A; Lamb, J B; Leighly, K; Minezaki, T; Nazarov, S V; Onken, C A; Petersen, E A; Peterson, P; Poindexter, S; Sakata, Y; Schlesinger, K J; Sergeev, S G; Skolski, N; Stieglitz, L; Tobin, J J; Unterborn, C; Vestergaard, M; Watkins, A E; Watson, L C; Yoshii, Y

    2009-01-01

    A detailed analysis of the data from a high sampling rate, multi-month reverberation mapping campaign, undertaken primarily at MDM Observatory with supporting observations from telescopes around the world, reveals that the Hbeta emission region within the broad line regions (BLRs) of several nearby AGNs exhibit a variety of kinematic behaviors. While the primary goal of this campaign was to obtain either new or improved Hbeta reverberation lag measurements for several relatively low luminosity AGNs (presented in a separate work), we were also able to unambiguously reconstruct velocity-resolved reverberation signals from a subset of our targets. Through high cadence spectroscopic monitoring of the optical continuum and broad Hbeta emission line variations observed in the nuclear regions of NGC 3227, NGC 3516, and NGC 5548, we clearly see evidence for outflowing, infalling, and virialized BLR gas motions, respectively.

  20. Quasar Cartography: from Black Hole to Broad Line Region Scales

    CERN Document Server

    Chelouche, Doron

    2013-01-01

    A generalized approach to reverberation mapping (RM) is presented, which is applicable to broad- and narrow-band photometric data, as well as to spectroscopic observations. It is based on multivariate correlation analysis techniques and, in its present implementation, is able to identify reverberating signals across the accretion disk and the broad line region (BLR) of active galactic nuclei (AGN). Statistical tests are defined to assess the significance of time-delay measurements using this approach, and the limitations of the adopted formalism are discussed. It is shown how additional constraints on some of the parameters of the problem may be incorporated into the analysis thereby leading to improved results. When applied to a sample of 14 Seyfert 1 galaxies having good-quality high-cadence photometric data, accretion disk scales and BLR sizes are simultaneously determined, on a case-by-case basis, in most objects. The BLR scales deduced here are in good agreement with the findings of independent spectrosc...