WorldWideScience

Sample records for broad population coverage

  1. Characterization of HIV-Specific CD4+T Cell Responses against Peptides Selected with Broad Population and Pathogen Coverage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buggert, Marcus; Norstrom, Melissa M.; Czarnecki, Chris

    2012-01-01

    CD4+ T cells orchestrate immunity against viral infections, but their importance in HIV infection remains controversial. Nevertheless, comprehensive studies have associated increase in breadth and functional characteristics of HIV-specific CD4+ T cells with decreased viral load. A major challenge...... for the identification of HIV-specific CD4+ T cells targeting broadly reactive epitopes in populations with diverse ethnic background stems from the vast genomic variation of HIV and the diversity of the host cellular immune system. Here, we describe a novel epitope selection strategy, PopCover, that aims to resolve......% of the predicted peptides were found to induce HIV-specific CD4+ T cell responses. The Gag and Nef peptides induced most responses. The vast majority of the peptides (93%) had predicted restriction to the patient's HLA alleles. Interestingly, the viral load in viremic patients was inversely correlated...

  2. Change-Based Satellite Monitoring Using Broad Coverage and Targetable Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chien, Steve A.; Tran, Daniel Q.; Doubleday, Joshua R.; Doggett, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    A generic software framework analyzes data from broad coverage sweeps or general larger areas of interest. Change detection methods are used to extract subsets of directed swath areas that intersect areas of change. These areas are prioritized and allocated to targetable assets. This method is deployed in an automatic fashion, and has operated without human monitoring or intervention for sustained periods of time (months).

  3. 1990 point population coverage for the Conterminous United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This is a point coverage of the 1990 Census of Population and Housing for the conterminous United States. (Alaska and Hawaii are available separately). The coverage...

  4. Georeferenced Population Datasets of Mexico (GEO-MEX): Raster Based GIS Coverage of Mexican Population

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Raster Based GIS Coverage of Mexican Population is a gridded coverage (1 x 1 km) of Mexican population. The data were converted from vector into raster. The...

  5. Strategies for expanding health insurance coverage in vulnerable populations

    OpenAIRE

    Jia, Liying; Yuan, Beibei; Huang, Fei; Lu, Ying; Garner, Paul; Meng, Qingyue

    2014-01-01

    Background Health insurance has the potential to improve access to health care and protect people from the financial risks of diseases. However, health insurance coverage is often low, particularly for people most in need of protection, including children and other vulnerable populations. Objectives To assess the effectiveness of strategies for expanding health insurance coverage in vulnerable populations. Search methods We searched Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), pa...

  6. Surveillance of Vaccination Coverage among Adult Populations - United States, 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Walter W; Lu, Peng-Jun; O'Halloran, Alissa; Kim, David K; Grohskopf, Lisa A; Pilishvili, Tamara; Skoff, Tami H; Nelson, Noele P; Harpaz, Rafael; Markowitz, Lauri E; Rodriguez-Lainz, Alfonso; Fiebelkorn, Amy Parker

    2017-05-05

    Overall, the prevalence of illness attributable to vaccine-preventable diseases is greater among adults than among children. Adults are recommended to receive vaccinations based on their age, underlying medical conditions, lifestyle, prior vaccinations, and other considerations. Updated vaccination recommendations from CDC are published annually in the U.S. Adult Immunization Schedule. Despite longstanding recommendations for use of many vaccines, vaccination coverage among U.S. adults is low. August 2014-June 2015 (for influenza vaccination) and January-December 2015 (for pneumococcal, tetanus and diphtheria [Td] and tetanus and diphtheria with acellular pertussis [Tdap], hepatitis A, hepatitis B, herpes zoster, and human papillomavirus [HPV] vaccination). The National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) is a continuous, cross-sectional national household survey of the noninstitutionalized U.S. civilian population. In-person interviews are conducted throughout the year in a probability sample of households, and NHIS data are compiled and released annually. The survey objective is to monitor the health of the U.S. population and provide estimates of health indicators, health care use and access, and health-related behaviors. Compared with data from the 2014 NHIS, increases in vaccination coverage occurred for influenza vaccine among adults aged ≥19 years (a 1.6 percentage point increase compared with the 2013-14 season to 44.8%), pneumococcal vaccine among adults aged 19-64 years at increased risk for pneumococcal disease (a 2.8 percentage point increase to 23.0%), Tdap vaccine among adults aged ≥19 years and adults aged 19-64 years (a 3.1 percentage point and 3.3 percentage point increase to 23.1% and to 24.7%, respectively), herpes zoster vaccine among adults aged ≥60 years and adults aged ≥65 years (a 2.7 percentage point and 3.2 percentage point increase to 30.6% and to 34.2%, respectively), and hepatitis B vaccine among health care personnel (HCP) aged

  7. Increasing influenza vaccination coverage in recommended population groups in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blank, Patricia R; Szucs, Thomas D

    2009-04-01

    The clinical and economic burden of seasonal influenza is frequently underestimated. The cornerstone of controlling and preventing influenza is vaccination. National and international guidelines aim to implement immunization programs and targeted vaccination-coverage rates, which should help to enhance the vaccine uptake, especially in the at-risk population. This review purposes to highlight the vaccination guidelines and the actual vaccination situation in four target groups (the elderly, people with underlying chronic conditions, healthcare workers and children) from a European point of view.

  8. Strategies for expanding health insurance coverage in vulnerable populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Liying; Yuan, Beibei; Huang, Fei; Lu, Ying; Garner, Paul; Meng, Qingyue

    2014-11-26

    Health insurance has the potential to improve access to health care and protect people from the financial risks of diseases. However, health insurance coverage is often low, particularly for people most in need of protection, including children and other vulnerable populations. To assess the effectiveness of strategies for expanding health insurance coverage in vulnerable populations. We searched Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), part of The Cochrane Library. www.thecochranelibrary.com (searched 2 November 2012), PubMed (searched 1 November 2012), EMBASE (searched 6 July 2012), Global Health (searched 6 July 2012), IBSS (searched 6 July 2012), WHO Library Database (WHOLIS) (searched 1 November 2012), IDEAS (searched 1 November 2012), ISI-Proceedings (searched 1 November 2012),OpenGrey (changed from OpenSIGLE) (searched 1 November 2012), African Index Medicus (searched 1 November 2012), BLDS (searched 1 November 2012), Econlit (searched 1 November 2012), ELDIS (searched 1 November 2012), ERIC (searched 1 November 2012), HERDIN NeON Database (searched 1 November 2012), IndMED (searched 1 November 2012), JSTOR (searched 1 November 2012), LILACS(searched 1 November 2012), NTIS (searched 1 November 2012), PAIS (searched 6 July 2012), Popline (searched 1 November 2012), ProQuest Dissertation &Theses Database (searched 1 November 2012), PsycINFO (searched 6 July 2012), SSRN (searched 1 November 2012), Thai Index Medicus (searched 1 November 2012), World Bank (searched 2 November 2012), WanFang (searched 3 November 2012), China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CHKD-CNKI) (searched 2 November 2012).In addition, we searched the reference lists of included studies and carried out a citation search for the included studies via Web of Science to find other potentially relevant studies. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs), non-randomised controlled trials (NRCTs), controlled before-after (CBA) studies and Interrupted time series (ITS) studies that

  9. Strategies for expanding health insurance coverage in vulnerable populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Liying; Yuan, Beibei; Huang, Fei; Lu, Ying; Garner, Paul; Meng, Qingyue

    2014-01-01

    Background Health insurance has the potential to improve access to health care and protect people from the financial risks of diseases. However, health insurance coverage is often low, particularly for people most in need of protection, including children and other vulnerable populations. Objectives To assess the effectiveness of strategies for expanding health insurance coverage in vulnerable populations. Search methods We searched Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), part of The Cochrane Library. www.thecochranelibrary.com (searched 2 November 2012), PubMed (searched 1 November 2012), EMBASE (searched 6 July 2012), Global Health (searched 6 July 2012), IBSS (searched 6 July 2012), WHO Library Database (WHOLIS) (searched 1 November 2012), IDEAS (searched 1 November 2012), ISI-Proceedings (searched 1 November 2012),OpenGrey (changed from OpenSIGLE) (searched 1 November 2012), African Index Medicus (searched 1 November 2012), BLDS (searched 1 November 2012), Econlit (searched 1 November 2012), ELDIS (searched 1 November 2012), ERIC (searched 1 November 2012), HERDIN NeON Database (searched 1 November 2012), IndMED (searched 1 November 2012), JSTOR (searched 1 November 2012), LILACS(searched 1 November 2012), NTIS (searched 1 November 2012), PAIS (searched 6 July 2012), Popline (searched 1 November 2012), ProQuest Dissertation &Theses Database (searched 1 November 2012), PsycINFO (searched 6 July 2012), SSRN (searched 1 November 2012), Thai Index Medicus (searched 1 November 2012), World Bank (searched 2 November 2012), WanFang (searched 3 November 2012), China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CHKD-CNKI) (searched 2 November 2012). In addition, we searched the reference lists of included studies and carried out a citation search for the included studies via Web of Science to find other potentially relevant studies. Selection criteria Randomised controlled trials (RCTs), non-randomised controlled trials (NRCTs), controlled before-after (CBA

  10. 77 FR 665 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Listing Two Distinct Population Segments of Broad...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-05

    ... successful (wild populations are increasing), and broad-snouted caiman production and harvest is increasing... population has increased since the time of the original listing. Technical Corrections This proposed rule... status of the population in two ways: by creating incentives for landowners and by increasing public...

  11. Health Insurance Coverage and Its Impact on Medical Cost: Observations from the Floating Population in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yinjun; Kang, Bowei; Liu, Yawen; Li, Yichong; Shi, Guoqing; Shen, Tao; Jiang, Yong; Zhang, Mei; Zhou, Maigeng; Wang, Limin

    2014-01-01

    Background China has the world's largest floating (migrant) population, which has characteristics largely different from the rest of the population. Our goal is to study health insurance coverage and its impact on medical cost for this population. Methods A telephone survey was conducted in 2012. 644 subjects were surveyed. Univariate and multivariate analysis were conducted on insurance coverage and medical cost. Results 82.2% of the surveyed subjects were covered by basic insurance at hometowns with hukou or at residences. Subjects' characteristics including age, education, occupation, and presence of chronic diseases were associated with insurance coverage. After controlling for confounders, insurance coverage was not significantly associated with gross or out-of-pocket medical cost. Conclusion For the floating population, health insurance coverage needs to be improved. Policy interventions are needed so that health insurance can have a more effective protective effect on cost. PMID:25386914

  12. Extremely low-coverage whole genome sequencing in South Asians captures population genomics information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rustagi, Navin; Zhou, Anbo; Watkins, W Scott; Gedvilaite, Erika; Wang, Shuoguo; Ramesh, Naveen; Muzny, Donna; Gibbs, Richard A; Jorde, Lynn B; Yu, Fuli; Xing, Jinchuan

    2017-05-22

    The cost of Whole Genome Sequencing (WGS) has decreased tremendously in recent years due to advances in next-generation sequencing technologies. Nevertheless, the cost of carrying out large-scale cohort studies using WGS is still daunting. Past simulation studies with coverage at ~2x have shown promise for using low coverage WGS in studies focused on variant discovery, association study replications, and population genomics characterization. However, the performance of low coverage WGS in populations with a complex history and no reference panel remains to be determined. South Indian populations are known to have a complex population structure and are an example of a major population group that lacks adequate reference panels. To test the performance of extremely low-coverage WGS (EXL-WGS) in populations with a complex history and to provide a reference resource for South Indian populations, we performed EXL-WGS on 185 South Indian individuals from eight populations to ~1.6x coverage. Using two variant discovery pipelines, SNPTools and GATK, we generated a consensus call set that has ~90% sensitivity for identifying common variants (minor allele frequency ≥ 10%). Imputation further improves the sensitivity of our call set. In addition, we obtained high-coverage for the whole mitochondrial genome to infer the maternal lineage evolutionary history of the Indian samples. Overall, we demonstrate that EXL-WGS with imputation can be a valuable study design for variant discovery with a dramatically lower cost than standard WGS, even in populations with a complex history and without available reference data. In addition, the South Indian EXL-WGS data generated in this study will provide a valuable resource for future Indian genomic studies.

  13. Broad-scale Population Genetics of the Host Sea Anemone, Heteractis magnifica

    KAUST Repository

    Emms, Madeleine

    2015-12-01

    Broad-scale population genetics can reveal population structure across an organism’s entire range, which can enable us to determine the most efficient population-wide management strategy depending on levels of connectivity. Genetic variation and differences in genetic diversity on small-scales have been reported in anemones, but nothing is known about their broad-scale population structure, including that of “host” anemone species, which are increasingly being targeted in the aquarium trade. In this study, microsatellite markers were used as a tool to determine the population structure of a sessile, host anemone species, Heteractis magnifica, across the Indo-Pacific region. In addition, two rDNA markers were used to identify Symbiodinium from the samples, and phylogenetic analyses were used to measure diversity and geographic distribution of Symbiodinium across the region. Significant population structure was identified in H. magnifica across the Indo-Pacific, with at least three genetic breaks, possibly the result of factors such as geographic distance, geographic isolation and environmental variation. Symbiodinium associations were also affected by environmental variation and supported the geographic isolation of some regions. These results suggests that management of H. magnifica must be implemented on a local scale, due to the lack of connectivity between clusters. This study also provides further evidence for the combined effects of geographic distance and environmental distance in explaining genetic variance.

  14. Measuring health behaviors and landline telephones: potential coverage bias in a low-income, rural population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shebl, Fatma; Poppell, Carolyn E; Zhan, Min; Dwyer, Diane M; Hopkins, Annette B; Groves, Carmela; Reed, Faye; Devadason, C; Steinberger, Eileen K

    2009-01-01

    Population-based landline telephone surveys are potentially biased due to inclusion of only people with landline telephones. This article examined the degree of telephone coverage bias in a low-income population. The Charles County Cancer Survey (CCCS) was conducted to evaluate cancer screening practices and risk behaviors among low-income, rural residents of Charles County, Maryland. We conducted face-to-face interviews with 502 residents aged 18 years and older. We compared the prevalence of health behaviors and cancer screening tests for those with and without landline telephones. We calculated the difference between whole sample estimates and estimates for only those respondents with landline telephones to quantify the magnitude of telephone coverage bias. Of 499 respondents who gave information on telephone use, 80 (16%) did not have landline telephones. We found differences between those with and without landline telephones for race/ethnicity, health-care access, insurance coverage, and several types of cancer screening. The absolute coverage bias ranged up to 6.5 percentage points. Simulation scenarios showed the magnitude of telephone coverage bias decreases as the percent of the population with landline telephone coverage increases, and as landline telephone coverage increases, the estimates from a landline telephone survey would approximate the estimates from a face-to-face survey. Our findings highlighted the need for targeted face-to-face surveys to supplement telephone surveys to more fully characterize hard-to-reach subpopulations. Our findings also indicated that landline telephone-based surveys continue to offer a cost-effective method for conducting large-scale population studies in support of policy and public health decision-making.

  15. Inclusion of Vancomycin as Part of Broad-Spectrum Coverage Does Not Improve Outcomes in Patients with Intra-Abdominal Infections: A Post Hoc Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, James M; Tessier, Jeffrey M; Sawyer, Robert G; Lipsett, Pam A; Miller, Preston R; Namias, Nicholas; O'Neill, Patrick J; Dellinger, E P; Coimbra, Raul; Guidry, Chris A; Cuschieri, Joseph; Banton, Kaysie L; Cook, Charles H; Moore, Billy J; Duane, Therese M

    2016-12-01

    Management of complicated intra-abdominal infections (cIAIs) includes broad-spectrum antimicrobial coverage and commonly includes vancomycin for the empiric coverage of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Ideally, culture-guided de-escalation follows to promote robust antimicrobial stewardship. This study assessed the impact and necessity of vancomycin in cIAI treatment regimens. A post hoc analysis of the Study to Optimize Peritoneal Infection Therapy (STOP-IT) trial was performed. Patients receiving piperacillin-tazobactam (P/T) and/or a carbapenem were included with categorization based on use of vancomycin. Univariate and multivariable analyses evaluated effects of including vancomycin on individual and the composite of undesirable outcomes (recurrent IAI, surgical site infection [SSI], or death). The study cohort included 344 patients with 110 (32%) patients receiving vancomycin. Isolation of MRSA occurred in only eight (2.3%) patients. Vancomycin use was associated with a similar composite outcome, 29.1%, vs. no vancomycin, 22.2% (p = 0.17). Patients receiving vancomycin had (mean [standard deviation]) higher Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II scores (13.1 [6.6] vs. 9.4 [5.7], p post hoc analysis reveals that addition of vancomycin occurred in nearly one third of patients and more often in sicker patients. Despite this selection bias, no appreciable differences in undesired outcomes were demonstrated, suggesting limited utility for adding vancomycin to cIAI treatment regimens.

  16. Seasonal influenza vaccine coverage among high-risk populations in Thailand, 2010-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owusu, Jocelynn T; Prapasiri, Prabda; Ditsungnoen, Darunee; Leetongin, Grit; Yoocharoen, Pornsak; Rattanayot, Jarowee; Olsen, Sonja J; Muangchana, Charung

    2015-01-29

    The Advisory Committee on Immunization Practice of Thailand prioritizes seasonal influenza vaccinations for populations who are at highest risk for serious complications (pregnant women, children 6 months-2 years, persons ≥65 years, persons with chronic diseases, obese persons), and healthcare personnel and poultry cullers. The Thailand government purchases seasonal influenza vaccine for these groups. We assessed vaccination coverage among high-risk groups in Thailand from 2010 to 2012. National records on persons who received publicly purchased vaccines from 2010 to 2012 were analyzed by high-risk category. Denominator data from multiple sources were compared to calculate coverage. Vaccine coverage was defined as the proportion of individuals in each category who received the vaccine. Vaccine wastage was defined as the proportion of publicly purchased vaccines that were not used. From 2010 to 2012, 8.18 million influenza vaccines were publicly purchased (range, 2.37-3.29 million doses/year), and vaccine purchases increased 39% over these years. Vaccine wastage was 9.5%. Approximately 5.7 million (77%) vaccine doses were administered to persons ≥65 years and persons with chronic diseases, 1.4 million (19%) to healthcare personnel/poultry cullers, 82,570 (1.1%) to children 6 months-2 years, 78,885 (1.1%) to obese persons, 26,481 (0.4%) to mentally disabled persons, and 17,787 (0.2%) to pregnant women. Between 2010 and 2012, coverage increased among persons with chronic diseases (8.6% versus 14%; pvaccines increased. While coverage remained low for all target groups, coverage was highest among persons ≥65 years and persons with chronic diseases. Annual coverage assessments are necessary to promote higher coverage among high-risk groups in Thailand. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  17. [Evaluation of population data quality and coverage of registration of deaths for the Brazilian regions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paes, N A; Albuquerque, M E

    1999-02-01

    The evaluation of the quality of population data and coverage of death statistics for all Federal Brazilian Units by sex in 1990. The population data came from censuses and the recorded death data from "Fundação Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística" and the Health Ministry. The population data were evaluated by applying classical demographic methods. Three techniques were chosen to evaluate the extent of death registration coverage. The degree of precision of the age statement for the majority of the Brazilian regions improved the status from "low precision" or "moderate" to "precise" during the 80's. The coverage of deaths in 1990 was classified as "good" or "satisfactory" for all Federal Units in the South, Southeast and Centre-West and for the Northeastern States below Rio Grande do Norte. All the remaining states were classified as "regular" or "unsatisfactory". There was a significant improvement in the quality of the census population data and an increase in the coverage of death. It is possible to obtain get reliable mortality indicators for many Brazilian States.

  18. Patterns in Greater Sage-grouse population dynamics correspond with public grazing records at broad scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monroe, Adrian; Aldridge, Cameron L.; Assal, Timothy J.; Veblen, Kari E.; Pyke, David A.; Casazza, Michael L.

    2017-01-01

    Human land use, such as livestock grazing, can have profound yet varied effects on wildlife interacting within common ecosystems, yet our understanding of land-use effects is often generalized from short-term, local studies that may not correspond with trends at broader scales. Here we used public land records to characterize livestock grazing across Wyoming, USA, and we used Greater Sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) as a model organism to evaluate responses to livestock management. With annual counts of male Sage-grouse from 743 leks (breeding display sites) during 2004–2014, we modeled population trends in response to grazing level (represented by a relative grazing index) and timing across a gradient in vegetation productivity as measured by the Normalized Vegetation Difference Index (NDVI). We found grazing can have both positive and negative effects on Sage-grouse populations depending on the timing and level of grazing. Sage-grouse populations responded positively to higher grazing levels after peak vegetation productivity, but populations declined when similar grazing levels occurred earlier, likely reflecting the sensitivity of cool-season grasses to grazing during peak growth periods. We also found support for the hypothesis that effects of grazing management vary with local vegetation productivity. These results illustrate the importance of broad-scale analyses by revealing patterns in Sage-grouse population trends that may not be inferred from studies at finer scales, and could inform sustainable grazing management in these ecosystems.

  19. Patterns in Greater Sage-grouse population dynamics correspond with public grazing records at broad scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monroe, Adrian P; Aldridge, Cameron L; Assal, Timothy J; Veblen, Kari E; Pyke, David A; Casazza, Michael L

    2017-06-01

    Human land use, such as livestock grazing, can have profound yet varied effects on wildlife interacting within common ecosystems, yet our understanding of land-use effects is often generalized from short-term, local studies that may not correspond with trends at broader scales. Here we used public land records to characterize livestock grazing across Wyoming, USA, and we used Greater Sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) as a model organism to evaluate responses to livestock management. With annual counts of male Sage-grouse from 743 leks (breeding display sites) during 2004-2014, we modeled population trends in response to grazing level (represented by a relative grazing index) and timing across a gradient in vegetation productivity as measured by the Normalized Vegetation Difference Index (NDVI). We found grazing can have both positive and negative effects on Sage-grouse populations depending on the timing and level of grazing. Sage-grouse populations responded positively to higher grazing levels after peak vegetation productivity, but populations declined when similar grazing levels occurred earlier, likely reflecting the sensitivity of cool-season grasses to grazing during peak growth periods. We also found support for the hypothesis that effects of grazing management vary with local vegetation productivity. These results illustrate the importance of broad-scale analyses by revealing patterns in Sage-grouse population trends that may not be inferred from studies at finer scales, and could inform sustainable grazing management in these ecosystems. © 2017 by the Ecological Society of America.

  20. "Perspectives on financing population-based health care towards Universal Health Coverage among employed individuals in Ghanzi district, Botswana: A qualitative study".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbogo, Barnabas Africanus; McGill, Deborah

    2016-08-19

    Globally, about 150 million people experience catastrophic healthcare expenditure services annually. Among low and middle income countries, out-of-pocket expenditure pushes about 100 million people into poverty annually. In Botswana, 83 % of the general population and 58 % of employed individuals do not have medical aid coverage. Moreover, inequity allocation of financial resources between health services suggests marginalization of population-based health care services (i.e. diseases prevention and health promotion). The purpose of the study is to explore perspectives on employed individuals regarding financing population based health care interventions towards Universal Health Coverage (UHC) in order to make recommendations to the Ministry of Health on health financing options to cover population-based health services. A qualitative design grounded in interpretivist epistemology through social constructivism lens was critical for exploring perspectives of employed individuals. Through purposive and snowballing sampling techniques, a total of 15 respondents including 8 males and 7 females were recruited and interviewed using a semi-structured format. Their age ranged from 23 to 59 years with a median of 36 years. Data was analyzed using Thematic Content Analysis technique. Use of social constructivism lens enabled to classify emerging themes into population coverage, health services coverage and financial protection issues. Despite broad understanding of health coverage schemes among participants, knowledge appears insignificant in increasing enrolment. Participants indicated limited understanding of UHC concepts, however showed willingness to embrace UHC upon brief description. Main thematic issues raised include: exclusion of population-based health services from coverage scheme; disparity in financial protection and health services coverage among enrollees; inability to sustain contracted employees; and systematic exclusion of unemployed individuals and

  1. [Adult vaccination coverage: surveys in four populations - Isère (France), 2002-2003].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goirand, Laurence; Charrel, Martine; Dell'accio, Pierre; Stahl, Jean-Paul; Da Silva, Eric; Billette de Villemeur, Agathe

    2012-01-01

    In order to assess their vaccination policy, the public health authorities in Isère (France) conducted several surveys to determine the vaccination coverage rate among adults. In France, the current state of knowledge in this area is limited. Four separate surveys were conducted in 2002-2003: (1) a telephone survey of 976 adults, 18% of whom had vaccination certificates; (2) a survey of 44 general practitioners (805 patients); (3) a survey of occupational health centers (82 practitioners and 1,119 employees); and (4) a survey of 1,214 patients vaccinated at the international vaccination center in Grenoble (France). The same data were recorded in all four surveys (last vaccination date, either declared by the patient or proven by a vaccination certificate). Based on certified evidence, vaccination coverage for tetanus, diphtheria, and poliomyelitis ranged from 31.6% to 83.9%, from 24.1% to 44.0%, and from 25.9% to 71.9%, respectively. Compared to general practitioners, vaccination coverage was higher among staff working at the occupational health center and lower in the general population. The four surveys covered only part of the adult population and provided only an estimate of vaccination coverage. The study found that tetanus vaccination coverage was the highest, but was still below expected levels. For the other vaccines, vaccination coverage among adults appears to be inadequate. The findings suggest that all health professionals involved in adult vaccination (occupational health doctors, general practitioners, hospital doctors, etc.) should be invited to participate in working groups on vaccination.

  2. Locating helicopter emergency medical service bases to optimise population coverage versus average response time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garner, Alan A; van den Berg, Pieter L

    2017-10-16

    New South Wales (NSW), Australia has a network of multirole retrieval physician staffed helicopter emergency medical services (HEMS) with seven bases servicing a jurisdiction with population concentrated along the eastern seaboard. The aim of this study was to estimate optimal HEMS base locations within NSW using advanced mathematical modelling techniques. We used high resolution census population data for NSW from 2011 which divides the state into areas containing 200-800 people. Optimal HEMS base locations were estimated using the maximal covering location problem facility location optimization model and the average response time model, exploring the number of bases needed to cover various fractions of the population for a 45 min response time threshold or minimizing the overall average response time to all persons, both in green field scenarios and conditioning on the current base structure. We also developed a hybrid mathematical model where average response time was optimised based on minimum population coverage thresholds. Seven bases could cover 98% of the population within 45mins when optimised for coverage or reach the entire population of the state within an average of 21mins if optimised for response time. Given the existing bases, adding two bases could either increase the 45 min coverage from 91% to 97% or decrease the average response time from 21mins to 19mins. Adding a single specialist prehospital rapid response HEMS to the area of greatest population concentration decreased the average state wide response time by 4mins. The optimum seven base hybrid model that was able to cover 97.75% of the population within 45mins, and all of the population in an average response time of 18 mins included the rapid response HEMS model. HEMS base locations can be optimised based on either percentage of the population covered, or average response time to the entire population. We have also demonstrated a hybrid technique that optimizes response time for a given

  3. Agricultural Set-aside Programs and Grassland Birds: Insights from Broad-scale Population Trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Riffell

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The Conservation Reserve Program (CRP is a voluntary set-aside program in the United States designed to amelioratesoil erosion, control crop overproduction, enhance water quality, and provide wildlife habitat by replacing crops with other forms of land cover. Because CRP includes primarily grass habitats, it has great potential to benefitdeclining North American grassland bird populations. We looked at the change in national and state population trends of grassland birds and related changes to cover-specific CRP variables (previous research grouped all CRP practices. Changes in national trends after the initiation of the CRP were inconclusive, but we observed signficant bird-CRP relations at the state level. Most bird-CRP relations were positive, except for some species associated with habitats that CRP replaced. Practice- and configuration-specific CRP variables were related to grassland bird trends, rather than a generic measure of all CRP types combined. Considering all CRP land as a single, distinct habitat type may obscure actual relations between birds and set-aside characteristics. Understanding and predictingthe effects of set-aside programs (like CRP or agri-environment schemes on grassland birds is complex and difficult. Because available broad-scale datasets are less than adequate, studies should be conducted at a variety of spatial and temporal scales.

  4. Disparity in dental coverage among older adult populations: a comparative analysis across selected European countries and the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manski, Richard; Moeller, John; Chen, Haiyan; Widström, Eeva; Lee, Jinkook; Listl, Stefan

    2015-04-01

    Insurance against the cost of preventing and treating oral diseases can reduce inequities in dental-care use and oral health. The purpose of this study was to examine the extent of variation in dental insurance coverage for older adult populations within and between the USA and various European countries. The analyses relied on 2006-2007 data from the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (SHARE) and on 2004-2006 data from the Health and Retirement Study (HRS) in the USA for respondents 51 years of age and older. A series of logistic regression models was estimated to identify disparities in dental coverage. The highest extent of significant insurance differences between various population subgroups was found for the USA. In comparison with southern and eastern European countries, a lower number of significant differences in coverage was found for Scandinavian countries. Countries categorised as having comprehensive public insurance coverage showed a tendency towards less insurance variation within their populations than did countries categorised as not having comprehensive public coverage. The exceptions were Poland and Switzerland. The findings of the present study suggest that significant variations in dental coverage exist within all elderly populations examined and that the extent of inequalities also differs between countries. By and large, the observed variations corroborate the perception that population dental coverage is more equally distributed under public subsidy. This could be relevant information for decision makers who seek to improve policies in order to provide more equitable dental coverage. © 2014 FDI World Dental Federation.

  5. Broad Coverage Identification of Multiple Proteolytic Cleavage Site Sequences in Complex High Molecular Weight Proteins Using Quantitative Proteomics as a Complement to Edman Sequencing*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doucet, Alain; Overall, Christopher M.

    2011-01-01

    Proteolytic processing modifies the pleiotropic functions of many large, complex, and modular proteins and can generate cleavage products with new biological activity. The identification of exact proteolytic cleavage sites in the extracellular matrix laminins, fibronectin, and other extracellular matrix proteins is not only important for understanding protein turnover but is needed for the identification of new bioactive cleavage products. Several such products have recently been recognized that are suggested to play important cellular regulatory roles in processes, including angiogenesis. However, identifying multiple cleavage sites in extracellular matrix proteins and other large proteins is challenging as N-terminal Edman sequencing of multiple and often closely spaced cleavage fragments on SDS-PAGE gels is difficult, thus limiting throughput and coverage. We developed a new liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry approach we call amino-terminal oriented mass spectrometry of substrates (ATOMS) for the N-terminal identification of protein cleavage fragments in solution. ATOMS utilizes efficient and low cost dimethylation isotopic labeling of original N-terminal and proteolytically generated N termini of protein cleavage fragments followed by quantitative tandem mass spectrometry analysis. Being a peptide-centric approach, ATOMS is not dependent on the SDS-PAGE resolution limits for protein fragments of similar mass. We demonstrate that ATOMS reliably identifies multiple proteolytic sites per reaction in complex proteins. Fifty-five neutrophil elastase cleavage sites were identified in laminin-1 and fibronectin-1 with 34 more identified by matrix metalloproteinase cleavage. Hence, our degradomics approach offers a complimentary alternative to Edman sequencing with broad applicability in identifying N termini such as cleavage sites in complex high molecular weight extracellular matrix proteins after in vitro cleavage assays. ATOMS can therefore be useful in

  6. Postglacial northward expansion and genetic differentiation between migratory and sedentary populations of the broad-tailed hummingbird (Selasphorus platycercus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malpica, Andreia; Ornelas, Juan Francisco

    2014-02-01

    Unlike other migratory hummingbirds in North America, the broad-tailed hummingbird (Selasphorus platycercus) exhibits both long-distance migratory behaviour in the USA and sedentary behaviour in Mexico and Guatemala. We examined the evolution of migration linked to its northward expansion using a multiperspective approach. We analysed variation in morphology, mitochondrial and nuclear DNA, estimated migration rates between migratory and sedentary populations, compared divergence times with the occurrence of Quaternary climate events and constructed species distribution models to predict where migratory and sedentary populations resided during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) and Last Interglacial (LIG) events. Our results are consistent with a recent northward population expansion driven by migration from southern sedentary populations. Phylogeographical analyses and population genetics methods revealed that migratory populations in the USA and sedentary populations in Mexico of the platycercus subspecies form one admixed population, and that sedentary populations from southern Mexico and Guatemala (guatemalae) undertook independent evolutionary trajectories. Species distribution modelling revealed that the species is a niche tracker and that the climate conditions associated with modern obligate migrants in the USA were not present during the LIG, which provides indirect evidence for recent migratory behaviour in broad-tailed hummingbirds on the temporal scale of glacial cycles. The finding that platycercus hummingbirds form one genetic population and that suitable habitat for migratory populations was observed in eastern Mexico during the LIG also suggests that the conservation of overwintering sites is crucial for obligate migratory populations currently facing climate change effects. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Prevalence of presbyopia and spectacle correction coverage in a rural population of North West Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umar, Murtala Muhammad; Muhammad, Nasiru; Alhassan, Mahmoud B

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To determine the prevalence of presbyopia, and near vision spectacle coverage in a rural population of Northwestern Nigeria. Study design Cross sectional prevalence study. Subjects and methods Six hundred and fifty people of at least 40 years of age, in 13 clusters (50 per cluster) were examined using a multi-stage random sampling with probability proportional to size. The survey was conducted from April 7 to 28, 2012 at Bungudu Local Government Area of Zamfara State, Nigeria. Presbyopia was defined as the inability to read N8 at 40 cm. Presbyopic Spectacle Correction Coverage (PSCC) was calculated, and information on barriers to using near vision spectacles identified. Results The crude prevalence of presbyopia was 30.4%, 95% CI: (26.8%–34.1%). The prevalence was significantly higher in females (P=0.0005) and individuals with at least secondary education (P=0.022). The age specific prevalence of presbyopia was three times (63.5%) more among those aged 70 years and above, as compared to those within 40–49 years age group (19.3%). The met need was 0.2%, the unmet need 30.2%, and a PSCC of 0.7%. The major barriers reported as reasons for not obtaining near vision spectacles were unawareness and lack of felt need. Conclusion The prevalence of presbyopia in Bungudu is relatively low compared to other reports with major risk factors being increasing age, female sex and attainment of higher education. The presbyopic spectacles correction coverage is very low with high unmet need thus there is a need to create awareness, and provide affordable and accessible optical services in the affected population. PMID:26170613

  8. Population Consultation: A Powerful Means to Ensure that Health Strategies are Oriented Towards Universal Health Coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohrer, Katja; Rajan, Dheepa; Schmets, Gerard

    2017-01-01

    We seek to highlight why population consultations need to be promoted more strongly as a powerful means to move health reforms towards Universal Health Coverage (UHC). However, despite this increasing recognition that the "population" is the key factor of successful health planning and high-quality service delivery, there has been very little systematic reflection and only limited (international) attention brought to the idea of specifically consulting the population to improve the quality and soundness of health policies and strategies and to strengthen the national health planning process and implementation. So far, research has done little to assess the significance of population consultations for the health sector and its importance for strategic planning and implementation processes; in addition, there has been insufficient evaluation of population consultations in the health sector or health-related areas. We drew on ongoing programmatic work of World Health Organization (WHO) offices worldwide, as most population consultations are not well-documented. In addition, we analyzed any existing documentation available on population consultations in health. We then elaborate on the potential benefits of bringing the population's voice into national health planning. We briefly mention the key methods used for population consultations, and we put forward recent country examples showing that population consultation is an effective way of assessing the population's needs and expectations, and should be more widely used in strategizing health. Giving the voice to the population is a means to strengthen accountability, to reinforce the commitment of policy makers, decision-makers and influencers (media, political parties, academics, etc.) to the health policy objectives of UHC, and, in the specific case of donor-dependent countries, to sensitize donors' engagement and alignment with national health strategies. The consequence of the current low international interest for

  9. Vaccination against meningococcus C. vaccinal coverage in the French target population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahl, J-P; Cohen, R; Denis, F; Gaudelus, J; Lery, T; Lepetit, H; Martinot, A

    2013-02-01

    Immunization against meningococcus C has been recommended in France since 2009 (infants from 12 to 24 months of age, and catch up vaccination up to 25 years of age). It has been reimbursed since January 2010. We had for aim to assess the vaccine coverage in 2011. The study population included mothers of children targeted by the recommendation. They were recruited using Internet data (quotas based on the French National Institute of Statistics (INSEE) data based on a census made in 2007) based on the Institut des Mamans panel and its partners. The mothers had completed a standardized questionnaire and reported all vaccinations mentioned in their child's health-record. We included 3000 mothers of children, 0 to 35 months of age, (1000 for each of the following age range: 0-11 months, 12-23 months, 24-35 months), and 2250 mothers of teenagers, 14 to 16 years of age. Vaccination was deemed "essential/useful" for respectively 90.2% (CI 95%: 89.2-91.3) and 87.8% (CI 95%: 86.4-89.2) of mothers. Vaccine coverage levels were 32.3% (12-23 months), 57.3% (24-35 months), and 21.3% (14-16 years). Two years after the Ministry of Health's decision to reimburse this vaccine, vaccine coverage levels were much lower than they should have been, to expect effectiveness of the vaccination policy. Only 21.3% of teenagers had been vaccinated, and 32.3% of infants during the second year of life. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. Coverage of the migrant population in large-scale assessment surveys. Experiences from PIAAC in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Débora B. Maehler

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background European countries, and especially Germany, are currently very much affected by human migration flows, with the result that the task of integration has become a challenge. Only very little empirical evidence on topics such as labor market participation and processes of social integration of migrant subpopulations is available to date from large-scale population surveys. The present paper provides an overview of the representation of the migrant population in the German Programme for the International Assessment of Adult Competencies (PIAAC sample and evaluates reasons for the under-coverage of this population. Methods We examine outcome rates and reasons for nonresponse among the migrant population based on sampling frame data, and we also examine para data from the interviewers’ contact protocols to evaluate time patterns for the successful contacting of migrants. Results and Conclusions This is the first time that results of this kind have been presented for a large-scale assessment in educational research. These results are also discussed in the context of future PIAAC cycles. Overall, they confirm the expectations in the literature that factors such as language problems result in lower contact and response rates among migrants.

  11. Georeferenced Population Datasets of Mexico (GEO-MEX): Urban Place GIS Coverage of Mexico

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Urban Place GIS Coverage of Mexico is a vector based point Geographic Information System (GIS) coverage of 696 urban places in Mexico. Each Urban Place is...

  12. The development of universal health insurance coverage in Thailand: Challenges of population aging and informal economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Minchung; Huang, Xianguo; Yupho, Somrasri

    2015-11-01

    This paper quantitatively investigates the sustainability of the universal health insurance coverage (UHI) system in Thailand while taking into account the country's rapidly aging population and large informal labor sector. We examine the effects of population aging and informal employment across three tax options for financing the UHI. A modern dynamic general equilibrium framework is utilized to conduct policy experiments and welfare analysis. In the case of labor income tax being used to finance the cost of UHI, an additional 11-15% of labor tax will be required with the 2050 population age structure, compared with the 2005 benchmark economy. We also find that an expansion of income tax base to the informal sector can substantially alleviate the tax burden. Based on welfare comparisons across the alternative tax options, the labor income tax is the most preferred because the inequality between formal/informal sectors is large. If the informal sector cannot avoid labor income tax, capital tax will be preferred over labor and consumption taxes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Estimating coverage of a women’s group intervention among a population of pregnant women in rural Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Younes Layla

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Reducing maternal and child mortality requires focused attention on better access, utilisation and coverage of good quality health services and interventions aimed at improving maternal and newborn health among target populations, in particular, pregnant women. Intervention coverage in resource and data poor settings is rarely documented. This paper describes four different methods, and their underlying assumptions, to estimate coverage of a community mobilisation women’s group intervention for maternal and newborn health among a population of pregnant women in rural Bangladesh. Methods Primary and secondary data sources were used to estimate the intervention’s coverage among pregnant women. Four methods were used: (1 direct measurement of a proxy indicator using intervention survey data; (2 direct measurement among intervention participants and modelled extrapolation based on routine longitudinal surveillance of births; (3 direct measurement among participants and modelled extrapolation based on cross-sectional measurements and national data; and (4 direct measurement among participants and modelled extrapolation based on published national data. Results The estimated women’s group intervention’s coverage among pregnant women ranged from 30% to 34%, depending on method used. Differences likely reflect differing assumptions and methodological biases of the various methods. Conclusion In the absence of complete and timely population data, choice of coverage estimation method must be based on the strengths and limitations of available methods, capacity and resources for measurement and the ultimate end user needs. Each of the methods presented and discussed here is likely to provide a useful understanding of intervention coverage at a single point in time and Methods 1 and 2 may also provide more reliable estimates of coverage trends. Footnotes 1Unpublished data from three focus group discussions with women’s group

  14. Visual impairment and spectacle coverage rate in Baoshan district, China: population-based study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background To investigate the prevalence and risk factors of visual impairment associated with refractive error and the unmet need for spectacles in a special suburban senior population in Baoshan District of Shanghai, one of several rural areas undergoing a transition from rural to urban area, where data of visual impairment are limited. Methods The study was a population based survey of 4545 Chinese aged (age: >60 years or older ) at Baoshan, Shanghai, in 2009. One copy of questionnaire was completed for each subject. Examinations included a standardized refraction and measurement of presenting and best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) as well as tonometry, slit lamp biomicroscopy, and fundus photography. Results The prevalence of mild (6/12 to 6/18), moderate (6/18 to 6/60) and severe visual impairment was 12.59%, 8.38% and 0.44%, respectively, and 5.26%, 3.06% and 0.09% with refractive correction. Visual impairment was associated with age, gender, education and career, but not insurance . The prevalence of correctable visual impairment was 5.81% (using 6/18 cutoff) and 13.18% (using 6/12 cutoff). Senior people and women were significantly at a higher risk of correctable visual impairment, while the well-educated on the contrary. The prevalence of undercorrected refractive error (improves by 2 or more lines with refraction) was 24.84%, and the proportion with undercorrected refractive error for mild, moderate , severe and no visual impairment was 61.54%, 67.98%, 60.00% and 14.10%, respectively. The spectacle coverage rate was 44.12%. Greater unmet need for spectacles was observed among elderly people, females, non-peasant, and subjects with less education and astigmatism only. Conclusions High prevalence of visual impairment, visual impairment alleviated by refractive correction, and low spectacle coverage existed among the senior population in Baoshan District of Shanghai. Education for the public of the importance of regular examination and appropriate and

  15. Visual impairment and spectacle coverage rate in Baoshan district, China: population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Mengjun; Tong, Xiaowei; Zhao, Rong; He, Xiangui; Zhao, Huijuan; Liu, Meiling; Zhu, Jianfeng

    2013-04-08

    To investigate the prevalence and risk factors of visual impairment associated with refractive error and the unmet need for spectacles in a special suburban senior population in Baoshan District of Shanghai, one of several rural areas undergoing a transition from rural to urban area, where data of visual impairment are limited. The study was a population based survey of 4545 Chinese aged (age: >60 years or older ) at Baoshan, Shanghai, in 2009. One copy of questionnaire was completed for each subject. Examinations included a standardized refraction and measurement of presenting and best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) as well as tonometry, slit lamp biomicroscopy, and fundus photography. The prevalence of mild (6/12 to 6/18), moderate (6/18 to 6/60) and severe visual impairment was 12.59%, 8.38% and 0.44%, respectively, and 5.26%, 3.06% and 0.09% with refractive correction. Visual impairment was associated with age, gender, education and career, but not insurance . The prevalence of correctable visual impairment was 5.81% (using 6/18 cutoff) and 13.18% (using 6/12 cutoff). Senior people and women were significantly at a higher risk of correctable visual impairment, while the well-educated on the contrary. The prevalence of undercorrected refractive error (improves by 2 or more lines with refraction) was 24.84%, and the proportion with undercorrected refractive error for mild, moderate , severe and no visual impairment was 61.54%, 67.98%, 60.00% and 14.10%, respectively. The spectacle coverage rate was 44.12%. Greater unmet need for spectacles was observed among elderly people, females, non-peasant, and subjects with less education and astigmatism only. High prevalence of visual impairment, visual impairment alleviated by refractive correction, and low spectacle coverage existed among the senior population in Baoshan District of Shanghai. Education for the public of the importance of regular examination and appropriate and accessible refraction service might be

  16. Private Health Care Coverage in the Brazilian population, according to the 2013 Brazilian National Health Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malta, Deborah Carvalho; Stopa, Sheila Rizzato; Pereira, Cimar Azeredo; Szwarcwald, Célia Landmann; Oliveira, Martha; Reis, Arthur Chioro Dos

    2017-01-01

    This study aims to present the percentages of the Brazilian population holding health insurance plans, itemized by social-demographic characteristics, based on the data of the National Health Survey carried out in 2013, and to compare this information with the administrative data of the National Supplementary Health Agency for the same year. Data from the National Health Survey, and from the Beneficiaries Information System of the National Health Agency for the year 2013, were used. The percentage of people having a health plan was described according to stratification for: all of Brazil, urban/rural, Brazilian official Regions, Brazilian States and state capitals, gender, age group, level of schooling, position in the workforce, ethnic classification, and self-assessed state of health. Results include the following: The percentage of people saying they had some health plan in Brazil was 27.9% (CI 95%: 27.1-28.8). A significant difference was found relating to level of schooling - the percentage being highest for those who stated they had complete secondary education (68.8% CI 95%: 67.2-70.4) and for those who said they were currently in work (32.5% CI 95%: 31.5-33.5). The increase in health plan coverage in the Brazilian population reflects the improvement of the suply of employment and the growth in the country's economy.

  17. Broadly Immunogenic HLA Class I Supertype-Restricted Elite CTL Epitopes Recognized in a Diverse Population Infected with Different HIV-1 Subtypes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pérez, Carina L; Larsen, Mette Voldby; Gustafsson, Rasmus

    2008-01-01

    predicted epitopes representing seven different HLA class I supertypes that together constitute a broad coverage of the different HIV-1 strains as well as the human HLA alleles. Of the tested 184 HLA class I-restricted epitopes, 114 were recognized by at least one study subject, and 45 were novel epitopes...

  18. Likelihood-based inference of population history from low-coverage de novo genome assemblies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hearn, Jack; Stone, Graham N; Bunnefeld, Lynsey; Nicholls, James A; Barton, Nicholas H; Lohse, Konrad

    2014-01-01

    Short-read sequencing technologies have in principle made it feasible to draw detailed inferences about the recent history of any organism. In practice, however, this remains challenging due to the difficulty of genome assembly in most organisms and the lack of statistical methods powerful enough to discriminate between recent, nonequilibrium histories. We address both the assembly and inference challenges. We develop a bioinformatic pipeline for generating outgroup-rooted alignments of orthologous sequence blocks from de novo low-coverage short-read data for a small number of genomes, and show how such sequence blocks can be used to fit explicit models of population divergence and admixture in a likelihood framework. To illustrate our approach, we reconstruct the Pleistocene history of an oak-feeding insect (the oak gallwasp Biorhiza pallida), which, in common with many other taxa, was restricted during Pleistocene ice ages to a longitudinal series of southern refugia spanning the Western Palaearctic. Our analysis of sequence blocks sampled from a single genome from each of three major glacial refugia reveals support for an unexpected history dominated by recent admixture. Despite the fact that 80% of the genome is affected by admixture during the last glacial cycle, we are able to infer the deeper divergence history of these populations. These inferences are robust to variation in block length, mutation model and the sampling location of individual genomes within refugia. This combination of de novo assembly and numerical likelihood calculation provides a powerful framework for estimating recent population history that can be applied to any organism without the need for prior genetic resources. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Broad and narrow personality traits as markers of one-time and repeated suicide attempts: A population-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitaro Frank

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studying personality traits with the potential to differentiate between individuals engaging in suicide attempts of different degrees of severity could help us to understand the processes underlying the link of personality and nonfatal suicidal behaviours and to identify at-risk groups. One approach may be to examine whether narrow, i.e., lower-order personality traits may be more useful than their underlying, broad personality trait dimensions. Methods We investigated qualitative and quantitative differences in broad and narrow personality traits between one-time and repeated suicide attempters in a longitudinal, population-based sample of young French Canadian adults using two multivariate regression models. Results One broad (Compulsivity: OR = 2.0; 95% CI 1.2–3.5 and one narrow personality trait (anxiousness: OR = 1.1; 95% CI 1.01–1.1 differentiated between individuals with histories of repeated and one-time suicide attempts. Affective instability [(OR = 1.1; 95% CI 1.04–1.1] and anxiousness [(OR = .92; 95% CI .88–.95], on the other hand, differentiated between nonattempters and one-time suicide attempters. Conclusion Emotional and cognitive dysregulation and associated behavioural manifestations may be associated with suicide attempts of different severity. While findings associated with narrow traits may be easier to interpret and link to existing sociobiological theories, larger effect sizes associated with broad traits such as Compulsivity may be better suited to objectives with a more clinical focus.

  20. Income, Poverty, and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2012. Current Population Reports P60-245

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeNavas-Walt, Carmen; Proctor, Bernadette D.; Smith, Jessica C.

    2013-01-01

    This report presents data on income, poverty, and health insurance coverage in the United States based on information collected in the 2013 and earlier Current Population Survey Annual Social and Economic Supplements (CPS ASEC) conducted by the U.S. Census Bureau. For most groups, the 2012 income, poverty, and health insurance estimates were not…

  1. Lack of Spatial Immunogenetic Structure among Wolverine (Gulo gulo Populations Suggestive of Broad Scale Balancing Selection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yessica Rico

    Full Text Available Elucidating the adaptive genetic potential of wildlife populations to environmental selective pressures is fundamental for species conservation. Genes of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC are highly polymorphic, and play a key role in the adaptive immune response against pathogens. MHC polymorphism has been linked to balancing selection or heterogeneous selection promoting local adaptation. However, spatial patterns of MHC polymorphism are also influenced by gene flow and drift. Wolverines are highly vagile, inhabiting varied ecoregions that include boreal forest, taiga, tundra, and high alpine ecosystems. Here, we investigated the immunogenetic variation of wolverines in Canada as a surrogate for identifying local adaptation by contrasting the genetic structure at MHC relative to the structure at 11 neutral microsatellites to account for gene flow and drift. Evidence of historical positive selection was detected at MHC using maximum likelihood codon-based methods. Bayesian and multivariate cluster analyses revealed weaker population genetic differentiation at MHC relative to the increasing microsatellite genetic structure towards the eastern wolverine distribution. Mantel correlations of MHC against geographical distances showed no pattern of isolation by distance (IBD: r = -0.03, p = 0.9, whereas for microsatellites we found a relatively strong and significant IBD (r = 0.54, p = 0.01. Moreover, we found a significant correlation between microsatellite allelic richness and the mean number of MHC alleles, but we did not observe low MHC diversity in small populations. Overall these results suggest that MHC polymorphism has been influenced primarily by balancing selection and to a lesser extent by neutral processes such as genetic drift, with no clear evidence for local adaptation. This study contributes to our understanding of how vulnerable populations of wolverines may respond to selective pressures across their range.

  2. Lack of Spatial Immunogenetic Structure among Wolverine (Gulo gulo) Populations Suggestive of Broad Scale Balancing Selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rico, Yessica; Morris-Pocock, James; Zigouris, Joanna; Nocera, Joseph J.; Kyle, Christopher J.

    2015-01-01

    Elucidating the adaptive genetic potential of wildlife populations to environmental selective pressures is fundamental for species conservation. Genes of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) are highly polymorphic, and play a key role in the adaptive immune response against pathogens. MHC polymorphism has been linked to balancing selection or heterogeneous selection promoting local adaptation. However, spatial patterns of MHC polymorphism are also influenced by gene flow and drift. Wolverines are highly vagile, inhabiting varied ecoregions that include boreal forest, taiga, tundra, and high alpine ecosystems. Here, we investigated the immunogenetic variation of wolverines in Canada as a surrogate for identifying local adaptation by contrasting the genetic structure at MHC relative to the structure at 11 neutral microsatellites to account for gene flow and drift. Evidence of historical positive selection was detected at MHC using maximum likelihood codon-based methods. Bayesian and multivariate cluster analyses revealed weaker population genetic differentiation at MHC relative to the increasing microsatellite genetic structure towards the eastern wolverine distribution. Mantel correlations of MHC against geographical distances showed no pattern of isolation by distance (IBD: r = -0.03, p = 0.9), whereas for microsatellites we found a relatively strong and significant IBD (r = 0.54, p = 0.01). Moreover, we found a significant correlation between microsatellite allelic richness and the mean number of MHC alleles, but we did not observe low MHC diversity in small populations. Overall these results suggest that MHC polymorphism has been influenced primarily by balancing selection and to a lesser extent by neutral processes such as genetic drift, with no clear evidence for local adaptation. This study contributes to our understanding of how vulnerable populations of wolverines may respond to selective pressures across their range. PMID:26448462

  3. Broad-scale latitudinal patterns of genetic diversity among native European and introduced house sparrow (Passer domesticus) populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrey, A W; Grispo, M; Awad, M; Cook, M B; McCoy, E D; Mushinsky, H R; Albayrak, T; Bensch, S; Burke, T; Butler, L K; Dor, R; Fokidis, H B; Jensen, H; Imboma, T; Kessler-Rios, M M; Marzal, A; Stewart, I R K; Westerdahl, H; Westneat, D F; Zehtindjiev, P; Martin, L B

    2011-03-01

    Introduced species offer unique opportunities to study evolution in new environments, and some provide opportunities for understanding the mechanisms underlying macroecological patterns. We sought to determine how introduction history impacted genetic diversity and differentiation of the house sparrow (Passer domesticus), one of the most broadly distributed bird species. We screened eight microsatellite loci in 316 individuals from 16 locations in the native and introduced ranges. Significant population structure occurred between native than introduced house sparrows. Introduced house sparrows were distinguished into one North American group and a highly differentiated Kenyan group. Genetic differentiation estimates identified a high magnitude of differentiation between Kenya and all other populations, but demonstrated that European and North American samples were differentiated too. Our results support previous claims that introduced North American populations likely had few source populations, and indicate house sparrows established populations after introduction. Genetic diversity also differed among native, introduced North American, and Kenyan populations with Kenyan birds being least diverse. In some cases, house sparrow populations appeared to maintain or recover genetic diversity relatively rapidly after range expansion (genetic diversity exhibited large-scale geographic patterns, increasing towards the equator. Such patterns of genetic diversity are concordant with two previously described models of genetic diversity, the latitudinal model and the species diversity model. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  4. Children on the move and vaccination coverage in a low-income, urban Latino population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Findley, S E; Irigoyen, M; Schulman, A

    1999-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of childhood moves and foreign birth on vaccination coverage among Latino children in New York City. Vaccination coverage was assessed in a survey of 314 children younger than 5 years at 2 immunization clinics. Forty-seven percent of the study children had moved abroad. After adjustment for health insurance, regular source of care, and country of birth, child moves had no independent effect on vaccination coverage. Foreign-born children had diphtheria-pertussis-tetanus, oral polio vaccine, and measles-mumps-rubella vaccination coverage rates similar to those of US-born children, but they were underimmunized in regard to Haemophilus influenzae type b and hepatitis B. Foreign birth, but not childhood moves, is a barrier to vaccinations among low-income, urban Latino children.

  5. Transfer of genetic therapy across human populations: molecular targets for increasing patient coverage in repeat expansion diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varela, Miguel A; Curtis, Helen J; Douglas, Andrew G L; Hammond, Suzan M; O'Loughlin, Aisling J; Sobrido, Maria J; Scholefield, Janine; Wood, Matthew J A

    2016-02-01

    Allele-specific gene therapy aims to silence expression of mutant alleles through targeting of disease-linked single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). However, SNP linkage to disease varies between populations, making such molecular therapies applicable only to a subset of patients. Moreover, not all SNPs have the molecular features necessary for potent gene silencing. Here we provide knowledge to allow the maximisation of patient coverage by building a comprehensive understanding of SNPs ranked according to their predicted suitability toward allele-specific silencing in 14 repeat expansion diseases: amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and frontotemporal dementia, dentatorubral-pallidoluysian atrophy, myotonic dystrophy 1, myotonic dystrophy 2, Huntington's disease and several spinocerebellar ataxias. Our systematic analysis of DNA sequence variation shows that most annotated SNPs are not suitable for potent allele-specific silencing across populations because of suboptimal sequence features and low variability (>97% in HD). We suggest maximising patient coverage by selecting SNPs with high heterozygosity across populations, and preferentially targeting SNPs that lead to purine:purine mismatches in wild-type alleles to obtain potent allele-specific silencing. We therefore provide fundamental knowledge on strategies for optimising patient coverage of therapeutics for microsatellite expansion disorders by linking analysis of population genetic variation to the selection of molecular targets.

  6. Population Structure in the Model Grass Brachypodium distachyon Is Highly Correlated with Flowering Differences across Broad Geographic Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludmila Tyler

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The small, annual grass (L. Beauv., a close relative of wheat ( L. and barley ( L., is a powerful model system for cereals and bioenergy grasses. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS of natural variation can elucidate the genetic basis of complex traits but have been so far limited in by the lack of large numbers of well-characterized and sufficiently diverse accessions. Here, we report on genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS of 84 , seven , and three accessions with diverse geographic origins including Albania, Armenia, Georgia, Italy, Spain, and Turkey. Over 90,000 high-quality single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs distributed across the Bd21 reference genome were identified. Our results confirm the hybrid nature of the genome, which appears as a mosaic of -like and -like sequences. Analysis of more than 50,000 SNPs for the accessions revealed three distinct, genetically defined populations. Surprisingly, these genomic profiles are associated with differences in flowering time rather than with broad geographic origin. High levels of differentiation in loci associated with floral development support the differences in flowering phenology between populations. Genome-wide association studies combining genotypic and phenotypic data also suggest the presence of one or more photoperiodism, circadian clock, and vernalization genes in loci associated with flowering time variation within populations. Our characterization elucidates genes underlying population differences, expands the germplasm resources available for , and illustrates the feasibility and limitations of GWAS in this model grass.

  7. Multimodal MSI in Conjunction with Broad Coverage Spatially Resolved MS2 Increases Confidence in Both Molecular Identification and Localization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Velickovic, Dusan; Chu, Rosalie K.; Carrell, Alyssa A.; Thomas, Mathew; Pasa Tolic, Ljiljana; Weston, David J.; Anderton, Christopher R.

    2018-01-01

    One critical aspect of mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) is the need to confidently identify detected analytes. While orthogonal tandem MS (e.g., LC−MS2) experiments from sample extracts can assist in annotating ions, the spatial information about these molecules is lost. Accordingly, this could cause mislead conclusions, especially in cases where isobaric species exhibit different distributions within a sample. In this Technical Note, we employed a multimodal imaging approach, using matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI)-MSI and liquid extraction surface analysis (LESA)-MS2I, to confidently annotate and One critical aspect of mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) is the need to confidently identify detected analytes. While orthogonal tandem MS (e.g., LC−MS2) experiments from sample extracts can assist in annotating ions, the spatial information about these molecules is lost. Accordingly, this could cause mislead conclusions, especially in cases where isobaric species exhibit different distributions within a sample. In this Technical Note, we employed a multimodal imaging approach, using matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI)-MSI and liquid extraction surface analysis (LESA)-MS2I, to confidently annotate and localize a broad range of metabolites involved in a tripartite symbiosis system of moss, cyanobacteria, and fungus. We found that the combination of these two imaging modalities generated very congruent ion images, providing the link between highly accurate structural information onfered by LESA and high spatial resolution attainable by MALDI. These results demonstrate how this combined methodology could be very useful in differentiating metabolite routes in complex systems.

  8. Coverage and factors associated with cervical cancer screening: results from the AFRODITA study: a population-based survey in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puig-Tintoré, Luis M; Castellsagué, Xavier; Torné, Aureli; de Sanjosé, Silvia; Cortés, Javier; Roura, Esther; Méndez, Cristina; Bosch, F Xavier

    2008-04-01

    To quantify the coverage and monitor the factors associated with opportunistic cervical cytological screening in Spain. Population-based survey of selected women through the Access Panel technique representative of the general population. A total of 6,852 women (60%) replied to the questionnaire; 981 (14.3%) were excluded from the analysis because they did not meet the screening criteria. Data were adjusted for regions, age group, socioeconomic level (SEL), and municipality size. Moreover, information was collected on preventive gynecological revisions received. Categorical variables were evaluated through the chi2 test of heterogeneity or through a liner test for trend. Multivariate prevalence odds ratios were used to identify statistically significant determinants of screening using logistic regression modeling. The percentage of women 18 to 65 years old with a Pap smear within the last 3 years was 75.6%. Insufficient coverage was observed in women older than 55 years (66%), who live in rural areas (66%), with lower SEL (65%), and in some regions (61%-66%). The factors positively associated with screening were age 26 to 55 years, certain regions, higher SEL, larger municipality size, ever being pregnant, early age at first sexual intercourse, knowledge about cervical cancer and human papillomavirus, and, very strongly, ever use of contraceptive methods. An overuse of cytology can be assumed, as a result of opportunistic screening. In Spain, the coverage of cytological screening reached 75% of the population, but with inefficiencies in some aspects. To rationalize its use, the Spanish consensus screening protocol must be followed.

  9. [Potentially excluded population from health coverage and health impact since Royal Decree 16/2012: The Central Catalonia experience].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álamo-Junquera, Dolores; Sala, Núria; Millet, Joan-Pau; Ortega-Gutiérrez, Lluïsa; Planas-Giner, Albert; Rovira, Carol; Comet, Dolors

    2015-01-01

    To assess the proportion of population potentially excluded from healthcare coverage since the Royal Decree-Law 16/2012. To describe the use of health services, the distribution of chronic and infectious diseases, and the pharmaceutical costs in 2012 of the persons potentially excluded compared to the those who maintain their coverage. An observational analytical cross-sectional study was designed and conducted on a Primary Care based population in the Central Catalonia Management Area of the Institut Català de la Salut PARTICIPANTS AND MAIN MEASUREMENTS: Individuals potentially excluded since the application of the Royal Decree-Law 16/2012 were selected and compared with individuals who maintained their healthcare coverage, randomly matched by sex, age and Primary Care service. The information obtained included the use of health services, the distribution of chronic and infectious diseases, and the pharmaceutical costs during the year 2012. A total of 1,699 individuals were identified as potentially excluded from healthcare coverage, 0.53% of the total of population (51.4% men), with a median of age of 34years (interquartile range, 28-43). The use of healthcare services, the chronic morbidity recorded, and the pharmaceutical costs during the year 2012 of the excluded individuals was lower than those of the non-excluded ones (P<.001). On the other hand, the infectious morbidity was higher in the excluded individuals (P<.001). The results of the study suggests that this legislative measure does not seem to be justified for medical or economic reasons. It could also cause public health problems and contribute to the risk of social fracture. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  10. Determination of Coverage Interval of Antioxidant Vitamins (Vitamin C & Vitamin E in Plasma and Serum of Bengali Population

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    Sanghamitra Chakraborty

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Reference interval of all haematological and biological analytes should be measured for every population because of the huge diversity in genetic make-up, dietary habits. The coverage interval of antioxidant vitamins (vitamin C and α-tocopherol in the plasma and serum of reference Bengali population was determined and compared with the reference intervals of antioxidant vitamins in the established literature. Adult healthy volunteers from 18 to 68 years of age underwent extensive clinical and investigational procedure and were included in the study. Vitamin C and α-tocopherol were estimated using simple Spectrophotometric method. Of the 71 healthy Bengali volunteers participated, 31 were males and 40 were females. The mean concentration of plasma vitamin C was found to be 0.65 mg/dL. The mean α-tocopherol was found 6.35 mg/L (14.74 μmol/L in the study population higher than the normal threshold value for α-tocopherol but lower than other populations. The study data enabled us to determine the gender nonspecific coverage interval of antioxidant vitamins, and the intervals were lower than the established reference interval in other populations.

  11. Census and vaccination coverage of owned dog populations in four resource-limited rural communities, Mpumalanga province, South Africa.

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    Conan, Anne; Geerdes, Joy A C; Akerele, Oluyemisi A; Reininghaus, Bjorn; Simpson, Gregory J G; Knobel, Darryn

    2017-09-22

    Dogs (Canis familiaris) are often free-roaming in sub-Saharan African countries. Rabies virus circulates in many of these populations and presents a public health issue. Mass vaccination of dog populations is the recommended method to decrease the number of dog and human rabies cases. We describe and compare four populations of dogs and their vaccination coverage in four different villages (Hluvukani, Athol, Utah and Dixie) in Bushbuckridge Municipality, Mpumalanga province, South Africa. Cross-sectional surveys were conducted in the villages of Athol, Utah and Dixie, while data from a Health and Demographic Surveillance System were used to describe the dog population in Hluvukani village. All households of the villages were visited to obtain information on the number, sex, age and rabies vaccination status of dogs. From May to October 2013, 2969 households were visited in the four villages and 942 owned dogs were reported. The populations were all young and skewed towards males. No differences were observed in the sex and age distributions (puppies 0-3 months excluded) among the villages. Athol had a higher proportion of dog-owning households than Hluvukani and Utah. Vaccination coverages were all above the 20% - 40% threshold required for herd immunity to rabies (38% in Hluvukani, 51% in Athol, 65% in Dixie and 74% in Utah). For the preparation of vaccination campaigns, we recommend the use of the relatively stable dog:human ratio (between 1:12 and 1:16) to estimate the number of dogs per village in Bushbuckridge Municipality.

  12. Long-term determinants of patterns of health insurance coverage in the Medicare population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lillard, L; Rogowski, J; Kington, R

    1997-06-01

    Using data from the 1990 Health Supplement to the Panel Study of Income Dynamics, we examine the determinants of patterns of insurance coverage among the elderly. Among those with supplemental insurance through an employment-based source, the primary determinant of having insurance is work history, specifically job tenure and occupation of household heads and their spouses. Among those who do not have employer-provided insurance, wealth is the most important economic factor in the purchase of private insurance. Blacks, persons with less education and women household heads are less likely to purchase supplemental insurance. We find little evidence that persons in prior poor health are more likely to purchase supplemental insurance, and the most important determinant of dental or drug coverage is having employer-based insurance. The current trend toward decreased generosity of post-retirement benefits implies that fewer older Americans will have insurance for these services.

  13. Carotenoid content and root color of cultivated carrot: a candidate-gene association study using an original broad unstructured population.

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    Matthieu Jourdan

    Full Text Available Accumulated in large amounts in carrot, carotenoids are an important product quality attribute and therefore a major breeding trait. However, the knowledge of carotenoid accumulation genetic control in this root vegetable is still limited. In order to identify the genetic variants linked to this character, we performed an association mapping study with a candidate gene approach. We developed an original unstructured population with a broad genetic basis to avoid the pitfall of false positive detection due to population stratification. We genotyped 109 SNPs located in 17 candidate genes – mostly carotenoid biosynthesis genes – on 380 individuals, and tested the association with carotenoid contents and color components. Total carotenoids and β-carotene contents were significantly associated with genes zeaxanthin epoxydase (ZEP, phytoene desaturase (PDS and carotenoid isomerase (CRTISO while α-carotene was associated with CRTISO and plastid terminal oxidase (PTOX genes. Color components were associated most significantly with ZEP. Our results suggest the involvement of the couple PDS/PTOX and ZEP in carotenoid accumulation, as the result of the metabolic and catabolic activities respectively. This study brings new insights in the understanding of the carotenoid pathway in non-photosynthetic organs.

  14. Prevalence of presbyopia and spectacle coverage in an African population in Durban, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naidoo, Kovin Shunmugan; Jaggernath, Jyotikumarie; Martin, Carrin; Govender, Pirindhavellie; Chinanayi, Farai Showman; Chan, Ving Fai; Ramson, Prasidh

    2013-12-01

    To assess the prevalence of near vision impairment caused by uncorrected presbyopia and to determine the spectacle coverage for presbyopia in Durban, KwaZulu Natal, South Africa. A cross-sectional community-based survey was conducted to determine the prevalence of presbyopia in Durban. Eighteen clusters were randomly selected from the suburbs of Durban--Inanda, Ntuzuma, and KwaMashu. Adults over 35 years of age were enumerated through a door-to-door method using aged-based sampling. Respondents were interviewed and then underwent standardized clinical eye examinations. Spectacle coverage was determined. Applying multivariate logistic regressions, the strengths of association of presbyopia and spectacle coverage with the participants' demographic profile were determined. A total of 2764 participants were enumerated while 1939 (70.2%) were examined with a median age of 52 years (interquartile range 45, 60). The prevalence of presbyopia was 77.0% (95% confidence interval [CI] 74.3%-79.2%), significantly higher in those 50-64 years old (OR 10.2, 95% CI 5.3-19.6) and 65-79 years old (OR 10.7, 95% CI 3.2-35.6) and significantly lower in those who had secondary and higher education (p strategic planning for eye health intervention efforts.

  15. PSCC: sensitive and reliable population-scale copy number variation detection method based on low coverage sequencing.

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    Xuchao Li

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Copy number variations (CNVs represent an important type of genetic variation that deeply impact phenotypic polymorphisms and human diseases. The advent of high-throughput sequencing technologies provides an opportunity to revolutionize the discovery of CNVs and to explore their relationship with diseases. However, most of the existing methods depend on sequencing depth and show instability with low sequence coverage. In this study, using low coverage whole-genome sequencing (LCS we have developed an effective population-scale CNV calling (PSCC method. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In our novel method, two-step correction was used to remove biases caused by local GC content and complex genomic characteristics. We chose a binary segmentation method to locate CNV segments and designed combined statistics tests to ensure the stable performance of the false positive control. The simulation data showed that our PSCC method could achieve 99.7%/100% and 98.6%/100% sensitivity and specificity for over 300 kb CNV calling in the condition of LCS (∼2× and ultra LCS (∼0.2×, respectively. Finally, we applied this novel method to analyze 34 clinical samples with an average of 2× LCS. In the final results, all the 31 pathogenic CNVs identified by aCGH were successfully detected. In addition, the performance comparison revealed that our method had significant advantages over existing methods using ultra LCS. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our study showed that PSCC can sensitively and reliably detect CNVs using low coverage or even ultra-low coverage data through population-scale sequencing.

  16. Spectacle coverage and spectacles use among elderly population in residential care in the south Indian state of Andhra Pradesh.

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    Marmamula, Srinivas; Ravuri, L V Chandra Sekhar; Boon, Mei Ying; Khanna, Rohit C

    2013-01-01

    There is limited research conducted on uncorrected refractive errors, presbyopia, and spectacles use among the elderly population in residential care in developing countries such as India. We conducted a cross-sectional study among elderly in residential care to assess the spectacle coverage and spectacles usage in the south Indian state of Andhra Pradesh. All 524 residents in the 26 "homes for aged" institutions in the district were enumerated. Eye examination was performed that included visual acuity (VA) assessment for distant and near vision. A questionnaire was used to collect information on spectacles use. 494/524 individuals were examined, 78% were women, and 72% had no education. The mean age of participants was 70 years. The spectacle coverage for refractive errors was 35.1% and 23.9% for presbyopia. The prevalence of current use and past use of spectacles was 38.5% (95% CI: 34.2-42.8; n = 190) and 17.2% (95% CI: 13.9-42.8), respectively. There is low spectacle coverage for both refractive errors and presbyopia among elderly individuals in residential care in the south Indian state of Andhra Pradesh. Appropriate service delivery systems should be developed to reach out this vulnerable group of seniors on a priority basis.

  17. Spectacle Coverage and Spectacles Use among Elderly Population in Residential Care in the South Indian State of Andhra Pradesh

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    Srinivas Marmamula

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. There is limited research conducted on uncorrected refractive errors, presbyopia, and spectacles use among the elderly population in residential care in developing countries such as India. We conducted a cross-sectional study among elderly in residential care to assess the spectacle coverage and spectacles usage in the south Indian state of Andhra Pradesh. Methods. All 524 residents in the 26 “homes for aged” institutions in the district were enumerated. Eye examination was performed that included visual acuity (VA assessment for distant and near vision. A questionnaire was used to collect information on spectacles use. Results. 494/524 individuals were examined, 78% were women, and 72% had no education. The mean age of participants was 70 years. The spectacle coverage for refractive errors was 35.1% and 23.9% for presbyopia. The prevalence of current use and past use of spectacles was 38.5% (95% CI: 34.2–42.8; n=190 and 17.2% (95% CI: 13.9–42.8, respectively. Conclusions. There is low spectacle coverage for both refractive errors and presbyopia among elderly individuals in residential care in the south Indian state of Andhra Pradesh. Appropriate service delivery systems should be developed to reach out this vulnerable group of seniors on a priority basis.

  18. Census and vaccination coverage of owned dog populations in four resource-limited rural communities, Mpumalanga province, South Africa

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    Anne Conan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Dogs (Canis familiaris are often free-roaming in sub-Saharan African countries. Rabies virus circulates in many of these populations and presents a public health issue. Mass vaccination of dog populations is the recommended method to decrease the number of dog and human rabies cases. We describe and compare four populations of dogs and their vaccination coverage in four different villages (Hluvukani, Athol, Utah and Dixie in Bushbuckridge Municipality, Mpumalanga province, South Africa. Cross-sectional surveys were conducted in the villages of Athol, Utah and Dixie, while data from a Health and Demographic Surveillance System were used to describe the dog population in Hluvukani village. All households of the villages were visited to obtain information on the number, sex, age and rabies vaccination status of dogs. From May to October 2013, 2969 households were visited in the four villages and 942 owned dogs were reported. The populations were all young and skewed towards males. No differences were observed in the sex and age distributions (puppies 0–3 months excluded among the villages. Athol had a higher proportion of dog-owning households than Hluvukani and Utah. Vaccination coverages were all above the 20% – 40% threshold required for herd immunity to rabies (38% in Hluvukani, 51% in Athol, 65% in Dixie and 74% in Utah. For the preparation of vaccination campaigns, we recommend the use of the relatively stable dog:human ratio (between 1:12 and 1:16 to estimate the number of dogs per village in Bushbuckridge Municipality.

  19. Tuberculin reactivity in a population of schoolchildren with high BCG vaccination coverage

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    Bierrenbach Ana L.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To investigate the influence of BCG vaccination or revaccination on tuberculin skin test reactivity, in order to guide the correct interpretation of this test in a setting of high neonatal BCG vaccination coverage and an increasing BCG revaccination coverage at school age. METHODS: We conducted tuberculin skin testing and BCG scar reading in 1148 children aged 7-14 years old in the city of Salvador, Bahia, Brazil. We measured the positive effect of the presence of one or two BCG scars on the proportion of tuberculin skin test results above different cut-off levels (induration sizes of > 5 mm, > 10 mm, and > 15 mm and also using several ranges of induration size (0, 1-4, 5-9, 10-14, and > 15 mm. We also measured the effects that age, gender, and the school where the child was enrolled had on these proportions. RESULTS: The proportion of tuberculin results > 10 mm was 14.2% (95% confidence interval (CI = 8.0%-20.3% for children with no BCG scar, 21.3% (95% CI = 18.5%-24.1% for children with one BCG scar, and 45.0% (95% CI = 32.0%-58.0% for children with two BCG scars. There was evidence for an increasing positive effect of the presence of one and two BCG scars on the proportion of results > 5 mm and > 10 mm. Similarly, there was evidence for an increasing positive effect of the presence of one and two scars on the proportion of tuberculin skin test results in the ranges of 5-9 mm and of 10-14 mm. The BCG scar effect on the proportion of results > 5 mm and > 10 mm did not vary with age. There was no evidence for BCG effect on the results > 15 mm. CONCLUSIONS: In Brazilian schoolchildren, BCG-induced tuberculin reactivity is indistinguishable, for results under 15 mm, from reactivity induced by Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. BCG revaccination at school age increases the degree of BCG-induced tuberculin reactivity found among schoolchildren. This information should be taken into account in tuberculin skin test surveys intended to

  20. Cervical cancer screening program in Thimphu, Bhutan: population coverage and characteristics associated with screening attendance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baussano, Iacopo; Tshomo, Ugyen; Clifford, Gary M; Tenet, Vanessa; Tshokey, Tshokey; Franceschi, Silvia

    2014-11-30

    Bhutan has been engaged in good-quality cytology-based cervical screening since 2000 and has vaccinated >90% girls against human papillomavirus (HPV) since 2010. We explored the characteristics associated with lack of previous screening and screening coverage in women age ≥25 years. Women were invited at home or during their attendance at 2 outpatient clinics, in the capital, Thimphu, and nearby Lungthenphu. Age-adjusted odds ratios for lack of previous screening by selected characteristics were computed among 1,620 participating women. In Thimphu an invitation registry allowed to estimate screening history not only among participating women but also among additional 500 women who did not accept to join our study. Among women who had a Pap smear, lack of previous screening was associated with age Bhutan, even in the capital. Better ways to target never-screened women are needed.

  1. Can Plan Recommendations Improve the Coverage Decisions of Vulnerable Populations in Health Insurance Marketplaces?

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    Andrew J Barnes

    Full Text Available The Affordable Care Act's marketplaces present an important opportunity for expanding coverage but consumers face enormous challenges in navigating through enrollment and re-enrollment. We tested the effectiveness of a behaviorally informed policy tool--plan recommendations--in improving marketplace decisions.Data were gathered from a community sample of 656 lower-income, minority, rural residents of Virginia.We conducted an incentive-compatible, computer-based experiment using a hypothetical marketplace like the one consumers face in the federally-facilitated marketplaces, and examined their decision quality. Participants were randomly assigned to a control condition or three types of plan recommendations: social normative, physician, and government. For participants randomized to a plan recommendation condition, the plan that maximized expected earnings, and minimized total expected annual health care costs, was recommended.Primary data were gathered using an online choice experiment and questionnaire.Plan recommendations resulted in a 21 percentage point increase in the probability of choosing the earnings maximizing plan, after controlling for participant characteristics. Two conditions, government or providers recommending the lowest cost plan, resulted in plan choices that lowered annual costs compared to marketplaces where no recommendations were made.As millions of adults grapple with choosing plans in marketplaces and whether to switch plans during open enrollment, it is time to consider marketplace redesigns and leverage insights from the behavioral sciences to facilitate consumers' decisions.

  2. Prevalence and predictors of refractive error and spectacle coverage in Nakuru, Kenya: a cross-sectional, population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastawrous, Andrew; Mathenge, Wanjiku; Foster, Allen; Kuper, Hannah

    2013-10-01

    A cross-sectional study was undertaken in Nakuru, Kenya to assess the prevalence of refractive error and the spectacle coverage in a population aged ≥50 years. Of the 5,010 subjects who were eligible, 4,414 underwent examination (response rate 88.1 %). LogMAR visual acuity was assessed in all participants and refractive error was measured in both eyes using a Topcon auto refractor RM8800. Detailed interviews were undertaken and ownership of spectacles was assessed. Refractive error was responsible for 51.7 % of overall visual impairment (VI), 85.3 % (n = 191) of subjects with mild VI, 42.7 % (n = 152) of subjects with moderate VI, 16.7 % (n = 3) of subjects with severe VI and no cases of blindness. Myopia was more common than hyperopia affecting 59.5 % of those with refractive error compared to 27.4 % for hyperopia. High myopia (+5.0 DS). Of those who needed distance spectacles (spectacle coverage), 25.5 % owned spectacles. In conclusion, the oldest, most poor and least educated are most likely to have no spectacles and they should be specifically targeted when refractive services are put in place.

  3. Population-based HPV vaccination programmes are safe and effective: 2017 update and the impetus for achieving better global coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brotherton, Julia M L; Bloem, Paul N

    2017-09-06

    Persistent oncogenic human papillomavirus (HPV) is the cause of cervical cancer, as well as cancers of the anus, penis, vulva, vagina and oropharynx. There is good evidence that prophylactic HPV vaccines are immunogenic and effective against targeted-type HPV infections and type-specific genital lesions, including high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN), when administered prior to HPV infection. There is good evidence that HPV vaccines are safe in population usage, with the most frequent adverse event being injection-site reactions. There is evidence to support some cross-protection against non-targeted types occurring following the administration of HPV vaccines. There is limited evidence suggesting that HPV vaccines may be beneficial in preventing future disease in women treated for high-grade CIN. This chapter focuses on the accumulated evidence regarding the global use of the three licensed HPV vaccines including safety, immunogenicity, duration of protection, effectiveness, coverage to date and barriers to higher coverage. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Assessing the population coverage of a health demographic surveillance system using satellite imagery and crowd-sourcing.

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    Aurelio Di Pasquale

    Full Text Available Remotely sensed data can serve as an independent source of information about the location of residential structures in areas under demographic and health surveillance. We report on results obtained combining satellite imagery, imported from Bing, with location data routinely collected using the built-in GPS sensors of tablet computers, to assess completeness of population coverage in a Health and Demographic Surveillance System in Malawi. The Majete Malaria Project Health and Demographic Surveillance System, in Malawi, started in 2014 to support a project with the aim of studying the reduction of malaria using an integrated control approach by rolling out insecticide treated nets and improved case management supplemented with house improvement and larval source management. In order to support the monitoring of the trial a Health and Demographic Surveillance System was established in the area that surrounds the Majete Wildlife Reserve (1600 km2, using the OpenHDS data system. We compared house locations obtained using GPS recordings on mobile devices during the demographic surveillance census round with those acquired from satellite imagery. Volunteers were recruited through the crowdcrafting.org platform to identify building structures on the images, which enabled the compilation of a database with coordinates of potential residences. For every building identified on these satellite images by the volunteers (11,046 buildings identified of which 3424 (ca. 30% were part of the censused area, we calculated the distance to the nearest house enumerated on the ground by fieldworkers during the census round of the HDSS. A random sample of buildings (85 structures identified on satellite images without a nearby location enrolled in the census were visited by a fieldworker to determine how many were missed during the baseline census survey, if any were missed. The findings from this ground-truthing effort suggest that a high population coverage was

  5. Assessing the population coverage of a health demographic surveillance system using satellite imagery and crowd-sourcing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Pasquale, Aurelio; McCann, Robert S; Maire, Nicolas

    2017-01-01

    Remotely sensed data can serve as an independent source of information about the location of residential structures in areas under demographic and health surveillance. We report on results obtained combining satellite imagery, imported from Bing, with location data routinely collected using the built-in GPS sensors of tablet computers, to assess completeness of population coverage in a Health and Demographic Surveillance System in Malawi. The Majete Malaria Project Health and Demographic Surveillance System, in Malawi, started in 2014 to support a project with the aim of studying the reduction of malaria using an integrated control approach by rolling out insecticide treated nets and improved case management supplemented with house improvement and larval source management. In order to support the monitoring of the trial a Health and Demographic Surveillance System was established in the area that surrounds the Majete Wildlife Reserve (1600 km2), using the OpenHDS data system. We compared house locations obtained using GPS recordings on mobile devices during the demographic surveillance census round with those acquired from satellite imagery. Volunteers were recruited through the crowdcrafting.org platform to identify building structures on the images, which enabled the compilation of a database with coordinates of potential residences. For every building identified on these satellite images by the volunteers (11,046 buildings identified of which 3424 (ca. 30%) were part of the censused area), we calculated the distance to the nearest house enumerated on the ground by fieldworkers during the census round of the HDSS. A random sample of buildings (85 structures) identified on satellite images without a nearby location enrolled in the census were visited by a fieldworker to determine how many were missed during the baseline census survey, if any were missed. The findings from this ground-truthing effort suggest that a high population coverage was achieved in the

  6. Evaluation of low immunization coverage among the Amish population in rural Ohio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kettunen, Christine; Nemecek, John; Wenger, Olivia

    2017-06-01

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Review included childhood immunizations among the 10 great public health achievements in the United States in the 20th century. Despite this acknowledged success, childhood immunization rates continue to be much lower in select populations. Amish communities have persistently lower immunization rates. Recent outbreaks in Amish communities include a 2014 measles outbreak in Ohio, resulting in 368 cases reported. A recent outbreak of pertussis in an Amish community in Ohio resulted in the death of a 6-week-old Amish baby. A study was designed to determine the knowledge, beliefs, attitudes, and opinions of Amish parents relative to the immunization of Amish children. Data were collected through a questionnaire. Each potential participant was mailed a copy of a letter describing the proposed study. The questionnaire, a copy of the current immunization schedule, and a return stamped envelope were also included in the mailed packet. The study sample consisted of 84 Amish individuals who voluntarily filled out and returned questionnaires. The findings from the data analysis demonstrated that fear, especially concern over too many recommended immunizations and immunizations overwhelming the child's system, was the most frequent reported reasons for not having children immunized according to recommendations. Religious factors and access to care were not among reasons most reported. Designing an educational campaign for educating Amish parents on the risks and benefits of immunizations with focus on specific concerns may improve immunization rates. Copyright © 2017 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Presbyopic spectacle coverage and barriers to near vision correction among adult population in ido local government area, Southwest Nigeria

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    Mukaila Alaba Seidu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The magnitude of presbyopes with appropriate near vision correction is low globally and spectacles' correction remains cost-effective option for low- and middle-income countries. Objectives: The objective of this study was to determine presbyopia correction coverage (PCC, presbyopic met need and unmet need, willingness to pay for a pair of near vision spectacles, and barriers to usage of near vision spectacles among adults aged 40 years and above in a semiurban population of Southwest Nigeria. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional, population-based study was carried out on 440 participants who were 40 years and above. Participants were selected using multistage sampling technique. Participants had refraction for both distance and near vision. Information on the use, barriers, and source of near vision spectacle was collected using interviewer-administered questionnaire. Data analysis was done using Statistical Package for Social Sciences software version 22 (IBM Corp., New York, USA. Results: A total of 440 participants were examined. Male to female ratio was 1:1.2 and the mean age of the participants was 51 ± 8 years. The PCC in the study was 27.3% with met need of 20.5% and unmet need of 54.5%. The major barriers to usage of near spectacles in this study were “not a priority” at 38.4% (95% confidence interval [CI] 32.3–44.5 and “not aware of the problem” at 34.7% (95% CI 28.7–40.7. Most of the participants (75.7% were willing to pay at least 1000 naira (US$6 for a pair of near spectacles; hence, cost was not a significant barrier. Conclusion: The PCC in the area was low. Basic eye screening and refractive services should be incorporated into primary eye care for easy accessibility by the adult population in this area.

  8. Variations in influenza vaccination coverage among the high-risk population in Sweden in 2003/4 and 2004/5: a population survey

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    van Essen Gerrit A

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Sweden, the vaccination campaign is the individual responsibility of the counties, which results in different arrangements. The aim of this study was to find out whether influenza vaccination coverage rates (VCRs had increased between 2003/4 and 2004/5 among population at high risk and to find out the influence of personal preferences, demographic characteristics and health care system characteristics on VCRs. Methods An average sample of 2500 persons was interviewed each season (2003/4 and 2004/5. The respondents were asked whether they had had an influenza vaccination, whether they suffered from chronic conditions and the reasons of non-vaccination. For every county the relevant health care system characteristics were collected via a questionnaire sent to the medical officers of communicable diseases. Results No difference in VCR was found between the two seasons. Personal invitations strongly increased the chance of having had a vaccination. For the elderly, the number of different health care professionals in a region involved in administering vaccines decreased this chance. Conclusion Sweden remained below the WHO-recommendations for population at high risk due to disease. To meet the 2010 WHO-recommendation further action may be necessary to increase vaccine uptake. Increasing the number of personal invitations and restricting the number of different administrators responsible for vaccination may be effective in increasing VCRs among the elderly.

  9. Identifying barriers to move to better health coverage: preferences for health insurance benefits among the rural poor population in La Guajira, Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaya, Jeannette Liliana; Ruiz, Fernando; Trujillo, Antonio J; Buttorff, Christine

    2016-01-01

    Even though access to health insurance in Colombia has improved since the implementation of the 1993 health reforms (Law 100), universal coverage has not yet been accomplished. There is still a segment of the population under the low-income (subsidized) health insurance policy or without health insurance altogether. The purpose of this research was to identify preferences and behavior regarding health insurance among the subsidized rural population in La Guajira, Colombia, and to understand why that population remains under the subsidized health insurance policy. The field experiment gathered information from 400 households regarding their socioeconomic situation, health conditions, and preferences for health insurance characteristics. Results suggest that the surveyed population gives priority to expanded family coverage, physician and hospital choice, and access to specialists, rather than to attributes associated with co-payments or premiums. That indicates that people value healthcare benefits and family coverage more than health insurance expenses, and policy makers could use these preferences to enroll subsidized population into the contributory regime. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Broad resistance to acetohydroxyacid-synthase-inhibiting herbicides in feral radish (Raphanus sativus L.) populations from Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandolfo, Claudio E; Presotto, Alejandro; Moreno, Florencia; Dossou, Ida; Migasso, Juan P; Sakima, Ernesto; Cantamutto, Miguel

    2016-02-01

    Soon after the commercial release of sunflower cultivars resistant to imidazolinone herbicides, several uncontrolled feral radish (Raphanus sativus L.) populations were found in south-eastern Buenos Aires, Argentina. These populations were studied in field, glasshouse and laboratory experiments aiming to characterise their resistance profile and to develop management tools. Three feral radish accessions were highly resistant to ten active ingredients of five families of acetohydroxyacid synthase (AHAS)-inhibiting herbicides. Sequence analysis of the AHAS gene detected a Trp574Leu mutation in all resistant accessions. One accession with an intermediate level of resistance was heterozygous for this mutation, probably owing to gene exchange with a susceptible subpopulation located in the field margin. Herbicide-resistant and herbicide-susceptible radish could be controlled in sunflower by alternative herbicides. This is the first report of feral radish with resistance to herbicides belonging to all the AHAS-inhibiting herbicide families, conferred by Trp574Leu mutation in the AHAS gene. An appropriate herbicide rotation with alternative herbicides such as fluorochloridone or aclonifen and an increase in the diversity of cropping systems are important for minimising the prevalence of these biotypes. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  11. Determinants for employer-paid health insurance coverage: a population-based study of the Danish labour force.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Ann; Søgaard, Rikke

    2013-08-01

    In 2002, the Danish tax law was changed, giving employees a tax exemption on supplemental, employer-paid health insurance. This might have conflicted with one of the key foundations of the healthcare system, namely equal access for equal needs. The aim of this study was to investigate determinants for employer-paid health insurance coverage. Because the policy change affected only people who were part of the labour force and because the public sector at that time had no tradition of providing fringe benefits, the analysis was restricted to the private labour force. The analysis was based on data from a range of Danish person-level and company-level registers (explanatory variables). These data were combined with information on insurance status obtained from the trade organisation for insurance (dependent variable). A logistic regression was performed to estimate the odds of having employer-paid health insurance coverage. The individuals who were most likely to be insured were those employed in foreign companies as mid-level managers within the field of building and construction. Other important variables were the number of persons employed in a company, gender, ethnicity, region of residence, years of education, and annual income. Both company and individual characteristics were found to be important and significant predictors for employer-paid health insurance coverage. The Danish tax exemption on private health insurance in the years 2002-12 thus seems to have led to inequality in employer-paid health insurance coverage.

  12. Broad resistance to ACCase inhibiting herbicides in a ryegrass population is due only to a cysteine to arginine mutation in the target enzyme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaundun, Shiv Shankhar; Hutchings, Sarah-Jane; Dale, Richard Paul; McIndoe, Eddie

    2012-01-01

    The design of sustainable weed management strategies requires a good understanding of the mechanisms by which weeds evolve resistance to herbicides. Here we have conducted a study on the mechanism of resistance to ACCase inhibiting herbicides in a Lolium multiflorum population (RG3) from the UK. Analysis of plant phenotypes and genotypes showed that all the RG3 plants (72%) that contained the cysteine to arginine mutation at ACCase codon position 2088 were resistant to ACCase inhibiting herbicides. Whole plant dose response tests on predetermined wild and mutant 2088 genotypes from RG3 and a standard sensitive population indicated that the C2088R mutation is the only factor conferring resistance to all ten ACCase herbicides tested. The associated resistance indices ranged from 13 for clethodim to over 358 for diclofop-methyl. Clethodim, the most potent herbicide was significantly affected even when applied on small mutant plants at the peri-emergence and one leaf stages. This study establishes the clear and unambiguous importance of the C2088R target site mutation in conferring broad resistance to ten commonly used ACCase inhibiting herbicides. It also demonstrates that low levels "creeping", multigenic, non target site resistance, is not always selected before single gene target site resistance appears in grass weed populations subjected to herbicide selection pressure.

  13. Broad resistance to ACCase inhibiting herbicides in a ryegrass population is due only to a cysteine to arginine mutation in the target enzyme.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiv Shankhar Kaundun

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The design of sustainable weed management strategies requires a good understanding of the mechanisms by which weeds evolve resistance to herbicides. Here we have conducted a study on the mechanism of resistance to ACCase inhibiting herbicides in a Lolium multiflorum population (RG3 from the UK. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Analysis of plant phenotypes and genotypes showed that all the RG3 plants (72% that contained the cysteine to arginine mutation at ACCase codon position 2088 were resistant to ACCase inhibiting herbicides. Whole plant dose response tests on predetermined wild and mutant 2088 genotypes from RG3 and a standard sensitive population indicated that the C2088R mutation is the only factor conferring resistance to all ten ACCase herbicides tested. The associated resistance indices ranged from 13 for clethodim to over 358 for diclofop-methyl. Clethodim, the most potent herbicide was significantly affected even when applied on small mutant plants at the peri-emergence and one leaf stages. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: This study establishes the clear and unambiguous importance of the C2088R target site mutation in conferring broad resistance to ten commonly used ACCase inhibiting herbicides. It also demonstrates that low levels "creeping", multigenic, non target site resistance, is not always selected before single gene target site resistance appears in grass weed populations subjected to herbicide selection pressure.

  14. Household coverage of Swaziland's national community health worker programme: a cross-sectional population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geldsetzer, Pascal; Vaikath, Maria; De Neve, Jan-Walter; Bossert, Thomas J; Sibandze, Sibusiso; Bärnighausen, Till

    2017-08-01

    To ascertain household coverage achieved by Swaziland's national community health worker (CHW) programme and differences in household coverage across clients' sociodemographic characteristics. Household survey from June to September 2015 in two of Swaziland's four administrative regions using two-stage cluster random sampling. Interviewers administered a questionnaire to all household members in 1542 households across 85 census enumeration areas. While the CHW programme aims to cover all households in the country, only 44.5% (95% confidence interval: 38.0% to 51.1%) reported that they had ever been visited by a CHW. In both uni- and multivariable regressions, coverage was negatively associated with household wealth (OR for most vs. least wealthy quartile: 0.30 [0.16 to 0.58], P secondary schooling vs. no schooling: 0.65 [0.47 to 0.90], P = 0.009), and positively associated with residing in a rural area (OR: 2.95 [1.77 to 4.91], P communities. This study highlights the need to evaluate and reform large long-standing CHW programmes in sub-Saharan Africa. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. DNA sequence variants in the LOXL1 gene are associated with pseudoexfoliation glaucoma in a U.S. clinic-based population with broad ethnic diversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miller Joan W

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pseudoexfoliation syndrome is a major risk factor for glaucoma in many populations throughout the world. Using a U.S. clinic-based case control sample with broad ethnic diversity, we show that three common SNPs in LOXL1 previously associated with pseudoexfoliation in Nordic populations are significantly associated with pseudoexfoliation syndrome and pseudoexfoliation glaucoma. Methods Three LOXL1 SNPs were genotyped in a patient sample (206 pseudoexfoliation, 331 primary open angle glaucoma, and 88 controls from the Glaucoma Consultation Service at the Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary. The SNPs were evaluation for association with pseudeoexfoliation syndrome, pseudoexfoliation glaucoma, and primary open angle glaucoma. Results The strongest association was found for the G allele of marker rs3825942 (G153D with a frequency of 99% in pseudoexfoliation patients (with and without glaucoma compared with 79% in controls (p = 1.6 × 10-15; OR = 20.93, 95%CI: 8.06, 54.39. The homozygous GG genotype is also associated with pseudoexfoliation when compared to controls (p = 1.2 × 10-12; OR = 23.57, 95%CI: 7.95, 69.85. None of the SNPs were significantly associated with primary open angle glaucoma. Conclusion The pseudoexfoliation syndrome is a common cause of glaucoma. These results indicate that the G153D LOXL1 variant is significantly associated with an increased risk of pseudoexfoliation and pseudoexfoliation glaucoma in an ethnically diverse patient population from the Northeastern United States. Given the high prevalence of pseudooexfoliation in this geographic region, these results also indicate that the G153D LOXL1 variant is a significant risk factor for adult-onset glaucoma in this clinic based population.

  16. Broadly protective influenza vaccines: Redirecting the antibody response through adjuvation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cox, F.

    2016-01-01

    Influenza virus infections are responsible for significant morbidity worldwide and current vaccines have limited coverage, therefore it remains a high priority to develop broadly protective vaccines. With the discovery of broadly neutralizing antibodies (bnAbs) against influenza these vaccines

  17. Determinants for employer-paid health insurance coverage: a population-based study of the Danish labour force

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Ann Demant; Søgaard, Rikke

    2013-01-01

    AIM: In 2002, the Danish tax law was changed, giving employees a tax exemption on supplemental, employer-paid health insurance. This might have conflicted with one of the key foundations of the healthcare system, namely equal access for equal needs. The aim of this study was to investigate...... determinants for employer-paid health insurance coverage. Because the policy change affected only people who were part of the labour force and because the public sector at that time had no tradition of providing fringe benefits, the analysis was restricted to the private labour force. METHOD: The analysis...

  18. Immunization Coverage

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... country, and global coverage was estimated at 25%. Rubella is a viral disease which is usually mild in children, but infection during early pregnancy may cause fetal death or congenital rubella syndrome, ...

  19. Functional coverages

    OpenAIRE

    Donchyts, G.; Baart, F.; Jagers, H.R.A.; Van Dam, A

    2011-01-01

    A new Application Programming Interface (API) is presented which simplifies working with geospatial coverages as well as many other data structures of a multi-dimensional nature. The main idea extends the Common Data Model (CDM) developed at the University Corporation for Atmospheric Research (UCAR). The proposed function object model uses the mathematical definition of a vector-valued function. A geospatial coverage will be expressed as a vector-valued function whose dependent variables (the...

  20. Provider's and user's perspective about immunization coverage among migratory and non-migratory population in slums and construction sites of Chandigarh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Vikas; Singh, Amarjeet; Sharma, Vijaylakshmi

    2015-04-01

    Strengthening routine immunization is a corner stone for countries to achieve the United Nations Millennium Development Goal 4 (MDG 4) which aims to reduce under-five mortality by two-thirds and MDG 5 improving maternal health compared to 1990 estimates by 2015. The poor urban newborns are more vulnerable to many health and nutrition problems compared to the non-poor urban counterparts. Therefore there is a need to strengthen health system to cater the needs of urban poor. Standardized WHO30*7 cluster sampling for slums and convenience sampling for construction sites. In depth interviews were conducted for user's as well as provider's perspective about immunization coverage. Two hundred ten children and 210 mothers were enrolled in slums and 100 were sampled from construction sites. The slum workers are considered as non-migratory groups whereas construction site workers are considered as migratory population. Among children, 23 % were fully immunized, 73 % were partially immunized and 3 % were unimmunized in non-migratory population whereas 3 % were fully immunized, 91 % were partially immunized and 6 % were unimmunized in migratory population. Among mothers, 43 and 39 % were fully immunized, 13 and 15 % partially immunized and 43 and 46 % were unimmunized in non-migratory and migratory population, respectively. The various reasons attributed for low coverage are (a) dissatisfaction of the users with the service delivery and procedural delays (bureaucracy), (b) lack of faith in health workers, (c) insistence upon ID/vaccination card/aadhar card by the health worker before vaccinating child and (d) ignorance of the need of immunization by the people and migration of the population.

  1. How to best define target populations of medicines in view of their coverage by the national health insurance scheme?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamers, Françoise F; Massol, Jacques; Maillère, Patricia

    2010-01-01

    The target population of a medicine may include different populations that may partially overlap including the population that has been evaluated in the clinical trials, the population for which the medicine provides an actual benefit (SMR), that for which the drug provides an improvement of the actual benefit (ASMR), etc. The definition of the target population in both qualitative and quantitative terms has key public health and economic implications. Recommendations are made to shed light on the definitions, to clarify the requests of the public decision makers and to improve the methods and the sources allowing the quantification of target populations. © 2010 Société Française de Pharmacologie et de Thérapeutique.

  2. How do coverage policies influence practice patterns, safety, and cost of initial lumbar fusion surgery? A population-based comparison of workers' compensation systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Brook I; Franklin, Gary M; Deyo, Richard A; Wickizer, Thomas M; Lurie, Jonathan D; Mirza, Sohail K

    2014-07-01

    In response to increasing use of lumbar fusion for improving back pain, despite unclear efficacy, particularly among injured workers, some insurers have developed limited coverage policies. Washington State's workers' compensation (WC) program requires imaging confirmation of instability and limits initial fusions to a single level. In contrast, California requires coverage if a second opinion supports surgery, allows initial multilevel fusion, and provides additional reimbursement for surgical implants. There are no studies that compare population-level effects of these policy differences on utilization, costs, and safety of lumbar fusion. The purpose of this study was to compare population-level data on the use of complex fusion techniques, adverse outcomes within 3 months, and costs for two states with contrasting coverage policies. The study design was an analysis of WC patients in California and Washington using the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality's State Inpatient Databases, 2008-2009. All patients undergoing an inpatient lumbar fusion for degenerative disease (n=4,628) were included the patient sample. Outcome measures included repeat lumbar spine surgery, all-cause readmission, life-threatening complications, wound problems, device complications, and costs. Log-binomial regressions compared 3-month complications and costs between states, adjusting for patient characteristics. Overall rate of lumbar fusion operations through WC programs was 47% higher in California than in Washington. California WC patients were more likely than those in Washington to undergo fusion for controversial indications, such as nonspecific back pain (28% versus 21%) and disc herniation (37% versus 21%), as opposed to spinal stenosis (6% versus 15%), and spondylolisthesis (25% versus 41%). A higher percentage of patients in California received circumferential procedures (26% versus 5%), fusion of three or more levels (10% versus 5%), and bone morphogenetic protein (50

  3. Fecal Microbiota Transplantation, Commensal Escherichia coli and Lactobacillus johnsonii Strains Differentially Restore Intestinal and Systemic Adaptive Immune Cell Populations Following Broad-spectrum Antibiotic Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekmekciu, Ira; von Klitzing, Eliane; Neumann, Christian; Bacher, Petra; Scheffold, Alexander; Bereswill, Stefan; Heimesaat, Markus M.

    2017-01-01

    The essential role of the intestinal microbiota in the well-functioning of host immunity necessitates the investigation of species-specific impacts on this interplay. Aim of this study was to examine the ability of defined Gram-positive and Gram-negative intestinal commensal bacterial species, namely Escherichia coli and Lactobacillus johnsonii, respectively, to restore immune functions in mice that were immunosuppressed by antibiotics-induced microbiota depletion. Conventional mice were subjected to broad-spectrum antibiotic treatment for 8 weeks and perorally reassociated with E. coli, L. johnsonii or with a complex murine microbiota by fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT). Analyses at days (d) 7 and 28 revealed that immune cell populations in the small and large intestines, mesenteric lymph nodes and spleens of mice were decreased after antibiotic treatment but were completely or at least partially restored upon FMT or by recolonization with the respective bacterial species. Remarkably, L. johnsonii recolonization resulted in the highest CD4+ and CD8+ cell numbers in the small intestine and spleen, whereas neither of the commensal species could stably restore those cell populations in the colon until d28. Meanwhile less efficient than FMT, both species increased the frequencies of regulatory T cells and activated dendritic cells and completely restored intestinal memory/effector T cell populations at d28. Furthermore, recolonization with either single species maintained pro- and anti-inflammatory immune functions in parallel. However, FMT could most effectively recover the decreased frequencies of cytokine producing CD4+ lymphocytes in mucosal and systemic compartments. E. coli recolonization increased the production of cytokines such as TNF, IFN-γ, IL-17, and IL-22, particularly in the small intestine. Conversely, only L. johnsonii recolonization maintained colonic IL-10 production. In summary, FMT appears to be most efficient in the restoration of

  4. Fecal Microbiota Transplantation, Commensal Escherichia coli and Lactobacillus johnsonii Strains Differentially Restore Intestinal and Systemic Adaptive Immune Cell Populations Following Broad-spectrum Antibiotic Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ira Ekmekciu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The essential role of the intestinal microbiota in the well-functioning of host immunity necessitates the investigation of species-specific impacts on this interplay. Aim of this study was to examine the ability of defined Gram-positive and Gram-negative intestinal commensal bacterial species, namely Escherichia coli and Lactobacillus johnsonii, respectively, to restore immune functions in mice that were immunosuppressed by antibiotics-induced microbiota depletion. Conventional mice were subjected to broad-spectrum antibiotic treatment for 8 weeks and perorally reassociated with E. coli, L. johnsonii or with a complex murine microbiota by fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT. Analyses at days (d 7 and 28 revealed that immune cell populations in the small and large intestines, mesenteric lymph nodes and spleens of mice were decreased after antibiotic treatment but were completely or at least partially restored upon FMT or by recolonization with the respective bacterial species. Remarkably, L. johnsonii recolonization resulted in the highest CD4+ and CD8+ cell numbers in the small intestine and spleen, whereas neither of the commensal species could stably restore those cell populations in the colon until d28. Meanwhile less efficient than FMT, both species increased the frequencies of regulatory T cells and activated dendritic cells and completely restored intestinal memory/effector T cell populations at d28. Furthermore, recolonization with either single species maintained pro- and anti-inflammatory immune functions in parallel. However, FMT could most effectively recover the decreased frequencies of cytokine producing CD4+ lymphocytes in mucosal and systemic compartments. E. coli recolonization increased the production of cytokines such as TNF, IFN-γ, IL-17, and IL-22, particularly in the small intestine. Conversely, only L. johnsonii recolonization maintained colonic IL-10 production. In summary, FMT appears to be most efficient in the

  5. Functional coverages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donchyts, G.; Baart, F.; Jagers, H.R.A.; Van Dam, A.

    2011-01-01

    A new Application Programming Interface (API) is presented which simplifies working with geospatial coverages as well as many other data structures of a multi-dimensional nature. The main idea extends the Common Data Model (CDM) developed at the University Corporation for Atmospheric Research

  6. Identifying selected regions from heterozygosity and divergence using a light-coverage genomic dataset from two human populations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taras K Oleksyk

    Full Text Available When a selective sweep occurs in the chromosomal region around a target gene in two populations that have recently separated, it produces three dramatic genomic consequences: 1 decreased multi-locus heterozygosity in the region; 2 elevated or diminished genetic divergence (F(ST of multiple polymorphic variants adjacent to the selected locus between the divergent populations, due to the alternative fixation of alleles; and 3 a consequent regional increase in the variance of F(ST (S(2F(ST for the same clustered variants, due to the increased alternative fixation of alleles in the loci surrounding the selection target. In the first part of our study, to search for potential targets of directional selection, we developed and validated a resampling-based computational approach; we then scanned an array of 31 different-sized moving windows of SNP variants (5-65 SNPs across the human genome in a set of European and African American population samples with 183,997 SNP loci after correcting for the recombination rate variation. The analysis revealed 180 regions of recent selection with very strong evidence in either population or both. In the second part of our study, we compared the newly discovered putative regions to those sites previously postulated in the literature, using methods based on inspecting patterns of linkage disequilibrium, population divergence and other methodologies. The newly found regions were cross-validated with those found in nine other studies that have searched for selection signals. Our study was replicated especially well in those regions confirmed by three or more studies. These validated regions were independently verified, using a combination of different methods and different databases in other studies, and should include fewer false positives. The main strength of our analysis method compared to others is that it does not require dense genotyping and therefore can be used with data from population-based genome SNP scans

  7. Locating solar and wind parks in South-Eastern Nigeria for maximum population coverage: A multi-step approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ikejemba, Eugene Chidiebere; Schuur, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Power outages in the most populous country in the continent of Africa, Nigeria, is one issue that has woefully defied almost all known hypotheses for centuries, as enormous investments over the years have provided no palpable result. Considering that electricity plays a vital role in modern society,

  8. Analysis of the media coverage characteristics on radiation safety issues of the Saint-Petersburg and the Leningrad region population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Biblin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to examine the quantity and quality of publications on radiation safety of the population in the media on the example of Saint Petersburg and the Leningrad region for the period of the first three-quarters of 2016. An analysis of publications in the media is an essential part of the work on the formation of an adequate perception of the radiation risk by the population. The Information and Analytical Centre of Rospotrebnadzor on radiation safety of the population developed a pilot computer-assisted system for the media publication analysis. The study was performed by this system as a development and improvement of the Center’s works applicable to the registration, storage, and analysis of qualitative and quantitative information contained in the publications. The author selected 27 mass-media sources for analysis: 8 newspapers (2 of them are located in Sosnoviy Bor; 8 TV-channels (4 – federal, 2 – regional, 2 – local in Sosnoviy Bor; 10 online media and the web-site of the Sosnoviy Bor administration. During the analyzed period, 1075 informational materials on issues of radiation safety were collected and added to the database. The largest number of publications were in the second quarter of 2016. The peak of publication activity on issues of radiation safety was registered in April. This fact is related to the 30th anniversary of the Chernobyl accident. A significant part (over 50% of the publications were neutral in all media and in different types of media. A significant part of the publications is a brief informational note with the neutral nature of the character of the information. The number of materials with negative character of information among the publications on the subject of “radioactive waste” is more than 2 times larger than that for the publications on the subject of “nuclear energy”. The majority of publications belongs to the information genre. Analytical materials are a minor part

  9. Effect of an antepartum Pap smear on the coverage of a cervical cancer screening programme: a population-based prospective study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nygård, Mari; Daltveit, Anne-Kjersti; Thoresen, Steinar Ø; Nygård, Jan F

    2007-01-01

    Background Almost one-third of Norwegian women aged 25–69 years invited to have a Pap smear do not attend during the recommended period, and thus constitute a population with high-risk of cervical cancer (CC). Since the incidence of precancerous lesions of the cervix peak with occurrence of pregnancies within the same decade in women aged 25 to 35 years of age, antepartum care presents an opportunity to offer a Pap smear thereby increasing the coverage of the programme. The study objective was to describe the effect of the antepartum Pap smear on the coverage of a cytological CC screening programme. Methods Among 2 175 762 women resident in Norway in 31.12.1996, all women who gave birth in 1996–7 were identified from the Medical Birth Registry of Norway. Attendance to the cervical cancer screening was assessed by linkage to the Cytology Registry separately for the pregnant and non-pregnant women cohorts. The results were stratified by age, history of previous Pap smear and history of invitation to the CC screening programme. Logistic regression was used to estimate the relative probabilities of having a Pap smear adjusted for age, screening history, and time since invitation, for pregnant and non-pregnant women, respectively. Results 69% of the pregnant women had a Pap smear during one year of follow-up since beginning of the pregnancy with the majority taken during the antepartum period. Irrespectively of age or history of having a Pap smear, pregnant women were 4.3 times more likely to have a Pap smear during follow-up compared to non-pregnant women. 63.2% of the pregnant women had a smear as response to the invitation letter compared to 28.7% of the non-pregnant women, OR = 2.1 (95% CI 1.9 to 2.4). As an indication of "over-screening", 5397 pregnant women (57.8%) with a smear shortly before the start of follow-up also had a new Papsmear, compared to 83 023 (32.3%) in non-pregnant. Conclusion Pap smear screening during pregnancy increases the coverage of the

  10. Post Auction Coverage Baseline 2.0

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Communications Commission — FINAL TELEVISION CHANNEL ASSIGNMENT INFORMATION RELATED TO INCENTIVE AUCTION REPACKING. NOTE: This file provides new baseline coverage and population data for all...

  11. Contribution of Integrated Campaign Distribution of Long-Lasting Insecticidal Nets to Coverage of Target Groups and Total Populations in Malaria-Endemic Areas in Madagascar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, Manisha A.; Eng, Jodi Vanden; Desrochers, Rachelle E.; Cotte, Annett Hoppe; Goodson, James L.; Johnston, Adam; Wolkon, Adam; Erskine, Marcy; Berti, Peter; Rakotoarisoa, Andriamahefa; Ranaivo, Louise; Peat, Jason

    2010-01-01

    In October 2007, Madagascar conducted a nationwide integrated campaign to deliver measles vaccination, mebendazole, and vitamin A to children six months to five years of age. In 59 of the 111 districts, long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) were delivered to children less than five years of age in combination with the other interventions. A community-based, cross-sectional survey assessed LLIN ownership and use six months post-campaign during the rainy season. LLIN ownership was analyzed by wealth quintile to assess equity. In the 59 districts, 76.8% of households possessed at least one LLIN from any source and 56.4% of households possessed a campaign net. Equity of campaign net ownership was evident. Post-campaign, the LLIN use target of ≥ 80% by children less than five years of age and a high level of LLIN use (69%) by pregnant women were attained. Targeted LLIN distribution further contributed to total population coverage (60%) through use of campaign nets by all age groups. PMID:20207867

  12. Genetic analysis and characterization of wild poliovirus type 1 during sustained transmission in a population with >95% vaccine coverage, Israel 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shulman, Lester M; Martin, Javier; Sofer, Danit; Burns, Cara C; Manor, Yossi; Hindiyeh, Musa; Gavrilin, Eugene; Wilton, Thomas; Moran-Gilad, Jacob; Gamzo, Ronni; Mendelson, Ella; Grotto, Itamar

    2015-04-01

    Israel has >95% polio vaccine coverage with the last 9 birth cohorts immunized exclusively with inactivated polio vaccine (IPV). Using acute flaccid paralysis and routine, monthly countrywide environmental surveillance, no wild poliovirus circulation was detected between 1989 and February 2013, after which wild type 1 polioviruses South Asia genotype (WPV1-SOAS) have persistently circulated in southern Israel and intermittently in other areas without any paralytic cases as determined by intensified surveillance of environmental and human samples. We aimed to characterize antigenic and neurovirulence properties of WPV1-SOAS silently circulating in a highly vaccinated population. WPV1-SOAS capsid genes from environmental and stool surveillance isolates were sequenced, their neurovirulence was determined using transgenic mouse expressing the human poliovirus receptor (Tg21-PVR) mice, and their antigenicity was characterized by in vitro neutralization using human sera, epitope-specific monoclonal murine anti-oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) antibodies, and sera from IPV-immunized rats and mice. WPV1 amino acid sequences in neutralizing epitopes varied from Sabin 1 and Mahoney, with little variation among WPV1 isolates. Neutralization by monoclonal antibodies against 3 of 4 OPV epitopes was lost. Three-fold lower geometric mean titers (Z = -4.018; P SOAS isolates were neurovirulent (50% intramuscular paralytic dose in Tg21-PVR mice: log10(7.0)). IPV-immunized mice were protected against WPV1-induced paralysis. Phenotypic and antigenic profile changes of WPV1-SOAS may have contributed to the intense silent transmission, whereas the reduced neurovirulence may have contributed to the absence of paralytic cases in the background of high population immunity. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Expanding the population coverage of evidence-based interventions with community health workers to save the lives of mothers and children: an analysis of potential global impact using the Lives Saved Tool (LiST).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Victoria B; Friberg, Ingrid K; Christian, Mervyn; Walker, Neff; Perry, Henry B

    2017-12-01

    Evidence has been accumulating that community health workers (CHWs) providing evidence-based interventions as part of community-based primary health care (CBPHC) can lead to reductions in maternal, neonatal and child mortality. However, investments to strengthen and scale-up CHW programs still remain modest. We used the Lives Saved Tool (LiST) to estimate the number of maternal, neonatal and child deaths and stillbirths that could be prevented if 73 countries effectively scaled up the population coverage of 30 evidence-based interventions that CHWs can deliver in these high-burden countries. We set population coverage targets at 50%, 70%, and 90% and summed the country-level results by region and by all 73 high-burden countries combined. We also estimated which specific interventions would save the most lives. LiST estimates that a total of 3.0 (sensitivity bounds 1.8-4.0), 4.9 (3.1-6.3) and 6.9 (3.7-8.7) million deaths would be prevented between 2016 and 2020 if CBPHC is gradually scaled up during this period and if coverage of key interventions reaches 50%, 70%, and 90% respectively. There would be 14%, 23%, and 32% fewer deaths in the final year compared to a scenario assuming no intervention coverage scale up. The Africa Region would receive the most benefit by far: 58% of the lives saved at 90% coverage would be in this region. The interventions contributing the greatest impact are nutritional interventions during pregnancy, treatment of malaria with artemisinin compounds, oral rehydration solution for childhood diarrhea, hand washing with soap, and oral antibiotics for pneumonia. Scaling up CHW programming to increase population-level coverage of life-saving interventions represents a very promising strategy to achieve universal health coverage and end preventable maternal and child deaths by 2030. Numerous practical challenges must be overcome, but there is no better alternative at present. Expanding the coverage of key interventions for maternal nutrition

  14. Impact of universal health coverage on suicide risk in newly diagnosed cancer patients: Population-based cohort study from 1985 to 2007 in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Po-Hsien; Liao, Shih-Cheng; Chen, I-Ming; Kuo, Po-Hsiu; Shan, Jia-Chi; Lee, Ming-Been; Chen, Wei J

    2017-11-01

    National Health Insurance (NHI), launched in 1995 in Taiwan, lightens patient's financial burdens but its effect on the suicide risk in cancer patients is unclear. We aimed to investigate the impacts of the NHI on the suicide in newly diagnosed cancer patients. We identified patients with newly diagnosed cancer from the nationwide Taiwan Cancer Registration from 1985 to 2007, and ascertained suicide deaths from the national database of registered deaths between 1985 and 2009. Standardized mortality ratio (SMR) of suicide risk among patients with cancer was calculated, and the suicide risk ratios were examined by gender, age group, and prognosis. For the 916 337 registered cancer patients with 4 300 953 person-years, 2 543 died by suicide, with a suicide rate of 59.1 per 100 000 person-years. Compared to the general population, cancer patients had an SMR of 2.47 for suicide, with a higher figure for males (2.73), age 45 to 64 (2.89), and cancer of poor prognosis (3.19). The suicide risk was highest in the first 2 years after the initial diagnosis. Comparing the cohorts of the period before (1985 to 1992) and after (1996 to 2007) the launch of NHI, we saw a reduction in the SMR within the first 2 years after cancer diagnosis (20%), with more prominent reduction for females (29%), age under 45 (69%), and cancer of good prognosis (33%). A universal health coverage relieving both physical and psychological distress may account for the post-NHI reduction of immediate suicide risk in patients of newly diagnosed cancer. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Population-based CD4 counts in a rural area in South Africa with high HIV prevalence and high antiretroviral treatment coverage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abraham Malaza

    Full Text Available Little is known about the variability of CD4 counts in the general population of sub-Saharan Africa countries affected by the HIV epidemic. We investigated factors associated with CD4 counts in a rural area in South Africa with high HIV prevalence and high antiretroviral treatment (ART coverage.CD4 counts, health status, body mass index (BMI, demographic characteristics and HIV status were assessed in 4990 adult resident participants of a demographic surveillance in rural KwaZulu-Natal in South Africa; antiretroviral treatment duration was obtained from a linked clinical database. Multivariable regression analysis, overall and stratified by HIV status, was performed with CD4 count levels as outcome.Median CD4 counts were significantly higher in women than in men overall (714 vs. 630 cells/µl, p<0.0001, both in HIV-uninfected (833 vs. 683 cells/µl, p<0.0001 and HIV-infected adults (384.5 vs. 333 cells/µl, p<0.0001. In multivariable regression analysis, women had 19.4% (95% confidence interval (CI 16.1-22.9 higher CD4 counts than men, controlling for age, HIV status, urban/rural residence, household wealth, education, BMI, self-reported tuberculosis, high blood pressure, other chronic illnesses and sample processing delay. At ART initiation, HIV-infected adults had 21.7% (95% CI 14.6-28.2 lower CD4 counts than treatment-naive individuals; CD4 counts were estimated to increase by 9.2% (95% CI 6.2-12.4 per year of treatment.CD4 counts are primarily determined by sex in HIV-uninfected adults, and by sex, age and duration of antiretroviral treatment in HIV-infected adults. Lower CD4 counts at ART initiation in men could be a consequence of lower CD4 cell counts before HIV acquisition.

  16. Effective coverage: a metric for monitoring Universal Health Coverage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Ng

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available A major challenge in monitoring universal health coverage (UHC is identifying an indicator that can adequately capture the multiple components underlying the UHC initiative. Effective coverage, which unites individual and intervention characteristics into a single metric, offers a direct and flexible means to measure health system performance at different levels. We view effective coverage as a relevant and actionable metric for tracking progress towards achieving UHC. In this paper, we review the concept of effective coverage and delineate the three components of the metric - need, use, and quality - using several examples. Further, we explain how the metric can be used for monitoring interventions at both local and global levels. We also discuss the ways that current health information systems can support generating estimates of effective coverage. We conclude by recognizing some of the challenges associated with producing estimates of effective coverage. Despite these challenges, effective coverage is a powerful metric that can provide a more nuanced understanding of whether, and how well, a health system is delivering services to its populations.

  17. Medicare Coverage Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Medicare Coverage Database (MCD) contains all National Coverage Determinations (NCDs) and Local Coverage Determinations (LCDs), local articles, and proposed NCD...

  18. Childhood ADHD Is Strongly Associated with a Broad Range of Psychiatric Disorders during Adolescence: A Population-Based Birth Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshimasu, Kouichi; Barbaresi, William J.; Colligan, Robert C.; Voigt, Robert G.; Killian, Jill M.; Weaver, Amy L.; Katusic, Slavica K.

    2012-01-01

    Background: To evaluate associations between attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and comorbid psychiatric disorders using research-identified incident cases of ADHD and population-based controls. Methods: Subjects included a birth cohort of all children born 1976-1982 remaining in Rochester, MN after age five (n = 5,718). Among them we…

  19. The 2010 Broad Prize

    Science.gov (United States)

    Education Digest: Essential Readings Condensed for Quick Review, 2011

    2011-01-01

    A new data analysis, based on data collected as part of The Broad Prize process, provides insights into which large urban school districts in the United States are doing the best job of educating traditionally disadvantaged groups: African-American, Hispanics, and low-income students. Since 2002, The Eli and Edythe Broad Foundation has awarded The…

  20. Broad ligament ectopic pregnancy

    OpenAIRE

    Rama C; Lepakshi G; Raju SN

    2015-01-01

    Pregnancy in the broad ligament is a rare form of ectopic pregnancy with a high risk of maternal mortality. Ultrasonography may help in the early diagnosis but mostly the diagnosis is established during surgery. We report the case of a patient with broad ligament ectopic pregnancy diagnosed intraoperatively. The patient had uneventful postoperative recovery.

  1. NSW annual immunisation coverage report, 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hull, Brynley; Dey, Aditi; Campbell-Lloyd, Sue; Menzies, Robert I; McIntyre, Peter B

    2012-12-01

    This annual report, the third in the series, documents trends in immunisation coverage in NSW for children, adolescents and the elderly, to the end of 2011. Data from the Australian Childhood Immunisation Register, the NSW School Immunisation Program and the NSW Population Health Survey were used to calculate various measures of population coverage. During 2011, greater than 90% coverage was maintained for children at 12 and 24 months of age. For children at 5 years of age the improvement seen in 2010 was sustained, with coverage at or near 90%. For adolescents, there was improved coverage for all doses of human papillomavirus vaccine, both doses of hepatitis B vaccine, varicella vaccine and the dose of diphtheria, tetanus and acellular pertussis given to school attendees in Years 7 and 10. Pneumococcal vaccination coverage in the elderly has been steadily rising, although it has remained lower than the influenza coverage estimates. This report provides trends in immunisation coverage in NSW across the age spectrum. The inclusion of coverage estimates for the pneumococcal conjugate, varicella and meningococcal C vaccines in the official coverage assessments for 'fully immunised' in 2013 is a welcome initiative.

  2. Women's Health Insurance Coverage

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Women's Health Policy Women’s Health Insurance Coverage Women’s Health Insurance Coverage Published: Oct 31, 2017 Facebook Twitter LinkedIn ... that many women continue to face. Sources of Health Insurance Coverage Employer-Sponsored Insurance: Approximately 57.9 million ...

  3. [Coverage rates of influenza vaccination in France: a population-based cross-sectional analysis of seasons 2001-2002 and 2002-2003].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, D; Saliou, P; Szucs, T D

    2006-01-01

    Influenza is a serious health problem in Europe. Vaccination is the only preventive measure, reducing mortality and morbidity of influenza in all age groups. The authors had for aim to assess influenza vaccination coverage during two seasons in France, to understand the incentives and barriers to vaccination and to determine vaccination intentions for the following winter. A random-sampling, mail-based household survey was made among non-institutionalised individuals aged 15 and over. The surveys for 2001-2002 and 2002-2003 used the same questionnaire and were subsequently pooled. Three target groups were determined for analysis: (1) persons aged 65 and over; (2) people working in the medical field and (3) persons aged 65 and over or working in the medical field. Influenza vaccination coverage in France decreased from 23.0% in 2001-2002 to 22.4% in 2002-2003. Most frequent reasons for being vaccinated were advice from the family doctor (50.8%), influenza considered as a serious illness (45.3%) and free vaccine (44.1%). Reasons for not being vaccinated mentioned by people who had never been vaccinated were young age (27.0%), not considering vaccination (18.9%), and not expecting to catch influenza (13.9%). Vaccination coverage decreased during the 2002-2003 season in comparison to the 2001-2002 season. The family doctor is the most important source of encouragement for people to be vaccinated against influenza. We therefore suggest that family doctors be better informed on influenza vaccine and the disease itself, so that they can actively inform their patients on these topics.

  4. Prevalence of Frailty Indicators and Association with Socioeconomic Status in Middle-Aged and Older Adults in a Swiss Region with Universal Health Insurance Coverage: A Population-Based Cross-Sectional Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Idris Guessous

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Frailty prevalence in older adults has been reported but is largely unknown in middle-aged adults. We determined the prevalence of frailty indicators among middle-aged and older adults from a general Swiss population characterized by universal health insurance coverage and assessed the determinants of frailty with a special focus on socioeconomic status. Participants aged 50 and more from the population-based 2006–2010 Bus Santé study were included (N = 2,930. Four frailty indicators (weakness, shrinking, exhaustion, and low activity were measured according to standard definitions. Multivariate logistic regressions were used to determine associations. Overall, 63.5%, 28.7%, and 7.8% participants presented no frailty indicators, one frailty indicator, and two or more frailty indicators, respectively. Among middle-aged participants (50–65 years, 75.1%, 22.2%, and 2.7% presented 0, 1, and 2 or more frailty indicators. The number of frailty indicators was positively associated with age, hypertension, and current smoking and negatively associated with male gender, body mass index, waist-to-hip ratio, and serum total cholesterol level. Lower income level but not education was associated with higher number of frailty indicators. Frailty indicators are frequently encountered in both older and middle-aged adults from the Swiss general population. Despite universal health insurance coverage, household income is independently associated with frailty.

  5. Measles transmission following the tsunami in a population with a high one-dose vaccination coverage, Tamil Nadu, India 2004–2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wairgkar Niteen S

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background On 26 December 2004, a tsunami struck the coast of the state of Tamil Nadu, India, where one-dose measles coverage exceeded 95%. On 29 December, supplemental measles immunization activities targeted children 6 to 60 months of age in affected villages. On 30 December, Cuddalore, a tsunami-affected district in Tamil Nadu reported a cluster of measles cases. We investigated this cluster to estimate the magnitude of the problem and to propose recommendations for control. Methods We received notification of WHO-defined measles cases through stimulated passive surveillance. We collected information regarding date of onset, age, sex, vaccination status and residence. We collected samples for IgM antibodies and genotype studies. We modeled the accumulation of susceptible individuals over the time on the basis of vaccination coverage, vaccine efficacy and birth rate. Results We identified 101 measles cases and detected IgM antibodies against measles virus in eight of 11 sera. Cases were reported from tsunami-affected (n = 71 and unaffected villages (n = 30 with attack rates of 1.3 and 1.7 per 1000, respectively. 42% of cases in tsunami-affected villages had an onset date within 14 days of the tsunami. The median ages of case-patients in tsunami-affected and un-affected areas were 54 months and 60 months respectively (p = 0.471. 36% of cases from tsunami-affected areas were above 60 months of age. Phylogenetic analyses indicated that the sequences of virus belonged to genotype D8 that circulated in Tamil Nadu. Conclusion Measles virus circulated in Cuddalore district following the tsunami, although there was no association between the two events. Transmission despite high one-dose vaccination coverage pointed to the limitations of this vaccination strategy. A second opportunity for measles immunization may help reducing measles mortality and morbidity in such areas. Children from 6 month to 14 years of age must be targeted for

  6. Increasing Coverage of Appropriate Vaccinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, Verughese; Chattopadhyay, Sajal K.; Hopkins, David P.; Morgan, Jennifer Murphy; Pitan, Adesola A.; Clymer, John

    2016-01-01

    Context Population-level coverage for immunization against many vaccine-preventable diseases remains below optimal rates in the U.S. The Community Preventive Services Task Force recently recommended several interventions to increase vaccination coverage based on systematic reviews of the evaluation literature. The present study provides the economic results from those reviews. Evidence acquisition A systematic review was conducted (search period, January 1980 through February 2012) to identify economic evaluations of 12 interventions recommended by the Task Force. Evidence was drawn from included studies; estimates were constructed for the population reach of each strategy, cost of implementation, and cost per additional vaccinated person because of the intervention. Analyses were conducted in 2014. Evidence synthesis Reminder systems, whether for clients or providers, were among the lowest-cost strategies to implement and the most cost effective in terms of additional people vaccinated. Strategies involving home visits and combination strategies in community settings were both costly and less cost effective. Strategies based in settings such as schools and managed care organizations that reached the target population achieved additional vaccinations in the middle range of cost effectiveness. Conclusions The interventions recommended by the Task Force differed in reach, cost, and cost effectiveness. This systematic review presents the economic information for 12 effective strategies to increase vaccination coverage that can guide implementers in their choice of interventions to fit their local needs, available resources, and budget. PMID:26847663

  7. Impact of invitation schemes on screening coverage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Katja Kemp; von Euler Chelpin, My; Vejborg, Ilse

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The porpuse of mammography screening is to decrease breast cancer mortality. To achieve this a high coverage by examination is needed. Within an organized screening programme, we examined the impact of changes in the invitation schedule on the interplay between coverage...... and participation. METHOD: We studied nine cohorts aged 50-51 when first targeted by mammography screening in Copenhagen, Denmark. Population data were retrieved from the Danish Civil Registration System; invitation and attendance data from the screening programme database. Data were linked using unique personal...... identification numbers. Coverage by invitation was defined as (number of invited women/number of targeted women), coverage by examination as (number of screened women/number of targeted women), and participation rate as (number of screened women/number of invited women). RESULTS: Coverage by invitation was close...

  8. WIC Eligibles and Coverage--1994 To 2007: Estimates of the Population of Women, Infants, and Children Eligible for WIC Benefits. Executive Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    US Department of Agriculture, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) provides food, nutrition education, breastfeeding support, and health care and social service referrals to nutritionally at-risk low-income pregnant women, new mothers, infants, and children through age 4. This report offers updated estimates of the population that…

  9. Strategies and actions of multi-purpose health communication on vaccine preventable infectious diseases in order to increase vaccination coverage in the population: The ESCULAPIO project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bechini, Angela; Bonanni, Paolo; Lauri, Sara; Tiscione, Emilia; Levi, Miriam; Prato, Rosa; Fortunato, Francesca; Martinelli, Domenico; Gasparini, Roberto; Panatto, Donatella; Amicizia, Daniela; Coppola, Rosa Cristina; Pellizzari, Barbara; Tabacchi, Garden; Costantino, Claudio; Vitale, Francesco; Iannazzo, Stefania; Boccalini, Sara

    2017-02-01

    The ESCULAPIO Project aims at increasing awareness on vaccine preventable infectious diseases (VPID) and vaccinations in different target populations and to spread the culture of prevention. Information/training interventions on VPID have been developed and health promotion activities for the general population, students and their parents, teachers and health care workers (HCWs) were set up. In Tuscany, educational courses on VPID in high schools were organized and students were stimulated to prepare informative materials on VPID for lower grade school pupils. In Liguria, an educational card game (named 'Vaccine at the Fair') was presented to children of primary schools. Stands in shopping centers were used in Palermo to distribute the regional vaccination schedule and gadgets, also providing indications on reliable websites where to find correct information on vaccinations. A music video played by health care workers (HCWs) was created and used in the University Hospital of Cagliari to promote the anti-flu vaccination campaign in HCWs. In Apulia, meetings with the general population were organized to collect controversial issues about vaccinations and a national call center was launched to create a direct line from the general population to experts in vaccines and vaccination strategies. In Veneto, meetings in the birth centers and home visits for subjects refusing vaccination have been organized. All activities are useful and effective tools to increase knowledge about VPID and confidence in vaccination, which are crucial aspects in order to increase vaccine uptake. The project was funded by the Italian Ministry of Health, Center for Disease Prevention and Control (CCM) in 2013.

  10. Usefulness of inflammatory biomarkers in discriminating between bacterial and aseptic meningitis in hospitalized children from a population with low vaccination coverage

    OpenAIRE

    Gowin, Ewelina; Wysocki, Jacek; Avonts, Dirk; Januszkiewicz-Lewandowska, Danuta; Michalak, Michal

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Neisseria meningitidis and Streptococcus pneumoniae are the most frequent pathogens responsible for meningitis beyond the neonatal period. Aseptic meningitis is a disabling condition, but bacterial meningitis if left untreated is 100% fatal. The aim of the study was to analyze the usefulness of biochemical and hematological parameters in distinguishing between bacterial and non-bacterial meningitis in children with meningitis from a population with low rates of vaccination agains...

  11. Giant Broad Line Regions in Dwarf Seyferts

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    High angular resolution spectroscopy obtained with the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) has revealed a remarkable population of galaxies hosting dwarf Seyfert nuclei with an unusually large broad-line region (BLR). These objects are remarkable for two reasons. Firstly, the size of the BLR can, in some cases, rival those ...

  12. Improved imputation accuracy of rare and low-frequency variants using population-specific high-coverage WGS-based imputation reference panel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitt, Mario; Kals, Mart; Pärn, Kalle; Gabriel, Stacey B; Lander, Eric S; Palotie, Aarno; Ripatti, Samuli; Morris, Andrew P; Metspalu, Andres; Esko, Tõnu; Mägi, Reedik; Palta, Priit

    2017-06-01

    Genetic imputation is a cost-efficient way to improve the power and resolution of genome-wide association (GWA) studies. Current publicly accessible imputation reference panels accurately predict genotypes for common variants with minor allele frequency (MAF)≥5% and low-frequency variants (0.5≤MAFWGS) based reference panel, comprising of 2244 Estonian individuals (0.25% of adult Estonians). Although the Estonian-specific panel contains fewer haplotypes and variants, the imputation confidence and accuracy of imputed low-frequency and rare variants was significantly higher. The results indicate the utility of population-specific reference panels for human genetic studies.

  13. Is governance, gross domestic product, inequality, population size or country surface area associated with coverage and equity of health interventions? Ecological analyses of cross-sectional surveys from 80 countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wehrmeister, Fernando C; da Silva, Inácio Crochemore M; Barros, Aluisio J D; Victora, Cesar G

    2017-01-01

    To assess associations between national characteristics, including governance indicators, with a proxy for universal health coverage in reproductive, maternal, newborn and child health (RMNCH). Ecological analysis based on data from national standardised cross-sectional surveys. Low-income and middle-income countries with a Demographic and Health Survey or a Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey since 2005. 1 246 710 mothers and 2 129 212 children from 80 national surveys. Gross domestic product (GDP), country surface area, population, Gini index and six governance indicators (control of corruption, political stability and absence of violence, government effectiveness, regulatory quality, rule of law, and voice and accountability). Levels and inequality in the composite coverage index (CCI), a weighted average of eight RMNCH interventions. Relative and absolute inequalities were measured through the concentration index (CIX) and slope index of inequality (SII) for CCI, respectively. The average values of CCI (70.5% (SD=13.3)), CIX (5.3 (SD=5.1)) and mean slope index (19.8 (SD=14.7)) were calculated. In the unadjusted analysis, all governance variables and GDP were positively associated with the CCI and negatively with inequalities. Country surface showed inverse associations with both inequality indices. After adjustment, among the governance indicators, only political stability and absence of violence was directly related to CCI (β=6.3; 95% CI 3.6 to 9.1; pgovernance indicators were found in the poorest wealth quintile. Similar patterns were observed for GDP. Country surface area was inversely related to inequalities on CCI. Levels and equity in RMNCH interventions are positively associated with political stability and absence of violence, and with GDP, and inversely associated with country surface area.

  14. Usefulness of inflammatory biomarkers in discriminating between bacterial and aseptic meningitis in hospitalized children from a population with low vaccination coverage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wysocki, Jacek; Avonts, Dirk; Januszkiewicz-Lewandowska, Danuta; Michalak, Michal

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Neisseria meningitidis and Streptococcus pneumoniae are the most frequent pathogens responsible for meningitis beyond the neonatal period. Aseptic meningitis is a disabling condition, but bacterial meningitis if left untreated is 100% fatal. The aim of the study was to analyze the usefulness of biochemical and hematological parameters in distinguishing between bacterial and non-bacterial meningitis in children with meningitis from a population with low rates of vaccination against S. pneumoniae and N. meningitidis. Material and methods This study is a retrospective chart review of children hospitalized with meningitis. In patients with aseptic and bacterial meningitis the following parameters were compared: C-reactive protein, D-dimers, fibrinogen, glucose level, and leukocyte level, and in cerebrospinal fluid, protein, glucose, and leukocyte concentrations were analyzed. Number of points in the Bacterial Meningitis Score (BMS) was calculated. The predictive value of each parameter to distinguish between bacterial and aseptic meningitis was evaluated. Results In total, 129 patients were included in the study: 65 diagnosed with bacterial meningitis and 64 with aseptic meningitis. Bacterial and aseptic meningitis were statistically significantly different based on each analyzed parameter (p meningitis 42 (66%) scored 0 points in the BMS, while all the children with bacterial meningitis had at least one point. Conclusions In children with meningitis inflammatory biomarkers differ statistically significantly depending on the etiology – bacterial or aseptic. Serum concentration of C-reactive protein higher than 80 mg/dl is a useful marker of bacterial etiology of meningitis. A high Bacterial Meningitis Score is indicative for bacterial meningitis. PMID:27186188

  15. Immunisation coverage, 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hull, Brynley P; Dey, Aditi; Menzies, Rob I; Brotherton, Julia M; McIntyre, Peter B

    2014-09-30

    This, the 6th annual immunisation coverage report, documents trends during 2012 for a range of standard measures derived from Australian Childhood Immunisation Register (ACIR) data, and National Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Vaccination Program Register data. These include coverage at standard age milestones and for individual vaccines included on the National Immunisation Program (NIP) and coverage in adolescents and adults. The proportion of Australian children 'fully vaccinated' at 12, 24 and 60 months of age was 91.7%, 92.5% and 91.2%, respectively. For vaccines available on the NIP but not assessed during 2012 for 'fully vaccinated' status or for eligibility for incentive payments (rotavirus and pneumococcal at 12 months and meningococcal C and varicella at 24 months) coverage varied. Although pneumococcal vaccine had similar coverage at 12 months to other vaccines, coverage was lower for rotavirus at 12 months (83.6%) and varicella at 24 months (84.4%). Although 'fully vaccinated' coverage at 12 months of age was lower among Indigenous children than non-Indigenous children in all jurisdictions, the extent of the difference varied, reaching a 15 percentage point differential in South Australia but only a 0.4 percentage point differential in the Northern Territory. Overall, Indigenous coverage at 24 months of age exceeded that at 12 months of age nationally and for all jurisdictions, but as receipt of varicella vaccine at 18 months is excluded from calculations, this represents delayed immunisation, with some contribution from immunisation incentives. The 'fully vaccinated' coverage estimates for vaccinations due by 60 months of age for Indigenous children exceeded 90% at 91% in 2012. Unlike in 2011, at 60 months of age, there was no dramatic variation in coverage between Indigenous and non-Indigenous children for individual jurisdictions. As previously documented, vaccines recommended for Indigenous children only, hepatitis A and pneumococcal vaccine, had

  16. Influenza vaccination coverage rates in 5 European countries: a population-based cross-sectional analysis of the seasons 02/03, 03/04 and 04/05.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, D; Szucs, T D

    2007-10-01

    Influenza continues to be a considerable health problem in Europe. Vaccination is the only preventive measure, reducing mortality and morbidity of influenza in all age groups The objective of this survey was to assess and compare the level of influenza vaccination coverage during three consecutive influenza seasons (02/03, 03/04, 04/05) in the five European countries United Kingdom, France, Italy, Germany and Spain, understand the driving forces and barriers to vaccination now and 3 years ago and determine vaccination intentions for the following winter. We conducted a random-sampling, telephone-based household survey among non-institutionalized individuals representative of the population aged 14 and over. The surveys used the same questionnaire for all three seasons. The data were subsequently pooled. Four target groups were determined for analysis: (1) persons aged 65 and over; (2) people working in the medical field; (3) persons suffering from chronic illness and (4) a group composed of persons aged 65 and over or working in the medical field or suffering from a chronic illness. The overall sample consisted of 28,021 people. The influenza vaccination coverage rate increased from 21.0% in season 02/03 to 23.6% in season 03/04 and then to 23.7% in season 04/05. The differences between the seasons are statistically significant (p = 0.01). The highest rate over all countries and seasons had Germany in season 04/05 with 26.5%, Spain had in season 02/03 with 19.3% the lowest rate totally. The coverage rate in the target group composed of person's aged 65 and over or working in the medical field or suffering from a chronic illness was 49.7% in season 02-04 and 50.0% in season 04/05. The driving forces and barriers to vaccination did not change over the years. The most frequent reasons for being vaccinated given by vaccines were: influenza, considered to be a serious illness which people wanted to avoid, having received advise from the family doctor or nurse to be

  17. Controlling coverage of solution cast materials with unfavourable surface interactions

    KAUST Repository

    Burlakov, V. M.

    2014-03-03

    Creating uniform coatings of a solution-cast material is of central importance to a broad range of applications. Here, a robust and generic theoretical framework for calculating surface coverage by a solid film of material de-wetting a substrate is presented. Using experimental data from semiconductor thin films as an example, we calculate surface coverage for a wide range of annealing temperatures and film thicknesses. The model generally predicts that for each value of the annealing temperature there is a range of film thicknesses leading to poor surface coverage. The model accurately reproduces solution-cast thin film coverage for organometal halide perovskites, key modern photovoltaic materials, and identifies processing windows for both high and low levels of surface coverage. © 2014 AIP Publishing LLC.

  18. Improved Differential Evolution Algorithm for Wireless Sensor Network Coverage Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xing Xu

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to serve for the ecological monitoring efficiency of Poyang Lake, an improved hybrid algorithm, mixed with differential evolution and particle swarm optimization, is proposed and applied to optimize the coverage problem of wireless sensor network. And then, the affect of the population size and the number of iterations on the coverage performance are both discussed and analyzed. The four kinds of statistical results about the coverage rate are obtained through lots of simulation experiments.

  19. Populated Places of Iowa

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — This coverage contains points that represent populated places, ie. cities, towns, villages or any other named place where people live. The coverage was developed...

  20. Populism

    OpenAIRE

    Abts, Koenraad; Van Kessel, Stijn

    2015-01-01

    Populism is a concept applied to a wide range of political movements and actors across the globe. There is, at the same time, considerable confusion about the attributes and manifestation of populism, as well as its impact on democracy. This contribution identifies the defining elements of the populist ideology and discusses the varieties in which populism manifests itself, for instance as a component of certain party families. We finally discuss various normative interpretations of populism,...

  1. Coverage Metrics for Model Checking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penix, John; Visser, Willem; Norvig, Peter (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    When using model checking to verify programs in practice, it is not usually possible to achieve complete coverage of the system. In this position paper we describe ongoing research within the Automated Software Engineering group at NASA Ames on the use of test coverage metrics to measure partial coverage and provide heuristic guidance for program model checking. We are specifically interested in applying and developing coverage metrics for concurrent programs that might be used to support certification of next generation avionics software.

  2. A GPS coverage model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skidmore, Trent A.

    1994-01-01

    The results of several case studies using the Global Positioning System coverage model developed at Ohio University are summarized. Presented are results pertaining to outage area, outage dynamics, and availability. Input parameters to the model include the satellite orbit data, service area of interest, geometry requirements, and horizon and antenna mask angles. It is shown for precision-landing Category 1 requirements that the planned GPS 21 Primary Satellite Constellation produces significant outage area and unavailability. It is also shown that a decrease in the user equivalent range error dramatically decreases outage area and improves the service availability.

  3. The Broad Superintendents Academy, 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broad Foundation, 2007

    2007-01-01

    The Broad Superintendents Academy is an executive training program that identifies and prepares prominent leaders--executives with experience successfully leading large organizations and a passion for public service--then places them in urban school districts to dramatically improve the quality of education for America's students. This brochure…

  4. Influenza vaccination coverage among adult survivors of pediatric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojha, Rohit P; Offutt-Powell, Tabatha N; Gurney, James G

    2014-06-01

    A large proportion of long-term survivors of childhood cancer have treatment-related adverse cardiac and pulmonary late-effects, with related mortality. Consequently, this population of approximately 379,000 individuals in the U.S. is at high risk of complications from influenza infections. To estimate influenza vaccination coverage overall and among subgroups of adult survivors of pediatric cancer aged 18-64 years and to compare coverage with the general adult U.S. population. Data from the 2009 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System were analyzed in 2013 using binomial regression to estimate influenza vaccination coverage differences (CDs) and corresponding 95% confidence limits (CLs) between adult survivors of pediatric cancer and the general U.S. population. Analyses were stratified by demographic characteristics and adjusted for design effects, non-coverage, and non-response. Influenza vaccination coverage was 37% for adult pediatric cancer survivors overall and 31% for the general adult U.S. population (CD=6.3%, 95% CL=0.04%, 13%). Dramatically lower coverage was observed for non-Hispanic black survivors (6%) than for non-Hispanic blacks in the general U.S. population (26%; CD=-18%, 95% CL=-25%, -11%). Although influenza vaccination coverage was modestly higher among adult survivors of pediatric cancer than the general U.S. population, coverage was less than desirable for a population with a high prevalence of cardiopulmonary conditions and early mortality, and far lower than the Healthy People 2010 goal of 60% or Healthy People 2020 goal of 80% for the general population. Copyright © 2014 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. [The benefit from mumps virus IgG antibody avidity testing in the population with high vaccine coverage in the context of other serological methods for laboratory diagnosis of mumps and the current epidemiological].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limberková, R; Smíšková, D; Havlíčková, M; Herrmannová, K; Lexová, P; Marešová, V

    2016-01-01

    Regular vaccination against mumps resulted in a significant reduction in epidemic mumps in the Czech Republic. However, mumps cases have recently shown an upward trend, even in the vaccinated population where a considerable proportion of cases have occurred. The aim of this study was to find out, by mumps virus IgG antibody avidity testing, whether the high incidence of mumps in the vaccinated population is a result of primary or secondary vaccine failure and whether the vaccinated differ from the naturally immunised in anamnestic antibody avidity. Given the problematic laboratory diagnosis of mumps in the population with high vaccination coverage, the informative value of the detected IgM, IgA, and IgG antibodies was also considered as well as the potential of antibody avidity testing for improving laboratory diagnosis from a single sample of blood, the most commonly analysed clinical material, in patients with suspected mumps. Sixty-four patients laboratory confirmed with mumps, whose vaccination status was known, were included in the study (groups 1 and 2). Other study groups were 30 healthy naturally immunised subjects (group 3) and 22 vaccinated children 2-4-years of age with no etiological link to the mumps virus (group 4). The avidity index (AI) was determined using the Siemens Enzygnost Anti-Mumps/IgG kit and 6M urea, able to induce the dissociation of antigen-antibody bonds proportionally to the antibody avidity. IgM, IgG, and IgA antibodies were tested using the Siemens Enzygnost Anti-Mumps/IgM and /IgG, and Mast Diagnostica Mastazyme Mumps IgA kits. The EPIDAT system served as the data source. The results showed that the mumps virus induces antibodies with a low AI after both vaccination, even recent, and natural immunisation. Antibodies with a high AI were only detected in convalescent sera of the vaccinated patients or in re-infected, naturally immunised persons, as a result of recent contact with the mumps virus. The comparison of the results of acute

  6. Incidence of pediatric invasive pneumococcal disease in the Island of Majorca (2008-2010), an area with non-universal vaccination, and estimations of serotype & children population coverage by available conjugate vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picazo, Juan; Dueñas, Joaquin; Ramirez, Antonio; Perez, Andres-Ricardo; Padilla, Emma; Herrero, Susana; Gallegos, Carmen; Culebras, Esther; Balseiro, Cesar; Mendez, Cristina

    2013-10-29

    The World Health Organization reported in 2007 that inclusion of PCV7 in national immunization programs should be seen as a priority, also encouraging countries to conduct appropriate surveillances for monitoring the impact of vaccination. These analyses should be conducted in specific geographical areas and should be aimed to evolution of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD), by age groups, clinical presentation, and vaccine serotypes (and non-vaccine serotypes to detect possible replacement). This study aimed to monitor the evolution of IPD incidence in children Majorca. A prospective clinical surveillance of all culture and/or PCR-confirmed IPD in children Majorca (approximately 900,000 inhabitants) from January 2008 to December 2010. Incidence rate (IR) was calculated as cases/100,000 inhabitants using children population data. 66 IPDs were identified: 39 (59.1%) parapneumonic pneumococcal empyema (PPE), 16 (24.2%) bacteremic pneumonia (BP), 7 (10.6%) primary bacteremia, 3 (4.5%) meningitis, and 1 (1.5%) osteomyelitis. IRs in the three-year study period were: 64.22 for children 12- 59 months. By study year, IRs were 21.25 in 2008, 19.89 in 2009 and 9.80 in 2010. The reduction found in 2010 was significant and due to significant reductions in IRs of IPDs caused by serotypes included in PCV10 and PCV13. Overall, estimated serotype coverage by conjugate vaccines was 12.1% for PCV7, 37.9% for PCV10 and 65.2% for PCV13. Of the 66 hospitalized children with IPD, 20 had received at least one dose of PCV7 (13 cases with identified serotype). None of these 13 cases was caused by PCV7 serotypes, all were caused by PCV13 serotypes and only 53.8% by PCV10 serotypes. The results of the present study evidence the importance of expanding the number of serotypes covered by PCV, and the added value of PCV13 with respect to PCV10 and PCV7, even in an area of low prevalence of 19A as the Island of Majorca.

  7. Immunization coverage: role of sociodemographic variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Bhuwan; Mahajan, Hemant; Velhal, G D

    2013-01-01

    Children are considered fully immunized if they receive one dose of BCG, three doses of DPT and polio vaccine each, and one measles vaccine. In India, only 44% of children aged 12-23 months are fully vaccinated and about 5% have not received any vaccination at all. Even if national immunization coverage levels are sufficiently high to block disease transmission, pockets of susceptibility may act as potential reservoirs of infection. This study was done to assess the immunization coverage in an urban slum area and determine various sociodemographic variables affecting the same. A total of 210 children were selected from study population using WHO's 30 cluster sampling method. Coverage of BCG was found to be the highest (97.1%) while that of measles was the lowest. The main reason for noncompliance was given as child's illness at the time of scheduled vaccination followed by lack of knowledge regarding importance of immunization. Low education status of mother, high birth order, and place of delivery were found to be positively associated with low vaccination coverage. Regular IEC activities (group talks, role plays, posters, pamphlets, and competitions) should be conducted in the community to ensure that immunization will become a "felt need" of the mothers in the community.

  8. Immunisation coverage annual report, 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hull, Brynley; Dey, Aditi; Mahajan, Deepika; Menzies, Rob; McIntyre, Peter B

    2011-06-01

    This, the third annual immunisation coverage report, documents trends during 2009 for a range of standard measures derived from Australian Childhood Immunisation Register data, including overall coverage at standard age milestones and for individual vaccines included on the National Immunisation Program (NIP). Coverage by Indigenous status and mapping by smaller geographic areas as well as trends in timeliness is also summarised according to standard templates. With respect to overall coverage, the Immunise Australia Program targets have been reached for children at 12 and 24 months of age but not for children at 5 years of age. Coverage at 24 months of age exceeds that at 12 months of age, but as receipt of varicella vaccine at 18 months is excluded from calculations of 'fully immunised' this probably represents delayed immunisation, with some contribution from immunisation incentives. Similarly, the decrease in coverage estimates for immunisations due at 4 years of age from March 2008 is primarily due to changing the assessment age from 6 years to 5 years of age from December 2007. With respect to individual vaccines, a number of those available on the NIP are not currently assessed for 'fully immunised' status or for eligibility for incentive payments. These include pneumococcal conjugate and meningococcal C conjugate vaccines, for which coverage is comparable with vaccines that are assessed for 'fully immunised' status, and rotavirus and varicella vaccines for which coverage is lower. Coverage is also suboptimal for vaccines recommended for Indigenous children only (i.e. hepatitis A and pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine) as previously reported for other vaccines for both children and adults. Delayed receipt of vaccines is an important issue for vaccines recommended for Indigenous children and has not improved among non-Indigenous children despite improvements in coverage at the 24-month milestone. Although Indigenous children in Australia have coverage levels

  9. Interlingua-Based Broad-Coverage Korean-to-English Translation in CCLINC

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lee, Young-Suk; Yi, Wu S; Seneff, Stephanie; Weinstein, Clifford J

    2001-01-01

    .... The key features of the system include: (i) Robust efficient parsing of Korean (a verb final language with overt case markers, relatively free word order, and frequent omissions of arguments). (ii...

  10. Clinical trial insurance coverage for cancer patients under the Affordable Care Act

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine B. Mackay

    2016-04-01

    Conclusion: Three main factors limit the effectiveness of the ACA provisions in expanding clinical trial coverage: 1 ‘grandfathered’ self-funded employer plans not subject to state Employee Retirement Income Security Act (ERISA regulations, 2 Medicaid coverage limits not addressed under the ACA, 3 populations that remain uninsured. Kansas saw a negligible increase in insurance coverage as a result of the ACA thus lack of insurance coverage is likely to remain a concern for cancer patients.

  11. Mediating Trust in Terrorism Coverage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Kirsten

    crisis. While the framework is presented in the context of television coverage of a terror-related crisis situation, it can equally be used in connection with all other forms of mediated trust. Key words: National crisis, risk communication, crisis management, television coverage, mediated trust....

  12. Annual immunisation coverage report, 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hull, Brynley; Dey, Aditi; Menzies, Rob; McIntyre, Peter

    2013-03-31

    This, the fourth annual immunisation coverage report, documents trends during 2010 for a range of standard measures derived from Australian Childhood Immunisation Register (ACIR) data. These include coverage at standard age milestones and for individual vaccines included on the National Immunisation Program (NIP). For the first time, coverage from other sources for adolescents and the elderly are included. The proportion of children 'fully vaccinated' at 12, 24 and 60 months of age was 91.6%, 92.1% and 89.1% respectively. For vaccines available on the NIP but not currently assessed for 'fully immunised' status or for eligibility for incentive payments (rotavirus and pneumococcal at 12 months and meningococcal C and varicella at 24 months) coverage varied. Although pneumococcal vaccine had similar coverage at 12 months to other vaccines, coverage was lower for rotavirus at 12 months (84.7%) and varicella at 24 months (83.0%). Overall coverage at 24 months of age exceeded that at 12 months of age nationally and for most jurisdictions, but as receipt of varicella vaccine at 18 months is excluded from calculations, this represents delayed immunisation, with some contribution from immunisation incentives. The 'fully immunised' coverage estimates for immunisations due by 60 months increased substantially in 2009, reaching almost 90% in 2010, probably related to completed immunisation by 60 months of age being introduced in 2009 as a requirement for GP incentive payments. As previously documented, vaccines recommended for Indigenous children only (hepatitis A and pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine) had suboptimal coverage at around 57%. Delayed receipt of vaccines by Indigenous children at the 60-month milestone age improved from 56% to 62% but the disparity in on-time vaccination between Indigenous and non-Indigenous children at earlier age milestones did not improve. Coverage data for human papillomavirus (HPV)from the national HPV register are consistent with high

  13. Assuring Access to Affordable Coverage

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Under the Affordable Care Act, millions of uninsured Americans will gain access to affordable coverage through Affordable Insurance Exchanges and improvements in...

  14. Immunisation coverage annual report, 2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hull, Brynley P; Mahajan, Deepika; Dey, Aditi; Menzies, Rob I; McIntyre, Peter B

    2010-09-01

    This, the 2nd annual immunisation coverage report, documents trends during 2008 for a range of standard measures derived from Australian Childhood Immunisation Register data, including overall coverage at standard age milestones and for individual vaccines included on the National Immunisation Program (NIP). Coverage by indigenous status and mapping by smaller geographic areas as well as trends in timeliness are also summarised according to standard templates. With respect to overall coverage, Immunise Australia Program targets have been reached for children at 12 and 24 months of age but not for children at 5 years of age. Coverage at 24 months of age exceeds that at 12 months of age, but as receipt of varicella vaccine at 18 months is excluded from calculations of 'fully immunised' this probably represents delayed immunisation, with some contribution from immunisation incentives. Similarly, the decrease in coverage estimates for immunisations due at 4 years of age from March 2008, is primarily due to changing the assessment age from 6 years to 5 years of age from December 2007. A number of individual vaccines on the NIP are not currently assessed for 'fully immunised' status or for eligibility for incentive payments. These include pneumococcal conjugate and meningococcal C conjugate vaccines for which coverage is comparable to vaccines which are assessed for 'fully immunised' status, and rotavirus and varicella vaccines for which coverage is lower. Coverage is also suboptimal for vaccines recommended for Indigenous children only (i.e. hepatitis A and pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine) as previously reported for other vaccines for both children and adults. Delayed receipt of vaccines is an important issue for vaccines recommended for Indigenous children and has not improved among non-Indigenous children despite improvements in coverage at the 24-month milestone. Although Indigenous children in Australia have coverage levels that are similar to non

  15. Children and trauma : a broad perspective on exposure and recovery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alisic, E.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this dissertation was to generate a broad overview of children’s exposure to and recovery from trauma in order to promote theory building and the design of prevention and intervention activities. First, a general population study was conducted in 1770 primary school children. They

  16. Socioeconomic and regional inequalities of pap smear coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manica, Silvia Troyahn; Drachler, Maria de Lourdes; Teixeira, Luciana Barcellos; Ferla, Alcindo Antônio; Gouveia, Helga Geremias; Anschau, Fernando; Oliveira, Dora Lúcia Leidens Correa de

    2016-03-01

    Objectives To identify socioeconomic and regional inequalities of pap smear coverage in the state of Rio Grande do Sul. Methods An ecological study based on data of the 2011-2012 national health information system to estimate the annual coverage of pap smears for the overall female population of the state and for women without private health insurance. We estimated annual pap smear coverage according to the Municipal Social Vulnerability Index and health macro-regions and regions of the state. Results The percentage of women without private health insurance ranged from 38.1% to 94.2% in the health regions. Pap smear coverage was 17.3% for the overall female population and 23.8% for women without private health insurance. Pap smear coverage was higher in more socially vulnerable municipalities and regions with a higher percentage of women with private health insurance. Conclusions The prevalence of private health insurance should be considered in studies that address the coverage of the Brazilian Unified Health System (SUS).

  17. Politics and its intersection with coverage with evidence development: a qualitative analysis from expert interviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, Danielle; Lexchin, Joel

    2013-03-09

    Pressures on health care budgets have led policy makers to discuss how to balance the provision of costly technologies to populations in need and making coverage decisions under uncertainty. Coverage with evidence development (CED) is being employed to meet these challenges. Twenty-four interviews were carried out between June 2009 and December 2010 with researchers, decision makers and policy makers from Australia, Canada, United Kingdom and United States. Three phases of coding occurred, the first being manual coding where the interviews were read and notes were taken and nodes were extracted and imputed. NVIVO coding was applied to the interview transcripts, with both broad general searches for word usages and imputed nodes. Four overarching thematic areas emerged out of contextual analysis of the interviews - (1) what constitutes CED; (2) the lack of a systematic approach/governance structure; (3) the role of the pharmaceutical industry and overt political considerations in CED; and (4) alternatives and barriers to CED. We explore these themes and then use concrete examples of CED projects in each of the four countries to illustrate the political issues that our interviewees raised. Until the underlying political nature of CED is recognized then fundamental questions about its usefulness and operation will remain unresolved.

  18. Public health impact of Infanrix hexa (DTPa-HBV-IPV/Hib) reimbursement: A study programme in France. Part 1: Evolution of hepatitis B vaccine coverage rates in infants aged less than 27 months, in the general population - the PopCorn study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaudelus, J; Vié le Sage, F; Dufour, V; Lert, F; Texier, N; Pouriel, M; Tehard, B; Bréart, G

    2016-02-01

    Reimbursement of the hexavalent vaccine (Infanrix hexa) comprising the DTPa-IPV-Hib components and the hepatitis B valence in a single vaccine was decided in March 2008 in France. The impact of its reimbursement on the hepatitis B vaccine coverage rate was assessed in a study conducted in the general population prior to and after implementation of the reimbursement policy. The PopCorn study (NCT01782794) was a national, cross-sectional and repeated study, with four assessment periods over 3 years, from 2009 to 2012, to assess the hepatitis B vaccine coverage in 12- to 15- and 24- to 27-month-old children, vaccinated between 2007 and 2011 and selected by the quota sampling method. Face-to-face interviews were conducted at their homes and vaccination status was collected using their child's health record. Parents were also interviewed on their perceptions and acceptance of hepatitis B vaccination. Three indicators were calculated to assess hepatitis B vaccination coverage: proportions of infants with at least one dose before 6 months of age, with at least two doses before 6 months of age and with a complete schedule at 24 months of age. A total of 4903 children were enrolled in the study. An overall significant increase (P-value [P<0.05]) of the three indicators of interest over the four periods of time was observed for both age groups. The proportion of children receiving hepatitis B vaccination before 6 months increased from 21% at baseline (before vaccine reimbursement) to almost 75% at the last assessment period in 2012. More than 60% of 24- to 27-month-old children received a complete schedule in 2012 compared to 33% at baseline. No significant increases in the proportions of parents "favourable" and "moderately in favour" of hepatitis B vaccination were observed across the four evaluation periods (respectively, 17-22% and 48-50%, P=0.09). The rapid increase of hepatitis B vaccination coverage suggests a significant change in hepatitis B vaccination practice

  19. 29 CFR 1620.2 - General coverage of employees “engaged in commerce.”

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false General coverage of employees âengaged in commerce.â 1620.2... EQUAL PAY ACT § 1620.2 General coverage of employees “engaged in commerce.” (a) Like the FLSA, the EPA applies to employees “engaged in commerce.” “Commerce” is broadly defined in section 3(b) of the FLSA. It...

  20. Medicaid coverage for tobacco dependence treatments in Massachusetts and associated decreases in smoking prevalence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Land

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Approximately 50% of smokers die prematurely from tobacco-related diseases. In July 2006, the Massachusetts health care reform law mandated tobacco cessation coverage for the Massachusetts Medicaid population. The new benefit included behavioral counseling and all medications approved for tobacco cessation treatment by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA. Between July 1, 2006 and December 31, 2008, a total of 70,140 unique Massachusetts Medicaid subscribers used the newly available benefit, which is approximately 37% of all Massachusetts Medicaid smokers. Given the high utilization rate, the objective of this study is to determine if smoking prevalence decreased significantly after the initiation of tobacco cessation coverage. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Smoking prevalence was evaluated pre- to post-benefit using 1999 through 2008 data from the Massachusetts Behavioral Risk Factor Survey (BRFSS. The crude smoking rate decreased from 38.3% (95% C.I. 33.6%-42.9% in the pre-benefit period compared to 28.3% (95% C.I.: 24.0%-32.7% in the post-benefit period, representing a decline of 26 percent. A demographically adjusted smoking rate showed a similar decrease in the post-benefit period. Trend analyses reflected prevalence decreases that accrued over time. Specifically, a joinpoint analysis of smoking prevalence among Massachusetts Medicaid benefit-eligible members (age 18-64 from 1999 through 2008 found a decreasing trend that was coincident with the implementation of the benefit. Finally, a logistic regression that controlled for demographic factors also showed that the trend in smoking decreased significantly from July 1, 2006 to December 31, 2008. CONCLUSION: These findings suggest that a tobacco cessation benefit that includes coverage for medications and behavioral treatments, has few barriers to access, and involves broad promotion can significantly reduce smoking prevalence.

  1. Maintaining Differentiated Coverage in Heterogeneous Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Du Xiaojiang

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Most existing research considers homogeneous sensor networks, which suffer from performance bottleneck and poor scalability. In this paper, we adopt a heterogeneous sensor network model to overcome these problems. Sensing coverage is a fundamental problem in sensor networks and has been well studied over the past years. However, most coverage algorithms only consider the uniform coverage problem, that is, all the areas have the same coverage degree requirement. In many scenarios, some key areas need high coverage degree while other areas only need low coverage degree. We propose a differentiated coverage algorithm which can provide different coverage degrees for different areas. The algorithm is energy efficient since it only keeps minimum number of sensors to work. The performance of the differentiated coverage algorithm is evaluated through extensive simulation experiments. Our results show that the algorithm performs much better than any other differentiated coverage algorithm.

  2. A broad view of arsenic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, F T

    2007-01-01

    In the mind of the general public, the words "arsenic" and "poison" have become almost synonymous. Yet, As is a natural metallic element found in low concentrations in virtually every part of the environment, including foods. Mining and smelting activities are closely associated with As, and the largest occurrence of As contamination in the United States is near the gold mines of northern Nevada. Inhabitants of Bangladesh and surrounding areas have been exposed to water that is naturally and heavily contaminated with As, causing what the World Health Organization has described as the worst mass poisoning in history. Although readily absorbed by humans, most inorganic As (>90%) is rapidly cleared from the blood with a half-life of 1 to 2 h, and 40 to 70% of the As intake is absorbed, metabolized, and excreted within 48 h. Arsenic does not appreciably bioaccumulate, nor does it biomagnify in the food chain. The United States has for some time purchased more As than any other country in the world, but As usage is waning, and further reductions appear likely. Arsenic is used in a wide variety of industrial applications, from computers to fireworks. All feed additives used in US poultry feeds must meet the strict requirements of the US Food and Drug Administration Center for Veterinary Medicine (Rockville, MD) before use. Although some public health investigators have identified poultry products as a potentially significant source of total As exposure for Americans, studies consistently demonstrate that <1% of samples tested are above the 0.5 ppm limit established by the US Food and Drug Administration Center for Veterinary Medicine. Although laboratory studies have demonstrated the possibility that As in poultry litter could pollute ground waters, million of tons of litter have been applied to the land, and no link has been established between litter application and As contamination of ground water. Yet, the fact that <2% of the United States population is involved in

  3. [The broad bean's syndrome in ancient Egypt].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippi, D

    1989-01-01

    The problem of broad bean's syndrome and lathyrism in ancient Greece has been deeply studied, with particular referrement to the hypothetic medica and mystical reasons of the Pythagoric order not to eat broad beans. It is impossible to prove Egyptian influence of Phythagora's precept, but we can, however, consider the hypothesis that they had noticed the potential deadly effect of broad beans' use, too, and wonder if their interduction had the same motivations.

  4. Immunisation coverage annual report, 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hull, Brynley P; Hendry, Alexandra J; Dey, Aditi; Beard, Frank H; Brotherton, Julia M; McIntyre, Peter B

    2017-03-31

    This 8th annual immunisation coverage report shows data for 2014 derived from the Australian Childhood Immunisation Register and the National Human Papillomavirus Vaccination Program Register. This report includes coverage data for 'fully immunised' and by individual vaccines at standard age milestones and timeliness of receipt at earlier ages according to Indigenous status. Overall, 'fully immunised' coverage has been mostly stable at the 12- and 24-month age milestones since late 2003, but at 60 months of age, it has increased by more than 10 percentage points since 2009. As in previous years, coverage for 'fully immunised' at 12 months of age among Indigenous children was 3.7% lower than for non-Indigenous children overall, varying from 6.9 percentage points in Western Australia to 0.3 of a percentage point in the Australian Capital Territory. In 2014, 73.4% of Australian females aged 15 years had 3 documented doses of human papillomavirus vaccine (jurisdictional range 67.7% to 77.4%), and 82.7% had at least 1 dose, compared with 71.4% and 81.5%, respectively, in 2013. The disparity in on-time vaccination between Indigenous and non-Indigenous children in 2014 diminished progressively from 20.2% for vaccines due by 12 months to 11.5% for those due by 24 months and 3.0% at 60 months of age.

  5. Crime News Coverage in Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graber, Doris A.

    According to one sociological model, news is a product of socially determined notions of who and what is important and the organizational structures that result for routinizing news collection; events that deviate from these notions are ignored. This report describes a study of crime news coverage in the media that used this model to examine the…

  6. Is Crime News Coverage Excessive?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graber, Doris A.

    1979-01-01

    Reports on the frequency and manner in which various crime and noncrime news topics were presented in selected newspapers and television newscasts in 1976. Examines news flow data to determine whether news output was inflexible, and whether crime news coverage distorted the amount of real-life crime. (PD)

  7. A survey on energy efficient coverage protocols in wireless sensor networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avinash More

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available A Wireless Sensor Network (WSN is used to monitor an area for events. Each node in the WSN has a sensing range and a communication range. The sensing coverage of a sensor node is the area determined by the sensing range of the sensor node. Sensing coverage of the network is the collective coverage of the sensor nodes in a WSN. Sufficient number of sensor nodes need to be deployed to ensure adequate coverage of a region. Further, since sensor nodes have limited battery life, it is also essential to reduce the energy consumption. This would help improve the network lifetime and thus the coverage lifetime. To reduce energy consumption in the WSN, some of the nodes with overlapping sensing areas could be turned off using a coverage optimization protocol. In this paper, we discuss various coverage optimization protocols. These protocols are broadly classified as clustering and distributed protocols. Further, these protocols are classified based on the type of sensing model used, node location information, and mechanism used to determine neighboring node information (based on probe or computational geometry. In this paper, we review the key coverage optimization protocols and present open research issues related to energy efficient coverage.

  8. Preparing States in India for Universal Health Coverage | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Given India's population, geographical diversity, and health inequities, the path to universal health coverage is likely to vary widely across states. Using research evidence, policymakers will need to ensure a balance between prioritizing primary health care and expanding access to insurance for secondary and tertiary care.

  9. Near vision spectacle coverage and barriers to near vision ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To determine the near vision spectacle coverage and barriers to obtaining near vision correction among adults aged 35 years and older in the Cape Coast Metropolis of Ghana. Methods: A population-based cross-sectional study design was adopted and 500 out of 576 participants aged 35 years and older were ...

  10. Near vision spectacle coverage and barriers to near vision ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract: Purpose: To determine the near vision spectacle coverage and barriers to obtaining near vision correction among adults aged. 35 years and older in the Cape Coast Metropolis of Ghana. Methods: A population-based cross-sectional study design was adopted and 500 out of 576 participants aged 35 years and ...

  11. Anthropometric, vitamin A, iron and immunisation coverage status in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective and design. To establish the anthropometric, vitamin A, iron and immunisation coverage status of children 6 - 71 months of age in South Africa by means of a national survey. Setting. South Africa. Participants. The study population consisted of all children in the country aged 6 - 71 months. A total of.

  12. Public Perception of Media Coverage of the Activities of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Consequent on the above, the study focused on identifying the factors and variables that define the perceptual frame of the public on media coverage of ICPC's activities. The survey research design was employed in the study while the instruments were the personal interview and questionnaire. From the study population of ...

  13. Morocco's policy choices to achieve Universal health coverage ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Morocco established several public insurance schemes, of which one focuses on the poorest, to achieve financial-risk protection for its population. Nevertheless, achieving universal health coverage through one of its dimensions is not sufficient, and all the effort being concentrated in one area has shown the deterioration of ...

  14. An equity dashboard to monitor vaccination coverage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, Sam; Nandi, Arijit; Rodríguez, José M Mendoza; Hansen, Peter M; Johri, Mira

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Equity monitoring is a priority for Gavi, the Vaccine Alliance, and for those implementing The 2030 agenda for sustainable development. For its new phase of operations, Gavi reassessed its approach to monitoring equity in vaccination coverage. To help inform this effort, we made a systematic analysis of inequalities in vaccination coverage across 45 Gavi-supported countries and compared results from different measurement approaches. Based on our findings, we formulated recommendations for Gavi’s equity monitoring approach. The approach involved defining the vulnerable populations, choosing appropriate measures to quantify inequalities, and defining equity benchmarks that reflect the ambitions of the sustainable development agenda. In this article, we explain the rationale for the recommendations and for the development of an improved equity monitoring tool. Gavi’s previous approach to measuring equity was the difference in vaccination coverage between a country’s richest and poorest wealth quintiles. In addition to the wealth index, we recommend monitoring other dimensions of vulnerability (maternal education, place of residence, child sex and the multidimensional poverty index). For dimensions with multiple subgroups, measures of inequality that consider information on all subgroups should be used. We also recommend that both absolute and relative measures of inequality be tracked over time. Finally, we propose that equity benchmarks target complete elimination of inequalities. To facilitate equity monitoring, we recommend the use of a data display tool – the equity dashboard – to support decision-making in the sustainable development period. We highlight its key advantages using data from Côte d’Ivoire and Haiti. PMID:28250513

  15. The anomalous tides near Broad Sound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middleton, Jason H.; Buchwald, V. T.; Huthnance, John M.

    Observations of tidal current and height, in conjunction with theoretical mathematical models are used to investigate the propagation of the tide near Broad Sound, a narrowing estuary situated on a wide section of continental shelf toward the southern end of the Great Barrier Reef. The observations indicate that the dense offshore reefs severely inhibit tidal flow, with the result that tides flood toward Broad Sound from the north and from the south, along the main lagoon. There is a local magnification of the semi-diurnal tides within Broad Sound itself. Models of flow across reefs confirm the effectiveness of dense, shallow, and broad reefs in acting as a barrier to the tide. The diffraction of tides through large gaps in the reef is modelled using conformal mapping techniques and with the inclusion of energy leakage, the diffraction model predicts magnification of the semi-diurnal tidal heights by a factor of about 4 and a phase lag of 3 h on the shelf near Broad Sound, these values being consistent with observation. The observed convergence of the tide close to, and within Broad Sound itself is consistent with the proximity of the semi-diurnal tidal period to the natural period for flow in Broad Sound, considered as a narrowing estuary. This results in further amplification, by an additional factor of about 1.5, so that the tides in Broad Sound are increased by a factor of between 5 and 6, altogether, compared with those elsewhere on the east Australian coast.

  16. Broad Prize: Do the Successes Spread?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuels, Christina A.

    2011-01-01

    When the Broad Prize for Urban Education was created in 2002, billionaire philanthropist Eli Broad said he hoped the awards, in addition to rewarding high-performing school districts, would foster healthy competition; boost the prestige of urban education, long viewed as dysfunctional; and showcase best practices. Over the 10 years the prize has…

  17. Broad Academy's Growing Reach Draws Scrutiny

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuels, Christina A.

    2011-01-01

    Billionaire businessman Eli Broad, one of the country's most active philanthropists, founded the "Broad Superintendents Academy" in 2002 with an extraordinarily optimistic goal: Find leaders from both inside and outside education, train them, and have them occupying the superintendencies in a third of the 75 largest school districts--all in just…

  18. Insurance Coverage and Health Outcomes in Young Adults With Mental Illness Following the Affordable Care Act Dependent Coverage Expansion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozloff, Nicole; Sommers, Benjamin D

    2017-07-01

    As a provision of the Affordable Care Act, young adults were able to remain on their parents' health insurance plans until age 26. We examined the impact of the 2010 dependent coverage expansion on insurance coverage and health outcomes among young adults with mental illness. Data are from the 2008-2013 National Survey on Drug Use and Health, an annual population-based survey of noninstitutionalized US individuals aged 12 and older. We used a difference-in-differences approach to compare young adults with mental illness subject to the provision (aged 19-25 years, n = 19,051) with an older comparison group (aged 26-34 years, n = 7,958) before (2008-2009) and after (2011-2013) the dependent coverage expansion in their insurance coverage, use of health services, and self-reported health. In adjusted analyses, following the dependent coverage expansion, private insurance coverage increased by 11.7 percentage points (95% CI, 8.4-15.1, P mental illness, relative to 26- to 34-year-olds. The provision was associated with a modest increase in young adults with mental illness who received outpatient mental health treatment at least monthly on average (+2.0% [95% CI, 0.1% to 4.0%, P = .04]) and a modest decrease in those reporting their overall health as fair or poor (-2.3% [95% CI, -4.6% to -0.0%, P = .05]). Unmet mental health needs due to cost decreased significantly among those with moderate-to-serious mental illness (-12.3% [95% CI, -22.7% to -2.0%, P = .02]), but did not change among those with mild illness. The 2010 dependent coverage expansion was associated with an increase in insurance coverage, several indicators of mental health treatment, and improved self-reported health among young adults with mental illness.

  19. High and equitable mass vitamin A supplementation coverage in Sierra Leone: a post-event coverage survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodges, Mary H; Sesay, Fatmata F; Kamara, Habib I; Turay, Mohamed; Koroma, Aminata S; Blankenship, Jessica L; Katcher, Heather I

    2013-08-01

    In Sierra Leone, children ages 6-59 months receive twice-yearly vitamin A supplementation (VAS) through Maternal and Child Health Week (MCHW) events. VAS coverage in 2011 was calculated using government tally sheets of vitamin A capsule distribution and outdated population projections from the 2004 census. We conducted a national post-event coverage (PEC) survey to validate coverage and inform strategies to reach universal coverage of VAS in Sierra Leone. Immediately following the November 2011 MCHW event, we conducted a national PEC survey by interviewing caregivers with children ages 6-59 months using a randomized 30X30 cluster design (N = 900). We also interviewed one health worker and one community health worker in each cluster to determine their knowledge about VAS (N = 60). VAS coverage was 91.8% among children ages 6-59 months, which was lower than the 105.1% reported through tally sheets. Coverage was high and equitable among all districts and between age groups (98.5% for infants ages 6-11 months and 90.5% for children ages 12-59 months). Major reasons for not receiving VAS were that the child was out of the area (42.4%), the household was not visited by community health workers (28.0%), and the caretaker was not aware of the event (11.9%). Twice-yearly delivery of VAS through MCHW events achieved consistently high and equitable coverage in Sierra Leone. Universal coverage may be achieved through continued focus on communication and targeted outreach to hard-to-reach areas during the MCHWs.

  20. The Broad Autism Phenotype Questionnaire: Prevalence and Diagnostic Classification

    OpenAIRE

    Sasson, Noah J.; Lam, Kristen S. L.; Childress, Debra; Parlier, Morgan; Daniels, Julie L.; Piven, Joseph

    2013-01-01

    The Broad Autism Phenotype Questionnaire (BAPQ; Hurley et al, 2007) was administered to a large community-based sample of biological parents of children with autism (PCAs) and comparison parents (CPs) (n = 1692). Exploratory factor analysis and internal consistency parameters confirmed a robust three factor structure of the BAPQ, corresponding to the proposed aloof, pragmatic language and rigidity subscales. Based upon the distribution of BAP features in the general population, new normative ...

  1. -Net Approach to Sensor -Coverage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fusco Giordano

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Wireless sensors rely on battery power, and in many applications it is difficult or prohibitive to replace them. Hence, in order to prolongate the system's lifetime, some sensors can be kept inactive while others perform all the tasks. In this paper, we study the -coverage problem of activating the minimum number of sensors to ensure that every point in the area is covered by at least sensors. This ensures higher fault tolerance, robustness, and improves many operations, among which position detection and intrusion detection. The -coverage problem is trivially NP-complete, and hence we can only provide approximation algorithms. In this paper, we present an algorithm based on an extension of the classical -net technique. This method gives an -approximation, where is the number of sensors in an optimal solution. We do not make any particular assumption on the shape of the areas covered by each sensor, besides that they must be closed, connected, and without holes.

  2. Medical coverage of cycling events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, John M

    2006-05-01

    Medical coverage of recreational and competitive cycling events requires significant planning and cooperation among the race and medical directors, race officials, and local emergency medical services. The medical team should be proficient in treating minor and self-limiting injuries such as abrasions and minor trauma. The medical team should also have contingency plans for medical emergencies, such as cardiac events and major trauma, that ensure rapid stabilization and transport of the athlete to the appropriate medical facility. Stationary and mobile medical teams may be necessary for proper coverage of the event. Event day communication systems between individual medical staff as well as race officials and local emergency medical services is important to the success of the event.

  3. State budget transfers to Health Insurance Funds for universal health coverage: institutional design patterns and challenges of covering those outside the formal sector in Eastern European high-income countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilcu, Ileana; Mathauer, Inke

    2016-01-15

    Many countries from the European region, which moved from a government financed and provided health system to social health insurance, would have had the risk of moving away from universal health coverage if they had followed a "traditional" approach. The Eastern European high-income countries studied in this paper managed to avoid this potential pitfall by using state budget revenues to explicitly pay health insurance contributions on behalf of certain (vulnerable) population groups who have difficulties to pay these contributions themselves. The institutional design aspects of their government revenue transfer arrangements are analysed, as well as their impact on universal health coverage progress. This regional study is based on literature review and review of databases for the performance assessment. The analytical framework focuses on the following institutional design features: rules on eligibility for contribution exemption, financing and pooling arrangements, and purchasing arrangements and benefit package design. More commonalities than differences can be identified across countries: a broad range of groups eligible for exemption from payment of health insurance contributions, full state contributions on behalf of the exempted groups, mostly mandatory participation, integrated pools for both the exempted and contributors, and relatively comprehensive benefit packages. In terms of performance, all countries have high total population coverage rates, but there are still challenges regarding financial protection and access to and utilization of health care services, especially for low income people. Overall, government revenue transfer arrangements to exempt vulnerable groups from contributions are one option to progress towards universal health coverage.

  4. Media coverage of women victimization

    OpenAIRE

    Konstantinović-Vilić, Slobodanka; Žunić, Natalija

    2012-01-01

    Mass media seem to be playing the central role in our everyday life and the media impact is so overpowering nowadays that we live in a mediasaturated culture. Not only are mass media an inseparable part of our contemporary life but they also significantly define and shape our daily existence. In order to explain the cultural impact that the media coverage of crime and victimization has in our society, it is necessary to understand the relationship between crime, victimization and mass media. ...

  5. [Multiple-locus variable number tandem repeat analysis of Bordetella pertussis strains collected in the Czech Republic in 1967-2015: spread of a variant adapted to the population with a high vaccination coverage].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lžičařová, D; Zavadilová, J; Musílek, M; Jandová, Z; Křížová, P; Fabiánová, K

    To perform multiple-locus variable number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA) of B. pertussis strains from the collection of the National Reference Laboratory for Diphtheria and Pertussis (NRL/DIPE), National Institute of Public Health (NIPH), Prague. The study strains were isolated from clinical specimens collected mostly in the Czech Republic over a nearly 50-year period from 1967 to 2015 (June). The isolates from three periods characterized by different vaccination strategies and trends in pertussis are compared for genetic diversity and distribution of MLVA types (MT). Based on the results obtained, the suitability for use of MLVA in the analysis of epidemic outbreaks of B. pertussis in the Czech Republic is considered. DNA samples extracted from B. pertussis strains included in the present study were examined by MLVA using the standard protocol. Data were processed by means of the eBURST algorithm and the calculation of the Simpson diversity index (DI) was used for the statistical analysis. Data were analyzed as a whole and also separately for strains from the three periods: 1967-1980, 1990-2007, and 2008-2015 (June). Fourteen different MT were detected in the study strains, with three of them not being reported before. The most common MTs were MT27 and MT29. MT29 was predominant in 1967-1980 while MT27 was the most prevalent in 1990-2007 and 2008-2015 (June). The DI was the lowest (0.49) in 2008-2015 (June), and comparably higher DIs were calculated for the two previous periods (i.e. 0.667 for 1967-1980 and 0.654 for 1990-2007). MLVA revealed a decrease in genetic diversity and shifts in MT distribution of B. pertussis strains isolated from clinical specimens in the Czech Republic from 1967 to 2015 (June). These shifts in the Czech Republic can be characterized as a progressive increase in global MTs at the expense of the locally unique ones. The most common MT, similarly to other geographical areas with long-term high vaccination coverage, is MT27. The results of

  6. The likely effects of employer-mandated complementary health insurance on health coverage in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierre, Aurélie; Jusot, Florence

    2017-03-01

    In France, access to health care greatly depends on having a complementary health insurance coverage (CHI). Thus, the generalisation of CHI became a core factor in the national health strategy created by the government in 2013. The first measure has been to compulsorily extend employer-sponsored CHI to all private sector employees on January 1st, 2016 and improve its portability coverage for unemployed former employees for up to 12 months. Based on data from the 2012 Health, Health Care and Insurance survey, this article provides a simulation of the likely effects of this mandate on CHI coverage and related inequalities in the general population by age, health status, socio-economic characteristics and time and risk preferences. We show that the non-coverage rate that was estimated to be 5% in 2012 will drop to 4% following the generalisation of employer-sponsored CHI and to 3.7% after accounting for portability coverage. The most vulnerable populations are expected to remain more often without CHI whereas non coverage will significantly decrease among the less risk averse and the more present oriented. With its focus on private sector employees, the policy is thus likely to do little for populations that would benefit most from additional insurance coverage while expanding coverage for other populations that appear to place little value on CHI. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Assessing Measurement Error in Medicare Coverage

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Assessing Measurement Error in Medicare Coverage From the National Health Interview Survey Using linked administrative data, to validate Medicare coverage estimates...

  8. Measuring Prevention More Broadly, An Empirical...

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Measuring Prevention More Broadly, An Empirical Assessment of CHIPRA Core Measures Differences in CHIP design and structure, across states and over time, may limit...

  9. Prospects for broadly protective influenza vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treanor, John Jay

    2015-11-27

    The development of vaccines that could provide broad protection against antigenically variant influenza viruses has long been the ultimate prize in influenza research. Recent developments have pushed us closer to this goal, and such vaccines may now be within reach. This brief review outlines the current approaches to broadly protective vaccines, and the probable hurdles and roadblocks to achieving this goal. Copyright © 2015 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  10. Improving estimates of insecticide-treated mosquito net coverage from household surveys: using geographic coordinates to account for endemicity

    OpenAIRE

    Burgert, Clara R.; Bradley, Sarah EK; Arnold, Fred; Eckert, Erin

    2014-01-01

    Background Coverage estimates of insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) are often calculated at the national level, but are intended to be a proxy for coverage among the population at risk of malaria. The analysis uses data for surveyed households, linking survey enumeration areas (clusters) with levels of malaria endemicity and adjusting coverage estimates based on the population at risk. This analysis proposes an approach that is not dependent on being able to identify malaria risk in a location d...

  11. 15 CFR 14.31 - Insurance coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Insurance coverage. 14.31 Section 14... COMMERCIAL ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Property Standards § 14.31 Insurance coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum, provide the equivalent insurance coverage for real property and equipment acquired...

  12. 40 CFR 30.31 - Insurance coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Insurance coverage. 30.31 Section 30.31... NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Property Standards § 30.31 Insurance coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum, provide the equivalent insurance coverage for real property and equipment...

  13. 45 CFR 74.31 - Insurance coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Insurance coverage. 74.31 Section 74.31 Public..., AND COMMERCIAL ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Property Standards § 74.31 Insurance coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum, provide the equivalent insurance coverage for real property and equipment...

  14. 28 CFR 70.31 - Insurance coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Insurance coverage. 70.31 Section 70.31...-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Property Standards § 70.31 Insurance coverage. Recipients must, at a minimum, provide the equivalent insurance coverage for real property and equipment acquired...

  15. 32 CFR 32.31 - Insurance coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Insurance coverage. 32.31 Section 32.31 National... NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Property Standards § 32.31 Insurance coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum, provide the equivalent insurance coverage for real property and equipment...

  16. 38 CFR 49.31 - Insurance coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Insurance coverage. 49.31... NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Property Standards § 49.31 Insurance coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum, provide the equivalent insurance coverage for real property and equipment...

  17. 24 CFR 84.31 - Insurance coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Insurance coverage. 84.31 Section 84.31 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban... Insurance coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum, provide the equivalent insurance coverage for real...

  18. 49 CFR 19.31 - Insurance coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Insurance coverage. 19.31 Section 19.31... Requirements Property Standards § 19.31 Insurance coverage. Recipients shall, at a minimum, provide the equivalent insurance coverage for real property and equipment acquired with Federal funds as provided to...

  19. Human monoclonal antibody combination against SARS coronavirus: synergy and coverage of escape mutants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ter Meulen, Jan; van den Brink, Edward N.; Poon, Leo L. M.; Marissen, Wilfred E.; Leung, Cynthia S. W.; Cox, Freek; Cheung, Chung Y.; Bakker, Arjen Q.; Bogaards, Johannes A.; van Deventer, Els; Preiser, Wolfgang; Doerr, Hans Wilhelm; Chow, Vincent T.; de Kruif, John; Peiris, Joseph S. M.; Goudsmit, Jaap

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Experimental animal data show that protection against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) infection with human monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) is feasible. For an effective immune prophylaxis in humans, broad coverage of different strains of SARS-CoV and control of

  20. Color coverage of a newly developed system for color determination and reproduction in dentistry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dozic, A.; Voit, N.F.A.; Zwartser, R.; Khashayar, G.; Aartman, I.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives A newly developed system for color determination and reproduction is logically arranged and systematically combines a few components to acquire its broad color range. The objective was to evaluate color coverage of human teeth with the range of the new system and to compare it with other

  1. [Coverage by health insurance or discount cards: a household survey in the coverage area of the Family Health Strategy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontenelle, Leonardo Ferreira; Camargo, Maria Beatriz Junqueira de; Bertoldi, Andréa Dâmaso; Gonçalves, Helen; Maciel, Ethel Leonor Noia; Barros, Aluísio J D

    2017-10-26

    This study was designed to assess the reasons for health insurance coverage in a population covered by the Family Health Strategy in Brazil. We describe overall health insurance coverage and according to types, and analyze its association with health-related and socio-demographic characteristics. Among the 31.3% of persons (95%CI: 23.8-39.9) who reported "health insurance" coverage, 57.0% (95%CI: 45.2-68.0) were covered only by discount cards, which do not offer any kind of coverage for medical care, but only discounts in pharmacies, clinics, and hospitals. Both for health insurance and discount cards, the most frequently cited reasons for such coverage were "to be on the safe side" and "to receive better care". Both types of coverage were associated statistically with age (+65 vs. 15-24 years: adjusted odds ratios, aOR = 2.98, 95%CI: 1.28-6.90; and aOR = 3.67; 95%CI: 2.22-6.07, respectively) and socioeconomic status (additional standard deviation: aOR = 2.25, 95%CI: 1.62-3.14; and aOR = 1.96, 95%CI: 1.34-2.97). In addition, health insurance coverage was associated with schooling (aOR = 7.59, 95%CI: 4.44-13.00) for complete University Education and aOR = 3.74 (95%CI: 1.61-8.68) for complete Secondary Education, compared to less than complete Primary Education. Meanwhile, neither health insurance nor discount card was associated with health status or number of diagnosed diseases. In conclusion, studies that aim to assess private health insurance should be planned to distinguish between discount cards and formal health insurance.

  2. Twelve-year trends in health insurance coverage among Latinos, by subgroup and immigration status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, N Sarita; Carrasquillo, Olveen

    2006-01-01

    We examine twelve-year trends in the Latino uninsured population by ethnic subgroup and immigration status. From 1993 to 1999, most Latino subgroups, particularly Puerto Ricans, had large decreases in Medicaid coverage. For some subgroups these were offset by increases in employer coverage, but not for Mexicans, resulting in a four-percentage-point increase in their uninsured population. During 2000-2004, Medicaid/SCHIP expansions benefited most subgroups and mitigated smaller losses in employer coverage. However, during 1993-2004, the percentage of noncitizen Latinos lacking coverage increased by several percentage points. This was attributable to Medicaid losses during 1993-1999 and losses in employer coverage during 2000-2004.

  3. Country-level predictors of vaccination coverage and inequalities in Gavi-supported countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arsenault, Catherine; Johri, Mira; Nandi, Arijit; Mendoza Rodríguez, José M; Hansen, Peter M; Harper, Sam

    2017-04-25

    Important inequalities in childhood vaccination coverage persist between countries and population groups. Understanding why some countries achieve higher and more equitable levels of coverage is crucial to redress these inequalities. In this study, we explored the country-level determinants of (1) coverage of the third dose of diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis- (DTP3) containing vaccine and (2) within-country inequalities in DTP3 coverage in 45 countries supported by Gavi, the Vaccine Alliance. We used data from the most recent Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) conducted between 2005 and 2014. We measured national DTP3 coverage and the slope index of inequality in DTP3 coverage with respect to household wealth, maternal education, and multidimensional poverty. We collated data on country health systems, health financing, governance and geographic and sociocultural contexts from published sources. We used meta-regressions to assess the relationship between these country-level factors and variations in DTP3 coverage and inequalities. To validate our findings, we repeated these analyses for coverage with measles-containing vaccine (MCV). We found considerable heterogeneity in DTP3 coverage and in the magnitude of inequalities across countries. Results for MCV were consistent with those from DTP3. Political stability, gender equality and smaller land surface were important predictors of higher and more equitable levels of DTP3 coverage. Inequalities in DTP3 coverage were also lower in countries receiving more external resources for health, with lower rates of out-of-pocket spending and with higher national coverage. Greater government spending on heath and lower linguistic fractionalization were also consistent with better vaccination outcomes. Improving vaccination coverage and reducing inequalities requires that policies and programs address critical social determinants of health including geographic and social exclusion, gender inequality and the availability of

  4. Syrian refugees in Lebanon: the search for universal health coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchet, Karl; Fouad, Fouad M; Pherali, Tejendra

    2016-01-01

    The crisis in Syria has forced more than 4 million people to find refuge outside Syria. In Lebanon, in 2015, the refugee population represented 30 % of the total population. International health assistance has been provided to refugee populations in Lebanon. However, the current humanitarian system has also contributed to increase fragmentation of the Lebanese health system. Ensuring universal health coverage to vulnerable Lebanese, Syrian and Palestinian refugees will require in Lebanon to redistribute the key functions and responsibilities of the Ministry of Health and its partners to generate more coherence and efficiency.

  5. Coverage of the Brazilian population 18 years and older by private health plans: an analysis of data from the World Health Survey Cobertura da população brasileira com 18 anos ou mais por plano de saúde privado: uma análise dos dados da Pesquisa Mundial de Saúde

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Viacava

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzes data from the World Health Survey (WHS conducted in 2003, with a sample of 5,000 individuals 18 years and older. Some 24.0% of the interviewees had private health insurance, and the main variables associated with private coverage were number of household assets, age, level of education, formal employment, living in municipalities with more than 50,000 inhabitants, and good self-rated health. The socioeconomic profiles of needs for and use of health services in the population covered by private health plans are different, confirming the findings of other studies reporting that this population segment as a whole presents better health conditions and greater use of services as compared to the population without private coverage, even after adjusting for socio-demographic variables and self-rated health. The WHS data also suggest that individuals with private health plans do not always use their insurance to pay for services, except in the case of mammograms.Esse estudo analisa os dados da Pesquisa Mundial de Saúde (PMS, realizada em 2003, em uma amostra de 5 mil indivíduos com 18 anos ou mais. Cerca de 24,0% dos indivíduos entrevistados têm seguro privado de saúde, sendo que os fatores associados à posse do plano são o número de bens, idade, escolaridade, ter emprego formal, residir em municípios com menos de 50 mil habitantes e referir boa auto-avaliação do estado de saúde. Os perfis sócio-demográficos de necessidades e uso de serviços de saúde da população coberta por plano de saúde são distintos, confirmando os achados de outros trabalhos que referem que esse segmento populacional como um todo apresenta melhores condições de saúde e um maior uso de serviços em relação à população não coberta por seguro de saúde, mesmo após o controle por variáveis sócio-demográficas e a auto-avaliação do estado de saúde. Os dados da PMS também sugerem que pessoas cobertas por plano de saúde nem sempre

  6. Vaccination Coverage Cluster Surveys in Middle Dreib - Akkar, Lebanon: Comparison of Vaccination Coverage in Children Aged 12-59 Months Pre- and Post-Vaccination Campaign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Rodolfo; Assaad, Ramia; Rebeschini, Arianna; Hamadeh, Randa

    2016-01-01

    With the high proportion of refugee population throughout Lebanon and continuous population movement, it is sensible to believe that, in particular vulnerable areas, vaccination coverage may not be at an optimal level. Therefore, we assessed the vaccination coverage in children under 5 in a district of the Akkar governorate before and after a vaccination campaign. During the vaccination campaign, conducted in August 2015, 2,509 children were vaccinated. We conducted a pre- and post-vaccination campaign coverage surveys adapting the WHO EPI cluster survey to the Lebanese MoPH vaccination calendar. Percentages of coverage for each dose of each vaccine were calculated for both surveys. Factors associated with complete vaccination were explored. Comparing the pre- with the post-campaign surveys, coverage for polio vaccine increased from 51.9% to 84.3%, for Pentavalent from 49.0% to 71.9%, for MMR from 36.2% to 61.0%, while the percentage of children with fully updated vaccination calendar increased from 32.9% to 53.8%. While Lebanese children were found to be better covered for some antigens compared to Syrians at the first survey, this difference disappeared at the post-campaign survey. Awareness and logistic obstacles were the primary reported causes of not complete vaccination in both surveys. Vaccination campaigns remain a quick and effective approach to increase vaccination coverage in crisis-affected areas. However, campaigns cannot be considered as a replacement of routine vaccination services to maintain a good level of coverage.

  7. Promoting universal financial protection: a policy analysis of universal health coverage in Costa Rica (1940-2000).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, Juan Rafael; Muiser, Jorine

    2013-08-21

    This paper explores the implementation and sustenance of universal health coverage (UHC) in Costa Rica, discussing the development of a social security scheme that covered 5% of the population in 1940, to one that finances and provides comprehensive healthcare to the whole population today. The scheme is financed by mandatory, tri-partite social insurance contributions complemented by tax funding to cover the poor. The analysis takes a historical perspective and explores the policy process including the key actors and their relative influence in decision-making. Data were collected using qualitative research instruments, including a review of literature, institutional and other documents, and in-depth interviews with key informants. Key lessons to be learned are: i) population health was high on the political agenda in Costa Rica, in particular before the 1980s when UHC was enacted and the transfer of hospitals to the social security institution took place. Opposition to UHC could therefore be contained through negotiation and implemented incrementally despite the absence of real consensus among the policy elite; ii) since the 1960s, the social security institution has been responsible for UHC in Costa Rica. This institution enjoys financial and managerial autonomy relative to the general government, which has also facilitated the UHC policy implementation process; iii) UHC was simultaneously constructed on three pillars that reciprocally strengthened each other: increasing population coverage, increasing availability of financial resources based on solidarity financing mechanisms, and increasing service coverage, ultimately offering comprehensive health services and the same benefits to every resident in the country; iv) particularly before the 1980s, the fruits of economic growth were structurally invested in health and other universal social policies, in particular education and sanitation. The social security institution became a flagship of Costa Rica

  8. Promoting universal financial protection: a policy analysis of universal health coverage in Costa Rica (1940–2000)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background This paper explores the implementation and sustenance of universal health coverage (UHC) in Costa Rica, discussing the development of a social security scheme that covered 5% of the population in 1940, to one that finances and provides comprehensive healthcare to the whole population today. The scheme is financed by mandatory, tri-partite social insurance contributions complemented by tax funding to cover the poor. Methods The analysis takes a historical perspective and explores the policy process including the key actors and their relative influence in decision-making. Data were collected using qualitative research instruments, including a review of literature, institutional and other documents, and in-depth interviews with key informants. Results Key lessons to be learned are: i) population health was high on the political agenda in Costa Rica, in particular before the 1980s when UHC was enacted and the transfer of hospitals to the social security institution took place. Opposition to UHC could therefore be contained through negotiation and implemented incrementally despite the absence of real consensus among the policy elite; ii) since the 1960s, the social security institution has been responsible for UHC in Costa Rica. This institution enjoys financial and managerial autonomy relative to the general government, which has also facilitated the UHC policy implementation process; iii) UHC was simultaneously constructed on three pillars that reciprocally strengthened each other: increasing population coverage, increasing availability of financial resources based on solidarity financing mechanisms, and increasing service coverage, ultimately offering comprehensive health services and the same benefits to every resident in the country; iv) particularly before the 1980s, the fruits of economic growth were structurally invested in health and other universal social policies, in particular education and sanitation. The social security institution became a

  9. Universal health care coverage--pitfalls and promise of an employment-based approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budetti, P

    1992-02-01

    America's patchwork quilt of health care coverage is coming apart at the seams. The system, such as it is, is built upon an inherently problematic base: employment. By definition, an employment-based approach, by itself, will not assure universal coverage of the entire population. If an employment-based approach is to be the centerpiece of a system that provides universal coverage, special attention must be paid to all the categories of individuals who are not employees--children, unemployed spouses or singles, the unemployable ill and disabled, persons between jobs, students, retirees, the elderly. Moreover, in a purely voluntary employment-based arrangement, some employers will not provide insurance at all, and others will provide inadequate coverage, necessitating other special provisions for coverage. As a consequence, about one out of six people now has no health coverage whatsoever, and even more have inadequate coverage. All the while, the rapidly-increasing transaction costs of sustaining this grossly inadequate pluralistic system eat up sufficient funds to provide basic benefits to the entire population. The time for systematic reforms has come and gone; what is now needed is action to prevent disaster, followed by a complete rebuilding of this country's health coverage system. Although perhaps more likely to be tried than more radical, completely nationalized, ones, stepwise reforms may not go far enough to cure the significant ills of the current employment-based system. Passage of inadequate reforms, then, could well set the stage for nationalized health care in the not too distant future.

  10. Coverage of community-based management of severe acute malnutrition programmes in twenty-one countries, 2012-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Eleanor; Myatt, Mark; Woodhead, Sophie; Guerrero, Saul; Alvarez, Jose Luis

    2015-01-01

    This paper reviews coverage data from programmes treating severe acute malnutrition (SAM) collected between July 2012 and June 2013. This is a descriptive study of coverage levels and barriers to coverage collected by coverage assessments of community-based SAM treatment programmes in 21 countries that were supported by the Coverage Monitoring Network. Data from 44 coverage assessments are reviewed. These assessments analyse malnourished populations from 6 to 59 months old to understand the accessibility and coverage of services for treatment of acute malnutrition. The majority of assessments are from sub-Saharan Africa. Most of the programmes (33 of 44) failed to meet context-specific internationally agreed minimum standards for coverage. The mean level of estimated coverage achieved by the programmes in this analysis was 38.3%. The most frequently reported barriers to access were lack of awareness of malnutrition, lack of awareness of the programme, high opportunity costs, inter-programme interface problems, and previous rejection. This study shows that coverage of CMAM is lower than previous analyses of early CTC programmes; therefore reducing programme impact. Barriers to access need to be addressed in order to start improving coverage by paying greater attention to certain activities such as community sensitisation. As barriers are interconnected focusing on specific activities, such as decentralising services to satellite sites, is likely to increase significantly utilisation of nutrition services. Programmes need to ensure that barriers are continuously monitored to ensure timely removal and increased coverage.

  11. Teaching the Broad, Interdisciplinary Impact of Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, David; Atlas, Pierre; Haberski, Raymond; Higgs, Jamie; Kiley, Patrick; Maxwell, Michael, Jr.; Mirola, William; Norton, Jamey

    2009-01-01

    As perhaps the most encompassing idea in biology, evolution has impacted not only science, but other academic disciplines as well. The broad, interdisciplinary impact of evolution was the theme of a course taught at Marian College, Indianapolis, Indiana in 2002, 2004, and 2006. Using a strategy that could be readily adopted at other institutions,…

  12. Asymmetric k-Center with Minimum Coverage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gørtz, Inge Li

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we give approximation algorithms and inapproximability results for various asymmetric k-center with minimum coverage problems. In the k-center with minimum coverage problem, each center is required to serve a minimum number of clients. These problems have been studied by Lim et al. [A....... Lim, B. Rodrigues, F. Wang, Z. Xu, k-center problems with minimum coverage, Theoret. Comput. Sci. 332 (1–3) (2005) 1–17] in the symmetric setting....

  13. Universal health coverage in Turkey: enhancement of equity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atun, Rifat; Aydın, Sabahattin; Chakraborty, Sarbani; Sümer, Safir; Aran, Meltem; Gürol, Ipek; Nazlıoğlu, Serpil; Ozgülcü, Senay; Aydoğan, Ulger; Ayar, Banu; Dilmen, Uğur; Akdağ, Recep

    2013-07-06

    Turkey has successfully introduced health system changes and provided its citizens with the right to health to achieve universal health coverage, which helped to address inequities in financing, health service access, and health outcomes. We trace the trajectory of health system reforms in Turkey, with a particular emphasis on 2003-13, which coincides with the Health Transformation Program (HTP). The HTP rapidly expanded health insurance coverage and access to health-care services for all citizens, especially the poorest population groups, to achieve universal health coverage. We analyse the contextual drivers that shaped the transformations in the health system, explore the design and implementation of the HTP, identify the factors that enabled its success, and investigate its effects. Our findings suggest that the HTP was instrumental in achieving universal health coverage to enhance equity substantially, and led to quantifiable and beneficial effects on all health system goals, with an improved level and distribution of health, greater fairness in financing with better financial protection, and notably increased user satisfaction. After the HTP, five health insurance schemes were consolidated to create a unified General Health Insurance scheme with harmonised and expanded benefits. Insurance coverage for the poorest population groups in Turkey increased from 2·4 million people in 2003, to 10·2 million in 2011. Health service access increased across the country-in particular, access and use of key maternal and child health services improved to help to greatly reduce the maternal mortality ratio, and under-5, infant, and neonatal mortality, especially in socioeconomically disadvantaged groups. Several factors helped to achieve universal health coverage and improve outcomes. These factors include economic growth, political stability, a comprehensive transformation strategy led by a transformation team, rapid policy translation, flexible implementation with

  14. Vaccination coverage among adults, excluding influenza vaccination - United States, 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Walter W; Lu, Peng-Jun; O'Halloran, Alissa; Bridges, Carolyn B; Kim, David K; Pilishvili, Tamara; Hales, Craig M; Markowitz, Lauri E

    2015-02-06

    Vaccinations are recommended throughout life to prevent vaccine-preventable diseases and their sequelae. Adult vaccination coverage, however, remains low for most routinely recommended vaccines and below Healthy People 2020 targets. In October 2014, the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) approved the adult immunization schedule for 2015. With the exception of influenza vaccination, which is recommended for all adults each year, other adult vaccinations are recommended for specific populations based on a person's age, health conditions, behavioral risk factors (e.g., injection drug use), occupation, travel, and other indications. To assess vaccination coverage among adults aged ≥19 years for selected vaccines, CDC analyzed data from the 2013 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS). This report highlights results of that analysis for pneumococcal, tetanus toxoid-containing (tetanus and diphtheria vaccine [Td] or tetanus and diphtheria with acellular pertussis vaccine [Tdap]), hepatitis A, hepatitis B, herpes zoster (shingles), and human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines by selected characteristics (age, race/ethnicity,† and vaccination indication). Influenza vaccination coverage estimates for the 2013-14 influenza season have been published separately. Compared with 2012, only modest increases occurred in Tdap vaccination among adults aged ≥19 years (a 2.9 percentage point increase to 17.2%), herpes zoster vaccination among adults aged ≥60 years (a 4.1 percentage point increase to 24.2%), and HPV vaccination among males aged 19-26 years (a 3.6 percentage point increase to 5.9%); coverage among adults in the United States for the other vaccines did not improve. Racial/ethnic disparities in coverage persisted for all six vaccines and widened for Tdap and herpes zoster vaccination. Increases in vaccination coverage are needed to reduce the occurrence of vaccine-preventable diseases among adults. Awareness of the need for vaccines for adults is low

  15. Moving toward universal coverage of health insurance in Vietnam: barriers, facilitating factors, and lessons from Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do, Ngan; Oh, Juhwan; Lee, Jin-Seok

    2014-07-01

    Vietnam has pursued universal health insurance coverage for two decades but has yet to fully achieve this goal. This paper investigates the barriers to achieve universal coverage and examines the validity of facilitating factors to shorten the transitional period in Vietnam. A comparative study of facilitating factors toward universal coverage of Vietnam and Korea reveals significant internal forces for Vietnam to further develop the National Health Insurance Program. Korea in 1977 and Vietnam in 2009 have common characteristics to be favorable of achieving universal coverage with similarities of level of income, highly qualified administrative ability, tradition of solidarity, and strong political leadership although there are differences in distribution of population and structure of the economy. From a comparative perspective, Vietnam can consider the experience of Korea in implementing the mandatory enrollment approach, household unit of eligibility, design of contribution and benefit scheme, and resource allocation to health insurance for sustainable government subsidy to achieve and sustain the universal coverage of health insurance.

  16. Parallel evaluation of broad virus detection methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modrof, Jens; Berting, Andreas; Kreil, Thomas R

    2014-01-01

    The testing for adventitious viruses is of critical importance during development and production of biological products. The recent emergence and ongoing development of broad virus detection methods calls for an evaluation of whether these methods can appropriately be implemented into current adventitious agent testing procedures. To assess the suitability of several broad virus detection methods, a comparative experimental study was conducted: four virus preparations, which were spiked at two different concentrations each into two different cell culture media, were sent to four investigators in a blinded fashion for analysis with broad virus detection methods such as polymerase chain reaction-electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (PCR-ESI/MS), microarray, and two approaches utilizing massively parallel sequencing. The results that were reported by the investigators revealed that all methods were able to identify the majority of samples correctly (mean 83%), with a surprisingly narrow range among the methods, that is, between 72% (PCR-ESI/MS) and 95% (microarray). In addition to the correct results, a variety of unexpected assignments were reported for a minority of samples, again with little variation regarding the methods used (range 20-45%), while false negatives were reported for 0-25% of the samples. Regarding assay sensitivity, the viruses were detected by all methods included in this study at concentrations of about 4-5 log10 quantitative PCR copies/mL, and probably with higher sensitivity in some cases. In summary, the broad virus detection methods investigated were shown to be suitable even for detection of relatively low virus concentrations. However, there is also some potential for the production of false-positive as well as false-negative assignments, which indicates the requirement for further improvements before these methods can be considered for routine use. © PDA, Inc. 2014.

  17. Atomization of broad specification aircraft fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skifstad, J. G.; Lefebvre, A. H.

    1980-01-01

    The atomization properties of liquid fuels for the potential use in aircraft gas turbine engines are discussed. The significance of these properties are addressed with respect to the ignition and subsequent combustion behavior of the fuel spray/air mixture. It is shown that the fuel properties which affect the atomization behavior (viscosity, surface tension, and density) are less favorable for the broad specification fuels as compared to with those for conventional fuels.

  18. Coverage-based constraints for IMRT optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mescher, H; Ulrich, S; Bangert, M

    2017-09-05

    Radiation therapy treatment planning requires an incorporation of uncertainties in order to guarantee an adequate irradiation of the tumor volumes. In current clinical practice, uncertainties are accounted for implicitly with an expansion of the target volume according to generic margin recipes. Alternatively, it is possible to account for uncertainties by explicit minimization of objectives that describe worst-case treatment scenarios, the expectation value of the treatment or the coverage probability of the target volumes during treatment planning. In this note we show that approaches relying on objectives to induce a specific coverage of the clinical target volumes are inevitably sensitive to variation of the relative weighting of the objectives. To address this issue, we introduce coverage-based constraints for intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) treatment planning. Our implementation follows the concept of coverage-optimized planning that considers explicit error scenarios to calculate and optimize patient-specific probabilities [Formula: see text] of covering a specific target volume fraction [Formula: see text] with a certain dose [Formula: see text]. Using a constraint-based reformulation of coverage-based objectives we eliminate the trade-off between coverage and competing objectives during treatment planning. In-depth convergence tests including 324 treatment plan optimizations demonstrate the reliability of coverage-based constraints for varying levels of probability, dose and volume. General clinical applicability of coverage-based constraints is demonstrated for two cases. A sensitivity analysis regarding penalty variations within this planing study based on IMRT treatment planning using (1) coverage-based constraints, (2) coverage-based objectives, (3) probabilistic optimization, (4) robust optimization and (5) conventional margins illustrates the potential benefit of coverage-based constraints that do not require tedious adjustment of target

  19. Household Coverage of Fortified Staple Food Commodities in Rajasthan, India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grant J Aaron

    Full Text Available A spatially representative statewide survey was conducted in Rajasthan, India to assess household coverage of atta wheat flour, edible oil, and salt. An even distribution of primary sampling units were selected based on their proximity to centroids on a hexagonal grid laid over the survey area. A sample of n = 18 households from each of m = 252 primary sampling units PSUs was taken. Demographic data on all members of these households were collected, and a broader dataset was collected about a single caregiver and a child in the first 2 years of life. Data were collected on demographic and socioeconomic status; education; housing conditions; recent infant and child mortality; water, sanitation, and hygiene practices; food security; child health; infant and young child feeding practices; maternal dietary diversity; coverage of fortified staples; and maternal and child anthropometry. Data were collected from 4,627 households and the same number of caregiver/child pairs. Atta wheat flour was widely consumed across the state (83%; however, only about 7% of the atta wheat flour was classified as fortifiable, and only about 6% was actually fortified (mostly inadequately. For oil, almost 90% of edible oil consumed by households in the survey was classified as fortifiable, but only about 24% was fortified. For salt, coverage was high, with almost 85% of households using fortified salt and 66% of households using adequately fortified salt. Iodized salt coverage was also high; however, rural and poor population groups were less likely to be reached by the intervention. Voluntary fortification of atta wheat flour and edible oil lacked sufficient industry consolidation to cover significant portions of the population. It is crucial that appropriate delivery channels are utilized to effectively deliver essential micronutrients to at-risk population groups. Government distribution systems are likely the best means to accomplish this goal.

  20. 24 CFR 200.17 - Mortgage coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Mortgage coverage. 200.17 Section... Generally Applicable to Multifamily and Health Care Facility Mortgage Insurance Programs; and Continuing Eligibility Requirements for Existing Projects Eligible Mortgage § 200.17 Mortgage coverage. The mortgage...

  1. Proteome coverage prediction with infinite Markov models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claassen, Manfred; Aebersold, Ruedi; Buhmann, Joachim M.

    2009-01-01

    Motivation: Liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) is the predominant method to comprehensively characterize complex protein mixtures such as samples from prefractionated or complete proteomes. In order to maximize proteome coverage for the studied sample, i.e. identify as many traceable proteins as possible, LC-MS/MS experiments are typically repeated extensively and the results combined. Proteome coverage prediction is the task of estimating the number of peptide discoveries of future LC-MS/MS experiments. Proteome coverage prediction is important to enhance the design of efficient proteomics studies. To date, there does not exist any method to reliably estimate the increase of proteome coverage at an early stage. Results: We propose an extended infinite Markov model DiriSim to extrapolate the progression of proteome coverage based on a small number of already performed LC-MS/MS experiments. The method explicitly accounts for the uncertainty of peptide identifications. We tested DiriSim on a set of 37 LC-MS/MS experiments of a complete proteome sample and demonstrated that DiriSim correctly predicts the coverage progression already from a small subset of experiments. The predicted progression enabled us to specify maximal coverage for the test sample. We demonstrated that quality requirements on the final proteome map impose an upper bound on the number of useful experiment repetitions and limit the achievable proteome coverage. Contact: manfredc@inf.ethz.ch; jbuhmann@inf.ethz.ch PMID:19477982

  2. CDMA coverage under mobile heterogeneous network load

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saban, D.; van den Berg, Hans Leo; Boucherie, Richardus J.; Endrayanto, A.I.

    2002-01-01

    We analytically investigate coverage (determined by the uplink) under non-homogeneous and moving traffic load of third generation UMTS mobile networks. In particular, for different call assignment policies, we investigate cell breathing and the movement of the coverage gap occurring between cells

  3. On optimal coverage with unreliable sensors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frasca, Paolo; Garin, Federica

    This paper regards the problem of placing unreliable sensors in a given one-dimensional environment, in such a way to optimize a given coverage cost. We specifically consider the disk-coverage cost, whose optimal solution for reliable sensors is simply an equally-spaced configuration of the sensors.

  4. 76 FR 7767 - Student Health Insurance Coverage

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-11

    ... HUMAN SERVICES 45 CFR Parts 144 and 147 RIN 0950-AA20 Student Health Insurance Coverage AGENCY: Centers... proposed regulation that would establish rules for student health insurance coverage under the Public Health Service Act and the Affordable Care Act. The proposed rule would define ``student health insurance...

  5. A Semantic Framework for Test Coverage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brandan Briones, L.; Brinksma, Hendrik; Stoelinga, Mariëlle Ida Antoinette; Graf, Susanne; Zhang, Wenhui

    2006-01-01

    Since testing is inherently incomplete, test selection has vital importance. Coverage measures evaluate the quality of a test suite and help the tester select test cases with maximal impact at minimum cost. Existing coverage criteria for test suites are usually defined in terms of syntactic

  6. Earthquake Coverage by the Western Press.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaddy, Gary D.; Tanjong, Enoh

    1986-01-01

    Describes a study to determine the type and quantity of Western news coverage of Third World earthquakes. Finds little evidence of geographical bias in coverage studied, and suggests that care must be taken to examine the underlying news events before bias is alleged. (MS)

  7. Impact of invitation schemes on breast cancer screening coverage: A cohort study from Copenhagen, Denmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobsen, Katja Kemp; von Euler Chelpin, My; Vejborg, Ilse; Lynge, Elsebeth

    2017-03-01

    Background The purpose of mammography screening is to decrease breast cancer mortality. To achieve this a high coverage by examination is needed. Within an organized screening programme, we examined the impact of changes in the invitation schedule on the interplay between coverage and participation. Method We studied nine cohorts aged 50-51 when first targeted by mammography screening in Copenhagen, Denmark. Population data were retrieved from the Danish Civil Registration System; invitation and attendance data from the screening programme database. Data were linked using unique personal identification numbers. Coverage by invitation was defined as (number of invited women/number of targeted women), coverage by examination as (number of screened women/number of targeted women), and participation rate as (number of screened women/number of invited women). Results Coverage by invitation was close to or above 95% for all newly recruited cohorts. In subsequent invitation rounds, both technical errors and changes in the invitation scheme affected the coverage by invitation. Coverage by examination at first invitation was 72.5% for the first cohort, but dropped to 64.2% for the latest cohort. Furthermore, coverage by examination dropped by increasing invitation number and with omission of re-invitation of previous non-attenders. Participation rate closely reflected changes in the invitation scheme. Conclusion Changes in the invitation schemes influenced coverage by invitation, coverage by examination, and participation rate. We observed a considerable gap between coverage by examination and participation rate, strongly indicating that the latter cannot without reservations, be taken as an indicator of the first.

  8. Immunisation coverage of adults: a vaccination counselling campaign in the pharmacies in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valeri, Fabio; Hatz, Christoph; Jordan, Dominique; Leuthold, Claudine; Czock, Astrid; Lang, Phung

    2014-01-01

    To assess vaccination coverage for adults living in Switzerland. Through a media campaign, the general population was invited during 1 month to bring their vaccination certificates to the pharmacies to have their immunisation status evaluated with the software viavac©, and to complete a questionnaire. A total of 496 pharmacies in Switzerland participated in the campaign, of which 284 (57%) submitted valid vaccination information. From a total of 3,634 participants in the campaign, there were 3,291 valid cases (participants born ≤ 1992) and 1,011 questionnaires completed. Vaccination coverage for the participants was 45.9% and 34.6% for five and six doses of diphtheria, 56.4% and 44.0% for tetanus and 66.3% and 48.0% for polio, respectively. Coverage estimates for one and two doses of measles vaccine were 76.5% and 49.4%, respectively, for the birth cohort 1967-1992 and 4.0% and 0.8%, respectively, for the cohort ≤ 1966. There was a significant difference in coverage for most vaccinations between the two aforementioned birth cohorts. A plot of the measles vaccine coverage over time shows that the increase in coverage correlated with policy changes in the Swiss Immunisation Schedule. Despite selection bias and low participation, this study indicates that vaccination coverage for the basic recommended immunisations in the adult population in Switzerland is suboptimal. More efforts using various means and methods are needed to increase immunisation coverage in adolescents before they leave school. An established method to determine vaccination coverage for the general population could provide invaluable insights into the effects of changes in vaccination policies and disease outbreaks.

  9. Ordenação de populações em amplas classes de nível de saúde, segundo um indicador abrangente definido por uma função discriminante linear Ranking of populations in broad classes of health levels according to a comprehensive indicador defined by a linear discriminant function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neil Ferreira Novo

    1985-08-01

    Full Text Available Utilizando a função discriminante linear, propõe-se um indicador de nível de saúde abrangente de vários indicadores usuais, a saber: o coeficiente de mortalidade geral (CMG, indicador quantificado de Guedes (IG, esperança de vida ao nascer (EV, coeficiente de natalidade (CN, coeficiente de mortalidade infantil (CMI e coeficiente de mortalidade por doenças transmissíveis (CMDT. Para a padronização dos dois últimos, foi proposta e utilizada uma população padrão mediana; para sua formação, cada grupo etário concorre com a mediana das percentagens de participação desse grupo na composição da população de cada um dos 44 países estudados. A análise crítica das equações de funções discriminantes obtidas com a técnica passo a 2895 2060 1000 passo ascendente (stepwise, mostrou que o valor: Z = 2895/CMI + 2060/CN + 1000/CMDTp, pode ser utilizado como indicador abrangente, permitindo a ordenação de países em amplas classes de nível de saúde.There are, very often, considerable discrepancies when countries are ranked according to the values of each of the common health indicators. By the use of computed linear discriminant functions the authors developed a single indicator designed to convey the information gathered from the following health indicators: life expectancy at birth (LE, birth rate (BR, infant mortality rate (IMR, quantified indicator of Guedes (GI, general mortality rate (GMR and mortality rate (MR by infective and parasitic diseases (MRIPD, the last two age adjusted. For the construction of this adjustment a median standard population was suggested and used, each age group contributed with the average of the percentages of participation of the group in the composition of the population of each one of the 44 countries studied. These were those for which it was possible to get reliable data for the years around 1980. The contrasted groups in computing discriminant functions, each one consisting of 12 countries

  10. The scaling of green space coverage in European cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Richard A; Gaston, Kevin J

    2009-06-23

    Most people on the planet live in dense aggregations, and policy directives emphasize green areas within cities to ameliorate some of the problems of urban living. Benefits of urban green spaces range from physical and psychological health to social cohesion, ecosystem service provision and biodiversity conservation. Green space coverage differs enormously among cities, yet little is known about the correlates or geography of this variation. This is important because urbanization is accelerating and the consequences for green space are unclear. Here, we use standardized major axis regression to explore the relationships between urban green space coverage, city area and population size across 386 European cities. We show that green space coverage increases more rapidly than city area, yet declines only weakly as human population density increases. Thus, green space provision within a city is primarily related to city area rather than the number of inhabitants that it serves, or a simple space-filling effect. Thus, compact cities (small size and high density) show very low per capita green space allocation. However, at high levels of urbanicity, the green space network is robust to further city compaction. As cities grow, interactions between people and nature depend increasingly on landscape quality outside formal green space networks, such as street plantings, or the size, composition and management of backyards and gardens.

  11. Assuring health coverage for all in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Vikram; Parikh, Rachana; Nandraj, Sunil; Balasubramaniam, Priya; Narayan, Kavita; Paul, Vinod K; Kumar, A K Shiva; Chatterjee, Mirai; Reddy, K Srinath

    2015-12-12

    Successive Governments of India have promised to transform India's unsatisfactory health-care system, culminating in the present government's promise to expand health assurance for all. Despite substantial improvements in some health indicators in the past decade, India contributes disproportionately to the global burden of disease, with health indicators that compare unfavourably with other middle-income countries and India's regional neighbours. Large health disparities between states, between rural and urban populations, and across social classes persist. A large proportion of the population is impoverished because of high out-of-pocket health-care expenditures and suffers the adverse consequences of poor quality of care. Here we make the case not only for more resources but for a radically new architecture for India's health-care system. India needs to adopt an integrated national health-care system built around a strong public primary care system with a clearly articulated supportive role for the private and indigenous sectors. This system must address acute as well as chronic health-care needs, offer choice of care that is rational, accessible, and of good quality, support cashless service at point of delivery, and ensure accountability through governance by a robust regulatory framework. In the process, several major challenges will need to be confronted, most notably the very low levels of public expenditure; the poor regulation, rapid commercialisation of and corruption in health care; and the fragmentation of governance of health care. Most importantly, assuring universal health coverage will require the explicit acknowledgment, by government and civil society, of health care as a public good on par with education. Only a radical restructuring of the health-care system that promotes health equity and eliminates impoverishment due to out-of-pocket expenditures will assure health for all Indians by 2022--a fitting way to mark the 75th year of India

  12. Health insurance coverage among women in Indonesia's major cities: A multilevel analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christiani, Yodi; Byles, Julie E; Tavener, Meredith; Dugdale, Paul

    2017-03-01

    We examined women's access to health insurance in Indonesia. We analyzed IFLS-4 data of 1,400 adult women residing in four major cities. Among this population, the health insurance coverage was 24%. Women who were older, involved in paid work, and with higher education had greater access to health insurance (p health insurance across community levels (Median Odds Ratios = 3.40). Given the importance of health insurance for women's health, strategies should be developed to expand health insurance coverage among women in Indonesia, including the disparities across community levels. Such problems might also be encountered in other developing countries with low health insurance coverage.

  13. Broad-band semiconductor optical amplifiers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ding Ying [Institute of Semiconductors, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100083 (China)]. E-mail: yingding@red.semi.ac.cn; Kan Qiang [Institute of Semiconductors, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100083 (China); Wang Junling [Institute of Optoelectronic Technology, Beijing Jiaotong University, Beijing 100044 (China); Pan Jiaoqing [Institute of Semiconductors, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100083 (China); Zhou Fan [Institute of Semiconductors, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100083 (China); Chen Weixi [School of Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Wang Wei [Institute of Semiconductors, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100083 (China)

    2007-01-15

    Broad-band semiconductor optical amplifiers (SOAs) with different thicknesses and thin bulk tensile-strained active layers were fabricated and studied. Amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) spectra and gain spectra of SOAs were measured and analyzed at different CW biases. A maximal 3 dB ASE bandwidth of 136 nm ranging from 1480 to 1616 nm, and a 3 dB optical amplifier gain bandwidth of about 90 nm ranging from 1510 to 1600 nm, were obtained for the very thin bulk active SOA. Other SOAs characteristics such as saturation output power and polarization sensitivity were measured and compared.

  14. Broad spectrum antibiotic compounds and use thereof

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koglin, Alexander; Strieker, Matthias

    2016-07-05

    The discovery of a non-ribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS) gene cluster in the genome of Clostridium thermocellum that produces a secondary metabolite that is assembled outside of the host membrane is described. Also described is the identification of homologous NRPS gene clusters from several additional microorganisms. The secondary metabolites produced by the NRPS gene clusters exhibit broad spectrum antibiotic activity. Thus, antibiotic compounds produced by the NRPS gene clusters, and analogs thereof, their use for inhibiting bacterial growth, and methods of making the antibiotic compounds are described.

  15. Crx broadly modulates the pineal transcriptome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rovsing, Louise; Clokie, Samuel; Bustos, Diego M

    2011-01-01

    Cone-rod homeobox (Crx) encodes Crx, a transcription factor expressed selectively in retinal photoreceptors and pinealocytes, the major cell type of the pineal gland. In this study, the influence of Crx on the mammalian pineal gland was studied by light and electron microscopy and by use...... of microarray and qRTPCR technology, thereby extending previous studies on selected genes (Furukawa et al. 1999). Deletion of Crx was not found to alter pineal morphology, but was found to broadly modulate the mouse pineal transcriptome, characterized by a > 2-fold down-regulation of 543 genes and a > 2-fold up......-regulation of 745 genes (p pineal glands of wild...

  16. Count every newborn; a measurement improvement roadmap for coverage data

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Background The Every Newborn Action Plan (ENAP), launched in 2014, aims to end preventable newborn deaths and stillbirths, with national targets of ≤12 neonatal deaths per 1000 live births and ≤12 stillbirths per 1000 total births by 2030. This requires ambitious improvement of the data on care at birth and of small and sick newborns, particularly to track coverage, quality and equity. Methods In a multistage process, a matrix of 70 indicators were assessed by the Every Newborn steering group. Indicators were graded based on their availability and importance to ENAP, resulting in 10 core and 10 additional indicators. A consultation process was undertaken to assess the status of each ENAP core indicator definition, data availability and measurement feasibility. Coverage indicators for the specific ENAP treatment interventions were assigned task teams and given priority as they were identified as requiring the most technical work. Consultations were held throughout. Results ENAP published 10 core indicators plus 10 additional indicators. Three core impact indicators (neonatal mortality rate, maternal mortality ratio, stillbirth rate) are well defined, with future efforts needed to focus on improving data quantity and quality. Three core indicators on coverage of care for all mothers and newborns (intrapartum/skilled birth attendance, early postnatal care, essential newborn care) have defined contact points, but gaps exist in measuring content and quality of the interventions. Four core (antenatal corticosteroids, neonatal resuscitation, treatment of serious neonatal infections, kangaroo mother care) and one additional coverage indicator for newborns at risk or with complications (chlorhexidine cord cleansing) lack indicator definitions or data, especially for denominators (population in need). To address these gaps, feasible coverage indicator definitions are presented for validity testing. Measurable process indicators to help monitor health service readiness

  17. Insurance Coverage Policies for Personalized Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Hresko

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Adoption of personalized medicine in practice has been slow, in part due to the lack of evidence of clinical benefit provided by these technologies. Coverage by insurers is a critical step in achieving widespread adoption of personalized medicine. Insurers consider a variety of factors when formulating medical coverage policies for personalized medicine, including the overall strength of evidence for a test, availability of clinical guidelines and health technology assessments by independent organizations. In this study, we reviewed coverage policies of the largest U.S. insurers for genomic (disease-related and pharmacogenetic (PGx tests to determine the extent that these tests were covered and the evidence basis for the coverage decisions. We identified 41 coverage policies for 49 unique testing: 22 tests for disease diagnosis, prognosis and risk and 27 PGx tests. Fifty percent (or less of the tests reviewed were covered by insurers. Lack of evidence of clinical utility appears to be a major factor in decisions of non-coverage. The inclusion of PGx information in drug package inserts appears to be a common theme of PGx tests that are covered. This analysis highlights the variability of coverage determinations and factors considered, suggesting that the adoption of personal medicine will affected by numerous factors, but will continue to be slowed due to lack of demonstrated clinical benefit.

  18. Crx broadly modulates the pineal transcriptome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rovsing, Louise; Clokie, Samuel; Bustos, Diego M.; Rohde, Kristian; Coon, Steven L.; Litman, Thomas; Rath, Martin F.; Møller, Morten; Klein, David C.

    2011-01-01

    Cone-rod homeobox (Crx) encodes Crx, a transcription factor expressed selectively in retinal photoreceptors and pinealocytes, the major cell type of the pineal gland. Here, the influence of Crx on the mammalian pineal gland was studied by light and electron microscopy and by use of microarray and qRTPCR technology, thereby extending previous studies on selected genes (Furukawa et al. 1999). Deletion of Crx was not found to alter pineal morphology, but was found to broadly modulate the mouse pineal transcriptome, characterized by a >2-fold downregulation of 543 genes and a >2-fold upregulation of 745 genes (p pineal glands of wild-type animals; only eight of these were also day/night expressed in the Crx−/− pineal gland. However, in the Crx−/− pineal gland 41 genes exhibit differential night/day expression that is not seen in wild-type animals. These findings indicate that Crx broadly modulates the pineal transcriptome and also influences differential night/day gene expression in this tissue. Some effects of Crx deletion on the pineal transcriptome might be mediated by Hoxc4 upregulation. PMID:21797868

  19. Single-Isocenter Multiple-Target Stereotactic Radiosurgery: Risk of Compromised Coverage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roper, Justin, E-mail: justin.roper@emory.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Winship Cancer Institute of Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia (United States); Department of Biostatistics and Bioinformatics, Winship Cancer Institute of Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia (United States); Chanyavanich, Vorakarn; Betzel, Gregory [Department of Radiation Oncology, Winship Cancer Institute of Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia (United States); Department of Biostatistics and Bioinformatics, Winship Cancer Institute of Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia (United States); Switchenko, Jeffrey [Department of Biostatistics and Bioinformatics, Winship Cancer Institute of Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia (United States); Dhabaan, Anees [Department of Radiation Oncology, Winship Cancer Institute of Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia (United States); Department of Biostatistics and Bioinformatics, Winship Cancer Institute of Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia (United States)

    2015-11-01

    Purpose: To determine the dosimetric effects of rotational errors on target coverage using volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) for multitarget stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS). Methods and Materials: This retrospective study included 50 SRS cases, each with 2 intracranial planning target volumes (PTVs). Both PTVs were planned for simultaneous treatment to 21 Gy using a single-isocenter, noncoplanar VMAT SRS technique. Rotational errors of 0.5°, 1.0°, and 2.0° were simulated about all axes. The dose to 95% of the PTV (D95) and the volume covered by 95% of the prescribed dose (V95) were evaluated using multivariate analysis to determine how PTV coverage was related to PTV volume, PTV separation, and rotational error. Results: At 0.5° rotational error, D95 values and V95 coverage rates were ≥95% in all cases. For rotational errors of 1.0°, 7% of targets had D95 and V95 values <95%. Coverage worsened substantially when the rotational error increased to 2.0°: D95 and V95 values were >95% for only 63% of the targets. Multivariate analysis showed that PTV volume and distance to isocenter were strong predictors of target coverage. Conclusions: The effects of rotational errors on target coverage were studied across a broad range of SRS cases. In general, the risk of compromised coverage increased with decreasing target volume, increasing rotational error and increasing distance between targets. Multivariate regression models from this study may be used to quantify the dosimetric effects of rotational errors on target coverage given patient-specific input parameters of PTV volume and distance to isocenter.

  20. Climate Feedback: Bringing the Scientific Community to Provide Direct Feedback on the Credibility of Climate Media Coverage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, E. M.; Matlock, T.; Westerling, A. L.

    2015-12-01

    While most scientists recognize climate change as a major societal and environmental issue, social and political will to tackle the problem is still lacking. One of the biggest obstacles is inaccurate reporting or even outright misinformation in climate change coverage that result in the confusion of the general public on the issue.In today's era of instant access to information, what we read online usually falls outside our field of expertise and it is a real challenge to evaluate what is credible. The emerging technology of web annotation could be a game changer as it allows knowledgeable individuals to attach notes to any piece of text of a webpage and to share them with readers who will be able to see the annotations in-context -like comments on a pdf.Here we present the Climate Feedback initiative that is bringing together a community of climate scientists who collectively evaluate the scientific accuracy of influential climate change media coverage. Scientists annotate articles sentence by sentence and assess whether they are consistent with scientific knowledge allowing readers to see where and why the coverage is -or is not- based on science. Scientists also summarize the essence of their critical commentary in the form of a simple article-level overall credibility rating that quickly informs readers about the credibility of the entire piece.Web-annotation allows readers to 'hear' directly from the experts and to sense the consensus in a personal way as one can literaly see how many scientists agree with a given statement. It also allows a broad population of scientists to interact with the media, notably early career scientists.In this talk, we will present results on the impacts annotations have on readers -regarding their evaluation of the trustworthiness of the information they read- and on journalists -regarding their reception of scientists comments.Several dozen scientists have contributed to this effort to date and the system offers potential to

  1. The global coverage of prevalence data for mental disorders in children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erskine, H E; Baxter, A J; Patton, G; Moffitt, T E; Patel, V; Whiteford, H A; Scott, J G

    2017-08-01

    Children and adolescents make up almost a quarter of the world's population with 85% living in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Globally, mental (and substance use) disorders are the leading cause of disability in young people; however, the representativeness or 'coverage' of the prevalence data is unknown. Coverage refers to the proportion of the target population (ages 5-17 years) represented by the available data. Prevalence data for conduct disorder (CD), attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), autism spectrum disorders (ASDs), eating disorders (EDs), depression, and anxiety disorders were sourced from systematic reviews conducted for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2010 (GBD 2010) and 2013 (GBD 2013). For each study, the location proportion was multiplied by the age proportion to give study coverage. Location proportion was calculated by dividing the total study location population by the total study location population. Age proportion was calculated by dividing the population of the country aged within the age range of the study sample by the population of the country aged within the age range of the study sample. If a study only sampled one sex, study coverage was halved. Coverage across studies was then summed for each country to give coverage by country. This method was repeated at the region and global level, and separately for GBD 2013 and GBD 2010. Mean global coverage of prevalence data for mental disorders in ages 5-17 years was 6.7% (CD: 5.0%, ADHD: 5.5%, ASDs: 16.1%, EDs: 4.4%, depression: 6.2%, anxiety: 3.2%). Of 187 countries, 124 had no data for any disorder. Many LMICs were poorly represented in the available prevalence data, for example, no region in sub-Saharan Africa had more than 2% coverage for any disorder. While coverage increased between GBD 2010 and GBD 2013, this differed greatly between disorders and few new countries provided data. The global coverage of prevalence data for mental disorders in children and

  2. Broad ion beam serial section tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winiarski, B., E-mail: b.winiarski@manchester.ac.uk [School of Materials, University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Materials Division, National Physical Laboratory, Teddington TW11 0LW (United Kingdom); Gholinia, A. [School of Materials, University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Mingard, K.; Gee, M. [Materials Division, National Physical Laboratory, Teddington TW11 0LW (United Kingdom); Thompson, G.E.; Withers, P.J. [School of Materials, University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom)

    2017-01-15

    Here we examine the potential of serial Broad Ion Beam (BIB) Ar{sup +} ion polishing as an advanced serial section tomography (SST) technique for destructive 3D material characterisation for collecting data from volumes with lateral dimensions significantly greater than 100 µm and potentially over millimetre sized areas. Further, the associated low level of damage introduced makes BIB milling very well suited to 3D EBSD acquisition with very high indexing rates. Block face serial sectioning data registration schemes usually assume that the data comprises a series of parallel, planar slices. We quantify the variations in slice thickness and parallelity which can arise when using BIB systems comparing Gatan PECS and Ilion BIB systems for large volume serial sectioning and 3D-EBSD data acquisition. As a test case we obtain 3D morphologies and grain orientations for both phases of a WC-11%wt. Co hardmetal. In our case we have carried out the data acquisition through the manual transfer of the sample between SEM and BIB which is a very slow process (1–2 slice per day), however forthcoming automated procedures will markedly speed up the process. We show that irrespective of the sectioning method raw large area 2D-EBSD maps are affected by distortions and artefacts which affect 3D-EBSD such that quantitative analyses and visualisation can give misleading and erroneous results. Addressing and correcting these issues will offer real benefits when large area (millimetre sized) automated serial section BIBS is developed. - Highlights: • In this work we examine how microstructures can be reconstructed in three-dimensions (3D) by serial argon broad ion beam (BIB) milling, enabling much larger volumes (>250×250×100µm{sup 3}) to be acquired than by serial section focused ion beam-scanning electron microscopy (FIB-SEM). • The associated low level of damage introduced makes BIB milling very well suited to 3D-EBSD acquisition with very high indexing rates. • We explore

  3. Against a Broad Definition of "Empathy"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Songhorian

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper I will try to provide some arguments against a broad definition of “empathy”. Firstly, I will deal with attempts to define empathy as an umbrella concept. Then, I will try to point out the four main elements which contribute to the confusion that researchers in both the social and political as well as the scientific and philosophical domains face when dealing with empathy. In order to resolve this confusion, I suggest applying David Marr’s distinction to the field of empathy. Instead of providing an umbrella definition for empathy, which tries to account for all the data coming from different disciplines, I believe understanding that there are different levels of explanations and that different disciplines can contribute to each of them will provide a more detailed and less confused definition of empathy.

  4. Broadcast Network Coverage with Multicell Cooperation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongxiang Li

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Multicell cooperation has been identified as one of the underlying principles for future wireless communication systems. This paper studies the benefits of multicell cooperation in broadcast TV network from an information theoretical perspective. We define outage capacity as the figure of merit and derive the broadcast coverage area to evaluate such system. Specifically, we calculate the broadcast coverage area with given common information rate and outage probabilities when multiple base stations collaboratively transmit the broadcast signals. For the general MIMO case where receivers have multiple antennas, we provide simulation results to illustrate the expanded coverage area. In all cases, our results show that the coverage of a TV broadcast network can be significantly improved by multicell cooperation.

  5. 32 CFR 199.8 - Double coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... from the operation of a motor vehicle. (4) Exceptions. Double coverage plans do not include: (i) Plans... (for example, the Indian Health Service); or (v) State Victims of Crime Compensation Programs. (c...

  6. Continuous Eligibility for Medicaid and CHIP Coverage

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — States have the option to provide children with 12 months of continuous coverage through Medicaid and CHIP, even if the family experiences a change in income during...

  7. Media Coverage of Nuclear Energy after Fukushima

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oltra, C.; Roman, P.; Prades, A.

    2013-07-01

    This report presents the main findings of a content analysis of printed media coverage of nuclear energy in Spain before and after the Fukushima accident. Our main objective is to understand the changes in the presentation of nuclear fission and nuclear fusion as a result of the accident in Japan. We specifically analyze the volume of coverage and thematic content in the media coverage for nuclear fusion from a sample of Spanish print articles in more than 20 newspapers from 2008 to 2012. We also analyze the media coverage of nuclear energy (fission) in three main Spanish newspapers one year before and one year after the accident. The results illustrate how the media contributed to the presentation of nuclear power in the months before and after the accident. This could have implications for the public understanding of nuclear power. (Author)

  8. An adjusted bed net coverage indicator with estimations for 23 African countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderelst, Dieter; Speybroeck, Niko

    2013-12-20

    Many studies have assessed the level of bed net coverage in populations at risk of malaria infection. These revealed large variations in bed net use across countries, regions and social strata. Such studies are often aimed at identifying populations with low access to bed nets that should be prioritized in future interventions. However, often spatial differences in malaria endemicity are not taken into account. By ignoring variability in malaria endemicity, these studies prioritize populations with little access to bed nets, even if these happen to live in low endemicity areas. Conversely, populations living in regions with high malaria endemicity will receive a lower priority once a seizable proportion is protected by bed nets. Adequately assigning priorities requires accounting for both the current level of bed net coverage and the local malaria endemicity. Indeed, as shown here for 23 African countries, there is no correlation between the level of bed net coverage and the level of malaria endemicity in a region. Therefore, the need for future interventions can not be assessed based on current bed net coverage alone. This paper proposes the Adjusted Bed net Coverage (ABC) statistic as a measure taking into account both local malaria endemicity and the level of bed net coverage. The measure allows setting priorities for future interventions taking into account both local malaria endemicity and bed net coverage. A mathematical formulation of the ABC as a weighted difference of bed net coverage and malaria endemicity is presented. The formulation is parameterized based on a model of malaria epidemiology (Smith et al. Trends Parasitol 25:511-516, 2009). By parameterizing the ABC based on this model, the ABC as used in this paper is proxy for the steady-state malaria burden given the current level of bed net coverage. Data on the bed net coverage in under five year olds and malaria endemicity in 23 Sub-Saharan countries is used to show that the ABC prioritizes

  9. Analysis of aeromedical retrieval coverage using elliptical isochrones: An evaluation of helicopter fleet size configurations in Scotland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodds, Naomi; Emerson, Philip; Phillips, Stephanie; Green, David R; Jansen, Jan O

    2017-03-01

    Trauma systems in remote and rural regions often rely on helicopter emergency medical services to facilitate access to definitive care. The siting of such resources is key, but often relies on simplistic modeling of coverage, using circular isochrones. Scotland is in the process of implementing a national trauma network, and there have been calls for an expansion of aeromedical retrieval capacity. The aim of this study was to analyze population and area coverage of the current retrieval service configuration, with three aircraft, and a configuration with an additional helicopter, in the North East of Scotland, using a novel methodology. Both overall coverage and coverage by physician-staffed aircraft, with enhanced clinical capability, were analyzed. This was a geographical analysis based on calculation of elliptical isochrones, which consider the "open-jaw" configuration of many retrieval flights. Helicopters are not always based at hospitals. We modeled coverage based on different outbound and inbound flights. Areally referenced population data were obtained from the Scottish Government. The current helicopter network configuration provides 94.2% population coverage and 59.0% area coverage. The addition of a fourth helicopter would marginally increase population coverage to 94.4% and area coverage to 59.1%. However, when considering only physician-manned aircraft, the current configuration provides only 71.7% population coverage and 29.4% area coverage, which would be increased to 91.1% and 51.2%, respectively, with a second aircraft. Scotland's current helicopter network configuration provides good population coverage for retrievals to major trauma centers, which would only be increased minimally by the addition of a fourth aircraft in the North East. The coverage provided by the single physician-staffed aircraft is more limited, however, and would be increased considerably by a second physician-staffed aircraft in the North East. Elliptical isochrones provide a

  10. Super-Eddington accretion on to the neutron star NGC 7793 P13: Broad-band X-ray spectroscopy and ultraluminous X-ray sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, D. J.; Fürst, F.; Harrison, F. A.; Stern, D.; Bachetti, M.; Barret, D.; Brightman, M.; Fabian, A. C.; Middleton, M. J.; Ptak, A.; Tao, L.

    2018-02-01

    We present a detailed, broad-band X-ray spectral analysis of the ultraluminous X-ray source (ULX) pulsar NGC 7793 P13, a known super-Eddington source, utilizing data from the XMM-Newton, NuSTAR and Chandra observatories. The broad-band XMM-Newton+NuSTAR spectrum of P13 is qualitatively similar to the rest of the ULX sample with broad-band coverage, suggesting that additional ULXs in the known population may host neutron star accretors. Through time-averaged, phase-resolved and multi-epoch studies, we find that two non-pulsed thermal blackbody components with temperatures ∼0.5 and 1.5 keV are required to fit the data below 10 keV, in addition to a third continuum component which extends to higher energies and is associated with the pulsed emission from the accretion column. The characteristic radii of the thermal components appear to be comparable, and are too large to be associated with the neutron star itself, so the need for two components likely indicates the accretion flow outside the magnetosphere is complex. We suggest a scenario in which the thick inner disc expected for super-Eddington accretion begins to form, but is terminated by the neutron star's magnetic field soon after its onset, implying a limit of B ≲ 6 × 1012 G for the dipolar component of the central neutron star's magnetic field. Evidence of similar termination of the disc in other sources may offer a further means of identifying additional neutron star ULXs. Finally, we examine the spectrum exhibited by P13 during one of its unusual 'off' states. These data require both a hard power-law component, suggesting residual accretion on to the neutron star, and emission from a thermal plasma, which we argue is likely associated with the P13 system.

  11. Length and coverage of inhibitory decision rules

    KAUST Repository

    Alsolami, Fawaz

    2012-01-01

    Authors present algorithms for optimization of inhibitory rules relative to the length and coverage. Inhibitory rules have a relation "attribute ≠ value" on the right-hand side. The considered algorithms are based on extensions of dynamic programming. Paper contains also comparison of length and coverage of inhibitory rules constructed by a greedy algorithm and by the dynamic programming algorithm. © 2012 Springer-Verlag.

  12. Insurance Coverage Policies for Personalized Medicine

    OpenAIRE

    Andrew Hresko; Haga, Susanne B.

    2012-01-01

    Adoption of personalized medicine in practice has been slow, in part due to the lack of evidence of clinical benefit provided by these technologies. Coverage by insurers is a critical step in achieving widespread adoption of personalized medicine. Insurers consider a variety of factors when formulating medical coverage policies for personalized medicine, including the overall strength of evidence for a test, availability of clinical guidelines and health technology assessments by independent ...

  13. Limited Deposit Insurance Coverage and Bank Competition

    OpenAIRE

    SHY, Oz; Stenbacka, Rune; Yankov, Vladimir

    2014-01-01

    Deposit insurance schemes in many countries place a limit on the coverage of deposits in each bank. However, no limits are placed on the number of accounts held with different banks. Therefore, under limited deposit insurance, some consumers open accounts with different banks to achieve higher or full deposit insurance coverage. We compare three regimes of deposit insurance: No deposit insurance, unlimited deposit insurance, and limited deposit insurance. We show that limited deposit insuranc...

  14. St. Lukes' Survey on vaccination coverage

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To conf"1rID this very low coverage, a survey was done in the 5 km catchment area around the hospital. ... immunised; 13 (2.1%) had lost their card; 3 (0.5%) had partial immunisation and 2 (0.3%) had not received any ... St. Lukes hospital it was found that the already low estimated vaccine coverage of 57% for 1989, had.

  15. Dermal Coverage of Traumatic War Wounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    healing/non-healing of wound and donor site • Graft loss • Heterotrophic ossification • Infection • Scar contracture • Durability (i.e. abrasions/ injuries ...AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-13-2-0004 TITLE: "Dermal Coverage of Traumatic War Wounds ” PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Dr. Leon Nesti CONTRACTING...REPORT DATE January 2017 2. REPORT TYPE Final 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 31 Oct 2012- 30 Oct 2016 " Dermal Coverage of Traumatic War Wounds ” 5a

  16. Molecular evolution of broadly neutralizing Llama antibodies to the CD4-binding site of HIV-1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura E McCoy

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available To date, no immunization of humans or animals has elicited broadly neutralizing sera able to prevent HIV-1 transmission; however, elicitation of broad and potent heavy chain only antibodies (HCAb has previously been reported in llamas. In this study, the anti-HIV immune responses in immunized llamas were studied via deep sequencing analysis using broadly neutralizing monoclonal HCAbs as a guides. Distinct neutralizing antibody lineages were identified in each animal, including two defined by novel antibodies (as variable regions called VHH identified by robotic screening of over 6000 clones. The combined application of five VHH against viruses from clades A, B, C and CRF_AG resulted in neutralization as potent as any of the VHH individually and a predicted 100% coverage with a median IC50 of 0.17 µg/ml for the panel of 60 viruses tested. Molecular analysis of the VHH repertoires of two sets of immunized animals showed that each neutralizing lineage was only observed following immunization, demonstrating that they were elicited de novo. Our results show that immunization can induce potent and broadly neutralizing antibodies in llamas with features similar to human antibodies and provide a framework to analyze the effectiveness of immunization protocols.

  17. Terminal Pleistocene Alaskan genome reveals first founding population of Native Americans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moreno-Mayar, J Víctor; Potter, Ben A; Vinner, Lasse

    2017-01-01

    Pleistocene Alaska are important to resolving the timing and dispersal of these populations. The remains of two infants were recovered at Upward Sun River (USR), and have been dated to around 11.5 thousand years ago (ka). Here, by sequencing the USR1 genome to an average coverage of approximately 17 times, we......Despite broad agreement that the Americas were initially populated via Beringia, the land bridge that connected far northeast Asia with northwestern North America during the Pleistocene epoch, when and how the peopling of the Americas occurred remains unresolved. Analyses of human remains from Late...... show that USR1 is most closely related to Native Americans, but falls basal to all previously sequenced contemporary and ancient Native Americans. As such, USR1 represents a distinct Ancient Beringian population. Using demographic modelling, we infer that the Ancient Beringian population and ancestors...

  18. Welfare reform and older immigrants' health insurance coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Yunju

    2008-11-01

    I examined changes in older immigrants' health insurance coverage after welfare reform in the United States to determine whether the reform measures achieved their goal of saving money by reducing Medicaid participation without increasing the number of uninsured people. Data were obtained from older adults who participated in the Current Population Survey's Annual Social and Economic Supplement from 1994 to 1996 and 2001 to 2005. I used logistic regression to estimate changes in the sample's Medicaid and health insurance coverage after welfare reform, paying special attention to noncitizens and recent immigrants. Older immigrants' health insurance status was associated with their citizenship status and length of stay in the United States. Medicaid participation significantly decreased among noncitizens and recent immigrants but increased among naturalized citizens. Private health insurance and employer-sponsored insurance coverage significantly increased among recent immigrants but decreased among established immigrants and naturalized citizens. The probability of being uninsured did not significantly change among any group of immigrants. Given increases in postreform Medicaid participation among some immigrant groups, my findings suggest that the long-term cost-saving effectiveness of the current restrictive Medicaid eligibility policy is doubtful.

  19. Cooperative Cloud Service Aware Mobile Internet Coverage Connectivity Guarantee Protocol Based on Sensor Opportunistic Coverage Mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qin Qin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to improve the Internet coverage ratio and provide connectivity guarantee, based on sensor opportunistic coverage mechanism and cooperative cloud service, we proposed the coverage connectivity guarantee protocol for mobile Internet. In this scheme, based on the opportunistic covering rules, the network coverage algorithm of high reliability and real-time security was achieved by using the opportunity of sensor nodes and the Internet mobile node. Then, the cloud service business support platform is created based on the Internet application service management capabilities and wireless sensor network communication service capabilities, which is the architecture of the cloud support layer. The cooperative cloud service aware model was proposed. Finally, we proposed the mobile Internet coverage connectivity guarantee protocol. The results of experiments demonstrate that the proposed algorithm has excellent performance, in terms of the security of the Internet and the stability, as well as coverage connectivity ability.

  20. Explaining public support (or lack thereof) for extending health coverage to undocumented immigrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Gabriel R; Sanchez-Youngman, Shannon; Murphy, Amelia A; Goodin, Amy Sue; Santos, Richard; Valdez, R Burciaga

    2011-05-01

    While the recent passage of health care reform is estimated to provide millions of currently uninsured Americans with access to health coverage, undocumented immigrants are excluded from federal mandates. Since federal reform excludes undocumented immigrants, state governments will largely decide the fate of this vulnerable population. This article investigates public support for including undocumented immigrants in state health care reform efforts in New Mexico. Understanding the public's perception of extending health coverage to this population is important because public opinion influences health policy formation at the state and federal levels. Our results suggest that there is little support for including undocumented immigrants (or recent migrants from other parts of the United States) in state health care reform, particularly when compared with other segments of the New Mexican population, such as the homeless or unemployed. Our discussion highlights the economic and public health consequences of excluding undocumented immigrants from coverage options.

  1. Hysterectomy and its impact on the calculated incidence of cervical cancer and screening coverage in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lam, Janni Uyen Hoa; Lynge, Elsebeth; Njor, Sisse Helle

    2015-01-01

    , the incidence rate of cervical cancer and the screening coverage for women aged 23-64 years on 31 December 2010 were calculated with and without adjustments for hysterectomies undertaken for reasons other than cervical cancer. They were calculated as the number of cases divided by 1) the total number of woman......BACKGROUND: The incidence rates of cervical cancer and the coverage in cervical cancer screening are usually reported by including in the denominator all women from the general population. However, after hysterectomy women are not at risk anymore of developing cervical cancer. Therefore, it makes...... sense to determine the indicators also for the true at-risk populations. We described the frequency of total hysterectomy in Denmark and its impact on the calculated incidence of cervical cancer and the screening coverage. MATERIAL AND METHODS: With data from five Danish population-based registries...

  2. “Mind the Gap” in Children’s Health Insurance Coverage: Does the Length of a Child’s Coverage Gap Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeVoe, Jennifer E.; Graham, Alan; Krois, Lisa; Smith, Jeanene; Fairbrother, Gerry L.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Gaps in health insurance coverage compromise access to health care services, but it is unclear whether the length of time without coverage is an important factor. This article examines how coverage gaps of different lengths affect access to health care among low-income children. Methods We conducted a multivariable, cross-sectional analysis of statewide primary data from families in Oregon’s food stamp population with children presumed eligible for publicly funded health insurance. The key independent variable was length of a child’s insurance coverage gap; outcome variables were 6 measures of health care access. Results More than 25% of children reported a coverage gap during the 12-month study period. Children most likely to have a gap were older, Hispanic, lived in households earning between 133% and 185% of the federal poverty level, and/or had an employed parent. After adjusting for these characteristics, in comparison with continuously insured children, a child with a gap of any length had a higher likelihood of unmet medical, prescription, and dental needs; no usual source of care; no doctor visits in the past year; and delayed urgent care. When comparing coverage gaps, children without coverage for longer than 6 months had a higher likelihood of unmet needs compared with children with a gap shorter than 6 months. In some cases, children with gaps longer than 6 months were similar to, or worse off than, children who had never been insured. Conclusions State policies should be designed to minimize gaps in public health insurance coverage in order to ensure children’s continuous access to necessary services. PMID:18355742

  3. Prediction of Low Community Sanitation Coverage Using Environmental and Sociodemographic Factors in Amhara Region, Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oswald, William E.; Stewart, Aisha E. P.; Flanders, W. Dana; Kramer, Michael R.; Endeshaw, Tekola; Zerihun, Mulat; Melaku, Birhanu; Sata, Eshetu; Gessesse, Demelash; Teferi, Tesfaye; Tadesse, Zerihun; Guadie, Birhan; King, Jonathan D.; Emerson, Paul M.; Callahan, Elizabeth K.; Moe, Christine L.; Clasen, Thomas F.

    2016-01-01

    This study developed and validated a model for predicting the probability that communities in Amhara Region, Ethiopia, have low sanitation coverage, based on environmental and sociodemographic conditions. Community sanitation coverage was measured between 2011 and 2014 through trachoma control program evaluation surveys. Information on environmental and sociodemographic conditions was obtained from available data sources and linked with community data using a geographic information system. Logistic regression was used to identify predictors of low community sanitation coverage (sanitation coverage were mapped. Among 1,502 communities, 344 (22.90%) had coverage below 20%. The selected model included measures for high topsoil gravel content, an indicator for low-lying land, population density, altitude, and rainfall and had reasonable predictive discrimination (area under the curve = 0.75, 95% confidence interval = 0.72, 0.78). Measures of soil stability were strongly associated with low community sanitation coverage, controlling for community wealth, and other factors. A model using available environmental and sociodemographic data predicted low community sanitation coverage for areas across Amhara Region with fair discrimination. This approach could assist sanitation programs and trachoma control programs, scaling up or in hyperendemic areas, to target vulnerable areas with additional activities or alternate technologies. PMID:27430547

  4. Prediction of Low Community Sanitation Coverage Using Environmental and Sociodemographic Factors in Amhara Region, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oswald, William E; Stewart, Aisha E P; Flanders, W Dana; Kramer, Michael R; Endeshaw, Tekola; Zerihun, Mulat; Melaku, Birhanu; Sata, Eshetu; Gessesse, Demelash; Teferi, Tesfaye; Tadesse, Zerihun; Guadie, Birhan; King, Jonathan D; Emerson, Paul M; Callahan, Elizabeth K; Moe, Christine L; Clasen, Thomas F

    2016-09-07

    This study developed and validated a model for predicting the probability that communities in Amhara Region, Ethiopia, have low sanitation coverage, based on environmental and sociodemographic conditions. Community sanitation coverage was measured between 2011 and 2014 through trachoma control program evaluation surveys. Information on environmental and sociodemographic conditions was obtained from available data sources and linked with community data using a geographic information system. Logistic regression was used to identify predictors of low community sanitation coverage (sanitation coverage were mapped. Among 1,502 communities, 344 (22.90%) had coverage below 20%. The selected model included measures for high topsoil gravel content, an indicator for low-lying land, population density, altitude, and rainfall and had reasonable predictive discrimination (area under the curve = 0.75, 95% confidence interval = 0.72, 0.78). Measures of soil stability were strongly associated with low community sanitation coverage, controlling for community wealth, and other factors. A model using available environmental and sociodemographic data predicted low community sanitation coverage for areas across Amhara Region with fair discrimination. This approach could assist sanitation programs and trachoma control programs, scaling up or in hyperendemic areas, to target vulnerable areas with additional activities or alternate technologies. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  5. [Vaccination coverage in young, middle age and elderly adults in Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz-Hervert, Luis Pablo; Ferreira-Guerrero, Elizabeth; Díaz-Ortega, José Luis; Trejo-Valdivia, Belem; Téllez-Rojo, Martha María; Mongua-Rodríguez, Norma; Hernández-Serrato, María I; Montoya-Rodríguez, Airain Alejandra; García-García, Lourdes

    2013-01-01

    To estimate vaccination coverage in adults 20 years of age and older. Analysis of data obtained from the National Health and Nutrition Survey 2012. Among adults 20-59 years old coverage with complete scheme, measles and rubella (MR) and tetanus toxoid and diphtheria toxoid (Td) was 44.7,49. and 67.3%, respectively. Coverage and percentage of vaccination were significantly higher among women than men. Among women 20-49 years coverages with complete scheme, MR and Td were 48.3, 53.2 and 69.8%, respectively. Among adults 60-64 years old, coverage with complete scheme, Td and influenza vaccine were 46.5, 66.2 and 56.0%, respectively. Among adults >65 years coverages for complete scheme, Td, influenza vaccine and pneumococcal vaccine were 44.0, 69.0, 63.3 and 62.0%, respectively. Vaccination coverage among adult population as obtained from vaccination card or self-report is below optimal values although data may be underestimated. Recommendations for improvements are proposed.

  6. Vaccination Coverage Cluster Surveys in Middle Dreib - Akkar, Lebanon: Comparison of Vaccination Coverage in Children Aged 12-59 Months Pre- and Post-Vaccination Campaign.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodolfo Rossi

    Full Text Available With the high proportion of refugee population throughout Lebanon and continuous population movement, it is sensible to believe that, in particular vulnerable areas, vaccination coverage may not be at an optimal level. Therefore, we assessed the vaccination coverage in children under 5 in a district of the Akkar governorate before and after a vaccination campaign. During the vaccination campaign, conducted in August 2015, 2,509 children were vaccinated.We conducted a pre- and post-vaccination campaign coverage surveys adapting the WHO EPI cluster survey to the Lebanese MoPH vaccination calendar. Percentages of coverage for each dose of each vaccine were calculated for both surveys. Factors associated with complete vaccination were explored.Comparing the pre- with the post-campaign surveys, coverage for polio vaccine increased from 51.9% to 84.3%, for Pentavalent from 49.0% to 71.9%, for MMR from 36.2% to 61.0%, while the percentage of children with fully updated vaccination calendar increased from 32.9% to 53.8%. While Lebanese children were found to be better covered for some antigens compared to Syrians at the first survey, this difference disappeared at the post-campaign survey. Awareness and logistic obstacles were the primary reported causes of not complete vaccination in both surveys.Vaccination campaigns remain a quick and effective approach to increase vaccination coverage in crisis-affected areas. However, campaigns cannot be considered as a replacement of routine vaccination services to maintain a good level of coverage.

  7. Cervical cancer screening policies and coverage in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anttila, Ahti; von Karsa, Lawrence; Aasmaa, Auni

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the study was to compare current policy, organisation and coverage of cervical cancer screening programmes in the European Union (EU) member states with European and other international recommendations. According to the questionnaire-based survey, there are large variations in cervical...... with education, training and communication among women, medical professionals and authorities are required, accordingly. The study indicates that, despite substantial efforts, the recommendations of the Council of the EU on organised population-based screening for cervical cancer are not yet fulfilled. Decision......-makers and health service providers should consider stronger measures or incentives in order to improve cervical cancer control in Europe....

  8. A HIGH COVERAGE GENOME SEQUENCE FROM AN ARCHAIC DENISOVAN INDIVIDUAL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Matthias; Kircher, Martin; Gansauge, Marie-Theres; Li, Heng; Racimo, Fernando; Mallick, Swapan; Schraiber, Joshua G.; Jay, Flora; Prüfer, Kay; de Filippo, Cesare; Sudmant, Peter H.; Alkan, Can; Fu, Qiaomei; Do, Ron; Rohland, Nadin; Tandon, Arti; Siebauer, Michael; Green, Richard E.; Bryc, Katarzyna; Briggs, Adrian W.; Stenzel, Udo; Dabney, Jesse; Shendure, Jay; Kitzman, Jacob; Hammer, Michael F.; Shunkov, Michael V.; Derevianko, Anatoli P.; Patterson, Nick; Andrés, Aida M.; Eichler, Evan E.; Slatkin, Montgomery; Reich, David; Kelso, Janet; Pääbo, Svante

    2013-01-01

    We present a DNA library preparation method that has allowed us to reconstruct a high coverage (30X) genome sequence of a Denisovan, an extinct relative of Neandertals. The quality of this genome allows a direct estimation of Denisovan heterozygosity indicating that genetic diversity in these archaic hominins was extremely low. It also allows tentative dating of the specimen on the basis of “missing evolution” in its genome, detailed measurements of Denisovan and Neandertal admixture into present-day human populations, and the generation of a near-complete catalog of genetic changes that swept to high frequency in modern humans since their divergence from Denisovans. PMID:22936568

  9. Does media coverage influence the spread of drug addiction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Mingju; Liu, Sanyang; Li, Jun

    2017-09-01

    In this paper, a three dimensional drug model is constructed to investigate the impact of media coverage on the spread and control of drug addiction. The dynamical behavior of the model is studied by using the basic reproduction number R0. The drug-free equilibrium is globally asymptotically stable if R0 addiction equilibrium is locally stable if R0 > 1. The results demonstrate that the media effect in human population cannot change the stabilities of equilibria but can affect the number of drug addicts. Sensitivity analyses are performed to seek for effective control measures for drug treatment. Numerical simulations are given to support the theoretical results.

  10. Near visual impairment and spectacle coverage in Telangana, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marmamula, Srinivas; Khanna, Rohit C; Kunuku, Eswararao; Rao, Gullapalli N

    2017-08-01

    The study highlights the burden of near visual impairment (NVI) in India. NVI is a common condition that can be addressed through provision of spectacles. The study aims to assess the prevalence of NVI and spectacle coverage among those aged ≥40 years in south Indian state of Telangana. Population-based cross-sectional study using a rapid assessment methodology. Five thousand one hundred forty participants enumerated from 123 clusters in two districts and have presenting distance visual acuity of ≥6/18 in the better eye. Presenting near vision was assessed binocularly at a fixed distance of 40 cm using a log MAR chart with tumbling E optotypes in ambient lighting conditions. If the presenting near vision was worse than 6/12 (log MAR 0.3), then it was re-assessed with addition lens appropriate to the age. NVI was defined as binocular presenting near vision worse than 6/12. Prevalence of NVI and spectacle coverage. The mean age of the participants was 51.1 years (standard deviation: 9.3 years), and 46.5% (n = 2392) were women. About 80% (n = 4142) of them had no education, and 21.9% (n = 1126) were using spectacles for near vision. Nearly half of the participants were from Adilabad district (n = 2665). The prevalence of NVI was 58.3% (95% confidence interval: 56.9-59.6). NVI was associated with older age groups, male gender and no education. The spectacle coverage was 26.5%. NVI is common in rural Telangana with low spectacle coverage. Service delivery programs should use a multi-pronged approach to address the burden of NVI. © 2017 Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Ophthalmologists.

  11. An Analysis of BBC Television Coverage of the 2014 Invictus Games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirazipour, Celina H; Meehan, Madelaine; Latimer-Cheung, Amy E

    2017-01-01

    The Invictus Games are a parasport competition for service members and veterans with illnesses and injuries. The 2014 Games were aired by the BBC, for a total of 12 hr of coverage. This study aimed to investigate what messages were conveyed regarding parasport for veterans during the BBC's Invictus Games broadcast. A content analysis was conducted. Five qualitative themes were identified: sport as rehabilitation, the promotion of ability over disability, the social environment, key outcomes of participation, and the importance of competition. Quantitative results indicated that 2 segment types accounted for the majority of the broadcast: sport coverage (50.57%) and athlete experiences (12.56%). Around half of the coverage focused on participants with a physical disability (51.62%). The findings demonstrate key similarities to and differences from previous explorations of parasport media coverage, with the needs of the event and athlete population potentially influencing the broadcast.

  12. Broader health coverage is good for the nation's health: evidence from country level panel data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Serra, Rodrigo; Smith, Peter C

    2015-01-01

    Progress towards universal health coverage involves providing people with access to needed health services without entailing financial hardship and is often advocated on the grounds that it improves population health. The paper offers econometric evidence on the effects of health coverage on mortality outcomes at the national level. We use a large panel data set of countries, examined by using instrumental variable specifications that explicitly allow for potential reverse causality and unobserved country-specific characteristics. We employ various proxies for the coverage level in a health system. Our results indicate that expanded health coverage, particularly through higher levels of publicly funded health spending, results in lower child and adult mortality, with the beneficial effect on child mortality being larger in poorer countries.

  13. SVSVGMKPSPRP: a broad range adhesion peptide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estephan, Elias; Dao, Jérôme; Saab, Marie-Belle; Panayotov, Ivan; Martin, Marta; Larroque, Christian; Gergely, Csilla; Cuisinier, Frédéric J G; Levallois, Bernard

    2012-12-01

    A combinatorial phage display approach was previously used to evolve a 12-mer peptide (SVSVGMKPSPRP) with the highest affinity for different semiconductor surfaces. The discovery of the multiple occurrences of the SVSVGMKPSPRP sequence in an all-against-all basic local alignment search tool search of PepBank sequences was unexpected, and a Google search using the peptide sequence recovered 58 results concerning 12 patents and 16 scientific publications. The number of patent and articles indicates that the peptide is perhaps a broad range adhesion peptide. To evaluate peptide properties, we conducted a study to investigate peptide adhesion on different inorganic substrates by mass spectrometry and atomic force microscopy for gold, carbon nanotubes, cobalt, chrome alloy, titanium, and titanium alloy substrates. Our results showed that the peptide has a great potential as a linker to functionalize metallic surfaces if specificity is not a key factor. This peptide is not specific to a particular metal surface, but it is a good linker for the functionalization of a wide range of metallic materials. The fact that this peptide has the potential to adsorb on a large set of inorganic surfaces suggests novel promising directions for further investigation. Affinity determination of SVSVGMKPSPRP peptide would be an important issue for eventual commercial uses.

  14. Broad-Band Activatable White-Opsin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subrata Batabyal

    Full Text Available Currently, the use of optogenetic sensitization of retinal cells combined with activation/inhibition has the potential to be an alternative to retinal implants that would require electrodes inside every single neuron for high visual resolution. However, clinical translation of optogenetic activation for restoration of vision suffers from the drawback that the narrow spectral sensitivity of an opsin requires active stimulation by a blue laser or a light emitting diode with much higher intensities than ambient light. In order to allow an ambient light-based stimulation paradigm, we report the development of a 'white-opsin' that has broad spectral excitability in the visible spectrum. The cells sensitized with white-opsin showed excitability at an order of magnitude higher with white light compared to using only narrow-band light components. Further, cells sensitized with white-opsin produced a photocurrent that was five times higher than Channelrhodopsin-2 under similar photo-excitation conditions. The use of fast white-opsin may allow opsin-sensitized neurons in a degenerated retina to exhibit a higher sensitivity to ambient white light. This property, therefore, significantly lowers the activation threshold in contrast to conventional approaches that use intense narrow-band opsins and light to activate cellular stimulation.

  15. Seasonal influenza vaccination coverage and its determinants among nursing homes personnel in western France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christelle Elias

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Influenza-associated deaths is an important risk for the elderly in nursing homes (NHs worldwide. Vaccination coverage among residents is high but poorly effective due to immunosenescence. Hence, vaccination of personnel is an efficient way to protect residents. Our objective was to quantify the seasonal influenza vaccination (IV coverage among NH for elderly workers and identify its determinants in France. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study in March 2016 in a randomized sample of NHs of the Ille-et-Vilaine department of Brittany, in western France. A standardized questionnaire was administered to a randomized sample of NH workers for face-to-face interviews. General data about the establishment was also collected. Results Among the 33 NHs surveyed, IV coverage for the 2015–2016 season among permanent workers was estimated at 20% (95% Confidence Interval (CI 15.3%–26.4% ranging from 0% to 69% depending on the establishments surveyed. Moreover, IV was associated with having previously experienced a “severe” influenza episode in the past (Prevalence Ratio 1.48, 95% CI 1.01–2.17, and varied by professional categories (p < 0.004 with better coverage among administrative staff. Better knowledge about influenza prevention tools was also correlated (p < 0.001 with a higher IV coverage. Individual perceptions of vaccination benefits had a significant influence on the IV coverage (p < 0.001. Although IV coverage did not reach a high rate, our study showed that personnel considered themselves sufficiently informed about IV. Conclusions IV coverage remains low in the NH worker population in Ille-et-Vilaine and also possibly in France. Strong variations of IV coverage among NHs suggest that management and working environment play an important role. To overcome vaccine “hesitancy”, specific communication tools may be required to be adapted to the various NH professionals to improve influenza prevention.

  16. Examining levels, distribution and correlates of health insurance coverage in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazungu, Jacob S; Barasa, Edwine W

    2017-09-01

    To examine the levels, inequalities and factors associated with health insurance coverage in Kenya. We analysed secondary data from the Kenya Demographic and Health Survey (KDHS) conducted in 2009 and 2014. We examined the level of health insurance coverage overall, and by type, using an asset index to categorise households into five socio-economic quintiles with quintile 5 (Q5) being the richest and quintile 1 (Q1) being the poorest. The high-low ratio (Q5/Q1 ratio), concentration curve and concentration index (CIX) were employed to assess inequalities in health insurance coverage, and logistic regression to examine correlates of health insurance coverage. Overall health insurance coverage increased from 8.17% to 19.59% between 2009 and 2014. There was high inequality in overall health insurance coverage, even though this inequality decreased between 2009 (Q5/Q1 ratio of 31.21, CIX = 0.61, 95% CI 0.52-0.0.71) and 2014 (Q5/Q1 ratio 12.34, CIX = 0.49, 95% CI 0.45-0.52). Individuals that were older, employed in the formal sector; married, exposed to media; and male, belonged to a small household, had a chronic disease and belonged to rich households, had increased odds of health insurance coverage. Health insurance coverage in Kenya remains low and is characterised by significant inequality. In a context where over 80% of the population is in the informal sector, and close to 50% live below the national poverty line, achieving high and equitable coverage levels with contributory and voluntary health insurance mechanism is problematic. Kenya should consider a universal, tax-funded mechanism that ensures revenues are equitably and efficiently collected, and everyone (including the poor and those in the informal sector) is covered. © 2017 The Authors. Tropical Medicine & International Health published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Financing universal coverage in Malaysia: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chua, Hong Teck; Cheah, Julius Chee Ho

    2012-01-01

    One of the challenges to maintain an agenda for universal coverage and equitable health system is to develop effective structuring and management of health financing. Global experiences with different systems of health financing suggests that a strong public role in health financing is essential for health systems to protect the poor and health systems with the strongest state role are likely the more equitable and achieve better aggregate health outcomes. Using Malaysia as a case study, this paper seeks to evaluate the progress and capacity of a middle income country in terms of health financing for universal coverage, and also to highlight some of the key underlying health systems challenges.The WHO Health Financing Strategy for the Asia Pacific Region (2010-2015) was used as the framework to evaluate the Malaysian healthcare financing system in terms of the provision of universal coverage for the population, and the Malaysian National Health Accounts (2008) provided the latest Malaysian data on health spending. Measuring against the four target indicators outlined, Malaysia fared credibly with total health expenditure close to 5% of its GDP (4.75%), out-of-pocket payment below 40% of total health expenditure (30.7%), comprehensive social safety nets for vulnerable populations, and a tax-based financing system that fundamentally poses as a national risk-pooled scheme for the population.Nonetheless, within a holistic systems framework, the financing component interacts synergistically with other health system spheres. In Malaysia, outmigration of public health workers particularly specialist doctors remains an issue and financing strategies critically needs to incorporate a comprehensive workforce compensation strategy to improve the health workforce skill mix. Health expenditure information is systematically collated, but feedback from the private sector remains a challenge. Service delivery-wise, there is a need to enhance financing capacity to expand preventive

  18. Arctic Change Information for a Broad Audience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soreide, N. N.; Overland, J. E.; Calder, J.

    2002-12-01

    Demonstrable environmental changes have occurred in the Arctic over the past three decades. NOAA's Arctic Theme Page is a rich resource web site focused on high latitude studies and the Arctic, with links to widely distributed data and information focused on the Arctic. Included is a collection of essays on relevant topics by experts in Arctic research. The website has proven useful to a wide audience, including scientists, students, teachers, decision makers and the general public, as indicated through recognition by USA Today, Science magazine, etc. (http://www.arctic.noaa.gov) Working jointly with NSF and the University of Washington's Polar Science Center as part of the Study of Environmental Arctic Change (SEARCH) program, NOAA has developed a website for access to pan-Arctic time series spanning diverse data types including climate indices, atmospheric, oceanic, sea ice, terrestrial, biological and fisheries. Modest analysis functions and more detailed analysis results are provided. (http://www.unaami.noaa.gov/). This paper will describe development of an Artic Change Detection status website to provide a direct and comprehensive view of previous and ongoing change in the Arctic for a broad climate community. For example, composite metrics are developed using principal component analysis based on 86 multivariate pan-Arctic time series for seven data types. Two of these metrics can be interpreted as a regime change/trend component and an interdecadal component. Changes can also be visually observed through tracking of 28 separate biophysical indicators. Results will be presented in the form of a web site with relevant, easily understood, value-added knowledge backed by peer review from Arctic scientists and scientific journals.

  19. Feedback from Broad Absorption Line Quasars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chartas, George; Saez, C.

    2008-03-01

    The fraction of the total bolometric energy released over an AGN's lifetime into the ISM and IGM in the form kinetic energy injection scales as the outflow velocity to the third power so we expect that powerful broad absorption line (BAL) quasars may have mass outflow rates that are large enough to influence significantly the formation of the host galaxy and to regulate the growth of the central black hole. One of the most promising radio quiet quasars for studying the properties of the outflow is the lensed BAL quasar APM 08279+5255. The large flux magnification by a factor of about 100 provided by the gravitational lens effect combined with the large redshift (z = 3.91) of the quasar have provided the highest S/N X-ray spectra of a quasar containing X-ray BALs. We present results from recent monitoring observations of APM 08279+5255. performed with the Suzaku, XMM-Newton and Chandra observatories. Significant variability of the X-ray BALs is detected on timescales as short as 4 days (proper time) implying launching radii of about 6 times the Schwarzschild radius. The fitted width of the X-ray absorption troughs imply a large gradient in the outflow velocity of the X-ray absorbers with projected outflow velocities of up to 0.5c. The notch-like shape of the detected X-ray BALs are similar to those produced in recent numerical simulations (i.e. Schurch & Done 2007) that include radiative transfer calculations through highly ionized X-ray absorbers outflowing at near relativistic velocities. We provide preliminary constraints of the outflows properties.

  20. Performance of Amblyseius herbicolus on broad mites and on castor bean and sunnhemp pollen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Cruz, Fredy Alexander; Venzon, Madelaine; Pinto, Cleide Maria Ferreira

    2013-08-01

    Amblyseius herbicolus (Banks) is found associated with broad mites Polyphagotarsonemus latus in crops such as chili pepper in Brazil. The species has a potential for controlling P. latus, but little is known about its development and reproduction on this pest as well as on other food sources. We studied biological, reproductive and life table parameters of A. herbicolus on three different diets: broad mites, castor bean pollen (Ricinus communis) and sunnhemp pollen (Crotalaria juncea). The predator was able to develop and reproduce on all diets. However, its intrinsic growth rate was higher on the diet of broad mites or on castor bean pollen than on sunnhemp pollen. Differences among pollen species may be due to their nutritional content. Feeding on alternative food such as pollen can facilitate the predator's mass rearing and maintain its population on crops when prey is absent or scarce. Other strategies of using pollen to sustain predator population and reduce pest damage are discussed.

  1. Convergence of broad-scale migration strategies in terrestrial birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Sorte, Frank A; Fink, Daniel; Hochachka, Wesley M; Kelling, Steve

    2016-01-27

    Migration is a common strategy used by birds that breed in seasonal environments. Selection for greater migration efficiency is likely to be stronger for terrestrial species whose migration strategies require non-stop transoceanic crossings. If multiple species use the same transoceanic flyway, then we expect the migration strategies of these species to converge geographically towards the most optimal solution. We test this by examining population-level migration trajectories within the Western Hemisphere for 118 migratory species using occurrence information from eBird. Geographical convergence of migration strategies was evident within specific terrestrial regions where geomorphological features such as mountains or isthmuses constrained overland migration. Convergence was also evident for transoceanic migrants that crossed the Gulf of Mexico or Atlantic Ocean. Here, annual population-level movements were characterized by clockwise looped trajectories, which resulted in faster but more circuitous journeys in the spring and more direct journeys in the autumn. These findings suggest that the unique constraints and requirements associated with transoceanic migration have promoted the spatial convergence of migration strategies. The combination of seasonal atmospheric and environmental conditions that has facilitated the use of similar broad-scale migration strategies may be especially prone to disruption under climate and land-use change. © 2016 The Author(s).

  2. MICROLENSING OF QUASAR BROAD EMISSION LINES: CONSTRAINTS ON BROAD LINE REGION SIZE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guerras, E.; Mediavilla, E. [Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias, Via Lactea S/N, La Laguna E-38200, Tenerife (Spain); Jimenez-Vicente, J. [Departamento de Fisica Teorica y del Cosmos, Universidad de Granada, Campus de Fuentenueva, E-18071 Granada (Spain); Kochanek, C. S. [Department of Astronomy and the Center for Cosmology and Astroparticle Physics, The Ohio State University, 4055 McPherson Lab, 140 West 18th Avenue, Columbus, OH 43221 (United States); Munoz, J. A. [Departamento de Astronomia y Astrofisica, Universidad de Valencia, E-46100 Burjassot, Valencia (Spain); Falco, E. [Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Motta, V. [Departamento de Fisica y Astronomia, Universidad de Valparaiso, Avda. Gran Bretana 1111, Valparaiso (Chile)

    2013-02-20

    We measure the differential microlensing of the broad emission lines between 18 quasar image pairs in 16 gravitational lenses. We find that the broad emission lines are in general weakly microlensed. The results show, at a modest level of confidence (1.8{sigma}), that high ionization lines such as C IV are more strongly microlensed than low ionization lines such as H{beta}, indicating that the high ionization line emission regions are more compact. If we statistically model the distribution of microlensing magnifications, we obtain estimates for the broad line region size of r{sub s} = 24{sup +22} {sub -15} and r{sub s} = 55{sup +150} {sub -35} lt-day (90% confidence) for the high and low ionization lines, respectively. When the samples are divided into higher and lower luminosity quasars, we find that the line emission regions of more luminous quasars are larger, with a slope consistent with the expected scaling from photoionization models. Our estimates also agree well with the results from local reveberation mapping studies.

  3. Conceptualising the lack of health insurance coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, J B

    2000-01-01

    This paper examines the lack of health insurance coverage in the US as a public policy issue. It first compares the problem of health insurance coverage to the problem of unemployment to show that in terms of the numbers of individuals affected lack of health insurance is a problem comparable in importance to the problem of unemployment. Secondly, the paper discusses the methodology involved in measuring health insurance coverage, and argues that the current method of estimation of the uninsured underestimates the extent that individuals go without health insurance. Third, the paper briefly introduces Amartya Sen's functioning and capabilities framework to suggest a way of representing the extent to which individuals are uninsured. Fourth, the paper sketches a means of operationalizing the Sen representation of the uninsured in terms of the disability-adjusted life year (DALY) measure.

  4. Resolution, coverage, and geometry beyond traditional limits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ronen, Shuki; Ferber, Ralf

    1998-12-31

    The presentation relates to the optimization of the image of seismic data and improved resolution and coverage of acquired data. Non traditional processing methods such as inversion to zero offset (IZO) are used. To realize the potential of saving acquisition cost by reducing in-fill and to plan resolution improvement by processing, geometry QC methods such as DMO Dip Coverage Spectrum (DDCS) and Bull`s Eyes Analysis are used. The DDCS is a 2-D spectrum whose entries consist of the DMO (Dip Move Out) coverage for a particular reflector specified by it`s true time dip and reflector normal strike. The Bull`s Eyes Analysis relies on real time processing of synthetic data generated with the real geometry. 4 refs., 6 figs.

  5. Endorsement of universal health coverage financial principles in Burkina Faso.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agier, Isabelle; Ly, Antarou; Kadio, Kadidiatou; Kouanda, Seni; Ridde, Valéry

    2016-02-01

    In West Africa, health system funding rarely involves cross-subsidization among population segments. In some countries, a few community-based or professional health insurance programs are present, but coverage is very low. The financial principles underlying universal health coverage (UHC) sustainability and solidarity are threefold: 1) anticipation of potential health risks; 2) risk sharing and; 3) socio-economic status solidarity. In Burkina Faso, where decision-makers are favorable to national health insurance, we measured endorsement of these principles and discerned which management configurations would achieve the greatest adherence. We used a sequential exploratory design. In a qualitative step (9 interviews, 12 focus groups), we adapted an instrument proposed by Goudge et al. (2012) to the local context and addressed desirability bias. Then, in a quantitative step (1255 respondents from the general population), we measured endorsement. Thematic analysis (qualitative) and logistic regressions (quantitative) were used. High levels of endorsement were found for each principle. Actual practices showed that anticipation and risk sharing were not only intentions. Preferences were given to solidarity between socio-economic status (SES) levels and progressivity. Although respondents seemed to prefer the national level for implementation, their current solidarity practices were mainly focused on close family. Thus, contribution levels should be set so that the entire family benefits from healthcare. Some critical conditions must be met to make UHC financial principles a reality through health insurance in Burkina Faso: trust, fair and mandatory contributions, and education. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  6. Coverage statistics for sequence census methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evans Steven N

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We study the statistical properties of fragment coverage in genome sequencing experiments. In an extension of the classic Lander-Waterman model, we consider the effect of the length distribution of fragments. We also introduce a coding of the shape of the coverage depth function as a tree and explain how this can be used to detect regions with anomalous coverage. This modeling perspective is especially germane to current high-throughput sequencing experiments, where both sample preparation protocols and sequencing technology particulars can affect fragment length distributions. Results Under the mild assumptions that fragment start sites are Poisson distributed and successive fragment lengths are independent and identically distributed, we observe that, regardless of fragment length distribution, the fragments produced in a sequencing experiment can be viewed as resulting from a two-dimensional spatial Poisson process. We then study the successive jumps of the coverage function, and show that they can be encoded as a random tree that is approximately a Galton-Watson tree with generation-dependent geometric offspring distributions whose parameters can be computed. Conclusions We extend standard analyses of shotgun sequencing that focus on coverage statistics at individual sites, and provide a null model for detecting deviations from random coverage in high-throughput sequence census based experiments. Our approach leads to explicit determinations of the null distributions of certain test statistics, while for others it greatly simplifies the approximation of their null distributions by simulation. Our focus on fragments also leads to a new approach to visualizing sequencing data that is of independent interest.

  7. The nature of newspaper coverage of homicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, C A; Sorenson, S B

    2002-06-01

    Previous research has shown that some homicides are more likely than others to receive newspaper coverage (for example, homicides by strangers). The present investigation examined whether, once the decision has been made to report on a homicide, the nature of the coverage (that is, how much visibility is given to a story, what information is included, and how a story is written) differs according to two key variables, victim ethnicity, and victim-suspect relationship. Los Angeles, California (USA). Homicide articles from the 1990-94 issues of the Los Angeles Times were stratified according to the predictors of interest (victim ethnicity and victim-suspect relationship) and a sample was drawn. Data that characterized two primary aspects of newspaper coverage, prominence and story framing (including background information, story focus, use of opinions, story tone, and "hook" or leading introductory lines) were abstracted from the articles. Descriptive statistics and cross tabulations were generated. Multivariate analyses were conducted to examine the predictive value of victim ethnicity and victim-suspect relationship on the nature of the newspaper coverage. Newspaper coverage of homicide was generally factual, episodic, and unemotional in tone. Victim-suspect relationship, but not victim ethnicity, was related to how a story was covered, particularly the story frame. Homicides by intimates were covered consistently differently from other types of homicides; these stories were less likely to be opinion dominated, be emotional, and begin with a "hook". Victim-suspect relationship was related to the nature of coverage of homicides in a large, metropolitan newspaper. Given the agenda setting and issue framing functions of the news media, these findings have implications for the manner in which the public and policy makers perceive homicides and, consequently, for the support afforded to various types of solutions for addressing and preventing violence.

  8. The most efficient critical vaccination coverage and its equivalence with maximizing the herd effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duijzer, Evelot; van Jaarsveld, Willem; Wallinga, Jacco; Dekker, Rommert

    2016-12-01

    'Critical vaccination coverages' are vaccination allocations that result in an effective reproduction ratio of one. In a population with interacting subpopulations there are many different critical vaccination coverages. To find the most efficient critical vaccination coverage, we define the following optimization problem: minimize the required amount of vaccines to obtain an effective reproduction ratio of exactly one. We prove that this optimization problem is equivalent to the problem of maximizing the proportion of susceptibles that escape infection during an epidemic (i.e., maximizing the herd effect). We propose an efficient general approach to solve these optimization problems based on Perron-Frobenius theory. We study two special cases that provide further insight into these optimization problems. First, we derive an efficient algorithm for the case of multiple populations that interact according to separable mixing. In this algorithm the subpopulations are ordered by their ratio of population size to reproduction ratio. Allocating vaccines based on this priority order results in an optimal allocation. Second, we derive an explicit analytic solution for the case of two interacting populations. We apply our solutions in a case study for pre-pandemic vaccination in the initial phase of an influenza pandemic where the entire population is susceptible to the new influenza virus. The results show that for the optimal allocation the critical vaccination coverage is achieved for a much smaller amount of vaccines as compared to allocations proposed previously. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. 5 CFR 875.412 - When will my coverage terminate?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false When will my coverage terminate? 875.412... REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL LONG TERM CARE INSURANCE PROGRAM Coverage § 875.412 When will my coverage terminate? Your coverage will terminate on the earliest of the following dates: (a) The date you specify to...

  10. 7 CFR 1737.31 - Area Coverage Survey (ACS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Area Coverage Survey (ACS). 1737.31 Section 1737.31... Studies-Area Coverage Survey and Loan Design § 1737.31 Area Coverage Survey (ACS). (a) The Area Coverage Survey (ACS) is a market forecast of service requirements of subscribers in a proposed service area. (b...

  11. 42 CFR 440.330 - Benchmark health benefits coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Benchmark health benefits coverage. 440.330 Section... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS SERVICES: GENERAL PROVISIONS Benchmark Benefit and Benchmark-Equivalent Coverage § 440.330 Benchmark health benefits coverage. Benchmark coverage is health...

  12. Progress toward universal health coverage in ASEAN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Minh, Hoang; Pocock, Nicola Suyin; Chaiyakunapruk, Nathorn; Chhorvann, Chhea; Duc, Ha Anh; Hanvoravongchai, Piya; Lim, Jeremy; Lucero-Prisno, Don Eliseo; Ng, Nawi; Phaholyothin, Natalie; Phonvisay, Alay; Soe, Kyaw Min; Sychareun, Vanphanom

    2014-12-01

    Background The Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) is characterized by much diversity in terms of geography, society, economic development, and health outcomes. The health systems as well as healthcare structure and provisions vary considerably. Consequently, the progress toward Universal Health Coverage (UHC) in these countries also varies. This paper aims to describe the progress toward UHC in the ASEAN countries and discuss how regional integration could influence UHC. Design Data reported in this paper were obtained from published literature, reports, and gray literature available in the ASEAN countries. We used both online and manual search methods to gather the information and 'snowball' further data. Results We found that, in general, ASEAN countries have made good progress toward UHC, partly due to relatively sustained political commitments to endorse UHC in these countries. However, all the countries in ASEAN are facing several common barriers to achieving UHC, namely 1) financial constraints, including low levels of overall and government spending on health; 2) supply side constraints, including inadequate numbers and densities of health workers; and 3) the ongoing epidemiological transition at different stages characterized by increasing burdens of non-communicable diseases, persisting infectious diseases, and reemergence of potentially pandemic infectious diseases. The ASEAN Economic Community's (AEC) goal of regional economic integration and a single market by 2015 presents both opportunities and challenges for UHC. Healthcare services have become more available but health and healthcare inequities will likely worsen as better-off citizens of member states might receive more benefits from the liberalization of trade policy in health, either via regional outmigration of health workers or intra-country health worker movement toward private hospitals, which tend to be located in urban areas. For ASEAN countries, UHC should be explicitly

  13. Progress toward universal health coverage in ASEAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoang Van Minh

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN is characterized by much diversity in terms of geography, society, economic development, and health outcomes. The health systems as well as healthcare structure and provisions vary considerably. Consequently, the progress toward Universal Health Coverage (UHC in these countries also varies. This paper aims to describe the progress toward UHC in the ASEAN countries and discuss how regional integration could influence UHC. Design: Data reported in this paper were obtained from published literature, reports, and gray literature available in the ASEAN countries. We used both online and manual search methods to gather the information and ‘snowball’ further data. Results: We found that, in general, ASEAN countries have made good progress toward UHC, partly due to relatively sustained political commitments to endorse UHC in these countries. However, all the countries in ASEAN are facing several common barriers to achieving UHC, namely 1 financial constraints, including low levels of overall and government spending on health; 2 supply side constraints, including inadequate numbers and densities of health workers; and 3 the ongoing epidemiological transition at different stages characterized by increasing burdens of non-communicable diseases, persisting infectious diseases, and reemergence of potentially pandemic infectious diseases. The ASEAN Economic Community's (AEC goal of regional economic integration and a single market by 2015 presents both opportunities and challenges for UHC. Healthcare services have become more available but health and healthcare inequities will likely worsen as better-off citizens of member states might receive more benefits from the liberalization of trade policy in health, either via regional outmigration of health workers or intra-country health worker movement toward private hospitals, which tend to be located in urban areas. For ASEAN countries, UHC should

  14. Public Health Workers and Vaccination Coverage in Eastern China: A Health Economic Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Hu

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Vaccine-preventable diseases cause more than one million deaths among children under 5 years of age every year. Public Health Workers (PHWs are needed to provide immunization services, but the role of human resources for public health as a determinant of vaccination coverage at the population level has not been assessed in China. The objective of this study was to test whether PHW density was positively associated with childhood vaccination coverage in Zhejiang Province, East China. Methods: The vaccination coverage rates of Measles Containing Vaccine (MCV, Diphtheria, Tetanus and Pertussis combined vaccine (DTP, and Poliomyelitis Vaccine (PV were chosen as the dependent variables. Vaccination coverage data of children aged 13–24 months for each county in Zhejiang Province were taken from the Zhejiang Immunization Information System (ZJIIS. Aggregate PHW density was an independent variable in one set of regressions, and Vaccine Personnel (VP and other PHW densities were used separately in another set. Data on densities of PHW and VP were taken from a national investigation on EPI launched by Ministry of Health of China in 2013. We controlled other determinants that may influence the vaccination coverage like Gross Domestic Product (GDP per person, proportion of migrant children aged <7 years, and land area. These data were taken from Zhejiang Provincial Bureau of Statistics and ZJIIS. Results: PHW density was significantly influence the coverage rates of MCV [Adjusted Odds Ratio(AOR = 4.29], DTP3(AOR = 2.16, and PV3 (AOR = 3.30. However, when the effects of VPs and other PHWs were assessed separately, we found that VP density was significantly associated with coverage of all three vaccinations (MCV AOR = 7.05; DTP3 AOR = 1.82; PV3 AOR = 4.83, while other PHW density was not. Proportion of migrant children < 7 years and Land area were found as negative and significant determinants for vaccination coverage, while GDP per person had

  15. Universal coverage challenges require health system approaches; the case of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duran, Antonio; Kutzin, Joseph; Menabde, Nata

    2014-02-01

    This paper uses the case of India to demonstrate that Universal Health Coverage (UHC) is about not only health financing; personal and population services production issues, stewardship of the health system and generation of the necessary resources and inputs need to accompany the health financing proposals. In order to help policy makers address UHC in India and sort out implementation issues, the framework developed by the World Health Organization (WHO) in the World Health Report 2000 and its subsequent extensions are advocated. The framework includes final goals, generic intermediate objectives and four inter-dependent functions which interact as a system; it can be useful by diagnosing current shortcomings and facilitating the filling up of gaps between functions and goals. Different positions are being defended in India re the preconditions for UHC to succeed. This paper argues that more (public) money will be important, but not enough; it needs to be supplemented with broad interventions at various health system levels. The paper analyzes some of the most important issues in relation to the functions of service production, generation of inputs and the necessary stewardship. It also pays attention to reform implementation, as different from its design, and suggests critical aspects emanating from a review of recent health system reforms. Precisely because of the lack of comparative reference for India, emphasis is made on the need to accompany implementation with analysis, so that the "solutions" ("what to do?", "how to do it?") are found through policy analysis and research embedded into flexible implementation. Strengthening "evidence-to-policy" links and the intelligence dimension of stewardship/leadership as well as accountability during implementation are considered paramount. Countries facing similar challenges to those faced by India can also benefit from the above approaches. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Global yellow fever vaccination coverage from 1970 to 2016: an adjusted retrospective analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shearer, Freya M; Moyes, Catherine L; Pigott, David M; Brady, Oliver J; Marinho, Fatima; Deshpande, Aniruddha; Longbottom, Joshua; Browne, Annie J; Kraemer, Moritz U G; O'Reilly, Kathleen M; Hombach, Joachim; Yactayo, Sergio; de Araújo, Valdelaine E M; da Nóbrega, Aglaêr A; Mosser, Jonathan F; Stanaway, Jeffrey D; Lim, Stephen S; Hay, Simon I; Golding, Nick; Reiner, Robert C

    2017-11-01

    Substantial outbreaks of yellow fever in Angola and Brazil in the past 2 years, combined with global shortages in vaccine stockpiles, highlight a pressing need to assess present control strategies. The aims of this study were to estimate global yellow fever vaccination coverage from 1970 through to 2016 at high spatial resolution and to calculate the number of individuals still requiring vaccination to reach population coverage thresholds for outbreak prevention. For this adjusted retrospective analysis, we compiled data from a range of sources (eg, WHO reports and health-service-provider registeries) reporting on yellow fever vaccination activities between May 1, 1939, and Oct 29, 2016. To account for uncertainty in how vaccine campaigns were targeted, we calculated three population coverage values to encompass alternative scenarios. We combined these data with demographic information and tracked vaccination coverage through time to estimate the proportion of the population who had ever received a yellow fever vaccine for each second level administrative division across countries at risk of yellow fever virus transmission from 1970 to 2016. Overall, substantial increases in vaccine coverage have occurred since 1970, but notable gaps still exist in contemporary coverage within yellow fever risk zones. We estimate that between 393·7 million and 472·9 million people still require vaccination in areas at risk of yellow fever virus transmission to achieve the 80% population coverage threshold recommended by WHO; this represents between 43% and 52% of the population within yellow fever risk zones, compared with between 66% and 76% of the population who would have required vaccination in 1970. Our results highlight important gaps in yellow fever vaccination coverage, can contribute to improved quantification of outbreak risk, and help to guide planning of future vaccination efforts and emergency stockpiling. The Rhodes Trust, Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, the

  17. Evolution of health coverage in Mexico: evidence of progress and challenges in the Mexican health system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urquieta-Salomón, José E; Villarreal, Héctor J

    2016-02-01

    To consolidate an effective and efficient universal health care coverage requires a deep understanding of the challenges faced by the health care system in providing services demanded by population in need. This study analyses the dynamics of health insurance coverage and effective access coverage to some health interventions in Mexico. It examines the evolution of inequalities and heterogeneous performance of the insurance subsystems incorporated under the Mexican health care system. Two types of coverage indicators were selected: health insurance and effective access to preventive health interventions intended for normative population. Data were drawn from National Health and Nutrition Surveys 2006 and 2012. The economic inequality was estimated using the Standardized Concentration Index by household per capita consumption expenditure as socioeconomic-status indicator. Approximately 75% of the population reported being covered by one of the existing insurance schemes, representing a huge step forward from 2006, when as much as 51.62% of the population had no health insurance. About 87% of this growth was attributable to the expansion of Non Contributory Health Insurance whereas 7% emanated from the Social Security subsystem. The results revealed that inequality in access to health insurance was virtually eradicated; however, traces of unequal access persisted in some subpopulations groups. Coverage indicators of effective access showed a slight improvement in the period analysed, but prenatal care and interventions to prevent chronic disease still presented a serious shortage. Furthermore, there was no evidence that inequities in coverage of these interventions have decreased in recent years. The results provided a mixed picture, generalizable to the system as a whole, expansion of insurance status represents one of the most remarkable advances that have not been accompanied by a significant improvement in effective access. In addition, existing inequalities are

  18. Premium subsidies, the mandate, and Medicaid expansion: Coverage effects of the Affordable Care Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frean, Molly; Gruber, Jonathan; Sommers, Benjamin D

    2017-05-01

    Using premium subsidies for private coverage, an individual mandate, and Medicaid expansion, the Affordable Care Act (ACA) has increased insurance coverage. We provide the first comprehensive assessment of these provisions' effects, using the 2012-2015 American Community Survey and a triple-difference estimation strategy that exploits variation by income, geography, and time. Overall, our model explains 60% of the coverage gains in 2014-2015. We find that coverage was moderately responsive to price subsidies, with larger gains in state-based insurance exchanges than the federal exchange. The individual mandate's exemptions and penalties had little impact on coverage rates. The law increased Medicaid among individuals gaining eligibility under the ACA and among previously-eligible populations ("woodwork effect") even in non-expansion states, with no resulting reductions in private insurance. Overall, exchange premium subsidies produced 40% of the coverage gains explained by our ACA policy measures, and Medicaid the other 60%, of which 1/2 occurred among previously-eligible individuals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Pension coverage among the baby boomers: initial findings from a 1993 survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, J R

    1994-01-01

    Using data from a series of supplements to the Current Population Survey, this article presents findings on workers' coverage under employer-sponsored retirement plans in 1993, and recent trends in coverage. The analysis focuses on workers 25-54, a group that includes the baby boom generation. Among all wage and salary workers in this age range (including government employees and part-time workers), 55 percent reported participating in a retirement plan on their current primary jobs, and an additional 3 percent were covered from other jobs. After a modest decline in the early 1980's, the coverage rate has remained essentially unchanged over the past 10 years, and limited data suggest that the baby boomers are doing about as well on pension coverage as older workers at similar points in their careers. Beneath this relative stability in overall coverage, however, at least two important changes have occurred: a significant narrowing of the gender gap in coverage and a shift in types of retirement plans. Increasing numbers of workers are being covered solely by 401(k)-type plans, a development that raises new uncertainties about the form and amount of future benefits. On the other hand, limited data in this study suggest that 401(k) plans may be serving their intended purpose for the majority of workers who have them.

  20. Socio-economic inequality in oral healthcare coverage: results from the World Health Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseinpoor, A R; Itani, L; Petersen, P E

    2012-03-01

    The objective of this study was to assess socio-economic inequality in oral healthcare coverage among adults with expressed need living in 52 countries. Data on 60,332 adults aged 18 years or older were analyzed from 52 countries participating in the 2002-2004 World Health Survey. Oral healthcare coverage was defined as the proportion of individuals who received any medical care from a dentist or other oral health specialist during a period of 12 months prior to the survey, among those who expressed any mouth and/or teeth problems during that period. In addition to assessment of the coverage across wealth quintiles in each country, a wealth-based relative index of inequality was used to measure socio-economic inequality. The index was adjusted for sex, age, marital status, education, employment, overall health status, and urban/rural residence. Pro-rich inequality in oral healthcare coverage was observed within most of the countries, although lower income countries showed greater levels of relative inequality than higher income countries. Overall, lowest coverage and highest relative inequality were found in the low-income countries. The findings of this study may inform policies for oral health at global and national levels. To achieve universal coverage in oral healthcare, relevant interventions should reach the poorest population groups.

  1. A long way to go - Estimates of combined water, sanitation and hygiene coverage for 25 sub-Saharan African countries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Roche

    Full Text Available Water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH are essential for a healthy and dignified life. International targets to reduce inadequate WASH coverage were set under the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs, 1990-2015 and now the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs, 2016-2030. The MDGs called for halving the proportion of the population without access to adequate water and sanitation, whereas the SDGs call for universal access, require the progressive reduction of inequalities, and include hygiene in addition to water and sanitation. Estimating access to complete WASH coverage provides a baseline for monitoring during the SDG period. Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA has among the lowest rates of WASH coverage globally.The most recent available Demographic Household Survey (DHS or Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (MICS data for 25 countries in SSA were analysed to estimate national and regional coverage for combined water and sanitation (a combined MDG indicator for 'improved' access and combined water with collection time within 30 minutes plus sanitation and hygiene (a combined SDG indicator for 'basic' access. Coverage rates were estimated separately for urban and rural populations and for wealth quintiles. Frequency ratios and percentage point differences for urban and rural coverage were calculated to give both relative and absolute measures of urban-rural inequality. Wealth inequalities were assessed by visual examination of coverage across wealth quintiles in urban and rural populations and by calculating concentration indices as standard measures of relative wealth related inequality that give an indication of how unevenly a health indicator is distributed across the wealth distribution.Combined MDG coverage in SSA was 20%, and combined basic SDG coverage was 4%; an estimated 921 million people lacked basic SDG coverage. Relative measures of inequality were higher for combined basic SDG coverage than combined MDG coverage, but absolute inequality was lower

  2. A long way to go - Estimates of combined water, sanitation and hygiene coverage for 25 sub-Saharan African countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roche, Rachel; Bain, Robert; Cumming, Oliver

    2017-01-01

    Water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) are essential for a healthy and dignified life. International targets to reduce inadequate WASH coverage were set under the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs, 1990-2015) and now the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs, 2016-2030). The MDGs called for halving the proportion of the population without access to adequate water and sanitation, whereas the SDGs call for universal access, require the progressive reduction of inequalities, and include hygiene in addition to water and sanitation. Estimating access to complete WASH coverage provides a baseline for monitoring during the SDG period. Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) has among the lowest rates of WASH coverage globally. The most recent available Demographic Household Survey (DHS) or Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (MICS) data for 25 countries in SSA were analysed to estimate national and regional coverage for combined water and sanitation (a combined MDG indicator for 'improved' access) and combined water with collection time within 30 minutes plus sanitation and hygiene (a combined SDG indicator for 'basic' access). Coverage rates were estimated separately for urban and rural populations and for wealth quintiles. Frequency ratios and percentage point differences for urban and rural coverage were calculated to give both relative and absolute measures of urban-rural inequality. Wealth inequalities were assessed by visual examination of coverage across wealth quintiles in urban and rural populations and by calculating concentration indices as standard measures of relative wealth related inequality that give an indication of how unevenly a health indicator is distributed across the wealth distribution. Combined MDG coverage in SSA was 20%, and combined basic SDG coverage was 4%; an estimated 921 million people lacked basic SDG coverage. Relative measures of inequality were higher for combined basic SDG coverage than combined MDG coverage, but absolute inequality was lower. Rural

  3. Coverage of space by random sets

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Consider the non-negative integer line. For each integer point we toss a coin. If the toss at location i is a. Heads we place an interval (of random length) there and move to location i + 1,. Tails we move to location i + 1. Coverage of space by random sets – p. 2/29 ...

  4. Using readability, comprehensibility and lexical coverage to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Finally, Nations' Vocabulary Size Test (Nation and Beglar 2007: 9, 11) was used to determine whether the vocabulary size of the selection of students provides adequate lexical coverage of the lexis used in the textbook to enable comprehension of the text. The findings were somewhat conflicting. The readability indices ...

  5. Tetanus Toxoid Vaccination Coverage And Differential Between ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Government commitment and support from a range of partnerships have led to a massive increase in tetanus toxoid immunization coverage among women of childbearing age, ensuring that both mothers and babies are protected against tetanus infection in. Bangladesh. In order to control and eliminate the ...

  6. The Sad State of Education Coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batory, Joseph P.

    1999-01-01

    A 1997 report by Public Agenda, a nonpartisan public-opinion research firm, confirmed that educators deplore the quality of press coverage of public education. While questioning journalistic effectiveness and credibility, the study offers objective insights about citizens' expectations. Superintendents must communicate concerns to editors and…

  7. Binning metagenomic contigs by coverage and composition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alneberg, J.; Bjarnason, B.S.; Bruijn, de I.; Schirmer, M.; Quick, J.; Ijaz, U.Z.; Lahti, L.M.; Loman, N.J.; Andersson, A.F.; Quince, C.

    2014-01-01

    Shotgun sequencing enables the reconstruction of genomes from complex microbial communities, but because assembly does not reconstruct entire genomes, it is necessary to bin genome fragments. Here we present CONCOCT, a new algorithm that combines sequence composition and coverage across multiple

  8. 5 CFR 792.103 - Coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Coverage. 792.103 Section 792.103 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL EMPLOYEES' HEALTH AND COUNSELING PROGRAMS Regulatory Requirements for Alcoholism and Drug Abuse Programs and...

  9. Coverage with Evidence Development: applications and issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trueman, Paul; Grainger, David L; Downs, Kristen E

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the current issues surrounding Coverage with Evidence Development (CED). CED is characterized by restricted coverage for a new technology in parallel with targeted research when the stated goal of the research or data collection is to provide definitive evidence for the clinical or cost-effectiveness impact of the new technology. Presented here is information summarized and interpreted from presentations and discussions at the 2008 Health Technology Assessment International (HTAi) meeting and additional information from the medical literature. This study describes the differences between CED and other conditional coverage agreements, provides a brief history of CED, describes real-world examples of CED, describes the areas of consensus between the stakeholders, discusses the areas for future negotiation between stakeholders, and proposes criteria to assist stakeholders in determining when CED could be appropriate. Payers could interpret the evidence obtained from a CED program either positively or negatively, and a range of possible changes to the reimbursement status of the new technology may result. Striking an appropriate balance between the demands for prompt access to new technology and acknowledging that some degree of uncertainty will always exist is a critical challenge to the uptake of this innovative form of conditional coverage. When used selectively for innovative procedures, pharmaceuticals, or devices in the appropriate disease areas, CED may provide patients access to promising medicines or technologies while data to minimize uncertainty are collected.

  10. Suicide reporting within British newspapers' arts coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitman, Alexandra; Stevenson, Fiona

    2015-01-01

    Many suicide prevention strategies promote media guidelines on suicide reporting, given evidence that irresponsible reporting of suicide can influence imitative suicidal behavior. Due to limited resources, monitoring of guideline adherence has tended to focus on news outputs, with a risk of neglecting other journalistic content. To determine whether British newspapers' arts coverage adheres to media guidelines on suicide reporting. Purposive sampling was used to capture current national practice on suicide reporting within newspapers' arts coverage of exhibitions. Recent major UK exhibitions by artists who had died by suicide were identified: Kirchner, Rothko, Gorky, and Van Gogh. Content analysis of all UK national newspaper coverage of these exhibitions was performed to measure the articles' adherence to widely accepted media guidelines. In all, 68 newspaper reviews satisfied inclusion criteria, with 100% failing to show full adherence to media guidelines: 21% used inappropriate language; 38% provided explicit descriptions of the suicide; 7% employed simplistic explanations for suicide triggers; 27% romanticized the suicide; and 100% omitted information on sources of support. British newspapers' arts coverage of exhibitions deviates considerably from media guidelines on the reporting of suicide. The findings suggest scope to improve journalists' awareness of the importance of this component of suicide prevention strategies.

  11. The hunt for 100% sky coverage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meimon, Serge; Fusco, Thierry; Clenet, Yann; Conan, Jean-Marc; Assémat, François; Michau, Vincent

    2010-07-01

    Tomographic AO (or Wide Field AO) systems use LGS to build a 3D model of turbulence, but rely on NGS for low order sensing. .To preserve reasonable sky coverage, each photon coming from the NGS to sense Tip Tilt has to be optimally exploited. That means a smart control law, a low detection noise, a concentration of the photons onto a small patch and a wave front sensor concept with favorable noise propagation. In this paper, we describe the system choices that were made during the E-ELT laser tomographic system ATLAS phase A study, in order to get a sky coverage as close as possible to 100%. A correct estimation of the sky coverage is therefore a key issue. We have developped a sky coverage estimation strategy based on a Besaņcon model starfield generation, a star(s) selection tool, and a careful estimation of the residual anisoplanatism (after reconstruction process between the NGSs), noise and temporal contributors. We describe the details of the procedure, and derive the ATLAS expected performance.

  12. Actual Test Coverage for Embedded Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmer, Mark

    2008-01-01

    Testing embedded systems is inherently incomplete; no test suite will ever be able to test all possible usage scenarios. Therefore, in the past decades many coverage measures have been developed. These measures denote the portion of a system that is tested, that way providing a quality criterion for

  13. 5 CFR 534.202 - Coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PAY UNDER OTHER SYSTEMS Student-Employees in Government Hospitals § 534.202 Coverage. In addition to the student-employees specified in 5 U.S.C. 5351(2)(A), the following student-employees are covered under this program, provided they are...

  14. 29 CFR 1603.101 - Coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... STATE AND LOCAL GOVERNMENT EMPLOYEE COMPLAINTS OF EMPLOYMENT DISCRIMINATION UNDER SECTION 304 OF THE GOVERNMENT EMPLOYEE RIGHTS ACT OF 1991 Administrative Process § 1603.101 Coverage. Section 304 of the Government Employee Rights Act of 1991 applies to employment, which includes application for employment, of...

  15. 5 CFR 430.202 - Coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PERFORMANCE MANAGEMENT Performance Appraisal for General Schedule, Prevailing Rate, and Certain Other Employees § 430.202 Coverage. (a) Employees and agencies covered by statute. (1) Section 4301(1) of title 5, United States Code...

  16. EDITORIAL COVERAGE OF SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH BY THE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hi-tech

    The New England Journal of Medicine published an article on coverage by the news media of the benefits and risks of medications by Moynihan et al(l). These authors studied 207 news media stories reporting on benefits and risks of pravastatin (a cholesterol lowering drug), alendronate (a biophosphonate for treatment ...

  17. Danish Media coverage of 22/7

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hervik, Peter; Boisen, Sophie

    2013-01-01

    ’s Danish connections through an analysis of the first 100 days of Danish media coverage. We scrutinised 188 articles in the largest daily newspapers to find out how Danish actors related to ABB’s ideas. The key argument is that the discourses and opinions reflect pre-existing opinions and entrenched...

  18. 5 CFR 9701.505 - Coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Coverage. 9701.505 Section 9701.505 Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM (DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY-OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT) DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES...

  19. 5 CFR 9701.402 - Coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Coverage. 9701.402 Section 9701.402 Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM (DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY-OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT) DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES...

  20. 5 CFR 9701.302 - Coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Coverage. 9701.302 Section 9701.302 Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM (DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY-OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT) DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES...

  1. 5 CFR 9701.202 - Coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Coverage. 9701.202 Section 9701.202 Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM (DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY-OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT) DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES...

  2. Factors influencing immunisation coverage among children under ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results. The correct vaccination coverage rate for children was found to be high. Children in urban and rural areas differed substantially in their correct vaccination rates and their receipt of each vaccine separately. Walking or travelling time to the place of vaccination was found to be longer in rural areas when compared ...

  3. True Public Access Defibrillator Coverage is Overestimated

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sun, Christopher L.F.; Demirtas, Derya; Brooks, Steven C.; Morrison, Laurie J.; Chan, Timothy C.Y.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Out-of-hospital cardiac arrests (OHCAs) occur at all times of the day and night. Immediate access to an AED increases survival. However, most public-location AEDs are placed in buildings without 24 hour access. Objective: To measure fixed-location public AED coverage of OHCAs by time of

  4. Determinants of vaccination coverage in rural Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meurice Francois P

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Childhood immunization is a cost effective public health strategy. Expanded Programme on Immunisation (EPI services have been provided in a rural Nigerian community (Sabongidda-Ora, Edo State at no cost to the community since 1998 through a privately financed vaccination project (private public partnership. The objective of this survey was to assess vaccination coverage and its determinants in this rural community in Nigeria Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted in September 2006, which included the use of interviewer-administered questionnaire to assess knowledge of mothers of children aged 12–23 months and vaccination coverage. Survey participants were selected following the World Health Organization's (WHO immunization coverage cluster survey design. Vaccination coverage was assessed by vaccination card and maternal history. A child was said to be fully immunized if he or she had received all of the following vaccines: a dose of Bacille Calmette Guerin (BCG, three doses of oral polio (OPV, three doses of diphtheria, pertussis and tetanus (DPT, three doses of hepatitis B (HB and one dose of measles by the time he or she was enrolled in the survey, i.e. between the ages of 12–23 months. Knowledge of the mothers was graded as satisfactory if mothers had at least a score of 3 out of a maximum of 5 points. Logistic regression was performed to identify determinants of full immunization status. Results Three hundred and thirty-nine mothers and 339 children (each mother had one eligible child were included in the survey. Most of the mothers (99.1% had very positive attitudes to immunization and > 55% were generally knowledgeable about symptoms of vaccine preventable diseases except for difficulty in breathing (as symptom of diphtheria. Two hundred and ninety-five mothers (87.0% had a satisfactory level of knowledge. Vaccination coverage against all the seven childhood vaccine preventable diseases was 61.9% although it

  5. Linking household surveys and health facility assessments to estimate intervention coverage for the Lives Saved Tool (LiST).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanyangarara, Mufaro; Chou, Victoria B

    2017-11-07

    Calls have been made for improved measurement of coverage for maternal, newborn and child health interventions. Recently, methods linking household and health facility surveys have been used to improve estimation of intervention coverage. However, linking methods rely the availability of household and health facility surveys which are temporally matched. Because nationally representative health facility assessments are not yet routinely conducted in many low and middle income countries, estimates of intervention coverage based on linking methods can be produced for only a subset of countries. Estimates of intervention coverage are a critical input for modelling the health impact of intervention scale-up in the Lives Saved Tool (LiST). The purpose of this study was to develop a data-driven approach to estimate coverage for a subset of antenatal care interventions modeled in LiST. Using a five-step process, estimates of population level coverage for syphilis detection and treatment, case management of diabetes, malaria infection, hypertensive disorders, and pre-eclampsia, were computed by linking household and health facility surveys. Based on data characterizing antenatal care and estimates of coverage derived from the linking approach, predictive models for intervention coverage were developed. Updated estimates of coverage based on the predictive models were compared, first with current default proxies, then with estimates based on the linking approach. Model fit and accuracy were assessed using three measures: the coefficient of determination, Pearson's correlation coefficient, and the root mean square error (RMSE). The ability to predict intervention coverage was fairly accurate across all interventions considered. Predictive models accounted for 20-63% of the variance in intervention coverages, and correlation coefficients ranged from 0.5 to 0.83. The predictive model used to estimate coverage of management of pre-eclampsia performed relatively better (RMSE

  6. Cataract surgery coverage rates for Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australians: the National Eye Health Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foreman, Joshua; Xie, Jing; Keel, Stuart; van Wijngaarden, Peter; Crowston, Jonathan; Taylor, Hugh R; Dirani, Mohamed

    2017-09-18

    To determine cataract surgery coverage rates for Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australians. National cross-sectional population-based survey. Thirty randomly selected Australian geographic sites, stratified by remoteness. 3098 non-Indigenous Australians aged 50 years or more and 1738 Indigenous Australians aged 40 years or more, recruited and examined in the National Eye Health Survey (NEHS) between March 2015 and April 2016. Participants underwent an interviewer-administered questionnaire that collected socio-demographic information and past ocular care history, including cataract surgery. For those with visual acuity worse than 6/12, anterior segment photography and slit lamp examinations were conducted. Cataract surgery coverage rates according to WHO and NEHS definitions; associated risk factors. Cataract surgery coverage rates calculated with the NEHS definition 1 of vision impairment (visual acuity worse than 6/12) were lower for Indigenous than non-Indigenous participants (58.5% v 88.0%; odds ratio [OR], 0.32; P World Health Organization definition (eligibility criterion: best-corrected visual acuity worse than 6/18), coverage rates were 92.5% and 98.9% for Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australians respectively. Greater age was significantly associated with higher cataract surgery coverage in Indigenous (OR, 1.41 per 10 years; P = 0.048) and non-Indigenous Australians (OR, 1.58 per 10 years; P = 0.004). The cataract surgery coverage rate was higher for non-Indigenous than Indigenous Australians, indicating the need to improve cataract surgery services for Indigenous Australians. The WHO definition of the coverage rate may overestimate the cataract surgery coverage rate in developed nations and should be applied with caution.

  7. Human papillomavirus vaccine coverage among female Australian adolescents: success of the school-based approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brotherton, Julia M L; Murray, Sharron L; Hall, Madeline A; Andrewartha, Lynne K; Banks, Carolyn A; Meijer, Dennis; Pitcher, Helen C; Scully, Megan M; Molchanoff, Luda

    2013-11-04

    To describe quadrivalent human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination coverage achieved in the HPV vaccination catch-up program for girls aged 12-17 years. Analysis of data from the Australian National HPV Vaccination Program Register. Girls aged 12-17 years as at 30 June 2007. HPV vaccine coverage by dose (1, 2 and 3), age and state of residence, using Australian Bureau of Statistics estimates of resident populations as the denominator. Notified vaccination coverage for girls aged 12-17 years nationally was 83% for dose 1, 78% for dose 2 and 70% for dose 3. The Australian Capital Territory and Victoria recorded the highest three-dose coverage for the 12-17-year-old cohort overall at 75%. The highest national three-dose coverage rate by age was achieved in 12-year-olds (74%). In Queensland, coverage among Indigenous girls compared with non-Indigenous girls was lower with each dose (lower by 4% for dose 1, 10% for dose 2 and 15% for dose 3). This pattern was not seen in the NT, where initial coverage was 17% lower among Indigenous girls, but the course completion rate among those who started vaccination was identical (84%). The catch-up HPV vaccination program delivered over 1.9 million doses of HPV vaccine to girls aged 12-17 years, resulting in 70% of girls in this age group being fully vaccinated. The range in coverage achieved and the lower uptake documented among Indigenous girls suggest that HPV vaccination programs can be further improved.

  8. Coverage of common cancer types in UK national newspapers: a content analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konfortion, Julie; Jack, Ruth H; Davies, Elizabeth A

    2014-07-11

    To determine whether recent newspaper coverage of the four most common cancer types relates to their relative burden and national awareness months, and to identify the subject focus during high-coverage periods. Content analysis using the Nexis newspaper article database. UK 2011-2012. Annual number and ranking, monthly proportions and subject of articles on breast, lung, bowel and prostate cancers. 9178 articles were identified during 2011 and 2012 featuring breast (4237), prostate (1757), lung (1746) and bowel (1438) cancer. Peaks in monthly proportions above the 99% upper confidence limit were identified for each. Breast cancer had the highest coverage of 12% and 17% during its awareness month. Smaller peaks (11%) were identified during Bowel Cancer Awareness month. Prostate cancer received high coverage in relation to the case of the man convicted of the Lockerbie bombing who had been diagnosed with the cancer, and lung cancer in relation to the deaths of celebrities. Breast cancer was covered most often overall and by newspaper category while the lower coverage of other cancer types did not consistently mirror the relative number of new cases each year. The peaks by newspaper category were similar to the overall coverage with few exceptions. UK newspaper coverage of common cancer types other than of the breast appears under-represented relative to their population burden. Coverage of breast cancer and bowel cancer appears to be influenced by their awareness months, while that of prostate cancer and lung cancer is influenced by other media stories. Health-promoting public bodies and campaigners could learn from the success of Breast Cancer Awareness Month and work more closely with journalists to ensure that the relevant messages reach wider audiences. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  9. Staff Acceptance of Tele-ICU Coverage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Paul S.; Cram, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Background: Remote coverage of ICUs is increasing, but staff acceptance of this new technology is incompletely characterized. We conducted a systematic review to summarize existing research on acceptance of tele-ICU coverage among ICU staff. Methods: We searched for published articles pertaining to critical care telemedicine systems (aka, tele-ICU) between January 1950 and March 2010 using PubMed, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, Global Health, Web of Science, and the Cochrane Library and abstracts and presentations delivered at national conferences. Studies were included if they provided original qualitative or quantitative data on staff perceptions of tele-ICU coverage. Studies were imported into content analysis software and coded by tele-ICU configuration, methodology, participants, and findings (eg, positive and negative staff evaluations). Results: Review of 3,086 citations yielded 23 eligible studies. Findings were grouped into four categories of staff evaluation: overall acceptance level of tele-ICU coverage (measured in 70% of studies), impact on patient care (measured in 96%), impact on staff (measured in 100%), and organizational impact (measured in 48%). Overall acceptance was high, despite initial ambivalence. Favorable impact on patient care was perceived by > 82% of participants. Staff impact referenced enhanced collaboration, autonomy, and training, although scrutiny, malfunctions, and contradictory advice were cited as potential barriers. Staff perceived the organizational impact to vary. An important limitation of available studies was a lack of rigorous methodology and validated survey instruments in many studies. Conclusions: Initial reports suggest high levels of staff acceptance of tele-ICU coverage, but more rigorous methodologic study is required. PMID:21051386

  10. Mass anti-malarial administration in western Cambodia: a qualitative study of factors affecting coverage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pell, Christopher; Tripura, Rupam; Nguon, Chea; Cheah, Phaikyeong; Davoeung, Chan; Heng, Chhouen; Dara, Lim; Sareth, Ma; Dondorp, Arjen; von Seidlein, Lorenz; Peto, Thomas J.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Mass anti-malarial administration has been proposed as a key component of the Plasmodium falciparum malaria elimination strategy in the Greater Mekong sub-Region. Its effectiveness depends on high levels of coverage in the target population. This article explores the factors that

  11. Mass anti-malarial administration in western Cambodia: a qualitative study of factors affecting coverage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pell, Christopher; Tripura, Rupam; Nguon, Chea; Cheah, Phaikyeong; Davoeung, Chan; Heng, Chhouen; Dara, Lim; Sareth, Ma; Dondorp, Arjen; von Seidlein, Lorenz; Peto, Thomas J.

    2017-01-01

    Mass anti-malarial administration has been proposed as a key component of the Plasmodium falciparum malaria elimination strategy in the Greater Mekong sub-Region. Its effectiveness depends on high levels of coverage in the target population. This article explores the factors that influenced mass

  12. Separating Selection Bias and Non-coverage in Internet Panels using Propensity Matching.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lensvelt-Mulders, G.J.L.M.; Lugtig, P.J.; Hubregtse, M.

    2009-01-01

    Many internet-panels consist of self-selected respondents and hence cover a relatively small part of the population. Estimates based on Internet-panels therefore may suffer from non-coverage and self-selection bias. One way to correct for these biases is to use adjustment weighting(Lee, 2006).

  13. AGE Percent Males by Broad Age Groups NMHD 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  14. AGE Percent Males by Broad Age Groups NMSD 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  15. AGE Percent Persons by Broad Age Groups NMSD 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  16. AGE Percent Females by Broad Age Groups NMHD 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  17. AGE Percent Persons by Broad Age Groups NMHD 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  18. ACO-Based Sweep Coverage Scheme in Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Huang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Coverage problem is one of the major issues in wireless sensor networks (WSN. In order to optimize the network coverage, different coverage formulations have been proposed. Recently, a newly emerging coverage scheme in wireless sensor networks, sweep coverage, which uses mobile sensors to monitor certain points of interest (POIs, is proposed. However, the data delivery to sink, an important problem in WSN, is not considered in original sweep coverage and many of the existing works did not consider it yet. In this work, a novel algorithm named ACOSC (ACO-based sweep coverage to solve the sweep coverage problem considering periodical coverage of POIs and delivery of data simultaneously is proposed. The evaluation results show that our algorithm has better performance than existing schemes.

  19. Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination coverage in young Australian women is higher than previously estimated: independent estimates from a nationally representative mobile phone survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brotherton, Julia M L; Liu, Bette; Donovan, Basil; Kaldor, John M; Saville, Marion

    2014-01-23

    Accurate estimates of coverage are essential for estimating the population effectiveness of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination. Australia has a purpose built National HPV Vaccination Program Register for monitoring coverage, however notification of doses administered to young women in the community during the national catch-up program (2007-2009) was not compulsory. In 2011, we undertook a population-based mobile phone survey of young women to independently estimate HPV vaccination coverage. Randomly generated mobile phone numbers were dialed to recruit women aged 22-30 (age eligible for HPV vaccination) to complete a computer assisted telephone interview. Consent was sought to validate self reported HPV vaccination status against the national register. Coverage rates were calculated based on self report and weighted to the age and state of residence structure of the Australian female population. These were compared with coverage estimates from the register using Australian Bureau of Statistics estimated resident populations as the denominator. Among the 1379 participants, the national estimate for self reported HPV vaccination coverage for doses 1/2/3, respectively, weighted for age and state of residence, was 64/59/53%. This compares with coverage of 55/45/32% and 49/40/28% based on register records, using 2007 and 2011 population data as the denominators respectively. Some significant differences in coverage between the states were identified. 20% (223) of women returned a consent form allowing validation of doses against the register and provider records: among these women 85.6% (538) of self reported doses were confirmed. We confirmed that coverage rates for young women vaccinated in the community (at age 18-26 years) are underestimated by the national register and that under-notification is greater for second and third doses. Using 2011 population estimates, rather than estimates contemporaneous with the program rollout, reduces register-based coverage

  20. The oomycete broad-host-range pathogen Phytophthora capsici.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamour, Kurt H; Stam, Remco; Jupe, Julietta; Huitema, Edgar

    2012-05-01

    Phytophthora capsici is a highly dynamic and destructive pathogen of vegetables. It attacks all cucurbits, pepper, tomato and eggplant, and, more recently, snap and lima beans. The disease incidence and severity have increased significantly in recent decades and the molecular resources to study this pathogen are growing and now include a reference genome. At the population level, the epidemiology varies according to the geographical location, with populations in South America dominated by clonal reproduction, and populations in the USA and South Africa composed of many unique genotypes in which sexual reproduction is common. Just as the impact of crop loss as a result of P. capsici has increased in recent decades, there has been a similar increase in the development of new tools and resources to study this devastating pathogen. Phytophthora capsici presents an attractive model for understanding broad-host-range oomycetes, the impact of sexual recombination in field populations and the basic mechanisms of Phytophthora virulence. Kingdom Chromista; Phylum Oomycota; Class Oomycetes; Order Peronosporales; Family Peronosporaceae; Genus Phytophthora; Species capsici. Symptoms vary considerably according to the host, plant part infected and environmental conditions. For example, in dry areas (e.g. southwestern USA and southern France), infection on tomato and bell or chilli pepper is generally on the roots and crown, and the infected plants have a distinctive black/brown lesion visible at the soil line (Fig. 1). In areas in which rainfall is more common (e.g. eastern USA), all parts of the plant are infected, including the roots, crown, foliage and fruit (Fig. 1). Root infections cause damping off in seedlings, whereas, in older plants, it is common to see stunted growth, wilting and, eventually, death. For tomatoes, it is common to see significant adventitious root growth just above an infected tap root, and the stunted plants, although severely compromised, may not die

  1. A vaccine encoding conserved promiscuous HIV CD4 epitopes induces broad T cell responses in mice transgenic to multiple common HLA class II molecules.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan Pereira Ribeiro

    Full Text Available Current HIV vaccine approaches are focused on immunogens encoding whole HIV antigenic proteins that mainly elicit cytotoxic CD8+ responses. Mounting evidence points toward a critical role for CD4+ T cells in the control of immunodeficiency virus replication, probably due to cognate help. Vaccine-induced CD4+ T cell responses might, therefore, have a protective effect in HIV replication. In addition, successful vaccines may have to elicit responses to multiple epitopes in a high proportion of vaccinees, to match the highly variable circulating strains of HIV. Using rational vaccine design, we developed a DNA vaccine encoding 18 algorithm-selected conserved, "promiscuous" (multiple HLA-DR-binding B-subtype HIV CD4 epitopes - previously found to be frequently recognized by HIV-infected patients. We assessed the ability of the vaccine to induce broad T cell responses in the context of multiple HLA class II molecules using different strains of HLA class II- transgenic mice (-DR2, -DR4, -DQ6 and -DQ8. Mice displayed CD4+ and CD8+ T cell responses of significant breadth and magnitude, and 16 out of the 18 encoded epitopes were recognized. By virtue of inducing broad responses against conserved CD4+ T cell epitopes that can be recognized in the context of widely diverse, common HLA class II alleles, this vaccine concept may cope both with HIV genetic variability and increased population coverage. The vaccine may thus be a source of cognate help for HIV-specific CD8+ T cells elicited by conventional immunogens, in a wide proportion of vaccinees.

  2. [Coverage of cervical cancer screening in Catalonia, Spain (2008-2011)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Salés, Vanesa; Roura, Esther; Ibáñez, Raquel; Peris, Mercè; Bosch, F Xavier; Coma E, Ermengol; Silvia de Sanjosé

    2014-01-01

    To estimate cervical cytology coverage for the period 2008-2011 by age groups and health regions from data recorded in the medical records of women attending centers within the Catalan national health system. The data used to estimate coverage were obtained from the primary care information system. This information was anonymous and included age, center, date, and the results of cytological smears for a total of 2,292,564 women aged 15 years or more. A total of 758,690 smears were performed in 595,868 women. Among women aged 25-65 years, the estimated coverage was 32.4% of the assigned population and was 40.8% in the population attended. Geographical variation was observed, with higher coverage among health regions closer to Barcelona. Abnormal Pap smears increased slightly from 2008 to 2011 (from 3% to 3.5%, respectively, p <0.001). In women with a negative first smear, the mean interval until the second smear was 2.4 years, but only 50% of women with a negative first smear in 2008 attended a second round during the study period. Cervical screening coverage in the National Health Service of Catalonia includes one in three women. Second round participation was poor. Existing computer systems in primary care centers can ensure monitoring of population-based screening programs for cervical cancer. These systems could be used to plan an organized screening program to ensure wider coverage and better follow-up. Copyright © 2013 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  3. Low vaccination coverage of Greek Roma children amid economic crisis: national survey using stratified cluster sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papamichail, Dimitris; Petraki, Ioanna; Arkoudis, Chrisoula; Terzidis, Agis; Smyrnakis, Emmanouil; Benos, Alexis; Panagiotopoulos, Takis

    2017-04-01

    Research on Roma health is fragmentary as major methodological obstacles often exist. Reliable estimates on vaccination coverage of Roma children at a national level and identification of risk factors for low coverage could play an instrumental role in developing evidence-based policies to promote vaccination in this marginalized population group. We carried out a national vaccination coverage survey of Roma children. Thirty Roma settlements, stratified by geographical region and settlement type, were included; 7-10 children aged 24-77 months were selected from each settlement using systematic sampling. Information on children's vaccination coverage was collected from multiple sources. In the analysis we applied weights for each stratum, identified through a consensus process. A total of 251 Roma children participated in the study. A vaccination document was presented for the large majority (86%). We found very low vaccination coverage for all vaccines. In 35-39% of children 'minimum vaccination' (DTP3 and IPV2 and MMR1) was administered, while 34-38% had received HepB3 and 31-35% Hib3; no child was vaccinated against tuberculosis in the first year of life. Better living conditions and primary care services close to Roma settlements were associated with higher vaccination indices. Our study showed inadequate vaccination coverage of Roma children in Greece, much lower than that of the non-minority child population. This serious public health challenge should be systematically addressed, or, amid continuing economic recession, the gap may widen. Valid national estimates on important characteristics of the Roma population can contribute to planning inclusion policies.

  4. How does complementary private prescription drug insurance coverage affect seniors' use of publicly funded medications?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allin, Sara; Law, Michael R; Laporte, Audrey

    2013-05-01

    Like in many other high-income jurisdictions, the public drug program in Ontario, Canada provides comprehensive coverage of prescription drugs to the 65 years and older population with some cost sharing. The objective of this study was to examine the marginal impact of holding private drug coverage on the use of publicly funded medicines among the senior population in Ontario. We drew on linked survey and administrative data sources to examine the impact of private drug coverage first on total spending and utilization of medications, and second, on clinically recommended medications for individuals with a diagnosis of diabetes. Approximately 27% of Ontario seniors reported having private prescription drug insurance from a current or prior employer. The population-level analysis of all seniors found that individuals with private insurance coverage, on average, took about a quarter of an additional drug and incurred 16% more in costs to the public program in a year compared to those without additional coverage. The disease-specific analysis of seniors with a diagnosis of diabetes found that private coverage was associated with two-fold higher odds of taking an anti-hypertensive drug, but it had no association with the use of statins or anti-diabetic medications. The results of this study provide some evidence that seniors in Ontario are sensitive to the price of drugs. These findings raise equity concerns relating to the cost sharing arrangements in the public system and our policy of allowing private plans to "top-up" the public plan. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Enhanced methanol production in plants provides broad spectrum insect resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixit, Sameer; Upadhyay, Santosh Kumar; Singh, Harpal; Sidhu, Om Prakash; Verma, Praveen Chandra; K, Chandrashekar

    2013-01-01

    Plants naturally emit methanol as volatile organic compound. Methanol is toxic to insect pests; but the quantity produced by most of the plants is not enough to protect them against invading insect pests. In the present study, we demonstrated that the over-expression of pectin methylesterase, derived from Arabidopsis thaliana and Aspergillus niger, in transgenic tobacco plants enhances methanol production and resistance to polyphagous insect pests. Methanol content in the leaves of transgenic plants was measured using proton nuclear spectroscopy (1H NMR) and spectra showed up to 16 fold higher methanol as compared to control wild type (WT) plants. A maximum of 100 and 85% mortality in chewing insects Helicoverpa armigera and Spodoptera litura larvae was observed, respectively when fed on transgenic plants leaves. The surviving larvae showed less feeding, severe growth retardation and could not develop into pupae. In-planta bioassay on transgenic lines showed up to 99 and 75% reduction in the population multiplication of plant sap sucking pests Myzus persicae (aphid) and Bemisia tabaci (whitefly), respectively. Most of the phenotypic characters of transgenic plants were similar to WT plants. Confocal microscopy showed no deformities in cellular integrity, structure and density of stomata and trichomes of transgenic plants compared to WT. Pollen germination and tube formation was also not affected in transgenic plants. Cell wall enzyme transcript levels were comparable with WT. This study demonstrated for the first time that methanol emission can be utilized for imparting broad range insect resistance in plants.

  6. Enhanced Methanol Production in Plants Provides Broad Spectrum Insect Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixit, Sameer; Upadhyay, Santosh Kumar; Singh, Harpal; Sidhu, Om Prakash; Verma, Praveen Chandra; K, Chandrashekar

    2013-01-01

    Plants naturally emit methanol as volatile organic compound. Methanol is toxic to insect pests; but the quantity produced by most of the plants is not enough to protect them against invading insect pests. In the present study, we demonstrated that the over-expression of pectin methylesterase, derived from Arabidopsis thaliana and Aspergillus niger, in transgenic tobacco plants enhances methanol production and resistance to polyphagous insect pests. Methanol content in the leaves of transgenic plants was measured using proton nuclear spectroscopy (1H NMR) and spectra showed up to 16 fold higher methanol as compared to control wild type (WT) plants. A maximum of 100 and 85% mortality in chewing insects Helicoverpa armigera and Spodoptera litura larvae was observed, respectively when fed on transgenic plants leaves. The surviving larvae showed less feeding, severe growth retardation and could not develop into pupae. In-planta bioassay on transgenic lines showed up to 99 and 75% reduction in the population multiplication of plant sap sucking pests Myzus persicae (aphid) and Bemisia tabaci (whitefly), respectively. Most of the phenotypic characters of transgenic plants were similar to WT plants. Confocal microscopy showed no deformities in cellular integrity, structure and density of stomata and trichomes of transgenic plants compared to WT. Pollen germination and tube formation was also not affected in transgenic plants. Cell wall enzyme transcript levels were comparable with WT. This study demonstrated for the first time that methanol emission can be utilized for imparting broad range insect resistance in plants. PMID:24223989

  7. Enhanced methanol production in plants provides broad spectrum insect resistance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sameer Dixit

    Full Text Available Plants naturally emit methanol as volatile organic compound. Methanol is toxic to insect pests; but the quantity produced by most of the plants is not enough to protect them against invading insect pests. In the present study, we demonstrated that the over-expression of pectin methylesterase, derived from Arabidopsis thaliana and Aspergillus niger, in transgenic tobacco plants enhances methanol production and resistance to polyphagous insect pests. Methanol content in the leaves of transgenic plants was measured using proton nuclear spectroscopy (1H NMR and spectra showed up to 16 fold higher methanol as compared to control wild type (WT plants. A maximum of 100 and 85% mortality in chewing insects Helicoverpa armigera and Spodoptera litura larvae was observed, respectively when fed on transgenic plants leaves. The surviving larvae showed less feeding, severe growth retardation and could not develop into pupae. In-planta bioassay on transgenic lines showed up to 99 and 75% reduction in the population multiplication of plant sap sucking pests Myzus persicae (aphid and Bemisia tabaci (whitefly, respectively. Most of the phenotypic characters of transgenic plants were similar to WT plants. Confocal microscopy showed no deformities in cellular integrity, structure and density of stomata and trichomes of transgenic plants compared to WT. Pollen germination and tube formation was also not affected in transgenic plants. Cell wall enzyme transcript levels were comparable with WT. This study demonstrated for the first time that methanol emission can be utilized for imparting broad range insect resistance in plants.

  8. A Survey of Coverage Problems in Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junbin LIANG

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Coverage problem is an important issue in wireless sensor networks, which has a great impact on the performance of wireless sensor networks. Given a sensor network, the coverage problem is to determine how well the sensing field is monitored or tracked by sensors. In this paper, we classify the coverage problem into three categories: area coverage, target coverage, and barrier coverage, give detailed description of different algorithms belong to these three categories. Moreover, we specify the advantages and disadvantages of the existing classic algorithms, which can give a useful direction in this area.

  9. A survey of newspaper coverage of HCFA hospital mortality data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudd, J; Glanz, K

    1991-01-01

    A study that assessed newspaper coverage of the 1986 Hospital Mortality Data for Medicare Patients released by the Health Care Financing Administration (HCFA) of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services is described. Media interpretation of Federal information about the quality of hospital medical care is also discussed. A sample of 68 articles from newspapers serving urban areas of various sizes in all regions of the United States was analyzed. Articles were coded into classifications according to how the news was played, headline bias (positive-negative-neutral), hospital mentions, quote sources, explanations for excessively high mortality rates, urban area population, and geographic region. The findings indicated that HCFA's release of the 1986 hospital mortality data received heavy news coverage. There were twice as many negative headlines as positive ones, although nearly 95 percent of the hospitals had mortality rates within expected ranges. Quotes from representatives of hospitals predominated in the newspaper articles, and they often blamed some aspect of the HCFA data for higher-than-expected mortality rates. Newspaper attention to the quality of hospital care clearly raised consumer awareness of the idea that health care quality can vary. The newspaper articles, however, provided no guidance on obtaining valid data or on using it to make health care choices.

  10. Welfare reform and elderly immigrants' health insurance coverage: the roles of federal and state medicaid eligibility rules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Yunju

    2011-11-01

    Immigrants' access to federally-funded Medicaid became limited after welfare reform imposed restrictive noncitizen eligibility rules. This study used a representative sample from the Current Population Survey (N = 105,873) and state-level data to examine the effects of these policy changes on elderly immigrants. Triple difference-in-differences analyses show that federal restriction of eligibility had a significantly negative association with elderly immigrants' Medicaid coverage, and generous state eligibility had significantly positive relationships with Medicaid and any health insurance coverage. Findings indicate the important role of eligibility on elderly immigrants' health insurance coverage. Results call for social workers' actions to expand elderly immigrants' Medicaid eligibility.

  11. A Switchable 3D-Coverage Phased Array Antenna Package for 5G Mobile Terminals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ojaroudiparchin, Naser; Shen, Ming; Zhang, Shuai

    2016-01-01

    This manuscript proposes a new design of a millimeter-wave (mm-Wave) array antenna package with beam steering characteristic for the fifth generation (5G) mobile applications. In order to achieve a broad 3D scanning coverage of the space with high-gain beams, three identical sub arrays of patch...... antennas have been compactly arranged along the edge region of the mobile phone PCB to form the antenna package. By switching the feeding to one of the sub arrays, the desired direction of coverage can be achieved. The proposed design has >10 dB gain in the upper spherical space, good directivity...... and efficiency, which is suitable for 5G mobile communications. In addition, the impact of user’s hand on the antenna performance has been investigated....

  12. Universal Health Insurance and the Reasons of not Coverage in Iran: Secondary Analysis of a National Household Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shirin Nosratnejad

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives : Universal insurance coverage is considered as one of the main goals of health systems around the world. Although Universal Health Insurance Law was legislated with the objective of covering all Iranian population under health insurance coverage in 1994, but imperfect insurance coverage has remained as a threatening dilemma. Heterogeneous statistics reported by insurer in Iran and the lack of appropriate, comprehensive databases have failed any judgments about the number of uninsured people and the reasons for it. Present study aimed to give better insight on insurance coverage among Iranian people and examine key reasons of imperfect coverage through a deep analysis of a national household survey. Material and Methods : Data which were collected from a national survey of health care utilization in Iran that covered over 102000 people of Iranians were analyzed. The survey had been implemented in 2007 by Iran's Ministry of Health. In order to identify possible reasons for imperfect coverage, national and international databases like SID, Iranmedex, ISC, Pubmed, Scopus, official statistics of Statistical Center of Iran (SCI, Iranian Social Security Organization (ISSO and Central Insurance of IRIRAN (CII were searched. Data management was accomplished in Microsoft Excel software.  Results : Study results showed that 85% of Iranian households had health insurance coverage, compared to 15% without any coverage. Medical services insurance fund had the greater proportion of coverage (59.27% and basic private insurance coverage was accountable for the least coverage (0.2%. More than half of households (51% stated financial inability to pay as the main reason for not getting coverage, followed by the lack of knowledge about insurance (12%, unemployment (12% and bypass by employers (10%. A worthwhile finding was that, 13% of households implied they felt no need to health insurance and 2% found it useless. Conclusion : Despite

  13. Particle Physics could do with much more serious coverage in serious newspaper

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    Editorial "Particle Physics could do with much more serious coverage in serious newspaper. So we welcome the feature on the Large Hadron Collider and the computing grid that appeared in the Irish Times on 30 April. So serious is this coverage that it manages to avoid any tacky populism in its announcement of a truly earth-shattering discovery. Not blazoned across the front page, not even headlined, but tucked away in the tenth paragraph, is the news that the LHC will operate at 'minus 3000°C in temperature'. (That's minus 2727 kelvin, for thermodynamic purists -0 kelvin being absolute zero, of course.)" (fulltext)

  14. Medical coverage of youth basketball events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ching, Brian K; Khalili-Borna, Dennis

    2013-01-01

    Basketball is among the most popular team sports for boys and girls in the United States and is continuing to grow in popularity worldwide. Increased popularity translates to an increased number of events and, unfortunately, the injuries that occur as a result. In this article, we discuss ways to be prepared in the coverage of youth basketball events, with an emphasis on the evaluation and treatment of some of the most commonly encountered injuries within the sport of basketball. We also give special consideration to injuries that are specific to the skeletally immature athlete. By having a greater knowledge and understanding of these injuries, a provider of medical coverage for basketball events hopefully will gain a higher sense of confidence in handling associated problems as they arise.

  15. Coverage threshold for laser-induced lithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Weliton S.; Oriá, Marcos; Passerat de Silans, Thierry; Chevrollier, Martine

    2017-05-01

    Recent experimental observations of laser-induced adsorption at the interface between an alkali vapor and a dielectric surface have demonstrated the possibility of growing metallic films of nanometric thickness on dielectric surfaces, with arbitrary shapes determined by the intensity profile of the light. The mechanisms directly responsible for the accumulation of atoms at the irradiated surface have been shown to involve photo-ionization of atoms very close to the surface. However, the existence of a vapor-pressure threshold for initiating the film growth still raises questions on the processes occurring at the surface. In this letter, we report on the observation that the vapor-pressure threshold corresponds to a minimum adatom coverage necessary for the surface to effectively neutralize the incoming ions and make possible the growth of a multilayer film. We discuss the hypothesis that the coverage threshold is a surface conductivity threshold.

  16. Willigness to pay for long-term care coverage: the role of private information and self-insurance

    OpenAIRE

    Costa i Font, Joan; Rovira Forns, Joan

    2004-01-01

    Both public and private insurance for long-term care is undeveloped in some European countries such as in Spain and empirical evidence is still limited. This paper aims at exmining the determinants of the demand for Long Term Care (LTC) coverage in Spain using contingent valuation techniques. Our findings indicate that only one-fifth of the population is willing to pay to assure coverage decisions are significantly affected by private information asymmetry and housing tenure in giving rise to...

  17. Immunization coverage levels among 19- to 35-month-old children in 4 diverse, medically underserved areas of the United States

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rosenthal, J; Rodewald, L; McCauley, M; Berman, S; Irigoyen, M; Sawyer, M; Yusuf, H; Davis, R; Kalton, G

    2004-01-01

    Background. The National Immunization Survey demonstrates that national immunization coverage in 2002 remained near the all-time highs achieved in 2000. However, that survey cannot detect whether coverage is uniformly high within relatively small areas or populations. The measles resurgence in the

  18. Chemically grafted carbon nanotube surface coverage gradients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shearer, Cameron J; Ellis, Amanda V; Shapter, Joseph G; Voelcker, Nicolas H

    2010-12-07

    Two approaches to producing gradients of vertically aligned single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) on silicon surfaces by chemical grafting are presented here. The first approach involves the use of a porous silicon (pSi) substrate featuring a pore size gradient, which is functionalized with 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES). Carboxylated SWCNTs are then immobilized on the topography gradient via carbodiimide coupling. Our results show that as the pSi pore size and porosity increase across the substrate the SWCNT coverage decreases concurrently. In contrast, the second gradient is an amine-functionality gradient produced by means of vapor-phase diffusion of APTES from a reservoir onto a silicon wafer where APTES attachment changes as a function of distance from the APTES reservoir. Carboxylated SWCNTs are then immobilized via carbodiimide coupling to the amine-terminated silicon gradient. Our observations confirm that with decreasing APTES density on the surface the coverage of the attached SWCNTs also decreases. These gradient platforms pave the way for the time-efficient optimization of SWCNT coverage for applications ranging from field emission to water filtration to drug delivery.

  19. Coverage, continuity, and visual cortical architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keil, Wolfgang; Wolf, Fred

    2011-12-29

    The primary visual cortex of many mammals contains a continuous representation of visual space, with a roughly repetitive aperiodic map of orientation preferences superimposed. It was recently found that orientation preference maps (OPMs) obey statistical laws which are apparently invariant among species widely separated in eutherian evolution. Here, we examine whether one of the most prominent models for the optimization of cortical maps, the elastic net (EN) model, can reproduce this common design. The EN model generates representations which optimally trade of stimulus space coverage and map continuity. While this model has been used in numerous studies, no analytical results about the precise layout of the predicted OPMs have been obtained so far. We present a mathematical approach to analytically calculate the cortical representations predicted by the EN model for the joint mapping of stimulus position and orientation. We find that in all the previously studied regimes, predicted OPM layouts are perfectly periodic. An unbiased search through the EN parameter space identifies a novel regime of aperiodic OPMs with pinwheel densities lower than found in experiments. In an extreme limit, aperiodic OPMs quantitatively resembling experimental observations emerge. Stabilization of these layouts results from strong nonlocal interactions rather than from a coverage-continuity-compromise. Our results demonstrate that optimization models for stimulus representations dominated by nonlocal suppressive interactions are in principle capable of correctly predicting the common OPM design. They question that visual cortical feature representations can be explained by a coverage-continuity-compromise.

  20. 5 CFR 847.204 - Elections of FERS coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...) from an FERS-covered position to an NAFI may elect to continue FERS coverage. (b) An employee who elects FERS coverage under this section will be covered by FERS during all periods of future service not...

  1. A postmenopausal woman with sciatica from broad ligament leiomyoma: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Ya-Chu May

    2016-10-31

    Unilateral lower abdominal pain and/or sciatic nerve pain is a common presentation in the elderly population. The prevalence of broad ligament leiomyoma is <1 % with the prevalence declining after the menopause and it is rare for broad ligament leiomyomas to be clinically significant. Thus, we highlight a case of symptomatic broad ligament leiomyoma in a postmenopausal woman whose symptoms improved after definitive treatment. A 62-year-old postmenopausal Macedonian woman was referred to our gynecological department with unexplained pain in her left leg and left iliac fossa region on walking. There was minimal relief with increasing analgesia use prescribed by the family physician. Investigations revealed an ipsilateral adnexal mass and subsequent treatment with laparoscopic broad ligament myomectomy helped to alleviate her symptoms. Our case highlights the importance of staying mindful of alternate diagnoses when presented with a common presentation of iliac fossa pain and pain in the leg. Although broad ligament leiomyomas are benign tumors, the uncommon symptomatic presentation led us to report and focus some attention on this type of tumor.

  2. Reasons for variation in coverage in the NHS cervical screening programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGahan, C E; Blanks, R G; Moss, S M

    2001-12-01

    In order to investigate reasons for variation in coverage of cervical screening, data from standard Department of Health returns were obtained for all Health Authorities for 1998/1999. Approximately 80% of the variation between health authorities is explained by differences in age distribution and area classification. Considerable differences between Health Authority and Office of National Statistics (ONS) population figures in City and Urban (London) areas for the age group 25-29 years and for City (London) for age group 30-34 years, suggest an effect of list inflation in these groups. Coverage as a performance indicator may be more accurately represented using the age range 35-64 years. Using this narrower age range, the percentage of health authorities meeting the 80% 5-year coverage target increases from 87% to 90%.

  3. The impact of expanding Medicaid on health insurance coverage and labor market outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frisvold, David E; Jung, Younsoo

    2017-09-22

    Expansions of public health insurance have the potential to reduce the uninsured rate, but also to reduce coverage through employer-sponsored insurance (ESI), reduce labor supply, and increase job mobility. In January 2014, twenty-five states expanded Medicaid as part of the Affordable Care Act to low-income parents and childless adults. Using data from the 2011-2015 March Current Population Survey Supplements, we compare the changes in insurance coverage and labor market outcomes over time of adults in states that expanded Medicaid and in states that did not. Our estimates suggest that the recent expansion significantly increased Medicaid coverage with little decrease in ESI. Overall, the expansion did not impact labor market outcomes, including labor force participation, employment, and hours worked.

  4. Inferior rabies vaccine quality and low immunization coverage in dogs (Canis familiaris) in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    HU, R. L.; FOOKS, A. R.; ZHANG, S. F.; LIU, Y.; ZHANG, F.

    2008-01-01

    SUMMARY Human rabies in China continues to increase exponentially, largely due to an inadequate veterinary infrastructure and poor vaccine coverage of naive dogs. We performed an epidemiological survey of rabies both in humans and animals, examined vaccine quality for animal use, evaluated the vaccination coverage in dogs, and checked the dog samples for the presence of rabies virus. The lack of surveillance in dog rabies, together with the low immunization coverage (up to 2·8% in rural areas) and the high percentage of rabies virus prevalence (up to 6·4%) in dogs, suggests that the dog population is a continual threat for rabies transmission from dogs to humans in China. Results also indicated that the quality of rabies vaccines for animal use did not satisfy all of the requirements for an efficacious vaccine capable of fully eliminating rabies. These data suggest that the factors noted above are highly correlated with the high incidence of human rabies in China. PMID:18177524

  5. [Coverage by the Family Health Strategy and diagnosis of syphilis in pregnancy and congenital syphilis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saraceni, Valéria; Miranda, Angélica Espinosa

    2012-03-01

    This paper aimed to correlate syphilis in pregnancy and congenital syphilis with coverage of the Family Health Strategy (FHS), based on available data in the national health information systems. The syphilis notification estimates were calculated according to the Sentinel Childbirth Study for 2004 under the Ministry of Health and the data were obtained from the websites of the Health Surveillance Secretariat and Healthcare Secretariat, for the year 2008. The ratios between observed and estimated gestational syphilis and congenital syphilis were not statistically correlated with population coverage by the FHS (r = -0.28 and r = -0.40, respectively). The FHS is a privileged area for prenatal care and logically a source of compulsory notification of syphilis in pregnancy. By combining diagnosis with adequate treatment of syphilis in pregnant women and their partners, the FHS becomes a prime instrument for eliminating congenital syphilis in Brazil. Expanding the FHS coverage and quality of care are essential for achieving this goal.

  6. Social Cognition, Social Skill, and the Broad Autism Phenotype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasson, Noah J.; Nowlin, Rachel B.; Pinkham, Amy E.

    2013-01-01

    Social-cognitive deficits differentiate parents with the "broad autism phenotype" from non-broad autism phenotype parents more robustly than other neuropsychological features of autism, suggesting that this domain may be particularly informative for identifying genetic and brain processes associated with the phenotype. The current study…

  7. A Cointegration And Error Correction Approach To Broad Money ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study considered the stability of broad money demand function in Nigeria using data for 1970 to 2004. The study applied the Cointegration and error correction approach The Johansen Cointegration test shows that long run equilibrium relationship exists between broad money demand and its determinants. While the ...

  8. Broad-scale consequences of land management: Columbia basin example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard W. Haynes; Thomas M. Quigley

    2001-01-01

    Integrating management actions to consistently achieve broad ecological and socioeconomic goals is a challenge largely unmet. The presumed or real conflict between these goals establishes a forum for debate. Broad measures are needed to describe tradeoffs, trends in conditions under varying management scenarios, and a transparent science underpinning. The Interior...

  9. Boot Camp for Education CEOs: The Broad Foundation Superintendents Academy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jehlen, Alain

    2012-01-01

    The Broad Foundation Superintendents Academy is the most prominent and most controversial training institute for school chiefs. The Academy is the flagship program of the Eli and Edythe Broad Foundation, the smallest of a triumvirate of corporate foundations that are at the heart of the billionaire campaign to remake public education in the image…

  10. Immunization coverage among young children of urban immigrant mothers: findings from a universal health care system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guttmann, Astrid; Manuel, Doug; Stukel, Therese A; Desmeules, Marie; Cernat, Geta; Glazier, Richard H

    2008-01-01

    To investigate access to effective primary health care services in children of new immigrants to Canada by assessing immunization coverage at age 2. We used multiple linked administrative data sets to analyze primary health service use and immunizations of children born between July 1, 1997, and June 30, 1998, in Ontario, Canada. These children were linked via their mothers' records to a federal Landed Immigrant Database. We used logistic regression to assess the effect on up-to-date (UTD) status at age 2 of having an immigrant mother, controlling for patient and physician characteristics. We examined the relationship of region of origin, period of immigration, and refugee status on coverage. The study population comprised 98 123 children, of whom 66.5% had complete immunization coverage. Children of immigrant mothers were more likely to be UTD (adjusted odds ratio, 1.15; 95% confidence interval, 1.10, 1.19) than children born to nonimmigrant mothers. Within the group of children of immigrant mothers, those whose mothers were refugees had the lowest rates of coverage (66.6%), but when adjusting for maternal age, sex, neighborhood income quintile, and health services characteristics, region of origin was the most important predictor of coverage. Those from the region of Southeast and Northeast Asia were most likely to be UTD (odds ratio, 1.63; 95% confidence interval, 1.46, 1.81). Period of immigration was not associated with coverage. Contrary to expectations, immigrant mothers are accessing immunizations at least as well as nonimmigrants for their young children in Ontario. There is variation by region of origin and socioeconomic status. Universal access to care reduces disparities in immunization coverage, but overall rates are too low.

  11. Attaining higher coverage: obstacles to overcome. English-speaking Caribbean and Suriname.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-12-01

    In 1983, 8 (42%) of the 19 English-speaking Caribbean countries (including Suriname) achieved at least 50% coverage with 3 doses of diphtheria-pertussis-tetanus (DPT) vaccine among children under 1 year of age and 6 countries (32%) had at least 50% coverage with 3 doses of trivalent oral polio vaccine (TOPV). In addition, 10 countries (53%) achieved over 75% DPT coverage and 11 (58%) achieved over 75% TOPV coverage. Despite this record of progress, several factors continue to impede further gains in immunization coverage. Of particular concern is the high dropout rate. As many as 25% of infants receive their 1st dose of DPT and TOPV but do not return to complete their course of immunization. There is also a need for each health center to estimate its annual target population for immunization every year through analysis of the total live births from the previous year in the health center's catchment area (minus infant mortality). Monthly target figures can thus be computed and coverage monitored. A further problem has been a reluctance on the part of some health workers to administer vaccines simultaneously. This does not reduce effectiveness or increase the risk of complications, and reduces the number of visits needed to complete the immunization schedule. An unresolved question is whether to immunize ill or malnourished children. Decisions on this matter should take into account the availability and accessibility of health care services, the ability to follow-up children who are not immunized, and the likelihood that children will return for subsequent immunizations. Finally, a number of immunizations performed by private practitioners and institutions are not reported. Both public and private health care providers should agree on a standardized reporting format to allow better estimation of coverage.

  12. 42 CFR 436.128 - Coverage for certain qualified aliens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Coverage for certain qualified aliens. 436.128... Mandatory Coverage of the Categorically Needy § 436.128 Coverage for certain qualified aliens. The agency... § 440.255(c) of this chapter to those aliens described in § 436.406(c) of this subpart. ...

  13. 42 CFR 435.350 - Coverage for certain aliens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Coverage for certain aliens. 435.350 Section 435... ISLANDS, AND AMERICAN SAMOA Optional Coverage of the Medically Needy § 435.350 Coverage for certain aliens... treatment of an emergency medical condition, as defined in § 440.255(c) of this chapter, to those aliens...

  14. 26 CFR 54.4980B-5 - COBRA continuation coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 17 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false COBRA continuation coverage. 54.4980B-5 Section...) MISCELLANEOUS EXCISE TAXES (CONTINUED) PENSION EXCISE TAXES § 54.4980B-5 COBRA continuation coverage. The following questions-and-answers address the requirements for coverage to constitute COBRA continuation...

  15. 42 CFR 457.420 - Benchmark health benefits coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Benchmark health benefits coverage. 457.420 Section 457.420 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... State Plan Requirements: Coverage and Benefits § 457.420 Benchmark health benefits coverage. Benchmark...

  16. Pap smear coverage among rural workers | London | South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Data describing Papanicolaou smear coverage and factors related to .coverage are presented from 9 surveys ofrural women workers in the food canning and processing industry in the Cape. Adequacy of Pap smear coverage was assessed according to whether the l'espondent had ever previously had a Pap smear, or had ...

  17. 48 CFR 9903.201-2 - Types of CAS coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... coverage. Full coverage requires that the business unit comply with all of the CAS specified in part 9904... later award of a CAS-covered contract. Full coverage applies to contractor business units that— (1... covered contract of less than $50 million awarded to a business unit that received less than $50 million...

  18. Varicella vaccination coverage of children under two years of age in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reuss Annicka M

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since July 2004, routine varicella vaccination is recommended by the German Standing Vaccination Committee in Germany. Health Insurance Funds started to cover vaccination costs at different time points between 2004 and 2006 in the Federal States. Nationwide representative data on vaccination coverage against varicella of children under two years of age are not available. We aimed to determine varicella vaccination coverage in statutory health insured children under two years of age in twelve German Federal States using data from associations of statutory health insurance physicians (ASHIPs, in order to investigate the acceptance of the recommended routine varicella vaccination programme. Methods We analysed data on varicella vaccination from 13 of 17 ASHIPs of the years 2004 to 2007. The study population consisted of all statutory health insured children under two years of age born in 2004 (cohort 2004 or 2005 (cohort 2005 in one of the studied regions. Vaccination coverage was determined by the number of children vaccinated under 2 years of age within the study population. Results Varicella vaccination coverage of children under two years of age with either one dose of the monovalent varicella vaccine or two doses of the measles, mumps, rubella, and varicella vaccine increased from 34% (cohort 2004 to 51% (cohort 2005 in the studied regions (p Conclusions Our study shows increasing varicella vaccination coverage of young children, indicating a growing acceptance of the routine varicella vaccination programme by the parents and physicians. We recommend further monitoring of vaccination coverage using data from ASHIPs to investigate acceptance of the routine vaccination programmes over time.

  19. The environment in the headlines. Newspaper coverage of climate change and euthropication in Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyytimaeki, J.

    2009-07-01

    most important factors contributing to the increase in coverage since 2006 include international policy negotiations and mild and snowless winters. Between 2006 and 2008, other factors included the releases of major scientific reviews, expressions of concern by key actors, and the related debate on energy policy. Changes in the anthropogenic driving forces of the environmental changes, namely nutrient discharges and greenhouse gas emissions, had only a marginal impact on the level of coverage. Based on the results, it is suggested that wide-ranging climate reporting has caused what has been called a piercing effect. This means that after the phase of intense and widespread media coverage, climate issues will not disappear but will shift from highly visible environmental headlines to less visible but more pervasive background information presented in various contexts. Such a piercing effect was not identified for eutrophication. This thesis highlights the importance of taking media coverage into account as a key factor in the formulation and implementation of environmental policies aimed at broad-based actions. (orig.)

  20. [Between evidence and negligence: coverage and invisibilityof health topics in the Portuguese printed media].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavaca, Aline Guio; Vasconcellos-Silva, Paulo Roberto; Ferreira, Patrícia; Nunes, João Arriscado

    2015-11-01

    The scope of this study is to conduct an assessment of the media coverage and dissemination of health issues in Portugal in order to problematize the aspects of coverage and invisibility of health topics and establish the themes neglected in media coverage. To achieve this, the coverage on health issues in the Portuguese daily newspaper Público was compared with the epidemiological context regarding health priorities and the perceptions of key players on media dissemination and the themes that are relevant to the Portuguese population. The results showed that the recurrent health-associated themes do not deal with diseases per se, but with the politics and economics of health and medication. The themes neglected in media coverage identified in the Portuguese context include: communicable diseases, such as hepatitis and tuberculosis; issues related to mental health and suicide; and ailments and social consequences associated with the economic crisis that has beset Portugal recently. From the standpoint of the people interviewed, other neglected diseases include hemochromatosis and other rare diseases. In tandem with this, the study highlights the well covered media themes that revolve around the lives and activities of celebrities, which are exhaustively aired in the communication media in the country.

  1. Health-system reform and universal health coverage in Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atun, Rifat; de Andrade, Luiz Odorico Monteiro; Almeida, Gisele; Cotlear, Daniel; Dmytraczenko, T; Frenz, Patricia; Garcia, Patrícia; Gómez-Dantés, Octavio; Knaul, Felicia M; Muntaner, Carles; de Paula, Juliana Braga; Rígoli, Felix; Serrate, Pastor Castell-Florit; Wagstaff, Adam

    2015-03-28

    Starting in the late 1980s, many Latin American countries began social sector reforms to alleviate poverty, reduce socioeconomic inequalities, improve health outcomes, and provide financial risk protection. In particular, starting in the 1990s, reforms aimed at strengthening health systems to reduce inequalities in health access and outcomes focused on expansion of universal health coverage, especially for poor citizens. In Latin America, health-system reforms have produced a distinct approach to universal health coverage, underpinned by the principles of equity, solidarity, and collective action to overcome social inequalities. In most of the countries studied, government financing enabled the introduction of supply-side interventions to expand insurance coverage for uninsured citizens--with defined and enlarged benefits packages--and to scale up delivery of health services. Countries such as Brazil and Cuba introduced tax-financed universal health systems. These changes were combined with demand-side interventions aimed at alleviating poverty (targeting many social determinants of health) and improving access of the most disadvantaged populations. Hence, the distinguishing features of health-system strengthening for universal health coverage and lessons from the Latin American experience are relevant for countries advancing universal health coverage. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. The effect of Health Savings Accounts on group health insurance coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Jinqi

    2015-12-01

    This paper presents new empirical evidence on the impact of tax subsidies for Health Savings Accounts (HSAs) on group insurance coverage. HSAs are tax-free health care expenditure savings accounts. Coupled with high deductible health insurance plans (HDHPs), they together represent new health insurance options. The tax advantage of HSAs expands the group health insurance market by making health care more affordable. Using individual level data from the Current Population Survey and exploiting policy variation by state and year from 2004 to 2012, I find that HSA tax subsidies increase small-group coverage by a statistically significant 2.5 percentage points, although not coverage in larger firms. Moreover, if the tax price of HSA contribution decreases by 10 cents, small-group insurance coverage increases by almost 2 percentage points. I also find that for older workers or less-educated workers, HSA subsidies are associated with 2-3 percentage point increase in their group insurance coverage. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Improving hepatitis B birth dose coverage through village health volunteer training and pregnant women education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xi; Heffelfinger, James; Wiesen, Eric; Diorditsa, Sergey; Valiakolleri, Jayaprakash; Nikuata, Agnes Bauro; Nukuro, Ezekial; Tabwaia, Beia; Woodring, Joseph

    2017-08-03

    Hepatitis B is highly endemic in the Republic of Kiribati, while the coverage of timely birth dose vaccination, the primary method shown to prevent mother-to-child transmission of hepatitis B virus, was only 66% in 2014. Children born at home are especially at high risk, as they have limited access to timely birth dose (i.e. within 24 h) vaccination. To improve birth dose coverage, a project to improve linkages between village health volunteers and health workers and educate pregnant women on hepatitis B vaccination was carried out in 16 communities with low birth dose coverage in Kiribati from November 2014 to May 2015. After project completion, the coverage of timely birth dose administration increased significantly both in the densely populated capital region of South Tarawa (from 89% to 95%, p=0.001) and the Outer Islands (from 57% to 83%, psuccessful model for improving hepatitis B vaccine birth dose coverage that could be adopted in other areas in Kiribati as well as other similar settings. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Improving word coverage using unsupervised morphological analyser

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    of morphology of inflectional language like Hindi. It is an unsupervised learning approach, suitable for languages with a rich concatenative morphology. Broadly, our work is carried out in three steps: 1. Acquire the morphology of Hindi from a raw (un annotated) Central Institute of Indian Languages (CIIL), Mysore text corpus ...

  5. Quantifying the Impact of Spectral Coverage on the Retrieval of Molecular Abundances from Exoplanet Transmission Spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, John W.; Zellem, Robert T.; Line, Michael R.; Vasisht, Gautam; Bryden, Geoff; Willacy, Karen; Iyer, Aishwarya R.; Bean, Jacob; Cowan, Nicolas B.; Fortney, Jonathan J.; Griffith, Caitlin A.; Kataria, Tiffany; Kempton, Eliza M.-R.; Kreidberg, Laura; Moses, Julianne I.; Stevenson, Kevin B.; Swain, Mark R.

    2017-10-01

    Using forward models for representative exoplanet atmospheres and a radiometric instrument model, we generated synthetic observational data to explore how well the major C- and O-bearing chemical species (CO, CO2, CH4, and H2O), important for determining atmospheric opacity and radiation balance, can be constrained by transit measurements as a function of spectral wavelength coverage. This work features simulations for a notional transit spectroscopy mission and compares two cases for instrument spectral coverage (wavelength coverage from 0.5-2.5 μm and 0.5-5 μm). The simulation is conducted on a grid with a range of stellar magnitudes and incorporates a full retrieval of atmospheric model parameters. We consider a range of planets from sub-Neptunes to hot Jupiters and include both low and high mean molecular weight atmospheres. We find that including the 2.5-5 μm wavelength range provides a significant improvement in the degree of constraint on the retrieved molecular abundances: up to ˜3 orders of magnitude for a low mean molecular weight atmosphere (μ = 2.3) and up to a factor of ˜6 for a high mean molecular weight atmosphere (μ = 28). These decreased uncertainties imply that broad spectral coverage between the visible and the mid-infrared is an important tool for understanding the chemistry and composition of exoplanet atmospheres. This analysis suggests that the James Webb Space Telescope’s (JWST) Near-Infrared Spectrograph (NIRSpec) 0.6-5 μm prism spectroscopy mode, or similar wavelength coverage with possible future missions, will be an important resource for exoplanet atmospheric characterization.

  6. Characterization of ten microsatellite loci in the Broad-tailed hummingbird (Selasphorus platycercus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyler-McCance, Sara J.; Fike, Jennifer A.; Talley-Farnham, Tiffany; Engelman, Tena; Engelman, Fred

    2011-01-01

    The Broad-tailed Hummingbird (Selaphorus platycercus) breeds at higher elevations in the central and southern Rockies, eastern California, and Mexico and has been studied for 8 years in Rocky Mountain National Park, Colorado. Questions regarding the relatedness of Broad-tailed Hummingbirds banded together and then recaptured in close time proximity in later years led us to isolate and develop primers for 10 polymorphic microsatellite loci. In a screen of 25 individuals from a population in Rocky Mountain National Park, the 10 loci were found to have levels of variability ranging from two to 16 alleles. No loci were found to depart from linkage disequilibrium, although two loci revealed significant departures from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. These 10 microsatellite loci will be applicable for population genetic analyses, investigation of mating systems and relatedness, and may help gain insight into the migration timing and routes for this species.

  7. Artificial light at night confounds broad-scale habitat use by migrating birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaren, James D.; Buler, Jeffrey J.; Schreckengost, Tim; Smolinsky, Jaclyn A.; Boone, Matthew; van Loon, E. Emiel; Dawson, Deanna K.; Walters, Eric L.

    2018-01-01

    With many of the world's migratory bird populations in alarming decline, broad-scale assessments of responses to migratory hazards may prove crucial to successful conservation efforts. Most birds migrate at night through increasingly light-polluted skies. Bright light sources can attract airborne migrants and lead to collisions with structures, but might also influence selection of migratory stopover habitat and thereby acquisition of food resources. We demonstrate, using multi-year weather radar measurements of nocturnal migrants across the northeastern U.S., that autumnal migrant stopover density increased at regional scales with proximity to the brightest areas, but decreased within a few kilometers of brightly-lit sources. This finding implies broad-scale attraction to artificial light while airborne, impeding selection for extensive forest habitat. Given that high-quality stopover habitat is critical to successful migration, and hindrances during migration can decrease fitness, artificial lights present a potentially heightened conservation concern for migratory bird populations.

  8. Design of Metamaterial Surfaces with Broad-band Absorbance

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Chihhui; Shvets, Gennady

    2011-01-01

    A simple design paradigm for making broad-band ultra-thin plasmonic absorbers is introduced. The absorber's unit cell is composed of sub-units of various sizes, resulting in nearly 100% absorbance at multiple adjacent frequencies and high absorbance over a broad frequency range. A simple theoretical model for designing broad-band absorbers is presented. It uses a single-resonance model to describe the optical response of each sub-unit and employs the series circuit model to predict the overal...

  9. Contraception coverage and methods used among women in South Africa: A national household survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M F Chersich

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background. Globally, family planning services are being strengthened and the range of contraceptive choices expanded. Data on contraceptive coverage and service gaps could help to shape these initiatives. Objective. To assess contraception coverage in South Africa (SA and identify underserved populations and aspects of programming that require strengthening. Methods. Data from a 2012 SA household survey assessed contraception coverage among 6 296 women aged 15 - 49 years and identified underserved populations. Results. Two-thirds had an unintended pregnancy in the past 5 years, a quarter of which were contraceptive failures. Most knew of injectable (92.0% and oral contraception (89.9%, but fewer of intrauterine devices (56.1% and emergency contraception (47.3%. Contraceptive prevalence was 49.1%, and 41.8% women used modern non-barrier methods. About half had ever used injectable contraception. Contraception was lower in black Africans and younger women, who used a limited range of methods. Conclusion. Contraception coverage is higher than many previous estimates. Rates of unintended pregnancy, contraceptive failure and knowledge gaps, however, demonstrate high levels of unmet need, especially among black Africans and young women.

  10. Armenian media coverage of science topics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mkhitaryan, Marie

    2016-12-01

    The article discusses features and issues of Armenian media coverage on scientific topics and provides recommendations on how to promote scientific topics in media. The media is more interested in social or public reaction rather than in scientific information itself. Medical science has a large share of the global media coverage. It is followed by articles about environment, space, technology, physics and other areas. Armenian media mainly tends to focus on a scientific topic if at first sight it contains something revolutionary. Media primarily reviews whether that scientific study can affect the Armenian economy and only then decides to refer to it. Unfortunately, nowadays the perception of science is a little distorted in media. We can often see headlines of news where is mentioned that the scientist has made "an invention". Nowadays it is hard to see the border between a scientist and an inventor. In fact, the technological term "invention" attracts the media by making illusionary sensation and ensuring large audience. The report also addresses the "Gitamard" ("A science-man") special project started in 2016 in Mediamax that tells about scientists and their motivations.

  11. Estimation of vaccine efficacy and critical vaccination coverage in partially observed outbreaks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michiel van Boven

    Full Text Available Classical approaches to estimate vaccine efficacy are based on the assumption that a person's risk of infection does not depend on the infection status of others. This assumption is untenable for infectious disease data where such dependencies abound. We present a novel approach to estimating vaccine efficacy in a Bayesian framework using disease transmission models. The methodology is applied to outbreaks of mumps in primary schools in the Netherlands. The total study population consisted of 2,493 children in ten primary schools, of which 510 (20% were known to have been infected, and 832 (33% had unknown infection status. The apparent vaccination coverage ranged from 12% to 93%, and the apparent infection attack rate varied from 1% to 76%. Our analyses show that vaccination reduces the probability of infection per contact substantially but not perfectly ([Formula: see text] = 0.933; 95CrI: 0.908-0.954. Mumps virus appears to be moderately transmissible in the school setting, with each case yielding an estimated 2.5 secondary cases in an unvaccinated population ([Formula: see text] = 2.49; 95%CrI: 2.36-2.63, resulting in moderate estimates of the critical vaccination coverage (64.2%; 95%CrI: 61.7-66.7%. The indirect benefits of vaccination are highest in populations with vaccination coverage just below the critical vaccination coverage. In these populations, it is estimated that almost two infections can be prevented per vaccination. We discuss the implications for the optimal control of mumps in heterogeneously vaccinated populations.

  12. Review on dog rabies vaccination coverage in Africa: a question of dog accessibility or cost recovery?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jibat, Tariku; Hogeveen, Henk; Mourits, Monique C M

    2015-02-01

    Rabies still poses a significant human health problem throughout most of Africa, where the majority of the human cases results from dog bites. Mass dog vaccination is considered to be the most effective method to prevent rabies in humans. Our objective was to systematically review research articles on dog rabies parenteral vaccination coverage in Africa in relation to dog accessibility and vaccination cost recovery arrangement (i.e.free of charge or owner charged). A systematic literature search was made in the databases of CAB abstracts (EBSCOhost and OvidSP), Scopus, Web of Science, PubMed, Medline (EBSCOhost and OvidSP) and AJOL (African Journal Online) for peer reviewed articles on 1) rabies control, 2) dog rabies vaccination coverage and 3) dog demography in Africa. Identified articles were subsequently screened and selected using predefined selection criteria like year of publication (viz. ≥ 1990), type of study (cross sectional), objective(s) of the study (i.e. vaccination coverage rates, dog demographics and financial arrangements of vaccination costs), language of publication (English) and geographical focus (Africa). The selection process resulted in sixteen peer reviewed articles which were used to review dog demography and dog ownership status, and dog rabies vaccination coverage throughout Africa. The main review findings indicate that 1) the majority (up to 98.1%) of dogs in African countries are owned (and as such accessible), 2) puppies younger than 3 months of age constitute a considerable proportion (up to 30%) of the dog population and 3) male dogs are dominating in numbers (up to 3.6 times the female dog population). Dog rabies parenteral vaccination coverage was compared between "free of charge" and "owner charged" vaccination schemes by the technique of Meta-analysis. Results indicate that the rabies vaccination coverage following a free of charge vaccination scheme (68%) is closer to the World Health Organization recommended coverage rate

  13. Review on dog rabies vaccination coverage in Africa: a question of dog accessibility or cost recovery?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tariku Jibat

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Rabies still poses a significant human health problem throughout most of Africa, where the majority of the human cases results from dog bites. Mass dog vaccination is considered to be the most effective method to prevent rabies in humans. Our objective was to systematically review research articles on dog rabies parenteral vaccination coverage in Africa in relation to dog accessibility and vaccination cost recovery arrangement (i.e.free of charge or owner charged.A systematic literature search was made in the databases of CAB abstracts (EBSCOhost and OvidSP, Scopus, Web of Science, PubMed, Medline (EBSCOhost and OvidSP and AJOL (African Journal Online for peer reviewed articles on 1 rabies control, 2 dog rabies vaccination coverage and 3 dog demography in Africa. Identified articles were subsequently screened and selected using predefined selection criteria like year of publication (viz. ≥ 1990, type of study (cross sectional, objective(s of the study (i.e. vaccination coverage rates, dog demographics and financial arrangements of vaccination costs, language of publication (English and geographical focus (Africa. The selection process resulted in sixteen peer reviewed articles which were used to review dog demography and dog ownership status, and dog rabies vaccination coverage throughout Africa. The main review findings indicate that 1 the majority (up to 98.1% of dogs in African countries are owned (and as such accessible, 2 puppies younger than 3 months of age constitute a considerable proportion (up to 30% of the dog population and 3 male dogs are dominating in numbers (up to 3.6 times the female dog population. Dog rabies parenteral vaccination coverage was compared between "free of charge" and "owner charged" vaccination schemes by the technique of Meta-analysis. Results indicate that the rabies vaccination coverage following a free of charge vaccination scheme (68% is closer to the World Health Organization recommended coverage rate (70

  14. Coverage of Large-Scale Food Fortification of Edible Oil, Wheat Flour, and Maize Flour Varies Greatly by Vehicle and Country but Is Consistently Lower among the Most Vulnerable: Results from Coverage Surveys in 8 Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aaron, Grant J; Friesen, Valerie M; Jungjohann, Svenja; Garrett, Greg S; Neufeld, Lynnette M; Myatt, Mark

    2017-05-01

    Background: Large-scale food fortification (LSFF) of commonly consumed food vehicles is widely implemented in low- and middle-income countries. Many programs have monitoring information gaps and most countries fail to assess program coverage. Objective: The aim of this work was to present LSFF coverage survey findings (overall and in vulnerable populations) from 18 programs (7 wheat flour, 4 maize flour, and 7 edible oil programs) conducted in 8 countries between 2013 and 2015. Methods: A Fortification Assessment Coverage Toolkit (FACT) was developed to standardize the assessments. Three indicators were used to assess the relations between coverage and vulnerability: 1 ) poverty, 2 ) poor dietary diversity, and 3 ) rural residence. Three measures of coverage were assessed: 1 ) consumption of the vehicle, 2 ) consumption of a fortifiable vehicle, and 3 ) consumption of a fortified vehicle. Individual program performance was assessed based on the following: 1 ) achieving overall coverage ≥50%, 2) achieving coverage of ≥75% in ≥1 vulnerable group, and 3 ) achieving equity in coverage for ≥1 vulnerable group. Results: Coverage varied widely by food vehicle and country. Only 2 of the 18 LSFF programs assessed met all 3 program performance criteria. The 2 main program bottlenecks were a poor choice of vehicle and failure to fortify a fortifiable vehicle (i.e., absence of fortification). Conclusions: The results highlight the importance of sound program design and routine monitoring and evaluation. There is strong evidence of the impact and cost-effectiveness of LSFF; however, impact can only be achieved when the necessary activities and processes during program design and implementation are followed. The FACT approach fills an important gap in the availability of standardized tools. The LSFF programs assessed here need to be re-evaluated to determine whether to further invest in the programs, whether other vehicles are appropriate, and whether other approaches

  15. One-fifth of nonelderly Californians do not have access to job-based health insurance coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavarreda, Shana Alex; Cabezas, Livier

    2010-11-01

    Lack of job-based health insurance does not affect just workers, but entire families who depend on job-based coverage for their health care. This policy brief shows that in 2007 one-fifth of all Californians ages 0-64 who lived in households where at least one family member was employed did not have access to job-based coverage. Among adults with no access to job-based coverage through their own or a spouse's job, nearly two-thirds remained uninsured. In contrast, the majority of children with no access to health insurance through a parent obtained public health insurance, highlighting the importance of such programs. Low-income, Latino and small business employees were more likely to have no access to job-based insurance. Provisions enacted under national health care reform (the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010) will aid some of these populations in accessing health insurance coverage.

  16. Broad Spectrum Sanitizing Wipes with Food Additives Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Microcide proposes to develop novel multipurpose non-toxic sanitizing wipes that are aqueous based, have shelf life of 3-5 years, have broad spectrum microbicidal...

  17. Influenza vaccination coverage rates among adults before and after the 2009 influenza pandemic and the reasons for non-vaccination in Beijing, China: A cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Shuangsheng; Yang, Peng; Li, Haiyue; Ma, Chunna; Zhang, Yi; Wang, Quanyi

    2013-01-01

    Background To optimize the vaccination coverage rates in the general population, the status of coverage rates and the reasons for non-vaccination need to be understood. Therefore, the objective of this study was to assess the changes in influenza vaccination coverage rates in the general population before and after the 2009 influenza pandemic (2008/2009, 2009/2010, and 2010/2011 seasons), and to determine the reasons for non-vaccination. Methods In January 2011 we conducted a multi-stage samp...

  18. The broad line region of AGN: Kinematics and physics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popović L.Č.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a discussion of kinematics and physics of the Broad Line Region (BLR is given. The possible physical conditions in the BLR and problems in determination of the physical parameters (electron temperature and density are considered. Moreover, one analyses the geometry of the BLR and the probability that (at least a fraction of the radiation in the Broad Emission Lines (BELs originates from a relativistic accretion disk.

  19. The Broad Line Region of AGN: Kinematics and Physics

    OpenAIRE

    Popović L.Č.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper a discussion of kinematics and physics of the Broad Line Region (BLR) is given. The possible physical conditions in the BLR and problems in determination of the physical parameters (electron temperature and density) are considered. Moreover, one analyses the geometry of the BLR and the probability that (at least) a fraction of the radiation in the Broad Emission Lines (BELs) originates from a relativistic accretion disk.

  20. Changes in Self-Reported Smokefree Workplace Policy Coverage Among Employed Adults-United States, 2003 and 2010-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babb, Stephen; Liu, Benmei; Kenemer, Brandon; Holmes, Carissa Baker; Hartman, Anne M; Gibson, James T; King, Brian A

    2017-10-12

    The workplace is a major source of exposure to secondhand smoke from combustible tobacco products. Smokefree workplace policies protect nonsmoking workers from secondhand smoke and help workers who smoke quit. This study examined changes in self-reported smokefree workplace policy coverage among U.S. workers from 2003 to 2010-2011. Data came from the 2003 (n = 74,728) and 2010-2011 (n = 70,749) waves of the Tobacco Use Supplement to the Current Population Survey. Among employed adults working indoors, a smokefree workplace policy was defined as a self-reported policy at the respondent's workplace that did not allow smoking in work areas and public/common areas. Descriptive statistics were used to assess smokefree workplace policy coverage at two timepoints overall, by occupation, and by state. The proportion of U.S. workers covered by smokefree workplace policies increased from 77.7% in 2003 to 82.8% in 2010-2011 (p states (p states (p state, it ranged from 63.3% in Nevada to 92.6% in Montana. From 2003 to 2010-2011, self-reported smokefree workplace policy coverage among indoor adult workers increased nationally, and occupational coverage disparities narrowed. However, coverage remained unchanged in half of states, and disparities persisted across occupations and states. Accelerated efforts are warranted to ensure that all workers are protected by smokefree workplace policies. This study assessed changes in the proportion of indoor workers reporting being covered by smokefree workplace policies from 2003 to 2010-2011 overall and by occupation and by state, using data from the Tobacco Use Supplement to the Current Population Survey. The findings indicate that smokefree workplace policy coverage among U.S. indoor workers has increased nationally, with occupational coverage disparities narrowing. However, coverage remained unchanged in half of states, and disparities persisted across occupations and states. Accelerated efforts are warranted to ensure that all workers

  1. Strategies to improve treatment coverage in community-based public health programs: A systematic review of the literature.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katrina V Deardorff

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Community-based public health campaigns, such as those used in mass deworming, vitamin A supplementation and child immunization programs, provide key healthcare interventions to targeted populations at scale. However, these programs often fall short of established coverage targets. The purpose of this systematic review was to evaluate the impact of strategies used to increase treatment coverage in community-based public health campaigns.We systematically searched CAB Direct, Embase, and PubMed archives for studies utilizing specific interventions to increase coverage of community-based distribution of drugs, vaccines, or other public health services. We identified 5,637 articles, from which 79 full texts were evaluated according to pre-defined inclusion and exclusion criteria. Twenty-eight articles met inclusion criteria and data were abstracted regarding strategy-specific changes in coverage from these sources. Strategies used to increase coverage included community-directed treatment (n = 6, pooled percent change in coverage: +26.2%, distributor incentives (n = 2, +25.3%, distribution along kinship networks (n = 1, +24.5%, intensified information, education, and communication activities (n = 8, +21.6%, fixed-point delivery (n = 1, +21.4%, door-to-door delivery (n = 1, +14.0%, integrated service distribution (n = 9, +12.7%, conversion from school- to community-based delivery (n = 3, +11.9%, and management by a non-governmental organization (n = 1, +5.8%.Strategies that target improving community member ownership of distribution appear to have a large impact on increasing treatment coverage. However, all strategies used to increase coverage successfully did so. These results may be useful to National Ministries, programs, and implementing partners in optimizing treatment coverage in community-based public health programs.

  2. Accuracy of Coverage Survey Recall following an Integrated Mass Drug Administration for Lymphatic Filariasis, Schistosomiasis, and Soil-Transmitted Helminthiasis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip J Budge

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Achieving target coverage levels for mass drug administration (MDA is essential to elimination and control efforts for several neglected tropical diseases (NTD. To ensure program goals are met, coverage reported by drug distributors may be validated through household coverage surveys that rely on respondent recall. This is the first study to assess accuracy in such surveys.Recall accuracy was tested in a series of coverage surveys conducted at 1, 6, and 12 months after an integrated MDA in Togo during which three drugs (albendazole, ivermectin, and praziquantel were distributed. Drug distribution was observed during the MDA to ensure accurate recording of persons treated during the MDA. Information was obtained for 506, 1131, and 947 persons surveyed at 1, 6, and 12 months, respectively. Coverage (defined as the percentage of persons taking at least one of the MDA medications within these groups was respectively 88.3%, 87.4%, and 80.0%, according to the treatment registers; it was 87.9%, 91.4% and 89.4%, according to survey responses. Concordance between respondents and registers on swallowing at least one pill was >95% at 1 month and >86% at 12 months; the lower concordance at 12 months was more likely due to difficulty matching survey respondents with the year-old treatment register rather than inaccurate responses. Respondents generally distinguished between pills similar in appearance; concordance for recall of which pills were taken was over 80% in each survey.In this population, coverage surveys provided remarkably consistent coverage estimates for up to one year following an integrated MDA. It is not clear if similar consistency will be seen in other settings, however, these data suggest that in some settings coverage surveys might be conducted as much as one year following an MDA without compromising results. This might enable integration of post-MDA coverage measurement into large, multipurpose, periodic surveys, thereby conserving

  3. Barrier Coverage for 3D Camera Sensor Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Si, Pengju; Wu, Chengdong; Zhang, Yunzhou; Jia, Zixi; Ji, Peng; Chu, Hao

    2017-08-03

    Barrier coverage, an important research area with respect to camera sensor networks, consists of a number of camera sensors to detect intruders that pass through the barrier area. Existing works on barrier coverage such as local face-view barrier coverage and full-view barrier coverage typically assume that each intruder is considered as a point. However, the crucial feature (e.g., size) of the intruder should be taken into account in the real-world applications. In this paper, we propose a realistic resolution criterion based on a three-dimensional (3D) sensing model of a camera sensor for capturing the intruder's face. Based on the new resolution criterion, we study the barrier coverage of a feasible deployment strategy in camera sensor networks. Performance results demonstrate that our barrier coverage with more practical considerations is capable of providing a desirable surveillance level. Moreover, compared with local face-view barrier coverage and full-view barrier coverage, our barrier coverage is more reasonable and closer to reality. To the best of our knowledge, our work is the first to propose barrier coverage for 3D camera sensor networks.

  4. Barrier Coverage for 3D Camera Sensor Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chengdong; Zhang, Yunzhou; Jia, Zixi; Ji, Peng; Chu, Hao

    2017-01-01

    Barrier coverage, an important research area with respect to camera sensor networks, consists of a number of camera sensors to detect intruders that pass through the barrier area. Existing works on barrier coverage such as local face-view barrier coverage and full-view barrier coverage typically assume that each intruder is considered as a point. However, the crucial feature (e.g., size) of the intruder should be taken into account in the real-world applications. In this paper, we propose a realistic resolution criterion based on a three-dimensional (3D) sensing model of a camera sensor for capturing the intruder’s face. Based on the new resolution criterion, we study the barrier coverage of a feasible deployment strategy in camera sensor networks. Performance results demonstrate that our barrier coverage with more practical considerations is capable of providing a desirable surveillance level. Moreover, compared with local face-view barrier coverage and full-view barrier coverage, our barrier coverage is more reasonable and closer to reality. To the best of our knowledge, our work is the first to propose barrier coverage for 3D camera sensor networks. PMID:28771167

  5. The free vaccination policy of influenza in Beijing, China: The vaccine coverage and its associated factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Min; Fang, Renfei; Wu, Jiang; Pang, Xinghuo; Deng, Ying; Lei, Trudy; Xie, Zheng

    2016-04-19

    In order to improve influenza vaccination coverage, the coverage rate and reasons for non-vaccination need to be determined. In 2007, the Beijing Government published a policy providing free influenza vaccinations to elderly people living in Beijing who are older than 60. This study examines the vaccination coverage after the policy was carried out and factors influencing vaccination among the elderly in Beijing. A cross-sectional survey was conducted through the use of questionnaires in 2013. A total of 1673 eligible participants were selected by multistage stratified random sampling in Beijing using anonymous questionnaires in-person. They were surveyed to determine vaccination status and social demographic information. The influenza vaccination coverage was 38.7% among elderly people in Beijing in 2012. The most common reason for not being vaccinated was people thinking they did not need to have a flu shot. After controlling for age, gender, income, self-reported health status, and the acceptance of health promotion, the rate in rural areas was 2.566 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.801-3.655, Pvaccination uptake. Those whom received information through television, community boards, or doctors were more likely to get vaccinated compared to those who did not (Odds Ratio [OR]=1.403, Pvaccine coverage in Beijing is much lower than that of developed countries with similar policies. The rural-urban disparity in coverage rate (64.1% versus 33.5%), may be explained by differing health provision systems and personal attitudes toward free services due to socioeconomic factors. Methods for increasing vaccination levels include increasing the focus on primary care and health education programs, particularly recommendations from doctors, to the distinct target populations, especially with a focus on expanding these efforts in urban areas. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Immunisation coverage and its associations in rural Tanzanian infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruger, Carsten; Olsen, Oystein E; Mighay, Emanuel; Ali, Mohammed

    2013-01-01

    In Tanzania, vaccination rates (VRs) range from 80% to 90% for standard vaccines, but little information is available about rural populations and nomadic pastoralists. This study investigates levels and trends of the immunisation status of infants at eight mobile reproductive-and-child-health (RCH) clinics in a rural area in northern Tanzania (with a large multi-tribal population that has a significant population of nomadic pastoralists) for the years 1998, 1999, 2006 and 2007. In addition, the influence of tribal affiliation and health system-related factors on the immunisation status in this population is analysed. Vaccination data of 3868 infants for the standard bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG), poliomyelitis, diphtheria, pertussis, tetanus and measles vaccines were obtained from the RCH clinic records retrospectively, and coverage for both single vaccines and full vaccination by the end of first year of life were calculated. These results were correlated with data on predominant tribal affiliation at the clinic site, skilled attendance at birth, service provision and vaccine availability as independent variables. In 1998, the full vaccination rate (FVR) across all RCH clinics was 72%, significantly higher than in the other years (1999: 58%; 2006: 58%; 2007: 57%) (p 80% was only achieved at one clinic during 3 years. No clinic showed a consistent increase of VRs over time. In univariate analysis, predominant tribal affiliation (Datoga tribe) was associated with a low FVR (odds ratio (OR) 4.6 (95% confidence interval (CI) 3.8-5.5)), as were low rates of skilled attendance at birth (OR 3.6 (CI 2.9-4.4)). Other health system-related factors associated with low FVRs included interruption of scheduled monthly immunisation clinics (OR 9.8 (CI 2.1-45.5)) and lack of vaccines (OR 1.2-2.9, depending on vaccine). In multivariate analysis, predominant Datoga tribal affiliation and lack of vaccines retained their association with the risk of low rates of vaccination

  7. Another health insurance gap: gaining and losing coverage among natives and immigrants at older ages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, Adriana M; Hardy, Melissa

    2014-01-01

    As the immigrant population grows older and larger, limitations on access to health insurance may create a new subgroup of people who remain outside or on the margin of coverage. Using the Survey of Income and Program Participation (SIPP) data from the 2004 and 2008 panels, we address the health insurance gap between foreign-born and native-born adults among those aged 50-64 and the 65 and older, two sub-populations that have received relatively little attention in past research. We argue that current practices leave a significant minority of older foreign-born residents inconsistently covered or without any insurance. We find that health insurance coverage for older immigrants is both less likely and more episodic even when compositional differences in SES and assimilation are controlled. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Health Care as Commons: An Indigenous Approach to Universal Health Coverage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young Soon Wong

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Modern health care systems of today are predominantly derived from Western models and are either state owned or under private ownership. Government, through their health policies, generally aim to facilitate access for the majority of the population through the design of their health systems. However, there are communities, such as Indigenous peoples, who do not necessarily fall under the formal protection of state systems. Throughout history, these societies have developed different ways to provide health care to its population. These health care systems are held and managed under different property regimes with their attendant advantages and disadvantages. This article investigates the gaps in health coverage among Indigenous peoples using the Malaysian Indigenous peoples as a case study. It conceptually examines a commons approach to health care systems through a study of the traditional health care system of indigenous peoples and suggests how such an approach can help close this gap in the remaining gaps of universal health coverage.

  9. Genome Pool Strategy for Structural Coverage of Protein Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaroszewski, Lukasz; Slabinski, Lukasz; Wooley, John; Deacon, Ashley M.; Lesley, Scott A.; Wilson, Ian. A.; Godzik, Adam

    2010-01-01

    As noticed by generations of structural biologists, closely homologous proteins may have substantially different crystallization properties and propensities. These observations can be used to systematically introduce additional dimensionality into crystallization trials by targeting homologous proteins from multiple genomes in a “genome pool” strategy. Through extensive use of our recently introduced “crystallization feasibility score” (Slabinski et al., 2007a), we can explain that the genome pool strategy works well because the crystallization feasibility scores are surprisingly broad within families of homologous proteins, with most families containing a range of optimal to very difficult targets. We also show that some families can be regarded as relatively “easy”, where a significant number of proteins are predicted to have optimal crystallization features, and others are “very difficult”, where almost none are predicted to result in a crystal structure. Thus, the outcome of such variable distributions of such crystallizability' preferences leads to uneven structural coverage of known families, with “easier” or “optimal” families having several times more solved structures than “very difficult” ones. Nevertheless, this latter category can be successfully targeted by increasing the number of genomes that are used to select targets from a given family. On average, adding 10 new genomes to the “genome pool” provides more promising targets for 7 “very difficult” families. In contrast, our crystallization feasibility score does not indicate that any specific microbial genomes can be readily classified as “easier” or “very difficult” with respect to providing suitable candidates for crystallization and structure determination. Finally, our analyses show that specific physicochemical properties of the protein sequence favor successful outcomes for structure determination and, hence, the group of proteins with known 3D

  10. (Quickly) Testing the Tester via Path Coverage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groce, Alex

    2009-01-01

    The configuration complexity and code size of an automated testing framework may grow to a point that the tester itself becomes a significant software artifact, prone to poor configuration and implementation errors. Unfortunately, testing the tester by using old versions of the software under test (SUT) may be impractical or impossible: test framework changes may have been motivated by interface changes in the tested system, or fault detection may become too expensive in terms of computing time to justify running until errors are detected on older versions of the software. We propose the use of path coverage measures as a "quick and dirty" method for detecting many faults in complex test frameworks. We also note the possibility of using techniques developed to diversify state-space searches in model checking to diversify test focus, and an associated classification of tester changes into focus-changing and non-focus-changing modifications.

  11. Urban health insurance reform and coverage in China using data from National Health Services Surveys in 1998 and 2003

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Collins Charles D

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In 1997 there was a major reform of the government run urban health insurance system in China. The principal aims of the reform were to widen coverage of health insurance for the urban employed and contain medical costs. Following this reform there has been a transition from the dual system of the Government Insurance Scheme (GIS and Labour Insurance Scheme (LIS to the new Urban Employee Basic Health Insurance Scheme (BHIS. Methods This paper uses data from the National Health Services Surveys of 1998 and 2003 to examine the impact of the reform on population coverage. Particular attention is paid to coverage in terms of gender, age, employment status, and income levels. Following a description of the data between the two years, the paper will discuss the relationship between the insurance reform and the growing inequities in population coverage. Results An examination of the data reveals a number of key points: a The overall coverage of the newly established scheme has decreased from 1998 to 2003. b The proportion of the urban population without any type of health insurance arrangement remained almost the same between 1998 and 2003 in spite of the aim of the 1997 reform to increase the population coverage. c Higher levels of participation in mainstream insurance schemes (i.e. GIS-LIS and BHIS were identified among older age groups, males and high income groups. In some cases, the inequities in the system are increasing. d There has been an increase in coverage of the urban population by non-mainstream health insurance schemes, including non-commercial and commercial ones. The paper discusses three important issues in relation to urban insurance coverage: institutional diversity in the forms of insurance, labour force policy and the non-mainstream forms of commercial and non-commercial forms of insurance. Conclusion The paper concludes that the huge economic development and expansion has not resulted in a reduced disparity in

  12. Endoscopic coverage of fetal myelomeningocele in utero.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruner, J P; Richards, W O; Tulipan, N B; Arney, T L

    1999-01-01

    Our goal was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of minimally invasive surgery for the coverage of myelomeningocele in utero. Women in the mid-second trimester of a pregnancy complicated by fetal myelomeningocele were offered an experimental procedure designed to prevent ongoing exposure of the spinal cord to the intrauterine environment. The procedure consisted of maternal laparotomy while the patient was under both general and epidural anesthesia, with exposure of the gravid uterus. Endoscopic ports were placed for camera and operating instruments. Amniotic fluid was removed and replaced with carbon dioxide. The fetus was then positioned and a maternal split-thickness skin graft was placed over the exposed spinal cord or neural elements. The skin graft and a covering of Surgicel Absorbable Hemostat were attached with fibrin glue prepared from autologous cryoprecipitate. Four fetuses with open myelomeningocele underwent endoscopic coverage of the spinal lesion between 22 weeks 3 days and 24 weeks 3 days of gestation. One infant, delivered by planned cesarean section at 35 weeks' gestation after demonstration of fetal lung maturity, is almost 3 years old. A second infant was delivered by cesarean section at 28 weeks after preterm labor and is now almost 6 months old. Both survivors manifest only mild motor and somatosensory deficits. One fetus who was delivered 1 week after operation after development of amnionitis died in the delivery room of extreme prematurity. The final fetus died intraoperatively from abruptio placentae. Minimally invasive fetal surgery appears to constitute a feasible approach to nonlethal fetal malformations that result in progressive and disabling organ damage.

  13. Influenza vaccination coverage among medical residents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costantino, Claudio; Mazzucco, Walter; Azzolini, Elena; Baldini, Cesare; Bergomi, Margherita; Biafiore, Alessio Daniele; Bianco, Manuela; Borsari, Lucia; Cacciari, Paolo; Cadeddu, Chiara; Camia, Paola; Carluccio, Eugenia; Conti, Andrea; De Waure, Chiara; Di Gregori, Valentina; Fabiani, Leila; Fallico, Roberto; Filisetti, Barbara; Flacco, Maria E; Franco, Elisabetta; Furnari, Roberto; Galis, Veronica; Gallea, Maria R; Gallone, Maria F; Gallone, Serena; Gelatti, Umberto; Gilardi, Francesco; Giuliani, Anna R; Grillo, Orazio C; Lanati, Niccolò; Mascaretti, Silvia; Mattei, Antonella; Micò, Rocco; Morciano, Laura; Nante, Nicola; Napoli, Giuseppe; Nobile, Carmelo; Palladino, Raffaele; Parisi, Salvatore; Passaro, Maria; Pelissero, Gabriele; Quarto, Michele; Ricciardi, Walter; Romano, Gabriele; Rustico, Ennio; Saponari, Anita; Schioppa, Francesco S; Signorelli, Carlo; Siliquini, Roberta; Trabacchi, Valeria; Triassi, Maria; Varetta, Alessia; Ziglio, Andrea; Zoccali, Angela; Vitale, Francesco; Amodio, Emanuele

    2014-01-01

    Although influenza vaccination is recognized to be safe and effective, recent studies have confirmed that immunization coverage among health care workers remain generally low, especially among medical residents (MRs). Aim of the present multicenter study was to investigate attitudes and determinants associated with acceptance of influenza vaccination among Italian MRs. A survey was performed in 2012 on MRs attending post-graduate schools of 18 Italian Universities. Each participant was interviewed via an anonymous, self-administered, web-based questionnaire including questions on attitudes regarding influenza vaccination. A total of 2506 MRs were recruited in the survey and 299 (11.9%) of these stated they had accepted influenza vaccination in 2011–2012 season. Vaccinated MRs were older (P = 0.006), working in clinical settings (P = 0.048), and vaccinated in the 2 previous seasons (P < 0.001 in both seasons). Moreover, MRs who had recommended influenza vaccination to their patients were significantly more compliant with influenza vaccination uptake in 2011–2012 season (P < 0.001). “To avoid spreading influenza among patients” was recognized as the main reason for accepting vaccination by less than 15% of vaccinated MRs. Italian MRs seem to have a very low compliance with influenza vaccination and they seem to accept influenza vaccination as a habit that is unrelated to professional and ethical responsibility. Otherwise, residents who refuse vaccination in the previous seasons usually maintain their behaviors. Promoting correct attitudes and good practice in order to improve the influenza immunization rates of MRs could represent a decisive goal for increasing immunization coverage among health care workers of the future. PMID:24603089

  14. Ecosystem Evapotranspiration as a Response to Climate and Vegetation Coverage Changes in Northwest Yunnan, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Yang

    Full Text Available Climate and human-driven changes play an important role in regional droughts. Northwest Yunnan Province is a key region for biodiversity conservation in China, and it has experienced severe droughts since the beginning of this century; however, the extent of the contributions from climate and human-driven changes remains unclear. We calculated the ecosystem evapotranspiration (ET and water yield (WY of northwest Yunnan Province, China from 2001 to 2013 using meteorological and remote sensing observation data and a Surface Energy Balance System (SEBS model. Multivariate regression analyses were used to differentiate the contribution of climate and vegetation coverage to ET. The results showed that the annual average vegetation coverage significantly increased over time with a mean of 0.69 in spite of the precipitation fluctuation. Afforestation/reforestation and other management efforts attributed to vegetation coverage increase in NW Yunnan. Both ET and WY considerably fluctuated with the climate factors, which ranged from 623.29 mm to 893.8 mm and -51.88 mm to 384.40 mm over the time period. Spatially, ET in the southeast of NW Yunnan (mainly in Lijiang increased significantly, which was in line with the spatial trend of vegetation coverage. Multivariate linear regression analysis indicated that climatic factors accounted for 85.18% of the ET variation, while vegetation coverage explained 14.82%. On the other hand, precipitation accounted for 67.5% of the WY. We conclude that the continuous droughts in northwest Yunnan were primarily climatically driven; however, man-made land cover and vegetation changes also increased the vulnerability of local populations to drought. Because of the high proportion of the water yield consumed for subsistence and poor infrastructure for water management, local populations have been highly vulnerable to climate drought conditions. We suggest that conservation of native vegetation and development of water

  15. Ecosystem Evapotranspiration as a Response to Climate and Vegetation Coverage Changes in Northwest Yunnan, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hao; Luo, Peng; Wang, Jun; Mou, Chengxiang; Mo, Li; Wang, Zhiyuan; Fu, Yao; Lin, Honghui; Yang, Yongping; Bhatta, Laxmi Dutt

    2015-01-01

    Climate and human-driven changes play an important role in regional droughts. Northwest Yunnan Province is a key region for biodiversity conservation in China, and it has experienced severe droughts since the beginning of this century; however, the extent of the contributions from climate and human-driven changes remains unclear. We calculated the ecosystem evapotranspiration (ET) and water yield (WY) of northwest Yunnan Province, China from 2001 to 2013 using meteorological and remote sensing observation data and a Surface Energy Balance System (SEBS) model. Multivariate regression analyses were used to differentiate the contribution of climate and vegetation coverage to ET. The results showed that the annual average vegetation coverage significantly increased over time with a mean of 0.69 in spite of the precipitation fluctuation. Afforestation/reforestation and other management efforts attributed to vegetation coverage increase in NW Yunnan. Both ET and WY considerably fluctuated with the climate factors, which ranged from 623.29 mm to 893.8 mm and -51.88 mm to 384.40 mm over the time period. Spatially, ET in the southeast of NW Yunnan (mainly in Lijiang) increased significantly, which was in line with the spatial trend of vegetation coverage. Multivariate linear regression analysis indicated that climatic factors accounted for 85.18% of the ET variation, while vegetation coverage explained 14.82%. On the other hand, precipitation accounted for 67.5% of the WY. We conclude that the continuous droughts in northwest Yunnan were primarily climatically driven; however, man-made land cover and vegetation changes also increased the vulnerability of local populations to drought. Because of the high proportion of the water yield consumed for subsistence and poor infrastructure for water management, local populations have been highly vulnerable to climate drought conditions. We suggest that conservation of native vegetation and development of water

  16. [Coverage for birth care in Mexico and its interpretation within the context of maternal mortality].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazcano-Ponce, Eduardo; Schiavon, Raffaela; Uribe-Zúñiga, Patricia; Walker, Dilys; Suárez-López, Leticia; Luna-Gordillo, Rufino; Ulloa-Aguirre, Alfredo

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate health coverage for birth care in Mexico within the frame of maternal mortality reduction. Two information sources were used: 1) The comparison between the results yield by the Mexican National Health and Nutrition Surveys 2006 and 2012 (ENSANUT 2006 and 2012), and 2) the databases monitoring maternal deaths during 2012 (up to December 26), and live births (LB) in Mexico as estimated by the Mexican National Population Council (Conapo). The national coverage for birth care by medical units is nearly 94.4% at the national level, but in some federal entities such as Chiapas (60.5%), Nayarit (87.8%), Guerrero (91.2%), Durango (92.5%), Oaxaca (92.6%), and Puebla (93.4%), coverage remains below the national average. In women belonging to any social security system (eg. IMSS, IMSS Oportunidades, ISSSTE), coverage is almost 99%, whereas in those affiliated to the Mexican Popular Health Insurance (which depends directly from the Federal Ministry of Health), coverage reached 92.9%. In terms of Maternal Mortality Ratio (MMR), there are still large disparities among federal states in Mexico, with a national average of 47.0 per 100 000 LB (preliminary data for 2012, up to December 26). The MMR estimation has been updated using the most recent population projections. There is no correlation between the level of institutional birth care and the MMR in Mexico. It is thus necessary not only to guarantee universal birth care by health professionals, but also to provide obstetric care by qualified personnel in functional health services networks, to strengthen the quality of obstetric care, family planning programs, and to promote the implementation of new and innovative health policies that include intersectoral actions and human rights-based approaches targeted to reduce the enormous social inequity still prevailing in Mexico.

  17. Determinants of antiretroviral therapy coverage in Sub-Saharan Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fumitaka Furuoka

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Among 35 million people living with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV in 2013, only 37% had access to antiretroviral therapy (ART. Despite global concerted efforts to provide the universal access to the ART treatment, the ART coverage varies among countries and regions. At present, there is a lack of systematic empirical analyses on factors that determine the ART coverage. Therefore, the current study aimed to identify the determinants of the ART coverage in 41 countries in Sub-Saharan Africa. It employed statistical analyses for this purpose. Four elements, namely, the HIV prevalence, the level of national income, the level of medical expenditure and the number of nurses, were hypothesised to determine the ART coverage. The findings revealed that among the four proposed determinants only the HIV prevalence had a statistically significant impact on the ART coverage. In other words, the HIV prevalence was the sole determinant of the ART coverage in Sub-Saharan Africa.

  18. Leaves coverage of spray liquid and influence on herbicide efficacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Prokop

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of spray liquid leaves coverage on efficacy of herbicides was investigated. Five nozzles sizes were used to reach different percentage coverage. The effect of leaves coverage on Elytrigia repens (L. Desv. was evaluated using systemic herbicide (clethodim 240 g / l + surfactant and the effect of leaves coverage on Chenopodium album L. and Galium aparine L. was evaluated using contact herbicides (bentazone 600 g / l and the mixture of bentazone 480 g / l + activator 150 g / l. No significant differences of the efficacy were observed between different percentages of leaves coverage in case of systemic herbicides. Vice versa the efficacy significantly increased with higher percentage of leaves coverage in case of contact herbicides.

  19. Target Coverage in Wireless Sensor Networks with Probabilistic Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, Anxing; Xu, Xianghua; Cheng, Zongmao

    2016-01-01

    Sensing coverage is a fundamental problem in wireless sensor networks (WSNs), which has attracted considerable attention. Conventional research on this topic focuses on the 0/1 coverage model, which is only a coarse approximation to the practical sensing model. In this paper, we study the target coverage problem, where the objective is to find the least number of sensor nodes in randomly-deployed WSNs based on the probabilistic sensing model. We analyze the joint detection probability of target with multiple sensors. Based on the theoretical analysis of the detection probability, we formulate the minimum ϵ-detection coverage problem. We prove that the minimum ϵ-detection coverage problem is NP-hard and present an approximation algorithm called the Probabilistic Sensor Coverage Algorithm (PSCA) with provable approximation ratios. To evaluate our design, we analyze the performance of PSCA theoretically and also perform extensive simulations to demonstrate the effectiveness of our proposed algorithm. PMID:27618902

  20. Antiviral Therapy by HIV-1 Broadly Neutralizing and Inhibitory Antibodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiqing Zhang

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1 infection causes acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS, a global epidemic for more than three decades. HIV-1 replication is primarily controlled through antiretroviral therapy (ART but this treatment does not cure HIV-1 infection. Furthermore, there is increasing viral resistance to ART, and side effects associated with long-term therapy. Consequently, there is a need of alternative candidates for HIV-1 prevention and therapy. Recent advances have discovered multiple broadly neutralizing antibodies against HIV-1. In this review, we describe the key epitopes on the HIV-1 Env protein and the reciprocal broadly neutralizing antibodies, and discuss the ongoing clinical trials of broadly neutralizing and inhibitory antibody therapy as well as antibody combinations, bispecific antibodies, and methods that improve therapeutic efficacy by combining broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs with latency reversing agents. Compared with ART, HIV-1 therapeutics that incorporate these broadly neutralizing and inhibitory antibodies offer the advantage of decreasing virus load and clearing infected cells, which is a promising prospect in HIV-1 prevention and treatment.

  1. Employee Costs and the Decline in Health Insurance Coverage

    OpenAIRE

    David M. Cutler

    2002-01-01

    This paper examines why health insurance coverage fell despite the lengthy economic boom of the 1990s. I show that insurance coverage declined primarily because fewer workers took up coverage when offered it, not because fewer workers were offered insurance or were eligible for it. The reduction in take-up is associated with the increase in employee costs for health insurance. Estimates suggest that increased costs to employees can explain the entire decline in take-up rates in the 1990s.

  2. 42 CFR 436.330 - Coverage for certain aliens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Coverage for certain aliens. 436.330 Section 436... Coverage of the Medically Needy § 436.330 Coverage for certain aliens. If an agency provides Medicaid to... condition, as defined in § 440.255(c) of this chapter to those aliens described in § 436.406(c) of this...

  3. Temporal trend of green space coverage in China and its relationship with urbanization over the last two decades

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Juanjuan, E-mail: jjzhao@iue.ac.cn [Key Lab of Urban Environment and Health, Institute of Urban Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 1799 Jimei Road, Xiamen 361021 (China); Xiamen Key Lab of Urban Metabolism, 1799 Jimei Road, Xiamen 361021 (China); Chen, Shengbin, E-mail: chainpin@yahoo.com.cn [Nanjing Institute of Environmental Sciences, Ministry of Environmental Protection, 8 Jiangwangmiao Street, Nanjing 210042 (China); Jiang, Bo, E-mail: jbshuibao415@126.com [State Key Laboratory of Urban and Regional Ecology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 2871, Beijing 100085 (China); Ren, Yin, E-mail: yren@iue.ac.cn [Key Lab of Urban Environment and Health, Institute of Urban Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 1799 Jimei Road, Xiamen 361021 (China); Xiamen Key Lab of Urban Metabolism, 1799 Jimei Road, Xiamen 361021 (China); Wang, Hua, E-mail: wanghuaphd@gmail.com [Institute of Forestry and Pomology, Beijing Academy of Agriculture and Forestry Sciences, Ruiwangfen Jia 12 Xiangshan, Beijing 100093 (China); Vause, Jonathan, E-mail: jonathanvause@hotmail.com [Key Lab of Urban Environment and Health, Institute of Urban Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 1799 Jimei Road, Xiamen 361021 (China); Xiamen Key Lab of Urban Metabolism, 1799 Jimei Road, Xiamen 361021 (China); Yu, Haidong, E-mail: hoste@163.com [Xiamen Huaxia Vocational College, Wenjiaoqu Jimei District, Xiamen 361024 (China)

    2013-01-01

    2009. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cities in the same region exhibited long-term similar trends of development. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Population, land area and GDP significantly affected green space coverage. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Per capita GDP had the highest independent contribution to green space coverage. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A linear model to predict variance in green space was constructed.

  4. Patterns of Health Insurance Coverage Around the Time of Pregnancy Among Women with Live-Born Infants--Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System, 29 States, 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Angelo, Denise V; Le, Brenda; O'Neil, Mary Elizabeth; Williams, Letitia; Ahluwalia, Indu B; Harrison, Leslie L; Floyd, R Louise; Grigorescu, Violanda

    2015-06-19

    In 2009, before passage of the 2010 Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA), approximately 20% of women aged 18-64 years had no health insurance coverage. In addition, many women experienced transitions in coverage around the time of pregnancy. Having no health insurance coverage or experiencing gaps or shifts in coverage can be a barrier to receiving preventive health services and treatment for health problems that could affect pregnancy and newborn health. With the passage of ACA, women who were previously uninsured or had insurance that provided inadequate coverage might have better access to health services and better coverage, including additional preventive services with no cost sharing. Because certain elements of ACA (e.g., no lifetime dollar limits, dependent coverage to age 26, and provision of preventive services without cost sharing) were implemented as early as September 2010, data from 2009 can be used as a baseline to measure the incremental impact of ACA on the continuity of health care coverage for women around the time of pregnancy. 2009. The Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System (PRAMS) is an ongoing state- and population-based surveillance system designed to monitor selected maternal behaviors and experiences that occur before, during, and shortly after pregnancy among women who deliver live-born infants in selected U.S. states and New York City, New York. PRAMS uses mixed-mode data collection, in which up to three self-administered surveys are mailed to a sample of mothers, and those who do not respond are contacted for telephone interviews. Self-reported survey data are linked to birth certificate data and weighted for sample design, nonresponse, and noncoverage. Annual PRAMS data sets are created and used to produce statewide estimates of preconception and perinatal health behaviors and experiences in selected states and New York City. This report summarizes data from 29 states that conducted PRAMS in 2009, before the passage

  5. Dental Care Coverage and Use: Modeling Limitations and Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moeller, John F.; Chen, Haiyan

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We examined why older US adults without dental care coverage and use would have lower use rates if offered coverage than do those who currently have coverage. Methods. We used data from the 2008 Health and Retirement Study to estimate a multinomial logistic model to analyze the influence of personal characteristics in the grouping of older US adults into those with and those without dental care coverage and dental care use. Results. Compared with persons with no coverage and no dental care use, users of dental care with coverage were more likely to be younger, female, wealthier, college graduates, married, in excellent or very good health, and not missing all their permanent teeth. Conclusions. Providing dental care coverage to uninsured older US adults without use will not necessarily result in use rates similar to those with prior coverage and use. We have offered a model using modifiable factors that may help policy planners facilitate programs to increase dental care coverage uptake and use. PMID:24328635

  6. Access to Private Coverage for Children Enrolled in CHIP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMorrow, Stacey; Kenney, Genevieve M; Waidmann, Timothy; Anderson, Nathaniel

    2015-01-01

    To provide updated information on the potential substitution of public for private coverage among low-income children by examining the type of coverage held by children before they enrolled in Children's Health Insurance Program (CHIP) and exploring the extent to which children covered by CHIP had access to private coverage while they were enrolled. We conducted a major household telephone survey in 2012 of enrollees and disenrollees in CHIP in 10 states. We used the survey responses and Medicaid/CHIP administrative data to estimate the coverage distribution of all new enrollees in the 12 months before CHIP enrollment and to identify children who may have had access to employer coverage through one of their parents while enrolled in CHIP. About 13% of new enrollees had any private coverage in the 12 months before enrolling in CHIP, and most were found to have lost that coverage as a result of parental job loss. About 40% of CHIP enrollees had a parent with an employer-sponsored insurance (ESI) policy, but only half reported that the policy could cover the child. Approximately 30% of new enrollees had public coverage during the year before but were uninsured just before enrolling. Access to private coverage among CHIP enrollees is relatively limited. Furthermore, even when there is potential access to ESI, affordability is a serious concern for parents, making it possible that many children with access to ESI would remain uninsured in the absence of CHIP. Copyright © 2015 Academic Pediatric Association. All rights reserved.

  7. Periosteal Pedicle Flap Harvested during Vestibular Extension for Root Coverage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shubham Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Root exposure along with inadequate vestibular depth is a common clinical finding. Treatment option includes many techniques to treat such defects for obtaining predictable root coverage. Normally, the vestibular depth is increased first followed by a second surgery for root coverage. The present case report describes a single-stage technique for vestibular extension and root coverage in a single tooth by using the Periosteal Pedicle Flap (PPF. This technique involves no donor site morbidity and allows for reflection of sufficient amount of periosteal flap tissue with its own blood supply at the surgical site, thus increasing the chances of success of root coverage with simultaneous increase in vestibular depth.

  8. Coverage regions - How they're computed and used

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Charles K.

    1992-08-01

    Coverage regions are important considerations in the design and use of many space systems. Applications include ground-to-space and space-to-space communications, sensor coverage, and weapon reach. The 'coverage region' umbrella includes 'constraint regions', e.g., shadow regions for satellite visibility issues. The fundamental building blocks are circular regions on a sphere. These are combined to form more complex regions. Algorithms are developed to compute the boundaries of coverage regions in both geographic and satellite orbit coordinates. Emphasis is placed on circular satellite orbits, but extensions to elliptical orbits are addressed. Various applications are illustrated.

  9. An assessment of progress towards universal health coverage in Brazil, Russia, India, China, and South Africa (BRICS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marten, Robert; McIntyre, Diane; Travassos, Claudia; Shishkin, Sergey; Longde, Wang; Reddy, Srinath; Vega, Jeanette

    2014-12-13

    Brazil, Russia, India, China, and South Africa (BRICS) represent almost half the world's population, and all five national governments recently committed to work nationally, regionally, and globally to ensure that universal health coverage (UHC) is achieved. This analysis reviews national efforts to achieve UHC. With a broad range of health indicators, life expectancy (ranging from 53 years to 73 years), and mortality rate in children younger than 5 years (ranging from 10·3 to 44·6 deaths per 1000 livebirths), a review of progress in each of the BRICS countries shows that each has some way to go before achieving UHC. The BRICS countries show substantial, and often similar, challenges in moving towards UHC. On the basis of a review of each country, the most pressing problems are: raising insufficient public spending; stewarding mixed private and public health systems; ensuring equity; meeting the demands for more human resources; managing changing demographics and disease burdens; and addressing the social determinants of health. Increases in public funding can be used to show how BRICS health ministries could accelerate progress to achieve UHC. Although all the BRICS countries have devoted increased resources to health, the biggest increase has been in China, which was probably facilitated by China's rapid economic growth. However, the BRICS country with the second highest economic growth, India, has had the least improvement in public funding for health. Future research to understand such different levels of prioritisation of the health sector in these countries could be useful. Similarly, the role of strategic purchasing in working with powerful private sectors, the effect of federal structures, and the implications of investment in primary health care as a foundation for UHC could be explored. These issues could serve as the basis on which BRICS countries focus their efforts to share ideas and strategies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Coverage and inequalities in maternal and child health interventions in Afghanistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akseer, Nadia; Bhatti, Zaid; Rizvi, Arjumand; Salehi, Ahmad S; Mashal, Taufiq; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A

    2016-09-12

    Afghanistan has made considerable gains in improving maternal and child health and survival since 2001. However, socioeconomic and regional inequities may pose a threat to reaching universal coverage of health interventions and further health progress. We explored coverage and socioeconomic inequalities in key life-saving reproductive, maternal, newborn and child health (RMNCH) interventions at the national level and by region in Afghanistan. We also assessed gains in child survival through scaling up effective community-based interventions across wealth groups. Using data from the Afghanistan Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (MICS) 2010/11, we explored 11 interventions that spanned all stages of the continuum of care, including indicators of composite coverage. Asset-based wealth quintiles were constructed using standardised methods, and absolute inequalities were explored using wealth quintile (Q) gaps (Q5-Q1) and the slope index of inequality (SII), while relative inequalities were assessed with ratios (Q5/Q1) and the concentration index (CIX). The lives saved tool (LiST) modeling used to estimate neonatal and post-neonatal deaths averted from scaling up essential community-based interventions by 90 % coverage by 2025. Analyses considered the survey design characteristics and were conducted via STATA version 12.0 and SAS version 9.4. Our results underscore significant pro-rich socioeconomic absolute and relative inequalities, and mass population deprivation across most all RMNCH interventions studied. The most inequitable are antenatal care with a skilled attendant (ANCS), skilled birth attendance (SBA), and 4 or more antenatal care visits (ANC4) where the richest have between 3.0 and 5.6 times higher coverage relative to the poor, and Q5-Q1 gaps range from 32 % - 65 %. Treatment of sick children and breastfeeding interventions are the most equitably distributed. Across regions, inequalities were highest in the more urbanised East, West and Central regions

  11. Coverage and inequalities in maternal and child health interventions in Afghanistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadia Akseer

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Afghanistan has made considerable gains in improving maternal and child health and survival since 2001. However, socioeconomic and regional inequities may pose a threat to reaching universal coverage of health interventions and further health progress. We explored coverage and socioeconomic inequalities in key life-saving reproductive, maternal, newborn and child health (RMNCH interventions at the national level and by region in Afghanistan. We also assessed gains in child survival through scaling up effective community-based interventions across wealth groups. Methods Using data from the Afghanistan Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (MICS 2010/11, we explored 11 interventions that spanned all stages of the continuum of care, including indicators of composite coverage. Asset-based wealth quintiles were constructed using standardised methods, and absolute inequalities were explored using wealth quintile (Q gaps (Q5-Q1 and the slope index of inequality (SII, while relative inequalities were assessed with ratios (Q5/Q1 and the concentration index (CIX. The lives saved tool (LiST modeling used to estimate neonatal and post-neonatal deaths averted from scaling up essential community-based interventions by 90 % coverage by 2025. Analyses considered the survey design characteristics and were conducted via STATA version 12.0 and SAS version 9.4. Results Our results underscore significant pro-rich socioeconomic absolute and relative inequalities, and mass population deprivation across most all RMNCH interventions studied. The most inequitable are antenatal care with a skilled attendant (ANCS, skilled birth attendance (SBA, and 4 or more antenatal care visits (ANC4 where the richest have between 3.0 and 5.6 times higher coverage relative to the poor, and Q5-Q1 gaps range from 32 % - 65 %. Treatment of sick children and breastfeeding interventions are the most equitably distributed. Across regions, inequalities were highest in the

  12. The effect of Māori ethnicity misclassification on cervical screening coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandiford, Peter; Salvetto, Micol; Bramley, Dale; Wong, Samuel; Johnson, Lannes

    2013-04-05

    There is a large difference in the cervical screening coverage rate between Māori and European women in New Zealand. This paper examines the extent to which this difference is due to misclassification of ethnicity. Data from Waitemata District Health Board's two Primary Health Organisations (PHOs) was used to identify the population of Waitemata domiciled women aged 25-69 years eligible for cervical screening. Their cervical screening status was obtained from the National Cervical Screening Programme register (NCPS-R). Data from Auckland and Waitemata DHBs was used to determine the women's ethnicity in the National Health Index (NHI). Women who had withdrawn from the NCSP-R, women who were deceased and women for whom an NHI ethnicity code could not be obtained were excluded from the analysis. Ethnicity codes from the three sources (PHO registers, NCSP-R and NHI) were compared to identify women classified as non-Māori in the NCSP-R but Maori in either of the other two data sources. The effect on Maori cervical screening coverage rates of not counting these women was assessed. Within the study population there was a total of 6718 women identified as Māori on the NCSP of whom 5242 had been screened within the last 3 years and 1476 who had not. In addition to these, there were 2075 women identified as Māori in either the PHO or NHI databases but not in the NCSP-R who had been screened within the preceding 3 years, and a further 2094 who had not been screened. There were also 797 women identified as Maori in the NHI or PHO datasets who were not on the NCSP-R (and therefore were not screened). If all screened women classified as Māori from any source were counted, Waitemata DHB's Māori screening coverage rate would rise from 49.3% to 68.8% (or to 61.0% and 63.2% respective if just PHO and NHI Māori were counted). Misclassification of ethnicity could explain (in absolute terms) up to 19.5% of the 35.0% difference in cervical screening coverage rate between M

  13. Human broadly neutralizing antibodies to the envelope glycoprotein complex of hepatitis C virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giang, Erick; Dorner, Marcus; Prentoe, Jannick C

    2012-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infects ∼2% of the world's population. It is estimated that there are more than 500,000 new infections annually in Egypt, the country with the highest HCV prevalence. An effective vaccine would help control this expanding global health burden. HCV is highly variable......, and an effective vaccine should target conserved T- and B-cell epitopes of the virus. Conserved B-cell epitopes overlapping the CD81 receptor-binding site (CD81bs) on the E2 viral envelope glycoprotein have been reported previously and provide promising vaccine targets. In this study, we isolated 73 human m......bs on the E1E2 complex, has an exceptionally broad neutralizing activity toward diverse HCV genotypes and protects against heterologous HCV challenge in a small animal model. The mAb panel will be useful for the design and development of vaccine candidates to elicit broadly neutralizing antibodies...

  14. AccessMod 3.0: computing geographic coverage and accessibility to health care services using anisotropic movement of patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebener Steeve

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Access to health care can be described along four dimensions: geographic accessibility, availability, financial accessibility and acceptability. Geographic accessibility measures how physically accessible resources are for the population, while availability reflects what resources are available and in what amount. Combining these two types of measure into a single index provides a measure of geographic (or spatial coverage, which is an important measure for assessing the degree of accessibility of a health care network. Results This paper describes the latest version of AccessMod, an extension to the Geographical Information System ArcView 3.×, and provides an example of application of this tool. AccessMod 3 allows one to compute geographic coverage to health care using terrain information and population distribution. Four major types of analysis are available in AccessMod: (1 modeling the coverage of catchment areas linked to an existing health facility network based on travel time, to provide a measure of physical accessibility to health care; (2 modeling geographic coverage according to the availability of services; (3 projecting the coverage of a scaling-up of an existing network; (4 providing information for cost effectiveness analysis when little information about the existing network is available. In addition to integrating travelling time, population distribution and the population coverage capacity specific to each health facility in the network, AccessMod can incorporate the influence of landscape components (e.g. topography, river and road networks, vegetation that impact travelling time to and from facilities. Topographical constraints can be taken into account through an anisotropic analysis that considers the direction of movement. We provide an example of the application of AccessMod in the southern part of Malawi that shows the influences of the landscape constraints and of the modes of transportation on

  15. SCHIP's impact on dependent coverage in the small-group health insurance market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seiber, Eric E; Florence, Curtis S

    2010-02-01

    To estimate the impact of State Children's Health Insurance Program (SCHIP) expansions on public and private coverage of dependents at small firms compared with large firms. 1996-2007 Annual Demographic Survey of the Current Population Survey (CPS). This study estimates a two-stage least squares (2SLS) model for four insurance outcomes that instruments for SCHIP and Medicaid eligibility. Separate models are estimated for small group markets (firms with fewer than 25 employees), small businesses (firms under 500 employees), and large firms (firms 500 employees and above). We extracted data from the 1996-2007 CPS for children in households with at least one worker. The SCHIP expansions decreased the percentage of uninsured dependents in the small group market by 7.6 percentage points with negligible crowd-out in the small group and no significant effect on private coverage across the 11-year-period. The SCHIP expansions have increased coverage for households in the small group market with no significant crowd-out of private coverage. In contrast, the estimates for large firms are consistent with the substantial crowd-out observed in the literature.

  16. Health-financing reforms in southeast Asia: challenges in achieving universal coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tangcharoensathien, Viroj; Patcharanarumol, Walaiporn; Ir, Por; Aljunid, Syed Mohamed; Mukti, Ali Ghufron; Akkhavong, Kongsap; Banzon, Eduardo; Huong, Dang Boi; Thabrany, Hasbullah; Mills, Anne

    2011-03-05

    In this sixth paper of the Series, we review health-financing reforms in seven countries in southeast Asia that have sought to reduce dependence on out-of-pocket payments, increase pooled health finance, and expand service use as steps towards universal coverage. Laos and Cambodia, both resource-poor countries, have mostly relied on donor-supported health equity funds to reach the poor, and reliable funding and appropriate identification of the eligible poor are two major challenges for nationwide expansion. For Thailand, the Philippines, Indonesia, and Vietnam, social health insurance financed by payroll tax is commonly used for formal sector employees (excluding Malaysia), with varying outcomes in terms of financial protection. Alternative payment methods have different implications for provider behaviour and financial protection. Two alternative approaches for financial protection of the non-poor outside the formal sector have emerged-contributory arrangements and tax-financed schemes-with different abilities to achieve high population coverage rapidly. Fiscal space and mobilisation of payroll contributions are both important in accelerating financial protection. Expanding coverage of good-quality services and ensuring adequate human resources are also important to achieve universal coverage. As health-financing reform is complex, institutional capacity to generate evidence and inform policy is essential and should be strengthened. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Cobertura e fatores associados à realização do exame de detecção do câncer de colo de útero em área urbana no Sul do Brasil: estudo de base populacional Cervical cancer screening coverage and associated factors in a city in southern Brazil: a population-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Iara Gasperin

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available A cobertura do teste de Papanicolaou e fatores associados foram investigados entre mulheres de 20 a 59 anos de idade, residentes na área urbana de Florianópolis, Santa Catarina, Brasil. Foi realizado estudo transversal de base populacional com amostra aleatória por conglomerados. Examinaram-se dois desfechos: realização do Papanicolaou em algum momento na vida e exames em atraso (período maior que três anos desde o último teste ou nunca realizado. Entre 952 mulheres entrevistadas, 93% (IC95%: 91,5-94,7 realizaram o teste pelo menos uma vez na vida e 14% (IC95%: 11,8-16,2 estavam com o procedimento em atraso. Por meio da regressão de Poisson, constatou-se que estado civil, escolaridade, doenças crônicas autorreferidas e consulta médica foram fatores significativamente associados com ambos os desfechos. Idade, renda e internação hospitalar no último ano estiveram associadas somente com a realização do Papanicolaou na vida. A cobertura do teste de Papanicolaou foi elevada, porém existem disparidades socioeconômicas e demográficas, além do predomínio do rastreamento oportunístico.This study focused on coverage of screening for cervical cancer and associated factors in women 20 to 59 years of age in Florianópolis, Santa Catarina State, Brazil, in 2009. This was a cross-sectional study using cluster random sampling. Two outcomes were examined: a history of at least one Papanicolaou test and delaying the test (never performed or performed more than three years previously. Among 952 women, 93% (95%CI: 91.5-94.7 had ever had a Pap smear, whereas 14% (95%CI: 11.8-16.2 had delayed the test. According to Poisson regression, both outcomes were associated with marital status, schooling, presence of chronic disease, and consulting a physician for other reasons. Age, income, and hospitalization in the previous year were only associated with ever having a Pap smear. Although test coverage was high, much of the screening was opportunistic

  18. Shareholder, stakeholder-owner or broad stakeholder maximization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mygind, Niels

    2004-01-01

    including the shareholders of a company. Although it may be the ultimate goal for Corporate Social Responsibility to achieve this kind of maximization, broad stakeholder maximization is quite difficult to give a precise definition. There is no one-dimensional measure to add different stakeholder benefits...... not traded on the mar-ket, and therefore there is no possibility for practical application. Broad stakeholder maximization instead in practical applications becomes satisfying certain stakeholder demands, so that the practical application will be stakeholder-owner maximization un-der constraints defined...

  19. Fluorescence-based Broad Dynamic Range Viscosity Probes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dragan, Anatoliy; Graham, August E; Geddes, Chris D

    2014-03-01

    We introduce two new fluorescent viscosity probes, SYBR Green (SG) and PicoGreen (PG), that we have studied over a broad range of viscosity and in collagen solutions. In water, both dyes have low quantum yields and excited state lifetimes, while in viscous solvents or in complex with DNA both parameters dramatically (300-1000-fold) increase. We show that in log-log scale the dependence of the dyes' quantum yield vs. viscosity is linear, the slope of which is sensitive to temperature. Application of SG and PG, as a fluorescence-based broad dynamic range viscosity probes, to the life sciences is discussed.

  20. Rare case of giant broad ligament fibroid with myxoid degeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R R Godbole

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Giant fibroids are known to arise from the uterus, although very rarely from extra-uterine sites. Among extra-uterine fibroids, broad ligament fibroids generally achieve enormous size and generally present with pressure symptom like bladder and bowel dysfunction. Myxoid degeneration is a rare complication of benign fibroid, where presence of cystic changes mimics the metastatic malignant ovarian tumor. We report a case of true broad ligament fibroid measured about 13 kg. This case is reported for its rarity and the diagnostic difficulties in differentiating malignant ovarian tumor and benign fibroid with myxoid degeneration.

  1. An extremely broad band metamaterial absorber based on destructive interference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jingbo; Liu, Lingyun; Dong, Guoyan; Zhou, Ji

    2011-10-24

    We propose a design of an extremely broad frequency band absorber based on destructive interference mechanism. Metamaterial of multilayered SRRs structure is used to realize a desirable refractive index dispersion spectrum, which can induce a successive anti-reflection in a wide frequency range. The corresponding high absorptance originates from the destructive interference of two reflection waves from the two surfaces of the metamaterial. A strongly absorptive bandwidth of almost 60 GHz is demonstrated in the range of 0 to 70 GHz numerically. This design provides an effective and feasible way to construct broad band absorber in stealth technology, as well as the enhanced transmittance devices. © 2011 Optical Society of America

  2. Media Coverage of Recent Crises in Middle East: Daily Jordanian Press Coverage of Events in Syria 2011-2013

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Nasr-Allah Farej Farej; Ahmad Rasmi AlBattat; Abdul Azeem Noor Eldeen Alhasan

    2014-01-01

    The current paper investigates the media coverage of recent crisis affecting Syria. It focused on an essential research topic that deals with an important issue which covers the Jordanian Newspaper study sample of the current events in Syria, as well it identified the mechanism, methods and coverage language that newspapers used in their coverage of events in Syria and identified the most press forms used by newspapers to cover events. Thus, the background of the study has a scientific profes...

  3. Heterogeneity in Risky Choice Behaviour in a Broad Population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Gaudecker, Hans-Martin; van Soest, Arthur; Wengström, Erik Roland

    2009-01-01

    We analyse risk preferences using an experiment with real incentives in a representative sample of 1,422 Dutch respondents. Our econometric model incorporates four structural parameters that vary with observed and unobserved characteristics: Utility curvature, loss aversion, preferences towards t...... to incorporate unobserved heterogeneity in each of them to match the rich variety of choice patterns in the data....

  4. 78 FR 38162 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Listing One Distinct Population Segment of Broad...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-25

    ... ways: By creating incentives for landowners, and by increasing public awareness in the local... international boundaries, we are able to clearly identify the geographic extent of the DPS listing and thereby... boundaries that result in significant differences in control of exploitation, management, or habitat...

  5. How germinal centers evolve broadly neutralizing antibodies: the breadth of the follicular helper T cell response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Boer, Rob J; Perelson, Alan S

    2017-09-06

    Many HIV-1 infected patients evolve broadly neutralizing antibodies (bnAbs). This evolutionary process typically takes several years, and is poorly understood as selection taking place in germinal centers occurs on the basis of antibody affinity. B cells with the highest affinity receptors tend to acquire the most antigen from the FDC network, and present the highest density of cognate peptides to follicular helper T cells (Tfh), which provide survival signals to the B cell. BnAbs are therefore only expected to evolve when the B cell lineage evolving breadth is consistently capturing and presenting more peptides to Tfh cells than other lineages of more specific B cells. Here we develop mathematical models of Tfh in germinal centers to explicitly define the mechanisms of selection in this complex evolutionary process.Our results suggest that broadly reactive B cells presenting a high density of pMHC are readily outcompeted by B cells responding to lineages of HIV-1 that transiently dominate the within host viral population. Conversely, if broadly reactive B cells acquire a large variety of several HIV-1 proteins from the FDC network and present a high diversity of several pMHC, they be rescued by a large fraction of the Tfh repertoire in the germinal center. Under such circumstances the evolution of bnAbs is much more consistent. Increasing the magnitude of the Tfh response, or the breadth of the Tfh repertoire, both markedly facilitate the evolution of bnAbs. Because both can be increased by vaccination with several HIV-1 proteins, this calls for experiments testing.Importance Many HIV-infected patients slowly evolve antibodies that can neutralize a large variety of viruses. Such "broadly neutralizing antibodies" (bnAbs) could in the future become therapeutic agents. BnAbs appear very late and patients are typically not protected by them. At the moment we fail to understand why this takes so long, and how the immune system selects for broadly neutralizing capacity

  6. Inequity between male and female coverage in state infertility laws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupree, James M; Dickey, Ryan M; Lipshultz, Larry I

    2016-06-01

    To analyze state insurance laws mandating coverage for male factor infertility and identify possible inequities between male and female coverage in state insurance laws. We identified states with laws or codes related to infertility insurance coverage using the National Conference of States Legislatures' and the National Infertility Association's websites. We performed a primary, systematic analysis of the laws or codes to specifically identify coverage for male factor infertility services. Not applicable. Not applicable. Not applicable. The presence or absence of language in state insurance laws mandating coverage for male factor infertility care. There are 15 states with laws mandating insurance coverage for female factor infertility. Only eight of those states (California, Connecticut, Massachusetts, Montana, New Jersey, New York, Ohio, and West Virginia) have mandates for male factor infertility evaluation or treatment. Insurance coverage for male factor infertility is most specific in Massachusetts, New Jersey, and New York, yet significant differences exist in the male factor policies in all eight states. Three states (Massachusetts, New Jersey, and New York) exempt coverage for vasectomy reversal. Despite national recommendations that male and female partners begin infertility evaluations together, only 8 of 15 states with laws mandating infertility coverage include coverage for the male partner. Excluding men from infertility coverage places an undue burden on female partners and risks missing opportunities to diagnose serious male health conditions, correct reversible causes of infertility, and provide cost-effective treatments that can downgrade the intensity of intervention required to achieve a pregnancy. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Controlling cost escalation of healthcare: making universal health coverage sustainable in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Shenglan; Tao, Jingjing; Bekedam, Henk

    2012-01-01

    An increasingly number of low- and middle-income countries have developed and implemented a national policy towards universal coverage of healthcare for their citizens over the past decade. Among them is China which has expanded its population coverage by health insurance from around 29.7% in 2003 to over 90% at the end of 2010. While both central and local governments in China have significantly increased financial inputs into the two newly established health insurance schemes: new cooperative medical scheme (NCMS) for the rural population, and urban resident basic health insurance (URBMI), the cost of healthcare in China has also been rising rapidly at the annual rate of 17.0%% over the period of the past two decades years. The total health expenditure increased from 74.7 billion Chinese yuan in 1990 to 1998 billion Chinese yuan in 2010, while average health expenditure per capital reached the level of 1490.1 Chinese yuan per person in 2010, rising from 65.4 Chinese yuan per person in 1990. The repaid increased population coverage by government supported health insurance schemes has stimulated a rising use of healthcare, and thus given rise to more pressure on cost control in China.There are many effective measures of supply-side and demand-side cost control in healthcare available. Over the past three decades China had introduced many measures to control demand for health care, via a series of co-payment mechanisms. The paper introduces and discusses new initiatives and measures employed to control cost escalation of healthcare in China, including alternative provider payment methods, reforming drug procurement systems, and strengthening the application of standard clinical paths in treating patients at hospitals, and analyses the impacts of these initiatives and measures. The paper finally proposes ways forward to make universal health coverage in China more sustainable.

  8. Determining the dimensions of essential medical coverage required by military body armour plates utilising Computed Tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breeze, J; Lewis, E A; Fryer, R

    2016-09-01

    Military body armour is designed to prevent the penetration of ballistic projectiles into the most vulnerable structures within the thorax and abdomen. Currently the OSPREY and VIRTUS body armour systems issued to United Kingdom (UK) Armed Forces personnel are provided with a single size front and rear ceramic plate regardless of the individual's body dimensions. Currently limited information exists to determine whether these plates overprotect some members of the military population, and no method exists to accurately size plates to an individual. Computed Tomography (CT) scans of 120 male Caucasian UK Armed Forces personnel were analysed to measure the dimensions of internal thoraco-abdominal anatomical structures that had been defined as requiring essential medical coverage. The boundaries of these structures were related to three potential anthropometric landmarks on the skin surface and statistical analysis was undertaken to validate the results. The range of heights of each individual used in this study was comparable to previous anthropometric surveys, confirming that a representative sample had been used. The vertical dimension of essential medical coverage demonstrated good correlation to torso height (suprasternal notch to iliac crest) but not to stature (r(2)=0.53 versus 0.04). Horizontal coverage did not correlate to either measure of height. Surface landmarks utilised in this study were proven to be reliable surrogate markers for the boundaries of the underlying anatomical structures potentially requiring essential protection by a plate. Providing a range of plate sizes, particularly multiple heights, should optimise the medical coverage and thus effectiveness of body armour for UK Armed Forces personnel. The results of this work provide evidence that a single width of plate if chosen correctly will provide the essential medical coverage for the entire military population, whilst recognising that it still could overprotect the smallest individuals

  9. A cross-sectional vaccination coverage study in preschool children attending nurseries-kindergartens: Implications on economic crisis effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgakopoulou, Theano; Menegas, Damianos; Katsioulis, Antonis; Theodoridou, Maria; Kremastinou, Jenny; Hadjichristodoulou, Christos

    2017-01-02

    Vaccination coverage studies are important in determining a population's vaccination status and strategically adjusting national immunization programs. This study assessed full and timely vaccination coverage of preschool children aged 2-3 y attending nurseries-kindergartens (N-K) nationwide at the socioeconomic crisis onset. Geographically stratified cluster sampling was implemented considering prefectures as strata and N-K as clusters. The N-K were selected by simple random sampling from the sampling frame while their number was proportional to the stratum size. In total, 185 N-K (response rate 93.9%) and 2539 children (response rate 81.5%) participated. Coverage with traditional vaccines for diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis, polio and measles-mumps-rubella was very high (>95%), followed by Haemophilus influenzae type b and varicella vaccines. Despite very high final coverage, delayed vaccination was observed for hepatitis B (48.3% completed by 12 months). Significant delay was observed for the booster dose of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCV) and meningococcal C conjugate vaccines (MCC). Of the total population studied, 82.3% received 3 PCV doses by 12 months, while 62.3% received the fourth dose by 24 months and 76.2% by 30 months. However, 89.6% received at least one MCC dose over 12 months. Timely vaccinated for hepatitis A with 2 doses by 24 months were 6.1%. Coverage was significantly low for Rotavirus (vaccination coverage is maintained for most vaccines at the beginning of the crisis in Greece. Coverage and timeliness show an increasing trend compared to previous studies. Sustained efforts are needed to support the preventive medicine system as socioeconomic instability continues.

  10. Immunization coverage and its determinants among children aged 12 - 23 months in a peri-urban area of Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maina, Lilian Chepkemoi; Karanja, Simon; Kombich, Janeth

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The institutionalization of strong immunization services over recent years has ensured that today more than 70% of the worlds’ targeted population is reached. In Kenya, approximately 77% of children aged 12-23 months are fully vaccinated with some districts reporting even lower levels of coverage. However, low immunization coverage remains a challenge in low income and high population settings such as Kaptembwo Location, Nakuru district. Methods A cross sectional community based survey was undertaken between January and March 2011. Cluster sampling method was employed. Data was collected using pretested interviewer guided structured questionnaires through house to house visits. Data was analyzed in SPSS using descriptive, bivariate and multivariate logistic regression to identify independent predictors of full immunization. Results Complete immunization coverage was 76.6%. Coverage for specific antigens was; BCG (99.5%), OPV0 (97.6%), OPV 1(98.7%), OPV2 (96.6%), OPV3 (90.5%), Penta 1(98.9), Penta 2 (96.6%), Penta 3 (90.0%), Measles (77.4%). The drop-out rate between the first and third pentavalent vaccine coverage was 8.9%. Predictors of full immunization included number of children within the family, place of birth of the child, advice on date of next visit for growth monitoring and opinion on the health immunization services offered. Conclusion Complete immunization coverage among children aged 12-23 months is still below target. Efforts to improve vaccination coverage must take into account the immunization determinants found in this study. There is need to focus on strengthening of awareness strategies. PMID:23504493

  11. Evaluating Software Complexity Based on Decision Coverage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa AL-HAJJAJI

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available It is becoming increasingly difficult to ignore the complexity of software products. Software metrics are proposed to help show indications for quality, size, complexity, etc. of software products. In this paper, software metrics related to complexity are developed and evaluated. A dataset of many open source projects is built to assess the value of the developed metrics. Comparisons and correlations are conducted among the different tested projects. A classifica-tion is proposed to classify software code into different levels of complexity. The results showed that measuring the complexity of software products based on decision coverage gives a significant indicator of degree of complexity of those software products. However, such in-dicator is not exclusive as there are many other complexity indicators that can be measured in software products. In addition, we conducted a comparison among several available metric tools that can collect software complexity metrics. Results among those different tools were not consistent. Such comparison shows the need to have a unified standard for measuring and collecting complexity attributes.

  12. Salvia officinalis L. coverage on plants development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.T.A. CRUZ-SILVA

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Medicinal plants with essential oils in their composition havetypicallybeen shown to be promising in plant control. Sage (Salvia officinalis L. is cited for its allelopathic effects. This study evaluated the allelopathic potential of dried sage leaves in vegetation, soil and the development of Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. (tomato, Panicum maximum Jacq. (guinea grass and Salvia hispanica L. (chia plants. Three seedlings were transplanted seven days after germination in 1 kg plastic containers with soil, in a greenhouse. The grinded dry mass of sage was placed at rates of 3.75; 7.5 15 t ha-1, and a control (no mass. After 30 days, the chlorophyll index of tomato and guinea grass plants were inhibited with 7.5 and 15 t ha-1 sage cover crops. Tomato shoot length was inhibited in all tested rates, and guinea grass plants showed some reduction in growth when using the highest rate of sage mass (15 t ha-1. The dry mass of tomato and guinea grass plants was reduced when using the15 t ha-1, and 7.5 and 15 t ha-1 of sage cover crops, respectively. It can be concluded that there was some effect of sage coverage on the soil in tomato and guinea grass, but no effect was observed on chia plants.

  13. Long-throated flumes and broad-crested weirs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, M.G.

    1985-01-01

    Vital for water management are structures that can measure the flow in a wide variety of channels. Chapter 1 introduces the long-throated flume and the broad-crested weir; it explains why this family of structures can meet the boundary conditions and hydraulic demands of most measuring

  14. Extra Ovarian Serous Cystadenocarcinoma in the Broad Ligament ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The embryonic remnants of the gonadal ridge and the genital duct apparatus, the Mullerian apparatus, remain atretic throughout the life of a woman. The definitive organs arising from these, the Ovary, Fallopian tubes, Uterus, Cervix and the Broad ligaments share common coelomic origin. Epithelial metaplasia in any of ...

  15. Development of a Broad-Spectrum Antiviral Agent with Activity ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Development of a Broad-Spectrum Antiviral Agent with. Activity Against Herpesvirus Replication .... deviation. The data were analyzed by SPSS software, version 16. Significant differences (p <. 0.01) between groups were determined using unpaired Student's t-test. RESULTS. Cytotoxic and optimum drug concentrations.

  16. Broad-band spectrophotometry of HAT-P-32 b

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mallonn, M.; Bernt, I.; Herrero, E.

    2016-01-01

    Multicolour broad-band transit observations offer the opportunity to characterize the atmosphere of an extrasolar planet with small- to medium-sized telescopes. One of the most favourable targets is the hot Jupiter HAT-P-32 b. We combined 21 new transit observations of this planet with 36 previou...

  17. Silver Nanoparticles with Broad Multiband Linear Optical Absorption

    KAUST Repository

    Bakr, Osman M.

    2009-07-06

    A simple one-pot method produces silver nanoparticles coated with aryl thiols that show intense, broad nonplasmonic optical properties. The synthesis works with many aryl-thiol capping ligands, including water-soluble 4-mercaptobenzoic acid. The nanoparticles produced show linear absorption that is broader, stronger, and more structured than most conventional organic and inorganic dyes.

  18. Post abortal broad ligament. abscess: report of a case

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    infrequently with endotoxic shock, pelvic abscess, anaemia. cervical incompetence, chronic pelvic pain, ectopic pregnancy and infertility. Deaths from unsafe abortions are principally attributed to haemorrhage, anaemia, sepsis and renal failure. 7'8. Broad ligament abscess is rare. lntraligamentous haematoma is however ...

  19. Broadly neutralizing antibodies against HIV-1: templates for a vaccine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Gils, Marit J.; Sanders, Rogier W.

    2013-01-01

    The need for an effective vaccine to prevent the global spread of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) is well recognized. Passive immunization and challenge studies in non-human primates testify that broadly neutralizing antibodies (BrNAbs) can accomplish protection against infection. In

  20. Three Broad Parental Feeding Styles and Young Children's Snack Intake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boots, Samantha B.; Tiggemann, Marika; Corsini, Nadia

    2017-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to identify broad overarching feeding styles that parents may use and their effects on pre-school-aged children's healthy and unhealthy snack intake. Design: Cross sectional study Methods: Mothers (n = 611) of children aged 2-7 years (mean age 3.9 years) completed an online survey assessing parent-feeding…

  1. Infusing Multiculturalism into the Curriculum Through Broad Themes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, William J.

    1978-01-01

    Appropriate curriculum development strategies can result in the organization of instructional objectives, content, and activities around broad themes and the students' real-life experiences. Four basic areas of living, with substantial culturally pluralistic elements, are family life, community life, human relations, and the American cultural…

  2. Broad-band spectrophotometry of HAT-P-32 b

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mallonn, M.; Bernt, I.; Herrero, E.

    2016-01-01

    Multicolour broad-band transit observations offer the opportunity to characterize the atmosphere of an extrasolar planet with small- to medium-sized telescopes. One of the most favourable targets is the hot Jupiter HAT-P-32 b. We combined 21 new transit observations of this planet with 36...

  3. Selection of common bean to broad environmental adaptation in Haiti

    Science.gov (United States)

    Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) cultivars in Haiti need adaptation to a broad range of environments and resistance to the most important diseases such as Bean Golden Yellow Mosaic Virus. The Legume Breeding Program (LBP), a collaborative effort of the AREA project (USAID funded through IFAS/Univ...

  4. Development of a Broad-Spectrum Antiviral Agent with Activity ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To evaluate the broad-spectrum antiviral activity of peptide H9 (H9) in vitro in order to gain insight into its underlying molecular mechanisms. Method: Antiviral activity against Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) was determined using thiazolyl blue (MTT) assay. Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) was employed to ...

  5. Formulation of a complementary food fortified with broad beans ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sixty percent of mothers did not provide bean-based food for their children, with the most frequently reported reason being lack of knowledge of its nutrient value for young children. To a typical complementary food of barley-maize porridge, 10, 20 and 30% of cereal was replaced by processed broad beans (Vicia faba), ...

  6. Implementation of Broad-Based Black Economic Empowerment in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The institution of Broad-Based Black Economic Empowerment (BBBEE) has had an impact on the economy in South Africa. Due to its extensive reliance on government procurement, BBBEE has had a substantial influence on the construction industry in terms of transformation imperatives. Although much has been ...

  7. The X-ray side of the Broad Line Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costantini, E.

    2017-10-01

    The broad line region (BLR) is very different from an idealised spherical region of gas in motion around the central black hole. Using traditional optical/UV data, different geometries, sometimes contrasting with each other, have been recently explored. The broad line emitting clouds however, do also emit in the X-rays. This emitting gas constitute the energetic portion of the same clouds emitting the UV (Costantini et al. 2007, 2010). Here we present a unique study, using broad line region data of the bright Seyfert1 Mrk509 (Kaastra et al. 2011), taken simultaneously by XMM-Newton RGS, HST-COS and XMM-Newton OM-Grism (Costantini et al. 2016). We use a synthetic, physically motivated, model to fit the multi-wavelength data. The results point to part of the emission (possibly disk-like) coming near the black hole, highlighted by highly-ionized lines. In addition, a larger scale height component, clearly confined by the dust sublimation radius, is characterised by lower ionization ions emission (a bowl-like geometry; Goad et al. 2012). It is the first time that the X-rays provide crucial constraints in the geometrical description of the broad line region.

  8. 48 CFR 2035.71 - Broad agency announcements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... CATEGORIES OF CONTRACTING RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT CONTRACTING 2035.71 Broad agency announcements. (a..., approaches, or concepts demonstrated by the proposal. (2) Overall scientific, technical, or economic merits... unique combinations of these which are integral factors for achieving the proposal objectives. (4) The...

  9. Socioeconomic evaluation of broad-scale land management strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisa K. Crone; Richard W. Haynes

    2001-01-01

    This paper examines the socioeconomic effects of alternative management strategies for Forest Service and Bureau of Land Management lands in the interior Columbia basin. From a broad-scale perspective, there is little impact or variation between alternatives in terms of changes in total economic activity or social conditions in the region. However, adopting a finer...

  10. National, state, and urban area vaccination coverage levels among children aged 19-35 months--United States, 1998.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, G A; Smith, P; Daniels, D; Klevens, R M; Coronado, V; McCauley, M; Stokley, S; Maes, E F; Ezzati-Rice, T M; Wright, R A; Cordero, J F

    2000-09-22

    High vaccination levels in the population are necessary to decrease disease transmission and prevent disease; therefore, an important component of the U.S. vaccination program is the assessment of vaccination coverage. Current goals are for > or = 90% coverage with recommended vaccines during the first 2 years of life. January-December 1998. The National Immunization Survey (NIS) is an ongoing, random-digit-dialed telephone survey that gathers vaccination coverage data for children aged 19-35 months in all 50 states and 28 urban areas. Vaccination coverage rates derived from NIS data are adjusted statistically for households with multiple telephone lines, household nonresponse, the proportion of households without telephones, and vaccination provider nonresponse. The results were also adjusted to match the known total population of children in each survey area. On the basis of NIS data, national coverage was > or = 90% for three doses of poliovirus vaccine (Polio), three doses of Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccine (Hib), and one dose of measles-containing vaccine (MCV). Coverage was the highest ever reported for four doses of any diphtheria and tetanus toxoids and pertussis vaccine (DTP) (i.e., diphtheria and tetanus toxoids and pertussis vaccine, diphtheria and tetanus toxoids [DT], or diphtheria and tetanus toxoids and acellular pertussis vaccine [DTaP]) (83.9%), three doses of hepatitis B vaccine (Hep B, 87.0%), and one dose of varicella vaccine (43.2%). The number of states achieving the > or = 90% goal was 47 for three doses of Hib, 40 for three doses of Polio, 40 for one dose of MCV, nine for three doses of Hep B, and seven for four doses of DTP. Proportionally fewer urban areas achieved the > or = 90% goal: 23 of 28 for three doses of Hib, 13 for three doses of Polio, 16 for one dose of MCV, five for three doses of Hep B, and one for four doses of DTP. No state or urban area has yet achieved the > or = 90% goal for varicella. Findings from the 1998 NIS

  11. Coverage and Financial Risk Protection for Institutional Delivery: How Universal Is Provision of Maternal Health Care in India?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prinja, Shankar; Bahuguna, Pankaj; Gupta, Rakesh; Sharma, Atul; Rana, Saroj Kumar; Kumar, Rajesh

    2015-01-01

    India aims to achieve universal access to institutional delivery. We undertook this study to estimate the universality of institutional delivery care for pregnant women in Haryana state in India. To assess the coverage of institutional delivery, we analyze service coverage (coverage of public sector institutional delivery), population coverage (coverage among different districts and wealth quintiles of the population) and financial risk protection (catastrophic health expenditure and impoverishment as a result of out-of-pocket expenditure for delivery). We analyzed cross-sectional data collected from a randomly selected sample of 12,191 women who had delivered a child in the last one year from the date of data collection in Haryana state. Five indicators were calculated to evaluate coverage and financial risk protection for institutional delivery--proportion of public sector deliveries, out-of-pocket expenditure, percentage of women who incurred no expenses, prevalence of catastrophic expenditure for institutional delivery and incidence of impoverishment due to out-of-pocket expenditure for delivery. These indicators were calculated for the public and private sectors for 5 wealth quintiles and 21 districts of the state. The coverage of institutional delivery in Haryana state was 82%, of which 65% took place in public sector facilities. Approximately 63% of the women reported no expenditure on delivery in the public sector. The mean out-of-pocket expenditures for delivery in the public and private sectors in Haryana were INR 771 (USD 14.2) and INR 12,479 (USD 229), respectively, which were catastrophic for 1.6% and 22% of households, respectively. Our findings suggest that there is considerably high coverage of institutional delivery care in Haryana state, with significant financial risk protection in the public sector. However, coverage and financial risk protection for institutional delivery vary substantially across districts and among different socio

  12. The scale, scope, coverage, and capability of childbirth care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Oona M R; Calvert, Clara; Testa, Adrienne; Strehlow, Matthew; Benova, Lenka; Keyes, Emily; Donnay, France; Macleod, David; Gabrysch, Sabine; Rong, Luo; Ronsmans, Carine; Sadruddin, Salim; Koblinsky, Marge; Bailey, Patricia

    2016-10-29

    All women should have access to high quality maternity services-but what do we know about the health care available to and used by women? With a focus on low-income and middle-income countries, we present data that policy makers and planners can use to evaluate whether maternal health services are functioning to meet needs of women nationally, and potentially subnationally. We describe configurations of intrapartum care systems, and focus in particular on where, and with whom, deliveries take place. The necessity of ascertaining actual facility capability and providers' skills is highlighted, as is the paucity of information on maternity waiting homes and transport as mechanisms to link women to care. Furthermore, we stress the importance of assessment of routine provision of care (not just emergency care), and contextualise this importance within geographic circumstances (eg, in sparsely-populated regions vs dense urban areas). Although no single model-of-care fits all contexts, we discuss implications of the models we observe, and consider changes that might improve services and accelerate response to future challenges. Areas that need attention include minimisation of overintervention while responding to the changing disease burden. Conceptualisation, systematic measurement, and effective tackling of coverage and configuration challenges to implement high quality, respectful maternal health-care services are key to ensure that every woman can give birth without risk to her life, or that of her baby. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. original article assessment of effective coverage of voluntary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abrham

    CONCLUSION: This study demonstrated that effective coverage of Voluntary Counseling and Testing service was very low based on the providers ... questionnaire was developed and used in this study. Training topics included: discussion on ... measurement of HIV/AIDS intervention would be by use of coverage indicators ...

  14. Medical Coverage of High School Football in New York State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, James B.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    A survey of New York secondary schools showed that nearly 25 percent do not employ a physician to oversee medical coverage of football games. The authors suggest several ways to improve this much-needed coverage--not only to protect athletes but also to shield the administration from litigation. (JD)

  15. Increasing the coverage of vaccination against influenza by general practitioners

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perenboom, R.J.M.; Davidse, W.

    1996-01-01

    Background. To increase the coverage of influenza vaccination in groups of patients at risk, an experiment was conducted in 1993, aimed at logistic support of general practitioners (GPs). Methods. Support was given to 56 GPs with 133 000 patients to select and invite patients at risk. The coverage

  16. Textbook Coverage of the Destruction of the Armenians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindquist, David H.

    2012-01-01

    Despite its importance as the event establishing that the 20th century would be known as "the age of genocide," the destruction of the Armenians that occurred between the mid-1890s and 1923 is given marginal coverage in contemporary U. S. high school history textbooks. This article critiques that coverage and identifies the overall flow…

  17. Newspaper Coverage of Nigeria Police Activities: A Content Analysis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study is a content analysis of newspaper coverage of police activities in Nigeria from January to March, 2012. Three national dailies (the Nation, the Punch and Daily Sun) were studied. Among the specific objectives were to determine the volume of coverage of the activities of Nigeria Police by selected newspapers, ...

  18. Evolution Reporting in 1925: How the Audience Determined Coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Carrie

    General interest, scientific, and religious periodicals responded to the theory of evolution in 1925 with the same opinions but slanted their coverage to appeal to different readerships. "Scientific American" and "Current History" differed only stylistically in their coverage of the "Australopithecus africanus"…

  19. 42 CFR 435.139 - Coverage for certain aliens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Coverage for certain aliens. 435.139 Section 435... Aliens § 435.139 Coverage for certain aliens. The agency must provide services necessary for the treatment of an emergency medical condition, as defined in § 440.255(c) of this chapter, to those aliens...

  20. A Fair Path Toward Universal Coverage: National Case Study for ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    A Fair Path Toward Universal Coverage: National Case Study for Ethiopia, Uganda, and Zambia. As national health systems in developing countries make progress toward achieving universal health service coverage, many face ethical challenges. In its 2010 World Health Report, the World Health Assembly called on the ...

  1. Assessment of Effective Coverage of HIV Prevention of Pregnant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BACKGROUND: Coverage assessment of prevention of Pregnant Mother to Child Transmission (PMTCT) of HIV service is useful to measure the health system effort or performance of health service delivery function and to influence decisions. The objective of this study was to assess effective coverage level for prevention ...

  2. National EPI coverage survey report in Ethiopia, 2006

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To determine regional coverage of child and TT immunization and assess reasons for not utilizing immunization services. - - ' i i. Methods: The revised 2005 WHO-EPI regional coverage cluster survey method was used to determine the sample size for the study. Regional immunization status of 12-23 months of ...

  3. Variability of surface ozone with cloud coverage over Kolkata, India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Critical analysis of experimental surface ozone data and cloud coverage is reported over Kolkata during the period January 2011 to December 2011. Significant relationship between these two parameters is observed. Analysis shows that the trend of surface ozone concentration and cloud coverage follow opposite ...

  4. 45 CFR 147.130 - Coverage of preventive health services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Coverage of preventive health services. 147.130... § 147.130 Coverage of preventive health services. (a) Services—(1) In general. Beginning at the time... rating of A or B in the current recommendations of the United States Preventive Services Task Force with...

  5. A trust-based probabilistic coverage algorithm for wireless sensor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Taghikhaki, Zahra; Meratnia, Nirvana; Havinga, Paul J.M.

    2013-01-01

    Sensing coverage is a fundamental issue for many applications in wireless sensor networks. Due to sensors resource limitations, inherent uncertainties associated with their measurements, and the harsh and dynamic environment in which they are deployed, having a QoS-aware coverage scheme is a must.

  6. New Civil Rights Act Coverages - Progress or Racism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Galen

    1975-01-01

    The growing list of added coverages in state and local civil rights laws is diluting the fight against racial discrimination by weakening enforcement through loading civil rights agencies with many new areas of coverage which are diverting them from their original purpose of ending discrimination against racial and religious minorities. (EH)

  7. A Semantic Framework for Test Coverage (Extended Version)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brinksma, Hendrik; Stoelinga, Mariëlle Ida Antoinette; Brandan Briones, L.

    2006-01-01

    Since testing is inherently incomplete, test selection is of vital importance. Coverage measures evaluate the quality of a test suite and help the tester select test cases with maximal impact at minimum cost. Existing coverage criteria for test suites are usually defined in terms of syntactic

  8. An Appraisal of Immunisation in Nigeria: Towards Improving Coverage

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Even though the Nigeria's universal child immunization coverage is said to have improved in the last two years much is still needed to bring the coverage target to at least 75% throughout the nation for effective control of all Vaccine Preventable Diseases. Targeted “mop-up” campaigns should be intensified for the wild polio ...

  9. US Media Coverage of Tobacco Industry Corporate Social Responsibility Initiatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDaniel, Patricia A; Lown, E Anne; Malone, Ruth E

    2018-02-01

    Media coverage of tobacco industry corporate social responsibility (CSR) initiatives represents a competitive field where tobacco control advocates and the tobacco industry vie to shape public and policymaker understandings about tobacco control and the industry. Through a content analysis of 649 US news items, we examined US media coverage of tobacco industry CSR and identified characteristics of media items associated with positive coverage. Most coverage appeared in local newspapers, and CSR initiatives unrelated to tobacco, with non-controversial beneficiaries, were most commonly mentioned. Coverage was largely positive. Tobacco control advocates were infrequently cited as sources and rarely authored opinion pieces; however, when their voices were included, coverage was less likely to have a positive slant. Media items published in the South, home to several tobacco company headquarters, were more likely than those published in the West to have a positive slant. The absence of tobacco control advocates from media coverage represents a missed opportunity to influence opinion regarding the negative public health implications of tobacco industry CSR. Countering the media narrative of virtuous companies doing good deeds could be particularly beneficial in the South, where the burdens of tobacco-caused disease are greatest, and coverage of tobacco companies more positive.

  10. Anterior Palatal Island Advancement Flap for Bone Graft Coverage ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Anterior Palatal Island Advancement Flap for Bone Graft. Coverage: Technical Note. Amin Rahpeyma, Saeedeh Khajehahmadi1. INTRODUCTION. The most important step in bone graft augmentation of alveolar process is soft tissue coverage. Dehiscence of the wound leads to graft exposure and subsequent problems.

  11. Coverage of the Stanford Prison Experiment in Introductory Psychology Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartels, Jared M.; Milovich, Marilyn M.; Moussier, Sabrina

    2016-01-01

    The present study examined the coverage of Stanford prison experiment (SPE), including criticisms of the study, in introductory psychology courses through an online survey of introductory psychology instructors (N = 117). Results largely paralleled those of the recently published textbook analyses with ethical issues garnering the most coverage,…

  12. St. Lukes' Survey on vaccination coverage | Quartero | Malawi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    St. Lukes hospital, a PRAM unit in Zomba district, had an estimated vaccination coverage of 44% in 1990. To conf"1rID this very low coverage, a survey was done in the 5 km catchment area around the hospital. 611 children, being 104% of the estimated number, bom between 1st June 1989 and 31st May 1990 were ...

  13. Anterior palatal island advancement flap for bone graft coverage ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... Palatal Island Advancement Flap was effective in bone graft coverage in premaxillary edentulous area. Conclusion: It can be used as an aid for bone graft coverage of premaxillary edentulous ridge, where the need for mucosa is small in width but long in length. Keywords: Anterior maxilla, bone graft, dental implant, ...

  14. Higher Education Students' Perceptions of Environmental Issues and Media Coverage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keinonen, Tuula; Palmberg, Irmeli; Kukkonen, Jari; Yli-Panula, Eija; Persson, Christel; Vilkonis, Rytis

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to find higher education students' perceptions about environmental issues and how the perceptions are related to perceptions of media coverage. This study investigates higher education students' perceptions of the seriousness of environmental issues and their relation to perceptions of media coverage. Higher education students…

  15. Hybrid Wireless Sensor Network Coverage Holes Restoring Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Zhouzhou

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aiming at the perception hole caused by the necessary movement or failure of nodes in the wireless sensor actuator network, this paper proposed a kind of coverage restoring scheme based on hybrid particle swarm optimization algorithm. The scheme first introduced network coverage based on grids, transformed the coverage restoring problem into unconstrained optimization problem taking the network coverage as the optimization target, and then solved the optimization problem in the use of the hybrid particle swarm optimization algorithm with the idea of simulated annealing. Simulation results show that the probabilistic jumping property of simulated annealing algorithm could make up for the defect that particle swarm optimization algorithm is easy to fall into premature convergence, and the hybrid algorithm can effectively solve the coverage restoring problem.

  16. Distributed Multitarget Probabilistic Coverage Control Algorithm for Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Tian

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is concerned with the problem of multitarget coverage based on probabilistic detection model. Coverage configuration is an effective method to alleviate the energy-limitation problem of sensors. Firstly, considering the attenuation of node’s sensing ability, the target probabilistic coverage problem is defined and formalized, which is based on Neyman-Peason probabilistic detection model. Secondly, in order to turn off redundant sensors, a simplified judging rule is derived, which makes the probabilistic coverage judgment execute on each node locally. Thirdly, a distributed node schedule scheme is proposed for implementing the distributed algorithm. Simulation results show that this algorithm is robust to the change of network size, and when compared with the physical coverage algorithm, it can effectively minimize the number of active sensors, which guarantees all the targets γ-covered.

  17. Universal Health Coverage: A Political Struggle and Governance Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Méndez, Claudio A.

    2015-01-01

    Universal health coverage has become a rallying cry in health policy, but it is often presented as a consensual, technical project. It is not. A review of the broader international literature on the origins of universal coverage shows that it is intrinsically political and cannot be achieved without recognition of its dependence on, and consequences for, both governance and politics. On one hand, a variety of comparative research has shown that health coverage is associated with democratic political accountability. Democratization, and in particular left-wing parties, gives governments particular cause to expand health coverage. On the other hand, governance, the ways states make and implement decisions, shapes any decision to strive for universal health coverage and the shape of its implementation. PMID:26180991

  18. Mass anti-malarial administration in western Cambodia: a qualitative study of factors affecting coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pell, Christopher; Tripura, Rupam; Nguon, Chea; Cheah, Phaikyeong; Davoeung, Chan; Heng, Chhouen; Dara, Lim; Sareth, Ma; Dondorp, Arjen; von Seidlein, Lorenz; Peto, Thomas J

    2017-05-19

    Mass anti-malarial administration has been proposed as a key component of the Plasmodium falciparum malaria elimination strategy in the Greater Mekong sub-Region. Its effectiveness depends on high levels of coverage in the target population. This article explores the factors that influenced mass anti-malarial administration coverage within a clinical trial in Battambang Province, western Cambodia. Qualitative data were collected through semi-structured interviews and focus group discussions with villagers, in-depth interviews with study staff, trial drop-outs and refusers, and observations in the communities. Interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed and translated from Khmer to English for qualitative content analysis using QSR NVivo. Malaria was an important health concern and villagers reported a demand for malaria treatment. This was in spite of a fall in incidence over the previous decade and a lack of familiarity with asymptomatic malaria. Participants generally understood the overall study aim and were familiar with study activities. Comprehension of the study rationale was however limited. After the first mass anti-malarial administration, seasonal health complaints that participants attributed to the anti-malarial as "side effects" contributed to a decrease of coverage in round two. Staff therefore adapted the community engagement approach, bringing to prominence local leaders in village meetings. This contributed to a subsequent increase in coverage. Future mass anti-malarial administration must consider seasonal disease patterns and the importance of local leaders taking prominent roles in community engagement. Further research is needed to investigate coverage in scenarios that more closely resemble implementation i.e. without participation incentives, blood sampling and free healthcare.

  19. Focus and coverage of Bolsa Família Program in the Pelotas 2004 birth cohort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelen H Schmidt

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To describe the focalization and coverage of Bolsa Família Program among the families of children who are part of the 2004 Pelotas birth cohort (2004 cohort. METHODS The data used derives from the integration of information from the 2004 cohort and the Cadastro Único para Programas Sociais do Governo Federal (CadÚnico – Register for Social Programs of the Federal Government, in the 2004-2010 period. We estimated the program coverage (percentage of eligible people who receive the benefit and its focus (proportion of eligible people among the beneficiaries. We used two criteria to define eligibility: the per capita household income reported in the cohort follow-ups and belonging to the 20% poorest families according to the National Economic Indicator (IEN, an asset index. RESULTS Between 2004 and 2010, the proportion of families in the cohort that received the benefit increased from 11% to 34%. We observed an increase in all wealth quintiles. In 2010, by income and wealth quintiles (IEN, 62%-72% of the families were beneficiaries among the 20% poorest people, 2%-5% among the 20% richest people, and about 30% of families of the intermediate quintile. According to household income (minus the benefit 29% of families were eligible in 2004 and 16% in 2010. By the same criteria, the coverage of the program increased from 43% in 2004 to 71% in 2010. In the same period, by the wealth criterion (IEN, coverage increased from 29% to 63%. The focalization of the program decreased from 78% in 2004 to 32% in 2010 according to income, and remained constant (37% according to the IEN. CONCLUSIONS Among the families of the 2004 cohort, there was a significant increase in the program coverage, from its inception until 2010, when it was near 70%. The focus of the program was below 40% in 2010, indicating that more than half of the beneficiaries did not belong to the target population.

  20. Vaccination coverage in children can be estimated from health insurance data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tauscher Martin

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The introduction of new vaccines for young children requires instruments for a rapid and timely assessment of the progressively increasing vaccination coverage. We assessed whether routine data generated by statutory health insurances (SHI might be used to monitor vaccination coverage in young children. Methods For 90% of the population Germany's healthcare system is premium-funded through SHI. Specific medical codes on childhood vaccination are used for billing. These were used to analyse vaccine uptake up to 24 months in children born in Bavaria between 2001–10–01 and 2002–12–31. For children insured in the biggest SHI, vaccination coverage estimates based on billing data were compared to estimates considering only continuously insured children since birth, based on additional data provided by this SHI. Results Definition of an appropriate denominator from the billing data was a major challenge: defining the denominator by any consultation by children with different ID numbers yielded 196,732 children, exceeding the number of births in Bavaria by a factor of 1.4. The main causes for this inflated denominator were migration and change of health insurance number. A reduced dataset based on at least one physician's visit in the first six months and 2nd year of life yielded 111,977 children. Vaccination coverage estimates for children in the biggest SHI were at maximum 1.7% higher than in the data set based on continuously insured children. Conclusion With appropriate adjustments to define the denominator physician's billing data provide a promising tool to estimate immunisation coverage. A slight overestimation based on these data was explained by children never seeing a physician.

  1. Measuring universal health coverage: a three-dimensional composite approach from Bhutan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Jayendra; Zangpo, Kado; Grundy, John

    2014-01-01

    In the early 1960s, the Kingdom of Bhutan began to develop its modern health-care system and by the 1990s had developed an extensive network of health-care facilities. These developments, in tandem with wider social and economic progress encapsulated in the Gross National Happiness concept, have resulted in major gains in child survival and life expectancy in the past 50 years. In order to sustain these gains, the country has identified a constitutional and health-policy mandate for universal access to health. Based on analysis of the literature, and qualitative and quantitative health data, this case study aims to provide an assessment of universal health coverage in Bhutan, and to identify the major challenges to measuring, monitoring and sustaining universal coverage. The study reveals that the wide network of primary and secondary care, reinforced by constitutional and policy mandates, ensures high population coverage, as well as wide availability and accessibility of care, with significant levels of financial protection. This achievement has been attributable to sustained state investment in the sector over past decades. Despite this achievement, recent surveys have demonstrated gaps in utilization of health services and confirmed associations between socioeconomic variables and health access and outcomes, which raise important questions relating to both supply- and demand-side barriers in accessing health care. In order to sustain and improve the quality of universal health coverage, improved measurements of service availability at subnational levels and of the determinants of pockets of low service utilization are required. More rigorous monitoring of financial protection is also needed, particularly in relation to rates of public investment and the impact of out-of-pocket costs while accessing care. These approaches should assist improvements in quality and equity in universal health coverage, in the context of ongoing epidemiological, demographic and

  2. Three-Dimensional Analysis of Deep Space Network Antenna Coverage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kegege, Obadiah; Fuentes, Michael; Meyer, Nicholas; Sil, Amy

    2012-01-01

    There is a need to understand NASA s Deep Space Network (DSN) coverage gaps and any limitations to provide redundant communication coverage for future deep space missions, especially for manned missions to Moon and Mars. The DSN antennas are required to provide continuous communication coverage for deep space flights, interplanetary missions, and deep space scientific observations. The DSN consists of ground antennas located at three sites: Goldstone in USA, Canberra in Australia, and Madrid in Spain. These locations are not separated by the exactly 120 degrees and some DSN antennas are located in the bowl-shaped mountainous terrain to shield against radiofrequency interference resulting in a coverage gap in the southern hemisphere for the current DSN architecture. To analyze the extent of this gap and other coverage limitations, simulations of the DSN architecture were performed. In addition to the physical properties of the DSN assets, the simulation incorporated communication forward link calculations and azimuth/elevation masks that constrain the effects of terrain for each DSN antenna. Analysis of the simulation data was performed to create coverage profiles with the receiver settings at a deep space altitudes ranging from 2 million to 10 million km and a spherical grid resolution of 0.25 degrees with respect to longitude and latitude. With the results of these simulations, two- and three-dimensional representations of the area without communication coverage and area with coverage were developed, showing the size and shape of the communication coverage gap projected in space. Also, the significance of this communication coverage gap is analyzed from the simulation data.

  3. Interpreting household survey data intended to measure insecticide-treated bednet coverage: results from two surveys in Eritrea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yukich Josh

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background As efforts are currently underway to roll-out insecticide-treated bednets (ITNs to populations within malarious areas in Africa, there is an unprecedented need for data to measure the effectiveness of such programmes in terms of population coverage. This paper examines methodological issues to using household surveys to measure core Roll Back Malaria coverage indicators of ITN possession and use. Methods ITN coverage estimates within Anseba and Gash Barka Provinces from the 2002 Eritrean Demographic and Health Survey, implemented just prior to a large-scale ITN distribution programme, are compared to estimates from the same area from a sub-national Bednet Survey implemented 18 months later in 2003 after the roll-out of the ITN programme. Results Measures of bednet possession were dramatically higher in 2003 compared to 2002. In 2003, 82.2% (95% confidence interval (CI 77.4–87.0 of households in Anseba and Gash Barka possessed at least one ITN. RBM coverage indicators for ITN use were also dramatically higher in 2003 as compared to 2002, with 76.1% (95% CI 69.9–82.2 of children under five years old and 52.4% (95% CI 38.2–66.6 of pregnant women sleeping under ITNs. The ITN distribution programme resulted in a gross increase in ITN use among children and pregnant women of 68.3% and 48% respectively. Conclusion Eritrea has exceeded the Abuja targets of 60% coverage for ITN household possession and use among children under five years old within two malarious provinces. Results point to several important potential sources of bias that must be considered when interpreting data for ITN coverage over time, including: disparate survey universes and target populations that may include non-malarious areas; poor date recall of bednet procurement and treatment; and differences in timing of surveys with respect to malaria season.

  4. Expensive but worth it: older parents' attitudes and opinions about the costs and insurance coverage for in vitro fertilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nachtigall, Robert D; MacDougall, Kirstin; Davis, Anne C; Beyene, Yewoubdar

    2012-01-01

    To describe older parents' attitudes and opinions about the costs and insurance coverage for IVF. Qualitative interview study. Two Northern California IVF practices. Sixty women and 35 male partners in which the woman had delivered her first child after the age of 40 years using IVF. Two in-depth interviews over 3 months. Thematic analysis of interview transcripts. We found that although the costs of IVF were perceived as high, even by those with insurance or who could afford them, the cost of IVF relative to other expenses in life was dwarfed by the value attributed to having a child. Women were twice as likely as men to support insurance coverage for IVF. Both men and women with complete or partial IVF insurance coverage were more likely to support insurance than those without coverage. There was a broad range of attitudes and opinions about the appropriateness of IVF insurance coverage, which addressed questions of age, gender equality, reproductive choice, whether infertility is a medical illness, and the role of personal and societal economic equity and responsibility. Despite a generally favorable opinion about the appropriateness of insurance coverage by those who have successfully undergone IVF treatment, the affordability of IVF remains an unresolved dilemma in the United States. Copyright © 2012 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. An evaluation of coverage and compliance of mass drug administration 2006 for elimination of lymphatic filariasis in endemic areas of Gujarat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar Pradeep

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Mass drug administration (MDA means once-in-a-year administration of diethyl carbamazine (DEC tablet to all people (excluding children under 2 years, pregnant women and severely ill persons in identified endemic areas. It aims at cessation of transmission of lymphatic filariasis. Objective: What has been the coverage and compliance of MDA in Gujarat during the campaign in December 2006? Study Design: Cross-sectional population based house-to-house visit. Setting: Urban and rural areas in Gujarat identified as endemic for filariasis where MDA 2006 was undertaken. Study Variables: Exploratory - Rural and urban districts; Outcome - coverage, compliance, actual coverage, side effects. Analysis: Percentage and proportions. Results: Twenty-six clusters, each comprising 32 households from six endemic districts, yielded an eligible population of 4164. The coverage rate was 85.2% with variation across different areas. The compliance with drug ingestion was 89% with a gap of 11% to be targeted by intensive IEC. The effective coverage (75.8% was much below the target (85%. Side effects of DEC were minimum, transient and drug-specific. Overall coverage was marginally better in rural areas. The causes of poor coverage and compliance have been discussed and relevant suggestions have been made.

  6. Measuring coverage in MNCH: challenges and opportunities in the selection of coverage indicators for global monitoring.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Harris Requejo

    Full Text Available Global monitoring of intervention coverage is a cornerstone of international efforts to improve reproductive, maternal, newborn, and child health. In this review, we examine the process and implications of selecting a core set of coverage indicators for global monitoring, using as examples the processes used by the Countdown to 2015 for Maternal, Newborn and Child Survival and the Commission on Accountability for Women's and Children's Health. We describe how the generation of data for global monitoring involves five iterative steps: development of standard indicator definitions and measurement approaches to ensure comparability across countries; collection of high-quality data at the country level; compilation of country data at the global level; organization of global databases; and rounds of data quality checking. Regular and rigorous technical review processes that involve high-level decision makers and experts familiar with indicator measurement are needed to maximize uptake and to ensure that indicators used for global monitoring are selected on the basis of available evidence of intervention effectiveness, feasibility of measurement, and data availability as well as programmatic relevance. Experience from recent initiatives illustrates the challenges of striking this balance as well as strategies for reducing the tensions inherent in the indicator selection process. We conclude that more attention and continued investment need to be directed to global monitoring, to support both the process of global database development and the selection of sets of coverage indicators to promote accountability. The stakes are high, because these indicators can drive policy and program development at the country and global level, and ultimately impact the health of women and children and the communities where they live.

  7. Flexible Near-Field Wireless Optoelectronics as Subdermal Implants for Broad Applications in Optogenetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Gunchul; Gomez, Adrian M; Al-Hasani, Ream; Jeong, Yu Ra; Kim, Jeonghyun; Xie, Zhaoqian; Banks, Anthony; Lee, Seung Min; Han, Sang Youn; Yoo, Chul Jong; Lee, Jong-Lam; Lee, Seung Hee; Kurniawan, Jonas; Tureb, Jacob; Guo, Zhongzhu; Yoon, Jangyeol; Park, Sung-Il; Bang, Sang Yun; Nam, Yoonho; Walicki, Marie C; Samineni, Vijay K; Mickle, Aaron D; Lee, Kunhyuk; Heo, Seung Yun; McCall, Jordan G; Pan, Taisong; Wang, Liang; Feng, Xue; Kim, Tae-Il; Kim, Jong Kyu; Li, Yuhang; Huang, Yonggang; Gereau, Robert W; Ha, Jeong Sook; Bruchas, Michael R; Rogers, John A

    2017-02-08

    In vivo optogenetics provides unique, powerful capabilities in the dissection of neural circuits implicated in neuropsychiatric disorders. Conventional hardware for such studies, however, physically tethers the experimental animal to an external light source, limiting the range of possible experiments. Emerging wireless options offer important capabilities that avoid some of these limitations, but the current size, bulk, weight, and wireless area of coverage is often disadvantageous. Here, we present a simple but powerful setup based on wireless, near-field power transfer and miniaturized, thin, flexible optoelectronic implants, for complete optical control in a variety of behavioral paradigms. The devices combine subdermal magnetic coil antennas connected to microscale, injectable light-emitting diodes (LEDs), with the ability to operate at wavelengths ranging from UV to blue, green-yellow, and red. An external loop antenna allows robust, straightforward application in a multitude of behavioral apparatuses. The result is a readily mass-producible, user-friendly technology with broad potential for optogenetics applications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Chinese newspaper coverage of genetically modified organisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Debates persist around the world over the development and use of genetically modified organisms (GMO). News media has been shown to both reflect and influence public perceptions of health and science related debates, as well as policy development. To better understand the news coverage of GMOs in China, we analyzed the content of articles in two Chinese newspapers that relate to the development and promotion of genetically modified technologies and GMOs. Methods Searching in the Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure Core Newspaper Database (CNKI-CND), we collected 77 articles, including news reports, comments and notes, published between January 2002 and August 2011 in two of the major Chinese newspapers: People’s Daily and Guangming Daily. We examined articles for perspectives that were discussed and/or mentioned regarding GMOs, the risks and benefits of GMOs, and the tone of news articles. Results The newspaper articles reported on 29 different kinds of GMOs. Compared with the possible risks, the benefits of GMOs were much more frequently discussed in the articles. 48.1% of articles were largely supportive of the GM technology research and development programs and the adoption of GM cottons, while 51.9% of articles were neutral on the subject of GMOs. Risks associated with GMOs were mentioned in the newspaper articles, but none of the articles expressed negative tones in regards to GMOs. Conclusion This study demonstrates that the Chinese print media is largely supportive of GMOs. It also indicates that the print media describes the Chinese government as actively pursuing national GMO research and development programs and the promotion of GM cotton usage. So far, discussion of the risks associated with GMOs is minimal in the news reports. The media, scientists, and the government should work together to ensure that science communication is accurate and balanced. PMID:22551150

  9. Chinese newspaper coverage of genetically modified organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Li; Rachul, Christen

    2012-06-08

    Debates persist around the world over the development and use of genetically modified organisms (GMO). News media has been shown to both reflect and influence public perceptions of health and science related debates, as well as policy development. To better understand the news coverage of GMOs in China, we analyzed the content of articles in two Chinese newspapers that relate to the development and promotion of genetically modified technologies and GMOs. Searching in the Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure Core Newspaper Database (CNKI-CND), we collected 77 articles, including news reports, comments and notes, published between January 2002 and August 2011 in two of the major Chinese newspapers: People's Daily and Guangming Daily. We examined articles for perspectives that were discussed and/or mentioned regarding GMOs, the risks and benefits of GMOs, and the tone of news articles. The newspaper articles reported on 29 different kinds of GMOs. Compared with the possible risks, the benefits of GMOs were much more frequently discussed in the articles. 48.1% of articles were largely supportive of the GM technology research and development programs and the adoption of GM cottons, while 51.9% of articles were neutral on the subject of GMOs. Risks associated with GMOs were mentioned in the newspaper articles, but none of the articles expressed negative tones in regards to GMOs. This study demonstrates that the Chinese print media is largely supportive of GMOs. It also indicates that the print media describes the Chinese government as actively pursuing national GMO research and development programs and the promotion of GM cotton usage. So far, discussion of the risks associated with GMOs is minimal in the news reports. The media, scientists, and the government should work together to ensure that science communication is accurate and balanced.

  10. Chinese newspaper coverage of genetically modified organisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Du Li

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Debates persist around the world over the development and use of genetically modified organisms (GMO. News media has been shown to both reflect and influence public perceptions of health and science related debates, as well as policy development. To better understand the news coverage of GMOs in China, we analyzed the content of articles in two Chinese newspapers that relate to the development and promotion of genetically modified technologies and GMOs. Methods Searching in the Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure Core Newspaper Database (CNKI-CND, we collected 77 articles, including news reports, comments and notes, published between January 2002 and August 2011 in two of the major Chinese newspapers: People’s Daily and Guangming Daily. We examined articles for perspectives that were discussed and/or mentioned regarding GMOs, the risks and benefits of GMOs, and the tone of news articles. Results The newspaper articles reported on 29 different kinds of GMOs. Compared with the possible risks, the benefits of GMOs were much more frequently discussed in the articles. 48.1% of articles were largely supportive of the GM technology research and development programs and the adoption of GM cottons, while 51.9% of articles were neutral on the subject of GMOs. Risks associated with GMOs were mentioned in the newspaper articles, but none of the articles expressed negative tones in regards to GMOs. Conclusion This study demonstrates that the Chinese print media is largely supportive of GMOs. It also indicates that the print media describes the Chinese government as actively pursuing national GMO research and development programs and the promotion of GM cotton usage. So far, discussion of the risks associated with GMOs is minimal in the news reports. The media, scientists, and the government should work together to ensure that science communication is accurate and balanced.

  11. Is Colombia reaching the goals on infant immunization coverage? A quantitative survey from 80 municipalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narváez, Javier; Osorio, May Bibiana; Castañeda-Orjuela, Carlos; Alvis Zakzuk, Nelson; Cediel, Natalia; Chocontá-Piraquive, Luz Ángela; de La Hoz-Restrepo, Fernando

    2017-03-13

    This study aimed to evaluate the coverage of the Colombian Expanded Program on Immunization among children less than 6years old, to evaluate the timeliness of immunization, to assess the coverage of newly introduced vaccines, and to identify factors associated with lack of immunization. We conducted a cross-sectional survey in 80 municipalities of Colombia, using a two-stage cluster random sampling. We attempted to contact all children less than 6years old living in the sampled blocks, and asked their caregivers to provide immunization record cards. We also collected basic sociodemographic information. We reached 81% of the attempted household contacts, identifying 18,232 children; of them, 14,805 (83%) had an immunization record card. Coverage for traditional vaccines was above 90%: BCG (tuberculosis) 95.7% (95%CI: 95.1-96.4), pentavalent vaccine 93.3% (92.4-94.3), MMR (measles, mumps, rubella) initial dose 94.5% (93.5-95.6); but it was lower for recently introduced vaccines: rotavirus 80% (77.8-82.1), influenza 48.4% (45.9-50.8). Results for timely vaccination were not equally successful: pentavalent vaccine 44.2% (41.4-47.1), MMR initial dose 71.2% (68.9-73.4). Mother's education was significantly associated with higher immunization odds. Older age, a greater number of siblings, low socioeconomic status, and not having health insurance were significantly associated with lower immunization odds. There was significant heterogeneity in immunization rates by municipality across the country. Although absolute immunization coverage for traditional vaccines met the goal of 90% for the 80 municipalities combined, disparities in coverage across municipalities, delayed immunization, and decline of coverage with age, are common problems in Colombia that may result in reduced protection. Newly introduced vaccines require additional efforts to reach the goal. These results highlight the association of health inequities with low immunization coverage and delayed immunization

  12. Structural basis of hepatitis C virus neutralization by broadly neutralizing antibody HCV1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kong, Leopold; Giang, Erick; Robbins, Justin B.; Stanfield, Robyn L.; Burton, Dennis R.; Wilson, Ian A.; Law, Mansun (Scripps)

    2012-10-29

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infects more than 2% of the global population and is a leading cause of liver cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma, and end-stage liver diseases. Circulating HCV is genetically diverse, and therefore a broadly effective vaccine must target conserved T- and B-cell epitopes of the virus. Human mAb HCV1 has broad neutralizing activity against HCV isolates from at least four major genotypes and protects in the chimpanzee model from primary HCV challenge. The antibody targets a conserved antigenic site (residues 412-423) on the virus E2 envelope glycoprotein. Two crystal structures of HCV1 Fab in complex with an epitope peptide at 1.8-{angstrom} resolution reveal that the epitope is a {beta}-hairpin displaying a hydrophilic face and a hydrophobic face on opposing sides of the hairpin. The antibody predominantly interacts with E2 residues Leu{sup 413} and Trp{sup 420} on the hydrophobic face of the epitope, thus providing an explanation for how HCV isolates bearing mutations at Asn{sup 415} on the same binding face escape neutralization by this antibody. The results provide structural information for a neutralizing epitope on the HCV E2 glycoprotein and should help guide rational design of HCV immunogens to elicit similar broadly neutralizing antibodies through vaccination.

  13. Design and Performance Analysis of Multi-tier Heterogeneous Network through Coverage, Throughput and Energy Efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Shabbir,

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The unprecedented acceleration in wireless industry strongly compels wireless operators to increase their data network throughput, capacity and coverage on emergent basis. In upcoming 5G heterogeneous networks inclusion of low power nodes (LPNs like pico cells and femto cells for increasing network’s throughput, capacity and coverage are getting momentum. Addition of LPNs in such a massive level will eventually make a network populated in terms of base stations (BSs.The dense deployments of BSs will leads towards high operating expenditures (Op-Ex, capital expenditure (Cap-Ex and most importantly high energy consumption in future generation networks. Recognizing theses networks issues this research work investigates data throughput and energy efficiency of 5G multi-tier heterogeneous network. The network is modeled using tools from stochastic geometry. Monte Carlo results confirmed that rational deployment of LPNs can contribute towards increased throughput along with better energy efficiency of overall network.

  14. Expanding health coverage in India: role of microfinance-based self-help groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Somen

    2017-01-01

    To fulfil its commitment to universal health coverage, it will be necessary for the Indian government to expand access to appropriate and affordable health services. Through the mechanism of microfinance-based self-help groups (SHGs), poor women and their families are provided not only with access to finance to improve their livelihoods but also, in many cases, with a range of basic health services. Governments and non-governmental organisations in India have implemented large-scale programmes for the promotion of SHGs. With 93 million people organised nationally, the SHGs provide an established population base that can potentially be used to extend health coverage. However, the potential for working with SHGs to improve people's access to health services has not been an active part of the national policy discourse.​.

  15. State of inequality in malaria intervention coverage in sub-Saharan African countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galactionova, Katya; Smith, Thomas A; de Savigny, Don; Penny, Melissa A

    2017-10-18

    Scale-up of malaria interventions over the last decade have yielded a significant reduction in malaria transmission and disease burden in sub-Saharan Africa. We estimated economic gradients in the distribution of these efforts and of their impacts within and across endemic countries. Using Demographic and Health Surveys we computed equity metrics to characterize the distribution of malaria interventions in 30 endemic countries proxying economic position with an asset-wealth index. Gradients were summarized in a concentration index, tabulated against level of coverage, and compared among interventions, across countries, and against respective trends over the period 2005-2015. There remain broad differences in coverage of malaria interventions and their distribution by wealth within and across countries. In most, economic gradients are lacking or favor the poorest for vector control; malaria services delivered through the formal healthcare sector are much less equitable. Scale-up of interventions in many countries improved access across the wealth continuum; in some, these efforts consistently prioritized the poorest. Expansions in control programs generally narrowed coverage gaps between economic strata; gradients persist in countries where growth was slower in the poorest quintile or where baseline inequality was large. Despite progress, malaria is consistently concentrated in the poorest, with the degree of inequality in burden far surpassing that expected given gradients in the distribution of interventions. Economic gradients in the distribution of interventions persist over time, limiting progress toward equity in malaria control. We found that, in countries with large baseline inequality in the distribution of interventions, even a small bias in expansion favoring the least poor yielded large gradients in intervention coverage while pro-poor growth failed to close the gap between the poorest and least poor. We demonstrated that dimensions of disadvantage

  16. Genome-based polymorphic microsatellite development and validation in the mosquito Aedes aegypti and application to population genetics in Haiti

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Streit Thomas G

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Microsatellite markers have proven useful in genetic studies in many organisms, yet microsatellite-based studies of the dengue and yellow fever vector mosquito Aedes aegypti have been limited by the number of assayable and polymorphic loci available, despite multiple independent efforts to identify them. Here we present strategies for efficient identification and development of useful microsatellites with broad coverage across the Aedes aegypti genome, development of multiplex-ready PCR groups of microsatellite loci, and validation of their utility for population analysis with field collections from Haiti. Results From 79 putative microsatellite loci representing 31 motifs identified in 42 whole genome sequence supercontig assemblies in the Aedes aegypti genome, 33 microsatellites providing genome-wide coverage amplified as single copy sequences in four lab strains, with a range of 2-6 alleles per locus. The tri-nucleotide motifs represented the majority (51% of the polymorphic single copy loci, and none of these was located within a putative open reading frame. Seven groups of 4-5 microsatellite loci each were developed for multiplex-ready PCR. Four multiplex-ready groups were used to investigate population genetics of Aedes aegypti populations sampled in Haiti. Of the 23 loci represented in these groups, 20 were polymorphic with a range of 3-24 alleles per locus (mean = 8.75. Allelic polymorphic information content varied from 0.171 to 0.867 (mean = 0.545. Most loci met Hardy-Weinberg expectations across populations and pairwise FST comparisons identified significant genetic differentiation between some populations. No evidence for genetic isolation by distance was observed. Conclusion Despite limited success in previous reports, we demonstrate that the Aedes aegypti genome is well-populated with single copy, polymorphic microsatellite loci that can be uncovered using the strategy developed here for rapid and efficient

  17. [The plastic coverage of soft-tissue defects after endoprosthesis on the lower limb].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altmann, S; Damert, H-G

    2013-12-01

    The implantation of endoprostheses is an established procedure in orthopaedic and trauma surgery. However, the techniques are often associated with a high risk of post-interventional infections and wound healing disorders that can result in loss of the prosthesis or the limb--most likely based on an insufficient debridement and poor soft-tissue coverage. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of the coverage methods in our patient population. In the past 10 years 38 patients with exposed knee prostheses and 14 patients following an ankle endoprosthesis were included in this retrospective study over the period from 2001 to 2011. Soft-tissue reconstructions around the knee were mostly performed by unilateral or bilateral gastrocnemius flaps combined with split-skin grafts. One defect was covered with a free flap. 57% of the soft-tissue defects around the ankle are often problematic and were closed by a pedicled peroneus brevis muscle flap and 35% by a free flap (3 with a latissimus dorsi muscle flap, 2 with a free lateral upper arm flap and one with an anterolateral tight flap). In our patient population we achieved stable soft-tissue coverage in most of the cases using the above-mentioned flaps. Due to multiple preexisting comorbidities, it was observed that the course was frequently prolonged and wound healing difficulties occurred. These, however, could be controlled by conservative means or small secondary procedures. A radical debridement and an early appropriate defect coverage of the exposed prosthesis is crucial in the reconstruction process. Through a close interdisciplinary collaboration a stable soft-tissue covering can be achieved. Consequently it is possible to avoid a loss of the endoprosthesis, marked functional deficits or even amputations. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  18. Accessible ecology: synthesis of the long, deep, and broad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Debra P C

    2010-10-01

    Large volumes of data have been collected to document the many ways that ecological systems are responding to changing environmental drivers. A general buy-in on solutions to these problems can be reached only if these and future data are made easily accessible to and understood by a broad audience that includes the public, decision-makers, and other scientists. A developing framework for synthesis is reviewed that integrates three main strategies of ecological research (long-term studies; short-term, process-based studies; and broad-scale observations) with derived data products and additional sources of knowledge. This framework focuses on making data from multiple sources and disciplines easily understood by many, a prerequisite for finding synthetic solutions and predicting future dynamics in a changing world. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Flow characteristics at trapezoidal broad-crested side weir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Říha Jaromír

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Broad-crested side weirs have been the subject of numerous hydraulic studies; however, the flow field at the weir crest and in front of the weir in the approach channel still has not been fully described. Also, the discharge coefficient of broad-crested side weirs, whether slightly inclined towards the stream or lateral, still has yet to be clearly determined. Experimental research was carried out to describe the flow characteristics at low Froude numbers in the approach flow channel for various combinations of in- and overflow discharges. Three side weir types with different oblique angles were studied. Their flow characteristics and discharge coefficients were analyzed and assessed based on the results obtained from extensive measurements performed on a hydraulic model. The empirical relation between the angle of side weir obliqueness, Froude numbers in the up- and downstream channels, and the coefficient of obliqueness was derived.

  20. Broad-band hard X-ray reflectors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joensen, K.D.; Gorenstein, P.; Hoghoj, P.

    1997-01-01

    Interest in optics for hard X-ray broad-band application is growing. In this paper, we compare the hard X-ray (20-100 keV) reflectivity obtained with an energy-dispersive reflectometer, of a standard commercial gold thin-film with that of a 600 bilayer W/Si X-ray supermirror. The reflectivity...... that of the gold, Various other design options are discussed, and we conclude that continued interest in the X-ray supermirror for broad-band hard X-ray applications is warranted....... of the multilayer is found to agree extraordinarily well with theory (assuming an interface roughness of 4.5 Angstrom), while the agreement for the gold film is less, The overall performance of the supermirror is superior to that of gold, extending the band of reflection at least a factor of 2.8 beyond...