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Sample records for broad scale childhood

  1. Implementing broad scale childhood immunization decision support as a web service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Vivienne J; Grannis, Shaun J; Rosenman, Marc B; Downs, Stephen M

    2009-11-14

    Timely vaccinations decrease a child's risk of contracting vaccine-preventable disease and prevent disease outbreaks. Childhood immunization schedules may represent the only clinical guideline for which there is official national consensus. So an immunization clinical decision support system (CDSS) is a natural application. However, immunization schedules are complex and change frequently. Maintaining multiple CDSS's is expensive and error prone. Therefore, a practical strategy would be an immunization CDSS as a centralized web service that can be easily accessed by various electronic medical record (EMR) systems. This allows centralized maintenance of immunization guidelines. We have developed a web service, based on Miller's tabular model with modifications, which implements routine childhood immunization guidelines. This immunization web service is currently operating in the Regenstrief Institute intranet and system evaluations are ongoing. We will make this web service available on the Internet. In this paper, we describe this web service -based immunization decision support tool.

  2. Socioeconomic evaluation of broad-scale land management strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisa K. Crone; Richard W. Haynes

    2001-01-01

    This paper examines the socioeconomic effects of alternative management strategies for Forest Service and Bureau of Land Management lands in the interior Columbia basin. From a broad-scale perspective, there is little impact or variation between alternatives in terms of changes in total economic activity or social conditions in the region. However, adopting a finer...

  3. Broad-scale patterns of late jurassic dinosaur paleoecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noto, Christopher R; Grossman, Ari

    2010-09-03

    There have been numerous studies on dinosaur biogeographic distribution patterns. However, these distribution data have not yet been applied to ecological questions. Ecological studies of dinosaurs have tended to focus on reconstructing individual taxa, usually through comparisons to modern analogs. Fewer studies have sought to determine if the ecological structure of fossil assemblages is preserved and, if so, how dinosaur communities varied. Climate is a major component driving differences between communities. If the ecological structure of a fossil locality is preserved, we expect that dinosaur assemblages from similar environments will share a similar ecological structure. This study applies Ecological Structure Analysis (ESA) to a dataset of 100+ dinosaur taxa arranged into twelve composite fossil assemblages from around the world. Each assemblage was assigned a climate zone (biome) based on its location. Dinosaur taxa were placed into ecomorphological categories. The proportion of each category creates an ecological profile for the assemblage, which were compared using cluster and principal components analyses. Assemblages grouped according to biome, with most coming from arid or semi-arid/seasonal climates. Differences between assemblages are tied to the proportion of large high-browsing vs. small ground-foraging herbivores, which separates arid from semi-arid and moister environments, respectively. However, the effects of historical, taphonomic, and other environmental factors are still evident. This study is the first to show that the general ecological structure of Late Jurassic dinosaur assemblages is preserved at large scales and can be assessed quantitatively. Despite a broad similarity of climatic conditions, a degree of ecological variation is observed between assemblages, from arid to moist. Taxonomic differences between Asia and the other regions demonstrate at least one case of ecosystem convergence. The proportion of different ecomorphs, which

  4. Convergence of broad-scale migration strategies in terrestrial birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Sorte, Frank A; Fink, Daniel; Hochachka, Wesley M; Kelling, Steve

    2016-01-27

    Migration is a common strategy used by birds that breed in seasonal environments. Selection for greater migration efficiency is likely to be stronger for terrestrial species whose migration strategies require non-stop transoceanic crossings. If multiple species use the same transoceanic flyway, then we expect the migration strategies of these species to converge geographically towards the most optimal solution. We test this by examining population-level migration trajectories within the Western Hemisphere for 118 migratory species using occurrence information from eBird. Geographical convergence of migration strategies was evident within specific terrestrial regions where geomorphological features such as mountains or isthmuses constrained overland migration. Convergence was also evident for transoceanic migrants that crossed the Gulf of Mexico or Atlantic Ocean. Here, annual population-level movements were characterized by clockwise looped trajectories, which resulted in faster but more circuitous journeys in the spring and more direct journeys in the autumn. These findings suggest that the unique constraints and requirements associated with transoceanic migration have promoted the spatial convergence of migration strategies. The combination of seasonal atmospheric and environmental conditions that has facilitated the use of similar broad-scale migration strategies may be especially prone to disruption under climate and land-use change. © 2016 The Author(s).

  5. Broad-scale consequences of land management: Columbia basin example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard W. Haynes; Thomas M. Quigley

    2001-01-01

    Integrating management actions to consistently achieve broad ecological and socioeconomic goals is a challenge largely unmet. The presumed or real conflict between these goals establishes a forum for debate. Broad measures are needed to describe tradeoffs, trends in conditions under varying management scenarios, and a transparent science underpinning. The Interior...

  6. Broad-Scale Genetic Diversity of Cannabis for Forensic Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dufresnes, Christophe; Jan, Catherine; Bienert, Friederike; Goudet, Jérôme; Fumagalli, Luca

    2017-01-01

    Cannabis (hemp and marijuana) is an iconic yet controversial crop. On the one hand, it represents a growing market for pharmaceutical and agricultural sectors. On the other hand, plants synthesizing the psychoactive THC produce the most widespread illicit drug in the world. Yet, the difficulty to reliably distinguish between Cannabis varieties based on morphological or biochemical criteria impedes the development of promising industrial programs and hinders the fight against narcotrafficking. Genetics offers an appropriate alternative to characterize drug vs. non-drug Cannabis. However, forensic applications require rapid and affordable genotyping of informative and reliable molecular markers for which a broad-scale reference database, representing both intra- and inter-variety variation, is available. Here we provide such a resource for Cannabis, by genotyping 13 microsatellite loci (STRs) in 1 324 samples selected specifically for fibre (24 hemp varieties) and drug (15 marijuana varieties) production. We showed that these loci are sufficient to capture most of the genome-wide diversity patterns recently revealed by NGS data. We recovered strong genetic structure between marijuana and hemp and demonstrated that anonymous samples can be confidently assigned to either plant types. Fibres appear genetically homogeneous whereas drugs show low (often clonal) diversity within varieties, but very high genetic differentiation between them, likely resulting from breeding practices. Based on an additional test dataset including samples from 41 local police seizures, we showed that the genetic signature of marijuana cultivars could be used to trace crime scene evidence. To date, our study provides the most comprehensive genetic resource for Cannabis forensics worldwide.

  7. Broad-Scale Genetic Diversity of Cannabis for Forensic Applications.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christophe Dufresnes

    Full Text Available Cannabis (hemp and marijuana is an iconic yet controversial crop. On the one hand, it represents a growing market for pharmaceutical and agricultural sectors. On the other hand, plants synthesizing the psychoactive THC produce the most widespread illicit drug in the world. Yet, the difficulty to reliably distinguish between Cannabis varieties based on morphological or biochemical criteria impedes the development of promising industrial programs and hinders the fight against narcotrafficking. Genetics offers an appropriate alternative to characterize drug vs. non-drug Cannabis. However, forensic applications require rapid and affordable genotyping of informative and reliable molecular markers for which a broad-scale reference database, representing both intra- and inter-variety variation, is available. Here we provide such a resource for Cannabis, by genotyping 13 microsatellite loci (STRs in 1 324 samples selected specifically for fibre (24 hemp varieties and drug (15 marijuana varieties production. We showed that these loci are sufficient to capture most of the genome-wide diversity patterns recently revealed by NGS data. We recovered strong genetic structure between marijuana and hemp and demonstrated that anonymous samples can be confidently assigned to either plant types. Fibres appear genetically homogeneous whereas drugs show low (often clonal diversity within varieties, but very high genetic differentiation between them, likely resulting from breeding practices. Based on an additional test dataset including samples from 41 local police seizures, we showed that the genetic signature of marijuana cultivars could be used to trace crime scene evidence. To date, our study provides the most comprehensive genetic resource for Cannabis forensics worldwide.

  8. Improving the adverse childhood experiences study scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkelhor, David; Shattuck, Anne; Turner, Heather; Hamby, Sherry

    2013-01-01

    To test and improve upon the list of adverse childhood experiences from the Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACE) Study scale by examining the ability of a broader range to correlate with mental health symptoms. Nationally representative sample of children and adolescents. Telephone interviews with a nationally representative sample of 2030 youth aged 10 to 17 years who were asked about lifetime adversities and current distress symptoms. Lifetime adversities and current distress symptoms. The adversities from the original ACE scale items were associated with mental health symptoms among the participants, but the association was significantly improved (from R2 = 0.21 to R2 = 0.34) by removing some of the original ACE scale items and adding others in the domains of peer rejection, peer victimization, community violence exposure, school performance, and socioeconomic status. Our understanding of the most harmful childhood adversities is still incomplete because of complex interrelationships among them, but we know enough to proceed to interventional studies to determine whether prevention and remediation can improve long-term outcomes.

  9. Broad-Spectrum Antibiotic Treatment and Subsequent Childhood Type 1 Diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Tine D; Bergholt, Thomas; Bouaziz, Olivier

    2016-01-01

    of childhood type 1 diabetes and the potential effect-modification by mode of delivery. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A Danish nationwide cohort study including all singletons born during 1997-2010. End of follow-up by December 2012. Four national registers provided information on antibiotic redemptions, outcome...... and confounders. Redemptions of antibiotic prescriptions during the first two years of life was classified into narrow-spectrum or broad-spectrum antibiotics. Children were followed from age two to fourteen, both inclusive. The risk of type 1 diabetes with onset before the age of 15 years was assessed by Cox...... regression. A total of 858,201 singletons contributed 5,906,069 person-years, during which 1,503 children developed type 1 diabetes. RESULTS: Redemption of broad-spectrum antibiotics during the first two years of life was associated with an increased rate of type 1 diabetes during the following 13 years...

  10. Alien macroalgae in Denmark - a broad-scale national perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Mads S.; Wernberg, Thomas; Stæhr, Peter Anton

    2007-01-01

    Most studies documenting the importance of alien macroalgae relative to native species are based on smaller-scale sampling programmes. Between 1989 and 2003, a Danish monitoring programme collected data on the percentage cover of macroalgae at more than 600 locations throughout the country. We...... examined this data set to estimate the relative abundance of alien species in the algal flora on large spatiotemporal scales, i.e. across depth ranges, regions and years. Of the 10 alien macroalgal species known to inhabit Danish coastal waters, nine were found in the survey. Most of the alien species were...... only present in low quantities (alien species, Sargassum muticum and Bonnemaisonia hamifera, constituted 2-7% of the assemblages, depending on depth, region and year. Sargassum muticum was abundant from 0 to 5 m in the northwestern region...

  11. Review of broad-scale drought monitoring of forests: Toward an integrated data mining approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steve Norman; Frank H. Koch; William W. Hargrove

    2016-01-01

    Efforts to monitor the broad-scale impacts of drought on forests often come up short. Drought is a direct stressor of forests as well as a driver of secondary disturbance agents, making a full accounting of drought impacts challenging. General impacts  can be inferred from moisture deficits quantified using precipitation and temperature measurements. However,...

  12. Childhood psychosocial stressors and adult onset arthritis : Broad spectrum risk factors and allostatic load

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Von Korff, M.; Alonso, J.; Ormel, J.; Angermeyer, M.; Bruffaerts, R.; Fleiz, C.; De Girolamo, G.; Kessler, R.C.; Kovess-Masfety, V.; Posada-Villa, J.; Scott, K.M.; Uda, H.

    Neural, endocrine, and immune stress mediators are hypothesized to increase risks of diverse chronic diseases, including arthritis. Retrospective data from the World Mental Health Surveys (N = 18,309) were employed to assess whether adult onset of arthritis was associated with childhood adversities

  13. Artificial light at night confounds broad-scale habitat use by migrating birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaren, James D.; Buler, Jeffrey J.; Schreckengost, Tim; Smolinsky, Jaclyn A.; Boone, Matthew; van Loon, E. Emiel; Dawson, Deanna K.; Walters, Eric L.

    2018-01-01

    With many of the world's migratory bird populations in alarming decline, broad-scale assessments of responses to migratory hazards may prove crucial to successful conservation efforts. Most birds migrate at night through increasingly light-polluted skies. Bright light sources can attract airborne migrants and lead to collisions with structures, but might also influence selection of migratory stopover habitat and thereby acquisition of food resources. We demonstrate, using multi-year weather radar measurements of nocturnal migrants across the northeastern U.S., that autumnal migrant stopover density increased at regional scales with proximity to the brightest areas, but decreased within a few kilometers of brightly-lit sources. This finding implies broad-scale attraction to artificial light while airborne, impeding selection for extensive forest habitat. Given that high-quality stopover habitat is critical to successful migration, and hindrances during migration can decrease fitness, artificial lights present a potentially heightened conservation concern for migratory bird populations.

  14. Broad-scale Population Genetics of the Host Sea Anemone, Heteractis magnifica

    KAUST Repository

    Emms, Madeleine

    2015-12-01

    Broad-scale population genetics can reveal population structure across an organism’s entire range, which can enable us to determine the most efficient population-wide management strategy depending on levels of connectivity. Genetic variation and differences in genetic diversity on small-scales have been reported in anemones, but nothing is known about their broad-scale population structure, including that of “host” anemone species, which are increasingly being targeted in the aquarium trade. In this study, microsatellite markers were used as a tool to determine the population structure of a sessile, host anemone species, Heteractis magnifica, across the Indo-Pacific region. In addition, two rDNA markers were used to identify Symbiodinium from the samples, and phylogenetic analyses were used to measure diversity and geographic distribution of Symbiodinium across the region. Significant population structure was identified in H. magnifica across the Indo-Pacific, with at least three genetic breaks, possibly the result of factors such as geographic distance, geographic isolation and environmental variation. Symbiodinium associations were also affected by environmental variation and supported the geographic isolation of some regions. These results suggests that management of H. magnifica must be implemented on a local scale, due to the lack of connectivity between clusters. This study also provides further evidence for the combined effects of geographic distance and environmental distance in explaining genetic variance.

  15. Broad-scale spatial pattern of forest landscape types in the Guiana Shield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gond, Valéry; Freycon, Vincent; Molino, Jean-François; Brunaux, Olivier; Ingrassia, Florent; Joubert, Pierre; Pekel, Jean-François; Prévost, Marie-Françoise; Thierron, Viviane; Trombe, Pierre-Julien; Sabatier, Daniel

    2011-06-01

    Detecting broad scale spatial patterns across the South American rainforest biome is still a major challenge. Although several countries do possess their own, more or less detailed land-cover map, these are based on classifications that appear largely discordant from a country to another. Up to now, continental scale remote sensing studies failed to fill this gap. They mostly result in crude representations of the rainforest biome as a single, uniform vegetation class, in contrast with open vegetations. A few studies identified broad scale spatial patterns, but only when they managed to map a particular forest characteristic such as biomass. The main objective of this study is to identify, characterize and map distinct forest landscape types within the evergreen lowland rainforest at the sub-continental scale of the Guiana Shield (north-east tropical South-America 10° North-2° South; 66° West-50° West). This study is based on the analysis of a 1-year daily data set (from January 1st to December 31st, 2000) from the VEGETATION sensor onboard the SPOT-4 satellite (1-km spatial resolution). We interpreted remotely sensed landscape classes (RSLC) from field and high resolution remote sensing data of 21 sites in French Guiana. We cross-analyzed remote sensing data, field observations and environmental data using multivariate analysis. We obtained 33 remotely sensed landscape classes (RSLC) among which five forest-RSLC representing 78% of the forested area. The latter were classified as different broad forest landscape types according to a gradient of canopy openness. Their mapping revealed a new and meaningful broad-scale spatial pattern of forest landscape types. At the scale of the Guiana Shield, we observed a spatial patterns similarity between climatic and forest landscape types. The two most open forest-RSLCs were observed mainly within the north-west to south-east dry belt. The three other forest-RSLCs were observed in wetter and less anthropized areas

  16. Understanding extreme sea levels for broad-scale coastal impact and adaptation analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahl, T.; Haigh, I. D.; Nicholls, R. J.; Arns, A.; Dangendorf, S.; Hinkel, J.; Slangen, A. B. A.

    2017-07-01

    One of the main consequences of mean sea level rise (SLR) on human settlements is an increase in flood risk due to an increase in the intensity and frequency of extreme sea levels (ESL). While substantial research efforts are directed towards quantifying projections and uncertainties of future global and regional SLR, corresponding uncertainties in contemporary ESL have not been assessed and projections are limited. Here we quantify, for the first time at global scale, the uncertainties in present-day ESL estimates, which have by default been ignored in broad-scale sea-level rise impact assessments to date. ESL uncertainties exceed those from global SLR projections and, assuming that we meet the Paris agreement goals, the projected SLR itself by the end of the century in many regions. Both uncertainties in SLR projections and ESL estimates need to be understood and combined to fully assess potential impacts and adaptation needs.

  17. Broad-scale phylogenomics provides insights into retrovirus–host evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayward, Alexander; Grabherr, Manfred; Jern, Patric

    2013-01-01

    Genomic data provide an excellent resource to improve understanding of retrovirus evolution and the complex relationships among viruses and their hosts. In conjunction with broad-scale in silico screening of vertebrate genomes, this resource offers an opportunity to complement data on the evolution and frequency of past retroviral spread and so evaluate future risks and limitations for horizontal transmission between different host species. Here, we develop a methodology for extracting phylogenetic signal from large endogenous retrovirus (ERV) datasets by collapsing information to facilitate broad-scale phylogenomics across a wide sample of hosts. Starting with nearly 90,000 ERVs from 60 vertebrate host genomes, we construct phylogenetic hypotheses and draw inferences regarding the designation, host distribution, origin, and transmission of the Gammaretrovirus genus and associated class I ERVs. Our results uncover remarkable depths in retroviral sequence diversity, supported within a phylogenetic context. This finding suggests that current infectious exogenous retrovirus diversity may be underestimated, adding credence to the possibility that many additional exogenous retroviruses may remain to be discovered in vertebrate taxa. We demonstrate a history of frequent horizontal interorder transmissions from a rodent reservoir and suggest that rats may have acted as important overlooked facilitators of gammaretrovirus spread across diverse mammalian hosts. Together, these results demonstrate the promise of the methodology used here to analyze large ERV datasets and improve understanding of retroviral evolution and diversity for utilization in wider applications. PMID:24277832

  18. Broad-scale phylogenomics provides insights into retrovirus-host evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayward, Alexander; Grabherr, Manfred; Jern, Patric

    2013-12-10

    Genomic data provide an excellent resource to improve understanding of retrovirus evolution and the complex relationships among viruses and their hosts. In conjunction with broad-scale in silico screening of vertebrate genomes, this resource offers an opportunity to complement data on the evolution and frequency of past retroviral spread and so evaluate future risks and limitations for horizontal transmission between different host species. Here, we develop a methodology for extracting phylogenetic signal from large endogenous retrovirus (ERV) datasets by collapsing information to facilitate broad-scale phylogenomics across a wide sample of hosts. Starting with nearly 90,000 ERVs from 60 vertebrate host genomes, we construct phylogenetic hypotheses and draw inferences regarding the designation, host distribution, origin, and transmission of the Gammaretrovirus genus and associated class I ERVs. Our results uncover remarkable depths in retroviral sequence diversity, supported within a phylogenetic context. This finding suggests that current infectious exogenous retrovirus diversity may be underestimated, adding credence to the possibility that many additional exogenous retroviruses may remain to be discovered in vertebrate taxa. We demonstrate a history of frequent horizontal interorder transmissions from a rodent reservoir and suggest that rats may have acted as important overlooked facilitators of gammaretrovirus spread across diverse mammalian hosts. Together, these results demonstrate the promise of the methodology used here to analyze large ERV datasets and improve understanding of retroviral evolution and diversity for utilization in wider applications.

  19. Quasar cartography: From black hole to broad-line region scales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chelouche, Doron [Department of Physics, Faculty of Natural Sciences, University of Haifa, Haifa 31905 (Israel); Zucker, Shay, E-mail: doron@sci.haifa.ac.il, E-mail: shayz@post.tau.ac.il [Department of Geophysical, Atmospheric, and Planetary Sciences, Raymond and Beverly Sackler Faculty of Exact Sciences, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv 69978 (Israel)

    2013-06-01

    A generalized approach to reverberation mapping (RM) is presented, which is applicable to broad- and narrowband photometric data, as well as to spectroscopic observations. It is based on multivariate correlation analysis techniques and, in its present implementation, is able to identify reverberating signals across the accretion disk and the broad-line region (BLR) of active galactic nuclei (AGNs). Statistical tests are defined to assess the significance of time-delay measurements using this approach, and the limitations of the adopted formalism are discussed. It is shown how additional constraints on some of the parameters of the problem may be incorporated into the analysis thereby leading to improved results. When applied to a sample of 14 Seyfert 1 galaxies having good-quality high-cadence photometric data, accretion disk scales and BLR sizes are simultaneously determined, on a case-by-case basis, in most objects. The BLR scales deduced here are in good agreement with the findings of independent spectroscopic RM campaigns. Implications for the photometric RM of AGN interiors in the era of large surveys are discussed.

  20. Broad-Scale Environmental Conditions Responsible for Post-Fire Vegetation Dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stuart E. Marsh

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Ecosystem response to disturbance is influenced by environmental conditions at a number of scales. Changes in climate have altered fire regimes across the western United States, and have also likely altered spatio-temporal patterns of post-fire vegetation regeneration. Fire occurrence data and a vegetation index (NDVI derived from the NOAA Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR were used to monitor post-fire vegetation from 1989 to 2007. We first investigated differences in post-fire rates of vegetation regeneration between ecoregions. We then related precipitation, temperature, and elevation records at four temporal scales to rates of post-fire vegetation regeneration to ascertain the influence of climate on post-fire vegetation dynamics. We found that broad-scale climate factors are an important influence on post-fire vegetation regeneration. Most notably, higher rates of post-fire regeneration occurred with warmer minimum temperatures. Increases in precipitation also resulted in higher rates of post-fire vegetation growth. While explanatory power was slight, multiple statistical approaches provided evidence for real ecological drivers of post-fire regeneration that should be investigated further at finer scales. The sensitivity of post-disturbance vegetation dynamics to climatic drivers has important ramifications for the management of ecosystems under changing climatic conditions. Shifts in temperature and precipitation regimes are likely to result in changes in post-disturbance dynamics, which could represent important feedbacks into the global climate system.

  1. Patterns in Greater Sage-grouse population dynamics correspond with public grazing records at broad scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monroe, Adrian; Aldridge, Cameron L.; Assal, Timothy J.; Veblen, Kari E.; Pyke, David A.; Casazza, Michael L.

    2017-01-01

    Human land use, such as livestock grazing, can have profound yet varied effects on wildlife interacting within common ecosystems, yet our understanding of land-use effects is often generalized from short-term, local studies that may not correspond with trends at broader scales. Here we used public land records to characterize livestock grazing across Wyoming, USA, and we used Greater Sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) as a model organism to evaluate responses to livestock management. With annual counts of male Sage-grouse from 743 leks (breeding display sites) during 2004–2014, we modeled population trends in response to grazing level (represented by a relative grazing index) and timing across a gradient in vegetation productivity as measured by the Normalized Vegetation Difference Index (NDVI). We found grazing can have both positive and negative effects on Sage-grouse populations depending on the timing and level of grazing. Sage-grouse populations responded positively to higher grazing levels after peak vegetation productivity, but populations declined when similar grazing levels occurred earlier, likely reflecting the sensitivity of cool-season grasses to grazing during peak growth periods. We also found support for the hypothesis that effects of grazing management vary with local vegetation productivity. These results illustrate the importance of broad-scale analyses by revealing patterns in Sage-grouse population trends that may not be inferred from studies at finer scales, and could inform sustainable grazing management in these ecosystems.

  2. Patterns in Greater Sage-grouse population dynamics correspond with public grazing records at broad scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monroe, Adrian P; Aldridge, Cameron L; Assal, Timothy J; Veblen, Kari E; Pyke, David A; Casazza, Michael L

    2017-06-01

    Human land use, such as livestock grazing, can have profound yet varied effects on wildlife interacting within common ecosystems, yet our understanding of land-use effects is often generalized from short-term, local studies that may not correspond with trends at broader scales. Here we used public land records to characterize livestock grazing across Wyoming, USA, and we used Greater Sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) as a model organism to evaluate responses to livestock management. With annual counts of male Sage-grouse from 743 leks (breeding display sites) during 2004-2014, we modeled population trends in response to grazing level (represented by a relative grazing index) and timing across a gradient in vegetation productivity as measured by the Normalized Vegetation Difference Index (NDVI). We found grazing can have both positive and negative effects on Sage-grouse populations depending on the timing and level of grazing. Sage-grouse populations responded positively to higher grazing levels after peak vegetation productivity, but populations declined when similar grazing levels occurred earlier, likely reflecting the sensitivity of cool-season grasses to grazing during peak growth periods. We also found support for the hypothesis that effects of grazing management vary with local vegetation productivity. These results illustrate the importance of broad-scale analyses by revealing patterns in Sage-grouse population trends that may not be inferred from studies at finer scales, and could inform sustainable grazing management in these ecosystems. © 2017 by the Ecological Society of America.

  3. Scaling up from traits to communities to ecosystems across broad climate gradients: Testing Metabolic Scaling Theories predictions for forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enquist, B. J.; Michaletz, S. T.; Buzzard, V.

    2015-12-01

    Key insights in global ecology will come from mechanistically linking pattern and process across scales. Macrosystems ecology specifically attempts to link ecological processes across spatiotemporal scales. The goal s to link the processing of energy and nutrients from cells all the way ecosystems and to understand how shifting climate influences ecosystem processes. Using new data collected from NSF funded Macrosystems project we report on new findings from forests sites across a broad temperature gradient. Our study sites span tropical, temperate, and high elevation forests we assess several key predictions and assumptions of Metabolic Scaling Theory (MST) as well as several other competing hypotheses for the role of climate, light, and plant traits on influencing forest demography and forest ecosystems. Specifically, we assess the importance of plant size, light limitation, size structure, and various climatic factors on forest growth, demography, and ecosystem functioning. We provide some of the first systematic tests of several key predictions from MST. We show that MST predictions are largely upheld and that new insights from assessing theories predictions yields new observations and findings that help modify and extend MST's predictions and applicability. We discuss how theory is critically needed to further our understanding of how to scale pattern and process in ecology - from traits to ecosystems - in order to develop a more predictive global change biology.

  4. Michael-type addition of azoles of broad-scale acidity to methyl acrylate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof Z. Walczak

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available An optimisation of Michael-type addition of azole derivatives of broad-scale acidity – ranging from 5.20 to 15.00 pKa units – namely 4-nitropyrazole, 3,5-dimethyl-4-nitropyrazole, 4(5-nitroimidazole, 4,5-diphenylimidazole, 4,5-dicyanoimidazole, 2-methyl-4(5-nitroimidazole, 5(4-bromo-2-methyl-4(5-nitroimidazole and 3-nitro-1,2,4-triazole to methyl acrylate as an acceptor was carried out. The optimisation process involved the use of an appropriate basic catalyst (DBU, DIPEA, NaOH, NaH, TEDA, a donor/base/acceptor ratio and the reaction temperature. The reactions were performed in DMF as solvent. Target Michael adducts were obtained in medium to excellent yields. Importantly, for imidazole and 1,2,4-triazole derivatives, no corresponding regioisomers were obtained.

  5. Broad-scale impacts of salmon farms on temperate macroalgal assemblages on rocky reefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, E S; Edgar, G J; Kirkpatrick, J B; Stuart-Smith, R D; Barrett, N S

    2015-09-15

    Intensive fish culture in open sea pens delivers large amounts of nutrients to coastal environments. Relative to particulate waste impacts, the ecological impacts of dissolved wastes are poorly known despite their potential to substantially affect nutrient-assimilating components of surrounding ecosystems. Broad-scale enrichment effects of salmonid farms on Tasmanian reef communities were assessed by comparing macroalgal cover at four fixed distances from active fish farm leases across 44 sites. Macroalgal assemblages differed significantly between sites immediately adjacent (100m) to fish farms and reference sites at 5km distance, while sites at 400m and 1km exhibited intermediate characteristics. Epiphyte cover varied consistently with fish farm impacts in both sheltered and exposed locations. The green algae Chaetomorpha spp. predominated near fish farms at swell-exposed sites, whereas filamentous green algae showed elevated densities near sheltered farms. Cover of canopy-forming perennial algae appeared unaffected by fish farm impacts. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Predators on private land: broad-scale socioeconomic interactions influence large predator management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayley S. Clements

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The proliferation of private land conservation areas (PLCAs is placing increasing pressure on conservation authorities to effectively regulate their ecological management. Many PLCAs depend on tourism for income, and charismatic large mammal species are considered important for attracting international visitors. Broad-scale socioeconomic factors therefore have the potential to drive fine-scale ecological management, creating a systemic scale mismatch that can reduce long-term sustainability in cases where economic and conservation objectives are not perfectly aligned. We assessed the socioeconomic drivers and outcomes of large predator management on 71 PLCAs in South Africa. Owners of PLCAs that are stocking free-roaming large predators identified revenue generation as influencing most or all of their management decisions, and rated profit generation as a more important objective than did the owners of PLCAs that did not stock large predators. Ecotourism revenue increased with increasing lion (Panthera leo density, which created a potential economic incentive for stocking lion at high densities. Despite this potential mismatch between economic and ecological objectives, lion densities were sustainable relative to available prey. Regional-scale policy guidelines for free-roaming lion management were ecologically sound. By contrast, policy guidelines underestimated the area required to sustain cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus, which occurred at unsustainable densities relative to available prey. Evidence of predator overstocking included predator diet supplementation and frequent reintroduction of game. We conclude that effective facilitation of conservation on private land requires consideration of the strong and not necessarily beneficial multiscale socioeconomic factors that influence private land management.

  7. Agricultural Set-aside Programs and Grassland Birds: Insights from Broad-scale Population Trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Riffell

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The Conservation Reserve Program (CRP is a voluntary set-aside program in the United States designed to amelioratesoil erosion, control crop overproduction, enhance water quality, and provide wildlife habitat by replacing crops with other forms of land cover. Because CRP includes primarily grass habitats, it has great potential to benefitdeclining North American grassland bird populations. We looked at the change in national and state population trends of grassland birds and related changes to cover-specific CRP variables (previous research grouped all CRP practices. Changes in national trends after the initiation of the CRP were inconclusive, but we observed signficant bird-CRP relations at the state level. Most bird-CRP relations were positive, except for some species associated with habitats that CRP replaced. Practice- and configuration-specific CRP variables were related to grassland bird trends, rather than a generic measure of all CRP types combined. Considering all CRP land as a single, distinct habitat type may obscure actual relations between birds and set-aside characteristics. Understanding and predictingthe effects of set-aside programs (like CRP or agri-environment schemes on grassland birds is complex and difficult. Because available broad-scale datasets are less than adequate, studies should be conducted at a variety of spatial and temporal scales.

  8. Constraining the geometry, size scale and physical conditions of outflowing broad absorption line regions in quasars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Sui Chi

    Quasars are known for generating luminosities of up to 1047 erg s--1 in volumes of scales smaller than 2 x 10 15 cm. The optical/UV continuum emission is generally believed to arise from a rotating accretion disk (AD) surrounding a supermassive black hole (SMBH) of ˜ 108 M⊙ . Such emission can be calculated by treating the AD as a multi-temperature blackbody. While the continuum emitting region is well defined, the properties, location and kinematics of the broad emission line regions (BELRs) and broad absorption line regions (BALRs) remain unclear. On one hand, the reverberation mapping technique can give constraints on the location of the BELRs, but not the kinematics. On the other hand, the line-of-sight kinematics of the BALRs is directly observable, but their locations are not well constrained, resulting in a large range of inferred distances, from 0.01 pc to tens of kpc. Therefore, I combined observational results to investigate the geometry, size, and physical conditions of the BELRs and BALRs. I verified that the Lyalpha and CIV BELRs are located at a similar distance. Using these findings, I was able to constrain the size of the Lyalpha BELR and place a lower limit on the size of the N V BALR. I built an empirical model with the optical/UV continuum emission from the AD, the BELR from the chromosphere of the AD, and the outflowing BALR. In the continuum region, I found that over 95 percent of the total flux comes from the region at ~ 125rg, where rg is the gravitational radius of the SMBH. For the BELRs, I computed a disk-wind model with relativistic effects to explain the often-observed single-peaked BEL profiles. However, I show that such a model cannot explain the observed blue asymmetries in the high-ionization BELs or their blueshifted peaks relative to low-ionization BELs. Using results on time variability of BALR gas, and assuming the variability is caused by the gas moving perpendicular across the line-of-sight over a time scale of about a year

  9. Perceptions of Childhood Sexual Abuse Survivors: Development and Initial Validation of a New Scale to Measure Stereotypes of Adult Survivors of Childhood Sexual Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zafar, Sadia; Ross, Erin C.

    2013-01-01

    The Childhood Sexual Abuse Stereotypes Scale was developed to assess stereotypes of adult survivors of childhood sexual abuse. Scale items were derived from two studies that elicited cultural and personal beliefs about, and emotions experienced towards adult childhood sexual abuse survivors among university undergraduates. Two scales, Emotions and…

  10. Health Literacy Scale and Causal Model of Childhood Overweight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intarakamhang, Ungsinun; Intarakamhang, Patrawut

    2017-01-28

    WHO focuses on developing health literacy (HL) referring to cognitive and social skills. Our objectives were to develop a scale for evaluating the HL level of Thai childhood overweight, and develop a path model of health behavior (HB) for preventing obesity. A cross-sectional study. This research used a mixed method. Overall, 2,000 school students were aged 9 to 14 yr collected by stratified random sampling from all parts of Thailand in 2014. Data were analyzed by CFA, LISREL. Reliability of HL and HB scale ranged 0.62 to 0.82 and factor loading ranged 0.33 to 0.80, the subjects had low level of HL (60.0%) and fair level of HB (58.4%), and the path model of HB, could be influenced by HL from three paths. Path 1 started from the health knowledge and understanding that directly influenced the eating behavior (effect sized - β was 0.13, Pliteracy, and making appropriate health-related decision β=0.07, 0.98, and 0.05, respectively. Path 3 the accessing the information and services that influenced communicating for added skills, media literacy, and making appropriate health-related decision β=0.63, 0.93, 0.98, and 0.05. Finally, basic level of HL measured from health knowledge and understanding and accessing the information and services that influenced HB through interactive, and critical level β= 0.76, 0.97, and 0.55, respectively. HL Scale for Thai childhood overweight should be implemented as a screening tool developing HL by the public policy for health promotion.

  11. Kvalitetsvurdering med Early Childhood Envirionment Rating Scale (ECERS-3)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Næsby, Torben; Pedersen, Birgitte Skov; Skytte, Karsten Brinkmann

    2017-01-01

    Denne rapport omhandler en undersøgelse af kvalitet i dagtilbud i Frederikshavn Kommune. I undersøgelsen anvendes den internationale evalueringssmetode ECERS-3 (Early Childhood Environment Rating Scale, version 3 ), der er et instrument til måling af kvalitet og et værktøj til evaluering og...... gode, men for de kognitive kompetencers vedkommende udnyttes læringspotentialet ikke (standardafvigelse er 0,7). Gennemsnittet for sprog og literacy er noget lavt (2,57), hvilket vil kunne medføre, i tråd med andre undersøgelser (MBUL,2016a; Sylva et al, 2004), at der vil være børn, der ved skolestart...

  12. Assessing regional and interspecific variation in threshold responses of forest breeding birds through broad scale analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Hoek, Yntze; Renfrew, Rosalind; Manne, Lisa L

    2013-01-01

    Identifying persistence and extinction thresholds in species-habitat relationships is a major focal point of ecological research and conservation. However, one major concern regarding the incorporation of threshold analyses in conservation is the lack of knowledge on the generality and transferability of results across species and regions. We present a multi-region, multi-species approach of modeling threshold responses, which we use to investigate whether threshold effects are similar across species and regions. We modeled local persistence and extinction dynamics of 25 forest-associated breeding birds based on detection/non-detection data, which were derived from repeated breeding bird atlases for the state of Vermont. We did not find threshold responses to be particularly well-supported, with 9 species supporting extinction thresholds and 5 supporting persistence thresholds. This contrasts with a previous study based on breeding bird atlas data from adjacent New York State, which showed that most species support persistence and extinction threshold models (15 and 22 of 25 study species respectively). In addition, species that supported a threshold model in both states had associated average threshold estimates of 61.41% (SE = 6.11, persistence) and 66.45% (SE = 9.15, extinction) in New York, compared to 51.08% (SE = 10.60, persistence) and 73.67% (SE = 5.70, extinction) in Vermont. Across species, thresholds were found at 19.45-87.96% forest cover for persistence and 50.82-91.02% for extinction dynamics. Through an approach that allows for broad-scale comparisons of threshold responses, we show that species vary in their threshold responses with regard to habitat amount, and that differences between even nearby regions can be pronounced. We present both ecological and methodological factors that may contribute to the different model results, but propose that regardless of the reasons behind these differences, our results merit a warning that

  13. Tree growth and climate in the Pacific Northwest, North America: a broad-scale analysis of changing growth environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitney L. Albright; David L. Peterson

    2013-01-01

    Climate change in the 21st century will affect tree growth in the Pacific Northwest region of North America, although complex climate–growth relationships make it difficult to identify how radial growth will respond across different species distributions. We used a novel method to examine potential growth responses to climate change at a broad geographical scale with a...

  14. Validation of the Early Childhood Ecology Scale-Revised: A Reflective Tool for Teacher Candidates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Belinda Bustos; Casebeer, Cindy M.; Riojas-Cortez, Mari

    2011-01-01

    Given increasing numbers of young culturally and/or linguistically diverse (CLD) children across the United States, it is crucial to prepare early childhood teachers to create high-quality environments that facilitate the development of all children. The Early Childhood Ecology Scale-Revised (ECES-R) has been developed as a reflective tool to help…

  15. Reliability and Validity of the Multidimensional Scale of Life Skills in Late Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Minoru; Gushiken, Taichi; Ganaha, Yurika; Sasazawa, Yosiaki; Iwata, Shotaro; Takemura, Akiko; Fujita, Tsutomu; Asikin, Yonathan; Takakura, Minoru

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the reliability and validity of the Multidimensional Scale of Life Skills in Late Childhood, an instrument designed to measure a concept similar to "zest for living" in late childhood. A total of 1,888 elementary school students in the 4th, 5th, and 6th grades residing in urban and suburban areas as well as in…

  16. Wheezing and asthma may be enhanced by broad spectrum antibiotics used in early childhood. Concept and results of a pharmacoepidemiology study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jedrychowski, W; Perera, F; Maugeri, U; Mroz, E; Flak, E; Perzanowski, M; Majewska, R

    2011-04-01

    One of the mechanisms supposed to explain the increasing prevalence of asthma, among children in particular, is the use of antibiotics because they may modify natural microbial exposure and development of the immune system in early childhood. The aim of this study is to investigate the association between the use of various classes of antibiotics (penicillin, cephalosporin and macrolide derivatives) in early childhood and the medical diagnosis of asthma or wheezing reported by mothers over the follow-up after adjustment for potential confounders and respiratory infections. In a population-based sample of 5-year-olds, a part of the ongoing birth cohort study, the standardized interviews on health outcomes, potential confounders (child's gender, maternal atopy, parity, prenatal and postnatal environmental tobacco smoke) and the use of antibiotics were gathered from mothers of 310 children. While the overall use of antibiotics during the early childhood was insignificantly associated with asthma (adjusted OR = 1.65, 95%CI: 0.93 - 2.93), the risk estimates were significant both for macrolide antibiotics (adjusted OR=2.14, 95%CI: 1.16-3.95) and cephalosporins (OR=1.98, 95%CI: 1.14-3.37). The significant excess in IRR (incident risk ratio) of wheezing episodes was related only to the use of macrolide antibiotics (adjusted IRR=1.91, 95%CI: 1.12-3.27). The use of other classes of antibiotics was found not to be associated with the medical diagnosis of asthma or wheezing episodes recorded in the study period. as early childhood use of broad spectrum antibiotics is associated with an increased risk of developing asthma in 5-year-olds, it may be hypothesized that the antibiotic- related suppression of allergic inflammatory responses in the course of treatment may later lead to greater than before atopic immune response in Th2 children or an impairment of Th1 immune responses in early childhood.

  17. VLBI Detections of Parsec-Scale Nonthermal Jets in Radio-Loud Broad Absorption Line Quasars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doi, Akihiro; Kawaguchi, Noriyuki; Kono, Yusuke; Oyama, Tomoaki; Fujisawa, Kenta; Takaba, Hiroshi; Sudou, Hiroshi; Wakamatsu, Ken-Ichi; Yamauchi, Aya; Murata, Yasuhiro; Mochizuki, Nanako; Wajima, Kiyoaki; Omodaka, Toshihiro; Nagayama, Takumi; Nakai, Naomasa; Sorai, Kazuo; Kawai, Eiji; Sekido, Mamoru; Koyama, Yasuhiro; VLBI Group At Geographical Survey Institute,; Asano, Shoichiro; Uose, Hisao

    2009-12-01

    We conducted radio detection observations at 8.4 GHz for 22 radio-loud broad absorption line (BAL) quasars, selected from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Third Data Release, by a very-long-baseline interferometry (VLBI) technique. The VLBI instrument we used was developed by the Optically ConnecTed Array for VLBI Exploration project (OCTAVE), which is operated as a subarray of the Japanese VLBI Network. We aimed to select BAL quasars with nonthermal jets suitable for measuring their orientation angles and ages by subsequent detailed VLBI imaging studies to evaluate two controversial issues of whether BAL quasars are viewed nearly edge-on, and of whether BAL quasars are in a short-lived evolutionary phase of the quasar population. We detected 20 out of 22 sources using the OCTAVE baselines, implying brightness temperatures greater than 105K, which presumably come from nonthermal jets. Hence, BAL outflows and nonthermal jets can be generated simultaneously in these central engines. We also found four inverted-spectrum sources, which are interpreted as Doppler-beamed, pole-on-viewed relativistic jet sources, or young radio sources: single edge-on geometry cannot describe all BAL quasars. We discuss the implications of the OCTAVE observations for investigations for the orientation and evolutionary stage of BAL quasars.

  18. Broad-Scale Comparison of Photosynthesis in Terrestrial and Aquatic Plant Communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sand-Jensen, Kaj; Krause-Jensen, D.

    1997-01-01

    Comparisons of photosynthesis in terrestrial and aquatic habitats have been impaired by differences in methods and time-scales of measurements. We compiled information on gross photosynthesis at high irradiance and photosynthetic efficiency at low irradiance from 109 published terrestrial studies...... communities probably due to more efficient light utilization and gas exchange in the terrestrial habitats. By contrast only small differences were found within different aquatic plant communities or within different terrestrial plant communities.......Comparisons of photosynthesis in terrestrial and aquatic habitats have been impaired by differences in methods and time-scales of measurements. We compiled information on gross photosynthesis at high irradiance and photosynthetic efficiency at low irradiance from 109 published terrestrial studies...... of forests, grasslands and crops and 319 aquatic studies of phytoplankton, macrophyte and attached microalgal communities to test if specific differences existed between the communities. Maximum gross photosynthesis and photosynthetic efficiency were systematically higher in terrestrial than in aquatic...

  19. Evaluating broad scale patterns among related species using resource experiments in tropical hummingbirds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstein, Ben G; Graham, Catherine H

    2016-08-01

    A challenge in community ecology is connecting biogeographic patterns with local scale observations. In Neotropical hummingbirds, closely related species often co-occur less frequently than expected (overdispersion) when compared to a regional species pool. While this pattern has been attributed to interspecific competition, it is important to connect these findings with local scale mechanisms of coexistence. We measured the importance of the presence of competitors and the availability of resources on selectivity at experimental feeders for Andean hummingbirds along a wide elevation gradient. Selectivity was measured as the time a bird fed at a feeder with a high sucrose concentration when presented with feeders of both low and high sucrose concentrations. Resource selection was measured using time-lapse cameras to identity which floral resources were used by each hummingbird species. We found that the increased abundance of preferred resources surrounding the feeder best explained increased species selectivity, and that related hummingbirds with similar morphology chose similar floral resources. We did not find strong support for direct agonism based on differences in body size or phylogenetic relatedness in predicting selectivity. These results suggest closely related hummingbird species have overlapping resource niches, and that the intensity of interspecific competition is related to the abundance of those preferred resources. If these competitive interactions have negative demographic effects, our results could help explain the pattern of phylogenetic overdispersion observed at regional scales. © 2016 by the Ecological Society of America.

  20. Characterizing grazing disturbance in semiarid ecosystems across broad spatial scales using multiple indices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beever, Erik A.; Tausch, Robin J.; Brussard, Peter F.

    2003-01-01

    Although management and conservation strategies continue to move toward broader spatial scales and consideration of many taxonomic groups simultaneously, researchers have struggled to characterize responses to disturbance at these scales. Most studies of disturbance by feral grazers investigate effects on only one or two ecosystem elements across small spatial scales, limiting their applicability to ecosystem-level management. To address this inadequacy, in 1997 and 1998 we examined disturbance created by feral horses (Equus caballus) in nine mountain ranges of the western Great Basin, USA, using plants, small mammals, ants, and soil compaction as indicators. Nine horse-occupied and 10 horse-removed sites were stratified into high- and low-elevation groups, and all sites at each elevation had similar vegetation type, aspect, slope gradient, and recent (≥15-yr) fire and livestock-grazing histories. Using reciprocal averaging and TWINSPAN analyses, we compared relationships among sites using five data sets: abiotic variables, percent cover by plant species, an index of abundance by plant species, 10 disturbance-sensitive response variables, and grass and shrub species considered “key” indicators by land managers. Although reciprocal averaging and TWINSPAN analyses of percent cover, abiotic variables, and key species suggested relationships between sites influenced largely by biogeography (i.e., mountain range), disturbance-sensitive variables clearly segregated horse-occupied and horse-removed sites. These analyses suggest that the influence of feral horses on many Great Basin ecosystem attributes is not being detected by monitoring only palatable plant species. We recommend development of an expanded monitoring strategy based not only on established vegetation measurements investigating forage consumption, but also including disturbance-sensitive variables (e.g., soil surface hardness, abundance of ant mounds) that more completely reflect the suite of effects

  1. Characterizing grazing disturbance in semiarid ecosystems across broad scales, using diverse indices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beever, E.A.; Tausch, R.J.; Brussard, P.F.

    2003-01-01

    Although management and conservation strategies continue to move toward broader spatial scales and consideration of many taxonomic groups simultaneously, researchers have struggled to characterize responses to disturbance at these scales. Most studies of disturbance by feral grazers investigate effects on only one or two ecosystem elements across small spatial scales, limiting their applicability to ecosystem-level management. To address this inadequacy, in 1997 and 1998 we examined disturbance created by feral horses (Equus caballus) in nine mountain ranges of the western Great Basin, USA, using plants, small mammals, ants, and soil compaction as indicators. Nine horse-occupied and 10 horse-removed sites were stratified into high- and low-elevation groups, and all sites at each elevation had similar vegetation type, aspect, slope gradient, and recent (≥15-yr) fire and livestock-grazing histories. Using reciprocal averaging and TWINSPAN analyses, we compared relationships among sites using five data sets: abiotic variables, percent cover by plant species, an index of abundance by plant species, 10 disturbance-sensitive response variables, and grass and shrub species considered “key” indicators by land managers. Although reciprocal averaging and TWINSPAN analyses of percent cover, abiotic variables, and key species suggested relationships between sites influenced largely by biogeography (i.e., mountain range), disturbance-sensitive variables clearly segregated horse-occupied and horse-removed sites. These analyses suggest that the influence of feral horses on many Great Basin ecosystem attributes is not being detected by monitoring only palatable plant species. We recommend development of an expanded monitoring strategy based not only on established vegetation measurements investigating forage consumption, but also including disturbance-sensitive variables (e.g., soil surface hardness, abundance of ant mounds) that more completely reflect the suite of effects

  2. Broad-scale lake expansion and flooding inundates essential wood bison habitat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korosi, Jennifer B.; Thienpont, Joshua R.; Pisaric, Michael F. J.; Demontigny, Peter; Perreault, Joelle T.; McDonald, Jamylynn; Simpson, Myrna J.; Armstrong, Terry; Kokelj, Steven V.; Smol, John P.; Blais, Jules M.

    2017-02-01

    Understanding the interaction between the response of a complex ecosystem to climate change and the protection of vulnerable wildlife species is essential for conservation efforts. In the Northwest Territories (Canada), the recent movement of the Mackenzie wood bison herd (Bison bison athabascae) out of their designated territory has been postulated as a response to the loss of essential habitat following regional lake expansion. We show that the proportion of this landscape occupied by water doubled since 1986 and the timing of lake expansion corresponds to bison movements out of the Mackenzie Bison Sanctuary. Historical reconstructions using proxy data in dated sediment cores show that the scale of recent lake expansion is unmatched over at least the last several hundred years. We conclude that recent lake expansion represents a fundamental alteration of the structure and function of this ecosystem and its use by Mackenzie wood bison, in response to climate change.

  3. The Revised Child Anxiety and Depression Scale-Short Version: Scale reduction via exploratory bifactor modeling of the broad anxiety factor.

    OpenAIRE

    Ebesutani, Chad; Reise, Steven P.; Chorpita, Bruce F.; Ale, Chelsea; Regan, Jennifer; Young, John; Higa-McMillan, Charmaine; Weisz, John R

    2012-01-01

    Using a school-based (N = 1,060) and clinic-referred (N = 303) youth sample, the authors developed a 25-item shortened version of the Revised Child Anxiety and Depression Scale (RCADS) using Schmid-Leiman exploratory bifactor analysis to reduce client burden and administration time and thus improve the transportability characteristics of this youth anxiety and depression measure. Results revealed that all anxiety items primarily reflected a single “broad anxiety” dimension, which informed the...

  4. The need for standardised broad scale bioassay testing: A case study using the red alga Laurencia rigida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Nys, R; Leya, T; Maximilien, R; Afsar, A; Nair, P S; Steinberg, P D

    1996-01-01

    Two major problems associated with biofouling studies are the lack of broad scale testing and failure to use consistent standards among different assays or studies. To address these issues the activity of two biologically active natural products, elatol and deschloroelatol, isolated from the marine red alga Laurencia rigida, and three commonly used biocides, Nopcocide N-96™, Irgarol 1051™ and Sea-Nine 211™, was compared, in a broad spectrum of bioassays. The activity of the different compounds varied substantially among different bioassay tests. Elatol and deschloroelatol had a narrow range of activity with strongest effects against invertebrate larvae. Both compounds were highly toxic. However, neither compound had strong activity against marine bacteria or the common epiphyte Ulva lactuca. Irgarol 1051 also had a narrow range of activity, only affecting algal settlement strongly. Nopcocide N-96 and Sea-Nine 211 had moderate to strong activity across the spectrum of bioassays, viz. growth of marine bacteria (Vibrio fischeri, Serratia sp.), inhibition of settlement of macroalgae (Ulva lactuca), toxicity (Balanus amphitrite), and inhibition of settlement of invertebrate larvae (Balanus amphitrite, Bugula neritina). Based on the results it is proposed that Sea-Nine 211, because of its broad spectrum activity, be used as a standard for comparative assessments of the antifouling activity of marine natural products and analogues.

  5. Performance Evaluation of CRW Reef-Scale and Broad-Scale SST-Based Coral Monitoring Products in Fringing Reef Systems of Tobago

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaazia S. Mohammed

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Satellite-derived sea surface temperature (SST is used to monitor coral bleaching through the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration’s Coral Reef Watch (CRW Decision Support System (DSS. Since 2000, a broad-scale 50 km SST was used to monitor thermal stress for coral reefs globally. However, some discrepancies were noted when applied to small-scale fringing coral reefs. To address this, CRW created a new DSS, specifically targeted at or near reef scales. Here, we evaluated the new reef-scale (5 km resolution products using in situ temperature data and coral bleaching surveys which were also compared with the heritage broad-scale (50 km for three reefs (Buccoo Reef, Culloden and Speyside of the southern Caribbean island of Tobago. Seasonal and annual biases indicated the new 5 km SST generally represents the conditions at these reefs more accurately and more consistently than the 50 km SST. Consistency between satellite and in situ temperature data influences the performance of anomaly-based predictions of bleaching: the 5 km DHW product showed better consistency with bleaching observations than the 50 km product. These results are the first to demonstrate the improvement of the 5 km products over the 50 km predecessors and support their use in monitoring thermal stress of reefs in the southern Caribbean.

  6. Positive childhood experiences predict less psychopathology and stress in pregnant women with childhood adversity: A pilot study of the benevolent childhood experiences (BCEs) scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayan, Angela J; Rivera, Luisa M; Bernstein, Rosemary E; Harris, William W; Lieberman, Alicia F

    2017-10-06

    This pilot study examined the psychometric properties of the Benevolent Childhood Experiences (BCEs) scale, a new instrument designed to assess positive early life experiences in adults with histories of childhood maltreatment and other adversities. A counterpart to the Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACEs) questionnaire, the BCEs was developed to be multiculturally-sensitive and applicable regardless of socioeconomic position, urban-rural background, or immigration status. Higher levels of BCEs were hypothesized to predict lower levels of psychopathology and stress beyond the effects of ACES in a sample of ethnically diverse, low-income pregnant women. BCEs were also expected to show adequate internal validity across racial/ethnic groups and test-retest stability from the prenatal to the postnatal period. Participants were 101 pregnant women (M=29.10years, SD=6.56, range=18-44; 37% Latina, 22% African-American, 20% White, 21% biracial/multiracial/other; 37% foreign-born, 26% Spanish-speaking) who completed the BCEs and ACEs scales; assessments of prenatal depression and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms, perceived stress, and exposure to stressful life events (SLEs) during pregnancy; and demographic information. Higher levels of BCEs predicted less PTSD symptoms and SLEs, above and beyond ACEs. The BCEs showed excellent test-retest reliability, and mean levels were comparable across racial/ethnic and Spanish-English groups of women. Person-oriented analyses also showed that higher levels of BCEs offset the effects of ACEs on prenatal stress and psychopathology. The BCEs scale indexes promising promotive factors associated with lower trauma-related symptomatology and stress exposure during pregnancy and illuminates how favorable childhood experiences may counteract long-term effects of childhood adversity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Multi-scale patterns of subalpine fir mortality are driven by complex interactions among broad-scale climate, local topography, stand structure, and tree characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, B. J.; Andrus, R. A.; Orrego, A.; Battaglia, M.; Negrón, J. F.; Veblen, T. T.

    2016-12-01

    Recent tree mortality events across much of western North America have been associated with warming temperatures and elevated drought stress, which can interact with forest stand-structure and tree vigor to drive outbreaks of native insect species. Although cross-scale interactions among drivers of tree-mortality events have been described for some beetle species (e.g., mountain pine beetle or spruce beetle) and their hosts (lodgepole pine and Engelmann spruce), less is known about how drivers at different scales interact to kill subalpine fir (Abies lasiocarpa) in a phenomenon simply dubbed "subalpine fir mortality" or "subalpine fir decline." Understanding the fate of subalpine fir is important, however, because this is commonly the tree species expected to establish and exhibit growth releases following outbreaks of mountain pine beetle or spruce beetle. In this study, we use three decades of field and remote data that span spatial scales from individual trees to sub-continental ecoregions to explore factors associated with subalpine fir mortality and how drivers interact across scales. Between 1991 and 2015, >5 million hectares (ha) of subalpine forest in the US Rocky Mountains have been affected by subalpine fir mortality. At the eco-region scale (1,000s of km), mortality was temporally associated with increases in regional drought stress, suggesting that climate is an important broad-scale driver. However, at the eco-region, landscape, and stand scales (several km to sub ha), mortality was greatest in cooler/wetter topographic locations and in areas with greater pre-mortality subalpine fir dominance. Conversely, mortality was lowest for fir trees in warmer/drier topographic locations and in areas of lesser pre-mortality subalpine fir dominance. This suggests that topographically driven differences in stand structure drive mortality dynamics at meso-scales and moderate the broad-scale influence of climate. Finally, at the tree and tree-neighborhood scale

  8. Molecular evidence for broad-scale distributions in bdelloid rotifers: everything is not everywhere but most things are very widespread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontaneto, Diego; Barraclough, Timothy G; Chen, Kimberly; Ricci, Claudia; Herniou, Elisabeth A

    2008-07-01

    The Baas-Becking's hypothesis, also known by the term 'everything is everywhere' (EisE), states that microscopic organisms such as bacteria and protists are globally distributed and do not show biogeographical patterns, due to their high dispersal potential. We tested the prediction of the EisE hypothesis on bdelloid rotifers, microscopic animals similar to protists in size and ecology that present one of the best cases among animals for the plausibility of global dispersal. Geographical range sizes and patterns of isolation by distance were estimated for global collections of the genera Adineta and Rotaria, using different taxonomic units: (i) traditional species based on morphology, (ii) the most inclusive monophyletic lineages from a cytochrome oxidase I phylogeny comprising just a single traditional species, and (iii) genetic clusters indicative of independently evolving lineages. Although there are cases of truly cosmopolitan distribution, even at the most finely resolved taxonomic level, most genetic clusters are distributed at continental or lower scales. Nevertheless, although 'everything is not everywhere', bdelloid rotifers do display broad distributions typical of those of other microscopic organisms. Broad dispersal and large population sizes might be factors lessening the evolutionary cost of long-term abstinence from sexual reproduction in this famous group of obligate parthenogens.

  9. The Revised Child Anxiety and Depression Scale-Short Version: scale reduction via exploratory bifactor modeling of the broad anxiety factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebesutani, Chad; Reise, Steven P; Chorpita, Bruce F; Ale, Chelsea; Regan, Jennifer; Young, John; Higa-McMillan, Charmaine; Weisz, John R

    2012-12-01

    Using a school-based (N = 1,060) and clinic-referred (N = 303) youth sample, the authors developed a 25-item shortened version of the Revised Child Anxiety and Depression Scale (RCADS) using Schmid-Leiman exploratory bifactor analysis to reduce client burden and administration time and thus improve the transportability characteristics of this youth anxiety and depression measure. Results revealed that all anxiety items primarily reflected a single "broad anxiety" dimension, which informed the development of a reduced 15-item Anxiety Total scale. Although specific DSM-oriented anxiety subscales were not included in this version, the items comprising the Anxiety Total scale were evenly pulled from the 5 anxiety-related content domains from the original RCADS. The resultant 15-item Anxiety Total scale evidenced significant correspondence with anxiety diagnostic groups based on structured clinical interviews. The scores from the 10-item Depression Total scale (retained from the original version) were also associated with acceptable reliability in the clinic-referred and school-based samples (α = .80 and .79, respectively); this is in contrast to the alternate 5-item shortened RCADS Depression Total scale previously developed by Muris, Meesters, and Schouten (2002), which evidenced depression scores of unacceptable reliability (α = .63). The shortened RCADS developed in the present study thus balances efficiency, breadth, and scale score reliability in a way that is potentially useful for repeated measurement in clinical settings as well as wide-scale screenings that assess anxiety and depressive problems. These future applications are discussed, as are recommendations for continued use of exploratory bifactor modeling in scale development.

  10. Modeling vegetation heights from high resolution stereo aerial photography: an application for broad-scale rangeland monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillan, Jeffrey K.; Karl, Jason W.; Duniway, Michael; Elaksher, Ahmed

    2014-01-01

    Vertical vegetation structure in rangeland ecosystems can be a valuable indicator for assessing rangeland health and monitoring riparian areas, post-fire recovery, available forage for livestock, and wildlife habitat. Federal land management agencies are directed to monitor and manage rangelands at landscapes scales, but traditional field methods for measuring vegetation heights are often too costly and time consuming to apply at these broad scales. Most emerging remote sensing techniques capable of measuring surface and vegetation height (e.g., LiDAR or synthetic aperture radar) are often too expensive, and require specialized sensors. An alternative remote sensing approach that is potentially more practical for managers is to measure vegetation heights from digital stereo aerial photographs. As aerial photography is already commonly used for rangeland monitoring, acquiring it in stereo enables three-dimensional modeling and estimation of vegetation height. The purpose of this study was to test the feasibility and accuracy of estimating shrub heights from high-resolution (HR, 3-cm ground sampling distance) digital stereo-pair aerial images. Overlapping HR imagery was taken in March 2009 near Lake Mead, Nevada and 5-cm resolution digital surface models (DSMs) were created by photogrammetric methods (aerial triangulation, digital image matching) for twenty-six test plots. We compared the heights of individual shrubs and plot averages derived from the DSMs to field measurements. We found strong positive correlations between field and image measurements for several metrics. Individual shrub heights tended to be underestimated in the imagery, however, accuracy was higher for dense, compact shrubs compared with shrubs with thin branches. Plot averages of shrub height from DSMs were also strongly correlated to field measurements but consistently underestimated. Grasses and forbs were generally too small to be detected with the resolution of the DSMs. Estimates of

  11. Modeling vegetation heights from high resolution stereo aerial photography: an application for broad-scale rangeland monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillan, Jeffrey K; Karl, Jason W; Duniway, Michael; Elaksher, Ahmed

    2014-11-01

    Vertical vegetation structure in rangeland ecosystems can be a valuable indicator for assessing rangeland health and monitoring riparian areas, post-fire recovery, available forage for livestock, and wildlife habitat. Federal land management agencies are directed to monitor and manage rangelands at landscapes scales, but traditional field methods for measuring vegetation heights are often too costly and time consuming to apply at these broad scales. Most emerging remote sensing techniques capable of measuring surface and vegetation height (e.g., LiDAR or synthetic aperture radar) are often too expensive, and require specialized sensors. An alternative remote sensing approach that is potentially more practical for managers is to measure vegetation heights from digital stereo aerial photographs. As aerial photography is already commonly used for rangeland monitoring, acquiring it in stereo enables three-dimensional modeling and estimation of vegetation height. The purpose of this study was to test the feasibility and accuracy of estimating shrub heights from high-resolution (HR, 3-cm ground sampling distance) digital stereo-pair aerial images. Overlapping HR imagery was taken in March 2009 near Lake Mead, Nevada and 5-cm resolution digital surface models (DSMs) were created by photogrammetric methods (aerial triangulation, digital image matching) for twenty-six test plots. We compared the heights of individual shrubs and plot averages derived from the DSMs to field measurements. We found strong positive correlations between field and image measurements for several metrics. Individual shrub heights tended to be underestimated in the imagery, however, accuracy was higher for dense, compact shrubs compared with shrubs with thin branches. Plot averages of shrub height from DSMs were also strongly correlated to field measurements but consistently underestimated. Grasses and forbs were generally too small to be detected with the resolution of the DSMs. Estimates of

  12. Responsiveness and sensitivity of the Early Childhood Oral Health Impact Scale to primary dental care for early childhood caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrow, Peter

    2016-02-01

    This study examined the responsiveness of the Early Childhood Oral Health Impact Scale (ECOHIS) to dental treatment of early childhood caries (ECC) in a primary dental care setting. Parents of children participating in a randomized controlled trial completed the ECOHIS at baseline and follow-up, and rated the global oral health transition of their child at follow-up ('worsened', 'no change', 'improved'). Change scores were calculated and longitudinal construct validity assessed by examining the association between change scores and global oral health transition groups. ECOHIS changes from baseline to follow-up within global transition groups were also evaluated. Effect sizes, minimally important difference, and Guyatt's responsiveness index were calculated to examine the scale's sensitivity and responsiveness. After 11.3 months, complete questionnaire data were available for 189 participants; 59% reported 'improved' oral health. The follow-up scores were significantly lower in the child psychology, parental distress and family impact section, P dental care settings was modest, and its use to measure treatment effects in primary care settings requires further investigations. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Broad-scale phosphoprotein profiling of beta adrenergic receptor (β-AR signaling reveals novel phosphorylation and dephosphorylation events.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej J Chruscinski

    Full Text Available β-adrenergic receptors (β-ARs are model G-protein coupled receptors that mediate signal transduction in the sympathetic nervous system. Despite the widespread clinical use of agents that target β-ARs, the signaling pathways that operate downstream of β-AR stimulation have not yet been completely elucidated. Here, we utilized a lysate microarray approach to obtain a broad-scale perspective of phosphoprotein signaling downstream of β-AR. We monitored the time course of phosphorylation states of 54 proteins after β-AR activation mouse embryonic fibroblast (MEF cells. In response to stimulation with the non-selective β-AR agonist isoproterenol, we observed previously described phosphorylation events such as ERK1/2(T202/Y204 and CREB(S133, but also novel phosphorylation events such as Cdc2(Y15 and Pyk2(Y402. All of these events were mediated through cAMP and PKA as they were reproduced by stimulation with the adenylyl cyclase activator forskolin and were blocked by treatment with H89, a PKA inhibitor. In addition, we also observed a number of novel isoproterenol-induced protein dephosphorylation events in target substrates of the PI3K/AKT pathway: GSK3β(S9, 4E-BP1(S65, and p70s6k(T389. These dephosphorylations were dependent on cAMP, but were independent of PKA and correlated with reduced PI3K/AKT activity. Isoproterenol stimulation also led to a cAMP-dependent dephosphorylation of PP1α(T320, a modification known to correlate with enhanced activity of this phosphatase. Dephosphorylation of PP1α coincided with the secondary decline in phosphorylation of some PKA-phosphorylated substrates, suggesting that PP1α may act in a feedback loop to return these phosphorylations to baseline. In summary, lysate microarrays are a powerful tool to profile phosphoprotein signaling and have provided a broad-scale perspective of how β-AR signaling can regulate key pathways involved in cell growth and metabolism.

  14. Evaluation of the Early Childhood Oral Health Impact Scale in an Australian preschool child population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrow, P; Klobas, E

    2015-09-01

    Early childhood caries has significant impacts on children and their families. The Early Childhood Oral Health Impact Scale (ECOHIS) is an instrument for capturing the complex dimensions of preschool children's oral health. This study aimed to evaluate the reliability and validity of the instrument among Australian preschool children. Parents/children dyads (n = 286) participating in a treatment trial on early childhood caries completed the scale at baseline, and 33 parents repeated the questionnaire 2-3 weeks later. The validity and reliability of the ECOHIS was determined using tests for convergent and discriminant validity, internal reliability of the instrument and test-retest reliability. Scale impacts were strongly correlated with global oral health ratings (Spearman's correlations; r = 0.51, total score; r = 0.43, child impact; and r = 0.49, family impact; p impact of early childhood caries among Australian preschool children. © 2015 Australian Dental Association.

  15. Broad-scale latitudinal patterns of genetic diversity among native European and introduced house sparrow (Passer domesticus) populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrey, A W; Grispo, M; Awad, M; Cook, M B; McCoy, E D; Mushinsky, H R; Albayrak, T; Bensch, S; Burke, T; Butler, L K; Dor, R; Fokidis, H B; Jensen, H; Imboma, T; Kessler-Rios, M M; Marzal, A; Stewart, I R K; Westerdahl, H; Westneat, D F; Zehtindjiev, P; Martin, L B

    2011-03-01

    Introduced species offer unique opportunities to study evolution in new environments, and some provide opportunities for understanding the mechanisms underlying macroecological patterns. We sought to determine how introduction history impacted genetic diversity and differentiation of the house sparrow (Passer domesticus), one of the most broadly distributed bird species. We screened eight microsatellite loci in 316 individuals from 16 locations in the native and introduced ranges. Significant population structure occurred between native than introduced house sparrows. Introduced house sparrows were distinguished into one North American group and a highly differentiated Kenyan group. Genetic differentiation estimates identified a high magnitude of differentiation between Kenya and all other populations, but demonstrated that European and North American samples were differentiated too. Our results support previous claims that introduced North American populations likely had few source populations, and indicate house sparrows established populations after introduction. Genetic diversity also differed among native, introduced North American, and Kenyan populations with Kenyan birds being least diverse. In some cases, house sparrow populations appeared to maintain or recover genetic diversity relatively rapidly after range expansion (genetic diversity exhibited large-scale geographic patterns, increasing towards the equator. Such patterns of genetic diversity are concordant with two previously described models of genetic diversity, the latitudinal model and the species diversity model. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  16. Droughts and broad-scale climate variability reflected by temperature-sensitive tree growth in the Qinling Mountains, central China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Na; Liu, Yu; Zhou, Qi; Bao, Guang

    2013-01-01

    The relationship between temperature and drought was investigated using the temperature-sensitive growth of Larix chinensis Beissn in the Qinling Mountains, central China. Extremely high tree-ring width index values (TRWI) agreed well with dry conditions defined by the dryness-wetness index (DWI) obtained from data in Chinese historical documents and climate-related papers between 1814 and 1956 (before the short of instrumental measurements); the reverse applied to extremely low TRWI values. The main severe drought epochs occurred from the late 1850s to the 1870s, the 1920s to 1930s and in the 2000s, whereas wet spells occurred from 1817-1827 and 1881-1886. The droughts in the 2000s exhibited a similar pattern as the ones from the 1920s to 1930s, with obviously an increasing temperature. The variation of tree growth agreed well with other reconstructed temperature series from nearby and remote regions, suggesting that Larix chinensis could respond to broad-scale climate variability. The longest cold interval, 1817-1827, could be associated with the influence of the Tambora eruption in 1815.

  17. Broad-Scale Evidence That pH Influences the Balance Between Microbial Iron and Sulfate Reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirk, Matthew F; Jin, Qusheng; Haller, Ben R

    2016-05-01

    Understanding basic controls on aquifer microbiology is essential to managing water resources and predicting impacts of future environmental change. Previous theoretical and laboratory studies indicate that pH can influence interactions between microorganisms that reduce ferric iron and sulfate. In this study, we test the environmental relevance of this relationship by examining broad-scale geochemical data from anoxic zones of aquifers. We isolated data from the U.S. Geological Survey National Water Information System for 19 principal aquifer systems. We then removed samples with chemical compositions inconsistent with iron- and sulfate-reducing environments and evaluated the relationships between pH and other geochemical parameters using Spearman's rho rank correlation tests. Overall, iron concentration and the iron-sulfide concentration ratio of groundwater share a statistically significant negative correlation with pH (P pH. Moreover, thermodynamic calculations show that, as the pH of groundwater decreases, iron reduction becomes increasingly favorable relative to sulfate reduction. Hence, the relative significance of each microbial reaction may vary in response to thermodynamic controls on microbial activity. Our findings demonstrate that trends in groundwater geochemistry across different regional aquifer systems are consistent with pH as a control on interactions between microbial iron and sulfate reduction. Environmental changes that perturb groundwater pH can affect water quality by altering the balance between these microbial reactions. © 2015, National Ground Water Association.

  18. Exploring psychological abuse in childhood: I. Developing a new interview scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Patricia M; Bifulco, Antonia; Ball, Caroline; Jacobs, Catherine; Benaim, Kate

    2002-01-01

    Definitions of psychological abuse are reviewed and a new definition proposed, operationalized as an extension of an existing measure of childhood, the Childhood Experience of Care and Abuse (CECA). This semistructured, investigator-based interview is designed for use with adults to collect retrospective accounts of childhood adverse experience. The CECA extension identifies nine subtypes of psychological abuse, with a single global severity rating. The definition is clearly differentiated from other adverse experiences with emotionally abusive elements such as parental antipathy (hostile parenting), neglect, and role reversal. Examples are given. A community-based series of 301 women were interviewed using the extended CECA to gather a range of experiences of childhood maltreatment on which to devise the new measure. Interrater reliability was satisfactory, and several features of psychological abuse were examined, including its prevalence, frequency, and the characteristics of the abused child and perpetrator. The new scale is discussed in terms of its potential use not only by researchers but also by practitioners such as clinicians and social workers in the child protection field in order to more accurately identify and assess multiples of abuse in childhood. A companion article (Bifulco, Moran, Baines, Bunn, & Stanford, 2002) examines the relationship of psychological abuse to adult major depression.

  19. Measuring Poverty in Southern India: A Comparison of Socio-Economic Scales Evaluated against Childhood Stunting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kattula, Deepthi; Venugopal, Srinivasan; Velusamy, Vasanthakumar; Sarkar, Rajiv; Jiang, Victoria; S, Mahasampath Gowri; Henry, Ankita; Deosaran, Jordanna Devi; Muliyil, Jayaprakash; Kang, Gagandeep

    2016-01-01

    Socioeconomic status (SES) scales measure poverty, wealth and economic inequality in a population to guide appropriate economic and public health policies. Measurement of poverty and comparison of material deprivation across nations is a challenge. This study compared four SES scales which have been used locally and internationally and evaluated them against childhood stunting, used as an indicator of chronic deprivation, in urban southern India. A door-to-door survey collected information on socio-demographic indicators such as education, occupation, assets, income and living conditions in a semi-urban slum area in Vellore, Tamil Nadu in southern India. A total of 7925 households were categorized by four SES scales-Kuppuswamy scale, Below Poverty Line scale (BPL), the modified Kuppuswamy scale, and the multidimensional poverty index (MDPI) and the level of agreement compared between scales. Logistic regression was used to test the association of SES scales with stunting. The Kuppuswamy, BPL, MDPI and modified Kuppuswamy scales classified 7.1%, 1%, 5.5%, and 55.3% of families as low SES respectively, indicating conservative estimation of low SES by the BPL and MDPI scales in comparison with the modified Kuppuswamy scale, which had the highest sensitivity (89%). Children from low SES classified by all scales had higher odds of stunting, but the level of agreement between scales was very poor ranging from 1%-15%. There is great non-uniformity between existing SES scales and cautious interpretation of SES scales is needed in the context of social, cultural, and economic realities.

  20. Reliability and Validity of the Multidimensional Scale of Life Skills in Late Childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minoru Takakura

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the reliability and validity of the Multidimensional Scale of Life Skills in Late Childhood, an instrument designed to measure a concept similar to “zest for living” in late childhood. A total of 1,888 elementary school students in the 4th, 5th, and 6th grades residing in urban and suburban areas as well as in remote islands of 3 prefectures (Okinawa, Kagoshima, and Nagasaki were surveyed. On the basis of our analysis, 24 items and seven factors were extracted. These factors are problem-solving/synthesis, relationship with friends, personal manners, decision-making and future planning, self-learning, collecting and using information, and leadership. Cronbach’s alpha reliability coefficients were computed for each subscale and ranged from 0.71 to 0.87. Test-retest reliability coefficient values ranged from 0.68 to 0.79. To examine the construct validity of the scales, a goodness-of-fit model was determined by confirmatory factor analysis, and satisfactory values were found (GFI = 0.952, AGFI = 0.937, CFI = 0.966, RMSEA = 0.016. The validity of the goodness-of-fit model and the reliability of the scales indicate that the Multidimensional Scale of Life Skills in Late Childhood is an effective assessment tool.

  1. The relationship between the Early Childhood Environment Rating Scale and its revised form and child outcomes: A systematic review and meta-analysis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ashley Brunsek; Michal Perlman; Olesya Falenchuk; Evelyn McMullen; Brooke Fletcher; Prakesh S Shah

    2017-01-01

    The Early Childhood Environment Rating Scale (ECERS) and its revised version (ECERS-R) were designed as global measures of quality that assess structural and process aspects of Early Childhood Education and Care...

  2. Investing in the foundation of sustainable development: pathways to scale up for early childhood development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Linda M; Daelmans, Bernadette; Lombardi, Joan; Heymann, Jody; Boo, Florencia Lopez; Behrman, Jere R; Lu, Chunling; Lucas, Jane E; Perez-Escamilla, Rafael; Dua, Tarun; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A; Stenberg, Karin; Gertler, Paul; Darmstadt, Gary L

    2017-01-07

    Building on long-term benefits of early intervention (Paper 2 of this Series) and increasing commitment to early childhood development (Paper 1 of this Series), scaled up support for the youngest children is essential to improving health, human capital, and wellbeing across the life course. In this third paper, new analyses show that the burden of poor development is higher than estimated, taking into account additional risk factors. National programmes are needed. Greater political prioritisation is core to scale-up, as are policies that afford families time and financial resources to provide nurturing care for young children. Effective and feasible programmes to support early child development are now available. All sectors, particularly education, and social and child protection, must play a role to meet the holistic needs of young children. However, health provides a critical starting point for scaling up, given its reach to pregnant women, families, and young children. Starting at conception, interventions to promote nurturing care can feasibly build on existing health and nutrition services at limited additional cost. Failure to scale up has severe personal and social consequences. Children at elevated risk for compromised development due to stunting and poverty are likely to forgo about a quarter of average adult income per year, and the cost of inaction to gross domestic product can be double what some countries currently spend on health. Services and interventions to support early childhood development are essential to realising the vision of the Sustainable Development Goals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Broad Scale Monitoring in the US Forest Service: Institutional Challenges and Collaborative Opportunites for Improving Planning and Decision-Making in an Era of Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wurtzebach, Z.

    2016-12-01

    In 2012, the United States Forest Service promulgated new rules to guide Forest planning efforts in accordance with the National Forest Management Act (NFMA). One important component of the 2012 rule is a requirement for Regionally coordinated cross-boundary "broad scale" monitoring strategies that are designed to inform and facilitate Forest-level adaptive management and planning. This presentation will examine institutional challenges and opportunites for developing effective broad scale monitoring strategies identified in 90 interviews with USFS staff and partner organizations, and collaborative workshops held in Colorado, Wyoming, Arizona, and New Mexico. Internal barriers to development include funding and human resource constraints, organizational culture, problematic incentives and accountability structures, data management issues, and administrative barriers to collaboration. However, we also identify several opportunities for leveraging interagency collaboration, facilitating multi-level coordination, generating efficiencies in data collection and analysis, and improving strategies for reporting and communication to Forest level decision-makers and relevant stakeholders.

  4. The Basic Empathy Scale adapted to French middle childhood: Structure and development of empathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bensalah, Leila; Stefaniak, Nicolas; Carre, Arnaud; Besche-Richard, Chrystel

    2016-12-01

    We adapted the adult French version of the Basic Empathy Scale to French children aged 6-11 years, in order to probe the factorial structure underlying empathy. A total of 410 children (189 girls and 221 boys) were instructed to fill out the resulting Basic Empathy Scale in Children (BES-C). Results showed that, as in adulthood, the three-factor model of empathy (i.e., emotional contagion, cognitive empathy, and emotional disconnection) was more relevant than the one- and two-factor ones. This means that as early as 6 years of age, children's responses should reflect the same organization of the three components of empathy as those of adults. In line with the literature, cognitive empathy increased and emotional disconnection decreased in middle childhood, while emotional contagion remained stable. Moreover, girls exhibited greater emotional contagion than boys, with the reverse pattern being observed for emotional disconnection. No sex difference was found regarding cognitive empathy.

  5. Development and validation of an early childhood development scale for use in low-resourced settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCoy, Dana Charles; Sudfeld, Christopher R; Bellinger, David C; Muhihi, Alfa; Ashery, Geofrey; Weary, Taylor E; Fawzi, Wafaie; Fink, Günther

    2017-02-09

    Low-cost, cross-culturally comparable measures of the motor, cognitive, and socioemotional skills of children under 3 years remain scarce. In the present paper, we aim to develop a new caregiver-reported early childhood development (ECD) scale designed to be implemented as part of household surveys in low-resourced settings. We evaluate the acceptability, test-retest reliability, internal consistency, and discriminant validity of the new ECD items, subscales, and full scale in a sample of 2481 18- to 36-month-old children from peri-urban and rural Tanzania. We also compare total and subscale scores with performance on the Bayley Scales of Infant Development (BSID-III) in a subsample of 1036 children. Qualitative interviews from 10 mothers and 10 field workers are used to inform quantitative data. Adequate levels of acceptability and internal consistency were found for the new scale and its motor, cognitive, and socioemotional subscales. Correlations between the new scale and the BSID-III were high (r > .50) for the motor and cognitive subscales, but low (r < .20) for the socioemotional subscale. The new scale discriminated between children's skills based on age, stunting status, caregiver-reported disability, and adult stimulation. Test-retest reliability scores were variable among a subset of items tested. Results of this study provide empirical support from a low-income country setting for the acceptability, reliability, and validity of a new caregiver-reported ECD scale. Additional research is needed to test these and other caregiver reported items in children in the full 0 to 3 year range across multiple cultural and linguistic settings.

  6. A large-scale comparison of prospective and retrospective memory development from childhood to middle age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maylor, Elizabeth A; Logie, Robert H

    2010-03-01

    We present the first large-scale comparison of prospective memory (PM) and retrospective memory (RM) from 8 to 50 years of age (N = 318,614). Participants in an Internet study were asked to remember to click on a smiley face (single-trial event-based PM test) and to indicate whether/where a picture had changed from study to test (single-trial RM test), in both cases after retention intervals filled with working-memory tests and questionnaires. Both PM and RM improved during childhood; however, whereas maximal PM was reached by teenagers, with approximately linear decline through the 20s-40s, RM continued to improve through the 20s and 30s. On both tests, females outperformed males and achieved maximal success at earlier ages. Strikingly, 10-11-year-old girls performed significantly better than females in their late 20s on the PM test. The presence of the smiley face at encoding and temporal uncertainty (expecting it "later" rather than at the "end" of the test) both benefited PM; these effects decreased and increased, respectively, from childhood to middle age. The findings demonstrate that in a cross-sectional study (a) developmental trajectories are qualitatively different between PM and RM, and (b) the relative influence of PM cues differs between younger and older ages.

  7. Broad-scale climate influences on spring-spawning herring (Clupea harengus, L.) recruitment in the Western Baltic Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gröger, Joachim P; Hinrichsen, Hans-Harald; Polte, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    Climate forcing in complex ecosystems can have profound implications for ecosystem sustainability and may thus challenge a precautionary ecosystem management. Climatic influences documented to affect various ecological functions on a global scale, may themselves be observed on quantitative or qualitative scales including regime shifts in complex marine ecosystems. This study investigates the potential climatic impact on the reproduction success of spring-spawning herring (Clupea harengus) in the Western Baltic Sea (WBSS herring). To test for climate effects on reproduction success, the regionally determined and scientifically well-documented spawning grounds of WBSS herring represent an ideal model system. Climate effects on herring reproduction were investigated using two global indices of atmospheric variability and sea surface temperature, represented by the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) and the Atlantic Multi-decadal Oscillation (AMO), respectively, and the Baltic Sea Index (BSI) which is a regional-scale atmospheric index for the Baltic Sea. Moreover, we combined a traditional approach with modern time series analysis based on a recruitment model connecting parental population components with reproduction success. Generalized transfer functions (ARIMAX models) allowed evaluating the dynamic nature of exogenous climate processes interacting with the endogenous recruitment process. Using different model selection criteria our results reveal that in contrast to NAO and AMO, the BSI shows a significant positive but delayed signal on the annual dynamics of herring recruitment. The westward influence of the Siberian high is considered strongly suppressing the influence of the NAO in this area leading to a higher explanatory power of the BSI reflecting the atmospheric pressure regime on a North-South transect between Oslo, Norway and Szczecin, Poland. We suggest incorporating climate-induced effects into stock and risk assessments and management strategies as part

  8. Broad-scale climate influences on spring-spawning herring (Clupea harengus, L. recruitment in the Western Baltic Sea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joachim P Gröger

    Full Text Available Climate forcing in complex ecosystems can have profound implications for ecosystem sustainability and may thus challenge a precautionary ecosystem management. Climatic influences documented to affect various ecological functions on a global scale, may themselves be observed on quantitative or qualitative scales including regime shifts in complex marine ecosystems. This study investigates the potential climatic impact on the reproduction success of spring-spawning herring (Clupea harengus in the Western Baltic Sea (WBSS herring. To test for climate effects on reproduction success, the regionally determined and scientifically well-documented spawning grounds of WBSS herring represent an ideal model system. Climate effects on herring reproduction were investigated using two global indices of atmospheric variability and sea surface temperature, represented by the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO and the Atlantic Multi-decadal Oscillation (AMO, respectively, and the Baltic Sea Index (BSI which is a regional-scale atmospheric index for the Baltic Sea. Moreover, we combined a traditional approach with modern time series analysis based on a recruitment model connecting parental population components with reproduction success. Generalized transfer functions (ARIMAX models allowed evaluating the dynamic nature of exogenous climate processes interacting with the endogenous recruitment process. Using different model selection criteria our results reveal that in contrast to NAO and AMO, the BSI shows a significant positive but delayed signal on the annual dynamics of herring recruitment. The westward influence of the Siberian high is considered strongly suppressing the influence of the NAO in this area leading to a higher explanatory power of the BSI reflecting the atmospheric pressure regime on a North-South transect between Oslo, Norway and Szczecin, Poland. We suggest incorporating climate-induced effects into stock and risk assessments and management

  9. Using the Childhood Autism Rating Scale to Diagnose Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, James A.; Barton, Marianne L.; Fein, Deborah

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the childhood autism rating scale (CARS) as a tool for ASD diagnoses for 2-year-old (n = 376) and 4-year-old (n = 230) children referred for possible autism. The cut-off score to distinguish autistic disorder from PDD-NOS was 32 in the 2-year-old sample (consistent with Lord in J Child Psychol Psychiatry Allied Discipl, 36, 1365–1382, 1995), and 30 in the 4-year-old sample, with good sensitivity and specificity at both ages. The cut-off score to distinguish ASD from non-ASD at both ages was 25.5, with good sensitivity and specificity. Results confirm the utility of the CARS in distinguishing autistic disorder from PDD-NOS, and distinguishing ASD from other developmental disorders and typical development and suggest that an ASD cutoff around 25, which is in common clinical use, is valid. PMID:20054630

  10. The link between quasar broad-line region and galaxy-scale outflows and accurate CIV-based black hole masses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coatman, Liam; Hewett, Paul C.; Banerji, Manda; Richards, Gordon T.; Hennawi, Joseph F.; Prochaska, Jason X.

    2017-01-01

    Accurate black-hole (BH) mass estimates for high-redshift (z>2) quasars are essential for better understanding the relationship between super-massive BH accretion and star formation. Progress is currently limited by the large systematic errors in virial BH-masses derived from the CIV broad emission line, which is often significantly blueshifted relative to systemic, most likely due to outflowing gas in the quasar broad-line region. We have assembled Balmer-line based BH masses for a large sample of 230 high-luminosity (1045.5-1048 ergs-1), redshift 1.5CIV blueshifts seen in the quasar population. We find the CIV-based BH-masses to be larger than the corresponding Balmer line-based masses by almost an order of magnitude at the most extreme blueshifts (˜5000 kms-1). An empirical correction to the CIV BH-masses is derived, which depends only on the properties of the CIV line itself (i.e. blueshift and FWHM). We show that this new correction now enables the derivation of un-biased CIV-based virial BH masses for the majority of high-luminosity, high-redshift quasars.In the same high-luminosity quasar sample, we find the narrow [OIII] emission to be weaker and more asymmetric than is generally found in lower-luminosity AGN and that a significant fraction of our quasars have exceptionally broad (FWHM > 3000 kms-1), blueshifted [OIII] emission. We find a strong correlation between the CIV and [OIII] blueshifts. This correlation holds even for quasars at fixed luminosity and suggests that broad line region outflows in quasars are connected to galaxy-scale winds.

  11. Effect of healthcare associated infections and broad spectrum antibiotic use in newborn period on development of asthma, allergic rhinitis and atopic dermatitis in early childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hacer Yapicioglu Yildizdas

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The iam of this study was to investigate the effect of healthcare associated infections (HAIs and broad spectrum antibiotic use in newborn period on asthma, allergic rhinitis and atopic dermatitis. Material and Methods: Seventy three children treated for HAIs in newborn period in Neonatal Intesive Care Unitin a 6 years period, and their 41 siblings who were healthy in newborn period were included in the study. Parents answered a detailed questionnaire, children were examined and complete blood count, serum total Ig E and specific Ig E levels were studied. Results: Ventilator associated pneumonia was observed in 32 (45.2%, blood stream infection in 28 (38.4% and clinic sepsis in 12 (16.4% of 73 children with HAIs. Asthma was significantly higher in HAIs group compared to sibling group (32.9% vs. 4.9, whereas there was no significant difference in allergic rhinitis (4.1% vs.2.4% and atopic dermatitis (6.8% vs. 0% among groups. When non-allergic 85 subjects and allergic 29 children compared, children who had been hospitalised and treated with broad-spectrum antibiotics in newborn period were almost 11.5 times as likely to have an allergic disease. Conclusion: Asthma was significantly higher in HAI group, and allergic disease risk seems to increase in children treated with broad-spectrum antibiotics for HAIs in newborn period. [Cukurova Med J 2017; 42(1.000: 132-139

  12. An Evaluation of China's Kindergarten Quality Rating System through the Chinese Early Childhood Environment Rating Scale--The Zhejiang Case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Bi Ying; Vong, Keang-Ieng; Mak, Miranda Chi Kuan

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the effectiveness of one province's Kindergarten Quality Rating System in differentiating quality levels using the Chinese Early Childhood Environment Rating Scale (CECERS). Results confirmed that, except for the difference between the Standard and Level-3 Kindergartens, the CECERS was successful in detecting the differences…

  13. Autismo infantil: tradução e validação da Childhood Autism Rating Scale para uso no Brasil Childhood autism: translation and validation of the Childhood Autism Rating Scale for use in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Pereira

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Traduzir, adaptar e validar uma versão em português (do Brasil da Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS. MÉTODOS: Após processo de tradução, a versão foi aplicada em 60 pacientes com diagnóstico de autismo infantil, de 3 a 17 anos de idade, selecionados consecutivamente de um ambulatório especializado a fim de analisar as propriedades psicométricas da nova versão (CARS-BR (consistência interna, validade e confiabilidade. RESULTADOS: A consistência interna foi elevada, com valor de alfa de Cronbach de 0,82; a validade convergente (comparada com a Escala de Avaliação de Traços Autístícos alcançou um coeficiente de correlação de Pearson de r = 0,89. Ao ser correlacionada à Escala de Avaliação Global de Funcionamento (para determinação da validade discriminante, a CARS-BR apresentou um coeficiente de correlação de Pearson de r = -0,75. A confiabilidade teste-reteste foi 0,90. CONCLUSÃO: A metodologia utilizada e os cuidados no processo de tradução permitem concluir que esse é um instrumento válido e confiável para avaliação da gravidade do autismo no Brasil.OBJECTIVE: To translate the Childhood Autism Rating Scale into Brazilian Portuguese and to determine the initial psychometric properties of the resulting version (CARS-BR. METHODS: The methodology used to produce an adequate version included translation, backtranslation and evaluation of semantic equivalence. In order to determine its psychometric properties (internal consistency, validity and reliability, the CARS-BR was administered to 60 consecutive patients with autism, aged between 3 and 17 years and seen at a university hospital. RESULTS: Internal consistency was high, with a Cronbach's alpha of 0.82. Convergent validity, in comparison with the Autistic Traits Assessment Scale, exhibited a Pearson's correlation coefficient of r = 0.89. When correlated with the Global Assessment of Functioning Scale in order to evaluate discriminant validity, the

  14. Correlation between Autism Treatment Evaluation Checklist (ATEC) and Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS) in the evaluation of autism spectrum disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Al Backer, Nouf Backer

    2016-01-01

    Identification of health issues in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is paramount to provide appropriate care and interventions. The Autism Treatment Evaluation Checklist (ATEC) is the one of the few current measures that assesses ASD-associated health problems thus informing intervention decisions. However, little research has been conducted to compare ATEC with other more recognized measures such as the Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS). It is unclear whether these two scales ...

  15. Impact monitoring of the national scale up of zinc treatment for childhood diarrhea in Bangladesh: repeat ecologic surveys.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles P Larson

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Zinc treatment of childhood diarrhea has the potential to save 400,000 under-five lives per year in lesser developed countries. In 2004 the World Health Organization (WHO/UNICEF revised their clinical management of childhood diarrhea guidelines to include zinc. The aim of this study was to monitor the impact of the first national campaign to scale up zinc treatment of childhood diarrhea in Bangladesh. METHODS/FINDINGS: Between September 2006 to October 2008 seven repeated ecologic surveys were carried out in four representative population strata: mega-city urban slum and urban nonslum, municipal, and rural. Households of approximately 3,200 children with an active or recent case of diarrhea were enrolled in each survey round. Caretaker awareness of zinc as a treatment for childhood diarrhea by 10 mo following the mass media launch was attained in 90%, 74%, 66%, and 50% of urban nonslum, municipal, urban slum, and rural populations, respectively. By 23 mo into the campaign, approximately 25% of urban nonslum, 20% of municipal and urban slum, and 10% of rural under-five children were receiving zinc for the treatment of diarrhea. The scale-up campaign had no adverse effect on the use of oral rehydration salt (ORS. CONCLUSIONS: Long-term monitoring of scale-up programs identifies important gaps in coverage and provides the information necessary to document that intended outcomes are being attained and unintended consequences avoided. The scale-up of zinc treatment of childhood diarrhea rapidly attained widespread awareness, but actual use has lagged behind. Disparities in zinc coverage favoring higher income, urban households were identified, but these were gradually diminished over the two years of follow-up monitoring. The scale up campaign has not had any adverse effect on the use of ORS. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary.

  16. The Revised Child Anxiety and Depression Scale-Short Version: Scale Reduction via Exploratory Bifactor Modeling of the Broad Anxiety Factor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebesutani, Chad; Reise, Steven P.; Chorpita, Bruce F.; Ale, Chelsea; Regan, Jennifer; Young, John; Higa-McMillan, Charmaine; Weisz, John R.

    2012-01-01

    Using a school-based (N = 1,060) and clinic-referred (N = 303) youth sample, the authors developed a 25-item shortened version of the Revised Child Anxiety and Depression Scale (RCADS) using Schmid-Leiman exploratory bifactor analysis to reduce client burden and administration time and thus improve the transportability characteristics of this…

  17. Measurement invariance across Genders on the Childhood Illness Attitude Scales (CIAS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorisdottir, Audur S; Villadsen, Anna; LeBouthillier, Daniel M; Rask, Charlotte Ulrikka; Wright, Kristi D; Walker, John R; Feldgaier, Steven; Asmundson, Gordon J G

    2017-07-01

    The Childhood Illness Attitude Scales (CIAS) were created as a developmentally appropriate measure for symptoms of health anxiety (HA) in school-aged children. Despite overall sound psychometric properties reported in previous studies, more comprehensive examination of the latent structure and potential response bias in the CIAS is needed. The purpose of the present study was to cross-validate the latent structure of the CIAS across genders and to examine gender-specific variations in CIAS scores. The sample comprised data from 602 Canadian and Danish school-aged children (Mage=10.54, SD=0.99; 52.5% girls). Confirmatory factor analyses were conducted to test 3-, modified 3-, and 4-factor models in both samples. Multigroup confirmatory factor analysis was performed to test factor structure invariance across boys and girls in a combined sample. Differential Item Functioning (DIF) was assessed using test characteristic curves. A modified 3-factor solution (i.e., fears=11 items, help-seeking=6 items, and symptom effects=4 items) provided the best fit to the data (χ(2) (364, N=602)=681.7, pgender-based response bias at the scale level. Results support a revised 3-factor version of the CIAS that can be used with confidence to assess symptoms of HA in school-aged boys and girls. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Distinguishing globally-driven changes from regional- and local-scale impacts: The case for long-term and broad-scale studies of recovery from pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, S J; Evans, A J; Mieszkowska, N; Adams, L C; Bray, S; Burrows, M T; Firth, L B; Genner, M J; Leung, K M Y; Moore, P J; Pack, K; Schuster, H; Sims, D W; Whittington, M; Southward, E C

    2017-11-30

    Marine ecosystems are subject to anthropogenic change at global, regional and local scales. Global drivers interact with regional- and local-scale impacts of both a chronic and acute nature. Natural fluctuations and those driven by climate change need to be understood to diagnose local- and regional-scale impacts, and to inform assessments of recovery. Three case studies are used to illustrate the need for long-term studies: (i) separation of the influence of fishing pressure from climate change on bottom fish in the English Channel; (ii) recovery of rocky shore assemblages from the Torrey Canyon oil spill in the southwest of England; (iii) interaction of climate change and chronic Tributyltin pollution affecting recovery of rocky shore populations following the Torrey Canyon oil spill. We emphasize that "baselines" or "reference states" are better viewed as envelopes that are dependent on the time window of observation. Recommendations are made for adaptive management in a rapidly changing world. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Childhood depression subscales using repeated sessions on Children's Depression Rating Scale - revised (CDRS-R) scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isa, Ameena; Bernstein, Ira; Trivedi, Madhukar; Mayes, Taryn; Kennard, Betsy; Emslie, Graham

    2014-08-01

    Although acute treatments have been shown to be effective in treating early-onset depression, only one-third or thereabouts reach a remission within 3 months. Unfortunately, delayed time to remission in early-onset depression leads to poorer therapeutic outcomes. Clearly, there is a need to identify, diagnose, and provide effective treatment of a depressed patient quickly. A sophisticated understanding of depression subscales and their change over time with treatment could enhance pathways to individualized treatment approaches for childhood depression. Previous studies have found that the clinician-measured instrument, Children's Depression Rating Scale-Revised (CDRS-R) measures multiple subscales (or components) of depression. The aim of this study was to see how these subscales may change over the course of a 12-week study. This knowledge will help determine if dimensions/subscales of childhood depression (paralleling the adult literature) using the subscales derived from factor analysis procedure is useful. We examined two clinical trials in which youth (n=234) with major depressive disorder (MDD) were treated openly with fluoxetine for eight sessions spread over 12 weeks. The CDRS-R was completed based on clinician interviews with parent and child at each session. Classical test theory and component analysis with associated parallel analysis (oblique rotation) were conducted on each week's scores. Although more factors were needed for the baseline and first two therapy sessions, a two-factor solution sufficed thereafter. Depressed facial affect, listless speech, and hypoactivity best defined Factor I, whereas sleep problems, appetite disturbance, physical symptoms, irritability, guilt, and weeping best defined Factor II. All other symptoms cross-loaded almost equally on the two factors. The scale's reliability (internal consistency) improved from baseline to exit sessions (α=0.65-0.91). As a result, the clinicians' assessments of the various symptoms became

  20. The Wender Utah Rating Scale: an aid in the retrospective diagnosis of childhood attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, M F; Wender, P H; Reimherr, F W

    1993-06-01

    In an attempt to surmount the problem of retrospectively establishing the childhood diagnosis of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, the authors constructed the 61-item Wender Utah Rating Scale (WURS) for adults to use to describe their own childhood behavior. In this paper they present their initial data collection and evaluation of the instrument's validity. The scale was administered to 81 adult outpatients with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, 100 "normal" adults, and 70 psychiatric adult outpatients with unipolar depression. The authors analyzed data from the 25 items of the scale that showed the greatest difference between the patients with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and the normal comparison subjects and the relationship between the WURS and the patients' parents' judgment of childhood activity as measured by the Parents' Rating Scale. The patients with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder had significantly higher mean scores on all 25 items than did the two comparison groups. The difference between the mean total scores of the patients with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and the normal subjects was also highly significant. A cutoff score of 46 or higher correctly identified 86% of the patients with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, 99% of the normal subjects, and 81% of the depressed subjects. Correlations obtained between WURS scores and Parents' Rating Scale scores were moderate but impressive. The ability of WURS scores to predict response to methylphenidate replicated the authors' finding regarding the ability of Parents' Rating Scale scores to predict response to pemoline. The WURS is sensitive in identifying childhood attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and may be useful in recognizing attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in patients with ambiguous adult psychopathology.

  1. Validations of the Brazilian version of the Early Childhood Oral Health Impact Scale (ECOHIS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins-Júnior, Paulo Antônio; Ramos-Jorge, Joana; Paiva, Saul Martins; Marques, Leandro Silva; Ramos-Jorge, Maria Letícia

    2012-02-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the psychometric properties of the Brazilian version of the Early Childhood Oral Health Impact Scale (ECOHIS). A total of 247 children aged 2 to 5 years and their parents/guardians participated in this study. A clinical oral examination was performed and the parents/guardians completed the ECOHIS questionnaire. Within a period of four-weeks, 20% of the participants repeated the ECOHIS questionnaire. Construct validity was determined using Spearman's rank correlation. Discriminant validity, internal consistency and test-retest reliability were also evaluated. The children were divided into 2 groups: group 1 (with dental caries) and group 2 (caries-free). Children with caries showed higher mean ECOHIS scores than the caries-free children. The child impact section (p tooth decay. Cronbach's alpha coefficients demonstrated satisfactory internal consistency. The Brazilian version of the ECOHIS is a valid instrument for assessing oral health-related quality of life in preschool children with Brazilian Portuguese-speaking primary caregivers.

  2. Cross cultural adaptation and validation of the Early Childhood Health Impact Scale (ECOHIS) in Peruvian preschoolers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López Ramos, Roxana P; García Rupaya, Carmen R; Villena-Sarmiento, Rita; Bordoni, Noemí E

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present work was to perform semantic adjustment and evaluation of the psychometric properties of the Early Childhood Health Impact Scale (ECOHIS) in Spanish on a sample of the Peruvian population. The study was conducted on a sample of 128 children aged 3-5 years, who attended a public school (Hualmay District, Huaura Province, Lima, Peru) in 2011. The ECOHIS questionnaire, developed to measure the impact of oral conditions and/or experiences of dental treatment on oral health-related quality of life in children under 5 years old and their parents or other family members was adapted cross-culturally and subjected to psychometric tests: validity (in terms of construct and discriminant) and reliability (in terms of internal consistency and stability). The cultural adaptation addressed ECOHIS semantic equivalence (Bordoni et al., 2012) and showed that 80-100% of respondents understood the questions. Construct validity was r = .557 (p tooth decay. Internal consistency was assessed by Cronbach's alpha (.948) and stability by intra-class correlation (.992). The Peruvian version of ECOHIS demonstrated acceptable validity and reliability, enabling assessment of the impact of oral health problems in children under 5 years old.

  3. Glasgow Coma Scale and outcomes after structural traumatic head injury in early childhood.

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    Natasha L Heather

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess the association of the Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS with radiological evidence of head injury (the Abbreviated Injury Scale for the head region, AIS-HR in young children hospitalized with traumatic head injury (THI, and the predictive value of GCS and AIS-HR scores for long-term impairment. METHODS: Our study involved a 10-year retrospective review of a database encompassing all patients admitted to Starship Children's Hospital (Auckland, New Zealand, 2000-2010 with THI. RESULTS: We studied 619 children aged <5 years at the time of THI, with long-term outcome data available for 161 subjects. Both GCS and AIS-HR scores were predictive of length of intensive care unit and hospital stay (all p<0.001. GCS was correlated with AIS-HR (ρ=-0.46; p<0.001, although mild GCS scores (13-15 commonly under-estimated the severity of radiological injury: 42% of children with mild GCS scores had serious-critical THI (AIS-HR 3-5. Increasingly severe GCS or AIS-HR scores were both associated with a greater likelihood of long-term impairment (neurological disability, residual problems, and educational support. However, long-term impairment was also relatively common in children with mild GCS scores paired with structural THI more severe than a simple linear skull fracture. CONCLUSION: Severe GCS scores will identify most cases of severe radiological injury in early childhood, and are good predictors of poor long-term outcome. However, young children admitted to hospital with structural THI and mild GCS scores have an appreciable risk of long-term disability, and also warrant long-term follow-up.

  4. Comparing Cultural Differences in Two Quality Measures in Chinese Kindergartens: The Early Childhood Environment Rating Scale-Revised and the Kindergarten Quality Rating System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Bi Ying

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the degrees of congruence between two early childhood evaluation systems on various quality concepts: the Early Childhood Environment Rating Scale-Revised (ECERS-R) and Zhejiang's Kindergarten Quality Rating System (KQRS). Analysis of variance and post hoc least significant difference tests were employed to show the extent to…

  5. Broad-scale suppression of cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), associated with Bt cotton crops in Northern New South Wales, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, G H; Tann, C R

    2017-04-01

    The cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera, is a major pest of many agricultural crops in several countries, including Australia. Transgenic cotton, expressing a single Bt toxin, was first used in the 1990s to control H. armigera and other lepidopteran pests. Landscape scale or greater pest suppression has been reported in some countries using this technology. However, a long-term, broad-scale pheromone trapping program for H. armigera in a mixed cropping region in eastern Australia caught more moths during the deployment of single Bt toxin cotton (Ingard®) (1996-2004) than in previous years. This response can be attributed, at least in part, to (1) a precautionary cap (30% of total cotton grown, by area) being applied to Ingard® to restrict the development of Bt resistance in the pest, and (2) during the Ingard® era, cotton production greatly increased (as did that of another host plant, sorghum) and H. armigera (in particular the 3rd and older generations) responded in concert with this increase in host plant availability. However, with the replacement of Ingard® with Bollgard II® cotton (containing two different Bt toxins) in 2005, and recovery of the cotton industry from prevailing drought, H. armigera failed to track increased host-plant supply and moth numbers decreased. Greater toxicity of the two gene product, introduction of no cap on Bt cotton proportion, and an increase in natural enemy abundance are suggested as the most likely mechanisms responsible for the suppression observed.

  6. Scaling-up public sector childhood diarrhea management program: Lessons from Indian states of Gujarat, Uttar Pradesh and Bihar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sanjeev; Roy, Rajashree; Dutta, Sucharita

    2015-12-01

    Diarrhea remains a leading cause of death among children under five in India. Public health sector is an important source for diarrhea treatment with oral rehydration salts (ORS) and zinc. In 2010, Micronutrient Initiative started a project to improve service delivery for childhood diarrhea management through public health sector in Gujarat, Uttar Pradesh (UP) and Bihar. This paper aims to highlight feasible strategies, experiences and lessons learned from scaling-up zinc and ORS for childhood diarrhea management in the public sector in three Indian states. The project was implemented in six districts of Gujarat, 12 districts of UP and 15 districts of Bihar, which includes 10.5 million children. Program strategies included capacity building of health care providers, expanding service delivery through community health workers (CHWs), providing supportive supervision to CHWs, ensuring supplies and conducting monitoring and evaluation. The lessons described in this paper are based on program data, government documents and studies that were used to generate evidence and inform program scale-up. 140 000 health personnel, including CHWs, were trained in childhood diarrhea management. During three years, CHWs had sustained knowledge and have treated and reported more than three million children aged 2-59 months having diarrhea, of which 84% were treated with both zinc and ORS. The successful strategies were scaled-up. It is feasible and viable to introduce and scale-up zinc and ORS for childhood diarrhea treatment through public sector. Community-based service delivery, timely and adequate supplies, trained staff and pro-active engagement with government were essential for program success.

  7. Early Childhood Oral Health Impact Scale (ECOHIS). Translation and validation in Spanish language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordoni, Noemí; Ciaravino, Octavio; Zambrano, Olga; Villena, Rita; Beltran-Aguilar, Eugenio; Squassi, Aldo

    2012-01-01

    Health is currently recognized as lying in the individual process rooted in genes, personal habits, the social model and the understanding of the ideological standpoint from which it is viewed. The aim of this study was to validate the Early Childhood Oral Health Impact Scale (ECOHIS) for use in Latin American communities, in order to demonstrate its efficacy for determining the impact of dental condition on children under 5 years of age and their families. The ECOHIS explores two domains: impact on children (9 questions) and on families (4 questions). Validation in Spanish was done in four stages. Stage I included translation and back-translation of the questionnaire (English-Spanish-English). Stage II was a pilot test on families in Venezuela to test stability (test-retest) and make semantic adjustments. Stage III included validation of the questionnaire applied to a Venezuelan sample (n = 50) and two Argentine samples (A and B, made up of families with and without social risk, respectively; n = 95), and consisted of statistical analysis to check the questionnaire's internal consistency and discriminant capacity. In the final stage, parents were given feedback on the results and significance of each domain in the questionnaire. From the results of this study it may be concluded that the Spanish version of the ECOHIS was reliable and valid for administering to populations with homogeneous social risk, and that parents without social risk factors (AC/B) have significantly greater perception of the impact of oral health on the family's quality of life. The trends recorded suggest that (a) larger samples should be used, including variables for diagnosing social vulnerability or general risk, (b) the association with dental condition should be established by applying indicators to discriminate distinct cut-off points in the dental caries process and (c) it should be ascertained whether there are changes in perception of the impact on quality of life before and after

  8. Responsiveness of the Early Childhood Oral Health Impact Scale (ECOHIS) is related to dental treatment complexity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novaes, Tatiane F; Pontes, Laura Regina A; Freitas, Julia G; Acosta, Carolina P; Andrade, Katia Cristina E; Guedes, Renata S; Ardenghi, Thiago M; Imparato, José Carlos P; Braga, Mariana M; Raggio, Daniela P; Mendes, Fausto M

    2017-09-20

    The responsiveness of the Early Childhood Oral Health Impact Scale (ECOHIS) has varied greatly across studies; hence, we hypothesized that this discrepancy could be related to the complexity of dental treatment received. Thus, we aimed to evaluate the responsiveness of the ECOHIS to changes in oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) following dental treatments of varying complexity in preschool children. Preschool children aged 3 to 6 years were selected; their parents responded to the ECOHIS at baseline. The parents responded to the ECOHIS again and a global transition question 30 days after the children were treated. The type of treatment received by the children was categorized according to complexity, as follows: 1) non-operative treatment only, 2) restorative treatment, and 3) endodontic treatment and/or tooth extraction. Change scores and effect sizes (ES) were calculated for total scores, as well as considering the different treatment types and global transition question responses. Of the 152 children who completed the study, the ECOHIS yielded large ES for total scores (0.89). The children showed increasing ES values associated with better perception of improvement, assessed by the global transition question. The magnitude of ES after treatment was related to treatment complexity (0.53, 0.92 and 1.43, for children who received non-operative treatment only, restorative treatment, and endodontic treatment and/or tooth extraction, respectively). Parents whose children required more complex dental treatment are more likely to perceive treatment-related changes to OHRQoL assessed with the ECOHIS.

  9. Parental perceptions of children's oral health: The Early Childhood Oral Health Impact Scale (ECOHIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slade Gary D

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dental disease and treatment experience can negatively affect the oral health related quality of life (OHRQL of preschool aged children and their caregivers. Currently no valid and reliable instrument is available to measure these negative influences in very young children. The objective of this research was to develop the Early Childhood Oral Health Impact Scale (ECOHIS to measure the OHRQL of preschool children and their families. Methods Twenty-two health professionals evaluated a pool of 45 items that assess the impact of oral health problems on 6-14-year-old children and their families. The health professionals identified 36 items as relevant to preschool children. Thirty parents rated the importance of these 36 items to preschool children; 13 (9 child and 4 family items were considered important. The 13-item ECOHIS was administered to 295 parents of 5-year-old children to assess construct validity and internal consistency reliability (using Cronbach's alpha. Test-retest reliability was evaluated among another sample of parents (N = 46 using the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC. Results ECOHIS scores on the child and parent sections indicating worse quality of life were significantly associated with fair or poor parental ratings of their child's general and oral health, and the presence of dental disease in the child. Cronbach's alphas for the child and family sections were 0.91 and 0.95 respectively, and the ICC for test-retest reliability was 0.84. Conclusion The ECOHIS performed well in assessing OHRQL among children and their families. Studies in other populations are needed to further establish the instrument's technical properties.

  10. Body mass and wing shape explain variability in broad-scale bird species distributions of migratory passerines along an ecological barrier during stopover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buler, Jeffrey J; Lyon, Rebecca J; Smolinsky, Jaclyn A; Zenzal, Theodore J; Moore, Frank R

    2017-08-29

    Migrating birds are under selective pressure to complete long-distance flights quickly and efficiently. Wing morphology and body mass influence energy expenditure of flight, such that certain characteristics may confer a greater relative advantage when making long crossings over ecological barriers by modifying the flight range or speed. We explored the possibility, among light (mass body mass have a lower margin for error in dealing with the exigencies of a long water crossing across the Gulf of Mexico and consequently minimize their travel time or distance. We found that species-mean fat-free body mass and wing tip pointedness independently explained variability among species distributions within ~50 km from the northern coast. In both spring and autumn, lighter (i.e., slower flying) species and species with more rounded wings were concentrated nearest the coastline. Our results support the idea that morphology helps to shape broad-scale bird distributions along an ecological barrier and that migration exerts some selective force on passerine morphology. Furthermore, smaller species with less-efficient flight appear constrained to stopping over in close proximity to ecological barriers, illustrating the importance of coastal habitats for small passerine migrants.

  11. Short-eared Owl (Asio flammeus surveys in the North American Intermountain West: utilizing citizen scientists to conduct monitoring across a broad geographic scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert A. Miller

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The Short-eared Owl (Asio flammeus is an open-country species breeding in the northern United States and Canada, and has likely experienced a long-term, range-wide, and substantial decline. However, the cause and magnitude of the decline is not well understood. We set forth to address the first two of six previously proposed conservation priorities to be addressed for this species: (1 better define habitat use and (2 improve population monitoring. We recruited 131 volunteers to survey over 6.2 million ha within the state of Idaho for Short-eared Owls during the 2015 breeding season. We surveyed 75 transects, 71 of which were surveyed twice, and detected Short-eared Owls on 27 transects. We performed multiscale occupancy modeling to identify habitat associations, and performed multiscale abundance modeling to generate a state-wide population estimate. Our results suggest that within the state of Idaho, Short-eared Owls are more often found in areas with marshland or riparian habitat or areas with greater amounts of sagebrush habitat at the 1750 ha transect scale. At the 50 ha point scale, Short-eared Owls tend to associate positively with fallow and bare dirt agricultural land and negatively with grassland. Cropland was not chosen at the broader transect scale suggesting that Short-eared Owls may prefer more heterogeneous landscapes. On the surface our results may seem contradictory to the presumed land use by a "grassland" species; however, the grasslands of the Intermountain West, consisting largely of invasive cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum, lack the complex structure shown to be preferred by these owls. We suggest the local adaptation to agriculture represents the next best habitat to their historical native habitat preferences. Regardless, we have confirmed regional differences that should be considered in conservation planning for this species. Last, our results demonstrate the feasibility, efficiency, and effectiveness of utilizing public

  12. Occupational Exposure to Nano-Objects and Their Agglomerates and Aggregates Across Various Life Cycle Stages; A Broad-Scale Exposure Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekker, Cindy; Kuijpers, Eelco; Brouwer, Derk H; Vermeulen, Roel; Fransman, Wouter

    2015-07-01

    Occupational exposure to manufactured nano-objects and their agglomerates, and aggregates (NOAA) has been described in several workplace air monitoring studies. However, data pooling for general conclusions and exposure estimates are hampered by limited exposure data across the occupational life cycle of NOAA and a lack in comparability between the methods of collecting and analysing the data. By applying a consistent method of collecting and analysing the workplace exposure data, this study aimed to provide information about the occupational NOAA exposure levels across various life cycle stages of NOAA in the Netherlands which can also be used for multi-purpose use. Personal/near field task-based exposure data was collected using a multi-source exposure assessment method collecting real time particle number concentration, particle size distribution (PSD), filter-based samples for morphological, and elemental analysis and detailed contextual information. A decision logic was followed allowing a consistent and objective way of analysing the exposure data. In total, 46 measurement surveys were conducted at 15 companies covering 18 different exposure situations across various occupational life cycle stages of NOAA. Highest activity-effect levels were found during replacement of big bags (<1000-76000 # cm(-3)), mixing/dumping of powders manually (<1000-52000 # cm(-3)) and mechanically (<1000-100000 # cm(-3)), and spraying of liquid (2000-800000 # cm(-3)) showing a high variability between and within the various exposure situations. In general, a limited change in PSD was found during the activity compared to the background. This broad-scale exposure study gives a comprehensive overview of the NOAA exposure situations in the Netherlands and an indication of the levels of occupational exposure to NOAA across various life cycle of NOAA. The collected workplace exposure data and contextual information will serve as basis for future pooling of data and modelling of worker

  13. Habitat-forming bryozoans in New Zealand: their known and predicted distribution in relation to broad-scale environmental variables and fishing effort.

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    Anna C L Wood

    Full Text Available Frame-building bryozoans occasionally occur in sufficient densities in New Zealand waters to generate habitat for other macrofauna. The environmental conditions necessary for bryozoans to generate such habitat, and the distributions of these species, are poorly known. Bryozoan-generated habitats are vulnerable to bottom fishing, so knowledge of species' distributions is essential for management purposes. To better understand these distributions, presence records were collated and mapped, and habitat suitability models were generated (Maxent, 1 km(2 grid for the 11 most common habitat-forming bryozoan species: Arachnopusia unicornis, Cellaria immersa, Cellaria tenuirostris, Celleporaria agglutinans, Celleporina grandis, Cinctipora elegans, Diaperoecia purpurascens, Galeopsis porcellanicus, Hippomenella vellicata, Hornera foliacea, and Smittoidea maunganuiensis. The models confirmed known areas of habitat, and indicated other areas as potentially suitable. Water depth, vertical water mixing, tidal currents, and water temperature were useful for describing the distribution of the bryozoan species at broad scales. Areas predicted as suitable for multiple species were identified, and these 'hotspots' were compared to fishing effort data. This showed a potential conflict between fishing and the conservation of bryozoan-generated habitat. Fishing impacts are known from some sites, but damage to large areas of habitat-forming bryozoans is likely to have occurred throughout the study area. In the present study, spatial error associated with the use of historic records and the coarse native resolution of the environmental variables limited both the resolution at which the models could be interpreted and our understanding of the ecological requirements of the study species. However, these models show species distribution modelling has potential to further our understanding of habitat-forming bryozoan ecology and distribution. Importantly, comparisons

  14. Deriving Childhood Temperament Measures from Emotion-Eliciting Behavioral Episodes: Scale Construction and Initial Validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagne, Jeffrey R.; Van Hulle, Carol A.; Aksan, Nazan; Essex, Marilyn J.; Goldsmith, H. Hill

    2011-01-01

    The authors describe the development and initial validation of a home-based version of the Laboratory Temperament Assessment Battery (Lab-TAB), which was designed to assess childhood temperament with a comprehensive series of emotion-eliciting behavioral episodes. This article provides researchers with general guidelines for assessing specific…

  15. The Relationship between the "Childhood Autism Rating Scale: Second Edition" and Clinical Diagnosis Utilizing the DSM-IV-TR and the DSM-5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawkins, Tamara; Meyer, Allison T.; Van Bourgondien, Mary E.

    2016-01-01

    "The Childhood Autism Rating Scale, Second Edition" (CARS2; 2010) includes two rating scales; the CARS2-Standard Version (CARS2-ST) and the newly developed CARS2-High Functioning Version (CARS2-HF). To assess the diagnostic agreement between the CARS2 and DSM-IV-TR versus DSM-5 criteria for Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), clinicians at…

  16. Comparing the use of the Childhood Autism Rating Scale and the Autism Behavior Checklist protocols to identify and characterize autistic individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Thaís Helena Ferreira; Barbosa, Milene Rossi Pereira; Pimentel, Ana Gabriela Lopes; Lacerda, Camila Andrioli; Balestro, Juliana Izidro; Amato, Cibelle Albuquerque de la Higuera; Fernandes, Fernanda Dreux Miranda

    2012-01-01

    To compare the results obtained in the Autism Behavior Checklist with those obtained in the Childhood Autism Rating Scale to identify and characterize children with Autism Spectrum Disorders. Participants were 28 children with psychiatric diagnosis within the autism spectrum that were enrolled in language therapy in a specialized service. These children were assessed according to the Autism Behavior Checklist and Childhood Autism Rating Scale criteria, based on information obtained with parents and therapists, respectively. Data were statistically analyzed regarding the agreement between responses. Results indicating high or moderate probability of autism in the Autism Behavior Checklist were considered concordant with the results indicating mild-to-moderate or severe autism in the Childhood Autism Rating Scale. Results indicating low probability of autism in the Autism Behavior Checklist and without autism in the Childhood Autism Rating Scale were also considered concordant. There was agreement on most of the responses. Cases in which there was disagreement between results obtained on both protocols corroborate literature data, showing that the instruments may not be sufficient, if applied alone, to define the diagnosis. The Childhood Autism Rating Scale may not effectively diagnose autistic children, while the Autism Behavior Checklist may result in over- diagnose, including within the autism spectrum children with other disorders. Therefore, the associated use of both protocols is recommended.

  17. Planning early childhood audiologic intervention programs on a regional scale: introduction to an Italian study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orzan, E; Ciciriello, E

    2016-02-01

    Non-uniform, late, or inappropriate care of childhood with permanent hearing impairment (PHI) predisposes many children to develop communicative- behaviour problems and impaired psychosocial adjustment that can persist in adolescence and adulthood.In March 2014, the CCM (Centro Controllo Malattie or Disease Control Centre) of the Italian Ministry of Health funded a project entitled " Preventing Communication Disorders: a Regional Program for Early Identification, Intervention and Care of Hearing Impaired Children". The project involved 5 tertiary centres with UNHS programs formally approved by the Region. The main purpose of the project is to define and launch an integrated regionally-based public health model for identification, diagnosis and intervention of childhood PHI. The first phase of the project investigated the state of art and produced recommendations for positive changes in identification, diagnosis, therapy and care of childhood PHI in Italy, taking into account diagnostic and treatment innovations, family empowerment, treatment alliance and an interdisciplinary approach. Recommendations drawn from this initial phase will represent the basis for a regional system for early intervention that is validated, integrated and shared between the five regions. © Copyright by Società Italiana di Otorinolaringologia e Chirurgia Cervico-Facciale.

  18. [Advances in early childhood development: from neurons to big scale programs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Escamilla, Rafael; Rizzoli-Córdoba, Antonio; Alonso-Cuevas, Aranzazú; Reyes-Morales, Hortensia

    Early childhood development (ECD) is the basis of countries' economic and social development and their ability to meet the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). Gestation and the first three years of life are critical for children to have adequate physical, psychosocial, emotional and cognitive development for the rest of their lives. Nurturing care and protection of children during gestation and early childhood are necessary for the development of trillions of neurons and trillions of synapses necessary for development. ECD requires access to good nutrition and health services from gestation, responsive caregiving according to the child's developmental stage, social protection and child welfare, and early stimulation and learning opportunities. Six actions are recommended to improve national ECD programs: expand political will and funding; create a supportive, evidence-based policy environment; build capacity through inter-sectoral coordination; ensure fair and transparent governance of programs and services; increase support for multidisciplinary research; and promote the development of leaders. Mexico has made significant progress under the leadership of the Health Ministry, but still faces significant challenges. The recent creation of a national inter-sectoral framework to enable ECD with support of international organizations and the participation of civil society organizations can help overcome these challenges. Copyright © 2017 Hospital Infantil de México Federico Gómez. Publicado por Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  19. Radiation exposure from CT in early childhood: a French large-scale multicentre study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernier, M-O; Rehel, J-L; Brisse, H J; Wu-Zhou, X; Caer-Lorho, S; Jacob, S; Chateil, J F; Aubert, B; Laurier, D

    2012-01-01

    Objectives The increasing use of CT scans in the paediatric population raises the question of a possible health impact of ionising radiation exposure associated with CT scans. The aim of this study was to describe the pattern of CT use in early childhood. Methods In 14 major French paediatric radiology departments, children undergoing at least 1 CT scan before age 5, between 2000 and 2006, were included. For each examination, absorbed organ doses were calculated. Results 43% of the 27 362 children in the cohort were aged less than 1 year during their first exposure, with 9% being aged less than 1 month. The mean number of examinations per child was 1.6 (range 1–43). The examinations included: head in 63% of the cases, chest in 21%, abdomen and pelvis in 8% and others in 8%. Brain and eye lenses received the highest cumulative doses from head examinations, with mean organ dose values of 22 mGy (maximum 1107 mGy) and 26 mGy (maximum 1392 mGy), respectively. The mean cumulative effective dose was 3.2 mSv (range 0.1–189 mSv). Conclusion CT scan exposure in childhood is responsible for relatively high doses to radiosensitive organs. The rather large dose range according to the protocols used requires their optimisation. The cohort follow-up will study the risk of long-term radiation-induced cancer. PMID:22190749

  20. Psychometrics of the preschool behavioral and emotional rating scale with children from early childhood special education settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Matthew C; Cress, Cynthia J; Epstein, Michael H

    2015-01-01

    In a previous study with a nationally representative sample, researchers found that the items of the Preschool Behavioral and Emotional Rating Scale can best be described by a four-factor structure model (Emotional Regulation, School Readiness, Social Confidence, and Family Involvement). The findings of this investigation replicate and extend these previous results with a national sample of children (N = 1,075) with disabilities enrolled in early childhood special education programs. Data were analyzed using classical tests theory, Rasch modeling, and confirmatory factor analysis. Results confirmed that for the most part, individual items were internally consistent within a four-factor model and showed consistent item difficulty, discrimination, and fit relative to their respective subscale scores. © 2015 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.

  1. The Palin Parent Rating Scales: Parents' Perspectives of Childhood Stuttering and Its Impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millard, Sharon K.; Davis, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The goal of this study is to explore the psychometric properties of the Parent Rating Scales-V1 (S. K. Millard, S. Edwards, & F. M. Cook, 2009), an assessment tool for parents of children who stutter, and to refine the measure accordingly. Method: We included 259 scales completed prior to therapy. An exploratory factor analysis…

  2. Scaling up Integrated Early Childhood Development programs: lessons from four countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Escamilla, R; Cavallera, V; Tomlinson, M; Dua, T

    2018-01-01

    There is still limited knowledge regarding the translation of early child development (ECD) knowledge into effective policies and large-scale programmes. A variety of frameworks that outline the key steps in scaling up exist, but we argue that taking a complex adaptive systems (CAS) approach assists in understanding the complex, dynamic processes that result in programmes being taken to scale. The objective of this study is to examine the process of scaling up four major country-level ECD programmes through the application of a CAS framework. Nine key informants with a deep knowledge of how each ECD programme was established and brought to scale were interviewed via Skype or phone by using open-ended interviews. The interviews were tape recorded and then transcribed verbatim for subsequent coding by using CAS domains. The coding and integration of the results to identify unique and common CAS scaling up features across the case studies involved an iterative process of reaching consensus. The scaling up of all four programmes behaved as a CAS including as follows: (i) positive feedback loops (five themes) and negative feedback loops (two themes); (ii) scale-free networks (two themes); (iii) phase transitions (four themes); (iv) path dependence (two themes); and (v) emergent behaviour (six themes). Five additional themes were identified for sustainability, which was repeatedly mentioned as an important consideration when deciding how to scale up programmes. CAS analysis is likely to improve our understanding of how effective ECD programmes become scaled up. Prospective CAS implementation research is needed to continue advancing the knowledge in the field. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. The Influence of Religious Awareness Program in Scaling down Death Anxiety among Children Sample in Late Childhood Stage; 9-12 Years Old in Al Shobak Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Mohtadi, Reham Mohammad; Al-Msubheen, Moonerh Mheel

    2017-01-01

    This study drives at identifying the influence of religious awareness program in scaling down the death anxiety among sample consisted of (50) students; (30) males and (20) females, at the late childhood stage. The sample distributed randomly into (25) students representing main group and (25) students as experimental group. Religious Awareness…

  4. A Comparison of the Autism Treatment Evaluation Checklist (ATEC) and the Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS) for the Quantitative Evaluation of Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geier, David A.; Kern, Janet K.; Geier, Mark R.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate scores generated from the Autism Treatment Evaluation Checklist (ATEC), a parent-rated measure, and those derived from professionally completed Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS) evaluations. A cohort of 56 participants diagnosed with an autism spectrum disorder was used for the study, and each child was…

  5. The use of the SF-36 questionnaire in adult survivors of childhood cancer: evaluation of data quality, score reliability, and scaling assumptions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Winter David L

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The SF-36 has been used in a number of previous studies that have investigated the health status of childhood cancer survivors, but it never has been evaluated regarding data quality, scaling assumptions, and reliability in this population. As health status among childhood cancer survivors is being increasingly investigated, it is important that the measurement instruments are reliable, validated and appropriate for use in this population. The aim of this paper was to determine whether the SF-36 questionnaire is a valid and reliable instrument in assessing self-perceived health status of adult survivors of childhood cancer. Methods We examined the SF-36 to see how it performed with respect to (1 data completeness, (2 distribution of the scale scores, (3 item-internal consistency, (4 item-discriminant validity, (5 internal consistency, and (6 scaling assumptions. For this investigation we used SF-36 data from a population-based study of 10,189 adult survivors of childhood cancer. Results Overall, missing values ranged per item from 0.5 to 2.9 percent. Ceiling effects were found to be highest in the role limitation-physical (76.7% and role limitation-emotional (76.5% scales. All correlations between items and their hypothesised scales exceeded the suggested standard of 0.40 for satisfactory item-consistency. Across all scales, the Cronbach's alpha coefficient of reliability was found to be higher than the suggested value of 0.70. Consistent across all cancer groups, the physical health related scale scores correlated strongly with the Physical Component Summary (PCS scale scores and weakly with the Mental Component Summary (MCS scale scores. Also, the mental health and role limitation-emotional scales correlated strongly with the MCS scale score and weakly with the PCS scale score. Moderate to strong correlations with both summary scores were found for the general health perception, energy/vitality, and social functioning

  6. Large-scale gene flow in the barnacle Jehlius cirratus and contrasts with other broadly-distributed taxa along the Chilean coast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baoying Guo

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available We evaluate the population genetic structure of the intertidal barnacle Jehlius cirratus across a broad portion of its geographic distribution using data from the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I (COI gene region. Despite sampling diversity from over 3,000 km of the linear range of this species, there is only slight regional structure indicated, with overall Φ CT of 0.036 (p < 0.001 yet no support for isolation by distance. While these results suggest greater structure than previous studies of J. cirratus had indicated, the pattern of diversity is still far more subtle than in other similarly-distributed species with similar larval and life history traits. We compare these data and results with recent findings in four other intertidal species that have planktotrophic larvae. There are no clear patterns among these taxa that can be associated with intertidal depth or other known life history traits.

  7. Effects of risperidone on core symptoms of autistic disorder based on childhood autism rating scale: an open label study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaeli, Padideh; Nikvarz, Naemeh; Alaghband-Rad, Javad; Alimadadi, Abbas; Tehrani-Doost, Mehdi

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of risperidone in patients afflicted by autistic disorder especially with regards to its three core symptoms, including "relating to others", "communication skills", and "stereotyped behaviors" based on Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS). An 8-week open-label study of risperidone for treatment of autistic disorder in children 4-17 years old was designed. Risperidone dose titration was as follow: 0.02 mg/kg/day at the first week, 0.04 mg/kg/day at the second week, and 0.06 mg/kg/day at the third week and thereafter. The outcome measures were scores obtained by CARS, Aberrant Behavior Checklist (ABC), and Clinical Global Impression-Improvement (CGI-I) scale. Fifteen patients completed this study. After 8 weeks, CARS total score decreased significantly, (P=0.001). At the end of the study, social interactions and verbal communication skills of the patients were significantly improved (Pautistic disorder.

  8. Concurrent Validity and Feasibility of Short Tests Currently Used to Measure Early Childhood Development in Large Scale Studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Rubio-Codina

    Full Text Available In low- and middle-income countries (LIMCs, measuring early childhood development (ECD with standard tests in large scale surveys and evaluations of interventions is difficult and expensive. Multi-dimensional screeners and single-domain tests ('short tests' are frequently used as alternatives. However, their validity in these circumstances is unknown. We examined the feasibility, reliability, and concurrent validity of three multi-dimensional screeners (Ages and Stages Questionnaires (ASQ-3, Denver Developmental Screening Test (Denver-II, Battelle Developmental Inventory screener (BDI-2 and two single-domain tests (MacArthur-Bates Short-Forms (SFI and SFII, WHO Motor Milestones (WHO-Motor in 1,311 children 6-42 months in Bogota, Colombia. The scores were compared with those on the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development (Bayley-III, taken as the 'gold standard'. The Bayley-III was given at a center by psychologists; whereas the short tests were administered in the home by interviewers, as in a survey setting. Findings indicated good internal validity of all short tests except the ASQ-3. The BDI-2 took long to administer and was expensive, while the single-domain tests were quickest and cheapest and the Denver-II and ASQ-3 were intermediate. Concurrent validity of the multi-dimensional tests' cognitive, language, and fine motor scales with the corresponding Bayley-III scale was low below 19 months. However, it increased with age, becoming moderate-to-high over 30 months. In contrast, gross motor scales' concurrence was high under 19 months and then decreased. Of the single-domain tests, the WHO-Motor had high validity with gross motor under 16 months, and the SFI and SFII expressive scales showed moderate correlations with language under 30 months. Overall, the Denver-II was the most feasible and valid multi-dimensional test and the ASQ-3 performed poorly under 31 months. By domain, gross motor development had the highest concurrence

  9. Validations of the Brazilian version of the Early Childhood Oral Health Impact Scale (ECOHIS Validação da versão brasileira do Early Childhood Oral Health Impact Scale (ECOHIS

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    Paulo Antônio Martins-Júnior

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the psychometric properties of the Brazilian version of the Early Childhood Oral Health Impact Scale (ECOHIS. A total of 247 children aged 2 to 5 years and their parents/guardians participated in this study. A clinical oral examination was performed and the parents/guardians completed the ECOHIS questionnaire. Within a period of four-weeks, 20% of the participants repeated the ECOHIS questionnaire. Construct validity was determined using Spearman's rank correlation. Discriminant validity, internal consistency and test-retest reliability were also evaluated. The children were divided into 2 groups: group 1 (with dental caries and group 2 (caries-free. Children with caries showed higher mean ECOHIS scores than the caries-free children. The child impact section (p O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar as propriedades psicométricas da versão brasileira do Early Childhood Oral Health Impact Scale (ECOHIS. Duzentas e quarenta e sete crianças de 2 a 5 anos e seus pais/cuidadores foram convidados a participar. Foi realizado exame clínico bucal e os pais completaram o ECOHIS. Após quatro semanas, 20% dos participantes responderam ao ECOHIS pela segunda vez. A validade de construto foi determinada através da correlação de Spearman. A validade discriminante, consistência interna e confiabilidade teste-reteste foram avaliadas. As crianças foram divididas em dois grupos: grupo 1 (com cárie e grupo 2 (sem cárie. As crianças com cárie tinham maiores escores médios do ECOHIS do que as crianças sem cárie. Os domínios impacto na criança (p < 0,01, impacto na família (p < 0,01 e escores totais ECOHIS (p < 0,01 foram significativamente correlacionados com dentes cariados. Coeficientes alfa de Cronbach demonstraram consistência interna satisfatória. A versão brasileira do ECOHIS é apropriada para a avaliação da qualidade de vida relacionada à saúde bucal em crianças pré-escolares de pais cuja língua prim

  10. Self-Monitoring in Middle Childhood: Reliability of the Junior Self-Monitoring Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browne, Beverly A.; Musser, Lynn M.

    The primary purpose of this study was to assess the test-retest reliability of the Junior Self-Monitoring Scale (JSMS) for use with elementary school children. Subjects were 28 first, 30 third, and 24 fifth graders attending an elementary school in Corvallis (Oregon). The JSMS consists of 24 yes/no items and is scored in the direction of high…

  11. Beyond the Burke-Fahn-Marsden Dystonia Rating Scale: deep brain stimulation in childhood secondary dystonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gimeno, Hortensia; Tustin, Kylee; Selway, Richard; Lin, Jean-Pierre

    2012-09-01

    Deep brain stimulation is now widely accepted as an effective treatment for children with primary generalized dystonia. More variable results are reported in secondary dystonias and its efficacy in this heterogeneous group has not been fully elucidated. Deep brain stimulation outcomes are typically reported using impairment-focused measures, such as the Burke-Fahn-Marsden Dystonia Rating Scale, which provide little information about function and participation outcomes or changes in non-motor areas. The aim is to demonstrate that in some cases of secondary dystonia, the sole use of impairment level measures, such as the Burke-Fahn-Marsden Dystonia Rating Scale, may be insufficient to fully evaluate outcome following deep brain stimulation. Six paediatric cases who underwent deep brain stimulation surgery with a minimum of one year follow up were selected on the basis of apparent non-response to deep brain stimulation, defined as a clinically insignificant change in the Burke-Fahn-Marsden Dystonia Movement Scale (stimulation, parallel outcome measures demonstrated significant benefit in a range of child and family-centred goal areas including: pain and comfort, school attendance, seating tolerance, access to assistive technology and in some cases carer burden. Sole use of impairment-focused measures, are limited in scope to evaluate outcome following deep brain stimulation, particularly in secondary dystonias. Systematic study of effects across multiple dimensions of disability is needed to determine what deep brain stimulation offers patients in terms of function, participation, care, comfort and quality of life. Deep brain stimulation may offer meaningful change across multiple domains of functioning, disability and health even in the absence of significant change in dystonia rating scales. Copyright © 2012 European Paediatric Neurology Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Large Scale Genome Analysis Shows that the Epitopes for Broadly Cross-Reactive Antibodies Are Predominant in the Pandemic 2009 Influenza Virus A H1N1 Strain

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    Edgar E. Lara-Ramírez

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The past pandemic strain H1N1 (A (H1N1pdm09 has now become a common component of current seasonal influenza viruses. It has changed the pre-existing immunity of the human population to succeeding infections. In the present study, a total of 14,210 distinct sequences downloaded from National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI database were used for the analysis. The epitope compositions in A (H1N1pdm09, classic seasonal strains, swine strains as well as highly virulent avian strain H5N1, identified with the aid of the Immune Epitope DataBase (IEDB, were compared at genomic level. The result showed that A (H1N1 pdm09 contains the 90% of B-cell epitopes for broadly cross-reactive antibodies (EBCA, which is in consonance with the recent reports on the experimental identification of new epitopes or antibodies for this virus and the binding tests with influenza virus protein HA of different subtypes. Our analysis supports that high proportional EBCA depends on the epitope pattern of A (H1N1pdm09 virus. This study may be helpful for better understanding of A (H1N1pdm09 and the production of new influenza vaccines.

  13. The Feasibility of Using Large-Scale Text Mining to Detect Adverse Childhood Experiences in a VA-Treated Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, Kenric W; Ben-Ari, Alon Y; Laundry, Ryan J; Boyko, Edward J; Samore, Matthew H

    2015-12-01

    Free text in electronic health records resists large-scale analysis. Text records facts of interest not found in encoded data, and text mining enables their retrieval and quantification. The U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) clinical data repository affords an opportunity to apply text-mining methodology to study clinical questions in large populations. To assess the feasibility of text mining, investigation of the relationship between exposure to adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) and recorded diagnoses was conducted among all VA-treated Gulf war veterans, utilizing all progress notes recorded from 2000-2011. Text processing extracted ACE exposures recorded among 44.7 million clinical notes belonging to 243,973 veterans. The relationship of ACE exposure to adult illnesses was analyzed using logistic regression. Bias considerations were assessed. ACE score was strongly associated with suicide attempts and serious mental disorders (ORs = 1.84 to 1.97), and less so with behaviorally mediated and somatic conditions (ORs = 1.02 to 1.36) per unit. Bias adjustments did not remove persistent associations between ACE score and most illnesses. Text mining to detect ACE exposure in a large population was feasible. Analysis of the relationship between ACE score and adult health conditions yielded patterns of association consistent with prior research. Copyright © 2015 International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies.

  14. Simple diagnostic approach to childhood fecal retention using the Leech score and Bristol stool form scale in medical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Hong; Lee, Mi Jung; Kim, Myung Joon; Shin, Jae Il; Chung, Ki Sup

    2010-02-01

    To assess fecal retention, plain abdominal radiography is frequently used to complement the clinical history and physical examination, and three scoring systems have been proposed by Barr, Blethyn, and Leech on a single abdominal radiography. The aim of the present study was to find simple and useful diagnostic tools for an approach to fecal retention by correlation of the three scoring systems with the clinical characteristics. This study included 76 children (5.6-15.4 years, male : female = 33:43) who presented with various gastrointestinal complaints and 20 healthy children from the years 2004-2008. Defecation characteristics, abdominal pain, anorexia and nausea, the Bristol stool form scale, and colonic transit time were studied. Plain abdominal radiographs were independently scored with the three scoring systems by a pediatrician and a radiologist. The k-value of the Leech score (0.912) between two of the observers was higher than the others (Barr 0.870 and Blethyn 0.670), and the correlation coefficients of the Leech scoring system by a pediatrician in relation to the colonic transit time (r = 0.861, P constipated children. Furthermore, there were statistically significant associations between the Leech scoring system and the defecation frequency per week (r = -0.569 and -0.625 in two observers) or abdominal pain (r = 0.574 and 0.567). The Leech score and the Bristol stool form scale may be simple and useful diagnostic tools for pediatricians to access childhood fecal loading in outpatient clinics along with a thorough clinical history.

  15. The 2010 Broad Prize

    Science.gov (United States)

    Education Digest: Essential Readings Condensed for Quick Review, 2011

    2011-01-01

    A new data analysis, based on data collected as part of The Broad Prize process, provides insights into which large urban school districts in the United States are doing the best job of educating traditionally disadvantaged groups: African-American, Hispanics, and low-income students. Since 2002, The Eli and Edythe Broad Foundation has awarded The…

  16. Broad ligament ectopic pregnancy

    OpenAIRE

    Rama C; Lepakshi G; Raju SN

    2015-01-01

    Pregnancy in the broad ligament is a rare form of ectopic pregnancy with a high risk of maternal mortality. Ultrasonography may help in the early diagnosis but mostly the diagnosis is established during surgery. We report the case of a patient with broad ligament ectopic pregnancy diagnosed intraoperatively. The patient had uneventful postoperative recovery.

  17. Estimation of strong ground motion in broad-frequency band based on a seismic source scaling model and an empirical Green's function technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Kamae

    1994-06-01

    Full Text Available We introduce a generalized method for simulating strong ground motion from large earthquakes by summing subevent records to follow the ?2 law. The original idea of the method is based on a constant stress parameter between the target event and the subevent. It is applicable to a case where both events have a different stress drop after some manipulation. However, the simulation for a very large earthquake from a small event with this method has inevitably some deficiencies of spectral amplitudes in the intermediate frequency range deviating f`rom the ?2 model, although the high and low frequency motions match the scaling. We improve the simulation algorithm so as not to make spectral sags, introducing self-similar distribution of subfaults with different sizes in the fault plane, so-called fractal composite faulting model. We show successful simulations for intermediate-sized earthquakes (MJMA = 5.0, 6.0 and 6.1, the large aftershocks of the 1983 Akita-Oki earthquake. using the records of smaller aftershocks (MJMA = 3.9 and 5.0 as an empirical Green's function. Further, we attempted to estimate strong ground motion for the 1946 Nankai earthquake with Mw 8.2, using the records of a MJMA 5.1 earthquake occurring near the source region of the mainshock. We found that strong ground motions simulated for the fractal composite faulting model with two asperities radiating significantly high frequency motions matched well the observed data such as the near-field displacement record, the source spectrum estimated from the teleseismic record, and the seismic intensity distribution during the 1946 Nankai earthquake.

  18. Genetic Structure across Broad Spatial and Temporal Scales: Rocky Mountain Tailed Frogs (Ascaphus montanus; Anura: Ascaphidae) in the Inland Temperate Rainforest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzger, Genevieve; Espindola, Anahi; Waits, Lisette P; Sullivan, Jack

    2015-01-01

    Contemporary and historical processes interact to structure genetic variation, however discerning between these can be difficult. Here, we analyze range-wide variation at 13 microsatellite loci in 2098 Rocky Mountain tailed frogs, Ascaphus montanus, collected from 117 streams across the species distribution in the Inland Northwest (INW) and interpret that variation in light of historical phylogeography, contemporary landscape genetics, and the reconstructed paleodistribution of the species. Further, we project species distribution models (SDMs) to predict future changes in the range as a function of changing climate. Genetic structure has a strong spatial signature that is precisely congruent with a deep (~1.8 MY) phylogeographic split in mtDNA when we partition populations into 2 clusters (K = 2), and is congruent with refugia areas inferred from our paleorange reconstructions. There is a hierarchical pattern of geographic structure as we permit additional clusters, with populations clustering following mountain ranges. Nevertheless, genetic diversity is the highest in populations at the center of the range and is attenuated in populations closer to the range edges. Similarly, geographic distance is the single best predictor of pairwise genetic differentiation, but connectivity also is an important predictor. At intermediate and local geographic scales, deviations from isolation-by-distance are more apparent, at least in the northern portion of the distribution. These results indicate that both historical and landscape factors are contributing to the genetic structure and diversity of tailed frogs in the Inland Northwest. © The American Genetic Association. 2015. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Assessing psychological well-being in mothers of children with disability: evaluation of the Parenting Morale Index and Family Impact of Childhood Disability scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benzies, Karen M; Trute, Barry; Worthington, Catherine; Reddon, John; Keown, Leslie-Anne; Moore, Melanie

    2011-06-01

    Process model of stress and coping guided psychometric assessment of two brief measures of psychological well-being: Parenting Morale Index (PMI); Family Impact of Childhood Disability (FICD) scale. Canadian mothers (N=195) of children with disability (CWD) completed PMI, FICD, and validation measures (Brief Family Assessment Measure [FAM], Personal Well-Being Index, Positive and Negative Affect Schedule, General Self-Efficacy Scale, Social Desirability Scale) via computer-assisted telephone interview. Of these, 154 completed additional validation measures (Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression Scale, Parenting Stress Index, Family Hardiness Index, Brief FAM) 1 year later. Factor structures of PMI and FICD were supported; both demonstrated internal consistency, temporal stability, and convergent and discriminant validity. After 1 year, PMI and FICD jointly predicted depressive symptoms, parenting stress, family hardiness, and family adjustment. PMI and FICD can identify mothers of CWD at risk for poor psychological well-being to increase the specificity of supports.

  20. Validity and reliability of the Early Childhood Caries Perceptions Scale (ECCPS) to assess health beliefs related to early childhood caries prevention among primary caregivers of children under 5 years of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisarnturakit, Pagaporn P; Shaw, Bret R; Tanasukarn, Chanuantong; Vatanasomboon, Paranee

    2012-09-01

    Primary caregivers' child oral health care beliefs and practices are major factors in the prevention of Early Childhood Caries (ECC). This study assessed the validity and reliability of a newly-developed scale--the Early Childhood Caries Perceptions Scale (ECCPS)--used to measure beliefs regarding ECC preventive practices among primary caregivers of young children. The ECCPS was developed based on the Health Belief Model. The construct validity and reliability of the ECCPS were examined among 254 low-socioeconomic status primary caregivers with children under five years old, recruifed from 4 Bangkok Metropolitan Administration Health Centers and a kindergarten school. Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) revealed a four-factor structure. The four factors were labeled as Perceived Susceptibility, Perceived Severity, Perceived Benefits and Perceived Barriers. Internal consistency measured by the Cronbach's coefficient alpha for those four factors were 0.897, 0.971, 0.975 and 0.789, respectively. The ECCPS demonstrated satisfactory levels of reliability and validity for assessing the health beliefs related to ECC prevention among low-socioeconomic primary caregivers.

  1. Drug preferences in illicit drug abusers with a childhood tendency of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder: a study using the Wender Utah Rating Scale in a Japanese prison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Toshihiko; Yamaguchi, Akiko; Asami, Takeshi; Kamijo, Atsushi; Iseki, Eizo; Hirayasu, Yoshio; Wada, Kiyoshi

    2005-06-01

    The purpose of this study is to clarify the relationship between childhood tendencies of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (AD/HD) and illicit drug abuse in Japanese prisoners, and to clarify whether drug abusers with AD/HD prefer methamphetamine (MAP) more than other illicit drugs. The Japanese version of the Wender Utah Rating Scale (WURS), which is a self-reporting instrument to retrospectively identify childhood tendencies of AD/HD tendencies, was carried given to 413 prisoners without a drug addiction and 282 prisoners with a drug addiction (192, MAP; 53, toluene; and 37, cannabis). WURS scores were compared between prisoners with and without a drug addiction, and between MAP, toluene, and cannabis abusers. Consequently, prisoners with a drug addiction showed significantly higher WURS scores than those without the addiction (P < 0.001). Toluene abusers showed significantly higher WURS scores than cannabis abusers (P < 0.001), and included a higher proportion with scores over cut-off than MAP or cannabis abusers (P = 0.005). In conclusion, a close relationship existed between illicit drug abuse and childhood AD/HD tendencies. Drug-abusing prisoners with AD/HD tendencies were not prone to choose MAP over other illicit drugs.

  2. A Large-Scale Longitudinal Study of the Utilization and Effects of Early Childhood Education and Care in The Netherlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driessen, Geert

    2004-01-01

    Early childhood education and care (ECEC) services are expected to make an important contribution to the prevention of educational disadvantages stemming from social-ethnic factors. In the present study, three services are central: daycare centers, preschools, and special parent-child programs. Whether or not relations exist between the…

  3. The Role of ICT in Early Childhood Education: Scale Development and Research on ICT Use and Influencing Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerckaert, Stephanie; Vanderlinde, Ruben; van Braak, Johan

    2015-01-01

    Nowadays, more and more authors are convinced that ICT (information and communication technology) in early childhood education provides multiple possibilities for young children. The current study, conducted in Flanders, aims to get a clearer picture of ICT use in Flemish preschools. For this purpose, a questionnaire was composed consisting of…

  4. Burke-Fahn-Marsden dystonia severity, Gross Motor, Manual Ability, and Communication Function Classification scales in childhood hyperkinetic movement disorders including cerebral palsy: a 'Rosetta Stone' study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elze, Markus C; Gimeno, Hortensia; Tustin, Kylee; Baker, Lesley; Lumsden, Daniel E; Hutton, Jane L; Lin, Jean-Pierre S-M

    2016-02-01

    Hyperkinetic movement disorders (HMDs) can be assessed using impairment-based scales or functional classifications. The Burke-Fahn-Marsden Dystonia Rating Scale-movement (BFM-M) evaluates dystonia impairment, but may not reflect functional ability. The Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS), Manual Ability Classification System (MACS), and Communication Function Classification System (CFCS) are widely used in the literature on cerebral palsy to classify functional ability, but not in childhood movement disorders. We explore the concordance of these three functional scales in a large sample of paediatric HMDs and the impact of dystonia severity on these scales. Children with HMDs (n=161; median age 10y 3mo, range 2y 6mo-21y) were assessed using the BFM-M, GMFCS, MACS, and CFCS from 2007 to 2013. This cross-sectional study contrasts the information provided by these scales. All four scales were strongly associated (all Spearman's rank correlation coefficient rs >0.72, pdisorders including cerebral palsy can be effectively evaluated using these scales. © 2015 Mac Keith Press.

  5. The Relationship Between the Childhood Autism Rating Scale: Second Edition and Clinical Diagnosis Utilizing the DSM-IV-TR and the DSM-5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawkins, Tamara; Meyer, Allison T; Van Bourgondien, Mary E

    2016-10-01

    The Childhood Autism Rating Scale, Second Edition (CARS2; 2010) includes two rating scales; the CARS2-Standard Version (CARS2-ST) and the newly developed CARS2-High Functioning Version (CARS2-HF). To assess the diagnostic agreement between the CARS2 and DSM-IV-TR versus DSM-5 criteria for Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), clinicians at community based centers of the University of North Carolina TEACCH Autism Program rated participants seen for a diagnostic evaluation on symptoms of autism using both the DSM-IV-TR and DSM-5 criteria and either the CARS2-HF or the CARS2-ST. Findings suggest that overall, the diagnostic agreement of the CARS2 remains high across DSM-IV and DSM-5 criteria for autism.

  6. Frontoparietal Structural Connectivity in Childhood Predicts Development of Functional Connectivity and Reasoning Ability: A Large-Scale Longitudinal Investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendelken, Carter; Ferrer, Emilio; Ghetti, Simona; Bailey, Stephen K; Cutting, Laurie; Bunge, Silvia A

    2017-08-30

    Prior research points to a positive concurrent relationship between reasoning ability and both frontoparietal structural connectivity (SC) as measured by diffusion tensor imaging (Tamnes et al., 2010) and frontoparietal functional connectivity (FC) as measured by fMRI (Cocchi et al., 2014). Further, recent research demonstrates a link between reasoning ability and FC of two brain regions in particular: rostrolateral prefrontal cortex (RLPFC) and the inferior parietal lobe (IPL) (Wendelken et al., 2016). Here, we sought to investigate the concurrent and dynamic, lead-lag relationships among frontoparietal SC, FC, and reasoning ability in humans. To this end, we combined three longitudinal developmental datasets with behavioral and neuroimaging data from 523 male and female participants between 6 and 22 years of age. Cross-sectionally, reasoning ability was most strongly related to FC between RLPFC and IPL in adolescents and adults, but to frontoparietal SC in children. Longitudinal analysis revealed that RLPFC-IPL SC, but not FC, was a positive predictor of future changes in reasoning ability. Moreover, we found that RLPFC-IPL SC at one time point positively predicted future changes in RLPFC-IPL FC, whereas, in contrast, FC did not predict future changes in SC. Our results demonstrate the importance of strong white matter connectivity between RLPFC and IPL during middle childhood for the subsequent development of both robust FC and good reasoning ability.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT The human capacity for reasoning develops substantially during childhood and has a profound impact on achievement in school and in cognitively challenging careers. Reasoning ability depends on communication between lateral prefrontal and parietal cortices. Therefore, to understand how this capacity develops, we examined the dynamic relationships over time among white matter tracts connecting frontoparietal cortices (i.e., structural connectivity, SC), coordinated frontoparietal activation

  7. The relationship between the Early Childhood Environment Rating Scale and its revised form and child outcomes: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunsek, Ashley; Perlman, Michal; Falenchuk, Olesya; McMullen, Evelyn; Fletcher, Brooke; Shah, Prakesh S

    2017-01-01

    The Early Childhood Environment Rating Scale (ECERS) and its revised version (ECERS-R) were designed as global measures of quality that assess structural and process aspects of Early Childhood Education and Care (ECEC) programs. Despite frequent use of the ECERS/ECERS-R in research and applied settings, associations between it and child outcomes have not been systematically reviewed. The objective of this research was to evaluate the association between the ECERS/ECERS-R and children's wellbeing. Searches of Medline, PsycINFO, ERIC, websites of large datasets and reference sections of all retrieved articles were completed up to July 3, 2015. Eligible studies provided a statistical link between the ECERS/ECERS-R and child outcomes for preschool-aged children in ECEC programs. Of the 823 studies selected for full review, 73 were included in the systematic review and 16 were meta-analyzed. The combined sample across all eligible studies consisted of 33, 318 preschool-aged children. Qualitative systematic review results revealed that ECERS/ECERS-R total scores were more generally associated with positive outcomes than subscales or factors. Seventeen separate meta-analyses were conducted to assess the strength of association between the ECERS/ECERS-R and measures that assessed children's language, math and social-emotional outcomes. Meta-analyses revealed a small number of weak effects (in the expected direction) between the ECERS/ECERS-R total score and children's language and positive behavior outcomes. The Language-Reasoning subscale was weakly related to a language outcome. The enormous heterogeneity in how studies operationalized the ECERS/ECERS-R, the outcomes measured and statistics reported limited our ability to meta-analyze many studies. Greater consistency in study methodology is needed in this area of research. Despite these methodological challenges, the ECERS/ECERS-R does appear to capture aspects of quality that are important for children's wellbeing

  8. Retrospective assessment of childhood ADHD symptoms for diagnosis in adults: validity of a short 8-item version of the Wender-Utah Rating Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Debjani; Vélez, Jorge I; Acosta, Maria T; Muenke, Maximilian; Arcos-Burgos, Mauricio; Easteal, Simon

    2016-12-01

    The Wender-Utah Rating Scale (WURS) is a widely used self-report instrument for retrospective assessment of childhood ADHD. However, many WURS items are not specific to ADHD. Here, we investigated the effect of excluding these items on the performance of the WURS in predicting adult ADHD based on previous diagnosis and current clinically significant symptoms. The study was conducted on a sample of adults (n = 1014; 48 % male) participating in a family-based investigation of ADHD. Participants completed the 61-item WURS questionnaire and the 66-item Conners Adult ADHD Rating Scale. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were used to compare the performance of the eight-item WURS (WURS-8) and the longer WURS-25 in predicting previous ADHD diagnosis and current clinically significant ADHD symptoms. WURS-8 and WURS-25 have approximately the same power to predict adult ADHD, based on either previous diagnosis or current symptoms (area under the ROC curves >0.8). WURS-8 performs at least as well as the longer WURS-25 in predicting adult ADHD. This 8-item questionnaire is thus a valid instrument and is especially useful for screening for ADHD in large epidemiological samples.

  9. Retrospective Assessment of ADHD Symptoms in Childhood: Discriminatory Validity of Finnish Translation of the Wender Utah Rating Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kivisaari, Sasa; Laasonen, Marja; Leppamaki, Sami; Tani, Pekka; Hokkanen, Laura

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To examine the discriminatory validity of the Wender Utah Rating Scale (WURS) and its five suggested subscales (Conduct Problems, Impulsivity Problems, Mood Difficulties, Inattention/Anxiety, Academic Concerns) in a Finnish sample. Method: WURS was administered to 114 adults, aged 18 to 55 years. Participants with ADHD (n = 37) and…

  10. Childhood psoriasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahé, Emmanuel

    2016-12-01

    Psoriasis is a common chronic inflammatory skin disease. Recently, few data have been published on epidemiology, comorbidity, or therapy in children with psoriasis. Psoriasis affects up to 2% of children in Europe, even during the first months of life. The link between psoriasis and metabolic comorbidities has been highlighted, notably in relation to excessive weight and obesity. The clinical picture of psoriasis in childhood resembles adult disease, however, some clinical features are noteworthy: neonatal diaper rash is relatively specific, face involvement and guttate psoriasis are more common, plaques are often smaller, and scales are finer and softer than in adults. Napkin, guttate and palmoplantar psoriasis appear to have specific features in childhood and prevalence depends on the age of the child. Although benign, the effect of psoriasis on social interaction can be major, especially in children. Topical therapies are the first line of treatment for skin-limited disease. For chronic cases and more severe cases, phototherapy or traditional biologic systemic treatments must be discussed. The great challenge will be to propose international guidelines to manage these children.

  11. Global challenges with scale-up of the integrated management of childhood illness strategy: results of a multi-country survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhe Lulu M

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Integrated Management of Childhood Illness Strategy (IMCI, developed by WHO/UNICEF, aims to contribute to reducing childhood morbidity and mortality (MDG4 in resource-limited settings. Since 1996 more than 100 countries have adopted IMCI. IMCI case management training (ICMT is one of three IMCI components and training is usually residential over 11 consecutive days. Follow-up after ICMT is an essential part of training. We describe the barriers to rapid acceleration of ICMT and review country perspectives on how to address these barriers. Methods A multi-country exploratory cross-sectional questionnaire survey of in-service ICMT approaches, using quantitative and qualitative methods, was conducted in 2006-7: 27 countries were purposively selected from all six WHO regions. Data for this paper are from three questionnaires (QA, QB and QC, distributed to selected national focal IMCI persons/programme officers, course directors/facilitators and IMCI trainees respectively. QC only gathered data on experiences with IMCI follow-up. Results 33 QA, 163 QB and 272 QC were received. The commonest challenges to ICMT scale-up relate to funding (high cost and long duration of the residential ICMT, poor literacy of health workers, differing opinions about the role of IMCI in improving child health, lack of political support, frequent changes in staff or rules at Ministries of Health and lack of skilled facilitators. Countries addressed these challenges in several ways including increased advocacy, developing strategic linkages with other priorities, intensifying pre-service training, re-distribution of funds and shortening course duration. The commonest challenges to follow-up after ICMT were lack of funding (93.1% of respondents, inadequate funds for travelling or planning (75.9% and 44.8% respectively, lack of gas for travelling (41.4%, inadequately trained or few supervisors (41.4% and inadequate job aids for follow-up (27

  12. Childhood Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Childhood Stress KidsHealth / For Parents / Childhood Stress What's in this ... and feel stress to some degree. Sources of Stress Stress is a function of the demands placed ...

  13. Childhood Obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmad, Qazi Iqbal; Ahmad, Charoo Bashir; Ahmad, Sheikh Mushtaq

    2010-01-01

    Childhood obesity has important consequences for health and wellbeing both during childhood and also in later adult life. The rising prevalence of childhood obesity poses a major public health challenge in both developed and developing countries by increasing the burden of chronic non-communicable diseases. Despite the urgent need for effective preventative strategies, there remains disagreement over its definition due to a lack of evidence on the optimal cut-offs linking childhood BMI to dis...

  14. Childhood Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Late for the Flu Vaccine? Eating Disorders Arrhythmias Childhood Cancer KidsHealth > For Parents > Childhood Cancer Print A A A What's in this ... in children, but can happen. The most common childhood cancers are leukemia , lymphoma , and brain cancer . As ...

  15. Childhood Familial Victimization: An Exploration of Gender and Sexual Identity Using the Scale of Negative Family Interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Katherine; McDonald, Courtney

    2017-11-01

    Familial violence poses a serious public health concern and has therefore received a considerable amount of attention from academics and practitioners alike. Research within this field has found that parent-to-parent and parent-to-child violence often occur simultaneously and are especially prevalent within households that suffer from social and environmental stressors. Sibling violence and its relationship to these other forms of familial violence has received considerably less attention, largely related to the widely held belief that sibling violence is natural, especially for boys. Using the Scale of Negative Family Interactions (SNFI), parent-to-child and sibling-to-sibling violence is investigated. Specifically, the relationship between participants' gender and sexual identities and their reports of familial violence are explored to better understand participants' gendered and sexed experiences. Data suggest that gender and sexual minorities may have a unique experience of familial violence, although further research is needed in this area.

  16. Cross - cultural adaptation and preliminary validation of the Turkish version of the Early Childhood Oral Health Impact Scale among 5-6-year-old children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peker Kadriye

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Turkey, formal pre-primary education for children 5- 6 years old provides the ideal setting for school-based oral health promotion programs and oral health care services. To develop effective oral health promotion programs, there is a need to assess this target group's subjective oral health needs as well as clinical needs. The Early Childhood Oral Health Impact Scale (ECOHIS is a well-known instrument for assessing oral health quality of life in children aged 0-5 years old and their families. This study aimed to adapt the ECOHIS for children 5-6 years old in a Turkish-speaking community and to undertake a preliminary investigation of its psychometric properties. Methods The Turkish version of the ECOHIS was obtained with forward/backward translations, expert panels and pre-testing and it was tested in a convenience sample of 121 parents of 5- 6 year-old children attending nursery classes of three public schools. Data were collected through clinical examinations and self-completed questionnaires. The main analyses were carried out on the imputed data set. The validity of content, face, construct, discriminant and convergent and as well as the reliability of internal and test-retest of the ECOHIS were evaluated. Sensitivity analysis was performed to examine the effect of the complete case analysis for managing "Don't know" responses on the validity and reliability of the ECOHIS. Results The analysis of the imputed data set showed that Cronbach's alphas for the child and family sections were 0.92 and 0.84 respectively, and for the whole scale was 0.93. The intraclass correlation coefficient for test-retest was 0.86. The scale scores on the child and parent sections indicating worse quality of life were significantly associated with poor parental ratings of their child's oral health, high caries experience, higher gingival index scores and problem-orientated dental attendance, supporting its construct, convergent and

  17. Parent engagement and attendance in PEACH™ QLD – an up-scaled parent-led childhood obesity program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan L. Williams

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Parenting, Eating and Activity for Child Health (PEACH™ is a multicomponent treatment program delivered over ten group sessions to parents of overweight/obese primary school-aged children. It has been shown to be efficacious in an RCT and was recently translated to a large-scale community intervention funded by the Queensland (Australia Government. Engagement (enrolment and attendance was critical to achieving program outcomes and was challenging. The purpose of the present study was to examine sample characteristics and mediating factors that potentially influenced program attendance. Methods Data collected from parents who attended at least one PEACH™ Queensland session delivered between October 2013 and October 2015 (47 programs implemented in 29 discrete sites, was used in preliminary descriptive analyses of sample characteristics and multilevel single linear regression analyses. Mediation analysis examined associations between socio-demographic and parent characteristics and attendance at group sessions and potential mediation by child and parent factors. Results 365/467 (78% enrolled families (92% mothers including 411/519 (79% children (55% girls, mean age 9 ± 2 years attended at least one session (mean 5.6 ± 3.2. A majority of families (69% self-referred to the program. Program attendance was greater in: advantaged (5.9 ± 3.1 sessions vs disadvantaged families (5.4 ± 3.4 sessions (p < 0.05; partnered (6.1 ± 3.1 sessions vs un-partnered parents (5.0 ± 3.1 sessions (p < 0.01; higher educated (6.1 ± 3.0 sessions vs lower educated parents (5.1 ± 3.3 sessions (p = 0.02; and self-referral (6.1 ± 3.1 vs professional referral (4.7 ± 3.3 (p < 0.001. Child (age, gender, pre-program healthy eating and parent (perceptions of child weight, self-efficacy factors did not mediate these relationships. Conclusions To promote reach and effectiveness of up-scaled programs, it is important to

  18. Self versus family ratings of the frontal systems behaviour scale and measured executive functions: adult outcomes following childhood traumatic brain injury.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert D Barrett

    Full Text Available Traumatic brain injury (TBI frequently occurs during childhood and adolescence with long-term neuropsychological and behavioral effects. Greater personal awareness of injury is associated with better outcomes. However, personal awareness is often assessed using ratings obtained from family members or significant others. Surprisingly, the accuracy of family-ratings compared with self-ratings has not been well studied in the TBI population. Thus, the purpose of this study was to examine self versus family-ratings of frontal dysfunction and secondly, the association between self/family reported frontal dysfunction and measured executive function outcomes. A total of 60 participants, approximately 10 years post-TBI, comprised 3 groups including; moderate/severe TBI (N=26; mean age 22.9, SD=3.0, mild TBI (N=20; mean age, 21.7, SD=2.7, and control (N=14: mean age, 21.6, SD=3.7. Neuropsychological testing was used to obtain domain scores for executive function and working memory/attention for each participant, and nominated family members and participants with TBI were asked to complete the Frontal Systems Behaviour Scale (FrSBe, consisting of three sub-scales; apathy, disinhibition, and executive dysfunction. Using the FrSBe there was no significant difference between the groups in executive function score, but the moderate/severe and mild groups had significantly lower working memory/attention scores compared with the control group (p<0.05. Repeated measures analysis of variance showed higher self-ratings on all sub-scales compared with family in each group (p<0.05. Scores on executive function and working memory/attention domains correlated with self, but not family reported executive dysfunction. Self-rated executive dysfunction explained 36% of the variance in executive function (p<0.001. While agreement between self-rated and family-rated total FrSBe scores was significant in all groups (p<0.001, our results showed that self-ratings were of

  19. Correlation and comparative analysis of discriminative validity of the Scale of Oral Health Outcomes for Five-Year-Old Children (SOHO-5) and the Early Childhood Oral Health Impact Scale (ECOHIS) for dental caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Izabella Barbosa; Ramos-Jorge, Joana; Ramos-Jorge, Maria Letícia; Bönecker, Marcelo; Abanto, Jenny; Marques, Leandro Silva; Paiva, Saul Martins

    2015-03-10

    The perceptions of parents and children regarding oral health are useful to oral public health and clinical practice in pediatric dentistry. The primary aim of the present study was to evaluate the correlation between the total and item scores of the Scale of Oral Health Outcomes for Five-Year-Old Children (SOHO-5) (parental version and child's self-reports) and the Early Childhood Oral Health Impact Scale (ECOHIS). Subsequently, the discriminative validity of these assessment tools regarding dental caries was compared. One hundred twenty-one children randomly selected in the city of Diamantina (Brazil) were submitted to oral examinations. Parents answered the ECOHIS and SOHO-5p (parental version) and children answered the SOHO-5c (child's self-reports). Statistical analysis involved the Mann-Whitney test as well as the calculation of Spearman's correlation coefficients. A significant correlation was found between the SOHO-5p and ECOHIS (r = 0.85), whereas no significant correlations were found between the SOHO-5c and SOHO-5p (r = 0.00) or between the SOHO-5c and ECOHIS (r = -0.41). Significant differences in the impact on quality of life were found between children with severe decay and no severe decay (caries free, with initial or established caries) both the ECOHIS and SOHO-5p (p ≤ 0.05), whereas no difference was found in SOHO-5c (p > 0.05). The ECOHIS and SOHO-5p were correlated with each other. The accounts of the children differed from their parents' reports and were not capable of discriminating dental caries in advanced stages of progression.

  20. Re-adjusting the cut-off score of the Korean version of the Childhood Autism Rating Scale for high-functioning individuals with autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Hyuk-Jin; Yoo, Hee-Jeong; Kim, Joo-Hyun; Noh, Dong-Hyun; Sunwoo, Hyun-Jung; Jeon, Ye Seul; Lee, Sang-Youn; Jo, Ye-Ul; Bong, Gui-Young

    2017-10-01

    The current cut-off score of the Korean version of the Childhood Autism Rating Scale (K-CARS) does not seem to be sensitive enough to precisely diagnose high-functioning autism. The aim of this study was to identify the optimal cut-off score of K-CARS for diagnosing high-functioning individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). A total of 329 participants were assessed by the Korean versions of the Autism Diagnostic Interview - Revised (K-ADI-R), Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (K-ADOS), and K-CARS. IQ and Social Maturity Scale scores were also obtained. The true positive and false negative rates of K-CARS were 77.2% and 22.8%, respectively. Verbal IQ (VIQ) and Social Quotient (SQ) were significant predictors of misclassification. The false negative rate increased to 36.0% from 19.8% when VIQ was >69.5, and the rate increased to 44.1% for participants with VIQ > 69.5 and SQ > 75.5. In addition, if SQ was >83.5, the false negative rate increased to 46.7%, even if the participant's VIQ was ≤69.5. Optimal cut-off scores were 28.5 (for VIQ ≤ 69.5 and SQ ≤ 75.5), 24.25 (for VIQ > 69.5 and SQ > 75.5), and 24.5 (for SQ > 83.5), respectively. The likelihood of a false negative error increases when K-CARS is used to diagnose high-functioning autism and Asperger's syndrome. For subjects with ASD and substantial verbal ability, the cut-off score for K-CARS should be re-adjusted and/or supplementary diagnostic tools might be needed to enhance diagnostic accuracy for ASD. © 2017 The Authors. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences © 2017 Japanese Society of Psychiatry and Neurology.

  1. The Broad Superintendents Academy, 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broad Foundation, 2007

    2007-01-01

    The Broad Superintendents Academy is an executive training program that identifies and prepares prominent leaders--executives with experience successfully leading large organizations and a passion for public service--then places them in urban school districts to dramatically improve the quality of education for America's students. This brochure…

  2. Exploring the Quality of Early Childhood Education in China: Implications for Early Childhood Teacher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Bi Ying; Szente, Judit

    2009-01-01

    The following article introduces an exploratory study that was designed to measure the quality of early childhood education within its ever changing sociocultural context utilizing the Early Childhood Learning Environment Rating Scale-Revised (ECERS-R) in 40 classrooms in Beijing, China. Implications for early childhood teacher education,…

  3. Subclinical hypothyroidism in childhood.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Grady, M J

    2012-02-01

    Subclinical hypothyroidism (SH) is defined as an elevated thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) in association with a normal total or free thyroxine (T4) or triiodothyronine (T3). It is frequently encountered in both neonatology and general paediatric practice; however, its clinical significance is widely debated. Currently there is no broad consensus on the investigation and treatment of these patients; specifically who to treat and what cut-off level of TSH should be used. This paper reviews the available evidence regarding investigation, treatments and outcomes reported for childhood SH.

  4. Childhood trauma and compulsive buying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sansone, Randy A; Chang, Joy; Jewell, Bryan; Rock, Rachel

    2013-02-01

    Childhood trauma has been empirically associated with various types of self-regulatory difficulties in adulthood. However, according to the extant literature, no study has examined relationships between various types of childhood trauma and compulsive buying behavior in adulthood. Using a self-report survey methodology in a cross-sectional consecutive sample of 370 obstetrics/gynecology patients, we examined five types of childhood trauma before the age of 12 years (i.e. witnessing violence, physical neglect, emotional abuse, physical abuse, sexual abuse) in relationship to compulsive buying as assessed by the Compulsive Buying Scale (CBS). All forms of trauma demonstrated statistically significant correlations with the CBS. Using a linear regression analysis, both witnessing violence and emotional abuse significantly contributed to CBS scores. Further analyses indicated that race did not moderate the relationship between childhood trauma and compulsive buying. Findings indicate that various forms of childhood trauma are correlated with compulsive buying behavior, particularly witnessing violence and emotional abuse.

  5. Childhood Cancer Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Financial Reports Watchdog Ratings Feedback Contact Select Page Childhood Cancer Statistics Home > Cancer Resources > Childhood Cancer Statistics Childhood Cancer Statistics – Graphs and Infographics Number of Diagnoses ...

  6. Childhood Leukemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leukemia is cancer of the white blood cells. It is the most common type of childhood cancer. ... blood cells help your body fight infection. In leukemia, the bone marrow produces abnormal white blood cells. ...

  7. Childhood Schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of onset presents special challenges for diagnosis, treatment, education, and emotional and social development. Schizophrenia is a chronic condition that requires lifelong treatment. Identifying and starting treatment for childhood schizophrenia ...

  8. Childhood obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heitmann, Berit L; Koplan, Jeffrey; Lissner, Lauren

    2009-01-01

    Despite progress toward assuring the health of today's young population, the 21(st) century began with an epidemic of childhood obesity. There is general agreement that the situation must be addressed by means of primary prevention, but relatively little is known about how to intervene effectively....... The evidence behind the assumption that childhood obesity can be prevented was discussed critically in this roundtable symposium. Overall, there was general agreement that action is needed and that the worldwide epidemic itself is sufficient evidence for action. As the poet, writer, and scholar Wittner Bynner...

  9. MICROLENSING OF QUASAR BROAD EMISSION LINES: CONSTRAINTS ON BROAD LINE REGION SIZE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guerras, E.; Mediavilla, E. [Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias, Via Lactea S/N, La Laguna E-38200, Tenerife (Spain); Jimenez-Vicente, J. [Departamento de Fisica Teorica y del Cosmos, Universidad de Granada, Campus de Fuentenueva, E-18071 Granada (Spain); Kochanek, C. S. [Department of Astronomy and the Center for Cosmology and Astroparticle Physics, The Ohio State University, 4055 McPherson Lab, 140 West 18th Avenue, Columbus, OH 43221 (United States); Munoz, J. A. [Departamento de Astronomia y Astrofisica, Universidad de Valencia, E-46100 Burjassot, Valencia (Spain); Falco, E. [Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Motta, V. [Departamento de Fisica y Astronomia, Universidad de Valparaiso, Avda. Gran Bretana 1111, Valparaiso (Chile)

    2013-02-20

    We measure the differential microlensing of the broad emission lines between 18 quasar image pairs in 16 gravitational lenses. We find that the broad emission lines are in general weakly microlensed. The results show, at a modest level of confidence (1.8{sigma}), that high ionization lines such as C IV are more strongly microlensed than low ionization lines such as H{beta}, indicating that the high ionization line emission regions are more compact. If we statistically model the distribution of microlensing magnifications, we obtain estimates for the broad line region size of r{sub s} = 24{sup +22} {sub -15} and r{sub s} = 55{sup +150} {sub -35} lt-day (90% confidence) for the high and low ionization lines, respectively. When the samples are divided into higher and lower luminosity quasars, we find that the line emission regions of more luminous quasars are larger, with a slope consistent with the expected scaling from photoionization models. Our estimates also agree well with the results from local reveberation mapping studies.

  10. Family equivalence scales with a narrow and broad welfare context

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Plug, E.J.S.; van Praag, B.M.S.

    1995-01-01

    Family size affects welfare in two ways. First, if family increases and income is constant, income has to be spread over more family members. This would suggest that a family increase would yield a welfare decrease. However, the fact that families have children, even if technically avoidable, points

  11. Economic analysis in support of broad scale land management strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard. Haynes

    2003-01-01

    The US has a century of experience with the development of forest policies that have benefited from or been influenced by economic research activities in the forest sector. At the same time, increasing rigor in policy debates stimulated economics research. During the past four decades economic research has evolved to include increased understanding of consumer demands...

  12. Good practices in early childhood education:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanders, Lise; Gregoriadis, Athanasis; Zachopoulou, Evridiki

    Good practices in early childhood education er en undersøgelse fortaget efter Early Childhood Environmental Rating Scale - R (ECERS-R). I undersøgelsen deltog Akademikere, pædagoger og kommunalt personale fra de 6 partnerlande bestående af Grækenland, Portugal, Finland, Danmark, Rumænien og Cypern...

  13. Preventing Childhood obesity. EPODE European Network Recommendations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borys, J.M.; Le Bodo, Y.; De Henauw, S.; Moreno, L.A.; Romon, M.; Seidell, J.C.; Visscher, T.L.S.

    2011-01-01

    Childhood obesity is a complex issue and needs multistakeholder involvement at all levels to foster healthier lifestyles in a sustainable way. 'Ensemble Prévenons l'ObésitéDes Enfants' (EPODE, Together Let's Prevent Childhood Obesity) is a large-scale, coordinated, capacity-building approach for

  14. Childhood obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauss, R

    1999-01-01

    Approximately 10% of children are obese. Twin and adoption studies demonstrate a large genetic component to obesity, especially in adults. However, the increasing prevalence of obesity over the last 20 years can only be explained by environmental factors. In most obese individuals, no measurable differences in metabolism can be detected. Few children engage in regular physical activity. Obese children and adults uniformly underreport the amount of food they eat. Obesity is particularly related to increased consumption of high-fat foods. BMI is a quick and easy way to screen for childhood obesity. Treating childhood obesity relies on positive family support and lifestyle changes involving the whole family. Food preferences are influenced early by parental eating habits, and when developed in childhood, they tend to remain fairly constant into adulthood. Children learn to be active or inactive from their parents. In addition, physical activity (or more commonly, physical inactivity) habits that are established in childhood tend to persist into adulthood. Weight loss is usually followed by changes in appetite and metabolism, predisposing individuals to regain their weight. However, when the right family dynamics exist--a motivated child with supportive parents--long-term success is possible.

  15. Childhood Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuca, Sevil Ari, Ed.

    2012-01-01

    This book aims to provide readers with a general as well as an advanced overview of the key trends in childhood obesity. Obesity is an illness that occurs due to a combination of genetic, environmental, psychosocial, metabolic and hormonal factors. The prevalence of obesity has shown a great rise both in adults and children in the last 30 years.…

  16. The economic and social benefits of childhood vaccinations in BRICS

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mirelman, Andrew J; Ozawa, Sachiko; Grewal, Simrun

    2014-01-01

      Brazil, the Russian Federation, India, China and South Africa (BRICS) have considerable potential to save lives and obtain economic benefits through introducing or scaling up childhood vaccination...

  17. What influences availability of medicines for the community management of childhood illnesses in central Uganda? Implications for scaling up the integrated community case management programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagonza, James; Rutebemberwa, Elizeus; Eckmanns, Tim; Ekirapa-Kiracho, Elizabeth

    2015-11-25

    The integrated Community Case Management (iCCM) of childhood illnesses strategy has been adopted world over to reduce child related ill health and mortality. Community Health workers (CHWs) who implement this strategy need a regular supply of drugs to effectively treat children under 5 years with malaria, pneumonia and diarrhea. In this paper, we report the prevalence and factors influencing availability of medicines for managing malaria, pneumonia and diarrhea in communities in central Uganda. A cross sectional study was conducted among 303 CHWs in Wakiso district in central Uganda. Eligible CHWs from two randomly selected Health Sub Districts (HSDs) were interviewed. Questionnaires, check lists, record reviews were used to collect information on CHW background characteristics, CHW's prescription behaviors, health system support factors and availability of iCCM drugs. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was done to assess factors associated with availability of iCCM drugs. Out of 300 CHWs, 239 (79.9%) were females and mean age was 42.1 (standard deviation =11.1 years). The prevalence of iCCM drug availability was 8.3% and 33 respondents (11%) had no drugs at all. Factors associated with iCCM drug availability were; being supervised within the last month (adjusted OR = 3.70, 95% CI 1.22-11.24), appropriate drug prescriptions (adjusted OR = 3.71, 95% CI 1.38-9.96), regular submission of drug reports (adjusted OR = 4.02, 95% CI 1.62-10.10) and having a respiratory timer as a diagnostic tool (adjusted OR =3.11, 95% CI 1.08-9.00). The low medicine stocks for the community management of childhood illnesses calls for strengthening of CHW supervision, medicine prescription and reporting, and increasing availability of functional diagnostic tools.

  18. Childhood obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Qazi Iqbal; Ahmad, Charoo Bashir; Ahmad, Sheikh Mushtaq

    2010-01-01

    Obesity is increasing at an alarming rate throughout the world. Today it is estimated that there are more than 300 million obese people world-wide. Obesity is a condition of excess body fat often associated with a large number of debilitating and life-threatening disorders. It is still a matter of debate as to how to define obesity in young people. Overweight children have an increased risk of being overweight as adults. Genetics, behavior, and family environment play a role in childhood overweight. Childhood overweight increases the risk for certain medical and psychological conditions. Encourage overweight children to expand high energy activity, minimize low energy activity (screen watching), and develop healthful eating habits. Breast feeding is protective against obesity. Diet restriction is not recommended in very young children. Children are to be watched for gain in height rather than reduction in weight. Weight reduction of less than 10% is a normal variation, not significant in obesity.

  19. Fluorescence-based Broad Dynamic Range Viscosity Probes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dragan, Anatoliy; Graham, August E; Geddes, Chris D

    2014-03-01

    We introduce two new fluorescent viscosity probes, SYBR Green (SG) and PicoGreen (PG), that we have studied over a broad range of viscosity and in collagen solutions. In water, both dyes have low quantum yields and excited state lifetimes, while in viscous solvents or in complex with DNA both parameters dramatically (300-1000-fold) increase. We show that in log-log scale the dependence of the dyes' quantum yield vs. viscosity is linear, the slope of which is sensitive to temperature. Application of SG and PG, as a fluorescence-based broad dynamic range viscosity probes, to the life sciences is discussed.

  20. [Dysphonia in childhood].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kittel, G

    1984-04-01

    Dysphonia can be found more often in childhood than in grown-up people. Disturbances of vocal purity occur at least at certain age levels in 23% of all children. Since dysphonia is the most important laryngeal symptom, it should be clarified exactly despite the difficulties of examination in children, in order to exclude tumours, which in most cases will be papillomas. For this purpose we developed a schema which includes not only subjective but also measuring and objective methods. The examples of congenital-inherited, congenital-acquired, non-congenital-inherited and non-congenital-acquired vocal disturbances show that there is a broad spectrum between the evaluation of the first cry, the right evaluation of numerous symptoms, the right evaluation of mutative dysphonias and the assessment of rhinophonias . In cases where it is not possible to clarify sufficiently well the causes of pathological vocal disorders by means of less complicated methods, it is advisable to employ the explained specific examination methods with objective documentation. The oto-rhino-laryngologist consulted by the parents of a child carries considerable responsibility also for the child's subsequent professional career if he is called upon to treat the patient's childhood dysphonia.

  1. Childhood Obesity Facts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Breastfeeding Micronutrient Malnutrition State and Local Programs Childhood Obesity Facts Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir On ... Children (WIC) Program, 2000–2014 Prevalence of Childhood Obesity in the United States, 2011-2014 Childhood obesity ...

  2. Childhood Traumatic Grief

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Resources for Educators Resources for Kids and Teens Childhood Traumatic Grief What is Childhood Traumatic Grief? Children grieve in their own way ... functioning, the child may have a condition called Childhood Traumatic Grief (CTG). Thinking about the person who ...

  3. [The broad bean's syndrome in ancient Egypt].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippi, D

    1989-01-01

    The problem of broad bean's syndrome and lathyrism in ancient Greece has been deeply studied, with particular referrement to the hypothetic medica and mystical reasons of the Pythagoric order not to eat broad beans. It is impossible to prove Egyptian influence of Phythagora's precept, but we can, however, consider the hypothesis that they had noticed the potential deadly effect of broad beans' use, too, and wonder if their interduction had the same motivations.

  4. The anomalous tides near Broad Sound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middleton, Jason H.; Buchwald, V. T.; Huthnance, John M.

    Observations of tidal current and height, in conjunction with theoretical mathematical models are used to investigate the propagation of the tide near Broad Sound, a narrowing estuary situated on a wide section of continental shelf toward the southern end of the Great Barrier Reef. The observations indicate that the dense offshore reefs severely inhibit tidal flow, with the result that tides flood toward Broad Sound from the north and from the south, along the main lagoon. There is a local magnification of the semi-diurnal tides within Broad Sound itself. Models of flow across reefs confirm the effectiveness of dense, shallow, and broad reefs in acting as a barrier to the tide. The diffraction of tides through large gaps in the reef is modelled using conformal mapping techniques and with the inclusion of energy leakage, the diffraction model predicts magnification of the semi-diurnal tidal heights by a factor of about 4 and a phase lag of 3 h on the shelf near Broad Sound, these values being consistent with observation. The observed convergence of the tide close to, and within Broad Sound itself is consistent with the proximity of the semi-diurnal tidal period to the natural period for flow in Broad Sound, considered as a narrowing estuary. This results in further amplification, by an additional factor of about 1.5, so that the tides in Broad Sound are increased by a factor of between 5 and 6, altogether, compared with those elsewhere on the east Australian coast.

  5. Broad Prize: Do the Successes Spread?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuels, Christina A.

    2011-01-01

    When the Broad Prize for Urban Education was created in 2002, billionaire philanthropist Eli Broad said he hoped the awards, in addition to rewarding high-performing school districts, would foster healthy competition; boost the prestige of urban education, long viewed as dysfunctional; and showcase best practices. Over the 10 years the prize has…

  6. Broad Academy's Growing Reach Draws Scrutiny

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuels, Christina A.

    2011-01-01

    Billionaire businessman Eli Broad, one of the country's most active philanthropists, founded the "Broad Superintendents Academy" in 2002 with an extraordinarily optimistic goal: Find leaders from both inside and outside education, train them, and have them occupying the superintendencies in a third of the 75 largest school districts--all in just…

  7. Functional Impairment in Childhood OCD: Development and Psychometrics Properties of the Child Obsessive-Compulsive Impact Scale-Revised (COIS-R)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piacentini, John; Peris, Tara S.; Bergman, R. Lindsey; Chang, Susanna; Jaffer, Margaret

    2007-01-01

    This article documents the development, factor structure, and psychometric properties of the parent- and youth-report forms of the Child Obsessive Compulsive Impact Scale-Revised (COIS-R), a measure of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD)-specific functional impairment. Using a sample of 250 youth (M age = 11.7, 54% male, 80% Caucasian) diagnosed…

  8. Feedback from Broad Absorption Line Quasars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chartas, George; Saez, C.

    2008-03-01

    The fraction of the total bolometric energy released over an AGN's lifetime into the ISM and IGM in the form kinetic energy injection scales as the outflow velocity to the third power so we expect that powerful broad absorption line (BAL) quasars may have mass outflow rates that are large enough to influence significantly the formation of the host galaxy and to regulate the growth of the central black hole. One of the most promising radio quiet quasars for studying the properties of the outflow is the lensed BAL quasar APM 08279+5255. The large flux magnification by a factor of about 100 provided by the gravitational lens effect combined with the large redshift (z = 3.91) of the quasar have provided the highest S/N X-ray spectra of a quasar containing X-ray BALs. We present results from recent monitoring observations of APM 08279+5255. performed with the Suzaku, XMM-Newton and Chandra observatories. Significant variability of the X-ray BALs is detected on timescales as short as 4 days (proper time) implying launching radii of about 6 times the Schwarzschild radius. The fitted width of the X-ray absorption troughs imply a large gradient in the outflow velocity of the X-ray absorbers with projected outflow velocities of up to 0.5c. The notch-like shape of the detected X-ray BALs are similar to those produced in recent numerical simulations (i.e. Schurch & Done 2007) that include radiative transfer calculations through highly ionized X-ray absorbers outflowing at near relativistic velocities. We provide preliminary constraints of the outflows properties.

  9. Overview of Childhood Schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryan, Betsy

    Childhood schizophrenia is a rare but serious disorder with complex symptoms that affect children and their families. Childhood schizophrenia was once the term applied for all childhood psychoses, including autism and mood disorders, but more recently researchers have distinguished childhood schizophrenia from other disorders. There are differing…

  10. Childhood depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, J A

    1988-07-01

    The spectrum of depressive disorders found in children and adolescents presents diagnostic and treatment challenges for the physician. The increasing scientific rigor of child and adolescent mental disorder research has explicated the importance of clinical diagnoses. Distinctions have to be made between depressive symptoms that are transient and situational specific and the constellation of depressive symptoms that represent clinical disorders such as bipolar disorder, cyclothymia, major depressive disorder, or dysthymia. The clinically sensitive physician attuned to the diagnostic criteria of these disorders has the opportunity to promote effective treatment and to reduce the morbidity associated with these conditions. The established severity and persistence of these disorders over time suggests the need for definitive medical management of these conditions. The recognition of childhood depression as a medical entity of varying severity, persistence, and prognosis represents the first step in effective treatment.

  11. Childhood obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speiser, Phyllis W; Rudolf, Mary C J; Anhalt, Henry; Camacho-Hubner, Cecilia; Chiarelli, Francesco; Eliakim, Alon; Freemark, Michael; Gruters, Annette; Hershkovitz, Eli; Iughetti, Lorenzo; Krude, Heiko; Latzer, Yael; Lustig, Robert H; Pescovitz, Ora Hirsch; Pinhas-Hamiel, Orit; Rogol, Alan D; Shalitin, Shlomit; Sultan, Charles; Stein, Daniel; Vardi, Pnina; Werther, George A; Zadik, Zvi; Zuckerman-Levin, Nehama; Hochberg, Zeev

    2005-03-01

    In March 2004 a group of 65 physicians and other health professionals representing nine countries on four continents convened in Israel to discuss the widespread public health crisis in childhood obesity. Their aim was to explore the available evidence and develop a consensus on the way forward. The process was rigorous, although time and resources did not permit the development of formal evidence-based guidelines. In the months before meeting, participants were allocated to seven groups covering prevalence, causes, risks, prevention, diagnosis, treatment, and psychology. Through electronic communication each group selected the key issues for their area, searched the literature, and developed a draft document. Over the 3-d meeting, these papers were debated and finalized by each group before presenting to the full group for further discussion and agreement. In developing a consensus statement, this international group has presented the evidence, developed recommendations, and provided a platform aimed toward future corrective action and ongoing debate in the international community.

  12. Measuring Prevention More Broadly, An Empirical...

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Measuring Prevention More Broadly, An Empirical Assessment of CHIPRA Core Measures Differences in CHIP design and structure, across states and over time, may limit...

  13. Adulthood Personality Correlates of Childhood Adversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles S. Carver

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Childhood adversity has been linked to internalizing and externalizing disorders and personality disorders in adulthood. This study extends that research by examining several personality measures as correlates of childhood adversity. Method: In a college sample self-reports were collected of childhood adversity, several scales relating to personality, and current depression symptoms as a control variable. The personality-related scales were reduced to four latent variables, which we termed Anger/Aggression, Extrinsic focus, Agreeableness, and Engagement. Results: Controlling for concurrent depressive symptoms and gender, higher levels of reported childhood adversity related to lower Agreeableness and to higher Anger/Aggression and Extrinsic focus. Conclusions: Findings suggest that early adversity is linked to personality variables relevant to the building of social connection.

  14. Expression of the Broad Autism Phenotype in Simplex Autism Families from the Simons Simplex Collection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Julie; Goin-Kochel, Robin P.; Green-Snyder, Lee Anne; Hundley, Rachel J.; Warren, Zachary; Peters, Sarika U.

    2014-01-01

    The broad autism phenotype (BAP) refers to the phenotypic expression of an underlying genetic liability to autism, manifest in non-autistic relatives. This study examined the relationship among the "Broad Autism Phenotype Questionnaire" (BAPQ), "Social Responsiveness Scale: Adult Research Version" (SRS:ARV), and "Family…

  15. The relation of parenting, child temperament, and attachment security in early childhood to social competence at school entry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rispoli, Kristin M; McGoey, Kara E; Koziol, Natalie A; Schreiber, James B

    2013-10-01

    A wealth of research demonstrates the importance of early parent-child interactions on children's social functioning. However, less is known about the interrelations between child and parent characteristics and parent-child interactions in early childhood. Moreover, few studies have broadly examined the longitudinal relations between these constructs and social competence. This study is an examination of the relations between parent responsiveness, negativity, and emotional supportiveness, attachment security, and child temperament, and their impact on children's social competence from infancy to kindergarten entry. The sample was derived from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study--Birth Cohort and included 6850 parent-child dyads. Observational and rating scale data were used. The proposed model was nearly fully supported by path analysis, and it provides insight into the complex relations between early parenting behaviors, child characteristics, and parent-child interactions in the development of social competence. Copyright © 2013 Society for the Study of School Psychology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Prospects for broadly protective influenza vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treanor, John Jay

    2015-11-27

    The development of vaccines that could provide broad protection against antigenically variant influenza viruses has long been the ultimate prize in influenza research. Recent developments have pushed us closer to this goal, and such vaccines may now be within reach. This brief review outlines the current approaches to broadly protective vaccines, and the probable hurdles and roadblocks to achieving this goal. Copyright © 2015 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  17. The X-ray side of the Broad Line Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costantini, E.

    2017-10-01

    The broad line region (BLR) is very different from an idealised spherical region of gas in motion around the central black hole. Using traditional optical/UV data, different geometries, sometimes contrasting with each other, have been recently explored. The broad line emitting clouds however, do also emit in the X-rays. This emitting gas constitute the energetic portion of the same clouds emitting the UV (Costantini et al. 2007, 2010). Here we present a unique study, using broad line region data of the bright Seyfert1 Mrk509 (Kaastra et al. 2011), taken simultaneously by XMM-Newton RGS, HST-COS and XMM-Newton OM-Grism (Costantini et al. 2016). We use a synthetic, physically motivated, model to fit the multi-wavelength data. The results point to part of the emission (possibly disk-like) coming near the black hole, highlighted by highly-ionized lines. In addition, a larger scale height component, clearly confined by the dust sublimation radius, is characterised by lower ionization ions emission (a bowl-like geometry; Goad et al. 2012). It is the first time that the X-rays provide crucial constraints in the geometrical description of the broad line region.

  18. Pathways to lifespan health following childhood parental death

    OpenAIRE

    Luecken, Linda J.; Roubinov, Danielle S.

    2012-01-01

    The death of a parent is a profoundly stressful form of childhood adversity, increasing the short- and long-term risk of mental health problems. Emerging research suggests it may also disrupt biological regulatory systems and increase the risk of long-term physical health problems. This article presents a theoretical framework of the process by which the experience of parental death during childhood may influence mental and physical health outcomes over time. Drawing from a broad literature o...

  19. Childhood Overweight and School Outcomes

    OpenAIRE

    Wendt, Minh; Kinsey, Jean D.

    2009-01-01

    This paper investigates the association between weight and elementary school students’ academic achievement, as measured by standardized Item Respond Theory scale scores in reading and math. Data for this study come from the 1998 cohort of the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Kindergarten-Fifth Grade (ECLS-K), which contains a large national sample of children between the ages of 5 and 12. Estimates of the association between weight and achievement were obtained by utilizing two regression...

  20. Accessible ecology: synthesis of the long, deep, and broad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Debra P C

    2010-10-01

    Large volumes of data have been collected to document the many ways that ecological systems are responding to changing environmental drivers. A general buy-in on solutions to these problems can be reached only if these and future data are made easily accessible to and understood by a broad audience that includes the public, decision-makers, and other scientists. A developing framework for synthesis is reviewed that integrates three main strategies of ecological research (long-term studies; short-term, process-based studies; and broad-scale observations) with derived data products and additional sources of knowledge. This framework focuses on making data from multiple sources and disciplines easily understood by many, a prerequisite for finding synthetic solutions and predicting future dynamics in a changing world. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. [Validation in the adult Spanish population of the Wender Utah Rating Scale for the retrospective evaluation in adults of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder in childhood].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Jiménez, R; Ponce, G; Monasor, R; Jiménez-Giménez, M; Pérez-Rojo, J A; Rubio, G; Jiménez Arriero; Palomo, T

    Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is one of the most common neuropsychiatric disorders in the early ages. Recently, it has been verified that presence of ADHD in early ages could be a vulnerability factor for developing different psychiatric disorders in adults, such as substance abuse and personality disorders. The retrospective diagnosis of this disorder in early ages of adult patients is specially problematic. The Wender Utah Rating Scale (WURS) has been translated and adaptated with the purpose of validating it in the Spanish population. It was administered the questionnaire to 266 patients of an Addictive Behaviours Unit. In 82 cases it was realized a clinical diagnosis of ADHD in early ages, and others 184 cases did not show antecedents of this disorder. 25 items which better discriminate cases from controls were chosen. The Cronbach s coefficient for this subscale was 0.94. The cut off 32 optimized sensitivity (91.5%) and specificity (90.8%). The positive and negative predictive values was 81% and 96% respectively. The total of incorrectly classified subjects was 9%. Our version of the WURS shows an adequate psychometric characteristics, that indicate an adequate validity for the detection of adult patients with antecedents of ADHD in early ages. In our population of patients with addictive behaviours, it has demonstrated to be very useful to differentiate an important subgroup of patients with antecedents of ADHD in early ages. It would be very interesting the replication of this study in other psychopathological and neurological conditions.

  2. The retrospective assessment of childhood attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in adults: reliability and validity of the Italian version of the Wender Utah Rating Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fossati, A; Di Ceglie, A; Acquarini, E; Donati, D; Donini, M; Novella, L; Maffei, C

    2001-01-01

    To assess the reliability and validity of the Wender Utah Rating Scale (WURS), 759 Italian undergraduate students were administered the Italian version of the WURS. In this sample, the WURS showed good internal consistency reliability (Cronbach alpha =.888). Both 1-week (r =.981, P <.001) and 2-month (r =.924, P <.001) retest reliabilities were satisfactory. The mother/subject agreement on the WURS total score was large: intraclass r =.883, P <.001. The principal component (PC) analysis showed the presence of three positively correlated first-order PCs, and one second-order PC. This PC structure of the WURS was replicated in an independent sample of 300 consecutively admitted psychiatric inpatients and outpatients. Finally, in a sample of 132 secondary school students, the WURS showed a moderate correlation with the Conners Abbreviated Parent and Teacher Questionnaire (CAPTQ): r =.307, P <.001. In this sample, the WURS total score was negatively correlated with school performance (rho = -.460, P <.001) and conduct (rho = -.293, P <.005) indexes. Copyright 2001 by W.B. Saunders Company

  3. Adult Attachment as Mediator between Recollections of Childhood and Satisfaction with Life

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hinnen, C.; Sanderman, R.; Sprangers, M.A.

    2009-01-01

    In accordance with attachment theory, the present study investigates whether internal working models of attachment mediated the association between childhood memories and satisfaction about life in adulthood. A convenient sample of 437 participants completed questionnaires assessing a broad range of

  4. [Childhood tuberculosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamzaoui, A

    2015-01-01

    Childhood TB is an indication of failing TB control in the community. It allows disease persistence in the population. Mortality and morbidity due to TB is high in children. Moreover, HIV co-infection and multidrug-resistant diseases are as frequent in children as in adults. Infection is more frequent in younger children. Disease risk after primary infection is greatest in infants younger than 2 years. In case of exposure, evidence of infection can be obtained using the tuberculin skin test (TST) or an interferon-gamma assay (IGRA). There is no evidence to support the use of IGRA over TST in young children. TB suspicion should be confirmed whenever possible, using new available tools, particularly in case of pulmonary and lymph node TB. Induced sputum, nasopharyngeal aspiration and fine needle aspiration biopsy provide a rapid and definitive diagnosis of mycobacterial infection in a large proportion of patients. Analysis of paediatric samples revealed higher sensitivity and specificity values of molecular techniques in comparison with the ones originated from adults. Children require higher drugs dosages than adults. Short courses of steroids are associated with TB treatment in case of respiratory distress, bronchoscopic desobstruction is proposed for severe airways involvement and antiretroviral therapy is mandatory in case of HIV infection. Post-exposure prophylaxis in children is a highly effective strategy to reduce the risk of TB disease. The optimal therapy for treatment of latent infection with a presumably multidrug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis strain is currently not known. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. Childhood: An Endangered Concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiser, Margaret G.

    1983-01-01

    The author reviews the concept of childhood as it evolved from Aristotle and Plato's time and cites the threat to the childhood today of eletronic media, which may lead to a majority of asocial, amoral, child-adults. (CL)

  6. Childhood Brain Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brain tumors are abnormal growths inside the skull. They are among the most common types of childhood ... still be serious. Malignant tumors are cancerous. Childhood brain and spinal cord tumors can cause headaches and ...

  7. Common Childhood Orthopedic Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Videos for Educators Search English Español Common Childhood Orthopedic Conditions KidsHealth / For Parents / Common Childhood Orthopedic Conditions What's in this article? Flatfeet Toe Walking ...

  8. Childhood Overweight and Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Nutrition Healthy Food Choices Childhood Overweight and Obesity: Helping Your Child Achieve a Healthy Weight Childhood Overweight and Obesity: Helping Your Child Achieve a Healthy Weight Share Print Children need ...

  9. Advanced paternal age is associated with impaired neurocognitive outcomes during infancy and childhood.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukanta Saha

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Advanced paternal age (APA is associated with an increased risk of neurodevelopmental disorders such as autism and schizophrenia, as well as with dyslexia and reduced intelligence. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between paternal age and performance on neurocognitive measures during infancy and childhood. METHODS AND FINDINGS: A sample of singleton children (n = 33,437 was drawn from the US Collaborative Perinatal Project. The outcome measures were assessed at 8 mo, 4 y, and 7 y (Bayley scales, Stanford Binet Intelligence Scale, Graham-Ernhart Block Sort Test, Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, Wide Range Achievement Test. The main analyses examined the relationship between neurocognitive measures and paternal or maternal age when adjusted for potential confounding factors. Advanced paternal age showed significant associations with poorer scores on all of the neurocognitive measures apart from the Bayley Motor score. The findings were broadly consistent in direction and effect size at all three ages. In contrast, advanced maternal age was generally associated with better scores on these same measures. CONCLUSIONS: The offspring of older fathers show subtle impairments on tests of neurocognitive ability during infancy and childhood. In light of secular trends related to delayed fatherhood, the clinical implications and the mechanisms underlying these findings warrant closer scrutiny.

  10. Advanced paternal age is associated with impaired neurocognitive outcomes during infancy and childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Sukanta; Barnett, Adrian G; Foldi, Claire; Burne, Thomas H; Eyles, Darryl W; Buka, Stephen L; McGrath, John J

    2009-03-10

    Advanced paternal age (APA) is associated with an increased risk of neurodevelopmental disorders such as autism and schizophrenia, as well as with dyslexia and reduced intelligence. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between paternal age and performance on neurocognitive measures during infancy and childhood. A sample of singleton children (n = 33,437) was drawn from the US Collaborative Perinatal Project. The outcome measures were assessed at 8 mo, 4 y, and 7 y (Bayley scales, Stanford Binet Intelligence Scale, Graham-Ernhart Block Sort Test, Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, Wide Range Achievement Test). The main analyses examined the relationship between neurocognitive measures and paternal or maternal age when adjusted for potential confounding factors. Advanced paternal age showed significant associations with poorer scores on all of the neurocognitive measures apart from the Bayley Motor score. The findings were broadly consistent in direction and effect size at all three ages. In contrast, advanced maternal age was generally associated with better scores on these same measures. The offspring of older fathers show subtle impairments on tests of neurocognitive ability during infancy and childhood. In light of secular trends related to delayed fatherhood, the clinical implications and the mechanisms underlying these findings warrant closer scrutiny.

  11. Teaching the Broad, Interdisciplinary Impact of Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, David; Atlas, Pierre; Haberski, Raymond; Higgs, Jamie; Kiley, Patrick; Maxwell, Michael, Jr.; Mirola, William; Norton, Jamey

    2009-01-01

    As perhaps the most encompassing idea in biology, evolution has impacted not only science, but other academic disciplines as well. The broad, interdisciplinary impact of evolution was the theme of a course taught at Marian College, Indianapolis, Indiana in 2002, 2004, and 2006. Using a strategy that could be readily adopted at other institutions,…

  12. Giant Broad Line Regions in Dwarf Seyferts

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    High angular resolution spectroscopy obtained with the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) has revealed a remarkable population of galaxies hosting dwarf Seyfert nuclei with an unusually large broad-line region (BLR). These objects are remarkable for two reasons. Firstly, the size of the BLR can, in some cases, rival those ...

  13. "It's More than Care": Early Childhood Educators' Concepts of Professionalism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harwood, Debra; Klopper, Audrey; Osanyin, Ajike; Vanderlee, Mary-Louise

    2013-01-01

    This article reports on the findings from a small-scale study of early childhood educators' perceptions of their roles, responsibilities and ideas related to professionalism. Twenty-five early childhood educators from Canada (Ontario), Nigeria and South Africa participated in qualitative interviews to address the following questions: (1) In what…

  14. Parental Conceptions of Quality in Greek Early Childhood Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grammatikopoulos, Vasilis; Gregoriadis, Athanasios; Tsigilis, Nikolaos; Zachopoulou, Evridiki

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the current study was to examine the assessments of parents of the quality of early childhood education (ECE) in Greece. Five hundred and fifty three preschoolers' parents participated in this study providing quality and importance ratings based on the Early Childhood Environment Rating Scale Parent Questionnaire (ECERSPQ) for the…

  15. Broad-Band Analysis of Polar Motion Excitations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, J.

    2016-12-01

    Earth rotational changes, i.e. polar motion and length-of-day (LOD), are driven by two types of geophysical excitations: 1) mass redistribution within the Earth system, and 2) angular momentum exchange between the solid Earth (more precisely the crust) and other components of the Earth system. Accurate quantification of Earth rotational excitations has been difficult, due to the lack of global-scale observations of mass redistribution and angular momentum exchange. The over 14-years time-variable gravity measurements from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) have provided a unique means for quantifying Earth rotational excitations from mass redistribution in different components of the climate system. Comparisons between observed Earth rotational changes and geophysical excitations estimated from GRACE, satellite laser ranging (SLR) and climate models show that GRACE-derived excitations agree remarkably well with polar motion observations over a broad-band of frequencies. GRACE estimates also suggest that accelerated polar region ice melting in recent years and corresponding sea level rise have played an important role in driving long-term polar motion as well. With several estimates of polar motion excitations, it is possible to estimate broad-band noise variance and noise power spectra in each, given reasonable assumptions about noise independence. Results based on GRACE CSR RL05 solutions clearly outperform other estimates with the lowest noise levels over a broad band of frequencies.

  16. Etiology, Treatment, and Prevention of Obesity in Childhood and Adolescence: A Decade in Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spruijt-Metz, Donna

    2011-01-01

    Childhood obesity has become an epidemic on a worldwide scale. This article gives an overview of the progress made in childhood and adolescent obesity research in the last decade, with a particular emphasis on the transdisciplinary and complex nature of the problem. The following topics are addressed: (1) current definitions of childhood and…

  17. Parallel evaluation of broad virus detection methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modrof, Jens; Berting, Andreas; Kreil, Thomas R

    2014-01-01

    The testing for adventitious viruses is of critical importance during development and production of biological products. The recent emergence and ongoing development of broad virus detection methods calls for an evaluation of whether these methods can appropriately be implemented into current adventitious agent testing procedures. To assess the suitability of several broad virus detection methods, a comparative experimental study was conducted: four virus preparations, which were spiked at two different concentrations each into two different cell culture media, were sent to four investigators in a blinded fashion for analysis with broad virus detection methods such as polymerase chain reaction-electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (PCR-ESI/MS), microarray, and two approaches utilizing massively parallel sequencing. The results that were reported by the investigators revealed that all methods were able to identify the majority of samples correctly (mean 83%), with a surprisingly narrow range among the methods, that is, between 72% (PCR-ESI/MS) and 95% (microarray). In addition to the correct results, a variety of unexpected assignments were reported for a minority of samples, again with little variation regarding the methods used (range 20-45%), while false negatives were reported for 0-25% of the samples. Regarding assay sensitivity, the viruses were detected by all methods included in this study at concentrations of about 4-5 log10 quantitative PCR copies/mL, and probably with higher sensitivity in some cases. In summary, the broad virus detection methods investigated were shown to be suitable even for detection of relatively low virus concentrations. However, there is also some potential for the production of false-positive as well as false-negative assignments, which indicates the requirement for further improvements before these methods can be considered for routine use. © PDA, Inc. 2014.

  18. Atomization of broad specification aircraft fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skifstad, J. G.; Lefebvre, A. H.

    1980-01-01

    The atomization properties of liquid fuels for the potential use in aircraft gas turbine engines are discussed. The significance of these properties are addressed with respect to the ignition and subsequent combustion behavior of the fuel spray/air mixture. It is shown that the fuel properties which affect the atomization behavior (viscosity, surface tension, and density) are less favorable for the broad specification fuels as compared to with those for conventional fuels.

  19. Adverse Childhood Experiences in a Post-bariatric Surgery Psychiatric Inpatient Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fink, Kathryn; Ross, Colin A

    2017-12-01

    Sixty-three inpatients in a psychiatric hospital who had previously undergone bariatric surgery were interviewed by the hospital dietitian. The purpose of the study was to determine the frequency of adverse childhood experiences in this population. Participants completed the Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACE) Scale. The average score on the ACE was 5.4 (3.3); 76% of participants reported childhood emotional neglect, 70% childhood verbal abuse, and 64% childhood sexual abuse; only two participants reported no adverse childhood experiences. The participants in the study reported high levels of adverse childhood experiences compared to the general population, which is consistent with prior literature on rates of childhood trauma in post-bariatric surgery patients. The role of adverse childhood experiences in post-bariatric surgery adaptation should be investigated in future research, including in prospective studies.

  20. Childhood trauma and childhood urbanicity in relation to psychotic disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frissen, Aleida; Lieverse, Ritsaert; Drukker, Marjan; van Winkel, Ruud; Delespaul, Philippe; Cahn, W|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/250566370

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Urban upbringing and childhood trauma are both associated with psychotic disorders. However, the association between childhood urbanicity and childhood trauma in psychosis is poorly understood. The urban environment could occasion a background of social adversity against which any effect

  1. Childhood trauma and childhood urbanicity in relation to psychotic disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frissen, Aleida; Lieverse, Ritsaert; Drukker, Marjan; van Winkel, Ruud; Delespaul, Philippe; Bruggeman, Richard; Cahn, Wiepke; de Haan, Lieuwe; Kahn, René; Meije, Carin; Myin-Germeys, Inez; van Os, Jim; Wiersma, Durk

    2015-01-01

    Urban upbringing and childhood trauma are both associated with psychotic disorders. However, the association between childhood urbanicity and childhood trauma in psychosis is poorly understood. The urban environment could occasion a background of social adversity against which any effect of

  2. Broad-band semiconductor optical amplifiers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ding Ying [Institute of Semiconductors, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100083 (China)]. E-mail: yingding@red.semi.ac.cn; Kan Qiang [Institute of Semiconductors, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100083 (China); Wang Junling [Institute of Optoelectronic Technology, Beijing Jiaotong University, Beijing 100044 (China); Pan Jiaoqing [Institute of Semiconductors, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100083 (China); Zhou Fan [Institute of Semiconductors, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100083 (China); Chen Weixi [School of Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Wang Wei [Institute of Semiconductors, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100083 (China)

    2007-01-15

    Broad-band semiconductor optical amplifiers (SOAs) with different thicknesses and thin bulk tensile-strained active layers were fabricated and studied. Amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) spectra and gain spectra of SOAs were measured and analyzed at different CW biases. A maximal 3 dB ASE bandwidth of 136 nm ranging from 1480 to 1616 nm, and a 3 dB optical amplifier gain bandwidth of about 90 nm ranging from 1510 to 1600 nm, were obtained for the very thin bulk active SOA. Other SOAs characteristics such as saturation output power and polarization sensitivity were measured and compared.

  3. Broad spectrum antibiotic compounds and use thereof

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koglin, Alexander; Strieker, Matthias

    2016-07-05

    The discovery of a non-ribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS) gene cluster in the genome of Clostridium thermocellum that produces a secondary metabolite that is assembled outside of the host membrane is described. Also described is the identification of homologous NRPS gene clusters from several additional microorganisms. The secondary metabolites produced by the NRPS gene clusters exhibit broad spectrum antibiotic activity. Thus, antibiotic compounds produced by the NRPS gene clusters, and analogs thereof, their use for inhibiting bacterial growth, and methods of making the antibiotic compounds are described.

  4. Crx broadly modulates the pineal transcriptome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rovsing, Louise; Clokie, Samuel; Bustos, Diego M

    2011-01-01

    Cone-rod homeobox (Crx) encodes Crx, a transcription factor expressed selectively in retinal photoreceptors and pinealocytes, the major cell type of the pineal gland. In this study, the influence of Crx on the mammalian pineal gland was studied by light and electron microscopy and by use...... of microarray and qRTPCR technology, thereby extending previous studies on selected genes (Furukawa et al. 1999). Deletion of Crx was not found to alter pineal morphology, but was found to broadly modulate the mouse pineal transcriptome, characterized by a > 2-fold down-regulation of 543 genes and a > 2-fold up......-regulation of 745 genes (p pineal glands of wild...

  5. Teen Parents in Early Childhood Interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korfmacher, Jon

    2005-01-01

    This article reviews five large national studies that include significant findings about the effects of early care and intervention on the children of teens. Five large-scale, national early childhood intervention research trials have included teen parents: Early Head Start, Nurse Family Partnership, Parents as Teachers, Healthy Start/Healthy…

  6. Crx broadly modulates the pineal transcriptome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rovsing, Louise; Clokie, Samuel; Bustos, Diego M.; Rohde, Kristian; Coon, Steven L.; Litman, Thomas; Rath, Martin F.; Møller, Morten; Klein, David C.

    2011-01-01

    Cone-rod homeobox (Crx) encodes Crx, a transcription factor expressed selectively in retinal photoreceptors and pinealocytes, the major cell type of the pineal gland. Here, the influence of Crx on the mammalian pineal gland was studied by light and electron microscopy and by use of microarray and qRTPCR technology, thereby extending previous studies on selected genes (Furukawa et al. 1999). Deletion of Crx was not found to alter pineal morphology, but was found to broadly modulate the mouse pineal transcriptome, characterized by a >2-fold downregulation of 543 genes and a >2-fold upregulation of 745 genes (p pineal glands of wild-type animals; only eight of these were also day/night expressed in the Crx−/− pineal gland. However, in the Crx−/− pineal gland 41 genes exhibit differential night/day expression that is not seen in wild-type animals. These findings indicate that Crx broadly modulates the pineal transcriptome and also influences differential night/day gene expression in this tissue. Some effects of Crx deletion on the pineal transcriptome might be mediated by Hoxc4 upregulation. PMID:21797868

  7. Obsessive-compulsive adults with and without childhood ADHD symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Oguz; Metin, Baris; Metin, Sinem

    2016-09-01

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and attention-deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) frequently coexist. To understand whether childhood ADHD can increase the risk of OCD in adulthood and whether it influences the phenomenology of OCD, we investigated the symptoms of ADHD during childhood in obsessive-compulsive adults who had never been diagnosed as ADHD. Adults with OCD (n = 83) were given the Wender Utah Rating Scale (WURS), Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS), Barratt Impulsiveness Scale-11 (BIS-11), Hamilton Depression Rating Scale-17 (HDRS-17) and Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI). The prevalence of childhood ADHD symptoms was 40.9 % (n = 34) and that of adult ADHD was 16.9 % (n = 14). Patients with childhood ADHD symptoms had an earlier onset of OCD, higher scores of the BAI and BIS-11. The scores of the Y-BOCS and HDRS-17 did not differ between those having and not having childhood ADHD symptoms. Childhood history of ADHD symptoms is common in adult OCD patients who have never been diagnosed as ADHD. Childhood ADHD symptoms are associated with an earlier age of OCD, more severe anxiety and higher impulsiveness. Even remitted ADHD may be a risk factor for OCD in later life.

  8. Childhood obesity case statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito, Paul W; Caskey, Paul; Heaton, Lisa E; Otsuka, Norman

    2013-04-01

    The goal of this publication is to raise awareness of the impact of childhood obesity on the musculoskeletal health of children and its potential long-term implications. Relevant articles dealing with musculoskeletal disorders either caused by or worsened by childhood obesity were reviewed through a Pub Med search. Efforts to recognize and combat the childhood obesity epidemic were also identified through Internet search engines. This case statement was then reviewed by the members of the pediatric specialty group of the US Bone and Joint Initiative, which represents an extensive number of organizations dealing with musculoskeletal health. Multiple musculoskeletal disorders are clearly caused by or worsened by childhood obesity. The review of the literature clearly demonstrates the increased frequency and severity of many childhood musculoskeletal disorders. Concerns about the long-term implications of these childhood onset disorders such as pain and degenerative changes into adulthood are clearly recognized by all the member organizations of the US Bone and Joint Initiative. It is imperative to recognize the long-term implications of musculoskeletal disorders caused by or worsened by childhood obesity. It is also important to recognize that the ability to exercise comfortably is a key factor to developing a healthy lifestyle and maintaining a healthy body weight. Efforts to develop reasonable and acceptable programs to increase physical activity by all facets of society should be supported. Further research into the long-term implications of childhood musculoskeletal disorders related to childhood obesity is necessary. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Parametric Transverse Patterns in Broad Aperture Lasers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grigorieva, E.V.; Kashchenko, S.A.; Mosekilde, Erik

    1998-01-01

    Parametrically generated optical patterns are investigated for finite and large-scale transverse aperture lasers. Standing and rotating patterns as well as periodic and chaotic pattern alternations are described in the framework of the amplitude equation formalism. Sensitive dependence on the geo......Parametrically generated optical patterns are investigated for finite and large-scale transverse aperture lasers. Standing and rotating patterns as well as periodic and chaotic pattern alternations are described in the framework of the amplitude equation formalism. Sensitive dependence...

  10. Childhood Cancer Survivor Study: An Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Childhood Treatment Childhood Cancer Genomics Study Findings Childhood Cancer Survivor Study: An Overview Dr. Greg Armstrong, ... Late Effects of Treatment for Childhood Cancer .) The Childhood Cancer Survivor Study ( CCSS ), funded by the National ...

  11. Broad ion beam serial section tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winiarski, B., E-mail: b.winiarski@manchester.ac.uk [School of Materials, University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Materials Division, National Physical Laboratory, Teddington TW11 0LW (United Kingdom); Gholinia, A. [School of Materials, University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Mingard, K.; Gee, M. [Materials Division, National Physical Laboratory, Teddington TW11 0LW (United Kingdom); Thompson, G.E.; Withers, P.J. [School of Materials, University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom)

    2017-01-15

    Here we examine the potential of serial Broad Ion Beam (BIB) Ar{sup +} ion polishing as an advanced serial section tomography (SST) technique for destructive 3D material characterisation for collecting data from volumes with lateral dimensions significantly greater than 100 µm and potentially over millimetre sized areas. Further, the associated low level of damage introduced makes BIB milling very well suited to 3D EBSD acquisition with very high indexing rates. Block face serial sectioning data registration schemes usually assume that the data comprises a series of parallel, planar slices. We quantify the variations in slice thickness and parallelity which can arise when using BIB systems comparing Gatan PECS and Ilion BIB systems for large volume serial sectioning and 3D-EBSD data acquisition. As a test case we obtain 3D morphologies and grain orientations for both phases of a WC-11%wt. Co hardmetal. In our case we have carried out the data acquisition through the manual transfer of the sample between SEM and BIB which is a very slow process (1–2 slice per day), however forthcoming automated procedures will markedly speed up the process. We show that irrespective of the sectioning method raw large area 2D-EBSD maps are affected by distortions and artefacts which affect 3D-EBSD such that quantitative analyses and visualisation can give misleading and erroneous results. Addressing and correcting these issues will offer real benefits when large area (millimetre sized) automated serial section BIBS is developed. - Highlights: • In this work we examine how microstructures can be reconstructed in three-dimensions (3D) by serial argon broad ion beam (BIB) milling, enabling much larger volumes (>250×250×100µm{sup 3}) to be acquired than by serial section focused ion beam-scanning electron microscopy (FIB-SEM). • The associated low level of damage introduced makes BIB milling very well suited to 3D-EBSD acquisition with very high indexing rates. • We explore

  12. Against a Broad Definition of "Empathy"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Songhorian

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper I will try to provide some arguments against a broad definition of “empathy”. Firstly, I will deal with attempts to define empathy as an umbrella concept. Then, I will try to point out the four main elements which contribute to the confusion that researchers in both the social and political as well as the scientific and philosophical domains face when dealing with empathy. In order to resolve this confusion, I suggest applying David Marr’s distinction to the field of empathy. Instead of providing an umbrella definition for empathy, which tries to account for all the data coming from different disciplines, I believe understanding that there are different levels of explanations and that different disciplines can contribute to each of them will provide a more detailed and less confused definition of empathy.

  13. Historian's discovery of childhood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frijhoff, W.T.M.

    2012-01-01

    The "discovery of childhood" is a tricky notion because childhood is as much a fact of a biological and psychological nature as a cultural notion that through the centuries has been the object of changing perceptions, definitions, and images. Children barely speak in history; virtually everything we

  14. Severe childhood malnutrition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bhutta, Zulfiqar A; Berkley, James A; Bandsma, Robert H J

    2017-01-01

    The main forms of childhood malnutrition occur predominantly in children ... nutritional status and suboptimal nutritional intake in infancy and early childhood. Children with severe malnutrition have an increased risk of serious illness and death, primarily from acute infectious diseases. International growth standards are used for the diagnosis of severe malnutrition and provide...

  15. Childhood osteomyelitis: imaging characteristics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Schuppen, Joost; van Doorn, Martine M. A. C.; van Rijn, Rick R.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to illustrate the imaging findings of childhood osteomyelitis. The diagnosis of childhood osteomyelitis can be challenging. Clinical presentation and laboratory results can differ and are relatively unreliable. To date, its role in the assessment of treatment efficacy

  16. Participation in Clubs and Groups from Childhood to Adolescence and Its Effects on Attachment and Self-Esteem

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGee, Rob; Williams, Sheila; Howden-Chapman, Philippa; Martin, Jennifer; Kawachi, Ichiro

    2006-01-01

    We examined social participation in organized clubs and groups from childhood to adolescence in a sample of young people from Dunedin, New Zealand. Groups were broadly categorized as ''sports'' and ''cultural/youth'' groups. While the results indicated high levels of participation in childhood with a decline over the ensuing adolescent years, path…

  17. Evidence-based treatments for children with trauma-related psychopathology as a result of childhood maltreatment: a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leenarts, L.E.W.; Diehle, J.; Doreleijers, T.A.H.; Jansma, E.P.; Lindauer, R.J.L.

    2013-01-01

    This is a systematic review of evidence-based treatments for children exposed to childhood maltreatment. Because exposure to childhood maltreatment has been associated with a broad range of trauma-related psychopathology (e.g., PTSD, anxiety, suicidal ideation, substance abuse) and with aggressive

  18. Broad temperature range antiferroelectric regular mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabrowski, Roman; Czuprynski, Krzysztof; Gasowska, J.; Oton, Jose; Quintana, Xabier; Castillo, P. L.; Bennis, N.

    2004-09-01

    Tristate regular mixtures with different electro-optical properties such as threshold voltage, saturation voltage, holding ratio and response time are presented. The relation of properties with the structure of compounds is discussed. All of mixtures show only moderate dynamic and static contrast but big gray level scale without hysteresis for positive and negative field driving.

  19. SVSVGMKPSPRP: a broad range adhesion peptide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estephan, Elias; Dao, Jérôme; Saab, Marie-Belle; Panayotov, Ivan; Martin, Marta; Larroque, Christian; Gergely, Csilla; Cuisinier, Frédéric J G; Levallois, Bernard

    2012-12-01

    A combinatorial phage display approach was previously used to evolve a 12-mer peptide (SVSVGMKPSPRP) with the highest affinity for different semiconductor surfaces. The discovery of the multiple occurrences of the SVSVGMKPSPRP sequence in an all-against-all basic local alignment search tool search of PepBank sequences was unexpected, and a Google search using the peptide sequence recovered 58 results concerning 12 patents and 16 scientific publications. The number of patent and articles indicates that the peptide is perhaps a broad range adhesion peptide. To evaluate peptide properties, we conducted a study to investigate peptide adhesion on different inorganic substrates by mass spectrometry and atomic force microscopy for gold, carbon nanotubes, cobalt, chrome alloy, titanium, and titanium alloy substrates. Our results showed that the peptide has a great potential as a linker to functionalize metallic surfaces if specificity is not a key factor. This peptide is not specific to a particular metal surface, but it is a good linker for the functionalization of a wide range of metallic materials. The fact that this peptide has the potential to adsorb on a large set of inorganic surfaces suggests novel promising directions for further investigation. Affinity determination of SVSVGMKPSPRP peptide would be an important issue for eventual commercial uses.

  20. Broad-Band Activatable White-Opsin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subrata Batabyal

    Full Text Available Currently, the use of optogenetic sensitization of retinal cells combined with activation/inhibition has the potential to be an alternative to retinal implants that would require electrodes inside every single neuron for high visual resolution. However, clinical translation of optogenetic activation for restoration of vision suffers from the drawback that the narrow spectral sensitivity of an opsin requires active stimulation by a blue laser or a light emitting diode with much higher intensities than ambient light. In order to allow an ambient light-based stimulation paradigm, we report the development of a 'white-opsin' that has broad spectral excitability in the visible spectrum. The cells sensitized with white-opsin showed excitability at an order of magnitude higher with white light compared to using only narrow-band light components. Further, cells sensitized with white-opsin produced a photocurrent that was five times higher than Channelrhodopsin-2 under similar photo-excitation conditions. The use of fast white-opsin may allow opsin-sensitized neurons in a degenerated retina to exhibit a higher sensitivity to ambient white light. This property, therefore, significantly lowers the activation threshold in contrast to conventional approaches that use intense narrow-band opsins and light to activate cellular stimulation.

  1. Childhood trauma and childhood urbanicity in relation to psychotic disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Frissen, Aleida; Lieverse, Ritsaert; Drukker, Marjan; van Winkel, Ruud; Delespaul, Philippe; Cahn, W.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Urban upbringing and childhood trauma are both associated with psychotic disorders. However, the association between childhood urbanicity and childhood trauma in psychosis is poorly understood. The urban environment could occasion a background of social adversity against which any effect of childhood trauma increases. Also, any impact of the urban environment on likelihood of exposure to childhood trauma could be stronger in children who later develop psychotic disorder. The aim o...

  2. Arctic Change Information for a Broad Audience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soreide, N. N.; Overland, J. E.; Calder, J.

    2002-12-01

    Demonstrable environmental changes have occurred in the Arctic over the past three decades. NOAA's Arctic Theme Page is a rich resource web site focused on high latitude studies and the Arctic, with links to widely distributed data and information focused on the Arctic. Included is a collection of essays on relevant topics by experts in Arctic research. The website has proven useful to a wide audience, including scientists, students, teachers, decision makers and the general public, as indicated through recognition by USA Today, Science magazine, etc. (http://www.arctic.noaa.gov) Working jointly with NSF and the University of Washington's Polar Science Center as part of the Study of Environmental Arctic Change (SEARCH) program, NOAA has developed a website for access to pan-Arctic time series spanning diverse data types including climate indices, atmospheric, oceanic, sea ice, terrestrial, biological and fisheries. Modest analysis functions and more detailed analysis results are provided. (http://www.unaami.noaa.gov/). This paper will describe development of an Artic Change Detection status website to provide a direct and comprehensive view of previous and ongoing change in the Arctic for a broad climate community. For example, composite metrics are developed using principal component analysis based on 86 multivariate pan-Arctic time series for seven data types. Two of these metrics can be interpreted as a regime change/trend component and an interdecadal component. Changes can also be visually observed through tracking of 28 separate biophysical indicators. Results will be presented in the form of a web site with relevant, easily understood, value-added knowledge backed by peer review from Arctic scientists and scientific journals.

  3. A study of tachyon dynamics for broad classes of potentials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quiros, Israel [Division de Ciencias e Ingenieria de la Universidad de Guanajuato, AP 150, 37150, Leon, Guanajuato (Mexico); Gonzalez, Tame [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad Central de Las Villas, 54830 Santa Clara (Cuba); Gonzalez, Dania; Napoles, Yunelsy [Departamento de Matematica, Universidad Central de Las Villas, 54830 Santa Clara (Cuba); GarcIa-Salcedo, Ricardo [Centro de Investigacion en Ciencia Aplicada y Tecnologia Avanzada-Legaria del IPN, Mexico DF (Mexico); Moreno, Claudia, E-mail: iquiros@Fisica.ugto.m, E-mail: tame@uclv.edu.c, E-mail: dgm@uclv.edu.c, E-mail: yna@uclv.edu.c, E-mail: rigarcias@ipn.m, E-mail: claudia.moreno@cucei.udg.m [Departamento de Fisica y Matematicas, Centro Universitario de Ciencias Exactas e IngenierIas, Av. Revolucion 1500 SR, Universidad de Guadalajara, 44430 Guadalajara, Jalisco (Mexico)

    2010-11-07

    We investigate in detail the asymptotic properties of tachyon cosmology for a broad class of self-interaction potentials. The present approach relies on an appropriate re-definition of the tachyon field, which, in conjunction with a method formerly applied in the bibliography in a different context allows us to generalize the dynamical systems study of tachyon cosmology to a wider class of self-interaction potentials beyond the (inverse) square-law one. It is revealed that independent of the functional form of the potential, the matter-dominated solution and the ultra-relativistic (also matter-dominated) solution are always associated with equilibrium points in the phase space of the tachyon models. The latter is always the past attractor, while the former is a saddle critical point. For inverse power-law potentials V{proportional_to}{phi}{sup -2{lambda}} the late-time attractor is always the de Sitter solution, while for sinh-like potentials V{proportional_to}sinh {sup -{alpha}}({lambda}{sup {phi}}), depending on the region of parameter space, the late-time attractor can be either the inflationary tachyon-dominated solution or the matter-scaling (also inflationary) phase. In general, for most part of known quintessential potentials, the late-time dynamics will be associated either with de Sitter inflation, or with matter-scaling, or with scalar field-dominated solutions.

  4. Broadly protective influenza vaccines: Redirecting the antibody response through adjuvation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cox, F.

    2016-01-01

    Influenza virus infections are responsible for significant morbidity worldwide and current vaccines have limited coverage, therefore it remains a high priority to develop broadly protective vaccines. With the discovery of broadly neutralizing antibodies (bnAbs) against influenza these vaccines

  5. When does biodiversity matter? Assessing ecosystem services across broad regions using forest inventory and analysis data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kevin M. Potter; Christopher W. Woodall; Christopher M. Oswalt; Basil V. III Iannone; Songlin. Fei

    2015-01-01

    Biodiversity is expected to convey numerous functional benefits to forested ecosystems, including increased productivity and resilience. When assessing biodiversity, however, statistics that account for evolutionary relationships among species may be more ecologically meaningful than traditional measures such as species richness. In three broad-scale studies, we...

  6. Fluid flow in the northern Broad Fourteens Basin during Late Cretaceous inversion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouw, L.; Oude Essink, G.H.P.

    2003-01-01

    A basin-scale hydrogeological study of the inverted northern Broad Fourteens Basin, Netherlands offshore, has resulted in a reconstruction of geological evolution, an estimate of Late Cretaceous topography and model scenarios of syn-inversion meteoric water infiltration. This study was performed in

  7. A quantitative measure of restricted and repetitive behaviors for early childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolff, Jason J; Boyd, Brian A; Elison, Jed T

    2016-01-01

    Restricted and repetitive behaviors are characteristic phenotypic features of many neurodevelopmental, psychiatric, and neurological conditions. During early childhood, such behaviors are considered normative. More research is needed to delineate the dimensions of restricted and repetitive behavior across typical and atypical development during this period. We developed the 34-item parent-rated Repetitive Behavior Scale for Early Childhood (RBS-EC) to capture quantitative, dimensional features across a broad range of behaviors contributing to this domain. We evaluated its psychometric properties and factor structure in a community sample of 914 toddlers. The RBS-EC showed excellent overall internal consistency (α = 0.90), strong test-retest reliability (ICC = 0.87 for topographies and 0.90 for frequency) and evidence of convergent and discriminative validity. Using a split-half approach to factor analysis, we identified that a three- or four-factor structure best fit the data and confirmatory factor analysis indicated acceptable fit for both models. The empirically derived four-factor model was consistent with our conceptual model and included repetitive motor, restricted interests and behavior, ritual and routine, and self-directed behavior. This initial study indicates that the RBS-EC is a reliable and valid instrument for characterizing quantitative, dimensional aspects of restricted and repetitive behaviors in young children.

  8. Setting priorities for development of emerging interventions against childhood pneumonia, meningitis and influenza

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Rudan

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available WAcute lower respiratory infections, which broadly include pneumonia and bronchiolitis, are still the leading cause of childhood mortality. ALRI contributed to 18% of all deaths in children younger than five years of age in 2008, and the main pathogens responsible for high mortality were Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae and respiratory syncytial virus. In addition, meningitis was estimated to contribute up to 200 000 deaths each year, and influenza anywhere between 25 000 and 110 000. It is widely acknowledged that a major portion of this mortality should be avoidable if universal coverage of all known effective interventions could be achieved. However, some evaluations of the implementation of World Health Organization’s (WHO Integrated Management of Childhood Illness (IMCI strategy, which promotes improved access to a trained health provider who can administer “standard case management”, have shown somewhat disappointing results. Only a minority of all children with life-threatening episodes of pneumonia, meningitis and influenza in developing countries have access to trained health providers and receive appropriate treatment. Thus, novel strategies for control of pneumonia that balance investments in scaling up of existing interventions and the development of novel approaches, technologies and ideas are clearly needed.

  9. Childhood Vaccine Schedule

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Childhood Vaccine Schedule Past Issues / Spring 2008 Table of Contents ... please turn Javascript on. When to Vaccinate What Vaccine Why Birth (or any age if not previously ...

  10. Instant Childhood Immunization Schedule

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Recommendations Why Immunize? Vaccines: The Basics Instant Childhood Immunization Schedule Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Get ... date. See Disclaimer for additional details. Based on Immunization Schedule for Children 0 through 6 Years of ...

  11. Tooth decay - early childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottle mouth; Bottle carries; Baby bottle tooth decay; Early childhood caries (ECC) ... inside of your baby's mouth healthy and prevents tooth decay. If you are bottle-feeding your baby: Give babies, ages newborn to ...

  12. [Childhood-onset mastocytosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siebenhaar, F; Weller, K; Blume-Peytavi, U; Maurer, M

    2012-02-01

    Mastocytoses are a group of rare diseases characterized, in most cases, by a benign proliferation and accumulation of mast cells in different tissues. In children, mastocytosis affects usually exclusively the skin and differs in many aspects from adult-onset mastocytosis. Except for diffuse cutaneous mastocytosis, which is an uncommon subtype of childhood-onset mastocytosis, involvement of the bone marrow or additional extracutaneous organs is rarely seen in children. The prognosis of childhood-onset mastocytosis is usually very good. Compared to adult patients who most commonly experience chronic-stable or slowly progressive disease, mastocytosis in children is mostly transient and self-limiting. In this review, we present and discuss the subtypes of childhood-onset mastocytosis, recent advances in the understanding of their pathogenesis as well as similarities and differences between adult- and childhood-onset mastocytosis.

  13. Reducing Childhood Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Reducing Childhood Obesity Past Issues / Summer 2007 Table of Contents For ... Ga. were the first three We Can! cities. Obesity Research: A New Approach The percentage of children ...

  14. Perinatal and Childhood Stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available The epidemiology, risk factors, outcome and prognosis of perinatal and childhood stroke were reviewed at a workshop sponsored by the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke in Bethesda, MD, on Sept 18 and 19, 2000.

  15. Childhood tuberculosis in Qatar

    OpenAIRE

    Jay P.N Singh; Mohammed, Reem; Thayyullathil, Thanveer; Al-Khal, Abdullatif; Al- Suwaidi, Zubaida

    2016-01-01

    Childhood tuberculosis (TB) has been long neglected but has gained attention in recent years. In 2012, the World Health Organization annual report included an estimate for childhood TB for the first time, and in the following year, the TB Alliance received a grant from UNITAID (International Drug Purchase Facility) to develop pediatric TB formulations. Qatar is a low-incidence country. In this observational study, laboratory-confirmed cases of TB were analyzed from 2013 to 2015 and included p...

  16. (ImPossible Conversations? Activism, Childhood and Everyday Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sevasti-Melissa Nolas

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper offers an analytical exploration and points of connection between the categories of activism, childhood and everyday life. We are concerned with the lived experiences of activism and childhood broadly defined and especially with the ways in which people become aware, access, orient themselves to, and act on issues of common concern; in other words what connects people to activism. The paper engages with childhood in particular because childhood remains resolutely excluded from practices of public life and because engaging with activism from the marginalized position of children’s everyday lives provides an opportunity to think about the everyday, lived experiences of activism. Occupying a space ‘before method’, the paper engages with autobiographical narratives of growing up in the Communist left in the USA and the historical events of occupying Greek schools in the 1990s. These recounted experiences offer an opportunity to disrupt powerful categories currently in circulation for thinking about activism and childhood. Based on the analysis it is argued that future research on the intersections of activism, childhood and everyday life would benefit from exploring the spatial and temporal dimension of activism, to make visible the unfolding biographical projects of activists and movements alike, while also engaging with the emotional configurations of activists’ lives and what matters to activists, children and adults alike.

  17. Scaling Rules!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malkinson, Dan; Wittenberg, Lea

    2015-04-01

    Scaling is a fundamental issue in any spatially or temporally hierarchical system. Defining domains and identifying the boundaries of the hierarchical levels may be a challenging task. Hierarchical systems may be broadly classified to two categories: compartmental and continuous ones. Examples of compartmental systems include: governments, companies, computerized networks, biological taxonomy and others. In such systems the compartments, and hence the various levels and their constituents are easily delineated. In contrast, in continuous systems, such as geomorphological, ecological or climatological ones, detecting the boundaries of the various levels may be difficult. We propose that in continuous hierarchical systems a transition from one functional scale to another is associated with increased system variance. Crossing from a domain of one scale to the domain of another is associated with a transition or substitution of the dominant drivers operating in the system. Accordingly we suggest that crossing this boundary is characterized by increased variance, or a "variance leap", which stabilizes, until crossing to the next domain or hierarchy level. To assess this we compiled sediment yield data from studies conducted at various spatial scales and from different environments. The studies were partitioned to ones conducted in undisturbed environments, and those conducted in disturbed environments, specifically by wildfires. The studies were conducted in plots as small as 1 m2, and watersheds larger than 555000 ha. Regressing sediment yield against plot size, and incrementally calculating the variance in the systems, enabled us to detect domains where variance values were exceedingly high. We propose that at these domains scale-crossing occurs, and the systems transition from one hierarchical level to another. Moreover, the degree of the "variance leaps" characterizes the degree of connectivity among the scales.

  18. Educational trajectories after childhood cancer: When illness experience matters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumas, A; Cailbault, I; Perrey, C; Oberlin, O; De Vathaire, F; Amiel, P

    2015-06-01

    With the increase in survival from childhood cancer, research has increasingly focused on the educational and professional achievements of childhood cancer survivors. Yet, if large-scale studies provide an acute description of the current situation of childhood cancer survivors, little is known about their trajectories and the social processes shaping these trajectories. Using a qualitative methodology, drawing from a life course perspective, this study sought to describe the role of childhood cancer and its side effects in educational trajectories, as perceived by the participants. We investigated related processes of social adjustment to cancer, that is to say, choices or decisions that survivors related to the illness in the making of their career plans. Eighty long-term French childhood cancer survivors participating in the Euro2K longitudinal study were interviewed through in-depth, face-to-face interviews undertaken in 2011-2012. There were various types of impact described by respondents of the diagnosis of cancer on their trajectories. These varied according to gender. In women, childhood cancer tended to result in poor educational achievement, or in steering the individual towards a health care or child care occupation. This was justified by a desire to return the support that had been offered to them as patients. In men, however, childhood cancer led to a shift in career plans, because of physical sequelae, or because of concerns about their future health. Paradoxically, this limitation had a positive impact in their occupational achievement, as most of these men disregarded blue-collar jobs and chose more qualified white-collar occupations. Overall, findings suggest that childhood cancer influenced educational trajectories and, thus, socioeconomic status in adulthood, through mechanisms embedded in gender norms. These mechanisms could explain gender inequalities in educational achievement after childhood cancer reported in large-scale cohort studies

  19. Childhood adversity, social support, and telomere length among perinatal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Amanda M; Kowalsky, Jennifer M; Epel, Elissa S; Lin, Jue; Christian, Lisa M

    2018-01-01

    Adverse perinatal health outcomes are heightened among women with psychosocial risk factors, including childhood adversity and a lack of social support. Biological aging could be one pathway by which such outcomes occur. However, data examining links between psychosocial factors and indicators of biological aging among perinatal women are limited. The current study examined the associations of childhood socioeconomic status (SES), childhood trauma, and current social support with telomere length in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) in a sample of 81 women assessed in early, mid, and late pregnancy as well as 7-11 weeks postpartum. Childhood SES was defined as perceived childhood social class and parental educational attainment. Measures included the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire, Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression Scale, Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support, and average telomere length in PBMCs. Per a linear mixed model, telomere length did not change across pregnancy and postpartum visits; thus, subsequent analyses defined telomere length as the average across all available timepoints. ANCOVAs showed group differences by perceived childhood social class, maternal and paternal educational attainment, and current family social support, with lower values corresponding with shorter telomeres, after adjustment for possible confounds. No effects of childhood trauma or social support from significant others or friends on telomere length were observed. Findings demonstrate that while current SES was not related to telomeres, low childhood SES, independent of current SES, and low family social support were distinct risk factors for cellular aging in women. These data have relevance for understanding potential mechanisms by which early life deprivation of socioeconomic and relationship resources affect maternal health. In turn, this has potential significance for intergenerational transmission of telomere length. The predictive value of

  20. Sensation seeking and cocaine dependence in adults with reported childhood ADHD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballon, Nicolas; Brunault, Paul; Cortese, Samuele

    2015-04-01

    To compare measures of sensation seeking in a clinical group of cocaine-dependent (CD) patients with and without a history of probable childhood ADHD and in non-cocaine-dependent (NCD) healthy volunteers. Patients (n = 75; 42 with and 33 without probable childhood ADHD) and comparisons (n = 84) were assessed with the Diagnostic Interview for Genetic Studies, the Wender Utah Rating Scale for childhood ADHD, and the Zuckerman Seeking Sensation Scale. We found significantly higher prevalence rates of probable childhood ADHD in CD versus NCD (p < .001). The mean total scores of sensation seeking were significantly higher in CD versus NCD participants (p < .001) as well as in CD patients with versus those without a probable history of childhood ADHD (p < .001). Our study sets the basis for longitudinal investigation assessing whether the persistence of high level of sensation seeking in adults with childhood ADHD contributes to the transition to cocaine dependence. © 2014 SAGE Publications.

  1. Influences of Childhood Experiences on Early Childhood Education Students

    OpenAIRE

    Strekalova-Hughes, Ekaterina; Maarouf, Saoussan; Keskin, Burhanettin

    2015-01-01

    This qualitative study examined whether or not childhood experiences of the early childhood education students affected their present personal beliefs and pedagogies. A digital survey was filled out by 58 students majoring in Early Childhood Education program. The participants were asked to identify and reflect on their impactful early experiences. The follow-up interviews with two participants were conducted to deepen the reflections on childhood experiences and explore their effects on the ...

  2. A Broad Depressed 410-km Discontinuity beneath Northeast Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, J.; Guo, G.; WANG, X.

    2016-12-01

    The topography of the upper mantle discontinuities is important for good understanding of the thermal structure, composition of the mantle, and scales of mantle circulation as well. We applied both receiver function analysis and multiple-ScS reverberations to seismic waveforms recorded by stations beneath land and ocean, respectively. We obtained a complete image of the upper mantle discontinuities beneath northeast Asia, covering from the Okhotsk Sea, far east Russia, Japan Sea and northeast China. Results with different resolutions from different methods are compared in detail, and the comparison shows that long-period ScS reverberation signals is effective in extracting the robust features of the upper mantle discontinuities. Through the integrated depth undulation map covering both sea and land, we detected an obvious depression of the 410-km discontinuity with value 8-25 km, anticorrelated with a wide range of depressed 660-km discontinuity. The depression of the 660 can be explained by the temperature anomaly associated to the subducting Pacific slab. The landward extension of the depressed 410, however, is of large scale with a lateral range of at least 800-1000 km. Mechanism invoking chemical heterogeneity in the mantle transition zone was explored to explain the observation. We speculate that the broadly depressed 410 beneath west Japan Sea, part of Okhotsk Sea, and northeast China might be caused by high water content at the top of the mantle transition zone. The significant trench rollback motion of the subducting Pacific slab from the Miocene might explain the widespread distribution of the depression of the 410. The west edge of observed depressed 410-km discontinuity might pin the initial location where the Pacific subducting slab had been furthest before the occurrence of trench retreating.

  3. Childhood Loneliness and Isolation: Implications and Strategies for Childhood Educators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Randy M.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Addresses why childhood educators should concern themselves with the issue of childhood loneliness and isolation. Reviews research findings that show loneliness predisposes children and adolescents to a wide array of adverse consequences that suggest the need for incorporating loneliness reduction strategies within existing childhood programs.…

  4. Clustering Measurements of broad-line AGNs: Review and Future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirko Krumpe

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Despite substantial effort, the precise physical processes that lead to the growth of super-massive black holes in the centers of galaxies are still not well understood. These phases of black hole growth are thought to be of key importance in understanding galaxy evolution. Forthcoming missions such as eROSITA, HETDEX, eBOSS, BigBOSS, LSST, and Pan-STARRS will compile by far the largest ever Active Galactic Nuclei (AGNs catalogs which will allow us to measure the spatial distribution of AGNs in the universe with unprecedented accuracy. For the first time, AGN clustering measurements will reach a level of precision that will not only allow for an alternative approach to answering open questions in AGN and galaxy co-evolution but will open a new frontier, allowing us to precisely determine cosmological parameters. This paper reviews large-scale clustering measurements of broad line AGNs. We summarize how clustering is measured and which constraints can be derived from AGN clustering measurements, we discuss recent developments, and we briefly describe future projects that will deliver extremely large AGN samples which will enable AGN clustering measurements of unprecedented accuracy. In order to maximize the scientific return on the research fields of AGN and galaxy evolution and cosmology, we advise that the community develops a full understanding of the systematic uncertainties which will, in contrast to today’s measurement, be the dominant source of uncertainty.

  5. Childhood Adversity Is Associated with Adult Theory of Mind and Social Affiliation, but Not Face Processing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Germine

    Full Text Available People vary substantially in their ability to acquire and maintain social ties. Here, we use a combined epidemiological and individual differences approach to understand the childhood roots of adult social cognitive functioning. We assessed exposure to 25 forms of traumatic childhood experiences in over 5000 adults, along with measures of face discrimination, face memory, theory of mind, social motivation, and social support. Retrospectively-reported experiences of parental maltreatment in childhood (particularly physical abuse were the most broadly and robustly associated with adult variations in theory of mind, social motivation, and social support. Adult variations in face discrimination and face memory, on the other hand, were not significantly associated with exposure to childhood adversity. Our findings indicate domains of social cognition that may be particularly vulnerable to the effects of adverse childhood environments, and suggest mechanisms whereby environmental factors might influence the development of social abilities.

  6. Childhood Head and Neck Irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Thyroid Association ® www.thyroid.org Childhood Head & Neck Irradiation What is the thyroid gland? The thyroid gland ... Thyroid Association ® www.thyroid.org Childhood Head & Neck Irradiation Thyroid nodules (see Thyroid Nodule brochure) • Thyroid nodules ...

  7. Transforming childhood and youth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singla, Rashmi

    Louise Seeberg** This panel focuses on the changing dynamics of integration of various categories of children and young people, be they moving across borders, or settled in cities of immigration. The papers propose to cover diverse settings in Europe primarily through empirical studies. Moving beyond...... of childhood among Polish migrants in Norway' "Elzbieta M. Gozdziak (Georgetown University, USA), 'Keleti Pályaudvar: Past and Present Child Refugee Crises in Hungary' " "Carmen Draghici University Paris 13-Sorbonne Paris Cite, France), 'Transforming childhood and youth: increasing diversity in European cities...... and Childhood: On children of migrants from the Central Asia in Russia' " "Eva Janska, Zdeněk Čermák and Andrea Svobodova (Charles University, Prague, Czechia), 'Migration to Cities: decision making process and identity changes of young Vietnamese in Czechia' " "Mari Rysst (Inland University College...

  8. Developmental prosopagnosia in childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalrymple, Kirsten A; Corrow, Sherryse; Yonas, Albert; Duchaine, Brad

    2012-01-01

    Developmental prosopagnosia (DP) is defined by severe face recognition problems resulting from a failure to develop the necessary visual mechanisms for processing faces. While there is a growing literature on DP in adults, little has been done to study this disorder in children. The profound impact of abnormal face perception on social functioning and the general lack of awareness of childhood DP can result in severe social and psychological consequences for children. This review discusses possible aetiologies of DP and summarizes the few cases of childhood DP that have been reported. It also outlines key objectives for the growth of this emerging research area and special considerations for studying DP in children. With clear goals and concerted efforts, the study of DP in childhood will be an exciting avenue for enhancing our understanding of normal and abnormal face perception for all age groups.

  9. Atopic endotype in childhood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schoos, Ann-Marie Malby; Chawes, Bo Lund Krogsgaard; Rasmussen, Morten Arendt

    2016-01-01

    against 28 inhalant and food allergens was assessed at ½, 1½, 4, 6, and 13 years of age in 399 children from the Copenhagen Prospective Study on Asthma in Childhood2000 birth cohort by using both skin prick test responses and specific IgE levels. Asthma and eczema were diagnosed longitudinally by strictly...... with asthma through early childhood (0-6 years) when analyzed as any sensitization (odds ratio [OR] range, 0.78-1.29; P ≥ .48). However, at 13 years of age, any sensitization was associated with asthma (OR range, 4.02-5.94; all P ...%), eczema (26%), asthma (14%), or healthy status (24%). Conclusion: We found very little interdependency between asthma, eczema, and allergic sensitization through childhood. The associations between those entities were strongly dependent on age, type of allergens, and method of testing for sensitization...

  10. Dietary Patterns in Childhood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Louise Beltoft Borup

    A healthy diet is essential for healthy growth and development during childhood and may prevent obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular diseases throughout life. Traditionally, diet has been investigated as single nutrients. However, people do not eat one single nutrient and they do not even eat one...... nutrients. However, little is known about the development of dietary patterns in childhood both in relation to possible indicators and to obesity related outcomes. Therefore, the aim of this PhD thesis was to make exploratory analyses of dietary patterns in childhood using the method principal component...... analysis (PCA) and to investigate associations to possible indicators and outcomes related to growth and obesity. This was based on two observational cohort studies (SKOT I, SKOT II) and one intervention study (MoMS). The research showed that PCA is a suitable method for understanding some...

  11. Emotion regulation mediates the effect of childhood trauma on depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopfinger, Lisa; Berking, Matthias; Bockting, Claudi L H; Ebert, David D

    2016-07-01

    Childhood trauma increases the risks of both depression and dysfunctional emotion regulation, which is a factor that has been strongly linked to depression. Because of these demonstrated relationships, it can be hypothesized that dysfunctional emotion regulation is a mediator of the association between childhood trauma and depression. To test this hypothesis, we assessed the indirect effect of emotion regulation (Emotion Regulation Skills Questionnaire) on the relationship between childhood trauma (Childhood Trauma Questionnaire) and depression severity (24-item Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression) as well as depression lifetime persistency (i.e., lifetime percentage spent in major depressive episodes; assessed via SCID and Life Chart Interviews) in 269 patients with major depressive disorder (MDD). Bootstrapping-enhanced mediation analyses indicated that deficits in general emotion regulation mediated the association of childhood trauma to both depression severity and depression lifetime persistency. Further exploratory analyses indicated that specific emotion regulation skills (such as the ability to mindfully observe, accept, and tolerate undesired emotions or the willingness to voluntarily confront situations that prompt negative emotions in order to attain personally relevant goals) significantly mediated the association between childhood trauma and depression severity. Willingness to confront was a mediator for both depression outcomes (depression severity and lifetime persistency). The employed mediation analyses are cross-sectional in nature, which limits any firm conclusions regarding causality. The findings support the assumption that a sophisticated emotion regulation may help prevent the onset or unfavorable course of depression in individuals who have experienced childhood trauma. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. Poverty and childhood overweight in California Assembly districts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drewnowski, Adam; Rehm, Colin; Kao, Chi; Goldstein, Harold

    2009-06-01

    The goal of the present study was to determine the association between childhood overweight and area-based socioeconomic indicators in California Assembly districts. A cross-sectional ecologic study. California public school students. Poverty and demographic data for California Assembly districts were based on the 2000 Census and obtained from the UCLA Center for Health Policy Research. Overall and race- and ethnicity-specific rates of childhood overweight for California Assembly districts (n=80) were based on the 2004 statewide Fitnessgram evaluation of California public school students. Poverty was significantly associated with childhood overweight in California Assembly districts. At the Assembly district scale, childhood overweight was significantly associated with percent residents below poverty for the entire population (r=0.82), and with the race/ethnicity-specific overweight prevalence for African-American (r=0.43), Latino (r=0.61) and White (r=0.54) populations. There was also evidence that childhood overweight in California Assembly districts was spatially clustered. Linear regression models confirmed that percent of residents below poverty was an independent predictor of a higher prevalence of childhood overweight for the entire population. The results of race/ethnicity-specific models confirmed that the association between area poverty and childhood overweight was not explained by differences in the risk of overweight among specific race/ethnicity groups. Area-based measures of socioeconomic status can be used to identify problem areas and can be used for optimal targeting of public health prevention and intervention efforts.

  13. Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis functioning and dysfunctional attitude in depressed patients with and without childhood neglect

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background To date, the relationships between childhood neglect, hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis functioning and dysfunctional attitude in depressed patients are still obscure. Methods The Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ) was used to assess childhood emotional neglect and physical neglect. Twenty-eight depressed patients with childhood neglect and 30 depressed patients without childhood neglect from Guangzhou Psychiatric Hospital were compared with 29 age- and gender-matched control subjects without childhood neglect and 22 control subjects with childhood neglect. Cortisol awakening response, the difference between the cortisol concentrations at awakening and 30 minutes later, provided a measure of HPA axis functioning. The Dysfunctional Attitude Scale measured cognitive schema. Results HPA axis functioning was significantly increased in depressed patients with childhood neglect compared with depressed patients without childhood neglect (p HPA axis activity in the control group with childhood neglect was significantly higher than in the depressed group without childhood neglect (p HPA axis functioning and dysfunctional attitude scores, but not with severity of depression. We did not find correlations with HPA axis functioning and dysfunctional attitude or with the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression scores. Conclusions Childhood neglect may cause hyperactivity of the HPA axis functioning and dysfunctional attitude, but does not affect depression severity. PMID:24548345

  14. Reconceptualizing the "Nature" of Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Affrica

    2011-01-01

    This interdisciplinary article draws upon human geography to bring fresh new perspectives to the relationship between two commonly conflated concepts: "childhood" and "nature". Childhood studies scholars have gone a long way towards retheorizing childhood beyond the "natural" and the "universal" by pointing to its historical and cultural…

  15. Discovering the Culture of Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plank, Emily

    2016-01-01

    We often filter our interactions with children through the lens of adulthood. View the culture of childhood through a whole new lens. Identify age-based bias and expand your outlook on and understanding of early childhood as a culture. Examine various elements of childhood culture: language, the power of believing, artistic expressions, and social…

  16. Integrated and Early Childhood Education: Preparation for Social Development. Summary Report and Conclusions, Eastern Hemisphere Seminar (2nd, Salisbury, Zimbabwe, February 24-March 7, 1981).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard Van Leer Foundation, The Hague (Netherlands).

    Participants in the Second Eastern Hemisphere Seminar (held at Salisbury, Zimbabwe in 1981) discussed topics related to the theme of integrated and early childhood education. The seminar was organized into plenary and small group discussions centered on four sub-topics of the broad theme: (1) Early Childhood Education: The Community Dimension; (2)…

  17. Danish Childhood Cancer Registry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schrøder, Henrik; Rechnitzer, Catherine; Wehner, Peder Skov

    2016-01-01

    AIM OF DATABASE: The overall aim is to monitor the quality of childhood cancer care in Denmark; to register late effects of treatment; to analyze complications of permanent central venous catheters (CVCs); to study blood stream infections in children with cancer; and to study acute toxicity of high......, and outcome of antimicrobial chemotherapy. DESCRIPTIVE DATA: Since 1985, 4,944 children below 15 years of age have been registered in the database. There has been no significant change in the incidence of childhood cancer in Denmark since 1985. The 5-year survival has increased significantly since 1985...

  18. Successes and challenges from formation to implementation of eleven broad-extent conservation programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beever, Erik A; Mattsson, Brady J; Germino, Matthew J; Burg, Max Post Van Der; Bradford, John B; Brunson, Mark W

    2014-04-01

    Integration of conservation partnerships across geographic, biological, and administrative boundaries is increasingly relevant because drivers of change, such as climate shifts, transcend these boundaries. We explored successes and challenges of established conservation programs that span multiple watersheds and consider both social and ecological concerns. We asked representatives from a diverse set of 11 broad-extent conservation partnerships in 29 countries 17 questions that pertained to launching and maintaining partnerships for broad-extent conservation, specifying ultimate management objectives, and implementation and learning. Partnerships invested more funds in implementing conservation actions than any other aspect of conservation, and a program's context (geographic extent, United States vs. other countries, developed vs. developing nation) appeared to substantially affect program approach. Despite early successes of these organizations and benefits of broad-extent conservation, specific challenges related to uncertainties in scaling up information and to coordination in the face of diverse partner governance structures, conflicting objectives, and vast uncertainties regarding future system dynamics hindered long-term success, as demonstrated by the focal organizations. Engaging stakeholders, developing conservation measures, and implementing adaptive management were dominant challenges. To inform future research on broad-extent conservation, we considered several challenges when we developed detailed questions, such as what qualities of broad-extent partnerships ensure they complement, integrate, and strengthen, rather than replace, local conservation efforts and which adaptive management processes yield actionable conservation strategies that account explicitly for dynamics and uncertainties regarding multiscale governance, environmental conditions, and knowledge of the system? © 2014 Society for Conservation Biology.

  19. New constraints on quasar broad absorption and emission line regions from gravitational microlensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutsemékers, Damien; Braibant, Lorraine; Sluse, Dominique; Anguita, Timo; Goosmann, René

    2017-09-01

    Gravitational microlensing is a powerful tool allowing one to probe the structure of quasars on sub-parsec scale. We report recent results, focusing on the broad absorption and emission line regions. In particular microlensing reveals the intrinsic absorption hidden in the P Cygni-type line profiles observed in the broad absorption line quasar H1413+117, as well as the existence of an extended continuum source. In addition, polarization microlensing provides constraints on the scattering region. In the quasar Q2237+030, microlensing differently distorts the Hα and CIV broad emission line profiles, indicating that the low- and high-ionization broad emission lines must originate from regions with distinct kinematical properties. We also present simulations of the effect of microlensing on line profiles considering simple but representative models of the broad emission line region. Comparison of observations to simulations allows us to conclude that the Hα emitting region in Q2237+030 is best represented by a Keplerian disk.

  20. New Constraints on Quasar Broad Absorption and Emission Line Regions from Gravitational Microlensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damien Hutsemékers

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Gravitational microlensing is a powerful tool allowing one to probe the structure of quasars on sub-parsec scale. We report recent results, focusing on the broad absorption and emission line regions. In particular microlensing reveals the intrinsic absorption hidden in the P Cygni-type line profiles observed in the broad absorption line quasar H1413+117, as well as the existence of an extended continuum source. In addition, polarization microlensing provides constraints on the scattering region. In the quasar Q2237+030, microlensing differently distorts the Hα and CIV broad emission line profiles, indicating that the low- and high-ionization broad emission lines must originate from regions with distinct kinematical properties. We also present simulations of the effect of microlensing on line profiles considering simple but representative models of the broad emission line region. Comparison of observations to simulations allows us to conclude that the Hα emitting region in Q2237+030 is best represented by a Keplerian disk.

  1. Childhood Bedtime Problems Predict Adolescent Internalizing Symptoms Through Emotional Reactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Katharine C; Alfano, Candice A

    2016-10-01

    Sleep problems are frequent in children and robustly predict internalizing symptoms in adolescence and adulthood. Longitudinal investigations have nonetheless used broad measures of childhood sleep problems, precluding understanding of the specific sleep problems that presage affective disturbances. Similarly, prospective examinations of mechanistic variables linking early sleep with subsequent internalizing symptoms are lacking.   Childhood bedtime and nighttime waking problems were examined as independent predictors of adolescent internalizing symptoms within a community sample from the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development (N = 1,089). The mediational role of emotional reactivity in late childhood also was examined.   Bedtime but not nighttime waking problems significantly predicted adolescent internalizing problems. This relationship was partially explained by child emotional reactivity.   Some childhood sleep problems may more reliably predict later internalizing symptoms than others. Temperamentally based emotional reactivity may potentiate affective risk associated with childhood sleep difficulties. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Pediatric Psychology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Rationale and design of the multiethnic Pharmacogenomics in Childhood Asthma consortium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Farzan, Niloufar; Vijverberg, Susanne J.; Andiappan, Anand K.; Arianto, Lambang; Berce, Vojko; Blanca-Lopez, Natalia; Bisgaard, Hans; Bonnelykke, Klaus; Burchard, Esteban G.; Campo, Paloma; Canino, Glorisa; Carleton, Bruce; Celedon, Juan C.; Chew, Fook Tim; Chiang, Wen Chin; Cloutier, Michelle M.; Daley, Denis; Den Dekker, Herman T.; Dijk, Nicole F.; Duijts, Liesbeth; Flores, Carlos; Forno, Erick; Hawcutt, Daniel B.; Hernandez-Pacheco, Natalia; de Jongste, Johan C.; Kabesch, Michael; Koppelman, Gerard H.; Manolopoulos, Vangelis G.; Melen, Erik; Mukhopadhyay, Somnath; Nilsson, Sara; Palmer, Colin N.; Pino-Yanes, Maria; Pirmohamed, Munir; Potocnki, Uros; Raaijmakers, Jan A.; Repnik, Katja; Schieck, Maximilian; Sio, Yang Yie; Smyth, Rosalind L.; Szalai, Csaba; Tantisira, Kelan G.; Turner, Steve; van der Schee, Marc P.; Verhamme, Katia M.; Maitland-van der Zee, Anke H.

    2017-01-01

    Aim: International collaboration is needed to enable large-scale pharmacogenomics studies in childhood asthma. Here, we describe the design of the Pharmacogenomics in Childhood Asthma (PiCA) consortium.  Materials & methods: Investigators of each study participating in PiCA provided data on the

  3. Childhood Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, Substance Use, and Adult Functioning among Incarcerated Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennessey, Kathleen A.; Stein, Michael D.; Rosengard, Cynthia; Rose, Jennifer S.; Clarke, Jennifer G.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To estimate prevalence of childhood ADHD among incarcerated women and determine its association with substance use and adult functioning. Method: 192 female participants are recruited from the Department of Corrections in Rhode Island. Childhood ADHD is defined as scoring >46 on the Wender Utah Rating Scale. Results: The findings…

  4. EPODE approach for childhood obesity prevention : methods, progress and international development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borys, J.M.; Le Bodo, Y.; Jebb, S.A.; Seidell, J C; Summerbell, C.; Richard, D.; De Henauw, S.; Moreno, L.A.; Romon, M.; Visscher, T L S; Raffin, S.; Swinburn, B.

    Childhood obesity is a complex issue and needs multi-stakeholder involvement at all levels to foster healthier lifestyles in a sustainable way. 'Ensemble Prévenons l'Obésité Des Enfants' (EPODE, Together Let's Prevent Childhood Obesity) is a large-scale, coordinated, capacity-building approach for

  5. Rationale and design of the multiethnic Pharmacogenomics in Childhood Asthma consortium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farzan, Niloufar; Vijverberg, Susanne J; Andiappan, Anand K

    2017-01-01

    AIM: International collaboration is needed to enable large-scale pharmacogenomics studies in childhood asthma. Here, we describe the design of the Pharmacogenomics in Childhood Asthma (PiCA) consortium. MATERIALS & METHODS: Investigators of each study participating in PiCA provided data...

  6. Social Cognition, Social Skill, and the Broad Autism Phenotype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasson, Noah J.; Nowlin, Rachel B.; Pinkham, Amy E.

    2013-01-01

    Social-cognitive deficits differentiate parents with the "broad autism phenotype" from non-broad autism phenotype parents more robustly than other neuropsychological features of autism, suggesting that this domain may be particularly informative for identifying genetic and brain processes associated with the phenotype. The current study…

  7. A Cointegration And Error Correction Approach To Broad Money ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study considered the stability of broad money demand function in Nigeria using data for 1970 to 2004. The study applied the Cointegration and error correction approach The Johansen Cointegration test shows that long run equilibrium relationship exists between broad money demand and its determinants. While the ...

  8. Boot Camp for Education CEOs: The Broad Foundation Superintendents Academy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jehlen, Alain

    2012-01-01

    The Broad Foundation Superintendents Academy is the most prominent and most controversial training institute for school chiefs. The Academy is the flagship program of the Eli and Edythe Broad Foundation, the smallest of a triumvirate of corporate foundations that are at the heart of the billionaire campaign to remake public education in the image…

  9. Nurturing care: promoting early childhood development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britto, Pia R; Lye, Stephen J; Proulx, Kerrie; Yousafzai, Aisha K; Matthews, Stephen G; Vaivada, Tyler; Perez-Escamilla, Rafael; Rao, Nirmala; Ip, Patrick; Fernald, Lia C H; MacMillan, Harriet; Hanson, Mark; Wachs, Theodore D; Yao, Haogen; Yoshikawa, Hirokazu; Cerezo, Adrian; Leckman, James F; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A

    2017-01-07

    The UN Sustainable Development Goals provide a historic opportunity to implement interventions, at scale, to promote early childhood development. Although the evidence base for the importance of early childhood development has grown, the research is distributed across sectors, populations, and settings, with diversity noted in both scope and focus. We provide a comprehensive updated analysis of early childhood development interventions across the five sectors of health, nutrition, education, child protection, and social protection. Our review concludes that to make interventions successful, smart, and sustainable, they need to be implemented as multi-sectoral intervention packages anchored in nurturing care. The recommendations emphasise that intervention packages should be applied at developmentally appropriate times during the life course, target multiple risks, and build on existing delivery platforms for feasibility of scale-up. While interventions will continue to improve with the growth of developmental science, the evidence now strongly suggests that parents, caregivers, and families need to be supported in providing nurturing care and protection in order for young children to achieve their developmental potential. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Psychological consequences of childhood obesity: psychiatric comorbidity and prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rankin, Jean; Matthews, Lynsay; Cobley, Stephen; Han, Ahreum; Sanders, Ross; Wiltshire, Huw D; Baker, Julien S

    2016-01-01

    Childhood obesity is one of the most serious public health challenges of the 21st century with far-reaching and enduring adverse consequences for health outcomes. Over 42 million children childhood obesity (OBy) to include a broad range of international studies. The aim was to establish what has recently changed in relation to the common psychological consequences associated with childhood OBy. A systematic search was conducted in MEDLINE, Web of Science, and the Cochrane Library for articles presenting information on the identification or prevention of psychiatric morbidity in childhood obesity. Relevant data were extracted and narratively reviewed. Findings established childhood OW/OBy was negatively associated with psychological comorbidities, such as depression, poorer perceived lower scores on health-related quality of life, emotional and behavioral disorders, and self-esteem during childhood. Evidence related to the association between attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and OBy remains unconvincing because of various findings from studies. OW children were more likely to experience multiple associated psychosocial problems than their healthy-weight peers, which may be adversely influenced by OBy stigma, teasing, and bullying. OBy stigma, teasing, and bullying are pervasive and can have serious consequences for emotional and physical health and performance. It remains unclear as to whether psychiatric disorders and psychological problems are a cause or a consequence of childhood obesity or whether common factors promote both obesity and psychiatric disturbances in susceptible children and adolescents. A cohesive and strategic approach to tackle this current obesity epidemic is necessary to combat this increasing trend which is compromising the health and well-being of the young generation and seriously impinging on resources and economic costs.

  11. Music in Early Childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feierabend, John

    1990-01-01

    Argues that music activities in early childhood education foster a variety of developmental skills. Analyzes Howard Gardner's theory of multiple intelligences, contending that music intelligence is a separate intelligence. Provides ways to identify and promote musical intelligence. Suggests methods for encouraging musical development. Using songs…

  12. Early childhood aggression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alink, Lenneke Rosalie Agnes

    2006-01-01

    In this thesis the development, stability, and correlates of early childhood aggression were investigated. The normative development was examined in a general population sample using questionnaires completed by the parents of 12-, 24-, and 36-month-old children and again one year later. Results

  13. Lead Poisoning in Childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pueschel, Siegfried M., Ed.; Linakis, James G., Ed.; Anderson, Angela C., Ed.

    The magnitude of childhood lead poisoning has been inexplicably neglected by modern medicine and by legislators. However, since the 1970s, increased attention has been focused on lead poisoning, and advances have been made in several areas, including understanding of the neurodevelopmental and behavioral ramifications of lead poisoning, and…

  14. Stress and childhood epilepsy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Campen, J.S. van

    2015-01-01

    Epilepsy is one of the most common chronic diseases in childhood, characterized by the enduring predisposition to generate epileptic seizures. Children with epilepsy and their parents often report seizures precipitated by stress. In order to increase our understanding of the pathophysiological

  15. Early Childhood Trauma

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Child Traumatic Stress Network, 2010

    2010-01-01

    Early childhood trauma generally refers to the traumatic experiences that occur to children aged 0-6. Because infants' and young children's reactions may be different from older children's, and because they may not be able to verbalize their reactions to threatening or dangerous events, many people assume that young age protects children from the…

  16. Childhood disintegrative disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mouridsen, Svend Erik

    2003-01-01

    are sometimes associated with this disorder, but contrary to earlier belief this is not typical. Interest in childhood disintegrative disorder has increased markedly in recent years and in this review attention is given to more recently published cases based on ICD-9, ICD-10 and DSM-IV diagnostic systems...

  17. Childhood environment and obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    US children are at risk for developing childhood obesity. Currently, 23% of children ages 2–5 are overweight or obese, i.e., at or above the 85th percentile. This prevalence becomes even higher as children age, with 34% of children ages 6–11 being overweight or obese. Ethnic minority children are at...

  18. Childhood trauma and adult interpersonal relationship problems in patients with depression and anxiety disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huh, Hyu Jung; Kim, Sun-Young; Yu, Jeong Jin; Chae, Jeong-Ho

    2014-01-01

    Although a plethora of studies have delineated the relationship between childhood trauma and onset, symptom severity, and course of depression and anxiety disorders, there has been little evidence that childhood trauma may lead to interpersonal problems among adult patients with depression and anxiety disorders. Given the lack of prior research in this area, we aimed to investigate characteristics of interpersonal problems in adult patients who had suffered various types of abuse and neglect in childhood. A total of 325 outpatients diagnosed with depression and anxiety disorders completed questionnaires on socio-demographic variables, different forms of childhood trauma, and current interpersonal problems. The Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ) was used to measure five different forms of childhood trauma (emotional abuse, emotional neglect, physical abuse, physical neglect, and sexual abuse) and the short form of the Korean-Inventory of Interpersonal Problems Circumplex Scale (KIIP-SC) was used to assess current interpersonal problems. We dichotomized patients into two groups (abused and non-abused groups) based on CTQ score and investigated the relationship of five different types of childhood trauma and interpersonal problems in adult patients with depression and anxiety disorders using multiple regression analysis. Different types of childhood abuse and neglect appeared to have a significant influence on distinct symptom dimensions such as depression, state-trait anxiety, and anxiety sensitivity. In the final regression model, emotional abuse, emotional neglect, and sexual abuse during childhood were significantly associated with general interpersonal distress and several specific areas of interpersonal problems in adulthood. No association was found between childhood physical neglect and current general interpersonal distress. Childhood emotional trauma has more influence on interpersonal problems in adult patients with depression and anxiety disorders than

  19. Childhood trauma and adult interpersonal relationship problems in patients with depression and anxiety disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Although a plethora of studies have delineated the relationship between childhood trauma and onset, symptom severity, and course of depression and anxiety disorders, there has been little evidence that childhood trauma may lead to interpersonal problems among adult patients with depression and anxiety disorders. Given the lack of prior research in this area, we aimed to investigate characteristics of interpersonal problems in adult patients who had suffered various types of abuse and neglect in childhood. Methods A total of 325 outpatients diagnosed with depression and anxiety disorders completed questionnaires on socio-demographic variables, different forms of childhood trauma, and current interpersonal problems. The Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ) was used to measure five different forms of childhood trauma (emotional abuse, emotional neglect, physical abuse, physical neglect, and sexual abuse) and the short form of the Korean-Inventory of Interpersonal Problems Circumplex Scale (KIIP-SC) was used to assess current interpersonal problems. We dichotomized patients into two groups (abused and non-abused groups) based on CTQ score and investigated the relationship of five different types of childhood trauma and interpersonal problems in adult patients with depression and anxiety disorders using multiple regression analysis. Result Different types of childhood abuse and neglect appeared to have a significant influence on distinct symptom dimensions such as depression, state-trait anxiety, and anxiety sensitivity. In the final regression model, emotional abuse, emotional neglect, and sexual abuse during childhood were significantly associated with general interpersonal distress and several specific areas of interpersonal problems in adulthood. No association was found between childhood physical neglect and current general interpersonal distress. Conclusion Childhood emotional trauma has more influence on interpersonal problems in adult patients with

  20. [Retrospective recording of childhood ADHD symptoms : Follow-up of adults formerly diagnosed with childhood ADHD and/or childhood conduct disorder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, F; Heinzel-Gutenbrunner, M; Becker, K

    2017-04-05

    The Wender Utah Rating Scale (WURS) is recommended for retrospective recording of childhood attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms. Hence the present study explored the validity of the WURS and its short forms (WURS-25, WURS-k, WURS-15-G, IDA items) by screening adult subjects who had been diagnosed with either ADHD or conduct disorder (CD) during childhood. From 317 contacted former patients of the department for child and adolescent psychiatry, 20 adults previously diagnosed with ADHD (20 male, mean age 27.3 years) and 20 adults previously diagnosed with CD (and concurrent exclusion of childhood ADHD, 15 male, mean age 33.5 years) took part in the follow-up examination. Besides the WURS the socioeconomic status, current ADHD symptoms and further anamnestic details were obtained. Statistical analysis was performed with SPSS Statistics. The five IDA items showed a greater capacity for retrospective recording of childhood ADHD symptoms than the WURS or its short forms. Only the IDA items significantly (p = 0.001) separated subjects with a diagnosis of childhood ADHD from subjects with a diagnosis of childhood CD; however, the specificity was only 40% (cut-off = 10, concurrent sensitivity = 90%). The validity of the WURS and its short forms is limited, especially if CD was present during childhood. As recommended in the guidelines, standardized instruments for retrospective recording of childhood ADHD symptoms should be supplemented with a history reported by third parties (e. g. parents) or with insight into school reports.

  1. Unsupervised learning of broad phonetic classes with a statistical mixture model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ying

    2004-05-01

    Unsupervised learning of broad phonetic classes by infants was simulated using a statistical mixture model. A mixture model assumes that data are generated by a certain number of different sources-in this case, broad phonetic classes. With the phonetic labels removed, hand-transcribed segments from the TIMIT database were used in model-based clustering to obtain data-driven classes. Simple hidden Markov models were chosen to be the components of the mixture, with mel-cepstral coefficients as the front end. The mixture model was trained using an expectation-maximization-like algorithm. The EM-like algorithm was initialized by a K-means procedure and then applied to estimate the parameters of the mixture model after iteratively partitioning the clusters. The results of running this algorithm on the TIMIT segments suggested that the partitions may be interpreted as gradient acoustic features, and that to some degree the resulting clusters correspond to knowledge-based phonetic classes. Although such correspondences are rather rough, a careful examination of the clusters showed that the class membership of some sounds is highly dependent on their phonetic contexts. Thus, the clusters may reflect the preliminary phonological categories formed during language learning in early childhood.

  2. Attachment anxiety and avoidance as mediators of the association between childhood maltreatment and adult personality dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Lisa J; Ardalan, Firouz; Tanis, Thachell; Halmi, Winter; Galynker, Igor; Von Wyl, Agnes; Hengartner, Michael P

    2017-02-01

    This paper tests the hypothesis that the association between childhood maltreatment and adult personality dysfunction is at least partially attributable to insecure attachment, that is that attachment style mediates the relationship between childhood maltreatment and adult personality dysfunction. Associations between childhood trauma, as measured by the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ), anxious and avoidant attachment in romantic relationships, as measured by the Experiences in Close Relationships-Revised (ECR-R), and five personality domains, as measured by the Severity Indices of Personality Problems (SIPP-118), were examined in a sample of 72 psychiatric inpatients. The SIPP-118 domains included relational capacities, identity integration, self-control, responsibility, and social concordance. The direct effect of childhood trauma on all SIPP-118 domains was not significant after controlling for the indirect effect of attachment. In regression modeling, a significant indirect effect of childhood trauma via adult attachment style was found for SIPP-118 relational capacities, identity integration, self-control, and social concordance. Specifically, anxious attachment was a significant mediator of the effect of childhood trauma on self-control, identity integration, and relational domains. These results suggest that childhood trauma impacts a broad range of personality domains and does so in large part through the pathway of anxious romantic attachment style.

  3. Design of Metamaterial Surfaces with Broad-band Absorbance

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Chihhui; Shvets, Gennady

    2011-01-01

    A simple design paradigm for making broad-band ultra-thin plasmonic absorbers is introduced. The absorber's unit cell is composed of sub-units of various sizes, resulting in nearly 100% absorbance at multiple adjacent frequencies and high absorbance over a broad frequency range. A simple theoretical model for designing broad-band absorbers is presented. It uses a single-resonance model to describe the optical response of each sub-unit and employs the series circuit model to predict the overal...

  4. Getting on the Same Page: Identifying Goals for Technology Use in Early Childhood Education. Policy Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daugherty, Lindsay; Dossani, Rafiq; Johnson, Erin-Elizabeth; Wright, Cameron

    2014-01-01

    Technology use among young children is increasingly a fact of life, and establishing a clear set of goals that are broadly accepted by stakeholders is critical to planning for the successful integration of technology into early childhood education (ECE). However, debates about the role of technology in ECE settings are ongoing, with some…

  5. The Impact of Emotional Lability Symptoms During Childhood in Adults With ADHD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gisbert, Laura; Richarte, Vanesa; Corrales, Montserrat; Ibáñez, Pol; Bosch, Rosa; Casas, Miquel; Ramos-Quiroga, Josep Antoni

    2017-07-01

    To determine whether emotional lability (EL) in adult ADHD patients can already be identified during their childhood and the extent to which this childhood symptomatology can predict EL in adulthood. Seven hundred eighteen adults with ADHD were examined. EL in adulthood was assessed using the Conners' Adult ADHD Rating Scales (CAARS). According to Conners' definition of EL, seven items from the Wender Utah Rating Scale (WURS) were used to determine this symptomatology in childhood. EL was identified in 31.1% of the participants, and 29.6% of this subgroup reported EL symptoms in childhood. Childhood EL was the strongest predictor of these symptoms in adulthood (odds ratio [OR] = 6.18). ADHD subtype, female sex, family history of ADHD, psychiatric comorbidities, and physical abuse were also related to EL development/persistence. Screening for EL symptoms in children with ADHD is important, as they are the strongest predictor of this symptomatology in adulthood.

  6. Childhood Obstructive Sleep Apnea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Dayal

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA is a common condition in childhood and can result insevere complications if left untreated. It is showing a rising trend in India. A significantassociation with obesity has been observed; however, some children with enlargedtonsils and/or adenoids may even be underweight. The patient usually presents withsnoring and other respiratory problems like mouth breathing, choking and gaspingepisodes in night. Poor school performance and neurocognitive deficits have beenreported. Pulmonary hypertension and cor pulmonale are seen in severe cases. Besidesthe history and clinical examination, for definitive diagnosis an overnightpolysomnographic evaluation is the gold standard. In all cases, the specific treatmentranges from simple lifestyle modifications and medications to surgeries likeadenotonsillectomy. Early diagnosis is vital.Key words: Childhood OSA, Obesity, adenotonsillar hypertrophy

  7. Danish Childhood Cancer Registry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schrøder, Henrik; Rechnitzer, Catherine; Wehner, Peder Skov

    2016-01-01

    AIM OF DATABASE: The overall aim is to monitor the quality of childhood cancer care in Denmark; to register late effects of treatment; to analyze complications of permanent central venous catheters (CVCs); to study blood stream infections in children with cancer; and to study acute toxicity of high......-dose methotrexate infusions in children with leukemia. STUDY POPULATION: All children below 15 years of age at diagnosis living in Denmark diagnosed after January 1, 1985 according to the International Classification of Diseases 10, including diagnoses DC00-DD48. MAIN VARIABLES: Cancer type, extent of disease......, and outcome of antimicrobial chemotherapy. DESCRIPTIVE DATA: Since 1985, 4,944 children below 15 years of age have been registered in the database. There has been no significant change in the incidence of childhood cancer in Denmark since 1985. The 5-year survival has increased significantly since 1985...

  8. [Voice disorders in childhood].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider-Stickler, B

    2012-07-01

    Voice disorders in the pediatric population are relatively common. The education of families, teachers and clinical staff on etiology and treatment of pediatric voice disorders have led to greater attention being paid to hoarseness in childhood and improving early detection of pediatric voice disorders. Pediatric voice problems can have a number of causes. Most commonly, childhood dysphonia is caused by vocal fold nodules due vocal ab- and misuse. Other reasons might be congenital laryngeal dysplasia, vocal fold cysts and laryngeal papilloma. Medical examination is necessary in order to initiate appropriate treatment. In the case of vocal fold cysts and laryngeal papilloma, phonosurgery is indicated. Vocal fold nodules should be treated by voice therapy in order to change vocal behaviour. If voice therapy fails, phonosurgical intervention is recommended, since vocal fold nodules can persist into adulthood with a negative impact on voice quality.

  9. Danish Childhood Cancer Registry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schrøder, Henrik; Rechnitzer, Catherine; Wehner, Peder Skov

    2016-01-01

    AIM OF DATABASE: The overall aim is to monitor the quality of childhood cancer care in Denmark; to register late effects of treatment; to analyze complications of permanent central venous catheters (CVCs); to study blood stream infections in children with cancer; and to study acute toxicity of high......, and outcome of antimicrobial chemotherapy. DESCRIPTIVE DATA: Since 1985, 4,944 children below 15 years of age have been registered in the database. There has been no significant change in the incidence of childhood cancer in Denmark since 1985. The 5-year survival has increased significantly since 1985......-dose methotrexate infusions in children with leukemia. STUDY POPULATION: All children below 15 years of age at diagnosis living in Denmark diagnosed after January 1, 1985 according to the International Classification of Diseases 10, including diagnoses DC00-DD48. MAIN VARIABLES: Cancer type, extent of disease...

  10. Genetics of Childhood Obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianhua Zhao

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is a major health problem and an immense economic burden on the health care systems both in the United States and the rest of the world. The prevalence of obesity in children and adults in the United States has increased dramatically over the past decade. Besides environmental factors, genetic factors are known to play an important role in the pathogenesis of obesity. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS have revealed strongly associated genomic variants associated with most common disorders; indeed there is general consensus on these findings from generally positive replication outcomes by independent groups. To date, there have been only a few GWAS-related reports for childhood obesity specifically, with studies primarily uncovering loci in the adult setting instead. It is clear that a number of loci previously reported from GWAS analyses of adult BMI and/or obesity also play a role in childhood obesity.

  11. Recent psychological explanations of infant development and scales of early mental development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja Zupančič

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews early infant measures based on standardised scales of development – both traditional ones and those based on Piaget's sensory-motor theory – and assesses their validity in predicting later mental development. The extremely low predictive power of test scores based on these measures in infancy has provided additional support for discontinuity theories of mental development from infancy to childhood. Conversely, the constructs implicit in earlier measures have been thoroughly criticised, and the search for valid measures of infant development that would reflect a construct similar to mental abilities in childhood has begun. At the outset, research was mostly influenced by the information processing theory. Two broad measures of information processing have been shown to be the most relevant indicators of an infant's mental development, namely habituation and dishabituation. Recent mental scales, such as the Bayley Scales of Infant Development-II, thus include items that measure the efficiency of an infant's information processing. Examples of such items are presented and interpreted, as are items reflecting the development of object permanence, the only early sensory-motor measure that shows better predictive effectiveness when compared to traditional developmental test scores. Several newly-developed indicators of infants' mental development, which utilize other measures than those derived from the information-processing approach, are surveyed (understanding causal relations, joint attention behaviours, representation of number, and their possible application within the context of potential items for early mental scales is discussed. Finally, the Bayley Scales of Infant Development-II, currently one of the best measures of early development, and presently undergoing a standardisation procedure in Slovenia, is evaluated, with analyses of some items from the Mental scale presented within the text.

  12. Broad Spectrum Sanitizing Wipes with Food Additives Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Microcide proposes to develop novel multipurpose non-toxic sanitizing wipes that are aqueous based, have shelf life of 3-5 years, have broad spectrum microbicidal...

  13. Cultivating childhood obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Greene-Martin, DeCleasha

    2013-01-01

    In recent years the levels of obesity in the United States has risen greatly especially amongst children. Doctors, psychologists, and other scientists have been studying the growing problem for years. Implications for childhood obesity not only have enormous physical consequences but emotional repercussions which can affect the child’s academic and social development. A number of factors have been identified as having an effect on these children; family life reveals the grocery store habits o...

  14. Severe childhood obesity matters

    OpenAIRE

    Slootweg, O.H.

    2014-01-01

    To date, obesity represents a major public health challenge. Obesity is at any age a concern but in pediatric populations it is particularly alarming because of its immediate biomedical and psychosocial consequences and the expectation that it will lead to an increase in morbidity and mortality and to social disadvantages later in life. Obesity is now the most common childhood disorder in the developed world, with severe obesity as the fastest-growing subcategory. In 2009, the prevalence of s...

  15. The broad line region of AGN: Kinematics and physics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popović L.Č.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a discussion of kinematics and physics of the Broad Line Region (BLR is given. The possible physical conditions in the BLR and problems in determination of the physical parameters (electron temperature and density are considered. Moreover, one analyses the geometry of the BLR and the probability that (at least a fraction of the radiation in the Broad Emission Lines (BELs originates from a relativistic accretion disk.

  16. The Broad Line Region of AGN: Kinematics and Physics

    OpenAIRE

    Popović L.Č.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper a discussion of kinematics and physics of the Broad Line Region (BLR) is given. The possible physical conditions in the BLR and problems in determination of the physical parameters (electron temperature and density) are considered. Moreover, one analyses the geometry of the BLR and the probability that (at least) a fraction of the radiation in the Broad Emission Lines (BELs) originates from a relativistic accretion disk.

  17. Mengapa Late Childhood Merokok?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Apriyani Taryaka

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This research is set to determine the cause of late childhood smoking and whether the factor behind late child hood smoking is the same with teenagers. The background of this research are the findings of Tobacco Control Support Center that 3 out of 10 students are found to be smoking before reaching the age of 10. This research uses qualitative case study research through observation and in-depth direct interview towards 3 male subjects aged 11 who smokes every day. Results show that the 3 subjects smoke due to personal factor, friends, family and cigarette advertisements. Most of the factor behind the smoking behavior are found to be in the sociogenic motive category. Therefore, it could be concluded that the smoking behavior of the 3 subjects is not purely from the personal factor, but more of the environmental factor having big part in creating smoking behavior in the 3 subjects. Factors behind smoking behavior of the three late childhood subjects and teenagers have a lot in common. Friend factor is the first driving factor of smoking behavior on both late childhood and teenager. 

  18. Environmental setting, water budget, and stream assessment for the Broad Run watershed, Chester County, Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cinotto, Peter J.; Reif, Andrew G.; Olson, Leif E.

    2005-01-01

    . Assessment of fluvial-geomorphic conditions included large-scale mapping of stream classes within the Broad Run watershed and in-depth study of three representative stream reaches also within the Broad Run watershed. Based on the total distance of all stream reaches classified within the Broad Run watershed, 61 percent were classified as C-class, 14 percent as E-class, 13 percent as B-class, 5 percent as F-class, 4 percent as undifferentiated B- and F-class, 2 percent as G-class, and less than 1 percent as A-class. The map of stream classes indicates that the Broad Run watershed currently has no large-scale areas of stream impairment and that, generally, the stream is not entrenched and the main branch of the Broad Run has an available, functioning flood plain. Smaller tributary streams, however, showed signs of localized entrenchment due to site-specific influences such as natural stream-channel evolution, localized channelization, localized contraction due to road and driveway crossings, and (or) increased localized runoff. For example, one small reach along a tributary channel was observed to become entrenched due to runoff originating from a new housing development. Entrenched stream reaches are merely located by large-scale mapping and require individual assessment to determine potential causes of entrenchment and (or) future restorative actions. Three in-depth geomorphic study sites showed that the Broad Run can currently be considered graded or in a state of dynamic equilibrium. The sites did, however, identify certain vulnerabilities to future changes within the watershed. These vulnerabilities included disruption of the present sediment supply, including both increases and (or) reductions in the current sediment loads within the Broad Run; increases in both magnitude and duration of storm-water runoff; encroachment of development onto present flood-plain areas, and (or) alterations to riparian zones. Assessment of stream-quality conditions includ

  19. Peer Bullying During Early Childhood

    OpenAIRE

    Hatice UYSAL; Çağlayan DİNÇER

    2012-01-01

    Peer bullying during early childhood is discussed along with the literature reviewed in this article with the purpose of drawing attention to peer bullying during early childhood and its significance, and contributing to studies which are few in number in Turkey. Peer bullying during early childhood was considered with its definition and types, people who play key roles in peer bullying, factors (gender, age, parents, and friendship) that relate to peer bullying, and what should be done befor...

  20. Childhood as a social construct

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D G Podvoyskiy

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the period of childhood as a social construct and focuses on the duration of this life’s phase, the historical changes of children’s social position and the childhood symbolic image in the culture following the development of educational institutions and styles. The authors analyze the theories of such recognized authors in the field of social and cultural genealogy of childhood as Philippe Ariès and Lloyd de Mause.

  1. Successes and challenges from formation to implementation of eleven broad-extent conservation programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beever, Erik A.; Bradford, John B.; Germino, Matthew J.; Mattsson, Brady J.; Post van der Burg, Max; Brunson, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Integration of conservation partnerships across geographic, biological, and administrative boundaries is increasingly relevant because drivers of change, such as climate shifts, transcend these boundaries. We explored successes and challenges of established conservation programs that span multiple watersheds and consider both social and ecological concerns. We asked representatives from a diverse set of 11 broadextent conservation partnerships in 29 countries 17 questions that pertained to launching and maintaining partnerships for broad-extent conservation, specifying ultimate management objectives, and implementation and learning. Partnerships invested more funds in implementing conservation actions than any other aspect of conservation, and a program’s context (geographic extent, United States vs. other countries, developed vs. developing nation) appeared to substantially affect program approach. Despite early successes of these organizations and benefits of broad-extent conservation, specific challenges related to uncertainties in scaling up information and to coordination in the face of diverse partner governance structures, conflicting objectives, and vast uncertainties regarding future system dynamics hindered long-term success, as demonstrated by the focal organizations. Engaging stakeholders, developing conservation measures, and implementing adaptive management were dominant challenges. To inform future research on broad-extent conservation, we considered several challenges when we developed detailed questions, such as what qualities of broad-extent partnerships ensure they complement, integrate, and strengthen, rather than replace, local conservation efforts and which adaptive management processes yield actionable conservation strategies that account explicitly for dynamics and uncertainties regarding multiscale governance, environmental conditions, and knowledge of the system?

  2. BROAD Hβ EMISSION-LINE VARIABILITY IN A SAMPLE OF 102 LOCAL ACTIVE GALAXIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Runco, Jordan N.; Cosens, Maren; Bennert, Vardha N.; Scott, Bryan [Physics Department, California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo CA 93407 (United States); Komossa, S. [Max-Planck-Institut für Radioastronomie, Auf dem Hügel 69, D-53121, Bonn (Germany); Malkan, Matthew A.; Treu, Tommaso [Department of Physics, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Lazarova, Mariana S. [Department of Physics and Physical Science, University of Nebraska Kearney, Kearney, NE 68849 (United States); Auger, Matthew W. [Institute of Astronomy, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HA (United Kingdom); Park, Daeseong, E-mail: jrunco@calpoly.edu, E-mail: mcosens@calpoly.edu, E-mail: vbennert@calpoly.edu, E-mail: malkan@astro.ucla.edu, E-mail: tt@physics.ucsb.edu, E-mail: lazarovam2@unk.edu, E-mail: mauger@ast.cam.ac.uk, E-mail: daeseongpark@kasi.re.kr [Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute, Daejeon, 34055 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-04-10

    A sample of 102 local (0.02 ≤ z ≤ 0.1) Seyfert galaxies with black hole masses M{sub BH} > 10{sup 7}M{sub ⊙} was selected from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) and observed using the Keck 10 m telescope to study the scaling relations between M{sub BH} and host galaxy properties. We study profile changes of the broad Hβ emission line within the three to nine year time frame between the two sets of spectra. The variability of the broad Hβ emission line is of particular interest, not only because it is used to estimate M{sub BH}, but also because its strength and width are used to classify Seyfert galaxies into different types. At least some form of broad-line variability (in either width or flux) is observed in the majority (∼66%) of the objects, resulting in a Seyfert-type change for ∼38% of the objects, likely driven by variable accretion and/or obscuration. The broad Hβ line virtually disappears in 3/102 (∼3%) extreme cases. We discuss potential causes for these changing look active galactic nuclei. While similar dramatic transitions have previously been reported in the literature, either on a case-by-case basis or in larger samples focusing on quasars at higher redshifts, our study provides statistical information on the frequency of Hβ line variability in a sample of low-redshift Seyfert galaxies.

  3. [Schizophrenia in childhood (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller-Küppers, M

    1979-02-01

    After considerable controversies during the last decades there is no longer any doubt about childhood schizophrenia as a disease, although within German-speaking countries its somewhat wider definition like in Anglo-Saxon child- and adolescent psychiatry is not accepted. The relation of early childhood autism to the nosologic entity of schizophrenia still remains speculative. The etiology of childhood schizophrenia is not known, equally not that of the even less frequent manic-depressive disease. Symptoms, course, and prognosis of childhood schizophrenia which developes between preschool age and the begin of puberty are described in detail.

  4. Genetics Home Reference: alternating hemiplegia of childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Health Conditions Alternating hemiplegia of childhood Alternating hemiplegia of childhood Printable PDF Open All Close All ... to view the expand/collapse boxes. Description Alternating hemiplegia of childhood is a neurological condition characterized by ...

  5. Long term results of childhood dysphonia treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackiewicz-Nartowicz, Hanna; Sinkiewicz, Anna; Bielecka, Arleta; Owczarzak, Hanna; Mackiewicz-Milewska, Magdalena; Winiarski, Piotr

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the long term results of treatment and rehabilitation of childhood dysphonia. This study included a group of adolescents (n=29) aged from 15 to 20 who were treated due to pediatric hyperfunctional dysphonia and soft vocal fold nodules during their pre-mutational period (i.e. between 5 and 12 years of age). The pre-mutational therapy was comprised of proper breathing pattern training, voice exercises and psychological counseling. Laryngostroboscopic examination and perceptual analysis of voice were performed in each patient before treatment and one to four years after mutation was complete. The laryngostroboscopic findings, i.e. symmetry, amplitude, mucosal wave and vocal fold closure, were graded with NAPZ scale, and the GRBAS scale was used for the perceptual voice analysis. Complete regression of the childhood dysphonia was observed in all male patients (n=14). Voice disorders regressed completely also in 8 out of 15 girls, but symptoms of dysphonia documented on perceptual scale persisted in the remaining seven patients. Complex voice therapy implemented in adolescence should be considered as either the treatment or preventive measure of persistent voice strain, especially in girls. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Litteraturstudie af forskning om environment rating scales

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Næsby, Torben

    2016-01-01

    Litteraturstudiet omhandler forskning om de internationalt anvendte evalueringssmetoder ECERS (Early Childhood Environment Rating Scale) og ITERS (Infant/Toddler Environment Rating Scale), der begge er instrumenter til måling af kvalitet og værktøjer til evaluering og udvikling af kvalitet i...

  7. Genome-scale transcriptional analyses of first-generation interspecific sunflower hybrids reveals broad regulatory compatibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, Heather C; Rieseberg, Loren H

    2013-05-23

    Interspecific hybridization creates individuals harboring diverged genomes. The interaction of these genomes can generate successful evolutionary novelty or disadvantageous genomic conflict. Annual sunflowers Helianthus annuus and H. petiolaris have a rich history of hybridization in natural populations. Although first-generation hybrids generally have low fertility, hybrid swarms that include later generation and fully fertile backcross plants have been identified, as well as at least three independently-originated stable hybrid taxa. We examine patterns of transcript accumulation in the earliest stages of hybridization of these species via analyses of transcriptome sequences from laboratory-derived F1 offspring of an inbred H. annuus cultivar and a wild H. petiolaris accession. While nearly 14% of the reference transcriptome showed significant accumulation differences between parental accessions, total F1 transcript levels showed little evidence of dominance, as midparent transcript levels were highly predictive of transcript accumulation in F1 plants. Allelic bias in F1 transcript accumulation was detected in 20% of transcripts containing sufficient polymorphism to distinguish parental alleles; however the magnitude of these biases were generally smaller than differences among parental accessions. While analyses of allelic bias suggest that cis regulatory differences between H. annuus and H. petiolaris are common, their effect on transcript levels may be more subtle than trans-acting regulatory differences. Overall, these analyses found little evidence of regulatory incompatibility or dominance interactions between parental genomes within F1 hybrid individuals, although it is unclear whether this is a legacy or an enabler of introgression between species.

  8. Genome-scale transcriptional analyses of first-generation interspecific sunflower hybrids reveals broad regulatory compatibility

    OpenAIRE

    Rowe, Heather C.; Rieseberg, Loren H.

    2013-01-01

    Background Interspecific hybridization creates individuals harboring diverged genomes. The interaction of these genomes can generate successful evolutionary novelty or disadvantageous genomic conflict. Annual sunflowers Helianthus annuus and H. petiolaris have a rich history of hybridization in natural populations. Although first-generation hybrids generally have low fertility, hybrid swarms that include later generation and fully fertile backcross plants have been identified, as well as at l...

  9. Genome-scale transcriptional analyses of first-generation interspecific sunflower hybrids reveals broad regulatory compatibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Interspecific hybridization creates individuals harboring diverged genomes. The interaction of these genomes can generate successful evolutionary novelty or disadvantageous genomic conflict. Annual sunflowers Helianthus annuus and H. petiolaris have a rich history of hybridization in natural populations. Although first-generation hybrids generally have low fertility, hybrid swarms that include later generation and fully fertile backcross plants have been identified, as well as at least three independently-originated stable hybrid taxa. We examine patterns of transcript accumulation in the earliest stages of hybridization of these species via analyses of transcriptome sequences from laboratory-derived F1 offspring of an inbred H. annuus cultivar and a wild H. petiolaris accession. Results While nearly 14% of the reference transcriptome showed significant accumulation differences between parental accessions, total F1 transcript levels showed little evidence of dominance, as midparent transcript levels were highly predictive of transcript accumulation in F1 plants. Allelic bias in F1 transcript accumulation was detected in 20% of transcripts containing sufficient polymorphism to distinguish parental alleles; however the magnitude of these biases were generally smaller than differences among parental accessions. Conclusions While analyses of allelic bias suggest that cis regulatory differences between H. annuus and H. petiolaris are common, their effect on transcript levels may be more subtle than trans-acting regulatory differences. Overall, these analyses found little evidence of regulatory incompatibility or dominance interactions between parental genomes within F1 hybrid individuals, although it is unclear whether this is a legacy or an enabler of introgression between species. PMID:23701699

  10. The Northwest Forest Plan as a model for broad-scale ecosystem management: a social perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susan. Charnely

    2006-01-01

    I evaluated the Northwest Forest Plan as a model for ecosystem management to achieve social and economic goals in communities located around federal forests in the U.S. Pacific Northwest. My assessment is based on the results of socioeconomic monitoring conducted to evaluate progress in achieving the plan's goals during its past 10 years. The assessment criteria I...

  11. Broad-scale patterns of Brook Trout responses to introduced Brown Trout in New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenna, James E.; Slattery, Michael T.; Kean M. Clifford,

    2013-01-01

    Brook Trout Salvelinus fontinalis and Brown Trout Salmo trutta are valuable sport fish that coexist in many parts of the world due to stocking introductions. Causes for the decline of Brook Trout within their native range are not clear but include competition with Brown Trout, habitat alteration, and repetitive stocking practices. New York State contains a large portion of the Brook Trout's native range, where both species are maintained by stocking and other management actions. We used artificial neural network models, regression, principal components analysis, and simulation to evaluate the effects of Brown Trout, environmental conditions, and stocking on the distribution of Brook Trout in the center of their native range. We found evidence for the decline of Brook Trout in the presence of Brown Trout across many watersheds; 22% of sampled reaches where both species were expected to occur contained only Brown Trout. However, a model of the direct relationship between Brook Trout and Brown Trout abundance explained less than 1% of data variation. Ordination showed extensive overlap of Brook Trout and Brown Trout habitat conditions, with only small components of the hypervolume (multidimensional space) being distinctive. Subsequent analysis indicated higher abundances of Brook Trout in highly forested areas, while Brown Trout were more abundant in areas with relatively high proportions of agriculture. Simulation results indicated that direct interactions and habitat conditions were relatively minor factors compared with the effects of repeated stocking of Brown Trout into Brook Trout habitat. Intensive annual stocking of Brown Trout could eliminate resident Brook Trout in less than a decade. Ecological differences, harvest behavior, and other habitat changes can exacerbate Brook Trout losses. Custom stocking scenarios with Brown Trout introductions at relatively low proportions of resident Brook Trout populations may be able to sustain healthy populations of both species within their present range.

  12. Food plant diversity as broad-Scale Determinant of Avian Frugivore Richness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kissling, W. Daniel; Rahbek, Carsten; Böhning-Gaese, Katrin

    2007-01-01

    . Path models indicate that species richness of Ficus (their fruits being one of the major food resources for frugivores in the tropics) has the strongest direct effect on richness of avian frugivores, whereas the influences of variables related to water-energy and habitat heterogeneity are mainly...... indirect. The importance of Ficus richness for richness of avian frugivores diminishes with decreasing specialization of birds on fruit eating, but is retained when accounting for spatial autocorrelation. We suggest that a positive relationship between food plant and frugivore species richness could result...

  13. Use of Landsat and SRTM Data to Detect Broad-Scale Biodiversity Patterns in Northwestern Amazonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfonso Alonso

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Vegetation maps are the starting point for the design of protected areas and regional conservation plans. Accurate vegetation maps are missing for much of Amazonia, preventing the development of effective and compelling conservation strategies. Here we used a network of 160 inventories across northwestern Amazonia to evaluate the use of Landsat and Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM data to identify floristic and edaphic patterns in Amazonian forests. We first calculated the strength of the relationship between these remotely-sensed data, and edaphic and floristic patterns in these forests, and asked how sensitive these results are to image processing and enhancement. We additionally asked if SRTM data can be used to model patterns in plant species composition in our study areas. We find that variations in Landsat and SRTM data are strongly correlated with variations in soils and plant species composition, and that these patterns can be mapped solely on the basis of SRTM data over limited areas. Using these data, we furthermore identified widespread patch-matrix floristic patterns across northwestern Amazonia, with implications for conservation planning and study. Our findings provide further evidence that Landsat and SRTM data can provide a cost-effective means for mapping these forests, and we recommend that maps generated from a combination of remotely-sensed and field data be used as the basis for conservation prioritization and planning in these vast and remote forests.

  14. Responses of Mammalian Insectivores, Amphibians, and Reptiles to Broad-Scale Manipulation of Coarse Woody Debris

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCay, T.S.; Forschler, B.T.; Komoroski, M.J.; Ford, W.M.

    2002-03-10

    Sampled shrews at 9.3 ha plots from logs manually removed and control plots in loblolly pine forests of the Southeastern Coastal Plain. Capture rates of Cryptotis parva were lower at plots from which deadwood was removed whereas capture rates of Blarina cavolinensis and Sorex longirostris did not differ between control and removal plots. Cryptotis may have been most sensitive to removal plots due to low population density, hence poor ability to move into areas of low reproduction. (Second Abstract, p. 37)Presentation of evidence that juvenile amphibians including Ambystomatid salamanders may disperse hundreds of meter from their natal wetlands within the weeks to months following metamorphosis. Data indicates Ambystoma trigrinum metamorphs can take at least six months to disperse and en route use non-polar lipid reserves garnished as larvae. Report suggests a land management regime that allows for both juvenile amphibian dispersal and also the consumptive use of the surrounding landscape.

  15. Broad-scale assessments of ecological landscapes: developing methods and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Natasha B.; Wood, David J. A.; Bowen, Zachary H.; Haby, Travis S.

    2015-01-01

    The U.S. Department of the Interior (DOI) Bureau of Land Management (BLM) is developing a Landscape Approach for managing multiple uses of public lands by incorporating multiscale information to quantify the effects of natural and human influences on natural resource conditions and trends. A primary goal of the approach is to identify opportunities for resource conservation, restoration, and development. The BLM Landscape Approach is developing assessment methods that promote consistency in management decisions, identify ecological characteristics that promote ecosystem resilience under rapidly changing environmental conditions, and foster collaboration among land management agencies. The BLM Landscape Approach is closely aligned with the DOI’s “A Strategy for Improving the Mitigation Policies and Practices of The Department of the Interior.”

  16. Water-energy dynamics, habitat heterogeneity, history, and broad-scale patterns of mammal diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrer-Castán, Dolores; Morales-Barbero, Jennifer; Vetaas, Ole R.

    2016-11-01

    Numerous hypotheses on diversity patterns are often presented as if they were mutually exclusive. However, because of multicollinearity, correlational analyses are not able to distinguish the causal effects of different factors on these patterns. For this reason, we examine the interrelationships among current climate, habitat heterogeneity and evolutionary history by partitioning the variation in both total and non-volant mammal species richness in the Iberian Peninsula. Thus, it is possible to determine the variation accounted for by each one of these three components that is not shared by the others, and the respective overlaps. More specifically, we hypothesize that (H1) in warm temperate zones, a small increase in the available energy has strong negative effects on mammal richness if water availability is limiting; (H2) there are functional relationships between woody plant species richness (WOOD) and the richness of mammal species; (H3) there is a signal of evolutionary history in contemporary patterns of species richness, and (H4) mammal richness and the historical variable mean root distance (MRD) respond to the same driving forces. Additionally, we also test for spatial autocorrelation. We found a sharp nonlinear decrease in mammal richness with increasing energy and a monotonic increase with increasing water availability. Moreover, an interaction term between these two climate factors appeared to be statistically significant, so H1 could not be rejected. WOOD remained significant after partialling out both current climate and MRD at the family level (MRDf), supporting H2. The relationship between mammal diversity and MRD averaged by species richness was found to be spurious, but there appeared a significant historical signal using MRDf (this supports H3). The overlaps among these factors are consistent with H4 and suggest that water-energy dynamics have probably been active drivers throughout evolutionary history with habitat heterogeneity, and biotic interactions playing an important role.

  17. A comparative framework for broad-scale plot-based vegetation classification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caceres, de M.; Chytry, M.; Agrillo, E.; Attore, F.; Schaminee, J.H.J.

    2015-01-01

    Aims:
    Classification of vegetation is an essential tool to describe, understand, predict and manage biodiversity. Given the multiplicity of approaches to classify vegetation, it is important to develop international consensus around a set of general guidelines and purpose-specific standard

  18. A broad scale analysis of tree risk, mitigation and potential habitat for cavity-nesting birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brian Kane; Paige S. Warren; Susannah B. Lerman

    2015-01-01

    Trees in towns and cities provide habitat for wildlife. In particular, cavity-nesting birds nest in the deadand decayed stems and branches of these trees. The same dead and decayed stems and branches alsohave a greater likelihood of failure, which, in some circumstances, increases risk. We examined 1760trees in Baltimore, MD, USA and western MA, USA, assessing tree...

  19. Lack of Spatial Immunogenetic Structure among Wolverine (Gulo gulo Populations Suggestive of Broad Scale Balancing Selection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yessica Rico

    Full Text Available Elucidating the adaptive genetic potential of wildlife populations to environmental selective pressures is fundamental for species conservation. Genes of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC are highly polymorphic, and play a key role in the adaptive immune response against pathogens. MHC polymorphism has been linked to balancing selection or heterogeneous selection promoting local adaptation. However, spatial patterns of MHC polymorphism are also influenced by gene flow and drift. Wolverines are highly vagile, inhabiting varied ecoregions that include boreal forest, taiga, tundra, and high alpine ecosystems. Here, we investigated the immunogenetic variation of wolverines in Canada as a surrogate for identifying local adaptation by contrasting the genetic structure at MHC relative to the structure at 11 neutral microsatellites to account for gene flow and drift. Evidence of historical positive selection was detected at MHC using maximum likelihood codon-based methods. Bayesian and multivariate cluster analyses revealed weaker population genetic differentiation at MHC relative to the increasing microsatellite genetic structure towards the eastern wolverine distribution. Mantel correlations of MHC against geographical distances showed no pattern of isolation by distance (IBD: r = -0.03, p = 0.9, whereas for microsatellites we found a relatively strong and significant IBD (r = 0.54, p = 0.01. Moreover, we found a significant correlation between microsatellite allelic richness and the mean number of MHC alleles, but we did not observe low MHC diversity in small populations. Overall these results suggest that MHC polymorphism has been influenced primarily by balancing selection and to a lesser extent by neutral processes such as genetic drift, with no clear evidence for local adaptation. This study contributes to our understanding of how vulnerable populations of wolverines may respond to selective pressures across their range.

  20. Making Legal: The Dream Act, Birthright Citizenship, and Broad-Scale Legalization

    OpenAIRE

    Motomura, Hiroshi

    2013-01-01

    Some of the most controversial topics in immigration and citizenship law involve granting lawful immigration status—or citizenship itself—to persons who might otherwise be in the United States unlawfully. In this Article, I examine arguments for and against three ways to confer lawful status: (1) the DREAM Act, which would grant status to many unauthorized migrants who were brought to the United States as children; (2) the Fourteenth Amendment to the Constitution, under which almost all child...

  1. Broad-scale distribution patterns of sardine and their predators in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The annual movement of South African sardine Sardinops sagax up the east coast of South Africa, known as the 'sardine run', was investigated using data from aerial surveys for the period 1988–2005 and compared with remotely sensed sea surface temperature (SST) and chlorophyll a data. Sardine sighting rates were ...

  2. Broad-scale predictability of carbohydrates and exopolymers in Antarctic and Arctic sea ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Underwood, Graham J. C.; Aslam, Shazia N.; Michel, Christine; Niemi, Andrea; Norman, Louiza; Meiners, Klaus M.; Laybourn-Parry, Johanna; Paterson, Harriet; Thomas, David N.

    2013-01-01

    Sea ice can contain high concentrations of dissolved organic carbon (DOC), much of which is carbohydrate-rich extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) produced by microalgae and bacteria inhabiting the ice. Here we report the concentrations of dissolved carbohydrates (dCHO) and dissolved EPS (dEPS) in relation to algal standing stock [estimated by chlorophyll (Chl) a concentrations] in sea ice from six locations in the Southern and Arctic Oceans. Concentrations varied substantially within and between sampling sites, reflecting local ice conditions and biological content. However, combining all data revealed robust statistical relationships between dCHO concentrations and the concentrations of different dEPS fractions, Chl a, and DOC. These relationships were true for whole ice cores, bottom ice (biomass rich) sections, and colder surface ice. The distribution of dEPS was strongly correlated to algal biomass, with the highest concentrations of both dEPS and non-EPS carbohydrates in the bottom horizons of the ice. Complex EPS was more prevalent in colder surface sea ice horizons. Predictive models (validated against independent data) were derived to enable the estimation of dCHO concentrations from data on ice thickness, salinity, and vertical position in core. When Chl a data were included a higher level of prediction was obtained. The consistent patterns reflected in these relationships provide a strong basis for including estimates of regional and seasonal carbohydrate and dEPS carbon budgets in coupled physical-biogeochemical models, across different types of sea ice from both polar regions. PMID:24019487

  3. The soil health tool - theory and initial broad-scale application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soil health has traditionally been judged in terms of production; however, it recently has gained a wider focus with a global audience, as soil condition is becoming an environmental quality, human health, and political issue. A crucial initial step in evaluating soil health is properly assessing t...

  4. Investigating Alternatives to Broad-Scale Pesticide Spraying for Control of Lyme Disease Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    More than 20,000 cases of Lyme disease are reported annually in the US. Here in the Northeast, the geographic range of the disease and infection rates continue to increase. Beginning this summer, scientists from EPA Region 1 (Robert Koethe, Bart Hoskins) and ORD (Jason Grear) w...

  5. The Slimeball: The Development of Broad-Scale Maritime Non-Lethal Weaponry

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-04-01

    may be possible to engineer the foam to adhere more strongly to wood, metal, and masonry than to skin or fabrics, making it far more of a nuisance to...ingredients like sugar and glycerin can offer significant effects in stability and thickening, and that sugar has the added benefit of altering the...Spraying it with water might have some impact , but the force of the spray would cause the foam to “set up” and become firmer, which would make the

  6. Lack of Spatial Immunogenetic Structure among Wolverine (Gulo gulo) Populations Suggestive of Broad Scale Balancing Selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rico, Yessica; Morris-Pocock, James; Zigouris, Joanna; Nocera, Joseph J.; Kyle, Christopher J.

    2015-01-01

    Elucidating the adaptive genetic potential of wildlife populations to environmental selective pressures is fundamental for species conservation. Genes of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) are highly polymorphic, and play a key role in the adaptive immune response against pathogens. MHC polymorphism has been linked to balancing selection or heterogeneous selection promoting local adaptation. However, spatial patterns of MHC polymorphism are also influenced by gene flow and drift. Wolverines are highly vagile, inhabiting varied ecoregions that include boreal forest, taiga, tundra, and high alpine ecosystems. Here, we investigated the immunogenetic variation of wolverines in Canada as a surrogate for identifying local adaptation by contrasting the genetic structure at MHC relative to the structure at 11 neutral microsatellites to account for gene flow and drift. Evidence of historical positive selection was detected at MHC using maximum likelihood codon-based methods. Bayesian and multivariate cluster analyses revealed weaker population genetic differentiation at MHC relative to the increasing microsatellite genetic structure towards the eastern wolverine distribution. Mantel correlations of MHC against geographical distances showed no pattern of isolation by distance (IBD: r = -0.03, p = 0.9), whereas for microsatellites we found a relatively strong and significant IBD (r = 0.54, p = 0.01). Moreover, we found a significant correlation between microsatellite allelic richness and the mean number of MHC alleles, but we did not observe low MHC diversity in small populations. Overall these results suggest that MHC polymorphism has been influenced primarily by balancing selection and to a lesser extent by neutral processes such as genetic drift, with no clear evidence for local adaptation. This study contributes to our understanding of how vulnerable populations of wolverines may respond to selective pressures across their range. PMID:26448462

  7. Differential stability of temperament and personality from toddlerhood to middle childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neppl, Tricia K; Donnellan, M Brent; Scaramella, Laura V; Widaman, Keith F; Spilman, Sarah K; Ontai, Lenna L; Conger, Rand D

    2010-06-01

    This prospective, longitudinal investigation examined differential consistency of three core dimensions of individuality from toddlerhood through middle childhood. Data came from 273 families who participated with their child at least once during three developmental periods: toddlerhood (2 years), early childhood (3 to 5 years), and middle childhood (6 to 10 years). Both mothers and fathers reported on attributes of their child using subscales from the Toddler Behavior Assessment Questionnaire, the Child Behavior Questionnaire, and the Iowa Personality Questionnaire. Reports were used as indicators of the latent "Big Three" dimensions of positive emotionality, negative emotionality, and constraint at each of the three developmental periods. Results pointed to consistency in these broad dimensions of temperament and personality from toddlerhood to middle childhood.

  8. Childhood Immunization: A Key Component of Early Childhood Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messonnier, Nancy

    2017-01-01

    Physical health is a key component of early childhood development and school readiness. By keeping children healthy and decreasing the chances of disease outbreaks, immunizations help early childhood programs create a safe environment for children. While overall vaccination rates are high nationally for most vaccines routinely recommended for…

  9. Perspectives on the Causes of Childhood Leukemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiemels, Joseph

    2013-01-01

    Acute leukemia is the most common cancer in children but the causes of the disease in the majority of cases are not known. About 80% are precursor-B cell in origin (CD19+, CD10+), and this immunophenotype has increased in incidence over the past several decades in the Western world. Part of this increase may be due to the introduction of new chemical exposures into the child's environment including parental smoking, pesticides, traffic fumes, paint and household chemicals. However, much of the increase in leukemia rates is likely linked to altered patterns of infection during early childhood development, mirroring causal pathways responsible for a similarly increased incidence of other childhood-diagnosed immune-related illnesses including allergy, asthma, and type 1 diabetes. Factors linked to childhood leukemia that are likely surrogates for immune stimulation include exposure to childcare settings, parity status and birth order, vaccination history, and population mixing. In case-control studies, acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is consistently inversely associated with greater exposure to infections, via daycare and later birth order. New evidence suggests also that children who contract leukemia may harbor a congenital defect in immune responder status, as indicated by lower levels of the immunosuppressive cytokine IL-10 at birth in children who grow up to contract leukemia, as well as higher need for clinical care for infections within the first year of life despite having lower levels of exposure to infections. One manifestation of this phenomenon may be leukemia clusters which tend to appear as a leukemia “outbreak” among populations with low herd immunity to a new infection. Critical answers to the etiology of childhood leukemia will require incorporating new tools into traditional epidemiologic approaches – including the classification of leukemia at a molecular scale, better exposure assessments at all points in a child's life, a comprehensive

  10. Childhood Sexual Abuse, Attachments in Childhood and Adulthood, and Coercive Sexual Behaviors in Community Males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langton, Calvin M; Murad, Zuwaina; Humbert, Bianca

    2017-04-01

    Associations between self-reported coercive sexual behavior against adult females, childhood sexual abuse (CSA), and child-parent attachment styles, as well as attachment with adult romantic partners, were examined among 176 adult community males. Attachment style with each parent and with romantic partners was also investigated as a potential moderator. Using hierarchical multiple regression analysis, avoidant attachment with mothers in childhood (and also with fathers, in a second model) accounted for a significant amount of the variance in coercive sexual behavior controlling for scores on anxious ambivalent and disorganized/disoriented attachment scales, as predicted. Similarly, in a third model, avoidance attachment in adulthood was a significant predictor of coercive sexual behavior controlling for scores on the anxiety attachment in adulthood scale. These main effects for avoidant and avoidance attachment were not statistically significant when CSA and control variables (other types of childhood adversity, aggression, antisociality, and response bias) were added in each of the models. But the interaction between scales for CSA and avoidance attachment in adulthood was significant, demonstrating incremental validity in a final step, consistent with a hypothesized moderating function for attachment in adulthood. The correlation between CSA and coercive sexual behavior was .60 for those with the highest third of avoidance attachment scores (i.e., the most insecurely attached on this scale), .24 for those with scores in the middle range on the scale, and .01 for those with the lowest third of avoidance attachment scores (i.e., the most securely attached). Implications for study design and theory were discussed.

  11. Antiviral Therapy by HIV-1 Broadly Neutralizing and Inhibitory Antibodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiqing Zhang

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1 infection causes acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS, a global epidemic for more than three decades. HIV-1 replication is primarily controlled through antiretroviral therapy (ART but this treatment does not cure HIV-1 infection. Furthermore, there is increasing viral resistance to ART, and side effects associated with long-term therapy. Consequently, there is a need of alternative candidates for HIV-1 prevention and therapy. Recent advances have discovered multiple broadly neutralizing antibodies against HIV-1. In this review, we describe the key epitopes on the HIV-1 Env protein and the reciprocal broadly neutralizing antibodies, and discuss the ongoing clinical trials of broadly neutralizing and inhibitory antibody therapy as well as antibody combinations, bispecific antibodies, and methods that improve therapeutic efficacy by combining broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs with latency reversing agents. Compared with ART, HIV-1 therapeutics that incorporate these broadly neutralizing and inhibitory antibodies offer the advantage of decreasing virus load and clearing infected cells, which is a promising prospect in HIV-1 prevention and treatment.

  12. Hydraulics of flow over broad-crested weirs; Abfluss ueber breitkronige Wehre

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castro-Orgaz, Oscar [Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, Cordoba (Spain). Inst. de Agricultura Sostenible; Pfister, Michael [ETH Zuerich (CH). Versuchsanstalt fuer Wasserbau, Hydrologie und Glaziologie (VAW)

    2010-07-01

    Weir flow is known to be subject to streamline curvature effects since the 18{sup th} century, when Boussinesq conducted his pioneer developments. A number of investigations have focused on the development of related theoretical models. However, hydraulic practice is often based on model test research, e.g. for weir flow features where the standard hydraulic theory based on the specific energy equation fails. In this paper, a hydraulic theory is presented describing flows over broad-crested weirs allowing both for streamline curvature effects and the so-called scale effect, originated by the boundary layer development on the weir crest. The theoretical results are compared to model test data, resulting in an excellent agreement. Further, it is shown that based on the hydraulic theory the features of broad-crested weir flow may be explained, and the contradictions coming from a standard hydraulic approach are overcome. (orig.)

  13. Adverse childhood experiences and risk of physical violence in adolescent dating relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Elizabeth; Breslau, Joshua; Chung, W-J Joanie; Green, Jennifer Greif; McLaughlin, Katie A; Kessler, Ronald C

    2011-11-01

    This study evaluates associations of commonly co-occurring childhood adversities with physical violence in dating relationships to identify potential strategies for refining and targeting dating violence prevention programmes. Data on 5130 adult respondents to a nationally representative survey with at least one dating relationship before the age of 21 years were analysed. Logistic regression models assessed associations between 12 childhood adversities and physical dating violence (PDV). Adjusting for the number of co-occurring adversities, 10 of the 12 childhood adversities were significantly associated with PDV perpetration or victimisation (OR 1.5-2.8). The population attributable risk proportion of PDV due to all 12 childhood adversities was 53.4%. Childhood adversities with the highest attributable risk proportions were sexual abuse (13.8%), interparental violence (11.6%) and parent mental illness (10.7%). Multivariate prediction equations ranked respondents by their childhood adversity risk profiles; 46.4% of PDV cases occurred in the top two risk deciles. Assessment of a broad range of childhood exposures to familial adversities may help to identify adolescents at particularly high risk of PDV and to guide prevention efforts.

  14. Sixteen-year follow-up of childhood avalanche survivors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thordardottir, E.B.; Valdimarsdóttir, Unnur A; Hansdottir, Ingunn

    2016-01-01

    stress disorder (PTSD) can provide a gateway to recovery as well as enhancement of preventive measures. Objective: Among childhood avalanche survivors, we aimed to investigate risk factors for PTSD symptoms and the relationship between socioeconomic status (SES) and PTSD symptoms in adulthood. Methods......: Childhood survivors (aged 2-19 at the time of exposure) of two avalanches were identified through nationwide registers 16 years later. The PosttraumaticDiagnostic Scale was used to assess current PTSD symptoms. One-way ANOVA was used to explore PTSD symptoms by background and trauma-specific factors...

  15. TIME VARIABLE BROAD-LINE EMISSION IN NGC 4203: EVIDENCE FOR STELLAR CONTRAILS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Devereux, Nick, E-mail: devereux@erau.edu [Department of Physics, Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University, Prescott, AZ 86301 (United States)

    2011-12-10

    Dual epoch spectroscopy of the lenticular galaxy, NGC 4203, obtained with the Hubble Space Telescope has revealed that the double-peaked component of the broad H{alpha} emission line is time variable, increasing by a factor of 2.2 in brightness between 1999 and 2010. Modeling the gas distribution responsible for the double-peaked profiles indicates that a ring is a more appropriate description than a disk and most likely represents the contrail of a red supergiant star that is being tidally disrupted at a distance of {approx}1500 AU from the central black hole. There is also a bright core of broad H{alpha} line emission that is not time variable and identified with a large-scale inflow from an outer radius of {approx}1 pc. If the gas number density is {>=}10{sup 6} cm{sup -3}, as suggested by the absence of similarly broad [O I] and [O III] emission lines, then the steady state inflow rate is {approx} 2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -2} M{sub Sun} yr{sup -1}, which exceeds the inflow requirement to explain the X-ray luminosity in terms of radiatively inefficient accretion by a factor of {approx}6. The central active galactic nucleus (AGN) is unable to sustain ionization of the broad-line region; the discrepancy is particularly acute in 2010 when the broad H{alpha} emission line is dominated by the contrail of the infalling supergiant star. However, ram pressure shock ionization produced by the interaction of the infalling supergiant with the ambient interstellar medium may help alleviate the ionizing deficit by generating a mechanical source of ionization supplementing the photoionization provided by the AGN.

  16. Childhood tuberculosis in Qatar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jay P.N Singh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Childhood tuberculosis (TB has been long neglected but has gained attention in recent years. In 2012, the World Health Organization annual report included an estimate for childhood TB for the first time, and in the following year, the TB Alliance received a grant from UNITAID (International Drug Purchase Facility to develop pediatric TB formulations. Qatar is a low-incidence country. In this observational study, laboratory-confirmed cases of TB were analyzed from 2013 to 2015 and included patients aged ≤14 years. Microscopy and GeneXpert MTB/RIF (Cepheid, USA and MGIT 960 (Becton, Dickinson and Company, USA automated culture systems were used to confirm cases at the National TB Reference Laboratory, Doha, Qatar. A total of 24 positive cases were identified in this pediatric population, 21 with Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC and three with Mycobacterium other than tuberculosis (MOTT. Out of 21 MTBC cases, 19 were direct polymerase chain reaction (PCR positive and two were smear and PCR negative but culture positive were later confirmed by PCR. Most of the positive specimens were extrapulmonary from pus and tissues biopsies. While six were from pulmonary, out of that, five were sputum and one was from gastric aspirates. Niacin Strip Test (Becton, Dickinson and Company, USA was used to identify the Bacillus Calmette–Guérin (BCG vaccine strains from MTBC infections, and seven patients were infected with BCG. Keeping in mind that there were 500–600 laboratory-confirmed cases of TB in adults, childhood tuberculosis is not a major problem in Qatar. Lack of sensitivity of niacin test due to identification various niacin accumulating BCG strains is documented worldwide, further testing with more stringent molecular methods will certainly increase the number of BCG isolates in this study population.

  17. Combined dyslipidemia in childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavey, Rae-Ellen W

    2015-01-01

    Combined dyslipidemia (CD) is now the predominant dyslipidemic pattern in childhood, characterized by moderate-to-severe elevation in triglycerides and non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (non-HDL-C), minimal elevation in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and reduced HDL-C. Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy shows that the CD pattern is represented at the lipid subpopulation level as an increase in small, dense LDL and in overall LDL particle number plus a reduction in total HDL-C and large HDL particles, a highly atherogenic pattern. In youth, CD occurs almost exclusively with obesity and is highly prevalent, seen in more than 40% of obese adolescents. CD in childhood predicts pathologic evidence of atherosclerosis and vascular dysfunction in adolescence and young adulthood, and early clinical cardiovascular events in adult life. There is a tight connection between CD, visceral adiposity, insulin resistance, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, and the metabolic syndrome, suggesting an integrated pathophysiological response to excessive weight gain. Weight loss, changes in dietary composition, and increases in physical activity have all been shown to improve CD significantly in children and adolescents in short-term studies. Most importantly, even small amounts of weight loss are associated with significant decreases in triglyceride levels and increases in HDL-C levels with improvement in lipid subpopulations. Diet change focused on limitation of simple carbohydrate intake with specific elimination of all sugar-sweetened beverages is very effective. Evidence-based recommendations for initiating diet and activity change are provided. Rarely, drug therapy is needed, and the evidence for drug treatment of CD in childhood is reviewed. Copyright © 2015 National Lipid Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Childhood Cerebellar Ataxia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogel, Brent L.

    2012-01-01

    Childhood presentations of ataxia, an impairment of balance and coordination caused by damage to or dysfunction of the cerebellum, can often be challenging to diagnose. Presentations tend to be clinically heterogeneous but key considerations may vary based on the child's age at onset, the course of illness, and subtle differences in phenotype. Systematic investigation is recommended for efficient diagnosis. In this review, we outline common etiologies and describe a comprehensive approach to the evaluation of both acquired and genetic cerebellar ataxia in children. PMID:22764177

  19. [Chronic granulomatosis in childhood].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fakan, F

    1977-08-01

    In a boy aged 8 years suffering from chronic granulomatosis of childhood necrotizing pneumonie and small pulmonary tuberculoid granulomas containing filaments of moulds were found at autopsy. Necrotizing leucocytic granulomas were present in the liver, spleen and the lymph nodes. All the organs showed aggregates of histiocytes containing yellowish cytoplasmic deposits of lipogment surrounded by a high acid phosphatase activity. The NBT-reduction leucocytic tests was repeatedly negative in vivo. The activities of NADH- and NADPH-tetrazolium reductase and succinate dehydrogenase in the tissues were histochemically normal.

  20. Mengapa Late Childhood Merokok?

    OpenAIRE

    Taryaka, Apriyani; Hurriyati, Evi Afifah

    2011-01-01

    This research is set to determine the cause of late childhood smoking and whether the factor behind late child hood smoking is the same with teenagers. The background of this research are the findings of Tobacco Control Support Center that 3 out of 10 students are found to be smoking before reaching the age of 10. This research uses qualitative case study research through observation and in-depth direct interview towards 3 male subjects aged 11 who smokes every day. Results show that the 3 su...

  1. [Arthralgia in childhood].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansson, Annette; von Liebe, Alessandro

    2007-04-19

    The differential diagnosis of arthralgia in childhood ranges from growing pains through rheumatic diseases, infections, orthopedic and hemostasiological disorders to oncological diseases. The situation can be clarified by obtaining a specific history and performing a physical examination, during which particular attention is paid to atypical movement patterns, differences in leg length and circumference and the positioning of hip and anklejoints, and by obtaining ultrasonographic data and x-ray films. Depending on the diagnosis, pain is treated by orthopedic, anti-inflammatory or antibiotic means, where necessary supported by physical measures/physiotherapy.

  2. Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pui, Ching-Hon; Yang, Jun J; Hunger, Stephen P

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: To review the impact of collaborative studies on advances in the biology and treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) in children and adolescents. METHODS: A review of English literature on childhood ALL focusing on collaborative studies was performed. The resulting article...... determinants of drug resistance and toxicities have been identified to help develop targeted therapy. Several genetic polymorphisms have been recognized that show susceptibility to developing ALL and that help explain the racial/ethnic differences in the incidence of ALL. CONCLUSION: The information gained...

  3. Childhood Sexual Abuse and Suicide

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... incidence of both forcible and non-forcible sexual abuse. 3 “Sexual abuse is associated with changes in the metabolism of ... Molnar, B., Berkman, L., & Buka, S. (2001). Psychopathology, childhood sexual abuse, and other childhood adversities: Relative links to subsequent ...

  4. Early Childhood Inclusion in Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giné, Climent; Balcells-Balcells, Anna; Cañadas, Margarita; Paniagua, Gema

    2016-01-01

    This article describes early childhood inclusion in educational settings in Spain. First, we address the legislative framework of preschool education in Spain and offer a brief analysis of some relevant issues, including the current situation of early childhood education and inclusion at this stage. Second, current policies and practices relating…

  5. Childhood cancer: Early warning signs

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    World-wide there are more than 200 000 new cases of childhood cancer per year and more than 70% of these occur in the developing world. In the First World more than 70% of these children will become long-term survivors. For some childhood cancers 5-year survival rates approach 95% . In England only 0.5% of all ...

  6. Childhood Trauma, Trait Anxiety, and Anxious Attachment as Predictors of Intimate Partner Violence in College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClure, Margaret M; Parmenter, Megan

    2017-08-01

    The current study investigates the relationship between intimate partner violence (IPV), childhood trauma, trait anxiety, depression, and anxious attachment in college students. Ninety-three male and 161 female undergraduate students at Fairfield University, ranging in age from 17 to 23, with a mean age of 18.8 years, participated. Participants completed five self-report inventories: The Conflict in Adolescent Dating Relationships Inventory (CADRI), the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ), the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), and the Adult Attachment Scale (AAS). IPV perpetration in college dating relationships was related to childhood emotional and physical abuse, emotional and physical neglect, and trait anxiety. IPV victimization in college dating relationships was related to childhood emotional and physical abuse, childhood emotional and physical neglect, and an anxious attachment style. IPV perpetration and victimization were also significantly correlated with one another. Subscale analyses suggest that childhood emotional abuse was related to being both the perpetrator and victim of verbal or emotional abuse in dating relationships. Childhood physical abuse, physical neglect, and emotional abuse were related to both perpetration and victimization of physical IPV. Threatening behavior perpetration in dating relationships was related to childhood emotional abuse, emotional neglect, physical abuse, and physical neglect; however, being the victim of threatening behavior was only related to childhood emotional abuse, physical neglect, and emotional neglect, not childhood physical abuse. These results support the relationship between childhood trauma and dating violence in college students. They also support a role for anxiety in IPV, although trait anxiety was related to perpetration and an anxious attachment style was correlated with IPV victimization. In addition, they suggest that different experiences of childhood

  7. Shareholder, stakeholder-owner or broad stakeholder maximization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mygind, Niels

    2004-01-01

    including the shareholders of a company. Although it may be the ultimate goal for Corporate Social Responsibility to achieve this kind of maximization, broad stakeholder maximization is quite difficult to give a precise definition. There is no one-dimensional measure to add different stakeholder benefits...... not traded on the mar-ket, and therefore there is no possibility for practical application. Broad stakeholder maximization instead in practical applications becomes satisfying certain stakeholder demands, so that the practical application will be stakeholder-owner maximization un-der constraints defined...

  8. Rare case of giant broad ligament fibroid with myxoid degeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R R Godbole

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Giant fibroids are known to arise from the uterus, although very rarely from extra-uterine sites. Among extra-uterine fibroids, broad ligament fibroids generally achieve enormous size and generally present with pressure symptom like bladder and bowel dysfunction. Myxoid degeneration is a rare complication of benign fibroid, where presence of cystic changes mimics the metastatic malignant ovarian tumor. We report a case of true broad ligament fibroid measured about 13 kg. This case is reported for its rarity and the diagnostic difficulties in differentiating malignant ovarian tumor and benign fibroid with myxoid degeneration.

  9. An extremely broad band metamaterial absorber based on destructive interference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jingbo; Liu, Lingyun; Dong, Guoyan; Zhou, Ji

    2011-10-24

    We propose a design of an extremely broad frequency band absorber based on destructive interference mechanism. Metamaterial of multilayered SRRs structure is used to realize a desirable refractive index dispersion spectrum, which can induce a successive anti-reflection in a wide frequency range. The corresponding high absorptance originates from the destructive interference of two reflection waves from the two surfaces of the metamaterial. A strongly absorptive bandwidth of almost 60 GHz is demonstrated in the range of 0 to 70 GHz numerically. This design provides an effective and feasible way to construct broad band absorber in stealth technology, as well as the enhanced transmittance devices. © 2011 Optical Society of America

  10. Comparison of PA imaging by narrow beam scanning and one-shot broad beam excitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Jinjun; Wei, Chen-Wei; Huang, Lingyun; Pelivanov, I. M.; O'Donnell, Matthew

    2011-03-01

    Current systems designed for deep photoacoustic (PA) imaging typically use a low repetition rate, high power pulsed laser to provide a ns-scale pulse illuminating a large tissue volume. Acoustic signals recorded on each laser firing can be used to reconstruct a complete 2-D (3-D) image of sources of heat release within that region. Using broad-beam excitation, the maximum frame rate of the imaging system is restricted by the pulse repetition rate of the laser. An alternate illumination approach is proposed based on fast scanning by a low energy (~ 1 mJ) high repetition rate (up to a few kHz) narrow laser beam (~1 mm) along the tissue surface over a region of interest. A final PA image is produced from the summation of individual PA images reconstructed at each laser beam position. This concept can take advantage of high repetition rate fiber lasers to create PA images with much higher frame rates than current systems, enabling true real-time integration of photoacoustics with ultrasound imaging. As an initial proof of concept, we compare conventional broad beam illumination to a scanned beam approach in a simple model system. Two transparent teflon tubes with diameters of 1.6 mm and 0.8 mm were filled with ink having an absorption coefficient of 5 cm-1. These tubes were buried inside chicken breast tissue acting as an optical scattering medium. They were separated by 3 mm or 10 mm to test spatial and contrast resolution for the two scan formats. The excitation wavelength was 700 nm. The excitation source is a traditional OPO pumped by a Q-switched Nd:YAG laser with doubler. Photoacoustic images were reconstructed using signals from a small, scanned PVDF transducer acting as an acoustic array. Two different illumination schemes were compared: one was 15 mm x 10 mm in cross section and acted as the broad beam; the other was 5 mm x 2 mm in cross section (15 times smaller than the broad beam case) and was scanned over an area equivalent to broad beam illumination

  11. [Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and vulnerability to the development of alcoholism: use of the Wender-Utah Rating Scale for retrospective diagnostic of ADHD in the childhood of alcoholic patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponce Alfaro, G; Rodríguez-Jiménez Caumel, R; Pérez Rojo, J A; Monasor Sánchez, R; Rubio Valladolid, G; Jiménez Arriero, M A; Palomo Alvarez, T

    2000-01-01

    In the last years, it has been accumulated data about an important association between addictions and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Both disorders share clinic aspects and relevant biological markers, and for both it has been postulated alterations in the same cerebral systems. To evaluate the rate of possible ADHD in the early ages of adult alcoholic patients, in contrast with controls. It was realized an adaptation of Wender-Utah Rating Scale (WURS) and it was analyzed its psychometric characteristics. It was administered to 117 alcoholic patients and to 52 controls. The mean score of WURS is significatively higher in alcoholic group than in the control one (32.26 vs. 16.55, prates of ADHD in early ages. It was discused the clinic and etiopathogenetics implications, and the convenience of advancing in the developemnt of diagnostic tools.

  12. Acute hemiplegia in childhood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okuno, Takehiko; Takao, Tatsuo; Itoh, Masatoshi; Konishi, Yukuo; Nakano, Shozo (Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine)

    1983-04-01

    The results of CT in 100 patients with acute hemiplegia in childhood are reported here. The etiology was various: 2 patients had infratentorial brain tumors, 56 had cerebral vascular diseases, 3 had head injuries, 16 had intracranial infectious diseases, one had postinfectious encephalomyelitis, one had multiple sclerosis, 2 had epilepsy, and the diagnosis of 19 were unknown. Eleven patients had a normal CT and a good prognosis. As for the type of onset, there were patients of type 1 with fever and 42 with convulsions and unconsciousness; those of type 2 with convulsions and unconsciousness were 12, and those of type 3 without fever and convulsions were 46. This classification is assumed to be useful, as the type of onset is characteristic of the etiology. Six patients were diagnosed correctly by repeated examinations, although the first CT did not reveal any remarkable findings. Capsular infarction, occlusion of the posterior cerebral artery in acute hemiplegia in childhood, abnormal findings of the internal capsule, thalamus, and midbrain in a patient with postinfectious encephalomyelitis, and a diffuse low density in the CT of the unilateral hemisphere in the patients with acute encephalopathy and acute hemiplegia of an obscure origin have been found after the introduction of computerized tomography.

  13. Gender dysphoria in childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ristori, Jiska; Steensma, Thomas D

    2016-01-01

    Gender dysphoria (GD) in childhood is a complex phenomenon characterized by clinically significant distress due to the incongruence between assigned gender at birth and experienced gender. The clinical presentation of children who present with gender identity issues can be highly variable; the psychosexual development and future psychosexual outcome can be unclear, and consensus about the best clinical practice is currently under debate. In this paper a clinical picture is provided of children who are referred to gender identity clinics. The clinical criteria are described including what is known about the prevalence of childhood GD. In addition, an overview is presented of the literature on the psychological functioning of children with GD, the current knowledge on the psychosexual development and factors associated with the persistence of GD, and explanatory models for psychopathology in children with GD together with other co-existing problems that are characteristic for children referred for their gender. In light of this, currently used treatment and counselling approaches are summarized and discussed, including the integration of the literature detailed above.

  14. Severe childhood malnutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhutta, Zulfiqar A; Berkley, James A; Bandsma, Robert H J; Kerac, Marko; Trehan, Indi; Briend, André

    2017-09-21

    The main forms of childhood malnutrition occur predominantly in children severe wasting and kwashiorkor are commonly referred to as severe acute malnutrition. Here, we use the term 'severe malnutrition' to describe these conditions to better reflect the contributions of chronic poverty, poor living conditions with pervasive deficits in sanitation and hygiene, a high prevalence of infectious diseases and environmental insults, food insecurity, poor maternal and fetal nutritional status and suboptimal nutritional intake in infancy and early childhood. Children with severe malnutrition have an increased risk of serious illness and death, primarily from acute infectious diseases. International growth standards are used for the diagnosis of severe malnutrition and provide therapeutic end points. The early detection of severe wasting and kwashiorkor and outpatient therapy for these conditions using ready-to-use therapeutic foods form the cornerstone of modern therapy, and only a small percentage of children require inpatient care. However, the normalization of physiological and metabolic functions in children with malnutrition is challenging, and children remain at high risk of relapse and death. Further research is urgently needed to improve our understanding of the pathophysiology of severe malnutrition, especially the mechanisms causing kwashiorkor, and to develop new interventions for prevention and treatment.

  15. Childhood obesity in America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Grouw, Jacqueline M; Volpe, Stella L

    2013-10-01

    To provide an overview of the current advances in childhood obesity physiology, intervention, and prevention. Structural and functional brain impairments are present in obese adolescents with metabolic syndrome (MetS). Aerobic training for 20 or 40 min per day produced similar affects on metabolic risk factors. Vitamin D supplementation has been shown to improve the metabolic risk factors in obese children; however, obese children require greater doses to treat vitamin D deficiency. A 10-week community-based exergaming weight management program significantly decreased the BMI in obese children. There is surmounting research on MetS and its associated risk factors in obese children. Gaining a comprehensive overview of the factors associated with obesity in children is crucial in developing the most effective intervention strategies. Community-based and family-centered interventions have generated positive results in reducing children's BMI and improving MetS risk factors. In addition to obesity intervention efforts, ongoing prevention initiatives are imperative to reduce the prevalence of childhood obesity.

  16. Precisely Tracking Childhood Death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farag, Tamer H; Koplan, Jeffrey P; Breiman, Robert F; Madhi, Shabir A; Heaton, Penny M; Mundel, Trevor; Ordi, Jaume; Bassat, Quique; Menendez, Clara; Dowell, Scott F

    2017-07-01

    Little is known about the specific causes of neonatal and under-five childhood death in high-mortality geographic regions due to a lack of primary data and dependence on inaccurate tools, such as verbal autopsy. To meet the ambitious new Sustainable Development Goal 3.2 to eliminate preventable child mortality in every country, better approaches are needed to precisely determine specific causes of death so that prevention and treatment interventions can be strengthened and focused. Minimally invasive tissue sampling (MITS) is a technique that uses needle-based postmortem sampling, followed by advanced histopathology and microbiology to definitely determine cause of death. The Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation is supporting a new surveillance system called the Child Health and Mortality Prevention Surveillance network, which will determine cause of death using MITS in combination with other information, and yield cause-specific population-based mortality rates, eventually in up to 12-15 sites in sub-Saharan Africa and south Asia. However, the Gates Foundation funding alone is not enough. We call on governments, other funders, and international stakeholders to expand the use of pathology-based cause of death determination to provide the information needed to end preventable childhood mortality.

  17. An examination of the relationship between childhood emotional abuse and borderline personality disorder features: the role of difficulties with emotion regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Janice R; Khoury, Jennifer E; Metcalfe, Rebecca; Fitzpatrick, Skye; Goodwill, Alasdair

    2015-01-01

    Childhood abuse has been consistently linked with borderline personality disorder (BPD) and recent studies suggest that some forms of childhood abuse might be uniquely related to both BPD and BPD features. In addition, difficulties with emotion regulation have been found to be associated with childhood abuse, BPD, as well as BPD features. The present study examined (1) whether frequency of childhood emotional abuse is uniquely associated with BPD feature severity when controlling for other forms of childhood abuse and (2) whether difficulties with emotion regulation accounts for the relationship between childhood emotional abuse and BPD feature severity. A sample of undergraduates (n=243) completed the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire - Short Form, Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale, and Borderline Symptom List-23. Multiple regression analyses and Structural Equation Modeling were conducted. Results indicated that frequency of childhood emotional abuse (and not sexual or physical abuse) was uniquely associated with BPD feature severity. In addition, while there was no direct path between childhood emotional abuse, childhood physical abuse, or childhood sexual abuse and BPD features, there was an indirect relationship between childhood emotional abuse and BPD features through difficulties with emotion regulation. These findings suggest that, of the different forms of childhood abuse, emotional abuse specifically, may have a developmental role in BPD pathology. Prevention and treatment of BPD pathology might benefit from the provision of emotion regulation strategies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Longitudinal Outcomes of Shyness From Childhood to Emerging Adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grose, James; Coplan, Robert J

    2015-01-01

    The primary goal of this study was to explore links between childhood shyness and socioemotional functioning in emerging adulthood. Participants were part of a large-scale Canadian population-based longitudinal sample. Data were available for 3,514 children (8-9 years old) at Time 1 and 1,447 emerging adults (20-21 years old) again at Time 2. Parents completed a brief rating of child shyness at Time 1 and young adults self-reported indices of their socioemotional functioning at Time 2. Among the results, childhood shyness was a significant predictor of both interpersonal and intrapersonal adjustment difficulties at 20-21 years old. Moreover, some gender differences also emerged, with shyness predicting intrapersonal adjustment difficulties more strongly among female than among male participants. Results are discussed in terms of the long term consequences of childhood shyness for emerging adults.

  19. Environmental Dysfunctions, Childhood Maltreatment and Women's Intimate Partner Violence Victimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cascio, Maria Lo; Guarnaccia, Cinzia; Infurna, Maria Rita; Mancuso, Laura; Parroco, Anna Maria; Giannone, Francesca

    2017-06-01

    Childhood maltreatment is considered a crucial explanatory variable for intimate partner violence (IPV) in adulthood. However, a developmental multifactorial model for the etiology of IPV is not shared by researchers yet. This study has investigated the role of a wide range of childhood maltreatments and family and social dysfunctions in predicting IPV; furthermore, it tests a model where childhood maltreatment mediates the relationship between environmental dysfunctions and IPV. The sample included 78 women: IPV (38) and non-IPV (40). The Italian version of the Childhood Experience of Care and Abuse (CECA) Interview was used to assess the presence of adverse childhood experiences. The Revised Conflict Tactics Scale (CTS-2) and the IPV History Interview were used to assess IPV in the last year and lifetime, respectively. The results of a multivariate logistic regression model have indicated that only sexual (odds ratio [OR] = 4.24) and psychological (OR = 3.45) abuse significantly predicted IPV; with regard to association between IPV and environmental dysfunctions, only poor social support (OR = 8.91) significantly predicted IPV. The results of a mediation model have shown that childhood psychological and sexual abuse, in association with each other, partially mediate the relationship between poor social support and IPV. The findings from this study pinpoint poor social support as an important predictor of IPV so far neglected in the literature on the developmental antecedents of IPV. They also support the theoretical assumption according to which dysfunctional environmental variables and types of childhood maltreatment interacting with each other may influence development outcomes.

  20. Long-throated flumes and broad-crested weirs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, M.G.

    1985-01-01

    Vital for water management are structures that can measure the flow in a wide variety of channels. Chapter 1 introduces the long-throated flume and the broad-crested weir; it explains why this family of structures can meet the boundary conditions and hydraulic demands of most measuring

  1. Extra Ovarian Serous Cystadenocarcinoma in the Broad Ligament ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The embryonic remnants of the gonadal ridge and the genital duct apparatus, the Mullerian apparatus, remain atretic throughout the life of a woman. The definitive organs arising from these, the Ovary, Fallopian tubes, Uterus, Cervix and the Broad ligaments share common coelomic origin. Epithelial metaplasia in any of ...

  2. Development of a Broad-Spectrum Antiviral Agent with Activity ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Development of a Broad-Spectrum Antiviral Agent with. Activity Against Herpesvirus Replication .... deviation. The data were analyzed by SPSS software, version 16. Significant differences (p <. 0.01) between groups were determined using unpaired Student's t-test. RESULTS. Cytotoxic and optimum drug concentrations.

  3. Broad-band spectrophotometry of HAT-P-32 b

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mallonn, M.; Bernt, I.; Herrero, E.

    2016-01-01

    Multicolour broad-band transit observations offer the opportunity to characterize the atmosphere of an extrasolar planet with small- to medium-sized telescopes. One of the most favourable targets is the hot Jupiter HAT-P-32 b. We combined 21 new transit observations of this planet with 36 previou...

  4. Silver Nanoparticles with Broad Multiband Linear Optical Absorption

    KAUST Repository

    Bakr, Osman M.

    2009-07-06

    A simple one-pot method produces silver nanoparticles coated with aryl thiols that show intense, broad nonplasmonic optical properties. The synthesis works with many aryl-thiol capping ligands, including water-soluble 4-mercaptobenzoic acid. The nanoparticles produced show linear absorption that is broader, stronger, and more structured than most conventional organic and inorganic dyes.

  5. Post abortal broad ligament. abscess: report of a case

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    infrequently with endotoxic shock, pelvic abscess, anaemia. cervical incompetence, chronic pelvic pain, ectopic pregnancy and infertility. Deaths from unsafe abortions are principally attributed to haemorrhage, anaemia, sepsis and renal failure. 7'8. Broad ligament abscess is rare. lntraligamentous haematoma is however ...

  6. Broadly neutralizing antibodies against HIV-1: templates for a vaccine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Gils, Marit J.; Sanders, Rogier W.

    2013-01-01

    The need for an effective vaccine to prevent the global spread of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) is well recognized. Passive immunization and challenge studies in non-human primates testify that broadly neutralizing antibodies (BrNAbs) can accomplish protection against infection. In

  7. Three Broad Parental Feeding Styles and Young Children's Snack Intake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boots, Samantha B.; Tiggemann, Marika; Corsini, Nadia

    2017-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to identify broad overarching feeding styles that parents may use and their effects on pre-school-aged children's healthy and unhealthy snack intake. Design: Cross sectional study Methods: Mothers (n = 611) of children aged 2-7 years (mean age 3.9 years) completed an online survey assessing parent-feeding…

  8. Infusing Multiculturalism into the Curriculum Through Broad Themes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, William J.

    1978-01-01

    Appropriate curriculum development strategies can result in the organization of instructional objectives, content, and activities around broad themes and the students' real-life experiences. Four basic areas of living, with substantial culturally pluralistic elements, are family life, community life, human relations, and the American cultural…

  9. Broad-band spectrophotometry of HAT-P-32 b

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mallonn, M.; Bernt, I.; Herrero, E.

    2016-01-01

    Multicolour broad-band transit observations offer the opportunity to characterize the atmosphere of an extrasolar planet with small- to medium-sized telescopes. One of the most favourable targets is the hot Jupiter HAT-P-32 b. We combined 21 new transit observations of this planet with 36...

  10. Selection of common bean to broad environmental adaptation in Haiti

    Science.gov (United States)

    Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) cultivars in Haiti need adaptation to a broad range of environments and resistance to the most important diseases such as Bean Golden Yellow Mosaic Virus. The Legume Breeding Program (LBP), a collaborative effort of the AREA project (USAID funded through IFAS/Univ...

  11. Children and trauma : a broad perspective on exposure and recovery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alisic, E.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this dissertation was to generate a broad overview of children’s exposure to and recovery from trauma in order to promote theory building and the design of prevention and intervention activities. First, a general population study was conducted in 1770 primary school children. They

  12. Development of a Broad-Spectrum Antiviral Agent with Activity ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To evaluate the broad-spectrum antiviral activity of peptide H9 (H9) in vitro in order to gain insight into its underlying molecular mechanisms. Method: Antiviral activity against Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) was determined using thiazolyl blue (MTT) assay. Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) was employed to ...

  13. Formulation of a complementary food fortified with broad beans ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sixty percent of mothers did not provide bean-based food for their children, with the most frequently reported reason being lack of knowledge of its nutrient value for young children. To a typical complementary food of barley-maize porridge, 10, 20 and 30% of cereal was replaced by processed broad beans (Vicia faba), ...

  14. Implementation of Broad-Based Black Economic Empowerment in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The institution of Broad-Based Black Economic Empowerment (BBBEE) has had an impact on the economy in South Africa. Due to its extensive reliance on government procurement, BBBEE has had a substantial influence on the construction industry in terms of transformation imperatives. Although much has been ...

  15. 48 CFR 2035.71 - Broad agency announcements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... CATEGORIES OF CONTRACTING RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT CONTRACTING 2035.71 Broad agency announcements. (a..., approaches, or concepts demonstrated by the proposal. (2) Overall scientific, technical, or economic merits... unique combinations of these which are integral factors for achieving the proposal objectives. (4) The...

  16. Childhood Sexual and Physical Abuse and Adult Vulnerability to PTSD: The Mediating Effects of Attachment and Dissociation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twaite, James A.; Rodriguez-Srednicki, Ofelia

    2004-01-01

    Two hundred and eighty-four adults from the metropolitan New York area reported on their history of childhood sexual abuse (CSA), childhood physical abuse (CPA), and on the nature of their exposure to the terrorist attack on the World Trade Center. The respondents also completed the Impact of Events Scale-Revised (IES-R), the Attachment Style…

  17. Female adolescent response to childhood sexual abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornman, B J

    1997-01-01

    History of childhood sexual abuse has been linked to fear, anxiety, depression, aggression, anger, hostility, poor self-esteem, substance abuse, and sexual maladjustment, as well as somatic complaints. The purpose of this study was to compare sexually abused adolescent females to adolescent females who have not ben sexually abused with respect to incidence of emotional disorders and somatic symptoms. A convenience sample of females, ages 12-17, included 11 identified victims of sexual abuse and 11 nonabused adolescents. A descriptive design using multiple methods of data collection: interview questions, self-report questionnaires, and projective drawings. The sexually abused adolescents scored significantly higher than the adolescents who had no history of sexual abuse on specific sub scales (anxiety, muscle tension, cognitive disorganization) and on the total scale scores of both the SOS and the SCL-90. Given the epidemic proportions of childhood sexual abuse, nurses in varied settings are in a position to identify, evaluate, and treat families with adolescents who manifest a wide range of sequelae.

  18. A Study of the Relationship between Early Childhood Program Attributes and Early Childhood Reading Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washington, Novella M.

    2012-01-01

    This quantitative correlational study focuses on the relationship between early childhood program attributes and early childhood reading success. Data will be gathered from early childhood sites with grades prekindergarten through second grade in which early childhood program attributes exist and early childhood reading is measured by the…

  19. Personality Assessment Screener, Childhood Abuse, and Adult Partner Violence in African American Women Using Primary Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porcerelli, John H; Hurrell, Kristen; Cogan, Rosemary; Jeffries, Keturah; Markova, Tsveti

    2015-12-01

    This study assessed the relationship between psychopathology with the Personality Assessment Screener (PAS) and childhood physical and sexual abuse and adult physical and sexual partner violence in a primary care sample of 98 urban-dwelling African American women. Patients completed the PAS, the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire, and the Conflict Tactics Scale. The PAS total score significantly correlated with all measures of childhood and adult abuse. Stepwise regression analyses revealed that PAS element scores of Suicidal Thinking and Hostile Control significantly predicted a history of childhood physical abuse; Suicidal Thinking, Hostile Control, and Acting Out significantly predicted a history of childhood sexual abuse; Suicidal Thinking, Negative Affect, and Alienation significantly predicted current adult partner physical violence; and Psychotic Features, Alcohol Problems, and Anger Control significantly predicted current adult sexual partner violence. The PAS appears to be a useful measure for fast-paced primary care settings for identifying patients who need a more thorough assessment for abuse. © The Author(s) 2015.

  20. Childhood Sexual Abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evrim Aktepe

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Sexual abuse is defined as use of child or adolescent by the adults for satisfying of sexual urges and needs with forcing, threatening or tricking. Sexual abuse can be in the form of sexual abuse without touch, sexual touch, interfemoral intercourse, sexual penetration, and sexual exploitation. The prevalence of sexual abuse is reported as 10-40%. It is seen in female four times more than in males. Abusers are frequently male, only 5-15% of them are female. The abuse by females is usually towards male child. Thirty-fifty percent of abuse cases among child and adolescent are outside the family including strangers or familiar person. Some features of abusers are introvert personality, pedophilic and antisocial personality. Most of the abusers have a history of sexual abuse or aggression during childhood. Sexual intercourse between two people who are not allowed to marry by law is called as incest. Family pattern of incest is defined globally as disorganized and dysfunctional. The most commonly reported familial pattern is rigid and patriarchal family pattern with a harsh father using force quite frequently. The clinical features and impacts of the sexual abuse on the child varies according to the relation between abusers and the child, form of abuse, duration of abuse, presence of physical assault, developmental phase, child age and psychological development before the abuse. Sexual abuse history may result in psychiatric disorders including anxiety, depression, substance dependence, suicide act, borderline personality disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder. Abuse negatively affects interpersonal relationships and self esteem of abused individuals. Several studies reported close association between risky sexual behaviors in adulthood and a history of of sexual abuse during childhood. Four traumatic dynamics including traumatic sexuality with abuse, feeling of betrayal, weakness, and stigmatization exist in childhood abuse. Trauma can cause

  1. Danish Childhood Cancer Registry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schrøder H

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Henrik Schrøder,1 Catherine Rechnitzer,2 Peder Skov Wehner,3 Steen Rosthøj,4 Jens Kjølseth Møller,5 Birgitte Lausen,2 Gitte Petersen,2 Mette Nørgaard6 1Department of Pediatrics, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus, 2Department of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen University Hospital, Copenhagen, 3Department of Pediatric Hematology and Oncology, Hans Christian Andersen Children's Hospital, Odense University Hospital, Odense, 4Department of Pediatrics, Aalborg University Hospital, Aalborg, 5Department of Clinical Microbiology, Vejle Sygehus, Vejle, 6Department of Clinical Epidemiology, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus, Denmark Aim of database: The overall aim is to monitor the quality of childhood cancer care in Denmark; to register late effects of treatment; to analyze complications of permanent central venous catheters (CVCs; to study blood stream infections in children with cancer; and to study acute toxicity of high-dose methotrexate infusions in children with leukemia. Study population: All children below 15 years of age at diagnosis living in Denmark diagnosed after January 1, 1985 according to the International Classification of Diseases 10, including diagnoses DC00–DD48. Main variables: Cancer type, extent of disease, treatment, participation in international studies, recurrence of malignant disease, survival, yearly follow-up status, causes of death, and development of secondary malignancies. Type of CVC, causes for removal of the CVC, type of blood stream infection, pathogens isolated, antimicrobial sensitivity, and outcome of antimicrobial chemotherapy. Descriptive data: Since 1985, 4,944 children below 15 years of age have been registered in the database. There has been no significant change in the incidence of childhood cancer in Denmark since 1985. The 5-year survival has increased significantly since 1985 and is now 86%. The median number of days from diagnosis to initiation of therapy is 7 days

  2. [Childhood periodic syndromes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuvellier, J-C; Lépine, A

    2010-01-01

    This review focuses on the so-called "periodic syndromes of childhood that are precursors to migraine", as included in the Second Edition of the International Classification of Headache Disorders. Three periodic syndromes of childhood are included in the Second Edition of the International Classification of Headache Disorders: abdominal migraine, cyclic vomiting syndrome and benign paroxysmal vertigo, and a fourth, benign paroxysmal torticollis is presented in the Appendix. The key clinical features of this group of disorders are the episodic pattern and intervals of complete health. Episodes of benign paroxysmal torticollis begin between 2 and 8 months of age. Attacks are characterized by an abnormal inclination and/or rotation of the head to one side, due to cervical dystonia. They usually resolve by 5 years. Benign paroxysmal vertigo presents as sudden attacks of vertigo, accompanied by inability to stand without support, and lasting seconds to minutes. Age at onset is between 2 and 4 years, and the symptoms disappear by the age of 5. Cyclic vomiting syndrome is characterized in young infants and children by repeated stereotyped episodes of pernicious vomiting, at times to the point of dehydration, and impacting quality of life. Mean age of onset is 5 years. Abdominal migraine remains a controversial issue and presents in childhood with repeated stereotyped episodes of unexplained abdominal pain, nausea and vomiting occurring in the absence of headache. Mean age of onset is 7 years. Both cyclic vomiting syndrome and abdominal migraine are noted for the absence of pathognomonic clinical features but also for the large number of other conditions to be considered in their differential diagnoses. Diagnostic criteria, such as those of the Second Edition of the International Classification of Headache Disorders and the North American Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition, have made diagnostic approach and management easier. Their diagnosis

  3. Mental health outcomes in HIV and childhood maltreatment: a systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background High rates of childhood maltreatment have been documented in HIV-positive men and women. In addition, mental disorders are highly prevalent in both HIV-infected individuals and victims of childhood maltreatment. However, there is a paucity of research investigating the mental health outcomes associated with childhood maltreatment in the context of HIV infection. The present systematic review assessed mental health outcomes in HIV-positive individuals who were victims of childhood maltreatment. Methods A systematic search of all retrospective, prospective, or clinical trial studies assessing mental health outcomes associated with HIV and childhood maltreatment. The following online databases were searched on 25–31 August 2010: PubMed, Social Science Citation Index, and the Cochrane Library (the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials and the Cochrane Developmental, Psychosocial and Learning Problems, HIV/AIDS, and Depression, Anxiety and Neurosis registers). Results We identified 34 studies suitable for inclusion. A total of 14,935 participants were included in these studies. A variety of mixed mental health outcomes were reported. The most commonly reported psychiatric disorders among HIV-positive individuals with a history of childhood maltreatment included: substance abuse, major depressive disorder, and posttraumatic stress disorder. An association between childhood maltreatment and poor adherence to antiretroviral regimens was also reported in some studies. Conclusion A broad range of adult psychopathology has been reported in studies of HIV-infected individuals with a history of childhood maltreatment. However, a direct causal link cannot be well established. Longer term assessment will better delineate the nature, severity, and temporal relationship of childhood maltreatment to mental health outcomes. PMID:22742536

  4. Mental health outcomes in HIV and childhood maltreatment: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spies Georgina

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background High rates of childhood maltreatment have been documented in HIV-positive men and women. In addition, mental disorders are highly prevalent in both HIV-infected individuals and victims of childhood maltreatment. However, there is a paucity of research investigating the mental health outcomes associated with childhood maltreatment in the context of HIV infection. The present systematic review assessed mental health outcomes in HIV-positive individuals who were victims of childhood maltreatment. Methods A systematic search of all retrospective, prospective, or clinical trial studies assessing mental health outcomes associated with HIV and childhood maltreatment. The following online databases were searched on 25–31 August 2010: PubMed, Social Science Citation Index, and the Cochrane Library (the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials and the Cochrane Developmental, Psychosocial and Learning Problems, HIV/AIDS, and Depression, Anxiety and Neurosis registers. Results We identified 34 studies suitable for inclusion. A total of 14,935 participants were included in these studies. A variety of mixed mental health outcomes were reported. The most commonly reported psychiatric disorders among HIV-positive individuals with a history of childhood maltreatment included: substance abuse, major depressive disorder, and posttraumatic stress disorder. An association between childhood maltreatment and poor adherence to antiretroviral regimens was also reported in some studies. Conclusion A broad range of adult psychopathology has been reported in studies of HIV-infected individuals with a history of childhood maltreatment. However, a direct causal link cannot be well established. Longer term assessment will better delineate the nature, severity, and temporal relationship of childhood maltreatment to mental health outcomes.

  5. Reducing Childhood Obesity through U.S. Federal Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristensen, Alyson H.; Flottemesch, Thomas J.; Maciosek, Michael V.; Jenson, Jennifer; Barclay, Gillian; Ashe, Marice; Sanchez, Eduardo J.; Story, Mary; Teutsch, Steven M.; Brownson, Ross C.

    2016-01-01

    Background Childhood obesity prevalence remains high in the U.S., especially among racial/ethnic minorities and low-income populations. Federal policy is important in improving public health given its broad reach. Information is needed about federal policies that could reduce childhood obesity rates and by how much. Purpose To estimate the impact of three federal policies on childhood obesity prevalence in 2032, after 20 years of implementation. Methods Criteria were used to select the three following policies to reduce childhood obesity from 26 recommended policies: afterschool physical activity programs, a $0.01/ounce sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) excise tax, and a ban on child-directed fast food TV advertising. For each policy, the literature was reviewed from January 2000 through July 2012 to find evidence of effectiveness and create average effect sizes. In 2012, a Markov microsimulation model estimated each policy’s impact on diet or physical activity, and then BMI, in a simulated school-aged population in 2032. Results The microsimulation predicted that afterschool physical activity programs would reduce obesity the most among children aged 6–12 years (1.8 percentage points) and the advertising ban would reduce obesity the least (0.9 percentage points). The SSB excise tax would reduce obesity the most among adolescents aged 13–18 years (2.4 percentage points). All three policies would reduce obesity more among blacks and Hispanics than whites, with the SSB excise tax reducing obesity disparities the most. Conclusions All three policies would reduce childhood obesity prevalence by 2032. However, a national $0.01/ounce SSB excise tax is the best option. PMID:25175764

  6. The Size of the Broad Line Region in M84 (NGC 4374)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devereux, Nicholas A.; Eracleous, M.

    2010-01-01

    M84 is a giant elliptical galaxy located in the Virgo cluster. Prior imaging with the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) revealed a small, highly inclined, nuclear ionized gas disk, the kinematics of which indicate the presence of a 1.5 billion solar mass black hole. Two prominent radio jets emerge perpendicular to the nuclear ionized gas disk terminating in large radio lobes that extend beyond the visible galaxy. Plausible kinematic models are used to constrain the size of the broad line region (BLR) in M84 by modeling the shape of the broad Hα emission line profile. The analysis indicates that the emitting volume is large with an outer radius between 6 and 10 pc, depending on whether the kinematic model is represented by a spherically symmetric free-fall or a Keplerian disk. The inferred size makes the BLR in M84 the largest yet to be measured. The BLR contains less than 2754 M⊙ of dense, ≥ 103 cm-3, ionized gas, leading to a very low filling factor of ≤ 3 x 10-2. The fact that the BLR in M84 is so large may explain why the AGN is unable to sustain the ionization seen there. Thus, the AGN in M84 is not simply a scaled down quasar. The gas density is pivotal in deciding between an accretion disk and a spherically symmetric infall as the origin for the broad Hα emission line seen in M84.

  7. Self-concept evaluation and migraine without aura in childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esposito M

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Maria Esposito,1 Beatrice Gallai,2 Lucia Parisi,3 Laura Castaldo,1 Rosa Marotta,4 Serena Marianna Lavano,4 Giovanni Mazzotta,5 Michele Roccella,3 Marco Carotenuto11Center for Childhood Headache, Clinic of Child and Adolescent Neuropsychiatry, Department of Mental Health, Physical and Preventive Medicine, Second University of Naples, Naples, Italy; 2Unit of Child and Adolescent Neuropsychiatry, University of Perugia, Perugia, Italy; 3Child Neuropsychiatry, Department of Psychology, University of Palermo, Palermo, Italy; 4Department of Psychiatry, "Magna Graecia" University of Catanzaro, Catanzaro, Italy; 5Unit of Child and Adolescent Neuropsychiatry, AUSL Umbria 2, Terni, ItalyIntroduction: Self-esteem is related to the broadly understood concept of self-schemas and is a crucial mechanism for a correct psychological development in children and adolescents. The impact of the many psychological difficulties linked to the migraine without aura (MoA and recurrent headache attacks, such as anger and separation anxiety, on self-esteem has not yet been well investigated. The aims of the present study were to assess self-esteem levels in an objective way and to verify their possible relationship and correlation with the frequency and intensity of migraine attacks, in a population of children and adolescents affected by MoA.Methods: The study population was comprised of 185 children (88 males [M], 97 females [F] aged between 6 and 12 years (mean 9.04 ± 2.41 years referred consecutively for MoA to the Center for Childhood Headache, Clinic of Child and Adolescent Neuropsychiatry, Second University of Naples and of 203 healthy controls (95 M, 108 F with mean age 9.16 ± 2.37 years, recruited from schools in Campania. The monthly headache frequency and the mean headache duration were assessed from daily headache diaries kept by all the children, and MoA intensity was assessed on a VAS (visual analog scale. To further evaluate their level of self-concept, all

  8. Monitoring asthma in childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin C. Lødrup Carlsen

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The goal of asthma treatment is to obtain clinical control and reduce future risks to the patient. However, to date there is limited evidence on how to monitor patients with asthma. Childhood asthma introduces specific challenges in terms of deciding what, when, how often, by whom and in whom different assessments of asthma should be performed. The age of the child, the fluctuating course of asthma severity, variability in clinical presentation, exacerbations, comorbidities, socioeconomic and psychosocial factors, and environmental exposures may all influence disease activity and, hence, monitoring strategies. These factors will be addressed in herein. We identified large knowledge gaps in the effects of different monitoring strategies in children with asthma. Studies into monitoring strategies are urgently needed, preferably in collaborative paediatric studies across countries and healthcare systems.

  9. Pyometra in childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, Carole

    2015-05-01

    Pyometra, an accumulation of pus in the uterine cavity, occurs rarely in children but should be considered in the differential diagnosis of an intra-abdominal or pelvic abscess. A 10-month-old infant presented with an increasing abdominal mass. She had previous respiratory and diarrheal illnesses. She was underweight, febrile, and tachycardic with an 8×6-cm mobile tender mass in her lower abdomen. Investigations demonstrated leukocytosis and ultrasonogram confirmed a cystic mass. At laparotomy a pyometra was found. Needle aspiration and washout of the uterine cavity were performed but a second procedure was required to place a drain into the cavity. Pyometra occurs rarely in childhood. A review of cases associates a hypoestrogenized endometrium exposed to transient bacteremia with obstruction to uterine drainage. Treatment should include continuous drainage of the uterus.

  10. Pyoderma gangrenosum in childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khatri M

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available We have treated 4 cases of pyoderma gangrenosum in infancy and childhood in past 2 years. The ages at onset were 6 months, 8 months, 6 months and 11.5 years respectively. Initial lesions were papulopustular in 3 and nodular in 1 patients but later on all of them developed ulcerative lesions with erythematous, violaceous, infiltrated or undermined edges. The lesions were numerous in 3 patients but few in 1 patient. The first patient had very high leucocyte count. In the second patient skin lesions of PG followed measles vaccinations. We could not reveal any association in the other two patients. None of the patient responded to antibiotic therapy. Three patients were treated successfully with dapsone and one with a combination of dapsone and prednisolone. We conclude that pyoderma gangrenosum is not so rare in infancy and it is more likely to occur without associated systemic diseases.

  11. Childhood and Health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    From, Ditte-Marie

    understanding that is characterized by a somewhat larger complexity. The aim of this paper is to present some of the main discussions of my Ph.D.-project on childhood and health understandings by asking the overall question: Does family orientated health promoting programmes help bend the obesity curve......During the past decades, the number of overweight and obese individuals has increased throughout the Danish population. This fact has led to a strong political focus on health promotion especially among children and adolescents to prevent further escalation. The prevailing political point of view...... and a need to act before the so-called obesity epidemic becomes uncontrollable. Governmental health priorities are reproduced in local council family programmes where children and their parents are offered a chance to gain inspiration and knowledge about a healthier lifestyle and are provided tools to re...

  12. [Aetiology of childhood alopecia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortés G, Andrea; Mardones V, Felipe; Zemelman D, Viviana

    2015-01-01

    Childhood alopecia is a relative rare event in general paediatric dermatology practice. Hair loss in children may have multiple causes, and there are different types of alopecia according to age groups. The aim of the study was to describe the clinical and epidemiological profile of alopecia in children from two Chilean paediatric hospitals. Descriptive analysis of clinical records of patients from the Dermatology Department of Roberto del Rio and Luis Calvo Mackenna Hospitals between January 2007 and June 2010. Patients with clinical diagnosis of alopecia were included. A total of 345 clinical records were analysed, with 179 males (51.9%). The median age was 72 months. Overall, the most common diagnoses were: alopecia areata (AA), (36.8%), tinea capitis (TC), (21%), nevus sebaceous (13.2%), and tellogen effluvium (8.7%). According to age groups, in newborns, the most common causes were aplasia cutis and nevus sebaceous. In toddlers, pre-school and school children, the principal causes were nevus sebaceous, AA and TC. Trichotillomania was also significant in school children. In adolescents, nevus sebaceous, AA and tellogen effluvium were the most frequent diagnoses. AA was statistically associated with autoimmune disease, thyroid disease, nail disorder, psychiatric disease, and Down's syndrome. The most common aetiological agent in TC was M. canis (86.6%). Trichotillomania was also statistically associated to psychiatric disorders. In this study, the main causes of alopecia in children were acquired and non-scarring alopecia. In our results, the type of alopecia varies according to age group. Some types of childhood alopecia showed a close correlation to psychiatric disorders. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Chilena de Pediatría. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  13. Rumination as a Mediator between Childhood Trauma and Adulthood Depression/Anxiety in Non-clinical Participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ji S; Jin, Min J; Jung, Wookyoung; Hahn, Sang W; Lee, Seung-Hwan

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Although there is strong evidence that childhood trauma is associated with the development of depression and anxiety, relatively few studies have explored potential mediating factors for this relationship. The present study aimed to evaluate the mediating role of rumination in the link between childhood trauma and mood status such as depression, anxiety and affective lability. Materials and Methods: Two hundred and seven non-clinical participants completed the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire, the Ruminative Response Scale, the Beck Depression Inventory, the State Anxiety Inventory, and the Affective Lability Scale. Structural equation modeling was used to evaluate the results. Results: Our results supported that rumination is a meaningful mediator between childhood trauma and depression/anxiety in non-clinical participants. The mediation model indicated that childhood trauma and its subtypes are linked to depression and anxiety through three subtypes of rumination, thereby supporting a significant indirect relationship (Standardized coefficient [SC] = 0.56, p rumination; SC = 0.67, p rumination to mood). The direct relationship between childhood trauma and mood symptoms was also significant in a model including rumination (SC = 0.68, p rumination in the relationship between childhood trauma and mood was more predominant in female participants. Conclusions: The present study found that rumination mediates the influence of childhood trauma on the development of mood symptoms in non-clinical participants. Childhood trauma appears to be a critical determinant for developing symptoms of depression and anxiety.

  14. Flow characteristics at trapezoidal broad-crested side weir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Říha Jaromír

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Broad-crested side weirs have been the subject of numerous hydraulic studies; however, the flow field at the weir crest and in front of the weir in the approach channel still has not been fully described. Also, the discharge coefficient of broad-crested side weirs, whether slightly inclined towards the stream or lateral, still has yet to be clearly determined. Experimental research was carried out to describe the flow characteristics at low Froude numbers in the approach flow channel for various combinations of in- and overflow discharges. Three side weir types with different oblique angles were studied. Their flow characteristics and discharge coefficients were analyzed and assessed based on the results obtained from extensive measurements performed on a hydraulic model. The empirical relation between the angle of side weir obliqueness, Froude numbers in the up- and downstream channels, and the coefficient of obliqueness was derived.

  15. Broad-band hard X-ray reflectors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joensen, K.D.; Gorenstein, P.; Hoghoj, P.

    1997-01-01

    Interest in optics for hard X-ray broad-band application is growing. In this paper, we compare the hard X-ray (20-100 keV) reflectivity obtained with an energy-dispersive reflectometer, of a standard commercial gold thin-film with that of a 600 bilayer W/Si X-ray supermirror. The reflectivity...... that of the gold, Various other design options are discussed, and we conclude that continued interest in the X-ray supermirror for broad-band hard X-ray applications is warranted....... of the multilayer is found to agree extraordinarily well with theory (assuming an interface roughness of 4.5 Angstrom), while the agreement for the gold film is less, The overall performance of the supermirror is superior to that of gold, extending the band of reflection at least a factor of 2.8 beyond...

  16. Types of childhood trauma and spirituality in adult patients with depressive disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Jun-Mi; Min, Jung-Ah; Huh, Hyu-Jung; Chae, Jeong-Ho

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the differences in spirituality among adult patients with depressive disorders, who had suffered various types of abuse or neglect in childhood. A total of 305 outpatients diagnosed with depressive disorders completed questionnaires on socio-demographic variables, childhood trauma history, and spirituality. We used the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire-Short Form (CTQ-SF) to measure five different types of childhood trauma (emotional abuse, physical abuse, sexual abuse, emotional neglect, and physical neglect) and the Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy-Spiritual Well-being Scale (FACIT-Sp-12) to assess spirituality. Depressive symptoms and total CTQ-SF scores showed a negative correlation with spirituality. In the regression model, being older and belonging to a religion significantly predicted greater spirituality. Depressive symptoms significantly predicted lower spirituality. From among the five types of childhood trauma assessed by the CTQ-SF, only emotional neglect significantly predicted lower spirituality. A history of childhood emotional neglect was significantly related to lower spirituality, especially in the case of the Meaning aspect of spirituality. This finding suggests the potential harmful influence of childhood emotional neglect on the development of spirituality in psychiatric patients. Investigating different aspects of childhood trauma might be important in order to develop a more comprehensive psychiatric intervention that aids in the development of spirituality. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. A Longitudinal Study of the Attitudes of Early Childhood Pre- service Teachers towards Mathematics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serhat Aydın

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available As in many countries, early childhood teachers introduce mathematics content in kindergartens in Turkey. Therefore, early childhood teachers should master a certain level of mathematics knowledge and are offered a mathematics methods course in faculties of education. Teacher training programs are also expected to improve early childhood preservice teachers (PSTs attitudes towards mathematics (ATM. In this context, it seems important to investigate whether and how much early childhood PSTs’ attitude towards mathematics changed throughout their university lives. Our study was conducted with a sampling of 43 participants studying at a state university in the north of Turkey, in the Black Sea Region. The data was collected from early childhood PSTs using the same attitude scale in their 1st and 3rd years of study. The quantitative analysis of the data in SPSS 22 using t-test for paired samples demonstrated that the early childhood PSTs’ attitudes towards mathematics have improved from the 1st to the 3rd year. In our sampling, one-way ANOVA and t-test for independent samples revealed that the ATM of the early childhood PSTs were not associated with variables such as gender, the type of completed high school, total family income, and parents’ level of education. Based on the findings, it was concluded that the mathematics methods course offered to early childhood PSTs in their 2nd year might be effective in improving the attitudes towards mathematics.

  18. Reproducing the hierarchy of disorder for Morpho-inspired, broad-angle color reflection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Bokwang; Johansen, Villads Egede; Sigmund, Ole; Shin, Jung H.

    2017-04-01

    The scales of Morpho butterflies are covered with intricate, hierarchical ridge structures that produce a bright, blue reflection that remains stable across wide viewing angles. This effect has been researched extensively, and much understanding has been achieved using modeling that has focused on the positional disorder among the identical, multilayered ridges as the critical factor for producing angular independent color. Realizing such positional disorder of identical nanostructures is difficult, which in turn has limited experimental verification of different physical mechanisms that have been proposed. In this paper, we suggest an alternative model of inter-structural disorder that can achieve the same broad-angle color reflection, and is applicable to wafer-scale fabrication using conventional thin film technologies. Fabrication of a thin film that produces pure, stable blue across a viewing angle of more than 120 ° is demonstrated, together with a robust, conformal color coating.

  19. Antibiofilm Peptides: Potential as Broad-Spectrum Agents

    OpenAIRE

    Pletzer, Daniel; Hancock, Robert E. W.

    2016-01-01

    The treatment of bacterial diseases is facing twin threats, with increasing bacterial antibiotic resistance and relatively few novel compounds or strategies under development or entering the clinic. Bacteria frequently grow on surfaces as biofilm communities encased in a polymeric matrix. The biofilm mode of growth is associated with 65 to 80% of all clinical infections. It causes broad adaptive changes; biofilm bacteria are especially (10- to 1,000-fold) resistant to conventional antibiotics...

  20. Broad spectrum antiangiogenic treatment for ocular neovascular diseases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ofra Benny

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Pathological neovascularization is a hallmark of late stage neovascular (wet age-related macular degeneration (AMD and the leading cause of blindness in people over the age of 50 in the western world. The treatments focus on suppression of choroidal neovascularization (CNV, while current approved therapies are limited to inhibiting vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF exclusively. However, this treatment does not address the underlying cause of AMD, and the loss of VEGF's neuroprotective can be a potential side effect. Therapy which targets the key processes in AMD, the pathological neovascularization, vessel leakage and inflammation could bring a major shift in the approach to disease treatment and prevention. In this study we have demonstrated the efficacy of such broad spectrum antiangiogenic therapy on mouse model of AMD.Lodamin, a polymeric formulation of TNP-470, is a potent broad-spectrum antiangiogenic drug. Lodamin significantly reduced key processes involved in AMD progression as demonstrated in mice and rats. Its suppressive effects on angiogenesis, vascular leakage and inflammation were studied in a wide array of assays including; a Matrigel, delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH, Miles assay, laser-induced CNV and corneal micropocket assay. Lodamin significantly suppressed the secretion of various pro-inflammatory cytokines in the CNV lesion including monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1/Ccl2. Importantly, Lodamin was found to regress established CNV lesions, unlike soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase-1 (sFlk-1. The drug was found to be safe in mice and have little toxicity as demonstrated by electroretinography (ERG assessing retinal and by histology.Lodamin, a polymer formulation of TNP-470, was identified as a first in its class, broad-spectrum antiangiogenic drug that can be administered orally or locally to treat corneal and retinal neovascularization. Several unique properties make Lodamin especially beneficial for ophthalmic

  1. Flow structure in front of the broad-crested weir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zachoval Zbyněk

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with research focused on description of flow structure in front of broad-crested weir. Based on experimental measurement, the flow structure in front of the weir (the recirculation zone of flow and tornado vortices and flow structure on the weir crest has been described. The determined flow character has been simulated using numerical model and based on comparing results the suitable model of turbulence has been recommended.

  2. Alloyed semiconductor nanocrystals with broad tunable band gaps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Daocheng; Weng, Ding; Wang, Xiaolei; Xiao, Qiangfeng; Chen, Wei; Xu, Chuanlai; Yang, Zhengzhong; Lu, Yunfeng

    2009-07-28

    Nearly monodisperse alloyed (CuInS2)x(ZnS)1-x nanocrystals with cubic and hexagonal phases were successfully synthesized for the first time, and the band gaps of these alloyed nanocrystals can be tuned in the broad range of 1.5 to 3.7 eV by changing the ratio of CuInS2 to ZnS.

  3. The Broad Autism Phenotype Questionnaire: Prevalence and Diagnostic Classification

    OpenAIRE

    Sasson, Noah J.; Lam, Kristen S. L.; Childress, Debra; Parlier, Morgan; Daniels, Julie L.; Piven, Joseph

    2013-01-01

    The Broad Autism Phenotype Questionnaire (BAPQ; Hurley et al, 2007) was administered to a large community-based sample of biological parents of children with autism (PCAs) and comparison parents (CPs) (n = 1692). Exploratory factor analysis and internal consistency parameters confirmed a robust three factor structure of the BAPQ, corresponding to the proposed aloof, pragmatic language and rigidity subscales. Based upon the distribution of BAP features in the general population, new normative ...

  4. Broad-Based Search for New and Practical Superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-31

    AFRL-OSR-VA-TR-2014-0296 BROAD-BASED SEARCH FOR NEW AND PRACTICAL SUPERCONDUCTORS Richard Greene MARYLAND UNIV COLLEGE PARK Final Report 10/31/2014...New and Practical Superconductors 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER FA9550-09-1-0603 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER MURI FY09 6. AUTHOR(S...grant. Many new superconductors were discovered, most with transition temperatures (Tc) below 10K. One noteworthy discovery was the superconductivity

  5. Fatigue failure of materials under broad band random vibrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, T. C.; Lanz, R. W.

    1971-01-01

    The fatigue life of material under multifactor influence of broad band random excitations has been investigated. Parameters which affect the fatigue life are postulated to be peak stress, variance of stress and the natural frequency of the system. Experimental data were processed by the hybrid computer. Based on the experimental results and regression analysis a best predicting model has been found. All values of the experimental fatigue lives are within the 95% confidence intervals of the predicting equation.

  6. Attachment insecurity as a mediator of the relationship between childhood trauma and adult dissociation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Seong Sook; Kang, Dae Ryong; Oh, Min Jung; Kim, Nam Hee

    2017-05-16

    This study aimed to investigate whether attachment insecurity mediates the relationship between childhood trauma and adult dissociation, specifically with regard to individual forms of childhood maltreatment. Psychiatric outpatients who visited a specialized trauma clinic (n = 115) participated in the study. Data were collected via the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire, Revised Adult Attachment Scale, and Dissociative Experience Scale. Structural equation modeling and path analysis were performed to analyze the mediating effects of attachment insecurity on the relationship between childhood trauma and adult dissociation. Greater childhood trauma was associated with higher dissociation, and the relationship between them was fully mediated by attachment anxiety. In path analysis of trauma subtypes, the effects of emotional abuse, physical abuse, and physical neglect as a child on adult dissociation were found to be fully mediated by attachment anxiety. The effect of sexual abuse on dissociation was mediated by a synergistic effect from both attachment anxiety and attachment avoidance. Regarding emotional neglect, a countervailing interaction was discovered between the direct and indirect effects thereof on dissociation; the indirect effect of emotional neglect on dissociation was partially mediated by attachment insecurity. Specific aspects of attachment insecurity may help explain the relationships between individual forms of childhood trauma and adult dissociative symptoms. Tailored treatments based on affected areas of attachment insecurity may improve outcomes among patients with dissociative symptoms and a history of childhood trauma.

  7. Childhood intelligence and adult obesity

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kanazawa, Satoshi

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Recent studies conclude childhood intelligence has no direct effect on adult obesity net of education, but evolutionary psychological theories suggest otherwise. Design and Methods: A population ( n = 17,419...

  8. Mediterranean diet and childhood asthma

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Calatayud-Sáez, F M; Calatayud Moscoso Del Prado, B; Gallego Fernández-Pacheco, J G; González-Martín, C; Alguacil Merino, L F

    .... The objective of the present study was to assess the effects of a traditional Mediterranean diet on patients diagnosed with childhood asthma and determine if there is a beneficial effect from this dietary intervention...

  9. Assessment of chronic childhood dysphonia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mornet, E; Coulombeau, B; Fayoux, P; Marie, J-P; Nicollas, R; Robert-Rochet, D; Marianowski, R

    2014-01-01

    Chronic childhood dysphonia is a common condition in the school-age period. Perceived functional disorder is subjective and the alert is usually given by a person not belonging to the child's immediate environment...

  10. Nutritional and technological characteristics of new broad bean flaked products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senesi, E; Duranti, M; Gervasini, M; Bertolo, G; Rizzolo, A

    1988-01-01

    The effects of the technological processes (soaking in water or alkaline solutions, drying, puree preparation) and the supplementation with maize flour on the nutritional value and on the organoleptic characteristics of broad bean (Vicia faba, L. major) flakes have been studied. Protein content was not affected by technological process. The addition of maize flour decreased the protein content of the final product depending on the amount of the maize flour added. Amino acid composition showed a decrease of tryptophan due to technological processing. Supplementation with maize flour improved the amino acid pattern and, except for tryptophan, the amount of essential amino acids in the flakes supplemented with 25% or more maize flour well compared with the provisional pattern by F.A.O. In vitro digestibility trials did not evidence significant changes due to technological processes or to integration of broad beans with maize flour. Broad bean toxic factors (vicine and convicine glycosides) were only slightly affected by the alkaline treatment of the flakes. Glycosides content decreased with the increasing supplementation with maize flour but the relationship was not linear. The organoleptic tests were positive for texture and taste, whereas the appearance of the products should be improved.

  11. Extreme Variability in a Broad Absorption Line Quasar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stern, Daniel; Jun, Hyunsung D. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Mail Stop 169-221, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Graham, Matthew J.; Djorgovski, S. G.; Donalek, Ciro; Drake, Andrew J.; Mahabal, Ashish A.; Steidel, Charles C. [California Institute of Technology, 1200 E. California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Arav, Nahum; Chamberlain, Carter [Department of Physics, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA 24061 (United States); Barth, Aaron J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, 4129 Frederick Reines Hall, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697 (United States); Glikman, Eilat, E-mail: daniel.k.stern@jpl.nasa.gov [Department of Physics, Middlebury College, Middlebury, VT 05753 (United States)

    2017-04-20

    CRTS J084133.15+200525.8 is an optically bright quasar at z = 2.345 that has shown extreme spectral variability over the past decade. Photometrically, the source had a visual magnitude of V ∼ 17.3 between 2002 and 2008. Then, over the following five years, the source slowly brightened by approximately one magnitude, to V ∼ 16.2. Only ∼1 in 10,000 quasars show such extreme variability, as quantified by the extreme parameters derived for this quasar assuming a damped random walk model. A combination of archival and newly acquired spectra reveal the source to be an iron low-ionization broad absorption line quasar with extreme changes in its absorption spectrum. Some absorption features completely disappear over the 9 years of optical spectra, while other features remain essentially unchanged. We report the first definitive redshift for this source, based on the detection of broad H α in a Keck/MOSFIRE spectrum. Absorption systems separated by several 1000 km s{sup −1} in velocity show coordinated weakening in the depths of their troughs as the continuum flux increases. We interpret the broad absorption line variability to be due to changes in photoionization, rather than due to motion of material along our line of sight. This source highlights one sort of rare transition object that astronomy will now be finding through dedicated time-domain surveys.

  12. Psychological consequences of childhood obesity: psychiatric comorbidity and prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rankin J

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Jean Rankin,1 Lynsay Matthews,2 Stephen Cobley,3 Ahreum Han,3 Ross Sanders,3 Huw D Wiltshire,4 Julien S Baker5 1Department of Maternal and Child Health, University of the West of Scotland, Paisley, 2MRC/CSO Social and Public Health Sciences Unit, Institute of Health and Wellbeing, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, Scotland; 3Department of Exercise and Sport Science, University of Sydney, Sydney, Australia; 4Cardiff School of Sport/Ysgol Chwaraeon Caerdydd, Cardiff Metropolitan University, Cardiff, UK; 5School of Science and Sport, Institute of Clinical Exercise and Health Science, University of the West of Scotland, Hamilton, Scotland Abstract: Childhood obesity is one of the most serious public health challenges of the 21st century with far-reaching and enduring adverse consequences for health outcomes. Over 42 million children <5 years worldwide are estimated to be overweight (OW or obese (OB, and if current trends continue, then an estimated 70 million children will be OW or OB by 2025. The purpose of this review was to focus on psychiatric, psychological, and psychosocial consequences of childhood obesity (OBy to include a broad range of international studies. The aim was to establish what has recently changed in relation to the common psychological consequences associated with childhood OBy. A systematic search was conducted in MEDLINE, Web of Science, and the Cochrane Library for articles presenting information on the identification or prevention of psychiatric morbidity in childhood obesity. Relevant data were extracted and narratively reviewed. Findings established childhood OW/OBy was negatively associated with psychological comorbidities, such as depression, poorer perceived lower scores on health-related quality of life, emotional and behavioral disorders, and self-esteem during childhood. Evidence related to the association between attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD and OBy remains unconvincing because of various findings

  13. Childhood obesity and cardiovascular disease

    OpenAIRE

    Bridger, Tracey

    2009-01-01

    Childhood obesity has reached epidemic proportions. Many of these children have risk factors for later disease, including cardiovascular disease. For optimal cardiovascular health, health care professionals must be able to identify children and youth at risk and provide appropriate support as needed. The present article reviews the current medical literature on obesity and cardiovascular disease risk factors in the paediatric population, the long-term cardiovascular consequences of childhood ...

  14. Childhood obesity, prevalence and prevention

    OpenAIRE

    Merchant Anwar T; Akhtar-Danesh Noori; Dehghan Mahshid

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Childhood obesity has reached epidemic levels in developed countries. Twenty five percent of children in the US are overweight and 11% are obese. Overweight and obesity in childhood are known to have significant impact on both physical and psychological health. The mechanism of obesity development is not fully understood and it is believed to be a disorder with multiple causes. Environmental factors, lifestyle preferences, and cultural environment play pivotal roles in the rising pre...

  15. Maternal Employment and Childhood Obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gwozdz, Wencke; Sousa-Poza, Alfonso; Reisch, Lucia

    The substantial increase in female employment rates in Europe over the past two decades has often been linked in political and public rhetoric to negative effects on child development, including obesity. We analyse this association between maternal employment and childhood obesity using rich...... on obesity's main drivers: calorie intake and physical activity. Our analysis provides little evidence for any association between maternal employment and childhood obesity, diet or physical activity....

  16. Mental deterioration in childhood epilepsy

    OpenAIRE

    Oka, Eiji; Sanada, Satoshi; Asano, Takashi; Ishida, Takashi

    1997-01-01

    Mental retardation is detected in 20-30% of children with epilepsy at hospitals specializing in treatment of childhood epilepsy. However, the incidence of mental deterioration in childhood epilepsy is not high. In this study, mental deterioration was found in 52 (1.8%) of the 2,880 children with epilepsy at Okayama University Hospital. The patients showing mental deterioration mostly suffered from specific epileptic syndromes, such as West syndrome, Lennox-Gastaut syndrome, severe myoclonic e...

  17. Maternal Employment and Childhood Obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gwozdz, Wencke; Sousa-Poza, Alfonso; Reisch, Lucia

    2013-01-01

    The substantial increase in female employment rates in Europe over the past two decades has often been linked in political and public rhetoric to negative effects on child development, including obesity. We analyse this association between maternal employment and childhood obesity using rich...... on obesity's main drivers: calorie intake and physical activity. Our analysis provides little evidence for any association between maternal employment and childhood obesity, diet or physical activity....

  18. Childhood obesity: causes and consequences

    OpenAIRE

    Krushnapriya Sahoo; Bishnupriya Sahoo; Ashok Kumar Choudhury; Nighat Yasin Sofi; Raman Kumar; Ajeet Singh Bhadoria

    2015-01-01

    Childhood obesity has reached epidemic levels in developed as well as in developing countries. Overweight and obesity in childhood are known to have significant impact on both physical and psychological health. Overweight and obese children are likely to stay obese into adulthood and more likely to develop non-communicable diseases like diabetes and cardiovascular diseases at a younger age. The mechanism of obesity development is not fully understood and it is believed to be a disorder with m...

  19. A tunable, linac based, intense, broad-band THz source forpump-probe experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmerge, J. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Adolphsen, C. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Corbett, J. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Dolgashev, V. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Durr, H. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Fazio, M. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Fisher, A. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Frisch, J. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Gaffney, K. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Guehr, M. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Hastings, J. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Hettel, B. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Hoffmann, M. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Hogan, M. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Holtkamp, N. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Huang, X. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Huang, Z. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Kirchmann, P. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); LaRue, J. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Limborg, C. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Lindenberg, A. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Loos, H. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Maxwell, T. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Nilsson, A. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Raubenheimer, T. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Reis, D. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Ross, M. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Shen, Z. -X. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Stupakov, G. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Tantawi, S. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Tian, K. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Wu, Z. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Xiang, D. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Yakimenko, V. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States)

    2015-02-02

    We propose an intense THz source with tunable frequency and bandwidth that can directly interact with the degrees of freedom that determine the properties of materials and thus provides a new tool for controlling and directing these ultrafast processes as well as aiding synthesis of new materials with new functional properties. This THz source will broadly impact our understanding of dynamical processes in matter at the atomic-scale and in real time. Established optical pumping schemes using femtosecond visible frequency laser pulses for excitation are extended into the THz frequency regime thereby enabling resonant excitation of bonds in correlated solid state materials (phonon pumping), to drive low energy electronic excitations, to trigger surface chemistry reactions, and to all-optically bias a material with ultrashort electric fields or magnetic fields. A linac-based THz source can supply stand-alone experiments with peak intensities two orders of magnitude stronger than existing laser-based sources, but when coupled with atomic-scale sensitive femtosecond x-ray probes it opens a new frontier in ultrafast science with broad applications to correlated materials, interfacial and liquid phase chemistry, and materials in extreme conditions.

  20. Early childhood risk and resilience factors for behavioural and emotional problems in middle childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabaj, Jason L; McDonald, Sheila W; Tough, Suzanne C

    2014-07-01

    Mental disorders in childhood have a considerable health and societal impact but the associated negative consequences may be ameliorated through early identification of risk and protective factors that can guide health promoting and preventive interventions. The objective of this study was to inform health policy and practice through identification of demographic, familial and environmental factors associated with emotional or behavioural problems in middle childhood, and the predictors of resilience in the presence of identified risk factors. A cohort of 706 mothers followed from early pregnancy was surveyed at six to eight years post-partum by a mail-out questionnaire, which included questions on demographics, children's health, development, activities, media and technology, family, friends, community, school life, and mother's health. Although most children do well in middle childhood, of 450 respondents (64% response rate), 29.5% and 25.6% of children were found to have internalising and externalising behaviour problem scores in the lowest quintile on the NSCLY Child Behaviour Scales. Independent predictors for problem behaviours identified through multivariable logistic regression modelling included being male, demographic risk, maternal mental health risk, poor parenting interactions, and low parenting morale. Among children at high risk for behaviour problems, protective factors included high maternal and child self-esteem, good maternal emotional health, adequate social support, good academic performance, and adequate quality parenting time. These findings demonstrate that several individual and social resilience factors can counter the influence of early adversities on the likelihood of developing problem behaviours in middle childhood, thus informing enhanced public health interventions for this understudied life course phase.

  1. Production benefits of childhood overhearing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knightly, Leah M; Jun, Sun-Ah; Oh, Janet S; Au, Terry Kit-fong

    2003-07-01

    The current study assessed whether overhearing Spanish during childhood helps later Spanish pronunciation in adulthood. Our preliminary report based on a subset of the data [Au et al., Psychol. Sci. 13, 238-243 (2002)] revealed that adults who overheard Spanish during childhood had better Spanish pronunciation, but not better morphosyntax, than adult learners of Spanish who had no childhood experience with Spanish. We now present data from the full sample with additional morphosyntax and pronunciation assessments, as well as measures to help rule out possible confounding prosodic factors such as speech rate, phrasing, and stress placement. Three groups of undergraduates were compared: 15 Spanish-English bilinguals (native Spanish speakers), 15 late learners of Spanish who overheard Spanish during childhood (childhood overhearers), 15 late learners of Spanish who had no regular experience with Spanish until middle or high school (typical late L2 learners). Results confirmed a pronunciation advantage for the childhood overhearers over the typical late L2 learners on all measures: phonetic analyses (VOT and degree of lenition), accent ratings (phoneme and story production), but no benefit in morphosyntax. Importantly, the pronunciation advantage did not seem attributable to prosodic factors. These findings illustrate the specificity of overhearers' advantage to phonological production.

  2. A quantitative measure of restricted and repetitive behaviors for early childhood

    OpenAIRE

    Wolff, Jason J.; Boyd, Brian A.; Elison, Jed T.

    2016-01-01

    Background Restricted and repetitive behaviors are characteristic phenotypic features of many neurodevelopmental, psychiatric, and neurological conditions. During early childhood, such behaviors are considered normative. More research is needed to delineate the dimensions of restricted and repetitive behavior across typical and atypical development during this period. Methods We developed the 34-item parent-rated Repetitive Behavior Scale for Early Childhood (RBS-EC) to capture quantitative, ...

  3. Adults' attitudes about gender nonconformity in childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Rachel N; Blakemore, Judith E Owen

    2013-04-01

    This study examined attitudes about outcomes associated with childhood gender nonconformity. Participants were 518 undergraduate students (337 female; 181 male) at a midwestern university in the U.S. Participants were presented with 1 of 10 vignettes describing a target child (male or female) who varied in gendered traits, interests, and behaviors (strongly masculine, moderately masculine, neutral, moderately feminine or strongly feminine). They completed a 50-item questionnaire including demographics, predicted outcomes for the target (e.g., masculinity and femininity in adulthood, pressure to change, psychological adjustment in childhood and adulthood, and sexual orientation), and the Attitudes toward Women Scale (Spence et al., 1973). Participants thought masculine and feminine targets would be masculine and feminine in adulthood, respectively: thus, stability was expected for both sexes. Feminine targets, boys or girls, were thought to be more likely to display internalizing (e.g., anxiety, depression) behaviors and masculine targets more likely to display externalizing (e.g., aggression, conduct disorders) behaviors in both childhood and adulthood. Gender-nonconforming children were expected to experience more pressure to change their behavior and less likely to be exclusively heterosexual adults, the latter particularly so for strongly feminine boys. There were few significant effects of participant sex and no effects of attitudes about gender on any of these measures. These findings add to the literature by demonstrating that degrees of masculinity and femininity as well as of gender nonconformity are expected to be associated with predictable outcomes in a linear fashion in both sexes, with only a few differences between expectations for boys and girls.

  4. Sensory modulation disorders in childhood epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Campen, Jolien S; Jansen, Floor E; Kleinrensink, Nienke J; Joëls, Marian; Braun, Kees Pj; Bruining, Hilgo

    2015-01-01

    Altered sensory sensitivity is generally linked to seizure-susceptibility in childhood epilepsy but may also be associated to the highly prevalent problems in behavioral adaptation. This association is further suggested by the frequent overlap of childhood epilepsy with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), conditions in which altered behavioral responses to sensory stimuli have been firmly established. A continuum of sensory processing defects due to imbalanced neuronal inhibition and excitation across these disorders has been hypothesizedthat may lead to common symptoms of inadequate modulation of behavioral responses to sensory stimuli. Here, we investigated the prevalence of sensory modulation disorders among children with epilepsy and their relation with symptomatology of neurodevelopmental disorders. We used the Sensory Profile questionnaire to assess behavioral responses to sensory stimuli and categorize sensory modulation disorders in children with active epilepsy (aged 4-17 years). We related these outcomes to epilepsy characteristics and tested their association with comorbid symptoms of ASD (Social Responsiveness Scale) and ADHD (Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire). Sensory modulation disorders were reported in 49 % of the 158 children. Children with epilepsy reported increased behavioral responses associated with sensory "sensitivity," "sensory avoidance," and "poor registration" but not "sensory seeking." Comorbidity of ASD and ADHD was associated with more severe sensory modulation problems, although 27 % of typically developing children with epilepsy also reported a sensory modulation disorder. Sensory modulation disorders are an under-recognized problem in children with epilepsy. The extent of the modulation difficulties indicates a substantial burden on daily functioning and may explain an important part of the behavioral distress associated with childhood epilepsy.

  5. Childhood Determinants of Adult Psychiatric Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fryers, Tom; Brugha, Traolach

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this project was to assess the current evidence from longitudinal studies for childhood determinants of adult mental illness. Because of the variable and often prolonged period between factors in childhood and the identification of mental illness in adults, prospective studies, particularly birth cohorts, offer the best chance of demonstrating associations in individuals. A review was undertaken in 2006 of the published literature from longitudinal studies, together with some large-scale retrospective studies and relevant reviews which provided supplementary evidence. The main focus was upon potentially ameliorable characteristics, experiences or situations of childhood; however, other factors, not determinants but pre-cursors, associated with later mental illness could not be left out. Seven major electronic data-bases of published research were interrogated with a range of key-words and the results supplemented from personal searches, enquiries and reference trails. In excess of 1,500 abstracts were read to select 250 papers for full review. The material was assessed in relation to ten factors: Psychological disturbance; Genetic Influences; Neurological Deviance; Neuroticism; Behaviour; School Performance; Adversity; Child Abuse or Neglect; Parenting and parent-child relationships; Disrupted and Disfunctional Families. In 2011 the search was repeated for the period 2006 to mid-2011, using the same search terms and supplemented in the same manner. Over 1,800 abstracts emerged and almost 200 papers selected for more detailed review. These were then integrated into the original text with modifications where necessary. The whole text was then revised and edited in January / February 2012. There is continuing evidence for the association with later mental ill-health for each of these ten factors, but with different degrees of conviction. The evidence for each is discussed in detail and weighed both separately and in relation to others. These are then

  6. Perinatal cortical growth and childhood neurocognitive abilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathbone, R; Counsell, S J; Kapellou, O; Dyet, L; Kennea, N; Hajnal, J; Allsop, J M; Cowan, F; Edwards, A D

    2011-10-18

    This observational cohort study addressed the hypothesis that after preterm delivery brain growth between 24 and 44 weeks postmenstrual age (PMA) is related to global neurocognitive ability in later childhood. Growth rates for cerebral volume and cortical surface area were estimated in 82 infants without focal brain lesions born before 30 weeks PMA by using 217 magnetic resonance images obtained between 24 and 44 weeks PMA. Abilities were assessed at 2 years using the Griffiths Mental Development Scale and at 6 years using the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence-Revised (WPPSI-R), the Developmental Neuropsychological Assessment (NEPSY), and the Movement Assessment Battery for Children (MABC). Analysis was by generalized least-squares regression. Mean test scores approximated population averages. Cortical growth was directly related to the Griffiths Developmental Quotient (DQ), the WPPSI-R full-scale IQ, and a NEPSY summary score but not the MABC score and in exploration of subtests to attention, planning, memory, language, and numeric and conceptual abilities but not motor skills. The mean (95% confidence interval) estimated reduction in cortical surface area at term corrected age associated with a 1 SD fall in test score was as follows: DQ 7.0 (5.8-8.5); IQ 6.0 (4.9-7.3); and NEPSY 9.1 (7.5-11.0) % · SD(-1). Total brain volume growth was not correlated with any test score. The rate of cerebral cortical growth between 24 and 44 weeks PMA predicts global ability in later childhood, particularly complex cognitive functions but not motor functions.

  7. Generic maximum likely scale selection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Kim Steenstrup; Loog, Marco; Markussen, Bo

    2007-01-01

    in this work is on applying this selection principle under a Brownian image model. This image model provides a simple scale invariant prior for natural images and we provide illustrative examples of the behavior of our scale estimation on such images. In these illustrative examples, estimation is based......The fundamental problem of local scale selection is addressed by means of a novel principle, which is based on maximum likelihood estimation. The principle is generally applicable to a broad variety of image models and descriptors, and provides a generic scale estimation methodology. The focus...

  8. Can the FAST and ROSIER adult stroke recognition tools be applied to confirmed childhood arterial ischemic stroke?

    OpenAIRE

    Babl Franz E; Yock-Corrales Adriana; Mosley Ian T; Mackay Mark T

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Stroke recognition tools have been shown to improve diagnostic accuracy in adults. Development of a similar tool in children is needed to reduce lag time to diagnosis. A critical first step is to determine whether adult stoke scales can be applied in childhood stroke. Our objective was to assess the applicability of adult stroke scales in childhood arterial ischemic stroke (AIS) Methods Children aged 1 month to < 18 years with radiologically confirmed acute AIS who present...

  9. Childhood emotional problems and self-perceptions predict weight gain in a longitudinal regression model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Collier David

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Obesity and weight gain are correlated with psychological ill health. We predicted that childhood emotional problems and self-perceptions predict weight gain into adulthood. Methods Data on around 6,500 individuals was taken from the 1970 Birth Cohort Study. This sample was a representative sample of individuals born in the UK in one week in 1970. Body mass index was measured by a trained nurse at the age of 10 years, and self-reported at age 30 years. Childhood emotional problems were indexed using the Rutter B scale and self-report. Self-esteem was measured using the LAWSEQ questionnaire, whilst the CARALOC scale was used to measure locus of control. Results Controlling for childhood body mass index, parental body mass index, and social class, childhood emotional problems as measured by the Rutter scale predicted weight gain in women only (least squares regression N = 3,359; coefficient 0.004; P = 0.032. Using the same methods, childhood self-esteem predicted weight gain in both men and women (N = 6,526; coefficient 0.023; P N = 6,522; coefficient 0.022; P Conclusion Emotional problems, low self-esteem and an external locus of control in childhood predict weight gain into adulthood. This has important clinical implications as it highlights a direction for early intervention strategies that may contribute to efforts to combat the current obesity epidemic.

  10. Impact of childhood trauma on functionality and quality of life in HIV-infected women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spottiswoode Bruce

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While there are many published studies on HIV and functional limitations, there are few in the context of early abuse and its impact on functionality and Quality of Life (QoL in HIV. Methods The present study focused on HIV in the context of childhood trauma and its impact on functionality and Quality of Life (QoL by evaluating 85 HIV-positive (48 with childhood trauma and 37 without and 52 HIV-negative (21 with childhood trauma and 31 without South African women infected with Clade C HIV. QoL was assessed using the Quality of Life Enjoyment and Satisfaction Questionnaire (Q-LES-Q, the Patient's Assessment of Own Functioning Inventory (PAOFI, the Activities of Daily Living (ADL scale and the Sheehan Disability Scale (SDS. Furthermore, participants were assessed using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D and the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ. Results Subjects had a mean age of 30.1 years. After controlling for age, level of education and CES-D scores, analysis of covariance (ANCOVA demonstrated significant individual effects of HIV status and childhood trauma on self-reported QoL. No significant interactional effects were evident. Functional limitation was, however, negatively correlated with CD4 lymphocyte count. Conclusions In assessing QoL in HIV-infected women, we were able to demonstrate the impact of childhood trauma on functional limitations in HIV.

  11. Impact of childhood trauma on functionality and quality of life in HIV-infected women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troeman, Zyrhea C E; Spies, Georgina; Cherner, Mariana; Archibald, Sarah L; Fennema-Notestine, Christine; Theilmann, Rebecca J; Spottiswoode, Bruce; Stein, Dan J; Seedat, Soraya

    2011-09-30

    While there are many published studies on HIV and functional limitations, there are few in the context of early abuse and its impact on functionality and Quality of Life (QoL) in HIV. The present study focused on HIV in the context of childhood trauma and its impact on functionality and Quality of Life (QoL) by evaluating 85 HIV-positive (48 with childhood trauma and 37 without) and 52 HIV-negative (21 with childhood trauma and 31 without) South African women infected with Clade C HIV. QoL was assessed using the Quality of Life Enjoyment and Satisfaction Questionnaire (Q-LES-Q), the Patient's Assessment of Own Functioning Inventory (PAOFI), the Activities of Daily Living (ADL) scale and the Sheehan Disability Scale (SDS). Furthermore, participants were assessed using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) and the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ). Subjects had a mean age of 30.1 years. After controlling for age, level of education and CES-D scores, analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) demonstrated significant individual effects of HIV status and childhood trauma on self-reported QoL. No significant interactional effects were evident. Functional limitation was, however, negatively correlated with CD4 lymphocyte count. In assessing QoL in HIV-infected women, we were able to demonstrate the impact of childhood trauma on functional limitations in HIV.

  12. [Neuropsychological deficits in alternating hemiplegia of childhood: a case study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muriel, Vega; Garcia-Molina, Alberto; Aparicio-Lopez, Celeste; Ensenat, Antònia; Roig-Rovira, Teresa

    2015-07-01

    Alternating hemiplegic of childhood is a predominantly sporadic neurodevelopmental syndrome of uncertain etiology, characterized by alternating transient attacks of hemiplegia. Additional features include tonic fits, dystonic posturing, ocular motor abnormalities and deficits in cognitive functioning. A girl of 7 years-old with alternating hemiplegic of childhood. The first symptoms debut at 17 months of age in the form of lower limb weakness, migraine, nystagmus and hemiplegic crisis alternating both hemibodies. We administrate the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children IV (WISC-IV), the Conners Continuous Performance Test II (CPT-II), the Conners scales for parents (CPRS-48) and teachers (CTRS-28) and the Behavior Rating Inventory Executive Function (BRIEF). In our study we found deficits in sustained attention, reduced speed of information processing, and difficulties in understanding, speaking and working memory. In addition, parents and teachers reported behavioral disturbances, difficulties inhibition capability, in self-control and in regulating emotions.

  13. Genital abnormalities in early childhood in sexual homicide perpetrators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rettenberger, Martin; Hill, Andreas; Dekker, Arne; Berner, Wolfgang; Briken, Peer

    2013-04-01

    INTRODUCTION.: The present study investigates the relevance of genital abnormalities (GA) like cryptorchidism, hypospadias, and phimosis usually diagnosed in early childhood for the development of psychosexual problems and deficits in a sample of N = 163 convicted sexual homicide perpetrators. AIMS.: The first aim was to investigate the prevalence of early childhood GA in a sample of sexual homicide perpetrators. The second was to explore differences in the psychosexual development of participants with GA in early childhood compared with those without GA. It was expected that offenders with GA show specific problems in their psychosexual development compared with offenders without GA. METHODS.: The data for the present study were obtained by reanalyzing an existing database derived from a large-scale research project about sexual homicide. Using a predominantly exploratory design we, therefore, divided the total sample into two subgroups (with vs. without indicators of GA). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES.: Main outcome measures were the number of sexual homicide perpetrators showing GA in early childhood and the differences of subjects with and without GA with regard to their psychosexual development (i.e., according to sexual deviant interests or sexual dysfunctions). RESULTS.: The prevalence of GA is substantially higher in this sample than epidemiological studies indicated in the normal population. This result provided first support for the importance of GA in the population of sexual homicide perpetrators. Further analyses indicate significant differences between both subgroups: Offenders with GA in early childhood showed indicators for more sexual dysfunctions (e.g., erectile dysfunction) in adulthood and a distinct tendency of more masochistic sexual interests. CONCLUSION.: Even if the exploratory design of the present investigation allows no causal conclusions between GA and sexual homicide offenses, the result provided support for the relevance of early

  14. [Nutritional index in heart diseases in childhood].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granzotti, J A; Falha, S L; Nunes, M D

    1990-12-01

    To study heart disease in childhood aiming to know its incidence and consequences upon the nutritional status. Two-hundred patients were distributed in three groups: 1) 113 (56.5%) with congenital acyanotic form; 2) 19 (9.5%) with congenital cyanotic form and 3) 68 (34%) with acquired forms. All of them regularly visiting the ambulatory service of Paediatric cardiology of the Hospital das Clínicas da Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto da USP from 1987 until 1990. The majority (92%) of the children (being 56% male and aging 5.1 +/- 0.4 years-old) showed nutritional indexes between 5 and 95 (percentile scale). The overall diagnosis distribution were: 1) ventricular septal defect (51 cases); 2) atrial septal defect (21 cases); 3) valvular diseases (21 cases); 4) arrhythmias (20 cases); 5) cardiac involvement of systemic diseases (20 cases); and 6) tetralogy complex (8 cases). Twelve patients (6%) were underscored (below percentile 5) and only 4 (2%) scored above percentile 95 (obese patients). The comparison of the mean indexes were found statistical different (p less than 0.05), being the cyanotic congenital forms the worst ones and the acquired forms the best one. Heart disease in childhood is associated to nutritional index deficits in the majority of the cases.

  15. Global burden of childhood diarrhea and interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Jai K; Salam, Rehana A; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A

    2014-10-01

    Diarrhea is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality among children under 5 years in low-income and middle-income countries. Over the past 2 decades under-five mortality has decreased substantially, but reductions have been uneven and unsatisfactory in resource-poor regions. There are known interventions which can prevent diarrhea or manage children who suffer from it. Interventions with proven effectiveness at the prevention level include water, sanitation, and hygiene interventions, breastfeeding, complementary feeding, vitamin A and zinc supplementation, and vaccines for diarrhea (rotavirus and cholera). Oral rehydration solution, zinc treatment, continued feeding, and antibiotic treatment for certain strains of diarrhea (cholera, Shigella, and cryptosporidiosis) are effective strategies for treatment of diarrhea. The recent Lancet series using the 'Lives Saved' tool suggested that if these identified interventions were scaled up to a global coverage to at least 80%, and immunizations to at least 90%; almost all deaths due to diarrhea could be averted. The current childhood mortality burden highlights the need of a focused global diarrhea action plan. The findings suggest that with proper packaging of interventions and delivery platforms, the burden of childhood diarrhea can be reduced to a greater extent. All that is required is greater attention and steps toward right direction.

  16. Colorectal polyps in childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakkar, Kalpesh; Fishman, Douglas S; Gilger, Mark A

    2012-10-01

    Colorectal polyps are a common cause of gastrointestinal bleeding in children. This review updates the information on colorectal polyps and summarizes the recent advances in genetics, diagnosis, and treatment of polyps in the large intestine. A review of recent literature regarding colorectal polyps demonstrates an estimated detected prevalence of 6.1% overall and 12.0% among those with lower gastrointestinal bleeding during pediatric colonoscopy. Non-Caucasian races (e.g., black and Hispanic) are at higher risk for colorectal polyps in childhood. Recent data show juvenile polyps may recur in approximately 45% of children with multiple polyps and 17% of children with solitary polyps. A clinical trial showed that celecoxib, a cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 inhibitor, significantly reduced the number of colorectal polyps in children with familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP). Ethical challenges related to genetic tests for FAP have been newly examined. The utility of novel endoscopic techniques (e.g., enteroscopy) in Peutz-Jeghers Syndrome to prevent intussusception have been newly described. Although colorectal polyps in children are generally benign and easily removed, careful clinical evaluation and ongoing research are needed to identify the small proportion of children at risk for cancer. The current paradigm of using the polyp number at presentation as a primary determinant of subsequent surveillance may be inadequate for many patients.

  17. Thrombocytosis in childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantadakis, E; Tsalkidis, A; Chatzimichael, A

    2008-08-01

    Thrombocytosis is a frequent finding in hemograms obtained from hospitalized and ambulatory children due to the widespread use of automated blood cell counters. Pediatricians are commonly puzzled in cases of thrombocytosis to determine the underlying cause and the need for therapy. The purpose of this review is to assist the general pediatrician into dealing with this common hematological finding in every day clinical practice. Fortunately, primary thrombocytosis or essential thrombocythemia, a clonal disease, is exceedingly rare in childhood, but may be associated with thromboembolic and hemorrhagic complications. On the other hand, secondary or reactive thrombocytosis is very common and is due to a variety of conditions, such as acute and chronic infections, iron deficiency, bleeding, hemolytic anemias, collagen vascular diseases, malignancies, drugs and splenectomy. Treatment of reactive thrombocytosis should be directed to the underlying problem alone. Administration of platelet aggregation inhibitors such as aspirin is unwarranted. Consultation is necessary only for the rare child with extreme thrombocytosis who has clinical and/or laboratory criteria consistent with essential thrombocythemia, or in whom a hemorrhagic or thrombotic complication has developed.

  18. Introduction: Childhood and Disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salter, Erica K

    2017-06-21

    From growth attenuation therapy for severely developmentally disabled children to the post-natal management of infants with trisomy 13 and 18, pediatric treatment decisions regularly involve assessments of the probability and severity of a child's disability. Because these decisions are almost always made by surrogate decision-makers (parents and caregivers) and because these decision-makers must often make decisions based on both prognostic guesses and potentially biased quality of life judgments, they are among the most ethically complex in pediatric care. As the introduction to HEC Forum's special thematic issue on Childhood and Disability, this article orients the reader to the history of bioethics' relationship to both pediatric ethics and disability studies and introduces the issue's five manuscripts. As clinicians, disability scholars, philosophers and clinical ethicists writing on various aspects of pediatric disability, the articles' authors all invite readers to dig beneath an overly-simplified version of what disability might mean to children and families and instead embrace a posture of genuine humility, recognizing both the limits and harms of traditional medical and bioethical responses (or indifferences) to the disabled child.

  19. Adverse childhood experiences and behavioral problems in middle childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Tenah K A; Slack, Kristen S; Berger, Lawrence M

    2017-05-01

    Children who have been exposed to maltreatment and other adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) are at increased risk for various negative adult health outcomes, including cancer, liver disease, substance abuse, and depression. However, the proximal associations between ACEs and behavioral outcomes during the middle childhood years have been understudied. In addition, many of the ACE studies contain methodological limitations such as reliance on retrospective reports and limited generalizability to populations of lower socioeconomic advantage. The current study uses data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study, a national urban birth cohort, to prospectively assess the adverse experiences and subsequent behavior problems of over 3000 children. Eight ACE categories to which a child was exposed by age 5 were investigated: childhood abuse (emotional and physical), neglect (emotional and physical), and parental domestic violence, anxiety or depression, substance abuse, or incarceration. Results from bivariate analyses indicated that Black children and children with mothers of low education were particularly likely to have been exposed to multiple ACE categories. Regression analyses showed that exposure to ACEs is strongly associated with externalizing and internalizing behaviors and likelihood of ADHD diagnosis in middle childhood. Variation in these associations by racial/ethnic, gender, and maternal education subgroups are examined. This study provides evidence that children as young as 9 begin to show behavioral problems after exposure to early childhood adversities. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Dating relationships in college students with childhood-onset asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eddington, Angelica R; Mullins, Larry L; Fedele, David A; Ryan, Jamie L; Junghans, Ashley N

    2010-02-01

    The current study investigated whether differences existed in dating anxiety and fear of intimacy between individuals with childhood-onset asthma and individuals without a chronic illness. Analyses were also conducted to determine if dating anxiety or fear of intimacy were predictors of health-related quality of life in individuals with asthma and healthy controls. Additionally, potential gender differences in dating anxiety and fear of intimacy in individuals with childhood-onset asthma were explored. College undergraduates at least 17 years of age who self-identified as having childhood asthma were randomly matched by age and gender to healthy control participants. Participants completed a demographic form, the Dating Anxiety Scale for Adolescents, the Fear of Intimacy Scale, and the SF-36 Health Survey, a measure of health-related quality of life. There were no significant differences between self-identified participants with asthma and matched healthy controls on the Dating Anxiety Scale or Fear of Intimacy Scale. However, dating anxiety was a significant predictor of mental health-related quality of life in participants with asthma but not in matched health controls. Fear of intimacy was not a significant predictor of mental or physical health-related quality of life in individuals with asthma. In addition, women with asthma endorsed significantly more dating anxiety and lower physical health-related quality of life than males with asthma. College students with asthma appear to experience similar levels of dating anxiety and fear of intimacy than healthy college students; however, their anxiety about dating may have a larger effect on health-related quality of life than healthy individuals. Additional examination of dating and interpersonal relationships among individuals with asthma appears warranted, particularly as it concerns possible gender differences in individuals with childhood-onset asthma.

  1. Human monoclonal antibodies broadly neutralizing against influenza B virus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayo Yasugi

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Influenza virus has the ability to evade host immune surveillance through rapid viral genetic drift and reassortment; therefore, it remains a continuous public health threat. The development of vaccines producing broadly reactive antibodies, as well as therapeutic strategies using human neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (HuMAbs with global reactivity, has been gathering great interest recently. Here, three hybridoma clones producing HuMAbs against influenza B virus, designated 5A7, 3A2 and 10C4, were prepared using peripheral lymphocytes from vaccinated volunteers, and were investigated for broad cross-reactive neutralizing activity. Of these HuMAbs, 3A2 and 10C4, which recognize the readily mutable 190-helix region near the receptor binding site in the hemagglutinin (HA protein, react only with the Yamagata lineage of influenza B virus. By contrast, HuMAb 5A7 broadly neutralizes influenza B strains that were isolated from 1985 to 2006, belonging to both Yamagata and Victoria lineages. Epitope mapping revealed that 5A7 recognizes 316G, 318C and 321W near the C terminal of HA1, a highly conserved region in influenza B virus. Indeed, no mutations in the amino acid residues of the epitope region were induced, even after the virus was passaged ten times in the presence of HuMAb 5A7. Moreover, 5A7 showed significant therapeutic efficacy in mice, even when it was administered 72 hours post-infection. These results indicate that 5A7 is a promising candidate for developing therapeutics, and provide insight for the development of a universal vaccine against influenza B virus.

  2. Childhood Leukemia and Primary Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehead, Todd P.; Metayer, Catherine; Wiemels, Joseph L.; Singer, Amanda W.; Miller, Mark D.

    2016-01-01

    Leukemia is the most common pediatric cancer, affecting 3,800 children per year in the United States. Its annual incidence has increased over the last decades, especially among Latinos. Although most children diagnosed with leukemia are now cured, many suffer long-term complications, and primary prevention efforts are urgently needed. The early onset of leukemia – usually before age five – and the presence at birth of “pre-leukemic” genetic signatures indicate that pre- and postnatal events are critical to the development of the disease. In contrast to most pediatric cancers, there is a growing body of literature – in the United States and internationally – that has implicated several environmental, infectious, and dietary risk factors in the etiology of childhood leukemia, mainly for acute lymphoblastic leukemia, the most common subtype. For example, exposures to pesticides, tobacco smoke, solvents, and traffic emissions have consistently demonstrated positive associations with the risk of developing childhood leukemia. In contrast, intake of vitamins and folate supplementation during the pre-conception period or pregnancy, breastfeeding, and exposure to routine childhood infections have been shown to reduce the risk of childhood leukemia. Some children may be especially vulnerable to these risk factors, as demonstrated by a disproportionate burden of childhood leukemia in the Latino population of California. The evidence supporting the associations between childhood leukemia and its risk factors – including pooled analyses from around the world and systematic reviews – is strong; however, the dissemination of this knowledge to clinicians has been limited. To protect children’s health, it is prudent to initiate programs designed to alter exposure to well-established leukemia risk factors rather than to suspend judgement until no uncertainty remains. Primary prevention programs for childhood leukemia would also result in the significant co

  3. Preventing childhood obesity: what works?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birch, L L; Ventura, A K

    2009-04-01

    Rates of overweight in North American children and adolescents have increased dramatically since the 1970s. Childhood obesity has reached epidemic proportions and calls for prevention and treatment programs to reverse this trend have been made. However, the evidence base needed for effective action is still incomplete, especially for childhood obesity prevention programs. This paper focuses on primary prevention of childhood obesity and has three aims: (1) to briefly describe current primary prevention approaches for childhood obesity and the evidence for their impact; (2) to elucidate promising, but untested intervention strategies using an ecological framework and evidence from experimental and epidemiological research on factors influencing children's eating and weight status; and (3) to introduce a multiphase strategy for screening intervention components and building and evaluating potent interventions for childhood obesity. Most childhood obesity prevention programs have focused on school-aged children and have had little success. We suggest that, given these findings, prevention efforts should be expanded to explore other contexts in which children live as possible settings for intervention efforts, including the family and childcare settings. Given that 25% of preschool children are already overweight, intervening with children before school entry should be a priority. A review of experimental research on the developing controls of food intake in infancy and childhood suggests possible intervention strategies, focusing on parenting and aspects of the feeding environment. Epidemiological findings point to even earlier modifiable risk factors, including gestational weight gain, maternal prepregnancy weight, and formula feeding. However, the potential impact of altering these risk factors remains to be evaluated. In response to this problem, we suggest a new, multiphase method for accomplishing this, including screening intervention components, refining

  4. New focal plane detector system for the broad range spectrometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sjoreen, T.P.

    1984-01-01

    A focal plane detector system consisting of a vertical drift chamber, parallel plate avalanche counters, and an ionization chamber with segmented anodes has been installed in the Broad Range Spectrometer at the Holifield Facility at Oak Ridge. The system, which has been designed for use with light-heavy ions with energies ranging from 10 to 25 MeV/amu, has a position resolution of approx. 0.1 mm, a scattering angle resolution of approx. 3 mrad, and a mass resolution of approx. 1/60.

  5. Hybrid grating reflector with high reflectivity and broad bandwidth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taghizadeh, Alireza; Park, Gyeong Cheol; Mørk, Jesper

    2014-01-01

    We suggest a new type of grating reflector denoted hybrid grating (HG) which shows large reflectivity in a broad wavelength range and has a structure suitable for realizing a vertical cavity laser with ultra-small modal volume. The properties of the grating reflector are investigated numerically...... and explained. The HG consists of an un-patterned III-V layer and a Si grating. The III-V layer has a thickness comparable to the grating layer, introduces more guided mode resonances and significantly increases the bandwidth of the reflector compared to the well-known high-index-contrast grating (HCG...

  6. Probing AGN Broad Line Regions With LAT Observations of FSRQs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carson, Jennifer E.; Chiang, James; /SLAC; Bottcher, Markus; /Ohio U.

    2007-10-11

    The GLAST Large Area Telescope (LAT) is expected to detect gamma-ray emission from over a thousand active galaxies, many of which will be flat spectrum radio quasars (FSRQs). A commonly assumed ingredient of leptonic models of FRSQs is the contribution to the gamma-ray flux from external inverse-Compton (EIC) scattering of photons from the broad line region (BLR) material by relativistic electrons and positrons in the jet. Here we explore the effect of the BLR geometry on the high-energy emission from FSRQs.

  7. Multivalent dendritic molecules as broad spectrum bacteria agglutination agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Shuzhang; Abu-Esba, Lica; Turkyilmaz, Serhan; White, Alexander G; Smith, Bradley D

    2013-01-01

    This study reports the first set of synthetic molecules that act as broad spectrum agglutination agents and thus are complementary to the specific targeting of antibodies. The molecules have dendritic architecture and contain multiple copies of zinc(II)-dipicolylamine (ZnDPA) units that have selective affinity for the bacterial cell envelope. A series of molecular structures were evaluated, with the number of appended ZnDPA units ranging from four to thirty-two. Agglutination assays showed that the multivalent probes rapidly cross-linked ten different strains of bacteria, regardless of Gram-type and cell morphology. Fluorescence microscopy studies using probes with four ZnDPA units indicated a high selectivity for bacteria agglutination in the presence of mammalian cells and no measurable effect on the health of the cells. The high bacterial selectivity was confirmed by conducting in vivo optical imaging studies of a mouse leg infection model. The results suggest that multivalent ZnDPA molecular probes with dendritic structures have great promise as selective, broad spectrum bacterial agglutination agents for infection imaging and theranostic applications.

  8. Effect of gamma irradiation on antinutritional factors in broad bean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Kaisey, Mahdi T.; Alwan, Abdul-Kader H.; Mohammad, Manal H.; Saeed, Amjed H.

    2003-06-01

    The effect of gamma irradiation on the level of antinutritional factors (trypsin inhibitor (TI), phytic acid and oligosaccharides) of broad bean was investigated. The seeds were subjected to gamma irradiation at 0, 2.5, 5, 7.5 and 10 kGy, respectively using cobalt-60 gamma radiation with a dose rate 2.37 kGy/h. TI activity was reduced by 4.5%, 6.7%, 8.5% and 9.2% at 2.5, 5, 7.5 and 10 kGy, respectively. Meanwhile, irradiation at 10.2, 12.3, 15.4 and 18.2 kGy reduced the phytic acid content. The flatulence causing oligosaccharides were decreased as the radiation dose increased. The chemical composition (protein, oil, ash and total carbohydrates) of the tested seeds was determined. Gamma radiation seems to be a good procedure to improve the quality of broad bean from the nutritional point of view.

  9. Broad-spectrum antimicrobial polycarbonate hydrogels with fast degradability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascual, Ana; Tan, Jeremy P K; Yuen, Alex; Chan, Julian M W; Coady, Daniel J; Mecerreyes, David; Hedrick, James L; Yang, Yi Yan; Sardon, Haritz

    2015-04-13

    In this study, a new family of broad-spectrum antimicrobial polycarbonate hydrogels has been successfully synthesized and characterized. Tertiary amine-containing eight-membered monofunctional and difunctional cyclic carbonates were synthesized, and chemically cross-linked polycarbonate hydrogels were obtained by copolymerizing these monomers with a poly(ethylene glycol)-based bifunctional initiator via organocatalyzed ring-opening polymerization using 1,8-diazabicyclo[5.4.0]undec-7-ene catalyst. The gels were quaternized using methyl iodide to confer antimicrobial properties. Stable hydrogels were obtained only when the bifunctional monomer concentration was equal to or higher than 12 mol %. In vitro antimicrobial studies revealed that all quaternized hydrogels exhibited broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus (Gram-positive), Escherichia coli (Gram-negative), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (Gram-negative), and Candida albicans (fungus), while the antimicrobial activity of the nonquaternized hydrogels was negligible. Moreover, the gels showed fast degradation at room temperature (4-6 days), which makes them ideal candidates for wound healing and implantable biomaterials.

  10. Broad spectrum microarray for fingerprint-based bacterial species identification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frey Jürg E

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Microarrays are powerful tools for DNA-based molecular diagnostics and identification of pathogens. Most target a limited range of organisms and are based on only one or a very few genes for specific identification. Such microarrays are limited to organisms for which specific probes are available, and often have difficulty discriminating closely related taxa. We have developed an alternative broad-spectrum microarray that employs hybridisation fingerprints generated by high-density anonymous markers distributed over the entire genome for identification based on comparison to a reference database. Results A high-density microarray carrying 95,000 unique 13-mer probes was designed. Optimized methods were developed to deliver reproducible hybridisation patterns that enabled confident discrimination of bacteria at the species, subspecies, and strain levels. High correlation coefficients were achieved between replicates. A sub-selection of 12,071 probes, determined by ANOVA and class prediction analysis, enabled the discrimination of all samples in our panel. Mismatch probe hybridisation was observed but was found to have no effect on the discriminatory capacity of our system. Conclusions These results indicate the potential of our genome chip for reliable identification of a wide range of bacterial taxa at the subspecies level without laborious prior sequencing and probe design. With its high resolution capacity, our proof-of-principle chip demonstrates great potential as a tool for molecular diagnostics of broad taxonomic groups.

  11. [Protein screening in wheat and broad bean specimens in Gatersleben].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudolph, A; Hanelt, P; Lehmann, C; Müntz, K; Scholz, F

    1975-01-01

    Actually and in future times plant proteins will constitute the main and primary source of proteins in animal feeding and human alimentation. Therefore, the main efforts to resolve the world nutrition problems are focused on the increase of the protein production and the improvement of the nutritional quality of plant seed proteins. In this regard plant breeding occupies one of the most important strategic positions. With the aim of selecting forms with elevated grain protein content and improved protein quality the systematic screening of collections of wild forms and cultivated cereals and leguminoses constitutes a pre-requisite of successful breeding work in relation to the above-mentioned task. In 1970 the Central Institute of Genetics and Investigation of Cultivated Plants at Gatersleben, GDR, belonging to the Academy of Sciences, started a systematic protein screening with about 10000 wheat, 6500 barley and 450 broad bean specimens, which are parts of the World Collection of Cultivated Plants at this institute. Protein determination was performed by the traditional KJELDAHL-method. Limiting amino acids, essentially lysin from cereal grains, were estimated by automatic ion exchange technique. The annual analytic capacity amounted to 6000 to 8000 samples. First results and problems of wheat- and broad bean-screening are reported in the present publication.

  12. Effective calculation of laser stripping via a broad shape resonance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Gorlov

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the theory and method of calculation of laser assisted charge exchange injection via a broad shape resonance of the hydrogen atom with a new level of accuracy. The method is optimized for fast calculations, needed for practical estimations of laser-stripping efficiency for charge exchange injection. The novelty is that we take into account the resonance width and continuous spectrum of the hydrogen atom in our model. As a result we show that the broad shape resonance can fully compensate the Doppler broadening of the laser frequency in realistic beams without applying laser chirp and increasing laser power. The resulting scheme can be realized by applying a magnetic field of optimal strength to the high-energy beam irradiated by laser field. Another novelty is that we use the temporal Schrödinger equation as the basis of our model in contrast with the existing method of semiempirical cross sections, which is widely considered in atomic physics. The strict quantum mechanical approach gives the temporal evolution of the wave function and the ionization probability of the hydrogen atom as a function of laser and static electric fields. Moreover, it reveals quantum effects at the strong laser field which cannot be described with the cross section treatment. It is shown that the effects play a significant role in the optimization of the magnetic field for the laser-stripping scheme.

  13. Singley, Carol J. Adopting America: Childhood, Kinship, and National Identity in Literature.

    OpenAIRE

    Helena Maragou

    2012-01-01

    Carol S. Singley’s Adopting America: Childhood, Kinship, and National Identity in Literature focuses on literary representations of adoption in selected canonical and non-canonical texts from the Puritan era to the early 20th century, to show the ways in which adoption as a trope or narrative event highlights the historical evolution of American nationhood, family ideology, identity, and citizenship. Singley interprets adoption broadly to refer to the “care of children by non-biological paren...

  14. Childhood cancer in Aden, Yemen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ba-Saddik, Iman Ali

    2013-12-01

    Cancer in children is increasingly recognized as a major and growing health problem in different developed and developing countries. In Yemen, it is still difficult to know the extent of cancer and its determinants among children. This study was conducted to determine the magnitude of childhood cancer in Aden and provide the preliminary baseline data by age and sex. Basic epidemiologic data was retrieved from all paediatric cancer Yemen, from 1997 to 2006. The results showed a total of 483 childhood cancers 5 years. An interesting comparison was the preponderance of non-Hodgkins's lymphoma over Hodgkin's disease (1.6:1) stronger in female (3:1) than male (1.25:1). Medulloblastoma was the most common CNS tumour followed by astrocytoma, an infrequent finding in childhood cancer. Osteosarcoma was the most frequent bone tumour (male:female ratio of 1.8:1). A female preponderance was noticed in chondrosarcoma that was not yet documented. The blastoma group was common in younger age group. Retinoblastoma and nephroblastoma predominated in female while neuroblastoma, hepatoblastoma and soft tissue sarcomas in male. It is concluded that there is a lower frequency of childhood cancer in Aden when compared with developed countries. It may explained by the fact that a large number of childhood cancers remain undiagnosed due to limitations of diagnostic facilities or under registration. Central paediatric hospitals should be provided with essential diagnostic and therapeutic services that should be freely available to all children with cancer. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Communication About Childhood Obesity on Twitter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreland-Russell, Sarah; Tabak, Rachel G.; Ruhr, Lindsay R.; Maier, Ryan C.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. Little is known about the use of social media as a tool for health communication. We used a mixed-methods design to examine communication about childhood obesity on Twitter. Methods. NodeXL was used to collect tweets sent in June 2013 containing the hashtag #childhoodobesity. Tweets were coded for content; tweeters were classified by sector and health focus. Data were also collected on the network of follower connections among the tweeters. We used descriptive statistics and exponential random graph modeling to examine tweet content, characteristics of tweeters, and the composition and structure of the network of connections facilitating communication among tweeters. Results. We collected 1110 tweets originating from 576 unique Twitter users. More individuals (65.6%) than organizations (32.9%) tweeted. More tweets focused on individual behavior than environment or policy. Few government and educational tweeters were in the network, but they were more likely than private individuals to be followed by others. Conclusions. There is an opportunity to better disseminate evidence-based information to a broad audience through Twitter by increasing the presence of credible sources in the #childhoodobesity conversation and focusing the content of tweets on scientific evidence. PMID:24832138

  16. Systemic therapy of childhood atopic dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slater, Nathaniel A; Morrell, Dean S

    2015-01-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a common childhood inflammatory disease that, in a small percentage of cases, can become severe enough to require potent systemic treatment. Many trials have been conducted with systemic agents for the treatment of severe pediatric AD; we review the evidence here. Although corticosteroids are widely used in practice, they are not generally recommended as a systemic treatment option for AD in children. Most patients experience a relatively rapid and robust response to cyclosporine. Treating children with cyclosporine long term is troubling; however, azathioprine, mycophenolate mofetil, and methotrexate are all reasonable alternatives for maintenance therapy in recalcitrant cases. Several additional options are available for the most refractory cases, including interferon-γ, intravenous immunoglobulin, and various biologics. Phototherapy is another modality that can be effective in treating severe AD. Ultimately the choice of agent is individualized. Systemic therapy options are associated with potentially severe adverse effects and require careful monitoring. Nonsystemic approaches toward prevention of flares and long-term control of atopic dermatitis in pediatric patients should be continued in conjunction with systemic therapy. In the future, more targeted systemic treatments hold the potential for effective control of disease with fewer side effects than broadly immunosuppressive agents. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. BDNF val66met modulates the association between childhood trauma, cognitive and brain abnormalities in psychoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aas, Monica; Haukvik, Unn K; Djurovic, Srdjan; Bergmann, Ørjan; Athanasiu, Lavinia; Tesli, Martin S; Hellvin, Tone; Steen, Nils Eiel; Agartz, Ingrid; Lorentzen, Steinar; Sundet, Kjetil; Andreassen, Ole A; Melle, Ingrid

    2013-10-01

    Brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is important for brain development and plasticity, and here we tested if the functional BDNF val66met variant modulates the association between high levels of childhood abuse, cognitive function, and brain abnormalities in psychoses. 249 patients with a broad DSM-IV schizophrenia spectrum disorder or bipolar disorder were consecutively recruited to the TOP research study (mean±age: 30.7±10.9; gender: 49% males). History of childhood trauma was obtained using the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire. Cognitive function was assessed through a standardized neuropsychological test battery. BDNF val66met was genotyped using standardized procedures. A sub-sample of n=106 Caucasians with a broad DSM-IV schizophrenia spectrum disorder or bipolar disorder (mean±age: 32.67±10.85; 49% males) had data on sMRI. Carriers of the Methionine (met) allele exposed to high level of childhood abuse demonstrated significantly poorer cognitive functioning compared to homozygotic Valine (val/val) carriers. Taking in consideration multiple testing, using a more conservative p value, this was still shown for physical abuse and emotional abuse, as well as a trend level for sexual abuse. Further, met carriers exposed to high level of childhood sexual abuse showed reduced right hippocampal volume (r(2)=0.43; p=0.008), and larger right and left lateral ventricles (r(2)=0.37; p=0.002, and r(2)=0.27; p=0.009, respectively). Our findings were independent of age, gender, diagnosis and intracranial volume. Our data demonstrate that in patients with psychoses, met carriers of the BDNF val66met with high level of childhood abuse have more cognitive and brain abnormalities than all other groups. © 2013.

  18. Recent Coverage of Early Childhood Education Approaches in Open Access Early Childhood Journals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keskin, Burhanettin

    2016-01-01

    A content analysis of the coverage of the major approaches to early childhood education in the early childhood research journals, published between 2010 and 2014, that are early childhood research oriented and have free online access were investigated. Among 21 journals in early childhood education, two journals were selected for the content…

  19. [Therapy of childhood schizophrenia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggers, C

    1977-01-01

    Due to the multifacet genesis and variability of clinical phenomenology, the therapy of childhood schizophrenia must be multidimensional. Formerly applied techniques like electroshock- and insulin-therapy are now replaced by pharmaco-therapy, primarily with phenothiazines, butyrophenones and chlorprothixens. The dosage depends on age, body weight or body surface. Because of extrapyramidal motor side effects, combinations with anticholinergic drugs may be necessary. Psychopharmaco-therapy alone, however, is insufficient. High emphasis must be placed on psychotherapy and educational guidance and counselling of the psychotic child. Participation in play groups, sports, muscial activities, arts and crafts, and acting helps make it possible to improve communication behaviour and to transform aggressive anxiety defense into stabilized control of emotions and impulses. In addition to successive integration of the psychotic child into small groups, play therapy with the single child is meaningful. In this case, a constant and confidential relation between therapist and child is extremely important and only possible if the therapist attempts to place himself into the magic-animistic phantasies of the psychotic child. He has first to learn the psychotic language of his patient in order to support more reality-oriented behaviour processes of the child's thinking, preceiving and performing later on. In this manner, the magic-omnipotent phantasies can be dissolved and an increasing orientation of the child toward reality can be encouraged. This involves strengthening and support of non-pathological ego-functions and initiation of a new level of ego-functioning. Such an integrated developmental concept can best be realized through play therapy.

  20. International research in early childhood education

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2010-01-01

    "The journal of International Research in Early Childhood Education (IRECE) is an electronic peer-reviewed journal designed to provide an international forum for scholarship and research within the field of early childhood education...

  1. Genetic Causes of Cerebrovascular Disorders in Childhood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.E.C. Meuwissen (Marije)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Cerebrovascular disorders in childhood comprise ischemic stroke and hemorrhagic stroke. This thesis comprises a escription of genetic causes of childhood cerebrovascular disorders. Two examples of genetic causes of ischemic stroke, comprising a case of ACTA2 mutation

  2. Risk Groups for Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for cancer and certain genetic conditions affect the risk of having childhood ALL. Anything that increases your ... marrow or in other parts of the body. Risk Groups for Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia Key Points ...

  3. Maternal postpartum distress and childhood overweight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ajslev, Teresa A; Andersen, Camilla S; Ingstrup, Katja G

    2010-01-01

    We investigated associations between maternal postpartum distress covering anxiety, depression and stress and childhood overweight.......We investigated associations between maternal postpartum distress covering anxiety, depression and stress and childhood overweight....

  4. Enlarged Vestibular Aqueducts and Childhood Hearing Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Infections, and Deafness Enlarged Vestibular Aqueducts and Childhood Hearing Loss On this page: What are vestibular aqueducts? How ... How are enlarged vestibular aqueducts related to childhood hearing loss? Research suggests that most children with enlarged vestibular ...

  5. Brain visual impairment in childhood: mini review

    OpenAIRE

    N Kozeis

    2010-01-01

    Cerebral visual impairment (CVI) is one of the leading causes of severe visual impairment in childhood. This article was written to highlight any new knowledge related to cerebral visual impairment in childhood.

  6. Parenting to Prevent Childhood Alcohol Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Parenting to Prevent Childhood Alcohol Use Print Version Parenting to Prevent Childhood Alcohol Use Drinking alcohol undoubtedly ... drunk at least once by 12th grade. 1 Parenting Style Accumulating evidence suggests that alcohol use—and ...

  7. Childhood trauma and resilience in psoriatic patients: A preliminary report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosta, Maria Luigia; De Simone, Clara; Di Pietro, Salvatore; Acanfora, Mariateresa; Caldarola, Giacomo; Moccia, Lorenzo; Callea, Antonino; Panaccione, Isabella; Peris, Ketty; Rinaldi, Lucio; Janiri, Luigi; Di Nicola, Marco

    2018-03-01

    Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory skin disease with a complex etiology, involving the immune system, genetic factors, and external/internal triggers, with psychosomatic aspects. The aim of the study was to investigate childhood trauma and resilience in a psoriatic sample compared with healthy controls. Correlations between childhood trauma, resilience, quality of life, clinical data and psoriatic features were also evaluated. Seventy-seven psoriatic patients and seventy-six homogeneous healthy controls were enrolled. We used the Psoriasis Area and Severity Index (PASI) to assess the severity of psoriasis and the Skindex-29 to measure health-related quality of life. The psychometric battery included the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ) and the Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-Risc) to assess trauma exposure and resilience, respectively. Psoriatic patients showed a significant prevalence of childhood trauma and a lower resilience level compared to healthy controls. Associations between traumatic experiences, low resilience and reduced quality of life in psoriatic subjects were also observed. A multidisciplinary approach is helpful to investigate clinical aspects, trigger factors and psychophysiological stress response in psoriatic subjects. Improving resilience with an early psychological intervention focused on self-motivation and strengthening of self-efficacy could facilitate the management of psoriasis. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Childhood adversities and psychosocial disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maughan, B; McCarthy, G

    1997-01-01

    Adverse childhood experiences--especially inadequacies in early parental care--are associated with elevated rates of both acute and chronic psychosocial disorders in adult life. In most instances, adverse outcomes are confined to a minority of children exposed; variations in the severity or pervasiveness of early risk, individual differences in susceptibility, and interactions with later stressors are all thus likely to be important in mediating effects. At present, knowledge of intervening processes is limited, and dependent on retrospective studies of adult samples or short-term longitudinal findings in childhood. We review current evidence on the long-term outcomes of prenatal divorce, childhood maltreatment, and institutional rearing, and on the early antecedents of depression and antisocial behaviour in adult life, to highlight possible interviewing mechanisms. Most long-term sequelae seem likely to depend on a series of shorter-term links, some running through elevated risks of continued environmental adversity, others through psychological vulnerabilities and problems in social relationships.

  9. Treatment for dystonia in childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roubertie, A; Mariani, L L; Fernandez-Alvarez, E; Doummar, D; Roze, E

    2012-10-01

    Management of childhood dystonia differs in certain respects from that of adult dystonia: (i) childhood dystonia is more often secondary than primary; (ii) mixed motor disorders are frequent; (iii) in children, the course of dystonia may be influenced by ongoing brain maturation and by the remarkable plasticity of the young brain; (iv) drug tolerability and effectiveness can be different in children; (v) the therapeutic strategy must be discussed with both the patient and his or her parents; and (vi) the child's education must be taken into account. Based on a systematic review of the literature through June 2011 and on our personal experience, we propose a therapeutic approach to childhood dystonia. After a detailed clinical evaluation and a comprehensive work-up to rule out a treatable cause of dystonia, symptomatic treatment may include various drugs, local botulinum toxin injections, and deep brain stimulation, in addition to rehabilitation. © 2012 The Author(s) European Journal of Neurology © 2012 EFNS.

  10. Emotion Dysregulation and Anorexia Nervosa: An Exploration of the Role of Childhood Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Racine, Sarah E.; Wildes, Jennifer E.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Theoretical models of emotion regulation difficulties in anorexia nervosa (AN) specify a role for factors that predispose to or precipitate emotion dysregulation. The current study considered whether childhood abuse (i.e., emotional, sexual, physical) might be related to emotion regulation difficulties and eating disorder symptom severity in patients with AN. Childhood abuse was hypothesized to relate to AN symptoms indirectly via emotion dysregulation. Method Participants were 188 patients with AN presenting to an intensive treatment facility. The Childhood Trauma Questionnaire, Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale, and Eating Disorder Examination were used to assess childhood abuse, emotion dysregulation, and AN symptom severity, respectively. Results Of the three forms of childhood abuse, reports of emotional abuse were most strongly related to emotion regulation difficulties and AN symptom severity. Mediation analyses revealed that emotion dysregulation significantly explained the relationship between childhood emotional abuse and AN symptomatology, and mediation effects did not differ by AN subtype (i.e., restricting versus binge-eating/purging). Discussion Findings provide initial support for a model in which childhood emotional abuse precipitates emotion dysregulation and the development of AN. Future studies with longitudinal designs and control groups are necessary to examine the direction and specificity of these cross-sectional associations. PMID:25358997

  11. Effect of the childhood trauma on the adjustment to cancer in the patients with breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guveli, Hulya; Guveli, Murat Emin; Sen, Fatma; Oflaz, Serap; Gurdal, Necla; Tambas, Makbule; Kucucuk, Seden; Aydıner, Adnan; Ozkan, Mine

    2017-07-01

    Early identification of patients coping poorly is important for compliance with treatment and control of distress. This study aims to investigate the effect of the childhood trauma experience on the type of reaction and adjustment that the person exhibits to the cancer among the patients with breast cancer. This cross-sectional study enrolled 310 patients with breast cancer. The effect of the childhood trauma and the psychological condition on the adjustment to cancer was investigated by assessing the adjustment to cancer, the experiences of childhood trauma and psychological status of the subjects using mental adjustment to cancer scale (MAC), childhood trauma questionnaire (CTQ28), Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and Beck anxiety inventory (BAI). Majority of the subjects (77.4%) showed positive adjustment to cancer. Fighting spirit (63.9%) was the most commonly seen mechanism of adjustment to cancer. Of the subjects, 54.5% suffered at least one of the childhood trauma types. Among the patients, 47.1% had depression and 58.4% had anxiety. In the multivariate logistic regression analysis, emotional neglect and depression, respectively, have an effect on both positive and negative adjustment to cancer. Our study demonstrated that childhood trauma, especially emotional neglect, affects coping and adjustment among the patients with breast cancer. It is necessary to determine the childhood experiences to ensure the development of psychosocial interventions that will increase the adjustment and quality of life after the diagnosis of the cancer.

  12. Childhood malaria: mothers' perception and treatment- seeking ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Context: Childhood malaria continues to be a major cause of childhood morbidity and mortality. Care- givers ability to detect the illness in children early and institute effective treatment is critical to illness outcome. The investigation of mothers' perception of malaria and treatment-seeking behaviour in childhood malaria in a ...

  13. Leadership in Early Childhood Special Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, Samita Berry

    2013-01-01

    With the demands of high quality early childhood special education programs within public school settings, there is a need to place emphasis on research and training regarding early childhood leaders and managers in this complex and diverse field. The focus of this research is to examine what early childhood special education (ECSE) leadership…

  14. Exploring Disclosure in Childhood Sexual Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whisnant, Roberta Ann

    2009-01-01

    Previous research involving adult survivors of CSA (childhood sexual abuse) indicates that approximately 77% of CSA victims did not report the abuse while in childhood. The purpose of this study was to examine CSA disclosure in childhood. Participants for this study were 137 children/adolescents ranging in ages from 2-16 interviewed at a child…

  15. An Un-American Childhood

    OpenAIRE

    Edwards, Flor Christine

    2014-01-01

    An Un-American Childhood is my memoir about growing up unconventionally in a religious sex cult with my parents and eleven siblings until I was a teenager. We lived in Thailand because Father David, our leader, didn't want us in the west when the world ended in 1993. When Father David died suddenly, the cult broke apart, and we found ourselves alone in the world with no money, food, very little clothing, and no direction. An Un-American Childhood takes the reader on a journey from the Childr...

  16. [New perspectives on childhood obesity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fodor, Miklós; Sófi, Gyula

    2013-08-11

    From preventional point of view, childhood obesity is very important, since proliferation of extra fatty tissue in childhood contribute metabolic processes favoring the development of type 2 diabetes, as well as it can accelerate cardiovascular complications. Anyone who is overweight in his or her life is likely to be confronted by such social stigma that could ultimately have a negative impact on self-esteem. The cornerstone of prevention is a healthy diet and age-adjusted physical training which may result in a physiological energy balance.

  17. Childhood asthma and physical activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lochte, Lene; Nielsen, Kim G; Petersen, Poul Erik

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Childhood asthma is a global problem affecting the respiratory health of children. Physical activity (PA) plays a role in the relationship between asthma and respiratory health. We hypothesized that a low level of PA would be associated with asthma in children and adolescents. The obj......BACKGROUND: Childhood asthma is a global problem affecting the respiratory health of children. Physical activity (PA) plays a role in the relationship between asthma and respiratory health. We hypothesized that a low level of PA would be associated with asthma in children and adolescents...

  18. Streetlights attract a broad array of beetle species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Augusto Souza de Medeiros

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Light pollution on ecosystems is a growing concern, and knowledge about the effects of outdoor lighting on organisms is crucial to understand and mitigate impacts. Here we build up on a previous study to characterize the diversity of all beetles attracted to different commonly used streetlight set ups. We find that lights attract beetles from a broad taxonomic and ecological spectrum. Lights that attract a large number of insect individuals draw an equally high number of insect species. While there is some evidence for heterogeneity in the preference of beetle species to different kinds of light, all species are more attracted to some light radiating ultraviolet. The functional basis of this heterogeneity, however, is not clear. Our results highlight that control of ultraviolet radiation in public lighting is important to reduce the number and diversity of insects attracted to lights.

  19. High-productivity mask writer with broad operating range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baik, Ki-Ho; Chakarian, Varoujan; Dean, Bob; Lu, Maiying; Naber, Robert J.; Newman, Thomas H.; Wiltse, Mark; Abboud, Frank E.

    2001-09-01

    Photomask complexity increases rapidly as semiconductor devices continue to shrink and as optical proximity correction becomes commonplace. This trend stresses the performance of mask pattern generators due to the increase in both primary and subresolution features. However, the next-generation MEBES raster scan architecture is well-suited to the challenge of maintaining throughput regardless of increases in pattern complexity. In addition, this new system provides an operating envelope that is sufficiently broad to expose all practical resist materials with a fixed number of writing passes. Write time is independent of material sensitivity, which has the benefits of allowing high-dose processes to be optimized, and also of supporting a wide selection of chemically amplified resist candidates for critical mask patterning. The new system shows the promise of being extendible to the 70 nm technology generation.

  20. The generation effect: activating broad neural circuits during memory encoding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosner, Zachary A; Elman, Jeremy A; Shimamura, Arthur P

    2013-01-01

    The generation effect is a robust memory phenomenon in which actively producing material during encoding acts to improve later memory performance. In a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) analysis, we explored the neural basis of this effect. During encoding, participants generated synonyms from word-fragment cues (e.g., GARBAGE-W_ST_) or read other synonym pairs (e.g., GARBAGE-WASTE). Compared to simply reading target words, generating target words significantly improved later recognition memory performance. During encoding, this benefit was associated with a broad neural network that involved both prefrontal (inferior frontal gyrus, middle frontal gyrus) and posterior cortex (inferior temporal gyrus, lateral occipital cortex, parahippocampal gyrus, ventral posterior parietal cortex). These findings define the prefrontal-posterior cortical dynamics associated with the mnemonic benefits underlying the generation effect. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Self-Consistent Dynamical Model of the Broad Line Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bozena Czerny

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available We develop a self-consistent description of the Broad Line Region based on the concept of a failed wind powered by radiation pressure acting on a dusty accretion disk atmosphere in Keplerian motion. The material raised high above the disk is illuminated, dust evaporates, and the matter falls back toward the disk. This material is the source of emission lines. The model predicts the inner and outer radius of the region, the cloud dynamics under the dust radiation pressure and, subsequently, the gravitational field of the central black hole, which results in asymmetry between the rise and fall. Knowledge of the dynamics allows us to predict the shapes of the emission lines as functions of the basic parameters of an active nucleus: black hole mass, accretion rate, black hole spin (or accretion efficiency and the viewing angle with respect to the symmetry axis. Here we show preliminary results based on analytical approximations to the cloud motion.

  2. Broad phonetic class definition driven by phone confusions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Carla; Perdigão, Fernando

    2012-12-01

    Intermediate representations between the speech signal and phones may be used to improve discrimination among phones that are often confused. These representations are usually found according to broad phonetic classes, which are defined by a phonetician. This article proposes an alternative data-driven method to generate these classes. Phone confusion information from the analysis of the output of a phone recognition system is used to find clusters at high risk of mutual confusion. A metric is defined to compute the distance between phones. The results, using TIMIT data, show that the proposed confusion-driven phone clustering method is an attractive alternative to the approaches based on human knowledge. A hierarchical classification structure to improve phone recognition is also proposed using a discriminative weight training method. Experiments show improvements in phone recognition on the TIMIT database compared to a baseline system.

  3. Model invariance across genders of the Broad Autism Phenotype Questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broderick, Neill; Wade, Jordan L; Meyer, J Patrick; Hull, Michael; Reeve, Ronald E

    2015-10-01

    ASD is one of the most heritable neuropsychiatric disorders, though comprehensive genetic liability remains elusive. To facilitate genetic research, researchers employ the concept of the broad autism phenotype (BAP), a milder presentation of traits in undiagnosed relatives. Research suggests that the BAP Questionnaire (BAPQ) demonstrates psychometric properties superior to other self-report measures. To examine evidence regarding validity of the BAPQ, the current study used confirmatory factor analysis to test the assumption of model invariance across genders. Results of the current study upheld model invariance at each level of parameter constraint; however, model fit indices suggested limited goodness-of-fit between the proposed model and the sample. Exploratory analyses investigated alternate factor structure models but ultimately supported the proposed three-factor structure model.

  4. An experimental characterisation of a Broad Energy Germanium detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harkness-Brennan, L.J., E-mail: ljh@ns.ph.liv.ac.uk [Oliver Lodge Laboratory, The University of Liverpool, Liverpool L69 7ZE (United Kingdom); Judson, D.S.; Boston, A.J.; Boston, H.C.; Colosimo, S.J.; Cresswell, J.R.; Nolan, P.J. [Oliver Lodge Laboratory, The University of Liverpool, Liverpool L69 7ZE (United Kingdom); Adekola, A.S.; Colaresi, J.; Cocks, J.F.C.; Mueller, W.F. [CANBERRA Industries Inc., 800 Research Parkway, Meriden, CT 06450 (United States)

    2014-10-01

    The spectroscopic and charge collection performance of a BE2825 Broad Energy Germanium (BEGe) detector has been experimentally investigated. The efficiency and energy resolution of the detector have been measured as a function of energy and the noise contributions to the preamplifier signal have been determined. Collimated gamma-ray sources mounted on an automated 3-axis scanning table have been used to study the variation in preamplifier signal shape with gamma-ray interaction position in the detector, so that the position-dependent charge collection process could be characterised. A suite of experimental measurements have also been undertaken to investigate the performance of the detector as a function of bias voltage and we report on anomalous behaviour observed when the detector was operating close to the depletion voltage.

  5. Target amplification for broad spectrum microbial diagnostics and detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leski, Tomasz A; Malanoski, Anthony P; Stenger, David A; Lin, Baochuan

    2010-02-01

    Microarrays are massively parallel detection platforms that were first used extensively for gene expression studies, but have also been successfully applied to microbial detection in a number of diverse fields requiring broad-range microbial identification. This technology has enabled researchers to gain an insight into the microbial diversity of environmental samples, facilitated discovery of a number of new pathogens and enabled studies of multipathogen infections. In contrast to gene expression studies, the concentrations of targets in analyzed samples for microbial detection are usually much lower, and require the use of nucleic acid amplification techniques. The rapid advancement of manufacturing technologies has increased the content of the microarrays; thus, the required amplification is a challenging problem. The constant parallel improvements in both microarray and sample amplification techniques in the near future may lead to a radical progression in medical diagnostics and systems for efficient detection of microorganisms in the environment.

  6. Allometry of reproduction in broad-snouted caiman (Caiman latirostris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VERDADE L. M.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study regression equations are established between broad-snouted caiman (Caiman latirostris captive reproductive females snout-vent length (SVL and body mass (BM and the following clutch characteristics: egg mass, egg "length" (maximal diameter, egg "width" (minimal diameter, hatchling BM, hatchling SVL, clutch size (number of eggs, clutch mass and relative clutch mass (clutch mass/female BM. Female body-length presented a positive correlation with egg mass, egg length, egg width, hatchling BM and hatchling SVL. No clear correlation was found between female SVL and clutch size. Female BM showed a significantly positive correlation with egg mass, egg-length, egg-width, hatchling BM, hatchling SVL and clutch mass. A highly significant negative correlation was found between female BM and the relative clutch mass. No clear correlation was found between female BM and clutch size.

  7. Modeling of optical wireless scattering communication channels over broad spectra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Weihao; Zou, Difan; Xu, Zhengyuan

    2015-03-01

    The air molecules and suspended aerosols help to build non-line-of-sight (NLOS) optical scattering communication links using carriers from near infrared to visible light and ultraviolet bands. This paper proposes channel models over such broad spectra. Wavelength dependent Rayleigh and Mie scattering and absorption coefficients of particles are analytically obtained first. They are applied to the ray tracing based Monte Carlo method, which models the photon scattering angle from the scatterer and propagation distance between two consecutive scatterers. Communication link path loss is studied under different operation conditions, including visibility, particle density, wavelength, and communication range. It is observed that optimum communication performances exist across the wavelength under specific atmospheric conditions. Infrared, visible light and ultraviolet bands show their respective features as conditions vary.

  8. Self-consistent dynamical model of the Broad Line Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czerny, Bozena; Li, Yan-Rong; Sredzinska, Justyna; Hryniewicz, Krzysztof; Panda, Swayam; Wildy, Conor; Karas, Vladimir

    2017-06-01

    We develope a self-consistent description of the Broad Line Region based on the concept of the failed wind powered by the radiation pressure acting on dusty accretion disk atmosphere in Keplerian motion. The material raised high above the disk is illuminated, dust evaportes, and the matter falls back towards the disk. This material is the source of emission lines. The model predicts the inner and outer radius of the region, the cloud dynamics under the dust radiation pressure and, subsequently, just the gravitational field of the central black hole, which results in assymetry between the rise and fall. Knowledge of the dynamics allows to predict the shapes of the emission lines as functions of the basic parameters of an active nucleus: black hole mass, accretion rate, black hole spin (or accretion efficiency) and the viewing angle with respect to the symmetry axis. Here we show preliminary results based on analytical approximations to the cloud motion.

  9. Direct and indirect influences of childhood abuse on depression symptoms in patients with major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Yumi; Okamoto, Yasumasa; Takagaki, Koki; Okada, Go; Toki, Shigeru; Inoue, Takeshi; Tanabe, Hajime; Kobayakawa, Makoto; Yamawaki, Shigeto

    2015-10-14

    It is known that the onset, progression, and prognosis of major depressive disorder are affected by interactions between a number of factors. This study investigated how childhood abuse, personality, and stress of life events were associated with symptoms of depression in depressed people. Patients with major depressive disorder (N = 113, 58 women and 55 men) completed the Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II), the Neuroticism Extroversion Openness Five Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI), the Child Abuse and Trauma Scale (CATS), and the Life Experiences Survey (LES), which are self-report scales. Results were analyzed with correlation analysis and structural equation modeling (SEM), by using SPSS AMOS 21.0. Childhood abuse directly predicted the severity of depression and indirectly predicted the severity of depression through the mediation of personality. Negative life change score of the LES was affected by childhood abuse, however it did not predict the severity of depression. This study is the first to report a relationship between childhood abuse, personality, adulthood life stresses and the severity of depression in depressed patients. Childhood abuse directly and indirectly predicted the severity of depression. These results suggest the need for clinicians to be receptive to the possibility of childhood abuse in patients suffering from depression. SEM is a procedure used for hypothesis modeling and not for causal modeling. Therefore, the possibility of developing more appropriate models that include other variables cannot be excluded.

  10. Childhood adversities and distress - The role of resilience in a representative sample.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manfred E Beutel

    Full Text Available While adverse childhood experiences have been shown to contribute to adverse health outcomes in adulthood, specifically distress and somatic symptoms, few studies have examined their joint effects with resilient coping style on adult adjustment. Hence, we aim to determine the association between resilient coping and distress in participants with and without reported childhood adversities. A representative German community sample (N = 2508 between 14-92 years (1334 women; 1174 men was examined by the short form of the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire, the Brief Resilience Coping Scale, standardized scales of distress and somatoform symptoms. Childhood adversity was associated with reduced adjustment, social support and resilience. It was also strongly associated with increased distress and somatoform complaints. Resilient coping was not only associated with lower distress, it also buffered the effects of childhood adversity on distress. Our study corroborates the buffering effect of resilience in a representative German sample. High trait resilient subjects show less distress and somatoform symptoms despite reported childhood adversities in comparison to those with low resilient coping abilities.

  11. Childhood adversities and distress - The role of resilience in a representative sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beutel, Manfred E; Tibubos, Ana N; Klein, Eva M; Schmutzer, Gabriele; Reiner, Iris; Kocalevent, Rüya-Daniela; Brähler, Elmar

    2017-01-01

    While adverse childhood experiences have been shown to contribute to adverse health outcomes in adulthood, specifically distress and somatic symptoms, few studies have examined their joint effects with resilient coping style on adult adjustment. Hence, we aim to determine the association between resilient coping and distress in participants with and without reported childhood adversities. A representative German community sample (N = 2508) between 14-92 years (1334 women; 1174 men) was examined by the short form of the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire, the Brief Resilience Coping Scale, standardized scales of distress and somatoform symptoms. Childhood adversity was associated with reduced adjustment, social support and resilience. It was also strongly associated with increased distress and somatoform complaints. Resilient coping was not only associated with lower distress, it also buffered the effects of childhood adversity on distress. Our study corroborates the buffering effect of resilience in a representative German sample. High trait resilient subjects show less distress and somatoform symptoms despite reported childhood adversities in comparison to those with low resilient coping abilities.

  12. Examining the role of attachment in the relationship between childhood adversity, psychological distress and subjective well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corcoran, Mark; McNulty, Muireann

    2017-11-23

    Childhood adversity is associated with a wide range of detrimental psychological consequences. This study examined the mediating role of relationship-specific attachment (avoidance and anxiety) in the associations between childhood adversity and both psychological distress and subjective well-being. University students (N=190) across the Republic of Ireland completed self-report measures including the Adverse Childhood Experiences scale, Experiences in Close Relationships - Relationship Structures scale, Depression Anxiety and Stress scales and measures of subjective well-being. One hundred and twenty-eight participants (67.4%) reported experiencing at least one adverse childhood experience. Childhood adversity was associated with symptoms of psychological distress and subjective well-being. All such associations were mediated by certain relationship-specific attachment dimensions. Of these, attachment anxiety in general relationships was the most prominent mediator for both psychological distress and subjective well-being. Attachment to one's father and to one's romantic partner did not mediate any association. These findings indicate that attachment, in particular relationships, is an important factor in the associations between childhood adversity and both psychological distress and subjective well-being as an adult. One's attachment anxiety in general relationships is particularly important in these associations. Therapeutic interventions addressing these attachment domains may offset the detrimental effects of childhood adversity. Future research is required using a longitudinal design. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Discovery of potent broad spectrum antivirals derived from marine actinobacteria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avi Raveh

    Full Text Available Natural products provide a vast array of chemical structures to explore in the discovery of new medicines. Although secondary metabolites produced by microbes have been developed to treat a variety of diseases, including bacterial and fungal infections, to date there has been limited investigation of natural products with antiviral activity. In this report, we used a phenotypic cell-based replicon assay coupled with an iterative biochemical fractionation process to identify, purify, and characterize antiviral compounds produced by marine microbes. We isolated a compound from Streptomyces kaviengensis, a novel actinomycetes isolated from marine sediments obtained off the coast of New Ireland, Papua New Guinea, which we identified as antimycin A1a. This compound displays potent activity against western equine encephalitis virus in cultured cells with half-maximal inhibitory concentrations of less than 4 nM and a selectivity index of greater than 550. Our efforts also revealed that several antimycin A analogues display antiviral activity, and mechanism of action studies confirmed that these Streptomyces-derived secondary metabolites function by inhibiting the cellular mitochondrial electron transport chain, thereby suppressing de novo pyrimidine synthesis. Furthermore, we found that antimycin A functions as a broad spectrum agent with activity against a wide range of RNA viruses in cultured cells, including members of the Togaviridae, Flaviviridae, Bunyaviridae, Picornaviridae, and Paramyxoviridae families. Finally, we demonstrate that antimycin A reduces central nervous system viral titers, improves clinical disease severity, and enhances survival in mice given a lethal challenge with western equine encephalitis virus. Our results provide conclusive validation for using natural product resources derived from marine microbes as source material for antiviral drug discovery, and they indicate that host mitochondrial electron transport is a viable

  14. Discovery of potent broad spectrum antivirals derived from marine actinobacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raveh, Avi; Delekta, Phillip C; Dobry, Craig J; Peng, Weiping; Schultz, Pamela J; Blakely, Pennelope K; Tai, Andrew W; Matainaho, Teatulohi; Irani, David N; Sherman, David H; Miller, David J

    2013-01-01

    Natural products provide a vast array of chemical structures to explore in the discovery of new medicines. Although secondary metabolites produced by microbes have been developed to treat a variety of diseases, including bacterial and fungal infections, to date there has been limited investigation of natural products with antiviral activity. In this report, we used a phenotypic cell-based replicon assay coupled with an iterative biochemical fractionation process to identify, purify, and characterize antiviral compounds produced by marine microbes. We isolated a compound from Streptomyces kaviengensis, a novel actinomycetes isolated from marine sediments obtained off the coast of New Ireland, Papua New Guinea, which we identified as antimycin A1a. This compound displays potent activity against western equine encephalitis virus in cultured cells with half-maximal inhibitory concentrations of less than 4 nM and a selectivity index of greater than 550. Our efforts also revealed that several antimycin A analogues display antiviral activity, and mechanism of action studies confirmed that these Streptomyces-derived secondary metabolites function by inhibiting the cellular mitochondrial electron transport chain, thereby suppressing de novo pyrimidine synthesis. Furthermore, we found that antimycin A functions as a broad spectrum agent with activity against a wide range of RNA viruses in cultured cells, including members of the Togaviridae, Flaviviridae, Bunyaviridae, Picornaviridae, and Paramyxoviridae families. Finally, we demonstrate that antimycin A reduces central nervous system viral titers, improves clinical disease severity, and enhances survival in mice given a lethal challenge with western equine encephalitis virus. Our results provide conclusive validation for using natural product resources derived from marine microbes as source material for antiviral drug discovery, and they indicate that host mitochondrial electron transport is a viable target for the

  15. Childhood disintegrative disorder misdiagnosed as childhood-onset ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Childhood disintegrative disorder (CDD) is a rare pervasive developmental disorder, which is often misdiagnosed as schizophrenia, probably due to the resultant severe social impairment and withdrawn behaviour with stereotypys that could be mistaken for psychosis. We report a case of CDD that was misdiagnosed by a ...

  16. Scaling Science | IDRC - International Development Research Centre

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2018-02-23

    Feb 23, 2018 ... The scaling of research and innovation that creates social impact is a priority for IDRC and the development community broadly, but how best to achieve impact at scale is far from straightforward. While we can learn a great deal from standard private sector models, these paradigms are designed to achieve ...

  17. Concepts of scale and scaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jianguo Wu; Harbin Li

    2006-01-01

    The relationship between pattern and process is of great interest in all natural and social sciences, and scale is an integral part of this relationship. It is now well documented that biophysical and socioeconomic patterns and processes operate on a wide range of spatial and temporal scales. In particular, the scale multiplicity and scale dependence of pattern,...

  18. Double disadvantage: the influence of childhood maltreatment and community violence exposure on adolescent mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cecil, Charlotte A M; Viding, Essi; Barker, Edward D; Guiney, Jo; McCrory, Eamon J

    2014-07-01

    Childhood maltreatment is a key risk factor for maladjustment and psychopathology. Although maltreated youth are more likely to experience community violence, both forms of adversity are generally examined separately. Consequently, little is known about the unique and interactive effects that characterize maltreatment and community violence exposure (CVE) on mental health. Latent Profile Analysis (LPA) was applied to data from a community sample of high-risk adolescents and young adults (n = 204, M = 18.85) to categorize groups of participants with similar patterns of childhood (i.e. past) maltreatment exposure. Associations between childhood maltreatment, CVE and mental health outcomes were then explored using multivariate regression and moderation analyses. Latent Profile Analysis identified three groups of individuals with low, moderate and severe levels of childhood maltreatment. Maltreatment was associated with more internalizing, externalizing, and trauma-related symptoms. By contrast, CVE showed independent associations with only externalizing and trauma-related symptoms. Typically, childhood maltreatment and CVE exerted additive effects; however, these forms of adversity interacted to predict levels of anger. Exposure to maltreatment and community violence is associated with increased levels of clinical symptoms. However, while maltreatment is associated with increased symptoms across a broad range of mental health domains, the impact of community violence is more constrained, suggesting that these environmental risk factors differentially impact mental health functioning. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry. © 2014 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.

  19. Disparities in adverse childhood experiences among sexual minority and heterosexual adults: results from a multi-state probability-based sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Judith P; Blosnich, John

    2013-01-01

    Adverse childhood experiences (e.g., physical, sexual and emotional abuse, neglect, exposure to domestic violence, parental discord, familial mental illness, incarceration and substance abuse) constitute a major public health problem in the United States. The Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACE) scale is a standardized measure that captures multiple developmental risk factors beyond sexual, physical and emotional abuse. Lesbian, gay, and bisexual (i.e., sexual minority) individuals may experience disproportionately higher prevalence of adverse childhood experiences. To examine, using the ACE scale, prevalence of childhood physical, emotional, and sexual abuse and childhood household dysfunction among sexual minority and heterosexual adults. Analyses were conducted using a probability-based sample of data pooled from three U.S. states' Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) surveys (Maine, Washington, Wisconsin) that administered the ACE scale and collected information on sexual identity (n = 22,071). Compared with heterosexual respondents, gay/lesbian and bisexual individuals experienced increased odds of six of eight and seven of eight adverse childhood experiences, respectively. Sexual minority persons had higher rates of adverse childhood experiences (IRR = 1.66 gay/lesbian; 1.58 bisexual) compared to their heterosexual peers. Sexual minority individuals have increased exposure to multiple developmental risk factors beyond physical, sexual and emotional abuse. We recommend the use of the Adverse Childhood Experiences scale in future research examining health disparities among this minority population.

  20. Getting Started for Preparing Pre-Service Early Childhood Teachers in Terms of Sustainable Food Consumption: The Current Situation at a Public University in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alacam, Nur; Sahin, Elvan

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated the food consumption and nutrition perceptions of pre-service early childhood teachers using a mixed method research design. Data was gathered from 37 pre-service early childhood teachers through survey consisting of items in rating scale and open-ended questions. Descriptive analyses were conducted to report pre-service…