WorldWideScience

Sample records for broad population coverage

  1. Characterization of HIV-Specific CD4+T Cell Responses against Peptides Selected with Broad Population and Pathogen Coverage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buggert, Marcus; Norstrom, Melissa M.; Czarnecki, Chris;

    2012-01-01

    for the identification of HIV-specific CD4+ T cells targeting broadly reactive epitopes in populations with diverse ethnic background stems from the vast genomic variation of HIV and the diversity of the host cellular immune system. Here, we describe a novel epitope selection strategy, PopCover, that aims to resolve...... this challenge, and identify a set of potential HLA class II-restricted HIV epitopes that in concert will provide optimal viral and host coverage. Using this selection strategy, we identified 64 putative epitopes (peptides) located in the Gag, Nef, Env, Pol and Tat protein regions of HIV. In total, 73...... II-restricted epitopes. All together, selection strategies, such as PopCover, might with success be used for the evaluation of antigen-specific CD4+ T cell responses and design of future vaccines....

  2. PRINCIPAR An Efficient, Broad-coverage, Principle-based Parser

    CERN Document Server

    Lin, D

    1994-01-01

    We present an efficient, broad-coverage, principle-based parser for English. The parser has been implemented in C++ and runs on SUN Sparcstations with X-windows. It contains a lexicon with over 90,000 entries, constructed automatically by applying a set of extraction and conversion rules to entries from machine readable dictionaries.

  3. Measuring populations to improve vaccination coverage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bharti, Nita; Djibo, Ali; Tatem, Andrew J.; Grenfell, Bryan T.; Ferrari, Matthew J.

    2016-01-01

    In low-income settings, vaccination campaigns supplement routine immunization but often fail to achieve coverage goals due to uncertainty about target population size and distribution. Accurate, updated estimates of target populations are rare but critical; short-term fluctuations can greatly impact population size and susceptibility. We use satellite imagery to quantify population fluctuations and the coverage achieved by a measles outbreak response vaccination campaign in urban Niger and compare campaign estimates to measurements from a post-campaign survey. Vaccine coverage was overestimated because the campaign underestimated resident numbers and seasonal migration further increased the target population. We combine satellite-derived measurements of fluctuations in population distribution with high-resolution measles case reports to develop a dynamic model that illustrates the potential improvement in vaccination campaign coverage if planners account for predictable population fluctuations. Satellite imagery can improve retrospective estimates of vaccination campaign impact and future campaign planning by synchronizing interventions with predictable population fluxes. PMID:27703191

  4. Medicare Coverage Policies for Biologics: The Broad Gray Line

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    In October 2007, American Health & Drug Benefits asked Dr Joseph Antos to discuss the forces that have shaped Medicare's policies and their impact on the various stakeholders in US healthcare. The first part of the interview appeared in AHDB in February 2008. This second part focuses on the impact of the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services drug coverage on the future of biologic products. This discussion does not reflect any new developments occurring after October, such as the recent re...

  5. 1990 point population coverage for the Conterminous United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This is a point coverage of the 1990 Census of Population and Housing for the conterminous United States. (Alaska and Hawaii are available separately). The coverage...

  6. FungiQuant: A broad-coverage fungal quantitative real-time PCR assay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Cindy M

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fungal load quantification is a critical component of fungal community analyses. Limitation of current approaches for quantifying the fungal component in the human microbiome suggests the need for new broad-coverage techniques. Methods We analyzed 2,085 18S rRNA gene sequences from the SILVA database for assay design. We generated and quantified plasmid standards using a qPCR-based approach. We evaluated assay coverage against 4,968 sequences and performed assay validation following the Minimum Information for Publication of Quantitative Real-Time PCR Experiments (MIQE guidelines. Results We designed FungiQuant, a TaqMan® qPCR assay targeting a 351 bp region in the fungal 18S rRNA gene. Our in silico analysis showed that FungiQuant is a perfect sequence match to 90.0% of the 2,617 fungal species analyzed. We showed that FungiQuant’s is 100% sensitive and its amplification efficiencies ranged from 76.3% to 114.5%, with r2-values of >0.99 against the 69 fungal species tested. Additionally, FungiQuant inter- and intra-run coefficients of variance ranged from Conclusions FungiQuant has comprehensive coverage against diverse fungi and is a robust quantification and detection tool for delineating between true fungal detection and non-target human DNA.

  7. Expanding the universe of universal coverage: the population health argument for increasing coverage for immigrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandi, Arijit; Loue, Sana; Galea, Sandro

    2009-12-01

    As the US recession deepens, furthering the debate about healthcare reform is now even more important than ever. Few plans aimed at facilitating universal coverage make any mention of increasing access for uninsured non-citizens living in the US, many of whom are legally restricted from certain types of coverage. We conducted a critical review of the public health literature concerning the health status and access to health services among immigrant populations in the US. Using examples from infectious and chronic disease epidemiology, we argue that access to health services is at the intersection of the health of uninsured immigrants and the general population and that extending access to healthcare to all residents of the US, including undocumented immigrants, is beneficial from a population health perspective. Furthermore, from a health economics perspective, increasing access to care for immigrant populations may actually reduce net costs by increasing primary prevention and reducing the emphasis on emergency care for preventable conditions. It is unlikely that proposals for universal coverage will accomplish their objectives of improving population health and reducing social disparities in health if they do not address the substantial proportion of uninsured non-citizens living in the US.

  8. Relating Mandates in the United States for Managing the Ocean to Ecosystem Goods and Services Demonstrates Broad but Varied Coverage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christy M Foran

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available There are numerous ecosystem goods and services (EGS provided by the ocean. There are also multiple mandates to address this suite of EGS. Which facets of the ocean EGS does this portfolio of mandates collectively address? How are these mandates interrelated? Are there gaps in their coverage of EGS? Are there areas of reinforcement? To elucidate this set of issues, we characterize the portfolio of mandates that a leading U.S. governmental ocean agency, the National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA, and the subset of those that one of its Line Offices, the National Marine Fisheries Service (NOAA-Fisheries, is responsible for implementing. We link these mandates to a suite of EGS, evaluating the relative degree that each mandate addresses each EGS. The weighted overlap across mandates with respect to EGS was also estimated. Of the nearly 100 NOAA mandates, and the subset of 50 NOAA-Fisheries mandates, there was broad coverage of ocean EGS; every EGS has at a minimum of 9 NOAA mandates that addressed that topic. Food production, habitat provision, genetic resources, recreation, tourism, historical and heritage value, and knowledge and science value were the EGS that had the highest amount of coverage at 30, 42, 50, 39, 38, 34, and 60 NOAA mandates, respectively. There was some reinforcement across mandates, particularly for the top EGS, suggesting that the multiple facets of these EGS are being reasonably well addressed. Seventy percent of mandates informed the same EGS via implementation of the top 10 mandates considered to be the most important for NOAA. The large number of mandates and the overlap in the EGS they address suggest that some form of coordination is warranted, particularly via adoption of an ecosystem-based approach to management.

  9. Recovering galaxy stellar population properties from broad-band spectral energy distribution fitting

    CERN Document Server

    Pforr, Janine; Tonini, Chiara

    2012-01-01

    We explore the dependence of galaxy stellar population properties derived from broad-band SED-fitting - such as age, stellar mass, dust reddening, etc. - on a variety of parameters, such as SFHs, metallicity, IMF, dust reddening and reddening law, and wavelength coverage. Mock galaxies serve as test particles. We confirm our earlier results based on real z=2 galaxies, that usually adopted \\tau-models lead to overestimate the SFR and to underestimate the stellar mass. Here, we show that - for star-forming galaxies - ages, masses and reddening, can be well determined simultaneously only when the correct SFH is identified. This is the case for inverted-\\tau-models at high-z, for which we find that the mass recovery (at fixed IMF) is as good as ~0.04 dex. Since the right SFH is usually unknown we quantify offsets generated by adopting standard fitting setups. Stellar masses are generally underestimated resulting from underestimating ages. For fitting setups with a variety of SFHs the median mass recovery at z ~ 2...

  10. Effect of a partial coverage of quasar broad-line regions by intervening H$_2$-bearing clouds

    CERN Document Server

    Ofengeim, Dmitrii; Ivanchik, Aleksandr; Kaminker, Aleksandr; Klimenko, Vyacheslav

    2015-01-01

    We consider the effect of a partial coverage of quasar broad-line regions (QSO BLRs) by intervening H$_2$-bearing clouds when a part of quasar (QSO) radiation passes by a cloud not taking part in formation of an absorption-line system in the QSO spectrum. That leads to modification of observable absorption line profiles and consequently to a bias in physical parameters derived from standard absorption line analysis. In application to the H$_2$ {absorption} systems the effect has been revealed in the analysis of H$_2$ absorption system in the spectrum of Q~1232+082 (Ivanchik et al. 2010, Balashev et al. 2011). We estimate a probability of the effect to be detected in QSO spectra. To do this we derive distribution of BLR sizes of high-z QSOs from Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Data Release 9 (DR9) catalogue and assume different distributions of cloud sizes. We conclude that the low limit of the probability is about $11\\%$. The latest researches shows that about a fifth of observed H$_2$ absorption systems can ...

  11. Recovering galaxy stellar population properties from broad-band spectral energy distribution fitting II. The case with unknown redshift

    CERN Document Server

    Pforr, Janine; Tonini, Chiara

    2013-01-01

    (Abridged) In a recent work we explored the dependence of galaxy stellar population properties derived from broad-band spectral energy distribution fitting on the fitting parameters, e.g. SFHs, age grid, metallicity, IMF, dust reddening, reddening law, filter setup and wavelength coverage. In this paper we consider also redshift as a free parameter in the fit and study whether one can obtain reasonable estimates of photometric redshifts and stellar population properties at once. We use mock star-forming as well as passive galaxies placed at various redshifts (0.5 to 3) as test particles. Mock star-forming galaxies are extracted from a semi-analytical galaxy formation model. We show that for high-z star-forming galaxies photometric redshifts, stellar masses and reddening can be determined simultaneously when using a broad wavelength coverage and a wide template setup in the fit. Masses are similarly well recovered (median ~ 0.2 dex) as at fixed redshift. For old galaxies with little recent star formation masse...

  12. MIUSCAT: extended MILES spectral coverage. I. Stellar populations synthesis models

    OpenAIRE

    Vazdekis, A.; Ricciardelli, E.; Cenarro, A. J.; Rivero-González, J. G.; Díaz-García, L. A.; Falcón-Barroso, J.

    2012-01-01

    We extend the spectral range of our stellar population synthesis models based on the MILES and CaT empirical stellar spectral libraries. For this purpose we combine these two libraries with the Indo-U.S. to construct composite stellar spectra to feed our models. The spectral energy distributions (SEDs) computed with these models and the originally published models are combined to construct composite SEDs for single-age, single-metallicity stellar populations (SSPs) covering the range 3465 - 9...

  13. MIUSCAT: extended MILES spectral coverage. I. Stellar populations synthesis models

    CERN Document Server

    Vazdekis, A; Cenarro, A J; Rivero-González, J G; Díaz-García, L A; Falcón-Barroso, J

    2012-01-01

    We extend the spectral range of our stellar population synthesis models based on the MILES and CaT empirical stellar spectral libraries. For this purpose we combine these two libraries with the Indo-U.S. to construct composite stellar spectra to feed our models. The spectral energy distributions (SEDs) computed with these models and the originally published models are combined to construct composite SEDs for single-age, single-metallicity stellar populations (SSPs) covering the range 3465 - 9469\\AA at moderately high, and uniform, resolution (FWHM=2.51\\AA). The colours derived from these SSP SEDs provide good fits to Galactic globular cluster data. We find that the colours involving redder filters are very sensitive to the IMF, as well as a number of features and molecular bands throughout the spectra. To illustrate the potential use of these models we focus on the NaI doublet at 8200 \\AA and with the aid of the newly synthesized SSP model SEDs we define a new IMF-sensitive index that is based on this feature...

  14. Predicting population coverage of T-cell epitope-based diagnostics and vaccines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Newman Mark J

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background T cells recognize a complex between a specific major histocompatibility complex (MHC molecule and a particular pathogen-derived epitope. A given epitope will elicit a response only in individuals that express an MHC molecule capable of binding that particular epitope. MHC molecules are extremely polymorphic and over a thousand different human MHC (HLA alleles are known. A disproportionate amount of MHC polymorphism occurs in positions constituting the peptide-binding region, and as a result, MHC molecules exhibit a widely varying binding specificity. In the design of peptide-based vaccines and diagnostics, the issue of population coverage in relation to MHC polymorphism is further complicated by the fact that different HLA types are expressed at dramatically different frequencies in different ethnicities. Thus, without careful consideration, a vaccine or diagnostic with ethnically biased population coverage could result. Results To address this issue, an algorithm was developed to calculate, on the basis of HLA genotypic frequencies, the fraction of individuals expected to respond to a given epitope set, diagnostic or vaccine. The population coverage estimates are based on MHC binding and/or T cell restriction data, although the tool can be utilized in a more general fashion. The algorithm was implemented as a web-application available at http://epitope.liai.org:8080/tools/population. Conclusion We have developed a web-based tool to predict population coverage of T-cell epitope-based diagnostics and vaccines based on MHC binding and/or T cell restriction data. Accordingly, epitope-based vaccines or diagnostics can be designed to maximize population coverage, while minimizing complexity (that is, the number of different epitopes included in the diagnostic or vaccine, and also minimizing the variability of coverage obtained or projected in different ethnic groups.

  15. Broad-scale Population Genetics of the Host Sea Anemone, Heteractis magnifica

    KAUST Repository

    Emms, Madeleine

    2015-12-01

    Broad-scale population genetics can reveal population structure across an organism’s entire range, which can enable us to determine the most efficient population-wide management strategy depending on levels of connectivity. Genetic variation and differences in genetic diversity on small-scales have been reported in anemones, but nothing is known about their broad-scale population structure, including that of “host” anemone species, which are increasingly being targeted in the aquarium trade. In this study, microsatellite markers were used as a tool to determine the population structure of a sessile, host anemone species, Heteractis magnifica, across the Indo-Pacific region. In addition, two rDNA markers were used to identify Symbiodinium from the samples, and phylogenetic analyses were used to measure diversity and geographic distribution of Symbiodinium across the region. Significant population structure was identified in H. magnifica across the Indo-Pacific, with at least three genetic breaks, possibly the result of factors such as geographic distance, geographic isolation and environmental variation. Symbiodinium associations were also affected by environmental variation and supported the geographic isolation of some regions. These results suggests that management of H. magnifica must be implemented on a local scale, due to the lack of connectivity between clusters. This study also provides further evidence for the combined effects of geographic distance and environmental distance in explaining genetic variance.

  16. Measuring coverage in MNCH: a validation study linking population survey derived coverage to maternal, newborn, and child health care records in rural China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Liu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Accurate data on coverage of key maternal, newborn, and child health (MNCH interventions are crucial for monitoring progress toward the Millennium Development Goals 4 and 5. Coverage estimates are primarily obtained from routine population surveys through self-reporting, the validity of which is not well understood. We aimed to examine the validity of the coverage of selected MNCH interventions in Gongcheng County, China. METHOD AND FINDINGS: We conducted a validation study by comparing women's self-reported coverage of MNCH interventions relating to antenatal and postnatal care, mode of delivery, and child vaccinations in a community survey with their paper- and electronic-based health care records, treating the health care records as the reference standard. Of 936 women recruited, 914 (97.6% completed the survey. Results show that self-reported coverage of these interventions had moderate to high sensitivity (0.57 [95% confidence interval (CI: 0.50-0.63] to 0.99 [95% CI: 0.98-1.00] and low to high specificity (0 to 0.83 [95% CI: 0.80-0.86]. Despite varying overall validity, with the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC ranging between 0.49 [95% CI: 0.39-0.57] and 0.90 [95% CI: 0.88-0.92], bias in the coverage estimates at the population level was small to moderate, with the test to actual positive (TAP ratio ranging between 0.8 and 1.5 for 24 of the 28 indicators examined. Our ability to accurately estimate validity was affected by several caveats associated with the reference standard. Caution should be exercised when generalizing the results to other settings. CONCLUSIONS: The overall validity of self-reported coverage was moderate across selected MNCH indicators. However, at the population level, self-reported coverage appears to have small to moderate degree of bias. Accuracy of the coverage was particularly high for indicators with high recorded coverage or low recorded coverage but high specificity. The

  17. Geographical disparities in core population coverage indicators for roll back malaria in Malawi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Appleton Christopher C

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Implementation of known effective interventions would necessitate the reduction of malaria burden by half by the year 2010. Identifying geographical disparities of coverage of these interventions at small area level is useful to inform where greatest scaling-up efforts should be concentrated. They also provide baseline data against which future scaling-up of interventions can be compared. However, population data are not always available at local level. This study applied spatial smoothing methods to generate maps at subdistrict level in Malawi to serve such purposes. Methods Data for the following responses from the 2000 Malawi Demographic and Health Survey (DHS were aggregated at subdistrict level: (1 households possessing at least one bednet; (2 children under 5 years who slept under a bednet the night before the survey; (3 bednets retreated with insecticide within past 6–12 months preceding the survey; (4 children under 5 who had fever two weeks before the survey and received treatment within 24 hours from the onset of fever; and (5 women who received intermittent preventive treatment of malaria during their last pregnancy. Each response was geographically smoothed at subdistrict level by applying conditional autoregressive models using Markov Chain Monte Carlo simulation techniques. Results The underlying geographical patterns of coverage of indicators were more clear in the smoothed maps than in the original unsmoothed maps, with relatively high coverage in urban areas than in rural areas for all indicators. The percentage of households possessing at least one bednet was 19% (95% credible interval (CI: 16–21%, with 9% (95% CI: 7–11% of children sleeping under a net, while 18% (95% CI: 16–19% of households had retreated their nets within past 12 months prior to the survey. The northern region and lakeshore areas had high bednet coverage, but low usage and re-treatment rates. Coverage rate of children who received

  18. Agricultural Set-aside Programs and Grassland Birds: Insights from Broad-scale Population Trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Riffell

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The Conservation Reserve Program (CRP is a voluntary set-aside program in the United States designed to amelioratesoil erosion, control crop overproduction, enhance water quality, and provide wildlife habitat by replacing crops with other forms of land cover. Because CRP includes primarily grass habitats, it has great potential to benefitdeclining North American grassland bird populations. We looked at the change in national and state population trends of grassland birds and related changes to cover-specific CRP variables (previous research grouped all CRP practices. Changes in national trends after the initiation of the CRP were inconclusive, but we observed signficant bird-CRP relations at the state level. Most bird-CRP relations were positive, except for some species associated with habitats that CRP replaced. Practice- and configuration-specific CRP variables were related to grassland bird trends, rather than a generic measure of all CRP types combined. Considering all CRP land as a single, distinct habitat type may obscure actual relations between birds and set-aside characteristics. Understanding and predictingthe effects of set-aside programs (like CRP or agri-environment schemes on grassland birds is complex and difficult. Because available broad-scale datasets are less than adequate, studies should be conducted at a variety of spatial and temporal scales.

  19. The development of universal health insurance coverage in Thailand: Challenges of population aging and informal economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Minchung; Huang, Xianguo; Yupho, Somrasri

    2015-11-01

    This paper quantitatively investigates the sustainability of the universal health insurance coverage (UHI) system in Thailand while taking into account the country's rapidly aging population and large informal labor sector. We examine the effects of population aging and informal employment across three tax options for financing the UHI. A modern dynamic general equilibrium framework is utilized to conduct policy experiments and welfare analysis. In the case of labor income tax being used to finance the cost of UHI, an additional 11-15% of labor tax will be required with the 2050 population age structure, compared with the 2005 benchmark economy. We also find that an expansion of income tax base to the informal sector can substantially alleviate the tax burden. Based on welfare comparisons across the alternative tax options, the labor income tax is the most preferred because the inequality between formal/informal sectors is large. If the informal sector cannot avoid labor income tax, capital tax will be preferred over labor and consumption taxes. PMID:26452699

  20. Broad coverage identification of multiple proteolytic cleavage site sequences in complex high molecular weight proteins using quantitative proteomics as a complement to edman sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doucet, Alain; Overall, Christopher M

    2011-05-01

    Proteolytic processing modifies the pleiotropic functions of many large, complex, and modular proteins and can generate cleavage products with new biological activity. The identification of exact proteolytic cleavage sites in the extracellular matrix laminins, fibronectin, and other extracellular matrix proteins is not only important for understanding protein turnover but is needed for the identification of new bioactive cleavage products. Several such products have recently been recognized that are suggested to play important cellular regulatory roles in processes, including angiogenesis. However, identifying multiple cleavage sites in extracellular matrix proteins and other large proteins is challenging as N-terminal Edman sequencing of multiple and often closely spaced cleavage fragments on SDS-PAGE gels is difficult, thus limiting throughput and coverage. We developed a new liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry approach we call amino-terminal oriented mass spectrometry of substrates (ATOMS) for the N-terminal identification of protein cleavage fragments in solution. ATOMS utilizes efficient and low cost dimethylation isotopic labeling of original N-terminal and proteolytically generated N termini of protein cleavage fragments followed by quantitative tandem mass spectrometry analysis. Being a peptide-centric approach, ATOMS is not dependent on the SDS-PAGE resolution limits for protein fragments of similar mass. We demonstrate that ATOMS reliably identifies multiple proteolytic sites per reaction in complex proteins. Fifty-five neutrophil elastase cleavage sites were identified in laminin-1 and fibronectin-1 with 34 more identified by matrix metalloproteinase cleavage. Hence, our degradomics approach offers a complimentary alternative to Edman sequencing with broad applicability in identifying N termini such as cleavage sites in complex high molecular weight extracellular matrix proteins after in vitro cleavage assays. ATOMS can therefore be useful in

  1. Transfer of genetic therapy across human populations: molecular targets for increasing patient coverage in repeat expansion diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varela, Miguel A; Curtis, Helen J; Douglas, Andrew G L; Hammond, Suzan M; O'Loughlin, Aisling J; Sobrido, Maria J; Scholefield, Janine; Wood, Matthew J A

    2016-02-01

    Allele-specific gene therapy aims to silence expression of mutant alleles through targeting of disease-linked single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). However, SNP linkage to disease varies between populations, making such molecular therapies applicable only to a subset of patients. Moreover, not all SNPs have the molecular features necessary for potent gene silencing. Here we provide knowledge to allow the maximisation of patient coverage by building a comprehensive understanding of SNPs ranked according to their predicted suitability toward allele-specific silencing in 14 repeat expansion diseases: amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and frontotemporal dementia, dentatorubral-pallidoluysian atrophy, myotonic dystrophy 1, myotonic dystrophy 2, Huntington's disease and several spinocerebellar ataxias. Our systematic analysis of DNA sequence variation shows that most annotated SNPs are not suitable for potent allele-specific silencing across populations because of suboptimal sequence features and low variability (>97% in HD). We suggest maximising patient coverage by selecting SNPs with high heterozygosity across populations, and preferentially targeting SNPs that lead to purine:purine mismatches in wild-type alleles to obtain potent allele-specific silencing. We therefore provide fundamental knowledge on strategies for optimising patient coverage of therapeutics for microsatellite expansion disorders by linking analysis of population genetic variation to the selection of molecular targets.

  2. Evaluation of the establishment of herd immunity in the population by means of serological surveys and vaccination coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plans-Rubió, Pedro

    2012-02-01

    The necessary herd immunity blocking the transmission of an infectious agent in the population is established when the prevalence of protected individuals is higher than a critical value, called the herd immunity threshold. The establishment of herd immunity in the population can be determined using the vaccination coverage and seroepidemiological surveys. The vaccination coverage associated with herd immunity (V(c)) can be determined from the herd immunity threshold and vaccine effectiveness. This method requires a vaccine-specific effectiveness evaluation, and it can be used only for the herd immunity assessment of vaccinated communities in which the infectious agent is not circulating. The prevalence of positive serological results associated with herd immunity can be determined from the herd immunity threshold, in terms of prevalence of antibodies (p(c)) and serological test performance. The herd immunity is established when the prevalence of antibodies is higher than pc. This method can be used to assess the establishment of herd immunity in different population groups, both when the infectious agent is circulating and when it is not possible to assess vaccine effectiveness. The herd immunity assessment in Catalonia, Spain, showed that the additional vaccination coverage required to establish herd immunity was 3-6% for measles, mump and varicella and 11% poliovirus type III in school children, 17-59% for diphtheria in youth and adults and 25-46% for persussis in school children, youth and adults.

  3. Conducting Internet Research With the Transgender Population: Reaching Broad Samples and Collecting Valid Data

    OpenAIRE

    Miner, Michael H.; Bockting, Walter O.; Romine, Rebecca Swinburne; Raman, Sivakumaran

    2011-01-01

    Health research on transgender people has been hampered by the challenges inherent in studying a hard-to-reach, relatively small, and geographically dispersed population. The Internet has the potential to facilitate access to transgender samples large enough to permit examination of the diversity and syndemic health disparities found among this population. In this article, we describe the experiences of a team of investigators using the Internet to study HIV risk behaviors of transgender peop...

  4. Immunization Coverage In Urban, Rural And Tribal Populations-A Comparative Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhardwaj A K

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available Immunization coverage assessment of 327 children in Himachal pradesh revealed that 66.7%, 42.2% and 50.6% children were fully immunized in urban, rural and tribal areas respectively. The coverage by all vaccines was well above the national average. Drop out rates were more in the rural areas followed by tribal and urban areas. The main reason for drop outs in immunization was parents’ preoccupation with their work. However in the opinion of the health workers, fear of side reactions and illness of the child were the main reasons for the poor response.

  5. Measuring coverage in MNCH: population HIV-free survival among children under two years of age in four African countries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey S A Stringer

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Population-based evaluations of programs for prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission (PMTCT are scarce. We measured PMTCT service coverage, regimen use, and HIV-free survival among children ≤24 mo of age in Cameroon, Côte D'Ivoire, South Africa, and Zambia. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We randomly sampled households in 26 communities and offered participation if a child had been born to a woman living there during the prior 24 mo. We tested consenting mothers with rapid HIV antibody tests and tested the children of seropositive mothers with HIV DNA PCR or rapid antibody tests. Our primary outcome was 24-mo HIV-free survival, estimated with survival analysis. In an individual-level analysis, we evaluated the effectiveness of various PMTCT regimens. In a community-level analysis, we evaluated the relationship between HIV-free survival and community PMTCT coverage (the proportion of HIV-exposed infants in each community that received any PMTCT intervention during gestation or breastfeeding. We also compared our community coverage results to those of a contemporaneous study conducted in the facilities serving each sampled community. Of 7,985 surveyed children under 2 y of age, 1,014 (12.7% were HIV-exposed. Of these, 110 (10.9% were HIV-infected, 851 (83.9% were HIV-uninfected, and 53 (5.2% were dead. HIV-free survival at 24 mo of age among all HIV-exposed children was 79.7% (95% CI: 76.4, 82.6 overall, with the following country-level estimates: Cameroon (72.6%; 95% CI: 62.3, 80.5, South Africa (77.7%; 95% CI: 72.5, 82.1, Zambia (83.1%; 95% CI: 78.4, 86.8, and Côte D'Ivoire (84.4%; 95% CI: 70.0, 92.2. In adjusted analyses, the risk of death or HIV infection was non-significantly lower in children whose mothers received a more complex regimen of either two or three antiretroviral drugs compared to those receiving no prophylaxis (adjusted hazard ratio: 0.60; 95% CI: 0.34, 1.06. Risk of death was not different for children whose

  6. A broad perspective on multiple abundance populations in the globular cluster NGC 1851

    CERN Document Server

    Simpson, Jeffrey D; Navin, Colin A

    2016-01-01

    We present an analysis of the multiple stellar populations of the globular cluster NGC 1851. We used lower resolution spectra of giant stars to measure CN, CH, and calcium H & K spectral indices, and determine elemental abundances for carbon and nitrogen. The CN and CH indices were used to confirm that there are four populations of stars in the cluster. The primordial population of stars, with the lowest CN, was found to be generally chemically distinct in elemental abundances from the second generation populations. As expected, [N/Fe] increases with increasing CN strength, but the only other element that correlated with CN was barium. The two largest populations of stars were found to have the same rate of carbon astration as the stars ascend the giant branch. We were also able to confirm that four previously identified extratidal stars are chemically associated with the cluster. This work shows the benefit of considering the chemistry of globular clusters with both high- and low-resolution spectra.

  7. Factors affecting the intensity of epidermal papillomatosis in populations of roach, Rutilus rutilus (L.), estimated as scale coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korkea-aho, T; Vainikka, A; Taskinen, J

    2006-02-01

    Studies of epidermal papillomatosis in fish populations have only rarely focused on the intensity of the disease, i.e. the number and size of papillomas. Furthermore, the methods used to evaluate the intensity of papillomatosis have not been standardized. We tested the reliability of a method based on counting of scales covered by papilloma tumours in roach, Rutilus rutilus (L). In addition, we studied the frequency distributions of the number of scales covered by papillomas within populations, evaluated the correlation between the prevalence and mean intensity of the disease among populations and examined the intensity of papillomatosis in roach with respect to sex and size of fish. Reliability of the scale coverage method was high. Therefore, the method could offer an effective way to determine the intensity of papillomatosis in fish species with large scales. The frequency distribution of the scale coverage of papillomas was highly aggregated within all populations studied. The mean intensity of papillomatosis increased with the size of the fish and was higher in males than in females. However, there was no correlation between the mean intensity and prevalence of the disease among the 19 roach populations studied. PMID:16436122

  8. Assessing the status and trend of bat populations across broad geographic regions with dynamic distribution models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodhouse, Thomas J.; Ormsbee, Patricia C.; Irvine, Kathryn M.; Vierling, Lee A.; Szewczak, Joseph M.; Vierling, Kerri T.

    2012-01-01

    Bats face unprecedented threats from habitat loss, climate change, disease, and wind power development, and populations of many species are in decline. A better ability to quantify bat population status and trend is urgently needed in order to develop effective conservation strategies. We used a Bayesian autoregressive approach to develop dynamic distribution models for Myotis lucifugus, the little brown bat, across a large portion of northwestern USA, using a four-year detection history matrix obtained from a regional monitoring program. This widespread and abundant species has experienced precipitous local population declines in northeastern USA resulting from the novel disease white-nose syndrome, and is facing likely range-wide declines. Our models were temporally dynamic and accounted for imperfect detection. Drawing on species–energy theory, we included measures of net primary productivity (NPP) and forest cover in models, predicting that M. lucifugus occurrence probabilities would covary positively along those gradients.

  9. Broad and narrow personality traits as markers of one-time and repeated suicide attempts: A population-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitaro Frank

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studying personality traits with the potential to differentiate between individuals engaging in suicide attempts of different degrees of severity could help us to understand the processes underlying the link of personality and nonfatal suicidal behaviours and to identify at-risk groups. One approach may be to examine whether narrow, i.e., lower-order personality traits may be more useful than their underlying, broad personality trait dimensions. Methods We investigated qualitative and quantitative differences in broad and narrow personality traits between one-time and repeated suicide attempters in a longitudinal, population-based sample of young French Canadian adults using two multivariate regression models. Results One broad (Compulsivity: OR = 2.0; 95% CI 1.2–3.5 and one narrow personality trait (anxiousness: OR = 1.1; 95% CI 1.01–1.1 differentiated between individuals with histories of repeated and one-time suicide attempts. Affective instability [(OR = 1.1; 95% CI 1.04–1.1] and anxiousness [(OR = .92; 95% CI .88–.95], on the other hand, differentiated between nonattempters and one-time suicide attempters. Conclusion Emotional and cognitive dysregulation and associated behavioural manifestations may be associated with suicide attempts of different severity. While findings associated with narrow traits may be easier to interpret and link to existing sociobiological theories, larger effect sizes associated with broad traits such as Compulsivity may be better suited to objectives with a more clinical focus.

  10. Lack of Spatial Immunogenetic Structure among Wolverine (Gulo gulo Populations Suggestive of Broad Scale Balancing Selection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yessica Rico

    Full Text Available Elucidating the adaptive genetic potential of wildlife populations to environmental selective pressures is fundamental for species conservation. Genes of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC are highly polymorphic, and play a key role in the adaptive immune response against pathogens. MHC polymorphism has been linked to balancing selection or heterogeneous selection promoting local adaptation. However, spatial patterns of MHC polymorphism are also influenced by gene flow and drift. Wolverines are highly vagile, inhabiting varied ecoregions that include boreal forest, taiga, tundra, and high alpine ecosystems. Here, we investigated the immunogenetic variation of wolverines in Canada as a surrogate for identifying local adaptation by contrasting the genetic structure at MHC relative to the structure at 11 neutral microsatellites to account for gene flow and drift. Evidence of historical positive selection was detected at MHC using maximum likelihood codon-based methods. Bayesian and multivariate cluster analyses revealed weaker population genetic differentiation at MHC relative to the increasing microsatellite genetic structure towards the eastern wolverine distribution. Mantel correlations of MHC against geographical distances showed no pattern of isolation by distance (IBD: r = -0.03, p = 0.9, whereas for microsatellites we found a relatively strong and significant IBD (r = 0.54, p = 0.01. Moreover, we found a significant correlation between microsatellite allelic richness and the mean number of MHC alleles, but we did not observe low MHC diversity in small populations. Overall these results suggest that MHC polymorphism has been influenced primarily by balancing selection and to a lesser extent by neutral processes such as genetic drift, with no clear evidence for local adaptation. This study contributes to our understanding of how vulnerable populations of wolverines may respond to selective pressures across their range.

  11. Conducting Internet Research With the Transgender Population: Reaching Broad Samples and Collecting Valid Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miner, Michael H; Bockting, Walter O; Romine, Rebecca Swinburne; Raman, Sivakumaran

    2012-05-01

    Health research on transgender people has been hampered by the challenges inherent in studying a hard-to-reach, relatively small, and geographically dispersed population. The Internet has the potential to facilitate access to transgender samples large enough to permit examination of the diversity and syndemic health disparities found among this population. In this article, we describe the experiences of a team of investigators using the Internet to study HIV risk behaviors of transgender people in the United States. We developed an online instrument, recruited participants exclusively via websites frequented by members of the target population, and collected data using online quantitative survey and qualitative synchronous and asynchronous interview methods. Our experiences indicate that the Internet environment presents the investigator with some unique challenges and that commonly expressed criticisms about Internet research (e.g., lack of generalizable samples, invalid study participants, and multiple participation by the same subject) can be overcome with careful method design, usability testing, and pilot testing. The importance of both usability and pilot testing are described with respect to participant engagement and retention and the quality of data obtained online. PMID:24031157

  12. Method of analysis of populations exposure and radio coverage of GSM and UMTS mobile phone networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present a description and preliminary results of a large-scale project (COMOP) started in 2009 by the Ministry for Ecology, Sustainable Development and Energy and the National Agency of Frequencies (ANFR). This work is collaborative between the government, municipalities, associations, network operators and agencies. This project concerns GSM and UMTS mobile phone networks. Sixteen voluntary pilot communes were selected to carry out the experiments. This work is based on numerical modeling methods associated with various innovative measurement campaigns. It consists of: - determination of current status of exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields emitted by base station antennas by modeling and measurements. - investigations on reducing this exposure while assessing the impact of parallel territorial coverage and quality of service of mobile networks. This study has established a comprehensive scientific realization of human exposure to radio-frequencies from base station antennas. These results constitute an innovative approach and are relevant in terms of dialogue in the current debate about positioning of base stations. (authors)

  13. Can Plan Recommendations Improve the Coverage Decisions of Vulnerable Populations in Health Insurance Marketplaces?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew J Barnes

    Full Text Available The Affordable Care Act's marketplaces present an important opportunity for expanding coverage but consumers face enormous challenges in navigating through enrollment and re-enrollment. We tested the effectiveness of a behaviorally informed policy tool--plan recommendations--in improving marketplace decisions.Data were gathered from a community sample of 656 lower-income, minority, rural residents of Virginia.We conducted an incentive-compatible, computer-based experiment using a hypothetical marketplace like the one consumers face in the federally-facilitated marketplaces, and examined their decision quality. Participants were randomly assigned to a control condition or three types of plan recommendations: social normative, physician, and government. For participants randomized to a plan recommendation condition, the plan that maximized expected earnings, and minimized total expected annual health care costs, was recommended.Primary data were gathered using an online choice experiment and questionnaire.Plan recommendations resulted in a 21 percentage point increase in the probability of choosing the earnings maximizing plan, after controlling for participant characteristics. Two conditions, government or providers recommending the lowest cost plan, resulted in plan choices that lowered annual costs compared to marketplaces where no recommendations were made.As millions of adults grapple with choosing plans in marketplaces and whether to switch plans during open enrollment, it is time to consider marketplace redesigns and leverage insights from the behavioral sciences to facilitate consumers' decisions.

  14. Effects of type of health insurance coverage on colorectal cancer survival in Puerto Rico: a population-based study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen J Ortiz-Ortiz

    Full Text Available Colorectal cancer represents a major health problem and an important economic burden in Puerto Rico. In the 1990's, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico implemented a health care reform through the privatization of the public health system. The goal was to ensure access to health services, eliminate disparities for medically indigent citizens and provide special coverage for high-risk conditions such as cancer. This study estimates the 5-year relative survival rate of colorectal cancer and the relative excess risk of death in Puerto Rico for 2004-2005, by type of health insurance coverage; Government Health Plan vs. Non-Government Health Plan. Colorectal cancer in advanced stages was more common in Government Health Plan patients compared with Non-Government Health Plan patients (44.29% vs. 40.24 had regional extent and 13.58% versus 10.42% had distant involvement, respectively. Government Health Plan patients in the 50-64 (RR = 6.59; CI: 2.85-15.24 and ≥65 (RR = 2.4; CI: 1.72-4.04 age-groups had the greater excess risk of death compared with Non-Government Health Plan patients. Further studies evaluating the interplay of access to health services and the barriers affecting the Government Health Plan population are warranted.

  15. Carotenoid content and root color of cultivated carrot: a candidate-gene association study using an original broad unstructured population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthieu Jourdan

    Full Text Available Accumulated in large amounts in carrot, carotenoids are an important product quality attribute and therefore a major breeding trait. However, the knowledge of carotenoid accumulation genetic control in this root vegetable is still limited. In order to identify the genetic variants linked to this character, we performed an association mapping study with a candidate gene approach. We developed an original unstructured population with a broad genetic basis to avoid the pitfall of false positive detection due to population stratification. We genotyped 109 SNPs located in 17 candidate genes – mostly carotenoid biosynthesis genes – on 380 individuals, and tested the association with carotenoid contents and color components. Total carotenoids and β-carotene contents were significantly associated with genes zeaxanthin epoxydase (ZEP, phytoene desaturase (PDS and carotenoid isomerase (CRTISO while α-carotene was associated with CRTISO and plastid terminal oxidase (PTOX genes. Color components were associated most significantly with ZEP. Our results suggest the involvement of the couple PDS/PTOX and ZEP in carotenoid accumulation, as the result of the metabolic and catabolic activities respectively. This study brings new insights in the understanding of the carotenoid pathway in non-photosynthetic organs.

  16. Recent trends in coverage of the Mexican-born population of the United States: results from applying multiple methods across time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Hook, Jennifer; Bean, Frank D; Bachmeier, James D; Tucker, Catherine

    2014-04-01

    The accuracy of counts of U.S. racial/ethnic and immigrant groups depends on the coverage of the foreign-born in official data. Because Mexicans constitute by far the largest single national-origin group among the foreign-born in the United States, we compile new evidence about the coverage of the Mexican-born population in the 2000 census and 2001-2010 American Community Survey (ACS) using three techniques: a death registration, a birth registration, and a net migration method. For the late 1990s and first half of the 2000-2010 decade, results indicate that coverage error was somewhat higher than currently assumed but had substantially declined by the latter half of the 2000-2010 decade. Additionally, we find evidence that U.S. census and ACS data miss substantial numbers of children of Mexican immigrants, as well as people who are most likely to be unauthorized: namely, working-aged Mexican immigrants (ages 15-64), especially males. The findings highlight the heterogeneity of the Mexican foreign-born population and the ways in which migration dynamics may affect population coverage. PMID:24570373

  17. Monitoring intervention coverage in the context of universal health coverage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ties Boerma

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring universal health coverage (UHC focuses on information on health intervention coverage and financial protection. This paper addresses monitoring intervention coverage, related to the full spectrum of UHC, including health promotion and disease prevention, treatment, rehabilitation, and palliation. A comprehensive core set of indicators most relevant to the country situation should be monitored on a regular basis as part of health progress and systems performance assessment for all countries. UHC monitoring should be embedded in a broad results framework for the country health system, but focus on indicators related to the coverage of interventions that most directly reflect the results of UHC investments and strategies in each country. A set of tracer coverage indicators can be selected, divided into two groups-promotion/prevention, and treatment/care-as illustrated in this paper. Disaggregation of the indicators by the main equity stratifiers is critical to monitor progress in all population groups. Targets need to be set in accordance with baselines, historical rate of progress, and measurement considerations. Critical measurement gaps also exist, especially for treatment indicators, covering issues such as mental health, injuries, chronic conditions, surgical interventions, rehabilitation, and palliation. Consequently, further research and proxy indicators need to be used in the interim. Ideally, indicators should include a quality of intervention dimension. For some interventions, use of a single indicator is feasible, such as management of hypertension; but in many areas additional indicators are needed to capture quality of service provision. The monitoring of UHC has significant implications for health information systems. Major data gaps will need to be filled. At a minimum, countries will need to administer regular household health surveys with biological and clinical data collection. Countries will also need to improve the

  18. Constraining sub-parsec binary supermassive black holes in quasars with multi-epoch spectroscopy. II. The population with kinematically offset broad Balmer emission lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Xin [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Shen, Yue [Carnegie Observatories, 813 Santa Barbara Street, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); Bian, Fuyan [Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 2611 (Australia); Loeb, Abraham [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Tremaine, Scott, E-mail: xinliu@astro.ucla.edu [Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton, NJ 08540 (United States)

    2014-07-10

    A small fraction of quasars have long been known to show bulk velocity offsets (of a few hundred to thousands of km s{sup –1}) in the broad Balmer lines with respect to the systemic redshift of the host galaxy. Models to explain these offsets usually invoke broad-line region gas kinematics/asymmetry around single black holes (BHs), orbital motion of massive (∼sub-parsec (sub-pc)) binary black holes (BBHs), or recoil BHs, but single-epoch spectra are unable to distinguish between these scenarios. The line-of-sight (LOS) radial velocity (RV) shifts from long-term spectroscopic monitoring can be used to test the BBH hypothesis. We have selected a sample of 399 quasars with kinematically offset broad Hβ lines from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Seventh Data Release quasar catalog, and have conducted second-epoch optical spectroscopy for 50 of them. Combined with the existing SDSS spectra, the new observations enable us to constrain the LOS RV shifts of broad Hβ lines with a rest-frame baseline of a few years to nearly a decade. While previous work focused on objects with extreme velocity offset (>10{sup 3} km s{sup –1}), we explore the parameter space with smaller (a few hundred km s{sup –1}) yet significant offsets (99.7% confidence). Using cross-correlation analysis, we detect significant (99% confidence) radial accelerations in the broad Hβ lines in 24 of the 50 objects, of ∼10-200 km s{sup –1} yr{sup –1} with a median measurement uncertainty of ∼10 km s{sup –1} yr{sup –1}, implying a high fraction of variability of the broad-line velocity on multi-year timescales. We suggest that 9 of the 24 detections are sub-pc BBH candidates, which show consistent velocity shifts independently measured from a second broad line (either Hα or Mg II) without significant changes in the broad-line profiles. Combining the results on the general quasar population studied in Paper I, we find a tentative anti-correlation between the velocity offset in the

  19. Provider's and user's perspective about immunization coverage among migratory and non-migratory population in slums and construction sites of Chandigarh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Vikas; Singh, Amarjeet; Sharma, Vijaylakshmi

    2015-04-01

    Strengthening routine immunization is a corner stone for countries to achieve the United Nations Millennium Development Goal 4 (MDG 4) which aims to reduce under-five mortality by two-thirds and MDG 5 improving maternal health compared to 1990 estimates by 2015. The poor urban newborns are more vulnerable to many health and nutrition problems compared to the non-poor urban counterparts. Therefore there is a need to strengthen health system to cater the needs of urban poor. Standardized WHO30*7 cluster sampling for slums and convenience sampling for construction sites. In depth interviews were conducted for user's as well as provider's perspective about immunization coverage. Two hundred ten children and 210 mothers were enrolled in slums and 100 were sampled from construction sites. The slum workers are considered as non-migratory groups whereas construction site workers are considered as migratory population. Among children, 23 % were fully immunized, 73 % were partially immunized and 3 % were unimmunized in non-migratory population whereas 3 % were fully immunized, 91 % were partially immunized and 6 % were unimmunized in migratory population. Among mothers, 43 and 39 % were fully immunized, 13 and 15 % partially immunized and 43 and 46 % were unimmunized in non-migratory and migratory population, respectively. The various reasons attributed for low coverage are (a) dissatisfaction of the users with the service delivery and procedural delays (bureaucracy), (b) lack of faith in health workers,

  20. Effects of Type of Health Insurance Coverage on Colorectal Cancer Survival in Puerto Rico: A Population-Based Study

    OpenAIRE

    Ortiz-Ortiz, Karen J.; Roberto Ramírez-García; Marcia Cruz-Correa; Ríos-González, Moraima Y.; Ana Patricia Ortiz

    2014-01-01

    Colorectal cancer represents a major health problem and an important economic burden in Puerto Rico. In the 1990's, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico implemented a health care reform through the privatization of the public health system. The goal was to ensure access to health services, eliminate disparities for medically indigent citizens and provide special coverage for high-risk conditions such as cancer. This study estimates the 5-year relative survival rate of colorectal cancer and the rel...

  1. How to best define target populations of medicines in view of their coverage by the national health insurance scheme?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamers, Françoise F; Massol, Jacques; Maillère, Patricia

    2010-01-01

    The target population of a medicine may include different populations that may partially overlap including the population that has been evaluated in the clinical trials, the population for which the medicine provides an actual benefit (SMR), that for which the drug provides an improvement of the actual benefit (ASMR), etc. The definition of the target population in both qualitative and quantitative terms has key public health and economic implications. Recommendations are made to shed light on the definitions, to clarify the requests of the public decision makers and to improve the methods and the sources allowing the quantification of target populations.

  2. Distribution of populations of broad-snouted caiman (Caiman latirostris, Daudin 1802, Alligatoridae) in the São Francisco River basin, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filogonio, R; Assis, V B; Passos, L F; Coutinho, M E

    2010-11-01

    We surveyed populations of the broad-snouted caiman, Caiman latirostris, throughout the São Francisco River basin, from Três Marias reservoir, State of Minas Gerais, to the river delta, at the boarder of Sergipe and Alagoas states. We registered the occurrence of crocodilians in 61% of all surveyed localities (n = 64), in which the presence of C. latirostris was confirmed in 44% of the surveyed sites. Caimans occurred in both lentic and lotic habitats, although there was a preference for small dams, oxbow lakes and wetlands. Despite the hunting pressure and human impact on natural habitats, our results indicate that the populations of C. latirostris in the São Francisco basin are not fragmented. PMID:21180900

  3. Determinants for employer-paid health insurance coverage: a population-based study of the Danish labour force

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Ann Demant; Søgaard, Rikke

    2013-01-01

    AIM: In 2002, the Danish tax law was changed, giving employees a tax exemption on supplemental, employer-paid health insurance. This might have conflicted with one of the key foundations of the healthcare system, namely equal access for equal needs. The aim of this study was to investigate...... was based on data from a range of Danish person-level and company-level registers (explanatory variables). These data were combined with information on insurance status obtained from the trade organisation for insurance (dependent variable). A logistic regression was performed to estimate the odds of having......, region of residence, years of education, and annual income. CONCLUSIONS: Both company and individual characteristics were found to be important and significant predictors for employer-paid health insurance coverage. The Danish tax exemption on private health insurance in the years 2002-12 thus seems...

  4. Identification of High Energy Gamma-Ray Sources And Source Populations in the Era of Deep All-Sky Coverage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reimer, Olaf; /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park; Torres, Diego F.; /ICREA, Barcelona /Barcelona, IEEC

    2007-04-17

    A large fraction of the anticipated source detections by the Gamma-ray Large Area Space Telescope (GLAST-LAT) will initially be unidentified. We argue that traditional approaches to identify individuals and/or populations of gamma ray sources will encounter procedural limitations. Those limitations are discussed on the background of source identifications from EGRET observations. Generally, our ability to classify (faint) source populations in the anticipated GLAST dataset with the required degree of statistical confidence will be hampered by sheer source wealth. A new paradigm for achieving the classification of gamma ray source populations is discussed.

  5. Identifying selected regions from heterozygosity and divergence using a light-coverage genomic dataset from two human populations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taras K Oleksyk

    Full Text Available When a selective sweep occurs in the chromosomal region around a target gene in two populations that have recently separated, it produces three dramatic genomic consequences: 1 decreased multi-locus heterozygosity in the region; 2 elevated or diminished genetic divergence (F(ST of multiple polymorphic variants adjacent to the selected locus between the divergent populations, due to the alternative fixation of alleles; and 3 a consequent regional increase in the variance of F(ST (S(2F(ST for the same clustered variants, due to the increased alternative fixation of alleles in the loci surrounding the selection target. In the first part of our study, to search for potential targets of directional selection, we developed and validated a resampling-based computational approach; we then scanned an array of 31 different-sized moving windows of SNP variants (5-65 SNPs across the human genome in a set of European and African American population samples with 183,997 SNP loci after correcting for the recombination rate variation. The analysis revealed 180 regions of recent selection with very strong evidence in either population or both. In the second part of our study, we compared the newly discovered putative regions to those sites previously postulated in the literature, using methods based on inspecting patterns of linkage disequilibrium, population divergence and other methodologies. The newly found regions were cross-validated with those found in nine other studies that have searched for selection signals. Our study was replicated especially well in those regions confirmed by three or more studies. These validated regions were independently verified, using a combination of different methods and different databases in other studies, and should include fewer false positives. The main strength of our analysis method compared to others is that it does not require dense genotyping and therefore can be used with data from population-based genome SNP scans

  6. An application of population size estimation to official statistics : Sensitivity of model assumptions and the effect of implied coverage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerritse, S.C.

    2016-01-01

    Official Statistics bureaus are periodically asked to give an estimate of their country's population, which can be defined by the number of usual residents. A person is considered a usual resident when they have lived in the Netherlands for longer than a year, or if they have the intention to reside

  7. DNA sequence variants in the LOXL1 gene are associated with pseudoexfoliation glaucoma in a U.S. clinic-based population with broad ethnic diversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miller Joan W

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pseudoexfoliation syndrome is a major risk factor for glaucoma in many populations throughout the world. Using a U.S. clinic-based case control sample with broad ethnic diversity, we show that three common SNPs in LOXL1 previously associated with pseudoexfoliation in Nordic populations are significantly associated with pseudoexfoliation syndrome and pseudoexfoliation glaucoma. Methods Three LOXL1 SNPs were genotyped in a patient sample (206 pseudoexfoliation, 331 primary open angle glaucoma, and 88 controls from the Glaucoma Consultation Service at the Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary. The SNPs were evaluation for association with pseudeoexfoliation syndrome, pseudoexfoliation glaucoma, and primary open angle glaucoma. Results The strongest association was found for the G allele of marker rs3825942 (G153D with a frequency of 99% in pseudoexfoliation patients (with and without glaucoma compared with 79% in controls (p = 1.6 × 10-15; OR = 20.93, 95%CI: 8.06, 54.39. The homozygous GG genotype is also associated with pseudoexfoliation when compared to controls (p = 1.2 × 10-12; OR = 23.57, 95%CI: 7.95, 69.85. None of the SNPs were significantly associated with primary open angle glaucoma. Conclusion The pseudoexfoliation syndrome is a common cause of glaucoma. These results indicate that the G153D LOXL1 variant is significantly associated with an increased risk of pseudoexfoliation and pseudoexfoliation glaucoma in an ethnically diverse patient population from the Northeastern United States. Given the high prevalence of pseudooexfoliation in this geographic region, these results also indicate that the G153D LOXL1 variant is a significant risk factor for adult-onset glaucoma in this clinic based population.

  8. Using epitope predictions to evaluate efficacy and population coverage of the Mtb72f vaccine for tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    He Yongqun

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Mtb72f subunit vaccine for tuberculosis, currently in clinical trials, is hoped to provide improved protection compared to the current BCG vaccine. It is not clear, however, whether Mtb72f would be equally protective in the different human populations suffering from a high burden of tuberculosis. Previous work by Hebert and colleagues demonstrated that the PPE18 protein of Mtb72f had significant variability in a sample of clinical M. tuberculosis isolates. However, whether this variation might impact the efficacy of Mtb72f in the context of the microbial and host immune system interactions remained to be determined. The present study assesses Mtb72f's predicted efficacy in people with different DRB1 genotypes to predict whether the vaccine will protect against diverse clinical strains of M. tuberculosis in a diverse host population. Results We evaluated the binding of epitopes in the vaccine to different alleles of the human DRB1 Class II MHC protein using freely available epitope prediction programs and compared protein sequences from clinical isolates to the sequences included in the Mtb72f vaccine. This analysis predicted that the Mtb72f vaccine would be less effective for several DRB1 genotypes, due either to limited vaccine epitope binding to the DRB1 proteins or to binding primarily by unconserved PPE18 epitopes. Furthermore, we found that these less-protective DRB1 alleles are found at a very high frequency in several populations with a high burden of tuberculosis. Conclusion Although the Mtb72f vaccine candidate has shown promise in animal and clinical trials thus far, it may not be optimally effective in some genotypic backgrounds. Due to variation in both M. tuberculosis protein sequences and epitope-binding capabilities of different HLA alleles, certain human populations with a high burden of tuberculosis may not be optimally protected by the Mtb72f vaccine. The efficacy of the Mtb72f vaccine should be further

  9. SMS versus telephone interviews for epidemiological data collection: feasibility study estimating influenza vaccination coverage in the Swedish population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bexelius, Christin; Merk, Hanna; Sandin, Sven; Ekman, Alexandra; Nyrén, Olof; Kühlmann-Berenzon, Sharon; Linde, Annika; Litton, Jan-Eric

    2009-01-01

    This study compared the use of Short Message Service (SMS) on mobile phones and the use of telephone interviews in collecting self-reported data about influenza vaccination. Through random selection from the Swedish population registry, 2,400 individuals were assigned to be contacted through SMS (SMS-group), and 2,150 were assigned to undergo personal telephone interviews (TI-group). Both groups were asked three questions about influenza and influenza vaccination. Mobile phone numbers were found for 1,055 persons in the SMS-group of whom 154 (6% of the original sample; 15% of all who had a listed mobile phone number) responded. Landline or mobile phone numbers were found for 1,636 persons in the TI-group and 1,009 (47% of the original TI sample; 62% of those where a telephone number was found) responded. The vaccination data collected via SMS was not statistically significantly different from data collected through telephone interviews, and adjustment for different background factors did not change this. Compared to the original sample, there was an under representation of elderly and less educated individuals among the participants in the SMS-group, and under representation of less educated in the TI-group. Though the participation rate was low, SMS is a feasible method for collection of information on vaccination status data among the Swedish population compared to telephone interviews. PMID:19082745

  10. Computer copings for partial coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denissen, H; van der Zel, J; Reisig, J; Vlaar, S; de Ruiter, W; van Waas, R

    1999-04-01

    Partial coverage posterior tooth preparations are very complex surfaces for computer surface digitization, computer design, and manufacture of ceramic copings. The aim of this study was therefore to determine whether the Computer Integrated Crown Reconstruction (Cicero) system was compatible with a proposed partial coverage preparation design and capable of producing ceramic copings. Posterior teeth were prepared for partial coverage copings with deep gingival chamfers in the proximal boxes and around the functional cusps (buccal of mandibular and lingual of maxillary posterior teeth). The nonfunctional cusps (lingual of mandibular and buccal of maxillary posterior teeth) were prepared with broad bevels following the inclined occlusal plane pattern. Optical impressions were taken of stone dies by means of a fast laser-line scanning method that measured the three-dimensional geometry of the partial coverage preparation. Computers digitized the images, and designed and produced the ceramic copings. The Cicero system digitized the partial coverage preparation surfaces precisely with a minor coefficient of variance of 0.2%. The accuracy of the surface digitization, the design, and the computer aided milling showed that the system was capable of producing partial coverage copings with a mean marginal gap of 74 microns. This value was obtained before optimizing the marginal fit by means of porcelain veneering. In summary, Cicero computer technology, i.e., surface digitization, coping design, and manufacture, was compatible with the described partial coverage preparations for posterior teeth. PMID:11351490

  11. Population-based CD4 counts in a rural area in South Africa with high HIV prevalence and high antiretroviral treatment coverage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abraham Malaza

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Little is known about the variability of CD4 counts in the general population of sub-Saharan Africa countries affected by the HIV epidemic. We investigated factors associated with CD4 counts in a rural area in South Africa with high HIV prevalence and high antiretroviral treatment (ART coverage. METHODS: CD4 counts, health status, body mass index (BMI, demographic characteristics and HIV status were assessed in 4990 adult resident participants of a demographic surveillance in rural KwaZulu-Natal in South Africa; antiretroviral treatment duration was obtained from a linked clinical database. Multivariable regression analysis, overall and stratified by HIV status, was performed with CD4 count levels as outcome. RESULTS: Median CD4 counts were significantly higher in women than in men overall (714 vs. 630 cells/µl, p<0.0001, both in HIV-uninfected (833 vs. 683 cells/µl, p<0.0001 and HIV-infected adults (384.5 vs. 333 cells/µl, p<0.0001. In multivariable regression analysis, women had 19.4% (95% confidence interval (CI 16.1-22.9 higher CD4 counts than men, controlling for age, HIV status, urban/rural residence, household wealth, education, BMI, self-reported tuberculosis, high blood pressure, other chronic illnesses and sample processing delay. At ART initiation, HIV-infected adults had 21.7% (95% CI 14.6-28.2 lower CD4 counts than treatment-naive individuals; CD4 counts were estimated to increase by 9.2% (95% CI 6.2-12.4 per year of treatment. CONCLUSIONS: CD4 counts are primarily determined by sex in HIV-uninfected adults, and by sex, age and duration of antiretroviral treatment in HIV-infected adults. Lower CD4 counts at ART initiation in men could be a consequence of lower CD4 cell counts before HIV acquisition.

  12. Constraining Sub-Parsec Binary Supermassive Black Holes in Quasars with Multi-Epoch Spectroscopy. II. The Population with Kinematically Offset Broad Balmer Emission Lines

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Xin; Bian, Fuyan; Loeb, Abraham; Tremaine, Scott

    2013-01-01

    A small fraction of quasars have long been known to show bulk velocity offsets in the broad Balmer lines with respect to the systemic redshift of the host galaxy. Models to explain these offsets usually invoke broad line region gas kinematics/asymmetry around single black holes (BHs), orbital motion of massive (~sub-pc) binary black holes (BBHs), or recoil BHs, but single-epoch spectra are unable to distinguish between these scenarios. The line-of-sight (LOS) radial velocity (RV) shifts from long-term spectroscopic monitoring can be used to test the BBH hypothesis. We have selected a sample of 399 quasars with offset broad H-beta lines from the SDSS DR7 quasar catalog, and have conducted second-epoch optical spectroscopy for 50 of them. Combined with the existing SDSS spectra, the new observations enable us to constrain the LOS RV shifts of broad H-beta lines with a rest-frame baseline of a few years to nearly a decade. Using cross-correlation analysis, we detect significant (99% confidence) radial accelerati...

  13. Effective coverage: a metric for monitoring Universal Health Coverage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Ng

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available A major challenge in monitoring universal health coverage (UHC is identifying an indicator that can adequately capture the multiple components underlying the UHC initiative. Effective coverage, which unites individual and intervention characteristics into a single metric, offers a direct and flexible means to measure health system performance at different levels. We view effective coverage as a relevant and actionable metric for tracking progress towards achieving UHC. In this paper, we review the concept of effective coverage and delineate the three components of the metric - need, use, and quality - using several examples. Further, we explain how the metric can be used for monitoring interventions at both local and global levels. We also discuss the ways that current health information systems can support generating estimates of effective coverage. We conclude by recognizing some of the challenges associated with producing estimates of effective coverage. Despite these challenges, effective coverage is a powerful metric that can provide a more nuanced understanding of whether, and how well, a health system is delivering services to its populations.

  14. A broad-coverage natural language processing system.

    OpenAIRE

    Friedman, C

    2000-01-01

    Natural language processing systems (NLP) that extract clinical information from textual reports were shown to be effective for limited domains and for particular applications. Because an NLP system typically requires substantial resources to develop, it is beneficial if it is designed to be easily extendible to multiple domains and applications. This paper describes multiple extensions of an NLP system called MedLEE, which was originally developed for the domain of radiological reports of th...

  15. Medicare Coverage Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Medicare Coverage Database (MCD) contains all National Coverage Determinations (NCDs) and Local Coverage Determinations (LCDs), local articles, and proposed NCD...

  16. Women's Health Insurance Coverage

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health Policy Women’s Health Insurance Coverage Women’s Health Insurance Coverage Feb 02, 2016 Facebook Twitter LinkedIn Email ... women’s coverage in future years. Sources of Health Insurance Coverage Employer-Sponsored Insurance: Approximately 57 million women ...

  17. Prevalence of Frailty Indicators and Association with Socioeconomic Status in Middle-Aged and Older Adults in a Swiss Region with Universal Health Insurance Coverage: A Population-Based Cross-Sectional Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Idris Guessous

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Frailty prevalence in older adults has been reported but is largely unknown in middle-aged adults. We determined the prevalence of frailty indicators among middle-aged and older adults from a general Swiss population characterized by universal health insurance coverage and assessed the determinants of frailty with a special focus on socioeconomic status. Participants aged 50 and more from the population-based 2006–2010 Bus Santé study were included (N = 2,930. Four frailty indicators (weakness, shrinking, exhaustion, and low activity were measured according to standard definitions. Multivariate logistic regressions were used to determine associations. Overall, 63.5%, 28.7%, and 7.8% participants presented no frailty indicators, one frailty indicator, and two or more frailty indicators, respectively. Among middle-aged participants (50–65 years, 75.1%, 22.2%, and 2.7% presented 0, 1, and 2 or more frailty indicators. The number of frailty indicators was positively associated with age, hypertension, and current smoking and negatively associated with male gender, body mass index, waist-to-hip ratio, and serum total cholesterol level. Lower income level but not education was associated with higher number of frailty indicators. Frailty indicators are frequently encountered in both older and middle-aged adults from the Swiss general population. Despite universal health insurance coverage, household income is independently associated with frailty.

  18. Immunization Coverage Among Juvenile Justice Detainees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaskin, Gregory L; Glanz, Jason M; Binswanger, Ingrid A; Anoshiravani, Arash

    2015-07-01

    This study sought to (1) quantify the baseline immunization coverage of adolescents entering the juvenile justice system and (2) assess the effect of detention-based care on immunization coverage in youth. A cross-sectional retrospective chart review was performed of 279 adolescents detained at a large juvenile detention facility. Only 3% of adolescents had received all study immunizations prior to detention. Before detention, immunization coverage was significantly lower than that for the general adolescent population for all vaccines except the first doses of hepatitis A and varicella-zoster virus vaccines. Subsequent to detention, most individual immunization coverage levels increased and were significantly higher than in the general adolescent population. The routine administration of immunizations in the juvenile justice setting can help detained youth achieve levels of immunization coverage similar to their nondetained peers.

  19. The 2010 Broad Prize

    Science.gov (United States)

    Education Digest: Essential Readings Condensed for Quick Review, 2011

    2011-01-01

    A new data analysis, based on data collected as part of The Broad Prize process, provides insights into which large urban school districts in the United States are doing the best job of educating traditionally disadvantaged groups: African-American, Hispanics, and low-income students. Since 2002, The Eli and Edythe Broad Foundation has awarded The…

  20. Wide Coverage Antennas

    OpenAIRE

    Zackrisson, Jan

    2007-01-01

    Small satellites require small and lightweight antennas for telemetry and command function as well as for downlinking of data. We have during the last thirty years developed a large suite of wide coverage antennas. The basic radiator designs used are quadrifilar helices, waveguides, horns and patch excited cups (PEC) depending on frequency range, coverage requirements and application. The antenna designs range from L-band up to Ka-band frequencies. Typical coverages for the antennas are from ...

  1. Avaliação da qualidade dos dados populacionais e cobertura dos registros de óbitos para as regiões brasileiras Evaluation of population data quality and coverage of registration of deaths for the Brazilian regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neir Antunes Paes

    1999-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a qualidade dos dados populacionais e a cobertura dos registros de óbitos para as Unidades da Federação Brasileira (UF, por sexo, no ano de 1990. MÉTODOS: Os dados populacionais extraídos dos Censos Demográficos foram avaliados através de métodos demográficos clássicos. Os registros de óbitos, extraídos da Fundação Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística e do Ministério da Saúde, foram avaliados através de três técnicas de mensuração do sub-registro de óbitos. RESULTADOS: A precisão das declarações das idades das UF, em sua maioria, passou do status de "pouco preciso" ou "moderado" para "preciso" na década de 80. A cobertura dos óbitos, em 1990, foi classificada como "boa" ou "satisfatória" para todos os Estados do Sul, Sudeste, Centro-Oeste e para os do Nordeste, abaixo do Rio Grande do Norte. O restante dos estados foram classificados como "regular" ou "insatisfatório". CONCLUSÕES: Houve uma melhora importante na qualidade das declarações da população recenseada e aumento da cobertura de óbitos e que, para muitas UF, é possível gerar confiáveis indicadores de mortalidade.OBJECTIVE: The evaluation of the quality of population data and coverage of death statistics for all Federal Brazilian Units by sex in 1990. METHOD: The population data came from censuses and the recorded death data from "Fundação Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística" and the Health Ministry. The population data were evaluated by applying classical demographic methods. Three techniques were chosen to evaluate the extent of death registration coverage. RESULTS: The degree of precision of the age statement for the majority of the Brazilian regions improved the status from "low precision" or "moderate" to "precise" during the 80’s. The coverage of deaths in 1990 was classified as "good" or "satisfactory" for all Federal Units in the South, Southeast and Centre-West and for the Northeastern States

  2. Single Mothers in California: Understanding Their Health Insurance Coverage

    OpenAIRE

    Wyn, Roberta; Ojeda, Victoria

    2002-01-01

    This policy brief examines the health insurance coverage of single mothers in California, addressing the factors affecting their coverage, as well as changes in coverage between 1994-95 and 1998-99. The descriptive data for this study were obtained from analyses of the 1995, 1996, 1999 and 2000 March Current Population Surveys. The findings in this study illustrate the disadvantage that many single mothers in California experience in their access to heath insurance coverage. Nearly one in thr...

  3. Populism

    OpenAIRE

    Abts, Koenraad; van Kessel, Stijn

    2015-01-01

    Populism is a concept applied to a wide range of political movements and actors across the globe. There is, at the same time, considerable confusion about the attributes and manifestation of populism, as well as its impact on democracy. This contribution identifies the defining elements of the populist ideology and discusses the varieties in which populism manifests itself, for instance as a component of certain party families. We finally discuss various normative interpretations of populism,...

  4. The Complexity of Coverage

    CERN Document Server

    Chatterjee, Krishnendu; Majumdar, Rupak

    2008-01-01

    We study the problem of generating a test sequence that achieves maximal coverage for a reactive system under test. We formulate the problem as a repeated game between the tester and the system, where the system state space is partitioned according to some coverage criterion and the objective of the tester is to maximize the set of partitions (or coverage goals) visited during the game. We show the complexity of the maximal coverage problem for non-deterministic systems is PSPACE-complete, but is NP-complete for deterministic systems. For the special case of non-deterministic systems with a re-initializing ``reset'' action, which represent running a new test input on a re-initialized system, we show that the complexity is again co-NP-complete. Our proof technique for reset games uses randomized testing strategies that circumvent the exponentially large memory requirement in the deterministic case.

  5. Populated Places of Iowa

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — This coverage contains points that represent populated places, ie. cities, towns, villages or any other named place where people live. The coverage was developed...

  6. Analysis of Disease Burden of for Coverage Populations of Urban Resident Basic Medical Insurance%城镇居民基本医疗保险覆盖人群疾病负担测量分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周开园; 张心怡; 黎成; 陈慧玲; 鱼敏

    2012-01-01

    To estimate the burden of disease for urban residents and identify the main health problems of coverage populations of URBMI. Methods; Disability Adjusted Life Years (DALY) is used to measure the burden of disease. Results: In 2006, the main burden of disease of urban residents is noncommunicable disease, whose DALYs per 1000 is 105.8. The five leading causes of the burden of disease are cardiovascular diseases, malignant neoplasms, Neuropsychianic conditions, respiratory diseases, and unintentional injuries. For population aged 0~44. neuropsychiatric conditions is the first burden of disease; for population aged 45-59, malignant neoplasms ranks first: for population over 60 years, cardiovascular diseases, malignant neoplasms and respiratory diseases are the main causes. Conclusion: Noncommunioable diseases are the main burden of disease of urban residents. URBMI should focus on preventing and treating cardiovascular diseases, malignant neoplasms, nenropsychialric conditions and respiratory diseases.%目的:测算城镇居民的疾病负担,提出城镇居民基本医疗保险覆盖人群主要健康问题.方法:利用伤残调整生命年( DALY)作为衡量疾病负担的指标.结果:2006年城镇居民主要疾病负担是非感染性疾病,其疾病负担强度为105.8DALYs/千人,疾病负担谱前五类疾病是循环系统疾病、恶性肿瘤、神经和精神疾病、呼吸系统疾病和意外伤害.0~44岁人群中,神经和精神疾病均为第1顺位疾病;45~59岁人群中,恶性肿瘤疾病负担居首位;60岁以上人群,循环系统、恶性肿瘤和呼吸系统疾病为疾病负担的主要病因.结论:城镇居民疾病负担以非感染性疾病为主,城镇居民基本医疗保险应重点加强对循环系统疾病、恶性肿瘤、神经和精神疾病及呼吸系统疾病的保障.

  7. Health Care Coverage Decision Making in Low- and Middle-Income Countries: Experiences from 25 Coverage Schemes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutierrez, Hialy; Shewade, Ashwini; Dai, Minghan; Mendoza-Arana, Pedro; Gómez-Dantés, Octavio; Jain, Nishant; Khonelidze, Irma; Nabyonga-Orem, Juliet; Saleh, Karima; Teerawattananon, Yot; Nishtar, Sania; Hornberger, John

    2015-08-01

    Lessons learned by countries that have successfully implemented coverage schemes for health services may be valuable for other countries, especially low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), which likewise are seeking to provide/expand coverage. The research team surveyed experts in population health management from LMICs for information on characteristics of health care coverage schemes and factors that influenced decision-making processes. The level of coverage provided by the different schemes varied. Nearly all the health care coverage schemes involved various representatives and stakeholders in their decision-making processes. Maternal and child health, cardiovascular diseases, cancer, and HIV were among the highest priorities guiding coverage development decisions. Evidence used to inform coverage decisions included medical literature, regional and global epidemiology, and coverage policies of other coverage schemes. Funding was the most commonly reported reason for restricting coverage. This exploratory study provides an overview of health care coverage schemes from participating LMICs and contributes to the scarce evidence base on coverage decision making. Sharing knowledge and experiences among LMICs can support efforts to establish systems for accessible, affordable, and equitable health care. PMID:25393442

  8. Modelling the implications of moving towards universal coverage in Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borghi, Josephine; Mtei, Gemini; Ally, Mariam

    2012-03-01

    A model was developed to assess the impact of possible moves towards universal coverage in Tanzania over a 15-year time frame. Three scenarios were considered: maintaining the current situation ('the status quo'); expanded health insurance coverage (the estimated maximum achievable coverage in the absence of premium subsidies, coverage restricted to those who can pay); universal coverage to all (government revenues used to pay the premiums for the poor). The model estimated the costs of delivering public health services and all health services to the population as a proportion of Gross Domestic Product (GDP), and forecast revenue from user fees and insurance premiums. Under the status quo, financial protection is provided to 10% of the population through health insurance schemes, with the remaining population benefiting from subsidized user charges in public facilities. Seventy-six per cent of the population would benefit from financial protection through health insurance under the expanded coverage scenario, and 100% of the population would receive such protection through a mix of insurance cover and government funding under the universal coverage scenario. The expanded and universal coverage scenarios have a significant effect on utilization levels, especially for public outpatient care. Universal coverage would require an initial doubling in the proportion of GDP going to the public health system. Government health expenditure would increase to 18% of total government expenditure. The results are sensitive to the cost of health system strengthening, the level of real GDP growth, provider reimbursement rates and administrative costs. Promoting greater cross-subsidization between insurance schemes would provide sufficient resources to finance universal coverage. Alternately, greater tax funding for health could be generated through an increase in the rate of Value-Added Tax (VAT) or expanding the income tax base. The feasibility and sustainability of efforts to

  9. Controlling coverage of solution cast materials with unfavourable surface interactions

    KAUST Repository

    Burlakov, V. M.

    2014-03-03

    Creating uniform coatings of a solution-cast material is of central importance to a broad range of applications. Here, a robust and generic theoretical framework for calculating surface coverage by a solid film of material de-wetting a substrate is presented. Using experimental data from semiconductor thin films as an example, we calculate surface coverage for a wide range of annealing temperatures and film thicknesses. The model generally predicts that for each value of the annealing temperature there is a range of film thicknesses leading to poor surface coverage. The model accurately reproduces solution-cast thin film coverage for organometal halide perovskites, key modern photovoltaic materials, and identifies processing windows for both high and low levels of surface coverage. © 2014 AIP Publishing LLC.

  10. Pertussis: herd immunity and vaccination coverage in St Lucia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, E; Fitch, L

    1983-11-12

    In a single complete epidemic in St Lucia, an island too small to support constant clinical pertussis, the pertussis case rates in small communities (villages and small towns) with differing levels of vaccination coverage of young children were compared. The association between greater vaccination coverage and greater herd immunity was clear, despite the imperfect protection given to individuals. An analysis in terms of population dynamics is evidence against the theory that endemic subclinical pertussis maintains transmission in a highly vaccinated population. We suggest that with a homogeneous vaccination coverage of 80% of 2-year-old children pertussis might be eradicated from the island, and that this is a practicable experiment.

  11. Giant Broad Line Regions in Dwarf Seyferts

    CERN Document Server

    Devereux, Nick

    2015-01-01

    High angular resolution spectroscopy obtained with the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) has revealed a remarkable population of galaxies hosting dwarf Seyfert nuclei with an unusually large broad-line region (BLR). These objects are remarkable for two reasons. Firstly, the size of the BLR can, in some cases, rival those seen in the most luminous quasars. Secondly, the size of the BLR is not correlated with the central continuum luminosity, an observation that distinguishes them from their reverberating counterparts. Collectively, these early results suggest that non-reverberating dwarf Seyferts are a heterogeneous group and not simply scaled versions of each other. Careful inspection reveals broad H Balmer emission lines with single peaks, double peaks, and a combination of the two, suggesting that the broad emission lines are produced in kinematically distinct regions centered on the black hole (BH). Because the gravitational field strength is already known for these objects, by virtue of knowing their BH mass, ...

  12. Coverage in Wireless Sensor Network Based on Probabilistic Sensing Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fen; Deng, Kai; Meng, Fanzhi; Weiyan, Zhang

    One of the major problem to consider in designing wireless sensor network is how to extend the network lifetime and provide desired quality of service. To achieve this, a broadly-used method is topology control. This paper studies the problem of how to ensure the network fully connected without nodes' location information. The coverage control model based on probabilistic sensing model is proposed in this paper. With random sensor deployment, the sensing node and communicating node number can be calculated based on the size of sensing region and the performance parameters of node (e.g., node sensing radius, communication radius, and so on). Simulation results show that the actual coverage quality provided by sensing nodes scheduled with the proposed coverage control model is higher than the threshold of coverage quality.

  13. Immunization coverage: role of sociodemographic variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Bhuwan; Mahajan, Hemant; Velhal, G D

    2013-01-01

    Children are considered fully immunized if they receive one dose of BCG, three doses of DPT and polio vaccine each, and one measles vaccine. In India, only 44% of children aged 12-23 months are fully vaccinated and about 5% have not received any vaccination at all. Even if national immunization coverage levels are sufficiently high to block disease transmission, pockets of susceptibility may act as potential reservoirs of infection. This study was done to assess the immunization coverage in an urban slum area and determine various sociodemographic variables affecting the same. A total of 210 children were selected from study population using WHO's 30 cluster sampling method. Coverage of BCG was found to be the highest (97.1%) while that of measles was the lowest. The main reason for noncompliance was given as child's illness at the time of scheduled vaccination followed by lack of knowledge regarding importance of immunization. Low education status of mother, high birth order, and place of delivery were found to be positively associated with low vaccination coverage. Regular IEC activities (group talks, role plays, posters, pamphlets, and competitions) should be conducted in the community to ensure that immunization will become a "felt need" of the mothers in the community.

  14. Press Coverage and Political Accountability

    OpenAIRE

    Snyder, James; Strömberg, David

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we estimate the impact of press coverage on citizen knowledge, politicians' actions, and policy. We find that a poor fit between newspaper markets and political districts reduces press coverage of politics. We use variation in this fit due to redistricting to identify the effects of reduced coverage. Exploring the links in the causal chain of media effects -- voter information, politicians' actions and policy -- we find statistically significant and substantively important effec...

  15. TRAVERSAL ALGORITHM FOR COMPLETE COVERAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coimbatore Ganeshsankar Balaji

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available There are many applications which require complete coverage and obstacle avoidance. The classical A* algorithm provides the user a shortest path by avoiding the obstacle. As well, the Dijkstra’s algorithm finds the shortest path between the source and destination. But in many applications we require complete coverage of the proposed area with obstacle avoidance. There are LSP, LSSP, BSA, spiral-STC and Complete Coverage D* algorithms which do not realize complete (100% coverage. The complete coverage using a critical point algorithm assures complete coverage, but it is not well suited for applications like mine detection. Also for covering the missed region it keeps the obstacle as a critical point which is not advisable in critical applications where obstacle may be a dangerous one. To overcome this and to achieve the complete coverage we propose a novel graph traversal algorithm Traversal Algorithm for Complete Coverage (TRACC. Here the area to be scanned is decomposed into a finite number of cells. The traversal is done through all the cells after making sure the next cell has no obstacle. TRACC assures thorough coverage of the proposed area and ensuring that all the obstacles are avoided. Hence the TRACC always have the safer path while covering the entire area. It also reports the obstacle placed or blocked cell.

  16. Integrating Hot and Cool Intelligences: Thinking Broadly about Broad Abilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Joel Schneider

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Although results from factor-analytic studies of the broad, second-stratum abilities of human intelligence have been fairly consistent for decades, the list of broad abilities is far from complete, much less understood. We propose criteria by which the list of broad abilities could be amended and envision alternatives for how our understanding of the hot intelligences (abilities involving emotionally-salient information and cool intelligences (abilities involving perceptual processing and logical reasoning might be integrated into a coherent theoretical framework.

  17. The Coverage Bias of Mobile Web Surveys Across European Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Fuchs

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, mobile devices are increasingly considered to access the Word Wide Web. Several survey research organizations are about to use this technology as a means of conducting self-administered surveys. Among other advantages it allows survey researchers to overcome the lack of random selection procedures in online surveys since it provides the opportunity to use RDD-like probability sampling of cell phone numbers. However, low penetration rates of smart phones raise concerns that the coverage bias of a mobile Web survey might in fact harm survey estimates considerably. In this paper, we report results of a simulation study on the coverage bias of the mobile Web population across European countries. Based on a subset of the Eurobarometer data we estimate the relative coverage bias of the smart phone population in contrast to the general population. Even though we observed an incline of the mobile Web penetration rates over the course of the past years, coverage biases were still considerably large for socio-demographic variables. Nevertheless, in a few European countries mobile Web coverage biases are already smaller than the coverage biases of the population with traditional landline Internet access.

  18. Mediating Trust in Terrorism Coverage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Kirsten

    crisis. While the framework is presented in the context of television coverage of a terror-related crisis situation, it can equally be used in connection with all other forms of mediated trust. Key words: National crisis, risk communication, crisis management, television coverage, mediated trust....

  19. Human resources for health and universal health coverage: fostering equity and effective coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, James; Buchan, James; Cometto, Giorgio; David, Benedict; Dussault, Gilles; Fogstad, Helga; Fronteira, Inês; Lozano, Rafael; Nyonator, Frank; Pablos-Méndez, Ariel; Quain, Estelle E; Starrs, Ann; Tangcharoensathien, Viroj

    2013-11-01

    Achieving universal health coverage (UHC) involves distributing resources, especially human resources for health (HRH), to match population needs. This paper explores the policy lessons on HRH from four countries that have achieved sustained improvements in UHC: Brazil, Ghana, Mexico and Thailand. Its purpose is to inform global policy and financial commitments on HRH in support of UHC. The paper reports on country experiences using an analytical framework that examines effective coverage in relation to the availability, accessibility, acceptability and quality (AAAQ) of HRH. The AAAQ dimensions make it possible to perform tracing analysis on HRH policy actions since 1990 in the four countries of interest in relation to national trends in workforce numbers and population mortality rates. The findings inform key principles for evidence-based decision-making on HRH in support of UHC. First, HRH are critical to the expansion of health service coverage and the package of benefits; second, HRH strategies in each of the AAAQ dimensions collectively support achievements in effective coverage; and third, success is achieved through partnerships involving health and non-health actors. Facing the unprecedented health and development challenges that affect all countries and transforming HRH evidence into policy and practice must be at the heart of UHC and the post-2015 development agenda. It is a political imperative requiring national commitment and leadership to maximize the impact of available financial and human resources, and improve healthy life expectancy, with the recognition that improvements in health care are enabled by a health workforce that is fit for purpose.

  20. Broad-scale sampling of primary freshwater fish populations reveals the role of intrinsic traits, inter-basin connectivity, drainage area and latitude on shaping contemporary patterns of genetic diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa-Santos, Carla; Robalo, Joana I; Pereira, Ana M; Branco, Paulo; Santos, José Maria; Ferreira, Maria Teresa; Sousa, Mónica; Doadrio, Ignacio

    2016-01-01

    Background. Worldwide predictions suggest that up to 75% of the freshwater fish species occurring in rivers with reduced discharge could be extinct by 2070 due to the combined effect of climate change and water abstraction. The Mediterranean region is considered to be a hotspot of freshwater fish diversity but also one of the regions where the effects of climate change will be more severe. Iberian cyprinids are currently highly endangered, with over 68% of the species raising some level of conservation concern. Methods. During the FISHATLAS project, the Portuguese hydrographical network was extensively covered (all the 34 river basins and 47 sub-basins) in order to contribute with valuable data on the genetic diversity distribution patterns of native cyprinid species. A total of 188 populations belonging to 16 cyprinid species of Squalius, Luciobarbus, Achondrostoma, Iberochondrostoma, Anaecypris and Pseudochondrostoma were characterized, for a total of 3,678 cytochrome b gene sequences. Results. When the genetic diversity of these populations was mapped, it highlighted differences among populations from the same species and between species with identical distribution areas. Factors shaping the contemporary patterns of genetic diversity were explored and the results revealed the role of latitude, inter-basin connectivity, migratory behaviour, species maximum size, species range and other species intrinsic traits in determining the genetic diversity of sampled populations. Contrastingly, drainage area and hydrological regime (permanent vs. temporary) seem to have no significant effect on genetic diversity. Species intrinsic traits, maximum size attained, inter-basin connectivity and latitude explained over 30% of the haplotype diversity variance and, generally, the levels of diversity were significantly higher for smaller sized species, from connected and southerly river basins. Discussion. Targeting multiple co-distributed species of primary freshwater fish allowed

  1. Assuring Access to Affordable Coverage

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Under the Affordable Care Act, millions of uninsured Americans will gain access to affordable coverage through Affordable Insurance Exchanges and improvements in...

  2. Socioeconomic and regional inequalities of pap smear coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manica, Silvia Troyahn; Drachler, Maria de Lourdes; Teixeira, Luciana Barcellos; Ferla, Alcindo Antônio; Gouveia, Helga Geremias; Anschau, Fernando; Oliveira, Dora Lúcia Leidens Correa de

    2016-03-01

    Objectives To identify socioeconomic and regional inequalities of pap smear coverage in the state of Rio Grande do Sul. Methods An ecological study based on data of the 2011-2012 national health information system to estimate the annual coverage of pap smears for the overall female population of the state and for women without private health insurance. We estimated annual pap smear coverage according to the Municipal Social Vulnerability Index and health macro-regions and regions of the state. Results The percentage of women without private health insurance ranged from 38.1% to 94.2% in the health regions. Pap smear coverage was 17.3% for the overall female population and 23.8% for women without private health insurance. Pap smear coverage was higher in more socially vulnerable municipalities and regions with a higher percentage of women with private health insurance. Conclusions The prevalence of private health insurance should be considered in studies that address the coverage of the Brazilian Unified Health System (SUS). PMID:26982680

  3. The Broad Autism Phenotype Questionnaire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurley, Robert S. E.; Losh, Molly; Parlier, Morgan; Reznick, J. Steven; Piven, Joseph

    2007-01-01

    The broad autism phenotype (BAP) is a set of personality and language characteristics that reflect the phenotypic expression of the genetic liability to autism, in non-autistic relatives of autistic individuals. These characteristics are milder but qualitatively similar to the defining features of autism. A new instrument designed to measure the…

  4. Defining Pathways and Trade-offs Toward Universal Health Coverage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verguet, Stéphane

    2016-01-01

    The World Health Organization’s (WHO’s) World Health Report 2010, "Health systems financing, the path to universal coverage," promoted universal health coverage (UHC) as an aspirational objective for country health systems. Yet, in addition to the dimensions of services and coverage, distribution of coverage in the population, and financial risk protection highlighted by the report, the consideration of the budget constraint should be further strengthened in the ensuing debate on resource allocation toward UHC. Beyond the substantial financial constraints faced by low- and middle-income countries, additional considerations, such as the geographical context, the underlying country infrastructure, and the architecture of health systems, determine the feasibility, effectiveness, quality and cost of healthcare delivery. Therefore, increased production and use of local evidence tied to the criteria of health benefits, equity, financial risk protection, and costs accompanying health delivery are needed so that to highlight pathways and acceptable trade-offs toward UHC.

  5. D.C. Circuit broadly extends NEPA coverage for nuclear power plant accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    According to the D.C. Circuit Court of Appeals, the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) now requires complete evaluation of all aspects of human health affected by nuclear development, including psychological health. The Supreme Court may not agree with the circuit court's conclusion that the Nuclear Regulatory Commission must pay special attention to psychological health effects from nuclear accidents because this extension of NEPA may become a major new tool for slowing the development of nuclear energy production

  6. Are doctors and nurses associated with coverage of essential health services in developing countries? A cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Pinho Helen

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is broad policy consensus that a shortage of doctors and nurses is a key constraint to increasing utilization of essential health services important for achieving the health Millennium Development Goals. However there is limited research on the quantitative links between health workers and service coverage rates. We examined the relationship between doctor and nurse concentrations and utilization rates of five essential health services in developing countries. Methods We performed cross-national analyses of low- and middle-income countries by means of ordinary least squares regression with coverage rates of antenatal care, attended delivery, caesarean section, measles immunization, tuberculosis case diagnosis and care for acute respiratory infection as outcomes. Doctor, nurse and aggregate health worker (sum of doctors and nurses concentrations were the main explanatory variables. Results Nurses were associated with utilization of skilled birth attendants (P = 0.02 and doctors were associated with measles immunization rates (P = 0.01 in separate adjusted analyses. Aggregate health workers were associated with the utilization of skilled birth attendants (P Conclusion A range of health system and population-level factors aside from health workers influences coverage of health services in developing countries. However, it is also plausible that health workers who are neither doctors nor nurses, such as clinical officers and community health workers, may be providing a substantial proportion of health services. The human resources for health research agenda should be expanded beyond doctors and nurses.

  7. Efficient Genome-Wide Sequencing and Low-Coverage Pedigree Analysis from Noninvasively Collected Samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder-Mackler, Noah; Majoros, William H; Yuan, Michael L; Shaver, Amanda O; Gordon, Jacob B; Kopp, Gisela H; Schlebusch, Stephen A; Wall, Jeffrey D; Alberts, Susan C; Mukherjee, Sayan; Zhou, Xiang; Tung, Jenny

    2016-06-01

    Research on the genetics of natural populations was revolutionized in the 1990s by methods for genotyping noninvasively collected samples. However, these methods have remained largely unchanged for the past 20 years and lag far behind the genomics era. To close this gap, here we report an optimized laboratory protocol for genome-wide capture of endogenous DNA from noninvasively collected samples, coupled with a novel computational approach to reconstruct pedigree links from the resulting low-coverage data. We validated both methods using fecal samples from 62 wild baboons, including 48 from an independently constructed extended pedigree. We enriched fecal-derived DNA samples up to 40-fold for endogenous baboon DNA and reconstructed near-perfect pedigree relationships even with extremely low-coverage sequencing. We anticipate that these methods will be broadly applicable to the many research systems for which only noninvasive samples are available. The lab protocol and software ("WHODAD") are freely available at www.tung-lab.org/protocols-and-software.html and www.xzlab.org/software.html, respectively. PMID:27098910

  8. Broad Diphotons from Narrow States

    CERN Document Server

    An, Haipeng; Zhang, Yue

    2015-01-01

    ATLAS and CMS have each reported a modest diphoton excess consistent with the decay of a broad resonance at ~ 750 GeV. We show how this signal can arise in a weakly coupled theory comprised solely of narrow width particles. In particular, if the decaying particle is produced off-shell, then the associated diphoton resonance will have a broad, adjustable width. We present simplified models which explain the diphoton excess through the three-body decay of a scalar or fermion. Our minimal ultraviolet completion is a weakly coupled and renormalizable theory of a singlet scalar plus a heavy vector-like quark and lepton. The smoking gun of this mechanism is an asymmetric diphoton peak recoiling against missing transverse energy, jets, or leptons.

  9. Cochlear microphonic broad tuning curves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayat, Mohammad; Teal, Paul D.; Searchfield, Grant D.; Razali, Najwani

    2015-12-01

    It is known that the cochlear microphonic voltage exhibits much broader tuning than does the basilar membrane motion. The most commonly used explanation for this is that when an electrode is inserted at a particular point inside the scala media, the microphonic potentials of neighbouring hair cells have different phases, leading to cancelation at the electrodes location. In situ recording of functioning outer hair cells (OHCs) for investigating this hypothesis is exceptionally difficult. Therefore, to investigate the discrepancy between the tuning curves of the basilar membrane and those of the cochlear microphonic, and the effect of phase cancellation of adjacent hair cells on the broadness of the cochlear microphonic tuning curves, we use an electromechanical model of the cochlea to devise an experiment. We explore the effect of adjacent hair cells (i.e., longitudinal phase cancellation) on the broadness of the cochlear microphonic tuning curves in different locations. The results of the experiment indicate that active longitudinal coupling (i.e., coupling with active adjacent outer hair cells) only slightly changes the broadness of the CM tuning curves. The results also demonstrate that there is a π phase difference between the potentials produced by the hair bundle and the soma near the place associated with the characteristic frequency based on place-frequency maps (i.e., the best place). We suggest that the transversal phase cancellation (caused by the phase difference between the hair bundle and the soma) plays a far more important role than longitudinal phase cancellation in the broadness of the cochlear microphonic tuning curves. Moreover, by increasing the modelled longitudinal resistance resulting the cochlear microphonic curves exhibiting sharper tuning. The results of the simulations suggest that the passive network of the organ of Corti determines the phase difference between the hair bundle and soma, and hence determines the sharpness of the

  10. Coverage Related Issues in Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Dossena, Marida

    2011-01-01

    Wireless sensor networks consisting of great number of cheap and tiny sensor nodes which are used for military environment controlling, natural events recording, traffic monitoring, robot navigation, and etc. Such a networks encounter with various types of challenges like energy consumption, routing, coverage, reliability. The most significant types of these problems are coverage that originated from the nodes energy consumption constrained. In order to dominate this problem different kinds of methods has been presented where the majority of them based on theoretical methods and used unbalanced and calculated distributions. In all of the proposed methods a large numbers of nodes are used. In this paper our attempt is based on using a few numbers of sensors in order to cover the vast area of environment. We proposed an algorithm that divides the desired environment to several areas and in each of these areas by using the genetic algorithm improve the coverage. The proposed method is simulated in MATLAB softwar...

  11. Mediating Trust in Terrorism Coverage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Kirsten

    crisis. While the framework is presented in the context of television coverage of a terror-related crisis situation, it can equally be used in connection with all other forms of mediated trust. Key words: National crisis, risk communication, crisis management, television coverage, mediated trust.......Mass mediated risk communication can contribute to perceptions of threats and fear of “others” and/or to perceptions of trust in fellow citizens and society to overcome problems. This paper outlines a cross-disciplinary holistic framework for research in mediated trust building during an acute...

  12. Human resources for health and universal health coverage: fostering equity and effective coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, James; Buchan, James; Cometto, Giorgio; David, Benedict; Dussault, Gilles; Fogstad, Helga; Fronteira, Inês; Lozano, Rafael; Nyonator, Frank; Pablos-Méndez, Ariel; Quain, Estelle E; Starrs, Ann; Tangcharoensathien, Viroj

    2013-11-01

    Achieving universal health coverage (UHC) involves distributing resources, especially human resources for health (HRH), to match population needs. This paper explores the policy lessons on HRH from four countries that have achieved sustained improvements in UHC: Brazil, Ghana, Mexico and Thailand. Its purpose is to inform global policy and financial commitments on HRH in support of UHC. The paper reports on country experiences using an analytical framework that examines effective coverage in relation to the availability, accessibility, acceptability and quality (AAAQ) of HRH. The AAAQ dimensions make it possible to perform tracing analysis on HRH policy actions since 1990 in the four countries of interest in relation to national trends in workforce numbers and population mortality rates. The findings inform key principles for evidence-based decision-making on HRH in support of UHC. First, HRH are critical to the expansion of health service coverage and the package of benefits; second, HRH strategies in each of the AAAQ dimensions collectively support achievements in effective coverage; and third, success is achieved through partnerships involving health and non-health actors. Facing the unprecedented health and development challenges that affect all countries and transforming HRH evidence into policy and practice must be at the heart of UHC and the post-2015 development agenda. It is a political imperative requiring national commitment and leadership to maximize the impact of available financial and human resources, and improve healthy life expectancy, with the recognition that improvements in health care are enabled by a health workforce that is fit for purpose. PMID:24347710

  13. TEST COVERAGE ANALYSIS BASED ON PROGRAM SLICING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Zhenqiang; Xu Baowen; Guanjie

    2003-01-01

    Coverage analysis is a structural testing technique that helps to eliminate gaps in atest suite and determines when to stop testing. To compute test coverage, this letter proposes anew concept coverage about variables, based on program slicing. By adding powers accordingto their importance, the users can focus on the important variables to obtain higher test coverage.The letter presents methods to compute basic coverage based on program structure graphs. Inmost cases, the coverage obtained in the letter is bigger than that obtained by a traditionalmeasure, because the coverage about a variable takes only the related codes into account.

  14. Viewing the Kenyan health system through an equity lens: implications for universal coverage

    OpenAIRE

    Chuma Jane; Okungu Vincent

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Introduction Equity and universal coverage currently dominate policy debates worldwide. Health financing approaches are central to universal coverage. The way funds are collected, pooled, and used to purchase or provide services should be carefully considered to ensure that population needs are addressed under a universal health system. The aim of this paper is to assess the extent to which the Kenyan health financing system meets the key requirements for universal coverage, includin...

  15. Universal health coverage in Turkey: enhancement of equity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atun, Rifat; Aydın, Sabahattin; Chakraborty, Sarbani; Sümer, Safir; Aran, Meltem; Gürol, Ipek; Nazlıoğlu, Serpil; Ozgülcü, Senay; Aydoğan, Ulger; Ayar, Banu; Dilmen, Uğur; Akdağ, Recep

    2013-07-01

    Turkey has successfully introduced health system changes and provided its citizens with the right to health to achieve universal health coverage, which helped to address inequities in financing, health service access, and health outcomes. We trace the trajectory of health system reforms in Turkey, with a particular emphasis on 2003-13, which coincides with the Health Transformation Program (HTP). The HTP rapidly expanded health insurance coverage and access to health-care services for all citizens, especially the poorest population groups, to achieve universal health coverage. We analyse the contextual drivers that shaped the transformations in the health system, explore the design and implementation of the HTP, identify the factors that enabled its success, and investigate its effects. Our findings suggest that the HTP was instrumental in achieving universal health coverage to enhance equity substantially, and led to quantifiable and beneficial effects on all health system goals, with an improved level and distribution of health, greater fairness in financing with better financial protection, and notably increased user satisfaction. After the HTP, five health insurance schemes were consolidated to create a unified General Health Insurance scheme with harmonised and expanded benefits. Insurance coverage for the poorest population groups in Turkey increased from 2·4 million people in 2003, to 10·2 million in 2011. Health service access increased across the country-in particular, access and use of key maternal and child health services improved to help to greatly reduce the maternal mortality ratio, and under-5, infant, and neonatal mortality, especially in socioeconomically disadvantaged groups. Several factors helped to achieve universal health coverage and improve outcomes. These factors include economic growth, political stability, a comprehensive transformation strategy led by a transformation team, rapid policy translation, flexible implementation with

  16. Analysis of Phased-Mission System Reliability and Importance with Imperfect Coverage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Guang-yu; HUANG Xi-zi; TANG Xiao-wo

    2005-01-01

    Accounting for static phased-mission systems (PMS) and imperfect coverage (IPC), generalized and integrated algorithm (GPMS-CPR) implemented a synthesis of several approaches into a single methodology whose advantages were in the low computational complexity, broad applicability, and easy implementation. The approach is extended into analysis of each phase in the whole mission. Based on Fussell-Vesely importance measure, a simple and efficient importance measure is presented to analyze component's importance of phased-mission systems considering imperfect coverage.

  17. Terrorism and nuclear damage coverage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper deals with nuclear terrorism and the manner in which nuclear operators can insure themselves against it, based on the international nuclear liability conventions. It concludes that terrorism is currently not covered under the treaty exoneration provisions on 'war-like events' based on an analysis of the concept on 'terrorism' and travaux preparatoires. Consequently, operators remain liable for nuclear damage resulting from terrorist acts, for which mandatory insurance is applicable. Since nuclear insurance industry looks at excluding such insurance coverage from their policies in the near future, this article aims to suggest alternative means for insurance, in order to ensure adequate compensation for innocent victims. The September 11, 2001 attacks at the World Trade Center in New York City and the Pentagon in Washington, DC resulted in the largest loss in the history of insurance, inevitably leading to concerns about nuclear damage coverage, should future such assaults target a nuclear power plant or other nuclear installation. Since the attacks, some insurers have signalled their intentions to exclude coverage for terrorism from their nuclear liability and property insurance policies. Other insurers are maintaining coverage for terrorism, but are establishing aggregate limits or sublimits and are increasing premiums. Additional changes by insurers are likely to occur. Highlighted by the September 11th events, and most recently by those in Madrid on 11 March 2004, are questions about how to define acts of terrorism and the extent to which such are covered under the international nuclear liability conventions and various domestic nuclear liability laws. Of particular concern to insurers is the possibility of coordinated simultaneous attacks on multiple nuclear facilities. This paper provides a survey of the issues, and recommendations for future clarifications and coverage options.(author)

  18. Finding the right coverage: the impact of coverage and sequence quality on single nucleotide polymorphism genotyping error rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fountain, Emily D; Pauli, Jonathan N; Reid, Brendan N; Palsbøll, Per J; Peery, M Zachariah

    2016-07-01

    Restriction-enzyme-based sequencing methods enable the genotyping of thousands of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) loci in nonmodel organisms. However, in contrast to traditional genetic markers, genotyping error rates in SNPs derived from restriction-enzyme-based methods remain largely unknown. Here, we estimated genotyping error rates in SNPs genotyped with double digest RAD sequencing from Mendelian incompatibilities in known mother-offspring dyads of Hoffman's two-toed sloth (Choloepus hoffmanni) across a range of coverage and sequence quality criteria, for both reference-aligned and de novo-assembled data sets. Genotyping error rates were more sensitive to coverage than sequence quality and low coverage yielded high error rates, particularly in de novo-assembled data sets. For example, coverage ≥5 yielded median genotyping error rates of ≥0.03 and ≥0.11 in reference-aligned and de novo-assembled data sets, respectively. Genotyping error rates declined to ≤0.01 in reference-aligned data sets with a coverage ≥30, but remained ≥0.04 in the de novo-assembled data sets. We observed approximately 10- and 13-fold declines in the number of loci sampled in the reference-aligned and de novo-assembled data sets when coverage was increased from ≥5 to ≥30 at quality score ≥30, respectively. Finally, we assessed the effects of genotyping coverage on a common population genetic application, parentage assignments, and showed that the proportion of incorrectly assigned maternities was relatively high at low coverage. Overall, our results suggest that the trade-off between sample size and genotyping error rates be considered prior to building sequencing libraries, reporting genotyping error rates become standard practice, and that effects of genotyping errors on inference be evaluated in restriction-enzyme-based SNP studies.

  19. Ghost imaging with broad distance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    段德洋; 张路; 杜少将; 夏云杰

    2015-01-01

    We present a scheme that is able to achieve the ghost imaging with broad distance. The physical nature of our scheme is that the different wavelength beams are separated in free space by an optical media according to the slow light or dispersion principle. Meanwhile, the equality of the optical distance of the two light arms is not violated. The photon correlation is achieved by the rotating ground glass plate (RGGP) and spatial light modulator (SLM), respectively. Our work shows that a monochromic ghost image can be obtained in the case of RGGP. More importantly, the position (or distance) of the object can be ascertained by the color of the image. Thus, the imaging and ranging processes are combined as one process for the first time to the best of our knowledge. In the case of SLM, we can obtain a colored image regardless of where the object is.

  20. -Net Approach to Sensor -Coverage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fusco Giordano

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Wireless sensors rely on battery power, and in many applications it is difficult or prohibitive to replace them. Hence, in order to prolongate the system's lifetime, some sensors can be kept inactive while others perform all the tasks. In this paper, we study the -coverage problem of activating the minimum number of sensors to ensure that every point in the area is covered by at least sensors. This ensures higher fault tolerance, robustness, and improves many operations, among which position detection and intrusion detection. The -coverage problem is trivially NP-complete, and hence we can only provide approximation algorithms. In this paper, we present an algorithm based on an extension of the classical -net technique. This method gives an -approximation, where is the number of sensors in an optimal solution. We do not make any particular assumption on the shape of the areas covered by each sensor, besides that they must be closed, connected, and without holes.

  1. Root coverage with bridge flap

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pushpendra Kumar Verma

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Gingival recession in anterior teeth is a common concern due to esthetic reasons or root sensitivity. Gingival recession, especially in multiple anterior teeth, is of huge concern due to esthetic reasons. Various mucogingival surgeries are available for root coverage. This case report presents a new bridge flap technique, which allows the dentist not only to cover the previously denuded root surfaces but also to increase the zone of attached gingiva at a single step. In this case, a coronally advanced flap along with vestibular deepening technique was used as root coverage procedure for the treatment of multiple recession-type defect. Here, vestibular deepening technique is used to increase the width of the attached gingiva. The predictability of this procedure results in an esthetically healthy periodontium, along with gain in keratinized tissue and good patient′s acceptance.

  2. Children and trauma : a broad perspective on exposure and recovery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alisic, E.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this dissertation was to generate a broad overview of children’s exposure to and recovery from trauma in order to promote theory building and the design of prevention and intervention activities. First, a general population study was conducted in 1770 primary school children. They fil

  3. Supplementary pension coverage in Britain

    OpenAIRE

    Armando Barrientos

    1998-01-01

    The 1986 Social Security Act introduced far-reaching changes to the supplementary pension environment in Britain, encouraging the growth of defined contribution pension plans and especially personal pensions. This paper examines the pattern of supplementary pension coverage of employees in Britain five years after the implementation of the Act, using cross-sectional data from the Family Resources Survey 1993-94. Two-thirds of employees in Britain are covered by private contracted-out pension ...

  4. Bundled automobile insurance coverage and accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chu-Shiu; Liu, Chwen-Chi; Peng, Sheng-Chang

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates the characteristics of automobile accidents by taking into account two types of automobile insurance coverage: comprehensive vehicle physical damage insurance and voluntary third-party liability insurance. By using a unique data set in the Taiwanese automobile insurance market, we explore the bundled automobile insurance coverage and the occurrence of claims. It is shown that vehicle physical damage insurance is the major automobile coverage and affects the decision to purchase voluntary liability insurance coverage as a complement. Moreover, policyholders with high vehicle physical damage insurance coverage have a significantly higher probability of filing vehicle damage claims, and if they additionally purchase low voluntary liability insurance coverage, their accident claims probability is higher than those who purchase high voluntary liability insurance coverage. Our empirical results reveal that additional automobile insurance coverage information can capture more driver characteristics and driving behaviors to provide useful information for insurers' underwriting policies and to help analyze the occurrence of automobile accidents.

  5. Assessing Measurement Error in Medicare Coverage

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Assessing Measurement Error in Medicare Coverage From the National Health Interview Survey Using linked administrative data, to validate Medicare coverage estimates...

  6. Ghost imaging with broad distance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, De-Yang; Zhang, Lu; Du, Shao-Jiang; Xia, Yun-Jie

    2015-10-01

    We present a scheme that is able to achieve the ghost imaging with broad distance. The physical nature of our scheme is that the different wavelength beams are separated in free space by an optical media according to the slow light or dispersion principle. Meanwhile, the equality of the optical distance of the two light arms is not violated. The photon correlation is achieved by the rotating ground glass plate (RGGP) and spatial light modulator (SLM), respectively. Our work shows that a monochromic ghost image can be obtained in the case of RGGP. More importantly, the position (or distance) of the object can be ascertained by the color of the image. Thus, the imaging and ranging processes are combined as one process for the first time to the best of our knowledge. In the case of SLM, we can obtain a colored image regardless of where the object is. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61178012, 11204156, 11304179, and 11247240), the Specialized Research Fund for the Doctoral Program of Higher Education of China (Grant Nos. 20133705110001 and 20123705120002), the Scientific Research Foundation for Outstanding Young Scientists of Shandong Province, China (Grant No. BS2013DX034), and the Natural Science Foundation of Shandong Province, China (Grant No. ZR2012FQ024).

  7. Syrian refugees in Lebanon: the search for universal health coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchet, Karl; Fouad, Fouad M; Pherali, Tejendra

    2016-01-01

    The crisis in Syria has forced more than 4 million people to find refuge outside Syria. In Lebanon, in 2015, the refugee population represented 30 % of the total population. International health assistance has been provided to refugee populations in Lebanon. However, the current humanitarian system has also contributed to increase fragmentation of the Lebanese health system. Ensuring universal health coverage to vulnerable Lebanese, Syrian and Palestinian refugees will require in Lebanon to redistribute the key functions and responsibilities of the Ministry of Health and its partners to generate more coherence and efficiency. PMID:27252775

  8. 14 CFR 1260.131 - Insurance coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Insurance coverage. 1260.131 Section 1260... Higher Education, Hospitals, and Other Non-Profit Organizations Property Standards § 1260.131 Insurance coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum, provide the equivalent insurance coverage for real property...

  9. 22 CFR 226.31 - Insurance coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Insurance coverage. 226.31 Section 226.31...-GOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATIONS Post-award Requirements Property Standards § 226.31 Insurance coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum, provide the equivalent insurance coverage for real property and equipment...

  10. 32 CFR 32.31 - Insurance coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Insurance coverage. 32.31 Section 32.31 National... NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Property Standards § 32.31 Insurance coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum, provide the equivalent insurance coverage for real property and...

  11. 45 CFR 2543.31 - Insurance coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Insurance coverage. 2543.31 Section 2543.31 Public... ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Property Standards § 2543.31 Insurance coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum, provide the equivalent insurance coverage for real property and equipment acquired with...

  12. 15 CFR 14.31 - Insurance coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Insurance coverage. 14.31 Section 14... COMMERCIAL ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Property Standards § 14.31 Insurance coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum, provide the equivalent insurance coverage for real property and equipment...

  13. 45 CFR 74.31 - Insurance coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Insurance coverage. 74.31 Section 74.31 Public..., AND COMMERCIAL ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Property Standards § 74.31 Insurance coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum, provide the equivalent insurance coverage for real property and...

  14. 34 CFR 74.31 - Insurance coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Insurance coverage. 74.31 Section 74.31 Education... Property Standards § 74.31 Insurance coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum, provide the equivalent insurance coverage for real property and equipment acquired with Federal funds as provided to property...

  15. 22 CFR 518.31 - Insurance coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Insurance coverage. 518.31 Section 518.31... Requirements Property Standards § 518.31 Insurance coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum, provide the equivalent insurance coverage for real property and equipment acquired with Federal funds as provided...

  16. 20 CFR 435.31 - Insurance coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Insurance coverage. 435.31 Section 435.31... ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Property Standards § 435.31 Insurance coverage. Recipients must, at a minimum, provide the equivalent insurance coverage for real property and equipment acquired with...

  17. 28 CFR 70.31 - Insurance coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Insurance coverage. 70.31 Section 70.31...-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Property Standards § 70.31 Insurance coverage. Recipients must, at a minimum, provide the equivalent insurance coverage for real property and equipment...

  18. 36 CFR 1210.31 - Insurance coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Insurance coverage. 1210.31 Section 1210.31 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION GENERAL....31 Insurance coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum, provide the equivalent insurance coverage...

  19. 10 CFR 600.131 - Insurance coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Insurance coverage. 600.131 Section 600.131 Energy... Nonprofit Organizations Post-Award Requirements § 600.131 Insurance coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum, provide the equivalent insurance coverage for real property and equipment acquired with DOE funds...

  20. 22 CFR 145.31 - Insurance coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Insurance coverage. 145.31 Section 145.31 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE CIVIL RIGHTS GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS WITH INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER... Insurance coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum, provide the equivalent insurance coverage for...

  1. 38 CFR 49.31 - Insurance coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Insurance coverage. 49.31... NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Property Standards § 49.31 Insurance coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum, provide the equivalent insurance coverage for real property and...

  2. 49 CFR 19.31 - Insurance coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Insurance coverage. 19.31 Section 19.31... Requirements Property Standards § 19.31 Insurance coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum, provide the equivalent insurance coverage for real property and equipment acquired with Federal funds as provided...

  3. 40 CFR 30.31 - Insurance coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Insurance coverage. 30.31 Section 30.31... NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Property Standards § 30.31 Insurance coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum, provide the equivalent insurance coverage for real property and...

  4. 2 CFR 215.31 - Insurance coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Insurance coverage. 215.31 Section 215.31 Grants and Agreements OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET CIRCULARS AND GUIDANCE Reserved UNIFORM... Insurance coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum, provide the equivalent insurance coverage for...

  5. 24 CFR 84.31 - Insurance coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Insurance coverage. 84.31 Section 84.31 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban... Insurance coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum, provide the equivalent insurance coverage for...

  6. 24 CFR 35.1140 - Insurance coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Insurance coverage. 35.1140 Section... § 35.1140 Insurance coverage. For the requirements concerning the obligation of a PHA to obtain reasonable insurance coverage with respect to the hazards associated with evaluation and hazard...

  7. Are we nearly there yet? Coverage and compliance of mass drug administration for lymphatic filariasis elimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Neal D E

    2015-03-01

    Lymphatic filariasis has been targeted for elimination by 2020, and a threshold of 65% coverage of mass drug administration (MDA) has been adopted by the Global Programme to Eliminate Lymphatic Filariasis (GPELF). A recent review by Babu and Babu of 36 studies of MDA for lymphatic filariasis in India found that coverage, defined as receipt of tablets, ranged from 48.8 to 98.8%, while compliance, defined as actual ingestion of tablets, was 22% lower on average. Moreover, the denominator for these coverage figures is the eligible, rather than total, population. By contrast, the 65% threshold, in the original modelling study, refers to ingestion of tablets in the total population. This corresponds to GPELF's use of 'epidemiological drug coverage' as a trigger for the Transmission Assessment Surveys (TAS), which indicate whether to proceed to post-MDA surveillance. The existence of less strict definitions of 'coverage' should not lead to premature TAS that could impair MDA's sustainability.

  8. Are we nearly there yet? Coverage and compliance of mass drug administration for lymphatic filariasis elimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Neal D E

    2015-03-01

    Lymphatic filariasis has been targeted for elimination by 2020, and a threshold of 65% coverage of mass drug administration (MDA) has been adopted by the Global Programme to Eliminate Lymphatic Filariasis (GPELF). A recent review by Babu and Babu of 36 studies of MDA for lymphatic filariasis in India found that coverage, defined as receipt of tablets, ranged from 48.8 to 98.8%, while compliance, defined as actual ingestion of tablets, was 22% lower on average. Moreover, the denominator for these coverage figures is the eligible, rather than total, population. By contrast, the 65% threshold, in the original modelling study, refers to ingestion of tablets in the total population. This corresponds to GPELF's use of 'epidemiological drug coverage' as a trigger for the Transmission Assessment Surveys (TAS), which indicate whether to proceed to post-MDA surveillance. The existence of less strict definitions of 'coverage' should not lead to premature TAS that could impair MDA's sustainability. PMID:25575555

  9. 78 FR 20119 - Broad Stakeholder Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-03

    ... SECURITY Broad Stakeholder Survey AGENCY: National Protection and Programs Directorate, DHS. ACTION: 30-day... soliciting comments concerning the Broad Stakeholder Survey. DHS previously published this ICR in the Federal... responders across the Nation. The Broad Stakeholder Survey is designed to gather stakeholder feedback on...

  10. 77 FR 50144 - Broad Stakeholder Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-20

    ... SECURITY Broad Stakeholder Survey AGENCY: National Protection and Programs Directorate, DHS. ACTION: 60-day... comments concerning the Broad Stakeholder Survey. DATES: Comments are encouraged and will be accepted until... across the Nation. The Broad Stakeholder Survey is designed to gather stakeholder feedback on...

  11. 76 FR 34087 - Broad Stakeholder Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-10

    ... SECURITY Broad Stakeholder Survey AGENCY: National Protection and Programs Directorate, DHS. ACTION: 60-day... comments concerning the Broad Stakeholder Survey. DATES: Comments are encouraged and will be accepted until.... The Broad Stakeholder Survey is designed to gather stakeholder feedback on the effectiveness of...

  12. 29 CFR 779.101 - Guiding principles for applying coverage and exemption provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... to be broad in its scope. “Breadth of coverage is vital to its mission.” (Powell v. U.S. Cartridge Co... applies. (Walling v. General Industries Co., 330 U.S. 545; Mitchell v. Kentucky Finance Co., 359 U.S. 290..., 324 U.S. 490; Mitchell v. Kentucky Finance Co., supra; Arnold v. Kanowsky, supra; Calaf v....

  13. Spatial heterogeneity study of vegetation coverage at Heihe River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Lijuan; Zhong, Bo; Guo, Liyu; Zhao, Xiangwei

    2014-11-01

    Spatial heterogeneity of the animal-landscape system has three major components: heterogeneity of resource distributions in the physical environment, heterogeneity of plant tissue chemistry, heterogeneity of movement modes by the animal. Furthermore, all three different types of heterogeneity interact each other and can either reinforce or offset one another, thereby affecting system stability and dynamics. In previous studies, the study areas are investigated by field sampling, which costs a large amount of manpower. In addition, uncertain in sampling affects the quality of field data, which leads to unsatisfactory results during the entire study. In this study, remote sensing data is used to guide the sampling for research on heterogeneity of vegetation coverage to avoid errors caused by randomness of field sampling. Semi-variance and fractal dimension analysis are used to analyze the spatial heterogeneity of vegetation coverage at Heihe River Basin. The spherical model with nugget is used to fit the semivariogram of vegetation coverage. Based on the experiment above, it is found, (1)there is a strong correlation between vegetation coverage and distance of vegetation populations within the range of 0~28051.3188m at Heihe River Basin, but the correlation loses suddenly when the distance greater than 28051.3188m. (2)The degree of spatial heterogeneity of vegetation coverage at Heihe River Basin is medium. (3)Spatial distribution variability of vegetation occurs mainly on small scales. (4)The degree of spatial autocorrelation is 72.29% between 25% and 75%, which means that spatial correlation of vegetation coverage at Heihe River Basin is medium high.

  14. Free Influenza Vaccination Coverage and Its Influencing Factors about Cognition among Elderly Population in Beijing%北京市老年人免费流感疫苗接种率及认知影响因素调查分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方任飞; 马彦; 吴疆; 吕敏; 田丽娟; 谢铮

    2014-01-01

    得分较高,流感疫苗知识得分偏低。政策知晓率和流感疫苗认知情况影响疫苗接种率。%Objective To investigate the free influenza vaccination coverage and its influencing factors about cognition among elderly population in Beijing after the free influenza vaccination policy among elderly population was implemented in 2007, Methods In July 2011,by multi - stage cluster sampling method,20 communities(12 from urban area,8 from sub-urbs)were selected from 6 urban areas and 7 suburbs in Beijing city,then 50 elderly people aged 60 and above were selected from each of the 20 communities,924 elderly people had registered permanent residence of Beijing, A self - designed question-naire was used to survey these elderly people, Descriptive analysis was used for demographic characteristics, Chi - square test was used for the difference between the vaccination coverage,awareness rate of policy,scores of influenza knowledge and influenza vaccine knowledge before and after 2007, Multivariate nonconditional Logistic regression model was used to analyze the influencing factors for free influenza vaccine coverage, Results Before 2007,among 914 subjects,291 received vaccine,vaccination cov-erage was 31, 84% ;After 2007,among 903 subjects,578 received vaccine,vaccination coverage was 64, 01% ,there was sig-nificant difference between vaccination coverage before 2007 and vaccination coverage after 2007(χ2 = 188, 40,P < 0, 01), A total of 869(94, 05% )subjects knew the policy " Elderly people aged 60 and above in Beijing can get free influenza vaccine", Among 578 elderly people who had received free influenza vaccination,559(96, 71% )had the idea " The government is ser-ving peopleˊs health" , There was significant difference in awareness rate of policy among elderly people with different age(P <0, 01), The average score for influenza knowledge among elderly people was(9, 8 ± 2, 0),there was significant difference in score for influenza knowledge among

  15. Collaborative Mobile Charging and Coverage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴杰

    2014-01-01

    Wireless energy charging using mobile vehicles has been a viable research topic recently in the area of wireless networks and mobile computing. This paper gives a short survey of recent research conducted in our research group in the area of collaborative mobile charging. In collaborative mobile charging, multiple mobile chargers work together to accomplish a given set of ob jectives. These ob jectives include charging sensors at different frequencies with a minimum number of mobile chargers and reaching the farthest sensor for a given set of mobile chargers, subject to various constraints, including speed and energy limits of mobile chargers. Through the process of problem formulation, solution construction, and future work extension for problems related to collaborative mobile charging and coverage, we present three principles for good practice in conducting research. These principles can potentially be used for assisting graduate students in selecting a research problem for a term project, which can eventually be expanded to a thesis/dissertation topic.

  16. Sideline coverage of youth football.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzone, Katie; Diamond, Alex; Gregory, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    Youth football is a popular sport in the United States and has been for some time. There are currently more than 3 million participants in youth football leagues according to USA Football. While the number of participants and overall injuries may be higher in other sports, football has a higher rate of injuries. Most youth sporting events do not have medical personnel on the sidelines in event of an injury or emergency. Therefore it is necessary for youth sports coaches to undergo basic medical training in order to effectively act in these situations. In addition, an argument could be made that appropriate medical personnel should be on the sideline for collision sports at all levels, from youth to professional. This article will discuss issues pertinent to sideline coverage of youth football, including coaching education, sideline personnel, emergency action plans, age and size divisions, tackle versus flag football, and injury prevention.

  17. Genetic algorithm parameter optimization: applied to sensor coverage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahin, Ferat; Abbate, Giuseppe

    2004-08-01

    Genetic Algorithms are powerful tools, which when set upon a solution space will search for the optimal answer. These algorithms though have some associated problems, which are inherent to the method such as pre-mature convergence and lack of population diversity. These problems can be controlled with changes to certain parameters such as crossover, selection, and mutation. This paper attempts to tackle these problems in GA by having another GA controlling these parameters. The values for crossover parameter are: one point, two point, and uniform. The values for selection parameters are: best, worst, roulette wheel, inside 50%, outside 50%. The values for the mutation parameter are: random and swap. The system will include a control GA whose population will consist of different parameters settings. While this GA is attempting to find the best parameters it will be advancing into the search space of the problem and refining the population. As the population changes due to the search so will the optimal parameters. For every control GA generation each of the individuals in the population will be tested for fitness by being run through the problem GA with the assigned parameters. During these runs the population used in the next control generation is compiled. Thus, both the issue of finding the best parameters and the solution to the problem are attacked at the same time. The goal is to optimize the sensor coverage in a square field. The test case used was a 30 by 30 unit field with 100 sensor nodes. Each sensor node had a coverage area of 3 by 3 units. The algorithm attempts to optimize the sensor coverage in the field by moving the nodes. The results show that the control GA will provide better results when compared to a system with no parameter changes.

  18. Measuring coverage in MNCH: total survey error and the interpretation of intervention coverage estimates from household surveys.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas P Eisele

    Full Text Available Nationally representative household surveys are increasingly relied upon to measure maternal, newborn, and child health (MNCH intervention coverage at the population level in low- and middle-income countries. Surveys are the best tool we have for this purpose and are central to national and global decision making. However, all survey point estimates have a certain level of error (total survey error comprising sampling and non-sampling error, both of which must be considered when interpreting survey results for decision making. In this review, we discuss the importance of considering these errors when interpreting MNCH intervention coverage estimates derived from household surveys, using relevant examples from national surveys to provide context. Sampling error is usually thought of as the precision of a point estimate and is represented by 95% confidence intervals, which are measurable. Confidence intervals can inform judgments about whether estimated parameters are likely to be different from the real value of a parameter. We recommend, therefore, that confidence intervals for key coverage indicators should always be provided in survey reports. By contrast, the direction and magnitude of non-sampling error is almost always unmeasurable, and therefore unknown. Information error and bias are the most common sources of non-sampling error in household survey estimates and we recommend that they should always be carefully considered when interpreting MNCH intervention coverage based on survey data. Overall, we recommend that future research on measuring MNCH intervention coverage should focus on refining and improving survey-based coverage estimates to develop a better understanding of how results should be interpreted and used.

  19. A broad view of arsenic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, F T

    2007-01-01

    In the mind of the general public, the words "arsenic" and "poison" have become almost synonymous. Yet, As is a natural metallic element found in low concentrations in virtually every part of the environment, including foods. Mining and smelting activities are closely associated with As, and the largest occurrence of As contamination in the United States is near the gold mines of northern Nevada. Inhabitants of Bangladesh and surrounding areas have been exposed to water that is naturally and heavily contaminated with As, causing what the World Health Organization has described as the worst mass poisoning in history. Although readily absorbed by humans, most inorganic As (>90%) is rapidly cleared from the blood with a half-life of 1 to 2 h, and 40 to 70% of the As intake is absorbed, metabolized, and excreted within 48 h. Arsenic does not appreciably bioaccumulate, nor does it biomagnify in the food chain. The United States has for some time purchased more As than any other country in the world, but As usage is waning, and further reductions appear likely. Arsenic is used in a wide variety of industrial applications, from computers to fireworks. All feed additives used in US poultry feeds must meet the strict requirements of the US Food and Drug Administration Center for Veterinary Medicine (Rockville, MD) before use. Although some public health investigators have identified poultry products as a potentially significant source of total As exposure for Americans, studies consistently demonstrate that <1% of samples tested are above the 0.5 ppm limit established by the US Food and Drug Administration Center for Veterinary Medicine. Although laboratory studies have demonstrated the possibility that As in poultry litter could pollute ground waters, million of tons of litter have been applied to the land, and no link has been established between litter application and As contamination of ground water. Yet, the fact that <2% of the United States population is involved in

  20. Encuesta Nacional de Cobertura de Vacunación (influenza, neumococo y tétanos en adultos mayores de 60 años en México National Survey of Vaccination Coverage (Influenza, pneumococcus and tetanus in Mexican population of 60 years of age and older

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belem Trejo-Valdivia

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Determinar la cobertura de vacunación (CV para influenza, neumococo y tétanos, en adultos mayores (AM de 60 años y más, heterogeneidad por entidad federativa y relación con características sociodemográficas. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Análisis transversal basado en una encuesta nacional en 18 015 hogares. Se captó información general y sobre vacunación (autorreporte en un AM por cada uno de los hogares seleccionado aleatoriamente. RESULTADOS: La prevalencia nacional de vacunación fue 56.5% (±0.97 para influenza, 44.3% (±0.98 para neumococo y 61.8% (±0.96 para tétanos. Las CV analizadas fueron significativamente menores para AM sin seguro médico y mayores en las mujeres. Casi 20% de AM reconoció no tener vacuna alguna, argumentando principalmente el hecho de desconocer la necesidad de vacunarse. CONCLUSIONES: Se muestra un avance importante en las coberturas de vacunación en AM en México; se identifican diferenciales que sugieren la necesidad de impulsar campañas de información y acciones que mejoren la accesibilidad a la vacuna por este grupo poblacional.OBJECTIVE: Determine Vaccination Coverage (VC among adults 60 years of age and older (EP, for influenza, pneumococcal and tetanus vaccines, association with socio-demographic characteristics and heterogeneity at state level. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Cross-sectional analysis based on information from 18 015 households visited in a national survey. General and vaccine information (self-report for a randomly selected elder in each household is available. RESULTS: The national VC level was found to be 56.5% (±0.97 for influenza, 44.3% (±0.98 for pneumococcus and 61.8% (±0.96 for tetanus. The VC was significantly lower for EP without health social services and higher for women. Almost 20.0% of EP recognized not having vaccines at all, due mainly that they didn't know it was a duty. CONCLUSIONS: Important improvements are shown in vaccination coverage among elderly in Mexico

  1. Household Coverage of Fortified Staple Food Commodities in Rajasthan, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aaron, Grant J.; Sodani, Prahlad R.; Sankar, Rajan; Fairhurst, John; Siling, Katja; Guevarra, Ernest; Norris, Alison; Myatt, Mark

    2016-01-01

    A spatially representative statewide survey was conducted in Rajasthan, India to assess household coverage of atta wheat flour, edible oil, and salt. An even distribution of primary sampling units were selected based on their proximity to centroids on a hexagonal grid laid over the survey area. A sample of n = 18 households from each of m = 252 primary sampling units PSUs was taken. Demographic data on all members of these households were collected, and a broader dataset was collected about a single caregiver and a child in the first 2 years of life. Data were collected on demographic and socioeconomic status; education; housing conditions; recent infant and child mortality; water, sanitation, and hygiene practices; food security; child health; infant and young child feeding practices; maternal dietary diversity; coverage of fortified staples; and maternal and child anthropometry. Data were collected from 4,627 households and the same number of caregiver/child pairs. Atta wheat flour was widely consumed across the state (83%); however, only about 7% of the atta wheat flour was classified as fortifiable, and only about 6% was actually fortified (mostly inadequately). For oil, almost 90% of edible oil consumed by households in the survey was classified as fortifiable, but only about 24% was fortified. For salt, coverage was high, with almost 85% of households using fortified salt and 66% of households using adequately fortified salt. Iodized salt coverage was also high; however, rural and poor population groups were less likely to be reached by the intervention. Voluntary fortification of atta wheat flour and edible oil lacked sufficient industry consolidation to cover significant portions of the population. It is crucial that appropriate delivery channels are utilized to effectively deliver essential micronutrients to at-risk population groups. Government distribution systems are likely the best means to accomplish this goal. PMID:27760123

  2. Five Facts about the Uninsured Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... unui tthhee nnsinusreudred Five Facts About the Uninsured Population September 2012 Nearly 48 million nonelderly Americans were ... 5 Key Details:  The share of the nonelderly population with employer-sponsored coverage declined steadily between 2000 ...

  3. Moving toward universal coverage of health insurance in Vietnam: barriers, facilitating factors, and lessons from Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do, Ngan; Oh, Juhwan; Lee, Jin-Seok

    2014-07-01

    Vietnam has pursued universal health insurance coverage for two decades but has yet to fully achieve this goal. This paper investigates the barriers to achieve universal coverage and examines the validity of facilitating factors to shorten the transitional period in Vietnam. A comparative study of facilitating factors toward universal coverage of Vietnam and Korea reveals significant internal forces for Vietnam to further develop the National Health Insurance Program. Korea in 1977 and Vietnam in 2009 have common characteristics to be favorable of achieving universal coverage with similarities of level of income, highly qualified administrative ability, tradition of solidarity, and strong political leadership although there are differences in distribution of population and structure of the economy. From a comparative perspective, Vietnam can consider the experience of Korea in implementing the mandatory enrollment approach, household unit of eligibility, design of contribution and benefit scheme, and resource allocation to health insurance for sustainable government subsidy to achieve and sustain the universal coverage of health insurance.

  4. Defining Pathways and Trade-offs Toward Universal Health Coverage Comment on “Ethical Perspective: Five Unacceptable Trade-offs on the Path to Universal Health Coverage”

    OpenAIRE

    Stéphane Verguet

    2016-01-01

    The World Health Organization’s (WHO’s) World Health Report 2010, “Health systems financing, the path to universal coverage,” promoted universal health coverage (UHC) as an aspirational objective for country health systems. Yet, in addition to the dimensions of services and coverage, distribution of coverage in the population, and financial risk protection highlighted by the report, the consideration of the budget constraint should be further strengthened in the ensuing debate on ...

  5. Mapping the environmental and socioeconomic coverage of the INDEPTH international health and demographic surveillance system network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Peng; Sankoh, Osman; Tatem, Andrew J

    2015-11-01

    The International Network for the Demographic Evaluation of Populations and their Health (INDEPTH) has produced reliable longitudinal data about the lives of people in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) through a global network of health and demographic surveillance system (HDSS) sites. Since reliable demographic data are scarce across many LMICs, we examine the environmental and socioeconomic (ES) similarities between existing HDSS sites and the rest of the LMICs. The HDSS sites were hierarchically grouped by the similarity of their ES conditions to quantify the ES variability between sites. The entire Africa and Asia region was classified to identify which regions were most similar to existing sites, based on available ES data. Results show that the current INDEPTH network architecture does a good job in representing ES conditions, but that great heterogeneities exist, even within individual countries. The results provide valuable information in determining the confidence with which relationships derived from present HDSS sites can be broadly extended to other areas, and to highlight areas where the new HDSS sites would improve significantly the ES coverage of the network. PMID:26454610

  6. [Universal coverage of health services in Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    The reforms made in recent years to the Mexican Health System have reduced inequities in the health care of the population, but have been insufficient to solve all the problems of the MHS. In order to make the right to health protection established in the Constitution a reality for every citizen, Mexico must warrant effective universal access to health services. This paper outlines a long-term reform for the consolidation of a health system that is akin to international standards and which may establish the structural conditions to reduce coverage inequity. This reform is based on a "structured pluralism" intended to avoid both a monopoly exercised within the public sector and fragmentation in the private sector, and to prevent falling into the extremes of authoritarian procedures or an absence of regulation. This involves the replacement of the present vertical integration and segregation of social groups by a horizontal organization with separation of duties. This also entails legal and fiscal reforms, the reinforcement of the MHS, the reorganization of health institutions, and the formulation of regulatory, technical and financial instruments to operationalize the proposed scheme with the objective of rendering the human right to health fully effective for the Mexican people. PMID:24570037

  7. [Universal coverage of health services in Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    The reforms made in recent years to the Mexican Health System have reduced inequities in the health care of the population, but have been insufficient to solve all the problems of the MHS. In order to make the right to health protection established in the Constitution a reality for every citizen, Mexico must warrant effective universal access to health services. This paper outlines a long-term reform for the consolidation of a health system that is akin to international standards and which may establish the structural conditions to reduce coverage inequity. This reform is based on a "structured pluralism" intended to avoid both a monopoly exercised within the public sector and fragmentation in the private sector, and to prevent falling into the extremes of authoritarian procedures or an absence of regulation. This involves the replacement of the present vertical integration and segregation of social groups by a horizontal organization with separation of duties. This also entails legal and fiscal reforms, the reinforcement of the MHS, the reorganization of health institutions, and the formulation of regulatory, technical and financial instruments to operationalize the proposed scheme with the objective of rendering the human right to health fully effective for the Mexican people.

  8. Broad Prize: Do the Successes Spread?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuels, Christina A.

    2011-01-01

    When the Broad Prize for Urban Education was created in 2002, billionaire philanthropist Eli Broad said he hoped the awards, in addition to rewarding high-performing school districts, would foster healthy competition; boost the prestige of urban education, long viewed as dysfunctional; and showcase best practices. Over the 10 years the prize has…

  9. Extended Perioperative Antibiotic Coverage in Conjunction with Intraoperative Bile Cultures Decreases Infectious Complications after Pancreaticoduodenectomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fathi, Amir H.; Jackson, Terence; Barati, Mehdi; Eghbalieh, Babak; Siegel, Kelly A.; Siegel, Christopher T.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Bile contamination from the digestive tract is a well-known risk factor for postoperative complications. Despite the literature concerning prevalence of bacterobilia and fungobilia in patients with biliary pathologies, there are no specific recommendations for perioperative antimicrobial coverage for biliary/pancreatic procedures. We evaluated the effect of at least 72 hours of perioperative broad spectrum antibiotic coverage on outcomes of pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD). Materials and Methods. A retrospective review of all patients at Case Medical Center of Case Western Reserve University undergoing PD procedure, from 2006 to 2011, was performed (n = 122). Perioperative data including demographics, comorbidities, biliary instrumentation, antibiotic coverage, culture results, and postoperative outcomes were analyzed. Propensity score matching method was used to match the patients according to duration of antibiotic coverage into two groups: 72 hours (A72) and 24 hours (A24). Results. Longer broad spectrum antibiotic coverage in group A72 resulted in significantly less surgical site infections after PD, compared to routine 24 hours of perioperative antibiotics in group A24. This study did not reveal a statistically significant decrease in postoperative fungal infections in patients receiving preoperative antifungals. Conclusion. Prolonged perioperative antibiotic therapy in conjunction with intraoperative bile cultures decreases the short-term infectious complications of PD, with no significant increase in Clostridium difficile colitis incidence. PMID:27147813

  10. Assuring health coverage for all in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Vikram; Parikh, Rachana; Nandraj, Sunil; Balasubramaniam, Priya; Narayan, Kavita; Paul, Vinod K; Kumar, A K Shiva; Chatterjee, Mirai; Reddy, K Srinath

    2015-12-12

    Successive Governments of India have promised to transform India's unsatisfactory health-care system, culminating in the present government's promise to expand health assurance for all. Despite substantial improvements in some health indicators in the past decade, India contributes disproportionately to the global burden of disease, with health indicators that compare unfavourably with other middle-income countries and India's regional neighbours. Large health disparities between states, between rural and urban populations, and across social classes persist. A large proportion of the population is impoverished because of high out-of-pocket health-care expenditures and suffers the adverse consequences of poor quality of care. Here we make the case not only for more resources but for a radically new architecture for India's health-care system. India needs to adopt an integrated national health-care system built around a strong public primary care system with a clearly articulated supportive role for the private and indigenous sectors. This system must address acute as well as chronic health-care needs, offer choice of care that is rational, accessible, and of good quality, support cashless service at point of delivery, and ensure accountability through governance by a robust regulatory framework. In the process, several major challenges will need to be confronted, most notably the very low levels of public expenditure; the poor regulation, rapid commercialisation of and corruption in health care; and the fragmentation of governance of health care. Most importantly, assuring universal health coverage will require the explicit acknowledgment, by government and civil society, of health care as a public good on par with education. Only a radical restructuring of the health-care system that promotes health equity and eliminates impoverishment due to out-of-pocket expenditures will assure health for all Indians by 2022--a fitting way to mark the 75th year of India

  11. Assuring health coverage for all in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Vikram; Parikh, Rachana; Nandraj, Sunil; Balasubramaniam, Priya; Narayan, Kavita; Paul, Vinod K; Kumar, A K Shiva; Chatterjee, Mirai; Reddy, K Srinath

    2015-12-12

    Successive Governments of India have promised to transform India's unsatisfactory health-care system, culminating in the present government's promise to expand health assurance for all. Despite substantial improvements in some health indicators in the past decade, India contributes disproportionately to the global burden of disease, with health indicators that compare unfavourably with other middle-income countries and India's regional neighbours. Large health disparities between states, between rural and urban populations, and across social classes persist. A large proportion of the population is impoverished because of high out-of-pocket health-care expenditures and suffers the adverse consequences of poor quality of care. Here we make the case not only for more resources but for a radically new architecture for India's health-care system. India needs to adopt an integrated national health-care system built around a strong public primary care system with a clearly articulated supportive role for the private and indigenous sectors. This system must address acute as well as chronic health-care needs, offer choice of care that is rational, accessible, and of good quality, support cashless service at point of delivery, and ensure accountability through governance by a robust regulatory framework. In the process, several major challenges will need to be confronted, most notably the very low levels of public expenditure; the poor regulation, rapid commercialisation of and corruption in health care; and the fragmentation of governance of health care. Most importantly, assuring universal health coverage will require the explicit acknowledgment, by government and civil society, of health care as a public good on par with education. Only a radical restructuring of the health-care system that promotes health equity and eliminates impoverishment due to out-of-pocket expenditures will assure health for all Indians by 2022--a fitting way to mark the 75th year of India

  12. Coverage and system efficiencies of insecticide-treated nets in Africa from 2000 to 2017.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatt, Samir; Weiss, Daniel J; Mappin, Bonnie; Dalrymple, Ursula; Cameron, Ewan; Bisanzio, Donal; Smith, David L; Moyes, Catherine L; Tatem, Andrew J; Lynch, Michael; Fergus, Cristin A; Yukich, Joshua; Bennett, Adam; Eisele, Thomas P; Kolaczinski, Jan; Cibulskis, Richard E; Hay, Simon I; Gething, Peter W

    2015-01-01

    Insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) for malaria control are widespread but coverage remains inadequate. We developed a Bayesian model using data from 102 national surveys, triangulated against delivery data and distribution reports, to generate year-by-year estimates of four ITN coverage indicators. We explored the impact of two potential 'inefficiencies': uneven net distribution among households and rapid rates of net loss from households. We estimated that, in 2013, 21% (17%-26%) of ITNs were over-allocated and this has worsened over time as overall net provision has increased. We estimated that rates of ITN loss from households are more rapid than previously thought, with 50% lost after 23 (20-28) months. We predict that the current estimate of 920 million additional ITNs required to achieve universal coverage would in reality yield a lower level of coverage (77% population access). By improving efficiency, however, the 920 million ITNs could yield population access as high as 95%. PMID:26714109

  13. 29 CFR 801.3 - Coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... POLYGRAPH PROTECTION ACT OF 1988 General § 801.3 Coverage. (a) The coverage of the Act extends to “any... of lie detector, including polygraph, tests which occur within the territorial jurisdiction of the... a polygraph test that is to be administered on the high seas or in some foreign location....

  14. Computational Methods for Analyzing Health News Coverage

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFarlane, Delano J.

    2011-01-01

    Researchers that investigate the media's coverage of health have historically relied on keyword searches to retrieve relevant health news coverage, and manual content analysis methods to categorize and score health news text. These methods are problematic. Manual content analysis methods are labor intensive, time consuming, and inherently…

  15. 24 CFR 1006.330 - Insurance coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Insurance coverage. 1006.330... DEVELOPMENT NATIVE HAWAIIAN HOUSING BLOCK GRANT PROGRAM Program Requirements § 1006.330 Insurance coverage. (a) In general. As a condition to receiving NHHBG funds, the DHHL must require adequate...

  16. Research on LTE Network Coverage Planning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jun Gu; Ren Sheng

    2011-01-01

    When deploying an LTE network, coverage planning is critical to reduce construction costs and ensure network quality. This paper considers actual network planning requirements and combines theory with simulation analysis to study LTE wireless access link and network characteristics. A theory for LTE cellular coverage planning and application methods is proposed that lays the basic foundation for LTE cellular networks.

  17. 24 CFR 320.11 - Insurance coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Insurance coverage. 320.11 Section...-BACKED SECURITIES Pass-Through Type Securities § 320.11 Insurance coverage. The issuer shall maintain, for the benefit of the Association, insurance, errors and omissions, fidelity bond and other...

  18. 43 CFR 12.931 - Insurance coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Insurance coverage. 12.931 Section 12.931 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior ADMINISTRATIVE AND AUDIT REQUIREMENTS AND... Requirements § 12.931 Insurance coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum, provide the equivalent...

  19. 7 CFR 3019.31 - Insurance coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Insurance coverage. 3019.31 Section 3019.31 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) OFFICE OF THE CHIEF FINANCIAL OFFICER... Standards § 3019.31 Insurance coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum, provide the equivalent...

  20. 29 CFR 95.31 - Insurance coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Insurance coverage. 95.31 Section 95.31 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS WITH INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER EDUCATION, HOSPITALS, AND OTHER NON... § 95.31 Insurance coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum, provide the equivalent insurance...

  1. CDMA coverage under mobile heterogeneous network load

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saban, Dorin; Berg, van den Hans; Boucherie, Richard J.; Endrayanto, Irwan

    2002-01-01

    We analytically investigate coverage (determined by the uplink) under non-homogeneous and moving traffic load of third generation UMTS mobile networks. In particular, for different call assignment policies, we investigate cell breathing and the movement of the coverage gap occurring between cells wh

  2. Understanding News Geography and Major Determinants of Global News Coverage of Disasters

    CERN Document Server

    Kwak, Haewoon

    2014-01-01

    In this work, we reveal the structure of global news coverage of disasters and its determinants by using a large-scale news coverage dataset collected by the GDELT (Global Data on Events, Location, and Tone) project that monitors news media in over 100 languages from the whole world. Significant variables in our hierarchical (mixed-effect) regression model, such as the number of population, the political stability, the damage, and more, are well aligned with a series of previous research. Yet, strong regionalism we found in news geography highlights the necessity of the comprehensive dataset for the study of global news coverage.

  3. Mass drug administration coverage evaluation survey for lymphatic Filariasis in Bagalkot and Gulbarga districts

    OpenAIRE

    Prakash Kurubarahalli Patel

    2012-01-01

    Background: Lymphatic filariasis (LF) is endemic in 83 countries and territories, with more than a billion people at risk of infection. In view with the global elimination, mass drug administration (MDA) with single dose of diethylcarbamazine and albendazole tablets was carried out for the eligible population in Bagalkot and Gulbarga districts. Objective: Assess coverage of MDA against LF in Bagalkot and Gulbarga districts. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional coverage evaluation su...

  4. Vaccination coverage in children can be estimated from health insurance data

    OpenAIRE

    Tauscher Martin; Varga Rudolf; Redel Rebekka; Kalies Helen; von Kries Rüdiger

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background The introduction of new vaccines for young children requires instruments for a rapid and timely assessment of the progressively increasing vaccination coverage. We assessed whether routine data generated by statutory health insurances (SHI) might be used to monitor vaccination coverage in young children. Methods For 90% of the population Germany's healthcare system is premium-funded through SHI. Specific medical codes on childhood vaccination are used for billing. These we...

  5. Strategies for Coordination of a Serosurvey in Parallel with an Immunization Coverage Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Travassos, Mark A.; Beyene, Berhane; Adam, Zenaw; Campbell, James D.; Mulholland, Nigisti; Diarra, Seydou S.; Kassa, Tassew; Oot, Lisa; Sequeira, Jenny; Reymann, Mardi; William C Blackwelder; Marcela F. Pasetti; Sow, Samba O.; Steinglass, Robert; Kebede, Amha

    2015-01-01

    A community-based immunization coverage survey is the standard way to estimate effective vaccination delivery to a target population in a region. Accompanying serosurveys can provide objective measures of protective immunity against vaccine-preventable diseases but pose considerable challenges with respect to specimen collection and preservation and community compliance. We performed serosurveys coupled to immunization coverage surveys in three administrative districts (woredas) in rural Ethi...

  6. Controlling cost escalation of healthcare: making universal health coverage sustainable in China

    OpenAIRE

    Tang, Shenglan; Tao, Jingjing; Bekedam, Henk

    2012-01-01

    An increasingly number of low- and middle-income countries have developed and implemented a national policy towards universal coverage of healthcare for their citizens over the past decade. Among them is China which has expanded its population coverage by health insurance from around 29.7% in 2003 to over 90% at the end of 2010. While both central and local governments in China have significantly increased financial inputs into the two newly established health insurance schemes: new cooperati...

  7. Health insurance tax credits and health insurance coverage of low-earning single mothers

    OpenAIRE

    Cebi, Merve; Stephen A. Woodbury

    2009-01-01

    The Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act of 1990 introduced a refundable tax credit for low-income working families who purchased health insurance coverage for their children. This health insurance tax credit (HITC) existed during tax years 1991, 1992, and 1993, and was then rescinded. We use Current Population Survey data and a difference-in-differences approach to estimate the HITC’s effect on private health insurance coverage of low-earning single mothers. The findings suggest that during 199...

  8. Measuring Prevention More Broadly, An Empirical...

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Measuring Prevention More Broadly, An Empirical Assessment of CHIPRA Core Measures Differences in CHIP design and structure, across states and over time, may limit...

  9. Network television news coverage of environmental risks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greenberg, M.R.; Sandman, P.M.; Sachsman, D.V.; Salomone, K.L.

    1989-03-01

    Despite the criticisms that surround television coverage of environmental risk, there have been relatively few attempts to measure what and whom television shows. Most research has focused analysis on a few weeks of coverage of major stories like the gas leak at Bhopal, the Three Mile Island nuclear accident, or the Mount St. Helen's eruption. To advance the research into television coverage of environmental risk, an analysis has been made of all environmental risk coverage by the network nightly news broadcasts for a period of more than two years. Researchers have analyzed all environmental risk coverage-564 stories in 26 months-presented on ABC, CBS, and NBC's evening news broadcasts from January 1984 through February 1986. The quantitative information from the 564 stories was balanced by a more qualitative analysis of the television coverage of two case studies-the dioxin contamination in Times Beach, Missouri, and the suspected methyl isocyanate emissions from the Union Carbide plant in Institute, West Virginia. Both qualitative and quantitative data contributed to the analysis of the role played by experts and environmental advocacy sources in coverage of environmental risk and to the suggestions for increasing that role.

  10. Insurance Coverage Policies for Personalized Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Hresko

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Adoption of personalized medicine in practice has been slow, in part due to the lack of evidence of clinical benefit provided by these technologies. Coverage by insurers is a critical step in achieving widespread adoption of personalized medicine. Insurers consider a variety of factors when formulating medical coverage policies for personalized medicine, including the overall strength of evidence for a test, availability of clinical guidelines and health technology assessments by independent organizations. In this study, we reviewed coverage policies of the largest U.S. insurers for genomic (disease-related and pharmacogenetic (PGx tests to determine the extent that these tests were covered and the evidence basis for the coverage decisions. We identified 41 coverage policies for 49 unique testing: 22 tests for disease diagnosis, prognosis and risk and 27 PGx tests. Fifty percent (or less of the tests reviewed were covered by insurers. Lack of evidence of clinical utility appears to be a major factor in decisions of non-coverage. The inclusion of PGx information in drug package inserts appears to be a common theme of PGx tests that are covered. This analysis highlights the variability of coverage determinations and factors considered, suggesting that the adoption of personal medicine will affected by numerous factors, but will continue to be slowed due to lack of demonstrated clinical benefit.

  11. Insurance coverage policies for personalized medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hresko, Andrew; Haga, Susanne B

    2012-10-30

    Adoption of personalized medicine in practice has been slow, in part due to the lack of evidence of clinical benefit provided by these technologies. Coverage by insurers is a critical step in achieving widespread adoption of personalized medicine. Insurers consider a variety of factors when formulating medical coverage policies for personalized medicine, including the overall strength of evidence for a test, availability of clinical guidelines and health technology assessments by independent organizations. In this study, we reviewed coverage policies of the largest U.S. insurers for genomic (disease-related) and pharmacogenetic (PGx) tests to determine the extent that these tests were covered and the evidence basis for the coverage decisions. We identified 41 coverage policies for 49 unique testing: 22 tests for disease diagnosis, prognosis and risk and 27 PGx tests. Fifty percent (or less) of the tests reviewed were covered by insurers. Lack of evidence of clinical utility appears to be a major factor in decisions of non-coverage. The inclusion of PGx information in drug package inserts appears to be a common theme of PGx tests that are covered. This analysis highlights the variability of coverage determinations and factors considered, suggesting that the adoption of personal medicine will affected by numerous factors, but will continue to be slowed due to lack of demonstrated clinical benefit.

  12. Climate Feedback: Bringing the Scientific Community to Provide Direct Feedback on the Credibility of Climate Media Coverage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, E. M.; Matlock, T.; Westerling, A. L.

    2015-12-01

    While most scientists recognize climate change as a major societal and environmental issue, social and political will to tackle the problem is still lacking. One of the biggest obstacles is inaccurate reporting or even outright misinformation in climate change coverage that result in the confusion of the general public on the issue.In today's era of instant access to information, what we read online usually falls outside our field of expertise and it is a real challenge to evaluate what is credible. The emerging technology of web annotation could be a game changer as it allows knowledgeable individuals to attach notes to any piece of text of a webpage and to share them with readers who will be able to see the annotations in-context -like comments on a pdf.Here we present the Climate Feedback initiative that is bringing together a community of climate scientists who collectively evaluate the scientific accuracy of influential climate change media coverage. Scientists annotate articles sentence by sentence and assess whether they are consistent with scientific knowledge allowing readers to see where and why the coverage is -or is not- based on science. Scientists also summarize the essence of their critical commentary in the form of a simple article-level overall credibility rating that quickly informs readers about the credibility of the entire piece.Web-annotation allows readers to 'hear' directly from the experts and to sense the consensus in a personal way as one can literaly see how many scientists agree with a given statement. It also allows a broad population of scientists to interact with the media, notably early career scientists.In this talk, we will present results on the impacts annotations have on readers -regarding their evaluation of the trustworthiness of the information they read- and on journalists -regarding their reception of scientists comments.Several dozen scientists have contributed to this effort to date and the system offers potential to

  13. Hysterectomy and its impact on the calculated incidence of cervical cancer and screening coverage in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lam, Janni Uyen Hoa; Lynge, Elsebeth; Njor, Sisse Helle;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The incidence rates of cervical cancer and the coverage in cervical cancer screening are usually reported by including in the denominator all women from the general population. However, after hysterectomy women are not at risk anymore of developing cervical cancer. Therefore, it makes...... sense to determine the indicators also for the true at-risk populations. We described the frequency of total hysterectomy in Denmark and its impact on the calculated incidence of cervical cancer and the screening coverage. MATERIAL AND METHODS: With data from five Danish population-based registries......, the incidence rate of cervical cancer and the screening coverage for women aged 23-64 years on 31 December 2010 were calculated with and without adjustments for hysterectomies undertaken for reasons other than cervical cancer. They were calculated as the number of cases divided by 1) the total number of woman...

  14. Ordenação de populações em amplas classes de nível de saúde, segundo um indicador abrangente definido por uma função discriminante linear Ranking of populations in broad classes of health levels according to a comprehensive indicador defined by a linear discriminant function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neil Ferreira Novo

    1985-08-01

    Full Text Available Utilizando a função discriminante linear, propõe-se um indicador de nível de saúde abrangente de vários indicadores usuais, a saber: o coeficiente de mortalidade geral (CMG, indicador quantificado de Guedes (IG, esperança de vida ao nascer (EV, coeficiente de natalidade (CN, coeficiente de mortalidade infantil (CMI e coeficiente de mortalidade por doenças transmissíveis (CMDT. Para a padronização dos dois últimos, foi proposta e utilizada uma população padrão mediana; para sua formação, cada grupo etário concorre com a mediana das percentagens de participação desse grupo na composição da população de cada um dos 44 países estudados. A análise crítica das equações de funções discriminantes obtidas com a técnica passo a 2895 2060 1000 passo ascendente (stepwise, mostrou que o valor: Z = 2895/CMI + 2060/CN + 1000/CMDTp, pode ser utilizado como indicador abrangente, permitindo a ordenação de países em amplas classes de nível de saúde.There are, very often, considerable discrepancies when countries are ranked according to the values of each of the common health indicators. By the use of computed linear discriminant functions the authors developed a single indicator designed to convey the information gathered from the following health indicators: life expectancy at birth (LE, birth rate (BR, infant mortality rate (IMR, quantified indicator of Guedes (GI, general mortality rate (GMR and mortality rate (MR by infective and parasitic diseases (MRIPD, the last two age adjusted. For the construction of this adjustment a median standard population was suggested and used, each age group contributed with the average of the percentages of participation of the group in the composition of the population of each one of the 44 countries studied. These were those for which it was possible to get reliable data for the years around 1980. The contrasted groups in computing discriminant functions, each one consisting of 12 countries

  15. Read length versus depth of coverage for viral quasispecies reconstruction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osvaldo Zagordi

    Full Text Available Recent advancements of sequencing technology have opened up unprecedented opportunities in many application areas. Virus samples can now be sequenced efficiently with very deep coverage to infer the genetic diversity of the underlying virus populations. Several sequencing platforms with different underlying technologies and performance characteristics are available for viral diversity studies. Here, we investigate how the differences between two common platforms provided by 454/Roche and Illumina affect viral diversity estimation and the reconstruction of viral haplotypes. Using a mixture of ten HIV clones sequenced with both platforms and additional simulation experiments, we assessed the trade-off between sequencing coverage, read length, and error rate. For fixed costs, short Illumina reads can be generated at higher coverage and allow for detecting variants at lower frequencies. They can also be sufficient to assess the diversity of the sample if sequences are dissimilar enough, but, in general, assembly of full-length haplotypes is feasible only with the longer 454/Roche reads. The quantitative comparison highlights the advantages and disadvantages of both platforms and provides guidance for the design of viral diversity studies.

  16. Read length versus depth of coverage for viral quasispecies reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zagordi, Osvaldo; Däumer, Martin; Beisel, Christian; Beerenwinkel, Niko

    2012-01-01

    Recent advancements of sequencing technology have opened up unprecedented opportunities in many application areas. Virus samples can now be sequenced efficiently with very deep coverage to infer the genetic diversity of the underlying virus populations. Several sequencing platforms with different underlying technologies and performance characteristics are available for viral diversity studies. Here, we investigate how the differences between two common platforms provided by 454/Roche and Illumina affect viral diversity estimation and the reconstruction of viral haplotypes. Using a mixture of ten HIV clones sequenced with both platforms and additional simulation experiments, we assessed the trade-off between sequencing coverage, read length, and error rate. For fixed costs, short Illumina reads can be generated at higher coverage and allow for detecting variants at lower frequencies. They can also be sufficient to assess the diversity of the sample if sequences are dissimilar enough, but, in general, assembly of full-length haplotypes is feasible only with the longer 454/Roche reads. The quantitative comparison highlights the advantages and disadvantages of both platforms and provides guidance for the design of viral diversity studies.

  17. 22 CFR 513.110 - Coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (GRANTS) General § 513.110 Coverage. (a) These regulations... respect to participants and principals in the covered transactions and activities described in...

  18. Media Coverage of Nuclear Energy after Fukushima

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oltra, C.; Roman, P.; Prades, A.

    2013-07-01

    This report presents the main findings of a content analysis of printed media coverage of nuclear energy in Spain before and after the Fukushima accident. Our main objective is to understand the changes in the presentation of nuclear fission and nuclear fusion as a result of the accident in Japan. We specifically analyze the volume of coverage and thematic content in the media coverage for nuclear fusion from a sample of Spanish print articles in more than 20 newspapers from 2008 to 2012. We also analyze the media coverage of nuclear energy (fission) in three main Spanish newspapers one year before and one year after the accident. The results illustrate how the media contributed to the presentation of nuclear power in the months before and after the accident. This could have implications for the public understanding of nuclear power. (Author)

  19. Media Coverage of Nuclear Energy after Fukushima

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents the main findings of a content analysis of printed media coverage of nuclear energy in Spain before and after the Fukushima accident. Our main objective is to understand the changes in the presentation of nuclear fission and nuclear fusion as a result of the accident in Japan. We specifically analyze the volume of coverage and thematic content in the media coverage for nuclear fusion from a sample of Spanish print articles in more than 20 newspapers from 2008 to 2012. We also analyze the media coverage of nuclear energy (fission) in three main Spanish newspapers one year before and one year after the accident. The results illustrate how the media contributed to the presentation of nuclear power in the months before and after the accident. This could have implications for the public understanding of nuclear power. (Author)

  20. Closing the Prescription Drug Coverage Gap

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... coinsurance or copayment for the rest of the year. Your “Explanation of Benefits” (EOB) notice will show any discounts the drug companies paid. Example: Mrs. Anderson reaches the coverage gap in her Medicare drug plan. She goes to ...

  1. Length and coverage of inhibitory decision rules

    KAUST Repository

    Alsolami, Fawaz

    2012-01-01

    Authors present algorithms for optimization of inhibitory rules relative to the length and coverage. Inhibitory rules have a relation "attribute ≠ value" on the right-hand side. The considered algorithms are based on extensions of dynamic programming. Paper contains also comparison of length and coverage of inhibitory rules constructed by a greedy algorithm and by the dynamic programming algorithm. © 2012 Springer-Verlag.

  2. Limited Deposit Insurance Coverage and Bank Competition

    OpenAIRE

    Shy, Oz; Stenbacka, Rune; Yankov, Vladimir

    2014-01-01

    Deposit insurance designs in many countries place a limit on the coverage of deposits in each bank. However, no limits are placed on the number of accounts held with different banks. Therefore, under limited deposit insurance, some consumers open accounts with different banks to achieve higher or full deposit insurance coverage. We compare three regimes of deposit insurance: No deposit insurance, unlimited deposit insurance, and limited deposit insurance. We show that limited deposit insuranc...

  3. BROAD PHONEME CLASSIFICATION USING SIGNAL BASED FEATURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deekshitha G

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Speech is the most efficient and popular means of human communication Speech is produced as a sequence of phonemes. Phoneme recognition is the first step performed by automatic speech recognition system. The state-of-the-art recognizers use mel-frequency cepstral coefficients (MFCC features derived through short time analysis, for which the recognition accuracy is limited. Instead of this, here broad phoneme classification is achieved using features derived directly from the speech at the signal level itself. Broad phoneme classes include vowels, nasals, fricatives, stops, approximants and silence. The features identified useful for broad phoneme classification are voiced/unvoiced decision, zero crossing rate (ZCR, short time energy, most dominant frequency, energy in most dominant frequency, spectral flatness measure and first three formants. Features derived from short time frames of training speech are used to train a multilayer feedforward neural network based classifier with manually marked class label as output and classification accuracy is then tested. Later this broad phoneme classifier is used for broad syllable structure prediction which is useful for applications such as automatic speech recognition and automatic language identification.

  4. Comparison of Coverage and Compliance of Mass Drug Administration 2012 in Surat, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehta Shreyash , Shah Vinesh , Verma Anupam, Patel NB, Bansal RK

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Context: Filariasis, an infectious tropical disease is a major public health problem in India but remains neglected. This study was conducted with an objective to evaluate and compare the coverage and compliance of Mass Drug Administration and associated factors in Urban and Rural area of Surat district, Gujarat, India. Methods and materials: This cross sectional study involved survey of Urban and Rural area of Surat district covering 128 household in each. A pretested questioner was used to collect data regarding administration of Diethyl Carbamazine (DEC and Albendazole (ALB to eligible population as a part of routine MDA activity. The data was analysed using Epi info software. Results: The coverage of antifilarial drug was more than 90% in both areas without significant difference. The compliance rate, the effective coverage rate and Coverage Compliance Gap were 82.4% , 76.1 % and 17.6% respectively in urban areas which were better than those in rural areas. Conclusion: The effective coverage rate after taking into account the coverage and compliance was less than the target of 85 percent which is needed for eradication and elimination of Filariasis. The urban areas had higher effective coverage rate than rural areas. More emphasis must be given on spot consumption of the drug.

  5. Prediction of Low Community Sanitation Coverage Using Environmental and Sociodemographic Factors in Amhara Region, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oswald, William E; Stewart, Aisha E P; Flanders, W Dana; Kramer, Michael R; Endeshaw, Tekola; Zerihun, Mulat; Melaku, Birhanu; Sata, Eshetu; Gessesse, Demelash; Teferi, Tesfaye; Tadesse, Zerihun; Guadie, Birhan; King, Jonathan D; Emerson, Paul M; Callahan, Elizabeth K; Moe, Christine L; Clasen, Thomas F

    2016-09-01

    This study developed and validated a model for predicting the probability that communities in Amhara Region, Ethiopia, have low sanitation coverage, based on environmental and sociodemographic conditions. Community sanitation coverage was measured between 2011 and 2014 through trachoma control program evaluation surveys. Information on environmental and sociodemographic conditions was obtained from available data sources and linked with community data using a geographic information system. Logistic regression was used to identify predictors of low community sanitation coverage (< 20% versus ≥ 20%). The selected model was geographically and temporally validated. Model-predicted probabilities of low community sanitation coverage were mapped. Among 1,502 communities, 344 (22.90%) had coverage below 20%. The selected model included measures for high topsoil gravel content, an indicator for low-lying land, population density, altitude, and rainfall and had reasonable predictive discrimination (area under the curve = 0.75, 95% confidence interval = 0.72, 0.78). Measures of soil stability were strongly associated with low community sanitation coverage, controlling for community wealth, and other factors. A model using available environmental and sociodemographic data predicted low community sanitation coverage for areas across Amhara Region with fair discrimination. This approach could assist sanitation programs and trachoma control programs, scaling up or in hyperendemic areas, to target vulnerable areas with additional activities or alternate technologies. PMID:27430547

  6. Cooperative Cloud Service Aware Mobile Internet Coverage Connectivity Guarantee Protocol Based on Sensor Opportunistic Coverage Mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qin Qin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to improve the Internet coverage ratio and provide connectivity guarantee, based on sensor opportunistic coverage mechanism and cooperative cloud service, we proposed the coverage connectivity guarantee protocol for mobile Internet. In this scheme, based on the opportunistic covering rules, the network coverage algorithm of high reliability and real-time security was achieved by using the opportunity of sensor nodes and the Internet mobile node. Then, the cloud service business support platform is created based on the Internet application service management capabilities and wireless sensor network communication service capabilities, which is the architecture of the cloud support layer. The cooperative cloud service aware model was proposed. Finally, we proposed the mobile Internet coverage connectivity guarantee protocol. The results of experiments demonstrate that the proposed algorithm has excellent performance, in terms of the security of the Internet and the stability, as well as coverage connectivity ability.

  7. Bond length variation with coverage for caesium adsorption on Si{111} (7 × 7)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batchelor, D. R.; King, D. A.

    1991-11-01

    The adsorption of Cs on the Si{111} (7 × 7) surface has been studied using SEXAFS. A contraction is observed in the CsSi bond length from 3.79±0.04 Å at low to 3.50±0.04 Å at saturation coverage. At the lower coverage, a longer bond length can be attributed to a degree of ionicity in the CsSi surface bond, due to charge transfer from Cs to the Si. The saturation coverage bond length is consistent with covalent bonding and at this coverage a second site is also populated which has CsSi bond length of 4.68±0.06 Å.

  8. Coverage-based treatment planning: Optimizing the IMRT PTV to meet a CTV coverage criterion

    OpenAIRE

    Gordon, J. J.; Siebers, J. V.

    2009-01-01

    This work demonstrates an iterative approach—referred to as coverage-based treatment planning—designed to produce treatment plans that ensure target coverage for a specified percentage of setup errors. In this approach the clinical target volume to planning target volume (CTV-to-PTV) margin is iteratively adjusted until the specified CTV coverage is achieved. The advantage of this approach is that it automatically compensates for the dosimetric margin around the CTV, i.e., the extra margin th...

  9. Silicon micromachined broad band light source

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Thomas (Inventor); Jones, Eric (Inventor); Tuma, Margaret L. (Inventor); Eastwood, Michael (Inventor); Hansler, Richard (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    A micro electromechanical system (MEMS) broad band incandescent light source includes three layers: a top transmission window layer; a middle filament mount layer; and a bottom reflector layer. A tungsten filament with a spiral geometry is positioned over a hole in the middle layer. A portion of the broad band light from the heated filament is reflective off the bottom layer. Light from the filament and the reflected light of the filament are transmitted through the transmission window. The light source may operate at temperatures of 2500 K or above. The light source may be incorporated into an on board calibrator (OBC) for a spectrometer.

  10. Financing Universal Coverage in Malaysia: a case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    One of the challenges to maintain an agenda for universal coverage and equitable health system is to develop effective structuring and management of health financing. Global experiences with different systems of health financing suggests that a strong public role in health financing is essential for health systems to protect the poor and health systems with the strongest state role are likely the more equitable and achieve better aggregate health outcomes. Using Malaysia as a case study, this paper seeks to evaluate the progress and capacity of a middle income country in terms of health financing for universal coverage, and also to highlight some of the key underlying health systems challenges. The WHO Health Financing Strategy for the Asia Pacific Region (2010-2015) was used as the framework to evaluate the Malaysian healthcare financing system in terms of the provision of universal coverage for the population, and the Malaysian National Health Accounts (2008) provided the latest Malaysian data on health spending. Measuring against the four target indicators outlined, Malaysia fared credibly with total health expenditure close to 5% of its GDP (4.75%), out-of-pocket payment below 40% of total health expenditure (30.7%), comprehensive social safety nets for vulnerable populations, and a tax-based financing system that fundamentally poses as a national risk-pooled scheme for the population. Nonetheless, within a holistic systems framework, the financing component interacts synergistically with other health system spheres. In Malaysia, outmigration of public health workers particularly specialist doctors remains an issue and financing strategies critically needs to incorporate a comprehensive workforce compensation strategy to improve the health workforce skill mix. Health expenditure information is systematically collated, but feedback from the private sector remains a challenge. Service delivery-wise, there is a need to enhance financing capacity to expand

  11. Financing universal coverage in Malaysia: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chua, Hong Teck; Cheah, Julius Chee Ho

    2012-01-01

    One of the challenges to maintain an agenda for universal coverage and equitable health system is to develop effective structuring and management of health financing. Global experiences with different systems of health financing suggests that a strong public role in health financing is essential for health systems to protect the poor and health systems with the strongest state role are likely the more equitable and achieve better aggregate health outcomes. Using Malaysia as a case study, this paper seeks to evaluate the progress and capacity of a middle income country in terms of health financing for universal coverage, and also to highlight some of the key underlying health systems challenges.The WHO Health Financing Strategy for the Asia Pacific Region (2010-2015) was used as the framework to evaluate the Malaysian healthcare financing system in terms of the provision of universal coverage for the population, and the Malaysian National Health Accounts (2008) provided the latest Malaysian data on health spending. Measuring against the four target indicators outlined, Malaysia fared credibly with total health expenditure close to 5% of its GDP (4.75%), out-of-pocket payment below 40% of total health expenditure (30.7%), comprehensive social safety nets for vulnerable populations, and a tax-based financing system that fundamentally poses as a national risk-pooled scheme for the population.Nonetheless, within a holistic systems framework, the financing component interacts synergistically with other health system spheres. In Malaysia, outmigration of public health workers particularly specialist doctors remains an issue and financing strategies critically needs to incorporate a comprehensive workforce compensation strategy to improve the health workforce skill mix. Health expenditure information is systematically collated, but feedback from the private sector remains a challenge. Service delivery-wise, there is a need to enhance financing capacity to expand preventive

  12. Financing universal coverage in Malaysia: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chua, Hong Teck; Cheah, Julius Chee Ho

    2012-01-01

    One of the challenges to maintain an agenda for universal coverage and equitable health system is to develop effective structuring and management of health financing. Global experiences with different systems of health financing suggests that a strong public role in health financing is essential for health systems to protect the poor and health systems with the strongest state role are likely the more equitable and achieve better aggregate health outcomes. Using Malaysia as a case study, this paper seeks to evaluate the progress and capacity of a middle income country in terms of health financing for universal coverage, and also to highlight some of the key underlying health systems challenges.The WHO Health Financing Strategy for the Asia Pacific Region (2010-2015) was used as the framework to evaluate the Malaysian healthcare financing system in terms of the provision of universal coverage for the population, and the Malaysian National Health Accounts (2008) provided the latest Malaysian data on health spending. Measuring against the four target indicators outlined, Malaysia fared credibly with total health expenditure close to 5% of its GDP (4.75%), out-of-pocket payment below 40% of total health expenditure (30.7%), comprehensive social safety nets for vulnerable populations, and a tax-based financing system that fundamentally poses as a national risk-pooled scheme for the population.Nonetheless, within a holistic systems framework, the financing component interacts synergistically with other health system spheres. In Malaysia, outmigration of public health workers particularly specialist doctors remains an issue and financing strategies critically needs to incorporate a comprehensive workforce compensation strategy to improve the health workforce skill mix. Health expenditure information is systematically collated, but feedback from the private sector remains a challenge. Service delivery-wise, there is a need to enhance financing capacity to expand preventive

  13. SPECTROSCOPY OF BROAD-LINE BLAZARS FROM 1LAC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaw, Michael S.; Romani, Roger W.; Healey, Stephen E.; Michelson, Peter F. [Department of Physics/KIPAC, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Cotter, Garret; Potter, William J. [Department of Astrophysics, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3RH (United Kingdom); Readhead, Anthony C. S.; Richards, Joseph L.; Max-Moerbeck, Walter; King, Oliver G. [Department of Astronomy, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)

    2012-03-20

    We report on optical spectroscopy of 165 flat spectrum radio quasars (FSRQs) in the Fermi 1LAC sample, which have helped allow a nearly complete study of this population. Fermi FSRQs show significant evidence for non-thermal emission even in the optical; the degree depends on the {gamma}-ray hardness. They also have smaller virial estimates of hole mass than the optical quasar sample. This appears to be largely due to a preferred (axial) view of the {gamma}-ray FSRQ and non-isotropic (H/R {approx} 0.4) distribution of broad-line velocities. Even after correction for this bias, the Fermi FSRQs show higher mean Eddington ratios than the optical population. A comparison of optical spectral properties with Owens Valley Radio Observatory radio flare activity shows no strong correlation.

  14. The GREGOR Broad-Band Imager

    Science.gov (United States)

    von der Lühe, O.; Volkmer, R.; Kentischer, T. J.; Geißler, R.

    2012-11-01

    The design and characteristics of the Broad-Band Imager (BBI) of GREGOR are described. BBI covers the visible spectral range with two cameras simultaneously for a large field and with critical sampling at 390 nm, and it includes a mode for observing the pupil in a Foucault configuration. Samples of first-light observations are shown.

  15. Broad resonances and beta-decay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riisager, K.; Fynbo, H. O. U.; Hyldegaard, S.;

    2015-01-01

    Beta-decay into broad resonances gives a distorted lineshape in the observed energy spectrum. Part of the distortion arises from the phase space factor, but we show that the beta-decay matrix element may also contribute. Based on a schematic model for p-wave continuum neutron states it is argued...

  16. A broad area electrospray generated by a piezoelectric transformer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramshani, Zeinab; Johnson, Michael J.; Atashbar, Massood Z.; Go, David B.

    2016-07-01

    Electrosprays are typically formed by the application of a high (kilovolt) voltage to the flow exiting a small diameter capillary, and they have been used in applications ranging from material synthesis to spray coating because of the finely controlled plume of micron-sized droplets they produce. In this work, we report a similar but distinct spray directly off the surface of a piezoelectric transformer. Using a paper wick to deliver liquid to the surface of the piezoelectric crystal, a continuous, broad area spray is generated from the wick in contact with the transformer surface, only requiring input voltages on the order of 20 Vamp. Systematic variation of critical parameters indicate that this piezoelectric transformer-generated spray is similar to a conventional electrospray, with the spray current exhibiting a non-linear dependence on the solution conductivity, but distinct, as the spray exhibits little dependence on the solution surface tension. This innovative spray could potentially lead to uniform, large area spray coverage from a single device for a wide variety of applications.

  17. A road map for universal coverage: finding a pass through the financial mountains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sessions, Samuel Y; Lee, Philip R

    2008-04-01

    Government already pays for more than half of U.S. health care costs, and nearly all universal health insurance proposals assume continued government involvement through tax subsidies and other means. The question of what specific taxes could be used to finance universal coverage is, however, seldom carefully examined, in part due to efforts by health care reform proponents to downplay tax issues. In this article we undertake such an examination. We argue that the challenges of relying on taxes for universal coverage are even greater than is generally appreciated, but that they can nevertheless be met. A proposal to fund a universal health insurance voucher system with a value-added tax illustrates issues that would arise for tax-financed plans in general and provides a broad framework for a bipartisan approach to universal coverage. We discuss significant problems that such an approach would face and suggest solutions. We outline a long-term political and legislative strategy for enacting universal coverage that draws upon precedents set by comparable legislative initiatives, including tax reform and Medicare. The results are an improved understanding of the relationship between systemic health care finance reform and taxation and a politically realistic plan for universal coverage that employs undisguised taxes. PMID:18325897

  18. Hole Detection for Increasing Coverage in Wireless Sensor Network Using Triangular Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahram Babaie

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The emerging technology of wireless sensor network (WSN is expected to provide a broad range of applications, such as battlefield surveillance, environmental monitoring, smart spaces and so on. The coverage problem is a fundamental issue in WSN, which mainly concerns with a fundamental question: How well a sensor field is observed by the deployed sensors? Mobility is exploited to improve area coverage in a kind of hybrid sensor networks. The main objective for using mobile sensor nodes is to heal coverage holes after the initial network deployment, when designing a hole healing algorithm, the following issues need to be addressed. First, how to decide the existence of a coverage hole and how to estimate the size of a hole. Second, what are the best target locations to relocate mobile nodes to repair coverage holes? We use the triangular oriented diagram (HSTT for aim to goal where its simple ,have low calculation among construction and it is great to calculate the size of hole exactly .

  19. Hole Detection for Increasing Coverage in Wireless Sensor Network Using Triangular Structure

    CERN Document Server

    Babaie, Shahram

    2012-01-01

    The emerging technology of wireless sensor network (WSN) is expected to provide a broad range of applications, such as battlefield surveillance, environmental monitoring, smart spaces and so on. The coverage problem is a fundamental issue in WSN, which mainly concerns with a fundamental question: How well a sensor field is observed by the deployed sensors? Mobility is exploited to improve area coverage in a kind of hybrid sensor networks. The main objective for using mobile sensor nodes is to heal coverage holes after the initial network deployment, when designing a hole healing algorithm, the following issues need to be addressed. First, how to decide the existence of a coverage hole and how to estimate the size of a hole. Second, what are the best target locations to relocate mobile nodes to repair coverage holes? We use the triangular oriented diagram (HSTT) for aim to goal where its simple, have low calculation among construction and it is great to calculate the size of hole exactly .

  20. Endorsement of universal health coverage financial principles in Burkina Faso.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agier, Isabelle; Ly, Antarou; Kadio, Kadidiatou; Kouanda, Seni; Ridde, Valéry

    2016-02-01

    In West Africa, health system funding rarely involves cross-subsidization among population segments. In some countries, a few community-based or professional health insurance programs are present, but coverage is very low. The financial principles underlying universal health coverage (UHC) sustainability and solidarity are threefold: 1) anticipation of potential health risks; 2) risk sharing and; 3) socio-economic status solidarity. In Burkina Faso, where decision-makers are favorable to national health insurance, we measured endorsement of these principles and discerned which management configurations would achieve the greatest adherence. We used a sequential exploratory design. In a qualitative step (9 interviews, 12 focus groups), we adapted an instrument proposed by Goudge et al. (2012) to the local context and addressed desirability bias. Then, in a quantitative step (1255 respondents from the general population), we measured endorsement. Thematic analysis (qualitative) and logistic regressions (quantitative) were used. High levels of endorsement were found for each principle. Actual practices showed that anticipation and risk sharing were not only intentions. Preferences were given to solidarity between socio-economic status (SES) levels and progressivity. Although respondents seemed to prefer the national level for implementation, their current solidarity practices were mainly focused on close family. Thus, contribution levels should be set so that the entire family benefits from healthcare. Some critical conditions must be met to make UHC financial principles a reality through health insurance in Burkina Faso: trust, fair and mandatory contributions, and education. PMID:26803656

  1. Investigation on Coverage of Hepatitis B Vaccine and Influencing Factor in the Population Aged 15-59 Years in Lanzhou City%兰州市15~59岁人群乙型肝炎疫苗接种率及影响因素调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张薇; 牛静萍; 李志强; 王智永

    2011-01-01

    Objectives In order to know the coverage of Hepatitis B vaccine and status about hepatitis B in Lanzhou city. Methods Face to face investigation by questionnaires using stratified sampling randomly. Results 1573 person were investigated. The coverage of hepatitis B vaccine was 31.72%. The whole course coverage was 8.77%.There were statistic significance of the coverage of hepatitis B vaccines between age groups, educational level, urban/rural group and different economy status. The knowledge of Hepatitis B in residents above the age of 15 years was low. Multivariable logistic regression analysis showed that high education, Knowning Hepatitis B and Hepatitis B vaccine will improve the coverage of HepB. Conclusions The coverage of Hepatitis B vaccine was low in residents above the age of 15 years in lanzhou city. Strengthening comprehensive strategies of Hepatitis B control will help to improve the coverage of Hepatitis B vaccine.%目的 了解兰州市15~59岁人群乙型肝炎(乙肝)疫苗(Hepatitis B Vaccine,HepB)接种现况及相关影响因素.方法 采用分层随机抽样方法,选取15~59岁调查对象进行问卷调查.结果 共调查1573人,HepB接种率为31.72%,全程接种率为8.77%.HepB接种率在各年龄组、城乡居住、不同经济水平、不同文化程度及各职业人群中的差异有统计学意义;兰州市15~59岁人群对乙肝相关知识知晓率较低.经多因素Logistic回归分析显示,文化程度高、知道乙肝、认为乙肝会传染、接种HepB能预防乙肝是HepB接种的有利因素.结论 兰州市15~59岁人群的HepB接种率较低,要加强以健康教育为主的综合预防控制措施,提高HepB接种率.

  2. Polar constellations design for discontinuous coverage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarno, Salvatore; Graziano, Maria Daniela; D'Errico, Marco

    2016-10-01

    A novel constellation design method is developed for discontinuous coverage of the globe and polar caps. It integrates and extends the applicability of the coverage regions and mitigates the limitations of the existing techniques based on streets-of-coverage (SOC) theory. In particular, the visibility conditions of the targets are mapped in the (Ω, u)-domain to identify the number of satellites per plane and the distance between successive orbits, whereas the planes are arranged around the equator exploiting satellites both in ascending and descending phase. The proposed approach is applied to design potential space segments in polar LEO supporting the existing maritime surveillance services over the globe and on the future polar routes. Results show they require a smaller total number of satellites with respect to the SOC-based configurations for revisit times less than one hour and wide range of swaths. In details, it is observed a reduction between 6% and 22% for global coverage and between 24% and 33% for the coverage of polar caps.

  3. Area coverage maximization in service facility siting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matisziw, Timothy C.; Murray, Alan T.

    2009-06-01

    Traditionally, models for siting facilities in order to optimize coverage of area demand have made use of discrete space representations to efficiently handle both candidate facility locations and demand. These discretizations of space are often necessary given the linear functional forms of many siting models and the complexities associated with evaluating continuous space. Recently, several spatial optimization approaches have been proposed to address the more general problem of identifying facility sites that maximize regional coverage for the case where candidate sites and demand are continuously distributed across space. One assumption of existing approaches is that only demand falling within a prescribed radius of the facility can be effectively served. In many practical applications, however, service areas are not necessarily circular, as terrain, transportation, and service characteristics of the facility often result in irregular shapes. This paper develops a generalized service coverage approach, allowing a sited facility to have any continuous service area shape, not simply a circle. Given that demand and facility sites are assumed to be continuous throughout a region, geometrical properties of the demand region and the service facility coverage area are exploited to identify a facility site to optimize the correspondence between the two areas. In particular, we consider the case where demand is uniformly distributed and the service area is translated to maximize coverage. A heuristic approach is proposed for efficient model solution. Application results are presented for siting a facility given differently shaped service areas.

  4. Housestaff coverage in a nonteaching community hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conti, A

    1994-11-01

    In August 1992, a project team of senior medical and administrative personnel was formed (Housestaff Coverage Project Team) at the Park Ridge Health System, Rochester, N.Y.. The team was given a mandate to address housestaff coverage, primarily from an economic standpoint. Through total quality management (TQM), the project team sought to develop a house coverage plan that was sustainable, efficient, and effective. A plan was developed that includes three layers of service. A minimum "standard hospital coverage" would be available to all physicians and their patients and cover the basic needs of admission, crisis intervention, and issues of length of stay. A complete level of service would be available under the title of "case management" and would consist of total patient management, under the direction of the attending physician, from admission through discharge. The third level of service available to both "standard" and "case managed" patients would be a "consultative service." The latter would function as a traditional in-house medical service and would bill for its services. Park Ridge Hospital believes it has developed a system of housestaff coverage that is sustainable, efficient, and effective. An evaluation mechanism, primarily addressed at length of stay, will tell if we are correct in this assumption. PMID:10140893

  5. The Localized Area Coverage algorithm Based on Game-Theory for WSN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin He

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The Coverage Control Technology is one of the basic technologies of wireless sensor network, and is mainly concerned about how to prolong the network lifetime on the basis of meeting users’ perception demand. Among this, in the study of area coverage, the set K-cover algorithm is broadly accepted because that it can prolong network lifetime rather well. However, the existing set K-cover algorithms are centralized, and can not adapt to the large-scale sensor network applications and expansion. Game theory is a kind of decision theory, which is concerned with the situation where players directly interact with each other and can from the angle of participant’s rational favor look for root of influence on macro-construction. It is very suitable for characteristic of node in wireless sensor network, which is only to know its own and neighbors’ local state information and according to local information to implement behavior decision, making it convenient to realize distribution algorithm. In the previous work, the maximum coverage set calculated algorithm is proposed by us. So, this paper utilizes the number of maximum coverage set as the upper limit of coverage node set division. On the basis of this maximum, it takes number of minimum layer overlapping subfields, which satisfy division condition, as node’s utility function. Thus, this paper uses game theory model realizes maximization of network lifetime at the same time of ensuring area overall coverage. Then, it puts forward a distribution algorithm to get optimal strategy by iteration so as to reach realize Nash Equilibrium and realize node set’s rational division. Simulation results show it realizes maximization of network lifetime at the same time of ensuring area overall coverage.

  6. Progress toward universal health coverage in ASEAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoang Van Minh

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN is characterized by much diversity in terms of geography, society, economic development, and health outcomes. The health systems as well as healthcare structure and provisions vary considerably. Consequently, the progress toward Universal Health Coverage (UHC in these countries also varies. This paper aims to describe the progress toward UHC in the ASEAN countries and discuss how regional integration could influence UHC. Design: Data reported in this paper were obtained from published literature, reports, and gray literature available in the ASEAN countries. We used both online and manual search methods to gather the information and ‘snowball’ further data. Results: We found that, in general, ASEAN countries have made good progress toward UHC, partly due to relatively sustained political commitments to endorse UHC in these countries. However, all the countries in ASEAN are facing several common barriers to achieving UHC, namely 1 financial constraints, including low levels of overall and government spending on health; 2 supply side constraints, including inadequate numbers and densities of health workers; and 3 the ongoing epidemiological transition at different stages characterized by increasing burdens of non-communicable diseases, persisting infectious diseases, and reemergence of potentially pandemic infectious diseases. The ASEAN Economic Community's (AEC goal of regional economic integration and a single market by 2015 presents both opportunities and challenges for UHC. Healthcare services have become more available but health and healthcare inequities will likely worsen as better-off citizens of member states might receive more benefits from the liberalization of trade policy in health, either via regional outmigration of health workers or intra-country health worker movement toward private hospitals, which tend to be located in urban areas. For ASEAN countries, UHC should

  7. Investigation of a Measles Outbreak in China to Identify Gaps in Vaccination Coverage, Routes of Transmission, and Interventions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang Zheng

    Full Text Available A measles outbreak occurred in a western county of China in 2013, the year after China's historic nadir of measles. We conducted a field investigation to identify gaps in measles vaccination coverage and immunization program weaknesses, and to provide recommendations for measles outbreak response and immunization program improvement.We analyzed surveillance data from 2008 to 2013 to describe the measles epidemiology of the county. Measles-containing vaccine coverage was estimated using two methods: previously-reported administrative coverage and an estimation of coverage by clinic-kept vaccination records (n = 542. We conducted a rapid field coverage assessment in a migrant population village to evaluate coverage after emergency vaccination. We conducted a review of hospital records of measles cases to address the role hospital transmission played during the early stage of this outbreak.There were 153 cases in the outbreak, primarily among children too young to vaccinate, unvaccinated children less than 3 years old, and adults. Measles-containing vaccine coverage by the field assessment showed that 20% of children aged 8-17 months had zero doses, and 9% of ≥2 years old children had fewer than two doses. The vaccination statuses of all adult cases were either zero doses or unknown. At least 61% of cases had been hospitalized. The proportion of cases who had been hospital-exposed 7 to 21 days prior to rash onset decreased from 52% to 22% after hospitals strengthen their isolation measures.This outbreak was a result of measles vaccination coverage gaps among young children and adults, and insufficient hospital isolation of cases. The lower coverage seen in the field estimation compared with reported coverage showed that reported coverage could have been overestimated. Hospitals were sites of transmission in the early stage of the outbreak. A strict hospital isolation policy could decrease spread of measles. Emergency vaccination was associated

  8. Resolution, coverage, and geometry beyond traditional limits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ronen, Shuki; Ferber, Ralf

    1998-12-31

    The presentation relates to the optimization of the image of seismic data and improved resolution and coverage of acquired data. Non traditional processing methods such as inversion to zero offset (IZO) are used. To realize the potential of saving acquisition cost by reducing in-fill and to plan resolution improvement by processing, geometry QC methods such as DMO Dip Coverage Spectrum (DDCS) and Bull`s Eyes Analysis are used. The DDCS is a 2-D spectrum whose entries consist of the DMO (Dip Move Out) coverage for a particular reflector specified by it`s true time dip and reflector normal strike. The Bull`s Eyes Analysis relies on real time processing of synthetic data generated with the real geometry. 4 refs., 6 figs.

  9. Coverage statistics for sequence census methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evans Steven N

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We study the statistical properties of fragment coverage in genome sequencing experiments. In an extension of the classic Lander-Waterman model, we consider the effect of the length distribution of fragments. We also introduce a coding of the shape of the coverage depth function as a tree and explain how this can be used to detect regions with anomalous coverage. This modeling perspective is especially germane to current high-throughput sequencing experiments, where both sample preparation protocols and sequencing technology particulars can affect fragment length distributions. Results Under the mild assumptions that fragment start sites are Poisson distributed and successive fragment lengths are independent and identically distributed, we observe that, regardless of fragment length distribution, the fragments produced in a sequencing experiment can be viewed as resulting from a two-dimensional spatial Poisson process. We then study the successive jumps of the coverage function, and show that they can be encoded as a random tree that is approximately a Galton-Watson tree with generation-dependent geometric offspring distributions whose parameters can be computed. Conclusions We extend standard analyses of shotgun sequencing that focus on coverage statistics at individual sites, and provide a null model for detecting deviations from random coverage in high-throughput sequence census based experiments. Our approach leads to explicit determinations of the null distributions of certain test statistics, while for others it greatly simplifies the approximation of their null distributions by simulation. Our focus on fragments also leads to a new approach to visualizing sequencing data that is of independent interest.

  10. Public Health Workers and Vaccination Coverage in Eastern China: A Health Economic Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Hu

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Vaccine-preventable diseases cause more than one million deaths among children under 5 years of age every year. Public Health Workers (PHWs are needed to provide immunization services, but the role of human resources for public health as a determinant of vaccination coverage at the population level has not been assessed in China. The objective of this study was to test whether PHW density was positively associated with childhood vaccination coverage in Zhejiang Province, East China. Methods: The vaccination coverage rates of Measles Containing Vaccine (MCV, Diphtheria, Tetanus and Pertussis combined vaccine (DTP, and Poliomyelitis Vaccine (PV were chosen as the dependent variables. Vaccination coverage data of children aged 13–24 months for each county in Zhejiang Province were taken from the Zhejiang Immunization Information System (ZJIIS. Aggregate PHW density was an independent variable in one set of regressions, and Vaccine Personnel (VP and other PHW densities were used separately in another set. Data on densities of PHW and VP were taken from a national investigation on EPI launched by Ministry of Health of China in 2013. We controlled other determinants that may influence the vaccination coverage like Gross Domestic Product (GDP per person, proportion of migrant children aged <7 years, and land area. These data were taken from Zhejiang Provincial Bureau of Statistics and ZJIIS. Results: PHW density was significantly influence the coverage rates of MCV [Adjusted Odds Ratio(AOR = 4.29], DTP3(AOR = 2.16, and PV3 (AOR = 3.30. However, when the effects of VPs and other PHWs were assessed separately, we found that VP density was significantly associated with coverage of all three vaccinations (MCV AOR = 7.05; DTP3 AOR = 1.82; PV3 AOR = 4.83, while other PHW density was not. Proportion of migrant children < 7 years and Land area were found as negative and significant determinants for vaccination coverage, while GDP per person had

  11. 佛山市流动人口聚集地区流动儿童免疫规划疫苗接种率及影响因素调查%Immunization coverage rate and its affecting factors for floating children living in migrant population gathering area, Foshan City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙宝志; 黄祖星; 陈抒豪; 张吉凯; 杨泽锋; 麦冰; 黄劲梅; 李小红

    2011-01-01

    Objective To know the vaccination level of floating children and its related affecting factors in Foshan City, and to explore the methods of vaccination management of floating children. Methods Fifty-one administrative villages from 17 administrative towns/streets with more floating children in the city were selected as study spots, and ten floating children aged 1 to 7 years old were selected from each study spot. Parents/guardians of floating children aged 1-7 years old were investigated by self - designed questionnaires in March 2010. The main contents of questionnaire include basic information and vaccination status of floating children, the basic information of parents/guardians and their knowledge to children immunization. The risk factors of vaccination level of floating children were analyzed using unconditional logistic regression model analysis. Results A total of 503 valid questionnaires were analyzed. It is shown that the rates of immunization record establishment for children in clinic and record cards held by parents were 94.0% and 97.8% respectively. The immunization coverage rates of BCG, OPV, DPT, MV, HEPB and JE were 95.0%, 88.4%, 87.5%, 88. 2%, 92.2%, and 85.8%, respectively, and the whole course vaccination rate of above six vaccines was 68.4%. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that age increase of children, other nationalities but not Han ones for children, less than one year that children lived in Foshan in the latest two yeas, immunization record from other origins but not Foshan City, and parents' dissatisfaction to the clinic could affected the whole course vaccination rate of six vaccines in floating children negatively with the odds ratios 0.79, 0.37, 0. 41,0. 60, and 0. 37, respectively. Conclusion The immunization coverage rates of vaccines was low for floating children in migrant population gathering area, and comprehensive measures should be put into effect.%目的 了解佛山市外来流动儿童免

  12. 29 CFR 2.13 - Audiovisual coverage prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Audiovisual coverage prohibited. 2.13 Section 2.13 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor GENERAL REGULATIONS Audiovisual Coverage of Administrative Hearings § 2.13 Audiovisual coverage prohibited. The Department shall not permit audiovisual coverage of...

  13. 42 CFR 440.330 - Benchmark health benefits coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Benchmark health benefits coverage. 440.330 Section... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS SERVICES: GENERAL PROVISIONS Benchmark Benefit and Benchmark-Equivalent Coverage § 440.330 Benchmark health benefits coverage. Benchmark coverage is...

  14. 20 CFR 404.1412 - Compensation quarters of coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Compensation quarters of coverage. 404.1412... the Railroad Retirement Program § 404.1412 Compensation quarters of coverage. As used in this subpart, a compensation quarter of coverage is any quarter of coverage computed with respect to...

  15. 7 CFR 1737.31 - Area Coverage Survey (ACS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Area Coverage Survey (ACS). 1737.31 Section 1737.31... Studies-Area Coverage Survey and Loan Design § 1737.31 Area Coverage Survey (ACS). (a) The Area Coverage Survey (ACS) is a market forecast of service requirements of subscribers in a proposed service area....

  16. Extracellular polymeric bacterial coverages as minimal surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Saa, A; Saa, Alberto; Teschke, Omar

    2005-01-01

    Surfaces formed by extracellular polymeric substances enclosing individual and some small communities of {\\it Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans} on plates of hydrophobic silicon and hydrophilic mica are analyzed by means of atomic force microscopy imaging. Accurate nanoscale descriptions of such coverage surfaces are obtained. The good agreement with the predictions of a rather simple but realistic theoretical model allows us to conclude that they correspond, indeed, to minimal area surfaces enclosing a given volume associated with the encased bacteria. This is, to the best of our knowledge, the first shape characterization of the coverage formed by these biomolecules, with possible applications to the study of biofilms.

  17. Evaluation of coverage and compliance of elimination of lymphatic filariasis by mass drug administration campaign in Gulbarga and Yadgiri districts of Karnataka state

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naveenkumar G. Havale

    2015-08-01

    Methods: Cross sectional population based house to house visit. Outcomes were assessed as actual coverage, compliance and effective coverage in percentages and proportions. Results: 320 households from 8 clusters in 2 districts were covered. Among the 1653 eligible population the coverage rate is 93.42% in Gulbarga and 74.12% in Yadgiri district with inter cluster variation. The compliance rate is 86.35% in Gulbarga and 75.78% in Yadgiri district. The effective coverage rate is 80.67% in Gulbarga district and 56.17% in Yadgiri district. The coverage compliance gap is 13.65% in Gulbarga district and 24.22% in Yadgiri district. Conclusions: The effective coverage in both Gulbarga and Yadgiri districts is below the target (<85% which is essential for progression towards elimination of LF. Side effects after drug consumption were minimal. [Int J Res Med Sci 2015; 3(8.000: 2105-2108

  18. High coverage of mass drug administration for lymphatic filariasis in rural and non-rural settings in the Western Area, Sierra Leone

    OpenAIRE

    Sonnie Mustapha; Conteh Abdul; Koroma Joseph B; Fussum Daniel; Smith Samuel J; Hodges Mary H; Sesay Santigie; Zhang Yaobi

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Lymphatic filariasis elimination programs are based upon preventative chemotherapy annually in populations with prevalence more than or equal to 1%. The goal is to treat 80% of the eligible, at risk population yearly, for at least 5 years, in order to interrupt transmission and prevent children from becoming infected. This level of coverage has been a challenge in urban settings. Assessing the coverage in a rapidly growing urban/non-rural setting with inadequate population...

  19. Broad iron lines in Active Galactic Nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Fabian, A C; Reynolds, C S; Young, A J

    2000-01-01

    An intrinsically narrow line emitted by an accretion disk around a black hole appears broadened and skewed as a result of the Doppler effect and gravitational redshift. The fluorescent iron line in the X-ray band at 6.4-6.9keV is the strongest such line and is seen in the X-ray spectrum of many active galactic nuclei and, in particular, Seyfert galaxies. It is an important diagnostic with which to study the geometry and other properties of the accretion flow very close to the central black hole. The broad iron line indicates the presence of a standard thin accretion disk in those objects, often seen at low inclination. The broad iron line has opened up strong gravitational effects around black holes to observational study with wide-reaching consequences for both astrophysics and physics.

  20. Broad line regions in Seyfert-1 galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To reproduce observed emission profiles of Seyfert galaxies, rotation in an accretion disk has been proposed. In this thesis, the profiles emitted by such an accretion disk are investigated. Detailed comparison with the observed profiles yields that a considerable fraction can be fitted with a power-law function, as predicted by the model. The author analyzes a series of high quality spectra of Seyfert galaxies, obtained with the 2.5m telescope at Las Campanas. He presents detailed analyses of two objects: Mkn335 and Akn120. In both cases, strong evidence is presented for the presence of two separate broad line zones. These zones are identified with an accretion disk and an outflowing wind. The disk contains gas with very high densities and emits predominantly the lower ionization lines. He reports on the discovery of very broad wings beneath the strong forbidden line 5007. (Auth.)

  1. Trends and determinants of immunisation coverage in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suresh, K; Saxena, D

    2000-01-01

    The 20th century has witnessed many important events in the control of infectious diseases that mostly affect children. In addition to the eradication of smallpox, the interruption of poliomyelitis transmission in many countries with a distinct possibility of its eradication by the turn of this century are some of the major achievements. Also, the rates of other vaccine preventable diseases such as measles, pertussis and diphtheria have gone down significantly. The discovery and use of vaccines have made it possible to save approximately 8 million deaths, annually. This is in addition to the reduction in millions of children's suffering and disability. It is now important to build on these gains through adequate utilisation of other vaccines e.g., hepatitis B, typhoid and Haemophilus influenzae type b that are currently available, but in limited use. But, a high level of coverage for any vaccination programme is a pre-requisite to witness the effective reduction of the specific disease against which child population is vaccinated. This paper reviews the coverage levels by surveys in the last 3 years. It has been observed that vaccination coverage levels are falling. Keeping the promises of immunising every child to fulfill his/her right is the need of the hour. To achieve this the major action points are: (a) The need for organising fixed immunisation sessions at the community, where low proportion of sessions are held; and (b) The need to improve demand generation activities where the coverage is poor despite better service availability at the community level. Therefore, the challenge for the next century is to make sure that the enormous impact of vaccines on the health and well-being of the population is maintained as well as expanded. Vaccines that effectively prevent rotavirus diarrhoea, pneumococcal pneumonia, menigococcal meningitis, if made available, could prevent deaths up to two million a year. Research efforts are currently under progress to develop new

  2. Coverage analysis for sensor networks based on Clifford algebra

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIE WeiXin; CAO WenMing; MENG Shan

    2008-01-01

    The coverage performance is the foundation of information acquisition in distrib-uted sensor networks. The previously proposed coverage work was mostly based on unit disk coverage model or ball coverage model in 2D or 3D space, respectively. However, most methods cannot give a homogeneous coverage model for targets with hybrid types. This paper presents a coverage analysis approach for sensor networks based on Clifford algebra and establishes a homogeneous coverage model for sensor networks with hybrid types of targets. The effectiveness of the approach is demonstrated with examples.

  3. Universal coverage challenges require health system approaches; the case of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duran, Antonio; Kutzin, Joseph; Menabde, Nata

    2014-02-01

    This paper uses the case of India to demonstrate that Universal Health Coverage (UHC) is about not only health financing; personal and population services production issues, stewardship of the health system and generation of the necessary resources and inputs need to accompany the health financing proposals. In order to help policy makers address UHC in India and sort out implementation issues, the framework developed by the World Health Organization (WHO) in the World Health Report 2000 and its subsequent extensions are advocated. The framework includes final goals, generic intermediate objectives and four inter-dependent functions which interact as a system; it can be useful by diagnosing current shortcomings and facilitating the filling up of gaps between functions and goals. Different positions are being defended in India re the preconditions for UHC to succeed. This paper argues that more (public) money will be important, but not enough; it needs to be supplemented with broad interventions at various health system levels. The paper analyzes some of the most important issues in relation to the functions of service production, generation of inputs and the necessary stewardship. It also pays attention to reform implementation, as different from its design, and suggests critical aspects emanating from a review of recent health system reforms. Precisely because of the lack of comparative reference for India, emphasis is made on the need to accompany implementation with analysis, so that the "solutions" ("what to do?", "how to do it?") are found through policy analysis and research embedded into flexible implementation. Strengthening "evidence-to-policy" links and the intelligence dimension of stewardship/leadership as well as accountability during implementation are considered paramount. Countries facing similar challenges to those faced by India can also benefit from the above approaches.

  4. Fourier evaluation of broad Moessbauer spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is shown by the Fourier analysis of broad Moessbauer spectra that the even part of the distribution of the dominant hyperfine interaction (hyperfine field or quadrupole splitting) can be obtained directly without using least-square fitting procedures. Also the odd part of this distribution correlated with other hyperfine parameters (e.g. isomer shift) can be directly determined. Examples for amorphous magnetic and paramagnetic iron-based alloys are presented. (author)

  5. Crx broadly modulates the pineal transcriptome

    OpenAIRE

    Rovsing, Louise; Clokie, Samuel; Bustos, Diego M.; Rohde, Kristian; Steven L Coon; Litman, Thomas; Rath, Martin F.; Møller, Morten; Klein, David C.

    2011-01-01

    Cone-rod homeobox (Crx) encodes Crx, a transcription factor expressed selectively in retinal photoreceptors and pinealocytes, the major cell type of the pineal gland. Here, the influence of Crx on the mammalian pineal gland was studied by light and electron microscopy and by use of microarray and qRTPCR technology, thereby extending previous studies on selected genes (Furukawa et al. 1999). Deletion of Crx was not found to alter pineal morphology, but was found to broadly modulate the mouse p...

  6. A Broad View of Macroeconomic Stability

    OpenAIRE

    José Antonio Ocampo

    2005-01-01

    This paper recommends a broad concept of macroeconomic stability, whereby “sound macroeconomic frameworks” include not only price stability and sound fiscal policies, but also a well-functioning real economy, sustainable debt ratios and healthy public and private sector balance sheets. These multiple dimensions imply using multiple policy instruments. The paper elaborates a framework for developing countries that involves active use of counter-cyclical macroeconomic policies (exchange rate, m...

  7. Relativistic redshifts in quasar broad lines

    CERN Document Server

    Tremaine, Scott; Liu, Xin; Loeb, Abraham

    2014-01-01

    The broad emission lines commonly seen in quasar spectra have velocity widths of a few per cent of the speed of light, so special- and general-relativistic effects have a significant influence on the line profile. We have determined the redshift of the broad H-beta line in the quasar rest frame (determined from the core component of the [OIII] line) for over 20,000 quasars from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey DR7 quasar catalog. The mean redshift as a function of line width is approximately consistent with the relativistic redshift that is expected if the line originates in a randomly oriented Keplerian disk that is obscured when the inclination of the disk to the line of sight exceeds ~30-45 degrees, consistent with simple AGN unification schemes. This result also implies that the net line-of-sight inflow/outflow velocities in the broad-line region are much less than the Keplerian velocity when averaged over a large sample of quasars with a given line width.

  8. Equity in maternal, newborn, and child health care coverage in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prashant Singh

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Addressing inequitable coverage of maternal and child health care services among different socioeconomic strata of population and across states is an important part of India's contemporary health program. This has wide implications for the achievement of the Millennium Development Goal targets. Objective: This paper assesses the inequity in coverage of maternal, newborn, and child health (MNCH care services across household wealth quintiles in India and its states. Design: Utilizing the District Level Household and Facility Survey conducted during 2007–08, this paper has constructed a Composite Coverage Index (CCI in MNCH care. Results: The mean overall coverage of 45% was estimated at the national level, ranging from 31% for the poorest to 60% for the wealthiest quintile. Moreover, a massive state-wise difference across wealth quintiles was observed in the mean overall CCI. Almost half of the Indian states and union territories recorded a =50% coverage in MNCH care services, which demands special attention. Conclusion: India needs focused efforts to address the inequity in coverage of health care services by recognising or defining underserved people and pursuing well-planned time-oriented health programs committed to ameliorate the present state of MNCH care.

  9. Federally-Assisted Healthcare Coverage among Male State Prisoners with Chronic Health Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, David L; Grodensky, Catherine A; Holley, Tara K

    2016-01-01

    Prisoners have higher rates of chronic diseases such as substance dependence, mental health conditions and infectious disease, as compared to the general population. We projected the number of male state prisoners with a chronic health condition who at release would be eligible or ineligible for healthcare coverage under the Affordable Care Act (ACA). We used ACA income guidelines in conjunction with reported pre-arrest social security benefits and income from a nationally representative sample of prisoners to estimate the number eligible for healthcare coverage at release. There were 643,290 US male prisoners aged 18-64 with a chronic health condition. At release, 73% in Medicaid-expansion states would qualify for Medicaid or tax credits. In non-expansion states, 54% would qualify for tax credits, but 22% (n = 69,827) had incomes of ≤ 100% the federal poverty limit and thus would be ineligible for ACA-mediated healthcare coverage. These prisoners comprise 11% of all male prisoners with a chronic condition. The ACA was projected to provide coverage to most male state prisoners with a chronic health condition; however, roughly 70,000 fall in the "coverage gap" and may require non-routine care at emergency departments. Mechanisms are needed to secure coverage for this at risk group and address barriers to routine utilization of health services. PMID:27479089

  10. Implications of spatially heterogeneous vaccination coverage for the risk of congenital rubella syndrome in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metcalf, C J E; Cohen, C; Lessler, J; McAnerney, J M; Ntshoe, G M; Puren, A; Klepac, P; Tatem, A; Grenfell, B T; Bjørnstad, O N

    2013-01-01

    Rubella is generally a mild childhood disease, but infection during early pregnancy may cause spontaneous abortion or congenital rubella syndrome (CRS), which may entail a variety of birth defects. Since vaccination at levels short of those necessary to achieve eradication may increase the average age of infection, and thus potentially the CRS burden, introduction of the vaccine has been limited to contexts where coverage is high. Recent work suggests that spatial heterogeneity in coverage should also be a focus of concern. Here, we use a detailed dataset from South Africa to explore the implications of heterogeneous vaccination for the burden of CRS, introducing realistic vaccination scenarios based on reported levels of measles vaccine coverage. Our results highlight the potential impact of country-wide reductions of incidence of rubella on the local CRS burdens in districts with small population sizes. However, simulations indicate that if rubella vaccination is introduced with coverage reflecting current estimates for measles coverage in South Africa, the burden of CRS is likely to be reduced overall over a 30 year time horizon by a factor of 3, despite the fact that this coverage is lower than the traditional 80 per cent rule of thumb for vaccine introduction, probably owing to a combination of relatively low birth and transmission rates. We conclude by discussing the likely impact of private-sector vaccination. PMID:23152104

  11. 5 CFR 610.402 - Coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS HOURS OF DUTY Flexible and Compressed Work Schedules § 610.402 Coverage. The regulations contained in this subpart apply only to flexible work schedules and compressed work schedules established under subchapter 11 of chapter 61...

  12. 77 FR 16453 - Student Health Insurance Coverage

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-21

    ... is appropriately sold to students--for instance, foreign students studying for only one semester in the United States or U.S. citizens studying abroad for one summer-- the short-term limited duration... proposed rule (76 FR 7767) regarding section 1560(c) entitled ``Student Health Insurance Coverage.'' In...

  13. 44 CFR 17.610 - Coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... SECURITY GENERAL GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (GRANTS) § 17.610 Coverage. (a) This... the laws or regulations of a foreign government. A determination of such inconsistency may be made only by the agency head or his/her designee. (c) The provisions of 2 CFR part 3000 apply to...

  14. 5 CFR 930.103 - Coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Coverage. 930.103 Section 930.103 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED... ensure the safe and efficient operation of such vehicles....

  15. 27 CFR 24.68 - Insurance coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Insurance coverage. 24.68... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Administrative and Miscellaneous Provisions Claims § 24.68 Insurance... recompensed for such tax by any valid claim of insurance or otherwise. (Sec. 201, Pub. L. 85-859, 72...

  16. Binning metagenomic contigs by coverage and composition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alneberg, J.; Bjarnason, B.S.; Bruijn, de I.; Schirmer, M.; Quick, J.; Ijaz, U.Z.; Lahti, L.M.; Loman, N.J.; Andersson, A.F.; Quince, C.

    2014-01-01

    Shotgun sequencing enables the reconstruction of genomes from complex microbial communities, but because assembly does not reconstruct entire genomes, it is necessary to bin genome fragments. Here we present CONCOCT, a new algorithm that combines sequence composition and coverage across multiple sam

  17. 5 CFR 730.103 - Coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...) NOTIFICATION OF POST-EMPLOYMENT RESTRICTIONS § 730.103 Coverage. (a) The following individuals are subject to the post-employment conflict-of-interest restrictions in 18 U.S.C. 207(c), as amended by section 1125... executive, who is paid at a rate of basic pay equal to or greater than 86.5 percent of the rate for level...

  18. 29 CFR 1603.101 - Coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... STATE AND LOCAL GOVERNMENT EMPLOYEE COMPLAINTS OF EMPLOYMENT DISCRIMINATION UNDER SECTION 304 OF THE GOVERNMENT EMPLOYEE RIGHTS ACT OF 1991 Administrative Process § 1603.101 Coverage. Section 304 of the Government Employee Rights Act of 1991 applies to employment, which includes application for employment,...

  19. Determinants of vaccination coverage in rural Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meurice Francois P

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Childhood immunization is a cost effective public health strategy. Expanded Programme on Immunisation (EPI services have been provided in a rural Nigerian community (Sabongidda-Ora, Edo State at no cost to the community since 1998 through a privately financed vaccination project (private public partnership. The objective of this survey was to assess vaccination coverage and its determinants in this rural community in Nigeria Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted in September 2006, which included the use of interviewer-administered questionnaire to assess knowledge of mothers of children aged 12–23 months and vaccination coverage. Survey participants were selected following the World Health Organization's (WHO immunization coverage cluster survey design. Vaccination coverage was assessed by vaccination card and maternal history. A child was said to be fully immunized if he or she had received all of the following vaccines: a dose of Bacille Calmette Guerin (BCG, three doses of oral polio (OPV, three doses of diphtheria, pertussis and tetanus (DPT, three doses of hepatitis B (HB and one dose of measles by the time he or she was enrolled in the survey, i.e. between the ages of 12–23 months. Knowledge of the mothers was graded as satisfactory if mothers had at least a score of 3 out of a maximum of 5 points. Logistic regression was performed to identify determinants of full immunization status. Results Three hundred and thirty-nine mothers and 339 children (each mother had one eligible child were included in the survey. Most of the mothers (99.1% had very positive attitudes to immunization and > 55% were generally knowledgeable about symptoms of vaccine preventable diseases except for difficulty in breathing (as symptom of diphtheria. Two hundred and ninety-five mothers (87.0% had a satisfactory level of knowledge. Vaccination coverage against all the seven childhood vaccine preventable diseases was 61.9% although it

  20. Coverage-based treatment planning: optimizing the IMRT PTV to meet a CTV coverage criterion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, J J; Siebers, J V

    2009-03-01

    This work demonstrates an iterative approach-referred to as coverage-based treatment planning-designed to produce treatment plans that ensure target coverage for a specified percentage of setup errors. In this approach the clinical target volume to planning target volume (CTV-to-PTV) margin is iteratively adjusted until the specified CTV coverage is achieved. The advantage of this approach is that it automatically compensates for the dosimetric margin around the CTV, i.e., the extra margin that is created when the dose distribution extends beyond the PTV. When applied to 27 prostate plans, this approach reduced the average CTV-to-PTV margin from 5 to 2.8 mm. This reduction in PTV size produced a corresponding decrease in the volume of normal tissue receiving high dose. The total volume of tissue receiving > or =65 Gy was reduced on average by 19.3% or about 48 cc. Individual reductions varied from 8.7% to 28.6%. The volume of bladder receiving > or =60 Gy was reduced on average by 5.6% (reductions for individuals varied from 1.7% to 10.6%), and the volume of periprostatic rectum receiving > or =65 Gy was reduced on average by 4.9% (reductions for individuals varied from 0.9% to 12.3%). The iterative method proposed here represents a step toward a probabilistic treatment planning algorithm which can generate dose distributions (i.e., treated volumes) that closely approximate a specified level of coverage in the presence of geometric uncertainties. The general principles of coverage-based treatment planning are applicable to arbitrary treatment sites and delivery techniques. Importantly, observed deviations between coverage implied by specified CTV-to-PTV margins and coverage achieved by a given treatment plan imply a generic need to perform coverage probability analysis on a per-plan basis to ensure that the desired level of coverage is achieved. PMID:19378757

  1. Niches and interspecific associations of dominant tree populations at different restoration stages of monsoonal broad-leaved evergreen forest%季风常绿阔叶林不同恢复阶段乔木优势种群生态位和种间联结

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李帅锋; 刘万德; 苏建荣; 张志钧

    2011-01-01

    Niche and interspecific association are one of the important contents in community dynamics research. Interspecific interaction affects the restoration and succession of community. In this paper, field investigation was made on the community structure of monsoonal broad-leaved evergreen forest at its different restoration stages ( primary forest, PF; 15 years restoration, 15R; and 30 years restoration, 30R) in Pu ’ er City of Yunnan Province, and the niche breadth, niche overlap, and variance ratio ( VR) as well as the chi-square test and association coefficient (AC) based on 2×2 contingency table were used to analyze the change trend of the dominant tree populations at different restoration stages. In the three communities at different restoration stages, there was a significant positive correlation (P<0. 001 ) between the importance value and corresponding niche breadth. 78. 22% of species pairs at 15R had a niche overlap 0. 4-0. 8, suggesting a strong resource utilization competition in dominant species; while the community structure at PF and 30R was rather stable , and the species with higher niche breadth had a higher niche overlap than those with lower niche breadth , reflecting that the dominant species had stronger competitiveness. At 15R and 30R. there was a positive interspecific association; while at PF, there was a negative association. In the three communities, most species pairs had no significant association, showed stronger independency, and the proportions of positive and negative associations decreased with the process of restoration. There was a significant positive correlation between the association coefficient and niches overlap at different restoration stages, i. e. , the high the niche overlap, the greater the association coefficient.%生态位和种间联结是群落动态研究的重要内容之一,物种间相互作用影响着群落的恢复和演替.本文在对云南普洱地区不同恢复阶段(恢复15年、恢复30年和

  2. To Broad-Match or Not to Broad-Match : An Auctioneer's Dilemma ?

    CERN Document Server

    Singh, Sudhir Kumar

    2008-01-01

    We initiate the study of an interesting aspect of sponsored search advertising, namely the consequences of broad match-a feature where an ad of an advertiser can be mapped to a broader range of relevant queries, and not necessarily to the particular keyword(s) that ad is associated with. Starting with a very natural setting for strategies available to the advertisers, and via a careful look through algorithmic and complexity theoretic glasses, we first propose a solution concept called broad match equilibrium(BME) for the game originating from the strategic behavior of advertisers as they try to optimize their budget allocation across various keywords. Next, we consider two broad match scenarios based on factors such as information asymmetry between advertisers and the auctioneer, and the extent of auctioneer's control on the budget splitting. In the first scenario, the advertisers have the full information about broad match and relevant parameters, and can reapportion their own budgets to utilize the extra i...

  3. Broad spectrum antibiotic compounds and use thereof

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koglin, Alexander; Strieker, Matthias

    2016-07-05

    The discovery of a non-ribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS) gene cluster in the genome of Clostridium thermocellum that produces a secondary metabolite that is assembled outside of the host membrane is described. Also described is the identification of homologous NRPS gene clusters from several additional microorganisms. The secondary metabolites produced by the NRPS gene clusters exhibit broad spectrum antibiotic activity. Thus, antibiotic compounds produced by the NRPS gene clusters, and analogs thereof, their use for inhibiting bacterial growth, and methods of making the antibiotic compounds are described.

  4. Information recovery from low coverage whole-genome bisulfite sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libertini, Emanuele; Heath, Simon C; Hamoudi, Rifat A; Gut, Marta; Ziller, Michael J; Czyz, Agata; Ruotti, Victor; Stunnenberg, Hendrik G; Frontini, Mattia; Ouwehand, Willem H; Meissner, Alexander; Gut, Ivo G; Beck, Stephan

    2016-06-27

    The cost of whole-genome bisulfite sequencing (WGBS) remains a bottleneck for many studies and it is therefore imperative to extract as much information as possible from a given dataset. This is particularly important because even at the recommend 30X coverage for reference methylomes, up to 50% of high-resolution features such as differentially methylated positions (DMPs) cannot be called with current methods as determined by saturation analysis. To address this limitation, we have developed a tool that dynamically segments WGBS methylomes into blocks of comethylation (COMETs) from which lost information can be recovered in the form of differentially methylated COMETs (DMCs). Using this tool, we demonstrate recovery of ∼30% of the lost DMP information content as DMCs even at very low (5X) coverage. This constitutes twice the amount that can be recovered using an existing method based on differentially methylated regions (DMRs). In addition, we explored the relationship between COMETs and haplotypes in lymphoblastoid cell lines of African and European origin. Using best fit analysis, we show COMETs to be correlated in a population-specific manner, suggesting that this type of dynamic segmentation may be useful for integrated (epi)genome-wide association studies in the future.

  5. Information recovery from low coverage whole-genome bisulfite sequencing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libertini, Emanuele; Heath, Simon C.; Hamoudi, Rifat A.; Gut, Marta; Ziller, Michael J.; Czyz, Agata; Ruotti, Victor; Stunnenberg, Hendrik G.; Frontini, Mattia; Ouwehand, Willem H.; Meissner, Alexander; Gut, Ivo G.; Beck, Stephan

    2016-01-01

    The cost of whole-genome bisulfite sequencing (WGBS) remains a bottleneck for many studies and it is therefore imperative to extract as much information as possible from a given dataset. This is particularly important because even at the recommend 30X coverage for reference methylomes, up to 50% of high-resolution features such as differentially methylated positions (DMPs) cannot be called with current methods as determined by saturation analysis. To address this limitation, we have developed a tool that dynamically segments WGBS methylomes into blocks of comethylation (COMETs) from which lost information can be recovered in the form of differentially methylated COMETs (DMCs). Using this tool, we demonstrate recovery of ∼30% of the lost DMP information content as DMCs even at very low (5X) coverage. This constitutes twice the amount that can be recovered using an existing method based on differentially methylated regions (DMRs). In addition, we explored the relationship between COMETs and haplotypes in lymphoblastoid cell lines of African and European origin. Using best fit analysis, we show COMETs to be correlated in a population-specific manner, suggesting that this type of dynamic segmentation may be useful for integrated (epi)genome-wide association studies in the future. PMID:27346250

  6. Particle Physics could do with much more serious coverage in serious newspaper

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    Editorial "Particle Physics could do with much more serious coverage in serious newspaper. So we welcome the feature on the Large Hadron Collider and the computing grid that appeared in the Irish Times on 30 April. So serious is this coverage that it manages to avoid any tacky populism in its announcement of a truly earth-shattering discovery. Not blazoned across the front page, not even headlined, but tucked away in the tenth paragraph, is the news that the LHC will operate at 'minus 3000°C in temperature'. (That's minus 2727 kelvin, for thermodynamic purists -0 kelvin being absolute zero, of course.)" (fulltext)

  7. Potential Uses of Administrative Records for Triple System Modeling for Estimation of Census Coverage Error in 2020

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Griffin Richard A.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Heterogeneity in capture probabilities is known to produce bias in the dual system estimates that have been used to estimate census coverage in U.S. Censuses since 1980. Triple system estimation using an administrative records list as a third source along with the census and coverage measurement survey has the potential to produce estimates with less bias. This is particularly important for hard-to-reach populations.

  8. Immunization coverage levels among 19- to 35-month-old children in 4 diverse, medically underserved areas of the United States

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rosenthal, J; Rodewald, L; McCauley, M; Berman, S; Irigoyen, M; Sawyer, M; Yusuf, H; Davis, R; Kalton, G

    2004-01-01

    Background. The National Immunization Survey demonstrates that national immunization coverage in 2002 remained near the all-time highs achieved in 2000. However, that survey cannot detect whether coverage is uniformly high within relatively small areas or populations. The measles resurgence in the e

  9. Immunization Coverage in Migrant School Children Along the Thailand-Myanmar Border.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaji, Aiko; Parker, Daniel M; Chu, Cindy S; Thayatkawin, Wipa; Suelaor, Jiraporn; Charatrueangrongkun, Rachai; Salathibuppha, Kloloi; Nosten, Francois H; McGready, Rose

    2016-10-01

    The objective of this project was to document and increase vaccine coverage in migrant school children on the Thailand-Myanmar border. Migrant school children (n = 12,277) were enrolled in a school-based immunization program in four Thai border districts. The children were evaluated for vaccination completion and timing, for six different vaccines: Bacille Calmette-Guerin (BCG); Oral Polio vaccine (OPV); Hepatitis B vaccine (HepB); Diphtheria, Pertussis and Tetanus vaccine (DTP); Measles Containing Vaccine or Measles, Mumps and Rubella vaccine (MMR); Tetanus and Diphtheria containing vaccine (Td). Vaccine coverage proportions for BCG, OPV3, DTP3, HepB3 and measles containing vaccine were 92.3, 85.3, 63.8, 72.2, and 90.9 % respectively. Most children were able to receive vaccines in a time appropriate manner. School-based immunization programs offer a suitable vaccine delivery mechanism for hard-to-reach populations. However, these data suggest overall low vaccine coverage in migrant populations. Further efforts toward improving appropriate vaccine coverage and methods of retaining documentation of vaccination in mobile migrant populations are necessary for improved health.

  10. Wide coverage by volume CT: benefits for cardiac imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sablayrolles, Jean-Louis; Cesmeli, Erdogan; Mintandjian, Laura; Adda, Olivier; Dessalles-Martin, Diane

    2005-04-01

    With the development of new technologies, computed tomography (CT) is becoming a strong candidate for non-invasive imaging based tool for cardiac disease assessment. One of the challenges of cardiac CT is that a typical scan involves a breath hold period consisting of several heartbeats, about 20 sec with scanners having a longitudinal coverage of 2 cm, and causing the image quality (IQ) to be negatively impacted since beat to beat variation is high likely to occur without any medication, e.g. beta blockers. Because of this and the preference for shorter breath hold durations, a CT scanner with a wide coverage without the compromise in the spatial and temporal resolution of great clinical value. In this study, we aimed at determining the optimum scan duration and the delay relative to beginning of breath hold, to achieve high IQ. We acquired EKG data from 91 consecutive patients (77 M, 14 F; Age: 57 +/- 14) undergoing cardiac CT exams with contrast, performed on LightSpeed 16 and LightSpeed Pro16. As an IQ metric, we adopted the standard deviation of "beat-to-beat variation" (stdBBV) within a virtual scan period. Two radiologists evaluated images by assigning a score of 1 (worst) to 4 best). We validated stdBBV with the radiologist scores, which resulted in a population distribution of 9.5, 9.5, 31, and 50% for the score groups 1, 2, 3, and 4, respectively. Based on the scores, we defined a threshold for stdBBV and identified an optimum combination of virtual scan period and a delay. With the assumption that the relationship between the stdBBV and diagnosable scan IQ holds, our analysis suggested that the success rate can be improved to 100% with scan durations equal or less than 5 sec with a delay of 1 - 2 sec. We confirmed the suggested conclusion with LightSpeed VCT (GE Healthcare Technologies, Waukesha, WI), which has a wide longitudinal coverage, fine isotropic spatial resolution, and high temporal resolution, e.g. 40 mm coverage per rotation of 0.35 sec

  11. Molecular evolution of broadly neutralizing Llama antibodies to the CD4-binding site of HIV-1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura E McCoy

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available To date, no immunization of humans or animals has elicited broadly neutralizing sera able to prevent HIV-1 transmission; however, elicitation of broad and potent heavy chain only antibodies (HCAb has previously been reported in llamas. In this study, the anti-HIV immune responses in immunized llamas were studied via deep sequencing analysis using broadly neutralizing monoclonal HCAbs as a guides. Distinct neutralizing antibody lineages were identified in each animal, including two defined by novel antibodies (as variable regions called VHH identified by robotic screening of over 6000 clones. The combined application of five VHH against viruses from clades A, B, C and CRF_AG resulted in neutralization as potent as any of the VHH individually and a predicted 100% coverage with a median IC50 of 0.17 µg/ml for the panel of 60 viruses tested. Molecular analysis of the VHH repertoires of two sets of immunized animals showed that each neutralizing lineage was only observed following immunization, demonstrating that they were elicited de novo. Our results show that immunization can induce potent and broadly neutralizing antibodies in llamas with features similar to human antibodies and provide a framework to analyze the effectiveness of immunization protocols.

  12. Molecular Evolution of Broadly Neutralizing Llama Antibodies to the CD4-Binding Site of HIV-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCoy, Laura E.; Rutten, Lucy; Frampton, Dan; Anderson, Ian; Granger, Luke; Bashford-Rogers, Rachael; Dekkers, Gillian; Strokappe, Nika M.; Seaman, Michael S.; Koh, Willie; Grippo, Vanina; Kliche, Alexander; Verrips, Theo; Kellam, Paul; Fassati, Ariberto; Weiss, Robin A.

    2014-01-01

    To date, no immunization of humans or animals has elicited broadly neutralizing sera able to prevent HIV-1 transmission; however, elicitation of broad and potent heavy chain only antibodies (HCAb) has previously been reported in llamas. In this study, the anti-HIV immune responses in immunized llamas were studied via deep sequencing analysis using broadly neutralizing monoclonal HCAbs as a guides. Distinct neutralizing antibody lineages were identified in each animal, including two defined by novel antibodies (as variable regions called VHH) identified by robotic screening of over 6000 clones. The combined application of five VHH against viruses from clades A, B, C and CRF_AG resulted in neutralization as potent as any of the VHH individually and a predicted 100% coverage with a median IC50 of 0.17 µg/ml for the panel of 60 viruses tested. Molecular analysis of the VHH repertoires of two sets of immunized animals showed that each neutralizing lineage was only observed following immunization, demonstrating that they were elicited de novo. Our results show that immunization can induce potent and broadly neutralizing antibodies in llamas with features similar to human antibodies and provide a framework to analyze the effectiveness of immunization protocols. PMID:25522326

  13. Radio Structures of Compact Quasars with Broad Absorption Lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunert-Bajraszewska, Magdalena; Gawroński, Marcin P.

    2010-05-01

    Broad absorption lines (BALs), seen in a small fraction of both the radio-quiet and radio-loud quasar populations, are probably caused by the outflow of gas with high velocities and are part of the accretion process. The presence of BALs is due to a geometrical effect and/or it is connected with the quasar evolution. Using the final release of FIRST survey combined with a catalog of BAL QSOs from SDSS/DR3, we have constructed a new sample of compact radio-loud BAL QSOs, which constitutes the majority of radio-loud BAL QSOs. The main goal of this project is to study the origin of BALs by analysis of the BAL QSOs radio morphology, orientation, and jet evolution using the European VLBI Network (EVN) at 1.6 GHz and the Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) at 5 and 8.4 GHz.

  14. Global Moon Coverage via Hyperbolic Flybys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buffington, Brent; Strange, Nathan; Campagnola, Stefano

    2012-01-01

    The scientific desire for global coverage of moons such as Jupiter's Galilean moons or Saturn's Titan has invariably led to the design of orbiter missions. These orbiter missions require a large amount of propellant needed to insert into orbit around such small bodies, and for a given launch vehicle, the additional propellant mass takes away from mass that could otherwise be used for scientific instrumentation on a multiple flyby-only mission. This paper will present methods--expanding upon techniques developed for the design of the Cassini prime and extended missions--to obtain near global moon coverage through multiple flybys. Furthermore we will show with proper instrument suite selection, a flyby-only mission can provide science return similar (and in some cases greater) to that of an orbiter mission.

  15. Chinese newspaper coverage of genetically modified organisms

    OpenAIRE

    Du Li; Rachul Christen

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Debates persist around the world over the development and use of genetically modified organisms (GMO). News media has been shown to both reflect and influence public perceptions of health and science related debates, as well as policy development. To better understand the news coverage of GMOs in China, we analyzed the content of articles in two Chinese newspapers that relate to the development and promotion of genetically modified technologies and GMOs. Methods Searching ...

  16. Flood Insurance Coverage in the Coastal Zone

    OpenAIRE

    Landry, Craig E.; Jahan-Parvar, Mohammad R.

    2008-01-01

    We explore behavior and test theory regarding the determinants of flood insurance coverage in the coastal zone using household-level data for nine southeastern counties. We use Tobit regression models to assess the importance and magnitude of insurance cost, risk factors, community characteristics, and household attributes on flood insurance purchase for residential building structures. Overall estimates indicate price inelastic demand, though subsidized policyholders are more sensitive to ...

  17. Is Code Quality Related to Test Coverage?

    OpenAIRE

    Jorge Arturo Wong-Mozqueda, Robert Haines, Caroline Jay

    2015-01-01

    A good test suite is vital for minimising errors, and ensuring that software is easy to maintain. Another factor viewed as being important for the success and longevity of software is code quality. We report on work examining whether there is a correlation between code quality and test coverage, using seven different metrics: lines of code, McCabe's cyclomatic complexity, number of local methods, depth of inheritance tree, coupling between objects, improvement of lack of cohesion in methods a...

  18. Strategies for Coordination of a Serosurvey in Parallel with an Immunization Coverage Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Travassos, Mark A; Beyene, Berhane; Adam, Zenaw; Campbell, James D; Mulholland, Nigisti; Diarra, Seydou S; Kassa, Tassew; Oot, Lisa; Sequeira, Jenny; Reymann, Mardi; Blackwelder, William C; Pasetti, Marcela F; Sow, Samba O; Steinglass, Robert; Kebede, Amha; Levine, Myron M

    2015-08-01

    A community-based immunization coverage survey is the standard way to estimate effective vaccination delivery to a target population in a region. Accompanying serosurveys can provide objective measures of protective immunity against vaccine-preventable diseases but pose considerable challenges with respect to specimen collection and preservation and community compliance. We performed serosurveys coupled to immunization coverage surveys in three administrative districts (woredas) in rural Ethiopia. Critical to the success of this effort were serosurvey equipment and supplies, team composition, and tight coordination with the coverage survey. Application of these techniques to future studies may foster more widespread use of serosurveys to derive more objective assessments of vaccine-derived seroprotection and monitor and compare the performance of immunization services in different districts of a country. PMID:26055737

  19. Strategies for Coordination of a Serosurvey in Parallel with an Immunization Coverage Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Travassos, Mark A.; Beyene, Berhane; Adam, Zenaw; Campbell, James D.; Mulholland, Nigisti; Diarra, Seydou S.; Kassa, Tassew; Oot, Lisa; Sequeira, Jenny; Reymann, Mardi; Blackwelder, William C.; Pasetti, Marcela F.; Sow, Samba O.; Steinglass, Robert; Kebede, Amha; Levine, Myron M.

    2015-01-01

    A community-based immunization coverage survey is the standard way to estimate effective vaccination delivery to a target population in a region. Accompanying serosurveys can provide objective measures of protective immunity against vaccine-preventable diseases but pose considerable challenges with respect to specimen collection and preservation and community compliance. We performed serosurveys coupled to immunization coverage surveys in three administrative districts (woredas) in rural Ethiopia. Critical to the success of this effort were serosurvey equipment and supplies, team composition, and tight coordination with the coverage survey. Application of these techniques to future studies may foster more widespread use of serosurveys to derive more objective assessments of vaccine-derived seroprotection and monitor and compare the performance of immunization services in different districts of a country. PMID:26055737

  20. Strategies for Coordination of a Serosurvey in Parallel with an Immunization Coverage Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Travassos, Mark A; Beyene, Berhane; Adam, Zenaw; Campbell, James D; Mulholland, Nigisti; Diarra, Seydou S; Kassa, Tassew; Oot, Lisa; Sequeira, Jenny; Reymann, Mardi; Blackwelder, William C; Pasetti, Marcela F; Sow, Samba O; Steinglass, Robert; Kebede, Amha; Levine, Myron M

    2015-08-01

    A community-based immunization coverage survey is the standard way to estimate effective vaccination delivery to a target population in a region. Accompanying serosurveys can provide objective measures of protective immunity against vaccine-preventable diseases but pose considerable challenges with respect to specimen collection and preservation and community compliance. We performed serosurveys coupled to immunization coverage surveys in three administrative districts (woredas) in rural Ethiopia. Critical to the success of this effort were serosurvey equipment and supplies, team composition, and tight coordination with the coverage survey. Application of these techniques to future studies may foster more widespread use of serosurveys to derive more objective assessments of vaccine-derived seroprotection and monitor and compare the performance of immunization services in different districts of a country.

  1. Gravitational microlensing of quasar Broad Line Regions: the influence of fractal structures

    CERN Document Server

    Lewis, G F; Lewis, Geraint F.; Ibata, Rodrigo A.

    2006-01-01

    Recent models for the emission clouds within the Broad Line Region of quasars suggest that they are due to transient overdensities within an overall turbulent medium. If this were the case, the broad line emission would spatially appear fractal, possessing structure on a range of scales. This paper examines the influence of such fractal structure when a quasar is microlensed by a population of intervening masses. It is found that while the highest fractal levels can undergo significant microlensing magnification, when these light curves are superimposed to create an emission line profile, the resultant emission line profile remains relatively constant for physical models of the Broad Line Region. It is concluded that the detection of the possible fractal structure of Broad Line Regions via gravitational microlensing is not practical.

  2. Against a Broad Definition of "Empathy"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Songhorian

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper I will try to provide some arguments against a broad definition of “empathy”. Firstly, I will deal with attempts to define empathy as an umbrella concept. Then, I will try to point out the four main elements which contribute to the confusion that researchers in both the social and political as well as the scientific and philosophical domains face when dealing with empathy. In order to resolve this confusion, I suggest applying David Marr’s distinction to the field of empathy. Instead of providing an umbrella definition for empathy, which tries to account for all the data coming from different disciplines, I believe understanding that there are different levels of explanations and that different disciplines can contribute to each of them will provide a more detailed and less confused definition of empathy.

  3. Broad-band acoustic hyperbolic metamaterial

    CERN Document Server

    Shen, Chen; Sui, Ni; Wang, Wenqi; Cummer, Steven A; Jing, Yun

    2015-01-01

    Acoustic metamaterials (AMMs) are engineered materials, made from subwavelength structures, that exhibit useful or unusual constitutive properties. There has been intense research interest in AMMs since its first realization in 2000 by Liu et al. A number of functionalities and applications have been proposed and achieved using AMMs. Hyperbolic metamaterials are one of the most important types of metamaterials due to their extreme anisotropy and numerous possible applications, including negative refraction, backward waves, spatial filtering, and subwavelength imaging. Although the importance of acoustic hyperbolic metamaterials (AHMMs) as a tool for achieving full control of acoustic waves is substantial, the realization of a broad-band and truly hyperbolic AMM has not been reported so far. Here, we demonstrate the design and experimental characterization of a broadband AHMM that operates between 1.0 kHz and 2.5 kHz.

  4. A broad view of model validation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The safety assessment of a nuclear waste repository requires the use of models. Such models need to be validated to ensure, as much as possible, that they are a good representation of the actual processes occurring in the real system. In this paper we attempt to take a broad view by reviewing step by step the modeling process and bringing out the need to validating every step of this process. This model validation includes not only comparison of modeling results with data from selected experiments, but also evaluation of procedures for the construction of conceptual models and calculational models as well as methodologies for studying data and parameter correlation. The need for advancing basic scientific knowledge in related fields, for multiple assessment groups, and for presenting our modeling efforts in open literature to public scrutiny is also emphasized. 16 refs

  5. Magnetohydrodynamic stability of broad line region clouds

    CERN Document Server

    Krause, Martin; Burkert, Andreas

    2012-01-01

    Hydrodynamic stability has been a longstanding issue for the cloud model of the broad line region in active galactic nuclei. We argue that the clouds may be gravitationally bound to the supermassive black hole. If true, stabilisation by thermal pressure alone becomes even more difficult. We further argue that if magnetic fields should be present in such clouds at a level that could affect the stability properties, they need to be strong enough to compete with the radiation pressure on the cloud. This would imply magnetic field values of a few Gauss for a sample of Active Galactic Nuclei we draw from the literature. We then investigate the effect of several magnetic configurations on cloud stability in axi-symmetric magnetohydrodynamic simulations. For a purely azimuthal magnetic field which provides the dominant pressure support, the cloud first gets compressed by the opposing radiative and gravitational forces. The pressure inside the cloud then increases, and it expands vertically. Kelvin-Helmholtz and colu...

  6. A Switchable 3D-Coverage Phased Array Antenna Package for 5G Mobile Terminals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ojaroudiparchin, Naser; Shen, Ming; Zhang, Shuai;

    2016-01-01

    antennas have been compactly arranged along the edge region of the mobile phone PCB to form the antenna package. By switching the feeding to one of the sub arrays, the desired direction of coverage can be achieved. The proposed design has >10 dB gain in the upper spherical space, good directivity...... and efficiency, which is suitable for 5G mobile communications. In addition, the impact of user’s hand on the antenna performance has been investigated.......This manuscript proposes a new design of a millimeter-wave (mm-Wave) array antenna package with beam steering characteristic for the fifth generation (5G) mobile applications. In order to achieve a broad 3D scanning coverage of the space with high-gain beams, three identical sub arrays of patch...

  7. Performance of Amblyseius herbicolus on broad mites and on castor bean and sunnhemp pollen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Cruz, Fredy Alexander; Venzon, Madelaine; Pinto, Cleide Maria Ferreira

    2013-08-01

    Amblyseius herbicolus (Banks) is found associated with broad mites Polyphagotarsonemus latus in crops such as chili pepper in Brazil. The species has a potential for controlling P. latus, but little is known about its development and reproduction on this pest as well as on other food sources. We studied biological, reproductive and life table parameters of A. herbicolus on three different diets: broad mites, castor bean pollen (Ricinus communis) and sunnhemp pollen (Crotalaria juncea). The predator was able to develop and reproduce on all diets. However, its intrinsic growth rate was higher on the diet of broad mites or on castor bean pollen than on sunnhemp pollen. Differences among pollen species may be due to their nutritional content. Feeding on alternative food such as pollen can facilitate the predator's mass rearing and maintain its population on crops when prey is absent or scarce. Other strategies of using pollen to sustain predator population and reduce pest damage are discussed. PMID:23417701

  8. Assessing Requirements Quality through Requirements Coverage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajan, Ajitha; Heimdahl, Mats; Woodham, Kurt

    2008-01-01

    In model-based development, the development effort is centered around a formal description of the proposed software system the model. This model is derived from some high-level requirements describing the expected behavior of the software. For validation and verification purposes, this model can then be subjected to various types of analysis, for example, completeness and consistency analysis [6], model checking [3], theorem proving [1], and test-case generation [4, 7]. This development paradigm is making rapid inroads in certain industries, e.g., automotive, avionics, space applications, and medical technology. This shift towards model-based development naturally leads to changes in the verification and validation (V&V) process. The model validation problem determining that the model accurately captures the customer's high-level requirements has received little attention and the sufficiency of the validation activities has been largely determined through ad-hoc methods. Since the model serves as the central artifact, its correctness with respect to the users needs is absolutely crucial. In our investigation, we attempt to answer the following two questions with respect to validation (1) Are the requirements sufficiently defined for the system? and (2) How well does the model implement the behaviors specified by the requirements? The second question can be addressed using formal verification. Nevertheless, the size and complexity of many industrial systems make formal verification infeasible even if we have a formal model and formalized requirements. Thus, presently, there is no objective way of answering these two questions. To this end, we propose an approach based on testing that, when given a set of formal requirements, explores the relationship between requirements-based structural test-adequacy coverage and model-based structural test-adequacy coverage. The proposed technique uses requirements coverage metrics defined in [9] on formal high-level software

  9. Varicella vaccination coverage of children under two years of age in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reuss Annicka M

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since July 2004, routine varicella vaccination is recommended by the German Standing Vaccination Committee in Germany. Health Insurance Funds started to cover vaccination costs at different time points between 2004 and 2006 in the Federal States. Nationwide representative data on vaccination coverage against varicella of children under two years of age are not available. We aimed to determine varicella vaccination coverage in statutory health insured children under two years of age in twelve German Federal States using data from associations of statutory health insurance physicians (ASHIPs, in order to investigate the acceptance of the recommended routine varicella vaccination programme. Methods We analysed data on varicella vaccination from 13 of 17 ASHIPs of the years 2004 to 2007. The study population consisted of all statutory health insured children under two years of age born in 2004 (cohort 2004 or 2005 (cohort 2005 in one of the studied regions. Vaccination coverage was determined by the number of children vaccinated under 2 years of age within the study population. Results Varicella vaccination coverage of children under two years of age with either one dose of the monovalent varicella vaccine or two doses of the measles, mumps, rubella, and varicella vaccine increased from 34% (cohort 2004 to 51% (cohort 2005 in the studied regions (p Conclusions Our study shows increasing varicella vaccination coverage of young children, indicating a growing acceptance of the routine varicella vaccination programme by the parents and physicians. We recommend further monitoring of vaccination coverage using data from ASHIPs to investigate acceptance of the routine vaccination programmes over time.

  10. 28 CFR 55.7 - Termination of coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... VOTING RIGHTS ACT REGARDING LANGUAGE MINORITY GROUPS Nature of Coverage § 55.7 Termination of coverage... the applicable language minority group is equal to or less than the national illiteracy rate....

  11. Techniques in molecular spectroscopy: from broad bandwidth to high resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cossel, Kevin C.

    This thesis presents a range of different experiments all seeking to extended the capabilities of molecular spectroscopy and enable new applications. The new technique of cavity-enhanced direct frequency comb spectroscopy (CE-DFCS) provides a unique combination of broad bandwidth, high resolution, and high sensitivity that can be useful for a wide range of applications. Previous demonstrations of CE-DFCS were confined to the visible or near-infrared and operated over a limited bandwidth: for many applications it is desirable to increase the spectral coverage and to extend to the mid-infrared where strong, fundamental vibrational modes of molecules occur. There are several key requirements for CE-DFCS: a frequency comb source that provides broad bandwidth and high resolution, an optical cavity for high sensitivity, and a detection system capable of multiplex detection of the comb spectrum transmitted through the cavity. We first discuss comb sources with emphasis on the coherence properties of spectral broadening in nonlinear fiber and the development of a high-power frequency comb source in the mid-infrared based on an optical-parametric oscillator (OPO). To take advantage of this new mid-infrared comb source for spectroscopy, we also discuss the development of a rapid-scan Fourier-transform spectrometer (FTS). We then discuss the first demonstration of CE-DFCS with spectrally broadened light from a highly nonlinear fiber with the application to measurements of impurities in semiconductor manufacturing gases. We also cover our efforts towards extending CE-DFCS to the mid-infrared using the mid-infrared OPO and FTS to measure ppb levels of various gases important for breath analysis and atmospheric chemistry and highlight some future applications of this system. In addition to the study of neutral molecules, broad-bandwidth and high-resolution spectra of molecular ions are useful for astrochemistry where many of the observed molecules are ionic, for studying

  12. Are Broad-Spectrum Fluoroquinolones More Likely To Cause Clostridium difficile-Associated Disease?

    OpenAIRE

    Dhalla, Irfan A.; Muhammad M Mamdani; Simor, Andrew E; Kopp, Alex; Rochon, Paula A; Juurlink, David N.

    2006-01-01

    Limited evidence suggests that broad-spectrum fluoroquinolones such as gatifloxacin and moxifloxacin are more likely to cause Clostridium difficile-associated disease than levofloxacin. In a population-based case-control study of outpatients prescribed fluoroquinolones, we found no increased risk of C. difficile-associated disease requiring hospitalization among patients prescribed gatifloxacin or moxifloxacin compared to levofloxacin.

  13. [Between evidence and negligence: coverage and invisibilityof health topics in the Portuguese printed media].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavaca, Aline Guio; Vasconcellos-Silva, Paulo Roberto; Ferreira, Patrícia; Nunes, João Arriscado

    2015-11-01

    The scope of this study is to conduct an assessment of the media coverage and dissemination of health issues in Portugal in order to problematize the aspects of coverage and invisibility of health topics and establish the themes neglected in media coverage. To achieve this, the coverage on health issues in the Portuguese daily newspaper Público was compared with the epidemiological context regarding health priorities and the perceptions of key players on media dissemination and the themes that are relevant to the Portuguese population. The results showed that the recurrent health-associated themes do not deal with diseases per se, but with the politics and economics of health and medication. The themes neglected in media coverage identified in the Portuguese context include: communicable diseases, such as hepatitis and tuberculosis; issues related to mental health and suicide; and ailments and social consequences associated with the economic crisis that has beset Portugal recently. From the standpoint of the people interviewed, other neglected diseases include hemochromatosis and other rare diseases. In tandem with this, the study highlights the well covered media themes that revolve around the lives and activities of celebrities, which are exhaustively aired in the communication media in the country.

  14. Universal hepatitis B vaccination coverage in children and adolescents with intellectual disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jin-Ding; Lin, Pei-Ying; Lin, Lan-Ping

    2010-01-01

    There is little information of hepatitis B vaccination coverage for people with intellectual disabilities (ID). The present paper aims to examine the completed hepatitis B vaccination coverage rate and its determinants of children and adolescents with ID in Taiwan. A cross-sectional questionnaire survey, with the entire response participants was composed of 495 primary caregivers of children and adolescents with ID (age 3-24 years) who studying in 3 special education schools in Taiwan. The results showed that coverage rate of completed hepatitis B vaccination was 74.34% in children and adolescents with ID. Although hepatitis B vaccination is a universal health policy in Taiwan, the uncompleted coverage rate of our study subjects was 2 times of the Taiwan general population at the same age. In the logistic regression analysis of hepatitis B vaccination coverage, we found that the factors of household income and ID individual's age were variables that can significantly predict they did not accept a completed vaccination. The present study suggests that parents and providers should routinely review immunizations of children and adolescents with ID.

  15. [Between evidence and negligence: coverage and invisibilityof health topics in the Portuguese printed media].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavaca, Aline Guio; Vasconcellos-Silva, Paulo Roberto; Ferreira, Patrícia; Nunes, João Arriscado

    2015-11-01

    The scope of this study is to conduct an assessment of the media coverage and dissemination of health issues in Portugal in order to problematize the aspects of coverage and invisibility of health topics and establish the themes neglected in media coverage. To achieve this, the coverage on health issues in the Portuguese daily newspaper Público was compared with the epidemiological context regarding health priorities and the perceptions of key players on media dissemination and the themes that are relevant to the Portuguese population. The results showed that the recurrent health-associated themes do not deal with diseases per se, but with the politics and economics of health and medication. The themes neglected in media coverage identified in the Portuguese context include: communicable diseases, such as hepatitis and tuberculosis; issues related to mental health and suicide; and ailments and social consequences associated with the economic crisis that has beset Portugal recently. From the standpoint of the people interviewed, other neglected diseases include hemochromatosis and other rare diseases. In tandem with this, the study highlights the well covered media themes that revolve around the lives and activities of celebrities, which are exhaustively aired in the communication media in the country. PMID:26602734

  16. 5 CFR 847.204 - Elections of FERS coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Elections of FERS coverage. 847.204... REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) ELECTIONS OF RETIREMENT COVERAGE BY CURRENT AND FORMER EMPLOYEES OF NONAPPROPRIATED FUND INSTRUMENTALITIES Elections To Continue Retirement Coverage After a Qualifying Move §...

  17. 5 CFR 847.203 - Elections of CSRS coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Elections of CSRS coverage. 847.203... REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) ELECTIONS OF RETIREMENT COVERAGE BY CURRENT AND FORMER EMPLOYEES OF NONAPPROPRIATED FUND INSTRUMENTALITIES Elections To Continue Retirement Coverage After a Qualifying Move §...

  18. 42 CFR 436.330 - Coverage for certain aliens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Coverage for certain aliens. 436.330 Section 436... Coverage of the Medically Needy § 436.330 Coverage for certain aliens. If an agency provides Medicaid to... condition, as defined in § 440.255(c) of this chapter to those aliens described in § 436.406(c) of...

  19. 42 CFR 436.128 - Coverage for certain qualified aliens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Coverage for certain qualified aliens. 436.128... Mandatory Coverage of the Categorically Needy § 436.128 Coverage for certain qualified aliens. The agency... § 440.255(c) of this chapter to those aliens described in § 436.406(c) of this subpart....

  20. 42 CFR 435.350 - Coverage for certain aliens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Coverage for certain aliens. 435.350 Section 435... ISLANDS, AND AMERICAN SAMOA Optional Coverage of the Medically Needy § 435.350 Coverage for certain aliens... treatment of an emergency medical condition, as defined in § 440.255(c) of this chapter, to those...

  1. 48 CFR 452.228-71 - Insurance Coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Insurance Coverage. 452... FORMS SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Texts of Provisions and Clauses 452.228-71 Insurance Coverage. As prescribed in 428.310, insert the following clause: Insurance Coverage (NOV 1996) Pursuant...

  2. 29 CFR 2.12 - Audiovisual coverage permitted.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Audiovisual coverage permitted. 2.12 Section 2.12 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor GENERAL REGULATIONS Audiovisual Coverage of Administrative Hearings § 2.12 Audiovisual coverage permitted. The following are the types of hearings where the...

  3. Health Coverage Instability for Mothers in Working Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Steven G.; Eamon, Mary Keegan

    2004-01-01

    Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, the authors examined the health insurance coverage stability of 1,667 women in working families over a three-year period (1995-1997). Findings revealed that coverage instability is common. Nearly one-half of low-income women experienced health coverage instability over the three-year study…

  4. 42 CFR 457.420 - Benchmark health benefits coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Benchmark health benefits coverage. 457.420 Section 457.420 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... State Plan Requirements: Coverage and Benefits § 457.420 Benchmark health benefits coverage....

  5. 48 CFR 1352.228-70 - Insurance coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... FORMS SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions and Clauses 1352.228-70 Insurance coverage. As prescribed in 48 CFR 1328.310-70(a), insert the following clause: Insurance Coverage (APR 2010... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Insurance coverage....

  6. 7 CFR 1806.26 - Coverage and premium rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Coverage and premium rates. 1806.26 Section 1806.26... REGULATIONS INSURANCE National Flood Insurance § 1806.26 Coverage and premium rates. Exhibit A sets forth limits of coverage and chargeable premium rates under the program. Insurance policies under the...

  7. Convergence of broad-scale migration strategies in terrestrial birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Sorte, Frank A; Fink, Daniel; Hochachka, Wesley M; Kelling, Steve

    2016-01-27

    Migration is a common strategy used by birds that breed in seasonal environments. Selection for greater migration efficiency is likely to be stronger for terrestrial species whose migration strategies require non-stop transoceanic crossings. If multiple species use the same transoceanic flyway, then we expect the migration strategies of these species to converge geographically towards the most optimal solution. We test this by examining population-level migration trajectories within the Western Hemisphere for 118 migratory species using occurrence information from eBird. Geographical convergence of migration strategies was evident within specific terrestrial regions where geomorphological features such as mountains or isthmuses constrained overland migration. Convergence was also evident for transoceanic migrants that crossed the Gulf of Mexico or Atlantic Ocean. Here, annual population-level movements were characterized by clockwise looped trajectories, which resulted in faster but more circuitous journeys in the spring and more direct journeys in the autumn. These findings suggest that the unique constraints and requirements associated with transoceanic migration have promoted the spatial convergence of migration strategies. The combination of seasonal atmospheric and environmental conditions that has facilitated the use of similar broad-scale migration strategies may be especially prone to disruption under climate and land-use change. PMID:26791618

  8. Coverage and system efficiencies of insecticide-treated nets in Africa from 2000 to 2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatt, Samir; Weiss, Daniel J; Mappin, Bonnie; Dalrymple, Ursula; Cameron, Ewan; Bisanzio, Donal; Smith, David L; Moyes, Catherine L; Tatem, Andrew J; Lynch, Michael; Fergus, Cristin A; Yukich, Joshua; Bennett, Adam; Eisele, Thomas P; Kolaczinski, Jan; Cibulskis, Richard E; Hay, Simon I; Gething, Peter W

    2015-01-01

    Insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) for malaria control are widespread but coverage remains inadequate. We developed a Bayesian model using data from 102 national surveys, triangulated against delivery data and distribution reports, to generate year-by-year estimates of four ITN coverage indicators. We explored the impact of two potential 'inefficiencies': uneven net distribution among households and rapid rates of net loss from households. We estimated that, in 2013, 21% (17%–26%) of ITNs were over-allocated and this has worsened over time as overall net provision has increased. We estimated that rates of ITN loss from households are more rapid than previously thought, with 50% lost after 23 (20–28) months. We predict that the current estimate of 920 million additional ITNs required to achieve universal coverage would in reality yield a lower level of coverage (77% population access). By improving efficiency, however, the 920 million ITNs could yield population access as high as 95%. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.09672.001 PMID:26714109

  9. The environment in the headlines. Newspaper coverage of climate change and euthropication in Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyytimaeki, J.

    2009-07-01

    most important factors contributing to the increase in coverage since 2006 include international policy negotiations and mild and snowless winters. Between 2006 and 2008, other factors included the releases of major scientific reviews, expressions of concern by key actors, and the related debate on energy policy. Changes in the anthropogenic driving forces of the environmental changes, namely nutrient discharges and greenhouse gas emissions, had only a marginal impact on the level of coverage. Based on the results, it is suggested that wide-ranging climate reporting has caused what has been called a piercing effect. This means that after the phase of intense and widespread media coverage, climate issues will not disappear but will shift from highly visible environmental headlines to less visible but more pervasive background information presented in various contexts. Such a piercing effect was not identified for eutrophication. This thesis highlights the importance of taking media coverage into account as a key factor in the formulation and implementation of environmental policies aimed at broad-based actions. (orig.)

  10. Photoionisation modelling of the broad line region

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Anthea

    2016-08-01

    Two of the most fundamental questions regarding the broad line region (BLR) are "what is its structure?" and "how is it moving?" Baldwin et al. (1995) showed that by summing over an ensemble of clouds at differing densities and distances from the ionising source we can easily and naturally produce a spectrum similar to what is observed for AGN. This approach is called the `locally optimally emitting clouds' (LOC) model. This approach can also explain the well-observed stratification of emission lines in the BLR (e.g. Clavel et al. 1991, Peterson et al. 1991, Kollatschny et al. 2001) and `breathing' of BLR with changes in the continuum luminosity (Netzer & Mor 1990, Peterson et al. 2014) and is therefore a generally accepted model of the BLR. However, LOC predictions require some assumptions to be made about the distribution of the clouds within the BLR. By comparing photoionization predictions, for a distribution of cloud properties, with observed spectra we can infer something about the structure of the BLR and distribution of clouds. I use existing reverberation mapping data to constrain the structure of the BLR by observing how individual line strengths and ratios of different lines change in high and low luminosity states. I will present my initial constraints and discuss the challenges associated with the method.

  11. Neutralization of low energy broad ion beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper is devoted to experimental and theoretical investigation of a low energy broad ion beam space charge and current compensation and ion-beam plasma (IBP), which would be created in transport space of the beam. The beam had cylindrical symmetry. The continuous uniform and hole tube like ion beams are used in the experiments. Different channels of electron appearing have been investigated for cases of neutralization due to secondary γ-electrons from the target and by electrons from glow cathode-neutralizer with metal or dielectric target. Results of neutralizing electrons energy distributions function measurements are presented as well as dependences of electron temperature and self-consisted plasma potential vs. beam parameters, ambient gas pressure, neutralizer parameters. Role of the thermoelectrons and dependence of IBP parameters on neutralizer area, location and potential are discussed. Significant role in neutralization of spatial collisional processes has been revealed even in neutralization by thermocathode. On the base of the experimental results self-consistent theoretical model have been developed, which describes the behavior of intense ion beam passing through the neutral gas at low pressure within conductive walls. The collisionless approach is used which means absence of collisional relaxation of the beam. This theory is used to derive the plasma potential and electron temperature within the beam

  12. Achieving Universal Coverage; Lessons From The Experience of Other Countries for National Health Insurance Implementation in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Misnaniarti Misnaniarti

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Indonesia is not the only country that will lead to universal coverage. Several countries took an initiative to develop social security, through Universal Health Coverage (UHC to achieve health insurance and welfare for all residents. Even, some countries have already reached universal health coverage since a few years ago. The purpose of this paper is to assess the achievement of universal coverage of the health insurance implementation in several countries. In general, some countries require considerable time to achieve universal coverage. Mechanisms and stages that need attention is on the univeral registration aspects that cover the entire population, progressive and continuous funding sources, comprehensive benefits package, the expansion of gradual coverage for diseases that can cause catastrophic expenditure, increasing capacity and mobilizing supporting resource. National Health Insurance policy in some countries can improve access to care, utilization and quality of quality health services to all citizens. Indonesia is expected to learn from the experience of other countries to achieve UHC, so that the projection of the entire population of Indonesia to have health insurance in 2019 will be reached soon.

  13. Chemical information science coverage in Chemical Abstracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiggins, G

    1987-02-01

    For many years Chemical Abstracts has included in its coverage publications on chemical documentation or chemical information science. Although the bulk of those publications can be found in section 20 of Chemical Abstracts, many relevant articles were found scattered among 39 other sections of CA in 1984-1985. In addition to the scattering of references in CA, the comprehensiveness of Chemical Abstracts as a secondary source for chemical information science is called into question. Data are provided on the journals that contributed the most references on chemical information science and on the languages of publication of relevant articles.

  14. Published and unpublished evidence in coverage decision-making for pharmaceuticals in Europe: existing approaches and way forward

    OpenAIRE

    Panteli, Dimitra; Nolting, Alexandra, 1983-; Eckhardt, Helene; Kulig, Michael; Busse, Reinhard

    2016-01-01

    Background Dissemination bias occurs when only some results emerging from clinical research reach their intended audience in the knowledge translation process. Given that coverage decisions increasingly rely on evidence, it is important to explore the types of evidence considered. This paper aimed to examine the evidence base used by regulatory institutions involved in pricing and reimbursement of pharmaceuticals in a broad range of European countries, as well as their awareness of and approa...

  15. Review on dog rabies vaccination coverage in Africa: a question of dog accessibility or cost recovery?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tariku Jibat

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Rabies still poses a significant human health problem throughout most of Africa, where the majority of the human cases results from dog bites. Mass dog vaccination is considered to be the most effective method to prevent rabies in humans. Our objective was to systematically review research articles on dog rabies parenteral vaccination coverage in Africa in relation to dog accessibility and vaccination cost recovery arrangement (i.e.free of charge or owner charged.A systematic literature search was made in the databases of CAB abstracts (EBSCOhost and OvidSP, Scopus, Web of Science, PubMed, Medline (EBSCOhost and OvidSP and AJOL (African Journal Online for peer reviewed articles on 1 rabies control, 2 dog rabies vaccination coverage and 3 dog demography in Africa. Identified articles were subsequently screened and selected using predefined selection criteria like year of publication (viz. ≥ 1990, type of study (cross sectional, objective(s of the study (i.e. vaccination coverage rates, dog demographics and financial arrangements of vaccination costs, language of publication (English and geographical focus (Africa. The selection process resulted in sixteen peer reviewed articles which were used to review dog demography and dog ownership status, and dog rabies vaccination coverage throughout Africa. The main review findings indicate that 1 the majority (up to 98.1% of dogs in African countries are owned (and as such accessible, 2 puppies younger than 3 months of age constitute a considerable proportion (up to 30% of the dog population and 3 male dogs are dominating in numbers (up to 3.6 times the female dog population. Dog rabies parenteral vaccination coverage was compared between "free of charge" and "owner charged" vaccination schemes by the technique of Meta-analysis. Results indicate that the rabies vaccination coverage following a free of charge vaccination scheme (68% is closer to the World Health Organization recommended coverage rate (70

  16. Understanding the Neutron Star Population with the SKA

    CERN Document Server

    Tauris, Thomas M; Breton, Rene P; Deller, Adam T; Keane, Evan F; Kramer, Michael; Lorimer, Duncan R; McLaughlin, Maura A; Possenti, Andrea; Ray, Paul S; Stappers, Ben W; Weltevrede, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    Since their discovery in the late 1960's the population of known neutron stars (NSs) has grown to ~2500. The last five decades of observations have yielded many surprises and demonstrated that the observational properties of NSs are remarkably diverse. The surveys that will be performed with SKA (the Square Kilometre Array) will produce a further tenfold increase in the number of Galactic NSs known. Moreover, the SKA's broad spectral coverage, sub-arraying and multi-beaming capabilities will allow us to characterise these sources with unprecedented efficiency, in turn enabling a giant leap in the understanding of their properties. Here we review the NS population and outline our strategies for studying each of the growing number of diverse classes that are populating the "NS zoo". Some of the main scientific questions that will be addressed by the much larger statistical samples and vastly improved timing efficiency provided by SKA include: (i) the spin period and spin-down rate distributions (and thus magnet...

  17. Monitoring of vegetation coverage based on high-resolution images

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Li; Li Li-juan; Liang Li-qiao; Li Jiu-yi

    2007-01-01

    Measurement of vegetation coverage on a small scale is the foundation for the monitoring of changes in vegetation coverage and of the inversion model of monitoring vegetation coverage on a large scale by remote sensing. Using the object-oriented analytical software,Definiens Professional 5,a new method for calculating vegetation coverage based on high-resolution images(aerial photographs or near-surface photography)is proposed. Our research supplies references to remote sensing measurements of vegetation coverage on a small scale and accurate fundamental data for the inversion model of vegetation coverage on a large and intermediatc scale to improve the accuracy of remote sensing monitoring of changes in vegetation coverage.

  18. Unusual broad-line Mg II emitters among luminous galaxies in the baryon oscillation spectroscopic survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many classes of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) have been observed and recorded since the discovery of Seyfert galaxies. In this paper, we examine the sample of luminous galaxies in the Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey. We find a potentially new observational class of AGNs, one with strong and broad Mg II λ2799 line emission, but very weak emission in other normal indicators of AGN activity, such as the broad-line Hα, Hβ, and the near-ultraviolet AGN continuum, leading to an extreme ratio of broad Hα/Mg II flux relative to normal quasars. Meanwhile, these objects' narrow-line flux ratios reveal AGN narrow-line regions with levels of activity consistent with the Mg II fluxes and in agreement with that of normal quasars. These AGN may represent an extreme case of the Baldwin effect, with very low continuum and high equivalent width relative to typical quasars, but their ratio of broad Mg II to broad Balmer emission remains very unusual. They may also be representative of a class of AGN where the central engine is observed indirectly with scattered light. These galaxies represent a small fraction of the total population of luminous galaxies (≅ 0.1%), but are more likely (about 3.5 times) to have AGN-like nuclear line emission properties than other luminous galaxies. Because Mg II is usually inaccessible for the population of nearby galaxies, there may exist a related population of broad-line Mg II emitters in the local universe which is currently classified as narrow-line emitters (Seyfert 2 galaxies) or low ionization nuclear emission-line regions.

  19. A vaccine encoding conserved promiscuous HIV CD4 epitopes induces broad T cell responses in mice transgenic to multiple common HLA class II molecules.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan Pereira Ribeiro

    Full Text Available Current HIV vaccine approaches are focused on immunogens encoding whole HIV antigenic proteins that mainly elicit cytotoxic CD8+ responses. Mounting evidence points toward a critical role for CD4+ T cells in the control of immunodeficiency virus replication, probably due to cognate help. Vaccine-induced CD4+ T cell responses might, therefore, have a protective effect in HIV replication. In addition, successful vaccines may have to elicit responses to multiple epitopes in a high proportion of vaccinees, to match the highly variable circulating strains of HIV. Using rational vaccine design, we developed a DNA vaccine encoding 18 algorithm-selected conserved, "promiscuous" (multiple HLA-DR-binding B-subtype HIV CD4 epitopes - previously found to be frequently recognized by HIV-infected patients. We assessed the ability of the vaccine to induce broad T cell responses in the context of multiple HLA class II molecules using different strains of HLA class II- transgenic mice (-DR2, -DR4, -DQ6 and -DQ8. Mice displayed CD4+ and CD8+ T cell responses of significant breadth and magnitude, and 16 out of the 18 encoded epitopes were recognized. By virtue of inducing broad responses against conserved CD4+ T cell epitopes that can be recognized in the context of widely diverse, common HLA class II alleles, this vaccine concept may cope both with HIV genetic variability and increased population coverage. The vaccine may thus be a source of cognate help for HIV-specific CD8+ T cells elicited by conventional immunogens, in a wide proportion of vaccinees.

  20. Is expanding Medicare coverage cost-effective?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muennig Peter

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Proposals to expand Medicare coverage tend to be expensive, but the value of services purchased is not known. This study evaluates the efficiency of the average private supplemental insurance plan for Medicare recipients. Methods Data from the National Health Interview Survey, the National Death Index, and the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey were analyzed to estimate the costs, changes in life expectancy, and health-related quality of life gains associated with providing private supplemental insurance coverage for Medicare beneficiaries. Model inputs included socio-demographic, health, and health behavior characteristics. Parameter estimates from regression models were used to predict quality-adjusted life years (QALYs and costs associated with private supplemental insurance relative to Medicare only. Markov decision analysis modeling was then employed to calculate incremental cost-effectiveness ratios. Results Medicare supplemental insurance is associated with increased health care utilization, but the additional costs associated with this utilization are offset by gains in quality-adjusted life expectancy. The incremental cost-effectiveness of private supplemental insurance is approximately $24,000 per QALY gained relative to Medicare alone. Conclusion Supplemental insurance for Medicare beneficiaries is a good value, with an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio comparable to medical interventions commonly deemed worthwhile.

  1. Broad spectrum anthelmintic potential of Cassia plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Suman Kundu; Saptarshi Roy; Larisha Mawkhleing Lyndem

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To study the in vitro anthelmintic efficacy of Cassia alata (C. alata), Cassia(C. angustifolia) and Cassia occidentalis (C. occidentalis). angustifolia Methods: Crude ethanol extract from leaves of the three plants were prepared in rotary evaporator and different concentrations (10, 20 and 40 mg/mL) of leaf extracts were used for treatment on different representatives of helminthes (Heterakis gallinarum, Raillietina tetragona and Catatropis sp.) from domestic fowl (Gallus gallus domesticus). Loss of motility and death were monitored frequently.Results: C. alata showed early paralysis in all worms treated followed by C. angustifolia. C. occidentalis in combination with C. alata together caused early paralysis in all treated worms than the combination of C. alata with C. angustfolia. While Heterakis gallinarum in control survived for (81.33±2.07) h, treated worms lost their motility at (5.71±0.10) h, (6.60±0.86) h and (13.95±0.43) h with C. angustifolia, C. alata and C. occidentalis respectively at a concentration of 40 mg/mL which showed better efficacy than albendazole. Catatropis sp. survival period was (26.49±1.38) h in control, but with plant treatment, it lost its motility in just (0.57±0.08) h, (1.00±0.12) h and (1.47±0.40) h at 40 mg/mL concentration of C. alata, C. angustifolia and C. occidentalis respectively.Raillietina tetragona on the other hand became paralysed at (1.68±0.27) h, (2.95±0.29) h and (4.13±0.31) h with above concentrations treated with three plants respectively, however in control it survived up to (81.93±4.71) h.Conclusions:This present study indicated broad spectrum vermifugal activity of all plants tested.

  2. Health Care as Commons: An Indigenous Approach to Universal Health Coverage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young Soon Wong

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Modern health care systems of today are predominantly derived from Western models and are either state owned or under private ownership. Government, through their health policies, generally aim to facilitate access for the majority of the population through the design of their health systems. However, there are communities, such as Indigenous peoples, who do not necessarily fall under the formal protection of state systems. Throughout history, these societies have developed different ways to provide health care to its population. These health care systems are held and managed under different property regimes with their attendant advantages and disadvantages. This article investigates the gaps in health coverage among Indigenous peoples using the Malaysian Indigenous peoples as a case study. It conceptually examines a commons approach to health care systems through a study of the traditional health care system of indigenous peoples and suggests how such an approach can help close this gap in the remaining gaps of universal health coverage.

  3. Another health insurance gap: gaining and losing coverage among natives and immigrants at older ages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, Adriana M; Hardy, Melissa

    2014-01-01

    As the immigrant population grows older and larger, limitations on access to health insurance may create a new subgroup of people who remain outside or on the margin of coverage. Using the Survey of Income and Program Participation (SIPP) data from the 2004 and 2008 panels, we address the health insurance gap between foreign-born and native-born adults among those aged 50-64 and the 65 and older, two sub-populations that have received relatively little attention in past research. We argue that current practices leave a significant minority of older foreign-born residents inconsistently covered or without any insurance. We find that health insurance coverage for older immigrants is both less likely and more episodic even when compositional differences in SES and assimilation are controlled. PMID:24267758

  4. Validation, automatic generation and use of broad phonetic transcriptions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bael, Cristophe Patrick Jan Van

    2007-01-01

    Broad phonetic transcriptions represent the pronunciation of words as strings of characters from specifically designed symbol sets. In everyday life, broad phonetic transcriptions are often used as aids to pronounce (foreign) words. In addition, broad phonetic transcriptions are often used for lingu

  5. Accuracy of Coverage Survey Recall following an Integrated Mass Drug Administration for Lymphatic Filariasis, Schistosomiasis, and Soil-Transmitted Helminthiasis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip J Budge

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Achieving target coverage levels for mass drug administration (MDA is essential to elimination and control efforts for several neglected tropical diseases (NTD. To ensure program goals are met, coverage reported by drug distributors may be validated through household coverage surveys that rely on respondent recall. This is the first study to assess accuracy in such surveys.Recall accuracy was tested in a series of coverage surveys conducted at 1, 6, and 12 months after an integrated MDA in Togo during which three drugs (albendazole, ivermectin, and praziquantel were distributed. Drug distribution was observed during the MDA to ensure accurate recording of persons treated during the MDA. Information was obtained for 506, 1131, and 947 persons surveyed at 1, 6, and 12 months, respectively. Coverage (defined as the percentage of persons taking at least one of the MDA medications within these groups was respectively 88.3%, 87.4%, and 80.0%, according to the treatment registers; it was 87.9%, 91.4% and 89.4%, according to survey responses. Concordance between respondents and registers on swallowing at least one pill was >95% at 1 month and >86% at 12 months; the lower concordance at 12 months was more likely due to difficulty matching survey respondents with the year-old treatment register rather than inaccurate responses. Respondents generally distinguished between pills similar in appearance; concordance for recall of which pills were taken was over 80% in each survey.In this population, coverage surveys provided remarkably consistent coverage estimates for up to one year following an integrated MDA. It is not clear if similar consistency will be seen in other settings, however, these data suggest that in some settings coverage surveys might be conducted as much as one year following an MDA without compromising results. This might enable integration of post-MDA coverage measurement into large, multipurpose, periodic surveys, thereby conserving

  6. Effect of universal health coverage on marriage, cohabitation and labor force participation

    OpenAIRE

    Azuara, Oliver

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the impact of universal health coverage on cohabitation, marriage, and labor force participation. Economic gains from marriage when non-labor income increases among partners. I use the expansion of non-contributory health insurance in Mexico to test this. This insurance scheme, called Seguro Popular (SP), provides a minimum set of health benefits to the population not covered by formal social security. The rollout of SP started in 2002 across municipalities. This variation...

  7. The Impact of Nearly Universal Insurance Coverage on Health Care Utilization: Evidence from Medicare

    OpenAIRE

    David Card; Carlos Dobkin; Nicole Maestas

    2008-01-01

    The onset of Medicare eligibility at age 65 leads to sharp changes in the health insurance coverage of the US population. These changes lead to increases in the use of medical services, with a pattern of gains across socioeconomic groups that varies by type of service. While routine doctor visits increase more for groups that previously lacked insurance, hospital admissions for relatively expensive procedures like bypass surgery and joint replacement increase more for previously insured group...

  8. Urban health insurance reform and coverage in China using data from National Health Services Surveys in 1998 and 2003

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Collins Charles D

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In 1997 there was a major reform of the government run urban health insurance system in China. The principal aims of the reform were to widen coverage of health insurance for the urban employed and contain medical costs. Following this reform there has been a transition from the dual system of the Government Insurance Scheme (GIS and Labour Insurance Scheme (LIS to the new Urban Employee Basic Health Insurance Scheme (BHIS. Methods This paper uses data from the National Health Services Surveys of 1998 and 2003 to examine the impact of the reform on population coverage. Particular attention is paid to coverage in terms of gender, age, employment status, and income levels. Following a description of the data between the two years, the paper will discuss the relationship between the insurance reform and the growing inequities in population coverage. Results An examination of the data reveals a number of key points: a The overall coverage of the newly established scheme has decreased from 1998 to 2003. b The proportion of the urban population without any type of health insurance arrangement remained almost the same between 1998 and 2003 in spite of the aim of the 1997 reform to increase the population coverage. c Higher levels of participation in mainstream insurance schemes (i.e. GIS-LIS and BHIS were identified among older age groups, males and high income groups. In some cases, the inequities in the system are increasing. d There has been an increase in coverage of the urban population by non-mainstream health insurance schemes, including non-commercial and commercial ones. The paper discusses three important issues in relation to urban insurance coverage: institutional diversity in the forms of insurance, labour force policy and the non-mainstream forms of commercial and non-commercial forms of insurance. Conclusion The paper concludes that the huge economic development and expansion has not resulted in a reduced disparity in

  9. Broad-Spectrum Solution-Processed Photovoltaics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ip, Alexander Halley

    High global demand for energy coupled with dwindling fossil fuel supply has driven the development of sustainable energy sources such as solar photovoltaics. Emerging solar technologies aim for low-cost, solution-processable materials which would allow wide deployment. Colloidal quantum dots (CQDs) are such a materials system which exhibits the ability to absorb across the entire solar spectrum, including in the infrared where many technologies cannot harvest photons. However, due to their nanocrystalline nature, CQDs are susceptible to surface-associated electronic traps which greatly inhibit performance. In this thesis, surface engineering of CQDs is presented through a combined ligand approach which improves the passivation of surface trap states. A metal halide treatment is found to passivate quantum dot surfaces in solution, while bifunctional organic ligands produce a dense film in solid state. This approach reduced midgap trap states fivefold compared with conventional passivation strategies and led to solar cells with a record certified 7.0% power conversion efficiency. The effect of this process on the electronic structure is studied through photoelectron spectroscopy. It is found that while the halide provides deep trap passivation, the nature of the metal cation on the CQD surface affects the density of band tail states. This effect is explored further through a wide survey of materials, and it is found that the coordination ability of the metal cation is responsible for the suppression of shallow traps. With this understanding of CQD surface passivation, broad spectral usage is then explored through a study of visible-absorbing organolead halide perovskite materials as well as narrow-bandgap CQD solar cells. Control over growth conditions and modification of electrode interfaces resulted in efficient perovskite devices with effective usages of visible photons. For infrared-absorbing CQDs, it is found that, in addition to providing surface trap

  10. Cobertura e fatores associados à realização do exame de detecção do câncer de colo de útero em área urbana no Sul do Brasil: estudo de base populacional Cervical cancer screening coverage and associated factors in a city in southern Brazil: a population-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Iara Gasperin

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available A cobertura do teste de Papanicolaou e fatores associados foram investigados entre mulheres de 20 a 59 anos de idade, residentes na área urbana de Florianópolis, Santa Catarina, Brasil. Foi realizado estudo transversal de base populacional com amostra aleatória por conglomerados. Examinaram-se dois desfechos: realização do Papanicolaou em algum momento na vida e exames em atraso (período maior que três anos desde o último teste ou nunca realizado. Entre 952 mulheres entrevistadas, 93% (IC95%: 91,5-94,7 realizaram o teste pelo menos uma vez na vida e 14% (IC95%: 11,8-16,2 estavam com o procedimento em atraso. Por meio da regressão de Poisson, constatou-se que estado civil, escolaridade, doenças crônicas autorreferidas e consulta médica foram fatores significativamente associados com ambos os desfechos. Idade, renda e internação hospitalar no último ano estiveram associadas somente com a realização do Papanicolaou na vida. A cobertura do teste de Papanicolaou foi elevada, porém existem disparidades socioeconômicas e demográficas, além do predomínio do rastreamento oportunístico.This study focused on coverage of screening for cervical cancer and associated factors in women 20 to 59 years of age in Florianópolis, Santa Catarina State, Brazil, in 2009. This was a cross-sectional study using cluster random sampling. Two outcomes were examined: a history of at least one Papanicolaou test and delaying the test (never performed or performed more than three years previously. Among 952 women, 93% (95%CI: 91.5-94.7 had ever had a Pap smear, whereas 14% (95%CI: 11.8-16.2 had delayed the test. According to Poisson regression, both outcomes were associated with marital status, schooling, presence of chronic disease, and consulting a physician for other reasons. Age, income, and hospitalization in the previous year were only associated with ever having a Pap smear. Although test coverage was high, much of the screening was opportunistic

  11. Ecosystem Evapotranspiration as a Response to Climate and Vegetation Coverage Changes in Northwest Yunnan, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Yang

    Full Text Available Climate and human-driven changes play an important role in regional droughts. Northwest Yunnan Province is a key region for biodiversity conservation in China, and it has experienced severe droughts since the beginning of this century; however, the extent of the contributions from climate and human-driven changes remains unclear. We calculated the ecosystem evapotranspiration (ET and water yield (WY of northwest Yunnan Province, China from 2001 to 2013 using meteorological and remote sensing observation data and a Surface Energy Balance System (SEBS model. Multivariate regression analyses were used to differentiate the contribution of climate and vegetation coverage to ET. The results showed that the annual average vegetation coverage significantly increased over time with a mean of 0.69 in spite of the precipitation fluctuation. Afforestation/reforestation and other management efforts attributed to vegetation coverage increase in NW Yunnan. Both ET and WY considerably fluctuated with the climate factors, which ranged from 623.29 mm to 893.8 mm and -51.88 mm to 384.40 mm over the time period. Spatially, ET in the southeast of NW Yunnan (mainly in Lijiang increased significantly, which was in line with the spatial trend of vegetation coverage. Multivariate linear regression analysis indicated that climatic factors accounted for 85.18% of the ET variation, while vegetation coverage explained 14.82%. On the other hand, precipitation accounted for 67.5% of the WY. We conclude that the continuous droughts in northwest Yunnan were primarily climatically driven; however, man-made land cover and vegetation changes also increased the vulnerability of local populations to drought. Because of the high proportion of the water yield consumed for subsistence and poor infrastructure for water management, local populations have been highly vulnerable to climate drought conditions. We suggest that conservation of native vegetation and development of water

  12. A simple EHF hemispheric coverage antenna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, J. C.

    1994-08-01

    A circulary polarized, axially symmetric, wide-beam radiator is required in many applications, including TT&C for UAV's and satellites. This report discusses some existing wide-beam antenna designs including divergent lenses and reflectors and introduces a new antenna design. Using a simple dielectric ring in conjunction with a dielectric loaded circular waveguide opening, a near ideal, axially symmetric, hemispheric coverage antenna with circular polarization of good axial ratio and wide-band impedance match is realized. Mechanically, the antenna is small, lightweight, and low cost. The dielectric used is the common Rexolite. Since no lossy materials or resonant scatterers are used, the antenna performance is inherently broadband and low loss. A K sub a-band prototype as well as compact designs for both Q- and K-bands are described.

  13. The adequacy of college health insurance coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McManus, M; Brauer, M; Weader, R; Newacheck, P

    1991-01-01

    This analysis of private health insurance plans offered in 100 four-year colleges and universities in 1988 indicates a tremendous diversity in plan options, benefits covered, cost-sharing requirements, and catastrophic protections. Consistent with relatively low premium prices, most student health insurance plans offer limited benefits and expose students to significant out-of-pocket medical cost liabilities. Only a minority of schools use financial incentives, such as preferred provider arrangements, to integrate their health insurance plans with their university health service system. We conclude that universities should carefully reexamine the adequacy of their health insurance plans and their relationship to student health centers. As more students rely on student health insurance as their only source of coverage, the quality of these plans assumes an even greater importance.

  14. [Pilot study on compulsory vaccination coverage].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grandolfo, M E; Lauria, L; Medda, E; Bucciarelli, M; Andreozzi, S; Salinetti, S; Sitzia, G; Bernacchia, R

    1999-01-01

    The disappearance of diphtheria and poliomyelitis is the best evidence of the efficacy of the vaccination strategies adopted in Italy. The active offer of the prophylaxis, reinforced by law, has characterised the operational aspects of the strategy. The active surveillance system is the main tool to take under control the effectiveness of health services responsible for vaccination. This system could be more easily implemented if the health services will be given a specific software aiming to handle and evaluate vaccination registers. The present pilot study, performed in the regions Marche and Sardegna, is an example of active surveillance and it is based on the ARVA software produced by the Istituto Superiore di Sanità. The results show a good level of coverage (> 95%) within the second year of life. Unsatisfactory results were obtained on the timing of vaccinations, as recommended by the vaccination schedule, mostly for the third doses.

  15. Public health challenges for universal health coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathy, Radha Madhab

    2014-01-01

    The effective functioning of any health system requires an efficient public health service. Every human being has the right to enjoy "the highest attainable standard of health," which can be fulfilled by giving every man an affordable and equitable health system he deserves and demands. In these years, complex health changes have complicated the situation in India. Most important gaps in the health care include an understanding of the burden of the disease and what leads to and causes ill health, the availability and use of appropriate technology in the management of disease, ill health and health systems that have an impact on service delivery. Universal Health Coverage (UHC) has the potential to increase economic growth, improve educational opportunities, reduce impoverishment and inequalities, and foster social cohesion. Steps taken for achieving UHC will address the public health challenges and vice versa. PMID:25116820

  16. Deflection analysis of rectangular spatial coverage truss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.N. Kirsanov

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available An elastic spatial statically determinate truss of regular type, simulating the rectangular in plan coverage was considered. In the plane of the base the truss has two axes of symmetry. Four support structures (spherical hinge, cylindrical hinge and two vertical rods are located at its corners. An analytic solution was found for forces in the rods of the truss. Using the Maxwell-Mohr’s formula, the dependence of the deflection of the center was discovered in the truss under the influence of the concentrated force. There are five parameters of the problem in this formula: three linear dimensions, and the numbers of hinges on its lateral sides. To determine the desired patterns by means of the computer mathematics system Maple the recursion task by two parameters was solved. It was shown that dependence of the deflection on the number of panels and height of the truss detects a minimum, allowing optimizing the size of the structure.

  17. Angular dependence of the facular-sunspot coverage relation as derived by MDI magnetograms

    CERN Document Server

    Criscuoli, Serena

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that the variation over the solar magnetic activity cycle of the area of facular/network features identified on broad band and narrow band imagery is positively correlated with the sunspot area and number, the relation between the area coverages being described as either linear or quadratic. On the other hand, the temporal variation of the spatial distributions of faculae, network and sunspots follows patterns that are less obviously correlated, so that we expect the relation that describes variation of the area coverage of different types of magnetic features to vary with the position over the disk. In this work we employ MDI full-disk magnetograms acquired during Cycle 23 and at the beginning of Cycle 24 to investigate the relation between the coverage of magnetic elements characterized by different amounts of magnetic flux and located at different angular distances from disk center with the sunspot number. In agreement with some previous studies we find that daily data are best ...

  18. AGE Percent Females by Broad Age Groups NMSD 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  19. AGE Percent Males by Broad Age Groups NMSD 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  20. AGE Percent Persons by Broad Age Groups NMSD 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  1. AGE Percent Persons by Broad Age Groups NMHD 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  2. AGE Percent Males by Broad Age Groups NMHD 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  3. AGE Percent Females by Broad Age Groups NMHD 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  4. Determinants of immunization coverage in Lucknow district

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pratibha Gupta

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Immunization remains one of the most important public health interventions and a cost-effective strategy to reduce both the morbidity and mortality associated with infectious diseases. Over two million deaths are delayed through immunization each year worldwide. Aims: This study sought to identify specific factors associated with immunization coverage in order to advance improved intervention, policies/strategies therefore raising overall immunization coverage. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among a total of 198 children aged 12-23 months at Urban Health and Training Centre (UHTC, Era′s Lucknow Medical College, Lucknow, over a period of 6 months i.e., from July 2012-December 2012. Data were collected, compiled and tabulated using Microsoft Excel and analyzed using SPSS 17.0 version. Results: A total of 198 children of age 12-23 months were included in this study, of which 74.7% of children were fully immunized, 11.1% were partially immunized and 14.1% were not immunized at all. The most common reason for partial or non-immunization was family problems (24% of the respondents followed by lack of knowledge of immunization (20%, and fear of side effects (16%. The odds of risk of partial/non-immunization in illiterate women is 5.78 more than the graduate women (P = 0.039. Conclusions: Although in the present study, majority of the children were immunized, it is still not up to the mark. We have to make it 100%, so that we can reduce mortality due to vaccine-preventable diseases. Increasing awareness and reducing fear of side effects of immunization among parents through health education, counseling, etc. can increase the percentage of immunized children.

  5. Defining Key Features of the Broad Autism Phenotype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Losh, Molly; Childress, Debra; Lam, Kristen; Piven, Joseph

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the frequency of personality, language, and social-behavioral characteristics believed to comprise the broad autism phenotype (BAP), across families differing in genetic liability to autism. We hypothesized that within this unique sample comprised of multiple-incidence autism families (MIAF), single-incidence autism families (SIAF), and control Down syndrome families (DWNS), a graded expression would be observed for the principal characteristics conferring genetic susceptibility to autism, in which such features would express most profoundly among parents from MIAFs, less strongly among SIAFs, and least of all among comparison parents from DWNS families, who should display population base rates. Analyses detected linear expression of traits in line with hypotheses, and further suggested differential intrafamilial expression across family types. In the vast majority of MIAFs both parents displayed BAP characteristics, whereas within SIAFs, it was equally likely that one, both, or neither parent show BAP features. The significance of these findings is discussed in relation to etiologic mechanisms in autism and relevance to molecular genetic studies. PMID:17948871

  6. Enhanced methanol production in plants provides broad spectrum insect resistance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sameer Dixit

    Full Text Available Plants naturally emit methanol as volatile organic compound. Methanol is toxic to insect pests; but the quantity produced by most of the plants is not enough to protect them against invading insect pests. In the present study, we demonstrated that the over-expression of pectin methylesterase, derived from Arabidopsis thaliana and Aspergillus niger, in transgenic tobacco plants enhances methanol production and resistance to polyphagous insect pests. Methanol content in the leaves of transgenic plants was measured using proton nuclear spectroscopy (1H NMR and spectra showed up to 16 fold higher methanol as compared to control wild type (WT plants. A maximum of 100 and 85% mortality in chewing insects Helicoverpa armigera and Spodoptera litura larvae was observed, respectively when fed on transgenic plants leaves. The surviving larvae showed less feeding, severe growth retardation and could not develop into pupae. In-planta bioassay on transgenic lines showed up to 99 and 75% reduction in the population multiplication of plant sap sucking pests Myzus persicae (aphid and Bemisia tabaci (whitefly, respectively. Most of the phenotypic characters of transgenic plants were similar to WT plants. Confocal microscopy showed no deformities in cellular integrity, structure and density of stomata and trichomes of transgenic plants compared to WT. Pollen germination and tube formation was also not affected in transgenic plants. Cell wall enzyme transcript levels were comparable with WT. This study demonstrated for the first time that methanol emission can be utilized for imparting broad range insect resistance in plants.

  7. Biodiversity inhibits parasites: Broad evidence for the dilution effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Civitello, David J; Cohen, Jeremy; Fatima, Hiba; Halstead, Neal T; Liriano, Josue; McMahon, Taegan A; Ortega, C Nicole; Sauer, Erin Louise; Sehgal, Tanya; Young, Suzanne; Rohr, Jason R

    2015-07-14

    Infectious diseases of humans, wildlife, and domesticated species are increasing worldwide, driving the need to understand the mechanisms that shape outbreaks. Simultaneously, human activities are drastically reducing biodiversity. These concurrent patterns have prompted repeated suggestions that biodiversity and disease are linked. For example, the dilution effect hypothesis posits that these patterns are causally related; diverse host communities inhibit the spread of parasites via several mechanisms, such as by regulating populations of susceptible hosts or interfering with parasite transmission. However, the generality of the dilution effect hypothesis remains controversial, especially for zoonotic diseases of humans. Here we provide broad evidence that host diversity inhibits parasite abundance using a meta-analysis of 202 effect sizes on 61 parasite species. The magnitude of these effects was independent of host density, study design, and type and specialization of parasites, indicating that dilution was robust across all ecological contexts examined. However, the magnitude of dilution was more closely related to the frequency, rather than density, of focal host species. Importantly, observational studies overwhelmingly documented dilution effects, and there was also significant evidence for dilution effects of zoonotic parasites of humans. Thus, dilution effects occur commonly in nature, and they may modulate human disease risk. A second analysis identified similar effects of diversity in plant-herbivore systems. Thus, although there can be exceptions, our results indicate that biodiversity generally decreases parasitism and herbivory. Consequently, anthropogenic declines in biodiversity could increase human and wildlife diseases and decrease crop and forest production.

  8. Temporal trend of green space coverage in China and its relationship with urbanization over the last two decades

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Juanjuan, E-mail: jjzhao@iue.ac.cn [Key Lab of Urban Environment and Health, Institute of Urban Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 1799 Jimei Road, Xiamen 361021 (China); Xiamen Key Lab of Urban Metabolism, 1799 Jimei Road, Xiamen 361021 (China); Chen, Shengbin, E-mail: chainpin@yahoo.com.cn [Nanjing Institute of Environmental Sciences, Ministry of Environmental Protection, 8 Jiangwangmiao Street, Nanjing 210042 (China); Jiang, Bo, E-mail: jbshuibao415@126.com [State Key Laboratory of Urban and Regional Ecology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 2871, Beijing 100085 (China); Ren, Yin, E-mail: yren@iue.ac.cn [Key Lab of Urban Environment and Health, Institute of Urban Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 1799 Jimei Road, Xiamen 361021 (China); Xiamen Key Lab of Urban Metabolism, 1799 Jimei Road, Xiamen 361021 (China); Wang, Hua, E-mail: wanghuaphd@gmail.com [Institute of Forestry and Pomology, Beijing Academy of Agriculture and Forestry Sciences, Ruiwangfen Jia 12 Xiangshan, Beijing 100093 (China); Vause, Jonathan, E-mail: jonathanvause@hotmail.com [Key Lab of Urban Environment and Health, Institute of Urban Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 1799 Jimei Road, Xiamen 361021 (China); Xiamen Key Lab of Urban Metabolism, 1799 Jimei Road, Xiamen 361021 (China); Yu, Haidong, E-mail: hoste@163.com [Xiamen Huaxia Vocational College, Wenjiaoqu Jimei District, Xiamen 361024 (China)

    2013-01-01

    2009. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cities in the same region exhibited long-term similar trends of development. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Population, land area and GDP significantly affected green space coverage. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Per capita GDP had the highest independent contribution to green space coverage. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A linear model to predict variance in green space was constructed.

  9. Temporal trend of green space coverage in China and its relationship with urbanization over the last two decades

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    region exhibited long-term similar trends of development. ► Population, land area and GDP significantly affected green space coverage. ► Per capita GDP had the highest independent contribution to green space coverage. ► A linear model to predict variance in green space was constructed.

  10. Target Coverage in Wireless Sensor Networks with Probabilistic Sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, Anxing; Xu, Xianghua; Cheng, Zongmao

    2016-01-01

    Sensing coverage is a fundamental problem in wireless sensor networks (WSNs), which has attracted considerable attention. Conventional research on this topic focuses on the 0/1 coverage model, which is only a coarse approximation to the practical sensing model. In this paper, we study the target coverage problem, where the objective is to find the least number of sensor nodes in randomly-deployed WSNs based on the probabilistic sensing model. We analyze the joint detection probability of target with multiple sensors. Based on the theoretical analysis of the detection probability, we formulate the minimum ϵ-detection coverage problem. We prove that the minimum ϵ-detection coverage problem is NP-hard and present an approximation algorithm called the Probabilistic Sensor Coverage Algorithm (PSCA) with provable approximation ratios. To evaluate our design, we analyze the performance of PSCA theoretically and also perform extensive simulations to demonstrate the effectiveness of our proposed algorithm. PMID:27618902

  11. The Web Application Test Based on Page Coverage Criteria

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAI Li-zhi; TONG Wei-qin; YANG Gen-xing

    2008-01-01

    Software testing coverage criteria play an important role in the whole testing process. The current coverage criteria for web applications are based on program or URL. They are not suitable for black-box test or intuitional to use. This paper defines a kind of test criteria based on page coverage sequences only navigated by web application, including Page_Single, Page_Post, Page_Pre,Page_Seq2, Page_SeqK. The test criteria based on page coverage sequences made by interactions between web application and browser are being under consideration after that. In order to avoid ambiguity of natural language, these coverage criteria are depicted using Z formal language. The empirical result shows that the criteria complement traditional coverage and fault detection capability criteria.

  12. Health-financing reforms in southeast Asia: challenges in achieving universal coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tangcharoensathien, Viroj; Patcharanarumol, Walaiporn; Ir, Por; Aljunid, Syed Mohamed; Mukti, Ali Ghufron; Akkhavong, Kongsap; Banzon, Eduardo; Huong, Dang Boi; Thabrany, Hasbullah; Mills, Anne

    2011-03-01

    In this sixth paper of the Series, we review health-financing reforms in seven countries in southeast Asia that have sought to reduce dependence on out-of-pocket payments, increase pooled health finance, and expand service use as steps towards universal coverage. Laos and Cambodia, both resource-poor countries, have mostly relied on donor-supported health equity funds to reach the poor, and reliable funding and appropriate identification of the eligible poor are two major challenges for nationwide expansion. For Thailand, the Philippines, Indonesia, and Vietnam, social health insurance financed by payroll tax is commonly used for formal sector employees (excluding Malaysia), with varying outcomes in terms of financial protection. Alternative payment methods have different implications for provider behaviour and financial protection. Two alternative approaches for financial protection of the non-poor outside the formal sector have emerged-contributory arrangements and tax-financed schemes-with different abilities to achieve high population coverage rapidly. Fiscal space and mobilisation of payroll contributions are both important in accelerating financial protection. Expanding coverage of good-quality services and ensuring adequate human resources are also important to achieve universal coverage. As health-financing reform is complex, institutional capacity to generate evidence and inform policy is essential and should be strengthened. PMID:21269682

  13. Estimation and Comparison of Immunization Coverage under Different Sampling Methods for Health Surveys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. C. Nath

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Immunization currently averts an estimated 2-3 million deaths every year in all age groups. Hepatitis B is a major public health problem worldwide. In this study, the estimates of hepatitis B vaccine coverage are compared among three sampling plans namely, 30×30 sampling and 30×7 sampling method under cluster sampling and systematic random sampling schemes. The data has been taken from the survey “Comparison of Two Survey Methodologies to Estimate Total Vaccination Coverage” sponsored by Indian Council of Medical Research, New Delhi. It is observed that the estimations of proportions of this vaccination coverage are significantly not different at 5% level of probability. Both 30×30 sampling and 30×7 sampling will be preferred to systematic sampling in estimation of hepatitis B vaccine coverage for this study population because of quick estimation and lesser cost. The 30×7 cluster sampling is the most recommended method for such immunization coverage especially in a developing country.

  14. [Anti-pneumococcal vaccine coverage for hospitalized risk patients: Assessment and suggestions for improvements].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard, C; Le Garlantezec, P; Lamand, V; Rasamijao, V; Rapp, C

    2016-05-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae can cause invasive infections. Incidence and severity are linked to patients' risk factors. Due to the resistance to leading antibiotics, the anti-pneumococcal vaccination has become a major public health issue. The purpose of this survey was to evaluate the anti-pneumococcal vaccine coverage in a population of adults with risk factors. This was a prospective study that included patients with at least one recommendation for pneumococcal vaccination as indicated by the Weekly Epidemiological Bulletin (BEH), to which three further US recommendations were added (diabetes, obesity and age>65years). One hundred and thirty-four patients with an average age of 70 years were included. The physician could only confirm 68 % of the patients' vaccination status. Vaccination coverage as recommended by the BEH board was 30 % (n=54). All HIV patients were vaccinated (n=2) and the vaccination coverage was 75 % (n=8) for patients treated for autoimmune diseases and only 10 % (n=20) for patients treated with chemotherapy. Patients with no vaccination didn't know the existence of the vaccine or didn't know that vaccination was recommended to them. This study has highlighted a deficit in pneumococcal vaccination coverage and a high level of ignorance of the existence of recommended vaccination. In addition to awareness campaign for patients and caregiver training, the expansion of the vaccine e-book utilization could improve the vaccination status. PMID:26619926

  15. Genome-based polymorphic microsatellite development and validation in the mosquito Aedes aegypti and application to population genetics in Haiti

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Streit Thomas G

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Microsatellite markers have proven useful in genetic studies in many organisms, yet microsatellite-based studies of the dengue and yellow fever vector mosquito Aedes aegypti have been limited by the number of assayable and polymorphic loci available, despite multiple independent efforts to identify them. Here we present strategies for efficient identification and development of useful microsatellites with broad coverage across the Aedes aegypti genome, development of multiplex-ready PCR groups of microsatellite loci, and validation of their utility for population analysis with field collections from Haiti. Results From 79 putative microsatellite loci representing 31 motifs identified in 42 whole genome sequence supercontig assemblies in the Aedes aegypti genome, 33 microsatellites providing genome-wide coverage amplified as single copy sequences in four lab strains, with a range of 2-6 alleles per locus. The tri-nucleotide motifs represented the majority (51% of the polymorphic single copy loci, and none of these was located within a putative open reading frame. Seven groups of 4-5 microsatellite loci each were developed for multiplex-ready PCR. Four multiplex-ready groups were used to investigate population genetics of Aedes aegypti populations sampled in Haiti. Of the 23 loci represented in these groups, 20 were polymorphic with a range of 3-24 alleles per locus (mean = 8.75. Allelic polymorphic information content varied from 0.171 to 0.867 (mean = 0.545. Most loci met Hardy-Weinberg expectations across populations and pairwise FST comparisons identified significant genetic differentiation between some populations. No evidence for genetic isolation by distance was observed. Conclusion Despite limited success in previous reports, we demonstrate that the Aedes aegypti genome is well-populated with single copy, polymorphic microsatellite loci that can be uncovered using the strategy developed here for rapid and efficient

  16. POPULATION Total Population NMHD 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  17. POPULATION Total Population NMSD 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  18. MEASURING C PROGRAM COVERAGE BASED ON BINARY DECISION DIAGRAMS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shi Liang; Xu Baowen; Chen Lin

    2005-01-01

    Test coverage analysis is a structural testing technique, which helps to evaluate the sufficiency of software testing. This letter presents two test generation algorithms based on binary decision diagrams to produce tests for the Multiple-Condition Criterion(M-CC) and the Modified Condition/Decision Criterion(MC/DC), and describes the design of the C program Coverage Measurement Tool (CCMT), which can record dynamic behaviors of C programs and quantify test coverage.

  19. Full predicate coverage for testing SQL database queries

    OpenAIRE

    Tuya González, Pablo Javier; Suárez Cabal, María José; Riva Álvarez, Claudio A. de la

    2010-01-01

    In the field of database applications a considerable part of the business logic is implemented using a semi-declarative language: the Structured Query Language (SQL). Because of the different semantics of SQL compared to other procedural languages, the conventional coverage criteria for testing are not directly applicable. This paper presents a criterion specifically tailored for SQL queries (SQLFpc). It is based on Masking Modified Condition Decision Coverage (MCDC) or Full Predicate Coverag...

  20. Pricing of Drugs with Heterogeneous Health Insurance Coverage

    OpenAIRE

    Paul Missios; Ida Ferrara

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we examine the role of insurance coverage in explaining the generic competition paradox in a two-stage game involving a single producer of brand-name drugs and n quantity-competing producers of generic drugs. Independently of brand loyalty, which some studies rely upon to explain the paradox, we show that heterogene- ity in insurance coverage may result in higher prices of brand-name drugs following generic entry. With market segmentation based on insurance coverage present in ...

  1. Retrieval of Melt Pond Coverage from MODIS using Optimal Estimation

    OpenAIRE

    Dodd, Emma

    2011-01-01

    Melt pond coverage on sea ice is an important influence on sea ice albedo reduction during the summer and can also affect the monitoring of sea ice extent, sea ice models and sea ice forecasting. Techniques to estimate melt pond coverage from global satellites have been developed in order to provide large scale information on melt ponds, but these techniques have limitations. In this study a new approach to estimating melt pond coverage from MODIS data was developed, based on Optimal Estimati...

  2. Periosteal Pedicle Flap Harvested during Vestibular Extension for Root Coverage

    OpenAIRE

    Shubham Kumar; Krishna Kumar Gupta; Rahul Agrawal; Pratima Srivastava; Shalabh Soni

    2015-01-01

    Root exposure along with inadequate vestibular depth is a common clinical finding. Treatment option includes many techniques to treat such defects for obtaining predictable root coverage. Normally, the vestibular depth is increased first followed by a second surgery for root coverage. The present case report describes a single-stage technique for vestibular extension and root coverage in a single tooth by using the Periosteal Pedicle Flap (PPF). This technique involves no donor site morbidity...

  3. An assessment of progress towards universal health coverage in Brazil, Russia, India, China, and South Africa (BRICS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marten, Robert; McIntyre, Diane; Travassos, Claudia; Shishkin, Sergey; Longde, Wang; Reddy, Srinath; Vega, Jeanette

    2014-12-13

    Brazil, Russia, India, China, and South Africa (BRICS) represent almost half the world's population, and all five national governments recently committed to work nationally, regionally, and globally to ensure that universal health coverage (UHC) is achieved. This analysis reviews national efforts to achieve UHC. With a broad range of health indicators, life expectancy (ranging from 53 years to 73 years), and mortality rate in children younger than 5 years (ranging from 10·3 to 44·6 deaths per 1000 livebirths), a review of progress in each of the BRICS countries shows that each has some way to go before achieving UHC. The BRICS countries show substantial, and often similar, challenges in moving towards UHC. On the basis of a review of each country, the most pressing problems are: raising insufficient public spending; stewarding mixed private and public health systems; ensuring equity; meeting the demands for more human resources; managing changing demographics and disease burdens; and addressing the social determinants of health. Increases in public funding can be used to show how BRICS health ministries could accelerate progress to achieve UHC. Although all the BRICS countries have devoted increased resources to health, the biggest increase has been in China, which was probably facilitated by China's rapid economic growth. However, the BRICS country with the second highest economic growth, India, has had the least improvement in public funding for health. Future research to understand such different levels of prioritisation of the health sector in these countries could be useful. Similarly, the role of strategic purchasing in working with powerful private sectors, the effect of federal structures, and the implications of investment in primary health care as a foundation for UHC could be explored. These issues could serve as the basis on which BRICS countries focus their efforts to share ideas and strategies. PMID:24793339

  4. An assessment of progress towards universal health coverage in Brazil, Russia, India, China, and South Africa (BRICS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marten, Robert; McIntyre, Diane; Travassos, Claudia; Shishkin, Sergey; Longde, Wang; Reddy, Srinath; Vega, Jeanette

    2014-12-13

    Brazil, Russia, India, China, and South Africa (BRICS) represent almost half the world's population, and all five national governments recently committed to work nationally, regionally, and globally to ensure that universal health coverage (UHC) is achieved. This analysis reviews national efforts to achieve UHC. With a broad range of health indicators, life expectancy (ranging from 53 years to 73 years), and mortality rate in children younger than 5 years (ranging from 10·3 to 44·6 deaths per 1000 livebirths), a review of progress in each of the BRICS countries shows that each has some way to go before achieving UHC. The BRICS countries show substantial, and often similar, challenges in moving towards UHC. On the basis of a review of each country, the most pressing problems are: raising insufficient public spending; stewarding mixed private and public health systems; ensuring equity; meeting the demands for more human resources; managing changing demographics and disease burdens; and addressing the social determinants of health. Increases in public funding can be used to show how BRICS health ministries could accelerate progress to achieve UHC. Although all the BRICS countries have devoted increased resources to health, the biggest increase has been in China, which was probably facilitated by China's rapid economic growth. However, the BRICS country with the second highest economic growth, India, has had the least improvement in public funding for health. Future research to understand such different levels of prioritisation of the health sector in these countries could be useful. Similarly, the role of strategic purchasing in working with powerful private sectors, the effect of federal structures, and the implications of investment in primary health care as a foundation for UHC could be explored. These issues could serve as the basis on which BRICS countries focus their efforts to share ideas and strategies.

  5. Estimating the coverage of a targeted mobile tuberculosis screening programme among illicit drug users and homeless persons with truncated models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N.A.H. van Hest; G. de Vries (Gerard); F. Smit (Filip); A.D. Grant; J.H. Richardus (Jan Hendrik)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractTruncated models are indirect methods to estimate the size of a hidden population which, in contrast to the capture–recapture method, can be used on a single information source. We estimated the coverage of a tuberculosis screening programme among illicit drug users and homeless persons

  6. 广州市20~59岁人群乙型肝炎疫苗接种状况及其疫苗保护效果分析%Study on the immunization coverage and effects of hepatitis B vaccine in the 20-59 years-old population in Guangzhou city

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁建华; 王鸣; 刘建华; 蔡衍珊; 许建雄

    2010-01-01

    Objective To study the immunization coverage and immune effects of hepatitis B vaccine (HepB) among people who were immunized later than at birth in Guangzhou city. Methods A multistage randomized cluster sampling was used and the subjects were at age 20 to 59 years old,from the families of twelve districts in Guangzhou. Cross sectional analysis was carried out. Every study subject' s HepB immunization history and main risk were investigated through questionnaire.Venous blood samples were collected and then tested for HBsAg and anti-HBs by means of ELISA.The immunization coverage rate of HepB, prevalence rates of HBsAg and anti-HBs among every age group were valuated by sampling weights. The protective efficacy of the people with immunization of HepB was assessed by case-control study. Results The overall immunization rate of HepB was 24.71% (95%CI: 20.86%-28.56%)in the 20-59 age group. HBsAg prevalence rate was 14.91% (95% CI: 12.73%-17.08% ), and 8.52% in vaccinated group while 18.15% in the non-vaccinated group. Results from case-control study showed that HepB had good protective efficacy to HBV in people of 20-59 years old. The protective rate of HepB against HBV was 62.6%. Conclusion Vaccinating HepB on people after the neonatal period also non-nowbom could provide good immune effect to HBV.%目的 了解广州市非新生儿人群乙型肝炎(乙肝)疫苗(HepB)接种状况并评价其保护效果.方法 在广州市12个区、县级市按照多阶段分层整群抽样法,以家庭为单位对20~59岁人群进行横断面调查,并检测HBsAg、抗-HBs;对HepB接种史及主要乙肝感染危险因素进行问卷调查,采用抽样权重评估20~59岁人群HepB接种率,HBsAg、抗-HBs流行率.通过病例对照研究,评价疫苗保护效果.结果 广州市20~59岁人群有HepB接种史为24.71%(95%CI:20.86%~28.56%),HBsAg流行率14.91%(95%CI:12.73%~17.08%),其中有HepB接种史人群HBsAg流行率为8.52%,无接种史人群HBsAg流行率为18

  7. Controlling cost escalation of healthcare: making universal health coverage sustainable in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Shenglan; Tao, Jingjing; Bekedam, Henk

    2012-01-01

    An increasingly number of low- and middle-income countries have developed and implemented a national policy towards universal coverage of healthcare for their citizens over the past decade. Among them is China which has expanded its population coverage by health insurance from around 29.7% in 2003 to over 90% at the end of 2010. While both central and local governments in China have significantly increased financial inputs into the two newly established health insurance schemes: new cooperative medical scheme (NCMS) for the rural population, and urban resident basic health insurance (URBMI), the cost of healthcare in China has also been rising rapidly at the annual rate of 17.0%% over the period of the past two decades years. The total health expenditure increased from 74.7 billion Chinese yuan in 1990 to 1998 billion Chinese yuan in 2010, while average health expenditure per capital reached the level of 1490.1 Chinese yuan per person in 2010, rising from 65.4 Chinese yuan per person in 1990. The repaid increased population coverage by government supported health insurance schemes has stimulated a rising use of healthcare, and thus given rise to more pressure on cost control in China.There are many effective measures of supply-side and demand-side cost control in healthcare available. Over the past three decades China had introduced many measures to control demand for health care, via a series of co-payment mechanisms. The paper introduces and discusses new initiatives and measures employed to control cost escalation of healthcare in China, including alternative provider payment methods, reforming drug procurement systems, and strengthening the application of standard clinical paths in treating patients at hospitals, and analyses the impacts of these initiatives and measures. The paper finally proposes ways forward to make universal health coverage in China more sustainable. PMID:22992484

  8. Premium subsidies for health insurance: excessive coverage vs. adverse selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selden, T M

    1999-12-01

    The tax subsidy for employment-related health insurance can lead to excessive coverage and excessive spending on medical care. Yet, the potential also exists for adverse selection to result in the opposite problem-insufficient coverage and underconsumption of medical care. This paper uses the model of Rothschild and Stiglitz (R-S) to show that a simple linear premium subsidy can correct market failure due to adverse selection. The optimal linear subsidy balances welfare losses from excessive coverage against welfare gains from reduced adverse selection. Indeed, a capped premium subsidy may mitigate adverse selection without creating incentives for excessive coverage.

  9. Periosteal Pedicle Flap Harvested during Vestibular Extension for Root Coverage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shubham Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Root exposure along with inadequate vestibular depth is a common clinical finding. Treatment option includes many techniques to treat such defects for obtaining predictable root coverage. Normally, the vestibular depth is increased first followed by a second surgery for root coverage. The present case report describes a single-stage technique for vestibular extension and root coverage in a single tooth by using the Periosteal Pedicle Flap (PPF. This technique involves no donor site morbidity and allows for reflection of sufficient amount of periosteal flap tissue with its own blood supply at the surgical site, thus increasing the chances of success of root coverage with simultaneous increase in vestibular depth.

  10. Periosteal Pedicle Flap Harvested during Vestibular Extension for Root Coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Shubham; Gupta, Krishna Kumar; Agrawal, Rahul; Srivastava, Pratima; Soni, Shalabh

    2015-01-01

    Root exposure along with inadequate vestibular depth is a common clinical finding. Treatment option includes many techniques to treat such defects for obtaining predictable root coverage. Normally, the vestibular depth is increased first followed by a second surgery for root coverage. The present case report describes a single-stage technique for vestibular extension and root coverage in a single tooth by using the Periosteal Pedicle Flap (PPF). This technique involves no donor site morbidity and allows for reflection of sufficient amount of periosteal flap tissue with its own blood supply at the surgical site, thus increasing the chances of success of root coverage with simultaneous increase in vestibular depth. PMID:26788377

  11. Coverage and Financial Risk Protection for Institutional Delivery: How Universal Is Provision of Maternal Health Care in India?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shankar Prinja

    Full Text Available India aims to achieve universal access to institutional delivery. We undertook this study to estimate the universality of institutional delivery care for pregnant women in Haryana state in India. To assess the coverage of institutional delivery, we analyze service coverage (coverage of public sector institutional delivery, population coverage (coverage among different districts and wealth quintiles of the population and financial risk protection (catastrophic health expenditure and impoverishment as a result of out-of-pocket expenditure for delivery.We analyzed cross-sectional data collected from a randomly selected sample of 12,191 women who had delivered a child in the last one year from the date of data collection in Haryana state. Five indicators were calculated to evaluate coverage and financial risk protection for institutional delivery--proportion of public sector deliveries, out-of-pocket expenditure, percentage of women who incurred no expenses, prevalence of catastrophic expenditure for institutional delivery and incidence of impoverishment due to out-of-pocket expenditure for delivery. These indicators were calculated for the public and private sectors for 5 wealth quintiles and 21 districts of the state.The coverage of institutional delivery in Haryana state was 82%, of which 65% took place in public sector facilities. Approximately 63% of the women reported no expenditure on delivery in the public sector. The mean out-of-pocket expenditures for delivery in the public and private sectors in Haryana were INR 771 (USD 14.2 and INR 12,479 (USD 229, respectively, which were catastrophic for 1.6% and 22% of households, respectively.Our findings suggest that there is considerably high coverage of institutional delivery care in Haryana state, with significant financial risk protection in the public sector. However, coverage and financial risk protection for institutional delivery vary substantially across districts and among different socio

  12. Endorsement of compulsory HIV vaccination policy among populations at high risk of HIV exposure (LA VOICES).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Peter A; Lee, Sung-Jae; Rudy, Ellen T; Diamant, Allison; Duan, Naihua; Nakazono, Terry; Nakazano, Terry; Cunningham, William E

    2014-06-01

    Compulsory vaccination is a frequently implemented policy option for ensuring comprehensive vaccine coverage. Ongoing controversies around human papillomavirus vaccine dissemination, and suboptimal coverage, suggest the value of assessing acceptability of compulsory vaccinations-particularly among likely target populations-in advance of their public availability to support evidence-informed interventions. With the first HIV vaccine to demonstrate partial efficacy in a large-scale clinical trial, we examined individual characteristics and attitudes associated with support for compulsory HIV vaccination policy among a diverse, representative sample of adults attending probable HIV vaccine dissemination venues in a large urban county. Participants were recruited using three-stage probability sampling from likely venues for future HIV vaccine dissemination. We used Audio-CASI to administer a 60-min structured questionnaire. Items included endorsement of compulsory HIV vaccination policy, sociodemographic characteristics, injecting drug use, vaccine attitudes and perceived HIV risk. Among 1,225 participants (mean age = 36.8 years; 55.6 % males, 37.6 % non-English speaking Hispanic, 78.8 % heterosexual, 25.7 % injection drug users), almost half (48.2 %) endorsed a compulsory HIV vaccination policy. Non-English speaking Hispanics compared to whites, participants with less than high school education, higher positive vaccine attitude scores and higher perceived HIV risk were significantly more likely, and people who inject drugs significantly less likely to endorse compulsory HIV vaccination. Public health interventions to promote positive vaccine attitudes and accurate perceptions of HIV risk among vulnerable populations, and strategies tailored for people who inject drugs, may build support for compulsory HIV vaccination policy and promote broad HIV vaccine coverage.

  13. LOCALITY COVERAGE, METACOMMUNITIES AND CHRONOFAUNA: CONCEPTS THAT CONNECT PALEOBIOLOGY TO MODERN POPULATION BIOLOGY%地点覆盖度、集合群落、地质时期动物群:联接古生物学和现代种群生物学的概念

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jussi T.ERONEN

    2007-01-01

    在古生物群落中新近出现的地点覆盖度或发生率的概念,以及对生物集合种群的空间动态学的深入了解,使古生物学和现代生物学的联系更加紧密.集合群落的概念以及地质时期动物群的古生物学认识显示,将古生物学和生态学结合在一起是大有希望的.评述了目前对这些概念的理解,并以欧亚大陆大型食草动物群落的发育作为范例,介绍了运用这些理论来研究化石记录的方法.研究结果表明,化石记录中种群覆盖度的研究可以在以化石为基础的进化研究和以现生有机体为基础的进化研究之间架起一座桥梁.地点覆盖度最大的类群,像现代生态学中发生率最大的类群一样,往往是地理分布最广泛、在当地最丰富的类群.%The emerging idea of locality coverage, or incidence, in the paleontological community and progress in the understanding of the spatial dynamics of metapopulations biology are bringing the paleobiology and present-day biology closer together. The concept of metacommunities and the paleontological notion of chronofauna show much promise for synthesis of paleontology and ecology. Here I review the present understanding of these concepts. I show how these can be used to investigate the paleontological record, using the development of Eurasian large herbivorous mammal communities as a case study.

  14. CVLEACH: Coverage based energy efficient LEACH algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ankit Thakkar

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Designing a protocol stack for wireless sensor network (WSNis a challenging task due to energy, computational and storageconstraints. Energy spent for communication between sensornodes dominates the energy spent for the computation [10].Multi-hop short range communication between wireless sensorsnodes is energy efficient compared to single-hop long rangecommunication. Hierarchical clustering is one of the possiblesolutions to save energy of wireless sensor nodes. Low-EnergyAdaptive Clustering Hierarchy (LEACH, Centralized Low-Energy Adaptive Clustering Hierarchy (LEACH-C andAdvanced Low-Energy Adaptive Clustering Hierarchy(ALEACH are energy efficient hierarchical clustering routingprotocol. In this paper we proposed Coverage based Low-EnergyAdaptive Clustering Hierarchy routing protocol – CVLEACH tomake uniform distribution of Cluster Heads (CHs by creatingnon-overlapped cluster regions using overhearing properties ofthe sensor nodes, which makes the routing protocol more energyefficient and prolongs life time of a wireless sensor network.Simulation results show that CVLEACH improves network lifetime compared to LEACH and ALEACH algorithms.

  15. Vaccination coverage in children can be estimated from health insurance data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tauscher Martin

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The introduction of new vaccines for young children requires instruments for a rapid and timely assessment of the progressively increasing vaccination coverage. We assessed whether routine data generated by statutory health insurances (SHI might be used to monitor vaccination coverage in young children. Methods For 90% of the population Germany's healthcare system is premium-funded through SHI. Specific medical codes on childhood vaccination are used for billing. These were used to analyse vaccine uptake up to 24 months in children born in Bavaria between 2001–10–01 and 2002–12–31. For children insured in the biggest SHI, vaccination coverage estimates based on billing data were compared to estimates considering only continuously insured children since birth, based on additional data provided by this SHI. Results Definition of an appropriate denominator from the billing data was a major challenge: defining the denominator by any consultation by children with different ID numbers yielded 196,732 children, exceeding the number of births in Bavaria by a factor of 1.4. The main causes for this inflated denominator were migration and change of health insurance number. A reduced dataset based on at least one physician's visit in the first six months and 2nd year of life yielded 111,977 children. Vaccination coverage estimates for children in the biggest SHI were at maximum 1.7% higher than in the data set based on continuously insured children. Conclusion With appropriate adjustments to define the denominator physician's billing data provide a promising tool to estimate immunisation coverage. A slight overestimation based on these data was explained by children never seeing a physician.

  16. An evaluation of coverage and compliance of mass drug administration 2006 for elimination of lymphatic filariasis in endemic areas of Gujarat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar Pradeep

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Mass drug administration (MDA means once-in-a-year administration of diethyl carbamazine (DEC tablet to all people (excluding children under 2 years, pregnant women and severely ill persons in identified endemic areas. It aims at cessation of transmission of lymphatic filariasis. Objective: What has been the coverage and compliance of MDA in Gujarat during the campaign in December 2006? Study Design: Cross-sectional population based house-to-house visit. Setting: Urban and rural areas in Gujarat identified as endemic for filariasis where MDA 2006 was undertaken. Study Variables: Exploratory - Rural and urban districts; Outcome - coverage, compliance, actual coverage, side effects. Analysis: Percentage and proportions. Results: Twenty-six clusters, each comprising 32 households from six endemic districts, yielded an eligible population of 4164. The coverage rate was 85.2% with variation across different areas. The compliance with drug ingestion was 89% with a gap of 11% to be targeted by intensive IEC. The effective coverage (75.8% was much below the target (85%. Side effects of DEC were minimum, transient and drug-specific. Overall coverage was marginally better in rural areas. The causes of poor coverage and compliance have been discussed and relevant suggestions have been made.

  17. 42 CFR 457.1010 - Purchase of family coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Purchase of family coverage. 457.1010 Section 457.1010 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... Waivers: General Provisions § 457.1010 Purchase of family coverage. A State may purchase family...

  18. 28 CFR 55.6 - Coverage under section 203(c).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... THE VOTING RIGHTS ACT REGARDING LANGUAGE MINORITY GROUPS Nature of Coverage § 55.6 Coverage under... citizens are members of a single language minority group and are limited-English proficient; and (ii) The illiteracy rate of such language minority citizens in the political subdivision is higher than the...

  19. Coverage of Islamic Literature in Selected Indexing Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sattar, A.; Rehman, S. ur

    1985-01-01

    This study evaluates bibliographical coverage of Islamic literature provided by four Western indexing services ("Social Sciences Citation Index,""Social Sciences Index,""Humanities Index,""Index Islamicus") by using bibliographical checking method. Highlights include characteristics of literature and bibliographic coverage of literature by type of…

  20. Coverage of Entrepreneurship in Principles of Economics Textbooks: An Update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, Calvin A.; Rushing, Francis W.

    1999-01-01

    Updates a study of the coverage of entrepreneurship contained in principles of economics textbooks originally carried out in the mid-1980s. Analyzes coverage of the same topics in 14 popular introductory texts. Concludes that entrepreneurship still has not worked its way into economics-principles texts. (DSK)

  1. 42 CFR 435.139 - Coverage for certain aliens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Coverage for certain aliens. 435.139 Section 435... Aliens § 435.139 Coverage for certain aliens. The agency must provide services necessary for the treatment of an emergency medical condition, as defined in § 440.255(c) of this chapter, to those...

  2. Computing Convex Coverage Sets for Faster Multi-Objective Coordination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.M. Roijers; S. Whiteson; F.A. Oliehoek

    2015-01-01

    In this article, we propose new algorithms for multi-objective coordination graphs (MO-CoGs). Key to the efficiency of these algorithms is that they compute a convex coverage set (CCS) instead of a Pareto coverage set (PCS). Not only is a CCS a sufficient solution set for a large class of problems,

  3. Coverage of the Stanford Prison Experiment in Introductory Psychology Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartels, Jared M.; Milovich, Marilyn M.; Moussier, Sabrina

    2016-01-01

    The present study examined the coverage of Stanford prison experiment (SPE), including criticisms of the study, in introductory psychology courses through an online survey of introductory psychology instructors (N = 117). Results largely paralleled those of the recently published textbook analyses with ethical issues garnering the most coverage,…

  4. 29 CFR 825.108 - Public agency coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) A State or a political subdivision of a State constitutes a single public agency and, therefore, a... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Public agency coverage. 825.108 Section 825.108 Labor... AND MEDICAL LEAVE ACT OF 1993 Coverage Under the Family and Medical Leave Act § 825.108 Public...

  5. 41 CFR 105-72.401 - Insurance coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Insurance coverage. 105-72.401 Section 105-72.401 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management... § 105-72.401 Insurance coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum, provide the equivalent...

  6. Coverage Accuracy of Confidence Intervals in Nonparametric Regression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Song-xi Chen; Yong-song Qin

    2003-01-01

    Point-wise confidence intervals for a nonparametric regression function with random design points are considered. The confidence intervals are those based on the traditional normal approximation and the empirical likelihood. Their coverage accuracy is assessed by developing the Edgeworth expansions for the coverage probabilities. It is shown that the empirical likelihood confidence intervals are Bartlett correctable.

  7. 47 CFR 73.684 - Prediction of coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Television Broadcast Stations § 73.684 Prediction of coverage. (a) All predictions of coverage made pursuant... the depression angle between the transmitting antenna center of radiation and the radio horizon as... difference in elevation of the antenna center of radiation above the average terrain and the radio...

  8. Explaining socio-economic inequalities in immunization coverage in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ataguba, John E; Ojo, Kenneth O; Ichoku, Hyacinth E

    2016-11-01

    Globally, in 2013 over 6 million children younger than 5 years died from either an infectious cause or during the neonatal period. A large proportion of these deaths occurred in developing countries, especially in sub-Saharan Africa. Immunization is one way to reduce childhood morbidity and deaths. In Nigeria, however, although immunization is provided without a charge at public facilities, coverage remains low and deaths from vaccine preventable diseases are high. This article seeks to assess inequalities in full and partial immunization coverage in Nigeria. It also assesses inequality in the 'intensity' of immunization coverage and it explains the factors that account for disparities in child immunization coverage in the country. Using nationally representative data, this article shows that disparities exist in the coverage of immunization to the advantage of the rich. Also, factors such as mother's literacy, region and location of the child, and socio-economic status explain the disparities in immunization coverage in Nigeria. Apart from addressing these issues, the article notes the importance of addressing other social determinants of health to reduce the disparities in immunization coverage in the country. These should be in line with the social values of communities so as to ensure acceptability and compliance. We argue that any policy that addresses these issues will likely reduce disparities in immunization coverage and put Nigeria on the road to sustainable development.

  9. 45 CFR 147.130 - Coverage of preventive health services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Preventive Services Task Force regarding breast cancer screening, mammography, and prevention issued in or... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Coverage of preventive health services. 147.130... § 147.130 Coverage of preventive health services. (a) Services—(1) In general. Beginning at the...

  10. 7 CFR 457.172 - Coverage Enhancement Option.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... must: (a) Have an MPCI policy in force for the insured crop (or for citrus fruit, citrus trees, and stone fruit or other crops, as applicable, the insured type) and comply with all terms and conditions of... Federal Crop Insurance Corporation as published at 7 CFR part 457. MPCI coverage level—The coverage...

  11. Characterization of hydraulic nozzles for droplet size and spray coverage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spray coverage specifications for commercially available nozzles could help applicators determine the optimal nozzles for effective control of insects, diseases and weeds. Spray coverage and deposit density from seven types of nozzles at three different flow rates (0.76, 1.14 and 2.27 l min-1) and t...

  12. 38 CFR 9.8 - Termination of coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... SERVICEMEMBERS' GROUP LIFE INSURANCE AND VETERANS' GROUP LIFE INSURANCE § 9.8 Termination of coverage... members who are insured under Veterans' Group Life Insurance in which event coverage terminates at the..., 90 days or more after the discontinuance of the group policy....

  13. Coverage and Representations of Sexuality in Introductory Sociology Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suarez, Alicia E.; Balaji, Alexandra

    2007-01-01

    Mirroring increased cultural and disciplinary attention to sexuality, many introductory sociology textbooks have begun to include coverage of the topic. Our study first assesses the extent of textual coverage of sexuality in a sample of 38 introductory textbooks published after 2000. Secondly, we focus on 14 textbooks with a sexuality chapter…

  14. 28 CFR 51.8 - Section 3 coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Section 3 coverage. 51.8 Section 51.8 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) PROCEDURES FOR THE ADMINISTRATION OF SECTION 5 OF THE VOTING RIGHTS ACT OF 1965, AS AMENDED General Provisions § 51.8 Section 3 coverage. Under...

  15. 47 CFR 22.951 - Minimum coverage requirement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... MOBILE SERVICES Cellular Radiotelephone Service § 22.951 Minimum coverage requirement. Applications for... toward the minimum coverage requirement. Applications for authority to operate a new cellular system in... reefs only), except for unserved areas in the Gulf of Mexico MSA....

  16. African-American Press Coverage of Clarence Thomas Nomination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fearn-Banks, Kathleen

    1994-01-01

    Examines pressures facing the African American press by focusing on its coverage of the 1991 nomination of Clarence Thomas to the United States Supreme Court. Discusses the dilemma these newspapers faced in choosing between supporting African Americans and supporting civil rights, with their mixed coverage of the story reflecting this dilemma. (SR)

  17. Is universal coverage good for neurons?

    OpenAIRE

    Kolterman, Brian E.; Koulakov, Alexei A.

    2010-01-01

    In this issue of Neuron, Snider et al., analyze dendritic and axonal arbors of several cell types in several species. They show that general features of arbor structure are shared by the diverse cell populations, suggesting that the growth of these arbors is guided by universal principles.

  18. Distributed Multitarget Probabilistic Coverage Control Algorithm for Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Tian

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is concerned with the problem of multitarget coverage based on probabilistic detection model. Coverage configuration is an effective method to alleviate the energy-limitation problem of sensors. Firstly, considering the attenuation of node’s sensing ability, the target probabilistic coverage problem is defined and formalized, which is based on Neyman-Peason probabilistic detection model. Secondly, in order to turn off redundant sensors, a simplified judging rule is derived, which makes the probabilistic coverage judgment execute on each node locally. Thirdly, a distributed node schedule scheme is proposed for implementing the distributed algorithm. Simulation results show that this algorithm is robust to the change of network size, and when compared with the physical coverage algorithm, it can effectively minimize the number of active sensors, which guarantees all the targets γ-covered.

  19. Actual immunization coverage throughout Europe: are existing data sufficient?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopalco, P L; Carrillo Santisteve, P

    2014-05-01

    Assessing vaccine coverage is an essential component of vaccine programme monitoring and evaluation. Vaccine coverage data are available in EU/EEA countries at both national and subnational levels and are used for programmatic purposes at any level. European-wide data collection is performed by WHO through the Centralized Information System for Infectious Diseases, as part of the global data collection jointly conducted with UNICEF. Data quality and comparability are still challenging at an international level. According to available information, vaccination registries are available in 11 countries in the EU/EEA, but only in five countries do they have national coverage. In 2012 ECDC, through the VENICE II network, started the European Vaccination Coverage Collection System (EVACO project), with the final aim of improving the quality of vaccine coverage data at EU level, by defining and implementing standards.

  20. Access to Medicines by Seguro Popular Beneficiaries: Pending Tasks towards Universal Health Coverage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edson Servan-Mori

    Full Text Available In the context of aiming to achieve universal health coverage in Mexico, this study compares access to prescribed medicines (ATPM between Seguro Popular (SP and non-SP affiliated outpatient health service users.ATPM by 6,123 users of outpatient services was analyzed using the National Health and Nutrition Survey 2012. Adjusted bi-probit models were performed incorporating instrumental variables.17.3% of SP and 10.1% of the non-SP population lacked ATPM. Two-thirds of all outpatient SP and 18.5% of all outpatient non-SP received health services at Ministry of Health facilities, among whom, 64.6 and 53.6% of the SP and non-SP population respectively reported ATPM at these facilities. Lack of medicines in health units, chronic health problems (compared to acute conditions and prescription ≥3 medicines were risk factors for non-ATPM. Adjusted models suggest that when using Ministry of Health services, the SP population has a higher probability of ATMP compared to the non-SP population.Given the aspirations of achieving universal health coverage in Mexico, it is important to increase ATPM in Ministry of Health facilities thereby ensuring basic rights to health care are met.

  1. Assessing Eli Broad's Assault on Public School System Leadership

    Science.gov (United States)

    English, Fenwick W.; Crowder, Zan

    2012-01-01

    Eli Broad's approach to reforming urban public education does not recognize his own self-interest in promoting changes within such educational systems, a classic problem of misrecognition. The Broad agenda is an assault on the notion of the mission of public education as a service instead of a for-profit enterprise concerned with making money for…

  2. Social Cognition, Social Skill, and the Broad Autism Phenotype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasson, Noah J.; Nowlin, Rachel B.; Pinkham, Amy E.

    2013-01-01

    Social-cognitive deficits differentiate parents with the "broad autism phenotype" from non-broad autism phenotype parents more robustly than other neuropsychological features of autism, suggesting that this domain may be particularly informative for identifying genetic and brain processes associated with the phenotype. The current study…

  3. Boot Camp for Education CEOs: The Broad Foundation Superintendents Academy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jehlen, Alain

    2012-01-01

    The Broad Foundation Superintendents Academy is the most prominent and most controversial training institute for school chiefs. The Academy is the flagship program of the Eli and Edythe Broad Foundation, the smallest of a triumvirate of corporate foundations that are at the heart of the billionaire campaign to remake public education in the image…

  4. Predictors of micronutrient powder sachet coverage in Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jefferds, Maria Elena D; Mirkovic, Kelsey R; Subedi, Giri Raj; Mebrahtu, Saba; Dahal, Pradiumna; Perrine, Cria G

    2015-12-01

    Many countries implement micronutrient powder (MNP) programmes to improve the nutritional status of young children. Little is known about the predictors of MNP coverage for different delivery models. We describe MNP coverage of an infant and young child feeding and MNP intervention for children aged 6-23 months comparing two delivery models piloted in rural Nepal: distributing MNPs either by female community health volunteers (FCHVs) or at health facilities (HFs). Cross-sectional household cluster surveys were conducted in four pilot districts among mothers of children 6-23 months after starting MNP distribution. FCHVs in each cluster were also surveyed. We used logistic regression to describe predictors of initial coverage (obtaining a batch of 60 MNP sachets) at 3 months and repeat coverage (≥2 times coverage among eligible children) at 15 months after project launch. At 15 months, initial and repeat coverage were higher in the FCHV model, although no differences were observed at 3 months. Attending an FCHV-led mothers' group meeting where MNP was discussed increased odds of any coverage in both models at 3 months and of repeat coverage in the HF model at 15 months. Perceiving ≥1 positive effects in the child increased odds of repeat coverage in both delivery models. A greater portion of FCHV volunteers from the FCHV model vs. the HF model reported increased burden at 3 and 15 months (not statistically significant). Designing MNP programmes that maximise coverage without overburdening the system can be challenging and more than one delivery model may be needed. PMID:26332845

  5. Characterization of Heterogeneity in Childhood Immunization Coverage in Central Florida Using Immunization Registry Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Kimberly M; Logan, Grace E

    2016-07-01

    Despite high vaccine coverage in the United States in general, and in the State of Florida specifically, some children miss scheduled vaccines due to health system failures or vaccine refusal by their parents. Recent experiences with outbreaks in the United States suggest that geographic clustering of un(der)vaccinated populations represent a threat to the elimination status of some vaccine-preventable diseases. Immunization registries continue to expand and play an important role in efforts to track vaccine coverage and use. Using nearly 700,000 de-identified immunization records from the Florida Department of Health immunization information system (Florida SHOTS™) for children born during 2003-2014, we explored heterogeneity and potential clustering of un(der)vaccinated children in six counties in central Florida-Brevard, Lake, Orange, Oseola, Polk, and Seminole-that represent a high-risk area for importation due to family tourist attractions in the area. By zip code, we mapped the population density, the percent of children with religious exemptions, the percent of children on track or overdue for each vaccine series without and with exemptions, and the numbers of children with no recorded dose of each vaccine. Overall, we found some heterogeneity in coverage among the counties and zip codes, but relatively consistent and high coverage. We found that some children with an exemption in the system received the vaccines we analyzed, but exemption represents a clear risk factor for un(der)immunization. We identified many challenges associated with using immunization registry data for spatial analysis and potential opportunities to improve registries to better support future analyses.

  6. Psychological Distress and Health Insurance Coverage among Formerly Incarcerated Young Adults in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larrell L. Wilkinson

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The United States incarcerates more people per capita than any other nation. Studies have consistently demonstrated higher prevalence of serious mental illness among the incarcerated. Although health care may be available to individuals while incarcerated, research is needed to understand the context of health care coverage and mental health after incarceration. The purpose of this study is to estimate the point prevalence of psychological distress (PD among young adults with incarceration experience, while comparing the prevalence to that of young adults in the general population. Additionally, this study characterizes the relationship between incarceration experience and PD, while also examining this association given an individual's health insurance coverage status among young adults. Lastly, we examine if other individual, contextual, and behavioral factors influences the relationship between incarceration experience and PD, in addition to their health insurance coverage status. This study utilizes data from the 2008 panel of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 97, a population based survey dataset from the U.S. Department of Labor. Andersen's Behavioral Model of Health Services Use provided the conceptual framework for the study. The Mental Health Index 5 (MHI-5 was used to determine PD or normal mental health. Chi-square testing and multivariate logistic regression were performed to examine incarceration experience in association to PD. The sample with incarceration experience reported almost double the proportion of PD (21% compared to those without an incarceration experience (11%. Young adults who have been incarcerated reported greater odds of PD than those with no incarceration experience (COR 2.18; 95% CI, 1.68-2.83 and the association was diminished in the presence of health insurance status and model covariates. Future health prevention and health management efforts should consider the impact of health insurance coverage

  7. Chinese newspaper coverage of genetically modified organisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Du Li

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Debates persist around the world over the development and use of genetically modified organisms (GMO. News media has been shown to both reflect and influence public perceptions of health and science related debates, as well as policy development. To better understand the news coverage of GMOs in China, we analyzed the content of articles in two Chinese newspapers that relate to the development and promotion of genetically modified technologies and GMOs. Methods Searching in the Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure Core Newspaper Database (CNKI-CND, we collected 77 articles, including news reports, comments and notes, published between January 2002 and August 2011 in two of the major Chinese newspapers: People’s Daily and Guangming Daily. We examined articles for perspectives that were discussed and/or mentioned regarding GMOs, the risks and benefits of GMOs, and the tone of news articles. Results The newspaper articles reported on 29 different kinds of GMOs. Compared with the possible risks, the benefits of GMOs were much more frequently discussed in the articles. 48.1% of articles were largely supportive of the GM technology research and development programs and the adoption of GM cottons, while 51.9% of articles were neutral on the subject of GMOs. Risks associated with GMOs were mentioned in the newspaper articles, but none of the articles expressed negative tones in regards to GMOs. Conclusion This study demonstrates that the Chinese print media is largely supportive of GMOs. It also indicates that the print media describes the Chinese government as actively pursuing national GMO research and development programs and the promotion of GM cotton usage. So far, discussion of the risks associated with GMOs is minimal in the news reports. The media, scientists, and the government should work together to ensure that science communication is accurate and balanced.

  8. Measuring coverage in MNCH: challenges and opportunities in the selection of coverage indicators for global monitoring.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Harris Requejo

    Full Text Available Global monitoring of intervention coverage is a cornerstone of international efforts to improve reproductive, maternal, newborn, and child health. In this review, we examine the process and implications of selecting a core set of coverage indicators for global monitoring, using as examples the processes used by the Countdown to 2015 for Maternal, Newborn and Child Survival and the Commission on Accountability for Women's and Children's Health. We describe how the generation of data for global monitoring involves five iterative steps: development of standard indicator definitions and measurement approaches to ensure comparability across countries; collection of high-quality data at the country level; compilation of country data at the global level; organization of global databases; and rounds of data quality checking. Regular and rigorous technical review processes that involve high-level decision makers and experts familiar with indicator measurement are needed to maximize uptake and to ensure that indicators used for global monitoring are selected on the basis of available evidence of intervention effectiveness, feasibility of measurement, and data availability as well as programmatic relevance. Experience from recent initiatives illustrates the challenges of striking this balance as well as strategies for reducing the tensions inherent in the indicator selection process. We conclude that more attention and continued investment need to be directed to global monitoring, to support both the process of global database development and the selection of sets of coverage indicators to promote accountability. The stakes are high, because these indicators can drive policy and program development at the country and global level, and ultimately impact the health of women and children and the communities where they live.

  9. Coverage or Cover-up: A Comparison of Newspaper Coverage of the 19th Amendment and the Equal Rights Amendment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Linda Lazier

    A study compared newspaper coverage of the women's suffrage movement in the 1920s with coverage of efforts to pass the Equal Rights Amendment in the 1970s and early 1980s, to see if the similar movements with different outcomes were treated similarly or differently by the press. A content analysis of relevant articles in the "New York Times" and…

  10. Heterogeneity in Risky Choice Behaviour in a Broad Population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Gaudecker, Hans-Martin; van Soest, Arthur; Wengström, Erik Roland

    2009-01-01

    the timing of uncertainty resolution, and the propensity to choose randomly rather than on the basis of preferences. We find that all four parameters contribute to explaining choice behaviour. The structural parameters are significantly associated with socio-economic variables, but it is essential...

  11. 78 FR 38161 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Listing One Distinct Population Segment of Broad...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-25

    .... Background The primary purpose of the ESA is to prevent animal and plant species' endangerment and extinction... (59 FR 34270), and the Office of Management and Budget's Final Information Quality Bulletin for Peer... specialists regarding the science in our January 5, 2012, proposed rule (77 FR 666). The purpose of...

  12. Ultra-broad bandwidth parametric amplification at degeneracy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limpert, J; Aguergaray, C; Montant, S; Manek-Hönninger, I; Petit, S; Descamps, D; Cormier, E; Salin, F

    2005-09-19

    We report on a novel approach of ultra-broad bandwidth parametric amplification around degeneracy. A bandwidth of up to 400 nm centered around 800 nm is amplified in a BBO crystal by using chirped pump pulses with a bandwitdth as broad as 10 nm. A supercontinuum signal is generated in a microstructured fiber, having to first order a quadratic chirp, which is necessary to ensure temporal overlap of the interacting waves over this broad bandwidth. Furthermore, we discuss the potential of this approach for an octave-spanning parametric amplification.

  13. Broad Ligament Pregnancy - Success Story of a Laparoscopically Managed Case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayar, Jayashree; Nair, Sobha S

    2016-07-01

    Abdominal pregnancies constitute 1% of ectopic pregnancies, among which broad ligament pregnancy is a rare form. The maternal mortality rate has been reported to be as high as 20%. The diagnosis is seldom established before surgery. Laparoscopic management of broad ligament ectopic pregnancy is the ideal form of treatment in appropriately selected patients. We present the case report of successful laparoscopic treatment of a 3x3.5cm broad ligament pregnancy. A search of literature shows that ours is the 6(th) case report of such a rare ectopic pregnancy managed endoscopically successfully. PMID:27630914

  14. Ultra-broad bandwidth parametric amplification at degeneracy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limpert, J; Aguergaray, C; Montant, S; Manek-Hönninger, I; Petit, S; Descamps, D; Cormier, E; Salin, F

    2005-09-19

    We report on a novel approach of ultra-broad bandwidth parametric amplification around degeneracy. A bandwidth of up to 400 nm centered around 800 nm is amplified in a BBO crystal by using chirped pump pulses with a bandwitdth as broad as 10 nm. A supercontinuum signal is generated in a microstructured fiber, having to first order a quadratic chirp, which is necessary to ensure temporal overlap of the interacting waves over this broad bandwidth. Furthermore, we discuss the potential of this approach for an octave-spanning parametric amplification. PMID:19498762

  15. The Coverage-Capacity Analysis of CDMA Wireless Network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG Xufeng; LI Chengshu

    2001-01-01

    The coverage and capacity tradeoff is one of the important characters of CDMA cellular system. In this paper, we investigate the relationship of coverage and capacity of CDMA wireless network. By analyzing the outage probability under softhandoff and providing the soft-handoff probability, we extend the outage probability analysis to the multi-cell environment with soft-handoff. Furthermore, a spatial Poisson process is introduced and both uniform and non-uniform subscriber distribution cases are analyzed. Based on these we make a derivation of the relation between coverage and capacity in single and multi-cell environments.

  16. Immunization coverage and infant mortality rate in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimouchi, A; Ozasa, K; Hayashi, K

    1994-01-01

    We examined whether immunization coverage (IMC) is one of the predictors of infant mortality rate (IMR), as a single indicator representing the availability of primary health care (PHC) services in developing countries. Multiple regression analysis showed that partial correlation coefficients for IMR with immunization coverage (-0.224), logarithm of per capita GNP (-0.294), total fertility rate (0.269), and adult literacy rate (-0.325) were all statistically significant (p immunization coverage is one of the main predictors of the infant mortality rate. It represents one of the health intervention components which can be used as a proxy indicator of the availability of PHC service in developing countries.

  17. Distributed coverage games for mobile visual sensor networks

    CERN Document Server

    Zhu, Minghui

    2010-01-01

    Motivated by current challenges in data-intensive sensor networks, we formulate a coverage optimization problem for mobile visual sensors as a (constrained) repeated multi-player game. Each visual sensor tries to optimize its own coverage while minimizing the processing cost. We present two distributed learning algorithms where each sensor only remembers its own utility values and actions played during the last plays. These algorithms are proven to be convergent in probability to the set of (constrained) Nash equilibria and global optima of certain coverage performance metric, respectively.

  18. A novel mathematical model for coverage in wireless sensor network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN Zhen-ya; ZHENG Bao-yu

    2006-01-01

    Coverage problem is one of the fundamental issues in the design of wireless sensor network, which has a great impact on the performance of sensor network. In this article,coverage problem was investigated using a mathematical model named Birth-death process. In this model, sensor nodes joining into networks at every period of time is considered as the rebirth of network and the quitting of sensor nodes from the networks is considered as the death of the network. In the end, an analytical solution is used to investigate the appropriate rate to meet the coverage requirement.

  19. Dorsal hand coverage with free serratus fascia flap

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fotopoulos, Peter; Holmer, Per; Leicht, Pernille;

    2003-01-01

    serratus fascia flap, the connective tissue over the serratus muscle, for dorsal hand coverage. The flap consists of thin and well-vascularized pliable tissue, with gliding properties excellent for covering exposed tendons. It is based on the branches of the thoracodorsal artery, which are raised...... in the flap, leaving the long thoracic nerve intact on the serratus muscle. Coverage of the flap with split-thickness skin graft is done immediately. The free serratus fascia flap is an ideal flap for dorsal hand coverage when the extensor tendons are exposed, especially because of low donor-site morbidity....

  20. Location Refinement and Power Coverage Analysis Based on Distributed Antenna

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵晓楠; 侯春萍; 汪清; 陈华; 浦亮洲

    2016-01-01

    To establish wireless channel suitable for the cabin environment, the power coverage was investigated with distributed antenna system and centralized antenna system based on the actual measurement of channel im-pulse response. The results indicated that the distributed antenna system has more uniform power coverage than the centralized antenna system. The average relative errors of receiving power of both antennas were calculated. The optimal position of the centralized antenna was obtained by Gaussian function refinement, making the system achieve a better transmission power with the same coverage effect, and providing a reference for antenna location in the future real communication in the cabin.

  1. 42 CFR 422.62 - Election of coverage under an MA plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Election of coverage under an MA plan. 422.62... § 422.62 Election of coverage under an MA plan. (a) General: Coverage election periods—(1) Initial coverage election period for MA. The initial coverage election period is the period during which a newly...

  2. 42 CFR 457.430 - Benchmark-equivalent health benefits coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Benchmark-equivalent health benefits coverage. 457... STATES State Plan Requirements: Coverage and Benefits § 457.430 Benchmark-equivalent health benefits coverage. (a) Aggregate actuarial value. Benchmark-equivalent coverage is health benefits coverage that...

  3. Assessment of Routine Immunization Coverage in Nyala Locality, Reasons behind Incomplete Immunization in South Darfur State, Sudan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Ismail Tibin Adam; El-Tayeb, Elsadeg Mahgoob; Omer, Mohammed Diaaeldin F.A.; Eltahir, Yassir Mohammed; El-Sayed, El-Tayeb Ahmed; Deribe, Kebede

    2014-01-01

    Little is known about the coverage of routine immunization service in South Darfur state, Sudan. Therefore, this study was conducted to determine the vaccination rate and barriers for vaccination. A cross-sectional community-based study was undertaken in Nyala locality, south Darfur, Sudan, including urban, rural and Internal Displaced Peoples (IDPs) population in proportional representation. Survey data were collected by a questionnaire which was applied face to face to parents of 213 children 12-23 months. The collected data was then analyzed with SPSS software package. Results showed that vaccination coverage as revealed by showed vaccination card alone was 63.4% while it was increased to 82.2% when both history and cards were used. Some (5.6%) of children were completely non-vaccinated. The factors contributing to the low vaccination coverage were found to be knowledge problems of mothers (51%), access problems (15%) and attitude problems (34%). Children whose mother attended antenatal care and those from urban areas were more likely to complete their immunization schedule. In conclusion, the vaccination coverage in the studied area was low compared to the national coverage. Efforts to increase vaccination converge and completion of the scheduled plan should focus on addressing concerns of caregivers particularly side effects and strengthening the Expanded Programmer on Immunization services in rural areas. PMID:25729558

  4. Geographical accessibility and spatial coverage modeling of the primary health care network in the Western Province of Rwanda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huerta Munoz Ulises

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Primary health care is essential in improving and maintaining the health of populations. It has the potential to accelerate achievement of the Millennium Development Goals and fulfill the “Health for All” doctrine of the Alma-Ata Declaration. Understanding the performance of the health system from a geographic perspective is important for improved health planning and evidence-based policy development. The aims of this study were to measure geographical accessibility, model spatial coverage of the existing primary health facility network, estimate the number of primary health facilities working under capacity and the population underserved in the Western Province of Rwanda. Methods This study uses health facility, population and ancillary data for the Western Province of Rwanda. Three different travel scenarios utilized by the population to attend the nearest primary health facility were defined with a maximum travelling time of 60 minutes: Scenario 1 – walking; Scenario 2 – walking and cycling; and Scenario 3 – walking and public transportation. Considering these scenarios, a raster surface of travel time between primary health facilities and population was developed. To model spatial coverage and estimate the number of primary health facilities working under capacity, the catchment area of each facility was calculated by taking into account population coverage capacity, the population distribution, the terrain topography and the travelling modes through the different land categories. Results Scenario 2 (walking and cycling has the highest degree of geographical accessibility followed by Scenario 3 (walking and public transportation. The lowest level of accessibility can be observed in Scenario 1 (walking. The total population covered differs depending on the type of travel scenario. The existing primary health facility network covers only 26.6% of the population in Scenario 1. In Scenario 2, the use of a bicycle

  5. Content analysis of newspaper coverage of the Florida panther.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Susan K; Langin, Cynthia; Carlton, J Stuart; Kaid, Lynda Lee

    2012-02-01

    Populations of large carnivores are declining globally, and analysis of public discourse about carnivores is useful for understanding public opinion and influences on management and policy. Portrayal of carnivores in the media affects public perceptions and support for their conservation. We conducted a content analysis of 513 articles about Florida panthers (Puma concolor coryi) published from 2003 to 2006 in newspapers with local circulation in core panther habitat in southwest Florida and papers with statewide circulation to compare the differences in the amount of coverage and portrayals of panther risks to people and property on the basis of proximity of human communities to panthers. Local papers published significantly more news articles and significantly longer news articles primarily about panthers. Articles in local and statewide papers used both episodic frames, which focus on specific occurrences (e.g., a panther sighting or predation) and thematic frames, which focus on general trends (e.g., abundance of panthers over time). Local articles more often emphasized risks that panthers might harm people, pets, or livestock than statewide papers. Our results are consistent with theory that proximity to human-carnivore conflict influences perceptions and salience of risks posed by large carnivores. Most articles mentioned panthers as a secondary topic, which we believe was a result of the relevance an endangered carnivore has in discussions of public land management, development, and regulations in Florida. Claims made by sources quoted in each article had a neutral to positive depiction of panthers, and most quotations were from federal and state agency scientists. We suggest continued use by the media of agency sources provides the opportunity for clear, concordant messages about panther management. Content analysis provides a way to monitor media portrayal of carnivores for consistency with agency outreach goals. PMID:21978166

  6. Broad Spectrum Sanitizing Wipes with Food Additives Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Microcide proposes to develop novel multipurpose non-toxic sanitizing wipes that are aqueous based, have shelf life of 3-5 years, have broad spectrum microbicidal...

  7. AGN Broad Line Regions Scale with Bolometric Luminosity

    CERN Document Server

    Trippe, Sascha

    2015-01-01

    The masses of supermassive black holes in active galactic nuclei (AGN) can be derived spectroscopically via virial mass estimators based on selected broad optical/ultraviolet emission lines. These estimates commonly use the line width as a proxy for the gas speed and the monochromatic continuum luminosity as a proxy for the radius of the broad line region. However, if the size of the broad line region scales with bolometric rather than monochromatic AGN luminosity, mass estimates based on different emission lines will show a systematic discrepancy which is a function of the color of the AGN continuum. This has actually been observed in mass estimates based on H-alpha / H-beta and C IV lines, indicating that AGN broad line regions indeed scale with bolometric luminosity. Given that this effect seems to have been overlooked as yet, currently used single-epoch mass estimates are likely to be biased.

  8. Constructing populations in biobanking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tupasela, Aaro; Snell, Karoliina; Cañada, Jose A

    2015-01-01

    This article poses the question of whether biobanking practices and standards are giving rise to the construction of populations from which various biobanking initiatives increasingly draw on for legitimacy? We argue that although recent biobanking policies encourage various forms of engagement with publics to ensure legitimacy, different biobanks conceptualize their engagement strategies very differently. We suggest that biobanks undertake a broad range of different strategies with regard to engagement. We argue that these different approaches to engagement strategies are contributing to the construction of populations, whereby specific nationalities, communities, societies, patient groups and political systems become imbued or bio-objectified with particular characteristics, such as compliant, distant, positive, commercialized or authoritarian. This bio-objectification process is problematic in relation to policy aspirations ascribed to biobanking engagement since it gives rise to reified notions of different populations. PMID:26194269

  9. Genebanking seeds from natural populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conventional storage protocols have been developed to preserve genetic diversity of seeds of crops in genebanks. These same principles have been applied to preserve seeds from wild populations. While most principles for conventional storage protocols are applicable to a broad range of wild species...

  10. Clues to Quasar Broad Line Region Geometry and Kinematics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Marianne; Wilkes, B. J.; Barthel, P. D.

    2000-01-01

    width to show significant inverse correlations with the fractional radio core-flux density, R, the radio axis inclination indicator. Highly inclined systems have broader line wings, consistent with a high-velocity field perpendicular to the radio axis. By contrast, the narrow line-core shows...... and with an accretion disk-wind emitting the broad lines. A spherical distribution of randomly orbiting broad-line clouds and a polar high-ionization outflow are ruled out....

  11. Monitoring progress towards universal health coverage at country and global levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boerma, Ties; Eozenou, Patrick; Evans, David; Evans, Tim; Kieny, Marie-Paule; Wagstaff, Adam

    2014-09-01

    Universal health coverage (UHC) has been defined as the desired outcome of health system performance whereby all people who need health services (promotion, prevention, treatment, rehabilitation, and palliation) receive them, without undue financial hardship. UHC has two interrelated components: the full spectrum of good-quality, essential health services according to need, and protection from financial hardship, including possible impoverishment, due to out-of-pocket payments for health services. Both components should benefit the entire population. This paper summarizes the findings from 13 country case studies and five technical reviews, which were conducted as part of the development of a global framework for monitoring progress towards UHC. The case studies show the relevance and feasibility of focusing UHC monitoring on two discrete components of health system performance: levels of coverage with health services and financial protection, with a focus on equity. These components link directly to the definition of UHC and measure the direct results of strategies and policies for UHC. The studies also show how UHC monitoring can be fully embedded in often existing, regular overall monitoring of health sector progress and performance. Several methodological and practical issues related to the monitoring of coverage of essential health services, financial protection, and equity, are highlighted. Addressing the gaps in the availability and quality of data required for monitoring progress towards UHC is critical in most countries.

  12. Influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 vaccination policies and coverage in Europe.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Mereckiene, J

    2012-06-01

    In August 2010 the Vaccine European New Integrated Collaboration Effort (VENICE) project conducted a survey to collect information on influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 vaccination policies and vaccination coverage in the European Union (EU), Norway and Iceland. Of 29 responding countries, 26 organised national pandemic influenza vaccination and one country had recommendations for vaccination but did not have a specific programme. Of the 27 countries with vaccine recommendations, all recommended it for healthcare workers and pregnant women. Twelve countries recommended vaccine for all ages. Six and three countries had recommendations for specific age groups in children and in adults, countries for specific adult age groups. Most countries recommended vaccine for those in new risk groups identified early in the pandemic such as morbid obese and people with neurologic diseases. Two thirds of countries started their vaccination campaigns within a four week period after week 40\\/2009. The reported vaccination coverage varied between countries from 0.4% to 59% for the entire population (22 countries); 3% to 68% for healthcare workers (13 countries); 0% to 58% for pregnant women (12 countries); 0.2% to 74% for children (12 countries). Most countries identified similar target groups for pandemic vaccine, but substantial variability in vaccination coverage was seen. The recommendations were in accordance with policy advice from the EU Health Security Committee and the World Health Organization.

  13. Evaluation of Primary Immunization Coverage in an Industrial City of Uttar Pradesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaturvedi R

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: There is gradual albeit a slow progress in the performance of routine immunization in India over last few years. Six states with high population contribute to 80% of 8.1 million unimmunized children in the country out of which 52% of the total unimmunized reside in Uttar Pradesh and Bihar alone. Objectives :1. To study the primary immunization coverage of children aged 12-23 months in the slums of Kanpur Nagar 2.To calculate drop out rate for various vaccines. Methodology: 30 cluster sampling technique. Results: 52.38% study subjects were fully immunized, 29.52% were partially immunized and 18.10% were not immunized at all. Coverage was highest for BCG vaccine (81.90% and lowest for Hepatitis B3(41.90%. Drop out rate for DPT / OPV (I-III, DPTI – Measles and BCG – Measles was 25.88%, 34.70% and 35.46% respectively. Conclusion: Sustained efforts are required to achieve the target of universal coverage of immunization in children.

  14. Ethnic disparities in routine immunization coverage: a reason for persistent poliovirus circulation in Karachi, Pakistan?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqui, Nida Tariq; Owais, Aatekah; Agha, Ajmal; Karim, Mehtab S; Zaidi, Anita K M

    2014-01-01

    Karachi is the only mega city in the world with persistent poliovirus transmission. We determined routine childhood immunization rates in Karachi and identified predictors of vaccine completion. A population-based cross-sectional survey was conducted in Karachi between August and September 2008. Data on demographics, socioeconomic, and DTP3 vaccination status in children 12 to 23 months old were collected. Logistic regression was used to identify predictors of vaccination completion. Overall, 1401 participants were approached; 1391 consented to participate. Of these, 1038 (75%) were completely vaccinated. Punjabi families had the highest DTP3 coverage (82%), followed by Urdu-speaking families (79%). Pashtun (67%) and Bengali (48%) families had the lowest vaccine coverage. Children of mothers with ≥ 12 years of schooling (OR = 25.4; 95% CI = 5.7-113.1) were most likely to be vaccinated. A quarter of study participants were unvaccinated. Targeted strategies for boosting DTP3 rates in communities with low immunization coverage are essential for polio eradication in Karachi.

  15. Pulse Polio Immunization Coverage Evaluation In A Rural Area Of Agra District

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nandan Deoki

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Research Question: What is the extent of PPI Coverage and what is the source of information and motivation to the community. Objective: To assess the extent of coverage of immunization carried out during pulse polio Immunization (1995-96 in rural areas of Agra District. Study Design: Cross-sectional Setting: Selected Villages of PHC Bichpuri, covered by ICDS, in Agra District Participants: Persons who took the <3 children for immunization Sample Size: 581 Persons from 987 households Study Variables: Doses of OPV received, source of information, location of immunization site, distance traveled and mode of transport. Results: The reported achievement for the first dose was 86.6% and for the second it was 87.6%. It was found that most important sources of knowledge were Anganwadi Worker (43.54% followed by ANM (26.88%. Majority of the immunization booths (67.29% were working in sunshine. More than 90% villagers reached the site walking on foot. Recommendations: Efforts should be made by the worker (HW and AWW to motivate the population for 100% coverage under the coming PPI programme. Information should be given to the worker regarding correct location of immunization site.

  16. Surface Coverage in Wireless Sensor Networks Based on Delaunay Tetrahedralization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work is presented a new method for sensor deployment on 3D surfaces. The method was structured on different steps. The first one aimed discretizes the relief of interest with Delaunay algorithm. The tetrahedra and relative values (spatial coordinates of each vertex and faces) were input to construction of 3D Voronoi diagram. Each circumcenter was calculated as a candidate position for a sensor node: the corresponding circular coverage area was calculated based on a radius r. The r value can be adjusted to simulate different kinds of sensors. The Dijkstra algorithm and a selection method were applied to eliminate candidate positions with overlapped coverage areas or beyond of surface of interest. Performance evaluations measures were defined using coverage area and communication as criteria. The results were relevant, once the mean coverage rate achieved on three different surfaces were among 91% and 100%

  17. Relationships between length and coverage of decision rules

    KAUST Repository

    Amin, Talha

    2014-02-14

    The paper describes a new tool for study relationships between length and coverage of exact decision rules. This tool is based on dynamic programming approach. We also present results of experiments with decision tables from UCI Machine Learning Repository.

  18. Medicaid Coverage Of Cessation Treatments And Barriers To Treatments

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 2008-2016. American Lung Association. Cessation Coverage. Medicaid data compiled by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s Office on Smoking and Health...

  19. 50 CFR 622.8 - At-sea observer coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... § 622.8 At-sea observer coverage. (a) Required coverage—(1) Pelagic sargassum. A vessel that harvests or possesses pelagic sargassum on any trip in the South Atlantic EEZ must carry a NMFS-approved observer....

  20. Socio-economic inequality of immunization coverage in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauridsen, Jørgen; Pradhan, Jalandhar

    2011-08-05

    To our knowledge, the present study provides a first time assessment of the contributions of socioeconomic determinants of immunization coverage in India using the recent National Family Health Survey data. Measurement of socioeconomic inequalities in health and health care, and understanding the determinants of such inequalities in terms of their contributions, are critical for health intervention strategies and for achieving equity in health care. A decomposition approach is applied to quantify the contributions from socio-demographic factors to inequality in immunization coverage. The results reveal that poor household economic status, mother's illiteracy, per capita state domestic product and proportion of illiterate at the state level is systematically related to 97% of predictable socioeconomic inequalities in full immunization coverage at the national level. These patterns of evidence suggest the need for immunization strategies targeted at different states and towards certain socioeconomic determinants as pointed out above in order to reduce socioeconomic inequalities in immunization coverage.JEL Classification: I10, I12.

  1. Socio-economic inequality in oral healthcare coverage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hosseinpoor, A R; Itani, L; Petersen, P E

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess socio-economic inequality in oral healthcare coverage among adults with expressed need living in 52 countries. Data on 60,332 adults aged 18 years or older were analyzed from 52 countries participating in the 2002-2004 World Health Survey. Oral healthcare...... coverage was defined as the proportion of individuals who received any medical care from a dentist or other oral health specialist during a period of 12 months prior to the survey, among those who expressed any mouth and/or teeth problems during that period. In addition to assessment of the coverage across...... wealth quintiles in each country, a wealth-based relative index of inequality was used to measure socio-economic inequality. The index was adjusted for sex, age, marital status, education, employment, overall health status, and urban/rural residence. Pro-rich inequality in oral healthcare coverage...

  2. Insurance Coverage and Whither Thou Goest for Health Info

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Authors of Insurance Coverage and Whither Thou Goest for Health Information in 2012, recently published in Volume 4, Issue 4 of the Medicare and Medicaid Research...

  3. Surface Coverage in Wireless Sensor Networks Based on Delaunay Tetrahedralization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, M. G.; Neves, L. A.; Pinto, A. R.; Nascimento, M. Z.; Zafalon, G. F. D.; Valêncio, C.

    2015-01-01

    In this work is presented a new method for sensor deployment on 3D surfaces. The method was structured on different steps. The first one aimed discretizes the relief of interest with Delaunay algorithm. The tetrahedra and relative values (spatial coordinates of each vertex and faces) were input to construction of 3D Voronoi diagram. Each circumcenter was calculated as a candidate position for a sensor node: the corresponding circular coverage area was calculated based on a radius r. The r value can be adjusted to simulate different kinds of sensors. The Dijkstra algorithm and a selection method were applied to eliminate candidate positions with overlapped coverage areas or beyond of surface of interest. Performance evaluations measures were defined using coverage area and communication as criteria. The results were relevant, once the mean coverage rate achieved on three different surfaces were among 91% and 100%.

  4. Periosteal pedicle graft: A novel root coverage approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Mishal Piyush; Patel, Akash Prahlad; Shah, Kinnari Mishal

    2015-01-01

    Gingival recession along with reduced width of attached gingiva and inadequate vestibular depth is a very common finding. Many techniques have been adopted in order to treat such defects and obtain predictable root coverage. Several graft procedures are used to obtain the coverage, but they have not been able to deliver predictable and satisfactory results (except connective tissue graft). Some of them also resulted in the secondary surgical site that was very uncomfortable for the patients. There was an intense need for a technique that provides not only good and predictable root coverage, but also reduces the need for secondary surgical site. Hence, this paper describes a single stage technique for increasing the width of attached gingiva and root coverage by using the periosteal pedicle graft. PMID:25810603

  5. Peru’s Comprehensive Health Insurance and New Challenges for Universal Coverage

    OpenAIRE

    Francke, Pedro

    2013-01-01

    This case study analyzes the progress of Peru's Comprehensive Health Insurance (SIS) and evaluates the challenges that remain to achieving universal health care coverage. Peru is an upper-middle-income country with a gross domestic product (GDP) per capita of just over US$10,000 (purchasing power parity). The country has grown rapidly in the last decade; the average growth rate was 6.5 percent. However, 28 percent of the population lives in poverty (2011), which is estimated with regionally d...

  6. Genome sequences of rare, uncultured bacteria obtained by differential coverage binning of multiple metagenomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albertsen, Mads; Hugenholtz, Philip; Skarshewski, Adam;

    2013-01-01

    metagenomes. Multiple metagenomes of the same community, which differ in relative population abundances, were used to assemble 31 bacterial genomes, including rare (.... Four belong to the candidate bacterial phylum TM7 and represent the most complete genomes for this phylum to date (relative abundances, 0.06–1.58%). Reanalysis of published metagenomes reveals that differential coverage binning facilitates recovery of more complete and higher fidelity genome bins than...... other currently used methods, which are primarily based on sequence composition. This approach will be an important addition to the standard metagenome toolbox and greatly improve access to genomes of uncultured microorganisms....

  7. Packaging and Performance of 980nm Broad Area Semiconductor Lasers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    High power broad area semiconductor lasers have found increasing applications in pumping of solid state laser systems and fiber amplifiers, frequency doubling, medical systems and material processing.Packaging including the assembly design, process and thermal management, has a significant impact on the optical performance and reliability of a high power broad area laser. In this paper, we introduce the package structures and assembling process of 980nm broad area lasers and report the performances including output power, thermal behavior and far fields.We will report two types of high power broad area laser assemblies.One is a microchannel liquid cooled assembly and the other is a conduction cooled CT-mount assembly. Optical powers of 15W and 10W were achieved from a 980nm broad area laser with a 120 μ m stripe width in a microchannel liquid cooled assembly and conduction cooled CT-mount assembly, respectively.Furthermore,a high power of 6.5W out of fiber was demonstrated from a pigtailed, fully packaged butterfly-type module without TEC (Thermoelectric cooler).The measurement results showed that thermal management is the key in not only improving output power, but also significantly improving beam divergence and far field distribution.The results also showed that the die attach solder can significant impact the reliability of high power broad area lasers and that indium solder is not suitable for high power laser applications due to electromigration at high current densities and high temperatures.

  8. ASME nuclear codes and standards: Scope of coverage and current initiatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this paper is to address the broad scope of coverage of nuclear codes, standards and guides produced and administered by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME). Background information is provided regarding the evolution of the present activities. Details are provided on current initiatives intended to permit ASME to meet the needs of a changing nuclear industry on a worldwide scale. During the early years of commercial nuclear power, ASME produced a code for the construction of nuclear vessels used in the reactor coolant pressure boundary, containment and auxiliary systems. In response to industry growth, ASME Code coverage soon broadened to include rules for construction of other nuclear components, and inservice inspection of nuclear reactor coolant systems. In the years following this, the scope of ASME nuclear codes, standards and guides has been broadened significantly to include air cleaning activities for nuclear power reactors, operation and maintenance of nuclear power plants, quality assurance programs, cranes for nuclear facilities, qualification of mechanical equipment, and concrete reactor vessels and containments. ASME focuses on globalization of its codes, standards and guides by encouraging and promoting their use in the international community and by actively seeking participation of international members on its technical and supervisory committees and in accreditation activities. Details are provided on current international representation. Initiatives are underway to separate the technical requirements from administrative and enforcement requirements, to convert to hard metric units, to provide for non-U. S. materials, and to provide for translations into non-English languages. ASME activity as an accredited ISO 9000 registrar for suppliers of mechanical equipment is described. Rules are being developed for construction of containment systems for nuclear spent fuel and high-level waste transport packagings. Intensive

  9. A Needle in a Haystack? Uninsured Workers in Small Businesses That Do Not Offer Coverage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kronick, Richard; Olsen, Louis C

    2006-01-01

    Objective To describe the insurance status of workers at small businesses, and to describe the status of uninsured persons by the employment characteristics (employment status, firm size, and whether the employer offers insurance) of the head of household. Data Sources Data from the March and February 2001 Current Population Survey, and a survey of 2,830 small businesses in San Diego County conducted in 2001. Study Design The survey of small businesses was undertaken as part of a project testing the response of employers to offers of subsidized coverage. Employers were asked whether they offered insurance, and about the insurance status of their employees. The merged February–March 2001 CPS was used to identify the employment status, firm size, and employer-offering status for uninsured persons in the U.S. Data Collection Telephone interviews with small businesses in San Diego County. Principal Findings Only 21 percent of the uninsured in the U.S. are full-time employees (or their dependents) in small businesses (<100 employees) that do not offer insurance. The employment status of the uninsured is heterogeneous: many work for large employers, small employers who do offer insurance, or are self-employed, part-time workers, or have no workers in the household. Although there are many small businesses in San Diego that do not offer coverage, most of them have very few uninsured workers. Over 50 percent of businesses that do not offer coverage have either zero or one uninsured worker. There are very few small businesses that do not offer coverage and that have substantial numbers of uninsured workers. These businesses are not quite as rare as a needle in a haystack, but they are very difficult to find. Conclusions If all small businesses that do not offer insurance now could be persuaded to start offering coverage, and if all the full-time workers (and their dependents) in those businesses accepted insurance, the number of uninsured would decline by 21 percent

  10. Angular Dependence of the Facular-Sunspot Coverage Relation as Derived by MDI Magnetograms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Criscuoli, S.

    2016-07-01

    Previous studies have shown that the variation over the solar magnetic activity cycle of the area of facular/network features identified from broad-band and narrow-band imagery is positively correlated with the sunspot area and number, the relation being described as either linear or quadratic. On the other hand, the temporal variation of the spatial distributions of faculae, network and sunspots follows patterns that are less obviously correlated, so that we expect the relation that describes variation of the area coverage of different types of magnetic features to vary with the position over the disk. In this work we employ Michelson Doppler Interferometer (MDI) full-disk magnetograms acquired during solar cycle 23 and at the beginning of cycle 24 to investigate the relation between the coverage of magnetic elements characterized by different amounts of magnetic flux and located at different angular distances from disk center with the sunspot number. In agreement with some previous studies we find that daily data are best described by a quadratic function while data averaged over six months are best described by a linear function. In both cases the coefficients of the fits show large dependence on the position over the disk and the magnetic flux. We also find that toward disk center six-month averaged data show asymmetries between the ascending and the descending phases. The implications for solar irradiance modeling are discussed.

  11. Angular Dependence of the Facular-Sunspot Coverage Relation as Derived by MDI Magnetograms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Criscuoli, S.

    2016-08-01

    Previous studies have shown that the variation over the solar magnetic activity cycle of the area of facular/network features identified from broad-band and narrow-band imagery is positively correlated with the sunspot area and number, the relation being described as either linear or quadratic. On the other hand, the temporal variation of the spatial distributions of faculae, network and sunspots follows patterns that are less obviously correlated, so that we expect the relation that describes variation of the area coverage of different types of magnetic features to vary with the position over the disk. In this work we employ Michelson Doppler Interferometer (MDI) full-disk magnetograms acquired during solar cycle 23 and at the beginning of cycle 24 to investigate the relation between the coverage of magnetic elements characterized by different amounts of magnetic flux and located at different angular distances from disk center with the sunspot number. In agreement with some previous studies we find that daily data are best described by a quadratic function while data averaged over six months are best described by a linear function. In both cases the coefficients of the fits show large dependence on the position over the disk and the magnetic flux. We also find that toward disk center six-month averaged data show asymmetries between the ascending and the descending phases. The implications for solar irradiance modeling are discussed.

  12. Amplifying modeling for broad bandwidth pulse in Nd:glass based on hybrid-broaden mechanism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sujingqin; Lanqin, L; Wenyi, W; Feng, J; Xiaofeng, W; Xiaomin, Z [Research Center of Laser Fusion, China Academy of Engineering Physics, P. O. Box 919-988, Mianyang, China, 621900 (China); Bin, L [School of Computer and Communication Engineering, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu. China, 610031 (China)], E-mail: sujingqin@tom.com

    2008-05-15

    In this paper, the cross relaxation time is proposed to combine the homogeneous and inhomogeneous broaden mechanism for broad bandwidth pulse amplification model. The corresponding velocity equation, which can describe the response of inverse population on upper and low energy level of gain media to different frequency of pulse, is also put forward. The gain saturation and energy relaxation effect are also included in the velocity equation. Code named CPAP has been developed to simulate the amplifying process of broad bandwidth pulse in multi-pass laser system. The amplifying capability of multi-pass laser system is evaluated and gain narrowing and temporal shape distortion are also investigated when bandwidth of pulse and cross relaxation time of gain media are different. Results can benefit the design of high-energy PW laser system in LFRC, CAEP.

  13. Human broadly neutralizing antibodies to the envelope glycoprotein complex of hepatitis C virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giang, Erick; Dorner, Marcus; Prentoe, Jannick C;

    2012-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infects ∼2% of the world's population. It is estimated that there are more than 500,000 new infections annually in Egypt, the country with the highest HCV prevalence. An effective vaccine would help control this expanding global health burden. HCV is highly variable......, and an effective vaccine should target conserved T- and B-cell epitopes of the virus. Conserved B-cell epitopes overlapping the CD81 receptor-binding site (CD81bs) on the E2 viral envelope glycoprotein have been reported previously and provide promising vaccine targets. In this study, we isolated 73 human m......bs on the E1E2 complex, has an exceptionally broad neutralizing activity toward diverse HCV genotypes and protects against heterologous HCV challenge in a small animal model. The mAb panel will be useful for the design and development of vaccine candidates to elicit broadly neutralizing antibodies...

  14. MEDIA COVERAGE OF AGROBIOTECHNOLOGY: DID THE BUTTERFLY HAVE AN EFFECT?

    OpenAIRE

    Marks, Leonie A.; Kalaitzandonakes, Nicholas G.; Allison, Kevin; Zakharova, Ludmila

    2003-01-01

    This study examines media coverage of genetically modified (GM) crops in a risk communication framework. Content analysis is employed to investigate how specific environmental, food safety, and landmark events, such as the monarch butterfly and Pusztai controversies, and the cloning of Dolly-the-sheep, were reported by the media. Media coverage is from United Kingdom and United States newspapers over the period 1990 through 2001. On balance, findings show that the UK press has been more negat...

  15. Media Coverage and Political Accountability: Theory and Evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Strömberg, David

    2015-01-01

    This chapter investigates how media coverage filters information and how this affects political accountability and policy. I first present a baseline model of media coverage and its affect political accountability. The model is used to discuss the welfare consequences of private provision of news. It shows how media regulation and public broadcasting may correct market failures, notably the under-provision of news. The model also supplies an array of testable implications, used to organize th...

  16. Market coverage and the nature of product differentiation: a note

    OpenAIRE

    Wauthy, Xavier

    2010-01-01

    In this note, we analyze the equilibrium outcomes of pricing games with product differentiation in relation with the extent of market coverage. It is a received idea in the IO literature that the horizontal and vertical models of product differentiation are almost formally equivalent. We show that this idea turns out to be wrong when the full market coverage assumption is relaxed. We then argue that there exist two fundamentally different classes of address-models of differentiation, although...

  17. Cost Benefit Analysis of Sports Medicine Team Coverage

    OpenAIRE

    Tjoumakaris, Fotios P.; Eck, Brandon; Freedman, Kevin B.; Pepe, Matthew D.; Austin, Luke; Tucker, Bradford S.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: Coverage of high school athletic football by orthopaedic sports medicine specialists is considered standard of care in many localities. Taking time away from an orthopaedic practice to provide on field athletic care has potential advantages and disadvantages. Determining the economic viability of this endeavor has never been investigated. The purpose of the present investigation was to perform a cost/benefit risk analysis of local high school sports coverage by an orthopaedic spor...

  18. Development of an efficient data coverage strategy for testmanager

    OpenAIRE

    Mora Perdiguero, Jorge

    2016-01-01

    Model-based testing (MBT) emerged during the last years as a new approach to deal with the testing of complex software systems, generating sets of test cases automatically. MBT may be implemented following different approaches, the most common ones being: transition, data and state coverage. This MSc thesis focuses on the combination of transition and data coverage in order to achieve a more complete testing. This combination is approached by the use of two black box techniq...

  19. Using Prospect Theory to Explain Anomalous Crop Insurance Coverage Choice

    OpenAIRE

    Babcock, Bruce

    2015-01-01

    Farmers’ decisions about how much crop insurance to buy are not generally consistent with either expected profit or utility maximization. They do not pick coverage levels that maximize expected subsidy nor do they demand full insurance coverage. In addition, the absolute size of farmer-­‐paid premium seems to influence the type of insurance product farmers buy. Understanding demand drivers for crop insurance has taken on new importance because of the expanded role Congress has designated for ...

  20. A study of the tourism web coverage in Switzerland

    OpenAIRE

    Venkateswaran, R

    2010-01-01

    This paper discusses experiments that were performed to understand the geographic and linguistic coverage of web resources focusing on tourism-related themes in Switzerland. The research was prompted by the observation that studies in geographic information retrieval (GIR) and volunteered geographic information (VGI) commonly assume web coverage to be homogenous across geographic space, themes, and languages. There are, however, strong hints that this assumption is unfounded (Pasley et al. 20...

  1. Coverage and Connectivity Issue in Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachit Trivedi

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Wireless sensor networks (WSNs are an emerging area of interest in research and development. It finds use in military surveillance, health care, environmental monitoring, forest fire detection and smart environments. An important research issue in WSNs is the coverage since cost, area and lifetime are directly validated to it.In this paper we present an overview of WSNs and try to refine the coverage and connectivity issues in wireless sensor networks.

  2. HPV Serology Testing Confirms High HPV Immunisation Coverage in England

    OpenAIRE

    David Mesher; Elaine Stanford; Joanne White; Jamie Findlow; Rosalind Warrington; Sukamal Das; Richard Pebody; Ray Borrow; Kate Soldan

    2016-01-01

    Background Reported human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination coverage in England is high, particularly in girls offered routine immunisation at age 12 years. Serological surveillance can be used to validate reported coverage and explore variations within it and changes in serological markers over time. Methods Residual serum specimens collected from females aged 15–19 years in 2010–2011 were tested for anti-HPV16 and HPV18 IgG by ELISA. Based on these results, females were classified as follows...

  3. Human rights, ideology and population policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombo, B

    1977-01-01

    Only too often ideology means fanaticism, intolerance, even violence, but the term can be used also to denote sets of preconceptions and presuppositions which act as a stimulus and a guide to scientific innovation, particularly in the field of social science. This sort of insight into the realities of life and the world is a contribution to knowledge and the search for truth, also in the field of human rights. These are taken in the paper as those rights whose infringement constitutes a "vulnus" of the essential characteristics of human beings and those which assume the role of a basic safeguard of them. The meaning of the insistence on the human rights theme in the United Nations system is briefly touched upon, but the main effort is spent in trying to find a firm base for both fundamental rights and duties, shown as strictly and simmetrically linked. Various examples of population policies - broadly defined as governmental interventions influencing demographic variables - are then examined in the light of the basic principles laid down in the said effort. The fields taken up in succession for consideration are international and internal migration, mortality, marriage, fertility in countries at different stages of demographic transition, and growth. Rather than trying an extensive coverage of the whole horizon, a line of critical and deep thought about typical problematic themes is preferred. One of the main conclusions which may be quoted is a statement according to which the problem remains wide open of discovering acceptable ways aiming at a modification of fertility patterns which combine a reduction of the average family size with the maintenance of its variability in order to respect free and responsible individual choices. How important and urgent this task is, is underscored by the observations advanced in the final section of the paper including a meditation on the limits that human sexuality appears to have imposed on itself. PMID:12309393

  4. Assessing Latin America's Progress Toward Achieving Universal Health Coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagstaff, Adam; Dmytraczenko, Tania; Almeida, Gisele; Buisman, Leander; Hoang-Vu Eozenou, Patrick; Bredenkamp, Caryn; Cercone, James A; Diaz, Yadira; Maceira, Daniel; Molina, Silvia; Paraje, Guillermo; Ruiz, Fernando; Sarti, Flavia; Scott, John; Valdivia, Martin; Werneck, Heitor

    2015-10-01

    Two commonly used metrics for assessing progress toward universal health coverage involve assessing citizens' rights to health care and counting the number of people who are in a financial protection scheme that safeguards them from high health care payments. On these metrics most countries in Latin America have already "reached" universal health coverage. Neither metric indicates, however, whether a country has achieved universal health coverage in the now commonly accepted sense of the term: that everyone--irrespective of their ability to pay--gets the health services they need without suffering undue financial hardship. We operationalized a framework proposed by the World Bank and the World Health Organization to monitor progress under this definition and then constructed an overall index of universal health coverage achievement. We applied the approach using data from 112 household surveys from 1990 to 2013 for all twenty Latin American countries. No country has achieved a perfect universal health coverage score, but some countries (including those with more integrated health systems) fare better than others. All countries except one improved in overall universal health coverage over the time period analyzed. PMID:26438747

  5. Matching and fairness in threat-based mobile sensor coverage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng-Yu, Ma T. [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States). Dept. of Computer Science; Yau, King Y. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Spallation Neutron Source (SNS); Chin, Jren-Chit [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States). Dept. of Computer Science; Rao, Nageswara S. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Spallation Neutron Source (SNS); Shankar, Mallikarjun [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Spallation Neutron Source (SNS)

    2009-12-01

    Mobile sensors can be used to effect complete coverage of a surveillance area for a given threat over time, thereby reducing the number of sensors necessary. The surveillance area may have a given threat profile as determined by the kind of threat, and accompanying meteorological, environmental, and human factors. In planning the movement of sensors, areas that are deemed higher threat should receive proportionately higher coverage. We propose a coverage algorithm for mobile sensors to achieve a coverage that will match - over the long term and as quantified by an RMSE metric - a given threat profile. Moreover, the algorithm has the following desirable properties: (1) stochastic, so that it is robust to contingencies and makes it hard for an adversary to anticipate the sensor's movement, (2) efficient, and (3) practical, by avoiding movement over inaccessible areas. Further to matching, we argue that a fairness measure of performance over the shorter time scale is also important. We show that the RMSE and fairness are, in general, antagonistic, and argue for the need of a combined measure of performance, which we call efficacy. We show how a pause time parameter of the coverage algorithm can be used to control the trade-off between the RMSE and fairness, and present an efficient offline algorithm to determine the optimal pause time maximizing the efficacy. Finally, we discuss the effects of multiple sensors, under both independent and coordinated operation. Extensive simulation results - under realistic coverage scenarios - are presented for performance evaluation.

  6. Does media coverage influence public attitudes towards welfare recipients? The impact of the 2011 English riots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeves, Aaron; de Vries, Robert

    2016-06-01

    Following the shooting of Mark Duggan by police on 4 August 2011, there were riots in many large cities in the UK. As the rioting was widely perceived to be perpetrated by the urban poor, links were quickly made with Britain's welfare policies. In this paper, we examine whether the riots, and the subsequent media coverage, influenced attitudes toward welfare recipients. Using the British Social Attitudes survey, we use multivariate difference-in-differences regression models to compare attitudes toward welfare recipients among those interviewed before (pre-intervention: i.e. prior to 6 August) and after (post-intervention: 10 August-10 September) the riots occurred (N = 3,311). We use variation in exposure to the media coverage to test theories of media persuasion in the context of attitudes toward welfare recipients. Before the riots, there were no significant differences between newspaper readers and non-readers in their attitudes towards welfare recipients. However, after the riots, attitudes diverged. Newspaper readers became more likely than non-readers to believe that those on welfare did not really deserve help, that the unemployed could find a job if they wanted to and that those on the dole were being dishonest in claiming benefits. Although the divergence was clearest between right-leaning newspaper and non-newspaper readers, we do not a find statistically significant difference between right- and left-leaning newspapers. These results suggest that media coverage of the riots influenced attitudes towards welfare recipients; specifically, newspaper coverage of the riots increased the likelihood that readers of the print media expressed negative attitudes towards welfare recipients when compared with the rest of the population. PMID:27230494

  7. Uncorrected refractive errors, presbyopia and spectacle coverage in Kamuli District, Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naomi Nsubuga

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Successful refractive error programmes arise from evidence that can be collected cost effectively and timely.Aim: To investigate the prevalence of uncorrected refractive error (URE, presbyopia and spectacle coverage in the Kamuli district, Uganda.Setting: The study was conducted in the Kamuli district in Uganda.Methods: The Rapid Assessment of Refractive Error (RARE study design is a communitybased cross-sectional study using multistage cluster random sampling to gather information on refractive errors and presbyopia. Subjects aged 15 years and older were selected from the population in Kamuli district in Uganda. Vision impairment due to URE at distance and near and barriers to uptake of refractive error services were investigated.Results: Participants, N = 3281 (57.6% male, with an age range of 15–92 years were enumerated and the response rate was 100%. The prevalence of refractive errors was 4.6% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 3.7 – 5.5 and the spectacle coverage was 5.96% (95% CI 1.74% – 10.18%. The prevalence of uncorrected presbyopia was 50.3% (95% CI 47.6% – 53.0% and the spectacle coverage was 0%. Thirty-three (or 1% respondents were current spectacle users. One-hundred fourteen people (3.5% had previously used spectacles; however, 50.9% of them discontinued spectacle use a year before the study because the spectacles were broken or scratched. The major barriers to spectacle uptake were accessibility of services and affordability of spectacles.Conclusion: The prevalence of URE and the barriers to uptake of refractive services will inform the implementation of refractive services in the study area. Key words: Uncorrected refractive errors; presbyopia and spectacle coverage

  8. Defining Pathways and Trade-offs Toward Universal Health Coverage Comment on “Ethical Perspective: Five Unacceptable Trade-offs on the Path to Universal Health Coverage”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stéphane Verguet

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The World Health Organization’s (WHO’s World Health Report 2010, “Health systems financing, the path to universal coverage,” promoted universal health coverage (UHC as an aspirational objective for country health systems. Yet, in addition to the dimensions of services and coverage, distribution of coverage in the population, and financial risk protection highlighted by the report, the consideration of the budget constraint should be further strengthened in the ensuing debate on resource allocation toward UHC. Beyond the substantial financial constraints faced by low- and middle-income countries, additional considerations, such as the geographical context, the underlying country infrastructure, and the architecture of health systems, determine the feasibility, effectiveness, quality and cost of healthcare delivery. Therefore, increased production and use of local evidence tied to the criteria of health benefits, equity, financial risk protection, and costs accompanying health delivery are needed so that to highlight pathways and acceptable trade-offs toward UHC.

  9. Bid Optimization in Broad-Match Ad auctions

    CERN Document Server

    Even-dar, Eyal; Mirrokni, Vahab; Muthukrishnan, S; Nadav, Uri

    2009-01-01

    Ad auctions in sponsored search support ``broad match'' that allows an advertiser to target a large number of queries while bidding only on a limited number. While giving more expressiveness to advertisers, this feature makes it challenging to optimize bids to maximize their returns: choosing to bid on a query as a broad match because it provides high profit results in one bidding for related queries which may yield low or even negative profits. We abstract and study the complexity of the {\\em bid optimization problem} which is to determine an advertiser's bids on a subset of keywords (possibly using broad match) so that her profit is maximized. In the query language model when the advertiser is allowed to bid on all queries as broad match, we present an linear programming (LP)-based polynomial-time algorithm that gets the optimal profit. In the model in which an advertiser can only bid on keywords, ie., a subset of keywords as an exact or broad match, we show that this problem is not approximable within any ...

  10. Assessment of Routine Immunization Coverage in Nyala Locality, Reasons behind Incomplete Immunization in South Darfur State, Sudan

    OpenAIRE

    Ismail, Ismail Tibin Adam; El-Tayeb, Elsadeg Mahgoob; Omer, Mohammed Diaaeldin F.A.; Eltahir, Yassir Mohammed; El-Sayed, El-Tayeb Ahmed; Deribe, Kebede

    2014-01-01

    Little is known about the coverage of routine immunization service in South Darfur state, Sudan. Therefore, this study was conducted to determine the vaccination rate and barriers for vaccination. A cross-sectional community-based study was undertaken in Nyala locality, south Darfur, Sudan, including urban, rural and Internal Displaced Peoples (IDPs) population in proportional representation. Survey data were collected by a questionnaire which was applied face to face to parents of 213 childr...

  11. 立体绿化增绿方法%Methods of Increasing Green Coverage of Modern Residential Buildings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱双营; 吴云霄

    2009-01-01

    Three-dimensional greening of building is undoubtedly an effective way to increase green coverage and green biomass for cities with crowded buildings, concentrated population and limited land for landscaping. The paper is aimed to study selection of plant species,models of greening and overall patterns of greening of buildings for four major types of three-dimensional greening. The paper also proposes some measures for the development of the three-dimensional greening in the future.

  12. High coverage of mass drug administration for lymphatic filariasis in rural and non-rural settings in the Western Area, Sierra Leone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonnie Mustapha

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lymphatic filariasis elimination programs are based upon preventative chemotherapy annually in populations with prevalence more than or equal to 1%. The goal is to treat 80% of the eligible, at risk population yearly, for at least 5 years, in order to interrupt transmission and prevent children from becoming infected. This level of coverage has been a challenge in urban settings. Assessing the coverage in a rapidly growing urban/non-rural setting with inadequate population data is also problematic. In Sierra Leone, a 5-day preventative chemotherapy campaign was carried out in the Western Area including the capital: Freetown. An intensive, social mobilization strategy combined traditional and modern communication channels. To aid dissemination of appropriate information Frequently Asked Questions were developed and widely circulated. The population of the Western Area has grown faster than projected by the 2004 National Census due to the post-war settlement of internally displaced persons. As a reliable denominator was not available, independent monitoring was adapted and performed "in process" to aid program performance and "end process" to assess final coverage. Results In 5 days 1,104,407 eligible persons were treated. Using the projected population from the 2004 census this figure represented coverage of 116% in the Urban Western Area and 129% in the Rural Western Area. Independent monitors interviewed a total of 9,253 persons during the 2 End Process days representing 1% of the projected population. Of these, 85.8% recalled taking both ivermectin and albendazole (Urban: 85.2%, Rural: 87.1%. No serious adverse drug reactions were reported. Conclusion The paper presents the key elements of success of the social mobilization and implementation strategy and describes the independent monitoring used to estimate final coverage in this urban/non-rural setting where the current population size is uncertain. This implementation

  13. Broad ligament pregnancy a diagnostic dilemma: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Gupta

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Broad ligament pregnancy is one of the rarest forms of ectopic pregnancy with high risk of maternal mortality. Although ultrasonography is usually helpful in making the diagnosis but it is mostly established during laparotomy. 34 year old G2P1 with previous caesarean section reported at 8th month of pregnancy with inability to perceive foetal movements. Ultrasonography confirmed intrauterine fetal demise. Patient was taken for caesarean section after failed induction. Intraoperative diagnosis of broad ligament pregnancy was made and broad ligament along with fetus, sac, fallopian tube and ovary was excised. Post-operative period was uneventful. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2016; 5(7.000: 2478-2480

  14. Folded cavity angled-grating broad-area lasers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yunsong; Zhu, Lin

    2013-10-01

    The angled-grating broad-area laser is a promising candidate for high power, high brightness diode laser source. The key point in the design is the angled gratings which can simultaneously support the unique snake-like zigzag lasing mode and eliminate the direct Fabry-Perot (FP) feedback. Unlike a conventional laser waveguide mode, the phase front of the zigzag mode periodically changes along the propagation direction. By use of the mirror symmetry of the zigzag mode, we propose and demonstrate the folded cavity angled-grating broad-area lasers. One benefit of this design is to reduce the required wafer space compared to a regular angled-grating broad-area laser, especially in a long cavity laser for high power operation. Experimental results show that the folded cavity laser exhibits good beam quality in far field with a slightly larger threshold and smaller slope efficiency due to the additional interface loss.

  15. Estimating DNA coverage and abundance in metagenomes using a gamma approximation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hooper, Sean D; Dalevi, Daniel; Pati, Amrita; Mavromatis, Konstantinos; Ivanova, Natalia N; Kyrpides, Nikos C

    2010-01-01

    Shotgun sequencing generates large numbers of short DNA reads from either an isolated organism or, in the case of metagenomics projects, from the aggregate genome of a microbial community. These reads are then assembled based on overlapping sequences into larger, contiguous sequences (contigs). The feasibility of assembly and the coverage achieved (reads per nucleotide or distinct sequence of nucleotides) depend on several factors: the number of reads sequenced, the read length and the relative abundances of their source genomes in the microbial community. A low coverage suggests that most of the genomic DNA in the sample has not been sequenced, but it is often difficult to estimate either the extent of the uncaptured diversity or the amount of additional sequencing that would be most efficacious. In this work, we regard a metagenome as a population of DNA fragments (bins), each of which may be covered by one or more reads. We employ a gamma distribution to model this bin population due to its flexibility and ease of use. When a gamma approximation can be found that adequately fits the data, we may estimate the number of bins that were not sequenced and that could potentially be revealed by additional sequencing. We evaluated the performance of this model using simulated metagenomes and demonstrate its applicability on three recent metagenomic datasets.

  16. Mass drug administration coverage evaluation survey for lymphatic Filariasis in Bagalkot and Gulbarga districts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prakash Kurubarahalli Patel

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Lymphatic filariasis (LF is endemic in 83 countries and territories, with more than a billion people at risk of infection. In view with the global elimination, mass drug administration (MDA with single dose of diethylcarbamazine and albendazole tablets was carried out for the eligible population in Bagalkot and Gulbarga districts. Objective: Assess coverage of MDA against LF in Bagalkot and Gulbarga districts. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional coverage evaluation survey, one urban and three rural clusters were selected randomly in each district. The data were collected in a pretested performa, computed and analyzed using SPSS-10 to calculate frequencies and proportions. Results: A total of eight clusters in two districts resulted in a total study population of 1,228 individuals. The overall compliance rate in Bagalkot district was 78.6% and in Gulbarga district it was only 38.8%. The prime reason for noncompliance was fear of side effects and not received tablets. Conclusion: There is an urgent need for more effective drug delivery strategies to improve the compliance in both the districts.

  17. Broad Coverage Identification of Multiple Proteolytic Cleavage Site Sequences in Complex High Molecular Weight Proteins Using Quantitative Proteomics as a Complement to Edman Sequencing*

    OpenAIRE

    Doucet, Alain; Christopher M Overall

    2010-01-01

    Proteolytic processing modifies the pleiotropic functions of many large, complex, and modular proteins and can generate cleavage products with new biological activity. The identification of exact proteolytic cleavage sites in the extracellular matrix laminins, fibronectin, and other extracellular matrix proteins is not only important for understanding protein turnover but is needed for the identification of new bioactive cleavage products. Several such products have recently been recognized t...

  18. Broadly tuned, view-specific coding of face shape: opposing figural aftereffects can be induced in different views.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffery, Linda; Rhodes, Gillian; Busey, Tom

    2007-11-01

    Face aftereffects are sensitive to changes in viewpoint, suggesting view-specific face coding, yet are not entirely eliminated by changes in viewpoint, suggesting view-invariance. To determine whether broad view-tuning can account for these findings we measured the reduction of a figural face aftereffect induced in one view by concurrent adaptation to an opposite distortion in a second viewpoint, varying the angle between these views. To the degree that the same neural population codes both viewpoints, the opposing aftereffects should cancel. Cancellation increased monotonically as the angle between two adapting views decreased, consistent with broadly tuned, view-specific coding of face shape. PMID:17920099

  19. [Estimated coverage of death counts and adult mortality in Mozambique based on census data].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberto, Serafim Adriano; Queiroz, Bernardo Lanza

    2015-10-01

    In 1997 and 2007, the questionnaire used in the Population Census in Mozambique included a question on deaths at home in the previous 12 months. This study aimed to evaluate the quality of mortality data for the country as a whole and its three major geographic regions. More specifically, based on formal demographic methods, the authors sought to evaluate the quality of information in terms of degree of coverage of death counts and mortality structure, summarized by the probability of death between 15 and 60 years of age. The 2007 census enumerated between 65% and 90% of deaths in Mozambique, suggesting that mortality estimates using direct methods underestimate mortality in the country. The study showed that there has been progress in the quality of death counts in the census, and that in the absence of high-quality vital statistics, population censuses can be a good source of mortality data in developing countries.

  20. Analysis of fuel system technology for broad property fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffinberry, G. A.

    1984-01-01

    An analytical study was performed in order to assess relative performance and economic factors involved with alternative advanced fuel systems for future commercial aircraft operating with broad property fuels. Significant results, with emphasis on design practicality from the engine manufacturer' standpoint, are highlighted. Several advanced fuel systems were modeled to determine as accurately as possible the relative merits of each system from the standpoint of compatibility with broad property fuel. Freezing point, thermal stability, and lubricity were key property issues. A computer model was formulated to determine the investment incentive for each system. Results are given.

  1. Insurance coverage for male infertility care in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupree, James M

    2016-01-01

    Infertility is a common condition experienced by many men and women, and treatments are expensive. The World Health Organization and American Society of Reproductive Medicine define infertility as a disease, yet private companies infrequently offer insurance coverage for infertility treatments. This is despite the clear role that healthcare insurance plays in ensuring access to care and minimizing the financial burden of expensive services. In this review, we assess the current knowledge of how male infertility care is covered by insurance in the United States. We begin with an appraisal of the costs of male infertility care, then examine the state insurance laws relevant to male infertility, and close with a discussion of why insurance coverage for male infertility is important to both men and women. Importantly, we found that despite infertility being classified as a disease and males contributing to almost half of all infertility cases, coverage for male infertility is often excluded from health insurance laws. Excluding coverage for male infertility places an undue burden on their female partners. In addition, excluding care for male infertility risks missing opportunities to diagnose important health conditions and identify reversible or irreversible causes of male infertility. Policymakers should consider providing equal coverage for male and female infertility care in future health insurance laws. PMID:27030084

  2. Insurance coverage for male infertility care in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James M Dupree

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Infertility is a common condition experienced by many men and women, and treatments are expensive. The World Health Organization and American Society of Reproductive Medicine define infertility as a disease, yet private companies infrequently offer insurance coverage for infertility treatments. This is despite the clear role that healthcare insurance plays in ensuring access to care and minimizing the financial burden of expensive services. In this review, we assess the current knowledge of how male infertility care is covered by insurance in the United States. We begin with an appraisal of the costs of male infertility care, then examine the state insurance laws relevant to male infertility, and close with a discussion of why insurance coverage for male infertility is important to both men and women. Importantly, we found that despite infertility being classified as a disease and males contributing to almost half of all infertility cases, coverage for male infertility is often excluded from health insurance laws. Excluding coverage for male infertility places an undue burden on their female partners. In addition, excluding care for male infertility risks missing opportunities to diagnose important health conditions and identify reversible or irreversible causes of male infertility. Policymakers should consider providing equal coverage for male and female infertility care in future health insurance laws.

  3. Analysis of k-Coverage in Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasmi Ranjan Patra

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Recently, a concept of wireless sensor networks has attracted much attention due to its wide-range of potential applications. Wireless sensor networks also pose a number of challenging optimization problems. One of the fundamental problems in sensor networks is the coverage problem, which reflects the quality of service that can be provided by a particular sensor network. The coverage concept is depending from several points of view due to a variety of sensors and a wide-range of their applications. One fundamental issue in sensor networks is the coverage problem, which reflects how well a sensor network is monitored or tracked by sensors. In this paper, we formulate this problem as a decision problem, whose goal is to determine the degree of coverage of a sensor network, which is covered by at least k sensors, where k is a predefined value. The sensing ranges of sensors can be same or different. Performance evaluation of our protocol indicates that degree of coverage of wireless sensor networks can be determined within small period of time. Therefore energy consumption of the sensor networks can be minimized.

  4. Scalable Coverage Maintenance for Dense Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Lu

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Owing to numerous potential applications, wireless sensor networks have been attracting significant research effort recently. The critical challenge that wireless sensor networks often face is to sustain long-term operation on limited battery energy. Coverage maintenance schemes can effectively prolong network lifetime by selecting and employing a subset of sensors in the network to provide sufficient sensing coverage over a target region. We envision future wireless sensor networks composed of a vast number of miniaturized sensors in exceedingly high density. Therefore, the key issue of coverage maintenance for future sensor networks is the scalability to sensor deployment density. In this paper, we propose a novel coverage maintenance scheme, scalable coverage maintenance (SCOM, which is scalable to sensor deployment density in terms of communication overhead (i.e., number of transmitted and received beacons and computational complexity (i.e., time and space complexity. In addition, SCOM achieves high energy efficiency and load balancing over different sensors. We have validated our claims through both analysis and simulations.

  5. Estimation of Pap-test coverage in an area with an organised screening program: challenges for survey methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raggi Patrizio

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The cytological screening programme of Viterbo has completed the second round of invitations to the entire target population (age 25–64. From a public health perspective, it is important to know the Pap-test coverage rate and the use of opportunistic screening. The most commonly used study design is the survey, but the validity of self-reports and the assumptions made about non respondents are often questioned. Methods From the target population, 940 women were sampled, and responded to a telephone interview about Pap-test utilisation. The answers were compared with the screening program registry; comparing the dates of Pap-tests reported by both sources. Sensitivity analyses were performed for coverage over a 36-month period, according to various assumptions regarding non respondents. Results The response rate was 68%. The coverage over 36 months was 86.4% if we assume that non respondents had the same coverage as respondents, 66% if we assume they were not covered at all, and 74.6% if we adjust for screening compliance in the non respondents. The sensitivity and specificity of the question, "have you ever had a Pap test with the screening programme" were 84.5% and 82.2% respectively. The test dates reported in the interview tended to be more recent than those reported in the registry, but 68% were within 12 months of each other. Conclusion Surveys are useful tools to understand the effectiveness of a screening programme and women's self-report was sufficiently reliable in our setting, but the coverage estimates were strongly influenced by the assumptions we made regarding non respondents.

  6. Structural basis of hepatitis C virus neutralization by broadly neutralizing antibody HCV1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kong, Leopold; Giang, Erick; Robbins, Justin B.; Stanfield, Robyn L.; Burton, Dennis R.; Wilson, Ian A.; Law, Mansun (Scripps)

    2012-10-29

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infects more than 2% of the global population and is a leading cause of liver cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma, and end-stage liver diseases. Circulating HCV is genetically diverse, and therefore a broadly effective vaccine must target conserved T- and B-cell epitopes of the virus. Human mAb HCV1 has broad neutralizing activity against HCV isolates from at least four major genotypes and protects in the chimpanzee model from primary HCV challenge. The antibody targets a conserved antigenic site (residues 412-423) on the virus E2 envelope glycoprotein. Two crystal structures of HCV1 Fab in complex with an epitope peptide at 1.8-{angstrom} resolution reveal that the epitope is a {beta}-hairpin displaying a hydrophilic face and a hydrophobic face on opposing sides of the hairpin. The antibody predominantly interacts with E2 residues Leu{sup 413} and Trp{sup 420} on the hydrophobic face of the epitope, thus providing an explanation for how HCV isolates bearing mutations at Asn{sup 415} on the same binding face escape neutralization by this antibody. The results provide structural information for a neutralizing epitope on the HCV E2 glycoprotein and should help guide rational design of HCV immunogens to elicit similar broadly neutralizing antibodies through vaccination.

  7. Matrix population models from 20 studies of perennial plant populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Martha M.; Williams, Jennifer L.; Lesica, Peter; Bell, Timothy J.; Bierzychudek, Paulette; Bowles, Marlin; Crone, Elizabeth E.; Doak, Daniel F.; Ehrlen, Johan; Ellis-Adam, Albertine; McEachern, Kathryn; Ganesan, Rengaian; Latham, Penelope; Luijten, Sheila; Kaye, Thomas N.; Knight, Tiffany M.; Menges, Eric S.; Morris, William F.; den Nijs, Hans; Oostermeijer, Gerard; Quintana-Ascencio, Pedro F.; Shelly, J. Stephen; Stanley, Amanda; Thorpe, Andrea; Tamara, Ticktin; Valverde, Teresa; Weekley, Carl W.

    2012-01-01

    Demographic transition matrices are one of the most commonly applied population models for both basic and applied ecological research. The relatively simple framework of these models and simple, easily interpretable summary statistics they produce have prompted the wide use of these models across an exceptionally broad range of taxa. Here, we provide annual transition matrices and observed stage structures/population sizes for 20 perennial plant species which have been the focal species for long-term demographic monitoring. These data were assembled as part of the 'Testing Matrix Models' working group through the National Center for Ecological Analysis and Synthesis (NCEAS). In sum, these data represent 82 populations with >460 total population-years of data. It is our hope that making these data available will help promote and improve our ability to monitor and understand plant population dynamics.

  8. Matrix population models from 20 studies of perennial plant populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Martha M.; Williams, Jennifer L.; Lesica, Peter; Bell, Timothy J.; Bierzychudek, Paulette; Bowles, Marlin; Crone, Elizabeth E.; Doak, Daniel F.; Ehrlen, Johan; Ellis-Adam, Albertine; McEachern, Kathryn; Ganesan, Rengaian; Latham, Penelope; Luijten, Sheila; Kaye, Thomas N.; Knight, Tiffany M.; Menges, Eric S.; Morris, William F.; den Nijs, Hans; Oostermeijer, Gerard; Quintana-Ascencio, Pedro F.; Shelly, J. Stephen; Stanley, Amanda; Thorpe, Andrea; Tamara, Ticktin; Valverde, Teresa; Weekley, Carl W.

    2012-01-01

    Demographic transition matrices are one of the most commonly applied population models for both basic and applied ecological research. The relatively simple framework of these models and simple, easily interpretable summary statistics they produce have prompted the wide use of these models across an exceptionally broad range of taxa. Here, we provide annual transition matrices and observed stage structures/population sizes for 20 perennial plant species which have been the focal species for long-term demographic monitoring. These data were assembled as part of the "Testing Matrix Models" working group through the National Center for Ecological Analysis and Synthesis (NCEAS). In sum, these data represent 82 populations with >460 total population-years of data. It is our hope that making these data available will help promote and improve our ability to monitor and understand plant population dynamics.

  9. Malaria indicator survey 2007, Ethiopia: coverage and use of major malaria prevention and control interventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graves Patricia M

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In 2005, a nationwide survey estimated that 6.5% of households in Ethiopia owned an insecticide-treated net (ITN, 17% of households had been sprayed with insecticide, and 4% of children under five years of age with a fever were taking an anti-malarial drug. Similar to other sub-Saharan African countries scaling-up malaria interventions, the Government of Ethiopia set an ambitious national goal in 2005 to (i provide 100% ITN coverage in malarious areas, with a mean of two ITNs per household; (ii to scale-up indoor residual spraying of households with insecticide (IRS to cover 30% of households targeted for IRS; and (iii scale-up the provision of case management with rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs and artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT, particularly at the peripheral level. Methods A nationally representative malaria indicator survey (MIS was conducted in Ethiopia between September and December 2007 to determine parasite and anaemia prevalence in the population at risk and to assess coverage, use and access to scaled-up malaria prevention and control interventions. The survey used a two-stage random cluster sample of 7,621 households in 319 census enumeration areas. A total of 32,380 people participated in the survey. Data was collected using standardized Roll Back Malaria Monitoring and Evaluation Reference Group MIS household and women's questionnaires, which were adapted to the local context. Results Data presented is for households in malarious areas, which according to the Ethiopian Federal Ministry of Health are defined as being located Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax, respectively. Moderate-severe anaemia (haemoglobin Conclusions Since mid-2005, the Ethiopian National Malaria Control Programme has considerably scaled-up its malaria prevention and control interventions, demonstrating the impact of strong political will and a committed partnership. The MIS showed, however, that besides sustaining and

  10. Viewing the Kenyan health system through an equity lens: implications for universal coverage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuma Jane

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Equity and universal coverage currently dominate policy debates worldwide. Health financing approaches are central to universal coverage. The way funds are collected, pooled, and used to purchase or provide services should be carefully considered to ensure that population needs are addressed under a universal health system. The aim of this paper is to assess the extent to which the Kenyan health financing system meets the key requirements for universal coverage, including income and risk cross-subsidisation. Recommendations on how to address existing equity challenges and progress towards universal coverage are made. Methods An extensive review of published and gray literature was conducted to identify the sources of health care funds in Kenya. Documents were mainly sourced from the Ministry of Medical Services and the Ministry of Public Health and Sanitation. Country level documents were the main sources of data. In cases where data were not available at the country level, they were sought from the World Health Organisation website. Each financing mechanism was analysed in respect to key functions namely, revenue generation, pooling and purchasing. Results The Kenyan health sector relies heavily on out-of-pocket payments. Government funds are mainly allocated through historical incremental approach. The sector is largely underfunded and health care contributions are regressive (i.e. the poor contribute a larger proportion of their income to health care than the rich. Health financing in Kenya is fragmented and there is very limited risk and income cross-subsidisation. The country has made little progress towards achieving international benchmarks including the Abuja target of allocating 15% of government's budget to the health sector. Conclusions The Kenyan health system is highly inequitable and policies aimed at promoting equity and addressing the needs of the poor and vulnerable have not been successful. Some progress

  11. Biomedical research coverage in English-language Indian newspapers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bharvi Dutt

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The present paper explores biomedical research coverage in the Indian English-language newspapers. Science and technology coverage in the Indian English-language newspapers revealed dominant representation of biomedical research. The research reported was mainly from foreign sources, mostly performed in US, UK and other developed countries of Europe. Plausibly, this was the major reason that areas of medical concerns in foreign countries such as Neuroscience, Oncology, Genetics and Cardiovascular research constituted more than one-third of the total space whereas neglected tropical diseases have almost been neglected in the coverage. This is despite the fact that tropical and other neglected diseases constitute the greatest health problem in India. The study discusses the significance of this research for policy planners, media, health information dissemination and those concerned about informed and science literate citizenry in the country.

  12. Coverage Dependent Assembly of Anthraquinone on Au(111)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conrad, Brad; Deloach, Andrew; Einstein, Theodore; Dougherty, Daniel

    A study of adsorbate-adsorbate and surface state mediated interactions of anthraquinone (AnQ) on Au(111) is presented. We utilize scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) to characterize the coverage dependence of AnQ structure formation. Ordered structures are observed up to a single monolayer (ML) and are found to be strongly dependent on molecular surface density. While the complete ML forms a well-ordered close-packed layer, for a narrow range of sub-ML coverages irregular close-packed islands are observed to coexist with a disordered pore network linking neighboring islands. This network displays a characteristic pore size and at lower coverages, the soliton walls of the herringbone reconstruction are shown to promote formation of distinct pore nanostructures. We will discuss these nanostructure formations in the context of surface mediated and more direct adsorbate interactions.

  13. Coverage in Multi-Antenna Two-Tier Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Chandrasekhar, Vikram; Andrews, Jeffrey G

    2009-01-01

    In two-tier networks -- comprising a conventional cellular network overlaid with shorter range hotspots (e.g. femtocells, distributed antennas, or wired relays) -- with universal frequency reuse, the near-far effect from cross-tier interference creates dead spots where reliable coverage cannot be guaranteed to users in either tier. Equipping the macrocell and femtocells with multiple antennas enhances robustness against the near-far problem. This work derives the maximum number of simultaneously transmitting multiple antenna femtocells meeting a per-tier outage probability constraint. Coverage dead zones are presented wherein cross-tier interference bottlenecks cellular and hotspot coverage. Two operating regimes are shown namely 1) a cellular-limited regime in which femtocell users experience unacceptable cross-tier interference and 2) a hotspot-limited regime wherein both femtocell users and cellular users are limited by hotspot interference. Our analysis accounts for the per-tier transmit powers, the numbe...

  14. Root coverage using epithelial embossed connective tissue graft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T Ramakrishnan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In periodontal practice, root coverage after marginal soft tissue recession requires daily clinical decisions. Numerous longitudinal human studies have been presented to support the efficacy and predictability of different mucogingival surgical techniques for root coverage. Over the years, root coverage procedure using the subepithelial connective tissue graft with variations has emerged as the favorite surgical technique. In the case presented in this report, subepithelial connective tissue graft with embossed epithelium was used to cover Miller′s class II gingival recession in the upper right canine. The design is such that embossed epithelium exactly fits the recession site and the connective tissue portion is tucked below the gingival margin of the recipient site. In this technique, coronal advancement of flap is not needed. Wider zone of attached gingiva at the recipient site was achieved by this technique.

  15. The relationship of extended radio power and broad emission line luminosity in blazars

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The relationship between broad line luminosity LBLR and extended radio power PE is investigated.In the log PE-log LBLR diagram,FSRQs populate the region of higher luminosity relative to BL Lacs,and FR II BL Lacs are between FSRQs and FR I BL Lacs.For these blazars,there is a significant correlation between LBLR and PE.The regression line scales as PE ∝ L0B.L87R ± 0.15.The slope of this scaling relation is consistent with that derived from the simple theoretical formulae.Thus,the unification of BL Lacs and FRSQs into a single population finds a statistical basis,and a disk-jet symbiosis in blazars is confirmed.FR II BL Lacs are probably at an intermediate stage in the sequence from FSRQs to BL Lacs with FR I BL Lacs at the end of this sequence.

  16. Broad spectral range synchronized flat-top arrayed waveguide grating

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akca, B. Imran; Doerr, Christopher R.; Pollnau, Markus; Ridder, de René M.

    2012-01-01

    A broad-band Mach-Zehnder-interferometer-synchronized flat-top arrayed waveguide grating is presented with a 0.5-dB bandwidth of 12 nm over 90 nm of spectral range and a central excess loss value of -0.5 dB.

  17. Model Invariance across Genders of the Broad Autism Phenotype Questionnaire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broderick, Neill; Wade, Jordan L.; Meyer, J. Patrick; Hull, Michael; Reeve, Ronald E.

    2015-01-01

    ASD is one of the most heritable neuropsychiatric disorders, though comprehensive genetic liability remains elusive. To facilitate genetic research, researchers employ the concept of the broad autism phenotype (BAP), a milder presentation of traits in undiagnosed relatives. Research suggests that the BAP Questionnaire (BAPQ) demonstrates…

  18. Document understanding for a broad class of documents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aiello, Marco; Monz, Christof; Todoran, Leon; Worring, Marcel

    2002-01-01

    We present a document analysis system able to assign logical labels and extract the reading order in a broad set of documents. All information sources, from geometric features and spatial relations to the textual features and content are employed in the analysis. To deal effectively with these infor

  19. Broad-band hard X-ray reflectors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joensen, K.D.; Gorenstein, P.; Hoghoj, P.;

    1997-01-01

    Interest in optics for hard X-ray broad-band application is growing. In this paper, we compare the hard X-ray (20-100 keV) reflectivity obtained with an energy-dispersive reflectometer, of a standard commercial gold thin-film with that of a 600 bilayer W/Si X-ray supermirror. The reflectivity of ...

  20. Silver Nanoparticles with Broad Multiband Linear Optical Absorption

    KAUST Repository

    Bakr, Osman M.

    2009-07-06

    A simple one-pot method produces silver nanoparticles coated with aryl thiols that show intense, broad nonplasmonic optical properties. The synthesis works with many aryl-thiol capping ligands, including water-soluble 4-mercaptobenzoic acid. The nanoparticles produced show linear absorption that is broader, stronger, and more structured than most conventional organic and inorganic dyes.

  1. The Long-Term X-Ray Variability of Broad Absorption Line Quasars

    CERN Document Server

    Saez, Cristian; Gallagher, Sarah C; Bauer, Franz E; Garmire, Gordon P

    2012-01-01

    We analyze the long-term (rest-frame 3-30 yr) X-Ray variability of eleven broad absorption line (BAL) quasars, mainly to constrain the variation properties of the X-Ray absorbing shielding gas that is thought to play a critical role in BAL wind launching. Our BAL quasar sample has coverage with multiple X-ray observatories including Chandra, XMM-Newton, BeppoSAX, ASCA, ROSAT, and Einstein; 3-11 observations are available for each source. For seven of the eleven sources we have obtained and analyzed new Chandra observations suitable for searching for any strong X-ray variability. We find highly significant X-Ray variability in three sources (PG 1001+054, PG 1004+130, and PG 2112+059). The maximum observed amplitude of the 2-8 keV variability is a factor of $3.8\\pm 1.3$, $1.5\\pm 0.2$, and $9.9\\pm 2.3$ for PG 1001+054, PG 1004+130, and PG 2112+059, respectively, and these sources show detectable variability on rest-frame timescales down to 5.8, 1.4, and 0.5 yr. For PG 1004+130 and PG 2112+059 we also find signif...

  2. Clinical and epidemiological findings during a measles outbreak occurring in a population with high vaccination coverage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solange Artimos de Oliveira

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available From March 1991 to April 1992, 250 measles suspected cases were studied in the Municipality of Niterói, State of Rio de Janeiro. The median age found was 11 years and 76.0% of the cases were in school age children. Exposure histories were present in 149 patients and schools were the most frequent sites of transmission (45.0%. Vaccination status was known for 127 studied cases and 76.4% of them had received measles vaccine before their first birthday. One or more complications were reported for 68 cases aitd in 8.9% of the studied cases hospitalization was required. Frequency of complications varied according to each age group studied and were more commonly encountered among children No período de março de 1991 a abril de 1992, 250 casos de um total de 293 notificados como sarampo em Niterói, RJ foram estudados. Em 75,9% dos casos o sarampo ocorreu em pessoas de idade escolar (mediana: 11. História de exposição estava presmte em 149 pacientes. O local de transmissão variou de acordo com a idade sendo a escola o mais freqüentemente encoiitrado (45%. Em 127 casos o estado vacinai era conhecido e 76,4% deles tinham sido vacinados antes do primeiro aniversário. Em 68 casos uma ou mais complicações estavam presentes e em 8,9% deles a hospitalização foi necessária. Complicações foram mais freqüentes em menores de um ano de idade (55,6%. História de vacinação prévia não diminuiu o número de complicações dos casos estudados. Os resultados deste trabalho mostram mudanças na epidemiologia do sarampo, com alterações na distribuição etária dos casos da doença, leimido ã ocoiTência de importantes surtos da virose entre adolecentes e adultos jovens.

  3. 42 CFR 457.431 - Actuarial report for benchmark-equivalent coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Actuarial report for benchmark-equivalent coverage... GRANTS TO STATES State Plan Requirements: Coverage and Benefits § 457.431 Actuarial report for benchmark-equivalent coverage. (a) To obtain approval for benchmark-equivalent health benefits coverage described...

  4. 42 CFR 440.325 - State plan requirements: Coverage and benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS SERVICES: GENERAL PROVISIONS Benchmark Benefit and Benchmark-Equivalent Coverage § 440.325 State plan requirements: Coverage and benefits. Subject to... benefits coverage: (a) Benchmark coverage in accordance with § 440.330. (b) Benchmark-equivalent...

  5. [The registration of deaths in Venezuela: an evaluation of coverage].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidegain, G; Lopez, D

    1987-08-01

    "This paper presents six indirect techniques for estimating the degree of death coverage as applied to vital statistics information in Venezuela between 1960 and 1982, collected by two public institutions, namely, the 'Oficina Central de Estadistica e Informatica' (OCEI) and the Ministry of Health and Social Assistance (MSAS).... The results show remarkable improvements in the death registry coverage for both institutions, that amount to 97 or 98 per cent at the beginning of the 80's. Nevertheless, great differences can be observed between them regarding both structure and volume of deaths by sex and age." Among the problems discussed are the impact of immigration and errors in age reporting. (SUMMARY IN ENG)

  6. Quad-Tree Visual-Calculus Analysis of Satellite Coverage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Martin W.; Hockney, George; Kwan, Bruce

    2003-01-01

    An improved method of analysis of coverage of areas of the Earth by a constellation of radio-communication or scientific-observation satellites has been developed. This method is intended to supplant an older method in which the global-coverage-analysis problem is solved from a ground-to-satellite perspective. The present method provides for rapid and efficient analysis. This method is derived from a satellite-to-ground perspective and involves a unique combination of two techniques for multiresolution representation of map features on the surface of a sphere.

  7. Multi-Service Coverage Analysis for CDMA Planning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Peng; LIU Zhi-ping; QIU Hong; YANG Da-cheng

    2004-01-01

    In CDMA network planning, it's important to understand the characteristics of multi-services. A novel method for analyzing the coverage of mixed voice and packet data traffics is presented in this paper. Based upon GIS and Monte-Carlo simulation method, this method can provide more precise but less time-consuming analysis result than before.A practical analysis case using real geographic information and network parameters is applied to verify its performance and find some useful solutions. Simulation results show that this coverage analysis method can provide helpful solution for the radio networks planning.

  8. Variability of surface ozone with cloud coverage over Kolkata, India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    D Ghosh; S K Midya; U Sarkar; T Mukherjee

    2015-03-01

    Critical analysis of experimental surface ozone data and cloud coverage is reported over Kolkata during the period January 2011 to December 2011. Significant relationship between these two parameters is observed. Analysis shows that the trend of surface ozone concentration and cloud coverage follow opposite tendency. Some exceptional observations are also reported. Apart from this, seasonal variation of surface ozone with columnar ozone concentration, NO2 and temperature is also examined in relation with cloud cover to obtain a possible explanation of this type of variation.

  9. Feedback-Based Coverage Directed Test Generation: An Industrial Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ioannides, Charalambos; Barrett, Geoff; Eder, Kerstin

    Although there are quite a few approaches to Coverage Directed test Generation aided by Machine Learning which have been applied successfully to small and medium size digital designs, it is not clear how they would scale on more elaborate industrial-level designs. This paper evaluates one of these techniques, called MicroGP, on a fully fledged industrial design. The results indicate relative success evidenced by a good level of code coverage achieved with reasonably compact tests when compared to traditional test generation approaches. However, there is scope for improvement especially with respect to the diversity of the tests evolved.

  10. Change of mobile network coverage in France from 29 August

    CERN Multimedia

    IT Department

    2016-01-01

    The change of mobile network coverage on the French part of the CERN site will take effect on 29 August and not on 11 July as previously announced.    From 29 August, the Swisscom transmitters in France will be deactivated and Orange France will thenceforth provide coverage on the French part of the CERN site.  This switch will result in changes to billing. You should also ensure that you can still be contacted by your colleagues when you are on the French part of the CERN site. Please consult the information and instructions in this official communication.

  11. The enigma of higher income immigrants with lower rates of health insurance coverage in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bass, Elizabeth

    2006-01-01

    This research compares rates of health insurance coverage among middle-class non-elderly immigrants to native-born American adults using data from the March 1996-2000 Supplements to the Current Population Survey. Probit regressions reveal that immigrants were three times as likely to be uninsured at income levels exceeding $50,000, controlling for economic, demographic and immigrant-related characteristics. Work-related characteristics, income, martial status and nativity considerably influenced health insurance status for all adults, but work-related factors had the strongest effect on immigrants' rates of coverage. Why, ceteris paribus, immigrants have lower coverage rates is unclear. Many low-income and recent immigrants face barriers to access due to legal status or job sector. But lower rates of health insurance coverage which persist among long-time residents at higher income levels cannot be explained by such barriers, a finding highly relevant for policy makers. Encouraging uninsured immigrants to opt into health plans voluntarily will remain a challenge. PMID:19834995

  12. Coverage of cervical cancer screening in Catalonia for the period 2008-2011 among immigrants and Spanish-born women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanesa eRodriguez-Sales

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The Public Health system in Catalonia, Spain provides a free of charge opportunistic cervical cancer screening. In June 2006 a revised recommendations for cervical cancer screening was introduced to increase coverage and to promote a three-year interval between screening tests. Aim: This study examines cervical cancer screening coverage and prevalence of cytology abnormalities in Catalonia by immigration status.Methods: The study analyses the cytologies registered among women aged 25-65 that have been attended at the Primary Health Centers (PHC for any reason (n=1,242,105 during 2008-11. Coverage was estimated from Governmental data base Information System Primary Care (SISAP that includes 77% of PHC. The database is anonymous, and includes information on age, country of birth, diagnostic center and cytology results Results: During the period 2008-2011, 758,690 smears were performed in a total of 595,868 women over 14 years, of whom 18.3% were immigrants. Cytology coverage was higher among immigrant women compared to Spanish born (51.2% and 39% respectively. Immigrant women also had a higher prevalence of abnormal Paps compared to the Spanish population, 4.9% and 3.3% respectively.Conclusion: Immigrant women in Catalonia have a good access to the Public Health Services and to cervical cancer screening facilities. The higher prevalence of abnormal cytologies in immigrant women compared to native women indicates the relevance to prioritize cervical cancer screening activities on a regular base in new comers.

  13. Building a model: developing genomic resources for common milkweed (Asclepias syriaca with low coverage genome sequencing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weitemier Kevin

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Milkweeds (Asclepias L. have been extensively investigated in diverse areas of evolutionary biology and ecology; however, there are few genetic resources available to facilitate and compliment these studies. This study explored how low coverage genome sequencing of the common milkweed (Asclepias syriaca L. could be useful in characterizing the genome of a plant without prior genomic information and for development of genomic resources as a step toward further developing A. syriaca as a model in ecology and evolution. Results A 0.5× genome of A. syriaca was produced using Illumina sequencing. A virtually complete chloroplast genome of 158,598 bp was assembled, revealing few repeats and loss of three genes: accD, clpP, and ycf1. A nearly complete rDNA cistron (18S-5.8S-26S; 7,541 bp and 5S rDNA (120 bp sequence were obtained. Assessment of polymorphism revealed that the rDNA cistron and 5S rDNA had 0.3% and 26.7% polymorphic sites, respectively. A partial mitochondrial genome sequence (130,764 bp, with identical gene content to tobacco, was also assembled. An initial characterization of repeat content indicated that Ty1/copia-like retroelements are the most common repeat type in the milkweed genome. At least one A. syriaca microread hit 88% of Catharanthus roseus (Apocynaceae unigenes (median coverage of 0.29× and 66% of single copy orthologs (COSII in asterids (median coverage of 0.14×. From this partial characterization of the A. syriaca genome, markers for population genetics (microsatellites and phylogenetics (low-copy nuclear genes studies were developed. Conclusions The results highlight the promise of next generation sequencing for development of genomic resources for any organism. Low coverage genome sequencing allows characterization of the high copy fraction of the genome and exploration of the low copy fraction of the genome, which facilitate the development of molecular tools for further study of a target species

  14. The Effect of Increased Coverage of Participatory Women’s Groups on Neonatal Mortality in Bangladesh: A Cluster Randomized Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fottrell, Edward; Azad, Kishwar; Kuddus, Abdul; Younes, Layla; Shaha, Sanjit; Nahar, Tasmin; Aumon, Bedowra Haq; Hossen, Munir; Beard, James; Hossain, Tanvir; Pulkki-Brannstrom, Anni-Maria; Skordis-Worrall, Jolene; Prost, Audrey; Costello, Anthony; Houweling, Tanja A. J.

    2016-01-01

    Importance Community-based interventions can reduce neonatal mortality when health systems are weak. Population coverage of target groups may be an important determinant of their effect on behavior and mortality. A women’s group trial at coverage of 1 group per 1414 population in rural Bangladesh showed no effect on neonatal mortality, despite a similar intervention having a significant effect on neonatal and maternal death in comparable settings. Objective To assess the effect of a participatory women’s group intervention with higher population coverage on neonatal mortality in Bangladesh. Design A cluster randomized controlled trial in 9 intervention and 9 control clusters. Setting Rural Bangladesh. Participants Women permanently residing in 18 unions in 3 districts and accounting for 19 301 births during the final 24 months of the intervention. Interventions Women’s groups at a coverage of 1 per 309 population that proceed through a participatory learning and action cycle in which they prioritize issues that affected maternal and neonatal health and design and implement strategies to address these issues. Main Outcomes and Measures Neonatal mortality rate. Results Analysis included 19 301 births during the final 24 months of the intervention. More than one-third of newly pregnant women joined the groups. The neonatal mortality rate was significantly lower in the intervention arm (21.3 neonatal deaths per 1000 live births vs 30.1 per 1000 in control areas), a reduction in neonatal mortality of 38% (risk ratio, 0.62 [95% CI, 0.43-0.89]) when adjusted for socioeconomic factors. The cost-effectiveness was US $220 to $393 per year of life lost averted. Cause-specific mortality rates suggest reduced deaths due to infections and those associated with prematurity/low birth weight. Improvements were seen in hygienic home delivery practices, newborn thermal care, and breastfeeding practices. Conclusions and Relevance Women’s group community mobilization, delivered

  15. Two-Component Structure of the Hbeta Broad-Line Region in Quasars. I. Evidence from Spectral Principal Component Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Hu, Chen; Ho, Luis C; Ferland, Gary J; Baldwin, Jack A; Wang, Ye

    2012-01-01

    We report on a spectral principal component analysis (SPCA) of a sample of 816 quasars, selected to have small Fe II velocity shifts with spectral coverage in the rest wavelength range 3500--5500 \\AA. The sample is explicitly designed to mitigate spurious effects on SPCA induced by Fe II velocity shifts. We improve the algorithm of SPCA in the literature and introduce a new quantity, \\emph{the fractional-contribution spectrum}, that effectively identifies the emission features encoded in each eigenspectrum. The first eigenspectrum clearly records the power-law continuum and very broad Balmer emission lines. Narrow emission lines dominate the second eigenspectrum. The third eigenspectrum represents the Fe II emission and a component of the Balmer lines with kinematically similar intermediate velocity widths. Correlations between the weights of the eigenspectra and parametric measurements of line strength and continuum slope confirm the above interpretation for the eigenspectra. Monte Carlo simulations demonstr...

  16. Promoting Population

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    THE world's population reached 5 billion in 1987,then 6 billion in 1999;now,in 2011,it is 7 billion.For a country with a set birth control policy,the way in which Chinese people and the media view this number has greatly changed.People are increasingly reflecting on the concept of population from a more scientific and rational perspective.This shift is a change from how people perceived population in the past.

  17. AIDS in black and white: the influence of newspaper coverage of HIV/AIDS on HIV/AIDS testing among African Americans and White Americans, 1993-2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Robin; Hornik, Robert C

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the effect of newspaper coverage of HIV/AIDS on HIV testing behavior in a U.S. population. HIV testing data were taken from the Center for Disease Control and Prevention's National Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System from 1993 to 2007 (N = 265,557). The authors content-analyzed news stories from 24 daily newspapers and 1 wire service during the same time period. The authors used distributed lagged regression models to estimate how well HIV/AIDS newspaper coverage predicted later HIV testing behavior. Increases in HIV/AIDS newspaper coverage were associated with declines in population-level HIV testing. Each additional 100 HIV/AIDS-related newspaper stories published each month was associated with a 1.7% decline in HIV testing levels in the subsequent month. This effect differed by race, with African Americans exhibiting greater declines in HIV testing subsequent to increased news coverage than did Whites. These results suggest that mainstream newspaper coverage of HIV/AIDS may have a particularly deleterious effect on African Americans, one of the groups most affected by the disease. The mechanisms driving the negative effect deserve further investigation to improve reporting on HIV/AIDS in the media.

  18. Impact of Indian Total Sanitation Campaign on latrine coverage and use: a cross-sectional study in Orissa three years following programme implementation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharmani Barnard

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Faced with a massive shortfall in meeting sanitation targets, some governments have implemented campaigns that use subsidies focused on latrine construction to overcome income constraints and rapidly expand coverage. In settings like rural India where open defecation is common, this may result in sub-optimal compliance (use, thereby continuing to leave the population exposed to human excreta. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study to investigate latrine coverage and use among 20 villages (447 households, 1933 individuals in Orissa, India where the Government of India's Total Sanitation Campaign had been implemented at least three years previously. We defined coverage as the proportion of households that had a latrine; for use we identified the proportion of households with at least one reported user and among those, the extent of reported use by each member of the household. RESULTS: Mean latrine coverage among the villages was 72% (compared to <10% in comparable villages in the same district where the Total Sanitation Campaign had not yet been implemented, though three of the villages had less than 50% coverage. Among these households with latrines, more than a third (39% were not being used by any member of the household. Well over a third (37% of the members of households with latrines reported never defecating in their latrines. Less than half (47% of the members of such households reported using their latrines at all times for defecation. Combined with the 28% of households that did not have latrines, it appears that most defecation events in these communities are still practiced in the open. CONCLUSION: A large-scale campaign to implement sanitation has achieved substantial gains in latrine coverage in this population. Nevertheless, gaps in coverage and widespread continuation of open defecation will result in continued exposure to human excreta, reducing the potential for health gains.

  19. Infant mortality: an insured population perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Daniel D; Roudebush, Brad

    2012-01-01

    Many insurers offer life coverage to individuals during the first year of life. The policies tend to have small face values, but frequently contain premium waiver or additional purchase options. General population mortality is significantly higher at this age relative to older children and even middle-aged adults. This article presents the mortality experience of an insured cohort in which death occurred under 1 year of age. In summary, the insured population's mortality rate was significantly lower and the leading causes of death were different than the general population.

  20. Coverage of Milgram's Obedience Experiments in Social Psychology Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griggs, Richard A.; Whitehead, George I., III

    2015-01-01

    Past studies of the treatment of Milgram's obedience experiments in social psychology textbooks from the 1960s to the 1990s discovered an evolving "Milgram-friendly" coverage style (dealing with criticisms of his experiments either summarily, in a pro-Milgram manner, or not at all). We examined 10 current social textbooks to determine…