WorldWideScience

Sample records for broad spectrum control

  1. Synergistic effect of broad-spectrum Sunscreens and antihistamines in the control of idiopathic solar urticaria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faurschou, A.; Wulf, Hans Chr.

    2008-01-01

    Background: It can be difficult to provide patients with idiopathic solar urticaria adequate protection from sunlight. In a nonrandomized controlled trial, we used a standardized phototest procedure to determine the effects of using sunscreen and antihistamine to control idiopathic solar urticaria....... The patients were then treated with a high-protection, broad-spectrum sunscreen and a nonsedative antihistamine alone and in combination and underwent similar phototesting. The use of sunscreen allowed the patients to tolerate much higher doses of UV radiation (32-38 times the MUD on untreated skin......). Antihistamine use did not increase the patients' MUD but did suppress wheal formation and itch, and only immediate erythema sharply located in the irradiated areas occurred. The combination of sunscreen and antihistamine acted synergistically and increased the tolerance to UV radiation markedly (80-267 times...

  2. Broad-spectrum light versus blue light for phototherapy in neonatal hyperbilirubinemia: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratesi, Simone; Di Fabio, Sandra; Bresci, Cecilia; Di Natale, Cecilia; Bar, Shahar; Dani, Carlo

    2015-07-01

    Phototherapy is standard care for treatment of neonatal hyperbilirubinemia. Our aim was to compare the effectiveness of broad-spectrum light (BSL) to that of blue light emitting diodes (LED) phototherapy for the treatment of jaundiced late preterm and term infants. Infants with gestational age from 35(+0) to 41(+6) weeks of gestation and nonhemolytic hyperbilirubinemia were randomized to treatment with BSL phototherapy or blue LED phototherapy. A total of 20 infants were included in the blue LED phototherapy group and 20 in the BSL phototherapy group. The duration of phototherapy was lower in the BSL than in the blue LED phototherapy group (15.8 ± 4.9 vs. 20.6 ± 6.0 hours; p = 0.009), and infants in the former group had a lower probability (p = 0.015) of remaining in phototherapy than infants in the latter. We concluded that BSL phototherapy is more effective than blue LED phototherapy for the treatment of hyperbilirubinemia in late preterm and term infants. Our data suggest that these results are not due to the different irradiance of the two phototherapy systems, but probably depend on their different peak light emissions. PMID:25545446

  3. Controlled delivery of a new broad spectrum antibacterial agent against colitis: In vitro and in vivo performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieto-Bobadilla, M S; Siepmann, F; Djouina, M; Dubuquoy, L; Tesse, N; Willart, J-F; Dubreuil, L; Siepmann, J; Neut, C

    2015-10-01

    Coated pellets and mini-tablets were prepared containing a new broad spectrum antibacterial agent: CIN-102, a well-defined, synergistic blend of trans-cinnamaldehyde, trans-2-methoxycinnamaldehyde, cinnamyl acetate, linalool, β-caryophyllene, cineol and benzyl benzoate. The aim was to provide a new treatment method for colitis, especially for Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD) patients. Since the simple oral gavage of CIN-102 was not able to reduce the pathogenic bacteria involved in colitis (rat model), the drug was incorporated into multiparticulates. The idea was to minimize undesired drug release in the upper gastrointestinal tract and to control CIN-102 release in the colon, in order to optimize the resulting antibiotic concentration at the site of action. A particular challenge was the fact that CIN-102 is a volatile hydrophobic liquid. Pellet cores were prepared by extrusion-spheronization and coated with polymer blends, which are sensitive to colonic bacterial enzymes. Mini-tablets were prepared by direct compression. The release of the main compound of CIN-102 (cinnamaldehyde, 86.7% w/w) was monitored in vitro. Optimized coated pellets and mini-tablets were also tested in vivo: in seven-week-old, male mice suffering from dextran sodium sulfate induced colitis. Importantly, both types of multiparticulates were able: (i) to significantly reduce the number of luminal and mucosal enterobacteria in the mice (the levels of which are increased in the disease state), and (ii) to improve the clinical course of the intestinal inflammation (decrease in the percentages of mice with bloody stools and diarrhea). Thus, the proposed coated pellets and matrix mini-tablets allowing for controlled CIN-102 release show a promising potential for new treatment methods of colitis. PMID:26209123

  4. Broad spectrum anthelmintic potential of Cassia plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Suman Kundu; Saptarshi Roy; Larisha Mawkhleing Lyndem

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To study the in vitro anthelmintic efficacy of Cassia alata (C. alata), Cassia(C. angustifolia) and Cassia occidentalis (C. occidentalis). angustifolia Methods: Crude ethanol extract from leaves of the three plants were prepared in rotary evaporator and different concentrations (10, 20 and 40 mg/mL) of leaf extracts were used for treatment on different representatives of helminthes (Heterakis gallinarum, Raillietina tetragona and Catatropis sp.) from domestic fowl (Gallus gallus domesticus). Loss of motility and death were monitored frequently.Results: C. alata showed early paralysis in all worms treated followed by C. angustifolia. C. occidentalis in combination with C. alata together caused early paralysis in all treated worms than the combination of C. alata with C. angustfolia. While Heterakis gallinarum in control survived for (81.33±2.07) h, treated worms lost their motility at (5.71±0.10) h, (6.60±0.86) h and (13.95±0.43) h with C. angustifolia, C. alata and C. occidentalis respectively at a concentration of 40 mg/mL which showed better efficacy than albendazole. Catatropis sp. survival period was (26.49±1.38) h in control, but with plant treatment, it lost its motility in just (0.57±0.08) h, (1.00±0.12) h and (1.47±0.40) h at 40 mg/mL concentration of C. alata, C. angustifolia and C. occidentalis respectively.Raillietina tetragona on the other hand became paralysed at (1.68±0.27) h, (2.95±0.29) h and (4.13±0.31) h with above concentrations treated with three plants respectively, however in control it survived up to (81.93±4.71) h.Conclusions:This present study indicated broad spectrum vermifugal activity of all plants tested.

  5. Broad spectrum antibiotic compounds and use thereof

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koglin, Alexander; Strieker, Matthias

    2016-07-05

    The discovery of a non-ribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS) gene cluster in the genome of Clostridium thermocellum that produces a secondary metabolite that is assembled outside of the host membrane is described. Also described is the identification of homologous NRPS gene clusters from several additional microorganisms. The secondary metabolites produced by the NRPS gene clusters exhibit broad spectrum antibiotic activity. Thus, antibiotic compounds produced by the NRPS gene clusters, and analogs thereof, their use for inhibiting bacterial growth, and methods of making the antibiotic compounds are described.

  6. Broad-Spectrum Solution-Processed Photovoltaics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ip, Alexander Halley

    High global demand for energy coupled with dwindling fossil fuel supply has driven the development of sustainable energy sources such as solar photovoltaics. Emerging solar technologies aim for low-cost, solution-processable materials which would allow wide deployment. Colloidal quantum dots (CQDs) are such a materials system which exhibits the ability to absorb across the entire solar spectrum, including in the infrared where many technologies cannot harvest photons. However, due to their nanocrystalline nature, CQDs are susceptible to surface-associated electronic traps which greatly inhibit performance. In this thesis, surface engineering of CQDs is presented through a combined ligand approach which improves the passivation of surface trap states. A metal halide treatment is found to passivate quantum dot surfaces in solution, while bifunctional organic ligands produce a dense film in solid state. This approach reduced midgap trap states fivefold compared with conventional passivation strategies and led to solar cells with a record certified 7.0% power conversion efficiency. The effect of this process on the electronic structure is studied through photoelectron spectroscopy. It is found that while the halide provides deep trap passivation, the nature of the metal cation on the CQD surface affects the density of band tail states. This effect is explored further through a wide survey of materials, and it is found that the coordination ability of the metal cation is responsible for the suppression of shallow traps. With this understanding of CQD surface passivation, broad spectral usage is then explored through a study of visible-absorbing organolead halide perovskite materials as well as narrow-bandgap CQD solar cells. Control over growth conditions and modification of electrode interfaces resulted in efficient perovskite devices with effective usages of visible photons. For infrared-absorbing CQDs, it is found that, in addition to providing surface trap

  7. Comparison of nitroethane, 2-nitro-1-propanol, lauric acid, Lauricidin and the Hawaiian marine algae, Chaetoceros, for potential broad-spectrum control of anaerobically grown lactic acid bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    The gastrointestinal tract of bovines often contains bacteria that contribute to disorders of the rumen and may also contain foodborne or opportunistic human pathogens as well as bacteria capable of causing mastitis in cows. Thus, there is a need to develop broad-spectrum therapies that are effecti...

  8. Broad Spectrum Sanitizing Wipes with Food Additives Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Microcide proposes to develop novel multipurpose non-toxic sanitizing wipes that are aqueous based, have shelf life of 3-5 years, have broad spectrum microbicidal...

  9. Genetically Engineered Broad-Spectrum Disease Resistance in Tomato

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oldroyd, Giles E. D.; Staskawicz, Brian J.

    1998-08-01

    Resistance in tomato to the bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pathovar tomato requires Pto and Prf. Mutations that eliminate Prf show a loss of both Pto resistance and sensitivity to the organophosphate insecticide fenthion, suggesting that Prf controls both phenotypes. Herein, we report that the overexpression of Prf leads to enhanced resistance to a number of normally virulent bacterial and viral pathogens and leads to increased sensitivity to fenthion. These plants express levels of salicylic acid comparable to plants induced for systemic acquired resistance (SAR) and constitutively express pathogenesis related genes. These results suggest that the overexpression of Prf activates the Pto and Fen pathways in a pathogen-independent manner and leads to the activation of SAR. Transgene-induced SAR has implications for the generation of broad spectrum disease resistance in agricultural crop plants.

  10. The broad spectrum revisited: Evidence from plant remains

    OpenAIRE

    Weiss, Ehud; Wetterstrom, Wilma; Nadel, Dani; Bar-Yosef, Ofer

    2004-01-01

    The beginning of agriculture is one of the most important developments in human history, with enormous consequences that paved the way for settled life and complex society. Much of the research on the origins of agriculture over the last 40 years has been guided by Flannery's [Flannery, K. V. (1969) in The Domestication and Exploitation of Plants and Animals, eds. Ucko, P. J. & Dimbleby, G. W. (Duckworth, London), pp. 73–100] “broad spectrum revolution” (BSR) hypothesis, which posits that the...

  11. Broad spectrum antiangiogenic treatment for ocular neovascular diseases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ofra Benny

    Full Text Available UNLABELLED: Pathological neovascularization is a hallmark of late stage neovascular (wet age-related macular degeneration (AMD and the leading cause of blindness in people over the age of 50 in the western world. The treatments focus on suppression of choroidal neovascularization (CNV, while current approved therapies are limited to inhibiting vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF exclusively. However, this treatment does not address the underlying cause of AMD, and the loss of VEGF's neuroprotective can be a potential side effect. Therapy which targets the key processes in AMD, the pathological neovascularization, vessel leakage and inflammation could bring a major shift in the approach to disease treatment and prevention. In this study we have demonstrated the efficacy of such broad spectrum antiangiogenic therapy on mouse model of AMD. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Lodamin, a polymeric formulation of TNP-470, is a potent broad-spectrum antiangiogenic drug. Lodamin significantly reduced key processes involved in AMD progression as demonstrated in mice and rats. Its suppressive effects on angiogenesis, vascular leakage and inflammation were studied in a wide array of assays including; a Matrigel, delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH, Miles assay, laser-induced CNV and corneal micropocket assay. Lodamin significantly suppressed the secretion of various pro-inflammatory cytokines in the CNV lesion including monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1/Ccl2. Importantly, Lodamin was found to regress established CNV lesions, unlike soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase-1 (sFlk-1. The drug was found to be safe in mice and have little toxicity as demonstrated by electroretinography (ERG assessing retinal and by histology. CONCLUSIONS: Lodamin, a polymer formulation of TNP-470, was identified as a first in its class, broad-spectrum antiangiogenic drug that can be administered orally or locally to treat corneal and retinal neovascularization. Several unique properties

  12. High-throughput discovery of broad-spectrum peptide antibiotics

    OpenAIRE

    Rathinakumar, Ramesh; Wimley, William C.

    2010-01-01

    Membrane-permeabilizing peptide antibiotics are an underutilized weapon in the battle against drug-resistant microorganisms. This is true, in part, because of the bottleneck caused by the lack of explicit design principles and the paucity of simple high-throughput methods for selection. In this work, we characterize the requirements for broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity by membrane permeabilization and find that different microbial membranes have very different susceptibilities to permeab...

  13. Broad spectrum assessment of the epitope fluctuation--Immunogenicity hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosch, Jason S; Yang, Jing; Shen, Alice; Sereda, Yuriy V; Ortoleva, Peter J

    2015-11-01

    Prediction of immunogenicity is a substantial barrier in vaccine design. Here, a molecular dynamics approach to assessing the immunogenicity of nanoparticles based on structure is presented. Molecular properties of epitopes on nonenveloped viral particles are quantified via a set of metrics. One such metric, epitope fluctuation (and implied flexibility), is shown to be inversely correlated with immunogenicity for each of a broad spectrum of nonenveloped viruses. The molecular metrics and experimentally determined immunogenicities for these viruses are archived in the open-source vaccine computer-aided design database. Results indicate the promise of computer-aided vaccine design to bring greater efficiency to traditional lab-based vaccine discovery approaches. PMID:26187254

  14. Antiviral drug discovery: broad-spectrum drugs from nature.

    OpenAIRE

    Martinez, J P; Sasse, F; Brönstrup, M; Diez, J; Meyerhans, A

    2015-01-01

    Covering: up to April 2014. The development of drugs with broad-spectrum antiviral activities is a long pursued goal in drug discovery. It has been shown that blocking co-opted host-factors abrogates the replication of many viruses, yet the development of such host-targeting drugs has been met with scepticism mainly due to toxicity issues and poor translation to in vivo models. With the advent of new and more powerful screening assays and prediction tools, the idea of a drug that can efficien...

  15. Are Broad-Spectrum Fluoroquinolones More Likely To Cause Clostridium difficile-Associated Disease?

    OpenAIRE

    Dhalla, Irfan A.; Muhammad M Mamdani; Simor, Andrew E; Kopp, Alex; Rochon, Paula A; Juurlink, David N.

    2006-01-01

    Limited evidence suggests that broad-spectrum fluoroquinolones such as gatifloxacin and moxifloxacin are more likely to cause Clostridium difficile-associated disease than levofloxacin. In a population-based case-control study of outpatients prescribed fluoroquinolones, we found no increased risk of C. difficile-associated disease requiring hospitalization among patients prescribed gatifloxacin or moxifloxacin compared to levofloxacin.

  16. Broad spectrum microarray for fingerprint-based bacterial species identification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frey Jürg E

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Microarrays are powerful tools for DNA-based molecular diagnostics and identification of pathogens. Most target a limited range of organisms and are based on only one or a very few genes for specific identification. Such microarrays are limited to organisms for which specific probes are available, and often have difficulty discriminating closely related taxa. We have developed an alternative broad-spectrum microarray that employs hybridisation fingerprints generated by high-density anonymous markers distributed over the entire genome for identification based on comparison to a reference database. Results A high-density microarray carrying 95,000 unique 13-mer probes was designed. Optimized methods were developed to deliver reproducible hybridisation patterns that enabled confident discrimination of bacteria at the species, subspecies, and strain levels. High correlation coefficients were achieved between replicates. A sub-selection of 12,071 probes, determined by ANOVA and class prediction analysis, enabled the discrimination of all samples in our panel. Mismatch probe hybridisation was observed but was found to have no effect on the discriminatory capacity of our system. Conclusions These results indicate the potential of our genome chip for reliable identification of a wide range of bacterial taxa at the subspecies level without laborious prior sequencing and probe design. With its high resolution capacity, our proof-of-principle chip demonstrates great potential as a tool for molecular diagnostics of broad taxonomic groups.

  17. Development of targeted therapy for a broad spectrum of cancers (pancreatic cancer, ovarian cancer, glioblastoma and HCC) mediated by a double promoter plasmid expressing diphtheria toxin under the control of H19 and IGF2-P4 regulatory sequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amit, Doron; Hochberg, Abraham

    2012-01-01

    Background The human IGF2-P4 and H19 promoters are highly active in a variety of human cancers, while existing at a nearly undetectable level in the surrounding normal tissue. Single promoter vectors expressing diphtheria toxin A-fragment (DTA) under the control regulation of IGF2-P4 or H19 regulatory sequences (IGF2-P4-DTA and H19-DTA) were previously successfully used in cell lines, animal models and recently in human patients with superficial cell carcinoma of the bladder, pancreatic cancer and ovarian cancer (treated with H19-DTA). However this targeted medicine approach may be limited, as not all cancer patients express high levels of H19 and it requires prerequisite diagnostic test for H19. Hence, a double promoter DTA-expressing vector was created, carrying on a single construct two separate genes expressing the diphtheria toxin A-fragment (DTA), from two different regulatory sequences, selected from the cancer-specific promoters H19 and IGF2-P4. Methods H19 and IGF2-P4 gene expression was tested in cell lines of a broad spectrum of different carcinomas (bladder, pancreas, ovary, glioblastoma and HCC), by RT-PCR. The therapeutic potential of the double promoter toxin vector H19-DTA-(IGF2)-P4-DTA was tested in the different cancer cell lines. Results The double promoter vector exhibited superior inhibition activity compared to the single promoter expression vectors, in the different cancer cell lines furthermore, the double promoter vector H19-DTA-P4-DTA exhibited augmented-than-additive anti-cancer activity relative to single promoter expression vectors carrying either DTA sequence alone, when tested in a broad spectrum of tumor cells. Conclusions Our findings show that administration of H19-DTA-P4-DTA has the potential to reach tumor cells, deliver its intracellular toxin without targeting normal tissues, and thus may help reduce tumor burden, improve the quality of life of the patient; and prolong their life span. As H19 and IGF2 were expressed in a broad

  18. Broad-spectrum antibiotic or G-CSF as potential countermeasures for impaired control of bacterial infection associated with an SPE exposure during spaceflight.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minghong Li

    Full Text Available A major risk for astronauts during prolonged space flight is infection as a result of the combined effects of microgravity, situational and confinement stress, alterations in food intake, altered circadian rhythm, and radiation that can significantly impair the immune system and the body's defense systems. We previously reported a massive increase in morbidity with a decrease in the ability to control a bacterial challenge when mice were maintained under hindlimb suspension (HS conditions and exposed to solar particle event (SPE-like radiation. HS and SPE-like radiation treatment alone resulted in a borderline significant increase in morbidity. Therefore, development and testing of countermeasures that can be used during extended space missions in the setting of exposure to SPE radiation becomes a serious need. In the present study, we investigated the efficacy of enrofloxacin (an orally bioavailable antibiotic and Granulocyte colony stimulating factor (G-CSF (Neulasta on enhancing resistance to Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection in mice subjected to HS and SPE-like radiation. The results revealed that treatment with enrofloxacin or G-CSF enhanced bacterial clearance and significantly decreased morbidity and mortality in challenged mice exposed to suspension and radiation. These results establish that antibiotics, such as enrofloxacin, and G-CSF could be effective countermeasures to decrease the risk of bacterial infections after exposure to SPE radiation during extended space flight, thereby reducing both the risk to the crew and the danger of mission failure.

  19. Enhanced methanol production in plants provides broad spectrum insect resistance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sameer Dixit

    Full Text Available Plants naturally emit methanol as volatile organic compound. Methanol is toxic to insect pests; but the quantity produced by most of the plants is not enough to protect them against invading insect pests. In the present study, we demonstrated that the over-expression of pectin methylesterase, derived from Arabidopsis thaliana and Aspergillus niger, in transgenic tobacco plants enhances methanol production and resistance to polyphagous insect pests. Methanol content in the leaves of transgenic plants was measured using proton nuclear spectroscopy (1H NMR and spectra showed up to 16 fold higher methanol as compared to control wild type (WT plants. A maximum of 100 and 85% mortality in chewing insects Helicoverpa armigera and Spodoptera litura larvae was observed, respectively when fed on transgenic plants leaves. The surviving larvae showed less feeding, severe growth retardation and could not develop into pupae. In-planta bioassay on transgenic lines showed up to 99 and 75% reduction in the population multiplication of plant sap sucking pests Myzus persicae (aphid and Bemisia tabaci (whitefly, respectively. Most of the phenotypic characters of transgenic plants were similar to WT plants. Confocal microscopy showed no deformities in cellular integrity, structure and density of stomata and trichomes of transgenic plants compared to WT. Pollen germination and tube formation was also not affected in transgenic plants. Cell wall enzyme transcript levels were comparable with WT. This study demonstrated for the first time that methanol emission can be utilized for imparting broad range insect resistance in plants.

  20. Conception of Philosophy Given in Broad-Spectrum Philosophy and its Significance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miao Su

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we have a research of the conception of philosophy given in broad-spectrum philosophy and its significance. “What’s philosophy” is a question at once ancient and new and regarding this question, different philosophical schools or philosophers have different answers. Based on a summary of modern scientific achievements, Broad-spectrum Philosophy gives this matter a new solution. What this thesis concerns includes the theoretical basis of the solution and the significance of it. As a research result, we clearly describe the conception of philosophy given in broad-spectrum philosophy and show the significance of this field.

  1. Oxysterols: An emerging class of broad spectrum antiviral effectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lembo, David; Cagno, Valeria; Civra, Andrea; Poli, Giuseppe

    2016-06-01

    Oxysterols are a family of cholesterol oxidation derivatives that contain an additional hydroxyl, epoxide or ketone group in the sterol nucleus and/or a hydroxyl group in the side chain. The majority of oxysterols in the blood are of endogenous origin, derived from cholesterol via either enzymatic or non-enzymatic mechanisms. A large number of reports demonstrate multiple physiological roles of specific oxysterols. One such role is the inhibition of viral replication. This biochemical/biological property was first characterised against a number of viruses endowed with an external lipid membrane (enveloped viruses), although antiviral activity has since been observed in relation to several non-enveloped viruses. In the present paper, we review the recent findings about the broad antiviral activity of oxysterols against enveloped and non-enveloped human viral pathogens, and provide an overview of their putative antiviral mechnism(s). PMID:27086126

  2. Improved PCR Amplification of Broad Spectrum GC DNA Templates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guido, Nicholas; Starostina, Elena; Leake, Devin; Saaem, Ishtiaq

    2016-01-01

    Many applications in molecular biology can benefit from improved PCR amplification of DNA segments containing a wide range of GC content. Conventional PCR amplification of DNA sequences with regions of GC less than 30%, or higher than 70%, is complex due to secondary structures that block the DNA polymerase as well as mispriming and mis-annealing of the DNA. This complexity will often generate incomplete or nonspecific products that hamper downstream applications. In this study, we address multiplexed PCR amplification of DNA segments containing a wide range of GC content. In order to mitigate amplification complications due to high or low GC regions, we tested a combination of different PCR cycling conditions and chemical additives. To assess the fate of specific oligonucleotide (oligo) species with varying GC content in a multiplexed PCR, we developed a novel method of sequence analysis. Here we show that subcycling during the amplification process significantly improved amplification of short template pools (~200 bp), particularly when the template contained a low percent of GC. Furthermore, the combination of subcycling and 7-deaza-dGTP achieved efficient amplification of short templates ranging from 10–90% GC composition. Moreover, we found that 7-deaza-dGTP improved the amplification of longer products (~1000 bp). These methods provide an updated approach for PCR amplification of DNA segments containing a broad range of GC content. PMID:27271574

  3. Broad spectrum antiviral activity of favipiravir (T-705: protection from highly lethal inhalational Rift Valley Fever.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy L Caroline

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Development of antiviral drugs that have broad-spectrum activity against a number of viral infections would be of significant benefit. Due to the evolution of resistance to currently licensed antiviral drugs, development of novel anti-influenza drugs is in progress, including Favipiravir (T-705, which is currently in human clinical trials. T-705 displays broad-spectrum in vitro activity against a number of viruses, including Rift Valley Fever virus (RVFV. RVF is an important neglected tropical disease that causes human, agricultural, and economic losses in endemic regions. RVF has the capacity to emerge in new locations and also presents a potential bioterrorism threat. In the current study, the in vivo efficacy of T-705 was evaluated in Wistar-Furth rats infected with the virulent ZH501 strain of RVFV by the aerosol route. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Wistar-Furth rats are highly susceptible to a rapidly lethal disease after parenteral or inhalational exposure to the pathogenic ZH501 strain of RVFV. In the current study, two experiments were performed: a dose-determination study and a delayed-treatment study. In both experiments, all untreated control rats succumbed to disease. Out of 72 total rats infected with RVFV and treated with T-705, only 6 succumbed to disease. The remaining 66 rats (92% survived lethal infection with no significant weight loss or fever. The 6 treated rats that succumbed survived significantly longer before succumbing to encephalitic disease. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Currently, there are no licensed antiviral drugs for treating RVF. Here, T-705 showed remarkable efficacy in a highly lethal rat model of Rift Valley Fever, even when given up to 48 hours post-infection. This is the first study to show protection of rats infected with the pathogenic ZH501 strain of RVFV. Our data suggest that T-705 has potential to be a broad-spectrum antiviral drug.

  4. Isavuconazole: A New Broad-Spectrum Triazole Antifungal Agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miceli, Marisa H; Kauffman, Carol A

    2015-11-15

    Isavuconazole is a new extended-spectrum triazole with activity against yeasts, molds, and dimorphic fungi. It is approved for the treatment of invasive aspergillosis and mucormycosis. Advantages of this triazole include the availability of a water-soluble intravenous formulation, excellent bioavailability of the oral formulation, and predictable pharmacokinetics in adults. A randomized, double-blind comparison clinical trial for treatment of invasive aspergillosis found that the efficacy of isavuconazole was noninferior to that of voriconazole. An open-label trial that studied primary as well as salvage therapy of invasive mucormycosis showed efficacy with isavuconazole that was similar to that reported for amphotericin B and posaconazole. In patients in these studies, as well as in normal volunteers, isavuconazole was well tolerated, appeared to have few serious adverse effects, and had fewer drug-drug interactions than those noted with voriconazole. As clinical experience increases, the role of this new triazole in the treatment of invasive fungal infections will be better defined. PMID:26179012

  5. Reconstruction of broad features in the primordial spectrum and inflaton potential from Planck

    CERN Document Server

    Hazra, Dhiraj Kumar; Smoot, George F

    2013-01-01

    With the recently published Cosmic Microwave Background data from Planck we address the optimized binning of the primordial power spectrum. As an important modification to the usual binning of the primordial spectrum, along with the spectral amplitude of the bins, we allow the position of the bins also to vary. This technique enables us to address the location of the possible broad physical features in the primordial spectrum with relatively smaller number of bins compared to the analysis performed earlier. This approach is in fact a reconstruction method looking for broad features in the primordial spectrum and avoiding fitting noise in the data. Performing Markov Chain Monte Carlo analysis we present samples of the allowed primordial spectra with broad features consistent with Planck data. To test how realistic it is to have step-like features in primordial spectrum we revisit an inflationary model, proposed by A. A. Starobinsky which can address the similar features obtained from the binning of the spectru...

  6. Nanomedicine for Infectious Disease Applications: Innovation towards Broad-Spectrum Treatment of Viral Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackman, Joshua A; Lee, Jaywon; Cho, Nam-Joon

    2016-03-01

    Nanomedicine enables unique diagnostic and therapeutic capabilities to tackle problems in clinical medicine. As multifunctional agents with programmable properties, nanomedicines are poised to revolutionize treatment strategies. This promise is especially evident for infectious disease applications, for which the continual emergence, re-emergence, and evolution of pathogens has proven difficult to counter by conventional approaches. Herein, a conceptual framework is presented that envisions possible routes for the development of nanomedicines as superior broad-spectrum antiviral agents against enveloped viruses. With lipid membranes playing a critical role in the life cycle of medically important enveloped viruses including HIV, influenza, and Ebola, cellular and viral membrane interfaces are ideal elements to incorporate into broad-spectrum antiviral strategies. Examples are presented that demonstrate how nanomedicine strategies inspired by lipid membranes enable a wide range of targeting opportunities to gain control of critical stages in the virus life cycle through either direct or indirect approaches involving membrane interfaces. The capabilities can be realized by enabling new inhibitory functions or improving the function of existing drugs through nanotechnology-enabled solutions. With these exciting opportunities, due attention is also given to the clinical translation of nanomedicines for infectious disease applications, especially as pharmaceutical drug-discovery pipelines demand new routes of innovation. PMID:26551316

  7. Reconstruction of broad features in the primordial spectrum and inflaton potential from Planck

    OpenAIRE

    Hazra, Dhiraj Kumar; Shafieloo, Arman; Smoot, George F.

    2013-01-01

    With the recently published Cosmic Microwave Background data from Planck we address the optimized binning of the primordial power spectrum. As an important modification to the usual binning of the primordial spectrum, along with the spectral amplitude of the bins, we allow the position of the bins also to vary. This technique enables us to address the location of the possible broad physical features in the primordial spectrum with relatively smaller number of bins compared to the analysis per...

  8. The broad autism phenotype predicts child functioning in autism spectrum disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Maxwell, Christina R.; Parish-Morris, Julia; Hsin, Olivia; Bush, Jennifer C; Schultz, Robert T.

    2013-01-01

    Background Broad autism phenotype (BAP) is a milder expression of the social and communication impairments seen in autism spectrum disorders (ASD). While prior studies characterized the BAP in unaffected family members of probands with ASD, the relationship between parental BAP traits and proband symptomatology remains poorly understood. This study utilizes the Broad Autism Phenotype Questionnaire (BAPQ) in parents and the Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS) in children to examine this connecti...

  9. The Arabidopsis NPR1 gene confers broad-spectrum disease resistance in strawberry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Katchen Julliany P; Brunings, Asha; Peres, Natalia A; Mou, Zhonglin; Folta, Kevin M

    2015-08-01

    Although strawberry is an economically important fruit crop worldwide, production of strawberry is limited by its susceptibility to a wide range of pathogens and the lack of major commercial cultivars with high levels of resistance to multiple pathogens. The objective of this study is to ectopically express the Arabidopsis thaliana NPR1 gene (AtNPR1) in the diploid strawberry Fragaria vesca L. and to test transgenic plants for disease resistance. AtNPR1 is a key positive regulator of the long-lasting broad-spectrum resistance known as systemic acquired resistance (SAR) and has been shown to confer resistance to a number of pathogens when overexpressed in Arabidopsis or ectopically expressed in several crop species. We show that ectopic expression of AtNPR1 in strawberry increases resistance to anthracnose, powdery mildew, and angular leaf spot, which are caused by different fungal or bacterial pathogens. The increased resistance is related to the relative expression levels of AtNPR1 in the transgenic plants. In contrast to Arabidopsis plants overexpressing AtNPR1, which grow normally and do not constitutively express defense genes, the strawberry transgenic plants are shorter than non-transformed controls, and most of them fail to produce runners and fruits. Consistently, most of the transgenic lines constitutively express the defense gene FvPR5, suggesting that the SAR activation mechanisms in strawberry and Arabidopsis are different. Nevertheless, our results indicate that overexpression of AtNPR1 holds the potential for generation of broad-spectrum disease resistance in strawberry. PMID:25812515

  10. Emerging broad-spectrum resistance in Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter baumannii: Mechanisms and epidemiology

    OpenAIRE

    Potron, Anaïs; Poirel , Laurent; Nordmann, Patrice

    2015-01-01

    Multidrug resistance is quite common among non-fermenting Gram-negative rods, in particular among clinically relevant species including Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter baumannii. These bacterial species, which are mainly nosocomial pathogens, possess a diversity of resistance mechanisms that may lead to multidrug or even pandrug resistance. Extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) conferring resistance to broad-spectrum cephalosporins, carbapenemases conferring resistance to carbapenem...

  11. Reconstruction of broad features in the primordial spectrum and inflaton potential from Planck

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With the recently published Cosmic Microwave Background data from Planck we address the optimized binning of the primordial power spectrum. As an important modification to the usual binning of the primordial spectrum, along with the spectral amplitude of the bins, we allow the position of the bins also to vary. This technique enables us to address the location of the possible broad physical features in the primordial spectrum with relatively smaller number of bins compared to the analysis performed earlier. This approach is in fact a reconstruction method looking for broad features in the primordial spectrum and avoiding fitting noise in the data. Performing Markov Chain Monte Carlo analysis we present samples of the allowed primordial spectra with broad features consistent with Planck data. To test how realistic it is to have step-like features in primordial spectrum we revisit an inflationary model, proposed by A. A. Starobinsky which can address the similar features obtained from the binning of the spectrum. Using the publicly available code BINGO, we numerically calculate the local fNL for this model in equilateral and arbitrary triangular configurations of wavevectors and show that the obtained non-Gaussianity for this model is consistent with Planck results. In this paper we have also considered different spectral tilts at different bins to identify the cosmological scale that the spectral index needs to have a red tilt and it is interesting to report that spectral index cannot be well constrained up to k ≈ 0.01Mpc−1

  12. Bucklin Voting is Broadly Resistant to Control

    CERN Document Server

    Erdélyi, Gábor; Rothe, Jörg

    2010-01-01

    Electoral control models ways of changing the outcome of an election via such actions as adding/deleting/partitioning either candidates or voters. These actions modify an election's participation structure and aim at either making a favorite candidate win ("constructive control") or prevent a despised candidate from winning ("destructive control"), which yields a total of 22 standard control scenarios. To protect elections from such control attempts, computational complexity has been used to show that electoral control, though not impossible, is computationally prohibitive. Among natural voting systems with a polynomial-time winner problem, the two systems with the highest number of proven resistances to control types (namely 19 out of 22) are "sincere-strategy preference-based approval voting" (SP-AV, a modification of a system proposed by Brams and Sanver) and fallback voting. Both are hybrid systems; e.g., fallback voting combines approval with Bucklin voting. In this paper, we study the control complexity...

  13. Achievement of Narrow-Band CARS Signal by Manipulating Broad-band Laser Spectrum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We theoretically demonstrate the achievement of narrow-band coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) signal by manipulating broad-band probe spectrum. The narrowing of the CARS signal depends on the spectrum bandwidth of the probe beam, and thus high-resolution CARS signal for a complicated quantum system can be obtained by the simple spectrum manipulation. Furthermore, the energy-level diagram for the complicated quantum system can also be labelled by measuring the CARS signal at a given frequency. (fundamental areas of phenomenology (including applications))

  14. Observing broad-absorption line quasars with Spectrum-Rontgen-Gamma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singh, K.P.; Schnopper, H.W.; Westergaard, Niels Jørgen Stenfeldt

    Broad-absorption line quasars are found to have extremely weak soft X-ray emission when compared with other optically selected quasars. In the only example of PHL 5200 for which a detailed X-ray spectrum has been obtained with ASCA, strong absorption in the source appears to be responsible for the...

  15. Sarcomas associated with hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer: broad anatomical and morphological spectrum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilbert, Mef; Therkildsen, Christina; Nissen, Anja; Akerman, Måns; Bernstein, Inge

    2009-01-01

    Hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC) is primarily linked to colorectal and endometrial cancer, but is associated with a broad tumor spectrum. Though not formally part of the syndrome, occasional sarcomas have been reported in individuals with HNPCC. We used the national Danish HNPCC-...

  16. Resistance of nanobacteria isolated from urinary and kidney stones to broad-spectrum antibiotics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadi Sardarabadi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Nanoscopic life forms called Nanobacteria or calcifying nanoparticles (CNP are unconventional agents. These novel organisms are very small (0.1 to 0.5 microns and possess unusual properties such as high resistance to heat and routine antimicrobial agents. Nanobacteria are 100 times smaller than bacteria and protected by a shell of apatite, so they could be as candidate for emerging and progress of in vivo pathological calcification. In this study, the inhibitory effect of broad-spectrum antibiotics on growth of these new forms of life has been investigated.Powdered urinary and kidney stones were demineralized with HCl and neutralized with appropriate buffers and became filtered. Finally suspension was incubated in DMEM medium with Fetal Bovine Serum (FBS and broad-spectrum antibiotics (100U/ml for penicillin and 100μg/ml for streptomycin for 60 days.In the presence of broad-spectrum antibiotics, Scanning Electron Micrographs (SEM showed a spherical shape of these nanobacteria. Also, Energy Dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS showed a pick for calcium and phosphor. Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM results illustrated cover around the nanobacteria.The growth of calcifying nanoparticles after adding the broad-spectrum antibiotics may be due to their apatite hard shells supporting them against penetration of the antibiotics.

  17. Draft Genome Sequence of the Broad-Spectrum Xenobiotic Degrader Achromobacter xylosoxidans ADAF13.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyer, Rupa; Damania, Ashish

    2016-01-01

    Achromobacter xylosoxidansADAF13, isolated from farmland soil, possesses a large number of putative degradation genes and pathways that break down a wide variety of aromatic hydrocarbons, pesticides, endocrine disruptors, and other high-impact xenobiotics. These properties make this strain an excellent candidate for further development as a broad-spectrum bioremediation agent. PMID:27081123

  18. Draft Genome Sequence of the Broad-Spectrum Xenobiotic Degrader Achromobacter xylosoxidans ADAF13

    OpenAIRE

    Iyer, Rupa; Damania, Ashish

    2016-01-01

    Achromobacter xylosoxidans ADAF13, isolated from farmland soil, possesses a large number of putative degradation genes and pathways that break down a wide variety of aromatic hydrocarbons, pesticides, endocrine disruptors, and other high-impact xenobiotics. These properties make this strain an excellent candidate for further development as a broad-spectrum bioremediation agent.

  19. Broad spectrum pro-quorum-sensing molecules as inhibitors of virulence in vibrios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Wai-Leung; Perez, Lark; Cong, Jianping; Semmelhack, Martin F; Bassler, Bonnie L

    2012-01-01

    Quorum sensing (QS) is a bacterial cell-cell communication process that relies on the production and detection of extracellular signal molecules called autoinducers. QS allows bacteria to perform collective activities. Vibrio cholerae, a pathogen that causes an acute disease, uses QS to repress virulence factor production and biofilm formation. Thus, molecules that activate QS in V. cholerae have the potential to control pathogenicity in this globally important bacterium. Using a whole-cell high-throughput screen, we identified eleven molecules that activate V. cholerae QS: eight molecules are receptor agonists and three molecules are antagonists of LuxO, the central NtrC-type response regulator that controls the global V. cholerae QS cascade. The LuxO inhibitors act by an uncompetitive mechanism by binding to the pre-formed LuxO-ATP complex to inhibit ATP hydrolysis. Genetic analyses suggest that the inhibitors bind in close proximity to the Walker B motif. The inhibitors display broad-spectrum capability in activation of QS in Vibrio species that employ LuxO. To the best of our knowledge, these are the first molecules identified that inhibit the ATPase activity of a NtrC-type response regulator. Our discovery supports the idea that exploiting pro-QS molecules is a promising strategy for the development of novel anti-infectives. PMID:22761573

  20. Broad spectrum pro-quorum-sensing molecules as inhibitors of virulence in vibrios.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wai-Leung Ng

    Full Text Available Quorum sensing (QS is a bacterial cell-cell communication process that relies on the production and detection of extracellular signal molecules called autoinducers. QS allows bacteria to perform collective activities. Vibrio cholerae, a pathogen that causes an acute disease, uses QS to repress virulence factor production and biofilm formation. Thus, molecules that activate QS in V. cholerae have the potential to control pathogenicity in this globally important bacterium. Using a whole-cell high-throughput screen, we identified eleven molecules that activate V. cholerae QS: eight molecules are receptor agonists and three molecules are antagonists of LuxO, the central NtrC-type response regulator that controls the global V. cholerae QS cascade. The LuxO inhibitors act by an uncompetitive mechanism by binding to the pre-formed LuxO-ATP complex to inhibit ATP hydrolysis. Genetic analyses suggest that the inhibitors bind in close proximity to the Walker B motif. The inhibitors display broad-spectrum capability in activation of QS in Vibrio species that employ LuxO. To the best of our knowledge, these are the first molecules identified that inhibit the ATPase activity of a NtrC-type response regulator. Our discovery supports the idea that exploiting pro-QS molecules is a promising strategy for the development of novel anti-infectives.

  1. Reconstruction of broad features in the primordial spectrum and inflaton potential from Planck

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hazra, Dhiraj Kumar; Shafieloo, Arman [Asia Pacific Center for Theoretical Physics, Pohang, Gyeongbuk 790-784 (Korea, Republic of); Smoot, George F., E-mail: dhiraj@apctp.org, E-mail: arman@apctp.org, E-mail: gfsmoot@lbl.gov [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

    2013-12-01

    With the recently published Cosmic Microwave Background data from Planck we address the optimized binning of the primordial power spectrum. As an important modification to the usual binning of the primordial spectrum, along with the spectral amplitude of the bins, we allow the position of the bins also to vary. This technique enables us to address the location of the possible broad physical features in the primordial spectrum with relatively smaller number of bins compared to the analysis performed earlier. This approach is in fact a reconstruction method looking for broad features in the primordial spectrum and avoiding fitting noise in the data. Performing Markov Chain Monte Carlo analysis we present samples of the allowed primordial spectra with broad features consistent with Planck data. To test how realistic it is to have step-like features in primordial spectrum we revisit an inflationary model, proposed by A. A. Starobinsky which can address the similar features obtained from the binning of the spectrum. Using the publicly available code BINGO, we numerically calculate the local f{sub NL} for this model in equilateral and arbitrary triangular configurations of wavevectors and show that the obtained non-Gaussianity for this model is consistent with Planck results. In this paper we have also considered different spectral tilts at different bins to identify the cosmological scale that the spectral index needs to have a red tilt and it is interesting to report that spectral index cannot be well constrained up to k ≈ 0.01Mpc{sup −1}.

  2. Inheritance of er1-Based Broad-Spectrum Powdery Mildew Resistance in Pea (Pisum sativum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Abubakkar AZMAT

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The knowledge about the nature and number of gene(s controlling resistance is the pre-requisite for the success of powdery mildew resistance breeding program in pea. Seven biparental cross combinations involving three highly resistant (It-96, No. 267 and JI 2302 and two highly susceptible (Climax and PF-400 pea genotypes were evaluated for their response to powdery mildew disease. The quantitative microscopic scale of disease assessment coupled with detached leaf assay was employed for the evaluation of disease response of the crosses and their generations (F1, F2, BCs, and BCr against two highly virulent conidial isolates of Erysiphe pisi. The disease response of 677 F2 plants has revealed a typical monohybrid Mendelian 3 (susceptible: 1 (resistant segregation, moreover, the evaluation of 254 BCr plants gave a perfect 1 (susceptible: 1(resistant segregation. No complementation was observed among all the F1 plants of three complementation crosses, suggesting that the same allele (er-1 conditions complete and broad-spectrum resistance in all the powdery mildew resistant pea genotypes in homozygous recessive form.

  3. Synthesis and Broad-Spectrum Antiviral Activity of Some Novel Benzo-Heterocyclic Amine Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Da-Jun Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A series of novel unsaturated five-membered benzo-heterocyclic amine derivatives were synthesized and assayed to determine their in vitro broad-spectrum antiviral activities. The biological results showed that most of our synthesized compounds exhibited potent broad-spectrum antiviral activity. Notably, compounds 3f (IC50 = 3.21–5.06 μM and 3g (IC50 = 0.71–34.87 μM showed potent activity towards both RNA viruses (influenza A, HCV and Cox B3 virus and a DNA virus (HBV at low micromolar concentrations. An SAR study showed that electron-withdrawing substituents located on the aromatic or heteroaromatic ring favored antiviral activity towards RNA viruses.

  4. The Discussion about Truth Viewpoint and its Significance on the View of Broad-Spectrum Philosophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Facheng Shang

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we have a discussion about truth viewpoint and its significance on the view of Broad-spectrum Philosophy, which inherit and develop the truth of Marxist philosophy Broad-spectrum. Philosophy provides a unique perspective; it introduces the concept of observocontrol mode, which regards the truth as an image in the equivalence class. By changing the observocontrol mode, it reveals “Multilobe” of the truth of the same objective. To answer the question on "how to test the truth", it constructs the procedures and criteria to knowledge the truth. These researches have an important revelation on the enrichment and development of the study of Marxism truth theory.

  5. Squalamine as a broad-spectrum systemic antiviral agent with therapeutic potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zasloff, Michael; Adams, A Paige; Beckerman, Bernard; Campbell, Ann; Han, Ziying; Luijten, Erik; Meza, Isaura; Julander, Justin; Mishra, Abhijit; Qu, Wei; Taylor, John M; Weaver, Scott C; Wong, Gerard C L

    2011-09-20

    Antiviral compounds that increase the resistance of host tissues represent an attractive class of therapeutic. Here, we show that squalamine, a compound previously isolated from the tissues of the dogfish shark (Squalus acanthias) and the sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus), exhibits broad-spectrum antiviral activity against human pathogens, which were studied in vitro as well as in vivo. Both RNA- and DNA-enveloped viruses are shown to be susceptible. The proposed mechanism involves the capacity of squalamine, a cationic amphipathic sterol, to neutralize the negative electrostatic surface charge of intracellular membranes in a way that renders the cell less effective in supporting viral replication. Because squalamine can be readily synthesized and has a known safety profile in man, we believe its potential as a broad-spectrum human antiviral agent should be explored. PMID:21930925

  6. Observing broad-absorption line quasars with Spectrum-Rontgen-Gamma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singh, K.P.; Schnopper, H.W.; Westergaard, Niels Jørgen Stenfeldt

    1998-01-01

    Broad-absorption line quasars are found to have extremely weak soft X-ray emission when compared with other optically selected quasars. In the only example of PHL 5200 for which a detailed X-ray spectrum has been obtained with ASCA, strong absorption in the source appears to be responsible for the...... lack of soft Xray emission. Broad-band X-ray observations of a sample of BAL QSOs are proposed with a high throughput mission SPECTRUM-RONTGEN-GAMMA (SRG), to find out whether these sources are intrinsically weak over the entire bandwidth of X-rays or only in the soft X-rays due to absorption resulting...... from the line of sight passing through large column density clouds. Simultaneous UV observations will help to constrain the ionization state of the absorbers, and also improve the overall UV to X-ray continuum measurements in them....

  7. Broad-Spectrum Antimicrobial Epiphytic and Endophytic Fungi from Marine Organisms: Isolation, Bioassay and Taxonomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan-Hua Zhu

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available In the search for new marine derived antibiotics, 43 epi- and endophytic fungal strains were isolated from the surface or the inner tissue of different marine plants and invertebrates. Through preliminary and secondary screening, 10 of them were found to be able to produce broad-spectrum antimicrobial metabolites. By morphological and molecular biological methods, three active strains were characterized to be Penicillium glabrum, Fusarium oxysporum, and Alternaria alternata.

  8. Factors influencing success of clinical genome sequencing across a broad spectrum of disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taylor, Jenny C; Martin, Hilary C; Lise, Stefano; Broxholme, John; Cazier, Jean-Baptiste; Rimmer, Andy; Kanapin, Alexander; Lunter, Gerton; Fiddy, Simon; Allan, Chris; Aricescu, A Radu; Attar, Moustafa; Babbs, Christian; Becq, Jennifer; Beeson, David; Bento, Celeste; Bignell, Patricia; Blair, Edward; Buckle, Veronica J; Bull, Katherine; Cais, Ondrej; Cario, Holger; Chapel, Helen; Copley, Richard R; Cornall, Richard; Craft, Jude; Dahan, Karin; Davenport, Emma E; Dendrou, Calliope; Devuyst, Olivier; Fenwick, Aimée L; Flint, Jonathan; Fugger, Lars; Gilbert, Rodney D; Goriely, Anne; Green, Angie; Greger, Ingo H; Grocock, Russell; Gruszczyk, Anja V; Hastings, Robert; Hatton, Edouard; Higgs, Doug; Hill, Adrian; Holmes, Chris; Howard, Malcolm; Hughes, Linda; Humburg, Peter; Johnson, David; Karpe, Fredrik; Kingsbury, Zoya; Kini, Usha; Knight, Julian C; Krohn, Jonathan; Lamble, Sarah; Langman, Craig; Lonie, Lorne; Luck, Joshua; McCarthy, Davis; McGowan, Simon J; McMullin, Mary Frances; Miller, Kerry A; Murray, Lisa; Németh, Andrea H; Nesbit, M Andrew; Nutt, David; Ormondroyd, Elizabeth; Oturai, Annette Bang; Pagnamenta, Alistair; Patel, Smita Y; Percy, Melanie; Petousi, Nayia; Piazza, Paolo; Piret, Sian E; Polanco-Echeverry, Guadalupe; Popitsch, Niko; Powrie, Fiona; Pugh, Chris; Quek, Lynn; Robbins, Peter A; Robson, Kathryn; Russo, Alexandra; Sahgal, Natasha; van Schouwenburg, Pauline A; Schuh, Anna; Silverman, Earl; Simmons, Alison; Sørensen, Per Soelberg; Sweeney, Elizabeth; Taylor, John; Thakker, Rajesh V; Tomlinson, Ian; Trebes, Amy; Twigg, Stephen R F; Uhlig, Holm H; Vyas, Paresh; Vyse, Tim; Wall, Steven A; Watkins, Hugh; Whyte, Michael P; Witty, Lorna; Wright, Ben; Yau, Chris; Buck, David; Humphray, Sean; Ratcliffe, Peter J; Bell, John I; Wilkie, Andrew O M; Bentley, David; Donnelly, Peter; McVean, Gilean

    2015-01-01

    To assess factors influencing the success of whole-genome sequencing for mainstream clinical diagnosis, we sequenced 217 individuals from 156 independent cases or families across a broad spectrum of disorders in whom previous screening had identified no pathogenic variants. We quantified the number...... of candidate variants identified using different strategies for variant calling, filtering, annotation and prioritization. We found that jointly calling variants across samples, filtering against both local and external databases, deploying multiple annotation tools and using familial transmission...

  9. Squalamine as a broad-spectrum systemic antiviral agent with therapeutic potential

    OpenAIRE

    Zasloff, Michael; Adams, A. Paige; Beckerman, Bernard; Campbell, Ann; Han, Ziying; Luijten, Erik; Meza, Isaura; Julander, Justin; Mishra, Abhijit; Qu, Wei; Taylor, John M; Scott C Weaver; Wong, Gerard C. L.

    2011-01-01

    Antiviral compounds that increase the resistance of host tissues represent an attractive class of therapeutic. Here, we show that squalamine, a compound previously isolated from the tissues of the dogfish shark (Squalus acanthias) and the sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus), exhibits broad-spectrum antiviral activity against human pathogens, which were studied in vitro as well as in vivo. Both RNA- and DNA-enveloped viruses are shown to be susceptible. The proposed mechanism involves the capacit...

  10. Factors influencing success of clinical genome sequencing across a broad spectrum of disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Taylor, Jenny C; Martin, Hilary C.; Lise, Stefano; Broxholme, John; Cazier, Jean-Baptiste; Rimmer, Andy; Kanapin, Alexander; Lunter, Gerton; Fiddy, Simon; Allan, Chris; Aricescu, A. Radu; Attar, Moustafa; Babbs, Christian; Becq, Jennifer; Beeson, David

    2015-01-01

    To assess factors influencing the success of whole genome sequencing for mainstream clinical diagnosis, we sequenced 217 individuals from 156 independent cases across a broad spectrum of disorders in whom prior screening had identified no pathogenic variants. We quantified the number of candidate variants identified using different strategies for variant calling, filtering, annotation and prioritisation. We found that jointly calling variants across samples, filtering against both local and e...

  11. Broad-spectrum respiratory tract pathogen identification using resequencing DNA microarrays

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Baochuan; Wang, Zheng; Vora, Gary J.; Jennifer A. Thornton; Schnur, Joel M.; Thach, Dzung C.; Blaney, Kate M.; Ligler, Adam G.; Malanoski, Anthony P.; Santiago, Jose; Walter, Elizabeth A.; Agan, Brian K.; Metzgar, David; Seto, Donald; Daum, Luke T.

    2006-01-01

    The exponential growth of pathogen nucleic acid sequences available in public domain databases has invited their direct use in pathogen detection, identification, and surveillance strategies. DNA microarray technology has offered the potential for the direct DNA sequence analysis of a broad spectrum of pathogens of interest. However, to achieve the practical attainment of this potential, numerous technical issues, especially nucleic acid amplification, probe specificity, and interpretation st...

  12. NBS Proifling Identiifes Potential Novel Locus from Solanum demissum That Confers Broad-Spectrum Resistance to Phytophthora infestans

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Kun; XU Jian-fei; DUAN Shao-guang; PANG Wan-fu; BIAN Chun-song; LIU Jie; JIN Li-ping

    2014-01-01

    Potato late blight, caused by the oomycete pathogen Phytophthora infestans, is the most serious disease of potato worldwide. The adoption of varieties with resistance genes, especially broad-spectrum resistance genes, is the most efifcient approach to control late blight. Solanum demissum is a well-known wild potato species from which 11 race-speciifc resistance genes have been identiifed, however, no broad-spectrum resistance genes like RB have been reported in this species. Here, we report a novel reisistance locus from S. demissum that potentially confer broad-spectrum resistance to late blight. A small segregating population of S. demissum were assessed for resistance to aggressive P. infestans isolates (race 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, and 11). This coupled with nucleotide binding site (NBS) proifling analyses, led to the identiifcation of three fragments that linked to the potential candidate resistance gene(s). Cloning and sequence analysis of these fragments suggested that the identiifed resistance gene locus is located in the region containing R2 resistance gene at chromosome 4. Based on the sequences of the cloned fragments, a co-segregating sequence characterized ampliifed region (SCAR) marker, RDSP, was developed. The newly identiifed marker RDSP will be useful for marker assisted breeding and further cloning of this potential resistance gene locus.

  13. Targeting an Essential GTPase Obg for the Development of Broad-Spectrum Antibiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonventre, Josephine A; Zielke, Ryszard A; Korotkov, Konstantin V; Sikora, Aleksandra E

    2016-01-01

    A promising new drug target for the development of novel broad-spectrum antibiotics is the highly conserved small GTPase Obg (YhbZ, CgtA), a protein essential for the survival of all bacteria including Neisseria gonorrhoeae (GC). GC is the agent of gonorrhea, a prevalent sexually transmitted disease resulting in serious consequences on reproductive and neonatal health. A preventive anti-gonorrhea vaccine does not exist, and options for effective antibiotic treatments are increasingly limited. To address the dire need for alternative antimicrobial strategies, we have designed and optimized a 384-well GTPase assay to identify inhibitors of Obg using as a model Obg protein from GC, ObgGC. The assay was validated with a pilot screen of 40,000 compounds and achieved an average Z' value of 0.58 ± 0.02, which suggests a robust assay amenable to high-throughput screening. We developed secondary assessments for identified lead compounds that utilize the interaction between ObgGC and fluorescent guanine nucleotide analogs, mant-GTP and mant-GDP, and an ObgGC variant with multiple alterations in the G-domains that prevent nucleotide binding. To evaluate the broad-spectrum potential of ObgGC inhibitors, Obg proteins of Klebsiella pneumoniae and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus were assessed using the colorimetric and fluorescence-based activity assays. These approaches can be useful in identifying broad-spectrum Obg inhibitors and advancing the therapeutic battle against multidrug resistant bacteria. PMID:26848972

  14. Manganese Oxide Nanoarchitectures as Broad-Spectrum Sorbents for Toxic Gases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Jeffrey W; Wallace, Jean M; Peterson, Gregory W; Huynh, Kim

    2016-01-20

    We demonstrate that sol-gel-derived manganese oxide (MnOx) nanoarchitectures exhibit broad-spectrum filtration activity for three chemically diverse toxic gases: NH3, SO2, and H2S. Manganese oxides are synthesized via the reaction of NaMnO4 and fumaric acid to form monolithic gels of disordered, mixed-valent Na-MnOx; incorporated Na(+) is readily exchanged for H(+) by subsequent acid rinsing to form a more crystalline H-MnOx phase. For both Na-MnOx and H-MnOx forms, controlled pore-fluid removal yields either densified, yet still mesoporous, xerogels or low-density aerogels (prepared by drying from supercritical CO2). The performance of these MnOx nanoarchitectures as filtration media is assessed using dynamic-challenge microbreakthrough protocols. We observe technologically relevant sorption capacities under both dry conditions and wet (80% relative humidity) for each of the three toxic industrial chemicals investigated. The Na-MnOx xerogels and aerogels provide optimal performance with the aerogel exhibiting maximum sorption capacities of 39, 200, and 680 mg g(-1) for NH3, SO2, and H2S, respectively. Postbreakthrough characterization using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and diffuse-reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy (DRIFTS) confirms that NH3 is captured and partially protonated within the MnOx structure, while SO2 undergoes oxidation by the redox-active oxide to form adsorbed sulfate at the MnOx surface. Hydrogen sulfide is also oxidized to form a combination of sulfate and sulfur/polysulfide products, concomitant with a decrease in the average Mn oxidation state from 3.43 to 2.94 and generation of a MnOOH phase. PMID:26741498

  15. An atypical kinase under balancing selection confers broad-spectrum disease resistance in Arabidopsis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carine Huard-Chauveau

    Full Text Available The failure of gene-for-gene resistance traits to provide durable and broad-spectrum resistance in an agricultural context has led to the search for genes underlying quantitative resistance in plants. Such genes have been identified in only a few cases, all for fungal or nematode resistance, and encode diverse molecular functions. However, an understanding of the molecular mechanisms of quantitative resistance variation to other enemies and the associated evolutionary forces shaping this variation remain largely unknown. We report the identification, map-based cloning and functional validation of QRX3 (RKS1, Resistance related KinaSe 1, conferring broad-spectrum resistance to Xanthomonas campestris (Xc, a devastating worldwide bacterial vascular pathogen of crucifers. RKS1 encodes an atypical kinase that mediates a quantitative resistance mechanism in plants by restricting bacterial spread from the infection site. Nested Genome-Wide Association mapping revealed a major locus corresponding to an allelic series at RKS1 at the species level. An association between variation in resistance and RKS1 transcription was found using various transgenic lines as well as in natural accessions, suggesting that regulation of RKS1 expression is a major component of quantitative resistance to Xc. The co-existence of long lived RKS1 haplotypes in A. thaliana is shared with a variety of genes involved in pathogen recognition, suggesting common selective pressures. The identification of RKS1 constitutes a starting point for deciphering the mechanisms underlying broad spectrum quantitative disease resistance that is effective against a devastating and vascular crop pathogen. Because putative RKS1 orthologous have been found in other Brassica species, RKS1 provides an exciting opportunity for plant breeders to improve resistance to black rot in crops.

  16. 5-Carboxy-8-hydroxyquinoline is a Broad Spectrum 2-Oxoglutarate Oxygenase Inhibitor which Causes Iron Translocation

    OpenAIRE

    Hopkinson, Richard J.; Tumber, Anthony; Yapp, Clarence; Chowdhury, Rasheduzzaman; Aik, WeiShen; Che, Ka Hing; Li, Xuan Shirley; Kristensen, Jan B. L.; King, Oliver N.F.; Chan, Mun Chiang; Yeoh, Kar Kheng; Choi, Hwanho; Walport, Louise J.; Thinnes, Cyrille C.; Bush, Jacob T

    2013-01-01

    2-Oxoglutarate and iron dependent oxygenases are therapeutic targets for human diseases. Using a representative 2OG oxygenase panel, we compare the inhibitory activities of 5-carboxy-8-hydroxyquinoline (IOX1) and 4-carboxy-8-hydroxyquinoline (4C8HQ) with that of two other commonly used 2OG oxygenase inhibitors, N-oxalylglycine (NOG) and 2,4-pyridinedicarboxylic acid (2,4-PDCA). The results reveal that IOX1 has a broad spectrum of activity, as demonstrated by the inhibition of transcription fa...

  17. Inhibitors of cellular kinases with broad-spectrum antiviral activity for hemorrhagic fever viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohr, Emma L; McMullan, Laura K; Lo, Michael K; Spengler, Jessica R; Bergeron, Éric; Albariño, César G; Shrivastava-Ranjan, Punya; Chiang, Cheng-Feng; Nichol, Stuart T; Spiropoulou, Christina F; Flint, Mike

    2015-08-01

    Host cell kinases are important for the replication of a number of hemorrhagic fever viruses. We tested a panel of kinase inhibitors for their ability to block the replication of multiple hemorrhagic fever viruses. OSU-03012 inhibited the replication of Lassa, Ebola, Marburg and Nipah viruses, whereas BIBX 1382 dihydrochloride inhibited Lassa, Ebola and Marburg viruses. BIBX 1382 blocked both Lassa and Ebola virus glycoprotein-dependent cell entry. These compounds may be used as tools to understand conserved virus-host interactions, and implicate host cell kinases that may be targets for broad spectrum therapeutic intervention. PMID:25986249

  18. Broad-spectrum sun-protective action of Porphyra-334 derived from Porphyra vietnamensis

    OpenAIRE

    Saurabh Bhatia; Sharma, K.; Namdeo, Ajay G.; B B Chaugule; Kavale, M.; Nanda, S

    2010-01-01

    There are enormous UV-protective compounds present in the current world market, out of which 98% give protection against UV-B range and the remaining 2% are potent against far UV-A range only. Furthermore, these synthetic compounds have various problems related to photo-stability and cross-stability. There is a vital need of sunscreen agents that will remain stable for prolonged periods and provide broad-spectrum protection against harmful UV range. The Indian Ocean contains large amounts of ...

  19. Emerging broad-spectrum resistance in Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter baumannii: Mechanisms and epidemiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potron, Anaïs; Poirel, Laurent; Nordmann, Patrice

    2015-06-01

    Multidrug resistance is quite common among non-fermenting Gram-negative rods, in particular among clinically relevant species including Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter baumannii. These bacterial species, which are mainly nosocomial pathogens, possess a diversity of resistance mechanisms that may lead to multidrug or even pandrug resistance. Extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) conferring resistance to broad-spectrum cephalosporins, carbapenemases conferring resistance to carbapenems, and 16S rRNA methylases conferring resistance to all clinically relevant aminoglycosides are the most important causes of concern. Concomitant resistance to fluoroquinolones, polymyxins (colistin) and tigecycline may lead to pandrug resistance. The most important mechanisms of resistance in P. aeruginosa and A. baumannii and their most recent dissemination worldwide are detailed here. PMID:25857949

  20. Production, purification and characterization of bacteriocin from Lactobacillus murinus AU06 and its broad antibacterial spectrum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sivaramasamy Elayaraja; Neelamegam Annamalai; Packiyam Mayavu; Thangavel Balasubramanian

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To study the production, purification and characterization of bacteriocin fromLactobacillus murinus against fish pathogens.Methods:AU06 isolated from marine sediments and its broad spectrum of inhibition bacteriocin. In addition, purified bacteriocin was tested for its antimicrobial activity against fish pathogens.Results:In the present study, the bacteriocin production was found to be higher at 35 °C, pH The selected strain was used in production, purification and characterized of 6.0 and was purified to 4.74 fold with 55. 38 U/mg of specific activity with the yield of 28.92%. The molecular weight of the purified bacteriocin was estimated as 21 kDa. The purified bacteriocin exhibited complete inactivation of antimicrobial activity when treated with proteinase K, pronase, chymotrypsin, trypsin, pepsin and papain. The purified bacteriocin exhibited broad inhibitory spectrum against both Gram positive and negative bacteria.Conclusions:It is concluded that the ability of bacteriocin in inhibiting a wide-range of pathogenic bacteria is of potential interest for food safety and may have future applications in food preservative.

  1. Vancomycin and Five Broad-spectrum Antibiotic Utilization Evaluation in an Educational Medical Center in One Year

    OpenAIRE

    SiminDokht Shoaei; Aliasghar Bagherzadeh; Mehrdad Haghighi; Meinoosh Shabani

    2015-01-01

     Background: Antibiotics can be life saving if they are used correctly, and can have unwanted side effects specially resistance with incorrect use. Unfortunately in fear of no response, physicians use broad spectrum antibiotics meticulously. In this Drug Utilization Evaluation (DUE), improper use of Vancomycin and five broad-spectrum antibiotics are studied to find faults and solution for this problem. Methods:This descriptive cross-sectional study performed during the March of 2012 to March ...

  2. Integrative therapies in cancer: modulating a broad spectrum of targets for cancer management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Block, Keith I; Block, Penny B; Gyllenhaal, Charlotte

    2015-03-01

    Integrative medicine is an approach to health and healing that "makes use of all appropriate therapeutic approaches, health care professionals, and disciplines to achieve optimal health and healing." A comprehensive integrative medicine intervention for cancer patients typically includes nutritional counseling, biobehavioral strategies, and promotion of physical activity, as well as dietary supplements including herbs, nutraceuticals, and phytochemicals. A broad-spectrum intervention of this type may contribute uniquely to improvement in cancer outcomes through its impact on a wide variety of relevant molecular targets, including effects on multiple cancer hallmarks. Hallmarks that may be particularly affected include genetic instability, tumor-promoting inflammation, deregulated metabolism, and immune system evasion. Because of their susceptibility to manipulation by diet, exercise, and supplementation, these may be characterized as metabolic hallmarks. Research on the use of comprehensive integrative approaches can contribute to the development of systems of multitargeted treatment regimens and would help clarify the combined effect of these approaches on cancer outcomes. PMID:25601968

  3. Multilayer nanoparticle arrays for broad spectrum absorption enhancement in thin film solar cells

    CERN Document Server

    Krishnan, Aravind; Krishna, Siva Rama; Khan, Mohammed Zafar Ali

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we present a theoretical study on the absorption efficiency enhancement of a thin film amorphous Silicon (a-Si) photovoltaic cell over a broad spectrum of wavelengths using multiple nanoparticle arrays. The light absorption efficiency is enhanced in the lower wavelengths by a nanoparticle array on the surface and in the higher wavelengths by another nanoparticle array embedded in the active region. The efficiency at intermediate wavelengths is enhanced by the constructive interference of plasmon coupled light. We optimize this design by tuning the radius of particles in both arrays, the period of the array and the distance between the two arrays. The optimization results in 61.44% increase in total quantum efficiency for a 500 nm thick a-Si substrate.

  4. Broad energy spectrum of laser-accelerated protons for spallation-related physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A beam of MeV protons, accelerated by ultraintense laser-pulse interactions with a thin target foil, is used to investigate nuclear reactions of interest for spallation physics. The laser-generated proton beam is shown (protons were measured) to have a broad energy distribution, which closely resembles the expected energy spectrum of evaporative protons (below 50 MeV) produced in GeV-proton-induced spallation reactions. The protons are used to quantify the distribution of residual radioisotopes produced in a representative spallation target (Pb), and the results are compared with calculated predictions based on spectra modeled with nuclear Monte Carlo codes. Laser-plasma particle accelerators are shown to provide data relevant to the design and development of accelerator driven systems

  5. Factors influencing success of clinical genome sequencing across a broad spectrum of disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Jenny C; Martin, Hilary C; Lise, Stefano; Broxholme, John; Cazier, Jean-Baptiste; Rimmer, Andy; Kanapin, Alexander; Lunter, Gerton; Fiddy, Simon; Allan, Chris; Aricescu, A Radu; Attar, Moustafa; Babbs, Christian; Becq, Jennifer; Beeson, David; Bento, Celeste; Bignell, Patricia; Blair, Edward; Buckle, Veronica J; Bull, Katherine; Cais, Ondrej; Cario, Holger; Chapel, Helen; Copley, Richard R; Cornall, Richard; Craft, Jude; Dahan, Karin; Davenport, Emma E; Dendrou, Calliope; Devuyst, Olivier; Fenwick, Aimée L; Flint, Jonathan; Fugger, Lars; Gilbert, Rodney D; Goriely, Anne; Green, Angie; Greger, Ingo H; Grocock, Russell; Gruszczyk, Anja V; Hastings, Robert; Hatton, Edouard; Higgs, Doug; Hill, Adrian; Holmes, Chris; Howard, Malcolm; Hughes, Linda; Humburg, Peter; Johnson, David; Karpe, Fredrik; Kingsbury, Zoya; Kini, Usha; Knight, Julian C; Krohn, Jonathan; Lamble, Sarah; Langman, Craig; Lonie, Lorne; Luck, Joshua; McCarthy, Davis; McGowan, Simon J; McMullin, Mary Frances; Miller, Kerry A; Murray, Lisa; Németh, Andrea H; Nesbit, M Andrew; Nutt, David; Ormondroyd, Elizabeth; Oturai, Annette Bang; Pagnamenta, Alistair; Patel, Smita Y; Percy, Melanie; Petousi, Nayia; Piazza, Paolo; Piret, Sian E; Polanco-Echeverry, Guadalupe; Popitsch, Niko; Powrie, Fiona; Pugh, Chris; Quek, Lynn; Robbins, Peter A; Robson, Kathryn; Russo, Alexandra; Sahgal, Natasha; van Schouwenburg, Pauline A; Schuh, Anna; Silverman, Earl; Simmons, Alison; Sørensen, Per Soelberg; Sweeney, Elizabeth; Taylor, John; Thakker, Rajesh V; Tomlinson, Ian; Trebes, Amy; Twigg, Stephen R F; Uhlig, Holm H; Vyas, Paresh; Vyse, Tim; Wall, Steven A; Watkins, Hugh; Whyte, Michael P; Witty, Lorna; Wright, Ben; Yau, Chris; Buck, David; Humphray, Sean; Ratcliffe, Peter J; Bell, John I; Wilkie, Andrew O M; Bentley, David; Donnelly, Peter; McVean, Gilean

    2015-07-01

    To assess factors influencing the success of whole-genome sequencing for mainstream clinical diagnosis, we sequenced 217 individuals from 156 independent cases or families across a broad spectrum of disorders in whom previous screening had identified no pathogenic variants. We quantified the number of candidate variants identified using different strategies for variant calling, filtering, annotation and prioritization. We found that jointly calling variants across samples, filtering against both local and external databases, deploying multiple annotation tools and using familial transmission above biological plausibility contributed to accuracy. Overall, we identified disease-causing variants in 21% of cases, with the proportion increasing to 34% (23/68) for mendelian disorders and 57% (8/14) in family trios. We also discovered 32 potentially clinically actionable variants in 18 genes unrelated to the referral disorder, although only 4 were ultimately considered reportable. Our results demonstrate the value of genome sequencing for routine clinical diagnosis but also highlight many outstanding challenges. PMID:25985138

  6. Factors influencing success of clinical genome sequencing across a broad spectrum of disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lise, Stefano; Broxholme, John; Cazier, Jean-Baptiste; Rimmer, Andy; Kanapin, Alexander; Lunter, Gerton; Fiddy, Simon; Allan, Chris; Aricescu, A. Radu; Attar, Moustafa; Babbs, Christian; Becq, Jennifer; Beeson, David; Bento, Celeste; Bignell, Patricia; Blair, Edward; Buckle, Veronica J; Bull, Katherine; Cais, Ondrej; Cario, Holger; Chapel, Helen; Copley, Richard R; Cornall, Richard; Craft, Jude; Dahan, Karin; Davenport, Emma E; Dendrou, Calliope; Devuyst, Olivier; Fenwick, Aimée L; Flint, Jonathan; Fugger, Lars; Gilbert, Rodney D; Goriely, Anne; Green, Angie; Greger, Ingo H.; Grocock, Russell; Gruszczyk, Anja V; Hastings, Robert; Hatton, Edouard; Higgs, Doug; Hill, Adrian; Holmes, Chris; Howard, Malcolm; Hughes, Linda; Humburg, Peter; Johnson, David; Karpe, Fredrik; Kingsbury, Zoya; Kini, Usha; Knight, Julian C; Krohn, Jonathan; Lamble, Sarah; Langman, Craig; Lonie, Lorne; Luck, Joshua; McCarthy, Davis; McGowan, Simon J; McMullin, Mary Frances; Miller, Kerry A; Murray, Lisa; Németh, Andrea H; Nesbit, M Andrew; Nutt, David; Ormondroyd, Elizabeth; Oturai, Annette Bang; Pagnamenta, Alistair; Patel, Smita Y; Percy, Melanie; Petousi, Nayia; Piazza, Paolo; Piret, Sian E; Polanco-Echeverry, Guadalupe; Popitsch, Niko; Powrie, Fiona; Pugh, Chris; Quek, Lynn; Robbins, Peter A; Robson, Kathryn; Russo, Alexandra; Sahgal, Natasha; van Schouwenburg, Pauline A; Schuh, Anna; Silverman, Earl; Simmons, Alison; Sørensen, Per Soelberg; Sweeney, Elizabeth; Taylor, John; Thakker, Rajesh V; Tomlinson, Ian; Trebes, Amy; Twigg, Stephen RF; Uhlig, Holm H; Vyas, Paresh; Vyse, Tim; Wall, Steven A; Watkins, Hugh; Whyte, Michael P; Witty, Lorna; Wright, Ben; Yau, Chris; Buck, David; Humphray, Sean; Ratcliffe, Peter J; Bell, John I; Wilkie, Andrew OM; Bentley, David; Donnelly, Peter; McVean, Gilean

    2015-01-01

    To assess factors influencing the success of whole genome sequencing for mainstream clinical diagnosis, we sequenced 217 individuals from 156 independent cases across a broad spectrum of disorders in whom prior screening had identified no pathogenic variants. We quantified the number of candidate variants identified using different strategies for variant calling, filtering, annotation and prioritisation. We found that jointly calling variants across samples, filtering against both local and external databases, deploying multiple annotation tools and using familial transmission above biological plausibility contributed to accuracy. Overall, we identified disease causing variants in 21% of cases, rising to 34% (23/68) for Mendelian disorders and 57% (8/14) in trios. We also discovered 32 potentially clinically actionable variants in 18 genes unrelated to the referral disorder, though only four were ultimately considered reportable. Our results demonstrate the value of genome sequencing for routine clinical diagnosis, but also highlight many outstanding challenges. PMID:25985138

  7. Broad spectrum moderators and advanced reflector filters using 208Pb

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schönfeldt, Troels; Batkov, K.; Klinkby, Esben Bryndt;

    2015-01-01

    Cold and thermal neutrons used in neutrons scattering experiments are produced in nuclear reactors and spallation sources. The neutrons are cooled to thermal or cold temperatures in thermal and cold moderators, respectively. The present study shows that it is possible to exploit the poor...... thermalizing property of 208Pb to design a broad spectrum moderator, i.e. a moderator which emits thermal and cold neutrons from the same position. Using 208Pb as a reflector filter material is shown to be slightly less efficient than a conventional beryllium reflector filter. However, when surrounding the...... reflector filter by a cold moderator it is possible to regain the neutrons with wavelengths below the Bragg edge, which are suppressed in the beryllium reflector filter. In both the beryllium and lead case surrounding the reflector filter with a cold moderator increases the cold brightness significantly...

  8. Surveillance of broad-spectrum antibiotic prescription in Singaporean hospitals: a 5-year longitudinal study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Xin Liew

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Inappropriate prescription of antibiotics may contribute towards higher levels antimicrobial resistance. A key intervention for improving appropriate antibiotic prescription is surveillance of prescription. This paper presents the results of a longitudinal surveillance of broad-spectrum antibiotic prescription in 5 public-sector hospitals in Singapore from 2006 to 2010. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Quarterly antibiotic prescription data were obtained and converted to defined daily doses (DDDs per 1,000 inpatient-days. The presence of significant trends in antibiotic prescription over time for both individual and combined hospitals was tested by regression analysis and corrected for autocorrelation between time-points. Excluding fluoroquinolones, there was a significant increase in prescription of all monitored antibiotics from an average of 233.12 defined daily doses (DDD/1,000 inpatient-days in 2006 to 254.38 DDD/1,000 inpatient-days in 2010 (Coefficient = 1.13, 95%CI: 0.16-2.09, p = 0.025. Increasing utilization of carbapenems, piperacillin/tazobactam, and Gram-positive agents were seen in the majority of the hospitals, while cephalosporins were less prescribed over time. The combined expenditure for 5 hospitals increased from USD9.9 million in 2006 to USD16.7 million in 2010. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The rate of prescription of broad-spectrum antibiotics in Singaporean hospitals is much higher compared to those of European hospitals. This may be due to high rates of antimicrobial resistance. The increase in expenditure on monitored antibiotics over the past 5 years outstripped the actual increase in DDD/1,000 inpatient-days of antibiotics prescribed. Longitudinal surveillance of antibiotic prescription on a hospital and countrywide level is important for detecting trends for formulating interventions or policies. Further research is needed to understand the causes for the various prescription trends and to act on these where

  9. Broad-spectrum β-lactamases among Enterobacteriaceae of animal origin: molecular aspects, mobility and impact on public health

    OpenAIRE

    Smet, Annemieke; Martel, An; Persoons, Davy; Dewulf, Jeroen; Heyndrickx, Marc; Herman, Lieve; Haesebrouck, Freddy; Butaye, Patrick

    2010-01-01

    Broad-spectrum β-lactamase genes (coding for extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) and AmpC β-lactamases) have been frequently demonstrated in the microbiota of food-producing animals. This may pose a human health hazard since these genes may be present in zoonotic bacteria, which would cause a direct problem. They can also be present in commensals, which may act as a reservoir of resistance genes for pathogens causing disease both in humans and animals. Broad-spectrum β-lactamase genes ...

  10. Broad band X-ray spectrum of KS 1947+300 with BeppoSAX

    CERN Document Server

    Naik, S; Dotani, T; Paul, B

    2006-01-01

    We present results obtained from three BeppoSAX observations of the accretion-powered transient X-ray pulsar KS 1947+300 carried out during the declining phase of its 2000 November -- 2001 June outburst. A detailed spectral study of KS 1947+300 across a wide X-ray band (0.1--100.0 keV) is attempted for the first time here. Timing analysis of the data clearly shows a 18.7 s pulsation in the X-ray light curves in the above energy band. The pulse profile of KS 1947+300 is characterized by a broad peak with sharp rise followed by a narrow dip. The dip in the pulse profile shows a very strong energy dependence. Broad-band pulse-phase-averaged spectroscopy obtained with three of the BeppoSAX instruments shows that the energy spectrum in the 0.1--100 keV energy band has three components, a Comptonized component, a ~0.6 keV blackbody component, and a narrow and weak iron emission line at 6.7 keV with a low column density of material in the line of sight. We place an upper limit on the equivalent width of the iron K_\\...

  11. Nitazoxanide: a first-in-class broad-spectrum antiviral agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossignol, Jean-François

    2014-10-01

    Originally developed and commercialized as an antiprotozoal agent, nitazoxanide was later identified as a first-in-class broad-spectrum antiviral drug and has been repurposed for the treatment of influenza. A Phase 2b/3 clinical trial recently published in The Lancet Infectious Diseases found that oral administration of nitazoxanide 600mg twice daily for five days reduced the duration of clinical symptoms and reduced viral shedding compared to placebo in persons with laboratory-confirmed influenza. The same study also suggested a potential benefit for subjects with influenza-like illness who did not have influenza or other documented respiratory viral infection. From a chemical perspective, nitazoxanide is the scaffold for a new class of drugs called thiazolides. These small-molecule drugs target host-regulated processes involved in viral replication. Nitazoxanide is orally bioavailable and safe with extensive post-marketing experience involving more than 75 million adults and children. A new dosage formulation of nitazoxanide is presently undergoing global Phase 3 clinical development for the treatment of influenza. Nitazoxanide inhibits a broad range of influenza A and B viruses including influenza A(pH1N1) and the avian A(H7N9) as well as viruses that are resistant to neuraminidase inhibitors. It is synergistic with neuraminidase inhibitors, and combination therapy with oseltamivir is being studied in humans as part of ongoing Phase 3 clinical development. Nitazoxanide also inhibits the replication of a broad range of other RNA and DNA viruses including respiratory syncytial virus, parainfluenza, coronavirus, rotavirus, norovirus, hepatitis B, hepatitis C, dengue, yellow fever, Japanese encephalitis virus and human immunodeficiency virus in cell culture assays. Clinical trials have indicated a potential role for thiazolides in treating rotavirus and norovirus gastroenteritis and chronic hepatitis B and chronic hepatitis C. Ongoing and future clinical development

  12. Bloated stars as agn broad line clouds the emission line spectrum

    CERN Document Server

    Alexander, T; Tal Alexander; Hagai Netzer

    1994-01-01

    The `Bloated Stars Scenario' proposes that AGN broad line emission originates in the winds or envelopes of bloated stars (BS). Its main advantage over BLR cloud models is the gravitational confinement of the gas and its major difficulty the large estimated number of BSs and resulting high mass loss rate. We calculate the emission line spectrum by a detailed numerical photoionization code for a wide range of wind structures and a detailed QSO nucleus model with L(ion)=7E45 erg/s, M(bh)=8E7 Mo. The size and boundary density of the BS wind are determined by various processes: Comptonization by the central continuum source, calculated self consistently, tidal disruption by the black hole and the limit set by the wind's finite mass. We find that the emission spectrum is mainly determined by the conditions at the boundary of the line emitting fraction of the wind rather than by its internal structure. Comptonization results in very high ionization parameters at the boundary which produces an excess of unobserved br...

  13. Automatic and controlled processing and the Broad Autism Phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camodeca, Amy; Voelker, Sylvia

    2016-01-30

    Research related to verbal fluency in the Broad Autism Phenotype (BAP) is limited and dated, but generally suggests intact abilities in the context of weaknesses in other areas of executive function (Hughes et al., 1999; Wong et al., 2006; Delorme et al., 2007). Controlled processing, the generation of search strategies after initial, automated responses are exhausted (Spat, 2013), has yet to be investigated in the BAP, and may be evidenced in verbal fluency tasks. One hundred twenty-nine participants completed the Delis-Kaplan Executive Function System Verbal Fluency test (D-KEFS; Delis et al., 2001) and the Broad Autism Phenotype Questionnaire (BAPQ; Hurley et al., 2007). The BAP group (n=53) produced significantly fewer total words during the 2nd 15" interval compared to the Non-BAP (n=76) group. Partial correlations indicated similar relations between verbal fluency variables for each group. Regression analyses predicting 2nd 15" interval scores suggested differentiation between controlled and automatic processing skills in both groups. Results suggest adequate automatic processing, but slowed development of controlled processing strategies in the BAP, and provide evidence for similar underlying cognitive constructs for both groups. Controlled processing was predictive of Block Design score for Non-BAP participants, and was predictive of Pragmatic Language score on the BAPQ for BAP participants. These results are similar to past research related to strengths and weaknesses in the BAP, respectively, and suggest that controlled processing strategy use may be required in instances of weak lower-level skills. PMID:26652842

  14. Pyrodiversity and the anthropocene: the role of fire in the broad spectrum revolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird, Douglas W; Bliege Bird, Rebecca; Codding, Brian F

    2016-05-01

    The Anthropocene colloquially refers to a global regime of human-caused environmental modification of earth systems associated with profound changes in patterns of human mobility, as well as settlement and resource use compared with prior eras. Some have argued that the processes generating the Anthropocene are mainly associated with population growth and technological innovation, and thus began only in the late Holocene under conditions of dense sedentism and industrial agriculture.(1) However, it now seems clear that the roots of the Anthropocene lie in complex processes of intensification that significantly predate transitions to agriculture.(2,3) What intensification is remains less clear. For some it is increasing economic productivity that increases carrying capacity, the drivers of which may be too diverse and too local to generalize.(4,5) For others using Boserup's ideas about agrarian intensification, increasing density in hunter-gatherer populations can produce declines in subsistence efficiency that increase incentives for investing labor to boost yield per unit area, which then elevates Malthusian limits on carrying capacity.(6-8) As Morgan(9) demonstrates in a comprehensive review, the legacy of such Boserupian intensification is alive, well, and controversial in hunter-gatherer archeology. This is a result of its potential for illuminating processes involved in transformations of forager socio-political and economic systems, including those dominated by harvesting more immediate-return resources and high residential mobility as well as those characterized by more delayed-return material economies with reduced residential mobility, a broader spectrum of resources, degrees of storage, and greater social stratification. Here we detail hypotheses about the processes involved in such transitions and explore the way that anthropogenic disturbance of ecosystems, especially the use of landscape fire, could be fundamentally entangled with many broad-spectrum

  15. Systems analysis of a RIG-I agonist inducing broad spectrum inhibition of virus infectivity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Line Goulet

    Full Text Available The RIG-I like receptor pathway is stimulated during RNA virus infection by interaction between cytosolic RIG-I and viral RNA structures that contain short hairpin dsRNA and 5' triphosphate (5'ppp terminal structure. In the present study, an RNA agonist of RIG-I was synthesized in vitro and shown to stimulate RIG-I-dependent antiviral responses at concentrations in the picomolar range. In human lung epithelial A549 cells, 5'pppRNA specifically stimulated multiple parameters of the innate antiviral response, including IRF3, IRF7 and STAT1 activation, and induction of inflammatory and interferon stimulated genes - hallmarks of a fully functional antiviral response. Evaluation of the magnitude and duration of gene expression by transcriptional profiling identified a robust, sustained and diversified antiviral and inflammatory response characterized by enhanced pathogen recognition and interferon (IFN signaling. Bioinformatics analysis further identified a transcriptional signature uniquely induced by 5'pppRNA, and not by IFNα-2b, that included a constellation of IRF7 and NF-kB target genes capable of mobilizing multiple arms of the innate and adaptive immune response. Treatment of primary PBMCs or lung epithelial A549 cells with 5'pppRNA provided significant protection against a spectrum of RNA and DNA viruses. In C57Bl/6 mice, intravenous administration of 5'pppRNA protected animals from a lethal challenge with H1N1 Influenza, reduced virus titers in mouse lungs and protected animals from virus-induced pneumonia. Strikingly, the RIG-I-specific transcriptional response afforded partial protection from influenza challenge, even in the absence of type I interferon signaling. This systems approach provides transcriptional, biochemical, and in vivo analysis of the antiviral efficacy of 5'pppRNA and highlights the therapeutic potential associated with the use of RIG-I agonists as broad spectrum antiviral agents.

  16. Effect of spectral range in surface inactivation of Listeria innocua using broad-spectrum pulsed light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodling, Sarah E; Moraru, Carmen I

    2007-04-01

    Pulsed light (PL) treatment is an alternative to traditional thermal treatment that has the potential to achieve several log-cycle reductions in the concentration of microorganisms. One issue that is still debated is related to what specifically causes cell death after PL treatments. The main objective of this work was to elucidate which portions of the PL range are responsible for bacterial inactivation. Stainless steel coupons with controlled surface properties were inoculated with a known concentration of Listeria innocua in the stationary growth phase and treated with 1 to 12 pulses of light at a pulse rate of 3 pulses per s and a pulse width of 360 micros. The effects of the full spectrum (lambda = 180 to 1,100 nm) were compared with the effects obtained when only certain regions of UV, visible, and near-infrared light were used. The effectiveness of the treatments was determined in parallel by the standard plate count and most-probable-number techniques. At a fluence of about 6 J/cm(2), the full-spectrum PL treatment resulted in a 4.08-log reduction of L. innocua on a Mill finish surface, the removal of lambda 400 nm). This work provides additional supporting evidence that cell death in PL treatment is due to exposure to UV light. Additionally, it was shown that even a minor modification of the light path or the UV light spectrum in PL treatments can have a significant negative impact on the treatment intensity and effectiveness. PMID:17477260

  17. Survey of pharmacists and physicians on drug interactions between combined oral contraceptives and broad-spectrum antibiotics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masters KP

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate physician and pharmacist knowledge on potential drug interactions between combined oral contraceptives (COC and broad-spectrum antibiotics and determine if any difference exists between responses.Methods: Two hundred licensed retail pharmacists and 200 licensed family practice physicians in the states of Virginia, West Virginia, and Maryland were mailed an anonymous survey between August 2007 and November 2007. The survey consisted of 3 short questions asking practitioners about their current opinion on drug interactions with COCs and whether an alternative form of contraception is needed for patients taking COC and concomitant broad-spectrum antibiotics. The main outcome measure of the survey included: identifying how physicians and pharmacists handle prescribing or dispensing COCs along with broad-spectrum antibiotics. Gender, educational degree, and years in practice were also collected. Results: A total of 182 participants returned the surveys (57% were physicians and 43% were pharmacists. When asked if broad-spectrum antibiotics have a clinically significant interaction with COCs, 82.7% of physicians and 88.5% of pharmacists answered, “yes”. Of the respondents, 84.6% stated that the drug interaction warrants the patient to be advised to use back-up contraception. A total of 90.1% stated that they currently instruct patients to use back-up contraception when prescribing or dispensing antibiotics to a patient who is on COC, with no statistically significant difference existing between the responses of the pharmacists and the physicians.Conclusion: Physicians and pharmacists believe that broad-spectrum antibiotics decrease the effectiveness of COCs. These practitioners warn their patients of this interaction and advise the use of back-up contraception. More education should be provided to practitioners regarding the data concerning COCs and broad spectrum antibiotics and lack of a proven interaction.

  18. Analysis of mobile health applications for a broad spectrum of consumers: a user experience approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Gómez, Juan M; de la Torre-Díez, Isabel; Vicente, Javier; Robles, Montserrat; López-Coronado, Miguel; Rodrigues, Joel J

    2014-03-01

    Mobile health (m-health) apps can bring health prevention and promotion to the general population. The main purpose of this article is to analyze different m-health apps for a broad spectrum of consumers by means of three different experiences. This goal was defined following the strategic documents generated by the main prospective observatories of Information and Communications Technology for health. After a general exploration of the app markets, we analyze the entries of three specific themes focused in this article: type 2 diabetes, obesity, and breast-feeding. The user experiences reported in this study mostly cover the segments of (1) chronically monitored consumers through a Web mobile app for predicting type 2 diabetes (Diab_Alert app), (2) information seekers through a mobile app for maternity (Lactation app) and partially (3) the motivated healthy consumers through a mobile app for a dietetic monitoring and assessment (SapoFit app). These apps were developed by the authors of this work. PMID:24550566

  19. Steps toward broad-spectrum therapeutics: discovering virulence-associated genes present in diverse human pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Rochefort Anna

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background New and improved antimicrobial countermeasures are urgently needed to counteract increased resistance to existing antimicrobial treatments and to combat currently untreatable or new emerging infectious diseases. We demonstrate that computational comparative genomics, together with experimental screening, can identify potential generic (i.e., conserved across multiple pathogen species and novel virulence-associated genes that may serve as targets for broad-spectrum countermeasures. Results Using phylogenetic profiles of protein clusters from completed microbial genome sequences, we identified seventeen protein candidates that are common to diverse human pathogens and absent or uncommon in non-pathogens. Mutants of 13 of these candidates were successfully generated in Yersinia pseudotuberculosis and the potential role of the proteins in virulence was assayed in an animal model. Six candidate proteins are suggested to be involved in the virulence of Y. pseudotuberculosis, none of which have previously been implicated in the virulence of Y. pseudotuberculosis and three have no record of involvement in the virulence of any bacteria. Conclusion This work demonstrates a strategy for the identification of potential virulence factors that are conserved across a number of human pathogenic bacterial species, confirming the usefulness of this tool.

  20. Broad-spectrum identification and discrimination between biothreat agents and near-neighbor species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malanoski, Anthony P.; Leski, Tomasz A.; Cheng, Luke; Wang, Zheng; Stenger, David A.; Lin, Baochuan

    2009-05-01

    A comprehensive resequencing microarray "Tropical and Emerging Infections (TessArray RPM-TEI 1.0 array)" has been developed to identify and distinguish between biothreat organisms of interest and genetically close related species. This array has undergone validation using an innovative approach where synthetic DNA fragments are used for organisms that it is not safe to work with outside a biosafety 3 facilities. The approach was confirmed from testing a subset of target organisms, such as Ebola viruses and Lassa viruses, at USAMRIID. Most potential biothreat organisms are actually endemic in some part of the world. Proper surveillance of biothreat agents will require some form of monitoring the evolution of the indigenous organisms under their natural environment, so when changes in the organisms occur, the diagnostic assays for these organisms can be reviewed to assure they still provide detection. Using the resequencing microarray (RPM) for detection in locations such as the Africa can support indigenous monitoring as it provides sequence information. An ongoing collaboration with Njala University aims to establish a broad-spectrum pathogen surveillance capability in the Republic of Sierra Leone, West Africa using RPM technology combined with a Geographic Information System. This has the potential to improve the public health efforts in an infected area as well as provide monitoring of the changes occurring to a biothreat organism, i.e. Lassa viruses, in its natural location.

  1. Human DDX3 protein is a valuable target to develop broad spectrum antiviral agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brai, Annalaura; Fazi, Roberta; Tintori, Cristina; Zamperini, Claudio; Bugli, Francesca; Sanguinetti, Maurizio; Stigliano, Egidio; Esté, José; Badia, Roger; Franco, Sandra; Martinez, Miguel A; Martinez, Javier P; Meyerhans, Andreas; Saladini, Francesco; Zazzi, Maurizio; Garbelli, Anna; Maga, Giovanni; Botta, Maurizio

    2016-05-10

    Targeting a host factor essential for the replication of different viruses but not for the cells offers a higher genetic barrier to the development of resistance, may simplify therapy regimens for coinfections, and facilitates management of emerging viral diseases. DEAD-box polypeptide 3 (DDX3) is a human host factor required for the replication of several DNA and RNA viruses, including some of the most challenging human pathogens currently circulating, such as HIV-1, Hepatitis C virus, Dengue virus, and West Nile virus. Herein, we showed for the first time, to our knowledge, that the inhibition of DDX3 by a small molecule could be successfully exploited for the development of a broad spectrum antiviral agent. In addition to the multiple antiviral activities, hit compound 16d retained full activity against drug-resistant HIV-1 strains in the absence of cellular toxicity. Pharmacokinetics and toxicity studies in rats confirmed a good safety profile and bioavailability of 16d. Thus, DDX3 is here validated as a valuable therapeutic target. PMID:27118832

  2. Broad-spectrum sun-protective action of Porphyra-334 derived from Porphyra vietnamensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saurabh Bhatia

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available There are enormous UV-protective compounds present in the current world market, out of which 98% give protection against UV-B range and the remaining 2% are potent against far UV-A range only. Furthermore, these synthetic compounds have various problems related to photo-stability and cross-stability. There is a vital need of sunscreen agents that will remain stable for prolonged periods and provide broad-spectrum protection against harmful UV range. The Indian Ocean contains large amounts of macro-algae which synthesize varied amount of mycosporine amino acids, "sun-protective compounds" by shikmic acid pathway. In the present study, we have evaluated the sunscreen protection provided by Porphyra-334, a mycosporine amino acid isolated from Indian sp. of Porphyra. Furthermore, the isolated compound was detected by high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC fingerprinting, high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC and ultraviolet (UV, whereas nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR spectroscopy and infrared spectrometry were used for its structural characterization. Stability studies were performed under different storage and pH conditions. Ultimately a sunscreen formulation was developed and its potential against marketed Aloe vera gel was evaluated by in vitro sunscreen protection method. It was observed that sunscreen potential of Porphyra-334 was 5.11-fold greater than that of the marketed Aloe vera gel preparation.

  3. Development of Broad-Spectrum Halomethyl Ketone Inhibitors Against Coronavirus Main Protease 3CL(pro)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bacha,U.; Barilla, J.; Gabelli, S.; Kiso, Y.; Amzel, L.; Freire, E.

    2008-01-01

    Coronaviruses comprise a large group of RNA viruses with diverse host specificity. The emergence of highly pathogenic strains like the SARS coronavirus (SARS-CoV), and the discovery of two new coronaviruses, NL-63 and HKU1, corroborates the high rate of mutation and recombination that have enabled them to cross species barriers and infect novel hosts. For that reason, the development of broad-spectrum antivirals that are effective against several members of this family is highly desirable. This goal can be accomplished by designing inhibitors against a target, such as the main protease 3CLpro (Mpro), which is highly conserved among all coronaviruses. Here 3CLpro derived from the SARS-CoV was used as the primary target to identify a new class of inhibitors containing a halomethyl ketone warhead. The compounds are highly potent against SARS 3CLpro with Ki's as low as 300 nm. The crystal structure of the complex of one of the compounds with 3CLpro indicates that this inhibitor forms a thioether linkage between the halomethyl carbon of the warhead and the catalytic Cys 145. Furthermore, Structure Activity Relationship (SAR) studies of these compounds have led to the identification of a pharmacophore that accurately defines the essential molecular features required for the high affinity.

  4. Changes in Cell Viability of Wounded Fibroblasts following Laser Irradiation in Broad-Spectrum or Infrared Light

    OpenAIRE

    Hawkins, Denise; Abrahamse, Heidi

    2007-01-01

    Objective. This study aimed to establish if broad-spectrum or infrared (IR) light in combination with laser therapy can assist phototherapy to improve the cell function of wounded cells. Background. The effect of laser light may be partly or completely reduced by broad-spectrum light. Methods. Wounded human skin fibroblasts were irradiated with 5 J/cm2 using a helium-neon laser, a diode laser, or an Nd:YAG laser in the dark, in the light, or in IR. Changes in cell viability were evaluated by ...

  5. Broad-spectrum resistance to Bacillus thuringiensis toxins by western corn rootworm (Diabrotica virgifera virgifera)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakka, Siva R. K.; Shrestha, Ram B.; Gassmann, Aaron J.

    2016-01-01

    The evolution of resistance and cross-resistance threaten the sustainability of genetically engineered crops that produce insecticidal toxins derived from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt). Western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte, is a serious pest of maize and has been managed with Bt maize since 2003. We conducted laboratory bioassays with maize hybrids producing Bt toxins Cry3Bb1, mCry3A, eCry3.1Ab, and Cry34/35Ab1, which represent all commercialized Bt toxins for management of western corn rootworm. We tested populations from fields where severe injury to Cry3Bb1 maize was observed, and populations that had never been exposed to Bt maize. Consistent with past studies, bioassays indicated that field populations were resistant to Cry3Bb1 maize and mCry3A maize, and that cross-resistance was present between these two types of Bt maize. Additionally, bioassays revealed resistance to eCry3.1Ab maize and cross-resistance among Cry3Bb1, mCry3A and eCry3.1Ab. However, no resistance or cross-resistance was detected for Cry34/35Ab1 maize. This broad-spectrum resistance illustrates the potential for insect pests to develop resistance rapidly to multiple Bt toxins when structural similarities are present among toxins, and raises concerns about the long-term durability of Bt crops for management of some insect pests. PMID:27297953

  6. Depletion of Cultivatable Gut Microbiota by Broad-Spectrum Antibiotic Pretreatment Worsens Outcome After Murine Stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winek, Katarzyna; Engel, Odilo; Koduah, Priscilla; Heimesaat, Markus M.; Fischer, André; Bereswill, Stefan; Dames, Claudia; Kershaw, Olivia; Gruber, Achim D.; Curato, Caterina; Oyama, Naoki; Meisel, Christian; Meisel, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Background and Purpose— Antibiotics disturbing microbiota are often used in treatment of poststroke infections. A bidirectional brain–gut microbiota axis was recently suggested as a modulator of nervous system diseases. We hypothesized that gut microbiota may be an important player in the course of stroke. Methods— We investigated the outcome of focal cerebral ischemia in C57BL/6J mice after an 8-week decontamination with quintuple broad-spectrum antibiotic cocktail. These microbiota-depleted animals were subjected to 60 minutes middle cerebral artery occlusion or sham operation. Infarct volume was measured using magnetic resonance imaging, and mice were monitored clinically throughout the whole experiment. At the end point, tissues were preserved for further analysis, comprising histology and immunologic investigations using flow cytometry. Results— We found significantly decreased survival in the middle cerebral artery occlusion microbiota-depleted mice when the antibiotic cocktail was stopped 3 days before surgery (compared with middle cerebral artery occlusion specific pathogen-free and sham-operated microbiota-depleted mice). Moreover, all microbiota-depleted animals in which antibiotic treatment was terminated developed severe acute colitis. This phenotype was rescued by continuous antibiotic treatment or colonization with specific pathogen-free microbiota before surgery. Further, infarct volumes on day one did not differ between any of the experimental groups. Conclusions— Conventional microbiota ensures intestinal protection in the mouse model of experimental stroke and prevents development of acute and severe colitis in microbiota-depleted mice not given antibiotic protection after cerebral ischemia. Our experiments raise the clinically important question as to whether microbial colonization or specific microbiota are crucial for stroke outcome. PMID:27056982

  7. Extensive sequence variation in rice blast resistance gene Pi54 makes it broad spectrum in nature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shallu eThakur

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Rice blast resistant gene, Pi54 cloned from rice line, Tetep, is effective against diverse isolates of Magnaporthe oryzae. In this study, we prospected the allelic variants of the dominant blast resistance gene from a set of 92 rice lines to determine the nucleotide diversity, pattern of its molecular evolution, phylogenetic relationships and evolutionary dynamics, and to develop allele specific markers. High quality sequences were generated for homologs of Pi54 gene. Using comparative sequence analysis, InDels of variable sizes in all the alleles were observed. Profiling of the selected sites of SNP (Single Nucleotide Polymorphism and amino acids (N sites ≥ 10 exhibited constant frequency distribution of mutational and substitutional sites between the resistance and susceptible rice lines, respectively. A total of 50 new haplotypes based on the nucleotide polymorphism was also identified. A unique haplotype (H_3 was found to be linked to all the resistant alleles isolated from indica rice lines. Unique leucine zipper and tyrosine sulfation sites were identified in the predicted Pi54 proteins. Selection signals were observed in entire coding sequence of resistance alleles, as compared to LRR domains for susceptible alleles. This is a maiden report of extensive variability of Pi54 alleles in different landraces and cultivated varieties, possibly, attributing broad-spectrum resistance to Magnaporthe oryzae. The sequence variation in two consensus region: 163 bp and 144 bp were used for the development of allele specific DNA markers. Validated markers can be used for the selection and identification of better allele(s and their introgression in commercial rice cultivars employing marker assisted selection.

  8. Broad-spectrum resistance to Bacillus thuringiensis toxins by western corn rootworm (Diabrotica virgifera virgifera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakka, Siva R K; Shrestha, Ram B; Gassmann, Aaron J

    2016-01-01

    The evolution of resistance and cross-resistance threaten the sustainability of genetically engineered crops that produce insecticidal toxins derived from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt). Western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte, is a serious pest of maize and has been managed with Bt maize since 2003. We conducted laboratory bioassays with maize hybrids producing Bt toxins Cry3Bb1, mCry3A, eCry3.1Ab, and Cry34/35Ab1, which represent all commercialized Bt toxins for management of western corn rootworm. We tested populations from fields where severe injury to Cry3Bb1 maize was observed, and populations that had never been exposed to Bt maize. Consistent with past studies, bioassays indicated that field populations were resistant to Cry3Bb1 maize and mCry3A maize, and that cross-resistance was present between these two types of Bt maize. Additionally, bioassays revealed resistance to eCry3.1Ab maize and cross-resistance among Cry3Bb1, mCry3A and eCry3.1Ab. However, no resistance or cross-resistance was detected for Cry34/35Ab1 maize. This broad-spectrum resistance illustrates the potential for insect pests to develop resistance rapidly to multiple Bt toxins when structural similarities are present among toxins, and raises concerns about the long-term durability of Bt crops for management of some insect pests. PMID:27297953

  9. Successful five-item triage for the broad spectrum of mental disorders in pregnancy - A validation study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. Quispel (Chantal); T.A.J. Schneider (Tom); W.J.G. Hoogendijk (Witte); G.J. Bonsel (Gouke); M.P. Lambregtse-van den Berg (Mijke)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Mental disorders are prevalent during pregnancy, affecting 10% of women worldwide. To improve triage of a broad spectrum of mental disorders, we investigated the decision impact validity of: 1) a short set of currently used psychiatric triage items, 2) this set with the inclu

  10. Psychological Adjustment and Sibling Relationships in Siblings of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders: Environmental Stressors and the Broad Autism Phenotype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petalas, Michael A.; Hastings, Richard P.; Nash, Susie; Hall, Louise M.; Joannidi, Helen; Dowey, Alan

    2012-01-01

    Research with siblings of children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) suggests that they may be at increased risk for behavioural and emotional problems and relatively poor sibling relationships. This study investigated a diathesis-stress model, whereby the presence of Broad Autism Phenotype features in the typically developing siblings might…

  11. Wild Coastline Birds as Reservoirs of Broad-Spectrum-β-Lactamase-Producing Enterobacteriaceae in Miami Beach, Florida

    OpenAIRE

    Poirel, L.; Potron, A.; de la Cuesta, C.; Cleary, T.; Nordmann, P; Munoz-Price, L. S.

    2012-01-01

    A high rate of broad-spectrum-β-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli isolates was identified from seagull and pelican feces collected in the Miami Beach, Florida, area. The most commonly identified resistance determinants were CMY-2 and CTX-M-15. Those wild birds might be therefore considered vehicles for wide dissemination of multidrug-resistant Enterobacteriaceae in the United States.

  12. The broad-spectrum cation channel blocker pinokalant (LOE 908 MS) reduces brain infarct volume in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas; Wienrich, Marion; Ensinger, Helmut A;

    2005-01-01

    Activation of cation channels conducting Ca2+, Na+ and K+ is involved in the pathogenesis of infarction in experimental focal cerebral ischaemia. Pinokalant (LOE 908 MS) is a novel broad-spectrum inhibitor of several subtypes of such channels and has previously been shown to improve the metabolic...

  13. Proteasome Accessory Factor C (pafC) Is a novel gene Involved in Mycobacterium Intrinsic Resistance to broad-spectrum antibiotics - Fluoroquinolones

    OpenAIRE

    Qiming Li; Longxiang Xie; Quanxin Long; Jinxiao Mao; Hui Li; Mingliang Zhou; Jianping Xie

    2015-01-01

    Antibiotics resistance poses catastrophic threat to global public health. Novel insights into the underlying mechanisms of action will inspire better measures to control drug resistance. Fluoroquinolones are potent and widely prescribed broad-spectrum antibiotics. Bacterial protein degradation pathways represent novel druggable target for the development of new classes of antibiotics. Mycobacteria proteasome accessory factor C (pafC), a component of bacterial proteasome, is involved in fluoro...

  14. Structures of mammalian ER α-glucosidase II capture the binding modes of broad-spectrum iminosugar antivirals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caputo, Alessandro T; Alonzi, Dominic S; Marti, Lucia; Reca, Ida-Barbara; Kiappes, J L; Struwe, Weston B; Cross, Alice; Basu, Souradeep; Lowe, Edward D; Darlot, Benoit; Santino, Angelo; Roversi, Pietro; Zitzmann, Nicole

    2016-08-01

    The biosynthesis of enveloped viruses depends heavily on the host cell endoplasmic reticulum (ER) glycoprotein quality control (QC) machinery. This dependency exceeds the dependency of host glycoproteins, offering a window for the targeting of ERQC for the development of broad-spectrum antivirals. We determined small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) and crystal structures of the main ERQC enzyme, ER α-glucosidase II (α-GluII; from mouse), alone and in complex with key ligands of its catalytic cycle and antiviral iminosugars, including two that are in clinical trials for the treatment of dengue fever. The SAXS data capture the enzyme's quaternary structure and suggest a conformational rearrangement is needed for the simultaneous binding of a monoglucosylated glycan to both subunits. The X-ray structures with key catalytic cycle intermediates highlight that an insertion between the +1 and +2 subsites contributes to the enzyme's activity and substrate specificity, and reveal that the presence of d-mannose at the +1 subsite renders the acid catalyst less efficient during the cleavage of the monoglucosylated substrate. The complexes with iminosugar antivirals suggest that inhibitors targeting a conserved ring of aromatic residues between the α-GluII +1 and +2 subsites would have increased potency and selectivity, thus providing a template for further rational drug design. PMID:27462106

  15. Broad-band spectrophotometry of HAT-P-32 b: Search for a scattering signature in the planetary spectrum

    CERN Document Server

    Mallonn, M; Herrero, E; Hoyer, S; Kirk, J; Wheatley, P J; Seeliger, M; Mackebrandt, F; von Essen, C; Strassmeier, K G; Granzer, T; Künstler, A; Dhillon, V S; Marsh, T R; Gaitan, J

    2016-01-01

    Multi-colour broad-band transit observations offer the opportunity to characterise the atmosphere of an extrasolar planet with small- to medium-sized telescopes. One of the most favourable targets is the hot Jupiter HAT-P-32 b. We combined 21 new transit observations of this planet with 36 previously published light curves for a homogeneous analysis of the broad-band transmission spectrum from the Sloan u' band to the Sloan z' band. Our results rule out cloud-free planetary atmosphere models of solar metallicity. Furthermore, a discrepancy at reddest wavelengths to previously published results makes a recent tentative detection of a scattering feature less likely. Instead, the available spectral measurements of HAT-P-32 b favour a completely flat spectrum from the near-UV to the near-IR. A plausible interpretation is a thick cloud cover at high altitudes.

  16. Prevalence and Mechanisms of Broad-Spectrum β-Lactam Resistance in Enterobacteriaceae: a Children's Hospital Experience

    OpenAIRE

    Qin, Xuan; Zerr, Danielle M; Weissman, Scott J.; Englund, Janet A.; Denno, Donna M.; Klein, Eileen J.; Tarr, Phillip I.; Kwong, Justin; Stapp, Jennifer R.; Tulloch, Luis G.; Galanakis, Emmanouil

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the trends and patterns of resistance in β-lactamase-producing members of the family Enterobacteriaceae in a children's hospital over a 9-year period (1999 to 2007). Clinically significant isolates of the Enterobacteriaceae were screened for patterns of broad-spectrum resistance to β-lactams. The strains likely to be resistant were subsequently confirmed by an inhibitor-based disc test. The plasmid-mediated resistance determinants in these isolat...

  17. Discovery of New Imidazole Derivatives Containing the 2,4-Dienone Motif with Broad-Spectrum Antifungal and Antibacterial Activity

    OpenAIRE

    Chunli Liu; Ce Shi; Fei Mao; Yong Xu; Jinyan Liu; Bing Wei; Jin Zhu; Mingjie Xiang; Jian Li

    2014-01-01

    A compound containing an imidazole moiety and a 2,4-dienone motif with significant activity toward several fungi was discovered in a screen for new antifungal compounds. Then, a total of 26 derivatives of this compound were designed, synthesized and evaluated through in vitro and in vivo antifungal activity assays. Several compounds exhibited improved antifungal activities compared to the lead compound. Of the derivatives, compounds 31 and 42 exhibited strong, broad-spectrum inhibitory effect...

  18. Black cobra (Naja naja karachiensis) lysates exhibit broad-spectrum antimicrobial activities

    OpenAIRE

    Sagheer, Mehwish; Siddiqui, Ruqaiyyah; Iqbal, Junaid; Khan, Naveed Ahmed

    2014-01-01

    It is hypothesized that animals living in polluted environments possess antimicrobials to counter pathogenic microbes. The fact that snakes feed on germ-infested rodents suggests that they encounter pathogenic microbes and likely possess antimicrobials. The venom is used only to paralyze the rodent, but the ability of snakes to counter potential infections in the gut due to disease-ridden rodents requires robust action of the immune system against a broad range of pathogens. To test this hypo...

  19. Safety and pharmacological characterization of the molecular tweezer CLR01 - a broad-spectrum inhibitor of amyloid proteins' toxicity.

    OpenAIRE

    Attar, A.; Chan, WTC; Klärner, FG; Schrader, T.; Bitan, G.

    2014-01-01

    The "molecular tweezer" CLR01 is a broad-spectrum inhibitor of abnormal protein self-assembly, which acts by binding selectively to Lys residues. CLR01 has been tested in several in vitro and in vivo models of amyloidoses all without signs of toxicity. With the goal of developing CLR01 as a therapeutic drug for Alzheimer's disease and other amyloidoses, here we studied its safety and pharmacokinetics. Toxicity studies were performed in 2-m old wild-type mice. Toxicity was evaluated by serum c...

  20. Safety and pharmacological characterization of the molecular tweezer CLR01 – a broad-spectrum inhibitor of amyloid proteins’ toxicity

    OpenAIRE

    Attar, Aida; Chan, Wai-Ting Coco; Klärner, Frank-Gerrit; Schrader, Thomas; Bitan, Gal

    2014-01-01

    Background The “molecular tweezer” CLR01 is a broad-spectrum inhibitor of abnormal protein self-assembly, which acts by binding selectively to Lys residues. CLR01 has been tested in several in vitro and in vivo models of amyloidoses all without signs of toxicity. With the goal of developing CLR01 as a therapeutic drug for Alzheimer’s disease and other amyloidoses, here we studied its safety and pharmacokinetics. Methods Toxicity studies were performed in 2-m old wild-type mice. Toxicity was e...

  1. Proteus mirabilis ZapA Metalloprotease Degrades a Broad Spectrum of Substrates, Including Antimicrobial Peptides

    OpenAIRE

    Belas, Robert; Manos, Jim; Suvanasuthi, Rooge

    2004-01-01

    The 54-kDa extracellular metalloprotease ZapA is an important virulence factor of uropathogenic Proteus mirabilis. While ZapA has the ability to degrade host immunoglobulins (Igs), the dramatic attenuation of virulence in ZapA mutants suggests that this enzyme may have a broader spectrum of activity. This hypothesis was tested by in vitro assays with purified ZapA and an array of purified protein or peptide substrates. The data reveal that many proteins found in the urinary tract are substrat...

  2. Dynamics of the modulational instability of a broad Langmuir wave spectrum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Modulational instability of a Langmuir turbulence spectrum is considered in which the wave group velocities are great compared with the velocity of ion sound. A dispersion equation is obtained which yields the instability threshold and increment for an arbitrary relation between the modulation space scale and the characteristic Langmuir oscillation wavelength. An equation describing the nonlinear stage of instability of one-dimensional longwave perturbations for the case of a small excess over the threshold is derived and solved by the method of the inverse scattering problem. It is found that the transition of the instability to a nonlinear regime resembles the hard excitation of turbulence in hydrodynamics

  3. A broad range of ophthalmologic anomalies is part of the holoprosencephaly spectrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pineda-Alvarez, Daniel E; Solomon, Benjamin D; Roessler, Erich; Balog, Joan Z; Hadley, Donald W; Zein, Wadih M; Hadsall, Casey K; Brooks, Brian P; Muenke, Maximilian

    2011-11-01

    Holoprosencephaly (HPE) is the most common disorder of the developing forebrain in humans, and is characterized by failed or incomplete cleavage of the cerebral hemispheres and deep brain structures. HPE includes wide phenotypic variability, with a continuum of both brain and craniofacial anomalies. While "classic" eye findings, including the spectrum of midline anomalies ranging from cyclopia to hypotelorism, as well as chorioretinal coloboma and microphthalmia, have been frequently described in patients with HPE, other subtle eye anomalies may also occur. In our study we prospectively analyzed a small cohort of 10 patients in whom we identified mutations in SHH, SIX3, ZIC2, or FGF8, the latter of which is a very recently described HPE-associated gene. We found that 9 of 10 patients had at least two ophthalmologic anomalies, including refractive errors, microcornea, microphthalmia, blepharoptosis, exotropia, and uveal coloboma. These findings contribute to the understanding of the phenotypic variability of the HPE spectrum, and highlight findings in one medically important but often incompletely investigated system. PMID:21976454

  4. Anomalously Broad Diffuse Interstellar Bands and Excited CH+ Absorption in the Spectrum of Herschel 36

    Science.gov (United States)

    York, D. G.; Dahlstrom, J.; Welty, D. E.; Oka, T.; Hobbs, L. M.; Johnson, S.; Friedman, S. D.; Jiang, Z.; Rachford, B. L.; Snow, T. P.; Sherman, R.; Sonnentrucker, P.

    2014-02-01

    Anomalously broad diffuse interstellar bands (DIBs) at 5780.5, 5797.1, 6196.0, and 6613.6 Å are found in absorption along the line of sight to Herschel 36, an O star system next to the bright Hourglass nebula of the Hii region Messier 8. Excited lines of CH and CH+ are seen as well. We show that the region is very compact and itemize other anomalies of the gas. An infrared-bright star within 400 AU is noted. The combination of these effects produces anomalous DIBs, interpreted by Oka et al. (2013, see also this volume) as being caused predominantly by infrared pumping of rotational levels of relatively small molecules.

  5. Leapfrog diagnostics: Demonstration of a broad spectrum pathogen identification platform in a resource-limited setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leski Tomasz A

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Resource-limited tropical countries are home to numerous infectious pathogens of both human and zoonotic origin. A capability for early detection to allow rapid outbreak containment and prevent spread to non-endemic regions is severely impaired by inadequate diagnostic laboratory capacity, the absence of a “cold chain” and the lack of highly trained personnel. Building up detection capacity in these countries by direct replication of the systems existing in developed countries is not a feasible approach and instead requires “leapfrogging” to the deployment of the newest diagnostic systems that do not have the infrastructure requirements of systems used in developed countries. Methods A laboratory for molecular diagnostics of infectious agents was established in Bo, Sierra Leone with a hybrid solar/diesel/battery system to ensure stable power supply and a satellite modem to enable efficient communication. An array of room temperature stabilization and refrigeration technologies for reliable transport and storage of reagents and biological samples were also tested to ensure sustainable laboratory supplies for diagnostic assays. Results The laboratory demonstrated its operational proficiency by conducting an investigation of a suspected avian influenza outbreak at a commercial poultry farm at Bo using broad range resequencing microarrays and real time RT-PCR. The results of the investigation excluded influenza viruses as a possible cause of the outbreak and indicated a link between the outbreak and the presence of Klebsiella pneumoniae. Conclusions This study demonstrated that by application of a carefully selected set of technologies and sufficient personnel training, it is feasible to deploy and effectively use a broad-range infectious pathogen detection technology in a severely resource-limited setting.

  6. Passive harmonic hybrid mode-locked fiber laser with extremely broad spectrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xing; Zou, Weiwen; Chen, Jianping

    2015-08-10

    We demonstrate a harmonic mode-locking Erbium-doped fiber laser which is cooperatively mode-locked by nonlinear polarization evolution (NPE) and semiconductor saturable absorber mirror (SESAM). Via effective dispersion and nonlinearity optimization, 8th harmonic at a repetition rate of 666.7 MHz is obtained. The output pulses has a full spectrum width at half maximum (FWHM) of 181 nm and duration of 218 fs. The pulses are compressed to 91 fs by external chirp compensation. The average power of the direct output pulse at an available pump power of 1.5 W is 136 mW, which exhibits a single-pulse energy of 0.2 nJ. The cavity super-mode suppression is up to 60 dB and the signal-to-noise ratio of the 8th harmonic is over 75 dB. PMID:26367990

  7. The investigation of copper-based impregnated activated carbons prepared from water-soluble materials for broad spectrum respirator applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The preparation of impregnated activated carbons (IACs) from aqueous, copper-containing solutions for broad spectrum gas filtration applications is studied here. Several samples were studied to determine the effect that impregnant loading, impregnant distribution and impregnant recipe had on the overall performance. Dynamic flow testing was used to determine the gas filtration capacity of the IAC samples versus a variety of challenge gases. X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX) were used to characterize the impregnant distribution on the carbon as a function of impregnant loading. Oven tests were performed to determine the thermal stability of the IAC samples exposed to elevated temperatures. The role impregnant distribution plays in gas filtration capacity and the overall performance of the IAC samples is discussed. The IAC samples prepared in this work were found to have gas filtration capacities as good as or better than broad spectrum respirator carbon samples prepared from the patent literature. IACs impregnated with an aqueous 2.4 M Cu(NO3)2/0.04 M H3PO4.12MoO3/4 M HNO3 solution that were heated to 200 deg. C under argon were found to have the best overall performance of the samples studied in this work.

  8. Novel engineered cationic antimicrobial peptides display broad-spectrum activity against Francisella tularensis, Yersinia pestis and Burkholderia pseudomallei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelbaqi, Suha; Deslouches, Berthony; Steckbeck, Jonathan; Montelaro, Ronald; Reed, Douglas S

    2016-02-01

    Broad-spectrum antimicrobials are needed to effectively treat patients infected in the event of a pandemic or intentional release of a pathogen prior to confirmation of the pathogen's identity. Engineered cationic antimicrobial peptides (eCAPs) display activity against a number of bacterial pathogens including multi-drug-resistant strains. Two lead eCAPs, WLBU2 and WR12, were compared with human cathelicidin (LL-37) against three highly pathogenic bacteria: Francisella tularensis, Yersinia pestis and Burkholderia pseudomallei. Both WLBU2 and WR12 demonstrated bactericidal activity greater than that of LL-37, particularly against F. tularensis and Y. pestis. Only WLBU2 had bactericidal activity against B. pseudomallei. WLBU2, WR12 and LL-37 were all able to inhibit the growth of the three bacteria in vitro. Because these bacteria can be facultative intracellular pathogens, preferentially infecting macrophages and dendritic cells, we evaluated the activity of WLBU2 against F. tularensis in an ex vivo infection model with J774 cells, a mouse macrophage cell line. In that model WLBU2 was able to achieve greater than 50 % killing of F. tularensis at a concentration of 12.5 μM. These data show the therapeutic potential of eCAPs, particularly WLBU2, as a broad-spectrum antimicrobial for treating highly pathogenic bacterial infections. PMID:26673248

  9. The investigation of copper-based impregnated activated carbons prepared from water-soluble materials for broad spectrum respirator applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, J.W.H.; Westreich, P.; Abdellatif, H.; Filbee-Dexter, P.; Smith, A.J. [Department of Physics and Atmospheric Science, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia, B3H 3J5 (Canada); Wood, T.E. [3M Company, St. Paul, MN, 55144 (United States); Croll, L.M.; Reynolds, J.H. [3M Canada Company, Brockville, Ontario, K6V 5V8 (Canada); Dahn, J.R., E-mail: jeff.dahn@dal.ca [Department of Physics and Atmospheric Science, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia, B3H 3J5 (Canada); Department of Chemistry, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia, B3H 4J3 (Canada)

    2010-08-15

    The preparation of impregnated activated carbons (IACs) from aqueous, copper-containing solutions for broad spectrum gas filtration applications is studied here. Several samples were studied to determine the effect that impregnant loading, impregnant distribution and impregnant recipe had on the overall performance. Dynamic flow testing was used to determine the gas filtration capacity of the IAC samples versus a variety of challenge gases. X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX) were used to characterize the impregnant distribution on the carbon as a function of impregnant loading. Oven tests were performed to determine the thermal stability of the IAC samples exposed to elevated temperatures. The role impregnant distribution plays in gas filtration capacity and the overall performance of the IAC samples is discussed. The IAC samples prepared in this work were found to have gas filtration capacities as good as or better than broad spectrum respirator carbon samples prepared from the patent literature. IACs impregnated with an aqueous 2.4 M Cu(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}/0.04 M H{sub 3}PO{sub 4}.12MoO{sub 3}/4 M HNO{sub 3} solution that were heated to 200 deg. C under argon were found to have the best overall performance of the samples studied in this work.

  10. Changes in Cell Viability of Wounded Fibroblasts following Laser Irradiation in Broad-Spectrum or Infrared Light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective. This study aimed to establish if broad-spectrum or infrared (IR) light in combination with laser therapy can assist phototherapy to improve the cell function of wounded cells. Background. The effect of laser light may be partly or completely reduced by broad-spectrum light. Methods. Wounded human skin fibroblasts were irradiated with 5 J/cm2 using a helium-neon laser, a diode laser, or an Nd:YAG laser in the dark, in the light, or in IR. Changes in cell viability were evaluated by cell morphology, ATP cell viability, LDH membrane integrity, and caspase 3/7 as an early marker of apoptosis. Results. Wounded cells exposed to 5 J/cm2 using 632.8 nm in the dark or 830 nm in the light or 1064 nm in the dark showed an increase in ATP viability, an increase in cytokine expression, and a decrease in LDH cytotoxicity indicating that the metabolic activity of the wounded cells was stimulated. Conclusion. Wounded cells irradiated in IR light showed an undesirable thermal effect that was proportional to the duration of exposure.

  11. Potential Broad Spectrum Inhibitors of the Coronavirus 3CLpro: A Virtual Screening and Structure-Based Drug Design Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Berry

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Human coronaviruses represent a significant disease burden; however, there is currently no antiviral strategy to combat infection. The outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS in 2003 and Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS less than 10 years later demonstrates the potential of coronaviruses to cross species boundaries and further highlights the importance of identifying novel lead compounds with broad spectrum activity. The coronavirus 3CLpro provides a highly validated drug target and as there is a high degree of sequence homology and conservation in main chain architecture the design of broad spectrum inhibitors is viable. The ZINC drugs-now library was screened in a consensus high-throughput pharmacophore modeling and molecular docking approach by Vina, Glide, GOLD and MM-GBSA. Molecular dynamics further confirmed results obtained from structure-based techniques. A highly defined hit-list of 19 compounds was identified by the structure-based drug design methodologies. As these compounds were extensively validated by a consensus approach and by molecular dynamics, the likelihood that at least one of these compounds is bioactive is excellent. Additionally, the compounds segregate into 15 significantly dissimilar (p < 0.05 clusters based on shape and features, which represent valuable scaffolds that can be used as a basis for future anti-coronaviral inhibitor discovery experiments. Importantly though, the enriched subset of 19 compounds identified from the larger library has to be validated experimentally.

  12. Potential Broad Spectrum Inhibitors of the Coronavirus 3CLpro: A Virtual Screening and Structure-Based Drug Design Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Michael; Fielding, Burtram C; Gamieldien, Junaid

    2015-12-01

    Human coronaviruses represent a significant disease burden; however, there is currently no antiviral strategy to combat infection. The outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) in 2003 and Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) less than 10 years later demonstrates the potential of coronaviruses to cross species boundaries and further highlights the importance of identifying novel lead compounds with broad spectrum activity. The coronavirus 3CL(pro) provides a highly validated drug target and as there is a high degree of sequence homology and conservation in main chain architecture the design of broad spectrum inhibitors is viable. The ZINC drugs-now library was screened in a consensus high-throughput pharmacophore modeling and molecular docking approach by Vina, Glide, GOLD and MM-GBSA. Molecular dynamics further confirmed results obtained from structure-based techniques. A highly defined hit-list of 19 compounds was identified by the structure-based drug design methodologies. As these compounds were extensively validated by a consensus approach and by molecular dynamics, the likelihood that at least one of these compounds is bioactive is excellent. Additionally, the compounds segregate into 15 significantly dissimilar (p < 0.05) clusters based on shape and features, which represent valuable scaffolds that can be used as a basis for future anti-coronaviral inhibitor discovery experiments. Importantly though, the enriched subset of 19 compounds identified from the larger library has to be validated experimentally. PMID:26694449

  13. Spectrum of broad resonances in anti pp → π-π+

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An amplitude analysis has been made of data on anti p p → π-π+ imposing crossing symmetry, and analyticity as a function of energy. The technique was to generate solutions for the invariant amplitudes along a sequence of hyperbolas in st space specified by a parameter 'a'. (These curves form a generalisation of that considered in backward dispersion relations.) The partial wave amplitudes, obtained by projection, thus only emerge at the end of the analysis, and consequently their energy dependence is not prejudged. On individual 'a-sections' more than one solution is obtained. However, as yet, only one acceptable family of solutions continuous in 'a' has been generated. For this solution the partial wave amplitudes exhibit smooth yet structured energy dependencies in which clear resonance signals may be discerned: firstly, states with J = 0, 1, 2 and 3, with well -defined masses in the range 2.1 to 2.3 GeV, and widths about 200 MeV; additional broad states with J = 0, 2 and 4, having masses around 2.43 GeV and widths about 400 MeV; and finally, a possible state with J = 5 at a mass of about 2.4 GeV, but whose width is poorly defined. Alternative solutions are being sought. (author)

  14. Black cobra (Naja naja karachiensis) lysates exhibit broad-spectrum antimicrobial activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagheer, Mehwish; Siddiqui, Ruqaiyyah; Iqbal, Junaid; Khan, Naveed Ahmed

    2014-01-01

    It is hypothesized that animals living in polluted environments possess antimicrobials to counter pathogenic microbes. The fact that snakes feed on germ-infested rodents suggests that they encounter pathogenic microbes and likely possess antimicrobials. The venom is used only to paralyze the rodent, but the ability of snakes to counter potential infections in the gut due to disease-ridden rodents requires robust action of the immune system against a broad range of pathogens. To test this hypothesis, crude lysates of different organs of Naja naja karachiensis (black cobra) were tested for antimicrobial properties. The antimicrobial activities of extracts were tested against selected bacterial pathogens (neuropathogenic Escherichia coli K1, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Streptococcus pneumonia), protist (Acanthamoeba castellanii), and filamentous fungus (Fusarium solani). The findings revealed that plasma and various organ extracts of N. n. karachiensis exhibited antimicrobial activity against E. coli K1, MRSA, P. aeruginosa, S. pneumoniae, A. castellanii, and F. solani in a concentration-dependent manner. The results of this study are promising for the development of new antimicrobials. PMID:24625321

  15. Alginate microbead-encapsulated silver complexes for selective delivery of broad-spectrum silver-based microbicides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damelin, Leonard H; Fernandes, Manuel A; Tiemessen, Caroline T

    2015-10-01

    In sub-Saharan Africa, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections are predominantly acquired via heterosexual contact, and women are at greatest risk of being infected. This region also has the highest rates of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) per capita worldwide; STIs are strongly associated with increased HIV transmission. Therefore, there is an urgent requirement for microbicides that are active against HIV and STIs. Silver compounds exhibit broad antimicrobial activity, making them potentially ideal broad-spectrum microbicides. However, for silver compounds to be effective microbicides, they must be active within seminal fluid and the delivery vehicle used must protect the silver microbicide from vaginal fluid components but selectively release it during intercourse and/or following ejaculation. In this study, silver complexes were synthesised from the ligands saccharin, benzimidazole and 8-hydroxyquinoline and their microbicidal activity was assessed. We show that a silver saccharinate-benzimidazole complex (AgSB) exhibited activity against HIV-1, herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) and Neisseria gonorrhoeae at concentrations significantly below LD(50) levels for the vaginal mucosal cell line SiHa. Furthermore, we show that alginate microbeads are stable in vaginal fluid simulant but rapidly dissolve in seminal fluid simulant. Finally, we have established that microbead-encapsulated AgSB, dissolved in seminal fluid simulant, is active against the above pathogens, albeit at higher concentrations for HIV-1. This research therefore highlights, for the first time, the potential use of silver complexes encapsulated in alginate microbeads as a novel system for the delivery and selective release of broad-spectrum silver-based microbicides within the vaginal milieu during sexual intercourse/after ejaculation. PMID:26184337

  16. Broad-spectrum therapeutic suppression of metastatic melanoma through nuclear hormone receptor activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pencheva, Nora; Buss, Colin G; Posada, Jessica; Merghoub, Taha; Tavazoie, Sohail F

    2014-02-27

    Melanoma metastasis is a devastating outcome lacking an effective preventative therapeutic. We provide pharmacologic, molecular, and genetic evidence establishing the liver-X nuclear hormone receptor (LXR) as a therapeutic target in melanoma. Oral administration of multiple LXR agonists suppressed melanoma invasion, angiogenesis, tumor progression, and metastasis. Molecular and genetic experiments revealed these effects to be mediated by LXRβ, which elicits these outcomes through transcriptional induction of tumoral and stromal apolipoprotein-E (ApoE). LXRβ agonism robustly suppressed tumor growth and metastasis across a diverse mutational spectrum of melanoma lines. LXRβ targeting significantly prolonged animal survival, suppressed the progression of established metastases, and inhibited brain metastatic colonization. Importantly, LXRβ activation displayed melanoma-suppressive cooperativity with the frontline regimens dacarbazine, B-Raf inhibition, and the anti-CTLA-4 antibody and robustly inhibited melanomas that had acquired resistance to B-Raf inhibition or dacarbazine. We present a promising therapeutic approach that uniquely acts by transcriptionally activating a metastasis suppressor gene. PMID:24581497

  17. Novel gramicidin formulations in cationic lipid as broad-spectrum microbicidal agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ragioto DA

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Danielle AMT Ragioto, Letícia DM Carrasco, Ana M Carmona-Ribeiro Departamento de Bioquímica, Instituto de Química, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil Abstract: Dioctadecyldimethylammonium bromide (DODAB is an antimicrobial lipid that can be dispersed as large closed bilayers (LV or bilayer disks (BF. Gramicidin (Gr is an antimicrobial peptide assembling as channels in membranes and increasing their permeability towards cations. In mammalian cells, DODAB and Gr have the drawbacks of Gram-positive resistance and high toxicity, respectively. In this study, DODAB bilayers incorporating Gr showed good antimicrobial activity and low toxicity. Techniques employed were spectroscopy, photon correlation spectroscopy for sizing and evaluation of the surface potential at the shear plane, turbidimetric detection of dissipation of osmotic gradients in LV/Gr, determination of bacterial cell lysis, and counting of colony-forming units. There was quantitative incorporation of Gr and development of functional channels in LV. Gr increased the bilayer charge density in LV but did not affect the BF charge density, with localization of Gr at the BF borders. DODAB/Gr formulations substantially reduce Gr toxicity against eukaryotic cells and advantageously broaden the antimicrobial activity spectrum, effectively killing Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus bacteria with occurrence of cell lysis. Keywords: antimicrobial peptides, cationic bilayers, bilayer fragments, dioctadecyldimethylammonium bromide, gramicidin A, self-assembly

  18. White LEDs as broad spectrum light sources for spectrophotometry: demonstration in the visible spectrum range in a diode-array spectrophotometric detector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piasecki, Tomasz; Breadmore, Michael C; Macka, Mirek

    2010-11-01

    Although traditional lamps, such as deuterium lamps, are suitable for bench-top instrumentation, their compatibility with the requirements of modern miniaturized instrumentation is limited. This study investigates the option of utilizing solid-state light source technology, namely white LEDs, as a broad band spectrum source for spectrophotometry. Several white light LEDs of both RGB and white phosphorus have been characterized in terms of their emission spectra and energy output and a white phosphorus Luxeon LED was then chosen for demonstration as a light source for visible-spectrum spectrophotometry conducted in CE. The Luxeon LED was fixed onto the base of a dismounted deuterium (D(2) ) lamp so that the light-emitting spot was geometrically positioned exactly where the light-emitting spot of the original D(2) lamp is placed. In this manner, the detector of a commercial CE instrument equipped with a DAD was not modified in any way. As the detector hardware and electronics remained the same, the change of the deuterium lamp for the Luxeon white LED allowed a direct comparison of their performances. Several anionic dyes as model analytes with absorption maxima between 450 and 600 nm were separated by CE in an electrolyte of 0.01 mol/L sodium tetraborate. The absorbance baseline noise as the key parameter was 5 × lower for the white LED lamp, showing clearly superior performance to the deuterium lamp in the available, i.e. visible part of the spectrum. PMID:21077241

  19. TEM-4, a new plasmid-mediated beta-lactamase that hydrolyzes broad-spectrum cephalosporins in a clinical isolate of Escherichia coli.

    OpenAIRE

    Paul, G C; Gerbaud, G; Bure, A; Philippon, A M; B. Pangon; Courvalin, P.

    1989-01-01

    A clinical isolate of Escherichia coli, strain CB-134, recovered in 1986 from an abdominal abscess, exhibited resistance to penams, oxyimino-beta-lactams including broad-spectrum cephalosporins (cefotaxime, ceftriaxone, ceftazidime), and aztreonam but remained susceptible to cephamycins (cefoxitin, cefotetan) and to moxalactam and imipenem. Clavulanate (2 micrograms/ml) restored the susceptibility of the strain to broad-spectrum cephalosporins and aztreonam. A beta-lactamase with an isoelectr...

  20. A BROAD-SPECTRUM ANTAGONISTIC ACTIVITY OF THE BIOCONTROL AGENT PSEUDOMONAS SYNXANTHA BG33R

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pseudomonas synxantha strain BG33R was previously reported to be effective in controlling the Peach Tree Short Life (PTSL) syndrome by suppressing the ring nematode (Mesocriconema xenoplax) through terminating the eggs of the second juvenile stage from further development. In this research the spec...

  1. Efficacy, safety and palatability of a new broad-spectrum anthelmintic formulation in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, K; Rohdich, N; Zschiesche, E; Kok, D J; Allan, M J

    2010-10-23

    The efficacy, safety and palatability of a new flavoured chewable anthelmintic tablet were investigated in dogs. The efficacy, based on worm counts, of a single recommended therapeutic dose (RTD) of 5 mg pyrantel + 20 mg oxantel + 5 mg praziquantel/kg bodyweight was assessed in experimental infections (EI) and natural infections (NI) with Trichuris vulpis, Echinococcus granulosus and Toxocara canis. For T vulpis, the efficacy of the treatment was 99.3 per cent in EI (comparing groups of six treated and six control dogs) and 100 per cent in NI (nine treated and nine control dogs). For E granulosus, the efficacy was more than 99.9 per cent in EI (11 treated and 11 control dogs). For T canis, the efficacy was 94.3 per cent in EI (10 treated and 10 control dogs) and 100 per cent in NI (12 treated and 13 control dogs). In a field study, Ancylostoma caninum (11 dogs) and T canis (11 dogs) faecal egg counts were reduced by more than 99 per cent, and in eight dogs with Dipylidium caninum proglotides in the faeces the efficacy was 100 per cent. The tablets were readily consumed by 56 of 64 (87.5 per cent) privately owned dogs. Safety was assessed in groups of six dogs treated either once with twice the RTD, once with six times the RTD, with twice the RTD on three consecutive days, or untreated. There were no significant differences in blood parameters between the groups, and no abnormal clinical findings. Two dogs treated with six times the RTD vomited, but no vomiting was observed when administration was repeated two days later. PMID:21257464

  2. Characterization of broad-spectrum antibiotic resistance genes in wastewater treatment reactors through metagenomic approaches

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Ying; 楊穎

    2014-01-01

    The spread of antibiotic resistant bacteria (ARB) and antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) have attracted great concerns worldwide. Wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) are reservoirs of ARGs while wastewater/sludge treatment processes are considered as important means to control these emerging biological pollutants. However, the full profiles of ARGs in WWTPs or the removal efficiency of ARGs by wastewater/sludge treatment process was not well characterized yet. Thus, the major tasks in this st...

  3. Broad Application of a Reconfigurable Motor Controller Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — An ultra-miniature (<50 grams) high-performance brushless-motor controller, code named 'Puck', has been developed by Barrett for Earth-based mobile-manipulation...

  4. Inhibition of Vaccinia virus entry by a broad spectrum antiviral peptide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Concerns about the possible use of Variola virus, the causative agent of smallpox, as a weapon for bioterrorism have led to renewed efforts to identify new antivirals against orthopoxviruses. We identified a peptide, EB, which inhibited infection by Vaccinia virus with an EC50 of 15 μM. A control peptide, EBX, identical in composition to EB but differing in sequence, was inactive (EC50 > 200 μM), indicating sequence specificity. The inhibition was reversed upon removal of the peptide, and EB treatment had no effect on the physical integrity of virus particles as determined by electron microscopy. Viral adsorption was unaffected by the presence of EB, and the addition of EB post-entry had no effect on viral titers or on early gene expression. The addition of EB post-adsorption resulted in the inhibition of β-galactosidase expression from an early viral promoter with an EC50 of 45 μM. A significant reduction in virus entry was detected in the presence of the peptide when the number of viral cores released into the cytoplasm was quantified. Electron microscopy indicated that 88% of the virions remained on the surface of cells in the presence of EB, compared to 37% in the control (p < 0.001). EB also blocked fusion-from-within, suggesting that virus infection is inhibited at the fusion step. Analysis of EB derivatives suggested that peptide length may be important for the activity of EB. The EB peptide is, to our knowledge, the first known small molecule inhibitor of Vaccinia virus entry.

  5. Vancomycin and Five Broad-spectrum Antibiotic Utilization Evaluation in an Educational Medical Center in One Year

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SiminDokht Shoaei

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available  Background: Antibiotics can be life saving if they are used correctly, and can have unwanted side effects specially resistance with incorrect use. Unfortunately in fear of no response, physicians use broad spectrum antibiotics meticulously. In this Drug Utilization Evaluation (DUE, improper use of Vancomycin and five broad-spectrum antibiotics are studied to find faults and solution for this problem. Methods:This descriptive cross-sectional study performed during the March of 2012 to March of 2013.DUE of Imipenem, Meropenem, Piperacillin-Tazobactam, Cefepime, Ciprofloxacin and Vancomycin was done in 6 wards of Imam Hossein Hospital in Tehran. Demographic, clinical, laboratory, imaging and treatment data were looked for in medical records of 686 patients. Evaluation was done by three infectious disease specialist based on reference text book of Mandell’s Principles and Practice of Infectious Diseases 2010 and IDSA Guidelines. Results:This study showed 38.5% of prescriptions were correct and the remained 61.5% were incorrect with different faults predominantly incorrect overuse in 51.1%.Ciprofloxacin was the most common incorrect used drug in 74.8% cases and Piperacillin-Tazobactam with 48.7% cases had the least common incorrect use. There was no fault in prescription of antibiotics observing age and sex (pregnancy, breast feeding factors. Conclusions:Our results reveal a significant high level of the inappropriate use of Antibiotics mostly as overuse and empirically without culture results. It is needed to establish continuing medical education (CME courses and a locally conformable guideline of antibiotic use based on antibiogram results.

  6. Delivery of a multivalent scrambled antigen vaccine induces broad spectrum immunity and protection against tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Nicholas P; Thomson, Scott A; Triccas, James A; Medveczky, C Jill; Ramshaw, Ian A; Britton, Warwick J

    2011-10-13

    The development of effective anti-Tuberculosis (TB) vaccines is an important step towards improved control of TB in high burden countries. Subunit vaccines are advantageous in terms of safety, particularly in the context of high rates of HIV co-infection, but they must contain sufficient Mycobacterium tuberculosis antigens to stimulate immunity in genetically diverse human populations. We have used a novel approach to develop a synthetic scrambled antigen vaccine (TB-SAVINE), comprised of overlapping, recombined peptides from four M. tuberculosis proteins, Ag85B, ESAT-6, PstS3 and Mpt83, each of which is immunogenic and protective against experimental TB. This polyvalent TB-SAVINE construct stimulated CD4 and CD8T cell responses against the individual proteins and M. tuberculosis in C57BL/6 and Balb/c mice, when delivered as DNA, Fowl Pox Virus or Vaccinia Virus vaccines. In addition, the DNA-TBS vaccine induced protective immunity against pulmonary M. tuberculosis infection in C57BL/6 mice. Co-immunization of Balb/c mice with virally expressed TBS and HIV1-SAVINE vaccine stimulated strong T cell responses to both the M. tuberculosis and HIV proteins, indicating no effects of antigenic competition. Further development of this TB-SAVINE vaccine expressing components from multiple M. tuberculosis proteins may prove an effective vaccine candidate against TB, which could potentially form part of a safe, combined preventative strategy together with HIV immunisations. PMID:21846485

  7. Broad-Spectrum Antimicrobial Star Polycarbonates Functionalized with Mannose for Targeting Bacteria Residing inside Immune Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chuan; Krishnamurthy, Sangeetha; Liu, Jie; Liu, Shaoqiong; Lu, Xiaohua; Coady, Daniel J; Cheng, Wei; De Libero, Gennaro; Singhal, Amit; Hedrick, James L; Yang, Yi Yan

    2016-06-01

    In this study, a series of star-shaped polycarbonates are synthesized by metal-free organocatalytic ring-opening polymerization of benzyl chloride (BnCl) and mannose-functionalized cyclic carbonate monomers (MTC-BnCl and MTC-ipman) with heptakis-(2,3-di-O-acetyl)-β-cyclodextrin (DA-β-CD) as macroinitiator. The distributions and compositions of pendent benzyl chloride and protected mannose group (ipman) units are facilely modulated by varying the polymerization sequence and feed ratio of the monomers, allowing precise control over the molecular composition, and the resulting polymers have narrow molecular weight distribution. After deprotection of ipman groups and quaternization with various N,N-dimethylalkylamines, these star polymers with optimized compositions of cationic and mannose groups in block and random forms exhibit strong bactericidal activity and low hemolysis. Furthermore, the optimal mannose-functionalized polymer demonstrates mannose receptor-mediated intracellular bactericidal activity against BCG mycobacteria without inducing cytotoxicity on mammalian cells at the effective dose. Taken together, the materials designed in this study have potential use as antimicrobial agents against diseases such as tuberculosis, which is caused by intracellular bacteria. PMID:27028263

  8. Discovery of sarolaner: A novel, orally administered, broad-spectrum, isoxazoline ectoparasiticide for dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McTier, Tom L; Chubb, Nathan; Curtis, Michael P; Hedges, Laura; Inskeep, Gregory A; Knauer, Christopher S; Menon, Sanjay; Mills, Brian; Pullins, Aleah; Zinser, Erich; Woods, Debra J; Meeus, Patrick

    2016-05-30

    occurred within the first day post-dose. Bioavailability for sarolaner was calculated at >85% and the compound was highly protein bound (>99.9%). The half-life for sarolaner was calculated at 11-12 days. Sarolaner plasma concentrations indicated dose proportionality over the range 1.25-5mg/kg, and these same doses provided robust efficacy (>99%) for ≥35days against both fleas (C. felis) and multiple species of ticks (Rhipicephalus sanguineus, Ixodes ricinus and Dermacentor reticulatus) after oral administration to dogs. As a result of these exploratory investigations, sarolaner was progressed for development as an oral monthly dose for treatment and control of fleas and ticks on dogs. PMID:26961590

  9. A novel alkaloid from marine-derived actinomycete Streptomyces xinghaiensis with broad-spectrum antibacterial and cytotoxic activities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wence Jiao

    Full Text Available Due to the increasing emergence of drug-resistant bacteria and tumor cell lines, novel antibiotics with antibacterial and cytotoxic activities are urgently needed. Marine actinobacteria are rich sources of novel antibiotics, and here we report the discovery of a novel alkaloid, xinghaiamine A, from a marine-derived actinomycete Streptomyces xinghaiensis NRRL B24674(T. Xinghaiamine A was purified from the fermentation broth, and its structure was elucidated based on extensive spectroscopic analysis, including 1D and 2D NMR spectrum as well as mass spectrometry. Xinghaiamine A was identified to be a novel alkaloid with highly symmetric structure on the basis of sulfoxide functional group, and sulfoxide containing compound has so far never been reported in microorganisms. Biological assays revealed that xinghaiamine A exhibited broad-spectrum antibacterial activities to both Gram-negative persistent hospital pathogens (e.g. Acinetobacter baumannii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli and Gram-positive ones, which include Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis. In addition, xinghaiamine A also exhibited potent cytotoxic activity to human cancer cell lines of MCF-7 and U-937 with the IC50 of 0.6 and 0.5 µM, respectively.

  10. Distributed Access Control Policies for Spectrum Sharing

    OpenAIRE

    Baldini, Gianmarco; NAI-FOVINO Igor; Trombetta, Alberto; Braghin, Stefano

    2012-01-01

    Cognitive Radio (CR) is a novel wireless communication technology that allows for adaptive configuration of the reception parameters of a terminal, based on the information collected from the environment. Cognitive radio (CR) technology can be used in innovative spectrum management approaches like spectrum sharing, where radio frequency spectral bands can be shared among various users through a dynamic exclusive-use spectrum access model. Spectrum sharing can be applied to various...

  11. Reduced TiO2-Graphene Oxide Heterostructure As Broad Spectrum-Driven Efficient Water-Splitting Photocatalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lihua; Yu, Lili; Lin, Zhaoyong; Yang, Guowei

    2016-04-01

    The reduced TiO2-graphene oxide heterostructure as an alternative broad spectrum-driven efficient water splitting photocatalyst has become a really interesting topic, however, its syntheses has many flaws, e.g., tedious experimental steps, time-consuming, small scale production, and requirement of various additives, for example, hydrazine hydrate is widely used as reductant to the reduction of graphene oxide, which is high toxicity and easy to cause the second pollution. For these issues, herein, we reported the synthesis of the reduced TiO2-graphene oxide heterostructure by a facile chemical reduction agent-free one-step laser ablation in liquid (LAL) method, which achieves extended optical response range from ultraviolet to visible and composites TiO2-x (reduced TiO2) nanoparticle and graphene oxide for promoting charge conducting. 30.64% Ti(3+) content in the reduced TiO2 nanoparticles induces the electronic reconstruction of TiO2, which results in 0.87 eV decrease of the band gap for the visible light absorption. TiO2-x-graphene oxide heterostructure achieved drastically increased photocatalytic H2 production rate, up to 23 times with respect to the blank experiment. Furthermore, a maximum H2 production rate was measured to be 16 mmol/h/g using Pt as a cocatalyst under the simulated sunlight irradiation (AM 1.5G, 135 mW/cm(2)), the quantum efficiencies were measured to be 5.15% for wavelength λ = 365 ± 10 nm and 1.84% for λ = 405 ± 10 nm, and overall solar energy conversion efficiency was measured to be 14.3%. These findings provided new insights into the broad applicability of this methodology for accessing fascinate photocatalysts. PMID:26986700

  12. Broad-band transmission spectrum and K-band thermal emission of WASP-43b as observed from the ground

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Guo; Wang, Hongchi; Nikolov, Nikolay; Fortney, Jonathan J; Seemann, Ulf; Wang, Wei; Mancini, Luigi; Henning, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    (Abridged) We observed one transit and one occultation of the hot Jupiter WASP-43b simultaneously in the g'r'i'z'JHK bands using the GROND instrument on the MPG/ESO 2.2-meter telescope. From the transit event, we have independently derived WASP-43's system parameters with high precision, and improved the period to be 0.81347437(13) days. No significant variation in transit depths is detected, with the largest deviations coming from the i', H, and K bands. Given the observational uncertainties, the broad-band transmission spectrum can be explained by either a flat featureless straight line that indicates thick clouds, synthetic spectra with absorption signatures of atomic Na/K or molecular TiO/VO that indicate cloud-free atmosphere, or a Rayleigh scattering profile that indicates high-altitude hazes. From the occultation event, we have detected planetary dayside thermal emission in the K-band with a flux ratio of 0.197 +/- 0.042%, which confirms previous detections obtained in the 2.09 micron narrow band and K...

  13. The Broad-band X-ray Spectrum of IC 4329A from a Joint NuSTAR/Suzaku Observation

    CERN Document Server

    Brenneman, Laura; Fuerst, F; Matt, G; Elvis, M; Harrison, F A; Ballantyne, D R; Boggs, S E; Christensen, F E; Craig, W W; Fabian, A C; Grefenstette, B W; Hailey, C J; Madsen, K K; Marinucci, A; Rivers, E; Stern, D; Walton, D J; Zhang, W W

    2014-01-01

    We have obtained a deep, simultaneous observation of the bright, nearby Seyfert galaxy IC 4329A with Suzaku and NuSTAR. Through a detailed spectral analysis, we are able to robustly separate the continuum, absorption and distant reflection components in the spectrum. The absorbing column is found to be modest at $N_H = 6 \\times 10^{21}$ cm$^2$, and does not introduce any significant curvature in the Fe K band. We are able to place a strong constraint on the presence of a broadened Fe K{\\alpha} line: $E = 6.46^{+0.08}_{-0.07}$ keV rest frame with ${\\sigma} = 0.33^{+0.08}_{-0.07}$ keV and $EW = 34^{+8}_{-7}$ eV, though we are not able to constrain any of the parameters of a relativistic reflection model. These results highlight the range in broad Fe K{\\alpha} line strengths observed in nearby, bright AGN (roughly an order of magnitude), and imply a corresponding range in the physical properties of the inner accretion disk in these sources. We have also updated our previously reported measurement of the high-ene...

  14. Silver Nanoparticles: Biosynthesis Using an ATCC Reference Strain of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Activity as Broad Spectrum Clinical Antibacterial Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinteros, Melisa A.; Aiassa Martínez, Ivana M.; Dalmasso, Pablo R.; Páez, Paulina L.

    2016-01-01

    Currently, the biosynthesis of silver-based nanomaterials attracts enormous attention owing to the documented antimicrobial properties of these ones. This study reports the extracellular biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) using a Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain from a reference culture collection. A greenish culture supernatant of P. aeruginosa incubated at 37°C with a silver nitrate solution for 24 h changed to a yellowish brown color, indicating the formation of Ag-NPs, which was confirmed by UV-vis spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and X-ray diffraction. TEM analysis showed spherical and pseudospherical nanoparticles with a distributed size mainly between 25 and 45 nm, and the XRD pattern revealed the crystalline nature of Ag-NPs. Also it provides an evaluation of the antimicrobial activity of the biosynthesized Ag-NPs against human pathogenic and opportunistic microorganisms, namely, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Enterococcus faecalis, Proteus mirabilis, Acinetobacter baumannii, Escherichia coli, P. aeruginosa, and Klebsiella pneumonia. Ag-NPs were found to be bioactive at picomolar concentration levels showing bactericidal effects against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial strains. This work demonstrates the first helpful use of biosynthesized Ag-NPs as broad spectrum bactericidal agents for clinical strains of pathogenic multidrug-resistant bacteria such as methicillin-resistant S. aureus, A. baumannii, and E. coli. In addition, these Ag-NPs showed negligible cytotoxic effect in human neutrophils suggesting low toxicity to the host. PMID:27340405

  15. Epimedium koreanum Nakai displays broad spectrum of antiviral activity in vitro and in vivo by inducing cellular antiviral state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Won-Kyung; Weeratunga, Prasanna; Lee, Byeong-Hoon; Park, Jun-Seol; Kim, Chul-Joong; Ma, Jin Yeul; Lee, Jong-Soo

    2015-01-01

    Epimedium koreanum Nakai has been extensively used in traditional Korean and Chinese medicine to treat a variety of diseases. Despite the plant's known immune modulatory potential and chemical make-up, scientific information on its antiviral properties and mode of action have not been completely investigated. In this study, the broad antiviral spectrum and mode of action of an aqueous extract from Epimedium koreanum Nakai was evaluated in vitro, and moreover, the protective effect against divergent influenza A subtypes was determined in BALB/c mice. An effective dose of Epimedium koreanum Nakai markedly reduced the replication of Influenza A Virus (PR8), Vesicular Stomatitis Virus (VSV), Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV) and Newcastle Disease Virus (NDV) in RAW264.7 and HEK293T cells. Mechanically, we found that an aqueous extract from Epimedium koreanum Nakai induced the secretion of type I IFN and pro-inflammatory cytokines and the subsequent stimulation of the antiviral state in cells. Among various components present in the extract, quercetin was confirmed to have striking antiviral properties. The oral administration of Epimedium koreanum Nakai exhibited preventive effects on BALB/c mice against lethal doses of highly pathogenic influenza A subtypes (H1N1, H5N2, H7N3 and H9N2). Therefore, an extract of Epimedium koreanum Nakai and its components play roles as immunomodulators in the innate immune response, and may be potential candidates for prophylactic or therapeutic treatments against diverse viruses in animal and humans. PMID:25609307

  16. Epimedium koreanum Nakai Displays Broad Spectrum of Antiviral Activity in Vitro and in Vivo by Inducing Cellular Antiviral State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Won-Kyung Cho

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Epimedium koreanum Nakai has been extensively used in traditional Korean and Chinese medicine to treat a variety of diseases. Despite the plant’s known immune modulatory potential and chemical make-up, scientific information on its antiviral properties and mode of action have not been completely investigated. In this study, the broad antiviral spectrum and mode of action of an aqueous extract from Epimedium koreanum Nakai was evaluated in vitro, and moreover, the protective effect against divergent influenza A subtypes was determined in BALB/c mice. An effective dose of Epimedium koreanum Nakai markedly reduced the replication of Influenza A Virus (PR8, Vesicular Stomatitis Virus (VSV, Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV and Newcastle Disease Virus (NDV in RAW264.7 and HEK293T cells. Mechanically, we found that an aqueous extract from Epimedium koreanum Nakai induced the secretion of type I IFN and pro-inflammatory cytokines and the subsequent stimulation of the antiviral state in cells. Among various components present in the extract, quercetin was confirmed to have striking antiviral properties. The oral administration of Epimedium koreanum Nakai exhibited preventive effects on BALB/c mice against lethal doses of highly pathogenic influenza A subtypes (H1N1, H5N2, H7N3 and H9N2. Therefore, an extract of Epimedium koreanum Nakai and its components play roles as immunomodulators in the innate immune response, and may be potential candidates for prophylactic or therapeutic treatments against diverse viruses in animal and humans.

  17. Epimedium koreanum Nakai Displays Broad Spectrum of Antiviral Activity in Vitro and in Vivo by Inducing Cellular Antiviral State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Won-Kyung; Weeratunga, Prasanna; Lee, Byeong-Hoon; Park, Jun-Seol; Kim, Chul-Joong; Ma, Jin Yeul; Lee, Jong-Soo

    2015-01-01

    Epimedium koreanum Nakai has been extensively used in traditional Korean and Chinese medicine to treat a variety of diseases. Despite the plant’s known immune modulatory potential and chemical make-up, scientific information on its antiviral properties and mode of action have not been completely investigated. In this study, the broad antiviral spectrum and mode of action of an aqueous extract from Epimedium koreanum Nakai was evaluated in vitro, and moreover, the protective effect against divergent influenza A subtypes was determined in BALB/c mice. An effective dose of Epimedium koreanum Nakaimarkedly reduced the replication of Influenza A Virus (PR8), Vesicular Stomatitis Virus (VSV), Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV) and Newcastle Disease Virus (NDV) in RAW264.7 and HEK293T cells. Mechanically, we found that an aqueous extract from Epimedium koreanum Nakai induced the secretion of type I IFN and pro-inflammatory cytokines and the subsequent stimulation of the antiviral state in cells. Among various components present in the extract, quercetin was confirmed to have striking antiviral properties. The oral administration of Epimedium koreanum Nakai exhibited preventive effects on BALB/c mice against lethal doses of highly pathogenic influenza A subtypes (H1N1, H5N2, H7N3 and H9N2). Therefore, an extract of Epimedium koreanum Nakai and its components play roles as immunomodulators in the innate immune response, and may be potential candidates for prophylactic or therapeutic treatments against diverse viruses in animal and humans. PMID:25609307

  18. Characterization of a type-I crustin with broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity from red swamp crayfish Procambarus clarkii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ning; Zhang, Ran-Ran; Fan, Zhen-Xu; Zhao, Xiao-Fan; Wang, Xian-Wei; Wang, Jin-Xing

    2016-08-01

    Crustins are a family of antimicrobial peptides mainly identified in crustaceans and characterized by a whey acidic protein (WAP) domain and an additional glycine-, cysteine-, or proline-rich region. In this study, we identified and characterized PcCru, a new crustin isolated from red swamp crayfish Procambarus clarkii. The open reading frame of PcCru was 333 base pairs long and encoded a 110-residue polypeptide, which contained a signal peptide, a cysteine-rich region, and a WAP domain. The architecture and phylogenetic analysis suggested that PcCru was a new member of the type-I crustin family. PcCru was highly expressed in hemocytes and was significantly induced by viral and bacterial stimulations at both the translational and transcriptional levels. The titer of PcCru in circulating plasma was also increased considerably by bacterial challenge. Recombinant PcCru from both prokaryotic and eukaryotic expression systems were generated, and the proteins exhibited broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity. Furthermore, PcCru protected crayfish from infection by pathogenic bacteria Aeromonas hydrophila in vivo. This study provided new information emphasizing the important role of the crustin family in the crustacean antibacterial immune response. PMID:27021077

  19. Broad spectrum of Fabry disease manifestation in an extended Spanish family with a new deletion in the GLA gene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukas, Jan; Torras, Joan; Navarro, Itziar; Giese, Anne-Katrin; Böttcher, Tobias; Mascher, Hermann; Lackner, Karl J.; Fauler, Guenter; Paschke, Eduard; Cruzado, Josep M.; Dudesek, Ales; Wittstock, Matthias; Meyer, Wolfgang; Rolfs, Arndt

    2012-01-01

    Background Fabry disease (FD) is an X-linked inherited disease based on the absence or reduction of lysosomal-galactosidase (Gla) activity. The enzymatic defect results in progressive impairment of cerebrovascular, renal and cardiac function. Normally, female heterozygote mutation carriers are less strongly affected than male hemizygotes aggravating disease diagnosis. Method Close examination of the patients by renal biopsy, echo- and electrocardiography and MRI. Blood work and subsequent DNA analysis were carried out utilizing approved protocols for PCR and Sequencing. MLPA analysis was done to unveil deletions within the GLA gene locus. Quantitative detection of Glycolipids in patient plasma and urine were carried out using HPLC/MS-MS and ESI-MS. Results In the presented case, a female index patient led to the examination of three generations of a Spanish family. She presented with severe oto-cochlear symptoms and covert renal and cardiac involvement. While conventional sequencing failed to detect a causative mutation, MLPA analysis revealed a deletion within the GLA gene locus, which we were able to map to a region spanning exon 2 and adjacent intronic parts. The analysis of different biomarkers revealed elevated lyso-Gb3 levels in all affected family members. Conclusion Our findings highlight the broad intrafamilial spectrum of symptoms of FD and emphasise the need to use MLPA screening in symptomatic females without conclusive sequencing result. Finally, plasma lyso-Gb3 proved to be a reliable biomarker for the diagnosis of FD. PMID:26019814

  20. Choline and Geranate Deep Eutectic Solvent as a Broad-Spectrum Antiseptic Agent for Preventive and Therapeutic Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakrewsky, Michael; Banerjee, Amrita; Apte, Sanjana; Kern, Theresa L; Jones, Mattie R; Sesto, Rico E Del; Koppisch, Andrew T; Fox, David T; Mitragotri, Samir

    2016-06-01

    Antiseptic agents are the primary arsenal to disinfect skin and prevent pathogens spreading within the host as well as into the surroundings; however the Food and Drug Administration published a report in 2015 requiring additional validation of nearly all current antiseptic agents before their continued use can be allowed. This vulnerable position calls for urgent identification of novel antiseptic agents. Recently, the ability of a deep eutectic, Choline And Geranate (CAGE), to treat biofilms of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Salmonella enterica was demonstrated. Here it is reported that CAGE exhibits broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity against a number of drug-resistant bacteria, fungi, and viruses including clinical isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Staphylococcus aureus, and Candida albicans as well as laboratory strains of Herpes Simplex Virus. Studies in human keratinocytes and mice show that CAGE affords negligible local or systemic toxicity, and an ≈180-14 000-fold improved efficacy/toxicity ratio over currently used antiseptic agents. Further, CAGE penetrates deep into the dermis and treats pathogens located in deep skin layers as confirmed by the ability of CAGE in vivo to treat Propionibacterium acnes infection. In combination, the results clearly demonstrate CAGE holds promise as a transformative platform antiseptic agent for preventive as well as therapeutic applications. PMID:26959835

  1. Reversal of the Progression of Fatal Coronavirus Infection in Cats by a Broad-Spectrum Coronavirus Protease Inhibitor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunjeong Kim

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Coronaviruses infect animals and humans causing a wide range of diseases. The diversity of coronaviruses in many mammalian species is contributed by relatively high mutation and recombination rates during replication. This dynamic nature of coronaviruses may facilitate cross-species transmission and shifts in tissue or cell tropism in a host, resulting in substantial change in virulence. Feline enteric coronavirus (FECV causes inapparent or mild enteritis in cats, but a highly fatal disease, called feline infectious peritonitis (FIP, can arise through mutation of FECV to FIP virus (FIPV. The pathogenesis of FIP is intimately associated with immune responses and involves depletion of T cells, features shared by some other coronaviruses like Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus. The increasing risks of highly virulent coronavirus infections in humans or animals call for effective antiviral drugs, but no such measures are yet available. Previously, we have reported the inhibitors that target 3C-like protease (3CLpro with broad-spectrum activity against important human and animal coronaviruses. Here, we evaluated the therapeutic efficacy of our 3CLpro inhibitor in laboratory cats with FIP. Experimental FIP is 100% fatal once certain clinical and laboratory signs become apparent. We found that antiviral treatment led to full recovery of cats when treatment was started at a stage of disease that would be otherwise fatal if left untreated. Antiviral treatment was associated with a rapid improvement in fever, ascites, lymphopenia and gross signs of illness and cats returned to normal health within 20 days or less of treatment. Significant reduction in viral titers was also observed in cats. These results indicate that continuous virus replication is required for progression of immune-mediated inflammatory disease of FIP. These findings may provide important insights into devising therapeutic strategies and selection of antiviral compounds for

  2. X-Ray Emitting GHz-Peaked Spectrum Galaxies: Testing a Dynamical-Radiative Model with Broad-Band Spectra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ostorero, L.; /Turin U. /INFN, Turin; Moderski, R.; /Warsaw, Copernicus Astron. Ctr. /KIPAC, Menlo Park; Stawarz, L.; /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Jagiellonian U., Astron. Observ.; Diaferio, A.; /Turin U. /INFN, Turin; Kowalska, I.; /Warsaw U. Observ.; Cheung, C.C.; /NASA, Goddard /Naval Research Lab, Wash., D.C.; Kataoka, J.; /Waseda U., RISE; Begelman, M.C.; /JILA, Boulder; Wagner, S.J.; /Heidelberg Observ.

    2010-06-07

    In a dynamical-radiative model we recently developed to describe the physics of compact, GHz-Peaked-Spectrum (GPS) sources, the relativistic jets propagate across the inner, kpc-sized region of the host galaxy, while the electron population of the expanding lobes evolves and emits synchrotron and inverse-Compton (IC) radiation. Interstellar-medium gas clouds engulfed by the expanding lobes, and photoionized by the active nucleus, are responsible for the radio spectral turnover through free-free absorption (FFA) of the synchrotron photons. The model provides a description of the evolution of the GPS spectral energy distribution (SED) with the source expansion, predicting significant and complex high-energy emission, from the X-ray to the {gamma}-ray frequency domain. Here, we test this model with the broad-band SEDs of a sample of eleven X-ray emitting GPS galaxies with Compact-Symmetric-Object (CSO) morphology, and show that: (i) the shape of the radio continuum at frequencies lower than the spectral turnover is indeed well accounted for by the FFA mechanism; (ii) the observed X-ray spectra can be interpreted as non-thermal radiation produced via IC scattering of the local radiation fields off the lobe particles, providing a viable alternative to the thermal, accretion-disk dominated scenario. We also show that the relation between the hydrogen column densities derived from the X-ray (N{sub H}) and radio (N{sub HI}) data of the sources is suggestive of a positive correlation, which, if confirmed by future observations, would provide further support to our scenario of high-energy emitting lobes.

  3. Exoproteome and secretome derived broad spectrum novel drug and vaccine candidates in Vibrio cholerae targeted by Piper betel derived compounds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debmalya Barh

    Full Text Available Vibrio cholerae is the causal organism of the cholera epidemic, which is mostly prevalent in developing and underdeveloped countries. However, incidences of cholera in developed countries are also alarming. Because of the emergence of new drug-resistant strains, even though several generic drugs and vaccines have been developed over time, Vibrio infections remain a global health problem that appeals for the development of novel drugs and vaccines against the pathogen. Here, applying comparative proteomic and reverse vaccinology approaches to the exoproteome and secretome of the pathogen, we have identified three candidate targets (ompU, uppP and yajC for most of the pathogenic Vibrio strains. Two targets (uppP and yajC are novel to Vibrio, and two targets (uppP and ompU can be used to develop both drugs and vaccines (dual targets against broad spectrum Vibrio serotypes. Using our novel computational approach, we have identified three peptide vaccine candidates that have high potential to induce both B- and T-cell-mediated immune responses from our identified two dual targets. These two targets were modeled and subjected to virtual screening against natural compounds derived from Piper betel. Seven compounds were identified first time from Piper betel to be highly effective to render the function of these targets to identify them as emerging potential drugs against Vibrio. Our preliminary validation suggests that these identified peptide vaccines and betel compounds are highly effective against Vibrio cholerae. Currently we are exhaustively validating these targets, candidate peptide vaccines, and betel derived lead compounds against a number of Vibrio species.

  4. Baulamycins A and B, broad-spectrum antibiotics identified as inhibitors of siderophore biosynthesis in Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus anthracis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathi, Ashootosh; Schofield, Michael M; Chlipala, George E; Schultz, Pamela J; Yim, Isaiah; Newmister, Sean A; Nusca, Tyler D; Scaglione, Jamie B; Hanna, Philip C; Tamayo-Castillo, Giselle; Sherman, David H

    2014-01-29

    Siderophores are high-affinity iron chelators produced by microorganisms and frequently contribute to the virulence of human pathogens. Targeted inhibition of the biosynthesis of siderophores staphyloferrin B of Staphylococcus aureus and petrobactin of Bacillus anthracis hold considerable potential as a single or combined treatment for methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) and anthrax infection, respectively. The biosynthetic pathways for both siderophores involve a nonribosomal peptide synthetase independent siderophore (NIS) synthetase, including SbnE in staphyloferrin B and AsbA in petrobactin. In this study, we developed a biochemical assay specific for NIS synthetases to screen for inhibitors of SbnE and AsbA against a library of marine microbial-derived natural product extracts (NPEs). Analysis of the NPE derived from Streptomyces tempisquensis led to the isolation of the novel antibiotics baulamycins A (BmcA, 6) and B (BmcB, 7). BmcA and BmcB displayed in vitro activity with IC50 values of 4.8 μM and 19 μM against SbnE and 180 μM and 200 μM against AsbA, respectively. Kinetic analysis showed that the compounds function as reversible competitive enzyme inhibitors. Liquid culture studies with S. aureus , B. anthracis , E. coli , and several other bacterial pathogens demonstrated the capacity of these natural products to penetrate bacterial barriers and inhibit growth of both Gram-positive and Gram-negative species. These studies provide proof-of-concept that natural product inhibitors targeting siderophore virulence factors can provide access to novel broad-spectrum antibiotics, which may serve as important leads for the development of potent anti-infective agents. PMID:24401083

  5. Draft genome sequence of Streptomyces sp. strain Wb2n-11, a desert isolate with broad-spectrum antagonism against soilborne phytopathogens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koeberl, Martina; White, Richard A.; Erschen, Sabine; El-Arabi, Tarek F.; Jansson, Janet K.; Berg, Gabriele

    2015-08-06

    Streptomyces sp. strain Wb2n-11, isolated from native desert soil, exhibited broad-spectrum antagonism against plant pathogenic fungi, bacteria and nematodes. The 8.2 Mb draft genome reveals genes putatively responsible for its promising biocontrol activity and genes which enable the soil bacterium to directly interact beneficially with plants.

  6. De Novo Whole-Genome Sequence of Micromonospora carbonacea JXNU-1 with Broad-Spectrum Antimicrobial Activity, Isolated from Soil Samples

    OpenAIRE

    Jiang, Yun; Huang, Yun-hong; Long, Zhong-er

    2015-01-01

    Micromonospora carbonacea JXNU-1 is an actinomycete with broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity, isolated from soil samples from the farmland in the area of Yaohu Lake in Nanchang, China. Here, we report the whole-genome sequence of M. carbonacea JXNU-1.

  7. A robot to detect and control broad-leaved dock (Rumex obtusifolius L.) in grassland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evert, van F.K.; Samsom, J.; Polder, G.; Vijn, M.P.; Dooren, van H.J.C.; Lamaker, E.J.J.; Heijden, van der G.W.A.M.; Kempenaar, C.; Zalm, van der A.J.A.; Lotz, L.A.P.

    2011-01-01

    Broad-leaved dock is a common and troublesome grassland weed with a wide geographic distribution. In conventional farming the weed is normally controlled by using a selective herbicide, but in organic farming manual removal is the best option to control this weed. The objective of our work was to de

  8. Targeting N-Glycan Cryptic Sugar Moieties for Broad-Spectrum Virus Neutralization: Progress in Identifying Conserved Molecular Targets in Viruses of Distinct Phylogenetic Origins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denong Wang

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Identifying molecular targets for eliciting broadly virus-neutralizing antibodies is one of the key steps toward development of vaccines against emerging viral pathogens. Owing to genomic and somatic diversities among viral species, identifying protein targets for broad-spectrum virus neutralization is highly challenging even for the same virus, such as HIV-1. However, viruses rely on host glycosylation machineries to synthesize and express glycans and, thereby, may display common carbohydrate moieties. Thus, exploring glycan-binding profiles of broad-spectrum virus-neutralizing agents may provide key information to uncover the carbohydrate-based virus-neutralizing epitopes. In this study, we characterized two broadly HIV-neutralizing agents, human monoclonal antibody 2G12 and Galanthus nivalis lectin (GNA, for their viral targeting activities. Although these agents were known to be specific for oligomannosyl antigens, they differ strikingly in virus-binding activities. The former is HIV-1 specific; the latter is broadly reactive and is able to neutralize viruses of distinct phylogenetic origins, such as HIV-1, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV, and human cytomegalovirus (HCMV. In carbohydrate microarray analyses, we explored the molecular basis underlying the striking differences in the spectrum of anti-virus activities of the two probes. Unlike 2G12, which is strictly specific for the high-density Man9GlcNAc2Asn (Man9-clusters, GNA recognizes a number of N-glycan cryptic sugar moieties. These include not only the known oligomannosyl antigens but also previously unrecognized tri-antennary or multi-valent GlcNAc-terminating N-glycan epitopes (Tri/m-Gn. These findings highlight the potential of N-glycan cryptic sugar moieties as conserved targets for broad-spectrum virus neutralization and suggest the GNA-model of glycan-binding warrants focused investigation.

  9. Schizophrenia Spectrum and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Symptoms in Autism Spectrum Disorder and Controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadow, Kenneth D.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: This study compared the differential severity of specific symptoms of schizophrenia spectrum disorder (SSD) in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and child psychiatry outpatient referrals (controls). Each group was further subdivided into subgroups with and without co-occurring attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).…

  10. Broad energy range neutron spectroscopy using a liquid scintillator and a proportional counter: Application to a neutron spectrum similar to that from an improvised nuclear device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Yanping, E-mail: yx2132@cumc.columbia.edu; Randers-Pehrson, Gerhard; Marino, Stephen A.; Garty, Guy; Harken, Andrew; Brenner, David J.

    2015-09-11

    A novel neutron irradiation facility at the Radiological Research Accelerator Facility (RARAF) has been developed to mimic the neutron radiation from an Improvised Nuclear Device (IND) at relevant distances (e.g. 1.5 km) from the epicenter. The neutron spectrum of this IND-like neutron irradiator was designed according to estimations of the Hiroshima neutron spectrum at 1.5 km. It is significantly different from a standard reactor fission spectrum, because the spectrum changes as the neutrons are transported through air, and it is dominated by neutron energies from 100 keV up to 9 MeV. To verify such wide energy range neutron spectrum, detailed here is the development of a combined spectroscopy system. Both a liquid scintillator detector and a gas proportional counter were used for the recoil spectra measurements, with the individual response functions estimated from a series of Monte Carlo simulations. These normalized individual response functions were formed into a single response matrix for the unfolding process. Several accelerator-based quasi-monoenergetic neutron source spectra were measured and unfolded to test this spectroscopy system. These reference neutrons were produced from two reactions: T(p,n){sup 3}He and D(d,n){sup 3}He, generating neutron energies in the range between 0.2 and 8 MeV. The unfolded quasi-monoenergetic neutron spectra indicated that the detection system can provide good neutron spectroscopy results in this energy range. A broad-energy neutron spectrum from the {sup 9}Be(d,n) reaction using a 5 MeV deuteron beam, measured at 60 degrees to the incident beam was measured and unfolded with the evaluated response matrix. The unfolded broad neutron spectrum is comparable with published time-of-flight results. Finally, the pair of detectors were used to measure the neutron spectrum generated at the RARAF IND-like neutron facility and a comparison is made to the neutron spectrum of Hiroshima.

  11. Broad energy range neutron spectroscopy using a liquid scintillator and a proportional counter: Application to a neutron spectrum similar to that from an improvised nuclear device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yanping; Randers-Pehrson, Gerhard; Marino, Stephen A.; Garty, Guy; Harken, Andrew; Brenner, David J.

    2015-09-01

    A novel neutron irradiation facility at the Radiological Research Accelerator Facility (RARAF) has been developed to mimic the neutron radiation from an Improvised Nuclear Device (IND) at relevant distances (e.g. 1.5 km) from the epicenter. The neutron spectrum of this IND-like neutron irradiator was designed according to estimations of the Hiroshima neutron spectrum at 1.5 km. It is significantly different from a standard reactor fission spectrum, because the spectrum changes as the neutrons are transported through air, and it is dominated by neutron energies from 100 keV up to 9 MeV. To verify such wide energy range neutron spectrum, detailed here is the development of a combined spectroscopy system. Both a liquid scintillator detector and a gas proportional counter were used for the recoil spectra measurements, with the individual response functions estimated from a series of Monte Carlo simulations. These normalized individual response functions were formed into a single response matrix for the unfolding process. Several accelerator-based quasi-monoenergetic neutron source spectra were measured and unfolded to test this spectroscopy system. These reference neutrons were produced from two reactions: T(p,n)3He and D(d,n)3He, generating neutron energies in the range between 0.2 and 8 MeV. The unfolded quasi-monoenergetic neutron spectra indicated that the detection system can provide good neutron spectroscopy results in this energy range. A broad-energy neutron spectrum from the 9Be(d,n) reaction using a 5 MeV deuteron beam, measured at 60 degrees to the incident beam was measured and unfolded with the evaluated response matrix. The unfolded broad neutron spectrum is comparable with published time-of-flight results. Finally, the pair of detectors were used to measure the neutron spectrum generated at the RARAF IND-like neutron facility and a comparison is made to the neutron spectrum of Hiroshima.

  12. Broad-spectrum matrix metalloproteinase inhibition curbs inflammation and liver injury but aggravates experimental liver fibrosis in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent E de Meijer

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Liver fibrosis is characterized by excessive synthesis of extracellular matrix proteins, which prevails over their enzymatic degradation, primarily by matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs. The effect of pharmacological MMP inhibition on fibrogenesis, however, is largely unexplored. Inflammation is considered a prerequisite and important co-contributor to fibrosis and is, in part, mediated by tumor necrosis factor (TNF-alpha-converting enzyme (TACE. We hypothesized that treatment with a broad-spectrum MMP and TACE-inhibitor (Marimastat would ameliorate injury and inflammation, leading to decreased fibrogenesis during repeated hepatotoxin-induced liver injury. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Liver fibrosis was induced in mice by repeated carbon tetrachloride (CCl4 administration, during which the mice received either Marimastat or vehicle twice daily. A single dose of CCl4 was administered to investigate acute liver injury in mice pretreated with Marimastat, mice deficient in Mmp9, or mice deficient in both TNF-alpha receptors. Liver injury was quantified by alanine aminotransferase (ALT levels and confirmed by histology. Hepatic collagen was determined as hydroxyproline, and expression of fibrogenesis and fibrolysis-related transcripts was determined by quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction. Marimastat-treated animals demonstrated significantly attenuated liver injury and inflammation but a 25% increase in collagen deposition. Transcripts related to fibrogenesis were significantly less upregulated compared to vehicle-treated animals, while MMP expression and activity analysis revealed efficient pharmacologic MMP-inhibition and decreased fibrolysis following Marimastat treatment. Marimastat pre-treatment significantly attenuated liver injury following acute CCl4-administration, whereas Mmp9 deficient animals demonstrated no protection. Mice deficient in both TNF-alpha receptors exhibited an 80% reduction of serum ALT

  13. Characterization of Disopyramide derivative ADD424042 as a non-cardiotoxic neuronal sodium channel blocker with broad-spectrum anticonvulsant activity in rodent seizure models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Król, Marek; Ufnal, Marcin; Szulczyk, Bartłomiej; Podsadni, Piotr; Drapała, Adrian; Turło, Jadwiga; Dawidowski, Maciej

    2016-01-01

    It was reported that antiarrhythmic drugs (AADs) can be useful in controlling refractory seizures in humans or in enhancing the action of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) in animal models. Disopyramide phosphate (DISO) is an AAD that blocks sodium channels in cardiac myocytes. We evaluated a DISO derivative, 2-(2-chlorophenyl)-2-(pyridin-2-yl)acetamide (ADD424042) for its anticonvulsant activity in a battery of rodent models of epileptic seizures. The compound displayed a broad spectrum of activity in the 'classical' models as well as in the models of pharmacoresistant seizures. Furthermore, ADD424042 showed good therapeutic indices between the anticonvulsant activity and the motor impairment. On the contrary, no anticonvulsant effects but severe lethality were observed in the primary anticonvulsant testing of the parent DISO. By performing the whole-cell voltage-clamp experiments in dispersed cortical neurons we demonstrated that ADD424042 decreased the maximal amplitude of voltage-gated sodium channels with an IC50 value in nM range. Moreover, the compound enhanced use-dependent block and decreased excitability in pyramidal neurons in the current-clamp experiments in cortical slices. Importantly, we found that ADD424042 possessed either no, or very small cardiotoxic effect. In contrast to DISO, ADD424042 did not produce any apparent changes in electrocardiogram (ECG) and arterial blood pressure recordings. ADD424042 had no effect on QT and corrected QT intervals, at a dose which was 15 times higher than ED50 for the anticonvulsant effect in the MES model. Taken together, these data suggest that ADD424042 has the potential to become a lead structure for novel broadly acting AEDs with wide margin of cardiac safety. PMID:26441377

  14. Immunity induced by a broad class of inorganic crystalline materials is directly controlled by their chemistry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.R. Williams (Gareth); K. Fierens (Kaat); S.G. Preston (Stephen); A.C. Lunn; O. Rysnik (Oliwia); S. de Prijck (Sofie); M. Kool (Mirjam); H.C. Buckley (Hannah); B.N.M. Lambrecht (Bart); D. O'Hare (Dermot); J.M. Austyn (Jonathan)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractThere is currently no paradigm in immunology that enables an accurate prediction of how the immune system will respond to any given agent. Here we show that the immunological responses induced by members of a broad class of inorganic crystalline materials are controlled purely by their p

  15. Metabolism of the broad-spectrum neuropeptide growth factor antagonist: [D-Arg1, D-Phe5, D-Trp7,9, Leu11]-substance P.

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, D. A.; Cummings, J.; Langdon, S. P.; Maclellan, A. J.; Higgins, T; Rozengurt, E; Smyth, J. F.

    1996-01-01

    Broad-spectrum neuropeptide growth factor antagonists, such as [D-Arg1, D-Phe5, D-Trp7,9, Leu11]substance P (antagonist D) and [Arg6, D-Trp7,9, NmePhe8]substance P(6-11) (antagonist G), are currently being investigated as possible anti-tumour agents. These compounds are hoped to be effective against neuropeptide-driven cancers such as small-cell lung cancer. Antagonist D possesses a broader antagonistic spectrum than antagonist G and hence may be of greater therapeutic use. The in vitro metab...

  16. Observation of a Broad Structure in the $\\pi^+\\pi^-J/\\psi$ Mass Spectrum around 4.26~GeV/$c^2$

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aubert, B.; Barate, R.; Boutigny, D.; Couderc, F.; Karyotakis, Y.; Lees, J.P.; Poireau, V.; Tisserand, V.; Zghiche, A.; /Annecy, LAPP; Grauges, E.; /Barcelona, IFAE; Palano, A.; Pappagallo, M.; Pompili, A.; /Bari U. /INFN, Bari; Chen, J.C.; Qi, N.D.; Rong, G.; Wang, P.; Zhu, Y.S.; /Beijing, Inst. High Energy Phys.; Eigen, G.; Ofte, I.; Stugu, B.

    2005-07-06

    The authors study initial-state radiation events, e{sup +}e{sup -} {yields} {gamma}{sub ISR} {pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -} J/{psi}, with data collected with the BABAR detector. They observe an accumulation of events near 4.26 GeV/c{sup 2} in the invariant-mass spectrum of {pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -} J/{psi}. Fits of the mass spectrum indicate that a broad resonance with a mass of about 4.26 GeV/c{sup 2} is required to describe the observed structure. The presence of additional narrow resonances cannot be excluded. The fitted width of the broad resonance is 50 to 90 MeV/c{sup 2}, depending on the fit hypothesis.

  17. Stepwise design, synthesis, and in vitro antifungal screening of (Z)-substituted-propenoic acid derivatives with potent broad-spectrum antifungal activity

    OpenAIRE

    Khedr MA

    2015-01-01

    Mohammed A KhedrDepartment of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Helwan University, Cairo, EgyptAbstract: Fungal infections are a main reason for the high mortality rate worldwide. It is a challenge to design selective antifungal agents with broad-spectrum activity. Lanosterol 14α-demethylase is an attractive target in the design of antifungal agents. Seven compounds were selected from a number of designed compounds using a rational docking study. These compounds were sy...

  18. The impact of pricing and patent expiration on the demand for pharmaceuticals: An examination of the use of broad-spectrum antimicrobials

    OpenAIRE

    Kaier, Klaus

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the analysis was to determine whether demand in Germany for antibiotics is driven by prices that drop considerably when generic substitutes become available. A time-series approach was therefore carried out to explore price elasticities of demand for two different classes of broad-spectrum antimicrobials (fluoroquinolones and cephalosporins) using data on ambulatory antibiotics prescribed on the German statutory health insurance scheme and data on in-hospital antibiotic use in a Ge...

  19. Rice RING protein OSBBI1 with E3 ligase activity confers broad-spectrum resistance against Magnaporthe oryzae by modifying the cell wall defence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei Li; Zuhua He; Sihui Zhong; Guojun Li; Qun Li; Bizeng Mao; Yiwen Deng; Huijuan Zhang; Longjun Zeng; Fengming Song

    2011-01-01

    Emerging evidence suggests that E3 ligases play critical roles in diverse biological processes, including innate immune responses in plants. However, the mechanism of the E3 ligase involvement in plant innate immunity is unclear.We report that a rice gene, OsBBI1, encoding a RING finger protein with E3 ligase activity, mediates broad-spectrum disease resistance. The expression of OSBBI1 was induced by rice blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae, as well as chemical inducers, benzothiadiazole and salicylic acid. Biochemical analysis revealed that OsBBI1 protein possesses E3ubiquitin ligase activity in vitro. Genetic analysis revealed that the loss of OsBBI1 function in a Tos17-insertion line increased susceptibility, while the overexpression of OsBBI1 in transgenic plants conferred enhanced resistance to multiple races of M.oryzae. This indicates that OsBBI1 modulates broad-spectrum resistance against the blast fungus. The OsBBII-overexpressing plants showed higher levels of H,O, accumulation in cells and higher levels of phenolic compounds and cross-linking of proteins in cell walls at infection sites by M. Oryzae compared with wild-type(WT)plants. The cell walls were thicker in the OsBB11-overexpressing plants and thinner in the mutant plants than in the WT plants. Our results suggest that OsBBH modulates broad-spectrum resistance to blast fungus by modifying cell wall defence responses. The functional characterization of OsBBI1 provides insight into the E3 ligase-mediated innate immunity, and a practical tool for constructing broad-spectrum resistance against the most destructive disease in rice.

  20. Unusual non-fluorescent broad spectrum siderophore activity (SID EGYII) by Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain EGYII DSM 101801 and a new insight towards simple siderophore bioassay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Embaby, Amira M; Heshmat, Yasmin; Hussein, Ahmed

    2016-03-01

    Present study highlights an unusual non-fluorescent hydroxamate broad spectrum siderophore (SID EGYII) activity from Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain EGYII DSM 101801, a soil bacterial isolate, along with simple low cost effective siderophore bioassay. Detection of SID EGYII activity qualitatively was proved by masking this activity against Erwinia amylovora strain EGY1 DSM 101800, an indicator strain, in well-cut diffusion assay containing 100 µM FeCl3. SID EGYII activity was expressed quantitatively as arbitrary units [Siderophore arbitrary units (SAU)] 380 SAU/mL against E. amylovora strain EGY1 DSM 101800. Maximal SID EGYII activity was achieved upon growing P. aeruginosa strain EGYII DSM 101801 in PYB broth at 180 rpm for 24 h. SID EGYII displayed a broad spectrum antimicrobial activity against some human pathogens (i.e., Gram-positive bacteria, Gram-negative bacteria and yeasts) and a fireblight plant pathogen. Interestingly, transformants of Escherichia coli JM109 (DE3)pSID/EGYII harboring P. aeruginosa strain EGYII DSM 101801 plasmid demonstrated a perceivable antimicrobial activity against E. amylovora strain EGY1 DSM 101800. The broad spectrum antimicrobial activity of the unusual non-fluorescent SID EGYII would underpin its high potential in targeting bacterial pathogens posing probable threats to human health and agricultural economy. The present simple low cost effective bioassay is a new insight towards an alternative to the expensive cumbersome siderophore Chrome Azurol S assay. PMID:27015845

  1. The Broad Autism (Endo)Phenotype: Neurostructural and Neurofunctional Correlates in Parents of Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billeci, Lucia; Calderoni, Sara; Conti, Eugenia; Gesi, Camilla; Carmassi, Claudia; Dell'Osso, Liliana; Cioni, Giovanni; Muratori, Filippo; Guzzetta, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) are a set of neurodevelopmental disorders with an early-onset and a strong genetic component in their pathogenesis. According to genetic and epidemiological data, ASD relatives present personality traits similar to, but not as severe as the defining features of ASD, which have been indicated as the “Broader Autism Phenotype” (BAP). BAP features seem to be more prevalent in first-degree relatives of individuals with ASD than in the general population. Characterizing brain profiles of relatives of autistic probands may help to understand ASD endophenotype. The aim of this review was to provide an up-to-date overview of research findings on the neurostructural and neurofunctional substrates in parents of individuals with ASD (pASD). The primary hypothesis was that, like for the behavioral profile, the pASD express an intermediate neurobiological pattern between ASD individuals and healthy controls. The 13 reviewed studies evaluated structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) brain volumes, chemical signals using magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS), task-related functional activation by functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), electroencephalography (EEG), or magnetoencephalography (MEG) in pASD.The studies showed that pASD are generally different from healthy controls at a structural and functional level despite often not behaviorally impaired. More atypicalities in neural patterns of pASD seem to be associated with higher scores at BAP assessment. Some of the observed atypicalities are the same of the ASD probands. In addition, the pattern of neural correlates in pASD resembles that of adult individuals with ASD, or it is specific, possibly due to a compensatory mechanism. Future studies should ideally include a group of pASD and HC with their ASD and non-ASD probands respectively. They should subgrouping the pASD according to the BAP scores, considering gender as a possible confounding factor, and correlating these scores

  2. The broad-spectrum antiviral compound ST-669 restricts chlamydial inclusion development and bacterial growth and localizes to host cell lipid droplets within treated cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandoz, Kelsi M; Valiant, William G; Eriksen, Steven G; Hruby, Dennis E; Allen, Robert D; Rockey, Daniel D

    2014-07-01

    Novel broad-spectrum antimicrobials are a critical component of a strategy for combating antibiotic-resistant pathogens. In this study, we explored the activity of the broad-spectrum antiviral compound ST-669 for activity against different intracellular bacteria and began a characterization of its mechanism of antimicrobial action. ST-669 inhibits the growth of three different species of chlamydia and the intracellular bacterium Coxiella burnetii in Vero and HeLa cells but not in McCoy (murine) cells. The antichlamydial and anti-C. burnetii activity spectrum was consistent with those observed for tested viruses, suggesting a common mechanism of action. Cycloheximide treatment in the presence of ST-669 abrogated the inhibitory effect, demonstrating that eukaryotic protein synthesis is required for tested activity. Immunofluorescence microscopy demonstrated that different chlamydiae grow atypically in the presence of ST-669, in a manner that suggests the compound affects inclusion formation and organization. Microscopic analysis of cells treated with a fluorescent derivative of ST-669 demonstrated that the compound localized to host cell lipid droplets but not to other organelles or the host cytosol. These results demonstrate that ST-669 affects intracellular growth in a host-cell-dependent manner and interrupts proper development of chlamydial inclusions, possibly through a lipid droplet-dependent process. PMID:24777097

  3. A Nonparametric Shewhart-Type Quality Control Chart for Monitoring Broad Changes in a Process Distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saad T. Bakir

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper develops a distribution-free (or nonparametric Shewhart-type statistical quality control chart for detecting a broad change in the probability distribution of a process. The proposed chart is designed for grouped observations, and it requires the availability of a reference (or training sample of observations taken when the process was operating in-control. The charting statistic is a modified version of the two-sample Kolmogorov-Smirnov test statistic that allows the exact calculation of the conditional average run length using the binomial distribution. Unlike the traditional distribution-based control charts (such as the Shewhart X-Bar, the proposed chart maintains the same control limits and the in-control average run length over the class of all (symmetric or asymmetric continuous probability distributions. The proposed chart aims at monitoring a broad, rather than a one-parameter, change in a process distribution. Simulation studies show that the chart is more robust against increased skewness and/or outliers in the process output. Further, the proposed chart is shown to be more efficient than the Shewhart X-Bar chart when the underlying process distribution has tails heavier than those of the normal distribution.

  4. An action spectrum for lethal photosensitization of Candida albicans by 8-MOP after low-dose broad-band UV-A irradiation; an action spectrum for 8-MOP 4',5'-monoadducts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An action spectrum was obtained for lethal photosensitization of Candida albicans that had been pre-irradiated with a sub-lethal low dose of broad-band UV-A after incubation with 8-methoxypsoralen and then washed to remove any non-photobound 8-methoxypsoralen. The resultant spectrum with a peak in the 320-335 nm region was similar to that obtained by a conventional method (single irradiation only) and also to the absorption spectrum of the 4',5'-monoadduct. These data support the hypothesis that the chromophore for lethal photosensitization by 8-methoxypsoralen is the 8-methoxypsoralen/DNA 4',5'-monoadduct rather than 8-methoxypsoralen itself. (author)

  5. Ceftriaxone-sulbactam combination in rabbit endocarditis caused by a strain of Klebsiella pneumoniae producing extended-broad-spectrum TEM-3 beta-lactamase.

    OpenAIRE

    Caron, F.; Gutmann, L; Bure, A; B. Pangon; Vallois, J M; Pechinot, A; Carbon, C

    1990-01-01

    We studied the activity of the combination of sulbactam and ceftriaxone against a Klebsiella pneumoniae strain producing TEM-3, a new extended-broad-spectrum beta-lactamase, in an endocarditis model. In vitro, ceftriaxone was strongly inactivated in the presence of TEM-3 (MBC, 128 micrograms/ml with an inoculum of 5 x 10(5) CFU/ml). A marked inoculum effect was demonstrated with sulbactam: effective concentrations of inhibitor needed to reduce the MIC and MBC of ceftriaxone to similar levels ...

  6. Broad phenotypic spectrum in familial adenomatous polyposis; from early onset and severe phenotypes to late onset of attenuated polyposis with the first manifestation at age 72

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilbert, Mef; Kristoffersson, Ulf; Ericsson, Mats;

    2008-01-01

    spectrum of extracolonic manifestations was identified in most of these individuals. Two sisters with an insertion in codon 528 (c.1582_1583insGC) both showed severe phenotypes with classical polyposis, upper gastrointestinal polyps and thyroid cancer. A woman with a 3'APC mutation (c.5030_5031ins......AA) developed colon cancer at age 72 as the first manifestation of attenuated FAP. Conclusion With an increasing number of FAP families diagnosed, a broad and variable tumor spectrum and a high frequency of extracolonic manifestations are gradually recognized. We report novel APC mutations and present two FAP...... cases that suggest familial aggregation of thyroid cancer and demonstrate the need to consider attenuated FAP also among elderly patients with colon cancer....

  7. Hopping control channel MAC protocol for opportunistic spectrum access networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FU Jing-tuan; JI Hong; MAO Xu

    2010-01-01

    Opportunistic spectrum access (OSA) is considered as a promising approach to mitigate spectrum scarcity by allowing unlicensed users to exploit spectrum opportunities in licensed frequency bands. Derived from the existing channel-hopping multiple access (CHMA) protocol,we introduce a hopping control channel medium access control (MAC) protocol in the context of OSA networks. In our proposed protocol,all nodes in the network follow a common channel-hopping sequence; every frequency channel can be used as control channel and data channel. Considering primary users' occupancy of the channel,we use a primary user (PU) detection model to calculate the channel availability for unlicensed users' access. Then,a discrete Markov chain analytical model is applied to describe the channel states and deduce the system throughput. Through simulation,we present numerical results to demonstrate the throughput performance of our protocol and thus validate our work.

  8. Control of lateral divergence in high-power, broad-area photonic crystal lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rong, Jiamin; Xing, Enbo; Wang, Lijie; Shu, Shili; Tian, Sicong; Tong, Cunzhu; Wang, Lijun

    2016-07-01

    One-dimensional photonic bandgap crystal (PBC) lasers have demonstrated ultra-low vertical divergence and record brightness; however, their future development is limited by their lateral beam quality. In this paper, a fishbone microstructure is proposed to control the lateral modes in broad-area PBC lasers. The findings reveal that the introduction of the microstructure improves the full width at half maximum of the lateral far field by 22.2% and increases the output power to a small extent. The detailed measurements show that the lateral beam parameter product decreases by 15.9%.

  9. Protease-sensitive conformers in broad spectrum of distinct PrPSc structures in sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease are indicator of progression rate.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chae Kim

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The origin, range, and structure of prions causing the most common human prion disease, sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (sCJD, are largely unknown. To investigate the molecular mechanism responsible for the broad phenotypic variability of sCJD, we analyzed the conformational characteristics of protease-sensitive and protease-resistant fractions of the pathogenic prion protein (PrP(Sc using novel conformational methods derived from a conformation-dependent immunoassay (CDI. In 46 brains of patients homozygous for polymorphisms in the PRNP gene and exhibiting either Type 1 or Type 2 western blot pattern of the PrP(Sc, we identified an extensive array of PrP(Sc structures that differ in protease sensitivity, display of critical domains, and conformational stability. Surprisingly, in sCJD cases homozygous for methionine or valine at codon 129 of the PRNP gene, the concentration and stability of protease-sensitive conformers of PrP(Sc correlated with progression rate of the disease. These data indicate that sCJD brains exhibit a wide spectrum of PrP(Sc structural states, and accordingly argue for a broad spectrum of prion strains coding for different phenotypes. The link between disease duration, levels, and stability of protease-sensitive conformers of PrP(Sc suggests that these conformers play an important role in the pathogenesis of sCJD.

  10. Ceftriaxone-sulbactam combination in rabbit endocarditis caused by a strain of Klebsiella pneumoniae producing extended-broad-spectrum TEM-3 beta-lactamase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caron, F; Gutmann, L; Bure, A; Pangon, B; Vallois, J M; Pechinot, A; Carbon, C

    1990-11-01

    We studied the activity of the combination of sulbactam and ceftriaxone against a Klebsiella pneumoniae strain producing TEM-3, a new extended-broad-spectrum beta-lactamase, in an endocarditis model. In vitro, ceftriaxone was strongly inactivated in the presence of TEM-3 (MBC, 128 micrograms/ml with an inoculum of 5 x 10(5) CFU/ml). A marked inoculum effect was demonstrated with sulbactam: effective concentrations of inhibitor needed to reduce the MIC and MBC of ceftriaxone to similar levels increased from 1 microgram/ml in the presence of an inoculum of 5 x 10(5) CFU/ml to 20 micrograms/ml in the presence of an inoculum of 1 x 10(7) CFU/ml. In vivo, sulbactam given at 200 mg/kg of body weight every 12 h, a dosage higher than that previously reported to be effective against rabbit endocarditis caused by other microorganisms, was not sufficient to restore the complete activity of ceftriaxone given at 30 mg/kg once daily for 4 days. This insufficient activity may be correlated with the presence of a high level of beta-lactamase inside the vegetations, as indicated by a quantitative in vitro assay of beta-lactamase activity in the cardiac vegetation, suggesting an insufficient inactivation of the extended-broad-spectrum beta-lactamase in vivo. PMID:2073099

  11. Broad phenotypic spectrum in familial adenomatous polyposis; from early onset and severe phenotypes to late onset of attenuated polyposis with the first manifestation at age 72

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannsson Oskar

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP is typically characterized by multiple colonic polyps and frequent extracolonic features. Whereas the number of colonic polyps has been linked to the APC gene mutation, possible genotype-phenotype correlations largely remain to be defined for the extracolonic manifestations. Methods Full genomic sequencing combined with multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification was used to identify APC gene mutations, which were correlated to the clinical presentations. Results 10 novel APC gene mutations were identified in 11 families. A broad spectrum of extracolonic manifestations was identified in most of these individuals. Two sisters with an insertion in codon 528 (c.1582_1583insGC both showed severe phenotypes with classical polyposis, upper gastrointestinal polyps and thyroid cancer. A woman with a 3'APC mutation (c.5030_5031insAA developed colon cancer at age 72 as the first manifestation of attenuated FAP. Conclusion With an increasing number of FAP families diagnosed, a broad and variable tumor spectrum and a high frequency of extracolonic manifestations are gradually recognized. We report novel APC mutations and present two FAP cases that suggest familial aggregation of thyroid cancer and demonstrate the need to consider attenuated FAP also among elderly patients with colon cancer.

  12. Czech ethanol-free propolis extract displays inhibitory activity against a broad spectrum of bacterial and fungal pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Netíková, Ladislava; Bogusch, Petr; Heneberg, Petr

    2013-09-01

    Propolis acts primarily as a biocide against invasive bacteria and fungi in the hive, suggesting its potential for industrial applications. In food application, propolis is considered as a chemical preservative in meat products, extending shelf life of frozen meat and other food. The mechanism of action is still unclear due to the synergy of multiple compounds contained in propolis and due to parallel targeting of multiple pathways within each affected organism. Here, we examined the antimicrobial properties of dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) Czech propolis extract. Until recently, DMSO was only rarely used in the propolis studies, although the other solvents tested (mostly ethanol) may significantly affect the observed inhibitory effects, notwithstanding the antimicrobial effects of ethanol itself. Here, we provide results of zone inhibition tests against Aspergillus fumigatus, Microsporum gypseum, Microsporum canis, Candida albicans, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria monocytogenes, and Enterococcus faecalis. Although we determined inhibitory effects against all the microorganisms tested, the dose-dependent response curves were not similar to each other. While inhibitory effects against C. albicans or S. aureus were strictly dose-dependent, responses of M. gypseum and E. faecalis displayed plateau across the broad range of concentrations tested. Interestingly, response of E. coli revealed the double-peak dose-dependent curve, and responses of M. canis and L. monocytogenes decreased at the highest concentrations tested. Suggested is evaluation of DMSO propolis extracts in experimental treatment of human and veterinary infections, preferably in multitherapy with antibiotics. PMID:23915150

  13. Detection of a novel circovirus in mute swans (Cygnus olor) by using nested broad-spectrum PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halami, M Y; Nieper, H; Müller, H; Johne, R

    2008-03-01

    Circoviruses are the causative agents of acute and chronic diseases in several animal species. Clinical symptoms of circovirus infections range from depression and diarrhoea to immunosuppression and feather disorders in birds. Eleven different members of the genus Circovirus are known so far, which infect pigs and birds in a species-specific manner. Here, a nested PCR was developed for the detection of a broad range of different circoviruses in clinical samples. Using this assay, a novel circovirus was detected in mute swans (Cygnus olor) found dead in Germany in 2006. Sequence analysis of the swan circovirus (SwCV) genome, amplified by multiply primed rolling-circle amplification and PCR, indicates that SwCV is a distinct virus most closely related to the goose circovirus (73.2% genome sequence similarity). Sequence variations between SwCV genomes derived from two different individuals were high (15.5% divergence) and mainly confined to the capsid protein-encoding region. By PCR testing of 32 samples derived from swans found dead in two different regions of Germany, detection rates of 20.0 and 77.3% were determined, thus indicating a high incidence of SwCV infection. The clinical significance of SwCV infection, however, needs to be investigated further. PMID:18082907

  14. Suzaku broad-band spectrum of 4U 1705-44: Probing the Reflection component in the hard state

    CERN Document Server

    Di Salvo, T; Matranga, M; Burderi, L; D'Ai, A; Egron, E; Papitto, A; Riggio, A; Robba, N R; Ueda, Y

    2015-01-01

    Iron emission lines at 6.4-6.97 keV, identified with Kalpha radiative transitions, are among the strongest discrete features in the X-ray band. These are one of the most powerful probes to infer the properties of the plasma in the innermost part of the accretion disk around a compact object. In this paper we present a recent Suzaku observation, 100-ks effective exposure, of the atoll source and X-ray burster 4U 1705-44, where we clearly detect signatures of a reflection component which is distorted by the high-velocity motion in the accretion disk. The reflection component consists of a broad iron line at about 6.4 keV and a Compton bump at high X-ray energies, around 20 keV. All these features are consistently fitted with a reflection model, and we find that in the hard state the smearing parameters are remarkably similar to those found in a previous XMM-Newton observation performed in the soft state. In particular, we find that the inner disk radius is Rin = 17 +/- 5 Rg (where Rg is the Gravitational radius...

  15. In vitro antimicrobial activity of piperacillin/tazobactam in comparison with other broad-spectrum beta-lactams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roland, R K; Mendes, R E; Silbert, S; Bolsoni, A P; Sader, H S

    2000-10-01

    Combining tazobactam, a beta-lactamase inhibitor, with the ureidopenicillin, piperacillin, successfully restores the activity of piperacillin against beta-lactamase producing bacteria. Thus, piperacillin/tazobactam is highly active against most clinically important species of Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria, including anaerobes. We evaluated the in vitro activity of piperacillin/tazobactam against clinical isolates from a tertiary university hospital located in Sao Paulo, Brazil. Its activity was compared to that of ticarcillin/clavulanic acid, ampicillin/sulbactam, ceftazidime, ceftriaxone, cefotaxime, cefoxitin, aztreonam, and imipenem against 820 isolates (608 Gram-negative and 212 Gram-positive) collected from hospitalized patients in 1999. The most frequent species tested were Pseudomonas aeruginosa (168/20%), Escherichia coli (139/17%), Acinetobacter spp. (131/16%), and Staphylococcus aureus (76/9%). Of the isolates studied, 30% were from the bloodstream, 16% from the lower respiratory tract, and 11% from surgical wounds or soft tissue. The isolates were susceptibility tested by the broth microdilution method according to NCCLS procedures. The isolates tested were highly resistant to most antimicrobial agents evaluated. Imipenem resistance was not verified among Enterobacteriaceae, and piperacillin/tazobactam was the second most active beta-lactams against this group of bacteria (80.0% susceptibility). Extended-spectrum beta-lactamase production was very high among E. coli (approximately 20%) and Klebsiella pneumoniae (approximately 40%). Imipenem was uniformly active against these species (100% susceptibility) and piperacillin/tazobactam was the second most active compound inhibiting 84.4% of isolates. Pseudomonas aeruginosa was highly resistant to all beta-lactams evaluated and piperacillin/tazobactam was the most active compound against this species. Our results demonstrate an extremely high level of antimicrobial resistance in the hospital

  16. "The Math You Need" When Faculty Need It: Enhancing Quantitative Skills at a Broad Spectrum of Higher Education Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baer, E. M.; Wenner, J. M.

    2014-12-01

    Implementation of "The Math You Need, When You Need It" (TMYN) modules at a wide variety of institutions suggests a broad need for faculty support in helping students develop quantitative skills necessary in introductory geoscience courses. Designed to support students in applying geoscience relevant quantitative skills, TMYN modules are web-based, self-paced and commonly assigned outside of class. They include topics such as calculating slope, rearranging equations, and unit conversions and provide several applications of the mathematical technique to geoscience problems. Each instructor chooses modules that are applicable to the content in his/her individual course and students typically work through the module immediately before the module topic is applied in lab or class. Instructors assigned TMYN modules in their courses at more than 40 diverse institutions, including four-year colleges and universities (4YCs) that vary from non-selective to highly selective and open-door two-year colleges (2YCs). Analysis of module topics assigned, frequency of module use, and institutional characteristics reveals similarities and differences among faculty perception of required quantitative skills and incoming student ability at variably selective institutions. Results indicate that institutional type and selectivity are not correlated with module topic; that is, faculty apply similar quantitative skills in all introductory geoscience courses. For example, nearly every instructor assigned the unit conversions module, whereas very few required the trigonometry module. However, differences in number of assigned modules and faculty expectations are observed between 2YCs and 4YCs (no matter the selectivity). Two-year college faculty typically assign a higher number of modules per course and faculty at 4YCs more often combine portions of multiple modules or cover multiple mathematical concepts in a single assignment. These observations suggest that quantitative skills required

  17. 网格蛋白介导型内吞作用与广谱抗病毒药%Clathrin-mediated endocytosis and broad-spectrum antivirals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周丽; 杨晓虹; 徐利保; 肖军海

    2013-01-01

    Viral disease is a serious threat for human health. Alhough plenty of antiviral agents have been used in clinical treatment, many viruses are resistant to them via virus mutation. And novel harmful viruses emerge in endlessly. So research and development of new antiviral drugs, especially the agents that are of broad-spectrum antiviral activity is particularly important. Clathrin-mediated endocytosis is the most common pathway used by viruses and pathogens for entering host cells. The inhibitors of clathrin-me-diated endocytosis may block the entry of viruses and pathogens, thus prevent viral infection. For the inhibitors do not directly act on the virus itself, it is hard to induce virus mutations which produce drug resistance. Clathrin-mediated endocytosis is the potential target of broad-spectrum antiviral agents in recent years. This review focuses on the mechanism of virus entry through clathrin-mediated endocytosis, the recent advances of clathrin-mediated endocytosis inhibitors and their potential applications in broad-spectrum antiviral therapeutics field.%病毒性疾病对人类的健康造成了巨大的威胁,虽然有很多药物用于临床治疗,但由于病毒的易变异性,对现有的抗病毒药物极易产生耐药性,而新发病毒又层出不穷,因此研发新的抗病毒药物尤其是广谱且不易产生耐药的抗病毒药物对于病毒性疾病的治疗就显得尤为重要.网格蛋白介导型内吞是许多病毒和病原体进入宿主细胞的主要途径,抑制此途径可阻断病毒进入宿主细胞,从而抑制病毒感染,由于其功能和机制与病毒自身无关,不易产生耐药,是近年来广谱抗病毒药物的潜在作用靶标.本文结合国内外最新研究报道,简要综述了病毒依赖网格蛋白介导型内吞入胞的机制,网格蛋白介导型内吞抑制剂的研究现状,及其在广谱抗病毒药物研发中的潜在应用前景.

  18. Effects of a broad spectrum and biorational insecticides on parasitoids of the Nantucket pine tip moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCravy, K W; Dalusky, M J; Berisford, C W

    2001-02-01

    We examined effects of aerial application of acephate (Orthene), Bacillus thuringiensis variety kurstaki Berliner (Foray), and tebufenozide (Mimic) on larval/pupal parasitoids of the Nantucket pine tip moth, Rhyacionia frustrana (Comstock), in the southwestern Georgia coastal plain. Parasitism of tip moths in acephate-treated plots was significantly lower than in untreated plots. Bacillus thuringiensis and tebufenozide showed no significant effects on parasitism. A tachinid, Lixophaga mediocris Aldrich, comprised a significantly greater proportion of emerging parasitoids in acephate-treated than in untreated control plots, whereas a chalcidid, Haltichella rhyacioniae Gahan, was less abundant in the acephate-treated plots. Acephate has a negative, but somewhat species-specific, impact on tip moth parasitism. PMID:11233099

  19. Bilinear control of discrete spectrum Schr\\"odinger operators

    CERN Document Server

    Ammari, Kais

    2010-01-01

    The bilinear control problem of the Schr\\"odinger equation $i\\frac{\\partial}{\\partial t}\\psi(t)$ $=(A+u(t) B)\\psi(t)$, where $u(t)$ is the control function, is investigated through topological irreducibility of the set $\\mathfrak{M}=\\{e^{-it (A+u B)}, u\\in \\mathbb{R}, t>0\\}$ of bounded operators. Under an appropriate assumption on $B$, this allows to prove the approximate controllability of such systems when the uncontrolled Hamiltonian $A$ has a simple discrete spectrum.

  20. Bilinear control of discrete spectrum Schr\\"odinger operators

    OpenAIRE

    Ammari, Kais; AMMARI, Zied

    2010-01-01

    The bilinear control problem of the Schr\\"odinger equation $i\\frac{\\partial}{\\partial t}\\psi(t)$ $=(A+u(t) B)\\psi(t)$, where $u(t)$ is the control function, is investigated through topological irreducibility of the set $\\mathfrak{M}=\\{e^{-it (A+u B)}, u\\in \\mathbb{R}, t>0\\}$ of bounded operators. This allows to prove the approximate controllability of such systems when the uncontrolled Hamiltonian $A$ has a simple discrete spectrum and under an appropriate assumption on $B$.

  1. The broad-spectrum metalloproteinase inhibitor BB-94 inhibits growth, HER3 and Erk activation in fulvestrant-resistant breast cancer cell lines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard, Tove; Yde, Christina Westmose; Kveiborg, Marie; Lykkesfeldt, Anne E

    2014-01-01

    consequently increased cell growth. In this study, we investigated the importance of HER receptors, in particular HER3, and HER ligand shedding for growth and signaling in human MCF-7 breast cancer cells and MCF-7-derived sublines resistant to the antiestrogen fulvestrant. The HER3/HER4 ligand heregulin 1β...... induced phosphorylation of HER3, Akt and Erk, and partly rescued fulvestrant-inhibited growth of MCF-7 cells. HER3 ligands were found to be produced and shed from the fulvestrant-resistant cells as conditioned medium from fulvestrant-resistant MCF-7 cells induced phosphorylation of HER3 and Akt in MCF-7...... cells. This was prevented by treatment of resistant cells with the metalloproteinase inhibitor TAPI-2. Only the broad-spectrum metalloproteinase inhibitor BB-94, and not the more selective inhibitors GM6001 or TAPI-2, which inhibited shedding of the HER ligands produced by the fulvestrant...

  2. Facile synthesis of Fe3O4 nanoparticles decorated on 3D graphene aerogels as broad-spectrum sorbents for water treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yong; Zhang, Ruofang; Tian, Xike; Yang, Chao; Zhou, Zhaoxin

    2016-04-01

    In order to develop efficient and environment benign sorbents for water purification, the macroscopic multifunctional magnetite-reduced graphene oxides aerogels (M-RGOs) with strong interconnected networks were prepared via a one pot solvothermal method of graphene oxide sheets adsorbing iron ions and in situ simultaneous deposition of Fe3O4 nanoparticles in ethylene glycol or triethylene glycol solvents. Such M-RGOs exhibited excellent sorption capacity to different contaminants, including oils, organic solvents, arsenite ions, as well as dyes. In addition, it was demonstrated that the M-RGOs could be used as column packing materials to manufacture column for water purification by filtration. The method proposed was proved to be versatile to induce synergistic assembly of RGO sheets with other functional metal oxides nanoparticles and as a kind of broad-spectrum sorbents for removing different types of contaminants in water purification, simultaneously.

  3. A comparison of broad-spectrum and narrow-spectrum dry cow therapy used alone and in combination with a teat sealant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, A J; Breen, J E; Payne, B; Green, M J

    2011-02-01

    The dry period is a critical time in the lactation cycle, offering the optimum time for cure of existing intramammary infection (IMI), while also encompassing the periods of highest susceptibility to new intramammary infection. Until recent years, intramammary infection in the dry period has been controlled with the use of antibiotic dry cow therapy. The aim of this study was to investigate 3 different dry cow therapy regimens, in low-somatic cell count (SCC; bulk milk SCCmultilevel (random effects) models were constructed to assess the efficacy of products in preventing IMI. Survival analysis was used to examine factors that influenced the risk of clinical mastitis using conventional Cox proportional hazards models. No differences were identified between the treatment groups in terms of cure of IMI caused by the major pathogens. Quarters in both the combination and cefquinome-treated groups were more likely to be free of a major pathogen or enterobacterial pathogen postcalving. With respect to clinical mastitis, the cefquinome-treated group was less likely to develop clinical mastitis than was the cloxacillin treated group. PMID:21257038

  4. Use of sensitive, broad-spectrum molecular assays and human airway epithelium cultures for detection of respiratory pathogens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof Pyrc

    Full Text Available Rapid and accurate detection and identification of viruses causing respiratory tract infections is important for patient care and disease control. Despite the fact that several assays are available, identification of an etiological agent is not possible in ~30% of patients suffering from respiratory tract diseases. Therefore, the aim of the current study was to develop a diagnostic set for the detection of respiratory viruses with sensitivity as low as 1-10 copies per reaction. Evaluation of the assay using a training clinical sample set showed that viral nucleic acids were identified in ~76% of cases. To improve assay performance and facilitate the identification of novel species or emerging strains, cultures of fully differentiated human airway epithelium were used to pre-amplify infectious viruses. This additional step resulted in the detection of pathogens in all samples tested. Based on these results it can be hypothesized that the lack of an etiological agent in some clinical samples, both reported previously and observed in the present study, may result not only from the presence of unknown viral species, but also from imperfections in the detection methods used.

  5. Broad-Spectrum Liquid- and Gas-Phase Decontamination of Chemical Warfare Agents by One-Dimensional Heteropolyniobates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Weiwei; Lv, Hongjin; Sullivan, Kevin P; Gordon, Wesley O; Balboa, Alex; Wagner, George W; Musaev, Djamaladdin G; Bacsa, John; Hill, Craig L

    2016-06-20

    A wide range of chemical warfare agents and their simulants are catalytically decontaminated by a new one-dimensional polymeric polyniobate (P-PONb), K12 [Ti2 O2 ][GeNb12 O40 ]⋅19 H2 O (KGeNb) under mild conditions and in the dark. Uniquely, KGeNb facilitates hydrolysis of nerve agents Sarin (GB) and Soman (GD) (and their less reactive simulants, dimethyl methylphosphonate (DMMP)) as well as mustard (HD) in both liquid and gas phases at ambient temperature and in the absence of neutralizing bases or illumination. Three lines of evidence establish that KGeNb removes DMMP, and thus likely GB/GD, by general base catalysis: a) the k(H2 O)/k(D2 O) solvent isotope effect is 1.4; b) the rate law (hydrolysis at the same pH depends on the amount of P-PONb present); and c) hydroxide is far less active against the above simulants at the same pH than the P-PONbs themselves, a critical control experiment. PMID:27061963

  6. Broad spectrum antibacterial and antifungal polymeric paint materials: synthesis, structure-activity relationship, and membrane-active mode of action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoque, Jiaul; Akkapeddi, Padma; Yadav, Vikas; Manjunath, Goutham B; Uppu, Divakara S S M; Konai, Mohini M; Yarlagadda, Venkateswarlu; Sanyal, Kaustuv; Haldar, Jayanta

    2015-01-28

    Microbial attachment and subsequent colonization onto surfaces lead to the spread of deadly community-acquired and hospital-acquired (nosocomial) infections. Noncovalent immobilization of water insoluble and organo-soluble cationic polymers onto a surface is a facile approach to prevent microbial contamination. In the present study, we described the synthesis of water insoluble and organo-soluble polymeric materials and demonstrated their structure-activity relationship against various human pathogenic bacteria including drug-resistant strains such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE), and beta lactam-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae as well as pathogenic fungi such as Candida spp. and Cryptococcus spp. The polymer coated surfaces completely inactivated both bacteria and fungi upon contact (5 log reduction with respect to control). Linear polymers were more active and found to have a higher killing rate than the branched polymers. The polymer coated surfaces also exhibited significant activity in various complex mammalian fluids such as serum, plasma, and blood and showed negligible hemolysis at an amount much higher than minimum inhibitory amounts (MIAs). These polymers were found to have excellent compatibility with other medically relevant polymers (polylactic acid, PLA) and commercial paint. The cationic hydrophobic polymer coatings disrupted the lipid membrane of both bacteria and fungi and thus showed a membrane-active mode of action. Further, bacteria did not develop resistance against these membrane-active polymers in sharp contrast to conventional antibiotics and lipopeptides, thus the polymers hold great promise to be used as coating materials for developing permanent antimicrobial paint. PMID:25541751

  7. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Solution Structures of Lacticin Q and Aureocin A53 Reveal a Structural Motif Conserved among Leaderless Bacteriocins with Broad-Spectrum Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acedo, Jeella Z; van Belkum, Marco J; Lohans, Christopher T; Towle, Kaitlyn M; Miskolzie, Mark; Vederas, John C

    2016-02-01

    Lacticin Q (LnqQ) and aureocin A53 (AucA) are leaderless bacteriocins from Lactococcus lactis QU5 and Staphylococcus aureus A53, respectively. These bacteriocins are characterized by the absence of an N-terminal leader sequence and are active against a broad range of Gram-positive bacteria. LnqQ and AucA consist of 53 and 51 amino acids, respectively, and have 47% identical sequences. In this study, their three-dimensional structures were elucidated using solution nuclear magnetic resonance and were shown to consist of four α-helices that assume a very similar compact, globular overall fold (root-mean-square deviation of 1.7 Å) with a highly cationic surface and a hydrophobic core. The structures of LnqQ and AucA resemble the shorter two-component leaderless bacteriocins, enterocins 7A and 7B, despite having low levels of sequence identity. Homology modeling revealed that the observed structural motif may be shared among leaderless bacteriocins with broad-spectrum activity against Gram-positive organisms. The elucidated structures of LnqQ and AucA also exhibit some resemblance to circular bacteriocins. Despite their similar overall fold, inhibition studies showed that LnqQ and AucA have different antimicrobial potency against the Gram-positive strains tested, suggesting that sequence disparities play a crucial role in their mechanisms of action. PMID:26771761

  8. The solar wind control of Jupiter's broad-band kilometric radio emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrow, C. H.; Leblanc, Y.; Desch, M. D.

    1988-01-01

    Observations of the solar wind close to Jupiter are compared with the broad-band kilometric radio emission (bKOM), using data recorded by Voyager 1 and Voyager 2 during 1979. The lower bKOM frequencies, less than about 300 kHz, are found to correlate with the solar wind density and pressure and with the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) magnitude during periods when there is a well-defined magnetic sector structure. The results suggest that lower frequency bKOM events are most likely to occur after a sector boundary has passed Jupiter during the period when the solar wind density and the IMF magnitude are increasing towards the sector center. The average bKOM energy per Jovian rotation tends to have lower values soon after the sector center has passed. Higher-frequency/higher-energy bKOM emission may be contaminated by hectometric emission (HOM) and differently correlated with solar activity. The solar wind control may also be obscured by some stronger control. It is suggested that electron density fluctuations in the Io torus, where the source is believed to be located, may be responsible for variations in the beaming and hence variations in the observed emission.

  9. 47 CFR 1.9010 - De facto control standard for spectrum leasing arrangements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false De facto control standard for spectrum leasing... PROCEDURE Spectrum Leasing General Policies and Procedures § 1.9010 De facto control standard for spectrum leasing arrangements. (a) Under the rules established for spectrum leasing arrangements in this...

  10. Co-administration of the broad-spectrum antiviral, brincidofovir (CMX001), with smallpox vaccine does not compromise vaccine protection in mice challenged with ectromelia virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Scott; Crump, Ryan; Foster, Scott; Hartzler, Hollyce; Hembrador, Ed; Lanier, E Randall; Painter, George; Schriewer, Jill; Trost, Lawrence C; Buller, R Mark

    2014-11-01

    Natural orthopoxvirus outbreaks such as vaccinia, cowpox, cattlepox and buffalopox continue to cause morbidity in the human population. Monkeypox virus remains a significant agent of morbidity and mortality in Africa. Furthermore, monkeypox virus's broad host-range and expanding environs make it of particular concern as an emerging human pathogen. Monkeypox virus and variola virus (the etiological agent of smallpox) are both potential agents of bioterrorism. The first line response to orthopoxvirus disease is through vaccination with first-generation and second-generation vaccines, such as Dryvax and ACAM2000. Although these vaccines provide excellent protection, their widespread use is impeded by the high level of adverse events associated with vaccination using live, attenuated virus. It is possible that vaccines could be used in combination with antiviral drugs to reduce the incidence and severity of vaccine-associated adverse events, or as a preventive in individuals with uncertain exposure status or contraindication to vaccination. We have used the intranasal mousepox (ectromelia) model to evaluate the efficacy of vaccination with Dryvax or ACAM2000 in conjunction with treatment using the broad spectrum antiviral, brincidofovir (BCV, CMX001). We found that co-treatment with BCV reduced the severity of vaccination-associated lesion development. Although the immune response to vaccination was quantifiably attenuated, vaccination combined with BCV treatment did not alter the development of full protective immunity, even when administered two days following ectromelia challenge. Studies with a non-replicating vaccine, ACAM3000 (MVA), confirmed that BCV's mechanism of attenuating the immune response following vaccination with live virus was, as expected, by limiting viral replication and not through inhibition of the immune system. These studies suggest that, in the setting of post-exposure prophylaxis, co-administration of BCV with vaccination should be considered

  11. Admission Control and Interference Management in Dynamic Spectrum Access Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Martinez-Bauset

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We study two important aspects to make dynamic spectrum access work in practice: the admission policy of secondary users (SUs to achieve a certain degree of quality of service and the management of the interference caused by SUs to primary users (PUs. In order to limit the forced termination probability of SUs, we evaluate the Fractional Guard Channel reservation scheme to give priority to spectrum handovers over new arrivals. We show that, contrary to what has been proposed, the throughput of SUs cannot be maximized by configuring the reservation parameter. We also study the interference caused by SUs to PUs. We propose and evaluate different mechanisms to reduce the interference, which are based on simple spectrum access algorithms for both PUs and SUs and channel repacking algorithms for SUs. Numerical results show that the reduction can be of one order of magnitude or more with respect to the random access case. Finally, we propose an adaptive admission control scheme that is able to limit simultaneously the forced termination probability of SUs and what we define as the probability of interference. Our scheme does not require any configuration parameters beyond the probability objectives. Besides, it is simple to implement and it can operate with any arrival process and distribution of the session duration.

  12. The effect of heating temperature and nitric acid treatments on the performance of Cu- and Zn-based broad spectrum respirator carbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, J W H; Romero, J V; Dahn, T R; Dunphy, K; Sullivan, B; Mallay, M; Croll, L M; Reynolds, J H; Andress, C; Dahn, J R

    2011-12-01

    Impregnated activated carbons (IACs) that are used in broad spectrum gas mask applications have historically contained copper and/or zinc impregnants. The addition of an oxidizing agent, such as nitric acid (HNO(3)) can be useful in distributing the metallic impregnants uniformly on the activated carbon substrate. In this work, we study IACs prepared from copper nitrate (Cu(NO(3))(2)) and zinc nitrate (Zn(NO(3))(2)) precursors as a function of HNO(3) content present in the impregnating solution and as a function of heating temperature. The gas adsorption capacity of the IACs was determined by dynamic flow testing using sulfur dioxide (SO(2)), ammonia (NH(3)), hydrogen cyanide (HCN) and cyclohexane (C(6)H(12)) challenge gases under dry and humid conditions. The thermal decomposition and distribution of the impregnant on the activated carbon substrate is studied using X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and thermal analysis techniques. Relationships between gas adsorption capacity, impregnant distribution and the species of surface impregnants are discussed. PMID:21911221

  13. Tallow amphopolycarboxyglycinate-stabilized silver nanoparticles: new frontiers in development of plant protection products with a broad spectrum of action against phytopathogens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krutyakov, Yurii A.; Kudrinskiy, Alexey A.; Zherebin, Pavel M.; Yapryntsev, Alexey D.; Pobedinskaya, Marina A.; Elansky, Sergey N.; Denisov, Albert N.; Mikhaylov, Dmitry M.; Lisichkin, Georgii V.

    2016-07-01

    Sustainable agriculture calls for minimal use of agrochemicals in order to protect the environment. It has caused an increase in the rate of nanoparticles use, in particular silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) due to their safety for mammals, unique biological activity and a broad spectrum of action against fungal and bacterial pathogens. Until now the use of AgNPs dispersions in the agricultural sector has been essentially limited due to many factors decreased their stability (mixing with other pesticides, presence of electrolytes). We present a versatile synthesis of polyampholyte surfactant (tallow amphopolycarboxyglycinate) stabilized AgNPs. We took a close look at unique aggregation behavior (via dynamic light scattering and UV–vis spectroscopy) and biocidal activity of obtained silver colloids. AgNPs are characterized by exclusively high aggregative stability in the presence of coagulating agents NaNO3 and NaSO4 (up to 1 M), during drying/redispergation, and frost/defrost cycles. The dispersion of AgNPs shows high biocidal activity (EC50 is ten times lower than commercial species ones) with respect to Phytophthora infestans and phytopathogenic fungi. This points to the possibility of successful application of silver preparations within agriculture with the goal of partial reduction of the use of toxic and expensive synthetic antibiotics and pesticides.

  14. Stepwise design, synthesis, and in vitro antifungal screening of (Z)-substituted-propenoic acid derivatives with potent broad-spectrum antifungal activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khedr, Mohammed A

    2015-01-01

    Fungal infections are a main reason for the high mortality rate worldwide. It is a challenge to design selective antifungal agents with broad-spectrum activity. Lanosterol 14α-demethylase is an attractive target in the design of antifungal agents. Seven compounds were selected from a number of designed compounds using a rational docking study. These compounds were synthesized and evaluated for their antifungal activity. In silico study results showed the high binding affinity to lanosterol 14α-demethylase (−24.49 and −25.83 kcal/mol) for compounds V and VII, respectively; these values were greater than those for miconazole (−18.19 kcal/mol) and fluconazole (−16.08 kcal/mol). Compound V emerged as the most potent antifungal agent among all compounds with a half maximal inhibitory concentration of 7.01, 7.59, 7.25, 31.6, and 41.6 µg/mL against Candida albicans, Candida parapsilosis, Aspergillus niger, Trichophyton rubrum, and Trichophyton mentagrophytes, respectively. The antifungal activity for most of the synthesized compounds was more potent than that of miconazole and fluconazole. PMID:26309398

  15. Naturally occurring broad-spectrum powdery mildew resistance in a Central American tomato accession is caused by loss of mlo function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Yuling; Pavan, Stefano; Zheng, Zheng; Zappel, Nana F; Reinstädler, Anja; Lotti, Concetta; De Giovanni, Claudio; Ricciardi, Luigi; Lindhout, Pim; Visser, Richard; Theres, Klaus; Panstruga, Ralph

    2008-01-01

    The resistant cherry tomato (Solanum lycopersicum var. cerasiforme) line LC-95, derived from an accession collected in Ecuador, harbors a natural allele (ol-2) that confers broad-spectrum and recessively inherited resistance to powdery mildew (Oidium neolycopersici). As both the genetic and phytopathological characteristics of ol-2-mediated resistance are reminiscent of powdery mildew immunity conferred by loss-of-function mlo alleles in barley and Arabidopsis, we initiated a candidate-gene approach to clone Ol-2. A tomato Mlo gene (SlMlo1) with high sequence-relatedness to barley Mlo and Arabidopsis AtMLO2 mapped to the chromosomal region harboring the Ol-2 locus. Complementation experiments using transgenic tomato lines as well as virus-induced gene silencing assays suggested that loss of SlMlo1 function is responsible for powdery mildew resistance conferred by ol-2. In progeny of a cross between a resistant line bearing ol-2 and the susceptible tomato cultivar Moneymaker, a 19-bp deletion disrupting the SlMlo1 coding region cosegregated with resistance. This polymorphism results in a frameshift and, thus, a truncated nonfunctional SlMlo1 protein. Our findings reveal the second example of a natural mlo mutant that possibly arose post-domestication, suggesting that natural mlo alleles might be evolutionarily short-lived due to fitness costs related to loss of mlo function. PMID:18052880

  16. Cloning and Expression of Synthetic Genes Encoding the Broad Antimicrobial Spectrum Bacteriocins SRCAM 602, OR-7, E-760, and L-1077, by Recombinant Pichia pastoris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Arbulu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We have evaluated the cloning and functional expression of previously described broad antimicrobial spectrum bacteriocins SRCAM 602, OR-7, E-760, and L-1077, by recombinant Pichia pastoris. Synthetic genes, matching the codon usage of P. pastoris, were designed from the known mature amino acid sequence of these bacteriocins and cloned into the protein expression vector pPICZαA. The recombinant derived plasmids were linearized and transformed into competent P. pastoris X-33, and the presence of integrated plasmids into the transformed cells was confirmed by PCR and sequencing of the inserts. The antimicrobial activity, expected in supernatants of the recombinant P. pastoris producers, was purified using a multistep chromatographic procedure including ammonium sulfate precipitation, desalting by gel filtration, cation exchange-, hydrophobic interaction-, and reverse phase-chromatography (RP-FPLC. However, a measurable antimicrobial activity was only detected after the hydrophobic interaction and RP-FPLC steps of the purified supernatants. MALDI-TOF MS analysis of the antimicrobial fractions eluted from RP-FPLC revealed the existence of peptide fragments of lower and higher molecular mass than expected. MALDI-TOF/TOF MS analysis of selected peptides from eluted RP-FPLC samples with antimicrobial activity indicated the presence of peptide fragments not related to the amino acid sequence of the cloned bacteriocins.

  17. Sunscreens with broad-spectrum absorption decrease the trans TO cis photoisomerization of urocanic acid in the human stratum corneum after multiple UV light exposures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The trans to cis photoisomerization of urocanic acid (UCA) in skin is considered to play an important role in the mechanism of immunosuppression. We have investigated the effects of skin type and various sunscreens with low sun protection factor (SPF) on the UV-induced cis-UCA formation in human skin after exposure to artificial UV light. The rate of cis-UCA formation depends little on the skin type and is reduced by topical application of sunscreens. The rate of cis-UCA formation decreases with increasing SPF and only broad-spectrum, highly protective sunscreens offer protection against the UV-induced formation of cis-UCA, which accumulates in the stratum corneum after multiple UV exposures. A theoretical approach to estimate the distribution of cis-UCA after irradiation indicates that this compound may diffuse into the deeper layers of the epidermis with D ∼ 10-17 m2/s, and that its elimination from the stratum corneum is mainly due to desquamation. (author)

  18. Targeting highly conserved 3'-untranslated region of pecluviruses for sensitive broad-spectrum detection and quantitation by RT-PCR and assessment of phylogenetic relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dieryck, B; Delfosse, P; Reddy, A S; Bragard, C

    2010-11-01

    The 3'-end region of many virus isolates has been shown to possess conserved sequences in addition to the presence of numerous genomic and subgenomic RNAs. Utilizing these sequences, a broad-spectrum reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction protocol has been developed to detect all the known Indian peanut clump virus and Peanut clump virus isolates, that cause peanut clump diseases in West Africa and India. The primers were targeted at the highly conserved 3'-untranslated regions of the PCV RNA-1 and RNA-2. The conservation was confirmed by sequencing these untranslated regions of RNA-1 for six isolates and RNA-2 for one isolate. The conserved structure of the RNA-1 and RNA-2 was observed and the importance of this region for the virus survival was confirmed. The primers were also designed for virus quantitation using a Taqman(®)-based real-time RT-PCR. The use of RT-PCR and real-time quantitative RT-PCR improved the sensitivity of PCV detection compared to ELISA. RT-PCR also led to the detection of IPCV and PCV on two new natural hosts: Oldenlandia aspera and Vigna subterranea. Real-time RT-PCR is considered to be an ideal tool for identifying resistant sources to both IPCV and PCV. PMID:20723565

  19. Albendazole, a broad-spectrum anthelmintic, in the treatment of intestinal nematode and cestode infection: a multicenter study in 480 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagota, S C

    1986-01-01

    The anthelmintic activity of and patient tolerance to albendazole, a broad-spectrum anthelmintic, were studied in a multicenter trial involving 480 patients ranging in age from 2 to 60 years. The patients had single or mixed infections caused by pinworms, roundworms, hookworms, whipworms, threadworms, or tapeworms. The stools were examined by the direct method, and ova were counted by means of the Kato-Katz technique. A Graham-Scotch test was also done in patients infected with Enterobius vermicularis. Most patients received a single 400-mg dose of albendazole; adults were given two tablets, and children were given a 2% suspension. All patients with Hymenolepis nana and about half of those with Taenia infections were treated for three successive days. Patients were carefully evaluated before and after treatment to assess the efficacy and safety of the drug. After a single dose of albendazole, the cure rate was 95.3% in ascariasis, 92.2% in ancylostomiasis, 90.5% in trichuriasis, 64.9% in taeniasis, and 100% in enterobiasis. Among patients receiving 400 mg of albendazole for three days, the cure rate was 63.4% in hymenolepiasis and 86.1% in taeniasis. The drug was well tolerated, and no significant side effects were reported. PMID:3516398

  20. Varespladib (LY315920) Appears to Be a Potent, Broad-Spectrum, Inhibitor of Snake Venom Phospholipase A2 and a Possible Pre-Referral Treatment for Envenomation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewin, Matthew; Samuel, Stephen; Merkel, Janie; Bickler, Philip

    2016-01-01

    Snakebite remains a neglected medical problem of the developing world with up to 125,000 deaths each year despite more than a century of calls to improve snakebite prevention and care. An estimated 75% of fatalities from snakebite occur outside the hospital setting. Because phospholipase A2 (PLA2) activity is an important component of venom toxicity, we sought candidate PLA2 inhibitors by directly testing drugs. Surprisingly, varespladib and its orally bioavailable prodrug, methyl-varespladib showed high-level secretory PLA2 (sPLA2) inhibition at nanomolar and picomolar concentrations against 28 medically important snake venoms from six continents. In vivo proof-of-concept studies with varespladib had striking survival benefit against lethal doses of Micrurus fulvius and Vipera berus venom, and suppressed venom-induced sPLA2 activity in rats challenged with 100% lethal doses of M. fulvius venom. Rapid development and deployment of a broad-spectrum PLA2 inhibitor alone or in combination with other small molecule inhibitors of snake toxins (e.g., metalloproteases) could fill the critical therapeutic gap spanning pre-referral and hospital setting. Lower barriers for clinical testing of safety tested, repurposed small molecule therapeutics are a potentially economical and effective path forward to fill the pre-referral gap in the setting of snakebite. PMID:27571102

  1. Broad Protein Spectrum in Stored Pollen of Three Stingless Bees from the Chaco Dry Forest in South America (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Meliponini and Its Ecological Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Favio Gerardo Vossler

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Protein content of pollen stored by three meliponine species was variable from 9.78% (less than half the value considered as optimal to brood development in Apis mellifera in type Capparis tweediana-C. speciosa to more than 26% in type Maytenus vitis-idaea and some Prosopis samples. This pollen of low protein value was occasionally foraged (only six out of 75 masses analyzed of G. argentina, but none in 86 masses of T. fiebrigi or in ten of M. orbignyi. However, it is likely that amino acid deficiencies of certain pollens are compensated by randomly foraging on a broad spectrum of pollen plants. The large amounts of pollen stored in their nests might also be important in compensating these deficiencies. The only sample studied for M. orbignyi showed a protein value greater than the one required for A. mellifera and was dominated by types Acacia praecox and Prosopis. As this species also prefers Solanum and other protein-rich pollen, more samples would need to be analyzed to establish whether protein requirements are high for this Melipona species. Pollen showing the highest protein content (>26% belonged to highly nectariferous plants well represented in meliponine and Apis honey such as Prosopis, Maytenus, and Ziziphus.

  2. XMM-Newton observation of 4U 1820-30: Broad band spectrum and the contribution of the cold interstellar medium

    CERN Document Server

    Costantini, E; Kaastra, J S; Zand, J J M in't; Freyberg, M J; Kuiper, L; Mendez, M; de Vries, C P; Waters, L B F M

    2011-01-01

    We present the analysis of the bright X-ray binary 4U 1820-30, based mainly on XMM-Newton-RGS data, but using complementary data from XMM-Epic, Integral, and Chandra-HETG, to investigate different aspects of the source. The broad band continuum is well fitted by a classical combination of black body and Comptonized emission. The continuum shape and the high flux of the source (L/L_Edd\\sim0.16) are consistent with a "high state" of the source. We do not find significant evidence of iron emission at energies >=6.4 keV. The soft X-ray spectrum contain a number of absorption features. Here we focus on the cold-mildly ionized gas. The neutral gas column density is N_H\\sim1.63x10^21 cm^-2. The detailed study of the oxygen and iron edge reveals that those elements are depleted, defined here as the ratio between dust and the total ISM cold phase, by a factor 0.20\\pm0.02 and 0.87\\pm0.14, respectively. Using the available dust models, the best fit points to a major contribution of Mg-rich silicates, with metallic iron ...

  3. Varespladib (LY315920 Appears to Be a Potent, Broad-Spectrum, Inhibitor of Snake Venom Phospholipase A2 and a Possible Pre-Referral Treatment for Envenomation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Lewin

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Snakebite remains a neglected medical problem of the developing world with up to 125,000 deaths each year despite more than a century of calls to improve snakebite prevention and care. An estimated 75% of fatalities from snakebite occur outside the hospital setting. Because phospholipase A2 (PLA2 activity is an important component of venom toxicity, we sought candidate PLA2 inhibitors by directly testing drugs. Surprisingly, varespladib and its orally bioavailable prodrug, methyl-varespladib showed high-level secretory PLA2 (sPLA2 inhibition at nanomolar and picomolar concentrations against 28 medically important snake venoms from six continents. In vivo proof-of-concept studies with varespladib had striking survival benefit against lethal doses of Micrurus fulvius and Vipera berus venom, and suppressed venom-induced sPLA2 activity in rats challenged with 100% lethal doses of M. fulvius venom. Rapid development and deployment of a broad-spectrum PLA2 inhibitor alone or in combination with other small molecule inhibitors of snake toxins (e.g., metalloproteases could fill the critical therapeutic gap spanning pre-referral and hospital setting. Lower barriers for clinical testing of safety tested, repurposed small molecule therapeutics are a potentially economical and effective path forward to fill the pre-referral gap in the setting of snakebite.

  4. Ciprofloxacin prophylaxis delays initiation of broad-spectrum antibiotic therapy and reduces the overall use of antimicrobial agents during induction therapy for acute leukaemia: A single-centre study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallböök, Helene; Lidström, Anna-Karin; Pauksens, Karlis

    2016-06-01

    Background Due to an outbreak of extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae, the routine use of fluoroquinolone prophylaxis was questioned. As a result, this study was conducted with the aim to evaluate the impact of ciprofloxacin-prophylaxis on the use of broad-spectrum antibioctics and anti-mycotics. Methods A cohort of 139 consecutive patients with acute leukaemia treated with remission-inducing induction chemotherapy between 2004-2012 at the Department of Haematology in Uppsala University Hospital was analysed. Results Fifty-three patients (38%) received broad-spectrum antibiotics at the initiation of chemotherapy and were not eligible for prophylaxis. Of the remaining patients, the initiation of broad-spectrum antibiotics was delayed by 3 days in those receiving ciprofloxacin prophylaxis (n = 47) compared with those receiving no prophylaxis (n = 39). The median duration of systemic antibiotic treatment was 6 days shorter in patients receiving ciprofloxacin prophylaxis (12 vs 18 days; p = 0.0005) and the cumulative (total) median days on systemic antibiotic treatment was shortened by 8 days (15 vs 23 days, p = 0.0008). Piperacillin/tazobactam (p = 0.02), carbapenems (p = 0.05) and empiric broad-spectrum antifungals (p antibiotic use in this study. These benefits must be evaluated vs the risks of development of resistant bacterial strains, making fluoroquinolone prophylaxis an open question for debate. PMID:27030917

  5. Development of a monoclonal antibody specific to envelope domain III with broad-spectrum detection of all four dengue virus serotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sae-Hae; Kim, Yu Na; Truong, Thang Thua; Thu Thuy, Nguyen Thi; Mai, Le Quynh; Jang, Yong-Suk

    2016-05-13

    Dengue virus (DENV) is a mosquito-borne pathogen that annually infects more than 390 million people in 100 different countries. Symptoms of the viral infection include a relatively weak dengue fever to severe dengue hemorrhagic fever/dengue shock syndrome, which are mortal infectious diseases. As of yet, there is no commercially available vaccine or therapeutic for DENV. Currently, passive immunotherapy using DENV-specific antibody (Ab) is a considered strategy to treat DENV infection. Here, we developed a monoclonal Ab (mAb), EDIIImAb-61, specific to the DENV domain III of the envelope glycoprotein (EDIII) with broad-spectrum detection ability to all four DENV serotypes (DENV-1∼4) to use as a therapeutic Ab. Although EDIII contains non-immunodominant epitopes compared to domains I and II, domain III plays a critical role in host receptor binding. EDIIImAb-61 exhibited cross-reactive binding affinity to all four DENV serotypes that had been isolated from infected humans. To further characterize EDIIImAb-61 and prepare genes for large-scale production using a heterologous expression system, the sequence of the complementarity determining regions was analyzed after cloning the full-length cDNA genes encoding the heavy and light chain of the mAb. Finally, we produced Ab from CHO-K1 cells transfected with the cloned EDIIImAb-61 heavy and light chain genes and confirmed the binding ability of the Ab. Collectively, we conclude that EDIIImAb-61 itself and the recombinant Ab produced using the cloned heavy and light chain gene of EDIIImAb-61 is a candidate for passive immunotherapy against DENV infection. PMID:27059141

  6. Transplastomic Nicotiana benthamiana plants expressing multiple defence genes encoding protease inhibitors and chitinase display broad-spectrum resistance against insects, pathogens and abiotic stresses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Peng-Jen; Senthilkumar, Rajendran; Jane, Wann-Neng; He, Yong; Tian, Zhihong; Yeh, Kai-Wun

    2014-05-01

    Plastid engineering provides several advantages for the next generation of transgenic technology, including the convenient use of transgene stacking and the generation of high expression levels of foreign proteins. With the goal of generating transplastomic plants with multiresistance against both phytopathogens and insects, a construct containing a monocistronic patterned gene stack was transformed into Nicotiana benthamiana plastids harbouring sweet potato sporamin, taro cystatin and chitinase from Paecilomyces javanicus. Transplastomic lines were screened and characterized by Southern/Northern/Western blot analysis for the confirmation of transgene integration and respective expression level. Immunogold localization analyses confirmed the high level of accumulation proteins that were specifically expressed in leaf and root plastids. Subsequent functional bioassays confirmed that the gene stacks conferred a high level of resistance against both insects and phytopathogens. Specifically, larva of Spodoptera litura and Spodoptera exigua either died or exhibited growth retardation after ingesting transplastomic plant leaves. In addition, the inhibitory effects on both leaf spot diseases caused by Alternaria alternata and soft rot disease caused by Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum were markedly observed. Moreover, tolerance to abiotic stresses such as salt/osmotic stress was highly enhanced. The results confirmed that the simultaneous expression of sporamin, cystatin and chitinase conferred a broad spectrum of resistance. Conversely, the expression of single transgenes was not capable of conferring such resistance. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to demonstrate an efficacious stacked combination of plastid-expressed defence genes which resulted in an engineered tolerance to various abiotic and biotic stresses. PMID:24479648

  7. A natural component from Euphorbia humifusa Willd displays novel, broad-spectrum anti-influenza activity by blocking nuclear export of viral ribonucleoprotein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, So Young; Park, Ji Hoon; Kim, Young Ho; Kang, Jong Seong; Min, Ji-Young

    2016-03-01

    The need to develop anti-influenza drugs with novel antiviral mechanisms is urgent because of the rapid rate of antigenic mutation and the emergence of drug-resistant viruses. We identified a novel anti-influenza molecule by screening 861 plant-derived natural components using a high-throughput image-based assay that measures inhibition of the influenza virus infection. 1,3,4,6-tetra-O-galloyl-β-D-glucopyranoside (TGBG) from Euphorbia humifusa Willd showed broad-spectrum anti-influenza activity against two seasonal influenza A strains, A/California/07/2009 (H1N1) and A/Perth/16/2009 (H3N2), and seasonal influenza B strain B/Florida/04/2006. We investigated the mode of action of TGBG using neuraminidase activity inhibition and time-of-addition assays, which evaluate the viral release and entry steps, respectively. We found that TGBG exhibits a novel antiviral mechanism that differs from the FDA-approved anti-influenza drugs oseltamivir which inhibits viral release, and amantadine which inhibits viral entry. Immunofluorescence assay demonstrated that TGBG significantly inhibits nuclear export of influenza nucleoproteins (NP) during the early stages of infection causing NP to accumulate in the nucleus. In addition, influenza-induced activation of the Akt signaling pathway was suppressed by TGBG in a dose-dependent manner. These data suggest that a putative mode of action of TGBG involves inhibition of viral ribonucleoprotein (vRNP) export from the nucleus to the cytoplasm consequently disrupting the assembly of progeny virions. In summary, TGBG has potential as novel anti-influenza therapeutic with a novel mechanism of action. PMID:26850850

  8. Mycophenolic acid, an immunomodulator, has potent and broad-spectrum in vitro antiviral activity against pandemic, seasonal and avian influenza viruses affecting humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    To, Kelvin K W; Mok, Ka-Yi; Chan, Andy S F; Cheung, Nam N; Wang, Pui; Lui, Yin-Ming; Chan, Jasper F W; Chen, Honglin; Chan, Kwok-Hung; Kao, Richard Y T; Yuen, Kwok-Yung

    2016-08-01

    Immunomodulators have been shown to improve the outcome of severe pneumonia. We have previously shown that mycophenolic acid (MPA), an immunomodulator, has antiviral activity against influenza A/WSN/1933(H1N1) using a high-throughput chemical screening assay. This study further investigated the antiviral activity and mechanism of action of MPA against contemporary clinical isolates of influenza A and B viruses. The 50 % cellular cytotoxicity (CC50) of MPA in Madin Darby canine kidney cell line was over 50 µM. MPA prevented influenza virus-induced cell death in the cell-protection assay, with significantly lower IC50 for influenza B virus B/411 than that of influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 virus H1/415 (0.208 vs 1.510 µM, P=0.0001). For H1/415, MPA interfered with the early stage of viral replication before protein synthesis. For B/411, MPA may also act at a later stage since MPA was active against B/411 even when added 12 h post-infection. Virus-yield reduction assay showed that the replication of B/411 was completely inhibited by MPA at concentrations ≥0.78 µM, while there was a dose-dependent reduction of viral titer for H1/415. The antiviral effect of MPA was completely reverted by guanosine supplementation. Plaque reduction assay showed that MPA had antiviral activity against eight different clinical isolates of A(H1N1), A(H3N2), A(H7N9) and influenza B viruses (IC50 <1 µM). In summary, MPA has broad-spectrum antiviral activity against human and avian-origin influenza viruses, in addition to its immunomodulatory activity. Together with a high chemotherapeutic index, the use of MPA as an antiviral agent should be further investigated in vivo. PMID:27259985

  9. Synthesis and properties of 5,10,15,20-tetrakis[4-(3-N,N-dimethylaminopropoxy)phenyl] chlorin as potential broad-spectrum antimicrobial photosensitizers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreyra, Darío D; Reynoso, Eugenia; Cordero, Paula; Spesia, Mariana B; Alvarez, M Gabriela; Milanesio, M Elisa; Durantini, Edgardo N

    2016-05-01

    A novel 5,10,15,20-tetrakis[4-(3-N,N-dimethylaminopropoxy)phenyl]chlorin (TAPC) was synthesized by reduction of the corresponding porphyrin TAPP with p-toluenesulfonhydrazide, followed by selective oxidation with o-chloranil. Spectroscopic properties and the photodynamic activity of these photosensitizers were compared in N,N-dimethylformamide. An increase in the absorption band at 650nm was found for the chlorin derivative with respect to TAPP. These photosensitizers emit red fluorescence with quantum yields of 0.15. Both compounds were able to photosensitize singlet molecular oxygen with quantum yields of about 0.5. Also, the formation of superoxide anion radical was detected in the presence of TAPC or TAPP and NADH. Photodynamic inactivation was investigated on a Gram-positive bacterium Staphylococcus aureus, a Gram-negative bacterium Escherichia coli and a fungal yeast Candida albicans cells. In vitro experiments showed that TAPC or TAPP were rapidly bound to microbial cells at short incubation periods. These photosensitizers, without intrinsic positive charges, contain four basic amino groups. These substituents can be protonated at physiological pH, increasing the interaction with the cell envelopment. Photosensitized inactivation improved with an increase of both photosensitizer concentrations and irradiation times. After 15min irradiation, a 7 log reduction of S. aureus was found for treated with 1μM photosensitizer. Similar result was obtained with E. coli after using 5μM photosensitizer and 30min irradiation. Also, the last conditions produced a decrease of 5 log in C. albicans cells. Therefore, TAPC was highly effective as a broad-spectrum antimicrobial photosensitizer. PMID:26994333

  10. Broadly tunable graphene plasmons using an ion-gel top gate with low control voltage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Hai; Zhai, Feng; Hu, Debo; Li, Zhenjun; Bai, Bing; Yang, Xiaoxia; Dai, Qing

    2015-11-01

    The electrostatic tunability of graphene is vital in the field of active plasmons and would be beneficial in tunable infrared and terahertz optical element applications. The key to realizing broad tunability is achieving high carrier densities in graphene. Here we use an ion-gel, currently one of the most efficient dielectrics with ultra-high capacitance, to realize broadly tunable graphene plasmons (~1270 cm-1) with low voltage modulation (~4 V shifted from the Dirac point). We further explore the coupling between graphene plasmons and the molecular vibration modes of the ion-gel, since strong plasmon-phonon coupling can split the plasmon resonance peak into multi-peaks and reduce their tunability. Our experiments demonstrate weak plasmon-phonon coupling in the graphene/ion-gel system, which has limited effects on plasmon properties. These properties make ion-gels an effective dielectric for broadly tunable graphene plasmonic devices, such as new optical modulators, filters and wavelength multiplexers.The electrostatic tunability of graphene is vital in the field of active plasmons and would be beneficial in tunable infrared and terahertz optical element applications. The key to realizing broad tunability is achieving high carrier densities in graphene. Here we use an ion-gel, currently one of the most efficient dielectrics with ultra-high capacitance, to realize broadly tunable graphene plasmons (~1270 cm-1) with low voltage modulation (~4 V shifted from the Dirac point). We further explore the coupling between graphene plasmons and the molecular vibration modes of the ion-gel, since strong plasmon-phonon coupling can split the plasmon resonance peak into multi-peaks and reduce their tunability. Our experiments demonstrate weak plasmon-phonon coupling in the graphene/ion-gel system, which has limited effects on plasmon properties. These properties make ion-gels an effective dielectric for broadly tunable graphene plasmonic devices, such as new optical modulators

  11. Controlling satellite communication system unwanted emissions in congested RF spectrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Donald; Heymann, Roger

    2007-09-01

    The International Telecommunication Union (ITU), a United Nations (UN) agency, is the agency that, under an international treaty, sets radio spectrum usage regulations among member nations. Within the United States of America (USA), the organization that sets regulations, coordinates an application for use, and provides authorization for federal government/agency use of the radio frequency (RF) spectrum is the National Telecommunications and Information Administration (NTIA). In this regard, the NTIA defines which RF spectrum is available for federal government use in the USA, and how it is to be used. The NTIA is a component of the United States (U.S.) Department of Commerce of the federal government. The significance of ITU regulations is that ITU approval is required for U.S. federal government/agency permission to use the RF spectrum outside of U.S. boundaries. All member nations have signed a treaty to do so. U.S. federal regulations for federal use of the RF spectrum are found in the Manual of Regulations and Procedures for Federal Radio Frequency Management, and extracts of the manual are found in what is known as the Table of Frequency Allocations. Nonfederal government and private sector use of the RF spectrum within the U.S. is regulated by the Federal Communications Commission (FCC). There is a need to control "unwanted emissions" (defined to include out-of-band emissions, which are those immediately adjacent to the necessary and allocated bandwidth, plus spurious emissions) to preclude interference to all other authorized users. This paper discusses the causes, effects, and mitigation of unwanted RF emissions to systems in adjacent spectra. Digital modulations are widely used in today's satellite communications. Commercial communications sector standards are covered for the most part worldwide by Digital Video Broadcast - Satellite (DVB-S) and digital satellite news gathering (DSNG) evolutions and the second generation of DVB-S (DVB-S2) standard

  12. HIV-1 suppression and durable control by combining single broadly neutralizing antibodies and antiretroviral drugs in humanized mice.

    OpenAIRE

    Horwitz, Joshua A.; Halper-Stromberg, Ariel; Mouquet, Hugo; Gitlin, Alexander D.; Tretiakova, Anna; Eisenreich, Thomas R.; Malbec, Marine; Gravemann, Sophia; Billerbeck, Eva; Dorner, Marcus; Büning, Hildegard; Schwartz, Olivier; Knops, Elena; Kaiser, Rolf; Seaman, Michael S

    2013-01-01

    Effective control of HIV-1 infection in humans is achieved using combinations of antiretroviral therapy (ART) drugs. In humanized mice (hu-mice), control of viremia can be achieved using either ART or by immunotherapy using combinations of broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs). Here we show that treatment of HIV-1–infected hu-mice with a combination of three highly potent bNAbs not only resulted in complete viremic control but also led to a reduction in cell-associated HIV-1 DNA. Moreover, ...

  13. The landscape of host transcriptional response programs commonly perturbed by bacterial pathogens: towards host-oriented broad-spectrum drug targets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yared H Kidane

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The emergence of drug-resistant pathogen strains and new infectious agents pose major challenges to public health. A promising approach to combat these problems is to target the host's genes or proteins, especially to discover targets that are effective against multiple pathogens, i.e., host-oriented broad-spectrum (HOBS drug targets. An important first step in the discovery of such drug targets is the identification of host responses that are commonly perturbed by multiple pathogens. RESULTS: In this paper, we present a methodology to identify common host responses elicited by multiple pathogens. First, we identified host responses perturbed by each pathogen using a gene set enrichment analysis of publicly available genome-wide transcriptional datasets. Then, we used biclustering to identify groups of host pathways and biological processes that were perturbed only by a subset of the analyzed pathogens. Finally, we tested the enrichment of each bicluster in human genes that are known drug targets, on the basis of which we elicited putative HOBS targets for specific groups of bacterial pathogens. We identified 84 up-regulated and three down-regulated statistically significant biclusters. Each bicluster contained a group of pathogens that commonly dysregulated a group of biological processes. We validated our approach by checking whether these biclusters correspond to known hallmarks of bacterial infection. Indeed, these biclusters contained biological process such as inflammation, activation of dendritic cells, pro- and anti- apoptotic responses and other innate immune responses. Next, we identified biclusters containing pathogens that infected the same tissue. After a literature-based analysis of the drug targets contained in these biclusters, we suggested new uses of the drugs Anakinra, Etanercept, and Infliximab for gastrointestinal pathogens Yersinia enterocolitica, Helicobacter pylori kx2 strain, and enterohemorrhagic Escherichia

  14. A broad spectrum anti-HIV inhibitor significantly disturbs V1/V2 domain rearrangements of HIV-1 gp120 and inhibits virus entry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berinyuy, Emiliene; Soliman, Mahmoud E S

    2016-01-01

    Inhibition of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) entry into target human cells is considered as a critical strategy for preventing HIV infection. Conformational shifts of the HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein (gp120) facilitates the attachment of the virus to target cells, therefore gp120 remains an attractive target for antiretroviral therapy development. Compound 18A has been recently identified as a broad-spectrum anti-HIV inhibitor. It was proposed that 18A disrupts rearrangements of V1/V2 region in gp120; however, the precise mechanism by which 18A interferes with the inherent motion of V1/V2 domain remains obscure. In this report, we elaborate on the binding mode of compound 18A to the closed conformation of a soluble cleaved gp120 and further examine the dynamic motion of V1/V2 region in both gp120 and the gp120-18A complex via all-atom molecular dynamics simulations. In this work, comparative molecular dynamic analyses revealed that 18A makes contact with Leu179, Ile194, Ile424, Met426 W427, E370 and Met475 in the main hydrophobic cavity of the unliganded gp120 and disrupts the restructuring of V1/V2 domain observed in apo gp120. The unwinding of α1 and slight inversion of β2 in gp120 leads to the shift of VI/V2 domain away from the V3 N-terminal regions and toward the outer domain. Stronger contacts between Trp425 and Trp112 rings may contribute to the reduced flexibility of α1 observed upon 18A binding thereby inhibiting the shifts of the V1/V2 region. Binding of 18A to gp120: (1) decreases the overall flexibility of the protein and (2) inhibits the formation a gp120 conformation that closely ressembles a CD4-bound-like conformation. Information gained from this report not only elaborates on important dynamic features of gp120, but will also assist with the future designs of potent gp120 inhibitors as anti-HIV. PMID:26446906

  15. Synthesis, Characterization, and In Vitro and In Vivo Evaluations of 4-(N-Docosahexaenoyl 2′, 2′-Difluorodeoxycytidine with Potent and Broad-Spectrum Antitumor Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youssef W. Naguib

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a new compound, 4-(N-docosahexaenoyl 2′, 2′-difluorodeoxycytidine (DHA-dFdC, was synthesized and characterized. Its antitumor activity was evaluated in cell culture and in mouse models of pancreatic cancer. DHA-dFdC is a poorly soluble, pale yellow waxy solid, with a molecular mass of 573.3 Da and a melting point of about 96°C. The activation energy for the degradation of DHA-dFdC in an aqueous Tween 80–based solution is 12.86 kcal/mol, whereas its stability is significantly higher in the presence of vitamin E. NCI-60 DTP Human Tumor Cell Line Screening revealed that DHA-dFdC has potent and broad-spectrum antitumor activity, especially in leukemia, renal, and central nervous system cancer cell lines. In human and murine pancreatic cancer cell lines, the IC50 value of DHA-dFdC was up to 105-fold lower than that of dFdC. The elimination of DHA-dFdC in mouse plasma appeared to follow a biexponential model, with a terminal phase t1/2 of about 58 minutes. DHA-dFdC significantly extended the survival of genetically engineered mice that spontaneously develop pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma. In nude mice with subcutaneously implanted human Panc-1 pancreatic tumors, the antitumor activity of DHA-dFdC was significantly stronger than the molar equivalent of dFdC alone, DHA alone, or the physical mixture of them (1:1, molar ratio. DHA-dFdC also significantly inhibited the growth of Panc-1 tumors orthotopically implanted in the pancreas of nude mice, whereas the molar equivalent dose of dFdC alone did not show any significant activity. DHA-dFdC is a promising compound for the potential treatment of cancers in organs such as the pancreas.

  16. Multiple broadly synchronous km-scale exhumation episodes on different continents: implications for controlling processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Paul; Duddy, Ian; Japsen, Peter

    2015-04-01

    Numerous low temperature thermochronology studies have defined regional cooling episodes which imply removal of several km of section over areas of several 104 km2. The origin of such events has long been the subject of debate, while their reality has sometimes been questioned because of the lack of a viable mechanism. Kilometre-scale denudation at rifted margins has traditionally been interpreted as related to rifting and breakup, magnified by the flexural response to denudation of the uplifted rift flanks. But it is now clear that at many margins the post-breakup history is more complex, with km-scale uplift and erosion commonly post-dating breakup by 10s of Myr and often affecting regions many 100s of kilometres inland of the margins (Green et al., 2013; Brown et al., 2014). Numerous examples around the world of km-scale exhumation affecting regions distant from continental margins, including cratonic regions traditionally regarded as stable over Phanerozoic time (e.g. Ault et al., 2009; Flowers & Kelley, 2011), cannot be explained by margin-related mechanisms. It has also become clear that periods of exhumation are separated by episodes of burial, defining a series of positive and negative vertical movements. Previous studies have defined a broad synchroneity of Early, Middle and Late Cenozoic exhumation events in regions from Alaska to Greenland, Norway and Svalbard (Green and Duddy, 2010). New results from SE Australia define a series of exhumation episodes ranging in time from Carboniferous to Cenozoic which are broadly synchronous with similar events previously defined in Brazil and South Africa (Green et al. 2013). While estimates of the timing of exhumation in different areas are subject to some uncertainty, data across three southern hemisphere continents show a broad synchronicity in similar fashion to the northern hemisphere examples cited above. Dynamic topography has been invoked as a possible mechanism for producing uplift, the effects of which

  17. Baroreflex control of heart rate in the broad-nosed caiman Caiman latirostris is temperature dependent

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hagensen, Mette K; Abe, Augusto S; Wang, Tobias

    2010-01-01

    It has been suggested that ectothermic vertebrates primarily control blood pressure to protect the pulmonary vasculature from oedema caused by high pressure, while endothermic vertebrates control blood pressure to maintain adequate oxygen delivery to the tissues. In the present study we have char...

  18. Thiamin and Salicylic Acid as Biological Alternatives for Controlling Broad Bean Rot Disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The interactive effects of fungi (Fusarium solani and Rhizoctonia solani) infection and thiamin or salicylic acid on growth rate, membrane stability, K+ efflux, UV-absorbing metabolites, photosynthetic pigments, cell wall components and lipid fractions of broad bean plants (30-day-old) were studied. Fungal infection induced a reduction in growth rate, membrane stability and content of photosynthetic pigments. Application of thiamin or salicylic acid increased growth rate, membrane stability and content of photosynthetic pigments. The K+ efflux and the leakage of UV-absorbing metabolites were stimulated with fungal infection. However, thiamin and salicylic acid treatment partially retarded the stimulatory effect on leakage of K+ and UV-absorbing metabolites of fungal infected plants. Fungal infection produced a reduction in the content of pectin and cellulose, total lipid, glycolipids and sterols fraction of shoots and roots and phospholipids of roots. On the other hand, the contents of hemicellulose and lignin of shoots and roots and phospholipids of shoots were stimulated by fungal infection. Soaking seeds in thiamin or salicylic acid counteracts partially or completely the adverse effect of fungal infection on pectin and cellulose composition, total lipid, glycolipids and sterols of either shoots or roots. On the other side, thiamin or salicylic acid treatments retarded the phospholipids accumulation in shoots of infected plants, and in roots the phospholipids accumulation was partially or completely alleviated. The content of hemicellulose and lignin of shoots and roots were antagonistically lowered by the application of thiamin or salicylic acid. (author)

  19. [In vitro and in vivo activity of a combination of clavulanic acid and amoxicillin against Klebsiella pneumoniae producing extended broad-spectrum betalactamase (CTX-1, SHV-3, SHV-4)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Migueres, M L; Ronco, E; Guenounou, M; Philippon, A

    1989-05-01

    In vitro activity of an aminopenicillin (amoxicillin or ampicillin) combined with a betalactamase inhibitor (clavulanic acid or sulbactam, 2 mg/l) was examined against 39 strains of K. pneumoniae producing 3 types of extended broad spectrum betalactamases (CTX-1, SHV-3, SHV-4). Clavulanic acid produces the best synergistic effect. The in vivo activity of Augmentin (amoxicillin + clavulanic acid), 1 g once or twice a day, during 10 +/- 3 days was evaluated on 10 cases urinary tract infections in paraplegic patients. After 3 days, no leucocyturia was observed and bacteria were no more detected. The inhibitory effect of clavulanic acid for the extended broad-spectrum betalactamases shows that such an association could be probably chosen as well for treatment urinary infection. PMID:2674869

  20. A New Derivative of Valproic Acid Amide Possesses a Broad-spectrum Antiseizure Profile and Unique Activity Against Status Epilepticus and Organophosphate Neuronal Damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, H. Steve; Alex, Anitha B.; Pollock, Amanda; Hen, Naama; Shekh-Ahmad, Tawfeeq; Wilcox, Karen S.; McDonough, John H.; Stables, James P.; Kaufmann, Dan; Yagen, Boris; Bialer, Meir

    2011-01-01

    displayed anticonvulsant activity in the rat pilocarpine model of SE. Thirty minutes after the induction of SE, the calculated rat-ED50 for SPD against convulsive SE in this model was 84mg/kg. SPD was not neuroprotective in the organotypic hippocampal slice preparation; however, it did display hippocampal neuroprotection in both SE models and cognitive sparing in the MWM which was associated with its antiseizure effect against pilocarpine-induced SE. When administered 20 and 40min after SE onset, SPD (100-174mg/kg) produced long-lasting efficacy (e.g., 4-8hr) against soman-induced convulsive and electrographic SE in both rats and guinea pigs. SPD-ED50 values in guinea pigs were 67mg/kg and 92mg/kg at when administered at SE onset or 40min after SE onset, respectively. Assuming linear PK, the PK-PD results (rats) suggests that effective SPD plasma levels ranged between 8-40mg/L (20 min post onset of soman-induced seizures) and 12-50mg/L (40 min post onset of soman-induced seizures). The time to peak (tmax) pharmacodynamic effect (PD-tmax) occurred after the PK-tmax thereby suggesting that SPD undergoes slow distribution to extra-plasmatic sites likely responsible for SPD’s antiseizure activity. Significance The results demonstrate that SPD is a broad-spectrum antiseizure compound that blocks SE induced by pilocarpine and soman and affords in vivo neuroprotection that is associated with cognitive sparing. Its activity against SE is superior to diazepam in terms of rapid onset, potency and its effect on animal mortality and functional improvement. PMID:22150444

  1. Comparison of a Broad-Based Screen versus Disorder-Specific Screen in Detecting Young Children with an Autism Spectrum Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Wiggins, Lisa D.; Piazza, Vivian; Robins, Diana L.

    2012-01-01

    The goals of our study were to (a) compare agreement between autism spectrum disorder diagnosis and outcome of the Modified Checklist for Autism in Toddlers and Parents Evaluation of Developmental Status in a sample of toddlers and (b) examine specific concerns noted for toddlers who screened negative on the Modified Checklist for Autism in Toddlers or Parents Evaluation of Developmental Status but were later diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder. Participants were administered the Modified...

  2. Performance analysis of multichannel medium access control algorithms for opportunistic spectrum access

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pawelczak, P.; Pollin, S.; So, H.-S.W.; Bahai, A.R.S.; Prasad, R.V.; Hekmat, R.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, different control channel (CC) implementations for multichannel medium access control (MAC) algorithms are compared and analyzed in the context of opportunistic spectrum access (OSA) as a function of spectrum-sensing performance and licensed user activity. The analysis is based on a d

  3. CTL responses of high functional avidity and broad variant cross-reactivity are associated with HIV control.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Mothe

    Full Text Available Cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL responses targeting specific HIV proteins, in particular Gag, have been associated with relative control of viral replication in vivo. However, Gag-specific CTL can also be detected in individuals who do not control the virus and it remains thus unclear how Gag-specific CTL may mediate the beneficial effects in some individuals but not in others. Here, we used a 10mer peptide set spanning HIV Gag-p24 to determine immunogen-specific T-cell responses and to assess functional properties including functional avidity and cross-reactivity in 25 HIV-1 controllers and 25 non-controllers without protective HLA class I alleles. Our data challenge the common belief that Gag-specific T cell responses dominate the virus-specific immunity exclusively in HIV-1 controllers as both groups mounted responses of comparable breadths and magnitudes against the p24 sequence. However, responses in controllers reacted to lower antigen concentrations and recognized more epitope variants than responses in non-controllers. These cross-sectional data, largely independent of particular HLA genetics and generated using direct ex-vivo samples thus identify T cell responses of high functional avidity and with broad variant reactivity as potential functional immune correlates of relative HIV control.

  4. Broad patterns in domestic vector-borne Trypanosoma cruzi transmission dynamics: synanthropic animals and vector control

    OpenAIRE

    Peterson, Jennifer K.; Bartsch, Sarah M.; Lee, Bruce Y.; Dobson, Andrew P.

    2015-01-01

    Background Chagas disease (caused by Trypanosoma cruzi) is the most important neglected tropical disease (NTD) in Latin America, infecting an estimated 5.7 million people in the 21 countries where it is endemic. It is one of the NTDs targeted for control and elimination by the 2020 London Declaration goals, with the first goal being to interrupt intra-domiciliary vector-borne T. cruzi transmission. A key question in domestic T. cruzi transmission is the role that synanthropic animals play in ...

  5. A strong and broad Fe line in the XMM-Newton spectrum of the new X-ray transient and black hole candidate XTEJ1652-453

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hiemstra, Beike; Mendez, Mariano; Done, Chris; Diaz Trigo, Maria; Altamirano, Diego; Casella, Piergiorgio

    2011-01-01

    We observed the new X-ray transient and black hole candidate XTEJ1652-453 simultaneously with XMM-Newton and the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE). The observation was done during the decay of the 2009 outburst, when XTEJ1652-453 was in the hard-intermediate state. The spectrum shows a strong and b

  6. Comparison of a Broad-Based Screen versus Disorder-Specific Screen in Detecting Young Children with an Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiggins, Lisa D; Piazza, Vivian; Robins, Diana L

    2014-01-01

    The goals of our study were to (a) compare agreement between autism spectrum disorder diagnosis and outcome of the Modified Checklist for Autism in Toddlers and Parents Evaluation of Developmental Status in a sample of toddlers and (b) examine specific concerns noted for toddlers who screened negative on the Modified Checklist for Autism in…

  7. Dynamic control approaches of spectrum sensing in multi-band cognitive radio networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    AN Chun-yan; JI Hong; SI Peng-bo; MAO Xu

    2010-01-01

    In this paper,the dynamic control approaches for spectrum sensing are proposed,based on the theory that prediction is synonymous with data compression in computational learning. Firstly,a spectrum sensing sequence prediction scheme is proposed to reduce the spectrum sensing time and improve the throughput of secondary users. We use Ziv-Lempel data compression algorithm to design the prediction scheme,where spectrum band usage history is utilized. In addition,an iterative algorithm to find out the optimal number of spectrum bands allowed to sense is proposed,with the aim of maximizing the expected net reward of each secondary user in each time slot. Finally,extensive simulation results are shown to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed dynamic control approaches of spectrum sensing.

  8. Essential Oils and Non-volatile Compounds Derived from Chamaecyparis obtusa: Broad Spectrum Antimicrobial Activity against Infectious Bacteria and MDR(multidrug resistant) Strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Min-Suk; Park, Dae-Hun; Choi, Chul-Yung; Kim, Gye-Yeop; Yoo, Jin-Cheol; Cho, Seung-Sik

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the antibacterial activity of essential oil from Chamaecyparis obtusa against general infectious microbes and drug resistant strains of clinical origin. The results indicate that both essential oil and non-volatile residue have broad inhibitory activity against test strains. Essential oil and non-volatile residues showed antimicrobial activity not only against general infectious bacteria, but also against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) strains. PMID:27319153

  9. Resistance to Broad-Spectrum Antibiotics in Aquatic Systems: Anthropogenic Activities Modulate the Dissemination of blaCTX-M-Like Genes

    OpenAIRE

    Tacão, Marta; Correia, António; Henriques, Isabel

    2012-01-01

    We compared the resistomes within polluted and unpolluted rivers, focusing on extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) genes, in particular blaCTX-M. Twelve rivers from a Portuguese hydrographic basin were sampled. Physicochemical and microbiological parameters of water quality were determined, and the results showed that 9 rivers were classified as unpolluted (UP) and that 3 were classified as polluted (P). Of the 225 cefotaxime-resistant strains isolated, 39 were identified as ESBL-producing...

  10. Sexuality and gender role in autism spectrum disorder: a case control study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanne Bejerot

    Full Text Available The 'extreme male brain theory of autism' describes an extreme male pattern of cognitive traits defined as strong systemising abilities paired with empathising weaknesses in autism spectrum disorder. However, beyond these cognitive traits, clinical observations have suggested an ambiguous gender-typed pattern regarding several sexually dimorphic traits. The aim of the present study was to investigate if patterns of non-cognitive sexually dimorphic traits differed between the autism spectrum disorder and control groups. Fifty adults with autism spectrum disorder and intelligence within the normal range, and 53 neurotypical controls responded to questions on gender role, self-perceived gender typicality and gender identity, as well as sexuality. Measures used were a Swedish modification of the Bem Sex Role Inventory and questions on sexuality and gender designed for the purpose of this study. Our results showed that one common gender role emerged in the autism spectrum disorder group. Masculinity (e.g. assertiveness, leadership and competitiveness was weaker in the autism spectrum disorder group than in the controls, across men and women. Self-perceived gender typicality did not differ between the groups but tomboyism and bisexuality were overrepresented amongst women with autism spectrum disorder. Lower libido was reported amongst both male and female participants with autism spectrum disorder compared with controls. We conclude that the extreme male patterns of cognitive functions in the autistic brain do not seem to extend to gender role and sexuality. A gender-atypical pattern for these types of characteristics is suggested in autism spectrum disorder.

  11. Concept of quasi-periodic undulator - control of radiation spectrum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sasaki, Shigemi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, Ibaraki (Japan)

    1995-02-01

    A new type of undulator, the quasi-periodic undulator (QPU) is considered which generates the irrational harmonics in the radiation spectrum. This undulator consists of the arrays of magnet blocks aligned in a quasi-periodic order, and consequentially lead to a quasi-periodic motion of electron. A combination of the QPU and a conventional crystal/grating monochromator provides pure monochromatic photon beam for synchrotron radiation users because the irrational harmonics do not be diffracted in the same direction by a monochromator. The radiation power and width of each radiation peak emitted from this undulator are expected to be comparable with those of the conventional periodic undulator.

  12. Closed loop adaptive control of spectrum-producing step using neural networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Chi Yung

    1998-01-01

    Characteristics of the plasma in a plasma-based manufacturing process step are monitored directly and in real time by observing the spectrum which it produces. An artificial neural network analyzes the plasma spectrum and generates control signals to control one or more of the process input parameters in response to any deviation of the spectrum beyond a narrow range. In an embodiment, a plasma reaction chamber forms a plasma in response to input parameters such as gas flow, pressure and power. The chamber includes a window through which the electromagnetic spectrum produced by a plasma in the chamber, just above the subject surface, may be viewed. The spectrum is conducted to an optical spectrometer which measures the intensity of the incoming optical spectrum at different wavelengths. The output of optical spectrometer is provided to an analyzer which produces a plurality of error signals, each indicating whether a respective one of the input parameters to the chamber is to be increased or decreased. The microcontroller provides signals to control respective controls, but these lines are intercepted and first added to the error signals, before being provided to the controls for the chamber. The analyzer can include a neural network and an optional spectrum preprocessor to reduce background noise, as well as a comparator which compares the parameter values predicted by the neural network with a set of desired values provided by the microcontroller.

  13. A dose escalating phase I study of GLPG0187, a broad spectrum integrin receptor antagonist, in adult patients with progressive high-grade glioma and other advanced solid malignancies

    OpenAIRE

    Cirkel, Geert A.; Kerklaan, Bojana Milojkovic; Vanhoutte, Frédéric; Van der Aa, Annegret; Lorenzon, Giocondo; Namour, Florence; Pujuguet, Philippe; Darquenne, Sophie; de Vos, Filip Y. F.; Snijders, Tom J.; Voest, Emile E; Schellens, Jan H.M.; Lolkema, Martijn P

    2016-01-01

    Summary Background Integrin signaling is an attractive target for anti-cancer treatment. GLPG0187 is a broad spectrum integrin receptor antagonist (IRA). GLPG0187 inhibited tumor growth and metastasis in mouse models. Methods We aimed to determine the Recommended Phase II Dose (RP2D) and to assess safety and tolerability of continuous i.v. infusion in patients with advanced malignant solid tumors. Anticipated dose levels were 20, 40, 80, 160, 320, and 400 mg/day in a modified 3 + 3 design. Pl...

  14. Adaptive interference hyperspectral image compression with spectrum distortion control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing Ma; Yunsong Li; Chengke Wu; Dong Chen

    2009-01-01

    As one of the next generation imaging spectrometers,interferential spectrometer has been paid much attention.With traditional spectrum compression methods,the hyperspectral images generated by interferential spectrometer can only be protected with better visual quality in spatial domain,but its optical applications in Fourier domain are often ignored.So the relation between the distortion in Fourier domain and the compression in spatial domain is analyzed in this letter.Based on this analysis,a novel coding scheme is proposed,which can compress data in spatial domain while reducing the distortion in Fourier domain.The bitstream of set partitioning in hierarchical trees (SPIHT) is truncated by adaptively lifting the rate-distortion slopes of zerotrees according to the priorities of optical path difference (OPD) based on rate-distortion optimization theory.Experimental results show that the proposed scheme can achieve better performance in Fourier domain while maintaining the image quality in spatial domain.

  15. Swarming of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Is Controlled by a Broad Spectrum of Transcriptional Regulators, Including MetR ▿ †

    OpenAIRE

    Yeung, Amy T. Y.; Torfs, Ellen C. W.; Jamshidi, Farzad; Bains, Manjeet; Wiegand, Irith; Hancock, Robert E. W.; Overhage, Joerg

    2009-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa exhibits swarming motility on semisolid surfaces (0.5 to 0.7% agar). Swarming is a more than just a form of locomotion and represents a complex adaptation resulting in changes in virulence gene expression and antibiotic resistance. In this study, we used a comprehensive P. aeruginosa PA14 transposon mutant library to investigate how the complex swarming adaptation process is regulated. A total of 233 P. aeruginosa PA14 transposon mutants were verified to have alteration...

  16. Genetically Modified Plants Containing Plant-Derived Genes for Broad Spectrum Insect Control to Reduce Mycotoxins: Bioactive Proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mycotoxins are acutely toxic or carcinogenic compounds produced primarily by Aspergillus and Fusarium molds that infect seeds of high oil content in the field, such as maize, cotton seed, peanuts, and tree nuts. Damage by insects facilitates entry of the molds, and maize hybrids that express Bacill...

  17. Efficient broad-spectrum parallel tandem organic solar cells based on the highly crystalline chloroaluminum phthalocyanine films as the planar layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Weichao; Qiao, Xiaolan; Yang, Jianbing; Yu, Bo; Yan, Donghang

    2012-03-01

    Efficient parallel tandem organic solar cells are demonstrated by using the highly crystalline chloroaluminum phthalocyanine (AlClPc) films as the planar layer. Their broad photoresponse from 400-900 nm is contributed to the strong near-infrared absorption of the AlClPc films and the good complementarity between AlClPc and zinc phthalocyanine. Importantly, the high external quantum efficiency is obtained in the entire response range with the peak value 65% due to the high carrier mobility of the AlClPc films, and correspondingly the high power conversion efficiency of 3.5% is attributed to the large short circuit current density of 12.15 mA/cm2.

  18. MRJP1-containing glycoproteins isolated from honey, a novel antibacterial drug candidate with broad spectrum activity against multi-drug resistant clinical isolates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katrina eBrudzynski

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The emergence of extended- spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL is the underlying cause of growing antibiotic resistance among Gram-negative bacteria to β-lactam antibiotics. We recently reported the discovery of honey glycoproteins (glps that exhibited a rapid, concentration-dependent antibacterial activity against both Gram-positive Bacillus subtilis and Gram-negative Escherichia coli that resembled action of cell wall-active β-lactam drugs. Glps showed sequence identity with the Major Royal Jelly Protein 1 (MRJP1 precursor that harbors three antimicrobial peptides: Jelleins 1, 2 and 4. Here, we used semi-quantitative radial diffusion assay and broth microdilution assay to evaluate susceptibility of a number of multi-drug resistant (MDR clinical isolates to the MRJP1-contaning honey glycoproteins. The MDR bacterial strains comprised 3 MRSA, 4 Pseudomonas aeruginosa, 2 Klebsiella pneumoniae, 2 VRE and 5 Extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL identified as 1 Proteus mirabilis, 3 Escherichia coli and 1 Escherichia coli NDM. Their resistance to different classes of antibiotics was confirmed using automated system Vitek 2. MDR isolates differred in their susceptibility to glps with MIC90 values ranging from 4.8μg/ml against B. subtilis to 14.4μg/ml against ESBL K. pneumoniae, Klebsiella spp ESBL and E. coli and up to 33μg/ml against highly resistant strains of P. aeruginosa. Glps isolated from different honeys showed a similar ability to overcome bacterial resistance to β-lactams suggesting that (a their mode of action is distinct from other classes of β-lactams and that (b the common glps structure was the lead structure responsible for the activity. The results of the current study together with our previous evidence of a rapid bactericidal activity of glps demonstrate that glps possess suitable characteristics to be considered a novel antibacterial drug candidate.

  19. Meteorological control on CO2 flux above broad-leaved Korean pine mixed forest in Changbai Mountains

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUAN; Dexin; WU; Jiabing; YU; Guirui; SUN; Xiaomin; ZHAO; X

    2005-01-01

    The impacts of temperature, photosynthetic active radiation (PAR) and vapor pressure deficit (VPD) on CO2 flux above broad-leaved Korean pine mixed forest in the Changbai Mountains were studied based on eddy covariance and meteorological factors measurements.The results showed that, daytime CO2 flux was mainly controlled by PAR and they fit Michaelis-Menten equation. Meanwhile VPD also had an influence on the daytime flux. Drier air reduced the CO2 assimilation of the ecosystem, the drier the air, the more the reduction of the assimilation. And the forest was more sensitive to VPD in June than that in July and August. The respiration of the ecosystem was mainly controlled by soil temperature and they fit exponential equation. It was found that this relationship was also correlated with seasons; respiration from April to July was higher than that from August to November under the same temperature. Daily net carbon exchange of the ecosystem and the daily mean air temperature fit exponential equation. It was also found that seasonal trend of net carbon exchange was the result of comprehensive impacts of temperature and PAR and so on. These resulted in the biggest CO2 uptake in June and those in July and August were next. Annual carbon uptake of the forest ecosystem in 2003 was -184 gC. m-2.

  20. Modelling the variable broad-band optical/UV/X-ray spectrum of PG1211+143: Implications for the ionized outflow

    CERN Document Server

    Papadakis, I E; Panagiotou, C

    2016-01-01

    We present the results from a detailed analysis of the 2007 Swift monitoring campaign of the quasar PG1211+143. We constructed broad-band, optical/UV/X-ray spectral energy distributions over three X-ray flux intervals. We fitted them with a model which accounts for the disc and the X-ray coronal emission and the warm absorber (well established in this source). The three flux spectra are well fitted by the model we considered. The disc inner temperature remains constant at ~2 eV, while X-rays are variable both in spectral slope and normalization. The absorber covers almost 90% of the central source. It is outflowing with a velocity less than 2.3*10^4 km/s (3sigma upper limit), and has a column density of ~10^23.2. Its ionization parameter varies by a factor of 1.6, and it is in photo-ionizing equilibrium with the ionizing flux. It is located at a distance of less than 0.35 pc from the central source and its relative thickness, DR/R is less than 0.1. The absorber' s ionization parameter variations can explain t...

  1. The quest for a universal density functional: The accuracy of density functionals across a broad spectrum of databases in chemistry and physics

    CERN Document Server

    Peverati, Roberto

    2012-01-01

    Kohn-Sham density functional theory is in principle an exact formulation of quantum mechanical electronic structure theory, but in practice we have to rely on approximate exchange-correlation (xc) functionals. The objective of our work has been to design an xc functional with broad accuracy across as wide an expanse of chemistry and physics as possible, leading-as a long-range goal-to a functional with good accuracy for all problems, i.e., a universal functional. To guide our path toward that goal and to measure our progress, we have developed-building on earlier work in our group-a set of databases of reference data for a variety of energetic and structural properties in chemistry and physics. These databases include energies of molecular processes such as atomization, complexation, proton addition, and ionization; they also include molecular geometries and solid-state lattice constants, chemical reaction barrier heights, and cohesive energies and band gaps of solids. For the present paper we gather many of ...

  2. The optical transmission spectrum of the hot Jupiter HAT-P-32b: clouds explain the absence of broad spectral features?

    CERN Document Server

    Gibson, N P; Barstow, J K; Evans, T M; Fletcher, L N; Irwin, P G J

    2013-01-01

    We report Gemini-North GMOS observations of the inflated hot Jupiter HAT-P-32b during two primary transits. We simultaneously observed two comparison stars and used differential spectro-photometry to produce multi-wavelength light curves. 'White' light curves and 29 'spectral' light curves were extracted for each transit and analysed to refine the system parameters and produce transmission spectra from 520-930nm in ~14nm bins. The light curves contain time-varying white noise as well as time-correlated noise, and we used a Gaussian process model to fit this complex noise model. Common mode corrections derived from the white light curve fits were applied to the spectral light curves which significantly improved our precision, reaching typical uncertainties in the transit depth of ~2x10^-4, corresponding to about half a pressure scale height. The low resolution transmission spectra are consistent with a featureless model, and we can confidently rule out broad features larger than about one scale height. The abs...

  3. A Sequential Statistical Approach towards an Optimized Production of a Broad Spectrum Bacteriocin Substance from a Soil Bacterium Bacillus sp. YAS 1 Strain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amira M. Embaby

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Bacteriocins, ribosomally synthesized antimicrobial peptides, display potential applications in agriculture, medicine, and industry. The present study highlights integral statistical optimization and partial characterization of a bacteriocin substance from a soil bacterium taxonomically affiliated as Bacillus sp. YAS 1 after biochemical and molecular identifications. A sequential statistical approach (Plackett-Burman and Box-Behnken was employed to optimize bacteriocin (BAC YAS 1 production. Using optimal levels of three key determinants (yeast extract (0.48% (w/v, incubation time (62 hrs, and agitation speed (207 rpm in peptone yeast beef based production medium resulted in 1.6-fold enhancement in BAC YAS 1 level (470 AU/mL arbitrary units against Erwinia amylovora. BAC YAS 1 showed activity over a wide range of pH (1–13 and temperature (45–80°C. A wide spectrum antimicrobial activity of BAC YAS 1 against the human pathogens (Clostridium perfringens, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Campylobacter jejuni, Enterobacter aerogenes, Enterococcus sp., Proteus sp., Klebsiella sp., and Salmonella typhimurium, the plant pathogen (E. amylovora, and the food spoiler (Listeria innocua was demonstrated. On top and above, BAC YAS 1 showed no antimicrobial activity towards lactic acid bacteria (Lactobacillus bulgaricus, L. casei, L. lactis, and L. reuteri. Promising characteristics of BAC YAS 1 prompt its commercialization for efficient utilization in several industries.

  4. Broad spectrum and mode of action of an antibiotic produced by Scytonema sp. TISTR 8208 in a seaweed-type bioreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chetsumon, A; Umeda, F; Maeda, I; Yagi, K; Mizoguchi, T; Miura, Y

    1998-01-01

    A photobioreactor was constructed using anchored polyurethane foam strips (1 x 1 x 40 cm) fixed onto a stainless-steel ring to prevent flotation, as a biomass support material (BSM). This type of reactor was named a seaweed-type bioreactor. A filamentous cyanobacterium, Scytonema sp. TISTR 8208, which produces a novel cyclic dodecapeptide antibiotic, was immobilized in seaweed-type photobioreactor and cultivated with air containing 5% CO2 sparged at a gas flow rate of 250 mL/min under illumination at a light intensity of 200 mmol photon m-2 s-1. The antibiotic produced in the seaweed-type photobioreactor was purified by HPLC and examined regarding its spectrum and mode of action. The antibiotic effectively inhibited the growth of Gram-positive bacteria, pathogenic yeasts, and filamentous fungi, but it had only a weak effect on Gram-negative bacteria. Scanning electron micrograph analysis showed that the most characteristic change was swelling of the cells after exposure to the antibiotic. The antibiotic seems to alter the conformation of the microbial cell membrane, thereby changing its permeability, leading to osmotic shock. PMID:9627386

  5. TiO and VO broad band absorption features in the optical spectrum of the atmosphere of the hot-Jupiter HD209458b

    CERN Document Server

    Desert, J -M; Etangs, A Lecavelier des; Sing, D; Ehrenreich, D; Hébrard, G; Ferlet, R

    2008-01-01

    The presence of titanium oxide (TiO) and vanadium oxide (VO) gas phase species is searched for in the atmosphere of the hot Jupiter HD209458b. We compared a model for the planets transmitted spectrum to multi-wavelength eclipse-depth measurements (from 3000 to 10000 Angstrom), obtained by Sing et al. (2008a) using archived HST-STIS time series spectra. We make use of these observations to search for spectral signatures from extra absorbers in the planet atmosphere between 6000 and 8000 Angstrom. Along with sodium depletion and Rayleigh scattering recently published for this exoplanet atmosphere, an extra absorber of uncertain origin, redward of the sodium lines, resides in the atmosphere of the planet. Furthermore, this planet has a stratosphere experiencing a thermal inversion caused by the capture of optical stellar flux by absorbers that resides at altitude. Recent models have predicted that the presence of TiO and VO in the atmosphere of HD209458b may be responsible for this temperature inversion. Althoug...

  6. Modelling the variable broad-band optical/UV/X-ray spectrum of PG1211+143: implications for the ionized outflow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadakis, I. E.; Nicastro, F.; Panagiotou, C.

    2016-06-01

    Context. We present the results from a detailed analysis of the 2007 Swift monitoring campaign of the quasar PG1211+143. Aims: We study its broad-band optical/UV-X-ray spectral energy distribution and its variations, with the use of physically motivated models. Methods: We constructed broad-band, optical/UV-X-ray spectral energy distributions over three X-ray flux intervals, and we fitted them with a model which accounts for the disc and the X-ray coronal emission. We also added a spectral model component to account for the presence of the warm absorber which has been well established from past observations of the source. Results: We detected no optical/UV variations over the two-month period of the monitoring campaign. On the other hand, the X-rays are highly variable in a correlated way in the soft and hard X-ray bands with an amplitude larger than has been commonly observed in nearby Seyferts, even on longer time scales. The three flux spectra are well fitted by the model we considered. The disc inner temperature remains constant at ~2 eV, while X-rays are variable in slope and normalization. The absorber covers almost 90% of the central source. It is outflowing with a velocity less than 2.3 × 104 km s-1 (3σ upper limit), and has a column density of log NH ~ 23.2. Its ionization parameter varies by a factor of 1.6, and it is in photo-ionizing equilibrium with the ionizing flux. It is located at a distance of less than 0.35 pc from the central source, and its relative thickness, ΔR/R, is less than 0.1. The absorber's ionization parameter variations can explain the larger than average amplitude of the X-ray variations. Conclusions: The absence of optical/UV variations are consistent with the high black hole mass estimate of ~108M⊙ for this object, which implies variability time scales longer than the period of the Swift observations. It argues against the presence of inward propagating fluctuations in the disc as the reason for the flux variability in this

  7. Genes optimized by evolution for accurate and fast translation encode in Archaea and Bacteria a broad and characteristic spectrum of protein functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merkl Rainer

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In many microbial genomes, a strong preference for a small number of codons can be observed in genes whose products are needed by the cell in large quantities. This codon usage bias (CUB improves translational accuracy and speed and is one of several factors optimizing cell growth. Whereas CUB and the overrepresentation of individual proteins have been studied in detail, it is still unclear which high-level metabolic categories are subject to translational optimization in different habitats. Results In a systematic study of 388 microbial species, we have identified for each genome a specific subset of genes characterized by a marked CUB, which we named the effectome. As expected, gene products related to protein synthesis are abundant in both archaeal and bacterial effectomes. In addition, enzymes contributing to energy production and gene products involved in protein folding and stabilization are overrepresented. The comparison of genomes from eleven habitats shows that the environment has only a minor effect on the composition of the effectomes. As a paradigmatic example, we detailed the effectome content of 37 bacterial genomes that are most likely exposed to strongest selective pressure towards translational optimization. These effectomes accommodate a broad range of protein functions like enzymes related to glycolysis/gluconeogenesis and the TCA cycle, ATP synthases, aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases, chaperones, proteases that degrade misfolded proteins, protectants against oxidative damage, as well as cold shock and outer membrane proteins. Conclusions We made clear that effectomes consist of specific subsets of the proteome being involved in several cellular functions. As expected, some functions are related to cell growth and affect speed and quality of protein synthesis. Additionally, the effectomes contain enzymes of central metabolic pathways and cellular functions sustaining microbial life under stress situations. These

  8. HLA-A2–Restricted Cytotoxic T Lymphocyte Epitopes from Human Heparanase as Novel Targets for Broad-Spectrum Tumor Immunotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting Chen

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Peptide vaccination for cancer immunotherapy requires identification of peptide epitopes derived from antigenic proteins associated with tumors. Heparanase (Hpa is broadly expressed in various advanced tumors and seems to be an attractive new tumor-associated antigen. The present study was designed to predict and identify HLA-A2– restricted cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL epitopes in the protein of human Hpa. For this purpose, HLA-A2–restricted CTL epitopes were identified using the following four-step procedure: 1 a computer-based epitope prediction from the amino acid sequence of human Hpa, 2 a peptide-binding assay to determine the affinity of the predicted protein with the HLA-A2 molecule, 3 stimulation of the primary T-cell response against the predicted peptides in vitro, and 4 testing of the induced CTLs toward different kinds of carcinoma cells expressing Hpa antigens and/or HLA-A2. The results demonstrated that, of the tested peptides, effectors induced by peptides of human Hpa containing residues 525-533 (PAFSYSFFV, Hpa525, 277-285 (KMLKSFLKA, Hpa277, and 405-413 (WLSLLFKKL, Hpa405 could effectively lyse various tumor cell lines that were Hpa-positive and HLA-A2-matched. We also found that these peptide-specific CTLs could not lyse autologous lymphocytes with low Hpa activity. Further study revealed that Hpa525, Hpa277, and Hpa405 peptides increased the frequency of IFN-γ–producing T cells compared to a negative peptide. Our results suggest that Hpa525, Hpa277, and Hpa405 peptides are new HLA-A2–restricted CTL epitopes capable of inducing Hpa-specific CTLs in vitro. Because Hpa is expressed in most advanced malignant tumors, Hpa525, Hpa277, and Hpa405 peptide–based vaccines may be useful for the immunotherapy for patients with advanced tumors.

  9. Sexuality and Gender Role in Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Case Control Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bejerot, Susanne; Eriksson, Jonna M.

    2014-01-01

    The ‘extreme male brain theory of autism’ describes an extreme male pattern of cognitive traits defined as strong systemising abilities paired with empathising weaknesses in autism spectrum disorder. However, beyond these cognitive traits, clinical observations have suggested an ambiguous gender-typed pattern regarding several sexually dimorphic traits. The aim of the present study was to investigate if patterns of non-cognitive sexually dimorphic traits differed between the autism spectrum disorder and control groups. Fifty adults with autism spectrum disorder and intelligence within the normal range, and 53 neurotypical controls responded to questions on gender role, self-perceived gender typicality and gender identity, as well as sexuality. Measures used were a Swedish modification of the Bem Sex Role Inventory and questions on sexuality and gender designed for the purpose of this study. Our results showed that one common gender role emerged in the autism spectrum disorder group. Masculinity (e.g. assertiveness, leadership and competitiveness) was weaker in the autism spectrum disorder group than in the controls, across men and women. Self-perceived gender typicality did not differ between the groups but tomboyism and bisexuality were overrepresented amongst women with autism spectrum disorder. Lower libido was reported amongst both male and female participants with autism spectrum disorder compared with controls. We conclude that the extreme male patterns of cognitive functions in the autistic brain do not seem to extend to gender role and sexuality. A gender-atypical pattern for these types of characteristics is suggested in autism spectrum disorder. PMID:24498228

  10. Reduced Delay of Gratification and Effortful Control among Young Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faja, Susan; Dawson, Geraldine

    2015-01-01

    We explored internal control of behavior using direct observation and parent report. Previous research has found that both the delay of gratification task and parent-reported effortful control predict later social ability and more positive outcomes in typically developing children. Children with autism spectrum disorder have previously been…

  11. The extent of grain yield and plant growth enhancement by plant growth-promoting broad-spectrum Streptomyces sp. in chickpea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopalakrishnan, Subramaniam; Srinivas, Vadlamudi; Alekhya, Gottumukkala; Prakash, Bandikinda; Kudapa, Himabindu; Rathore, Abhishek; Varshney, Rajeev Kumar

    2015-01-01

    The physiological and molecular responses of five strains of Streptomyces sp. (CAI-17, CAI-68, CAI-78, KAI-26 and KAI-27), with their proven potential for charcoal rot disease control in sorghum and plant growth-promotion (PGP) in sorghum and rice, were studied to understand the mechanisms causing the beneficial effects. In this investigation, those five strains were evaluated for their PGP capabilities in chickpea in the 2012-13 and 2013-14 post-rainy seasons. All of the Streptomyces sp. strains exhibited enhanced nodule number, nodule weight, root weight and shoot weight at 30 days after sowing (DAS) and pod number, pod weight, leaf area, leaf weight and stem weight at 60 DAS in both seasons over the un-inoculated control. At crop maturity, the Streptomyces strains had enhanced stover yield, grain yield, total dry matter and seed number plant(-1) in both seasons over the un-inoculated control. In the rhizosphere, the Streptomyces sp. also significantly enhanced microbial biomass carbon, dehydrogenase activity, total nitrogen, available phosphorous and organic carbon in both seasons over the un-inoculated control. Of the five strains of Streptomyces sp., CAI-17, CAI-68 and CAI-78 were superior to KAI-26 and KAI-27 in terms of their effects on root and shoot development, nodule formation and crop productivity. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) micrographs had revealed the success in colonization of the chickpea roots by all five strains. Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis of selected PGP genes of actinomycetes revealed the selective up-regulation of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA)-related and siderophore-related genes by CAI-68 and of β-1,3-glucanase genes by KAI-26. PMID:25646153

  12. Clinical spectrum of impulse control disorders in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weintraub, Daniel; David, Anthony S; Evans, Andrew H; Grant, Jon E; Stacy, Mark

    2015-02-01

    Impulse control disorders (ICDs), including compulsive gambling, buying, sexual behavior, and eating, are a serious and increasingly recognized psychiatric complication in Parkinson's disease (PD). Other impulsive-compulsive behaviors (ICBs) have been described in PD, including punding (stereotyped, repetitive, purposeless behaviors) and dopamine dysregulation syndrome (DDS; compulsive PD medication overuse). ICDs have been most closely related to the use of dopamine agonists (DAs), perhaps more so at higher doses; in contrast, DDS is primarily associated with shorter-acting, higher-potency dopaminergic medications, such as apomorphine and levodopa. Possible risk factors for ICDs include male sex, younger age and younger age at PD onset, a pre-PD history of ICDs, and a personal or family history of substance abuse, bipolar disorder, or gambling problems. Given the paucity of treatment options and potentially serious consequences, it is critical for PD patients to be monitored closely for development of ICDs as part of routine clinical care. PMID:25370355

  13. The extent of grain yield and plant growth enhancement by plant growth-promoting broad-spectrum Streptomyces sp. in chickpea

    OpenAIRE

    Gopalakrishnan, Subramaniam; Srinivas, Vadlamudi; Alekhya, Gottumukkala; Prakash, Bandikinda; Kudapa, Himabindu; Rathore, Abhishek; Varshney, Rajeev Kumar

    2015-01-01

    The physiological and molecular responses of five strains of Streptomyces sp. (CAI-17, CAI-68, CAI-78, KAI-26 and KAI-27), with their proven potential for charcoal rot disease control in sorghum and plant growth-promotion (PGP) in sorghum and rice, were studied to understand the mechanisms causing the beneficial effects. In this investigation, those five strains were evaluated for their PGP capabilities in chickpea in the 2012–13 and 2013–14 post-rainy seasons. All of the Streptomyces sp. str...

  14. Susceptibility of adult hymenopteran parasitoids of the Nantucket pine tip moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) to broad-spectrum and biorational insecticides in a laboratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowak, J T; McCravy, K W; Fettig, C J; Berisford, C W

    2001-10-01

    Currently, there is an elevated interest in reducing feeding damage caused by the Nantucket pine tip moth, Rhyacionia frustrana (Comstock), a common regeneration pest of loblolly pine, Pinus taeda L. The toxicity of several insecticides was tested in a laboratory against four common R. frustrana parasitoids. There were no differences in parasitoid mortality between the control and indoxacarb treatments. However, the pyrethroids, permethrin and lambda-cyhalothrin, caused significantly more mortality initially (up to 240 min exposure time) than other insecticides. Spinosad was less toxic than the pyrethroids initially, but the spinosad related mortality increased with time until it reached a level similar to the pyrethroids. For the most part, spinosad and the pyrethroids caused more mortality than the control and indoxacarb treatmtents within the 1-d sample period. These results may have important implications for decisions concerning which insecticides are best suited for reducing pest damage while conserving natural enemies in timber and agricultural systems. Large-scale field trials are required to further define the impacts of these insecticides on natural enemies. PMID:11681674

  15. Broad and efficient control of major foodborne pathogenic strains of Escherichia coli by mixtures of plant-produced colicins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Steve; Stephan, Anett; Hahn, Simone; Bortesi, Luisa; Jarczowski, Franziska; Bettmann, Ulrike; Paschke, Anne-Katrin; Tusé, Daniel; Stahl, Chad H; Giritch, Anatoli; Gleba, Yuri

    2015-10-01

    Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) is one of the leading causes of bacterial enteric infections worldwide, causing ∼100,000 illnesses, 3,000 hospitalizations, and 90 deaths annually in the United States alone. These illnesses have been linked to consumption of contaminated animal products and vegetables. Currently, other than thermal inactivation, there are no effective methods to eliminate pathogenic bacteria in food. Colicins are nonantibiotic antimicrobial proteins, produced by E. coli strains that kill or inhibit the growth of other E. coli strains. Several colicins are highly effective against key EHEC strains. Here we demonstrate very high levels of colicin expression (up to 3 g/kg of fresh biomass) in tobacco and edible plants (spinach and leafy beets) at costs that will allow commercialization. Among the colicins examined, plant-expressed colicin M had the broadest antimicrobial activity against EHEC and complemented the potency of other colicins. A mixture of colicin M and colicin E7 showed very high activity against all major EHEC strains, as defined by the US Department of Agriculture/Food and Drug Administration. Treatments with low (less than 10 mg colicins per L) concentrations reduced the pathogenic bacterial load in broth culture by 2 to over 6 logs depending on the strain. In experiments using meats spiked with E. coli O157:H7, colicins efficiently reduced the population of the pathogen by at least 2 logs. Plant-produced colicins could be effectively used for the broad control of pathogenic E. coli in both plant- and animal-based food products and, in the United States, colicins could be approved using the generally recognized as safe (GRAS) regulatory approval pathway. PMID:26351689

  16. Transgenic rice with inducible ethylene production exhibits broad-spectrum disease resistance to the fungal pathogens Magnaporthe oryzae and Rhizoctonia solani.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helliwell, Emily E; Wang, Qin; Yang, Yinong

    2013-01-01

    Rice blast (Magnaporthe oryzae) and sheath blight (Rhizoctonia solani) are the two most devastating diseases of rice (Oryza sativa), and have severe impacts on crop yield and grain quality. Recent evidence suggests that ethylene (ET) may play a more prominent role than salicylic acid and jasmonic acid in mediating rice disease resistance. In this study, we attempt to genetically manipulate endogenous ET levels in rice for enhancing resistance to rice blast and sheath blight diseases. Transgenic lines with inducible production of ET were generated by expressing the rice ACS2 (1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid synthase, a key enzyme of ET biosynthesis) transgene under control of a strong pathogen-inducible promoter. In comparison with the wild-type plant, the OsACS2-overexpression lines showed significantly increased levels of the OsACS2 transcripts, endogenous ET and defence gene expression, especially in response to pathogen infection. More importantly, the transgenic lines exhibited increased resistance to a field isolate of R. solani, as well as different races of M. oryzae. Assessment of the growth rate, generational time and seed production revealed little or no differences between wild type and transgenic lines. These results suggest that pathogen-inducible production of ET in transgenic rice can enhance resistance to necrotrophic and hemibiotrophic fungal pathogens without negatively impacting crop productivity. PMID:23031077

  17. Development of a lateral flow test to detect metabolic resistance in Bemisia tabaci mediated by CYP6CM1, a cytochrome P450 with broad spectrum catalytic efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nauen, Ralf; Wölfel, Katharina; Lueke, Bettina; Myridakis, Antonis; Tsakireli, Dimitra; Roditakis, Emmanouil; Tsagkarakou, Anastasia; Stephanou, Euripides; Vontas, John

    2015-06-01

    Cotton whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Genn.) (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae) is a major sucking pest in many agricultural and horticultural cropping systems globally. The frequent use of insecticides of different mode of action classes resulted in populations resisting treatments used to keep numbers under economic damage thresholds. Recently it was shown that resistance to neonicotinoids such as imidacloprid is linked to the over-expression of CYP6CM1, a cytochrome P450 monooxygenase detoxifying imidacloprid and other neonicotinoid insecticides when recombinantly expressed in insect cells. However over-expression of CYP6CM1 is also known to confer cross-resistance to pymetrozine, an insecticide not belonging to the chemical class of neonicotinoids. In addition we were able to demonstrate by LC-MS/MS analysis the metabolisation of pyriproxyfen by recombinantly expressed CYP6CM1. Based on our results CYP6CM1 is one of the most versatile detoxification enzymes yet identified in a pest of agricultural importance, as it detoxifies a diverse range of chemical classes used to control whiteflies. Therefore we developed a field-diagnostic antibody-based lateral flow assay which detects CYP6CM1 protein at levels providing resistance to neonicotinoids and other insecticides. The ELISA based test kit can be used as a diagnostic tool to support resistance management strategies based on the alternation of different modes of action of insecticides. PMID:26047106

  18. Sgt1, but not Rar1, is essential for the RB-mediated broad-spectrum resistance to potato late blight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wielgus Susan M

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Late blight is the most serious potato disease world-wide. The most effective and environmentally sound way for controlling late blight is to incorporate natural resistance into potato cultivars. Several late blight resistance genes have been cloned recently. However, there is almost no information available about the resistance pathways mediated by any of those genes. Results We previously cloned a late blight resistance gene, RB, from a diploid wild potato species Solanum bulbocastanum. Transgenic potato lines containing a single RB gene showed a rate-limiting resistance against all known races of Phytophthora infestans, the late blight pathogen. To better understand the RB-mediated resistance we silenced the potato Rar1 and Sgt1 genes that have been implicated in mediating disease resistance responses against various plant pathogens and pests. The Rar1 and Sgt1 genes of a RB-containing potato clone were silenced using a RNA interference (RNAi-based approach. All of the silenced potato plants displayed phenotypically normal growth. The late blight resistance of the Rar1 and Sgt1 silenced lines were evaluated by a traditional greenhouse inoculation method and quantified using a GFP-tagged P. infestans strain. The resistance of the Rar1-silenced plants was not affected. However, silencing of the Sgt1 gene abolished the RB-mediated resistance. Conclusion Our study shows that silencing of the Sgt1 gene in potato does not result in lethality. However, the Sgt1 gene is essential for the RB-mediated late blight resistance. In contrast, the Rar1 gene is not required for RB-mediated resistance. These results provide additional evidence for the universal role of the Sgt1 gene in various R gene-mediated plant defense responses.

  19. A Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial of Omega-3 Fatty Acids for Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bent, Stephen; Bertoglio, Kiah; Ashwood, Paul; Bostrom, Alan; Hendren, Robert L.

    2011-01-01

    We conducted a pilot randomized controlled trial to determine the feasibility and initial safety and efficacy of omega-3 fatty acids (1.3 g/day) for the treatment of hyperactivity in 27 children ages 3-8 with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). After 12 weeks, hyperactivity, as measured by the Aberrant Behavior Checklist, improved 2.7 (plus or minus…

  20. Digestive Enzyme Supplementation for Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Double-Blind Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munasinghe, Sujeeva A.; Oliff, Carolyn; Finn, Judith; Wray, John A.

    2010-01-01

    To examine the effects of a digestive enzyme supplement in improving expressive language, behaviour and other symptoms in children with Autism Spectrum Disorder. Randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled trial using crossover design over 6 months for 43 children, aged 3-8 years. Outcome measurement tools included monthly Global Behaviour Rating…

  1. Broad-spectrum pollination of Plectranthus neochilus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. H. Stirton

    1977-12-01

    Full Text Available The pollination ecology of Plectranthus neochilus Schltr. is discussed and compared with that of another garden plant,  Plectranthus barbatus Andr.. Pollinators and flower visitors of P. neochilus include members of  the Megachilidae, Anthophoridae, Syrphidae, Bombyliidae, Sphingidae, Apidae.

  2. Metacognitive monitoring and control processes in children with autism spectrum disorder: Diminished judgement of confidence accuracy

    OpenAIRE

    Grainger, C; Williams, D M; Lind, S. E.

    2016-01-01

    Metacognition consists of monitoring processes (the ability to accurately represent one’s own mental states) and control processes (the ability to control one’s cognitive processes effectively). Both processes play vital roles in self-regulated learning. However, currently it is unclear whether these processes are impaired in individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). This study aimed to assess metacognition in thirty-two children with ASD, and 30 IQ-/age-matched neurotypical children...

  3. Electronic control of edge-mode spectrum of integer-hall-effect 2d electron waveguides

    OpenAIRE

    Kouzaev, Guennadi A.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, the control of the edge-mode spectrum of integer-Hall-effect 2D waveguides by electric field is proposed and modeled with the effective mass approach. Under certain found conditions, the applied transversal electric field allows refining the modal spectrum from non-localized waves, and, additionally, it can switch the edge-mode from the propagating to the evanescent state, and it is interesting in the design of the edge-mode off and on logic components. These waveguides, arbitr...

  4. Analysis of selective reflection spectrum in cholesteric liquid crystal cells for solar-ray controller

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogiwara, Akifumi; Kakiuchida, Hiroshi

    2015-09-01

    The cholesteric liquid crystal (CLC) cells are fabricated by varying the concentration of various chiral dopants and liquid crystal (LC) diacrylate monomers. The wavelength and bandwidth of selective reflection spectrum in CLC cells are measured by a spectroscopic technique. The variation of the selective reflection spectrum in CLC cells is investigated by doping the different kinds of liquid crystal (LC) diacrylate monomers which stabilize a helical twisting structure by photopolymerization. The effects of the selective reflection spectrum on the visible and infrared lights in spectral solar irradiance are explained by the performance for a solar-ray controller based on the spectral solar irradiance for air mass 1.5 and the standard luminous efficiency function for photopic vision.

  5. Effect of Culture Filtrate of Fungi in the Control of Meloidogyne javacnica, Root Knot Nematodes on Okra and Broad Bean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amer-Zareen

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Fungal cell free filtrates were used in two different doses, enhanced plant growth and root knot nematodes infection was reduced where high doses of filtrate (100% concentration were applied, in all test fungal filtrates. Culture filtrates of Paecilomyces lilacinus and Verticillium chlamydosporium at 100 percent concentration showed significant reduction in Meloidogyne javanica root knot infection on okra and broad bean as compared to Trichoderma harzianum, T. koningii, T. viride, Aspergillus restrictus and Aspergillus sp., which found less effective.

  6. Third generation cephalosporin resistant Enterobacteriaceae and multidrug resistant gram-negative bacteria causing bacteremia in febrile neutropenia adult cancer patients in Lebanon, broad spectrum antibiotics use as a major risk factor, and correlation with poor prognosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rima eMoghnieh

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Bacteremia remains a major cause of life-threatening complications in patients receiving anticancer chemotherapy. The spectrum and susceptibility profiles of causative microorganisms differ with time and place. Data from Lebanon are scarce. We aim at evaluating the epidemiology of bacteremia in cancer patients in a university hospital in Lebanon, emphasizing antibiotic resistance and risk factors of multi-drug resistant organism (MDRO-associated bacteremia.This is a retrospective study of 75 episodes of bacteremia occurring in febrile neutropenic patients admitted to the hematology-oncology unit at Makassed General Hospital, Lebanon, from October 2009-January 2012.It corresponds to epidemiological data on bacteremia episodes in febrile neutropenic cancer patients including antimicrobial resistance and identification of risk factors associated with third generation cephalosporin resistance (3GCR and MDRO-associated bacteremia. Out of 75 bacteremias, 42.7% were gram-positive (GP, and 57.3% were gram-negative (GN. GP bacteremias were mostly due to methicillin-resistant coagulase negative staphylococci (28% of total bacteremias and 66% of GP bacteremias. Among the GN bacteremias, Escherichia coli (22.7% of total, 39.5% of GN organisms and Klebsiellapneumoniae(13.3% of total, 23.3% of GN organisms were the most important causative agents. GN bacteremia due to 3GC sensitive (3GCS bacteria represented 28% of total bacteremias, while 29% were due to 3GCR bacteria and 9% were due to carbapenem-resistant organisms. There was a significant correlation between bacteremia with MDRO and subsequent intubation, sepsis and mortality. Among potential risk factors, only broad spectrum antibiotic intake >4 days before bacteremia was found to be statistically significant for acquisition of 3GCR bacteria. Using carbapenems or piperacillin/ tazobactam>4 days before bacteremia was significantly associated with the emergence of MDRO (p value<0.05.

  7. Quantum control of isomerization by robust navigation in the energy spectrum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, we present a detailed study on the application of the quantum control technique of navigation in the energy spectrum to chemical isomerization processes, namely, CN–Li⇆ Li–CN. This technique is based on the controlled time variation of a Hamiltonian parameter, an external uniform electric field in our case. The main result of our work establishes that the navigation involved in the method is robust, in the sense that quite sizable deviations from a pre-established control parameter time profile can be introduced and still get good final results. This is specially relevant thinking of a experimental implementation of the method

  8. Quantum control of isomerization by robust navigation in the energy spectrum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murgida, G. E., E-mail: murgida@tandar.cnea.gov.ar [Centro Atómico Constituyentes, GIyA, CNEA, San Martín, and Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas, C1033AAJ Buenos Aires (Argentina); Arranz, F. J., E-mail: fj.arranz@upm.es [Grupo de Sistemas Complejos, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Borondo, F., E-mail: f.borondo@uam.es [Departamento de Química, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Instituto de Ciencias Matemáticas (ICMAT), Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain)

    2015-12-07

    In this paper, we present a detailed study on the application of the quantum control technique of navigation in the energy spectrum to chemical isomerization processes, namely, CN–Li⇆ Li–CN. This technique is based on the controlled time variation of a Hamiltonian parameter, an external uniform electric field in our case. The main result of our work establishes that the navigation involved in the method is robust, in the sense that quite sizable deviations from a pre-established control parameter time profile can be introduced and still get good final results. This is specially relevant thinking of a experimental implementation of the method.

  9. Analysis of Rare, Exonic Variation amongst Subjects with Autism Spectrum Disorders and Population Controls

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Li; Sabo, Aniko; Neale, Benjamin Michael; Nagaswamy, Uma; Stevens, Christine; Lim, Elaine; Bodea, Corneliu A.; Muzny, Donna; Reid, Jeffrey G.; Banks, Eric; Coon, Hillary; Depristo, Mark; Dinh, Huyen; Fennel, Tim; Flannick, Jason A.

    2013-01-01

    We report on results from whole-exome sequencing (WES) of 1,039 subjects diagnosed with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and 870 controls selected from the NIMH repository to be of similar ancestry to cases. The WES data came from two centers using different methods to produce sequence and to call variants from it. Therefore, an initial goal was to ensure the distribution of rare variation was similar for data from different centers. This proved straightforward by filtering called variants by ...

  10. Sensory cognitive abnormalities of pain in autism spectrum disorder: a case–control study

    OpenAIRE

    Yasuda, Yuka; Hashimoto, Ryota; Nakae, Aya; Kang, Hongling; Ohi, Kazutaka; Yamamori, Hidenaga; Fujimoto, Michiko; Hagihira, Satoshi; Takeda, Masatoshi

    2016-01-01

    Background The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th Edition (DSM-5) recently included sensory processing abnormalities in the diagnostic criteria for individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). However, there is no standard method for evaluating sensory abnormalities in individuals with ASD. Methods Fifteen individuals with ASD and 15 age- and sex-matched controls were enrolled in this study. We compared objective pain sensitivity by measuring the pain detection thr...

  11. The Neural Substrates of Cognitive Control Deficits in Autism Spectrum Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Solomon, Marjorie; Ozonoff, Sally; Ursu, Stefan; Ravizza, Susan; Cummings, Neil; Ly, Stanford; Carter, Cameron

    2009-01-01

    Executive functions deficits are among the most frequently reported symptoms of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs), however, there have been few functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies that investigate the neural substrates of executive functions deficits in ASDs, and only one in adolescents. The current study examined cognitive control –the ability to maintain task context online to support adaptive functioning in the face of response competition—in 22 adolescents aged 12–18 with ...

  12. Randomized Controlled Trial: Multimodal Anxiety and Social Skill Intervention for Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    White, Susan W.; Ollendick, Thomas; Albano, Anne Marie; Oswald, Donald; Johnson, Cynthia; Southam-Gerow, Michael A.; Kim, Inyoung; Scahill, Lawrence

    2013-01-01

    Anxiety is common among adolescents with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and may amplify the core social disability, thus necessitating combined treatment approaches. This pilot, randomized controlled trial (RCT) evaluated the feasibility and preliminary outcomes of the Multimodal Anxiety and Social Skills Intervention (MASSI) program in a sample of 30 adolescents with ASD and anxiety symptoms of moderate or greater severity. The treatment was acceptable to families, subject adherence was hig...

  13. Performance Analysis of Spectrum Handoff for Cognitive Radio Ad Hoc Networks without Common Control Channel under Homogeneous Primary Traffic

    CERN Document Server

    Song, Yi

    2011-01-01

    Cognitive radio (CR) technology is regarded as a promising solution to the spectrum scarcity problem. Due to the spectrum varying nature of CR networks, unlicensed users are required to perform spectrum handoffs when licensed users reuse the spectrum. In this paper, we study the performance of the spectrum handoff process in a CR ad hoc network under homogeneous primary traffic. We propose a novel three dimensional discrete-time Markov chain to characterize the process of spectrum handoffs and analyze the performance of unlicensed users. Since in real CR networks, a dedicated common control channel is not practical, in our model, we implement a network coordination scheme where no dedicated common control channel is needed. Moreover, in wireless communications, collisions among simultaneous transmissions cannot be immediately detected and the whole collided packets need to be retransmitted, which greatly affects the network performance. With this observation, we also consider the retransmissions of the collid...

  14. Assessing Spectrum Compatibility for Beyond-Line-of-Sight UAS Control and Non-Payload Communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerczewski, Robert J.; Wilson, Jeffrey D.; Bishop, William D.

    2014-01-01

    In order to provide for the safe integration of unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) into the National Airspace System (NAS), the control and non-payload communications (CNPC) link must be highly reliable. A specific requirement is that it must operate using aviation safety radiofrequency spectrum. Two types of links are required - line-of-sight (LOS) using terrestrial-based communications and beyond-line-of-sight (BLOS) using satellite communications. The 2012 World Radiocommunication Conference (WRC-12) provided a suitable allocation for LOS CNPC spectrum in the 5030 to 5091 MHz band which, when combined with a previously existing allocation fulfills the LOS spectrum requirement. The 5030 to 5091 MHz band is also allocated for BLOS CNPC, but since a significant portion of that band is required for LOS CNPC, additional BLOS spectrum is required. More critically, there are no satellites in operation or in development to provide such services in that band. Hence BLOS CNPC cannot be provided in protected aviation spectrum under current conditions. To fill this gap and enable integration of UAS into the NAS, it has been proposed to allow CNPC to operate over certain Fixed Satellite Service (FSS) bands in which many satellites currently provide commercial services. To enable this, changes in international regulation must be enacted. Agenda Item 1.5 of the 2015 WRC examines the possible regulatory changes needed. As part of the examination process, sharing between potential UAS using satellite communications for BLOS CNPC and other services allocated to the FSS bands being considered must be studied. This paper reviews the technical requirements and approach being undertaken for these sharing studies, with emphasis on study of interference from UAS into digital repeater links operating under the Fixed Service allocation. These studies are being conducted by NASA Glenn Research Center.

  15. Potencial de defensivos alternativos para o controle do ácaro-branco em pimenta "Malagueta" Potential of alternative pesticides for control of broad mite on chili pepper "Malagueta"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madelaine Venzon

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available A ação letal e subletal de defensivos alternativos sobre o ácaro-branco Polyphagotarsonemus latus (Banks foi avaliada em laboratório. Plantas de pimenta "Malagueta" (6 cm de altura foram pulverizadas, nas dosagens recomendadas para hortaliças, com os seguintes produtos: biofertilizante "Supermagro", "Calda Viçosa", calda sulfocálcica, acaricida abamectina e água. Após a pulverização, foram transferidas dez fêmeas de P. latus para cada planta. Seis dias após, avaliou-se o número de ácaros por planta e calculou-se a taxa instantânea de crescimento populacional (r i. A população final de P. latus em plantas tratadas com a calda sulfocálcica, com a "Calda Viçosa" e com o acaricida abamectina foi significativamente menor do que em plantas tratadas com água e com "Supermagro". Foram obtidos valores negativos para a r i de P. latus em plantas tratadas com a calda sulfocálcica (r i = -0,2922 e com a "Calda Viçosa" (r i = -0,0301. Valores positivos para a r i foram obtidos para ácaros em plantas tratadas com "Supermagro" (r i = 0,2373 e com água (r i = 0,1971, indicando aumento da população de P. latus nessas plantas. Não foi possível o cálculo do r i para ácaros em plantas tratadas com abamectina devido a morte de todas as fêmeas no inicio do experimento. A "Calda Viçosa" e a calda sulfocálcica apresentaram potencial de controle para o ácaro branco P. latus em pimenta.Lethal and sublethal effects of alternative pesticides on the broad mite Polyphagotarsonemus latus were evaluated. Chilli pepper plants (6 cm high were sprayed with one of the following treatments: biofertilizer "Supermagro", "Viçosa mixture" (a nutrient amended Bordeaux mixture, lime sulfur, abamectin and water. After spraying, 10 females of P. latus were transferred to each plant. Six days after, the number of mites per plant was counted and the instantaneous rate of increase (r i was evaluated for each treatment. The population of P. latus on plants

  16. Investigation of Relative Time Constant Influence of Inertial Part of Superheater on Quality of Steam Temperature Control Behind Boiler in Broad Band of Loading Variations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. T. Kulakov

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper is devoted to computational investigation of influence relative time constant of an object which changes in broad band on quality of steam temperature control behind a boiler with due account of value of regulating action in the system with PI- and PID- regulator. The simulation has been based on a single-loop automatic control system (ACS. It has been revealed that the less value of the relative time constant of an object leads to more integral control error in system with PID- regulator while operating external ACS perturbation. Decrease of numerical value of relative time constant of an object while operating external perturbation causes decrease of relative time concerning appearance of maximum dynamic control error from common relative control time.

  17. Power Control for Maximum Throughput in Spectrum Underlay Cognitive Radio Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Tadrous, John; Nafie, Mohammed; El-Keyi, Amr

    2010-01-01

    We investigate power allocation for users in a spectrum underlay cognitive network. Our objective is to find a power control scheme that allocates transmit power for both primary and secondary users so that the overall network throughput is maximized while maintaining the quality of service (QoS) of the primary users greater than a certain minimum limit. Since an optimum solution to our problem is computationally intractable, as the optimization problem is non-convex, we propose an iterative algorithm based on sequential geometric programming, that is proved to converge to at least a local optimum solution. We use the proposed algorithm to show how a spectrum underlay network would achieve higher throughput with secondary users operation than with primary users operating alone. Also, we show via simulations that the loss in primary throughput due to the admission of the secondary users is accompanied by a reduction in the total primary transmit power.

  18. 不同品种香蕉内生菌分离及广谱拮抗菌的筛选%Endophytes Isolation and Broad-spectrum Antagonistic Bacterias Screening from Banana

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王梦颖; 周登博; 井涛; 胡一凤; 高祝芬; 谢晴宜; 张锡炎; 戚春林

    2014-01-01

    In order to determine the main distribution of endophytes and their broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity, endophytes were obtained from healthy and diseased tissues of two disease-resistant and one disease susceptible banana cultivars. Endophytes were separated from roots, corms, pseudostems, leaves and store in the ultra-low on Luria-Bertani(LB), Yeast Extract with supplements(YE), and Potato Dextrose Agar(PDA)strain store medium. Then screened broad-spectrum antagonistic bacteria which against Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. Cubense, Curvularia lunata, Curvularia fallax, Corynespora cassiicola(Berk&Curt)Wei, Alternaria musae, Deightoniella troulosa, Colletotrichum musae, Pestalogiopsis sp., Btoryosphaeria dothidea. Taxonomy identification of 041, 04-1, 19-1, 03A-1 was conducted by evaluating morphologic characteristics and 16S rDNA gene sequences for phylogenetic analysis. After purification, total of 438 endophytes were obtained. The total of isolates showed that we obtained 240 strains bacteria, followed by 142 strains actinomycetes, and 56 strains fungi. The richest number of endophytes that isolated from diseased NanTian banana cultivars(128). Ten actinomyces and two bacterias were determined to possess antibiotic activity against Ten banana pathogens. Isolates 041 was the most effective and had 28.13±1.89 mm width of inhibition zone. Isolated 041, 04-1, 19-1, 034-1 were identified as Streptomyces misionensis.%旨在探究抗病品种与易感品种香蕉的健康株和病株内生菌与其中广谱拮抗菌的主要分布规律,并对广谱拮抗菌进行拮抗活性的测定。以样品根、球茎、假茎、叶为材料分离培养内生菌,在实验室条件下,筛选对供试的10种香蕉致病菌均有良好拮抗活性的菌株并测定它们的拮抗活性,对活性最强的菌株进行形态学、16S rDNA序列同源性分析。结果显示,分离得到内生菌438株,其中细菌240株,放线菌142株,真菌56株。抗病品种南天

  19. 严重烧伤患者早期短程应用高效抗生素的研究%Clinical study on the early and short - term use of antibiotics with broad spectrum in severely burned patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宗光全; 张茂红; 章冠东; 杜庆安

    2001-01-01

    Objective To investigate the prevention and treatment effects of early and short - term use of antibiotics with broad spectrum on postburn severe infection in severely burned patients . Methods Thirty - five burn patients with TBSA from 50% to 95% were enrolled in the study. The patients were divided into early prevention[ 20 cases, antibiotics were used started from 6 postburn hours (PBH)] and delayed prevention( 15 cases,antibiotics were applied after 48 PBH )groups. Plasma levels of LPS,TNFa and IL -8 were dynamically monitored with the concomitant observation of clinical signs of postburn sepsis.Results After major burns,the plasma levels of LPS,TNFα and IL -8 increased evidently and reached the peak values on 3 ~5 postburn days(PBD). But the levels of all above factors in the early group were obviously lower than those in the delayed group( P < 0. 05 ~0. 01 ). The incidencies of sepsis and internal organ complications within 2 postburn weeks were much lower in the early group than those in the delayed group (P < 0. 05). The subeschar bacterial quantification on 4 ~ 7 PBD was evidently lower in the early group than that in the delayed group ( P < 0. 01 ) . Conclusion Early and short - term use of antibiotics with broad spectrum in severely burned patients could effectively prevent postburn severe infection and lower down the incidence of internal organ complications.%目的探讨早期短程应用高效抗生素对严重烧伤后患者感染的防治效果。方法烧伤患者35例,烧伤面积50%~95%。根据高效抗生素使用时机分为早防组(20例,伤后6 h内开始)和迟防组(15例,伤后48 h开始)。动态检测血浆内毒素( lipopolysaccharide, LPS ) 、肿瘤坏死因子(TNFα)和白细胞介素-8(IL-8)的变化,严密观察脓毒症各项指标。结果大面积烧伤后血LPS、TNFα和IL-8明显升高,于伤后3~5 d达高峰,但早防组明显低于迟防组(P<0.05~0.001)。伤后2周内脓毒症、内

  20. Metacognitive monitoring and control processes in children with autism spectrum disorder: Diminished judgement of confidence accuracy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grainger, Catherine; Williams, David M; Lind, Sophie E

    2016-05-01

    Metacognition consists of monitoring processes (the ability to accurately represent one's own mental states) and control processes (the ability to control one's cognitive processes effectively). Both processes play vital roles in self-regulated learning. However, currently it is unclear whether these processes are impaired in individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). This study aimed to assess metacognition in thirty-two children with ASD, and 30 IQ-/age-matched neurotypical children, using a judgment of confidence task. It was found that children with ASD showed diminished accuracy in their judgments of confidence, indicating metacognitive monitoring impairments in ASD. Children with ASD also used monitoring to influence control processes significantly less than neurotypical children, despite little evidence of impairments in overall control ability. PMID:26985883

  1. Novel Clostridium difficile Anti-Toxin (TcdA and TcdB) Humanized Monoclonal Antibodies Demonstrate In Vitro Neutralization across a Broad Spectrum of Clinical Strains and In Vivo Potency in a Hamster Spore Challenge Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Hongyu; Cassan, Robyn; Johnstone, Darrell; Han, Xiaobing; Joyee, Antony George; McQuoid, Monica; Masi, Andrea; Merluza, John; Hrehorak, Bryce; Reid, Ross; Kennedy, Kieron; Tighe, Bonnie; Rak, Carla; Leonhardt, Melanie; Dupas, Brian; Saward, Laura; Berry, Jody D.; Nykiforuk, Cory L.

    2016-01-01

    Clostridium difficile (C. difficile) infection (CDI) is the main cause of nosocomial antibiotic-associated colitis and increased incidence of community-associated diarrhea in industrialized countries. At present, the primary treatment of CDI is antibiotic administration, which is effective but often associated with recurrence, especially in the elderly. Pathogenic strains produce enterotoxin, toxin A (TcdA), and cytotoxin, toxin B (TcdB), which are necessary for C. difficile induced diarrhea and gut pathological changes. Administration of anti-toxin antibodies provides an alternative approach to treat CDI, and has shown promising results in preclinical and clinical studies. In the current study, several humanized anti-TcdA and anti-TcdB monoclonal antibodies were generated and their protective potency was characterized in a hamster infection model. The humanized anti-TcdA (CANmAbA4) and anti-TcdB (CANmAbB4 and CANmAbB1) antibodies showed broad spectrum in vitro neutralization of toxins from clinical strains and neutralization in a mouse toxin challenge model. Moreover, co-administration of humanized antibodies (CANmAbA4 and CANmAbB4 cocktail) provided a high level of protection in a dose dependent manner (85% versus 57% survival at day 22 for 50 mg/kg and 20 mg/kg doses, respectively) in a hamster gastrointestinal infection (GI) model. This study describes the protective effects conferred by novel neutralizing anti-toxin monoclonal antibodies against C. difficile toxins and their potential as therapeutic agents in treating CDI. PMID:27336843

  2. A dose escalating phase I study of GLPG0187, a broad spectrum integrin receptor antagonist, in adult patients with progressive high-grade glioma and other advanced solid malignancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cirkel, Geert A; Kerklaan, Bojana Milojkovic; Vanhoutte, Frédéric; der Aa, Annegret Van; Lorenzon, Giocondo; Namour, Florence; Pujuguet, Philippe; Darquenne, Sophie; de Vos, Filip Y F; Snijders, Tom J; Voest, Emile E; Schellens, Jan H M; Lolkema, Martijn P

    2016-04-01

    Background Integrin signaling is an attractive target for anti-cancer treatment. GLPG0187 is a broad spectrum integrin receptor antagonist (IRA). GLPG0187 inhibited tumor growth and metastasis in mouse models. Methods We aimed to determine the Recommended Phase II Dose (RP2D) and to assess safety and tolerability of continuous i.v. infusion in patients with advanced malignant solid tumors. Anticipated dose levels were 20, 40, 80, 160, 320, and 400 mg/day in a modified 3 + 3 design. Plasma concentrations of GLPG0187 were assessed to characterize the pharmacokinetics (PK). C-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen (CTX) was used as pharmacodynamics marker. Results Twenty patients received GLPG0187. No dose limiting toxicities (DLTs) were observed. The highest possible and tested dose was 400 mg/day. Fatigue was the most frequently reported side effect (25 %). Recurrent Port-A-Cath-related infections and skin toxicity suggest cutaneous integrin inhibition. No dose-dependent toxicity could be established. PK analysis showed a short average distribution (0.16 h) and elimination (3.8 h) half-life. Continuous infusion resulted in dose proportional PK profiles. We observed decreases in serum CTX levels independent of the dose given, suggesting target engagement at the lowest dose level tested. Single agent treatment did not result in tumor responses. Conclusions GLPG0187 was well tolerated with a dose-proportional PK profile upon continuous infusion. No formal maximal tolerated dose could be established. GLPG0187 showed signs of target engagement with a favourable toxicity profile. However, continuous infusion of GLPG0187 failed to show signs of monotherapy efficacy. PMID:26792581

  3. Novel Clostridium difficile Anti-Toxin (TcdA and TcdB Humanized Monoclonal Antibodies Demonstrate In Vitro Neutralization across a Broad Spectrum of Clinical Strains and In Vivo Potency in a Hamster Spore Challenge Model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongyu Qiu

    Full Text Available Clostridium difficile (C. difficile infection (CDI is the main cause of nosocomial antibiotic-associated colitis and increased incidence of community-associated diarrhea in industrialized countries. At present, the primary treatment of CDI is antibiotic administration, which is effective but often associated with recurrence, especially in the elderly. Pathogenic strains produce enterotoxin, toxin A (TcdA, and cytotoxin, toxin B (TcdB, which are necessary for C. difficile induced diarrhea and gut pathological changes. Administration of anti-toxin antibodies provides an alternative approach to treat CDI, and has shown promising results in preclinical and clinical studies. In the current study, several humanized anti-TcdA and anti-TcdB monoclonal antibodies were generated and their protective potency was characterized in a hamster infection model. The humanized anti-TcdA (CANmAbA4 and anti-TcdB (CANmAbB4 and CANmAbB1 antibodies showed broad spectrum in vitro neutralization of toxins from clinical strains and neutralization in a mouse toxin challenge model. Moreover, co-administration of humanized antibodies (CANmAbA4 and CANmAbB4 cocktail provided a high level of protection in a dose dependent manner (85% versus 57% survival at day 22 for 50 mg/kg and 20 mg/kg doses, respectively in a hamster gastrointestinal infection (GI model. This study describes the protective effects conferred by novel neutralizing anti-toxin monoclonal antibodies against C. difficile toxins and their potential as therapeutic agents in treating CDI.

  4. Application of higher order spectrum in analysis of magneto-rheological damper control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘晓梅; 黄宜坚; 陈俊杰

    2008-01-01

    Higher order spectral analysis can be used to identify nonlinearities in the complex dynamical systems.This proposal shows that the contributions of the bispectrum,trispectrum,reconstructed bispectrum and reconstructed power spectrum in terms of the system frequency response function and elementary physical properties of the MR damping system.Subsequent estimates of the HOS based on the output stochastic oscillating signals appear distinct variation.An experimental platform for MR vibrating semi-active control is built,proper simplifications are presented,an AR(10) model is established with colored noises from the output signals.Comparison between power spectrum from second order moment function and bispectrum,trispectrum are taken.The later gives an indication of the correlation between the phases of different frequency components.Since time series model is a parametric model,the reconstructed bispectrum and power spectrum are smooth.It is demonstrated that the higher order spectra are effectively for recognition and description of nonlinear systems.

  5. CTL Responses of High Functional Avidity and Broad Variant Cross-Reactivity Are Associated with HIV Control

    OpenAIRE

    Beatriz Mothe; Anuska Llano; Javier Ibarrondo; Jennifer Zamarreño; Mattia Schiaulini; Cristina Miranda; Marta Ruiz-Riol; Berger, Christoph T.; M José Herrero; Eduard Palou; Montse Plana; Morgane Rolland; Ashok Khatri; David Heckerman; Florencia Pereyra

    2012-01-01

    Cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) responses targeting specific HIV proteins, in particular Gag, have been associated with relative control of viral replication \\(in\\) \\(vivo\\). However, Gag-specific CTL can also be detected in individuals who do not control the virus and it remains thus unclear how Gag-specific CTL may mediate the beneficial effects in some individuals but not in others. Here, we used a 10mer peptide set spanning HIV Gag-p24 to determine immunogen-specific T-cell responses and to ...

  6. A Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial of Omega-3 Fatty Acids for Autism Spectrum Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Bent, Stephen; Bertoglio, Kiah; Ashwood, Paul; Bostrom, Alan; Hendren, Robert L.

    2010-01-01

    We conducted a pilot randomized controlled trial to determine the feasibility and initial safety and efficacy of omega-3 fatty acids (1.3 g/day) for the treatment of hyperactivity in 27 children ages 3–8 with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). After 12 weeks, hyperactivity, as measured by the Aberrant Behavior Checklist, improved 2.7 (±4.8) points in the omega-3 group compared to 0.3 (±7.2) points in the placebo group (p = 0.40; effect size = 0.38). Correlations were found between decreases in f...

  7. Measurement of electromagnetic fields generated by air traffic control radar systems with spectrum analysers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Air traffic control (ATC) primary radars are 'classical' radars that use echoes of radiofrequency (RF) pulses from aircraft to determine their position. High-power RF pulses radiated from radar antennas may produce high electromagnetic field levels in the surrounding area. Measurement of electromagnetic fields produced by RF-pulsed radar by means of a swept-tuned spectrum analyser are investigated here. Measurements have been carried out both in the laboratory and in situ on signals generated by an ATC primary radar. (authors)

  8. Selection and characterization of Beauveria spp. isolates to control the broad mite Polyphagotarsonemus latus (Banks, 1904) (Acari: Tarsonemidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, C C; Alves, L F A; Mamprim, A P; Souza, L P A

    2016-01-01

    This study was performed under laboratory conditions to identify isolates of the fungus Beauveria spp. that can control Polyphagotarsonemus latus in the greenhouse and field. Thirty Beauveria spp. isolates were tested by spraying 1 mL conidia (1 × 108 conidia/mL) on pepper leaf discs containing 15 mites. Evaluations were performed on the 3rd and 6th day post application by counting the number of dead mites. Vegetative growth and conidial production were measured from the selected isolates, and bioassays were conducted in the greenhouse on bean seedlings in plastic pots. The isolate Unioeste 53 was selected, and a conidial suspension (1 × 108 conidia/mL) was applied with a backpack sprayer. The evaluation consisted of pre- and post-treatment counts of the number of live mites on ten leaflets in both the plots treated with the fungus and control plots, and the same procedure was followed for the field experiment. In the laboratory, the Unioeste 53 isolate resulted in total and confirmed mortality rates of 70% and 57.7%, respectively. In the greenhouse, the population decreased by 76.71% by the 16th day after application. In the field, the population decreased by 66% by the 12th day after application, demonstrating the potential of this fungus for mite management. PMID:27332672

  9. Alfven wave spectrum control in the heating and current drive experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this report we present the diagnostic system that has been developed for wave field spectrum analysis and control during Alfven wave heating and current drive experiments in the TCABR tokamak The system permits to register simultaneously the phase and the amplitude of the toroidal Β-tilde φ and poloidal Β-tildeθ magnetic field components of the waves with M ±1, N = ±, N = ±(2+6) in the frequency range ∫ = 2-8 MHz and RF pulse duration τ = 20-50 ms and to generate a feedback signal for plasma parameters control. The wave mode and frequency selectivity are ensured by the adjustment of the magnetic probe position and by utilization of specially designed 'lock-in' amplifiers that use 'sin' and 'cos' reference signals produced on the basis of the Alfven antenna feeding current. (author)

  10. The efficacy of Chondrostereum purpureum as a biological control agent : A comparative analysis of the decay fungus (Chondrostereum purpureum), a chemical herbicide and mechanical cutting to control sprouting of broad-leaved tree species.

    OpenAIRE

    Lemola, Jan

    2014-01-01

    In forestry, manual control of broad-leaved trees is tedious and costly. To reduce costs, chemicals have been applied to keep these species in control. However, some chemicals are not recommended to use because of possibly adverse effects on the environment. Instead of chemicals, biological alternatives, such as a fungus, Chondrostereum purpureum, might be used to prevent sprouting. C. purpureum is a common decay fungus in Finland; it has been investigated at Metla, to find out whether it cou...

  11. A randomised controlled trial of PEGASUS, a psychoeducational programme for young people with high-functioning autism spectrum disorder.

    OpenAIRE

    Gordon, K; Murin, M.; Baykaner, O.; Roughan, L.; Livermore-Hardy, V.; Skuse, D; Mandy, W.

    2015-01-01

    Background Psychoeducation is an essential component of postdiagnostic care for people with ASD (autism spectrum disorder), but there is currently no evidence base for clinical practice. We designed, manualised and evaluated PEGASUS (psychoeducation group for autism spectrum understanding and support), a group psychoeducational programme aiming to enhance the self-awareness of young people with ASD by teaching them about their diagnosis. Methods This single-blind RCT (randomised control trial...

  12. Randomized, Controlled Trial of a Comprehensive Program for Young Students with Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Helen E; Falco, Ruth A; Hanita, Makoto

    2016-02-01

    This randomized, controlled trial, comparing the Comprehensive Autism Program (CAP) and business as usual programs, studied outcomes for 3-5 year old students with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Participants included 84 teachers and 302 students with ASD and their parents. CAP utilized specialized curricula and training components to implement specific evidence-based practices both at school and home. A comprehensive set of outcome areas was studied. Hierarchical linear modeling was used to estimate the treatment impact. CAP had small positive impacts on the students' receptive language (effect size of .13) and on their social skills as rated by teachers (effect size of .19). Treatment effects were moderated by severity of ASD. PMID:26438637

  13. Differential Diagnosis of Autism Spectrum Disorder and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder by Means of Inhibitory Control and "Theory of Mind"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buhler, Eva; Bachmann, Christian; Goyert, Hannah; Heinzel-Gutenbrunner, Monika; Kamp-Becker, Inge

    2011-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and attention deficit hyperactivity disorders (ADHD) are both associated with deficits in executive control and with problems in social contexts. This study analyses the variables inhibitory control and theory of mind (ToM), including a developmental aspect in the case of the latter, to differentiate between the…

  14. Analysis of Rare, Exonic Variation amongst Subjects with Autism Spectrum Disorders and Population Controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Li; Sabo, Aniko; Neale, Benjamin M.; Nagaswamy, Uma; Stevens, Christine; Lim, Elaine; Bodea, Corneliu A.; Muzny, Donna; Reid, Jeffrey G.; Banks, Eric; Coon, Hillary; DePristo, Mark; Dinh, Huyen; Fennel, Tim; Flannick, Jason; Gabriel, Stacey; Garimella, Kiran; Gross, Shannon; Hawes, Alicia; Lewis, Lora; Makarov, Vladimir; Maguire, Jared; Newsham, Irene; Poplin, Ryan; Ripke, Stephan; Shakir, Khalid; Samocha, Kaitlin E.; Wu, Yuanqing; Boerwinkle, Eric; Buxbaum, Joseph D.; Cook, Edwin H.; Devlin, Bernie; Schellenberg, Gerard D.; Sutcliffe, James S.; Daly, Mark J.; Gibbs, Richard A.; Roeder, Kathryn

    2013-01-01

    We report on results from whole-exome sequencing (WES) of 1,039 subjects diagnosed with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and 870 controls selected from the NIMH repository to be of similar ancestry to cases. The WES data came from two centers using different methods to produce sequence and to call variants from it. Therefore, an initial goal was to ensure the distribution of rare variation was similar for data from different centers. This proved straightforward by filtering called variants by fraction of missing data, read depth, and balance of alternative to reference reads. Results were evaluated using seven samples sequenced at both centers and by results from the association study. Next we addressed how the data and/or results from the centers should be combined. Gene-based analyses of association was an obvious choice, but should statistics for association be combined across centers (meta-analysis) or should data be combined and then analyzed (mega-analysis)? Because of the nature of many gene-based tests, we showed by theory and simulations that mega-analysis has better power than meta-analysis. Finally, before analyzing the data for association, we explored the impact of population structure on rare variant analysis in these data. Like other recent studies, we found evidence that population structure can confound case-control studies by the clustering of rare variants in ancestry space; yet, unlike some recent studies, for these data we found that principal component-based analyses were sufficient to control for ancestry and produce test statistics with appropriate distributions. After using a variety of gene-based tests and both meta- and mega-analysis, we found no new risk genes for ASD in this sample. Our results suggest that standard gene-based tests will require much larger samples of cases and controls before being effective for gene discovery, even for a disorder like ASD. PMID:23593035

  15. Analysis of rare, exonic variation amongst subjects with autism spectrum disorders and population controls.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Liu

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available We report on results from whole-exome sequencing (WES of 1,039 subjects diagnosed with autism spectrum disorders (ASD and 870 controls selected from the NIMH repository to be of similar ancestry to cases. The WES data came from two centers using different methods to produce sequence and to call variants from it. Therefore, an initial goal was to ensure the distribution of rare variation was similar for data from different centers. This proved straightforward by filtering called variants by fraction of missing data, read depth, and balance of alternative to reference reads. Results were evaluated using seven samples sequenced at both centers and by results from the association study. Next we addressed how the data and/or results from the centers should be combined. Gene-based analyses of association was an obvious choice, but should statistics for association be combined across centers (meta-analysis or should data be combined and then analyzed (mega-analysis? Because of the nature of many gene-based tests, we showed by theory and simulations that mega-analysis has better power than meta-analysis. Finally, before analyzing the data for association, we explored the impact of population structure on rare variant analysis in these data. Like other recent studies, we found evidence that population structure can confound case-control studies by the clustering of rare variants in ancestry space; yet, unlike some recent studies, for these data we found that principal component-based analyses were sufficient to control for ancestry and produce test statistics with appropriate distributions. After using a variety of gene-based tests and both meta- and mega-analysis, we found no new risk genes for ASD in this sample. Our results suggest that standard gene-based tests will require much larger samples of cases and controls before being effective for gene discovery, even for a disorder like ASD.

  16. Control and Detection of Discrete Spectral Amplitudes in Nonlinear Fourier Spectrum

    CERN Document Server

    Aref, Vahid

    2016-01-01

    Nonlinear Fourier division Multiplexing (NFDM) can be realized from modulating the discrete nonlinear spectrum of an $N$-solitary waveform. To generate an $N$-solitary waveform from desired discrete spectrum (eigenvalue and discrete spectral amplitudes), we use the Darboux Transform. We explain how to the norming factors must be set in order to have the desired discrete spectrum. To derive these norming factors, we study the evolution of nonlinear spectrum by adding a new eigenvalue and its spectral amplitude. We further simplify the Darboux transform algorithm. We propose a novel algorithm (to the best of our knowledge) to numerically compute the nonlinear Fourier Transform (NFT) of a given pulse. The NFT algorithm, called forward-backward method, is based on splitting the signal into two parts and computing the nonlinear spectrum of each part from boundary ($\\pm\\infty$) inward. The nonlinear spectrum (discrete and continuous) derived from efficiently combining both parts has a promising numerical precision....

  17. Oral Health among Preschool Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Case-Control Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Rennan Y; Yiu, Cynthia K. Y.; King, Nigel M.; Wong, Virginia C. N.; McGrath, Colman P. J.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: To assess and compare the oral health status of preschool children with and without autism spectrum disorders. Methods: A random sample of 347 preschool children with autism spectrum disorder was recruited from 19 Special Child Care Centres in Hong Kong. An age- and gender-matched sample was recruited from mainstream preschools as the control…

  18. Social Skills Training for Young Adults with High-Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Randomized Controlled Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gantman, Alexander; Kapp, Steven K.; Orenski, Kaely; Laugeson, Elizabeth A.

    2012-01-01

    Despite the psychosocial difficulties common among young adults with autism spectrum disorders (ASD), little to no evidence-based social skills interventions exist for this population. Using a randomized controlled trial (RCT) design, the current study tested the effectiveness of an evidence-based, caregiver-assisted social skills intervention…

  19. Comparison of Conditioning Impairments in Children with Down Syndrome, Autistic Spectrum Disorders and Mental Age-Matched Controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, P.; Staytom, L.; Stott, S.; Truzoli, R.

    2011-01-01

    Background: This study investigated the relative ease of learning across four tasks suggested by an adaptation of Thomas's hierarchy of learning in children with Down syndrome, autism spectrum disorders and mental age-matched controls. Methods: Learning trials were carried out to investigate observational learning, instrumental learning, reversal…

  20. Make Task Constraints Work for You: Teaching Object-Control Skills to Students with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombo-Dougovito, Andrew M.; Block, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Teaching object-control skills to students with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) can be difficult due to the unique challenges posed by the individual; however, it is necessary for the students' future success and ability to perform physical activities. Utilizing concepts from dynamic systems theory and Newell's constraint approach, object-control…

  1. The 2010 Broad Prize

    Science.gov (United States)

    Education Digest: Essential Readings Condensed for Quick Review, 2011

    2011-01-01

    A new data analysis, based on data collected as part of The Broad Prize process, provides insights into which large urban school districts in the United States are doing the best job of educating traditionally disadvantaged groups: African-American, Hispanics, and low-income students. Since 2002, The Eli and Edythe Broad Foundation has awarded The…

  2. Investigating the Effects of the Common Control Channel Challenge in Multichannel Cognitive Networks With Hypothetical Spectrum Hole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mthulisi Velempini

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Multichannel MAC protocols have become a design choice of wireless access networks as they increase theachievable throughput. However, the implementationof a common control channel has been a challenge.The common control channel challenge has not been investigated in opportunistic networks where theavailability of medium is temporary and unpredictable. The uncertainty of the availability of the channelcoupled with the common control channel challenge makes this area an interesting research topic.Unfortunately, this challenge requires further investigation in Cognitive Radio Ad Hoc Networks(CRAHN, a promising next generation technology. The challenge makes an interesting study in CRAHNgiven the opportunistic access and use of channels.Given a hypothetical spectrum hole of any size coupledwith the implementation of a control channel in a multi-channel environment, how much of good put canberealized and be effectively utilized for data transmission. We investigate the common control channelchallenge in CRAHN through network simulations. Theopportunistic nature of CRAHNs in the presence ofthe common control channel challenge is investigated. The simulation results show that the combinationofthe control channel challenge and the size of the spectrum hole degrade gracefully the network.Furthermore, the size of the spectrum hole has a bearing on good put. The results show that a big holeimproves performance. Unfortunately, the opportunistic attribute of CRAHNs does not guarantee desirablespectrum holes.

  3. Sexuality and Gender Role in Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Case Control Study

    OpenAIRE

    Bejerot, Susanne; Eriksson, Jonna M.

    2014-01-01

    The ‘extreme male brain theory of autism’ describes an extreme male pattern of cognitive traits defined as strong systemising abilities paired with empathising weaknesses in autism spectrum disorder. However, beyond these cognitive traits, clinical observations have suggested an ambiguous gender-typed pattern regarding several sexually dimorphic traits. The aim of the present study was to investigate if patterns of non-cognitive sexually dimorphic traits differed between the autism spectrum d...

  4. Congestion control and spectrum sharing in multi-operator multi-hop wireless network

    OpenAIRE

    Kovacevic, I.

    2015-01-01

    Emergence of dramatic increase in applications provided by smart devices, such as smart phones, is no longer supported by traditional telecommunications systems such as wireless cellular systems. Arising challenges are ever increasing traffic demand, shortage of available spectrum and congestion over wireless systems. On the other hand, network resources such as spectrum and computational capability, are severely under-utilized. With regard to efficient use the available resources, promising ...

  5. Broad resonances and beta-decay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riisager, K.; Fynbo, H. O. U.; Hyldegaard, S.;

    2015-01-01

    Beta-decay into broad resonances gives a distorted lineshape in the observed energy spectrum. Part of the distortion arises from the phase space factor, but we show that the beta-decay matrix element may also contribute. Based on a schematic model for p-wave continuum neutron states it is argued...

  6. Development and Preclinical Studies of Broad-spectrum Anti-HIV Agent (3′R,4′R)-3-Cyanomethyl-4-methyl-3′,4′-di-O-(S)-camphanoyl-(+)-cis-khellactone (3-Cyanomethyl-4-methyl-DCK)

    OpenAIRE

    Xie, Lan; Guo, Huan-Fang; LU, Hong; Zhuang, Xiao-Mei; Zhang, An-Ming; Wu, Gang; Ruan, Jin-xiu; Zhou, Ting; Yu, Donglei; Qian, Keduo; Lee, Kuo-Hsiung; Jiang, Shibo

    2008-01-01

    In prior investigation, we discovered that (3'R,4'R)-3-cyanomethyl-4-methyl-3',4'-di-O-(S)-camphanoyl-(+)-cis-khellactone (4, 3-cyanomethyl-4-methyl-DCK) showed promising anti-HIV activity. In these current studies, we developed and optimized successfully a practical ten-step synthesis for scale-up preparation to increase the overall yield of 4 from 7.8% to 32%. Furthermore, compound 4 exhibited broad-spectrum anti-HIV activity against wild-type and drug-resistant viral infection of CD4+ T ce...

  7. A Randomized Controlled Study of Parent-assisted Children’s Friendship Training with Children having Autism Spectrum Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Frankel, Fred; Myatt, Robert; Sugar, Catherine; Whitham, Cynthia; Gorospe, Clarissa M.; Laugeson, Elizabeth

    2010-01-01

    This study evaluated Children’s Friendship Training (CFT), a manualized parent-assisted intervention to improve social skills among second to fifth grade children with autism spectrum disorders. Comparison was made with a delayed treatment control group (DTC). Targeted skills included conversational skills, peer entry skills, developing friendship networks, good sportsmanship, good host behavior during play dates, and handling teasing. At post-testing, the CFT group was superior to the DTC gr...

  8. Mindfulness-Based Therapy in Adults with an Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spek, Annelies A.; van Ham, Nadia C.; Nyklicek, Ivan

    2013-01-01

    Research shows that depression and anxiety disorders are the most common psychiatric concern in autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Mindfulness-based therapy (MBT) has been found effective in reducing anxiety and depression symptoms, however research in autism is limited. Therefore, we examined the effects of a modified MBT protocol (MBT-AS) in…

  9. Interview Skills for Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Lindee; Leatzow, Allison; Clark, Sarah; Siller, Michael

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this pilot study was to evaluate the efficacy of the interview skills curriculum (ISC), a manualized 12-week group-delivered intervention for young adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). This intervention aims to increase social-pragmatic skills essential to a successful job interview. Twenty-eight adults (18-36 years) were…

  10. Is inhibitory control a ‘no-go’ in adolescents with autism spectrum disorder?

    OpenAIRE

    Vara, Anji S; Elizabeth W Pang; Doyle-Thomas, Krissy AR; Vidal, Julie; Margot J. Taylor; Anagnostou, Evdokia

    2014-01-01

    Background Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) refers to a range of neurodevelopmental conditions characterized by social communication deficits, repetitive behaviours, and restrictive interests. Impaired inhibition has been suggested to exacerbate the core symptoms of ASD. This is particularly critical during adolescence when social skills are maturing to adult levels. Using magnetoencephalography (MEG), we identified the location and timing pattern of neural activity associated with inhibition i...

  11. Airborne pollen spectrum of Dnіpropetrovsk city as a basis of hay fever control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Rodinkova

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Hay fever is important allergenic complain with number of patients rising year by year. Ukraine holds the leading positions in Europe in accordance with pollinosis morbidity. Therefore, it’s important to determine regional pollen spectrum for all five climatic and geographical zones of the country having certain variety of plants’ allergens. There are just a few cities with a constant pollen monitoring carried out in Ukraine. They are Vinnytsia, Kyiv, Odessa and Lviv. Palynological range of other Ukrainian cities remains unknown or poorly studied. Dnipropetrovsk – Ukrainian city with location in the Central part of the country in the Steppe zone – isn’t exception as well. Thus, the aim of our study was to determine the pattern of airborne pollen distribution and pollen calendar creation for the city of Dnipropetrovsk. Pollen count obtained at Vinnytsia National Pirogov Memorial Medical University (VNMU by Aerobiology Research Group. Study was held in 2010 from the 17th of March till the 20th of October on daily basis employed volumetric methods using the Burkard trap. It stands on the roof of the Dnipropetrovsk Municipal hospital at 20 meters of a relative height above ground. The air samples were sent by currier mail on weekly basis from Dnipropetrovsk to Vinnytsia for the research term. 51 pollen types were determined during the study period. The aeropalinological research was done for the Dnipropetrovsk at first. Study was conducted in association with the European Aeroallergen Network (EAN. The EAN tools and the software package “Statistica 5.5” were used for data statistical analysis. The study showed prevalence of the airborne herbal pollen types in Dnipropetrovsk. The “weeds : trees” pollen ratio was «88 : 12». Most abundant pollen rain (59% of total annual pollen count was produced by Ambrosia. The second position with 6% was held by Amaranthus / Chenopodiaceae pollen group and Urtica dioica pollen. Artemisia and

  12. Screening and performance test of efficient broad - spectrum composite sunscreen agent from traditional Chinese herbal medicines%中草药高效广谱复合防晒组分的筛选和性能测试

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    俞晨秀; 潘武

    2011-01-01

    通过对201种中草药在防晒光区(290~400 nm)紫外吸收能力的研究,选取紫外吸收强、吸收波段互补、调配着色浅的苦丁茶和槐米两种生药萃取液复配制得复合防晒剂.结果表明:复合防晒剂在水剂中的用量≤0.3 g/L,乳剂中的用量≤0.7 g/L时的使用色度合适,累积日照20h下稳定,50℃下热稳定,pH =4~7之间稳定,室内存放1 a稳定,具有广谱、高效的防晒效果.%Through UV (with spectrum of 290 ~400 nm) absorption capacity study of 201 kinds of traditional Chinese herbal medicine, Ilex kudingcha extract and Sophora japonica extract were selected to formulate a composite sunscreen agent based upon their strong UV absorption capacity, complementary absorption bands and light coloration. Experiment results showed that the composite sunscreen agent has the appropriate color when the mass concentration is below 0. 3 g/L in aqueous formulation and below 0. 7 g/L in emulsion formulation. The sunscreen agent is stable under cumulative sunshine of 20 h, temperature of 50 t ,and pH of 4 ~ 7. Under ambient condition, it can be stable for one year.

  13. A Comprehensive Literature Review of Randomized Controlled Trials for Parents of Young Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dababnah, Sarah; Parish, Susan L

    2016-01-01

    Parents raising young children with autism spectrum disorder are particularly vulnerable to stress and poor coping mechanisms. The current article describes a comprehensive review of randomized controlled trials which included parents of preschool-age children with autism spectrum disorder. Seven interventions met the review criteria. The studies were strengthened by the use of fidelity measures and developmentally appropriate interventions. However, while all of the studies collected parent measures, none reported significant post-test improvements in parent mental health or other outcomes. Furthermore, numerous issues, such as unclear randomization strategies, small sample sizes, and poor external validity, further limited the ability to draw significant conclusions regarding the promise of the interventions. More research is needed to develop and rigorously test family-centered interventions aimed at improving both child and parent outcomes. PMID:26177069

  14. Controling the single-diamond nitrogen-vacancy color center photoluminescence spectrum with a Fabry-Perot microcavity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present here both theoretical and experimental results on the fluorescence of single defect centers in diamond nanocrystals embedded in a planar dielectric microcavity. From a theoretical point of view, we show that the overall fluorescence collection efficiency using a moderate numerical aperture microscope objective can be enhanced by using a low-quality-factor microcavity. This could be used in particular for low-temperature applications, where the numerical aperture of collection microscope objectives is limited due to the experimental constraints. We experimentally investigate the control of the fluorescence spectrum of the emitted light from a single center. We show the simultaneous narrowing of the room temperature broadband emission spectrum and the increase in the fluorescence spectral density.

  15. Controling the single-diamond nitrogen-vacancy color center photoluminescence spectrum with a Fabry-Perot microcavity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dumeige, Yannick [Universite Europeenne de Bretagne, Laboratoire Foton, CNRS UMR 6082 Foton, Enssat, 6 rue de Kerampont, 22305 Lannion Cedex (France); Alleaume, Romain [Institut Telecom/Telecom ParisTech, Laboratoire Traitement et Communication de l' Information, CNRS UMR 5141, 46 rue Barrault, 75634 Paris Cedex (France); Grangier, Philippe [Laboratoire Charles Fabry de l' Institut d' Optique, CNRS UMR 8501, Institut d' Optique Graduate School, Campus Polytechnique-RD 128, 2 avenue Augustin Fresnel 91127 Palaiseau Cedex (France); Treussart, Francois; Roch, Jean-Francois, E-mail: yannick.dumeige@univ-rennes1.fr [Laboratoire de Photonique Quantique et Moleculaire, CNRS UMR 8537, Ecole Normale Superieure de Cachan, 61 avenue du President Wilson, 94235 Cachan Cedex (France)

    2011-02-15

    We present here both theoretical and experimental results on the fluorescence of single defect centers in diamond nanocrystals embedded in a planar dielectric microcavity. From a theoretical point of view, we show that the overall fluorescence collection efficiency using a moderate numerical aperture microscope objective can be enhanced by using a low-quality-factor microcavity. This could be used in particular for low-temperature applications, where the numerical aperture of collection microscope objectives is limited due to the experimental constraints. We experimentally investigate the control of the fluorescence spectrum of the emitted light from a single center. We show the simultaneous narrowing of the room temperature broadband emission spectrum and the increase in the fluorescence spectral density.

  16. Prefrontal activation during inhibitory control measured by near-infrared spectroscopy for differentiating between autism spectrum disorders and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayaka Ishii-Takahashi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The differential diagnosis of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD based solely on symptomatic and behavioral assessments can be difficult, even for experts. Thus, the development of a neuroimaging marker that differentiates ASDs from ADHD would be an important contribution to this field. We assessed the differences in prefrontal activation between adults with ASDs and ADHD using an entirely non-invasive and portable neuroimaging tool, near-infrared spectroscopy. This study included 21 drug-naïve adults with ASDs, 19 drug-naïve adults with ADHD, and 21 healthy subjects matched for age, sex, and IQ. Oxygenated hemoglobin concentration changes in the prefrontal cortex were assessed during a stop signal task and a verbal fluency task. During the stop signal task, compared to the control group, the ASDs group exhibited lower activation in a broad prefrontal area, whereas the ADHD group showed underactivation of the right premotor area, right presupplementary motor area, and bilateral dorsolateral prefrontal cortices. Significant differences were observed in the left ventrolateral prefrontal cortex between the ASDs and ADHD groups during the stop signal task. The leave-one-out cross-validation method using mean oxygenated hemoglobin changes yielded a classification accuracy of 81.4% during inhibitory control. These results were task specific, as the brain activation pattern observed during the verbal fluency task did not differentiate the ASDs and ADHD groups significantly. This study therefore provides evidence of a difference in left ventrolateral prefrontal activation during inhibitory control between adults with ASDs and ADHD. Thus, near-infrared spectroscopy may be useful as an auxiliary tool for the differential diagnosis of such developmental disorders.

  17. Prefrontal activation during inhibitory control measured by near-infrared spectroscopy for differentiating between autism spectrum disorders and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishii-Takahashi, Ayaka; Takizawa, Ryu; Nishimura, Yukika; Kawakubo, Yuki; Kuwabara, Hitoshi; Matsubayashi, Junko; Hamada, Kasumi; Okuhata, Shiho; Yahata, Noriaki; Igarashi, Takashi; Kawasaki, Shingo; Yamasue, Hidenori; Kato, Nobumasa; Kasai, Kiyoto; Kano, Yukiko

    2014-01-01

    The differential diagnosis of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) based solely on symptomatic and behavioral assessments can be difficult, even for experts. Thus, the development of a neuroimaging marker that differentiates ASDs from ADHD would be an important contribution to this field. We assessed the differences in prefrontal activation between adults with ASDs and ADHD using an entirely non-invasive and portable neuroimaging tool, near-infrared spectroscopy. This study included 21 drug-naïve adults with ASDs, 19 drug-naïve adults with ADHD, and 21 healthy subjects matched for age, sex, and IQ. Oxygenated hemoglobin concentration changes in the prefrontal cortex were assessed during a stop signal task and a verbal fluency task. During the stop signal task, compared to the control group, the ASDs group exhibited lower activation in a broad prefrontal area, whereas the ADHD group showed underactivation of the right premotor area, right presupplementary motor area, and bilateral dorsolateral prefrontal cortices. Significant differences were observed in the left ventrolateral prefrontal cortex between the ASDs and ADHD groups during the stop signal task. The leave-one-out cross-validation method using mean oxygenated hemoglobin changes yielded a classification accuracy of 81.4% during inhibitory control. These results were task specific, as the brain activation pattern observed during the verbal fluency task did not differentiate the ASDs and ADHD groups significantly. This study therefore provides evidence of a difference in left ventrolateral prefrontal activation during inhibitory control between adults with ASDs and ADHD. Thus, near-infrared spectroscopy may be useful as an auxiliary tool for the differential diagnosis of such developmental disorders. PMID:24298446

  18. Sgt1, but not Rar1, is essential for the RB-mediated broad-spectrum resistance to potato late blight

    OpenAIRE

    Wielgus Susan M; Neumann Pavel; Kramer Lara C; Raasch John A; Bhaskar Pudota B; Austin-Phillips Sandra; Jiang Jiming

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Late blight is the most serious potato disease world-wide. The most effective and environmentally sound way for controlling late blight is to incorporate natural resistance into potato cultivars. Several late blight resistance genes have been cloned recently. However, there is almost no information available about the resistance pathways mediated by any of those genes. Results We previously cloned a late blight resistance gene, RB, from a diploid wild potato species Solanu...

  19. Randomised controlled trial of improvisational music therapy's effectiveness for children with autism spectrum disorders (TIME-A: study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geretsegger Monika

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous research has suggested that music therapy may facilitate skills in areas typically affected by autism spectrum disorders such as social interaction and communication. However, generalisability of previous findings has been restricted, as studies were limited in either methodological accuracy or the clinical relevance of their approach. The aim of this study is to determine effects of improvisational music therapy on social communication skills of children with autism spectrum disorders. An additional aim of the study is to examine if variation in dose of treatment (i.e., number of music therapy sessions per week affects outcome of therapy, and to determine cost-effectiveness. Methods/Design Children aged between 4;0 and 6;11 years who are diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder will be randomly assigned to one of three conditions. Parents of all participants will receive three sessions of parent counselling (at 0, 2, and 5 months. In addition, children randomised to the two intervention groups will be offered individual, improvisational music therapy over a period of five months, either one session (low-intensity or three sessions (high-intensity per week. Generalised effects of music therapy will be measured using standardised scales completed by blinded assessors (Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule, ADOS and parents (Social Responsiveness Scale, SRS before and 2, 5, and 12 months after randomisation. Cost effectiveness will be calculated as man years. A group sequential design with first interim look at N = 235 will ensure both power and efficiency. Discussion Responding to the need for more rigorously designed trials examining the effectiveness of music therapy in autism spectrum disorders, this pragmatic trial sets out to generate findings that will be well generalisable to clinical practice. Addressing the issue of dose variation, this study's results will also provide information on the relevance of session

  20. Postural Control Deficits in Autism Spectrum Disorder: The Role of Sensory Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doumas, Michail; McKenna, Roisin; Murphy, Blain

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the nature of sensory integration deficits in postural control of young adults with ASD. Postural control was assessed in a fixed environment, and in three environments in which sensory information about body sway from visual, proprioceptive or both channels was inaccurate. Furthermore, two levels of inaccurate information were…

  1. Fractional high-harmonic combs by attosecond-precision split-spectrum pulse control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laux Martin

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Few-cycle laser fields enable pulse-shaping control of high-order harmonic generation by time delaying variable broadband spectral sections. We report the experimental generation of fractional (noninteger high-harmonic combs by the controlled interference of two attosecond pulse trains. Additionally the energy of the high harmonics is strongly tuned with the relative time delay. We quantify the tuning to directly result from the controlled variation of the instantaneous laser frequency at the shaped driver pulse intensity maximum.

  2. Large-scale climatic and geophysical controls on the leaf economics spectrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asner, Gregory P; Knapp, David E; Anderson, Christopher B; Martin, Roberta E; Vaughn, Nicholas

    2016-07-12

    Leaf economics spectrum (LES) theory suggests a universal trade-off between resource acquisition and storage strategies in plants, expressed in relationships between foliar nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P), leaf mass per area (LMA), and photosynthesis. However, how environmental conditions mediate LES trait interrelationships, particularly at large biospheric scales, remains unknown because of a lack of spatially explicit data, which ultimately limits our understanding of ecosystem processes, such as primary productivity and biogeochemical cycles. We used airborne imaging spectroscopy and geospatial modeling to generate, to our knowledge, the first biospheric maps of LES traits, here centered on 76 million ha of Andean and Amazonian forest, to assess climatic and geophysical determinants of LES traits and their interrelationships. Elevation and substrate were codominant drivers of leaf trait distributions. Multiple additional climatic and geophysical factors were secondary determinants of plant traits. Anticorrelations between N and LMA followed general LES theory, but topo-edaphic conditions strongly mediated and, at times, eliminated this classic relationship. We found no evidence for simple P-LMA or N-P trade-offs in forest canopies; rather, we mapped a continuum of N-P-LMA interactions that are sensitive to elevation and temperature. Our results reveal nested climatic and geophysical filtering of LES traits and their interrelationships, with important implications for predictions of forest productivity and acclimation to rapid climate change. PMID:27354534

  3. Impact of innate immunity in a subset of children with autism spectrum disorders: a case control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cushing-Ruby Agnes

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Among patients with autism spectrum disorders (ASD evaluated in our clinic, there appears to be a subset that can be clinically distinguished from other ASD children because of frequent infections (usually viral accompanied by worsening behavioural symptoms and/or loss/decrease in acquired skills. This study assessed whether these clinical features of this ASD subset are associated with atopy, asthma, food allergy (FA, primary immunodeficiency (PID, or innate immune responses important in viral infections. Methods This study included the ASD children described above (ASD test, N = 26 and the following controls: ASD controls (N = 107, non-ASD controls with FA (N = 24, non-ASD controls with chronic rhinosinusitis/recurrent otitis media (CRS/ROM; N = 38, and normal controls (N = 43. We assessed prevalence of atopy, asthma, FA, CRS/ROM, and PID. Innate immune responses were assessed by measuring production of proinflammatory and counter-regulatory cytokines by peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs in response to agonists of Toll-like receptors (TLRs, with or without pre-treatment of lipopolysaccharide (LPS, a TLR4 agonist. Results Non-IgE mediated FA was equally prevalent in both ASD test and ASD control groups, occurring at higher frequency than in the non-ASD controls. Allergic rhinitis, atopic/non-atopic asthma, and atopic dermatitis were equally prevalent among the study groups except for the CRS/ROM group in which non-atopic asthma was more prevalent (52.6%. CRS/ROM and specific polysaccharide antibody deficiency (SPAD were more prevalent in the ASD test group than in the ASD control, FA, and normal control groups: 23.1% vs. Conclusion Clinical features of the ASD test group were not associated with atopy, asthma, FA, or PID in our study but may be associated with altered TLR responses mediating neuro-immune interactions.

  4. Power spectrum scale invariance as a neural marker of cocaine misuse and altered cognitive control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime S. Ide

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: These findings suggest disrupted connectivity dynamics in the fronto-parietal areas in association with post-signal behavioral adjustment in cocaine addicts. These new findings support PSSI as a neural marker of impaired cognitive control in cocaine addiction.

  5. Broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity of human intestinal defensin 5.

    OpenAIRE

    Porter, E M; van Dam, E; Valore, E V; Ganz, T

    1997-01-01

    Defensins are antibiotic peptides expressed in human and animal myeloid and epithelial cells. Due to the limited availability of natural peptides, the properties of human epithelial defensins have not been studied. We assayed the microbicidal activity of recombinant human intestinal defensin 5 (rHD-5) in the presence of salt (O to 150 mM NaCl) with varied pH (pH 5.5 to pH 8.5) and trypsin (25 and 250 microg/ml). rHD-5 exhibits microbicidal activity against Listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia ...

  6. Broad Spectrum Photoelectrochemical Diodes for Solar Hydrogen Generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grimes, Craig A.

    2014-11-26

    Under program auspices we have investigated material chemistries suitable for the solar generation of hydrogen by water photoelectrolysis. We have built upon, and extended, our knowledge base on the synthesis and application of TiO2 nanotube arrays, a material architecture that appears ideal for water photoelectrolysis. To date we have optimized, refined, and greatly extended synthesis techniques suitable for achieving highly ordered TiO2 nanotube arrays of given length, wall thickness, pore diameter, and tube-to-tube spacing for use in water photoelectrolysis. We have built upon this knowledge based to achieve visible light responsive, photocorrosion stable n-type and p-type ternary oxide nanotube arrays for use in photoelectrochemical diodes.

  7. Studies on broad spectrum corrosion resistant oxide coatings

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Someswar Datta

    2001-12-01

    The corrosion resistant oxide coatings, developed and applied by the conventional vitreous enamelling techniques, showed superior resistance to a range of mineral acids at various strengths and temperatures, alkaline solutions, boiling water and chrome plating solutions. These coatings possess considerable abrasion and impact resistance as well as high thermal shock resistance. The properties of the coating system have been studied in detail and found to be strongly dependent on composition and processing parameters. These coatings have been characterized by X-ray diffraction analysis and SEM studies. Some of the coating materials have been found to be biocompatible.

  8. Identification of Ebsulfur Analogues with Broad-Spectrum Antifungal Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngo, Huy X; Shrestha, Sanjib K; Garneau-Tsodikova, Sylvie

    2016-07-19

    Invasive fungal infections are on the rise due to an increased population of critically ill patients as a result of HIV infections, chemotherapies, and organ transplantations. Current antifungal drugs are helpful, but are insufficient in addressing the problem of drug-resistant fungal infections. Thus, there is a growing need for novel antimycotics that are safe and effective. The ebselen scaffold has been evaluated in clinical trials and has been shown to be safe in humans. This makes ebselen an attractive scaffold for facile translation from bench to bedside. We recently reported a library of ebselen-inspired ebsulfur analogues with antibacterial properties, but their antifungal activity has not been characterized. In this study, we repurposed ebselen, ebsulfur, and 32 additional ebsulfur analogues as antifungal agents by evaluating their antifungal activity against a panel of 13 clinically relevant fungal strains. The effect of induction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by three of these compounds was evaluated. Their hemolytic and cytotoxicity activities were also determined using mouse erythrocytes and mammalian cells. The MIC values of these compounds were found to be in the range of 0.02-12.5 μg mL(-1) against the fungal strains tested. Notably, yeast cells treated with our compounds showed an accumulation of ROS, which may further contribute to the growth-inhibitory effect against fungi. This study provides new lead compounds for the development of antimycotic agents. PMID:27334363

  9. Broad-Spectrum Behavior Therapy with Children: A Case Presentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keat, Donald B.

    1972-01-01

    The purpose of the case study was to report how a therapist can adapt a variety of behavioral techniques (both classical and operant conditioning) to meet the needs of emotionally disturbed elementary school aged children in one-to-one relationships. (Atuhor)

  10. Broad-spectrum biofilm inhibition by a secreted bacterial polysaccharide

    OpenAIRE

    Valle, Jaione; Da Re, Sandra; Henry, Nelly; Fontaine, Thierry; Balestrino, Damien; Latour-Lambert, Patricia; Ghigo, Jean-Marc

    2006-01-01

    The development of surface-attached biofilm bacterial communities is considered an important source of nosocomial infections. Recently, bacterial interference via signaling molecules and surface active compounds was shown to antagonize biofilm formation, suggesting that nonantibiotic molecules produced during competitive interactions between bacteria could be used for biofilm reduction. Hence, a better understanding of commensal/pathogen interactions within bacterial community could lead to a...

  11. Stress, anxiety, and depression among parents of children with autism spectrum disorder in Oman: a case–control study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Farsi, Omar A; Al-Farsi, Yahya M; Al-Sharbati, Marwan M; Al-Adawi, Samir

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies carried out in Euro-American populations have unequivocally indicated that psychological disorders of the CASD (caregivers of children with autism spectrum disorder) are marked with high levels of stress, anxiety, and depression. This finding has been attributed to the reaction of having to care for a child with neurodevelopmental disorders. While there have been reports on autism spectrum disorder in Arab/Islamic countries such as Oman, there is no study from this region, to our knowledge, reporting the performance of indices of stress, anxiety, and depression among CASD. This study aimed to examine whether there is variation in the performance of indices of stress, depression, and anxiety explored via Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale 21 among CASD, caregivers of children with intellectual disabilities, and caregivers of typically developing children. All indices of stress, depression, and anxiety were higher in CASD compared to other caregivers in the control group. This study corroborates with other studies carried out in other populations that caring for children impacts the mental health status of caregivers. Therefore, there are strong grounds to contemplate the mechanism to help such a vulnerable group of family caregivers. PMID:27536117

  12. Stress, anxiety, and depression among parents of children with autism spectrum disorder in Oman: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Farsi, Omar A; Al-Farsi, Yahya M; Al-Sharbati, Marwan M; Al-Adawi, Samir

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies carried out in Euro-American populations have unequivocally indicated that psychological disorders of the CASD (caregivers of children with autism spectrum disorder) are marked with high levels of stress, anxiety, and depression. This finding has been attributed to the reaction of having to care for a child with neurodevelopmental disorders. While there have been reports on autism spectrum disorder in Arab/Islamic countries such as Oman, there is no study from this region, to our knowledge, reporting the performance of indices of stress, anxiety, and depression among CASD. This study aimed to examine whether there is variation in the performance of indices of stress, depression, and anxiety explored via Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale 21 among CASD, caregivers of children with intellectual disabilities, and caregivers of typically developing children. All indices of stress, depression, and anxiety were higher in CASD compared to other caregivers in the control group. This study corroborates with other studies carried out in other populations that caring for children impacts the mental health status of caregivers. Therefore, there are strong grounds to contemplate the mechanism to help such a vulnerable group of family caregivers. PMID:27536117

  13. Moving the Frontier of Quantum Control into the Soft X-Ray Spectrum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Aquila

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The femtosecond nature of X-ray free electron laser (FEL pulses opens up exciting research possibilities in time-resolved studies including femtosecond photoemission and diffraction. The recent developments of seeding X-ray FELs extend their capabilities by creating stable, temporally coherent, and repeatable pulses. This in turn opens the possibility of spectral engineering soft X-ray pulses to use as a probe for the control of quantum dynamics. We propose a method for extending coherent control pulse-shaping techniques to the soft X-ray spectral range by using a reflective geometry 4f pulse shaper. This method is based on recent developments in asymmetrically cut multilayer optic technology and piezoelectric substrates.

  14. Response inhibition and interference control in obsessive-compulsive spectrum disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura S van Velzen

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Over the past twenty years, motor response inhibition and interference control have received considerable scientific effort and attention, due to their important role in behavior and the development of neuropsychiatric disorders. Results of neuroimaging studies indicate that motor response inhibition and interference control are dependent on cortical-striatal-thalamic-cortical (CSTC circuits. Structural and functional abnormalities within the CSTC circuits have been reported for many neuropsychiatric disorders, including obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD and related disorders, such as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD, Tourette’s syndrome (TS and trichotillomania. These disorders also share impairments in motor response inhibition and interference control, which may underlie some of their behavioral and cognitive symptoms. Results of task-related neuroimaging studies on inhibitory functions in these disorders show that impaired task performance is related to altered recruitment of the CSTC circuits. Previous research has shown that inhibitory performance is dependent upon dopamine, noradrenaline and serotonin signaling, neurotransmitters that have been implicated in the pathophysiology of these disorders. In this review we discuss the common and disorder-specific pathophysiological mechanisms of inhibition-related dysfunction in OCD and related disorders.

  15. Social Stories in mainstream schools for children with autism spectrum disorder: a feasibility randomised controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, David; Wright, Barry; Allgar, Victoria; Adamson, Joy; Williams, Christine; Ainsworth, Hannah; Cook, Liz; Varley, Danielle; Hackney, Lisa; Dempster, Paul; Ali, Shehzad; Trepel, Dominic; Collingridge Moore, Danielle; Littlewood, Elizabeth; McMillan, Dean

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To assess the feasibility of recruitment, retention, outcome measures and intervention training/delivery among teachers, parents and children. To calculate a sample size estimation for full trial. Design A single-centre, unblinded, cluster feasibility randomised controlled trial examining Social Stories delivered within a school environment compared with an attentional control. Setting 37 primary schools in York, UK. Participants 50 participants were recruited and a cluster randomisation approach by school was examined. Participants were randomised into the treatment group (n=23) or a waiting list control group (n=27). Outcome measures Acceptability and feasibility of the trial, intervention and of measurements required to assess outcomes in a definitive trial. Results An assessment of the questionnaire completion rates indicated teachers would be most appropriate to complete the primary outcome measure. 2 outcome measures: the Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS)-2 and a goal-based measure showed both the highest levels of completion rates (above 80%) at the primary follow-up point (6 weeks postintervention) and captured relevant social and behaviour outcomes. Power calculations were based on these 2 outcome measures leading to a total proposed sample size of 180 participant groups. Conclusions Results suggest that a future trial would be feasible to conduct and could inform the policy and practice of using Social Stories in mainstream schools. Trial registration number ISRCTN96286707; Results. PMID:27515756

  16. Analysis of the phase control of the ITER ICRH antenna array. Influence on the load resilience and radiated power spectrum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Messiaen, A., E-mail: a.messiaen@fz-juelich.de; Ongena, J.; Vervier, M. [Laboratory for Plasma Physics, ERM-KMS, TEC partner, Cycle, B1000-Brussels (Belgium); Swain, D. [US ITER Team, ORNL (United States)

    2015-12-10

    The paper analyses how the phasing of the ITER ICRH 24 strap array evolves from the power sources up to the strap currents of the antenna. The study of the phasing control and coherence through the feeding circuits with prematching and automatic matching and decoupling network is made by modeling starting from the TOPICA matrix of the antenna array for a low coupling plasma profile and for current drive phasing (worst case for mutual coupling effects). The main results of the analysis are: (i) the strap current amplitude is well controlled by the antinode V{sub max} amplitude of the feeding lines, (ii) the best toroidal phasing control is done by the adjustment of the mean phase of V{sub max} of each poloidal straps column, (iii) with well adjusted system the largest strap current phasing error is ±20°, (iv) the effect on load resilience remains well below the maximum affordable VSWR of the generators, (v) the effect on the radiated power spectrum versus k{sub //} computed by means of the coupling code ANTITER II remains small for the considered cases.

  17. Controlled supercontinuum generation for optimal pulse compression : a time-warp analysis of nonlinear propagation of ultra-broad-band pulses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spanner, M; Pshenichnikov, M; Olvo, [No Value; Ivanov, M

    2003-01-01

    We describe the virtues of the pump-probe approach for controlled supercontinuum generation in nonlinear media, using the example of pulse compression by cross-phase modulation in dielectrics. Optimization of a strong (pump) pulse and a weak (probe) pulse at the input into the medium opens the route

  18. Broad iron lines in Active Galactic Nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Fabian, A C; Reynolds, C S; Young, A J

    2000-01-01

    An intrinsically narrow line emitted by an accretion disk around a black hole appears broadened and skewed as a result of the Doppler effect and gravitational redshift. The fluorescent iron line in the X-ray band at 6.4-6.9keV is the strongest such line and is seen in the X-ray spectrum of many active galactic nuclei and, in particular, Seyfert galaxies. It is an important diagnostic with which to study the geometry and other properties of the accretion flow very close to the central black hole. The broad iron line indicates the presence of a standard thin accretion disk in those objects, often seen at low inclination. The broad iron line has opened up strong gravitational effects around black holes to observational study with wide-reaching consequences for both astrophysics and physics.

  19. Top-down control of herbivory by birds and bats in the canopy of temperate broad-leaved oaks (Quercus robur.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan M Böhm

    Full Text Available The intensive foraging of insectivorous birds and bats is well known to reduce the density of arboreal herbivorous arthropods but quantification of collateral leaf damage remains limited for temperate forest canopies. We conducted exclusion experiments with nets in the crowns of young and mature oaks, Quercus robur, in south and central Germany to investigate the extent to which aerial vertebrates reduce herbivory through predation. We repeatedly estimated leaf damage throughout the vegetation period. Exclusion of birds and bats led to a distinct increase in arthropod herbivory, emphasizing the prominent role of vertebrate predators in controlling arthropods. Leaf damage (e.g., number of holes differed strongly between sites and was 59% higher in south Germany, where species richness of vertebrate predators and relative oak density were lower compared with our other study site in central Germany. The effects of bird and bat exclusion on herbivory were 19% greater on young than on mature trees in south Germany. Our results support previous studies that have demonstrated clear effects of insectivorous vertebrates on leaf damage through the control of herbivorous arthropods. Moreover, our comparative approach on quantification of leaf damage highlights the importance of local attributes such as tree age, forest composition and species richness of vertebrate predators for control of arthropod herbivory.

  20. Stress, anxiety, and depression among parents of children with autism spectrum disorder in Oman: a case–control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Farsi OA

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Omar A Al-Farsi,1 Yahya M Al-Farsi,1,2 Marwan M Al-Sharbati,3 Samir H Al-Adawi31Department of Family Medicine and Public Health, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, Sultan Qaboos University, Muscat, Sultanate of Oman; 2Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, Boston, MA, USA; 3Department of Behavioural Medicine, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, Sultan Qaboos University, Muscat, Sultanate of Oman Abstract: Previous studies carried out in Euro-American populations have unequivocally indicated that psychological disorders of the CASD (caregivers of children with autism spectrum disorder are marked with high levels of stress, anxiety, and depression. This finding has been attributed to the reaction of having to care for a child with neurodevelopmental disorders. While there have been reports on autism spectrum disorder in Arab/Islamic countries such as Oman, there is no study from this region, to our knowledge, reporting the performance of indices of stress, anxiety, and depression among CASD. This study aimed to examine whether there is variation in the performance of indices of stress, depression, and anxiety explored via Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale 21 among CASD, caregivers of children with intellectual disabilities, and caregivers of typically developing children. All indices of stress, depression, and anxiety were higher in CASD compared to other caregivers in the control group. This study corroborates with other studies carried out in other populations that caring for children impacts the mental health status of caregivers. Therefore, there are strong grounds to contemplate the mechanism to help such a vulnerable group of family caregivers. Keywords: stress, anxiety, depression, caregivers, autism, Oman

  1. A Randomised Controlled Trial of PEGASUS, a Psychoeducational Programme for Young People with High-Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Kate; Murin, Marianna; Baykaner, Ozlem; Roughan, Laura; Livermore-Hardy, Vaan; Skuse, David; Mandy, Will

    2015-01-01

    Background: Psychoeducation is an essential component of postdiagnostic care for people with ASD (autism spectrum disorder), but there is currently no evidence base for clinical practice. We designed, manualised and evaluated PEGASUS (psychoeducation group for autism spectrum understanding and support), a group psychoeducational programme aiming…

  2. Gamma activation in young people with autism spectrum disorders and typically-developing controls when viewing emotions on faces.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barry Wright

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Behavioural studies have highlighted irregularities in recognition of facial affect in children and young people with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs. Recent findings from studies utilising electroencephalography (EEG and magnetoencephalography (MEG have identified abnormal activation and irregular maintenance of gamma (>30 Hz range oscillations when ASD individuals attempt basic visual and auditory tasks. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The pilot study reported here is the first study to use spatial filtering techniques in MEG to explore face processing in children with ASD. We set out to examine theoretical suggestions that gamma activation underlying face processing may be different in a group of children and young people with ASD (n = 13 compared to typically developing (TD age, gender and IQ matched controls. Beamforming and virtual electrode techniques were used to assess spatially localised induced and evoked activity. While lower-band (3-30 Hz responses to faces were similar between groups, the ASD gamma response in occipital areas was observed to be largely absent when viewing emotions on faces. Virtual electrode analysis indicated the presence of intact evoked responses but abnormal induced activity in ASD participants. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These findings lend weight to previous suggestions that specific components of the early visual response to emotional faces is abnormal in ASD. Elucidation of the nature and specificity of these findings is worthy of further research.

  3. Effects and Moderators of a Short Theory of Mind Intervention for Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begeer, Sander; Howlin, Patricia; Hoddenbach, Elske; Clauser, Cassandra; Lindauer, Ramon; Clifford, Pamela; Gevers, Carolien; Boer, Frits; Koot, Hans M

    2015-12-01

    Limited perspective taking or "Theory of Mind" (ToM) abilities are a core deficit of autism, and many interventions are aimed to improve ToM abilities. In this study, we investigated the effectiveness of a ToM treatment for children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and, for the first time, the moderating roles of social interaction style (SIS) and disruptive behavior (DB), to determine which children are most likely to respond to this intervention. The trial protocol is registered at www.trialregister.nl, trial number 2327 and published before the data collection was finished (www.trialsjournal.com). Children with autism aged 7-12 years (n = 97) were randomized over a waitlist control or a treatment condition. Outcome measures included ToM and emotion understanding, parent and teacher questionnaires on children's social skills, ToM-related social behavior, and autistic traits. Six-month follow-up parent reported data were collected for the treatment group. The treatment had a positive effect on ToM understanding, parent-reported ToM behavior, and autistic traits, but not on parent or teacher-reported social behavior. Passive SIS was associated with diminished treatment effects on autistic traits, but DB was unrelated to outcomes. The ToM intervention improved conceptual social understanding and ToM-related behavior of children with ASD. However, broader application of learned skills to other domains of functioning was limited. Individual differences with regard to treatment response are discussed. PMID:25847054

  4. Can Findings from Randomized Controlled Trials of Social Skills Training in Autism Spectrum Disorder Be Generalized? The Neglected Dimension of External Validity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonsson, Ulf; Olsson, Nora Choque; Bölte, Sven

    2016-01-01

    Systematic reviews have traditionally focused on internal validity, while external validity often has been overlooked. In this study, we systematically reviewed determinants of external validity in the accumulated randomized controlled trials of social skills group interventions for children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorder. We…

  5. Abnormalities in the Anterior Cingulate Cortex Associated with Attentional and Inhibitory Control Deficits: A Neurophysiological Study on Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Agnes S.; Han, Yvonne M. Y.; Leung, Winnie Wing-man; Leung, Connie; Wong, Virginia C. N.; Cheung, Mei-chun

    2011-01-01

    Previous studies showed that the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) is activated when individuals engage in attention and inhibitory control tasks. The present study examined whether ACC activity is associated with behavioral performance of the two tasks. Twenty normal and 20 children with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) were subjected to…

  6. Melatonin versus Placebo in Children with Autism Spectrum Conditions and Severe Sleep Problems Not Amenable to Behaviour Management Strategies: A Randomised Controlled Crossover Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Barry; Sims, David; Smart, Siobhan; Alwazeer, Ahmed; Alderson-Day, Ben; Allgar, Victoria; Whitton, Clare; Tomlinson, Heather; Bennett, Sophie; Jardine, Jenni; McCaffrey, Nicola; Leyland, Charlotte; Jakeman, Christine; Miles, Jeremy

    2011-01-01

    Twenty-two children with autism spectrum disorders who had not responded to supported behaviour management strategies for severe dysomnias entered a double blind, randomised, controlled crossover trial involving 3 months of placebo versus 3 months of melatonin to a maximum dose of 10 mg. 17 children completed the study. There were no significant…

  7. Integrating Hot and Cool Intelligences: Thinking Broadly about Broad Abilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Joel Schneider

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Although results from factor-analytic studies of the broad, second-stratum abilities of human intelligence have been fairly consistent for decades, the list of broad abilities is far from complete, much less understood. We propose criteria by which the list of broad abilities could be amended and envision alternatives for how our understanding of the hot intelligences (abilities involving emotionally-salient information and cool intelligences (abilities involving perceptual processing and logical reasoning might be integrated into a coherent theoretical framework.

  8. 50%吡氟酰草胺水分散粒剂对春小麦田阔叶杂草的防效%Control Effect of Diflufenican 50%WG on Broad-leaved Weeds in Spring Wheat Field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程亮

    2015-01-01

    通过田间药效试验明确50%吡氟酰草胺水分散粒剂对春小麦田阔叶杂草的防除效果和田间推荐使用剂量,结果表明,50%吡氟酰草胺水分散粒剂对小麦田杂草密花香薷、野油菜和酸模叶蓼的防除效果稍差,施药后40 d对杂草株数总体防效为53.01%~61.75%,鲜重总体防效为54.30%~58.03%。该药剂对小麦安全,较空白对照增产6.44%~8.52%。建议该药剂于春小麦3叶期前,杂草2叶期前进行茎叶喷雾处理。%Based on the field trials,the efficacy and recommended dosage of diflufenican 50% WG are determined for controlling broad-leaf weeds in spring wheat field. The result shows that diflufenican 50% WG had not good control effect to broad-leaved weeds. The integrated plant and fresh weight control effects are 53.01%~61.75% and 54.30%~58.03% on weeds respectively after 40 days after spaying. Diflufenican 50% WG had no significant effect on spring wheat growth and the yield increasing rate of spring wheat is 6.44%~8.52%after sparing. The proper period of spraying is 2 leaves in weeds(3 leaves in wheat).

  9. Double-hybrid spread-spectrum technique for conducted-EMI reduction in DC-DC switching regulators with FPGA-based controller

    OpenAIRE

    Dousoky, Gamal M.; Shoyama, Masahito; Ninomiya, Tamotsu

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present a novel technique for conducted-noise reduction in de-de switching regulators. In order to effectively spread the conducted-noise frequency spectrum and, at the same time, attain a satisfactory voltage regulation, two parameters (carrier frequency and pulse position) have been randomized, and the third parameter (duty ratio) has been controlled by a digital compensator. Furthermore, the effect of using the proposed controller on common-mode, differentia...

  10. Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... can cause a group of conditions called fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASDs). Effects can include physical and behavioral problems such as trouble with Learning and remembering Understanding and following directions Controlling emotions Communicating and socializing Daily life skills, such as ...

  11. A Randomized Controlled Trial to Improve Social Skills in Young Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder: The UCLA PEERS(®) Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laugeson, Elizabeth A; Gantman, Alexander; Kapp, Steven K; Orenski, Kaely; Ellingsen, Ruth

    2015-12-01

    Research suggests that impaired social skills are often the most significant challenge for those with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), yet few evidence-based social skills interventions exist for adults on the spectrum. This replication trial tested the effectiveness of PEERS, a caregiver-assisted social skills program for high-functioning young adults with ASD. Using a randomized controlled design, 22 young adults 18-24 years of age were randomly assigned to a treatment (n = 12) or delayed treatment control (n = 10) group. Results revealed that the treatment group improved significantly in overall social skills, frequency of social engagement, and social skills knowledge, and significantly reduced ASD symptoms related to social responsiveness following PEERS. Most treatment gains were maintained at a 16-week follow-up assessment with new improvements observed. PMID:26109247

  12. Intranasal oxytocin versus placebo in the treatment of adults with autism spectrum disorders: a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anagnostou Evdokia

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There are no effective medications for the treatment of social cognition/function deficits in autism spectrum disorder (ASD, and adult intervention literature in this area is sparse. Emerging data from animal models and genetic association studies as well as early, single-dose intervention studies suggest that the oxytocin system may be a potential therapeutic target for social cognition/function deficits in ASD. The primary aim of this study was to examine the safety/therapeutic effects of intranasal oxytocin versus placebo in adults with ASD, with respect to the two core symptom domains of social cognition/functioning and repetitive behaviors. Methods This was a pilot, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel design trial of intranasal oxytocin versus placebo in 19 adults with ASD (16 males; 33.20 ± 13.29 years. Subjects were randomized to 24 IU intranasal oxytocin or placebo in the morning and afternoon for 6 weeks. Measures of social function/cognition (the Diagnostic Analysis of Nonverbal Accuracy and repetitive behaviors (Repetitive Behavior Scale Revised were administered. Secondary measures included the Social Responsiveness Scale, Reading-the-Mind-in-the-Eyes Test and the Yale Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale – compulsion subscale and quality of life (World Health Organization Quality of Life Questionnaire – emotional/social subscales. Full-information maximum-likelihood parameter estimates were obtained and tested using mixed-effects regression analyses. Results Although no significant changes were detected in the primary outcome measures after correcting for baseline differences, results suggested improvements after 6 weeks in measures of social cognition (Reading-the-Mind-in-the-Eyes Test, p = 0.002, d = 1.2, and quality of life (World Health Organization Quality of Life Questionnaire – emotion, p = 0.031, d = 0.84, both secondary measures. Oxytocin was well tolerated and no serious adverse

  13. Acquiring a Pet Dog Significantly Reduces Stress of Primary Carers for Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Prospective Case Control Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, H. F.; Hall, S.; Hames, A.; Hardiman, J.; Mills, R.; Mills, D. S.

    2015-01-01

    This study describes the impact of pet dogs on stress of primary carers of children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). Stress levels of 38 primary carers acquiring a dog and 24 controls not acquiring a dog were sampled at: Pre-intervention (17 weeks before acquiring a dog), post-intervention (3-10 weeks after acquisition) and follow-up…

  14. Disrupted Stimulus Control but Not Reward Sensitivity in Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Matching Law Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Phil; Hawthorn, Rose; Bolger, Sam; Meredith, Katie; Bishop, Ruth

    2012-01-01

    The matching law suggests that behavior is emitted in proportion to the level of reinforcement available. The current study investigated this effect in individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD), and focused on the effects of magnitude of reinforcement (Study 1), and rate of reinforcement (Studies 2 and 3), on matching performance. Studies 1…

  15. The Coping Cat Program for Children with Anxiety and Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNally Keehn, Rebecca H.; Lincoln, Alan J.; Brown, Milton Z.; Chavira, Denise A.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this pilot study was to evaluate whether a modified version of the Coping Cat program could be effective in reducing anxiety in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Twenty-two children (ages 8-14; IQ greater than or equal to 70) with ASD and clinically significant anxiety were randomly assigned to 16 sessions of the Coping…

  16. Effects of Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy on Anxiety in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Min; Ooi, Yoon Phaik; Goh, Tze Jui; Pathy, Pavarthy; Fung, Daniel S. S.; Ang, Rebecca P.; Chua, Alina; Lam, Chee Meng

    2011-01-01

    We compared the effects of a 16-week Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy (CBT) program and a Social Recreational (SR) program on anxiety in children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). Seventy children (9-16 years old) were randomly assigned to either of the programs (n CBT = 36; n SR = 34). Measures on child's anxiety using the Spence Child Anxiety…

  17. A method for the possible species discrimination of juvenile gadoids by broad-bandwidth backscattering spectra vs. angle of incidence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundgren, Bo; Nielsen, J. Rasmus

    2008-01-01

    Measurements were made of the broad-bandwidth (80-220 kHz) acoustic backscattering from free-swimming juvenile gadoids at various orientations and positions in an acoustic beam, under controlled conditions. The experimental apparatus consisted of a stereo-video camera system, a broad-bandwidth ec......Measurements were made of the broad-bandwidth (80-220 kHz) acoustic backscattering from free-swimming juvenile gadoids at various orientations and positions in an acoustic beam, under controlled conditions. The experimental apparatus consisted of a stereo-video camera system, a broad......-bandwidth echosounder and echo-processor system, a narrowband 120 kHz split-beam echosounder, a large tank, and a fishnet cage. The net cage was centred on the acoustic beams and was virtually transparent, both acoustically and optically. Accurate three-dimensional positions and angular orientations of individual fish......, alignment of acoustic and optical-reference frames, and automatic position-fitting of fish models to manually marked fix-points on fish images. The software also performs Fourier spectrum analysis and pulse-shape analysis of broad-bandwidth echoes. Therefore, several measurement series on free...

  18. Language Laterality in Autism Spectrum Disorder and Typical Controls: A Functional, Volumetric, and Diffusion Tensor MRI Study

    OpenAIRE

    Knaus, Tracey A.; Silver, Andrew M.; Kennedy, Meaghan; Lindgren, Kristen A.; Dominick, Kelli C.; Siegel, Jeremy; Tager-Flusberg, Helen

    2009-01-01

    Language and communication deficits are among the core features of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Reduced or reversed asymmetry of language has been found in a number of disorders, including ASD. Studies of healthy adults have found an association between language laterality and anatomical measures but this has not been systematically investigated in ASD. The goal of this study was to examine differences in gray matter volume of perisylvian language regions, connections between language regi...

  19. Randomised controlled trial of improvisational music therapy's effectiveness for children with autism spectrum disorders (TIME-A): study protocol

    OpenAIRE

    Geretsegger Monika; Holck Ulla; Gold Christian

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Previous research has suggested that music therapy may facilitate skills in areas typically affected by autism spectrum disorders such as social interaction and communication. However, generalisability of previous findings has been restricted, as studies were limited in either methodological accuracy or the clinical relevance of their approach. The aim of this study is to determine effects of improvisational music therapy on social communication skills of children with aut...

  20. Broad Diphotons from Narrow States

    CERN Document Server

    An, Haipeng; Zhang, Yue

    2015-01-01

    ATLAS and CMS have each reported a modest diphoton excess consistent with the decay of a broad resonance at ~ 750 GeV. We show how this signal can arise in a weakly coupled theory comprised solely of narrow width particles. In particular, if the decaying particle is produced off-shell, then the associated diphoton resonance will have a broad, adjustable width. We present simplified models which explain the diphoton excess through the three-body decay of a scalar or fermion. Our minimal ultraviolet completion is a weakly coupled and renormalizable theory of a singlet scalar plus a heavy vector-like quark and lepton. The smoking gun of this mechanism is an asymmetric diphoton peak recoiling against missing transverse energy, jets, or leptons.

  1. Cochlear microphonic broad tuning curves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayat, Mohammad; Teal, Paul D.; Searchfield, Grant D.; Razali, Najwani

    2015-12-01

    It is known that the cochlear microphonic voltage exhibits much broader tuning than does the basilar membrane motion. The most commonly used explanation for this is that when an electrode is inserted at a particular point inside the scala media, the microphonic potentials of neighbouring hair cells have different phases, leading to cancelation at the electrodes location. In situ recording of functioning outer hair cells (OHCs) for investigating this hypothesis is exceptionally difficult. Therefore, to investigate the discrepancy between the tuning curves of the basilar membrane and those of the cochlear microphonic, and the effect of phase cancellation of adjacent hair cells on the broadness of the cochlear microphonic tuning curves, we use an electromechanical model of the cochlea to devise an experiment. We explore the effect of adjacent hair cells (i.e., longitudinal phase cancellation) on the broadness of the cochlear microphonic tuning curves in different locations. The results of the experiment indicate that active longitudinal coupling (i.e., coupling with active adjacent outer hair cells) only slightly changes the broadness of the CM tuning curves. The results also demonstrate that there is a π phase difference between the potentials produced by the hair bundle and the soma near the place associated with the characteristic frequency based on place-frequency maps (i.e., the best place). We suggest that the transversal phase cancellation (caused by the phase difference between the hair bundle and the soma) plays a far more important role than longitudinal phase cancellation in the broadness of the cochlear microphonic tuning curves. Moreover, by increasing the modelled longitudinal resistance resulting the cochlear microphonic curves exhibiting sharper tuning. The results of the simulations suggest that the passive network of the organ of Corti determines the phase difference between the hair bundle and soma, and hence determines the sharpness of the

  2. Identification of the Broad Solar Emission Features Near 117 nm

    CERN Document Server

    Avrett, E H; Loeser, R; Avrett, Eugene H.; Kurucz, Robert L.; Loeser, Rudolf

    2006-01-01

    Wilhelm et al. have recently called attention to the unidentified broad emission features near 117 nm in the solar spectrum. They discuss the observed properties of these features in detail but do not identify the source of this emission. We show that the broad autoionizing transitions of neutral sulfur are responsible for these emission features. Autoionizing lines of \\ion{S}{i} occur throughout the spectrum between Lyman alpha and the Lyman limit. Sulfur is a normal contributor to stellar spectra. We use non-LTE chromospheric model calculations with line data from the Kurucz 2004 \\ion{S}{i} line list to simulate the solar spectrum in the range 116 to 118 nm. We compare the results with SUMER disk-center observations from Curdt et al. and limb observations from Wilhelm et al. Our calculations generally agree with the SUMER observations of the broad autoionizing \\ion{S}{i} emission features, the narrow \\ion{S}{i} emission lines, and the continuum in this wavelength region, and agree with basic characteristics...

  3. Cultural and chemical pest control methods alter habitat suitability for biological control agents: An example from Wisconsin commercial cranberry

    Science.gov (United States)

    An integrated pest control program requires an in-depth understanding of the compatibility of all control strategies used. In Wisconsin commercial cranberry production, early-season control strategies may include either a broad-spectrum insecticide application or a corresponding spring flood, along ...

  4. Development of targeted therapy for a broad spectrum of solid tumors mediated by a double promoter plasmid expressing diphtheria toxin under the control of IGF2-P4 and IGF2-P3 regulatory sequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amit, Doron; Tamir, Sagi; Hochberg, Abraham

    2013-01-01

    Background: The human IGF2-P4 and IGF2-P3 promoters are highly active in a variety of human cancers, while existing at a nearly undetectable level in the surrounding normal tissue. Thus, a double promoter DTA-expressing vector was created, carrying on a single construct two separate genes expressing the diphtheria toxin a-fragment (DTA), from two different regulatory sequences, selected from the cancer-specific promoters IGF2-P4 and IGF2-P3. Methods: The therapeutic potential of the double promoter toxin vector P4-DTA-P3-DTA was tested in different cancer cells (pancreatic cancer, ovarian cancer and HCC). Results: The double promoter vector P4-DTA-P3-DTA exhibited superior inhibition activity in different cancer cell lines, compared to the single promoter expression vectors activity. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that administration of P4-DTA-P3-DTA has the potential to reach and eradicate tumor cells and thus may help reduce tumor burden, improve the quality of life of the patients; and prolong their life span. PMID:23386914

  5. Randomised controlled Trial of Improvisational Music therapy's Effectiveness for children with Autism spectrum disorders (TIME-A)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geretsegger, Monika; Holck, Ulla; Gold, Christian

    2012-01-01

    .e., number of music therapy sessions per week) affects outcome of therapy, and to determine cost-effectiveness. Methods Children aged between 4;0 and 6;11 years who are diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder will be randomly assigned to one of three conditions. Parents of all participants will receive three...... sessions of parent counselling (at 0, 2, and 5 months). In addition, children randomised to the two intervention groups will be offered individual, improvisational music therapy over a period of five months, either one session (low-intensity) or three sessions (high-intensity) per week. Generalised effects...... of music therapy will be measured using standardised scales completed by blinded assessors (Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule, ADOS) and parents (Social Responsiveness Scale, SRS) before and 2, 5, and 12 months after randomisation. Cost effectiveness will be calculated as man years. A group sequential...

  6. Ghost imaging with broad distance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    段德洋; 张路; 杜少将; 夏云杰

    2015-01-01

    We present a scheme that is able to achieve the ghost imaging with broad distance. The physical nature of our scheme is that the different wavelength beams are separated in free space by an optical media according to the slow light or dispersion principle. Meanwhile, the equality of the optical distance of the two light arms is not violated. The photon correlation is achieved by the rotating ground glass plate (RGGP) and spatial light modulator (SLM), respectively. Our work shows that a monochromic ghost image can be obtained in the case of RGGP. More importantly, the position (or distance) of the object can be ascertained by the color of the image. Thus, the imaging and ranging processes are combined as one process for the first time to the best of our knowledge. In the case of SLM, we can obtain a colored image regardless of where the object is.

  7. Radiolytic preparation of ultrafine colloidal gold particles in aqueous solution: Optical spectrum, controlled growth, and some chemical reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orange- or yellow-orange-colored aqueous dispersions of ultrafine gold particles (approximately2 nm) result from the γ-irradiation of deaerated solutions containing hydrolyzed AuCl-4 and poly(vinyl alcohol) or poly-(vinylpyrrolidone), respectively. The particles have a weak and very broad plasmon absorption band with maximum in the 490 to 500 nm range, i.e., at substantially shorter wavelengths than expected from classical Mie theory using bulk dielectric data; moreover, the specific UV adsorption increases as the particles become smaller. The particles are used as seeds in the radiolytic reduction of added Au(CN)-2 to yield larger particles of any desired size and improved monodispersity. The particles partially react with oxygen. Chemisorption of 3-mercapto propionic acid strongly affects the electronics of the particles, as indicated by the changes in optical absorption. The early stages of AuCl-4 reduction are also investigated. The reduction occurs essentially in two steps: (1) formation, and (2) reduction of Au+. A203-nm absorption band is tentatively attributed to Au+. Without further irradiation, Au+ disappears thermally within hours to yield larger particles (20--70 nm)

  8. Ghost imaging with broad distance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, De-Yang; Zhang, Lu; Du, Shao-Jiang; Xia, Yun-Jie

    2015-10-01

    We present a scheme that is able to achieve the ghost imaging with broad distance. The physical nature of our scheme is that the different wavelength beams are separated in free space by an optical media according to the slow light or dispersion principle. Meanwhile, the equality of the optical distance of the two light arms is not violated. The photon correlation is achieved by the rotating ground glass plate (RGGP) and spatial light modulator (SLM), respectively. Our work shows that a monochromic ghost image can be obtained in the case of RGGP. More importantly, the position (or distance) of the object can be ascertained by the color of the image. Thus, the imaging and ranging processes are combined as one process for the first time to the best of our knowledge. In the case of SLM, we can obtain a colored image regardless of where the object is. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61178012, 11204156, 11304179, and 11247240), the Specialized Research Fund for the Doctoral Program of Higher Education of China (Grant Nos. 20133705110001 and 20123705120002), the Scientific Research Foundation for Outstanding Young Scientists of Shandong Province, China (Grant No. BS2013DX034), and the Natural Science Foundation of Shandong Province, China (Grant No. ZR2012FQ024).

  9. An organizational assessment of the United States military's ability to control the electromagnetic spectrum in the 21st century

    OpenAIRE

    Acquaro, Philip F.

    2007-01-01

    The United States (U.S.) has the best-trained and equipped military in the world; however; these factors do not necessarily equate to success in operations. Information is a vital component of warfare that facilitates success. Electronic warfare (EW) organizations in the U.S. military are tasked to control battlefield information flow throughout the range of military operations. Historically, the U.S. has effectively accomplished this mission; however, recent events reveal symptoms of a d...

  10. 77 FR 50144 - Broad Stakeholder Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-20

    ... SECURITY Broad Stakeholder Survey AGENCY: National Protection and Programs Directorate, DHS. ACTION: 60-day... comments concerning the Broad Stakeholder Survey. DATES: Comments are encouraged and will be accepted until... across the Nation. The Broad Stakeholder Survey is designed to gather stakeholder feedback on...

  11. 76 FR 34087 - Broad Stakeholder Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-10

    ... SECURITY Broad Stakeholder Survey AGENCY: National Protection and Programs Directorate, DHS. ACTION: 60-day... comments concerning the Broad Stakeholder Survey. DATES: Comments are encouraged and will be accepted until.... The Broad Stakeholder Survey is designed to gather stakeholder feedback on the effectiveness of...

  12. 78 FR 20119 - Broad Stakeholder Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-03

    ... SECURITY Broad Stakeholder Survey AGENCY: National Protection and Programs Directorate, DHS. ACTION: 30-day... soliciting comments concerning the Broad Stakeholder Survey. DHS previously published this ICR in the Federal... responders across the Nation. The Broad Stakeholder Survey is designed to gather stakeholder feedback on...

  13. Broad-Host-Range IncP-1 plasmids and their resistance potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MagdalenaPopowska

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The plasmids of the incompatibility group IncP-1, also called IncP, as extrachromosomal genetic elements can transfer and replicate virtually in all Gram-negative bacteria. They are composed of backbone genes that encode a variety of essential functions and accessory genes that have implications for human health and environmental bioremediation. Broad-host-range IncP plasmids are known to spread genes between distinct phylogenetic groups of bacteria. These genes often code for resistances to a broad spectrum of antibiotics, heavy metals and quaternary ammonium compounds used as disinfectants. The backbone of these plasmids carries modules that enable them to effectively replicate, move to a new host via conjugative transfer and to be stably maintained in bacterial cells. The adaptive, resistance and virulence genes are mainly located on mobile genetic elements integrated between the functional plasmid backbone modules. Environmental studies have demonstrated the wide distribution of IncP-like replicons in manure, soils and wastewater treatment plants. They also are present in strains of pathogenic or opportunistic bacteria, which can be a cause for concern, because they may encode multiresistance. Their broad distribution suggests that IncP plasmids play a crucial role in bacterial adaptation by utilizing horizontal gene transfer. This review summarizes the variety of genetic information and physiological functions carried by IncP plasmids, which can contribute to the spread of antibiotic and heavy metal resistance while also mediating the process of bioremediation of pollutants. Due to the location of the resistance genes on plasmids with a broad host range and the presence of transposons carrying these genes it seems that the spread of these genes would be possible and quite hazardous in infection control. Future studies are required to determine the level of risk of the spread of resistance genes located on these plasmids.

  14. Fission Spectrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloch, F.; Staub, H.

    1943-08-18

    Measurements of the spectrum of the fission neutrons of 25 are described, in which the energy of the neutrons is determined from the ionization produced by individual hydrogen recoils. The slow neutrons producing fission are obtained by slowing down the fast neutrons from the Be-D reaction of the Stanford cyclotron. In order to distinguish between fission neutrons and the remaining fast cyclotron neutrons both the cyclotron current and the pusle amplifier are modulated. A hollow neutron container, in which slow neutrons have a lifetime of about 2 milliseconds, avoids the use of large distances. This method results in much higher intensities than the usual modulation arrangement. The results show a continuous distribution of neutrons with a rather wide maximum at about 0.8 MV falling off to half of its maximum value at 2.0 MV. The total number of netrons is determined by comparison with the number of fission fragments. The result seems to indicate that only about 30% of the neutrons have energies below .8 MV. Various tests are described which were performed in order to rule out modification of the spectrum by inelastic scattering. Decl. May 4, 1951

  15. Broad-band acoustic hyperbolic metamaterial

    CERN Document Server

    Shen, Chen; Sui, Ni; Wang, Wenqi; Cummer, Steven A; Jing, Yun

    2015-01-01

    Acoustic metamaterials (AMMs) are engineered materials, made from subwavelength structures, that exhibit useful or unusual constitutive properties. There has been intense research interest in AMMs since its first realization in 2000 by Liu et al. A number of functionalities and applications have been proposed and achieved using AMMs. Hyperbolic metamaterials are one of the most important types of metamaterials due to their extreme anisotropy and numerous possible applications, including negative refraction, backward waves, spatial filtering, and subwavelength imaging. Although the importance of acoustic hyperbolic metamaterials (AHMMs) as a tool for achieving full control of acoustic waves is substantial, the realization of a broad-band and truly hyperbolic AMM has not been reported so far. Here, we demonstrate the design and experimental characterization of a broadband AHMM that operates between 1.0 kHz and 2.5 kHz.

  16. Crx broadly modulates the pineal transcriptome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rovsing, Louise; Clokie, Samuel; Bustos, Diego M;

    2011-01-01

    microarray and qRTPCR technology, thereby extending previous studies on selected genes (Furukawa et al. 1999). Deletion of Crx was not found to alter pineal morphology, but was found to broadly modulate the mouse pineal transcriptome, characterized by a > 2-fold down-regulation of 543 genes and a > 2-fold up-regulation...... of 745 genes (p < 0.05). Of these, one of the most highly up-regulated (18-fold) was Hoxc4, a member of the Hox gene family, members of which are known to control gene expression cascades. During a 24-h period, a set of 51 genes exhibited differential day/night expression in pineal glands of wild...... influences differential night/day gene expression in this tissue. Some effects of Crx deletion on the pineal transcriptome might be mediated by Hoxc4 up-regulation....

  17. Brain-specific transcriptional regulator T-brain-1 controls brain wiring and neuronal activity in autism spectrum disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Tzyy-Nan eHuang; Yi-Ping eHsueh

    2015-01-01

    T-brain-1 (TBR1) is a brain-specific T-box transcription factor. In 1995, Tbr1 was first identified from a subtractive hybridization that compared mouse embryonic and adult telencephalons. Previous studies of Tbr1–/– mice have indicated critical roles for TBR1 in the development of the cerebral cortex, amygdala and olfactory bulb. Neuronal migration and axonal projection are two important developmental features controlled by TBR1. Recently, recurrent de novo disruptive mutations in the TBR1 g...

  18. Ellipsometry noise spectrum, suspension transfer function measurement and closed-loop control of the suspension system in the Q and A experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Q and A experiment, aiming at the detection of vacuum birefringence predicted by quantum electrodynamics, consists mainly of a suspended 3.5 m Fabry-Perot cavity, a rotating permanent dipole magnet and an ellipsometer. The 2.3 T magnet can rotate up to 10 rev/s, introducing an ellipticity signal at twice the rotation frequency. The X-pendulum gives a good isolation ratio for seismic noise above its main resonant frequency 0.3 Hz. At present, the ellipsometry noise decreases with frequency, from 1 x 10-5 rad.Hz-1/2 at 5 Hz, 2x10-6 rad.Hz-1/2 at 20 Hz to 5x10-7 rad.Hz-1/2 at 40 Hz. The shape of the noise spectrum indicates possible improvement can be made by further reducing the movement between the cavity mirrors. From the preliminary result of yaw motion alignment control, it can be seen that some peaks due to yaw motion of the cavity mirror was suppressed. In this paper, we first give a schematic view of the Q and A experiment, and then present the measurement of transfer function of the compound X-pendulum-double pendulum suspension. A closed-loop control was carried out to verify the validity of the measured transfer functions. The ellipsometry noise spectra with and without yaw alignment control and the newest improvement is presented

  19. [Extended spectrum beta-lactamases in Danish Klebsiella isolates].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, D S; Sirot, D; Kolmos, H J

    1998-04-01

    This study presents the first two cases of infections with Klebsiella pneumoniae producing extended spectrum betalactamases (ESBL) that have been recorded in Denmark. They presented as a urinary tract infection and a generalized infection in a patient admitted to an intensive care unit. Both patients had been treated with broad spectrum antibiotics prior to infection. Presumably, one of the strains had been imported from Turkey. The ESBL of the two strains were characterized as SHV-2 and SHV-5, respectively. Patients transferred from hospitals abroad should be screened for Klebsiella producing ESBL, in addition to MRSA and other multiresistant organisms. A restrictive antibiotic policy and strict hygienic precautions are essential measures to control the selection and spread of such organisms in the hospital environment. PMID:9599523

  20. Spectral Decomposition of Broad-Line AGNs and Host Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Vanden Berk, Daniel E; Yip, C W; Schneider, D P; Connolly, A J; Burton, R E; Jester, S; Hall, P B; Szalay, A S; Brinkmann, J; Berk, Daniel E. Vanden; Shen, Jiajian; Yip, Ching-Wa; Schneider, Donald P.; Connolly, Andrew J.; Burton, Ross E.; Jester, Sebastian; Hall, Patrick B.; Szalay, Alex S.; Brinkmann, John

    2005-01-01

    Using an eigenspectrum decomposition technique, we separate the host galaxy from the broad line active galactic nucleus (AGN) in a set of 4666 spectra from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS), from redshifts near zero up to about 0.75. The decomposition technique uses separate sets of galaxy and quasar eigenspectra to efficiently and reliably separate the AGN and host spectroscopic components. The technique accurately reproduces the host galaxy spectrum, its contributing fraction, and its classification. We show how the accuracy of the decomposition depends upon S/N, host galaxy fraction, and the galaxy class. Based on the eigencoefficients, the sample of SDSS broad-line AGN host galaxies spans a wide range of spectral types, but the distribution differs significantly from inactive galaxies. In particular, post-starburst activity appears to be much more common among AGN host galaxies. The luminosities of the hosts are much higher than expected for normal early-type galaxies, and their colors become increasing...

  1. Brain-Computer Interfaces for 1-D and 2-D Cursor Control: Designs Using Volitional Control of the EEG Spectrum or Steady-State Visual Evoked Potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trejo, Leonard J.; Matthews, Bryan; Rosipal, Roman

    2005-01-01

    We have developed and tested two EEG-based brain-computer interfaces (BCI) for users to control a cursor on a computer display. Our system uses an adaptive algorithm, based on kernel partial least squares classification (KPLS), to associate patterns in multichannel EEG frequency spectra with cursor controls. Our first BCI, Target Practice, is a system for one-dimensional device control, in which participants use biofeedback to learn voluntary control of their EEG spectra. Target Practice uses a KF LS classifier to map power spectra of 30-electrode EEG signals to rightward or leftward position of a moving cursor on a computer display. Three subjects learned to control motion of a cursor on a video display in multiple blocks of 60 trials over periods of up to six weeks. The best subject s average skill in correct selection of the cursor direction grew from 58% to 88% after 13 training sessions. Target Practice also implements online control of two artifact sources: a) removal of ocular artifact by linear subtraction of wavelet-smoothed vertical and horizontal EOG signals, b) control of muscle artifact by inhibition of BCI training during periods of relatively high power in the 40-64 Hz band. The second BCI, Think Pointer, is a system for two-dimensional cursor control. Steady-state visual evoked potentials (SSVEP) are triggered by four flickering checkerboard stimuli located in narrow strips at each edge of the display. The user attends to one of the four beacons to initiate motion in the desired direction. The SSVEP signals are recorded from eight electrodes located over the occipital region. A KPLS classifier is individually calibrated to map multichannel frequency bands of the SSVEP signals to right-left or up-down motion of a cursor on a computer display. The display stops moving when the user attends to a central fixation point. As for Target Practice, Think Pointer also implements wavelet-based online removal of ocular artifact; however, in Think Pointer muscle

  2. Spread spectrum image steganography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marvel, L M; Boncelet, C R; Retter, C T

    1999-01-01

    In this paper, we present a new method of digital steganography, entitled spread spectrum image steganography (SSIS). Steganography, which means "covered writing" in Greek, is the science of communicating in a hidden manner. Following a discussion of steganographic communication theory and review of existing techniques, the new method, SSIS, is introduced. This system hides and recovers a message of substantial length within digital imagery while maintaining the original image size and dynamic range. The hidden message can be recovered using appropriate keys without any knowledge of the original image. Image restoration, error-control coding, and techniques similar to spread spectrum are described, and the performance of the system is illustrated. A message embedded by this method can be in the form of text, imagery, or any other digital signal. Applications for such a data-hiding scheme include in-band captioning, covert communication, image tamperproofing, authentication, embedded control, and revision tracking. PMID:18267522

  3. Ellipsometry noise spectrum, suspension transfer function measurement and closed-loop control of the suspension system in the Q & A experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, S J; Ni, W T; Chen, Sheng-Jui; Mei, Hsien-Hao; Ni, Wei-Tou

    2005-01-01

    The Q & A experiment, aiming at the detection of vacuum birefringence predicted by quantum electrodynamics, consists mainly of a suspended 3.5 m Fabry-Perot cavity, a rotating permanent dipole magnet and an ellipsometer. The 2.3 T magnet can rotate up to 10 rev/s, introducing an ellipticity signal at twice the rotation frequency. The X-pendulum gives a good isolation ratio for seismic noise above its main resonant frequency 0.3 Hz. At present, the ellipsometry noise decreases with frequency, from 1*10^{-5} rad*Hz^{-1/2} at 5 Hz, 2*10^{-6} rad*Hz^{-1/2} at 20 Hz to 5*10^{-7} rad*Hz^{-1/2} at 40 Hz. The shape of the noise spectrum indicates possible improvement when the movement between the cavity mirrors is further controlled and reduced. From the preliminary result of yaw motion alignment control, it can be seen that some peaks due to yaw motion of the cavity mirror was suppressed. In this paper, we first give a schematic view of the Q & A experiment, and then present the measurement of transfer funct...

  4. Association analysis of genetic variant of rs13331 in PSD95 gene with autism spectrum disorders: A case-control study in a Chinese population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jia; Li, Li; Shao, Shan-Shan; He, Zhen; Chen, Yan-Lin; Kong, Rui; Zhang, Xiao-Hui; Gong, Jian-Hua; Song, Ran-Ran

    2016-04-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by high heritability. Recently, autism, the most profound form of ASD, has been increasingly attributed to synaptic abnormalities. Postsynaptic density 95 (PSD95), encoding PSD protein-95, was found essential for synaptic formation, maturation and plasticity at a PSD of excitatory synapse. It is possibly a crucial candidate gene for the pathogenesis of ASD. To identify the relationship between the rs13331 of PSD95 gene and ASD, we performed a case-control study in 212 patients and 636 controls in a Chinese population by using a polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymerase (PCR-RFLP) assay. The results showed that in genetic analysis of the heterozygous model, an association between the T allele of the rs13331 and ASD was found in the dominant model (OR=1.709, 95% CI 1.227-2.382, P=0.002) and the additive model (OR=1.409, 95% CI=1.104-1.800, P=0.006). Our data indicate that the genetic mutation C>T at the rs13331 in the PSD95 gene is strikingly associated with an increased risk of ASD. PMID:27072977

  5. Redox-directed cancer therapeutics: Taurolidine and Piperlongumine as broadly effective antineoplastic agents (Review)

    OpenAIRE

    MÖHLER, HANS; PFIRMAN, ROLF W.; Frei, Karl

    2014-01-01

    Targeting the oxygen stress response pathway is considered a promising strategy to exert antineoplastic activity in a broad spectrum of tumor types. Supporting this view, we summarize the mechanism of action of Taurolidine and Piperlongumine, two antineoplastic agents with strikingly broad tumor selectivity. Taurolidine enhances the oxidative stress (ROS) selectively in tumor cells. Its cytotoxicity for various tumor cells in vitro and in vivo, which includes tumor stem cells, is based on the...

  6. Acid glycosaminoglycan (aGAG) excretion is increased in children with autism spectrum disorder, and it can be controlled by diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endreffy, Ildikó; Bjørklund, Geir; Dicső, Ferenc; Urbina, Mauricio A; Endreffy, Emőke

    2016-04-01

    Autism research continues to receive considerable attention as the options for successful management are limited. The understanding of the autism spectrum disorder (ASD) etiology has now progressed to encompass genetic, epigenetic, neurological, hormonal, and environmental factors that affect outcomes for patients with ASD. Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) are a family of linear, sulfated polysaccharides that are associated with central nervous system (CNS) development, maintenance, and disorders. Proteoglycans (PG) regulate diverse functions in the central nervous system. Heparan sulfate (HS) and chondroitin sulfate (CS) are two major GAGs present in the PGs of the CNS. As neuroscience advances, biochemical treatments to correct brain chemistry become better defined. Nutrient therapy can be very potent and has minimal to no side effects, since no molecules foreign to the body are needed. Given GAGs are involved in several neurological functions, and that its level can be somewhat modulated by the diet, the present study aimed to evaluate the role of GAGs levels in ASD symptoms. Both tGAG and its different fractions were evaluated in the urine of ASD and healthy control childrens. As levels differed between groups, a second trial was conduted evaluating if diet could reduce tGAG levels and if this in turn decrease ASD symptoms. The present study found that tGAG concentration was significantly higher in the urine of children with ASD compared to healthy control children and this was also evident in all GAG fractions. Within groups (controls and ASD), no gender differences in GAG excretion were found. The use of a 90 days elimination diet (casein-free, special carbohydrates, multivitamin/mineral supplement), had major effects in reducing urinary tGAG excretion in children with ASD. PMID:26464064

  7. Response inhibition deficits in children with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder: Relationship between diffusion tensor imaging of the corpus callosum and eye movement control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelina Paolozza

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Response inhibition is the ability to suppress irrelevant impulses to enable goal-directed behavior. The underlying neural mechanisms of inhibition deficits are not clearly understood, but may be related to white matter connectivity, which can be assessed using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI. The goal of this study was to investigate the relationship between response inhibition during the performance of saccadic eye movement tasks and DTI measures of the corpus callosum in children with or without Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD. Participants included 43 children with an FASD diagnosis (12.3 ± 3.1 years old and 35 typically developing children (12.5 ± 3.0 years old both aged 7–18, assessed at three sites across Canada. Response inhibition was measured by direction errors in an antisaccade task and timing errors in a delayed memory-guided saccade task. Manual deterministic tractography was used to delineate six regions of the corpus callosum and calculate fractional anisotropy (FA, mean diffusivity (MD, parallel diffusivity, and perpendicular diffusivity. Group differences in saccade measures were assessed using t-tests, followed by partial correlations between eye movement inhibition scores and corpus callosum FA and MD, controlling for age. Children with FASD made more saccade direction errors and more timing errors, which indicates a deficit in response inhibition. The only group difference in DTI metrics was significantly higher MD of the splenium in FASD compared to controls. Notably, direction errors in the antisaccade task were correlated negatively to FA and positively to MD of the splenium in the control, but not the FASD group, which suggests that alterations in connectivity between the two hemispheres of the brain may contribute to inhibition deficits in children with FASD.

  8. Nucleotide Base Variation of Blast Disease Resistance Gene Pi33 in Rice Selected Broad Genetic Background

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DWINITA WIKAN UTAMI

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Rice is one of the most important crops for human beings, thus increasing productivity are continually persecuted. Blast disease can reduce the rate of productivity of rice cultivation. Therefore, the program of blast disease-resistant varieties needs to do effectively. One of broad-spectrum blast disease-resistant gene is Pi33. This study was aimed to identify the variation in the sequence of nucleotide bases of Pi33 gene in five interspesific lines which derived from Bio46 (IR64/Oryza rufipogon and CT13432 crossing. DNA of five rice lines were amplified using the spesific primer for Pi33, G1010. Amplification results purified through Exonuclease 1 and Shrimp Alkaline Phosphatase protocols. Labelling using fluorescent dyes done before sequencing nucleotide base using CEQ8000 instrument. The results showed that lines number 28 showed introgesion of the three control parent genome (subspecies of Indica, subspecies of Japonica, and O. rufipogon while the Lines number 79, 136, and 143 were identical to Indica genome. Strain number 195 was identical to Japonica genome. These broad genetic background lines promise as durable performance to attack the expansion of the dynamic nature of the pathogen to blast. The result of ortholog sequence analysis found conserved nucleotide base sequence (CAGCAGCC which involved in heterotrimeric G-protein group. This protein has role as plant receptor for recognizing pathogen elicitor in interaction of rice and blast pathogen.

  9. DISCOVERY OF THE TRANSITION OF A MINI-BROAD ABSORPTION LINE INTO A BROAD ABSORPTION LINE IN THE SDSS QUASAR J115122.14+020426.3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hidalgo, Paola Rodriguez; Eracleous, Michael; Charlton, Jane [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Pennsylvania State University, 525 Davey Lab, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Hamann, Fred [Department of Astronomy, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States); Murphy, Michael T. [Center for Astrophysics and Supercomputing, Swinburne University of Technology, P.O. Box 218, Hawthorn, Victoria 3122 (Australia); Nestor, Daniel [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, 430 Portola Plaza, Box 951547, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States)

    2013-09-20

    We present the detection of a rare case of dramatic strengthening in the UV absorption profiles in the spectrum of the quasar J115122.14+020426.3 between observations {approx}2.86 yr apart in the quasar rest frame. A spectrum obtained in 2001 by the Sloan Digital Sky Survey shows a C IV ''mini-broad'' absorption line (FWHM = 1220 km s{sup -1}) with a maximum blueshift velocity of {approx}9520 km s{sup -1}, while a later spectrum from the Very Large Telescope shows a significantly broader and stronger absorption line, with a maximum blueshift velocity of {approx}12, 240 km s{sup -1} that qualifies as a broad absorption line. A similar variability pattern is observed in two additional systems at lower blueshifted velocities and in the Ly{alpha} and N V transitions as well. One of the absorption systems appears to be resolved and shows evidence for partial covering of the quasar continuum source (C{sub f} {approx} 0.65), indicating a transverse absorber size of, at least, {approx}6 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 16} cm. In contrast, a cluster of narrower C IV lines appears to originate in gas that fully covers the continuum and broad emission line sources. There is no evidence for changes in the centroid velocity of the absorption troughs. This case suggests that at least some of the absorbers that produce ''mini-broad'' and broad absorption lines in quasar spectra do not belong to intrinsically separate classes. Here, the ''mini-broad'' absorption line is most likely interpreted as an intermediate phase before the appearance of a broad absorption line due to their similar velocities. While the current observations do not provide enough constraints to discern among the possible causes for this variability, future monitoring of multiple transitions at high resolution will help achieve this goal.

  10. Toward Brief "Red Flags" for Autism Screening: The Short Autism Spectrum Quotient and the Short Quantitative Checklist in 1,000 Cases and 3,000 Controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allison, Carrie; Auyeung, Bonnie; Baron-Cohen, Simon

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Frontline health professionals need a "red flag" tool to aid their decision making about whether to make a referral for a full diagnostic assessment for an autism spectrum condition (ASC) in children and adults. The aim was to identify 10 items on the Autism Spectrum Quotient (AQ) (Adult, Adolescent, and Child versions) and on the…

  11. Broad Prize: Do the Successes Spread?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuels, Christina A.

    2011-01-01

    When the Broad Prize for Urban Education was created in 2002, billionaire philanthropist Eli Broad said he hoped the awards, in addition to rewarding high-performing school districts, would foster healthy competition; boost the prestige of urban education, long viewed as dysfunctional; and showcase best practices. Over the 10 years the prize has…

  12. Study on remodeling the heavy water facility of the Kyoto University reactor for neutron capture therapy from the concept of neutron energy spectrum control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In August 1988, there was heavy water leakage from the thermocouple guide pipe of the heavy water tank adjacent to the core of the Kyoto University Research Reactor (KUR). The need for a fundamental reexamination of the Heavy Water Thermal Neutron Facility (HWTNF) has been recognized since the guide pipe was repaired. Clinical irradiation was restarted in February 1990, and as of September 1, 1992, 24 clinical treatments had been carried out. Some improvements for the clinical treatment have been requested by clinicians and other users, especially the ability to use the facility while the reactor is in continuous operations. From the viewpoints of reactor engineering and medical physics, there are four goals for remodeling the present HWTNF: (1) to simplify and secure maintenance, overhaul, and repair, (2) to enable the facility to be used during continuous operation of the KUR, (3) to improve the performances of the irradiation field of thermal neutrons for biomedical uses, and (4) to control neutron energy spectrum. In this paper, an outline for the redesign of the facility is reported

  13. The group-based social skills training SOSTA-FRA in children and adolescents with high functioning autism spectrum disorder - study protocol of the randomised, multi-centre controlled SOSTA - net trial

    OpenAIRE

    Freitag Christine M; Cholemkery Hannah; Elsuni Leyla; Kroeger Anne K; Bender Stephan; Kunz Cornelia Ursula; Kieser Meinhard

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background Group-based social skills training (SST) has repeatedly been recommended as treatment of choice in high-functioning autism spectrum disorder (HFASD). To date, no sufficiently powered randomised controlled trial has been performed to establish efficacy and safety of SST in children and adolescents with HFASD. In this randomised, multi-centre, controlled trial with 220 children and adolescents with HFASD it is hypothesized, that add-on group-based SST using the 12 weeks manu...

  14. Investigation into the interchangeability of generic formulations using immunosuppressants and a broad selection of medicines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yu, Y.; Teerenstra, S.; Neef, C.; Burger, D.M.; Maliepaard, M.

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: To date, the interchangeability of generic drugs has only been investigated for a limited number of medicines. The objective of this study was to investigate generic-generic drug interchangeability in a large subset of generic formulations in order to cover a broad spectrum of drugs. METHOD

  15. Microbial Control of the Potato Tuber Moth (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    In tropical and subtropical agroecosystems, the potato tuber moth (PTM) (Phthorimaea operculella Zeller) is considered the most damaging potato pest. Larvae mine both leaves and tubers, in the field and in storage making the pest difficult to control. Over reliance on broad spectrum insecticides has...

  16. BROAD PHONEME CLASSIFICATION USING SIGNAL BASED FEATURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deekshitha G

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Speech is the most efficient and popular means of human communication Speech is produced as a sequence of phonemes. Phoneme recognition is the first step performed by automatic speech recognition system. The state-of-the-art recognizers use mel-frequency cepstral coefficients (MFCC features derived through short time analysis, for which the recognition accuracy is limited. Instead of this, here broad phoneme classification is achieved using features derived directly from the speech at the signal level itself. Broad phoneme classes include vowels, nasals, fricatives, stops, approximants and silence. The features identified useful for broad phoneme classification are voiced/unvoiced decision, zero crossing rate (ZCR, short time energy, most dominant frequency, energy in most dominant frequency, spectral flatness measure and first three formants. Features derived from short time frames of training speech are used to train a multilayer feedforward neural network based classifier with manually marked class label as output and classification accuracy is then tested. Later this broad phoneme classifier is used for broad syllable structure prediction which is useful for applications such as automatic speech recognition and automatic language identification.

  17. Spectral properties of a broad-area diode laser with off-axis external-cavity feedback

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chi, Mingjun; Petersen, Paul Michael

    2013-01-01

    intensity noise spectrum of the diode laser shows that the intensity noise is increased strongly by the external-cavity feedback. External-cavity modes are excited in the external cavity even in the off-axis configuration. The peak spacing of the intensity noise spectrum shows that single roundtrip external......Spectral properties, both the optical spectrum and the intensity noise spectrum, of a broad-area diode laser with off-axis external-cavity feedback are presented. We show that the optical spectrum of the diode laser system is shifted to longer wavelengths due to the external-cavity feedback. The......-cavity modes are excited. We believe that the four-wave mixing process in the broad-area diode laser is responsible for the establishment of the external-cavity mode....

  18. Oxygen consumption of rats with broad intestinal resection

    OpenAIRE

    Luz J.; Griggio M.A.; Fagundes D.J.; Araújo R.M.; Marcondes W.

    2000-01-01

    The study was performed to investigate possible alterations in oxygen consumption in an animal model with broad intestinal resection. Oxygen consumption and the thermal effect of a short meal were measured in rats subjected to short bowel syndrome. Four groups of rats were used. Group I was the control group, group II was sham operated, group III was submitted to 80% jejunum-ileum resection, and group IV was submitted to 80% jejunum-ileum resection with colon interposition. Ninety days after ...

  19. Giant Broad Line Regions in Dwarf Seyferts

    CERN Document Server

    Devereux, Nick

    2015-01-01

    High angular resolution spectroscopy obtained with the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) has revealed a remarkable population of galaxies hosting dwarf Seyfert nuclei with an unusually large broad-line region (BLR). These objects are remarkable for two reasons. Firstly, the size of the BLR can, in some cases, rival those seen in the most luminous quasars. Secondly, the size of the BLR is not correlated with the central continuum luminosity, an observation that distinguishes them from their reverberating counterparts. Collectively, these early results suggest that non-reverberating dwarf Seyferts are a heterogeneous group and not simply scaled versions of each other. Careful inspection reveals broad H Balmer emission lines with single peaks, double peaks, and a combination of the two, suggesting that the broad emission lines are produced in kinematically distinct regions centered on the black hole (BH). Because the gravitational field strength is already known for these objects, by virtue of knowing their BH mass, ...

  20. Spectral decomposition of broad-line agns and host galaxies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vanden Berk, Daniel E.; Shen, Jiajian; /Penn State U., Astron. Astrophys.; Yip, Ching-Wa; /Pittsburgh U.; Schneider, Donald P.; /Penn State U., Astron. Astrophys.; Connolly,; /Pittsburgh U.; Burton, Ross E.; /Pittsburgh U. /Case Western Reserve U.; Jester, Sebastian; /Fermilab; Hall, Patrick B.; /York U., Canada; Szalay, Alex S.; /Johns Hopkins; Brinkmann, John; /Apache Point Observ.

    2005-09-01

    Using an eigenspectrum decomposition technique, we separate the host galaxy from the broad line active galactic nucleus (AGN) in a set of 4666 spectra from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS), from redshifts near zero up to about 0.75. The decomposition technique uses separate sets of galaxy and quasar eigenspectra to efficiently and reliably separate the AGN and host spectroscopic components. The technique accurately reproduces the host galaxy spectrum, its contributing fraction, and its classification. We show how the accuracy of the decomposition depends upon S/N, host galaxy fraction, and the galaxy class. Based on the eigencoefficients, the sample of SDSS broad-line AGN host galaxies spans a wide range of spectral types, but the distribution differs significantly from inactive galaxies. In particular, post-starburst activity appears to be much more common among AGN host galaxies. The luminosities of the hosts are much higher than expected for normal early-type galaxies, and their colors become increasingly bluer than early-type galaxies with increasing host luminosity. Most of the AGNs with detected hosts are emitting at between 1% and 10% of their estimated Eddington luminosities, but the sensitivity of the technique usually does not extend to the Eddington limit. There are mild correlations among the AGN and host galaxy eigencoefficients, possibly indicating a link between recent star formation and the onset of AGN activity. The catalog of spectral reconstruction parameters is available as an electronic table.

  1. The Effect of Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy versus Treatment as Usual for Anxiety in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Randomized, Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storch, Eric A.; Arnold, Elysse B.; Lewin, Adam B.; Nadeau, Josh M.; Jones, Anna M.; De Nadai, Alessandro S.; Mutch, P. Jane; Selles, Robert R.; Ung, Danielle; Murphy, Tanya K.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To examine the efficacy of a modular cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) protocol relative to treatment as usual (TAU) among children with high-functioning autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and clinically significant anxiety. Method: A total of 45 children (7-11 years of age) with high-functioning ASD and clinically significant anxiety…

  2. Exploring Anxiety Symptoms in a Large-Scale Twin Study of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders, Their Co-Twins and Controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallett, Victoria; Ronald, Angelica; Colvert, Emma; Ames, Catherine; Woodhouse, Emma; Lietz, Stephanie; Garnett, Tracy; Gillan, Nicola; Rijsdijk, Fruhling; Scahill, Lawrence; Bolton, Patrick; Happé, Francesca

    2013-01-01

    Background: Although many children with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) experience difficulties with anxiety, the manifestation of these difficulties remains unresolved. The current study assessed anxiety in a large population-based twin sample, aged 10-15 years. Phenotypic analyses were used to explore anxiety symptoms in children with ASDs,…

  3. The use of the Autism-spectrum Quotient in differentiating high functioning adults with autism, adults with schizophrenia and a neurotypical adult control group.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wouters, Saskia G.M.; Spek, Annelies A.

    2011-01-01

    The present study compared 21 high functioning individuals with autism, 21 individuals with schizophrenia and 21 healthy individuals in self-reported features of autism, as measured by the Autism-spectrum Quotient (AQ). The individuals with autism reported impairment on all AQ subscales, compared to

  4. A randomized controlled study of a social skills training for preadolescent children with autism spectrum disorders : generalization of skills by training parents and teachers?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekker, Vera; Nauta, Maaike H.; Mulder, Erik J.; Timmerman, Marieke; de Bildt, Annelies

    2014-01-01

    Background: Social skills training (SST) is a common intervention for children with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) to improve their social and communication skills. Despite the fact that SSTs are often applied in clinical practice, the evidence for the effectiveness of these trainings for children

  5. Parent Reflections of Experiences of Participating in a Randomized Controlled Trial of a Behavioral Intervention for Infants at Risk of Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freuler, Ashley C.; Baranek, Grace T.; Tashjian, Christene; Watson, Linda R.; Crais, Elizabeth R.; Turner-Brown, Lauren M.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Despite the mounting evidence of efficacy of early intervention for children with autism spectrum disorders, there is little research that considers the various perceptions and resources with which parents respond to the pressures and opportunities associated with participation in early intervention. Research is particularly lacking…

  6. WWC Review of the Report "Randomized, Controlled Trial of the LEAP Model of Early Intervention for Young Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders." What Work Clearinghouse Single Study Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2012

    2012-01-01

    The study examined in this review analyzed whether a full two-year "Learning Experiences and Alternative Program for Preschoolers and Their Parents" ("LEAP") training and support model for teachers was superior in improving outcomes of preschool children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), as compared to a limited…

  7. Managing Repetitive Behaviours in Young Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD): Pilot Randomised Controlled Trial of a New Parent Group Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grahame, Victoria; Brett, Denise; Dixon, Linda; McConachie, Helen; Lowry, Jessica; Rodgers, Jacqui; Steen, Nick; Le Couteur, Ann

    2015-01-01

    Early intervention for autism spectrum disorder (ASD) tends to focus on enhancing social-communication skills. We report the acceptability, feasibility and impact on child functioning of a new 8 weeks parent-group intervention to manage restricted and repetitive behaviours (RRB) in young children with ASD aged 3-7 years. Forty-five families took…

  8. Avoidant Personality Disorder is a Separable Schizophrenia Spectrum Personality Disorder even when Controlling for the Presence of Paranoid and Schizotypal Personality Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Fogelson, D. L.; Nuechterlein, K. H.; Asarnow, R. A.; Payne, D. L.; Subotnik, K. L.; Jacobson, K.C.; Neale, M. C.; Kendler, K. S.

    2007-01-01

    It is unresolved whether avoidant personality disorder (APD) is an independent schizophrenia (Sz)-spectrum personality disorder (PD). Some studies find APD and social anxiety symptoms (Sxs) to be a separable dimension of psychopathology in relatives (Rels) of schizophrenics while other studies find avoidant Sxs to be correlated with schizotypal and paranoid Sxs.

  9. Plasma Redshift in the Broad Line Region

    CERN Document Server

    Hansen, Peter M

    2013-01-01

    Astronomical properties of the broad line emission region (BLR) of active galactic nuclei (AGN) and quasi-stellar objects (QSO) are used to formulate a model of dynamic and electromagnetic scattering characteristics. The results of this modeling show that the observed redshift of these objects may be more complex than that from recession alone due to ionization or plasma effects.

  10. Applied Control Systems Design

    CERN Document Server

    Mahmoud, Magdi S

    2012-01-01

    Applied Control System Design examines several methods for building up systems models based on real experimental data from typical industrial processes and incorporating system identification techniques. The text takes a comparative approach to the models derived in this way judging their suitability for use in different systems and under different operational circumstances. A broad spectrum of control methods including various forms of filtering, feedback and feedforward control is applied to the models and the guidelines derived from the closed-loop responses are then composed into a concrete self-tested recipe to serve as a check-list for industrial engineers or control designers. System identification and control design are given equal weight in model derivation and testing to reflect their equality of importance in the proper design and optimization of high-performance control systems. Readers’ assimilation of the material discussed is assisted by the provision of problems and examples. Most of these e...

  11. Properties of Broad Band Continuum of Narrow Line Seyfert 1 Galaxies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    We have performed a statistical study of the properties of the broadband continuum of Narrow Line Seyfert 1 galaxies (NLS1s) by collecting ratio,infrared, optical and X-ray continuum data from various databases and comparedthe results with control samples of Broad Line Seyfert 1 galaxies (BLSls). We findthat the fraction (~ 6%) of Radio Loud (RL) NLSls is significantly less than thatof BLS1s (~ 13%), which is caused by the lack of radio-very-loud sources in theformer. The rarity of RL NLS1s, especially radio-very-loud ones, is consistent withthe scenario of small black hole and high accretion rate for NLSls. Six new radio loudNLSls are found and five RL NLS1 candidates are presented. In comparison withthe BLS1s, the NLS1s tend to have stronger far infrared emission, cooler infraredcolors and redder B- K color, which suggests that NLS1s are hosted by dust-richernuclei. The NLS1s also show steeper soft X-ray spectrum and large soft X-rayto optical flux ratio, while a significant fraction show fiat soft X-ray spectra. Atleast two factors can account for this, absorption and spectral variability. We alsoperform a correlation analysis between various broad band data. It is found thatmost correlations identified for NLS1s are also valid for radio quiet BLS1s: (1) theoptical colors are anti-correlated with X-ray spectral index; (2) higher optical, X-ray and NIR luminosity objects show bluer optical colors and red H - K color; (3)higher luminosity objects show warmer IRAS color; (4) the radio loudness correlateswith B - K and X-ray to optical flux ratio. Radio loud objects behave somewhatdifferently in a few correlations.

  12. Rational design of berberine-based FtsZ inhibitors with broad-spectrum antibacterial activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning Sun

    Full Text Available Inhibition of the functional activity of Filamenting temperature-sensitive mutant Z (FtsZ protein, an essential and highly conserved bacterial cytokinesis protein, is a promising approach for the development of a new class of antibacterial agents. Berberine, a benzylisoquinoline alkaloid widely used in traditional Chinese and native American medicines for its antimicrobial properties, has been recently reported to inhibit FtsZ. Using a combination of in silico structure-based design and in vitro biological assays, 9-phenoxyalkyl berberine derivatives were identified as potent FtsZ inhibitors. Compared to the parent compound berberine, the derivatives showed a significant enhancement of antibacterial activity against clinically relevant bacteria, and an improved potency against the GTPase activity and polymerization of FtsZ. The most potent compound 2 strongly inhibited the proliferation of Gram-positive bacteria, including methicillin-resistant S. aureus and vancomycin-resistant E. faecium, with MIC values between 2 and 4 µg/mL, and was active against the Gram-negative E. coli and K. pneumoniae, with MIC values of 32 and 64 µg/mL respectively. The compound perturbed the formation of cytokinetic Z-ring in E. coli. Also, the compound interfered with in vitro polymerization of S. aureus FtsZ. Taken together, the chemical modification of berberine with 9-phenoxyalkyl substituent groups greatly improved the antibacterial activity via targeting FtsZ.

  13. Novel polyomavirus detected in the feces of a chimpanzee by nested broad-spectrum PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johne, Reimar; Enderlein, Dirk; Nieper, Hermann; Müller, Hermann

    2005-03-01

    In order to screen for new polyomaviruses in samples derived from various animal species, degenerated PCR primer pairs were constructed. By using a nested PCR protocol, the sensitive detection of nine different polyomavirus genomes was demonstrated. The screening of field samples revealed the presence of a new polyomavirus, tentatively designated chimpanzee polyomavirus (ChPyV), in the feces of a juvenile chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes). Analysis of the region encoding the major capsid protein VP1 revealed a unique insertion in the EF loop of the protein and showed that ChPyV is a distinct virus related to the monkey polyomavirus B-lymphotropic polyomavirus and the human polyomavirus JC polyomavirus. PMID:15731285

  14. Fibroblast growth factors: An epigenetic mechanism of broad spectrum resistance to anticancer drugs

    OpenAIRE

    Song, SaeHeum; Wientjes, M. Guillaume; Gan, Yuebo; Au, Jessie L. -S.

    2000-01-01

    Based on the observation that removal of tumors from metastatic organs reversed their chemoresistance, we hypothesized that chemoresistance is induced by extracellular factors in tumor-bearing organs. By comparing chemosensitivity and proteins in different tumors (primary vs. metastases) and different culture systems (tumor fragment histocultures vs. monolayer cultures derived from the same tumor), we found elevated levels of acidic (aFGF) and basic (bFGF) fibroblast growth factors in the con...

  15. Graduated diagnostics required. Broad spectrum of differential diagnoses; Stufendiagnostik erforderlich. Breites Spektrum an Differentialdiagnosen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Auer, I.O. [Medizinische Klinik Juliusspital, Schwerpunkt Gastroenterologie/Rheumatologie, Wuerzburg (Germany)

    1997-10-01

    The time lapse between initial symptoms and secured diagnosis of colitis ulcerosa still is 6-8 weeks, in case of M. Crohn even about 30 weeks. A graduated diagnostic approach is required: phase 1 relies on non-invasive methods such as anamnesis, physical examination, examination of stools, blood chemistry and sonography of the abdomen; phase 2 ecompasses endoscopy and radiological techniques, phase 3 computed tomography and MRI for detection of complications. The results of the leucodiagnosis by scintiscanning, for detection of inflammations of and out of the intestine, offer a still inhomogenous picture in terms of sensitivity and specificity. (orig./MG) [Deutsch] Noch immer betraegt die Zeitspanne von den ersten Symptomen bis zur Diagnose bei Colitis ulcerosa 6 bis 8 Wochen, bei M. Crohn sogar etwa 30 Wochen. Eine Stufendiagnostik ist gefordert: Stufe 1 umfasst nicht-invasive Methoden wie Anamnese, koerperliche Untersuchung, Stuhluntersuchung, Blutchemie und Abdomen-Sonographie, Stufe 2 die Endoskopie und radiologische Methoden, Stufe 3 die CT und die MRT zur Erkennung von Komplikationen. Die Ergebnisse der Leukozytenszintigraphie zum Nachweis entzuendlicher Veraenderungen am und ausserhalb des Darms sind hinsichtlich Spezifitaet und Sensitivitaet noch sehr uneinheitlich. (orig./MG)

  16. Engineering of gadofluoroprobes: Broad-spectrum applications from cancer diagnosis to therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dutta, Ranu A., E-mail: ranu.dutta16@gmail.com [Nanotechnology Application Centre, University of Allahabad, Allahabad 211002 (India); NanoeRA medicare Private Limited, Uttar Pradesh (India); Sharma, Prashant K. [Nanotechnology Application Centre, University of Allahabad, Allahabad 211002 (India); Indian School of Mines, Dhanbad (India); Tiwari, Vandana [Department of Pathology, KGMU, Lucknow (India); Tiwari, Vivek; Patel, Anant B. [Centre for Cellular and Molecular Biology, Hyderabad (India); Pandey, Ravindra [Department of Physics, Michigan Technological University, Michigan 49931-1295 (United States); Pandey, Avinash C. [Nanotechnology Application Centre, University of Allahabad, Allahabad 211002 (India); NanoeRA medicare Private Limited, Uttar Pradesh (India); Bundelkhand University, Jhansi (India)

    2014-01-13

    The engineering of the Gadolinium based nanostructures have been demonstrated in this paper. Nanostructures of α-Gd{sub 2}S{sub 3} exhibit a unique transition between ferromagnetic state and paramagnetic state of the system. It was demonstrated that their properties could be tuned for a wide range of applications ranging from hyperthermia to Magnetic Resonance Imaging, owing to their magnetic moments and large relaxivities. Metallic Gd nanoparticles obtained by reduction method were employed for cancer imaging in mice. The Gd nanoparticles were coated with Curcumin and their biomedical implications in the field of simultaneous diagnosis and therapy of cancer and related diseases has been discussed.

  17. Novel Peptides from Skins of Amphibians Showed Broad-Spectrum Antimicrobial Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ying; Zhang, Yue; Lee, Wen-Hui; Yang, Xinwang; Zhang, Yun

    2016-03-01

    Peptide agents are often considered as potential biomaterials for developing new drugs that can overcome the rising resistance of pathogenic micro-organisms to classic antibiotic treatments. One key source of peptide agents is amphibian skin, as they provide a great deal of naturally occurring antimicrobial peptide (AMP) templates awaiting further exploitation and utilization. In this study, 12 novel AMPs from the skins of 3 ranid frogs, Rana limnocharis, R. exilispinosa, and Amolops afghanus, were identified using a 5' PCR primer. A total of 11 AMPs exhibited similarities with currently known AMP families, including brevinin-1, brevinin-2, esculentin-1, and nigrocin, besides, one AMP, named as Limnochariin, represented a novel AMP family. All 12 AMPs contain a C-terminus cyclic motif and most of them show obvious antimicrobial activities against 18 standard and clinically isolated strains of bacteria, including 4 Gram-positive bacteria, 11 Gram-negative bacteria, and 3 fungus. These findings provide helpful insight that will be useful in the design of anti-infective peptide agents. PMID:26452973

  18. Broad spectrum anti-microbial compounds producing bacteria from coast of Qingdao bays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Muhammad Naseem; Li, Meng; Mirani, Zulfiqar Ali; Wang, Jingxue; Lin, Hong; Buzdar, Muhammad Aslam

    2015-03-01

    Anti-microbial resistance burden and hazard associated with chemical treatment of infections demanded for new anti-microbial natural products. Marine associated microorganisms are the enormous source of bioactive compounds. In this study we have isolated 272 marine bacteria among them 136 (50%) were antagonistic to at least one of the four pathogenic strains Listeria monocytogenes, Vibrio cholerae, E. coli and S. aureus. Only two strains exhibited antibacterial activity against all four test strains, which were identified by 16S rDNA sequencing as Bacillus sp. DK1-SA11 and Vibrio sp. DK6-SH8. Marine isolate DK1-SA11 has potential to resist boiling temperature and pH 2-12. Furthermore cell free extract (CFE) inhibited all test organisms including superbug MRSA and pathogenic yeast Candida albicans. Marine isolate Bacillus sp. DK1-SA11 could be a potential combatant for the battle of drugs and bugs. PMID:25730803

  19. The effect of broad-spectrum antibiotics on warfarin excretion and metabolism in the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The excretion and metabolism of 14C-warfarin in rats was examined in a crossover experiment, the first phase consisting of treatment with normal saline, the second phase using the same animals given neomycin, bacitracin, and tetracycline orally. Urine and feces were collected every 24 hours for 72 hours and examined for warfarin and its metabolites, both unconjugated and conjugated. Significantly more radioactivity was eliminated in th feces of antibiotic-treated rats. The feces of antibiotic-treated rats contained only trace amounts of beta-glucuronidase activity. Urine contained a similar ratio of unconjugated to conjugated radioactivity in both treatment groups, but the antibiotic-treated animals had significantly larger amount of conjugates in their feces. Examination of metabolic profiles of conjugated and unconjugated fractions revealed significantly fewer hydroxylated metabolites in antibiotic-treated rats, especially in the feces. The lower amount of hydroxylative metabolism in attributed to a reduction in gut flora-medicated interohepatic recycling caused by the antibiotics

  20. Surface structures for enhancement of quantum yield in broad spectrum emission nanocrystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreuder, Michael A.; McBride, James R.; Rosenthal, Sandra J.

    2014-07-22

    Disclosed are inorganic nanoparticles comprising a body comprising cadmium and/or zinc crystallized with selenium, sulfur, and/or tellurium; a multiplicity of phosphonic acid ligands comprising at least about 20% of the total surface ligand coverage; wherein the nanocrystal is capable of absorbing energy from a first electromagnetic region and capable of emitting light in a second electromagnetic region, wherein the maximum absorbance wavelength of the first electromagnetic region is different from the maximum emission wavelength of the second electromagnetic region, thereby providing a Stokes shift of at least about 20 nm, wherein the second electromagnetic region comprises an at least about 100 nm wide band of wavelengths, and wherein the nanoparticle exhibits has a quantum yield of at least about 10%. This abstract is intended as a scanning tool for purposes of searching in the particular art and is not intended to be limiting of the present invention.

  1. A mutagenesis-derived broad-spectrum disease resistance locus in wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Jackie; Zhang, Hongtao; Giroux, Michael J; Feiz, Leila; Jin, Yue; Wang, Meinan; Chen, Xianming; Huang, Li

    2012-07-01

    Wheat leaf rust, stem rust, stripe rust, and powdery mildew caused by the fungal pathogens Puccinia triticina, P. graminis f. sp. tritici, P. striiformis f. sp. tritici, and Blumeria graminis f. sp. tritici, respectively, are destructive diseases of wheat worldwide. Breeding durable disease resistance cultivars rely largely on continually introgressing new resistance genes, especially the genes with different defense mechanisms, into adapted varieties. Here, we describe a new resistance gene obtained by mutagenesis. The mutant, MNR220 (mutagenesis-derived new resistance), enhances resistance to three rusts and powdery mildew, with the characteristics of delayed disease development at the seedling stage and completed resistance at the adult plant stage. Genetic analysis demonstrated that the resistance in MNR220 is conferred by a single semidominant gene mapped on the short arm of chromosome 2B. Gene expression profiling of several pathogenesis-related genes indicated that MNR220 has an elevated and rapid pathogen-induced response. In addition to its potential use in breeding for resistance to multiple diseases, high-resolution mapping and cloning of the disease resistance locus in MNR220 may lead to a better understanding of the regulation of defense responses in wheat. PMID:22446929

  2. A mutagenesis-derived broad-spectrum disease resistance locus in wheat

    OpenAIRE

    Campbell, Jackie; Zhang, Hongtao; Giroux, Michael J.; Feiz, Leila; Jin, Yue; Wang, Meinan; Chen, Xianming; Huang, Li

    2012-01-01

    Wheat leaf rust, stem rust, stripe rust, and powdery mildew caused by the fungal pathogens Puccinia triticina, P. graminis f. sp. tritici, P. striiformis f. sp. tritici, and Blumeria graminis f. sp. tritici, respectively, are destructive diseases of wheat worldwide. Breeding durable disease resistance cultivars rely largely on continually introgressing new resistance genes, especially the genes with different defense mechanisms, into adapted varieties. Here, we describe a new resistance gene ...

  3. MICROBIAL TRANSFORMATION OF GALLOTANNINS TO GALLIC ACID, AN INTERMEDIATE PRODUCT OF TRIMETHOPRIM, A BROAD SPECTRUM ANTIBOITIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. AYYANNA

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A method for producing Gallic acid by microbiological hydrolysis of the tannins of tripods powder is described in the present work. Hydrolysis of gallotanins of the substrate to Gallic acid by aspergilus niger MTCC 282 was studied. A simple extraction procedure is used. Fungal mycelia pre-induced with 5 g/l gallotanin was used as inocolums. Optimal values for various physico-chemical parameters including substrate concentration, inocolum levels, pH, temperature, fermentation, inocolum age, agitatioin, gallotanin concentration nultritional source and metal ion were determined. The yield of Gallic acide with respect to gallotannins present in the substrate is estimated. Yield of Gallic acid are about 82% with respect to gallotannin concentration, which suggests that this method ix exploitable industrially for manufacturing Trimethoprim drug.Currnet total requirment of Gallic acid is around 8,000 tones per year all over the world. Conventionally Gallic acid is being produced by acid hydrolysis of tannin rich source. But this technology has serval disadvantages regarding cost, yield and purity of the product. This technology alos causes a lot of environmental pollution being a chemical process. The present technique of conversion of teri tannins to Gallic acid using fungal mycelia viz, aspergillus niger MTCC 282, being purely a bioconversion is free from pollution with more purity of product.

  4. Association between colistin resistance and broad-spectrum recipient deficiency in Klebsiella pneumoniae.

    OpenAIRE

    Lamousin-White, M; O'Callaghan, R J

    1986-01-01

    A colistin-resistant mutant of Klebsiella pneumoniae served well as a donor but not as a recipient in conjugation. A nearly 1,000-fold difference between colistin-susceptible and colistin-resistant forms of this strain was observed by using donors of plasmids of four incompatibility groups. Recipient efficiency was not restored by filter matings.

  5. Childhood psychosocial stressors and adult onset arthritis: Broad spectrum risk factors and allostatic load

    OpenAIRE

    Von Korff, Michael; Alonso, Jordi; Ormel, Johan; Angermeyer, Matthais; Bruffaerts, Ronny; Fleiz, Clara; de Girolamo, Giovanni; Ronald C. Kessler; Kovess-Masfety, Viviane; Posada-Villa, Jose; Scott, Kate M.; Uda, Hidenori

    2009-01-01

    Neural, endocrine, and immune stress mediators are hypothesized to increase risks of diverse chronic diseases, including arthritis. Retrospective data from the World Mental Health Surveys (N = 18,309) were employed to assess whether adult onset of arthritis was associated with childhood adversities and early onset psychological disorder. Cox proportional hazard models assessed the association of number of childhood adversities and the presence of early onset psychological disorder with arthri...

  6. Colostrum of Healthy Mothers Contains Broad Spectrum of Secretory IgA Autoantibodies

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Přibylová, Jaroslava; Krausová, Klára; Kocourková, I.; Rossmann, Pavel; Klimešová, Klára; Kverka, Miloslav; Tlaskalová-Hogenová, Helena

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 32, č. 6 (2012), s. 1372-1380. ISSN 0271-9142 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP304/11/1252 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : Autoantibodies * mucosal immunity * immunoglobulins Subject RIV: EC - Immunology Impact factor: 3.382, year: 2012

  7. A Broad Range of Ophthalmologic Anomalies is Part of the Holoprosencephaly Spectrum

    OpenAIRE

    Pineda-Alvarez, Daniel E.; Solomon, Benjamin D.; Roessler, Erich; Balog, Joan Z.; Hadley, Donald W.; Zein, Wadih M.; Hadsall, Casey K.; BROOKS, BRIAN P.; Muenke, Maximilian

    2011-01-01

    Holosprosencephaly (HPE) is the most common disorder of the developing forebrain in humans, and is characterized by failed or incomplete cleavage of the cerebral hemispheres and deep brain structures. HPE includes wide phenotypic variability, with a continuum of both brain and craniofacial anomalies.

  8. The broad spectrum of Trichinella hosts: from cold- to warm-blooded animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pozio, E

    2005-09-01

    In recent years, studies on Trichinella have shown that the host range is wider than previously believed and new Trichinella species and genotypes have been described. Three classes of vertebrates are known to act as hosts, mammals, birds and reptiles, and infected vertebrates have been detected on all continents but Antarctica. Mammals represent the most important hosts and all Trichinella species are able to develop in this vertebrate class. Natural infections with Trichinella have been described in more than 150 mammalian species belonging to 12 orders (i.e., Marsupialia, Insectivora, Edentata, Chiroptera, Lagomorpha, Rodentia, Cetacea, Carnivora, Perissodactyla, Artiodactyla, Tylopoda and Primates). The epidemiology of the infection greatly varies by species relative to characteristics, such as diet, life span, distribution, behaviour, and relationships with humans. The non-encapsulated species Trichinella pseudospiralis, detected in both mammals (14 species) and birds (13 species), shows a cosmopolitan distribution with three distinguishable populations in the Palearctic, Nearctic and Australian regions. Two additional non-encapsulated species, Trichinella papuae, detected in wild pigs and saltwater crocodiles of Papua New Guinea, and Trichinella zimbabwensis, detected in farmed Nile crocodiles of Zimbabwe, can complete their life cycle in both mammals and reptiles. To the best of our knowledge, T. papuae and T. zimbabwensis are the only two parasites known to complete their entire life cycle independently of whether the host is warm-blooded or cold-blooded. This suggests that these two Trichinella species are capable of activating different physiological mechanisms, according to the specific vertebrate class hosting them. PMID:15970384

  9. E-Learning: A Broad-Spectrum View toward Benefits and Pitfalls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrahimi, Pouria

    2010-01-01

    In a world on the move, the need for technology in any of its form is desired every minute of every day. For any type of technology to stay in vogue, real-time information is to be delivered to the applicants; otherwise, it is doomed to fall. The process of updating information and delivering it to the applicants needs education--with no doubt.…

  10. Functionalization of electrospun {beta}-cyclodextrin/polyacrylonitrile (PAN) with silver nanoparticles: Broad-spectrum antibacterial property

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Shan [Chemical Engineering College, Inner Mongolia University of Technology, Hohhot, 010051 (China); Bai Jie, E-mail: baijie@imut.edu.cn [Chemical Engineering College, Inner Mongolia University of Technology, Hohhot, 010051 (China); Li Chunping; Zhang Jianbin [Chemical Engineering College, Inner Mongolia University of Technology, Hohhot, 010051 (China)

    2012-11-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Novel PAN nanofibers contained {beta}-cyclodextrin and Ag nanoparticles. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The composite nanofibers as antibacterial material. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The composite nanofibers showed stronger antibacterial activity. - Abstract: Polyacrylonitrile (PAN) nanofibers containing {beta}-cyclodextrin ({beta}-CD) and Ag nanoparticles have been prepared by electrospinning technology. The silver nanoparticles were obtained from the AgNO{sub 3}/PAN/DMF solution, in which AgNO{sub 3} acted as the precursor, DMF as reducing reagent, and PAN as protective agent. Then, {beta}-CD was added to above solution and the resultant Ag/{beta}-CD-PAN/DMF solution was directly electrospun to prepare Ag/{beta}-CD-PAN nanofibers. The morphology of the nanofibers has been characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The antimicrobial properties were investigated by Gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) and Gram-negative Escherichia coli (E. coli) bacteria, and the results indicated that the composite nanofibers showed stronger antibacterial activity.

  11. Functionalization of electrospun β-cyclodextrin/polyacrylonitrile (PAN) with silver nanoparticles: Broad-spectrum antibacterial property

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Novel PAN nanofibers contained β-cyclodextrin and Ag nanoparticles. ► The composite nanofibers as antibacterial material. ► The composite nanofibers showed stronger antibacterial activity. - Abstract: Polyacrylonitrile (PAN) nanofibers containing β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) and Ag nanoparticles have been prepared by electrospinning technology. The silver nanoparticles were obtained from the AgNO3/PAN/DMF solution, in which AgNO3 acted as the precursor, DMF as reducing reagent, and PAN as protective agent. Then, β-CD was added to above solution and the resultant Ag/β-CD-PAN/DMF solution was directly electrospun to prepare Ag/β-CD-PAN nanofibers. The morphology of the nanofibers has been characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The antimicrobial properties were investigated by Gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) and Gram-negative Escherichia coli (E. coli) bacteria, and the results indicated that the composite nanofibers showed stronger antibacterial activity.

  12. Expansion of a recent class of broad-spectrum antifungal agents: the echinocandins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Manfredi

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The echinocandins show comparable efficacy in the treatment of candidemia and invasive candidiasis. Caspofungin and micafungin appear to be similarly efficacious in salvage therapy in aspergillosis; anidulafungin has excellent in vitro activity against Aspergillus species but as yet there are no sufficient clinical data for anidulafungin in this disease state. Each drug has minor advantages and disadvantages compared to the others of the same classe; however, there are large differences in the approved indications for the different drugs. The formulary selection process should consider the direct and indirect costs of the single agents; the characteristics of the patient population at risk for invasive mycosis, such as frequent use of interacting drugs and the burden of monitoring plasma drug levels of drugs; and the implications of using products for indications which have not been still approved (off-label indications.

  13. Novel gramicidin formulations in cationic lipid as broad-spectrum microbicidal agents

    OpenAIRE

    Ragioto DA; Carrasco LD; Carmona-Ribeiro AM

    2014-01-01

    Danielle AMT Ragioto, Letícia DM Carrasco, Ana M Carmona-Ribeiro Departamento de Bioquímica, Instituto de Química, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil Abstract: Dioctadecyldimethylammonium bromide (DODAB) is an antimicrobial lipid that can be dispersed as large closed bilayers (LV) or bilayer disks (BF). Gramicidin (Gr) is an antimicrobial peptide assembling as channels in membranes and increasing their permeability towards ca...

  14. Phenotypic detection of broad-spectrum beta-lactamases in microbiological practice

    OpenAIRE

    Sedlakova, Miroslava Htoutou; Hanulik, Vojtech; Chroma, Magdalena; Hricova, Kristyna; Kolar, Milan; Latal, Tomas; Schaumann, Reiner; Rodloff, Arne C.

    2011-01-01

    Summary Background Enterobacteriaceae producing ESBL and AmpC enzymes can be associated with failure of antibiotic therapy and related morbidity and mortality. Their routine detection in microbiology laboratories is still a problem. The aim of this study was to compare the sensitivity of selected phenotypic methods. Material/Methods A total of 106 strains of the Enterobacteriaceae family were tested, in which molecular biology methods confirmed the presence of genes encoding ESBL or AmpC. In ...

  15. In vitro studies on the antibacterial activities of YM-13115, a new broad-spectrum cephalosporin.

    OpenAIRE

    Toda, M; Arao, N; Nohara, C; Susaki, K; Tachibana, A

    1985-01-01

    The in vitro antibacterial activities of YM-13115, a new parenteral cephalosporin, were compared with those of ceftazidime, cefoperazone, and cefsulodin. The compound was highly active against the common members of the Enterobacteriaceae and 2 to 256 times more active than cefoperazone. YM-13115 was as active as ceftazidime against Citrobacter freundii, Proteus vulgaris, and Morganella morganii and two to four times more active than ceftazidime against Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae,...

  16. A Broad-Spectrum Microbicide with Virucidal Activity against Sexually Transmitted Viruses

    OpenAIRE

    Howett, M K; Neely, E. B.; Christensen, N D; Wigdahl, B; Krebs, F. C.; Malamud, D; Patrick, S D; Pickel, M. D.; Welsh, P. A.; Reed, C. A.; Ward, M. G.; Budgeon, L. R.; Kreider, J W

    1999-01-01

    Sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), an alkyl sulfate surfactant derived from an organic alcohol, possesses surfactant properties but also denatures and unfolds both monomeric and subunit proteins. In preliminary experiments, we demonstrated that SDS is a potent inactivator of herpes simplex virus type 2 and human immunodeficiency virus type 1 at concentrations comparable to those used for the surfactant nonoxynol-9. We hypothesized that SDS might be capable of denaturing the capsid proteins of none...

  17. Broad Spectrum Activity of a Lectin-Like Bacterial Serine Protease Family on Human Leukocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayala-Lujan, Jorge Luis; Vijayakumar, Vidhya; Gong, Mei; Smith, Rachel; Santiago, Araceli E.; Ruiz-Perez, Fernando

    2014-01-01

    The serine protease autotransporter from Enterobacteriaceae (SPATE) family, which number more than 25 proteases with apparent diverse functions, have been phylogenetically divided into two distinct classes, designated 1 and 2. We recently demonstrated that Pic and Tsh, two members of the class-2 SPATE family produced by intestinal and extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli, were able to cleave a number of O-glycosylated proteins on neutrophils and lymphocytes resulting in impaired leukocyte functions. Here we show that most members of the class-2 SPATE family have lectin-like properties and exhibit differential protease activity reliant on glycoprotein type and cell lineage. Protease activity was seen in virtually all tested O-glycosylated proteins including CD34, CD55, CD164, TIM1, TIM3, TIM4 and C1-INH. We also show that although SPATE proteins bound and cleaved glycoproteins more efficiently on granulocytes and monocytes, they also targeted glycoproteins on B, T and natural killer lymphocytes. Finally, we found that the characteristic domain-2 of class-2 SPATEs is not required for glycoprotease activity, but single amino acid mutations in Pic domain-1 to those residues naturally occurring in domain-1 of SepA, were sufficient to hamper Pic glycoprotease activity. This study shows that most class-2 SPATEs have redundant activities and suggest that they may function as immunomodulators at several levels of the immune system. PMID:25251283

  18. Broad spectrum activity of a lectin-like bacterial serine protease family on human leukocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Luis Ayala-Lujan

    Full Text Available The serine protease autotransporter from Enterobacteriaceae (SPATE family, which number more than 25 proteases with apparent diverse functions, have been phylogenetically divided into two distinct classes, designated 1 and 2. We recently demonstrated that Pic and Tsh, two members of the class-2 SPATE family produced by intestinal and extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli, were able to cleave a number of O-glycosylated proteins on neutrophils and lymphocytes resulting in impaired leukocyte functions. Here we show that most members of the class-2 SPATE family have lectin-like properties and exhibit differential protease activity reliant on glycoprotein type and cell lineage. Protease activity was seen in virtually all tested O-glycosylated proteins including CD34, CD55, CD164, TIM1, TIM3, TIM4 and C1-INH. We also show that although SPATE proteins bound and cleaved glycoproteins more efficiently on granulocytes and monocytes, they also targeted glycoproteins on B, T and natural killer lymphocytes. Finally, we found that the characteristic domain-2 of class-2 SPATEs is not required for glycoprotease activity, but single amino acid mutations in Pic domain-1 to those residues naturally occurring in domain-1 of SepA, were sufficient to hamper Pic glycoprotease activity. This study shows that most class-2 SPATEs have redundant activities and suggest that they may function as immunomodulators at several levels of the immune system.

  19. Lactimidomycin is a broad-spectrum inhibitor of dengue and other RNA viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carocci, Margot; Yang, Priscilla L

    2016-04-01

    Dengue virus, a member of the Flaviviridae family, is a mosquito-borne pathogen and the causative agent of dengue fever. Despite the nearly 400 million new infections estimated annually, no vaccines or specific antiviral therapeutics are currently available. We identified lactimidomycin (LTM), a recently established inhibitor of translation elongation, as a potent inhibitor of dengue virus 2 infection in cell culture. The antiviral activity is observed at concentrations that do not affect cell viability. We show that Kunjin virus and Modoc virus, two other members of the Flavivirus genus, as well as vesicular stomatitis virus and poliovirus 1, are also sensitive to LTM. Our findings suggest that inhibition of translation elongation, an obligate step in the viral replication cycle, may provide a general antiviral strategy against fast-replicating RNA viruses. PMID:26872864

  20. The reproductive safety profile of mood stabilizers, atypical antipsychotics, and broad-spectrum psychotropics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernst, Carrie L; Goldberg, Joseph F

    2002-01-01

    There has been growing concern about the potential iatrogenic effects of several newer psychotropic drugs on reproductive health safety in women. Areas of particular concern in this regard include (1) controversies about a potential association between the use of valproate and development of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), (2) the safety of use of newer psychotropic medications during pregnancy, and (3) safety issues with these medications in women while breastfeeding. This review summarizes current information about each of these areas. In particular, existing data suggest that (1) PCOS very likely represents a complex neuroendocrine disorder with multiple determinants; (2) menstrual irregularities may be a frequently seen phenomenon in women with bipolar illness, at least partially independent of psychotropic drug therapy; (3) potential central nervous system teratogenicity remains substantial during first-trimester exposure to valproate or carbamazepine; (4) with newer agents used for bipolar disorder and schizophrenia, safety data during pregnancy, while not definitive, are most abundant with olanzapine and with lamotrigine; relatively less is known about systematic pregnancy outcomes with other atypical antipsychotics or newer anticonvulsants; and (5) risks for neonatal safety during lactation continue to appear substantial with lithium, are of potential concern with lamotrigine and clozapine, are quite likely minimal with valproate or carbamazepine, and are indeterminate with most other new anticonvulsants or atypical antipsychotics. Recommendations are presented for clinical management in each of these instances. PMID:11913676

  1. Forensic mental health law reform in Japan: from criminal warehousing to broad-spectrum specialist services?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisstub, David N; Carney, Terry

    2006-01-01

    Since the 1980s Japan has undergone a number of mental health law reforms culminating in the 2005 forensic law. This added to its enactments on involuntary commitment, long-term aged care and substitute decision making, bringing Japan into focus as an industrialized state now possessed of a full package of civil and forensic provisions. This article seeks to demonstrate that the new forensic law cannot achieve its own stated goals without seeking to put into place financial and administrative supports aimed to integrate the myriad of patient populations that will be inevitably affected by the new forensic system. In order to avoid the widespread syndrome that has already been experienced internationally of warehousing mentally ill offenders in jails, it is critical that the Japanese government develop effective and culturally sensitive techniques for dealing with low risk populations through a diversionary process. Furthermore, although the legislation addresses serious crimes, it is imperative that policies be put into place to avoid directing young offenders, violent patients from the general hospital system, the developmentally handicapped, already convicted persons found in hospital settings and problematic cases in the correctional system, to the new forensic units established by the legislation. It is only though contemplating unintended outcomes of the legislation that the Japanese government will be able to avoid the ongoing stigmatization and prolonged institutionalization of mentally ill populations. Despite apparent cultural differences internationally vetted human rights requirements must be properly protected, not only in the forensic context, but throughout the mental health system at large. The coordination of services and the development of specialty training are necessary conditions for the realization of improved and humane conditions for mentally ill persons in Japan. PMID:16448699

  2. Designing a broad-spectrum integrative approach for cancer prevention and treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Block, Keith I.; Gyllenhaal, Charlotte; Lowe, Leroy; Amedei, Amedeo; Ruhul Amin, A. R. M.; Amin, Amr; Aquilano, Katia; Arbiser, Jack; Arreola, Alexandra; Arzumanyan, Alla; Salman Ashraf, S.; Azmi, Asfar S.; Benencia, Fabian; Bhakta, Dipita; Bilsland, Alan

    2015-01-01

    Targeted therapies and the consequent adoption of "personalized" oncology have achieved notable successes in some cancers; however, significant problems remain with this approach. Many targeted therapies are highly toxic, costs are extremely high, and most patients experience relapse after a few disease-free months. Relapses arise from genetic heterogeneity in tumors, which harbor therapy-resistant immortalized cells that have adopted alternate and compensatory pathways (i.e., pathways that a...

  3. Engineering broad-spectrum digestion of polyuronides from an exolytic polysaccharide lyase

    OpenAIRE

    MacDonald, Logan C.; Weiler, Elizabeth B.; Berger, Bryan W.

    2016-01-01

    Background Macroalgae represents a promising source of fermentable carbohydrates for use in the production of energy efficient biofuel. The primary carbohydrate in brown algae is the uronic acid-containing alginate, whereas green algae contains a significant amount of glucuronan. A necessary step in the conversion of these polyuronides to bioethanol is saccharification, which can be achieved by enzymatic or chemical degradation. Results Polysaccharide lyases are a class of enzymes which cleav...

  4. A cognitive-behavioral intervention for emotion regulation in adults with high-functioning autism spectrum disorders: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Kuroda, Miho; Kawakubo, Yuki; Kuwabara, Hitoshi; YOKOYAMA, Kazuhito; Kano, Yukiko; Kamio, Yoko

    2013-01-01

    Background Adults with high-functioning autism spectrum disorders (ASD) have difficulties in social communication; thus, these individuals have trouble understanding the mental states of others. Recent research also suggests that adults with ASD are unable to understand their own mental states, which could lead to difficulties in emotion-regulation. Some studies have reported the efficacy of cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) in improving emotion-regulation among children with ASD. The curren...

  5. Neonatal cytokines and chemokines and risk of Autism Spectrum Disorder: the Early Markers for Autism (EMA) study: a case-control study

    OpenAIRE

    Zerbo, Ousseny; Yoshida, Cathleen; Grether, Judith K.; Van de Water, Judy; Ashwood, Paul; Delorenze, Gerald N; Hansen, Robin L.; Kharrazi, Marty; Croen, Lisa A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Biologic markers of infection and inflammation have been associated with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) but prior studies have largely relied on specimens taken after clinical diagnosis. Research on potential biologic markers early in neurodevelopment is required to evaluate possible causal pathways and screening profiles. Objective To investigate levels of cytokines and chemokines in newborn blood specimens as possible early biologic markers for autism. Methods We conducted a pop...

  6. Individual differences in the efficacy of a short theory of mind intervention for children with autism spectrum disorder: a randomized controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Hoddenbach Elske; Koot Hans M; Clifford Pamela; Gevers Carolien; Clauser Cassandra; Boer Frits; Begeer Sander

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Having a ‘theory of mind’, or having the ability to attribute mental states to oneself or others, is considered one of the most central domains of impairment among children with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Many interventions focus on improving theory of mind skills in children with ASD. Nonetheless, the empirical evidence for the effect of these interventions is limited. The main goal of this study is to examine the effectiveness of a short theory of mind interventi...

  7. A randomized, placebo-controlled trial of d-cycloserine for the enhancement of social skills training in autism spectrum disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Minshawi, Noha F.; Wink, Logan K.; Shaffer, Rebecca; Plawecki, Martin H.; Posey, David J.; Liu, Hai; Hurwitz, Sarah; McDougle, Christopher J.; Swiezy, Naomi B.; Erickson, Craig A.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Researchers have demonstrated that d-cycloserine (DCS) can enhance the effects of behavioral interventions in adults with anxiety and enhances prosocial behavior in animal models of autism spectrum disorders (ASD). This study extended upon this background by combining DCS with behavioral social skills therapy in youth with ASD to assess its impact on the core social deficits of ASD. We hypothesized that DCS used in combination with social skills training would enhance the acquisit...

  8. Manualized social skills group training for children and adolescents with higher functioning autism spectrum disorder: protocol of a naturalistic multicenter, randomized controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Choque Olsson, Nora; Tammimies, Kristiina; Bölte, Sven

    2015-01-01

    AbstractAutism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a lifelong neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by impairments in social communication and interaction, and the presence of stereotyped, repetitive and restricted behavior, interests, and activities. Despite prior studies showing moderate efficacy of social skills group training (SSGT) for children and adolescents with ASD, its effectiveness remains unclear. To investigate the efficacy and effectiveness of SSGT, we have initiated a large randomiz...

  9. Low-toxicity baits control ants in citrus orchards and grape vineyards

    OpenAIRE

    Tollerup, Kris E.; Rust, Michael K.; Dorschner, Keith W.; Phillips, Phil A.; Klotz, John H.

    2004-01-01

    Effective ant control is critical for controlling honeydew-secreting homopteran agricultural pests such as whitefly and mealybug. Low-toxicity ant baits may more effectively control ants than the broad-spectrum insecticides currently used in California vineyards and citrus orchards. This study focused on developing effective ant baits for use in bait stations to control field ant and Argentine ant, which aggressively tend homopteran pests. In the Coachella Valley, field ant is associated with...

  10. Flow over an Erodible Broad Crested Weir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. K. C.Sahu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The overtopping flow of water over an earthen embankment causes erosion of soil from its surfaces and the eroded surface of the embankment acts as a Broad crest weir. But the longitudinal profile of the weir goes on changing with time of erosion. Hence crest height of the weir goes changing in accelerated flow condition. In this paper, the discharge equation for this type of flow situation is established for different types of soils used in the embankment. Then, the experiments have been carried out as the analogous rigid beds of the captured eroded profiles at any time of erosion of the broad crested weir to compare the discharge equation and to study the energy loss in dislodging the soil from the surface of the weir and transporting them down stream.

  11. Broad line regions in Seyfert-1 galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To reproduce observed emission profiles of Seyfert galaxies, rotation in an accretion disk has been proposed. In this thesis, the profiles emitted by such an accretion disk are investigated. Detailed comparison with the observed profiles yields that a considerable fraction can be fitted with a power-law function, as predicted by the model. The author analyzes a series of high quality spectra of Seyfert galaxies, obtained with the 2.5m telescope at Las Campanas. He presents detailed analyses of two objects: Mkn335 and Akn120. In both cases, strong evidence is presented for the presence of two separate broad line zones. These zones are identified with an accretion disk and an outflowing wind. The disk contains gas with very high densities and emits predominantly the lower ionization lines. He reports on the discovery of very broad wings beneath the strong forbidden line 5007. (Auth.)

  12. Fourier evaluation of broad Moessbauer spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is shown by the Fourier analysis of broad Moessbauer spectra that the even part of the distribution of the dominant hyperfine interaction (hyperfine field or quadrupole splitting) can be obtained directly without using least-square fitting procedures. Also the odd part of this distribution correlated with other hyperfine parameters (e.g. isomer shift) can be directly determined. Examples for amorphous magnetic and paramagnetic iron-based alloys are presented. (author)

  13. A Broad View of Macroeconomic Stability

    OpenAIRE

    José Antonio Ocampo

    2005-01-01

    This paper recommends a broad concept of macroeconomic stability, whereby “sound macroeconomic frameworks” include not only price stability and sound fiscal policies, but also a well-functioning real economy, sustainable debt ratios and healthy public and private sector balance sheets. These multiple dimensions imply using multiple policy instruments. The paper elaborates a framework for developing countries that involves active use of counter-cyclical macroeconomic policies (exchange rate, m...

  14. Crx broadly modulates the pineal transcriptome

    OpenAIRE

    Rovsing, Louise; Clokie, Samuel; Bustos, Diego M.; Rohde, Kristian; Steven L Coon; Litman, Thomas; Rath, Martin F.; Møller, Morten; Klein, David C.

    2011-01-01

    Cone-rod homeobox (Crx) encodes Crx, a transcription factor expressed selectively in retinal photoreceptors and pinealocytes, the major cell type of the pineal gland. Here, the influence of Crx on the mammalian pineal gland was studied by light and electron microscopy and by use of microarray and qRTPCR technology, thereby extending previous studies on selected genes (Furukawa et al. 1999). Deletion of Crx was not found to alter pineal morphology, but was found to broadly modulate the mouse p...

  15. Sharp-line and broad-continuum radiation from electrons channeled in diamond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Measured energy spectra of photons emitted at 00 by 54-MeV electron beam channeled along the most open planar directions of a 20 μm thick diamond single crystal show unusually sharp lines which are identified as transitions between discrete states of transverse energy of the channeled electrons. Comparison with the spectrum obtained for random incidence reveals each channeling spectrum to exhibit a broad hump feature which is attributed to the radiative transitions of dechanneled electrons ending in bound and unbound states

  16. Relativistic redshifts in quasar broad lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The broad emission lines commonly seen in quasar spectra have velocity widths of a few percent of the speed of light, so special- and general-relativistic effects have a significant influence on the line profile. We have determined the redshift of the broad Hβ line in the quasar rest frame (determined from the core component of the [O III] line) for over 20,000 quasars from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 7 quasar catalog. The mean redshift as a function of line width is approximately consistent with the relativistic redshift that is expected if the line originates in a randomly oriented Keplerian disk that is obscured when the inclination of the disk to the line of sight exceeds ∼30°-45°, consistent with simple active galactic nucleus unification schemes. This result also implies that the net line-of-sight inflow/outflow velocities in the broad-line region are much less than the Keplerian velocity when averaged over a large sample of quasars with a given line width.

  17. Relativistic redshifts in quasar broad lines

    CERN Document Server

    Tremaine, Scott; Liu, Xin; Loeb, Abraham

    2014-01-01

    The broad emission lines commonly seen in quasar spectra have velocity widths of a few per cent of the speed of light, so special- and general-relativistic effects have a significant influence on the line profile. We have determined the redshift of the broad H-beta line in the quasar rest frame (determined from the core component of the [OIII] line) for over 20,000 quasars from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey DR7 quasar catalog. The mean redshift as a function of line width is approximately consistent with the relativistic redshift that is expected if the line originates in a randomly oriented Keplerian disk that is obscured when the inclination of the disk to the line of sight exceeds ~30-45 degrees, consistent with simple AGN unification schemes. This result also implies that the net line-of-sight inflow/outflow velocities in the broad-line region are much less than the Keplerian velocity when averaged over a large sample of quasars with a given line width.

  18. Characterization of a radiographic system with broad energy band X-ray source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High energy X-ray beams with broad band energy spectra allow performing radiographic analysis on different materials and objects of relevant interest that cannot be investigated with conventional X-ray sources. The quality of a radiographic image strongly depends on the characteristics of radiation source as the size of the X-ray emitting area, or focal spot, and the energy spectrum of the radiation. In this work the characterization of a broad-band energy Bremsstrahlung source obtained from a linac providing a 5.5 MeV electron beam colliding with a tungsten target is presented. In order to measure the focal-spot size an ad hoc slit camera has been designed and built and a specific technique was used. Furthermore an analysis of the energy spectrum of the beam was performed using a method based on X-ray diffraction by a mosaic crystal.

  19. Effects of autism spectrum disorders on outcome in teenage-onset anorexia nervosa evaluated by the Morgan-Russell outcome assessment schedule: a controlled community-based study

    OpenAIRE

    Nielsen, Sara; Anckarsäter, Henrik; Gillberg, Carina,; Gillberg, Christopher; Råstam, Maria; Wentz, Elisabet

    2015-01-01

    Background: The purpose of the study was to evaluate time trends and effects of co-existing autism spectrum disorders (ASD) on outcome in an ongoing long-term follow-up study of anorexia nervosa (AN). Methods: The Morgan-Russell Outcome Assessment Schedule (MROAS) was used at 6-, 10- and 18-year follow-up of a representative sample of 51 individuals with teenage-onset AN and a matched group of 51 healthy comparison cases. The full multinomial distribution of responses for the full...

  20. Liquid baits control Argentine ants sustainably in coastal vineyards

    OpenAIRE

    Cooper, Monica L; Daane, Kent M.; Nelson, Erik H; Varela, Lucia G; Battany, Mark; Tsutsui, Neil D.; Rust, M K

    2008-01-01

    Liquid ant baits are an alternative to broad-spectrum insecticide sprays conventionally used to control Argentine ants. We review the development of liquid ant baits, which capitalize on the ants’ sugar-feeding requirements and social structure to deliver small doses of toxicant throughout the colony. The ant bait program described here, developed for commercial vineyards, also has the potential to facilitate the use of biological controls for mealybug and scale pests. The implementation of a...

  1. Broad-band modelling of short gamma-ray bursts with energy injection from magnetar spin-down and its implications for radio detectability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B.P. Gompertz; A.J. van der Horst; P.T. O'Brien; G.A. Wynn; K. Wiersema

    2015-01-01

    The magnetar model has been proposed to explain the apparent energy injection in the X-ray light curves of short gamma-ray bursts (SGRBs), but its implications across the full broad-band spectrum are not well explored. We investigate the broad-band modelling of four SGRBs with evidence for energy in

  2. Broadly tunable quasi-phase-matching in nonlinear metamaterials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ability to tune the quasi-phase-matching (QPM) frequency is a highly desirable though lacking feature of many nonlinear devices. To this end, we consider QPM in a special class of active nonlinear metamaterials (MMs), whose properties can be controlled postfabrication. By application of a tunable, periodic perturbation in the linear susceptibility (magnetic or electric) of a MM, a single nonlinear device can be constructed to operate over an exceedingly broad bandwidth. We propose a nonlinear MM for QPM second-order harmonic generation at terahertz frequencies, predicted to have a tunable bandwidth of over 100%.

  3. Bipolar spectrum disorders. New perspectives.

    OpenAIRE

    Piver, Andre; Yatham, Lakshmi N.; Raymond W. Lam

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To review new perspectives on diagnosis, clinical features, epidemiology, and treatment of bipolar II and related disorders. QUALITY OF EVIDENCE: Articles were identified by searching MEDLINE and ClinPSYCH from January 1994 to August 2001 using the key words bipolar disorder, type II or 2; hypomania; spectrum; or variants. Reference lists from articles were reviewed. Overall, the quality of evidence was not high; we found no randomized controlled trials that specifically addressed ...

  4. Broad-band study with Suzaku of the magnetar class

    CERN Document Server

    Enoto, Teruaki; Makishima, Kazuo; Rea, Nanda; Hurley, Kevein; Shibata, Shinpei

    2010-01-01

    Broad-band (0.8-70 keV) spectra of the persistent X-ray emission from 9 magnetars were obtained with Suzaku, including 3 objects in apparent outburst. The soft X-ray component was detected from all of them, with a typical blackbody temperature of kT ~ 0.5 keV, while the hard-tail component, dominating above ~10 keV, was detected at ~1 mCrab intensity from 7 of them. Therefore, the spectrum composed of a soft emission and a hard-tail component may be considered to be a common property of magnetars, both in their active and quiescent states. Wide-band spectral analyses revealed that the hard-tail component has a 1-60 keV flux, Fh, comparable to or even higher than that carried by the 1-60 keV soft component, Fs. The hardness ratio of these objects, defined as xi=Fh/Fs, was found to be tightly anti-correlated with their characteristic age tau as xi=(3.3+/-0.3)x(tau/1 kyr)^(-0.67+/-0.04) with a correlation coefficient of -0.989, over the range from xi~10 to xi~0.1. Magnetars in outburst states were found to lie o...

  5. Rainbow Vectors for Broad-Range Bacterial Fluorescence Labeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbier, Mariette; Damron, F Heath

    2016-01-01

    Since their discovery, fluorescent proteins have been widely used to study protein function, localization or interaction, promoter activity and regulation, drug discovery or for non-invasive imaging. They have been extensively modified to improve brightness, stability, and oligomerization state. However, only a few studies have focused on understanding the dynamics of fluorescent proteins expression in bacteria. In this work, we developed a set plasmids encoding 12 fluorescent proteins for bacterial labeling to facilitate the study of pathogen-host interactions. These broad-spectrum plasmids can be used with a wide variety of Gram-negative microorganisms including Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Burkholderia cepacia, Bordetella bronchiseptica, Shigella flexneri or Klebsiella pneumoniae. For comparison, fluorescent protein expression and physical characteristics in Escherichia coli were analyzed using fluorescence microscopy, flow cytometry and in vivo imaging. Fluorescent proteins derived from the Aequorea Victoria family showed high photobleaching, while proteins form the Discosoma sp. and the Fungia coccina family were more photostable for microscopy applications. Only E2-Crimson, mCherry and mKeima were successfully detected for in vivo applications. Overall, E2-Crimson was the fastest maturing protein tested in E. coli with the best overall performance in the study parameters. This study provides a unified comparison and comprehensive characterization of fluorescent protein photostability, maturation and toxicity, and offers general recommendations on the optimal fluorescent proteins for in vitro and in vivo applications. PMID:26937640

  6. Rainbow Vectors for Broad-Range Bacterial Fluorescence Labeling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariette Barbier

    Full Text Available Since their discovery, fluorescent proteins have been widely used to study protein function, localization or interaction, promoter activity and regulation, drug discovery or for non-invasive imaging. They have been extensively modified to improve brightness, stability, and oligomerization state. However, only a few studies have focused on understanding the dynamics of fluorescent proteins expression in bacteria. In this work, we developed a set plasmids encoding 12 fluorescent proteins for bacterial labeling to facilitate the study of pathogen-host interactions. These broad-spectrum plasmids can be used with a wide variety of Gram-negative microorganisms including Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Burkholderia cepacia, Bordetella bronchiseptica, Shigella flexneri or Klebsiella pneumoniae. For comparison, fluorescent protein expression and physical characteristics in Escherichia coli were analyzed using fluorescence microscopy, flow cytometry and in vivo imaging. Fluorescent proteins derived from the Aequorea Victoria family showed high photobleaching, while proteins form the Discosoma sp. and the Fungia coccina family were more photostable for microscopy applications. Only E2-Crimson, mCherry and mKeima were successfully detected for in vivo applications. Overall, E2-Crimson was the fastest maturing protein tested in E. coli with the best overall performance in the study parameters. This study provides a unified comparison and comprehensive characterization of fluorescent protein photostability, maturation and toxicity, and offers general recommendations on the optimal fluorescent proteins for in vitro and in vivo applications.

  7. Modulational instability of broad spectra of lower hybrid waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A universal nonlinear formalism in which the fields are represented as a sum of their regular and random components is applied to derive integral equations describing the modulational instability of the spectra of lower hybrid waves. The modulational instability of the one-dimensional spectra of lower hybrid waves is investigated. It is shown that the 'short-scale' instability of one-dimensional spectra behaves as the 'short-scale' instability of a monochromatic pump wave; in particular, the maximum growth rate of the short-scale instability differs from that of the instability of a monochromatic pump wave by a numerical factor of order unity. It is demonstrated that the 'long-scale' instability of the wave spectra is generally weaker than the instability of a monochromatic pump wave. The instability thresholds can exist only for spectra occupying the entire range of wavenumbers in which the waves can be excited. A transition from a weakly turbulent state to a strongly turbulent state is studied. It is shown that such a transition is physically meaningful only in systems in which the weakly turbulent spectrum of the waves in the space of wave vectors is very broad. The problem of describing the effect of the modulational instability on the lower hybrid current drive is discussed

  8. A broad view of model validation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The safety assessment of a nuclear waste repository requires the use of models. Such models need to be validated to ensure, as much as possible, that they are a good representation of the actual processes occurring in the real system. In this paper we attempt to take a broad view by reviewing step by step the modeling process and bringing out the need to validating every step of this process. This model validation includes not only comparison of modeling results with data from selected experiments, but also evaluation of procedures for the construction of conceptual models and calculational models as well as methodologies for studying data and parameter correlation. The need for advancing basic scientific knowledge in related fields, for multiple assessment groups, and for presenting our modeling efforts in open literature to public scrutiny is also emphasized. 16 refs

  9. Buildup factors for broad gamma beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper deals with buildup factors for the photon number and the exposure in broad conical beams penetrating through iron slabs. Using the Monte Carlo method, the dependence on the thickness of the slabs is calculated for various geometrical configurations of the 137Cs radiation source, the slab and the detector. The same dependence has also been measured for 137Cs and 60Co. The results show the dependence of the buildup factor B on the collimation angle α (B increases with increasing α), on the distance a between the source and the slab (B increases with increasing a), and on the distance b between the detector and the slab (B decreases with increasing b). Comparison of the obtained results with those from model configurations shows that in the latter case errors may range up to nearly 100%. (author)

  10. Magnetohydrodynamic stability of broad line region clouds

    CERN Document Server

    Krause, Martin; Burkert, Andreas

    2012-01-01

    Hydrodynamic stability has been a longstanding issue for the cloud model of the broad line region in active galactic nuclei. We argue that the clouds may be gravitationally bound to the supermassive black hole. If true, stabilisation by thermal pressure alone becomes even more difficult. We further argue that if magnetic fields should be present in such clouds at a level that could affect the stability properties, they need to be strong enough to compete with the radiation pressure on the cloud. This would imply magnetic field values of a few Gauss for a sample of Active Galactic Nuclei we draw from the literature. We then investigate the effect of several magnetic configurations on cloud stability in axi-symmetric magnetohydrodynamic simulations. For a purely azimuthal magnetic field which provides the dominant pressure support, the cloud first gets compressed by the opposing radiative and gravitational forces. The pressure inside the cloud then increases, and it expands vertically. Kelvin-Helmholtz and colu...

  11. Estimation of Black Hole Masses from Steep Spectrum Radio Quasars

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ye Chen; Zhi-Fu Chen; Yi-Ping Qin; You-Bing Li

    2011-03-01

    In this work, we employ a sample of 185 steep-spectrum radio quasars (SSRQs) to estimate their black hole masses from broad emission lines. Our black hole masses are compared with the virial black hole masses estimated by Shen (2010). We find that there is a large deviation between the two kinds of values if the black hole masses are estimated from broad emission line of CIV. However, both values are in agreement if the black hole masses are estimated from broad emission line of MgII or H.

  12. Atomic spectrum of neptunium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A description and interpretation of the atomic spectrum of neptunium are given. Wavelengths were measured for 6096 spectrum lines in the range 3793 to 38,812 cm-1 (26,353 to 2575 A), of which 2526 were classified as transitions between 329 odd levels and 130 even levels of neutral neptunium (Np I). The data are presented in five tables

  13. Method for detection and imaging over a broad spectral range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yefremenko, Volodymyr; Gordiyenko, Eduard; Pishko, legal representative, Olga; Novosad, Valentyn; Pishko, deceased; Vitalii

    2007-09-25

    A method of controlling the coordinate sensitivity in a superconducting microbolometer employs localized light, heating or magnetic field effects to form normal or mixed state regions on a superconducting film and to control the spatial location. Electron beam lithography and wet chemical etching were applied as pattern transfer processes in epitaxial Y--Ba--Cu--O films. Two different sensor designs were tested: (i) a 3 millimeter long and 40 micrometer wide stripe and (ii) a 1.25 millimeters long, and 50 micron wide meandering-like structure. Scanning the laser beam along the stripe leads to physical displacement of the sensitive area, and, therefore, may be used as a basis for imaging over a broad spectral range. Forming the superconducting film as a meandering structure provides the equivalent of a two-dimensional detector array. Advantages of this approach are simplicity of detector fabrication, and simplicity of the read-out process requiring only two electrical terminals.

  14. African Program for Onchocerciasis Control 1995–2010: Impact of Annual Ivermectin Mass Treatment on Off-Target Infectious Diseases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.P. Krotneva (Stanimira P.); L.E. Coffeng (Luc); M. Noma (Mounkaila); H.G.M. Zouré (Honorat G.); L. Bakoné (Lalle); U.V. Amazigo (Uche); S.J. de Vlas (Sake); W.A. Stolk (Wilma)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractSince its initiation in 1995, the African Program for Onchocerciasis Control (APOC) has had a substantial impact on the prevalence and burden of onchocerciasis through annual ivermectin mass treatment. Ivermectin is a broad-spectrum anti-parasitic agent that also has an impact on other c

  15. The group-based social skills training SOSTA-FRA in children and adolescents with high functioning autism spectrum disorder - study protocol of the randomised, multi-centre controlled SOSTA - net trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Freitag Christine M

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Group-based social skills training (SST has repeatedly been recommended as treatment of choice in high-functioning autism spectrum disorder (HFASD. To date, no sufficiently powered randomised controlled trial has been performed to establish efficacy and safety of SST in children and adolescents with HFASD. In this randomised, multi-centre, controlled trial with 220 children and adolescents with HFASD it is hypothesized, that add-on group-based SST using the 12 weeks manualised SOSTA–FRA program will result in improved social responsiveness (measured by the parent rated social responsiveness scale, SRS compared to treatment as usual (TAU. It is further expected, that parent and self reported anxiety and depressive symptoms will decline and pro-social behaviour will increase in the treatment group. A neurophysiological study in the Frankfurt HFASD subgroup will be performed pre- and post treatment to assess changes in neural function induced by SST versus TAU. Methods/design The SOSTA – net trial is designed as a prospective, randomised, multi-centre, controlled trial with two parallel groups. The primary outcome is change in SRS score directly after the intervention and at 3 months follow-up. Several secondary outcome measures are also obtained. The target sample consists of 220 individuals with ASD, included at the six study centres. Discussion This study is currently one of the largest trials on SST in children and adolescents with HFASD worldwide. Compared to recent randomised controlled studies, our study shows several advantages with regard to in- and exclusion criteria, study methods, and the therapeutic approach chosen, which can be easily implemented in non-university-based clinical settings. Trial registration ISRCTN94863788 – SOSTA – net: Group-based social skills training in children and adolescents with high functioning autism spectrum disorder.

  16. A prospective, randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled study of safety and efficacy of a high-concentration full-spectrum extract of Ashwagandha root in reducing stress and anxiety in adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Chandrasekhar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Stress is a state of mental or emotional strain or tension, which can lead to underperformance and adverse clinical conditions. Adaptogens are herbs that help in combating stress. Ayurvedic classical texts, animal studies and clinical studies describe Ashwagandha as a safe and effective adaptogen. Aims: The aim of the study was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of a high-concentration full-spectrum extract of Ashwagandha roots in reducing stress and anxiety and in improving the general well-being of adults who were under stress. Settings and Design: Single center, prospective, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Materials and Methods: A total of 64 subjects with a history of chronic stress were enrolled into the study after performing relevant clinical examinations and laboratory tests. These included a measurement of serum cortisol, and assessing their scores on standard stress-assessment questionnaires. They were randomized to either the placebo control group or the study drug treatment group, and were asked to take one capsule twice a day for a period of 60 days. In the study drug treatment group, each capsule contained 300 mg of high-concentration full-spectrum extract from the root of the Ashwagandha plant. During the treatment period (on Day 15, Day 30 and Day 45, a follow-up telephone call was made to all subjects to check for treatment compliance and to note any adverse reactions. Final safety and efficacy assessments were done on Day 60. Statistical Analysis: t-test, Mann-Whitney test. Results: The treatment group that was given the high-concentration full-spectrum Ashwagandha root extract exhibited a significant reduction (P<0.0001 in scores on all the stress-assessment scales on Day 60, relative to the placebo group. The serum cortisol levels were substantially reduced (P=0.0006 in the Ashwagandha group, relative to the placebo group. The adverse effects were mild in nature and were comparable in both the

  17. Self-ordered pointing and visual conditional associative learning tasks in drug-free schizophrenia spectrum disorder patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galluzzo Alessandro

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is evidence of a link between schizophrenia and a deficit of working memory, but this has been derived from tasks not specifically developed to probe working memory per se. Our aim was to investigate whether working memory deficits may be detected across different paradigms using the self-ordered pointing task (SOPT and the visual conditional associative learning task (VCALT in patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders and healthy controls. The current literature suggests deficits in schizophrenia spectrum disorder patients versus healthy controls but these studies frequently involved small samples, broad diagnostic criteria, inclusion of patients on antipsychotic medications, and were not controlled for symptom domains, severity of the disorder, etc. To overcome some of these limitations, we investigated the self-monitoring and conditional associative learning abilities of a numerically representative sample of healthy controls and a group of non-deteriorated, drug-free patients hospitalized for a schizophrenia spectrum disorder with florid, mainly positive psychotic symptoms. Methods Eighty-five patients with a schizophrenia spectrum disorder (DSM-IV-TR diagnosis of schizophrenia (n = 71 or schizophreniform disorder (n = 14 and 80 healthy controls entered the study. The clinical picture was dominated by positive symptoms. The healthy control group had a negative personal and family history of schizophrenia or mood disorder and satisfied all the inclusion and exclusion criteria other than variables related to schizophrenia spectrum disorders. Results Compared to controls, patients had worse performances on SOPT, VCALT and higher SOPT/VCALT ratios, not affected by demographic or clinical variables. ROC curves showed that SOPT, VCALT, and SOPT/VCALT ratio had good accuracy in discriminating patients from controls. The SOPT and VCALT scores were inter-correlated in controls but not in patients. Conclusion The

  18. Premorbid personality in schizophrenia spectrum: a prospective study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekstrøm, Morten; Lykke Mortensen, Erik; Sørensen, Holger J;

    2006-01-01

    , maturity, friendliness, cooperation, self-control and significantly higher on aggression. Non-significant trends indicated that this group displayed more deviant personality scores than psychiatric controls. Children who later develop schizophrenia spectrum disorder differed from normal controls with...

  19. Probability-consistent spectrum and code spectrum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈建文; 石树中

    2004-01-01

    In the seismic safety evaluation (SSE) for key projects, the probability-consistent spectrum (PCS), usually obtained from probabilistic seismic hazard analysis (PSHA), is not consistent with the design response spectrum given by Code for Seismic Design of Buildings (GB50011-2001). Sometimes, there may be a remarkable difference between them. If the PCS is lower than the corresponding code design response spectrum (CDS), the seismic fortification criterion for the key projects would be lower than that for the general industry and civil buildings. In the paper, the relation between PCS and CDS is discussed by using the ideal simple potential seismic source. The results show that in the most areas influenced mainly by the potential sources of the epicentral earthquakes and the regional earthquakes, PCS is generally lower than CDS in the long periods. We point out that the long-period response spectra of the code should be further studied and combined with the probability method of seismic zoning as much as possible. Because of the uncertainties in SSE, it should be prudent to use the long-period response spectra given by SSE for key projects when they are lower than CDS.

  20. Neutralization of low energy broad ion beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper is devoted to experimental and theoretical investigation of a low energy broad ion beam space charge and current compensation and ion-beam plasma (IBP), which would be created in transport space of the beam. The beam had cylindrical symmetry. The continuous uniform and hole tube like ion beams are used in the experiments. Different channels of electron appearing have been investigated for cases of neutralization due to secondary γ-electrons from the target and by electrons from glow cathode-neutralizer with metal or dielectric target. Results of neutralizing electrons energy distributions function measurements are presented as well as dependences of electron temperature and self-consisted plasma potential vs. beam parameters, ambient gas pressure, neutralizer parameters. Role of the thermoelectrons and dependence of IBP parameters on neutralizer area, location and potential are discussed. Significant role in neutralization of spatial collisional processes has been revealed even in neutralization by thermocathode. On the base of the experimental results self-consistent theoretical model have been developed, which describes the behavior of intense ion beam passing through the neutral gas at low pressure within conductive walls. The collisionless approach is used which means absence of collisional relaxation of the beam. This theory is used to derive the plasma potential and electron temperature within the beam

  1. Social Stories: Mechanisms of Effectiveness in Increasing Game Play Skills in Children Diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorder Using a Pretest Posttest Repeated Measures Randomized Control Group Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quirmbach, Linda M.; Lincoln, Alan J.; Feinberg-Gizzo, Monica J.; Ingersoll, Brooke R.; Andrews, Siri M.

    2009-01-01

    An increasing body of literature has indicated that social stories are an effective way to teach individuals diagnosed with autism appropriate social behavior. This study compared two formats of a social story targeting the improvement of social skills during game play using a pretest posttest repeated measures randomized control group design. A…

  2. The compact structure of radio-loud broad absorption line quasars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Y.; Jiang, D. R.; Wang, T. G.; Xie, F. G.

    2008-11-01

    We present the results of EVN+MERLIN very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) polarization observations of eight broad absorption line (BAL) quasars at 1.6 GHz, including four low-ionization BAL quasars (LoBALs) and four high-ionization BAL quasars (HiBALs) with either steep or flat spectra on Very Large Array (VLA) scales. Only one steep-spectrum source, J1122+3124, shows two-sided structure on the scale of 2 kpc. The other four steep-spectrum sources and three flat-spectrum sources display either an unresolved image or a core-jet structure on scales of less than 300 pc. In all cases, the marginally resolved core is the dominant radio component. Linear polarization in the cores has been detected in the range of a few to 10 per cent. Polarization, together with high brightness temperatures (from 2 × 109 to 5 × 1010K), suggests a synchrotron origin for the radio emission. There is no apparent difference in the radio morphologies or polarization between low-ionization and high-ionization BAL quasi-stellar objects (QSOs) or between flat- and steep-spectrum sources. We discuss the orientation of BAL QSOs with both flat and steep spectra, and consider a possible evolutionary scenario for BAL QSOs. In this scenario, BAL QSOs are probably a young population of radio sources that are compact steep spectrum or GHz peaked radio source analogues at the low end of radio power.

  3. The human dorsal spinocerebellar tract: myelinated fiber spectrum and fiber density in controls, autosomal dominant spinocerebellar atrophy, Huntington's chorea, radiation myelopathy, and diseases with peripheral sensory nerve involvement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ringelstein, E.B.; Schroeder, J.M.

    1982-01-01

    The human dorsal spinocerebellar tract (DSCT) was evaluated morphometrically in 14 control cases of different age and sex using semithin sections of epon-embedded cross sections from the C3, T5, and T10 segments of the spinal cord. A bimodal fiber spectrum was revealed with one peak at 2-3 microns, and a second, broader peak at about 6-8 microns. Fiber density at C3 was 11,188 fibers/mm2 and at T5, 11,156 fibers/mm2. Regression analysis relating fiber density to age disclosed a highly significant loss of myelinated fibers at T5 amounting to about 2.5% per decade. A severe reduction of fiber density and a distinct change in the fiber spectrum with predominant loss of large myelinated fibers were noted in a case of autosomal dominant spinocerebellar atrophy with late onset, and, to a lesser degree, in a case of Huntington's chorea. A subtotal loss of fibers with a persistent normal distribution of fiber sizes was observed rostral to a focus of severe radiation myelopathy, indicating Wallerian degeneration of large numbers of fibers, and a reduction of fiber diameters caudal to the lesion, suggesting retrograde fiber change. By contrast, no primary or transneural changes in the DSCT were detected in six cases of long-term alcoholism, carcinomatous sensory neuropathy, and neurofibromatosis in spite of the involvement of numerous nerve roots.

  4. Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a group of developmental ... key findings. About Us Overview of CDC’s work. Autism: What's New New Data on Autism: Five Facts ...

  5. Fast Spectrum Reactors

    CERN Document Server

    Todd, Donald; Tsvetkov, Pavel

    2012-01-01

    Fast Spectrum Reactors presents a detailed overview of world-wide technology contributing to the development of fast spectrum reactors. With a unique focus on the capabilities of fast spectrum reactors to address nuclear waste transmutation issues, in addition to the well-known capabilities of breeding new fuel, this volume describes how fast spectrum reactors contribute to the wide application of nuclear power systems to serve the global nuclear renaissance while minimizing nuclear proliferation concerns. Readers will find an introduction to the sustainable development of nuclear energy and the role of fast reactors, in addition to an economic analysis of nuclear reactors. A section devoted to neutronics offers the current trends in nuclear design, such as performance parameters and the optimization of advanced power systems. The latest findings on fuel management, partitioning and transmutation include the physics, efficiency and strategies of transmutation, homogeneous and heterogeneous recycling, in addit...

  6. Microlensing of Quasar Broad Emission Lines: Constraints on Broad Line Region Size

    CERN Document Server

    Guerras, E; Jimenez-Vicente, J; Kochanek, C S; Muñoz, J A; Falco, E; Motta, V

    2012-01-01

    We measure the differential microlensing of the broad emission lines between 18 quasar image pairs in 16 gravitational lenses. We find that high ionization lines such as CIV are more strongly microlensed than low ionization lines, indicating that the high ionization line emission regions are more compact. If we statistically model the distribution of microlensing magnifications, we obtain estimates for the broad line region radius of 24 (-15/+22) and 55 (-35/+150) light-days (90% confidence) for the high and low ionization lines, respectively. When the sample is divided attending to quasar luminosity, we find that the line emission regions of more luminous quasars are larger, with a slope consistent with the expected scaling from photoionization models. Our estimates also agree well with the results from local reveberation mapping studies.

  7. Dynamic Spectrum Access

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Software Defined Radio (SDR) and Cognitive Radio (CR) could be in all radio transmitters sometime in the future. This thesis gives information about both SDR and CR and how we could use these technologies to utilize the scarce resources of frequencies. The use of CR in Dynamic Spectrum Access Networks could be a possible solution, and this thesis will try to give as much information as possible to this challenge. Information about Dynamic Spectrum Access and different challenges with this tec...

  8. Spectrum and network measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Witte, Robert A

    2014-01-01

    This new edition of Spectrum and Network Measurements enables readers to understand the basic theory, relate it to measured results, and apply it when creating new designs. This comprehensive treatment of frequency domain measurements successfully consolidates all the pertinent theory into one text. It covers the theory and practice of spectrum and network measurements in electronic systems. It also provides thorough coverage of Fourier analysis, transmission lines, intermodulation distortion, signal-to-noise ratio and S-parameters.

  9. Validation, automatic generation and use of broad phonetic transcriptions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bael, Cristophe Patrick Jan Van

    2007-01-01

    Broad phonetic transcriptions represent the pronunciation of words as strings of characters from specifically designed symbol sets. In everyday life, broad phonetic transcriptions are often used as aids to pronounce (foreign) words. In addition, broad phonetic transcriptions are often used for lingu

  10. Neural Tube Defect Spectrum - Study of Craniorachischisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashmi Deopujari,

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Neural tube defect spectrum (NTD includes anencephaly, spina bifida, craniorachischisis, inencephaly etc. Four cases of craniorachischisis were studied from a collection of 34 aborted fetuses. There was deficiency of scalp and cranial vault in all the four cases. In one case the defect was extending up to the cervical region, in rest of the three cases, vertebral column defect extended upto thoracic region exposing the spinal cord and spinal nerves. All the cases presented with bulging eyes, broad nose, folded ears, protruded tongue and absent neck. These defects result due to failure of closure of the neural tube during early embryonic life.

  11. Flat-spectrum, variable radio sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The general behavior of flat-spectrum (compact) radio sources is examined in terms of adiabatic-jet models. Two puzzling properties - namely, (1) the broad, rather flat spectrum (over a large range of radio frequencies) and (2) the relatively slow decay of burst amplitude (with decreasing radio frequency) - are explained. Acceptable models are characterized by the following: (1) a nearly conical, adiabatic jet, with conserved magnetic flux transverse to the axis of the jet; (2) prolonged injection (for which the duration of an event exceeds the apparent transit time scale); and (3) a transparent spectral index which is not too steep. It is suggested that the acceleration mechanism in the core of compact jets may differ substantially from that far from the core, producing a flatter electron number index s = 1.4-2.6. 42 references

  12. A SURVEY ON DYNAMIC SPECTRUM ACCESS TECHNIQUES FOR COGNITIVE RADIO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Garhwal

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive radio (CR is a new paradigm that utilizes the available spectrum band. The key characteristic ofCR system is to sense the electromagnetic environment to adapt their operation and dynamically vary itsradio operating parameters. The technique of dynamically accessing the unused spectrum band is known asDynamic Spectrum Access (DSA. The dynamic spectrum access technology helps to minimize unusedspectrum bands. In this paper, main functions of Cognitive Radio (CR i.e. spectrum sensing, spectrummanagement, spectrum mobility and spectrum sharing are discussed. Then DSA models are discussedalong with different methods of DSA such as Command and Control, Exclusive-Use, Shared Use of PrimaryLicensed User and Commons method. Game-theoretic approach using Bertrand game model, MarkovianQueuing Model for spectrum allocation in centralized architecture and Fuzzy logic based method are alsodiscussed and result are shown.

  13. A Survey on Dynamic Spectrum Access Techniques in Cognitive Radio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinki Yadav

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Wireless networks are characterized by fixed spectrum policy. With increasing demands for wirelesscommunication efficiently using the spectrum resources has become an essential issue. Cognitive radio is aform of wireless communication which is used to sense the spectrum and find the free spectrum. It is usedby unlicensed users without causing interference to the licensed user. Cognitive radio with the dynamicspectrum access is key technology which provides the best solution by allowing a group of Secondary usersto share the radio spectrum originally allocated to the primary users. Dynamically accessing the unusedspectrum is known as dynamic spectrum access (DSA which becomes a promising approach to increasethe efficiency of spectrum usage. In this paper, DSA models are discussed along with different methodssuch as game theory based method, a measurement-based model, network coded cognitive control channel,Markovian Queuing model, the Delay performance of threshold policies, fuzzy logic based method andspatio-temporal spectrum management model.

  14. Bacteremia in Cancer Patients: A Two Center Experience of Isolates and Spectrum of Antibiotic Resistance Pattern

    OpenAIRE

    Naseh; Marashi; Asgari; Aghabarari; Mahmudi; Asadi; Hatami; Kalantar

    2015-01-01

    Background; Bacteremia is a frequent condition in cancer patients with a significant morbidity and mortality worldwide, which is a medical crisis that needs broad-spectrum antibiotic treatment. Objectives This study examined bacteremia in cancer patients from two medical centers regarding isolates and spectrum of antibiotic resistance pattern. Patients and Methods This was a prospe...

  15. Techniques in molecular spectroscopy: from broad bandwidth to high resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cossel, Kevin C.

    This thesis presents a range of different experiments all seeking to extended the capabilities of molecular spectroscopy and enable new applications. The new technique of cavity-enhanced direct frequency comb spectroscopy (CE-DFCS) provides a unique combination of broad bandwidth, high resolution, and high sensitivity that can be useful for a wide range of applications. Previous demonstrations of CE-DFCS were confined to the visible or near-infrared and operated over a limited bandwidth: for many applications it is desirable to increase the spectral coverage and to extend to the mid-infrared where strong, fundamental vibrational modes of molecules occur. There are several key requirements for CE-DFCS: a frequency comb source that provides broad bandwidth and high resolution, an optical cavity for high sensitivity, and a detection system capable of multiplex detection of the comb spectrum transmitted through the cavity. We first discuss comb sources with emphasis on the coherence properties of spectral broadening in nonlinear fiber and the development of a high-power frequency comb source in the mid-infrared based on an optical-parametric oscillator (OPO). To take advantage of this new mid-infrared comb source for spectroscopy, we also discuss the development of a rapid-scan Fourier-transform spectrometer (FTS). We then discuss the first demonstration of CE-DFCS with spectrally broadened light from a highly nonlinear fiber with the application to measurements of impurities in semiconductor manufacturing gases. We also cover our efforts towards extending CE-DFCS to the mid-infrared using the mid-infrared OPO and FTS to measure ppb levels of various gases important for breath analysis and atmospheric chemistry and highlight some future applications of this system. In addition to the study of neutral molecules, broad-bandwidth and high-resolution spectra of molecular ions are useful for astrochemistry where many of the observed molecules are ionic, for studying

  16. The characteristic of power flow in broad band dynamic vibration absorber

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Minqing; SHENG Meiping; SUN Jincai; LIU Yi

    2002-01-01

    DVA (dynamic vibration absorber) is good for restrain of the resonance vibration in low frequency, especially under the condition that there are only one mode or two modes in a frequency band. It seems rather difficult to control the resonance vibration of elastic structures in high frequency, since usually there are so many modes in high frequency band. The broad band DVA is brought forward to reduce the resonance vibration of elastic structures. The broad band DVA is designed on the basis of the characteristic of power flow in structure in this paper.The broad band DVA is effective on absorbing the resonance vibration power flow of the mostimportant modes. The ability of absorbing vibration for the broad band DVA is analyzed indetail. The results obtained in this paper provide a basis for the optimization design of thebroad band DVA and the optimization positions on structures.

  17. Integrated pest management in apple orchards in The Netherlands: a solution for selective control of tortricids

    OpenAIRE

    Reede, de, T.

    1985-01-01

    Field trials to compose a coherent system of Integrated Pest Management (IPM) for apple orchards in the Netherlands were started in 1967, when the 12 ha apple orchard "De Schuilenburg" at Kesteren became available for experiments on IPM. Natural control of one of the most severe pests under conventional control, the fruit tree red spider mite Panonychus ulmi , is a central part in IPM. Many broad-spectrum pesticides exterminate the predacious mite Typhlodromus pyri , which is responsible for ...

  18. Change in Species Diversity during Recovering Process of Evergreen Broad-leaved Fo rest

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WenYuanguang; LiuShirong; ChenFang; HeTatping; LiangHongwen

    2005-01-01

    Evergreen broad-leaved forest is one of the most important vegetation types in China. Because of the human activities, evergreen broad-leaved forest has been destroyed extensively, leading to degraded ecosystem. It is urgent to conserve and restore these natural forests in China.tn this paper, the tendency and rate of species diversity restoration of the evergreen broad-lea ved forest in Darning Mountain has been studied. The main results are as follows:(a) in subtropical mid-mountain area, species diversity in degraded evergreen broad-leaved forest can be restored. Through analyzing b diversity index of communities in different time and space, it was found that the species composition of communities tend to be the same as that in the zonal evergreen broad-leaved forest. (b) The restoration rate of evergreen broad-leaved forest was very fast. Planting Chinese fir after clear-cutting and controlled burning of the forest 178 species appeared in a 60Om2, sample area after 20 years"" natural recovering. Among these species, 58 were tree layer and the height of community reached 18m, The survey suggested that it would take only 20 years for the degraded forest to develop into community composed of light demanding broad-leaved pioneer trees and rain-tolerance broad-leaved trees, and it need another 40-80 years to reach the stage consisting of min-tulerance evergreen broad-leaved trees, (c) Species number increased quickly at the early stage (2-20 years) during vegetation recovering process toward the climax, and decreased at the min-stage (50-60 years ), then maintained a relatively stable level at the late-stage (over 150 years).

  19. Significant Association of HLA-B Alleles and Genotypes in Thai Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Case-Control Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puangpetch, Apichaya; Suwannarat, Pongwut; Chamnanphol, Montri; Koomdee, Napatrupron; Ngamsamut, Nattawat; Limsila, Penkhae; Sukasem, Chonlaphat

    2015-01-01

    Autism is a severe neurodevelopmental disorder. Many susceptible causative genes have been identified. Most of the previous reports showed the relationship between the Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA) gene and etiology of autism. In order to identify HLA-B alleles associated with autism in Thai population, we compared the frequency of HLA-B allele in 364 autistic subjects with 952 normal subjects by using a two-stage sequence-specific oligonucleotide probe system (PCR-SSOP) method based on flow-cytometry technology. HLA-B⁎13:02 (P = 0.019, OR = 2.229), HLA-B⁎38:02 (P = 0.049, OR = 1.628), HLA-B⁎44:03 (P = 0.016, OR = 1.645), and HLA-B⁎56:01 (P = 1.78 × 10−4, OR = 4.927) alleles were significantly increased in autistic subjects compared with normal subjects. Moreover, we found that the HLA-B⁎18:02 (P = 0.016, OR = 0.375) and HLA-B⁎46:12 (P = 0.008, OR = 0.147) alleles were negatively associated with autism when compared to normal controls. Both alleles might have a protective role in disease development. In addition, four HLA-B genotypes of autistic patients had statistically significant relationship with control groups, consisting of HLA-B⁎3905/⁎5801 (P = 0.032, OR = 24.697), HLA-B⁎2704/⁎5801 (P = 0.022, OR = 6.872), HLA-B⁎3501/⁎4403 (P = 0.021, OR = 30.269), and HLA-B⁎1801/⁎4402 (P = 0.017, OR = 13.757). This is the first report on HLA-B associated with Thai autism and may serve as a marker for genetic susceptibility to autism in Thai population. PMID:26819491

  20. Action spectrum for photocarcinogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Gruijl, F R

    1995-01-01

    The wavelength dependence of the carcinogenicity of ultraviolet (UV) radiation needs to be known in order to assess the carcinogenic risks of various UV sources, most notably the different solar UV spectra at ground level under depleting stratospheric ozone. This wavelength dependence cannot be extracted from human data (e.g., from epidemiology); it can, however, be directly obtained from animal experiments. Precise information on the wavelength dependence, the so-called action spectrum, was not available until recently: erythemal or mutagenic action spectra have been used as substitutes. However, experimental data on skin tumors induced in hairless mice (Skh:HR1) with various polychromatic sources have been building up. Our group has found that none of the substitute action spectra yield a statistically acceptable description of our data, and we have, therefore, derived a new action spectrum, dubbed the SCUP action spectrum (SCUP stands for Skin Cancer Utrecht-Philadelphia, because the action spectrum also fits experimental data from the former Skin and Cancer Hospital in Philadelphia). The SCUP action spectrum has a maximum at 293 nm, and in the UVA region above 340 nm the relative carcinogenicity per J/m2 drops to about 10(-4) of this maximum. The effects of an ozone depletion on solar UV doses weighted with these different action spectra are compared: the erythemal and SCUP weighted dose come out as least sensitive with a 1.3% and 1.4% increase, respectively, for every 1% decrease in ozone. PMID:7597292