WorldWideScience

Sample records for broad population coverage

  1. PRINCIPAR An Efficient, Broad-coverage, Principle-based Parser

    CERN Document Server

    Lin, D

    1994-01-01

    We present an efficient, broad-coverage, principle-based parser for English. The parser has been implemented in C++ and runs on SUN Sparcstations with X-windows. It contains a lexicon with over 90,000 entries, constructed automatically by applying a set of extraction and conversion rules to entries from machine readable dictionaries.

  2. Measuring populations to improve vaccination coverage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bharti, Nita; Djibo, Ali; Tatem, Andrew J.; Grenfell, Bryan T.; Ferrari, Matthew J.

    2016-10-01

    In low-income settings, vaccination campaigns supplement routine immunization but often fail to achieve coverage goals due to uncertainty about target population size and distribution. Accurate, updated estimates of target populations are rare but critical; short-term fluctuations can greatly impact population size and susceptibility. We use satellite imagery to quantify population fluctuations and the coverage achieved by a measles outbreak response vaccination campaign in urban Niger and compare campaign estimates to measurements from a post-campaign survey. Vaccine coverage was overestimated because the campaign underestimated resident numbers and seasonal migration further increased the target population. We combine satellite-derived measurements of fluctuations in population distribution with high-resolution measles case reports to develop a dynamic model that illustrates the potential improvement in vaccination campaign coverage if planners account for predictable population fluctuations. Satellite imagery can improve retrospective estimates of vaccination campaign impact and future campaign planning by synchronizing interventions with predictable population fluxes.

  3. Measuring populations to improve vaccination coverage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bharti, Nita; Djibo, Ali; Tatem, Andrew J.; Grenfell, Bryan T.; Ferrari, Matthew J.

    2016-01-01

    In low-income settings, vaccination campaigns supplement routine immunization but often fail to achieve coverage goals due to uncertainty about target population size and distribution. Accurate, updated estimates of target populations are rare but critical; short-term fluctuations can greatly impact population size and susceptibility. We use satellite imagery to quantify population fluctuations and the coverage achieved by a measles outbreak response vaccination campaign in urban Niger and compare campaign estimates to measurements from a post-campaign survey. Vaccine coverage was overestimated because the campaign underestimated resident numbers and seasonal migration further increased the target population. We combine satellite-derived measurements of fluctuations in population distribution with high-resolution measles case reports to develop a dynamic model that illustrates the potential improvement in vaccination campaign coverage if planners account for predictable population fluctuations. Satellite imagery can improve retrospective estimates of vaccination campaign impact and future campaign planning by synchronizing interventions with predictable population fluxes. PMID:27703191

  4. Broad epitope coverage of a human in vitro antibody library

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivasubramanian, Arvind; Lynaugh, Heather; Yu, Yao; Miles, Adam; Eckman, Josh; Schutz, Kevin; Piffath, Crystal; Boland, Nadthakarn; Durand, Stéphanie; Boland, Todd; Vásquez, Maximiliano; Xu, Yingda; Abdiche, Yasmina

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Successful discovery of therapeutic antibodies hinges on the identification of appropriate affinity binders targeting a diversity of molecular epitopes presented by the antigen. Antibody campaigns that yield such broad “epitope coverage” increase the likelihood of identifying candidates with the desired biological functions. Accordingly, epitope binning assays are employed in the early discovery stages to partition antibodies into epitope families or “bins” and prioritize leads for further characterization and optimization. The collaborative program described here, which used hen egg white lysozyme (HEL) as a model antigen, combined 3 key capabilities: 1) access to a diverse panel of antibodies selected from a human in vitro antibody library; 2) application of state-of-the-art high-throughput epitope binning; and 3) analysis and interpretation of the epitope binning data with reference to an exhaustive set of published antibody:HEL co-crystal structures. Binning experiments on a large merged panel of antibodies containing clones from the library and the literature revealed that the inferred epitopes for the library clones overlapped with, and extended beyond, the known structural epitopes. Our analysis revealed that nearly the entire solvent-exposed surface of HEL is antigenic, as has been proposed for protein antigens in general. The data further demonstrated that synthetic antibody repertoires provide as wide epitope coverage as those obtained from animal immunizations. The work highlights molecular insights contributed by increasingly higher-throughput binning methods and their broad utility to guide the discovery of therapeutic antibodies representing a diverse set of functional epitopes. PMID:27748644

  5. 1990 point population coverage for the Conterminous United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This is a point coverage of the 1990 Census of Population and Housing for the conterminous United States. (Alaska and Hawaii are available separately). The coverage...

  6. Strategies for expanding health insurance coverage in vulnerable populations

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Background Health insurance has the potential to improve access to health care and protect people from the financial risks of diseases. However, health insurance coverage is often low, particularly for people most in need of protection, including children and other vulnerable populations. Objectives To assess the effectiveness of strategies for expanding health insurance coverage in vulnerable populations. Search methods We searched Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), pa...

  7. FungiQuant: A broad-coverage fungal quantitative real-time PCR assay

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    Liu Cindy M

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fungal load quantification is a critical component of fungal community analyses. Limitation of current approaches for quantifying the fungal component in the human microbiome suggests the need for new broad-coverage techniques. Methods We analyzed 2,085 18S rRNA gene sequences from the SILVA database for assay design. We generated and quantified plasmid standards using a qPCR-based approach. We evaluated assay coverage against 4,968 sequences and performed assay validation following the Minimum Information for Publication of Quantitative Real-Time PCR Experiments (MIQE guidelines. Results We designed FungiQuant, a TaqMan® qPCR assay targeting a 351 bp region in the fungal 18S rRNA gene. Our in silico analysis showed that FungiQuant is a perfect sequence match to 90.0% of the 2,617 fungal species analyzed. We showed that FungiQuant’s is 100% sensitive and its amplification efficiencies ranged from 76.3% to 114.5%, with r2-values of >0.99 against the 69 fungal species tested. Additionally, FungiQuant inter- and intra-run coefficients of variance ranged from Conclusions FungiQuant has comprehensive coverage against diverse fungi and is a robust quantification and detection tool for delineating between true fungal detection and non-target human DNA.

  8. Expanding the universe of universal coverage: the population health argument for increasing coverage for immigrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandi, Arijit; Loue, Sana; Galea, Sandro

    2009-12-01

    As the US recession deepens, furthering the debate about healthcare reform is now even more important than ever. Few plans aimed at facilitating universal coverage make any mention of increasing access for uninsured non-citizens living in the US, many of whom are legally restricted from certain types of coverage. We conducted a critical review of the public health literature concerning the health status and access to health services among immigrant populations in the US. Using examples from infectious and chronic disease epidemiology, we argue that access to health services is at the intersection of the health of uninsured immigrants and the general population and that extending access to healthcare to all residents of the US, including undocumented immigrants, is beneficial from a population health perspective. Furthermore, from a health economics perspective, increasing access to care for immigrant populations may actually reduce net costs by increasing primary prevention and reducing the emphasis on emergency care for preventable conditions. It is unlikely that proposals for universal coverage will accomplish their objectives of improving population health and reducing social disparities in health if they do not address the substantial proportion of uninsured non-citizens living in the US.

  9. Relating Mandates in the United States for Managing the Ocean to Ecosystem Goods and Services Demonstrates Broad but Varied Coverage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christy M Foran

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available There are numerous ecosystem goods and services (EGS provided by the ocean. There are also multiple mandates to address this suite of EGS. Which facets of the ocean EGS does this portfolio of mandates collectively address? How are these mandates interrelated? Are there gaps in their coverage of EGS? Are there areas of reinforcement? To elucidate this set of issues, we characterize the portfolio of mandates that a leading U.S. governmental ocean agency, the National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA, and the subset of those that one of its Line Offices, the National Marine Fisheries Service (NOAA-Fisheries, is responsible for implementing. We link these mandates to a suite of EGS, evaluating the relative degree that each mandate addresses each EGS. The weighted overlap across mandates with respect to EGS was also estimated. Of the nearly 100 NOAA mandates, and the subset of 50 NOAA-Fisheries mandates, there was broad coverage of ocean EGS; every EGS has at a minimum of 9 NOAA mandates that addressed that topic. Food production, habitat provision, genetic resources, recreation, tourism, historical and heritage value, and knowledge and science value were the EGS that had the highest amount of coverage at 30, 42, 50, 39, 38, 34, and 60 NOAA mandates, respectively. There was some reinforcement across mandates, particularly for the top EGS, suggesting that the multiple facets of these EGS are being reasonably well addressed. Seventy percent of mandates informed the same EGS via implementation of the top 10 mandates considered to be the most important for NOAA. The large number of mandates and the overlap in the EGS they address suggest that some form of coordination is warranted, particularly via adoption of an ecosystem-based approach to management.

  10. 1980 point population coverage for the Conterminous United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A point coverage was created from the 1980 Master Area Reference File (MARF) of the U.S. Census Bureay. Each point represents the center of a census tract, though...

  11. Effect of a partial coverage of quasar broad-line regions by intervening H$_2$-bearing clouds

    CERN Document Server

    Ofengeim, Dmitrii; Ivanchik, Aleksandr; Kaminker, Aleksandr; Klimenko, Vyacheslav

    2015-01-01

    We consider the effect of a partial coverage of quasar broad-line regions (QSO BLRs) by intervening H$_2$-bearing clouds when a part of quasar (QSO) radiation passes by a cloud not taking part in formation of an absorption-line system in the QSO spectrum. That leads to modification of observable absorption line profiles and consequently to a bias in physical parameters derived from standard absorption line analysis. In application to the H$_2$ {absorption} systems the effect has been revealed in the analysis of H$_2$ absorption system in the spectrum of Q~1232+082 (Ivanchik et al. 2010, Balashev et al. 2011). We estimate a probability of the effect to be detected in QSO spectra. To do this we derive distribution of BLR sizes of high-z QSOs from Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Data Release 9 (DR9) catalogue and assume different distributions of cloud sizes. We conclude that the low limit of the probability is about $11\\%$. The latest researches shows that about a fifth of observed H$_2$ absorption systems can ...

  12. Recovering galaxy stellar population properties from broad-band spectral energy distribution fitting II. The case with unknown redshift

    CERN Document Server

    Pforr, Janine; Tonini, Chiara

    2013-01-01

    (Abridged) In a recent work we explored the dependence of galaxy stellar population properties derived from broad-band spectral energy distribution fitting on the fitting parameters, e.g. SFHs, age grid, metallicity, IMF, dust reddening, reddening law, filter setup and wavelength coverage. In this paper we consider also redshift as a free parameter in the fit and study whether one can obtain reasonable estimates of photometric redshifts and stellar population properties at once. We use mock star-forming as well as passive galaxies placed at various redshifts (0.5 to 3) as test particles. Mock star-forming galaxies are extracted from a semi-analytical galaxy formation model. We show that for high-z star-forming galaxies photometric redshifts, stellar masses and reddening can be determined simultaneously when using a broad wavelength coverage and a wide template setup in the fit. Masses are similarly well recovered (median ~ 0.2 dex) as at fixed redshift. For old galaxies with little recent star formation masse...

  13. Predicting population coverage of T-cell epitope-based diagnostics and vaccines

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    Newman Mark J

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background T cells recognize a complex between a specific major histocompatibility complex (MHC molecule and a particular pathogen-derived epitope. A given epitope will elicit a response only in individuals that express an MHC molecule capable of binding that particular epitope. MHC molecules are extremely polymorphic and over a thousand different human MHC (HLA alleles are known. A disproportionate amount of MHC polymorphism occurs in positions constituting the peptide-binding region, and as a result, MHC molecules exhibit a widely varying binding specificity. In the design of peptide-based vaccines and diagnostics, the issue of population coverage in relation to MHC polymorphism is further complicated by the fact that different HLA types are expressed at dramatically different frequencies in different ethnicities. Thus, without careful consideration, a vaccine or diagnostic with ethnically biased population coverage could result. Results To address this issue, an algorithm was developed to calculate, on the basis of HLA genotypic frequencies, the fraction of individuals expected to respond to a given epitope set, diagnostic or vaccine. The population coverage estimates are based on MHC binding and/or T cell restriction data, although the tool can be utilized in a more general fashion. The algorithm was implemented as a web-application available at http://epitope.liai.org:8080/tools/population. Conclusion We have developed a web-based tool to predict population coverage of T-cell epitope-based diagnostics and vaccines based on MHC binding and/or T cell restriction data. Accordingly, epitope-based vaccines or diagnostics can be designed to maximize population coverage, while minimizing complexity (that is, the number of different epitopes included in the diagnostic or vaccine, and also minimizing the variability of coverage obtained or projected in different ethnic groups.

  14. Expanding Proteome Coverage with CHarge Ordered Parallel Ion aNalysis (CHOPIN) Combined with Broad Specificity Proteolysis.

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    Davis, Simon; Charles, Philip D; He, Lin; Mowlds, Peter; Kessler, Benedikt M; Fischer, Roman

    2017-03-03

    The "deep" proteome has been accessible by mass spectrometry for some time. However, the number of proteins identified in cells of the same type has plateaued at ∼8000-10 000 without ID transfer from reference proteomes/data. Moreover, limited sequence coverage hampers the discrimination of protein isoforms when using trypsin as standard protease. Multienzyme approaches appear to improve sequence coverage and subsequent isoform discrimination. Here we expanded proteome and protein sequence coverage in MCF-7 breast cancer cells to an as yet unmatched depth by employing a workflow that addresses current limitations in deep proteome analysis in multiple stages: We used (i) gel-aided sample preparation (GASP) and combined trypsin/elastase digests to increase peptide orthogonality, (ii) concatenated high-pH prefractionation, and (iii) CHarge Ordered Parallel Ion aNalysis (CHOPIN), available on an Orbitrap Fusion (Lumos) mass spectrometer, to achieve 57% median protein sequence coverage in 13 728 protein groups (8949 Unigene IDs) in a single cell line. CHOPIN allows the use of both detectors in the Orbitrap on predefined precursor types that optimizes parallel ion processing, leading to the identification of a total of 179 549 unique peptides covering the deep proteome in unprecedented detail.

  15. Optimizing full-brain coverage in human brain MRI through population distributions of brain size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mennes, Maarten; Jenkinson, Mark; Valabregue, Romain; Buitelaar, Jan K; Beckmann, Christian; Smith, Stephen

    2014-09-01

    When defining an MRI protocol, brain researchers need to set multiple interdependent parameters that define repetition time (TR), voxel size, field-of-view (FOV), etc. Typically, researchers aim to image the full brain, making the expected FOV an important parameter to consider. Especially in 2D-EPI sequences, non-wasteful FOV settings are important to achieve the best temporal and spatial resolution. In practice, however, imperfect FOV size estimation often results in partial brain coverage for a significant number of participants per study, or, alternatively, an unnecessarily large voxel-size or number of slices to guarantee full brain coverage. To provide normative FOV guidelines we estimated population distributions of brain size in the x-, y-, and z-direction using data from 14,781 individuals. Our results indicated that 11mm in the z-direction differentiate between obtaining full brain coverage for 90% vs. 99.9% of participants. Importantly, we observed that rotating the FOV to optimally cover the brain, and thus minimize the number of slices needed, effectively reduces the required inferior-superior FOV size by ~5%. For a typical adult imaging study, 99.9% of the population can be imaged with full brain coverage when using an inferior-superior FOV of 142mm, assuming optimal slice orientation and minimal within-scan head motion. By providing population distributions for brain size in the x-, y-, and z-direction we improve the potential for obtaining full brain coverage, especially in 2D-EPI sequences used in most functional and diffusion MRI studies. We further enable optimization of related imaging parameters including the number of slices, TR and total acquisition time.

  16. Measuring coverage in MNCH: a validation study linking population survey derived coverage to maternal, newborn, and child health care records in rural China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Liu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Accurate data on coverage of key maternal, newborn, and child health (MNCH interventions are crucial for monitoring progress toward the Millennium Development Goals 4 and 5. Coverage estimates are primarily obtained from routine population surveys through self-reporting, the validity of which is not well understood. We aimed to examine the validity of the coverage of selected MNCH interventions in Gongcheng County, China. METHOD AND FINDINGS: We conducted a validation study by comparing women's self-reported coverage of MNCH interventions relating to antenatal and postnatal care, mode of delivery, and child vaccinations in a community survey with their paper- and electronic-based health care records, treating the health care records as the reference standard. Of 936 women recruited, 914 (97.6% completed the survey. Results show that self-reported coverage of these interventions had moderate to high sensitivity (0.57 [95% confidence interval (CI: 0.50-0.63] to 0.99 [95% CI: 0.98-1.00] and low to high specificity (0 to 0.83 [95% CI: 0.80-0.86]. Despite varying overall validity, with the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC ranging between 0.49 [95% CI: 0.39-0.57] and 0.90 [95% CI: 0.88-0.92], bias in the coverage estimates at the population level was small to moderate, with the test to actual positive (TAP ratio ranging between 0.8 and 1.5 for 24 of the 28 indicators examined. Our ability to accurately estimate validity was affected by several caveats associated with the reference standard. Caution should be exercised when generalizing the results to other settings. CONCLUSIONS: The overall validity of self-reported coverage was moderate across selected MNCH indicators. However, at the population level, self-reported coverage appears to have small to moderate degree of bias. Accuracy of the coverage was particularly high for indicators with high recorded coverage or low recorded coverage but high specificity. The

  17. Broad-scale Population Genetics of the Host Sea Anemone, Heteractis magnifica

    KAUST Repository

    Emms, Madeleine

    2015-12-01

    Broad-scale population genetics can reveal population structure across an organism’s entire range, which can enable us to determine the most efficient population-wide management strategy depending on levels of connectivity. Genetic variation and differences in genetic diversity on small-scales have been reported in anemones, but nothing is known about their broad-scale population structure, including that of “host” anemone species, which are increasingly being targeted in the aquarium trade. In this study, microsatellite markers were used as a tool to determine the population structure of a sessile, host anemone species, Heteractis magnifica, across the Indo-Pacific region. In addition, two rDNA markers were used to identify Symbiodinium from the samples, and phylogenetic analyses were used to measure diversity and geographic distribution of Symbiodinium across the region. Significant population structure was identified in H. magnifica across the Indo-Pacific, with at least three genetic breaks, possibly the result of factors such as geographic distance, geographic isolation and environmental variation. Symbiodinium associations were also affected by environmental variation and supported the geographic isolation of some regions. These results suggests that management of H. magnifica must be implemented on a local scale, due to the lack of connectivity between clusters. This study also provides further evidence for the combined effects of geographic distance and environmental distance in explaining genetic variance.

  18. Geographical disparities in core population coverage indicators for roll back malaria in Malawi

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    Appleton Christopher C

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Implementation of known effective interventions would necessitate the reduction of malaria burden by half by the year 2010. Identifying geographical disparities of coverage of these interventions at small area level is useful to inform where greatest scaling-up efforts should be concentrated. They also provide baseline data against which future scaling-up of interventions can be compared. However, population data are not always available at local level. This study applied spatial smoothing methods to generate maps at subdistrict level in Malawi to serve such purposes. Methods Data for the following responses from the 2000 Malawi Demographic and Health Survey (DHS were aggregated at subdistrict level: (1 households possessing at least one bednet; (2 children under 5 years who slept under a bednet the night before the survey; (3 bednets retreated with insecticide within past 6–12 months preceding the survey; (4 children under 5 who had fever two weeks before the survey and received treatment within 24 hours from the onset of fever; and (5 women who received intermittent preventive treatment of malaria during their last pregnancy. Each response was geographically smoothed at subdistrict level by applying conditional autoregressive models using Markov Chain Monte Carlo simulation techniques. Results The underlying geographical patterns of coverage of indicators were more clear in the smoothed maps than in the original unsmoothed maps, with relatively high coverage in urban areas than in rural areas for all indicators. The percentage of households possessing at least one bednet was 19% (95% credible interval (CI: 16–21%, with 9% (95% CI: 7–11% of children sleeping under a net, while 18% (95% CI: 16–19% of households had retreated their nets within past 12 months prior to the survey. The northern region and lakeshore areas had high bednet coverage, but low usage and re-treatment rates. Coverage rate of children who received

  19. Methods for estimating population coverage of mass distribution programmes: a review of practices in relation to trachoma control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cromwell, Elizabeth A; Ngondi, Jeremiah; McFarland, Deborah; King, Jonathan D; Emerson, Paul M

    2012-10-01

    In the context of trachoma control, population coverage with mass drug administration (MDA) using antibiotics is measured using routine data. Due to the limitations of administrative records as well as the potential for bias from incomplete or incorrect records, a literature review of coverage survey methods applied in neglected tropical disease control programmes and immunisation outreach was conducted to inform the design of coverage surveys for trachoma control. Several methods were identified, including the '30 × 7' survey method for the Expanded Programme on Immunization (EPI 30×7), other cluster random sampling (CRS) methods, lot quality assurance sampling (LQAS), purposive sampling and routine data. When compared against one another, the EPI and other CRS methods produced similar population coverage estimates, whilst LQAS, purposive sampling and use of administrative data did not generate estimates consistent with CRS. In conclusion, CRS methods present a consistent approach for MDA coverage surveys despite different methods of household selection. They merit use until standard guidelines are available. CRS methods should be used to verify population coverage derived from LQAS, purposive sampling methods and administrative reports.

  20. Agricultural Set-aside Programs and Grassland Birds: Insights from Broad-scale Population Trends

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    S. Riffell

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The Conservation Reserve Program (CRP is a voluntary set-aside program in the United States designed to amelioratesoil erosion, control crop overproduction, enhance water quality, and provide wildlife habitat by replacing crops with other forms of land cover. Because CRP includes primarily grass habitats, it has great potential to benefitdeclining North American grassland bird populations. We looked at the change in national and state population trends of grassland birds and related changes to cover-specific CRP variables (previous research grouped all CRP practices. Changes in national trends after the initiation of the CRP were inconclusive, but we observed signficant bird-CRP relations at the state level. Most bird-CRP relations were positive, except for some species associated with habitats that CRP replaced. Practice- and configuration-specific CRP variables were related to grassland bird trends, rather than a generic measure of all CRP types combined. Considering all CRP land as a single, distinct habitat type may obscure actual relations between birds and set-aside characteristics. Understanding and predictingthe effects of set-aside programs (like CRP or agri-environment schemes on grassland birds is complex and difficult. Because available broad-scale datasets are less than adequate, studies should be conducted at a variety of spatial and temporal scales.

  1. 78 FR 38161 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Listing One Distinct Population Segment of Broad...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-25

    ... originating in Argentina, if certain conditions are met prior to exportation to the United States. DATES: This... broad- snouted caiman in Argentina from endangered to threatened in the List of Endangered and...) of the broad- snouted caiman (Caiman latirostris): A DPS in Argentina and a DPS encompassing...

  2. Broad-band colours and overall photometric properties of template galaxy models from stellar population synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buzzoni, Alberto

    2005-08-01

    We present here a new set of evolutionary population synthesis models for template galaxies along the Hubble morphological sequence. The models, which account for the individual evolution of the bulge, disc, and halo components, provide basic morphological features, along with bolometric luminosity and colour evolution (including Johnson/Cousins, Gunn g, r, i, and Washington C, M, T1, T2 photometric systems) between 1 and 15 Gyr. The luminosity contribution from residual gas is also evaluated, both in terms of nebular continuum and Balmer-line enhancement. Our theoretical framework relies on the observed colours of present-day galaxies, coupled with a minimal set of physical assumptions related to simple stellar population (SSP) evolution theory, to constrain the overall distinctive properties of galaxies at earlier epochs. A comparison with more elaborate photometric models, and with empirical sets of reference spectral energy distributions (SEDs) for early- and late-type galaxies is accomplished, in order to test output reliability and investigate the internal uncertainty of the models. The match with observed colours of present-day galaxies tightly constrain the stellar birth rate, b, which smoothly increases from E to Im types. The comparison with the observed supernova (SN) rate in low-redshift galaxies shows, as well, a pretty good agreement, and allows us to tune up the inferred star formation activity and the SN and hypernova rates among the different galaxy morphological types. Among others, these results could find useful application also in cosmological studies, given for instance the claimed relationship between hypernova events and gamma-ray bursts. One outstanding feature of the back-in-time evolution model is the prevailing luminosity contribution of the bulge at early epochs. As a consequence, the current morphological look of galaxies might drastically change when moving to larger distances, and we discuss here how sensibly this bias could affect

  3. Is a 'convenience' sample useful for estimating immunization coverage in a small population?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weir, Jean E; Jones, Carrie

    2008-01-01

    Rapid survey methodologies are widely used for assessing immunization coverage in developing countries, approximating true stratified random sampling. Non-random ('convenience') sampling is not considered appropriate for estimating immunization coverage rates but has the advantages of low cost and expediency. We assessed the validity of a convenience sample of children presenting to a travelling clinic by comparing the coverage rate in the convenience sample to the true coverage established by surveying each child in three villages in rural Papua New Guinea. The rate of DTF immunization coverage as estimated by the convenience sample was within 10% of the true coverage when the proportion of children in the sample was two-thirds or when only children over the age of one year were counted, but differed by 11% when the sample included only 53% of the children and when all eligible children were included. The convenience sample may be sufficiently accurate for reporting purposes and is useful for identifying areas of low coverage.

  4. Transfer of genetic therapy across human populations: molecular targets for increasing patient coverage in repeat expansion diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varela, Miguel A; Curtis, Helen J; Douglas, Andrew G L; Hammond, Suzan M; O'Loughlin, Aisling J; Sobrido, Maria J; Scholefield, Janine; Wood, Matthew J A

    2016-02-01

    Allele-specific gene therapy aims to silence expression of mutant alleles through targeting of disease-linked single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). However, SNP linkage to disease varies between populations, making such molecular therapies applicable only to a subset of patients. Moreover, not all SNPs have the molecular features necessary for potent gene silencing. Here we provide knowledge to allow the maximisation of patient coverage by building a comprehensive understanding of SNPs ranked according to their predicted suitability toward allele-specific silencing in 14 repeat expansion diseases: amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and frontotemporal dementia, dentatorubral-pallidoluysian atrophy, myotonic dystrophy 1, myotonic dystrophy 2, Huntington's disease and several spinocerebellar ataxias. Our systematic analysis of DNA sequence variation shows that most annotated SNPs are not suitable for potent allele-specific silencing across populations because of suboptimal sequence features and low variability (>97% in HD). We suggest maximising patient coverage by selecting SNPs with high heterozygosity across populations, and preferentially targeting SNPs that lead to purine:purine mismatches in wild-type alleles to obtain potent allele-specific silencing. We therefore provide fundamental knowledge on strategies for optimising patient coverage of therapeutics for microsatellite expansion disorders by linking analysis of population genetic variation to the selection of molecular targets.

  5. Evaluation of the establishment of herd immunity in the population by means of serological surveys and vaccination coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plans-Rubió, Pedro

    2012-02-01

    The necessary herd immunity blocking the transmission of an infectious agent in the population is established when the prevalence of protected individuals is higher than a critical value, called the herd immunity threshold. The establishment of herd immunity in the population can be determined using the vaccination coverage and seroepidemiological surveys. The vaccination coverage associated with herd immunity (V(c)) can be determined from the herd immunity threshold and vaccine effectiveness. This method requires a vaccine-specific effectiveness evaluation, and it can be used only for the herd immunity assessment of vaccinated communities in which the infectious agent is not circulating. The prevalence of positive serological results associated with herd immunity can be determined from the herd immunity threshold, in terms of prevalence of antibodies (p(c)) and serological test performance. The herd immunity is established when the prevalence of antibodies is higher than pc. This method can be used to assess the establishment of herd immunity in different population groups, both when the infectious agent is circulating and when it is not possible to assess vaccine effectiveness. The herd immunity assessment in Catalonia, Spain, showed that the additional vaccination coverage required to establish herd immunity was 3-6% for measles, mump and varicella and 11% poliovirus type III in school children, 17-59% for diphtheria in youth and adults and 25-46% for persussis in school children, youth and adults.

  6. Immunization Coverage In Urban, Rural And Tribal Populations-A Comparative Assessment

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    Bhardwaj A K

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available Immunization coverage assessment of 327 children in Himachal pradesh revealed that 66.7%, 42.2% and 50.6% children were fully immunized in urban, rural and tribal areas respectively. The coverage by all vaccines was well above the national average. Drop out rates were more in the rural areas followed by tribal and urban areas. The main reason for drop outs in immunization was parents’ preoccupation with their work. However in the opinion of the health workers, fear of side reactions and illness of the child were the main reasons for the poor response.

  7. Measuring coverage in MNCH: population HIV-free survival among children under two years of age in four African countries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey S A Stringer

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Population-based evaluations of programs for prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission (PMTCT are scarce. We measured PMTCT service coverage, regimen use, and HIV-free survival among children ≤24 mo of age in Cameroon, Côte D'Ivoire, South Africa, and Zambia. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We randomly sampled households in 26 communities and offered participation if a child had been born to a woman living there during the prior 24 mo. We tested consenting mothers with rapid HIV antibody tests and tested the children of seropositive mothers with HIV DNA PCR or rapid antibody tests. Our primary outcome was 24-mo HIV-free survival, estimated with survival analysis. In an individual-level analysis, we evaluated the effectiveness of various PMTCT regimens. In a community-level analysis, we evaluated the relationship between HIV-free survival and community PMTCT coverage (the proportion of HIV-exposed infants in each community that received any PMTCT intervention during gestation or breastfeeding. We also compared our community coverage results to those of a contemporaneous study conducted in the facilities serving each sampled community. Of 7,985 surveyed children under 2 y of age, 1,014 (12.7% were HIV-exposed. Of these, 110 (10.9% were HIV-infected, 851 (83.9% were HIV-uninfected, and 53 (5.2% were dead. HIV-free survival at 24 mo of age among all HIV-exposed children was 79.7% (95% CI: 76.4, 82.6 overall, with the following country-level estimates: Cameroon (72.6%; 95% CI: 62.3, 80.5, South Africa (77.7%; 95% CI: 72.5, 82.1, Zambia (83.1%; 95% CI: 78.4, 86.8, and Côte D'Ivoire (84.4%; 95% CI: 70.0, 92.2. In adjusted analyses, the risk of death or HIV infection was non-significantly lower in children whose mothers received a more complex regimen of either two or three antiretroviral drugs compared to those receiving no prophylaxis (adjusted hazard ratio: 0.60; 95% CI: 0.34, 1.06. Risk of death was not different for children whose

  8. A broad perspective on multiple abundance populations in the globular cluster NGC 1851

    CERN Document Server

    Simpson, Jeffrey D; Navin, Colin A

    2016-01-01

    We present an analysis of the multiple stellar populations of the globular cluster NGC 1851. We used lower resolution spectra of giant stars to measure CN, CH, and calcium H & K spectral indices, and determine elemental abundances for carbon and nitrogen. The CN and CH indices were used to confirm that there are four populations of stars in the cluster. The primordial population of stars, with the lowest CN, was found to be generally chemically distinct in elemental abundances from the second generation populations. As expected, [N/Fe] increases with increasing CN strength, but the only other element that correlated with CN was barium. The two largest populations of stars were found to have the same rate of carbon astration as the stars ascend the giant branch. We were also able to confirm that four previously identified extratidal stars are chemically associated with the cluster. This work shows the benefit of considering the chemistry of globular clusters with both high- and low-resolution spectra.

  9. A broad perspective on multiple abundance populations in the globular cluster NGC 1851

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Jeffrey D.; Martell, Sarah L.; Navin, Colin A.

    2017-02-01

    We present an analysis of the multiple stellar populations of the globular cluster NGC 1851. We used lower resolution spectra of giant stars to measure CN, CH, and calcium H & K spectral indices, and determine elemental abundances for carbon and nitrogen. The CN and CH indices were used to confirm that there are four populations of stars in the cluster. The primordial population of stars, with the lowest CN, was found to be generally chemically distinct in elemental abundances from the second-generation populations. As expected, [N/Fe] increases with increasing CN strength, but the only other element that correlated with CN was barium. The two largest populations of stars were found to have the same rate of carbon astration as the stars that ascend the giant branch. We were also able to confirm that four previously identified extratidal stars are chemically associated with the cluster. This work shows the benefit of considering the chemistry of globular clusters with both high- and low-resolution spectra.

  10. Broad and narrow personality traits as markers of one-time and repeated suicide attempts: A population-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitaro Frank

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studying personality traits with the potential to differentiate between individuals engaging in suicide attempts of different degrees of severity could help us to understand the processes underlying the link of personality and nonfatal suicidal behaviours and to identify at-risk groups. One approach may be to examine whether narrow, i.e., lower-order personality traits may be more useful than their underlying, broad personality trait dimensions. Methods We investigated qualitative and quantitative differences in broad and narrow personality traits between one-time and repeated suicide attempters in a longitudinal, population-based sample of young French Canadian adults using two multivariate regression models. Results One broad (Compulsivity: OR = 2.0; 95% CI 1.2–3.5 and one narrow personality trait (anxiousness: OR = 1.1; 95% CI 1.01–1.1 differentiated between individuals with histories of repeated and one-time suicide attempts. Affective instability [(OR = 1.1; 95% CI 1.04–1.1] and anxiousness [(OR = .92; 95% CI .88–.95], on the other hand, differentiated between nonattempters and one-time suicide attempters. Conclusion Emotional and cognitive dysregulation and associated behavioural manifestations may be associated with suicide attempts of different severity. While findings associated with narrow traits may be easier to interpret and link to existing sociobiological theories, larger effect sizes associated with broad traits such as Compulsivity may be better suited to objectives with a more clinical focus.

  11. Assessing the status and trend of bat populations across broad geographic regions with dynamic distribution models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodhouse, Thomas J.; Ormsbee, Patricia C.; Irvine, Kathryn M.; Vierling, Lee A.; Szewczak, Joseph M.; Vierling, Kerri T.

    2012-01-01

    Bats face unprecedented threats from habitat loss, climate change, disease, and wind power development, and populations of many species are in decline. A better ability to quantify bat population status and trend is urgently needed in order to develop effective conservation strategies. We used a Bayesian autoregressive approach to develop dynamic distribution models for Myotis lucifugus, the little brown bat, across a large portion of northwestern USA, using a four-year detection history matrix obtained from a regional monitoring program. This widespread and abundant species has experienced precipitous local population declines in northeastern USA resulting from the novel disease white-nose syndrome, and is facing likely range-wide declines. Our models were temporally dynamic and accounted for imperfect detection. Drawing on species–energy theory, we included measures of net primary productivity (NPP) and forest cover in models, predicting that M. lucifugus occurrence probabilities would covary positively along those gradients.

  12. Broad-band colors and overall photometric properties of template galaxy models from stellar population synthesis

    OpenAIRE

    Buzzoni, Alberto

    2005-01-01

    We present here a new set of evolutionary population synthesis models for template galaxies along the Hubble morphological sequence. The models, that account for the individual evolution of the bulge, disk, and halo components, provide basic morphological features, along with bolometric luminosity and color evolution (including Johnson/Cousins "UBVRcIcJHK", Gunn "gri", and Washington "CMT1T2" photometric systems) between 1 and 15 Gyr. Luminosity contribution from residual gas is also evaluate...

  13. Broad-band colors and overall photometric properties of template galaxy models from stellar population synthesis

    CERN Document Server

    Buzzoni, A

    2005-01-01

    We present here a new set of evolutionary population synthesis models for template galaxies along the Hubble morphological sequence. The models, that account for the individual evolution of the bulge, disk, and halo components, provide basic morphological features, along with bolometric luminosity and color evolution (including Johnson/Cousins "UBVRcIcJHK", Gunn "gri", and Washington "CMT1T2" photometric systems) between 1 and 15 Gyr. Luminosity contribution from residual gas is also evaluated, both in terms of nebular continuum and Balmer-line enhancement.

  14. Carotenoid content and root color of cultivated carrot: a candidate-gene association study using an original broad unstructured population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthieu Jourdan

    Full Text Available Accumulated in large amounts in carrot, carotenoids are an important product quality attribute and therefore a major breeding trait. However, the knowledge of carotenoid accumulation genetic control in this root vegetable is still limited. In order to identify the genetic variants linked to this character, we performed an association mapping study with a candidate gene approach. We developed an original unstructured population with a broad genetic basis to avoid the pitfall of false positive detection due to population stratification. We genotyped 109 SNPs located in 17 candidate genes – mostly carotenoid biosynthesis genes – on 380 individuals, and tested the association with carotenoid contents and color components. Total carotenoids and β-carotene contents were significantly associated with genes zeaxanthin epoxydase (ZEP, phytoene desaturase (PDS and carotenoid isomerase (CRTISO while α-carotene was associated with CRTISO and plastid terminal oxidase (PTOX genes. Color components were associated most significantly with ZEP. Our results suggest the involvement of the couple PDS/PTOX and ZEP in carotenoid accumulation, as the result of the metabolic and catabolic activities respectively. This study brings new insights in the understanding of the carotenoid pathway in non-photosynthetic organs.

  15. Overestimation of vitamin a supplementation coverage from district tally sheets demonstrates importance of population-based surveys for program improvement: lessons from Tanzania.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Nyhus Dhillon

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Tanzania has conducted a national twice-yearly Vitamin A supplementation (VAS campaign since 2001. Administrative coverage rates based on tally sheets consistently report >90% coverage; however the accuracy of these rates are uncertain due to potential errors in tally sheets and their aggregation, incomplete or inaccurate reporting from distribution sites, and underestimating the target population. OBJECTIVES: The post event coverage survey in Mainland Tanzania sought to validate tally-sheet based national coverage estimates of VAS and deworming for the June 2010 mass distribution round, and to characterize children missed by the national campaign. METHODS: WHO/EPI randomized cross-sectional cluster sampling methodology was adapted for this study, using 30 clusters by 40 individuals (n = 1200, in addition to key informant interviews. Households with children 6-59 months of age were included in the study (12-59 months for deworming analysis. Chi-squared tests and logistic regression analysis were used to test differences between children reached and not reached by VAS. Data was collected within six weeks of the June 2010 round. RESULTS: A total of 1203 children, 58 health workers, 30 village leaders and 45 community health workers were sampled. Preschool VAS coverage was 65% (95% CI: 62.7-68.1, approximately 30% lower than tally-sheet coverage estimates. Factors associated with not receiving VAS were urban residence [OR = 3.31; p = 0.01], caretakers who did not hear about the campaign [OR = 48.7; p<0.001], and Muslim households [OR<3.25; p<0.01]. There were no significant differences in VAS coverage by child sex or age, or maternal age or education. CONCLUSION: Coverage estimation for vitamin A supplementation programs is one of most powerful indicators of program success. National VAS coverage based on a tally-sheet system overestimated VAS coverage by ∼30%. There is a need for representative population

  16. Monitoring intervention coverage in the context of universal health coverage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ties Boerma

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring universal health coverage (UHC focuses on information on health intervention coverage and financial protection. This paper addresses monitoring intervention coverage, related to the full spectrum of UHC, including health promotion and disease prevention, treatment, rehabilitation, and palliation. A comprehensive core set of indicators most relevant to the country situation should be monitored on a regular basis as part of health progress and systems performance assessment for all countries. UHC monitoring should be embedded in a broad results framework for the country health system, but focus on indicators related to the coverage of interventions that most directly reflect the results of UHC investments and strategies in each country. A set of tracer coverage indicators can be selected, divided into two groups-promotion/prevention, and treatment/care-as illustrated in this paper. Disaggregation of the indicators by the main equity stratifiers is critical to monitor progress in all population groups. Targets need to be set in accordance with baselines, historical rate of progress, and measurement considerations. Critical measurement gaps also exist, especially for treatment indicators, covering issues such as mental health, injuries, chronic conditions, surgical interventions, rehabilitation, and palliation. Consequently, further research and proxy indicators need to be used in the interim. Ideally, indicators should include a quality of intervention dimension. For some interventions, use of a single indicator is feasible, such as management of hypertension; but in many areas additional indicators are needed to capture quality of service provision. The monitoring of UHC has significant implications for health information systems. Major data gaps will need to be filled. At a minimum, countries will need to administer regular household health surveys with biological and clinical data collection. Countries will also need to improve the

  17. Monitoring intervention coverage in the context of universal health coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boerma, Ties; AbouZahr, Carla; Evans, David; Evans, Tim

    2014-09-01

    Monitoring universal health coverage (UHC) focuses on information on health intervention coverage and financial protection. This paper addresses monitoring intervention coverage, related to the full spectrum of UHC, including health promotion and disease prevention, treatment, rehabilitation, and palliation. A comprehensive core set of indicators most relevant to the country situation should be monitored on a regular basis as part of health progress and systems performance assessment for all countries. UHC monitoring should be embedded in a broad results framework for the country health system, but focus on indicators related to the coverage of interventions that most directly reflect the results of UHC investments and strategies in each country. A set of tracer coverage indicators can be selected, divided into two groups-promotion/prevention, and treatment/care-as illustrated in this paper. Disaggregation of the indicators by the main equity stratifiers is critical to monitor progress in all population groups. Targets need to be set in accordance with baselines, historical rate of progress, and measurement considerations. Critical measurement gaps also exist, especially for treatment indicators, covering issues such as mental health, injuries, chronic conditions, surgical interventions, rehabilitation, and palliation. Consequently, further research and proxy indicators need to be used in the interim. Ideally, indicators should include a quality of intervention dimension. For some interventions, use of a single indicator is feasible, such as management of hypertension; but in many areas additional indicators are needed to capture quality of service provision. The monitoring of UHC has significant implications for health information systems. Major data gaps will need to be filled. At a minimum, countries will need to administer regular household health surveys with biological and clinical data collection. Countries will also need to improve the production of

  18. Provider's and user's perspective about immunization coverage among migratory and non-migratory population in slums and construction sites of Chandigarh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Vikas; Singh, Amarjeet; Sharma, Vijaylakshmi

    2015-04-01

    Strengthening routine immunization is a corner stone for countries to achieve the United Nations Millennium Development Goal 4 (MDG 4) which aims to reduce under-five mortality by two-thirds and MDG 5 improving maternal health compared to 1990 estimates by 2015. The poor urban newborns are more vulnerable to many health and nutrition problems compared to the non-poor urban counterparts. Therefore there is a need to strengthen health system to cater the needs of urban poor. Standardized WHO30*7 cluster sampling for slums and convenience sampling for construction sites. In depth interviews were conducted for user's as well as provider's perspective about immunization coverage. Two hundred ten children and 210 mothers were enrolled in slums and 100 were sampled from construction sites. The slum workers are considered as non-migratory groups whereas construction site workers are considered as migratory population. Among children, 23 % were fully immunized, 73 % were partially immunized and 3 % were unimmunized in non-migratory population whereas 3 % were fully immunized, 91 % were partially immunized and 6 % were unimmunized in migratory population. Among mothers, 43 and 39 % were fully immunized, 13 and 15 % partially immunized and 43 and 46 % were unimmunized in non-migratory and migratory population, respectively. The various reasons attributed for low coverage are (a) dissatisfaction of the users with the service delivery and procedural delays (bureaucracy), (b) lack of faith in health workers,

  19. How to best define target populations of medicines in view of their coverage by the national health insurance scheme?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamers, Françoise F; Massol, Jacques; Maillère, Patricia

    2010-01-01

    The target population of a medicine may include different populations that may partially overlap including the population that has been evaluated in the clinical trials, the population for which the medicine provides an actual benefit (SMR), that for which the drug provides an improvement of the actual benefit (ASMR), etc. The definition of the target population in both qualitative and quantitative terms has key public health and economic implications. Recommendations are made to shed light on the definitions, to clarify the requests of the public decision makers and to improve the methods and the sources allowing the quantification of target populations.

  20. Constraining sub-parsec binary supermassive black holes in quasars with multi-epoch spectroscopy. II. The population with kinematically offset broad Balmer emission lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Xin [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Shen, Yue [Carnegie Observatories, 813 Santa Barbara Street, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); Bian, Fuyan [Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 2611 (Australia); Loeb, Abraham [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Tremaine, Scott, E-mail: xinliu@astro.ucla.edu [Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton, NJ 08540 (United States)

    2014-07-10

    A small fraction of quasars have long been known to show bulk velocity offsets (of a few hundred to thousands of km s{sup –1}) in the broad Balmer lines with respect to the systemic redshift of the host galaxy. Models to explain these offsets usually invoke broad-line region gas kinematics/asymmetry around single black holes (BHs), orbital motion of massive (∼sub-parsec (sub-pc)) binary black holes (BBHs), or recoil BHs, but single-epoch spectra are unable to distinguish between these scenarios. The line-of-sight (LOS) radial velocity (RV) shifts from long-term spectroscopic monitoring can be used to test the BBH hypothesis. We have selected a sample of 399 quasars with kinematically offset broad Hβ lines from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Seventh Data Release quasar catalog, and have conducted second-epoch optical spectroscopy for 50 of them. Combined with the existing SDSS spectra, the new observations enable us to constrain the LOS RV shifts of broad Hβ lines with a rest-frame baseline of a few years to nearly a decade. While previous work focused on objects with extreme velocity offset (>10{sup 3} km s{sup –1}), we explore the parameter space with smaller (a few hundred km s{sup –1}) yet significant offsets (99.7% confidence). Using cross-correlation analysis, we detect significant (99% confidence) radial accelerations in the broad Hβ lines in 24 of the 50 objects, of ∼10-200 km s{sup –1} yr{sup –1} with a median measurement uncertainty of ∼10 km s{sup –1} yr{sup –1}, implying a high fraction of variability of the broad-line velocity on multi-year timescales. We suggest that 9 of the 24 detections are sub-pc BBH candidates, which show consistent velocity shifts independently measured from a second broad line (either Hα or Mg II) without significant changes in the broad-line profiles. Combining the results on the general quasar population studied in Paper I, we find a tentative anti-correlation between the velocity offset in the

  1. Determinants for employer-paid health insurance coverage: a population-based study of the Danish labour force

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Ann Demant; Søgaard, Rikke

    2013-01-01

    AIM: In 2002, the Danish tax law was changed, giving employees a tax exemption on supplemental, employer-paid health insurance. This might have conflicted with one of the key foundations of the healthcare system, namely equal access for equal needs. The aim of this study was to investigate...... determinants for employer-paid health insurance coverage. Because the policy change affected only people who were part of the labour force and because the public sector at that time had no tradition of providing fringe benefits, the analysis was restricted to the private labour force. METHOD: The analysis...... was based on data from a range of Danish person-level and company-level registers (explanatory variables). These data were combined with information on insurance status obtained from the trade organisation for insurance (dependent variable). A logistic regression was performed to estimate the odds of having...

  2. Identification of High Energy Gamma-Ray Sources And Source Populations in the Era of Deep All-Sky Coverage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reimer, Olaf; /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park; Torres, Diego F.; /ICREA, Barcelona /Barcelona, IEEC

    2007-04-17

    A large fraction of the anticipated source detections by the Gamma-ray Large Area Space Telescope (GLAST-LAT) will initially be unidentified. We argue that traditional approaches to identify individuals and/or populations of gamma ray sources will encounter procedural limitations. Those limitations are discussed on the background of source identifications from EGRET observations. Generally, our ability to classify (faint) source populations in the anticipated GLAST dataset with the required degree of statistical confidence will be hampered by sheer source wealth. A new paradigm for achieving the classification of gamma ray source populations is discussed.

  3. Mass vaccination, immunity and coverage: modelling population protection against foot-and-mouth disease in Turkish cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight-Jones, T J D; Gubbins, S; Bulut, A N; Stärk, K D C; Pfeiffer, D U; Sumption, K J; Paton, D J

    2016-02-26

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) in Turkey is controlled using biannual mass vaccination of cattle. However, vaccine protection is undermined by population turnover and declining immunity. A dynamic model of the Turkish cattle population was created. Assuming biannual mass vaccination with a single-dose primary course, vaccine history was calculated for the simulated population (number of doses and time since last vaccination). This was used to estimate population immunity. Six months after the last round of vaccination almost half the cattle aged 1 vaccine dose in their life with the last dose given ≤ 6 months ago. Five months after the last round of vaccination two-thirds of cattle would have low antibody titres (< 70% protection threshold). Giving a two-dose primary vaccination course reduces the proportion of 6-12 month old cattle with low titres by 20-30%. Biannual mass vaccination of cattle leaves significant immunity gaps and over-reliance on vaccine protection should be avoided. Using more effective vaccines and vaccination strategies will increase population immunity, however, the extent to which FMD can be controlled by vaccination alone without effective biosecurity remains uncertain.

  4. Identifying selected regions from heterozygosity and divergence using a light-coverage genomic dataset from two human populations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taras K Oleksyk

    Full Text Available When a selective sweep occurs in the chromosomal region around a target gene in two populations that have recently separated, it produces three dramatic genomic consequences: 1 decreased multi-locus heterozygosity in the region; 2 elevated or diminished genetic divergence (F(ST of multiple polymorphic variants adjacent to the selected locus between the divergent populations, due to the alternative fixation of alleles; and 3 a consequent regional increase in the variance of F(ST (S(2F(ST for the same clustered variants, due to the increased alternative fixation of alleles in the loci surrounding the selection target. In the first part of our study, to search for potential targets of directional selection, we developed and validated a resampling-based computational approach; we then scanned an array of 31 different-sized moving windows of SNP variants (5-65 SNPs across the human genome in a set of European and African American population samples with 183,997 SNP loci after correcting for the recombination rate variation. The analysis revealed 180 regions of recent selection with very strong evidence in either population or both. In the second part of our study, we compared the newly discovered putative regions to those sites previously postulated in the literature, using methods based on inspecting patterns of linkage disequilibrium, population divergence and other methodologies. The newly found regions were cross-validated with those found in nine other studies that have searched for selection signals. Our study was replicated especially well in those regions confirmed by three or more studies. These validated regions were independently verified, using a combination of different methods and different databases in other studies, and should include fewer false positives. The main strength of our analysis method compared to others is that it does not require dense genotyping and therefore can be used with data from population-based genome SNP scans

  5. Locating solar and wind parks in South-Eastern Nigeria for maximum population coverage: A multi-step approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ikejemba, Eugene C.X.; Schuur, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Power outages in the most populous country in the continent of Africa, Nigeria, is one issue that has woefully defied almost all known hypotheses for centuries, as enormous investments over the years have provided no palpable result. Considering that electricity plays a vital role in modern society,

  6. Determinants of Antiviral Treatment Initiation in a Hepatitis C-infected Population Benefiting from Universal Health Care Coverage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romain Moirand

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND AIMS: In view of increasing therapeutic efficacy, the delivery of hepatitis C virus (HCV antiviral treatment is expected to increase. Yet practical experience reveals a low rate of treatment, particularly among intravenous drug users. The aim of the present study was to examine the prevalence of HCV treatment and identify factors associated with HCV treatment in a population of patients evaluated in an academic hepatology outpatient clinic between 2001 and 2002.

  7. Using epitope predictions to evaluate efficacy and population coverage of the Mtb72f vaccine for tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    He Yongqun

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Mtb72f subunit vaccine for tuberculosis, currently in clinical trials, is hoped to provide improved protection compared to the current BCG vaccine. It is not clear, however, whether Mtb72f would be equally protective in the different human populations suffering from a high burden of tuberculosis. Previous work by Hebert and colleagues demonstrated that the PPE18 protein of Mtb72f had significant variability in a sample of clinical M. tuberculosis isolates. However, whether this variation might impact the efficacy of Mtb72f in the context of the microbial and host immune system interactions remained to be determined. The present study assesses Mtb72f's predicted efficacy in people with different DRB1 genotypes to predict whether the vaccine will protect against diverse clinical strains of M. tuberculosis in a diverse host population. Results We evaluated the binding of epitopes in the vaccine to different alleles of the human DRB1 Class II MHC protein using freely available epitope prediction programs and compared protein sequences from clinical isolates to the sequences included in the Mtb72f vaccine. This analysis predicted that the Mtb72f vaccine would be less effective for several DRB1 genotypes, due either to limited vaccine epitope binding to the DRB1 proteins or to binding primarily by unconserved PPE18 epitopes. Furthermore, we found that these less-protective DRB1 alleles are found at a very high frequency in several populations with a high burden of tuberculosis. Conclusion Although the Mtb72f vaccine candidate has shown promise in animal and clinical trials thus far, it may not be optimally effective in some genotypic backgrounds. Due to variation in both M. tuberculosis protein sequences and epitope-binding capabilities of different HLA alleles, certain human populations with a high burden of tuberculosis may not be optimally protected by the Mtb72f vaccine. The efficacy of the Mtb72f vaccine should be further

  8. Functional coverages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donchyts, G.; Baart, F.; Jagers, H.R.A.; Van Dam, A.

    2011-01-01

    A new Application Programming Interface (API) is presented which simplifies working with geospatial coverages as well as many other data structures of a multi-dimensional nature. The main idea extends the Common Data Model (CDM) developed at the University Corporation for Atmospheric Research (UCAR)

  9. Broad resistance to ACCase inhibiting herbicides in a ryegrass population is due only to a cysteine to arginine mutation in the target enzyme.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiv Shankhar Kaundun

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The design of sustainable weed management strategies requires a good understanding of the mechanisms by which weeds evolve resistance to herbicides. Here we have conducted a study on the mechanism of resistance to ACCase inhibiting herbicides in a Lolium multiflorum population (RG3 from the UK. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Analysis of plant phenotypes and genotypes showed that all the RG3 plants (72% that contained the cysteine to arginine mutation at ACCase codon position 2088 were resistant to ACCase inhibiting herbicides. Whole plant dose response tests on predetermined wild and mutant 2088 genotypes from RG3 and a standard sensitive population indicated that the C2088R mutation is the only factor conferring resistance to all ten ACCase herbicides tested. The associated resistance indices ranged from 13 for clethodim to over 358 for diclofop-methyl. Clethodim, the most potent herbicide was significantly affected even when applied on small mutant plants at the peri-emergence and one leaf stages. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: This study establishes the clear and unambiguous importance of the C2088R target site mutation in conferring broad resistance to ten commonly used ACCase inhibiting herbicides. It also demonstrates that low levels "creeping", multigenic, non target site resistance, is not always selected before single gene target site resistance appears in grass weed populations subjected to herbicide selection pressure.

  10. Improving the Estimation of Star-formation Rates and Stellar Population Ages of High-redshift Galaxies from Broad-band Photometry

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Seong-Kook; Somerville, Rachel S; Wiklind, Tommy; Giavalisco, Mauro

    2010-01-01

    We explore methods to improve the estimates of star-formation rates and mean stellar population ages from broad-band photometry of high redshift star-forming galaxies. We use synthetic spectral templates with a variety of simple parametric star-formation histories to fit broad-band spectral-energy distributions. These parametric models are used to infer ages, star-formation rates and stellar masses for a mock data set drawn from a hierarchical semi-analytic model of galaxy evolution. Traditional parametric models generally assume an exponentially declining rate of star-formation after an initial instantaneous rise. Our results show that star-formation histories with a much more gradual rise in the star-formation rate are likely to be better templates, and are likely to give better overall estimates of the age distribution and star-formation rate distribution of Lyman-break galaxies. For B- and V-dropouts, we find the best simple parametric model to be one where the star-formation rate increases linearly with ...

  11. DNA sequence variants in the LOXL1 gene are associated with pseudoexfoliation glaucoma in a U.S. clinic-based population with broad ethnic diversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miller Joan W

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pseudoexfoliation syndrome is a major risk factor for glaucoma in many populations throughout the world. Using a U.S. clinic-based case control sample with broad ethnic diversity, we show that three common SNPs in LOXL1 previously associated with pseudoexfoliation in Nordic populations are significantly associated with pseudoexfoliation syndrome and pseudoexfoliation glaucoma. Methods Three LOXL1 SNPs were genotyped in a patient sample (206 pseudoexfoliation, 331 primary open angle glaucoma, and 88 controls from the Glaucoma Consultation Service at the Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary. The SNPs were evaluation for association with pseudeoexfoliation syndrome, pseudoexfoliation glaucoma, and primary open angle glaucoma. Results The strongest association was found for the G allele of marker rs3825942 (G153D with a frequency of 99% in pseudoexfoliation patients (with and without glaucoma compared with 79% in controls (p = 1.6 × 10-15; OR = 20.93, 95%CI: 8.06, 54.39. The homozygous GG genotype is also associated with pseudoexfoliation when compared to controls (p = 1.2 × 10-12; OR = 23.57, 95%CI: 7.95, 69.85. None of the SNPs were significantly associated with primary open angle glaucoma. Conclusion The pseudoexfoliation syndrome is a common cause of glaucoma. These results indicate that the G153D LOXL1 variant is significantly associated with an increased risk of pseudoexfoliation and pseudoexfoliation glaucoma in an ethnically diverse patient population from the Northeastern United States. Given the high prevalence of pseudooexfoliation in this geographic region, these results also indicate that the G153D LOXL1 variant is a significant risk factor for adult-onset glaucoma in this clinic based population.

  12. Effective coverage: a metric for monitoring Universal Health Coverage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Ng

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available A major challenge in monitoring universal health coverage (UHC is identifying an indicator that can adequately capture the multiple components underlying the UHC initiative. Effective coverage, which unites individual and intervention characteristics into a single metric, offers a direct and flexible means to measure health system performance at different levels. We view effective coverage as a relevant and actionable metric for tracking progress towards achieving UHC. In this paper, we review the concept of effective coverage and delineate the three components of the metric - need, use, and quality - using several examples. Further, we explain how the metric can be used for monitoring interventions at both local and global levels. We also discuss the ways that current health information systems can support generating estimates of effective coverage. We conclude by recognizing some of the challenges associated with producing estimates of effective coverage. Despite these challenges, effective coverage is a powerful metric that can provide a more nuanced understanding of whether, and how well, a health system is delivering services to its populations.

  13. Medicare Coverage Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Medicare Coverage Database (MCD) contains all National Coverage Determinations (NCDs) and Local Coverage Determinations (LCDs), local articles, and proposed NCD...

  14. Medical coverage of gymnastics competitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hecht, Suzanne S; Burton, Monique S

    2009-01-01

    Medical coverage of gymnastics competitions can be a challenging task for the sports medicine physician and other medical personnel because of the complexity and aerial nature of the sport. A broad understanding of the six gymnastics disciplines, along with the type of competitions, injury epidemiology, and the common acute gymnastics injuries will help sports medicine professionals in planning and delivering optimal care to the injured or ill gymnast.

  15. Health financing for universal coverage and health system performance: concepts and implications for policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutzin, Joseph

    2013-08-01

    Unless the concept is clearly understood, "universal coverage" (or universal health coverage, UHC) can be used to justify practically any health financing reform or scheme. This paper unpacks the definition of health financing for universal coverage as used in the World Health Organization's World health report 2010 to show how UHC embodies specific health system goals and intermediate objectives and, broadly, how health financing reforms can influence these. All countries seek to improve equity in the use of health services, service quality and financial protection for their populations. Hence, the pursuit of UHC is relevant to every country. Health financing policy is an integral part of efforts to move towards UHC, but for health financing policy to be aligned with the pursuit of UHC, health system reforms need to be aimed explicitly at improving coverage and the intermediate objectives linked to it, namely, efficiency, equity in health resource distribution and transparency and accountability. The unit of analysis for goals and objectives must be the population and health system as a whole. What matters is not how a particular financing scheme affects its individual members, but rather, how it influences progress towards UHC at the population level. Concern only with specific schemes is incompatible with a universal coverage approach and may even undermine UHC, particularly in terms of equity. Conversely, if a scheme is fully oriented towards system-level goals and objectives, it can further progress towards UHC. Policy and policy analysis need to shift from the scheme to the system level.

  16. Prevalence of Frailty Indicators and Association with Socioeconomic Status in Middle-Aged and Older Adults in a Swiss Region with Universal Health Insurance Coverage: A Population-Based Cross-Sectional Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Idris Guessous

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Frailty prevalence in older adults has been reported but is largely unknown in middle-aged adults. We determined the prevalence of frailty indicators among middle-aged and older adults from a general Swiss population characterized by universal health insurance coverage and assessed the determinants of frailty with a special focus on socioeconomic status. Participants aged 50 and more from the population-based 2006–2010 Bus Santé study were included (N = 2,930. Four frailty indicators (weakness, shrinking, exhaustion, and low activity were measured according to standard definitions. Multivariate logistic regressions were used to determine associations. Overall, 63.5%, 28.7%, and 7.8% participants presented no frailty indicators, one frailty indicator, and two or more frailty indicators, respectively. Among middle-aged participants (50–65 years, 75.1%, 22.2%, and 2.7% presented 0, 1, and 2 or more frailty indicators. The number of frailty indicators was positively associated with age, hypertension, and current smoking and negatively associated with male gender, body mass index, waist-to-hip ratio, and serum total cholesterol level. Lower income level but not education was associated with higher number of frailty indicators. Frailty indicators are frequently encountered in both older and middle-aged adults from the Swiss general population. Despite universal health insurance coverage, household income is independently associated with frailty.

  17. Immunization Coverage Among Juvenile Justice Detainees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaskin, Gregory L; Glanz, Jason M; Binswanger, Ingrid A; Anoshiravani, Arash

    2015-07-01

    This study sought to (1) quantify the baseline immunization coverage of adolescents entering the juvenile justice system and (2) assess the effect of detention-based care on immunization coverage in youth. A cross-sectional retrospective chart review was performed of 279 adolescents detained at a large juvenile detention facility. Only 3% of adolescents had received all study immunizations prior to detention. Before detention, immunization coverage was significantly lower than that for the general adolescent population for all vaccines except the first doses of hepatitis A and varicella-zoster virus vaccines. Subsequent to detention, most individual immunization coverage levels increased and were significantly higher than in the general adolescent population. The routine administration of immunizations in the juvenile justice setting can help detained youth achieve levels of immunization coverage similar to their nondetained peers.

  18. Population genomic analyses from low-coverage RAD-Seq data: a case study on the non-model cucurbit bottle gourd.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Pei; Xu, Shizhong; Wu, Xiaohua; Tao, Ye; Wang, Baogen; Wang, Sha; Qin, Dehui; Lu, Zhongfu; Li, Guojing

    2014-02-01

    Restriction site-associated DNA sequencing (RAD-Seq), a next-generation sequencing-based genome 'complexity reduction' protocol, has been useful in population genomics in species with a reference genome. However, the application of this protocol to natural populations of genomically underinvestigated species, particularly under low-to-medium sequencing depth, has not been well justified. In this study, a Bayesian method was developed for calling genotypes from an F₂ population of bottle gourd [Lagenaria siceraria (Mol.) Standl.] to construct a high-density genetic map. Low-depth genome shotgun sequencing allowed the assembly of scaffolds/contigs comprising approximately 50% of the estimated genome, of which 922 were anchored for identifying syntenic regions between species. RAD-Seq genotyping of a natural population comprising 80 accessions identified 3226 single nuclear polymorphisms (SNPs), based on which two sub-gene pools were suggested for association with fruit shape. The two sub-gene pools were moderately differentiated, as reflected by the Hudson's F(ST) value of 0.14, and they represent regions on LG7 with strikingly elevated F(ST) values. Seven-fold reduction in heterozygosity and two times increase in LD (r²) were observed in the same region for the round-fruited sub-gene pool. Outlier test suggested the locus LX3405 on LG7 to be a candidate site under selection. Comparative genomic analysis revealed that the cucumber genome region syntenic to the high FST island on LG7 harbors an ortholog of the tomato fruit shape gene OVATE. Our results point to a bright future of applying RAD-Seq to population genomic studies for non-model species even under low-to-medium sequencing efforts. The genomic resources provide valuable information for cucurbit genome research.

  19. Broadly protective influenza vaccines: Redirecting the antibody response through adjuvation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cox, F.

    2016-01-01

    Influenza virus infections are responsible for significant morbidity worldwide and current vaccines have limited coverage, therefore it remains a high priority to develop broadly protective vaccines. With the discovery of broadly neutralizing antibodies (bnAbs) against influenza these vaccines becam

  20. The 2010 Broad Prize

    Science.gov (United States)

    Education Digest: Essential Readings Condensed for Quick Review, 2011

    2011-01-01

    A new data analysis, based on data collected as part of The Broad Prize process, provides insights into which large urban school districts in the United States are doing the best job of educating traditionally disadvantaged groups: African-American, Hispanics, and low-income students. Since 2002, The Eli and Edythe Broad Foundation has awarded The…

  1. Drug Plan Coverage Rules

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... works with other insurance Find health & drug plans Drug plan coverage rules Note Call your Medicare drug ... shingles vaccine) when medically necessary to prevent illness. Drugs you get in hospital outpatient settings In most ...

  2. Immunisation coverage, 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hull, Brynley P; Dey, Aditi; Menzies, Rob I; Brotherton, Julia M; McIntyre, Peter B

    2014-09-30

    This, the 6th annual immunisation coverage report, documents trends during 2012 for a range of standard measures derived from Australian Childhood Immunisation Register (ACIR) data, and National Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Vaccination Program Register data. These include coverage at standard age milestones and for individual vaccines included on the National Immunisation Program (NIP) and coverage in adolescents and adults. The proportion of Australian children 'fully vaccinated' at 12, 24 and 60 months of age was 91.7%, 92.5% and 91.2%, respectively. For vaccines available on the NIP but not assessed during 2012 for 'fully vaccinated' status or for eligibility for incentive payments (rotavirus and pneumococcal at 12 months and meningococcal C and varicella at 24 months) coverage varied. Although pneumococcal vaccine had similar coverage at 12 months to other vaccines, coverage was lower for rotavirus at 12 months (83.6%) and varicella at 24 months (84.4%). Although 'fully vaccinated' coverage at 12 months of age was lower among Indigenous children than non-Indigenous children in all jurisdictions, the extent of the difference varied, reaching a 15 percentage point differential in South Australia but only a 0.4 percentage point differential in the Northern Territory. Overall, Indigenous coverage at 24 months of age exceeded that at 12 months of age nationally and for all jurisdictions, but as receipt of varicella vaccine at 18 months is excluded from calculations, this represents delayed immunisation, with some contribution from immunisation incentives. The 'fully vaccinated' coverage estimates for vaccinations due by 60 months of age for Indigenous children exceeded 90% at 91% in 2012. Unlike in 2011, at 60 months of age, there was no dramatic variation in coverage between Indigenous and non-Indigenous children for individual jurisdictions. As previously documented, vaccines recommended for Indigenous children only, hepatitis A and pneumococcal vaccine, had

  3. The Broad Foundations, 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broad Foundation, 2006

    2006-01-01

    The mission of the Broad Foundations is to transform K-12 urban public education through better governance, management, labor relations and competition; make significant contributions to advance major scientific and medical research; foster public appreciation of contemporary art by increasing access for audiences worldwide; and lead and…

  4. Populated Places of Iowa

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — This coverage contains points that represent populated places, ie. cities, towns, villages or any other named place where people live. The coverage was developed...

  5. DECISION ANALYSIS IN HEALTH COVERAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gloria Beatriz, Orzuza

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In 2000 the Organization of the United Nations established eight Millennium Development Goals (MDGs. The fourth objective, reducing child mortality, looks specifically for reducing two thirds of the mortality of children under five years old between 1990 and 2015. One of the specific indicators to measure progress towards this goal is the proportion of children under one year old immunized against measles.In 2001, the United Nations Development Program (UNDP estimated that over 60% of the population who lived in developing nations is far away or losing ground on achievement of the MDGs in reducing rates of infant mortality. This situation is compounded by the lack of progress in deepening the analysis of the issue, the lack of research and indicators to assess features timely coverage of care and health services.This article aims to contribute to the selection of the strategy which would improve health coverage in Misiones, using one of the tools of decision theory, the decision matrix.

  6. Controlling coverage of solution cast materials with unfavourable surface interactions

    KAUST Repository

    Burlakov, V. M.

    2014-03-03

    Creating uniform coatings of a solution-cast material is of central importance to a broad range of applications. Here, a robust and generic theoretical framework for calculating surface coverage by a solid film of material de-wetting a substrate is presented. Using experimental data from semiconductor thin films as an example, we calculate surface coverage for a wide range of annealing temperatures and film thicknesses. The model generally predicts that for each value of the annealing temperature there is a range of film thicknesses leading to poor surface coverage. The model accurately reproduces solution-cast thin film coverage for organometal halide perovskites, key modern photovoltaic materials, and identifies processing windows for both high and low levels of surface coverage. © 2014 AIP Publishing LLC.

  7. Coverage Metrics for Model Checking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penix, John; Visser, Willem; Norvig, Peter (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    When using model checking to verify programs in practice, it is not usually possible to achieve complete coverage of the system. In this position paper we describe ongoing research within the Automated Software Engineering group at NASA Ames on the use of test coverage metrics to measure partial coverage and provide heuristic guidance for program model checking. We are specifically interested in applying and developing coverage metrics for concurrent programs that might be used to support certification of next generation avionics software.

  8. Pertussis: herd immunity and vaccination coverage in St Lucia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, E; Fitch, L

    1983-11-12

    In a single complete epidemic in St Lucia, an island too small to support constant clinical pertussis, the pertussis case rates in small communities (villages and small towns) with differing levels of vaccination coverage of young children were compared. The association between greater vaccination coverage and greater herd immunity was clear, despite the imperfect protection given to individuals. An analysis in terms of population dynamics is evidence against the theory that endemic subclinical pertussis maintains transmission in a highly vaccinated population. We suggest that with a homogeneous vaccination coverage of 80% of 2-year-old children pertussis might be eradicated from the island, and that this is a practicable experiment.

  9. Human resources for health and universal health coverage: fostering equity and effective coverage

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Achieving universal health coverage (UHC) involves distributing resources, especially human resources for health (HRH), to match population needs. This paper explores the policy lessons on HRH from four countries that have achieved sustained improvements in UHC: Brazil, Ghana, Mexico and Thailand. Its purpose is to inform global policy and financial commitments on HRH in support of UHC.

  10. Women's Health Insurance Coverage

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... adopted policies that specifically placed women at a disadvantage, either by charging them higher premiums than men ... SOURCE: Kaiser Family Foundation analysis of 2016 ASEC Supplement to the Current Population Survey, U.S. Census Bureau. ...

  11. Immunization coverage: role of sociodemographic variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Bhuwan; Mahajan, Hemant; Velhal, G D

    2013-01-01

    Children are considered fully immunized if they receive one dose of BCG, three doses of DPT and polio vaccine each, and one measles vaccine. In India, only 44% of children aged 12-23 months are fully vaccinated and about 5% have not received any vaccination at all. Even if national immunization coverage levels are sufficiently high to block disease transmission, pockets of susceptibility may act as potential reservoirs of infection. This study was done to assess the immunization coverage in an urban slum area and determine various sociodemographic variables affecting the same. A total of 210 children were selected from study population using WHO's 30 cluster sampling method. Coverage of BCG was found to be the highest (97.1%) while that of measles was the lowest. The main reason for noncompliance was given as child's illness at the time of scheduled vaccination followed by lack of knowledge regarding importance of immunization. Low education status of mother, high birth order, and place of delivery were found to be positively associated with low vaccination coverage. Regular IEC activities (group talks, role plays, posters, pamphlets, and competitions) should be conducted in the community to ensure that immunization will become a "felt need" of the mothers in the community.

  12. Giant Broad Line Regions in Dwarf Seyferts

    CERN Document Server

    Devereux, Nick

    2015-01-01

    High angular resolution spectroscopy obtained with the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) has revealed a remarkable population of galaxies hosting dwarf Seyfert nuclei with an unusually large broad-line region (BLR). These objects are remarkable for two reasons. Firstly, the size of the BLR can, in some cases, rival those seen in the most luminous quasars. Secondly, the size of the BLR is not correlated with the central continuum luminosity, an observation that distinguishes them from their reverberating counterparts. Collectively, these early results suggest that non-reverberating dwarf Seyferts are a heterogeneous group and not simply scaled versions of each other. Careful inspection reveals broad H Balmer emission lines with single peaks, double peaks, and a combination of the two, suggesting that the broad emission lines are produced in kinematically distinct regions centered on the black hole (BH). Because the gravitational field strength is already known for these objects, by virtue of knowing their BH mass, ...

  13. The impact of the tax system on health insurance coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruber, J

    2001-01-01

    A central question in health economics is the extent to which this tax subsidization matters for the health insurance coverage of the U.S. population. I assess the impact of taxes on health insurance by using the considerable existing variation in tax subsidies, both at a point in time and across time. I do so by putting together data from more than a decade of Current Population Survey (CPS) data sets, and matching to workers in those data sets their tax subsidies to health insurance coverage. I find that the elasticity of insurance eligibility of workers is at least -0.6, and that the elasticity of own insurance coverage is roughly similar; the results imply that most of the impact of taxes on insurance coverage arise through firm offering and eligibility decisions. I also find that higher tax rates induce more private coverage through other sources, but less public coverage, so that overall there is a reduction in the rate of uninsurance that is comparable to the change in own employer-provided insurance coverage.

  14. Medicaid expansions and the insurance coverage of poor teenagers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leininger, Lindsey Jeanne

    2010-01-01

    This article employs a comparison group research design to examine the effects of the Medicaid expansions of the late 1990s on the insurance coverage of poor teenagers. Results suggest that the expansions were associated with a decrease in the likelihood of poor teens experiencing uninsured spells over the course of a calendar year, as measured by spending any part of the prior year uninsured and spending over half of the prior year uninsured. While the expansions were successful in increasing coverage among poor adolescents, they fell far short of facilitating near-universal coverage for this population.

  15. Human resources for health and universal health coverage: fostering equity and effective coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, James; Buchan, James; Cometto, Giorgio; David, Benedict; Dussault, Gilles; Fogstad, Helga; Fronteira, Inês; Lozano, Rafael; Nyonator, Frank; Pablos-Méndez, Ariel; Quain, Estelle E; Starrs, Ann; Tangcharoensathien, Viroj

    2013-11-01

    Achieving universal health coverage (UHC) involves distributing resources, especially human resources for health (HRH), to match population needs. This paper explores the policy lessons on HRH from four countries that have achieved sustained improvements in UHC: Brazil, Ghana, Mexico and Thailand. Its purpose is to inform global policy and financial commitments on HRH in support of UHC. The paper reports on country experiences using an analytical framework that examines effective coverage in relation to the availability, accessibility, acceptability and quality (AAAQ) of HRH. The AAAQ dimensions make it possible to perform tracing analysis on HRH policy actions since 1990 in the four countries of interest in relation to national trends in workforce numbers and population mortality rates. The findings inform key principles for evidence-based decision-making on HRH in support of UHC. First, HRH are critical to the expansion of health service coverage and the package of benefits; second, HRH strategies in each of the AAAQ dimensions collectively support achievements in effective coverage; and third, success is achieved through partnerships involving health and non-health actors. Facing the unprecedented health and development challenges that affect all countries and transforming HRH evidence into policy and practice must be at the heart of UHC and the post-2015 development agenda. It is a political imperative requiring national commitment and leadership to maximize the impact of available financial and human resources, and improve healthy life expectancy, with the recognition that improvements in health care are enabled by a health workforce that is fit for purpose.

  16. Annual immunisation coverage report, 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hull, Brynley; Dey, Aditi; Menzies, Rob; McIntyre, Peter

    2013-03-31

    This, the fourth annual immunisation coverage report, documents trends during 2010 for a range of standard measures derived from Australian Childhood Immunisation Register (ACIR) data. These include coverage at standard age milestones and for individual vaccines included on the National Immunisation Program (NIP). For the first time, coverage from other sources for adolescents and the elderly are included. The proportion of children 'fully vaccinated' at 12, 24 and 60 months of age was 91.6%, 92.1% and 89.1% respectively. For vaccines available on the NIP but not currently assessed for 'fully immunised' status or for eligibility for incentive payments (rotavirus and pneumococcal at 12 months and meningococcal C and varicella at 24 months) coverage varied. Although pneumococcal vaccine had similar coverage at 12 months to other vaccines, coverage was lower for rotavirus at 12 months (84.7%) and varicella at 24 months (83.0%). Overall coverage at 24 months of age exceeded that at 12 months of age nationally and for most jurisdictions, but as receipt of varicella vaccine at 18 months is excluded from calculations, this represents delayed immunisation, with some contribution from immunisation incentives. The 'fully immunised' coverage estimates for immunisations due by 60 months increased substantially in 2009, reaching almost 90% in 2010, probably related to completed immunisation by 60 months of age being introduced in 2009 as a requirement for GP incentive payments. As previously documented, vaccines recommended for Indigenous children only (hepatitis A and pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine) had suboptimal coverage at around 57%. Delayed receipt of vaccines by Indigenous children at the 60-month milestone age improved from 56% to 62% but the disparity in on-time vaccination between Indigenous and non-Indigenous children at earlier age milestones did not improve. Coverage data for human papillomavirus (HPV)from the national HPV register are consistent with high

  17. Towards Preserving Model Coverage and Structural Code Coverage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raimund Kirner

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Embedded systems are often used in safety-critical environments. Thus, thorough testing of them is mandatory. To achieve a required structural code-coverage criteria it is beneficial to derive the test data at a higher program-representation level than machine code. Higher program-representation levels include, beside the source-code level, languages of domain-specific modeling environments with automatic code generation. For a testing framework with automatic generation of test data this will enable high retargetability of the framework. In this article we address the challenge of ensuring that the structural code coverage achieved at a higher program representation level is preserved during the code generations and code transformations down to machine code. We define the formal properties that have to be fullfilled by a code transformation to guarantee preservation of structural code coverage. Based on these properties we discuss how to preserve code coverage achieved at source-code level. Additionally, we discuss how structural code coverage at model level could be preserved. The results presented in this article are aimed toward the integration of support for preserving structural code coverage into compilers and code generators.

  18. Broad-spectrum antiviral agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun-Da eZhu

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Development of highly effective, broad-spectrum antiviral agents is the major objective shared by the fields of virology and pharmaceutics. Antiviral drug development has focused on targeting viral entry and replication, as well as modulating cellular defense system. High throughput screening of molecules, genetic engineering of peptides, and functional screening of agents have identified promising candidates for development of optimal broad-spectrum antiviral agents to intervene in viral infection and control viral epidemics. This review discusses current knowledge, prospective applications, opportunities, and challenges in the development of broad-spectrum antiviral agents.

  19. Assuring Access to Affordable Coverage

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Under the Affordable Care Act, millions of uninsured Americans will gain access to affordable coverage through Affordable Insurance Exchanges and improvements in...

  20. Broad resonances in transport theory

    CERN Document Server

    Leupold, S

    2003-01-01

    The extension of the transport theoretical framework to include states with a broad mass distribution is discussed. The proper life-time and cross sections for a state with an arbitrarily given invariant mass is discussed in detail. (author)

  1. Broad-scale sampling of primary freshwater fish populations reveals the role of intrinsic traits, inter-basin connectivity, drainage area and latitude on shaping contemporary patterns of genetic diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa-Santos, Carla; Robalo, Joana I; Pereira, Ana M; Branco, Paulo; Santos, José Maria; Ferreira, Maria Teresa; Sousa, Mónica; Doadrio, Ignacio

    2016-01-01

    Background. Worldwide predictions suggest that up to 75% of the freshwater fish species occurring in rivers with reduced discharge could be extinct by 2070 due to the combined effect of climate change and water abstraction. The Mediterranean region is considered to be a hotspot of freshwater fish diversity but also one of the regions where the effects of climate change will be more severe. Iberian cyprinids are currently highly endangered, with over 68% of the species raising some level of conservation concern. Methods. During the FISHATLAS project, the Portuguese hydrographical network was extensively covered (all the 34 river basins and 47 sub-basins) in order to contribute with valuable data on the genetic diversity distribution patterns of native cyprinid species. A total of 188 populations belonging to 16 cyprinid species of Squalius, Luciobarbus, Achondrostoma, Iberochondrostoma, Anaecypris and Pseudochondrostoma were characterized, for a total of 3,678 cytochrome b gene sequences. Results. When the genetic diversity of these populations was mapped, it highlighted differences among populations from the same species and between species with identical distribution areas. Factors shaping the contemporary patterns of genetic diversity were explored and the results revealed the role of latitude, inter-basin connectivity, migratory behaviour, species maximum size, species range and other species intrinsic traits in determining the genetic diversity of sampled populations. Contrastingly, drainage area and hydrological regime (permanent vs. temporary) seem to have no significant effect on genetic diversity. Species intrinsic traits, maximum size attained, inter-basin connectivity and latitude explained over 30% of the haplotype diversity variance and, generally, the levels of diversity were significantly higher for smaller sized species, from connected and southerly river basins. Discussion. Targeting multiple co-distributed species of primary freshwater fish allowed

  2. OPLS3: A Force Field Providing Broad Coverage of Drug-like Small Molecules and Proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harder, Edward; Damm, Wolfgang; Maple, Jon; Wu, Chuanjie; Reboul, Mark; Xiang, Jin Yu; Wang, Lingle; Lupyan, Dmitry; Dahlgren, Markus K; Knight, Jennifer L; Kaus, Joseph W; Cerutti, David S; Krilov, Goran; Jorgensen, William L; Abel, Robert; Friesner, Richard A

    2016-01-12

    The parametrization and validation of the OPLS3 force field for small molecules and proteins are reported. Enhancements with respect to the previous version (OPLS2.1) include the addition of off-atom charge sites to represent halogen bonding and aryl nitrogen lone pairs as well as a complete refit of peptide dihedral parameters to better model the native structure of proteins. To adequately cover medicinal chemical space, OPLS3 employs over an order of magnitude more reference data and associated parameter types relative to other commonly used small molecule force fields (e.g., MMFF and OPLS_2005). As a consequence, OPLS3 achieves a high level of accuracy across performance benchmarks that assess small molecule conformational propensities and solvation. The newly fitted peptide dihedrals lead to significant improvements in the representation of secondary structure elements in simulated peptides and native structure stability over a number of proteins. Together, the improvements made to both the small molecule and protein force field lead to a high level of accuracy in predicting protein-ligand binding measured over a wide range of targets and ligands (less than 1 kcal/mol RMS error) representing a 30% improvement over earlier variants of the OPLS force field.

  3. Are doctors and nurses associated with coverage of essential health services in developing countries? A cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Pinho Helen

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is broad policy consensus that a shortage of doctors and nurses is a key constraint to increasing utilization of essential health services important for achieving the health Millennium Development Goals. However there is limited research on the quantitative links between health workers and service coverage rates. We examined the relationship between doctor and nurse concentrations and utilization rates of five essential health services in developing countries. Methods We performed cross-national analyses of low- and middle-income countries by means of ordinary least squares regression with coverage rates of antenatal care, attended delivery, caesarean section, measles immunization, tuberculosis case diagnosis and care for acute respiratory infection as outcomes. Doctor, nurse and aggregate health worker (sum of doctors and nurses concentrations were the main explanatory variables. Results Nurses were associated with utilization of skilled birth attendants (P = 0.02 and doctors were associated with measles immunization rates (P = 0.01 in separate adjusted analyses. Aggregate health workers were associated with the utilization of skilled birth attendants (P Conclusion A range of health system and population-level factors aside from health workers influences coverage of health services in developing countries. However, it is also plausible that health workers who are neither doctors nor nurses, such as clinical officers and community health workers, may be providing a substantial proportion of health services. The human resources for health research agenda should be expanded beyond doctors and nurses.

  4. Efficient Genome-Wide Sequencing and Low-Coverage Pedigree Analysis from Noninvasively Collected Samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder-Mackler, Noah; Majoros, William H; Yuan, Michael L; Shaver, Amanda O; Gordon, Jacob B; Kopp, Gisela H; Schlebusch, Stephen A; Wall, Jeffrey D; Alberts, Susan C; Mukherjee, Sayan; Zhou, Xiang; Tung, Jenny

    2016-06-01

    Research on the genetics of natural populations was revolutionized in the 1990s by methods for genotyping noninvasively collected samples. However, these methods have remained largely unchanged for the past 20 years and lag far behind the genomics era. To close this gap, here we report an optimized laboratory protocol for genome-wide capture of endogenous DNA from noninvasively collected samples, coupled with a novel computational approach to reconstruct pedigree links from the resulting low-coverage data. We validated both methods using fecal samples from 62 wild baboons, including 48 from an independently constructed extended pedigree. We enriched fecal-derived DNA samples up to 40-fold for endogenous baboon DNA and reconstructed near-perfect pedigree relationships even with extremely low-coverage sequencing. We anticipate that these methods will be broadly applicable to the many research systems for which only noninvasive samples are available. The lab protocol and software ("WHODAD") are freely available at www.tung-lab.org/protocols-and-software.html and www.xzlab.org/software.html, respectively.

  5. Coverage Related Issues in Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Dossena, Marida

    2011-01-01

    Wireless sensor networks consisting of great number of cheap and tiny sensor nodes which are used for military environment controlling, natural events recording, traffic monitoring, robot navigation, and etc. Such a networks encounter with various types of challenges like energy consumption, routing, coverage, reliability. The most significant types of these problems are coverage that originated from the nodes energy consumption constrained. In order to dominate this problem different kinds of methods has been presented where the majority of them based on theoretical methods and used unbalanced and calculated distributions. In all of the proposed methods a large numbers of nodes are used. In this paper our attempt is based on using a few numbers of sensors in order to cover the vast area of environment. We proposed an algorithm that divides the desired environment to several areas and in each of these areas by using the genetic algorithm improve the coverage. The proposed method is simulated in MATLAB softwar...

  6. Mediating Trust in Terrorism Coverage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Kirsten

    crisis. While the framework is presented in the context of television coverage of a terror-related crisis situation, it can equally be used in connection with all other forms of mediated trust. Key words: National crisis, risk communication, crisis management, television coverage, mediated trust.......Mass mediated risk communication can contribute to perceptions of threats and fear of “others” and/or to perceptions of trust in fellow citizens and society to overcome problems. This paper outlines a cross-disciplinary holistic framework for research in mediated trust building during an acute...

  7. Immunisation coverage annual report, 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hull, Brynley P; Dey, Aditi; Menzies, Rob I; Brotherton, Julia M; McIntyre, Peter B

    2013-12-31

    This, the 5th annual immunisation coverage report, documents trends during 2011 for a range of standard measures derived from Australian Childhood Immunisation Register data, and National Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Vaccination Program Register data. The proportion of children 'fully vaccinated' at 12, 24 and 60 months of age was 91.4%, 92.2% and 89.5% respectively. Although pneumococcal vaccine had similar coverage at 12 months to other vaccines, coverage was lower for rotavirus at 12 months (83.8%) and varicella at 24 months (83.9%). By late 2011, the percentage of children who received the 1st dose of DTPa vaccine dose at less than 8 weeks of age was greater than 50% in 3 jurisdictions, the Australian Capital Territory, Victoria, and Queensland and at 70% for New South Wales and Tasmania. Although coverage at 12 months of age was lower among Indigenous children than non-Indigenous children in all jurisdictions, the extent of the difference varied. Overall, coverage at 24 months of age exceeded that at 12 months of age nationally. At 60 months of age, there was dramatic variation between individual jurisdictions, ranging from coverage 8% lower in Indigenous children in South Australia to 6% higher in the Northern Territory. As previously documented, vaccines recommended for Indigenous children only (hepatitis A and pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine) had suboptimal coverage at 60% and 68%, respectively. On-time receipt (before 49 months of age) of vaccines by Indigenous children at the 60-month milestone age improved between 2010 (18%) and 2011 (19%) but the disparity in on-time vaccination between Indigenous and non-Indigenous children increased at all 3 age milestones. The percentage of vaccine objectors in 2011 (1.7%) has increased from 2007 when it was 1.1%. Coverage data for the 3rd dose of HPV from the national HPV register in the school catch up program was 71% but was substantially lower for the catch-up program for women outside school (39

  8. TEST COVERAGE ANALYSIS BASED ON PROGRAM SLICING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Zhenqiang; Xu Baowen; Guanjie

    2003-01-01

    Coverage analysis is a structural testing technique that helps to eliminate gaps in atest suite and determines when to stop testing. To compute test coverage, this letter proposes anew concept coverage about variables, based on program slicing. By adding powers accordingto their importance, the users can focus on the important variables to obtain higher test coverage.The letter presents methods to compute basic coverage based on program structure graphs. Inmost cases, the coverage obtained in the letter is bigger than that obtained by a traditionalmeasure, because the coverage about a variable takes only the related codes into account.

  9. The Broad Autism Phenotype Questionnaire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurley, Robert S. E.; Losh, Molly; Parlier, Morgan; Reznick, J. Steven; Piven, Joseph

    2007-01-01

    The broad autism phenotype (BAP) is a set of personality and language characteristics that reflect the phenotypic expression of the genetic liability to autism, in non-autistic relatives of autistic individuals. These characteristics are milder but qualitatively similar to the defining features of autism. A new instrument designed to measure the…

  10. Is Crime News Coverage Excessive?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graber, Doris A.

    1979-01-01

    Reports on the frequency and manner in which various crime and noncrime news topics were presented in selected newspapers and television newscasts in 1976. Examines news flow data to determine whether news output was inflexible, and whether crime news coverage distorted the amount of real-life crime. (PD)

  11. Free Influenza Vaccination Coverage and Its Influencing Factors about Cognition among Elderly Population in Beijing%北京市老年人免费流感疫苗接种率及认知影响因素调查分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方任飞; 马彦; 吴疆; 吕敏; 田丽娟; 谢铮

    2014-01-01

    得分较高,流感疫苗知识得分偏低。政策知晓率和流感疫苗认知情况影响疫苗接种率。%Objective To investigate the free influenza vaccination coverage and its influencing factors about cognition among elderly population in Beijing after the free influenza vaccination policy among elderly population was implemented in 2007, Methods In July 2011,by multi - stage cluster sampling method,20 communities(12 from urban area,8 from sub-urbs)were selected from 6 urban areas and 7 suburbs in Beijing city,then 50 elderly people aged 60 and above were selected from each of the 20 communities,924 elderly people had registered permanent residence of Beijing, A self - designed question-naire was used to survey these elderly people, Descriptive analysis was used for demographic characteristics, Chi - square test was used for the difference between the vaccination coverage,awareness rate of policy,scores of influenza knowledge and influenza vaccine knowledge before and after 2007, Multivariate nonconditional Logistic regression model was used to analyze the influencing factors for free influenza vaccine coverage, Results Before 2007,among 914 subjects,291 received vaccine,vaccination cov-erage was 31, 84% ;After 2007,among 903 subjects,578 received vaccine,vaccination coverage was 64, 01% ,there was sig-nificant difference between vaccination coverage before 2007 and vaccination coverage after 2007(χ2 = 188, 40,P < 0, 01), A total of 869(94, 05% )subjects knew the policy " Elderly people aged 60 and above in Beijing can get free influenza vaccine", Among 578 elderly people who had received free influenza vaccination,559(96, 71% )had the idea " The government is ser-ving peopleˊs health" , There was significant difference in awareness rate of policy among elderly people with different age(P <0, 01), The average score for influenza knowledge among elderly people was(9, 8 ± 2, 0),there was significant difference in score for influenza knowledge among

  12. Analysis of Phased-Mission System Reliability and Importance with Imperfect Coverage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Guang-yu; HUANG Xi-zi; TANG Xiao-wo

    2005-01-01

    Accounting for static phased-mission systems (PMS) and imperfect coverage (IPC), generalized and integrated algorithm (GPMS-CPR) implemented a synthesis of several approaches into a single methodology whose advantages were in the low computational complexity, broad applicability, and easy implementation. The approach is extended into analysis of each phase in the whole mission. Based on Fussell-Vesely importance measure, a simple and efficient importance measure is presented to analyze component's importance of phased-mission systems considering imperfect coverage.

  13. 29 CFR 1620.2 - General coverage of employees “engaged in commerce.”

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false General coverage of employees âengaged in commerce.â 1620.2... EQUAL PAY ACT § 1620.2 General coverage of employees “engaged in commerce.” (a) Like the FLSA, the EPA applies to employees “engaged in commerce.” “Commerce” is broadly defined in section 3(b) of the FLSA....

  14. Broad Diphotons from Narrow States

    CERN Document Server

    An, Haipeng; Zhang, Yue

    2015-01-01

    ATLAS and CMS have each reported a modest diphoton excess consistent with the decay of a broad resonance at ~ 750 GeV. We show how this signal can arise in a weakly coupled theory comprised solely of narrow width particles. In particular, if the decaying particle is produced off-shell, then the associated diphoton resonance will have a broad, adjustable width. We present simplified models which explain the diphoton excess through the three-body decay of a scalar or fermion. Our minimal ultraviolet completion is a weakly coupled and renormalizable theory of a singlet scalar plus a heavy vector-like quark and lepton. The smoking gun of this mechanism is an asymmetric diphoton peak recoiling against missing transverse energy, jets, or leptons.

  15. Monitoring vaccination coverage: Defining the role of surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutts, Felicity T; Claquin, Pierre; Danovaro-Holliday, M Carolina; Rhoda, Dale A

    2016-07-29

    Vaccination coverage is a widely used indicator of programme performance, measured by registries, routine administrative reports or household surveys. Because the population denominator and the reported number of vaccinations used in administrative estimates are often inaccurate, survey data are often considered to be more reliable. Many countries obtain survey data on vaccination coverage every 3-5years from large-scale multi-purpose survey programs. Additional surveys may be needed to evaluate coverage in Supplemental Immunization Activities such as measles or polio campaigns, or after major changes have occurred in the vaccination programme or its context. When a coverage survey is undertaken, rigorous statistical principles and field protocols should be followed to avoid selection bias and information bias. This requires substantial time, expertise and resources hence the role of vaccination coverage surveys in programme monitoring needs to be carefully defined. At times, programmatic monitoring may be more appropriate and provides data to guide program improvement. Practical field methods such as health facility-based assessments can evaluate multiple aspects of service provision, costs, coverage (among clinic attendees) and data quality. Similarly, purposeful sampling or censuses of specific populations can help local health workers evaluate their own performance and understand community attitudes, without trying to claim that the results are representative of the entire population. Administrative reports enable programme managers to do real-time monitoring, investigate potential problems and take timely remedial action, thus improvement of administrative estimates is of high priority. Most importantly, investment in collecting data needs to be complemented by investment in acting on results to improve performance.

  16. Finding the right coverage: the impact of coverage and sequence quality on single nucleotide polymorphism genotyping error rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fountain, Emily D; Pauli, Jonathan N; Reid, Brendan N; Palsbøll, Per J; Peery, M Zachariah

    2016-07-01

    Restriction-enzyme-based sequencing methods enable the genotyping of thousands of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) loci in nonmodel organisms. However, in contrast to traditional genetic markers, genotyping error rates in SNPs derived from restriction-enzyme-based methods remain largely unknown. Here, we estimated genotyping error rates in SNPs genotyped with double digest RAD sequencing from Mendelian incompatibilities in known mother-offspring dyads of Hoffman's two-toed sloth (Choloepus hoffmanni) across a range of coverage and sequence quality criteria, for both reference-aligned and de novo-assembled data sets. Genotyping error rates were more sensitive to coverage than sequence quality and low coverage yielded high error rates, particularly in de novo-assembled data sets. For example, coverage ≥5 yielded median genotyping error rates of ≥0.03 and ≥0.11 in reference-aligned and de novo-assembled data sets, respectively. Genotyping error rates declined to ≤0.01 in reference-aligned data sets with a coverage ≥30, but remained ≥0.04 in the de novo-assembled data sets. We observed approximately 10- and 13-fold declines in the number of loci sampled in the reference-aligned and de novo-assembled data sets when coverage was increased from ≥5 to ≥30 at quality score ≥30, respectively. Finally, we assessed the effects of genotyping coverage on a common population genetic application, parentage assignments, and showed that the proportion of incorrectly assigned maternities was relatively high at low coverage. Overall, our results suggest that the trade-off between sample size and genotyping error rates be considered prior to building sequencing libraries, reporting genotyping error rates become standard practice, and that effects of genotyping errors on inference be evaluated in restriction-enzyme-based SNP studies.

  17. Influenza vaccination coverage and reasons to refrain among high-risk persons in four European countries.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kroneman, M.; Essen, G.A. van; Paget, J.

    2006-01-01

    This paper examines influenza vaccine coverage using a population base of an average of 2300 persons in each of four European countries (Germany, Spain, Poland and Sweden). The reasons for non-vaccination of those in the high-risk groups were explored by questionnaire. The vaccine coverage rate (VCR

  18. -Net Approach to Sensor -Coverage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fusco Giordano

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Wireless sensors rely on battery power, and in many applications it is difficult or prohibitive to replace them. Hence, in order to prolongate the system's lifetime, some sensors can be kept inactive while others perform all the tasks. In this paper, we study the -coverage problem of activating the minimum number of sensors to ensure that every point in the area is covered by at least sensors. This ensures higher fault tolerance, robustness, and improves many operations, among which position detection and intrusion detection. The -coverage problem is trivially NP-complete, and hence we can only provide approximation algorithms. In this paper, we present an algorithm based on an extension of the classical -net technique. This method gives an -approximation, where is the number of sensors in an optimal solution. We do not make any particular assumption on the shape of the areas covered by each sensor, besides that they must be closed, connected, and without holes.

  19. Socio-economic inequality in oral healthcare coverage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hosseinpoor, A R; Itani, L; Petersen, P E

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess socio-economic inequality in oral healthcare coverage among adults with expressed need living in 52 countries. Data on 60,332 adults aged 18 years or older were analyzed from 52 countries participating in the 2002-2004 World Health Survey. Oral healthcare...... wealth quintiles in each country, a wealth-based relative index of inequality was used to measure socio-economic inequality. The index was adjusted for sex, age, marital status, education, employment, overall health status, and urban/rural residence. Pro-rich inequality in oral healthcare coverage...... at global and national levels. To achieve universal coverage in oral healthcare, relevant interventions should reach the poorest population groups....

  20. State discretion over Medicaid coverage for mental health and addiction services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Marguerite E

    2015-03-01

    Approximately one-third of adults who enroll in Medicaid because of a disability have a serious mental illness. Arguably, this population stands to benefit from insurance coverage that complies with the Mental Health Parity and Addiction Equity Act (MHPAEA). The MHPAEA and the Affordable Care Act (ACA) do not guarantee such coverage for this beneficiary group; however, they provide a variety of mechanisms by which states may provide parity-compliant coverage for mental health and substance use disorder treatment. This column explains key interactions between the MHPAEA, the ACA, and the Medicaid program that permit states to determine whether and how to provide parity-consistent coverage to beneficiaries with disabilities.

  1. Assessing Measurement Error in Medicare Coverage

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Assessing Measurement Error in Medicare Coverage From the National Health Interview Survey Using linked administrative data, to validate Medicare coverage estimates...

  2. Bundled automobile insurance coverage and accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chu-Shiu; Liu, Chwen-Chi; Peng, Sheng-Chang

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates the characteristics of automobile accidents by taking into account two types of automobile insurance coverage: comprehensive vehicle physical damage insurance and voluntary third-party liability insurance. By using a unique data set in the Taiwanese automobile insurance market, we explore the bundled automobile insurance coverage and the occurrence of claims. It is shown that vehicle physical damage insurance is the major automobile coverage and affects the decision to purchase voluntary liability insurance coverage as a complement. Moreover, policyholders with high vehicle physical damage insurance coverage have a significantly higher probability of filing vehicle damage claims, and if they additionally purchase low voluntary liability insurance coverage, their accident claims probability is higher than those who purchase high voluntary liability insurance coverage. Our empirical results reveal that additional automobile insurance coverage information can capture more driver characteristics and driving behaviors to provide useful information for insurers' underwriting policies and to help analyze the occurrence of automobile accidents.

  3. Broad-spectrum antiviral therapeutics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todd H Rider

    Full Text Available Currently there are relatively few antiviral therapeutics, and most which do exist are highly pathogen-specific or have other disadvantages. We have developed a new broad-spectrum antiviral approach, dubbed Double-stranded RNA (dsRNA Activated Caspase Oligomerizer (DRACO that selectively induces apoptosis in cells containing viral dsRNA, rapidly killing infected cells without harming uninfected cells. We have created DRACOs and shown that they are nontoxic in 11 mammalian cell types and effective against 15 different viruses, including dengue flavivirus, Amapari and Tacaribe arenaviruses, Guama bunyavirus, and H1N1 influenza. We have also demonstrated that DRACOs can rescue mice challenged with H1N1 influenza. DRACOs have the potential to be effective therapeutics or prophylactics for numerous clinical and priority viruses, due to the broad-spectrum sensitivity of the dsRNA detection domain, the potent activity of the apoptosis induction domain, and the novel direct linkage between the two which viruses have never encountered.

  4. [Coverage of the basic immunization schedule in the first year of life in State capitals in Northeast Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Queiroz, Lorena Lauren Chaves; Monteiro, Silvio Gomes; Mochel, Elba Gomide; Veras, Maria Amélia de Sousa Mascena; Sousa, Francisca Georgina Macêdo de; Bezerra, Márcio Lee de Meneses; Chein, Maria Bethânia da Costa

    2013-02-01

    Vaccination coverage in the so-called "developing countries" is still lower than expected. Such coverage is an important indicator of population health and the quality of care provided by the health care system. The current study describes the results of a household survey to estimate coverage of the basic immunization schedule in the first year of life in State capitals in Northeast Brazil, for the 2005 birth cohort. The methodology used was that recommended by the Pan American Health Organization for surveys on vaccination coverage. According to the data, vaccination coverage fell short of the goals set by the National Immunization Program for this age group, at high risk of acquiring vaccine-preventable diseases. The lowest coverage rates were found at the two extremes of socioeconomic strata. Assessment of vaccination coverage indicates whether the infant population is immunized and helps identify weak points in vaccination activities.

  5. Ghost imaging with broad distance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    段德洋; 张路; 杜少将; 夏云杰

    2015-01-01

    We present a scheme that is able to achieve the ghost imaging with broad distance. The physical nature of our scheme is that the different wavelength beams are separated in free space by an optical media according to the slow light or dispersion principle. Meanwhile, the equality of the optical distance of the two light arms is not violated. The photon correlation is achieved by the rotating ground glass plate (RGGP) and spatial light modulator (SLM), respectively. Our work shows that a monochromic ghost image can be obtained in the case of RGGP. More importantly, the position (or distance) of the object can be ascertained by the color of the image. Thus, the imaging and ranging processes are combined as one process for the first time to the best of our knowledge. In the case of SLM, we can obtain a colored image regardless of where the object is.

  6. Health and Economic Implications of National Treatment Coverage for Cardiovascular Disease in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, Sanjay; Bendavid, Eran; Sood, Neeraj

    2016-01-01

    Background Whether to cover cardiovascular disease costs is an increasingly pressing question for low- and middle-income countries. We sought to identify the impact of expanding national insurance to cover primary prevention, secondary prevention, and tertiary treatment for cardiovascular disease in India. Methods and Results We incorporated data from coverage experiments into a validated microsimulation model of myocardial infarction and stroke in India to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of alternate coverage strategies. Coverage of primary prevention alone saved 3.6 million disability-adjusted life-years (DALY) per annum at an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of $469 per DALY averted when compared with the status quo of no coverage. Coverage of primary and secondary preventions was dominated by a strategy of covering primary prevention and tertiary treatment, which prevented 6.6 million DALYs at an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of $2241 per DALY averted, when compared with that of primary prevention alone. The combination of all 3 categories yielded the greatest impact at an incremental cost per DALY averted of $5588 when compared with coverage of primary prevention plus tertiary treatment. When compared with the status quo of no coverage, coverage of all 3 categories of prevention/treatment yielded an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of $1331 per DALY averted. In sensitivity analyses, coverage of primary preventive treatments remained cost-effective even if adherence and access to therapy were low, but tertiary coverage would require avoiding unnecessary procedures to remain cost-effective. Conclusions Coverage of all 3 major types of cardiovascular treatment would be expected to have high impact and reasonable cost-effectiveness in India across a broad spectrum of access and adherence levels. PMID:26555122

  7. Broad Leaves in Strong Flow

    CERN Document Server

    Miller, Laura

    2013-01-01

    Flexible broad leaves are thought to reconfigure in the wind and water to reduce the drag forces that act upon them. Simple mathematical models of a flexible beam immersed in a two-dimensional flow will also exhibit this behavior. What is less understood is how the mechanical properties of a leaf in a three-dimensional flow will passively allow roll up into a cone shape and reduce both drag and vortex induced oscillations. In this fluid dynamics video, the flows around the leaves are compared with those of simplified sheets using 3D numerical simulations and physical models. For some reconfiguration shapes, large forces and oscillations due to strong vortex shedding are produced. In the actual leaf, a stable recirculation zone is formed within the wake of the reconfigured cone. In physical and numerical models that reconfigure into cones, a similar recirculation zone is observed with both rigid and flexible tethers. These results suggest that the three-dimensional cone structure in addition to flexibility is ...

  8. Sideline coverage of youth football.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzone, Katie; Diamond, Alex; Gregory, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    Youth football is a popular sport in the United States and has been for some time. There are currently more than 3 million participants in youth football leagues according to USA Football. While the number of participants and overall injuries may be higher in other sports, football has a higher rate of injuries. Most youth sporting events do not have medical personnel on the sidelines in event of an injury or emergency. Therefore it is necessary for youth sports coaches to undergo basic medical training in order to effectively act in these situations. In addition, an argument could be made that appropriate medical personnel should be on the sideline for collision sports at all levels, from youth to professional. This article will discuss issues pertinent to sideline coverage of youth football, including coaching education, sideline personnel, emergency action plans, age and size divisions, tackle versus flag football, and injury prevention.

  9. Collaborative Mobile Charging and Coverage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴杰

    2014-01-01

    Wireless energy charging using mobile vehicles has been a viable research topic recently in the area of wireless networks and mobile computing. This paper gives a short survey of recent research conducted in our research group in the area of collaborative mobile charging. In collaborative mobile charging, multiple mobile chargers work together to accomplish a given set of ob jectives. These ob jectives include charging sensors at different frequencies with a minimum number of mobile chargers and reaching the farthest sensor for a given set of mobile chargers, subject to various constraints, including speed and energy limits of mobile chargers. Through the process of problem formulation, solution construction, and future work extension for problems related to collaborative mobile charging and coverage, we present three principles for good practice in conducting research. These principles can potentially be used for assisting graduate students in selecting a research problem for a term project, which can eventually be expanded to a thesis/dissertation topic.

  10. 76 FR 34087 - Broad Stakeholder Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-10

    ... SECURITY Broad Stakeholder Survey AGENCY: National Protection and Programs Directorate, DHS. ACTION: 60-day... comments concerning the Broad Stakeholder Survey. DATES: Comments are encouraged and will be accepted until.... The Broad Stakeholder Survey is designed to gather stakeholder feedback on the effectiveness of...

  11. 78 FR 20119 - Broad Stakeholder Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-03

    ... SECURITY Broad Stakeholder Survey AGENCY: National Protection and Programs Directorate, DHS. ACTION: 30-day... soliciting comments concerning the Broad Stakeholder Survey. DHS previously published this ICR in the Federal... responders across the Nation. The Broad Stakeholder Survey is designed to gather stakeholder feedback on...

  12. 77 FR 50144 - Broad Stakeholder Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-20

    ... SECURITY Broad Stakeholder Survey AGENCY: National Protection and Programs Directorate, DHS. ACTION: 60-day... comments concerning the Broad Stakeholder Survey. DATES: Comments are encouraged and will be accepted until... across the Nation. The Broad Stakeholder Survey is designed to gather stakeholder feedback on...

  13. Measuring coverage in MNCH: total survey error and the interpretation of intervention coverage estimates from household surveys.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas P Eisele

    Full Text Available Nationally representative household surveys are increasingly relied upon to measure maternal, newborn, and child health (MNCH intervention coverage at the population level in low- and middle-income countries. Surveys are the best tool we have for this purpose and are central to national and global decision making. However, all survey point estimates have a certain level of error (total survey error comprising sampling and non-sampling error, both of which must be considered when interpreting survey results for decision making. In this review, we discuss the importance of considering these errors when interpreting MNCH intervention coverage estimates derived from household surveys, using relevant examples from national surveys to provide context. Sampling error is usually thought of as the precision of a point estimate and is represented by 95% confidence intervals, which are measurable. Confidence intervals can inform judgments about whether estimated parameters are likely to be different from the real value of a parameter. We recommend, therefore, that confidence intervals for key coverage indicators should always be provided in survey reports. By contrast, the direction and magnitude of non-sampling error is almost always unmeasurable, and therefore unknown. Information error and bias are the most common sources of non-sampling error in household survey estimates and we recommend that they should always be carefully considered when interpreting MNCH intervention coverage based on survey data. Overall, we recommend that future research on measuring MNCH intervention coverage should focus on refining and improving survey-based coverage estimates to develop a better understanding of how results should be interpreted and used.

  14. Asymmetric k-Center with Minimum Coverage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gørtz, Inge Li

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we give approximation algorithms and inapproximability results for various asymmetric k-center with minimum coverage problems. In the k-center with minimum coverage problem, each center is required to serve a minimum number of clients. These problems have been studied by Lim et al. [A....... Lim, B. Rodrigues, F. Wang, Z. Xu, k-center problems with minimum coverage, Theoret. Comput. Sci. 332 (1–3) (2005) 1–17] in the symmetric setting....

  15. Household Coverage of Fortified Staple Food Commodities in Rajasthan, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aaron, Grant J.; Sodani, Prahlad R.; Sankar, Rajan; Fairhurst, John; Siling, Katja; Guevarra, Ernest; Norris, Alison; Myatt, Mark

    2016-01-01

    A spatially representative statewide survey was conducted in Rajasthan, India to assess household coverage of atta wheat flour, edible oil, and salt. An even distribution of primary sampling units were selected based on their proximity to centroids on a hexagonal grid laid over the survey area. A sample of n = 18 households from each of m = 252 primary sampling units PSUs was taken. Demographic data on all members of these households were collected, and a broader dataset was collected about a single caregiver and a child in the first 2 years of life. Data were collected on demographic and socioeconomic status; education; housing conditions; recent infant and child mortality; water, sanitation, and hygiene practices; food security; child health; infant and young child feeding practices; maternal dietary diversity; coverage of fortified staples; and maternal and child anthropometry. Data were collected from 4,627 households and the same number of caregiver/child pairs. Atta wheat flour was widely consumed across the state (83%); however, only about 7% of the atta wheat flour was classified as fortifiable, and only about 6% was actually fortified (mostly inadequately). For oil, almost 90% of edible oil consumed by households in the survey was classified as fortifiable, but only about 24% was fortified. For salt, coverage was high, with almost 85% of households using fortified salt and 66% of households using adequately fortified salt. Iodized salt coverage was also high; however, rural and poor population groups were less likely to be reached by the intervention. Voluntary fortification of atta wheat flour and edible oil lacked sufficient industry consolidation to cover significant portions of the population. It is crucial that appropriate delivery channels are utilized to effectively deliver essential micronutrients to at-risk population groups. Government distribution systems are likely the best means to accomplish this goal. PMID:27760123

  16. Encuesta Nacional de Cobertura de Vacunación (influenza, neumococo y tétanos en adultos mayores de 60 años en México National Survey of Vaccination Coverage (Influenza, pneumococcus and tetanus in Mexican population of 60 years of age and older

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belem Trejo-Valdivia

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Determinar la cobertura de vacunación (CV para influenza, neumococo y tétanos, en adultos mayores (AM de 60 años y más, heterogeneidad por entidad federativa y relación con características sociodemográficas. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Análisis transversal basado en una encuesta nacional en 18 015 hogares. Se captó información general y sobre vacunación (autorreporte en un AM por cada uno de los hogares seleccionado aleatoriamente. RESULTADOS: La prevalencia nacional de vacunación fue 56.5% (±0.97 para influenza, 44.3% (±0.98 para neumococo y 61.8% (±0.96 para tétanos. Las CV analizadas fueron significativamente menores para AM sin seguro médico y mayores en las mujeres. Casi 20% de AM reconoció no tener vacuna alguna, argumentando principalmente el hecho de desconocer la necesidad de vacunarse. CONCLUSIONES: Se muestra un avance importante en las coberturas de vacunación en AM en México; se identifican diferenciales que sugieren la necesidad de impulsar campañas de información y acciones que mejoren la accesibilidad a la vacuna por este grupo poblacional.OBJECTIVE: Determine Vaccination Coverage (VC among adults 60 years of age and older (EP, for influenza, pneumococcal and tetanus vaccines, association with socio-demographic characteristics and heterogeneity at state level. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Cross-sectional analysis based on information from 18 015 households visited in a national survey. General and vaccine information (self-report for a randomly selected elder in each household is available. RESULTS: The national VC level was found to be 56.5% (±0.97 for influenza, 44.3% (±0.98 for pneumococcus and 61.8% (±0.96 for tetanus. The VC was significantly lower for EP without health social services and higher for women. Almost 20.0% of EP recognized not having vaccines at all, due mainly that they didn't know it was a duty. CONCLUSIONS: Important improvements are shown in vaccination coverage among elderly in Mexico

  17. Moving toward universal coverage of health insurance in Vietnam: barriers, facilitating factors, and lessons from Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do, Ngan; Oh, Juhwan; Lee, Jin-Seok

    2014-07-01

    Vietnam has pursued universal health insurance coverage for two decades but has yet to fully achieve this goal. This paper investigates the barriers to achieve universal coverage and examines the validity of facilitating factors to shorten the transitional period in Vietnam. A comparative study of facilitating factors toward universal coverage of Vietnam and Korea reveals significant internal forces for Vietnam to further develop the National Health Insurance Program. Korea in 1977 and Vietnam in 2009 have common characteristics to be favorable of achieving universal coverage with similarities of level of income, highly qualified administrative ability, tradition of solidarity, and strong political leadership although there are differences in distribution of population and structure of the economy. From a comparative perspective, Vietnam can consider the experience of Korea in implementing the mandatory enrollment approach, household unit of eligibility, design of contribution and benefit scheme, and resource allocation to health insurance for sustainable government subsidy to achieve and sustain the universal coverage of health insurance.

  18. [Universal coverage of health services in Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    The reforms made in recent years to the Mexican Health System have reduced inequities in the health care of the population, but have been insufficient to solve all the problems of the MHS. In order to make the right to health protection established in the Constitution a reality for every citizen, Mexico must warrant effective universal access to health services. This paper outlines a long-term reform for the consolidation of a health system that is akin to international standards and which may establish the structural conditions to reduce coverage inequity. This reform is based on a "structured pluralism" intended to avoid both a monopoly exercised within the public sector and fragmentation in the private sector, and to prevent falling into the extremes of authoritarian procedures or an absence of regulation. This involves the replacement of the present vertical integration and segregation of social groups by a horizontal organization with separation of duties. This also entails legal and fiscal reforms, the reinforcement of the MHS, the reorganization of health institutions, and the formulation of regulatory, technical and financial instruments to operationalize the proposed scheme with the objective of rendering the human right to health fully effective for the Mexican people.

  19. Assuring health coverage for all in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Vikram; Parikh, Rachana; Nandraj, Sunil; Balasubramaniam, Priya; Narayan, Kavita; Paul, Vinod K; Kumar, A K Shiva; Chatterjee, Mirai; Reddy, K Srinath

    2015-12-12

    Successive Governments of India have promised to transform India's unsatisfactory health-care system, culminating in the present government's promise to expand health assurance for all. Despite substantial improvements in some health indicators in the past decade, India contributes disproportionately to the global burden of disease, with health indicators that compare unfavourably with other middle-income countries and India's regional neighbours. Large health disparities between states, between rural and urban populations, and across social classes persist. A large proportion of the population is impoverished because of high out-of-pocket health-care expenditures and suffers the adverse consequences of poor quality of care. Here we make the case not only for more resources but for a radically new architecture for India's health-care system. India needs to adopt an integrated national health-care system built around a strong public primary care system with a clearly articulated supportive role for the private and indigenous sectors. This system must address acute as well as chronic health-care needs, offer choice of care that is rational, accessible, and of good quality, support cashless service at point of delivery, and ensure accountability through governance by a robust regulatory framework. In the process, several major challenges will need to be confronted, most notably the very low levels of public expenditure; the poor regulation, rapid commercialisation of and corruption in health care; and the fragmentation of governance of health care. Most importantly, assuring universal health coverage will require the explicit acknowledgment, by government and civil society, of health care as a public good on par with education. Only a radical restructuring of the health-care system that promotes health equity and eliminates impoverishment due to out-of-pocket expenditures will assure health for all Indians by 2022--a fitting way to mark the 75th year of India

  20. Extended Perioperative Antibiotic Coverage in Conjunction with Intraoperative Bile Cultures Decreases Infectious Complications after Pancreaticoduodenectomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fathi, Amir H.; Jackson, Terence; Barati, Mehdi; Eghbalieh, Babak; Siegel, Kelly A.; Siegel, Christopher T.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Bile contamination from the digestive tract is a well-known risk factor for postoperative complications. Despite the literature concerning prevalence of bacterobilia and fungobilia in patients with biliary pathologies, there are no specific recommendations for perioperative antimicrobial coverage for biliary/pancreatic procedures. We evaluated the effect of at least 72 hours of perioperative broad spectrum antibiotic coverage on outcomes of pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD). Materials and Methods. A retrospective review of all patients at Case Medical Center of Case Western Reserve University undergoing PD procedure, from 2006 to 2011, was performed (n = 122). Perioperative data including demographics, comorbidities, biliary instrumentation, antibiotic coverage, culture results, and postoperative outcomes were analyzed. Propensity score matching method was used to match the patients according to duration of antibiotic coverage into two groups: 72 hours (A72) and 24 hours (A24). Results. Longer broad spectrum antibiotic coverage in group A72 resulted in significantly less surgical site infections after PD, compared to routine 24 hours of perioperative antibiotics in group A24. This study did not reveal a statistically significant decrease in postoperative fungal infections in patients receiving preoperative antifungals. Conclusion. Prolonged perioperative antibiotic therapy in conjunction with intraoperative bile cultures decreases the short-term infectious complications of PD, with no significant increase in Clostridium difficile colitis incidence. PMID:27147813

  1. [Potential coverage and real coverage of ambulatory health care services in the state of Mexico. The case of 3 marginal communities in Atenco and Chalco].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nájera-Aguilar, P; Infante-Castañeda, C

    1990-01-01

    Less than a third of the non-insured population studied through a sample in the State of Mexico was covered by the Institute of Health of the State of México. This low coverage was observed in spite the fact that health services were available within 2 kilometer radius. 33 per cent of the non-insured preferred to utilize other services within their own community, and 24 per cent of them traveled to bigger localities to receive care. These results suggest that to attain adequate coverage, utilization patterns should be investigated so that health services can meet the needs of the target population.

  2. 5 CFR 610.101 - Coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Coverage. 610.101 Section 610.101 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS HOURS OF DUTY Weekly and Daily Scheduling of Work § 610.101 Coverage. This subpart applies to each employee to whom subpart A of part...

  3. CDMA coverage under mobile heterogeneous network load

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saban, Dorin; Berg, van den Hans; Boucherie, Richard J.; Endrayanto, Irwan

    2002-01-01

    We analytically investigate coverage (determined by the uplink) under non-homogeneous and moving traffic load of third generation UMTS mobile networks. In particular, for different call assignment policies, we investigate cell breathing and the movement of the coverage gap occurring between cells wh

  4. 5 CFR 531.402 - Employee coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Employee coverage. 531.402 Section 531... GENERAL SCHEDULE Within-Grade Increases § 531.402 Employee coverage. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, this subpart applies to employees who— (1) Are classified and paid under...

  5. Impact of invitation schemes on screening coverage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Katja Kemp; von Euler-Chelpin, My Catarina; Vejborg, Ilse;

    2017-01-01

    Background: The porpuse of mammography screening is to decrease breast cancer mortality. To achieve this a high coverage by examination is needed. Within an organized screening programme, we examined the impact of changes in the invitation schedule on the interplay between coverage and participat...

  6. Understanding News Geography and Major Determinants of Global News Coverage of Disasters

    CERN Document Server

    Kwak, Haewoon

    2014-01-01

    In this work, we reveal the structure of global news coverage of disasters and its determinants by using a large-scale news coverage dataset collected by the GDELT (Global Data on Events, Location, and Tone) project that monitors news media in over 100 languages from the whole world. Significant variables in our hierarchical (mixed-effect) regression model, such as the number of population, the political stability, the damage, and more, are well aligned with a series of previous research. Yet, strong regionalism we found in news geography highlights the necessity of the comprehensive dataset for the study of global news coverage.

  7. Insurance coverage policies for personalized medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hresko, Andrew; Haga, Susanne B

    2012-10-30

    Adoption of personalized medicine in practice has been slow, in part due to the lack of evidence of clinical benefit provided by these technologies. Coverage by insurers is a critical step in achieving widespread adoption of personalized medicine. Insurers consider a variety of factors when formulating medical coverage policies for personalized medicine, including the overall strength of evidence for a test, availability of clinical guidelines and health technology assessments by independent organizations. In this study, we reviewed coverage policies of the largest U.S. insurers for genomic (disease-related) and pharmacogenetic (PGx) tests to determine the extent that these tests were covered and the evidence basis for the coverage decisions. We identified 41 coverage policies for 49 unique testing: 22 tests for disease diagnosis, prognosis and risk and 27 PGx tests. Fifty percent (or less) of the tests reviewed were covered by insurers. Lack of evidence of clinical utility appears to be a major factor in decisions of non-coverage. The inclusion of PGx information in drug package inserts appears to be a common theme of PGx tests that are covered. This analysis highlights the variability of coverage determinations and factors considered, suggesting that the adoption of personal medicine will affected by numerous factors, but will continue to be slowed due to lack of demonstrated clinical benefit.

  8. Insurance Coverage Policies for Personalized Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Hresko

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Adoption of personalized medicine in practice has been slow, in part due to the lack of evidence of clinical benefit provided by these technologies. Coverage by insurers is a critical step in achieving widespread adoption of personalized medicine. Insurers consider a variety of factors when formulating medical coverage policies for personalized medicine, including the overall strength of evidence for a test, availability of clinical guidelines and health technology assessments by independent organizations. In this study, we reviewed coverage policies of the largest U.S. insurers for genomic (disease-related and pharmacogenetic (PGx tests to determine the extent that these tests were covered and the evidence basis for the coverage decisions. We identified 41 coverage policies for 49 unique testing: 22 tests for disease diagnosis, prognosis and risk and 27 PGx tests. Fifty percent (or less of the tests reviewed were covered by insurers. Lack of evidence of clinical utility appears to be a major factor in decisions of non-coverage. The inclusion of PGx information in drug package inserts appears to be a common theme of PGx tests that are covered. This analysis highlights the variability of coverage determinations and factors considered, suggesting that the adoption of personal medicine will affected by numerous factors, but will continue to be slowed due to lack of demonstrated clinical benefit.

  9. Broad Prize: Do the Successes Spread?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuels, Christina A.

    2011-01-01

    When the Broad Prize for Urban Education was created in 2002, billionaire philanthropist Eli Broad said he hoped the awards, in addition to rewarding high-performing school districts, would foster healthy competition; boost the prestige of urban education, long viewed as dysfunctional; and showcase best practices. Over the 10 years the prize has…

  10. A Survey on Coverage Control Protocols in Wireless Sensor Networks

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Coverage control algorithms play an important role in Wireless sensor network. Effective coverage control algorithms sense its coverage area with less energy spent. These coverage control models falls under various approaches like clustering, evolutionary, mobility based approaches. This paper makes a detailed survey on coverage control protocols coming under various classifications. In addition, it also discussed several protocols working mechanism with its evaluation metrics.

  11. 5 CFR 9701.402 - Coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM (DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY-OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT) DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM Performance Management § 9701.402 Coverage. (a) This subpart applies to eligible...

  12. Media Coverage of Nuclear Energy after Fukushima

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oltra, C.; Roman, P.; Prades, A.

    2013-07-01

    This report presents the main findings of a content analysis of printed media coverage of nuclear energy in Spain before and after the Fukushima accident. Our main objective is to understand the changes in the presentation of nuclear fission and nuclear fusion as a result of the accident in Japan. We specifically analyze the volume of coverage and thematic content in the media coverage for nuclear fusion from a sample of Spanish print articles in more than 20 newspapers from 2008 to 2012. We also analyze the media coverage of nuclear energy (fission) in three main Spanish newspapers one year before and one year after the accident. The results illustrate how the media contributed to the presentation of nuclear power in the months before and after the accident. This could have implications for the public understanding of nuclear power. (Author)

  13. Broadcast Network Coverage with Multicell Cooperation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongxiang Li

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Multicell cooperation has been identified as one of the underlying principles for future wireless communication systems. This paper studies the benefits of multicell cooperation in broadcast TV network from an information theoretical perspective. We define outage capacity as the figure of merit and derive the broadcast coverage area to evaluate such system. Specifically, we calculate the broadcast coverage area with given common information rate and outage probabilities when multiple base stations collaboratively transmit the broadcast signals. For the general MIMO case where receivers have multiple antennas, we provide simulation results to illustrate the expanded coverage area. In all cases, our results show that the coverage of a TV broadcast network can be significantly improved by multicell cooperation.

  14. Coverage for SCS Pre-1941 Aerial Photography

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This shapefile was generated by the U.S. Bureau of Land Management (BLM) at the New Mexico State Office to show the coverage for the Pre-1941 aerial photography...

  15. Climate Feedback: Bringing the Scientific Community to Provide Direct Feedback on the Credibility of Climate Media Coverage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, E. M.; Matlock, T.; Westerling, A. L.

    2015-12-01

    While most scientists recognize climate change as a major societal and environmental issue, social and political will to tackle the problem is still lacking. One of the biggest obstacles is inaccurate reporting or even outright misinformation in climate change coverage that result in the confusion of the general public on the issue.In today's era of instant access to information, what we read online usually falls outside our field of expertise and it is a real challenge to evaluate what is credible. The emerging technology of web annotation could be a game changer as it allows knowledgeable individuals to attach notes to any piece of text of a webpage and to share them with readers who will be able to see the annotations in-context -like comments on a pdf.Here we present the Climate Feedback initiative that is bringing together a community of climate scientists who collectively evaluate the scientific accuracy of influential climate change media coverage. Scientists annotate articles sentence by sentence and assess whether they are consistent with scientific knowledge allowing readers to see where and why the coverage is -or is not- based on science. Scientists also summarize the essence of their critical commentary in the form of a simple article-level overall credibility rating that quickly informs readers about the credibility of the entire piece.Web-annotation allows readers to 'hear' directly from the experts and to sense the consensus in a personal way as one can literaly see how many scientists agree with a given statement. It also allows a broad population of scientists to interact with the media, notably early career scientists.In this talk, we will present results on the impacts annotations have on readers -regarding their evaluation of the trustworthiness of the information they read- and on journalists -regarding their reception of scientists comments.Several dozen scientists have contributed to this effort to date and the system offers potential to

  16. Length and coverage of inhibitory decision rules

    KAUST Repository

    Alsolami, Fawaz

    2012-01-01

    Authors present algorithms for optimization of inhibitory rules relative to the length and coverage. Inhibitory rules have a relation "attribute ≠ value" on the right-hand side. The considered algorithms are based on extensions of dynamic programming. Paper contains also comparison of length and coverage of inhibitory rules constructed by a greedy algorithm and by the dynamic programming algorithm. © 2012 Springer-Verlag.

  17. Read length versus depth of coverage for viral quasispecies reconstruction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osvaldo Zagordi

    Full Text Available Recent advancements of sequencing technology have opened up unprecedented opportunities in many application areas. Virus samples can now be sequenced efficiently with very deep coverage to infer the genetic diversity of the underlying virus populations. Several sequencing platforms with different underlying technologies and performance characteristics are available for viral diversity studies. Here, we investigate how the differences between two common platforms provided by 454/Roche and Illumina affect viral diversity estimation and the reconstruction of viral haplotypes. Using a mixture of ten HIV clones sequenced with both platforms and additional simulation experiments, we assessed the trade-off between sequencing coverage, read length, and error rate. For fixed costs, short Illumina reads can be generated at higher coverage and allow for detecting variants at lower frequencies. They can also be sufficient to assess the diversity of the sample if sequences are dissimilar enough, but, in general, assembly of full-length haplotypes is feasible only with the longer 454/Roche reads. The quantitative comparison highlights the advantages and disadvantages of both platforms and provides guidance for the design of viral diversity studies.

  18. Read length versus depth of coverage for viral quasispecies reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zagordi, Osvaldo; Däumer, Martin; Beisel, Christian; Beerenwinkel, Niko

    2012-01-01

    Recent advancements of sequencing technology have opened up unprecedented opportunities in many application areas. Virus samples can now be sequenced efficiently with very deep coverage to infer the genetic diversity of the underlying virus populations. Several sequencing platforms with different underlying technologies and performance characteristics are available for viral diversity studies. Here, we investigate how the differences between two common platforms provided by 454/Roche and Illumina affect viral diversity estimation and the reconstruction of viral haplotypes. Using a mixture of ten HIV clones sequenced with both platforms and additional simulation experiments, we assessed the trade-off between sequencing coverage, read length, and error rate. For fixed costs, short Illumina reads can be generated at higher coverage and allow for detecting variants at lower frequencies. They can also be sufficient to assess the diversity of the sample if sequences are dissimilar enough, but, in general, assembly of full-length haplotypes is feasible only with the longer 454/Roche reads. The quantitative comparison highlights the advantages and disadvantages of both platforms and provides guidance for the design of viral diversity studies.

  19. Cervical cancer screening policies and coverage in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anttila, Ahti; von Karsa, Lawrence; Aasmaa, Auni;

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the study was to compare current policy, organisation and coverage of cervical cancer screening programmes in the European Union (EU) member states with European and other international recommendations. According to the questionnaire-based survey, there are large variations in cervical...... with education, training and communication among women, medical professionals and authorities are required, accordingly. The study indicates that, despite substantial efforts, the recommendations of the Council of the EU on organised population-based screening for cervical cancer are not yet fulfilled. Decision......-makers and health service providers should consider stronger measures or incentives in order to improve cervical cancer control in Europe....

  20. Influenza virus antigenicity and broadly neutralizing epitopes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Air, Gillian M

    2015-04-01

    A vaccine formulation that would be effective against all strains of influenza virus has long been a goal of vaccine developers, but antibodies after infection or vaccination were seen to be strain specific and there was little evidence of cross-reactive antibodies that neutralized across subtypes. Recently a number of broadly neutralizing monoclonal antibodies have been characterized. This review describes the different classes of broadly neutralizing antibodies and discusses the potential of their therapeutic use or for design of immunogens that induce a high proportion of broadly neutralizing antibodies.

  1. Cooperative Cloud Service Aware Mobile Internet Coverage Connectivity Guarantee Protocol Based on Sensor Opportunistic Coverage Mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qin Qin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to improve the Internet coverage ratio and provide connectivity guarantee, based on sensor opportunistic coverage mechanism and cooperative cloud service, we proposed the coverage connectivity guarantee protocol for mobile Internet. In this scheme, based on the opportunistic covering rules, the network coverage algorithm of high reliability and real-time security was achieved by using the opportunity of sensor nodes and the Internet mobile node. Then, the cloud service business support platform is created based on the Internet application service management capabilities and wireless sensor network communication service capabilities, which is the architecture of the cloud support layer. The cooperative cloud service aware model was proposed. Finally, we proposed the mobile Internet coverage connectivity guarantee protocol. The results of experiments demonstrate that the proposed algorithm has excellent performance, in terms of the security of the Internet and the stability, as well as coverage connectivity ability.

  2. Comparison of Coverage and Compliance of Mass Drug Administration 2012 in Surat, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehta Shreyash , Shah Vinesh , Verma Anupam, Patel NB, Bansal RK

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Context: Filariasis, an infectious tropical disease is a major public health problem in India but remains neglected. This study was conducted with an objective to evaluate and compare the coverage and compliance of Mass Drug Administration and associated factors in Urban and Rural area of Surat district, Gujarat, India. Methods and materials: This cross sectional study involved survey of Urban and Rural area of Surat district covering 128 household in each. A pretested questioner was used to collect data regarding administration of Diethyl Carbamazine (DEC and Albendazole (ALB to eligible population as a part of routine MDA activity. The data was analysed using Epi info software. Results: The coverage of antifilarial drug was more than 90% in both areas without significant difference. The compliance rate, the effective coverage rate and Coverage Compliance Gap were 82.4% , 76.1 % and 17.6% respectively in urban areas which were better than those in rural areas. Conclusion: The effective coverage rate after taking into account the coverage and compliance was less than the target of 85 percent which is needed for eradication and elimination of Filariasis. The urban areas had higher effective coverage rate than rural areas. More emphasis must be given on spot consumption of the drug.

  3. Measuring Prevention More Broadly, An Empirical...

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Measuring Prevention More Broadly, An Empirical Assessment of CHIPRA Core Measures Differences in CHIP design and structure, across states and over time, may limit...

  4. [Coverage characterization of pre-natal in Maranhão State, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Geny Rose Cardoso; Chein, Maria Bethânia da Costa; Gama, Mônica Elinor Alves; Coelho, Leidyane Silva Caldas; da Costa, Andreia Susana Vieira; Cunha, Carlos Leonardo Figueiredo; Brito, Luciane Maria Oliveira

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to characterize the coverage of prenatal care in the State of Maranhão. A population-based study, descriptive in 30 municipalities of the State of Maranhão, with 2075 women of childbearing age, with previous pregnancy, from July 2008 to Januray 2009. The results demonstrated that the units of family health accounted for 45.9% of the care of pregnant women and that 46.8% reported carrying out consultations six or more prenatal care during last pregnancy and 64.6% started prenatal in the first three months of pregnancy. The coverage of prenatal care, without regard to adequacy, was 85.6%, however, when considering the coverage of adequate prenatal as established by Brazilian Health Ministry was 43.4%. Although coverage of prenatal above 80%, less than half is considered adequate, showing a gap in primary care quality.

  5. Bond length variation with coverage for caesium adsorption on Si{111} (7 × 7)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batchelor, D. R.; King, D. A.

    1991-11-01

    The adsorption of Cs on the Si{111} (7 × 7) surface has been studied using SEXAFS. A contraction is observed in the CsSi bond length from 3.79±0.04 Å at low to 3.50±0.04 Å at saturation coverage. At the lower coverage, a longer bond length can be attributed to a degree of ionicity in the CsSi surface bond, due to charge transfer from Cs to the Si. The saturation coverage bond length is consistent with covalent bonding and at this coverage a second site is also populated which has CsSi bond length of 4.68±0.06 Å.

  6. Financing universal coverage in Malaysia: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chua, Hong Teck; Cheah, Julius Chee Ho

    2012-01-01

    One of the challenges to maintain an agenda for universal coverage and equitable health system is to develop effective structuring and management of health financing. Global experiences with different systems of health financing suggests that a strong public role in health financing is essential for health systems to protect the poor and health systems with the strongest state role are likely the more equitable and achieve better aggregate health outcomes. Using Malaysia as a case study, this paper seeks to evaluate the progress and capacity of a middle income country in terms of health financing for universal coverage, and also to highlight some of the key underlying health systems challenges.The WHO Health Financing Strategy for the Asia Pacific Region (2010-2015) was used as the framework to evaluate the Malaysian healthcare financing system in terms of the provision of universal coverage for the population, and the Malaysian National Health Accounts (2008) provided the latest Malaysian data on health spending. Measuring against the four target indicators outlined, Malaysia fared credibly with total health expenditure close to 5% of its GDP (4.75%), out-of-pocket payment below 40% of total health expenditure (30.7%), comprehensive social safety nets for vulnerable populations, and a tax-based financing system that fundamentally poses as a national risk-pooled scheme for the population.Nonetheless, within a holistic systems framework, the financing component interacts synergistically with other health system spheres. In Malaysia, outmigration of public health workers particularly specialist doctors remains an issue and financing strategies critically needs to incorporate a comprehensive workforce compensation strategy to improve the health workforce skill mix. Health expenditure information is systematically collated, but feedback from the private sector remains a challenge. Service delivery-wise, there is a need to enhance financing capacity to expand preventive

  7. FIFTEEN-YEAR CHANGES OF TREE POPULATIONS IN THE SECONDARY SUBTROPICAL EVERGREEN BROAD-LEAVED FORESTS IN SOUTHWESTERN CHINA%亚热带次生常绿阔叶林主要乔木种群自然恢复15年来的变化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    包维楷; 刘照光; 刘朝禄; 袁亚夫; 刘仁东

    2001-01-01

    The present study was conducted in the secondary su btrop ical evergreen broad-leaved forests at altitude 1650~1670m in Mt.Wawusha n National Forest Park,southwestern China.In order to understand stand restoratio n dynamics,the stand structure in three permanent 0.04hm2 plots for 3~4t imes were recorded from 1982 to 1997 and expounded the changes in 15 years about tree composition,important value index,several diversity indices,structure and volume productivity of both communities and populations.The results were followe d:11 tree species disappeared and about another 10 species entered into tree lay er in the stand,keeping tree layer dynamic equilibrium and developing tree speci es diversity.The dominant species,Castanopsis platyacantha,assumed the super ior status,but its important value(Ⅳ)was decreased.The position of secondary do minant species,Schima sinense and Lithocarpus hancei, are gradually enha nced with gradually increased Ⅳ.The changes of densities,DBH and height dis tribution of tree populations displayed that the secondary evergreen forest was developed from past single or double dominant tree species to double or three do minant trees,from single tree layer to multiple levels in vertical structure.And the resulting community becomes more complicated and more stable.The growth rat es of average height and DBH of all main trees were 24~48cm.a-1 an d 0 .34~1.10cm.a-1,respectively.According to the differentiation of grow th,the main trees could be divided into three growth groups of species:fast-gro wing group including species of Schima sinense and Acanthopanax evodiaefoliu s var.gracills,slow-growing group of Machilus pingii and Lithocarpu s hancei, and the group in between of Castanopsis platyacantha and Cycl ob alanopsis myrsinaefolia. Volume productivity of the dominant population increa s ed firstly and then decreased,but the secondary tree population increased quickl y all the time.Volume productivity of all tree population in

  8. Polar constellations design for discontinuous coverage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarno, Salvatore; Graziano, Maria Daniela; D'Errico, Marco

    2016-10-01

    A novel constellation design method is developed for discontinuous coverage of the globe and polar caps. It integrates and extends the applicability of the coverage regions and mitigates the limitations of the existing techniques based on streets-of-coverage (SOC) theory. In particular, the visibility conditions of the targets are mapped in the (Ω, u)-domain to identify the number of satellites per plane and the distance between successive orbits, whereas the planes are arranged around the equator exploiting satellites both in ascending and descending phase. The proposed approach is applied to design potential space segments in polar LEO supporting the existing maritime surveillance services over the globe and on the future polar routes. Results show they require a smaller total number of satellites with respect to the SOC-based configurations for revisit times less than one hour and wide range of swaths. In details, it is observed a reduction between 6% and 22% for global coverage and between 24% and 33% for the coverage of polar caps.

  9. Ordenação de populações em amplas classes de nível de saúde, segundo um indicador abrangente definido por uma função discriminante linear Ranking of populations in broad classes of health levels according to a comprehensive indicador defined by a linear discriminant function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neil Ferreira Novo

    1985-08-01

    Full Text Available Utilizando a função discriminante linear, propõe-se um indicador de nível de saúde abrangente de vários indicadores usuais, a saber: o coeficiente de mortalidade geral (CMG, indicador quantificado de Guedes (IG, esperança de vida ao nascer (EV, coeficiente de natalidade (CN, coeficiente de mortalidade infantil (CMI e coeficiente de mortalidade por doenças transmissíveis (CMDT. Para a padronização dos dois últimos, foi proposta e utilizada uma população padrão mediana; para sua formação, cada grupo etário concorre com a mediana das percentagens de participação desse grupo na composição da população de cada um dos 44 países estudados. A análise crítica das equações de funções discriminantes obtidas com a técnica passo a 2895 2060 1000 passo ascendente (stepwise, mostrou que o valor: Z = 2895/CMI + 2060/CN + 1000/CMDTp, pode ser utilizado como indicador abrangente, permitindo a ordenação de países em amplas classes de nível de saúde.There are, very often, considerable discrepancies when countries are ranked according to the values of each of the common health indicators. By the use of computed linear discriminant functions the authors developed a single indicator designed to convey the information gathered from the following health indicators: life expectancy at birth (LE, birth rate (BR, infant mortality rate (IMR, quantified indicator of Guedes (GI, general mortality rate (GMR and mortality rate (MR by infective and parasitic diseases (MRIPD, the last two age adjusted. For the construction of this adjustment a median standard population was suggested and used, each age group contributed with the average of the percentages of participation of the group in the composition of the population of each one of the 44 countries studied. These were those for which it was possible to get reliable data for the years around 1980. The contrasted groups in computing discriminant functions, each one consisting of 12 countries

  10. Progress toward universal health coverage in ASEAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoang Van Minh

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN is characterized by much diversity in terms of geography, society, economic development, and health outcomes. The health systems as well as healthcare structure and provisions vary considerably. Consequently, the progress toward Universal Health Coverage (UHC in these countries also varies. This paper aims to describe the progress toward UHC in the ASEAN countries and discuss how regional integration could influence UHC. Design: Data reported in this paper were obtained from published literature, reports, and gray literature available in the ASEAN countries. We used both online and manual search methods to gather the information and ‘snowball’ further data. Results: We found that, in general, ASEAN countries have made good progress toward UHC, partly due to relatively sustained political commitments to endorse UHC in these countries. However, all the countries in ASEAN are facing several common barriers to achieving UHC, namely 1 financial constraints, including low levels of overall and government spending on health; 2 supply side constraints, including inadequate numbers and densities of health workers; and 3 the ongoing epidemiological transition at different stages characterized by increasing burdens of non-communicable diseases, persisting infectious diseases, and reemergence of potentially pandemic infectious diseases. The ASEAN Economic Community's (AEC goal of regional economic integration and a single market by 2015 presents both opportunities and challenges for UHC. Healthcare services have become more available but health and healthcare inequities will likely worsen as better-off citizens of member states might receive more benefits from the liberalization of trade policy in health, either via regional outmigration of health workers or intra-country health worker movement toward private hospitals, which tend to be located in urban areas. For ASEAN countries, UHC should

  11. Conceptualising the lack of health insurance coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, J B

    2000-01-01

    This paper examines the lack of health insurance coverage in the US as a public policy issue. It first compares the problem of health insurance coverage to the problem of unemployment to show that in terms of the numbers of individuals affected lack of health insurance is a problem comparable in importance to the problem of unemployment. Secondly, the paper discusses the methodology involved in measuring health insurance coverage, and argues that the current method of estimation of the uninsured underestimates the extent that individuals go without health insurance. Third, the paper briefly introduces Amartya Sen's functioning and capabilities framework to suggest a way of representing the extent to which individuals are uninsured. Fourth, the paper sketches a means of operationalizing the Sen representation of the uninsured in terms of the disability-adjusted life year (DALY) measure.

  12. Perplexity analysis of obesity news coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFarlane, Delano J; Elhadad, Noémie; Kukafka, Rita

    2009-11-14

    An important task performed during the analysis of health news coverage is the identification of news articles that are related to a specific health topic (e.g. obesity). This is often done using a combination of keyword searching and manual encoding of news content. Statistical language models and their evaluation metric, perplexity, may help to automate this task. A perplexity study of obesity news was performed to evaluate perplexity as a measure of the similarity of news corpora to obesity news content. The results of this study showed that perplexity increased as news coverage became more general relative to obesity news (obesity news approximately 187, general health news approximately 278, general news approximately 378, general news across multiple publishers approximately 382). This indicates that language model perplexity can measure the similarity news content to obesity news coverage, and could be used as the basis for an automated health news classifier.

  13. Resolution, coverage, and geometry beyond traditional limits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ronen, Shuki; Ferber, Ralf

    1998-12-31

    The presentation relates to the optimization of the image of seismic data and improved resolution and coverage of acquired data. Non traditional processing methods such as inversion to zero offset (IZO) are used. To realize the potential of saving acquisition cost by reducing in-fill and to plan resolution improvement by processing, geometry QC methods such as DMO Dip Coverage Spectrum (DDCS) and Bull`s Eyes Analysis are used. The DDCS is a 2-D spectrum whose entries consist of the DMO (Dip Move Out) coverage for a particular reflector specified by it`s true time dip and reflector normal strike. The Bull`s Eyes Analysis relies on real time processing of synthetic data generated with the real geometry. 4 refs., 6 figs.

  14. Adsorption of chlorine on Ag(111): No subsurface Cl at low coverage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gava, Paola; Kokalj, Anton; de Gironcoli, Stefano; Baroni, Stefano

    2008-10-01

    The adsorption of molecular and atomic chlorine on perfect Ag(111) surface has been studied and characterized by means of extensive density-functional-theory calculations. For the molecular adsorption, we find that the dissociation of Cl2 proceeds with an almost vanishing barrier. As for the adsorption of atomic Cl, on-surface, subsurface, and substitutional adsorptions are considered as a function of the coverage. At coverage lower than 1/2 ML, the on-surface adsorption displays the most exothermic chemisorption energies, whereas the mixed on-surface+subsurface and on-surface+substitutional adsorption modes become competitive with pure on-surface adsorption at about 1/2 ML of coverage and at higher coverages even preferred. The analysis of the adsorption free energy as a function of chlorine chemical potential reveals that the on-surface (3×3)R30° adsorption phase is thermodynamically the most stable over a very broad range of Cl chemical potential. The mixed adsorption modes become thermodynamically more stable at high coverage for values of the Cl chemical potential that are substantially larger than those needed to form silver chloride. This finding seems to indicate that the formation of mixed adsorption phases, if they would ever occur, cannot be due to thermodynamic equilibrium but can only result from kinetic effects. We also find that the presence of open surface steps does not stabilize the subsurface Cl adsorption at low coverage. However due to the stronger Cl-surface interaction near steps, the mixed on-surface+subsurface adsorption on Ag(210) at high coverage becomes thermodynamically the most stable phase at Cl chemical potential close to that needed for the formation of bulk AgCl.

  15. The Localized Area Coverage algorithm Based on Game-Theory for WSN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin He

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The Coverage Control Technology is one of the basic technologies of wireless sensor network, and is mainly concerned about how to prolong the network lifetime on the basis of meeting users’ perception demand. Among this, in the study of area coverage, the set K-cover algorithm is broadly accepted because that it can prolong network lifetime rather well. However, the existing set K-cover algorithms are centralized, and can not adapt to the large-scale sensor network applications and expansion. Game theory is a kind of decision theory, which is concerned with the situation where players directly interact with each other and can from the angle of participant’s rational favor look for root of influence on macro-construction. It is very suitable for characteristic of node in wireless sensor network, which is only to know its own and neighbors’ local state information and according to local information to implement behavior decision, making it convenient to realize distribution algorithm. In the previous work, the maximum coverage set calculated algorithm is proposed by us. So, this paper utilizes the number of maximum coverage set as the upper limit of coverage node set division. On the basis of this maximum, it takes number of minimum layer overlapping subfields, which satisfy division condition, as node’s utility function. Thus, this paper uses game theory model realizes maximization of network lifetime at the same time of ensuring area overall coverage. Then, it puts forward a distribution algorithm to get optimal strategy by iteration so as to reach realize Nash Equilibrium and realize node set’s rational division. Simulation results show it realizes maximization of network lifetime at the same time of ensuring area overall coverage.

  16. Investigation on Coverage of Hepatitis B Vaccine and Influencing Factor in the Population Aged 15-59 Years in Lanzhou City%兰州市15~59岁人群乙型肝炎疫苗接种率及影响因素调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张薇; 牛静萍; 李志强; 王智永

    2011-01-01

    Objectives In order to know the coverage of Hepatitis B vaccine and status about hepatitis B in Lanzhou city. Methods Face to face investigation by questionnaires using stratified sampling randomly. Results 1573 person were investigated. The coverage of hepatitis B vaccine was 31.72%. The whole course coverage was 8.77%.There were statistic significance of the coverage of hepatitis B vaccines between age groups, educational level, urban/rural group and different economy status. The knowledge of Hepatitis B in residents above the age of 15 years was low. Multivariable logistic regression analysis showed that high education, Knowning Hepatitis B and Hepatitis B vaccine will improve the coverage of HepB. Conclusions The coverage of Hepatitis B vaccine was low in residents above the age of 15 years in lanzhou city. Strengthening comprehensive strategies of Hepatitis B control will help to improve the coverage of Hepatitis B vaccine.%目的 了解兰州市15~59岁人群乙型肝炎(乙肝)疫苗(Hepatitis B Vaccine,HepB)接种现况及相关影响因素.方法 采用分层随机抽样方法,选取15~59岁调查对象进行问卷调查.结果 共调查1573人,HepB接种率为31.72%,全程接种率为8.77%.HepB接种率在各年龄组、城乡居住、不同经济水平、不同文化程度及各职业人群中的差异有统计学意义;兰州市15~59岁人群对乙肝相关知识知晓率较低.经多因素Logistic回归分析显示,文化程度高、知道乙肝、认为乙肝会传染、接种HepB能预防乙肝是HepB接种的有利因素.结论 兰州市15~59岁人群的HepB接种率较低,要加强以健康教育为主的综合预防控制措施,提高HepB接种率.

  17. Extreme sports: injuries and medical coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Craig C

    2002-10-01

    Extreme sports (including in-line skating, snowboarding, mountain bicycling, extreme skiing, rock climbing, indoor tackle football, kickboxing, skateboarding, and ultra-endurance racing) are growing in popularity. Often these sports are designed to expose athletes to greater thrills and risks than are found in traditional sporting activities. Despite this increased risk of injury, athletes competing in these sports often have little or no formal medical coverage. This article reviews what is known about this emerging area of sports medicine to assist physicians in preparing for medical coverage of these athletes and their competitions.

  18. Rodeo medicine: considerations in event coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Eliot J; Markey, Keith L

    2010-01-01

    Rodeo is an increasingly popular but dangerous sport, with injury rates higher than any other sport. While there are several organizations that oversee many of the rodeo competitions in the U.S., most events are non-sanctioned. Several factors contribute to the risk for injury, and medical coverage is usually volunteer-based. This article describes the common events that occur in most rodeo competitions, highlights the injuries most often documented in rodeo injury reporting, and suggests guidelines for preparation of medical coverage of a typical rodeo event.

  19. Contraceptive Coverage and the Affordable Care Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tschann, Mary; Soon, Reni

    2015-12-01

    A major goal of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act is reducing healthcare spending by shifting the focus of healthcare toward preventive care. Preventive services, including all FDA-approved contraception, must be provided to patients without cost-sharing under the ACA. No-cost contraception has been shown to increase uptake of highly effective birth control methods and reduce unintended pregnancy and abortion; however, some institutions and corporations argue that providing contraceptive coverage infringes on their religious beliefs. The contraceptive coverage mandate is evolving due to legal challenges, but it has already demonstrated success in reducing costs and improving access to contraception.

  20. Extracellular polymeric bacterial coverages as minimal surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Saa, A; Saa, Alberto; Teschke, Omar

    2005-01-01

    Surfaces formed by extracellular polymeric substances enclosing individual and some small communities of {\\it Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans} on plates of hydrophobic silicon and hydrophilic mica are analyzed by means of atomic force microscopy imaging. Accurate nanoscale descriptions of such coverage surfaces are obtained. The good agreement with the predictions of a rather simple but realistic theoretical model allows us to conclude that they correspond, indeed, to minimal area surfaces enclosing a given volume associated with the encased bacteria. This is, to the best of our knowledge, the first shape characterization of the coverage formed by these biomolecules, with possible applications to the study of biofilms.

  1. Investigation of a Measles Outbreak in China to Identify Gaps in Vaccination Coverage, Routes of Transmission, and Interventions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang Zheng

    Full Text Available A measles outbreak occurred in a western county of China in 2013, the year after China's historic nadir of measles. We conducted a field investigation to identify gaps in measles vaccination coverage and immunization program weaknesses, and to provide recommendations for measles outbreak response and immunization program improvement.We analyzed surveillance data from 2008 to 2013 to describe the measles epidemiology of the county. Measles-containing vaccine coverage was estimated using two methods: previously-reported administrative coverage and an estimation of coverage by clinic-kept vaccination records (n = 542. We conducted a rapid field coverage assessment in a migrant population village to evaluate coverage after emergency vaccination. We conducted a review of hospital records of measles cases to address the role hospital transmission played during the early stage of this outbreak.There were 153 cases in the outbreak, primarily among children too young to vaccinate, unvaccinated children less than 3 years old, and adults. Measles-containing vaccine coverage by the field assessment showed that 20% of children aged 8-17 months had zero doses, and 9% of ≥2 years old children had fewer than two doses. The vaccination statuses of all adult cases were either zero doses or unknown. At least 61% of cases had been hospitalized. The proportion of cases who had been hospital-exposed 7 to 21 days prior to rash onset decreased from 52% to 22% after hospitals strengthen their isolation measures.This outbreak was a result of measles vaccination coverage gaps among young children and adults, and insufficient hospital isolation of cases. The lower coverage seen in the field estimation compared with reported coverage showed that reported coverage could have been overestimated. Hospitals were sites of transmission in the early stage of the outbreak. A strict hospital isolation policy could decrease spread of measles. Emergency vaccination was associated

  2. 42 CFR 440.330 - Benchmark health benefits coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Benchmark health benefits coverage. 440.330 Section... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS SERVICES: GENERAL PROVISIONS Benchmark Benefit and Benchmark-Equivalent Coverage § 440.330 Benchmark health benefits coverage. Benchmark coverage is...

  3. 20 CFR 404.1412 - Compensation quarters of coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Compensation quarters of coverage. 404.1412... the Railroad Retirement Program § 404.1412 Compensation quarters of coverage. As used in this subpart, a compensation quarter of coverage is any quarter of coverage computed with respect to...

  4. 29 CFR 2.13 - Audiovisual coverage prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Audiovisual coverage prohibited. 2.13 Section 2.13 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor GENERAL REGULATIONS Audiovisual Coverage of Administrative Hearings § 2.13 Audiovisual coverage prohibited. The Department shall not permit audiovisual coverage of...

  5. 42 CFR 457.1010 - Purchase of family coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Purchase of family coverage. 457.1010 Section 457... Waivers: General Provisions § 457.1010 Purchase of family coverage. A State may purchase family coverage that includes coverage for targeted low-income children if the State establishes that— (a) Purchase...

  6. 7 CFR 1737.31 - Area Coverage Survey (ACS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Area Coverage Survey (ACS). 1737.31 Section 1737.31... Studies-Area Coverage Survey and Loan Design § 1737.31 Area Coverage Survey (ACS). (a) The Area Coverage Survey (ACS) is a market forecast of service requirements of subscribers in a proposed service area....

  7. Modelling Demand for Broad Money in Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Abbas Valadkhani

    2002-01-01

    The existence of a stable demand for money is very important for the conduct of monetary policy. It is argued that previous work on the demand for money in Australia has not been very satisfactory in a number of ways. This paper examines the long- and short-run determinants of the demand for broad money employing the Johansen cointegration technique and a short-run dynamic model. Using quarterly data for the period 1976:3-2002:2, this paper finds, inter alia, that the demand for broad money i...

  8. Evolution of health coverage in Mexico: evidence of progress and challenges in the Mexican health system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urquieta-Salomón, José E; Villarreal, Héctor J

    2016-02-01

    To consolidate an effective and efficient universal health care coverage requires a deep understanding of the challenges faced by the health care system in providing services demanded by population in need. This study analyses the dynamics of health insurance coverage and effective access coverage to some health interventions in Mexico. It examines the evolution of inequalities and heterogeneous performance of the insurance subsystems incorporated under the Mexican health care system. Two types of coverage indicators were selected: health insurance and effective access to preventive health interventions intended for normative population. Data were drawn from National Health and Nutrition Surveys 2006 and 2012. The economic inequality was estimated using the Standardized Concentration Index by household per capita consumption expenditure as socioeconomic-status indicator. Approximately 75% of the population reported being covered by one of the existing insurance schemes, representing a huge step forward from 2006, when as much as 51.62% of the population had no health insurance. About 87% of this growth was attributable to the expansion of Non Contributory Health Insurance whereas 7% emanated from the Social Security subsystem. The results revealed that inequality in access to health insurance was virtually eradicated; however, traces of unequal access persisted in some subpopulations groups. Coverage indicators of effective access showed a slight improvement in the period analysed, but prenatal care and interventions to prevent chronic disease still presented a serious shortage. Furthermore, there was no evidence that inequities in coverage of these interventions have decreased in recent years. The results provided a mixed picture, generalizable to the system as a whole, expansion of insurance status represents one of the most remarkable advances that have not been accompanied by a significant improvement in effective access. In addition, existing inequalities are

  9. Public Health Workers and Vaccination Coverage in Eastern China: A Health Economic Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Hu

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Vaccine-preventable diseases cause more than one million deaths among children under 5 years of age every year. Public Health Workers (PHWs are needed to provide immunization services, but the role of human resources for public health as a determinant of vaccination coverage at the population level has not been assessed in China. The objective of this study was to test whether PHW density was positively associated with childhood vaccination coverage in Zhejiang Province, East China. Methods: The vaccination coverage rates of Measles Containing Vaccine (MCV, Diphtheria, Tetanus and Pertussis combined vaccine (DTP, and Poliomyelitis Vaccine (PV were chosen as the dependent variables. Vaccination coverage data of children aged 13–24 months for each county in Zhejiang Province were taken from the Zhejiang Immunization Information System (ZJIIS. Aggregate PHW density was an independent variable in one set of regressions, and Vaccine Personnel (VP and other PHW densities were used separately in another set. Data on densities of PHW and VP were taken from a national investigation on EPI launched by Ministry of Health of China in 2013. We controlled other determinants that may influence the vaccination coverage like Gross Domestic Product (GDP per person, proportion of migrant children aged <7 years, and land area. These data were taken from Zhejiang Provincial Bureau of Statistics and ZJIIS. Results: PHW density was significantly influence the coverage rates of MCV [Adjusted Odds Ratio(AOR = 4.29], DTP3(AOR = 2.16, and PV3 (AOR = 3.30. However, when the effects of VPs and other PHWs were assessed separately, we found that VP density was significantly associated with coverage of all three vaccinations (MCV AOR = 7.05; DTP3 AOR = 1.82; PV3 AOR = 4.83, while other PHW density was not. Proportion of migrant children < 7 years and Land area were found as negative and significant determinants for vaccination coverage, while GDP per person had

  10. Coverage analysis for sensor networks based on Clifford algebra

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIE WeiXin; CAO WenMing; MENG Shan

    2008-01-01

    The coverage performance is the foundation of information acquisition in distrib-uted sensor networks. The previously proposed coverage work was mostly based on unit disk coverage model or ball coverage model in 2D or 3D space, respectively. However, most methods cannot give a homogeneous coverage model for targets with hybrid types. This paper presents a coverage analysis approach for sensor networks based on Clifford algebra and establishes a homogeneous coverage model for sensor networks with hybrid types of targets. The effectiveness of the approach is demonstrated with examples.

  11. 佛山市流动人口聚集地区流动儿童免疫规划疫苗接种率及影响因素调查%Immunization coverage rate and its affecting factors for floating children living in migrant population gathering area, Foshan City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙宝志; 黄祖星; 陈抒豪; 张吉凯; 杨泽锋; 麦冰; 黄劲梅; 李小红

    2011-01-01

    Objective To know the vaccination level of floating children and its related affecting factors in Foshan City, and to explore the methods of vaccination management of floating children. Methods Fifty-one administrative villages from 17 administrative towns/streets with more floating children in the city were selected as study spots, and ten floating children aged 1 to 7 years old were selected from each study spot. Parents/guardians of floating children aged 1-7 years old were investigated by self - designed questionnaires in March 2010. The main contents of questionnaire include basic information and vaccination status of floating children, the basic information of parents/guardians and their knowledge to children immunization. The risk factors of vaccination level of floating children were analyzed using unconditional logistic regression model analysis. Results A total of 503 valid questionnaires were analyzed. It is shown that the rates of immunization record establishment for children in clinic and record cards held by parents were 94.0% and 97.8% respectively. The immunization coverage rates of BCG, OPV, DPT, MV, HEPB and JE were 95.0%, 88.4%, 87.5%, 88. 2%, 92.2%, and 85.8%, respectively, and the whole course vaccination rate of above six vaccines was 68.4%. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that age increase of children, other nationalities but not Han ones for children, less than one year that children lived in Foshan in the latest two yeas, immunization record from other origins but not Foshan City, and parents' dissatisfaction to the clinic could affected the whole course vaccination rate of six vaccines in floating children negatively with the odds ratios 0.79, 0.37, 0. 41,0. 60, and 0. 37, respectively. Conclusion The immunization coverage rates of vaccines was low for floating children in migrant population gathering area, and comprehensive measures should be put into effect.%目的 了解佛山市外来流动儿童免

  12. Evaluation of coverage and compliance of elimination of lymphatic filariasis by mass drug administration campaign in Gulbarga and Yadgiri districts of Karnataka state

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naveenkumar G. Havale

    2015-08-01

    Methods: Cross sectional population based house to house visit. Outcomes were assessed as actual coverage, compliance and effective coverage in percentages and proportions. Results: 320 households from 8 clusters in 2 districts were covered. Among the 1653 eligible population the coverage rate is 93.42% in Gulbarga and 74.12% in Yadgiri district with inter cluster variation. The compliance rate is 86.35% in Gulbarga and 75.78% in Yadgiri district. The effective coverage rate is 80.67% in Gulbarga district and 56.17% in Yadgiri district. The coverage compliance gap is 13.65% in Gulbarga district and 24.22% in Yadgiri district. Conclusions: The effective coverage in both Gulbarga and Yadgiri districts is below the target (<85% which is essential for progression towards elimination of LF. Side effects after drug consumption were minimal. [Int J Res Med Sci 2015; 3(8.000: 2105-2108

  13. Universal coverage challenges require health system approaches; the case of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duran, Antonio; Kutzin, Joseph; Menabde, Nata

    2014-02-01

    This paper uses the case of India to demonstrate that Universal Health Coverage (UHC) is about not only health financing; personal and population services production issues, stewardship of the health system and generation of the necessary resources and inputs need to accompany the health financing proposals. In order to help policy makers address UHC in India and sort out implementation issues, the framework developed by the World Health Organization (WHO) in the World Health Report 2000 and its subsequent extensions are advocated. The framework includes final goals, generic intermediate objectives and four inter-dependent functions which interact as a system; it can be useful by diagnosing current shortcomings and facilitating the filling up of gaps between functions and goals. Different positions are being defended in India re the preconditions for UHC to succeed. This paper argues that more (public) money will be important, but not enough; it needs to be supplemented with broad interventions at various health system levels. The paper analyzes some of the most important issues in relation to the functions of service production, generation of inputs and the necessary stewardship. It also pays attention to reform implementation, as different from its design, and suggests critical aspects emanating from a review of recent health system reforms. Precisely because of the lack of comparative reference for India, emphasis is made on the need to accompany implementation with analysis, so that the "solutions" ("what to do?", "how to do it?") are found through policy analysis and research embedded into flexible implementation. Strengthening "evidence-to-policy" links and the intelligence dimension of stewardship/leadership as well as accountability during implementation are considered paramount. Countries facing similar challenges to those faced by India can also benefit from the above approaches.

  14. Separating Selection Bias and Non-coverage in Internet Panels using Propensity Matching.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lensvelt-Mulders, G.J.L.M.; Lugtig, P.J.; Hubregtse, M.

    2009-01-01

    Many internet-panels consist of self-selected respondents and hence cover a relatively small part of the population. Estimates based on Internet-panels therefore may suffer from non-coverage and self-selection bias. One way to correct for these biases is to use adjustment weighting(Lee, 2006). Howev

  15. Hysterectomy and its impact on the calculated incidence of cervical cancer and screening coverage in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lam, Janni Uyen Hoa; Lynge, Elsebeth; Njor, Sisse Helle;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The incidence rates of cervical cancer and the coverage in cervical cancer screening are usually reported by including in the denominator all women from the general population. However, after hysterectomy women are not at risk anymore of developing cervical cancer. Therefore, it makes...

  16. A Survey on Coverage Control Protocols in Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.Nivedhitha

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Coverage control algorithms play an important role in Wireless sensor network. Effective coverage control algorithms sense its coverage area with less energy spent. These coverage control models falls under various approaches like clustering, evolutionary, mobility based approaches. This paper makes a detailed survey on coverage control protocols coming under various classifications. In addition, it also discussed several protocols working mechanism with its evaluation metrics.

  17. Broad Absorption Line Variability in Radio-Loud Quasars

    CERN Document Server

    Welling, C A; Brandt, W N; Capellupo, D M; Gibson, R R

    2014-01-01

    We investigate C IV broad absorption line (BAL) variability within a sample of 46 radio-loud quasars (RLQs), selected from SDSS/FIRST data to include both core-dominated (39) and lobe-dominated (7) objects. The sample consists primarily of high-ionization BAL quasars, and a substantial fraction have large BAL velocities or equivalent widths; their radio luminosities and radio-loudness values span ~2.5 orders of magnitude. We have obtained 34 new Hobby-Eberly Telescope (HET) spectra of 28 BAL RLQs to compare to earlier SDSS data, and we also incorporate archival coverage (primarily dual-epoch SDSS) for a total set of 78 pairs of equivalent width measurements for 46 BAL RLQs, probing rest-frame timescales of ~80-6000 d (median 500 d). In general, only modest changes in the depths of segments of absorption troughs are observed, akin to those seen in prior studies of BAL RQQs. Also similar to previous findings for RQQs, the RLQs studied here are more likely to display BAL variability on longer rest-frame timescal...

  18. A broad area electrospray generated by a piezoelectric transformer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramshani, Zeinab; Johnson, Michael J.; Atashbar, Massood Z.; Go, David B.

    2016-07-01

    Electrosprays are typically formed by the application of a high (kilovolt) voltage to the flow exiting a small diameter capillary, and they have been used in applications ranging from material synthesis to spray coating because of the finely controlled plume of micron-sized droplets they produce. In this work, we report a similar but distinct spray directly off the surface of a piezoelectric transformer. Using a paper wick to deliver liquid to the surface of the piezoelectric crystal, a continuous, broad area spray is generated from the wick in contact with the transformer surface, only requiring input voltages on the order of 20 Vamp. Systematic variation of critical parameters indicate that this piezoelectric transformer-generated spray is similar to a conventional electrospray, with the spray current exhibiting a non-linear dependence on the solution conductivity, but distinct, as the spray exhibits little dependence on the solution surface tension. This innovative spray could potentially lead to uniform, large area spray coverage from a single device for a wide variety of applications.

  19. Equity in maternal, newborn, and child health care coverage in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prashant Singh

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Addressing inequitable coverage of maternal and child health care services among different socioeconomic strata of population and across states is an important part of India's contemporary health program. This has wide implications for the achievement of the Millennium Development Goal targets. Objective: This paper assesses the inequity in coverage of maternal, newborn, and child health (MNCH care services across household wealth quintiles in India and its states. Design: Utilizing the District Level Household and Facility Survey conducted during 2007–08, this paper has constructed a Composite Coverage Index (CCI in MNCH care. Results: The mean overall coverage of 45% was estimated at the national level, ranging from 31% for the poorest to 60% for the wealthiest quintile. Moreover, a massive state-wise difference across wealth quintiles was observed in the mean overall CCI. Almost half of the Indian states and union territories recorded a =50% coverage in MNCH care services, which demands special attention. Conclusion: India needs focused efforts to address the inequity in coverage of health care services by recognising or defining underserved people and pursuing well-planned time-oriented health programs committed to ameliorate the present state of MNCH care.

  20. 76 FR 7767 - Student Health Insurance Coverage

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-11

    ... Proposed Rule A. Introduction The U.S. Government Accountability Office (GAO) has estimated that most... employees. 62 FR 16985, 16992 (April 8, 1997). As noted earlier in the introduction, it is believed that... student health insurance coverage to revise or amend their current business or marketing agreements...

  1. Open Problem: Analyzing Ant Robot Coverage

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Efficient and inefficient ant coverage methods. Annals of Mathematics and Artificial Intelligence, 31, 41–76. The proofs can be found in the technical...Wagner, I., & Bruckstein, A. (2001). Special issue on ant robotics. Annals of Mathematics and Artificial Intelligence, 31. Wagner, I., Lindenbaum, M

  2. Binning metagenomic contigs by coverage and composition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alneberg, J.; Bjarnason, B.S.; Bruijn, de I.; Schirmer, M.; Quick, J.; Ijaz, U.Z.; Lahti, L.M.; Loman, N.J.; Andersson, A.F.; Quince, C.

    2014-01-01

    Shotgun sequencing enables the reconstruction of genomes from complex microbial communities, but because assembly does not reconstruct entire genomes, it is necessary to bin genome fragments. Here we present CONCOCT, a new algorithm that combines sequence composition and coverage across multiple sam

  3. 44 CFR 17.610 - Coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... SECURITY GENERAL GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (GRANTS) § 17.610 Coverage. (a) This... the laws or regulations of a foreign government. A determination of such inconsistency may be made only by the agency head or his/her designee. (c) The provisions of 2 CFR part 3000 apply to...

  4. 5 CFR 930.103 - Coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Coverage. 930.103 Section 930.103 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED... ensure the safe and efficient operation of such vehicles....

  5. 32 CFR 199.8 - Double coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (for example, the Indian Health Service); or (v) State Victims of Crime Compensation Programs. (c... by a double coverage plan and recover, under § 199.12, the TRICARE costs of health care incurred on..., the amount payable by CHAMPUS shall be the amount of the actual out-of-pocket costs incurred by...

  6. Dynamic Coverage of Mobile Sensor Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Benyuan; Nain, Philippe; Towsley, Don

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we study the dynamic aspects of the coverage of a mobile sensor network resulting from continuous movement of sensors. As sensors move around, initially uncovered locations are likely to be covered at a later time. A larger area is covered as time continues, and intruders that might never be detected in a stationary sensor network can now be detected by moving sensors. However, this improvement in coverage is achieved at the cost that a location is covered only part of the time, alternating between covered and not covered. We characterize area coverage at specific time instants and during time intervals, as well as the time durations that a location is covered and uncovered. We further characterize the time it takes to detect a randomly located intruder. For mobile intruders, we take a game theoretic approach and derive optimal mobility strategies for both sensors and intruders. Our results show that sensor mobility brings about unique dynamic coverage properties not present in a stationary sens...

  7. 5 CFR 630.602 - Coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Coverage. 630.602 Section 630.602 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS ABSENCE AND LEAVE Home Leave... Code, for the accumulation of a maximum of 45 days of annual leave earns and may be granted home...

  8. Spatial Coverage Planning for Exploration Robots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaines, Daniel; Estlin, Tara; Chouinard, Caroline

    2007-01-01

    A report discusses an algorithm for an onboard planning and execution technology to support the exploration and characterization of geological features by autonomous rovers. A rover that is capable of deciding which observations are more important relieves the engineering team from much of the burden of attempting to make accurate predictions of what the available rover resources will be in the future. Instead, the science and engineering teams can uplink a set of observation requests that may potentially oversubscribe resources and let the rover use observation priorities and its current assessment of available resources to make decisions about which observations to perform and when to perform them. The algorithm gives the rover the ability to model spatial coverage quality based on data from different scientific instruments, to assess the impact of terrain on coverage quality, to incorporate user-defined priorities among subregions of the terrain to be covered, and to update coverage quality rankings of observations when terrain knowledge changes. When the rover is exploring large geographical features such as craters, channels, or boundaries between two different regions, an important factor in assessing the quality of a mission plan is how the set of chosen observations spatially cover the area of interest. The algorithm allows the rover to evaluate which observation to perform and to what extent the candidate observation will increase the spatial coverage of the plan.

  9. 5 CFR 730.103 - Coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...) NOTIFICATION OF POST-EMPLOYMENT RESTRICTIONS § 730.103 Coverage. (a) The following individuals are subject to the post-employment conflict-of-interest restrictions in 18 U.S.C. 207(c), as amended by section 1125... executive, who is paid at a rate of basic pay equal to or greater than 86.5 percent of the rate for level...

  10. 29 CFR 1603.101 - Coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... STATE AND LOCAL GOVERNMENT EMPLOYEE COMPLAINTS OF EMPLOYMENT DISCRIMINATION UNDER SECTION 304 OF THE GOVERNMENT EMPLOYEE RIGHTS ACT OF 1991 Administrative Process § 1603.101 Coverage. Section 304 of the Government Employee Rights Act of 1991 applies to employment, which includes application for employment,...

  11. True Public Access Defibrillator Coverage is Overestimated

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sun, Christopher L.F.; Demirtas, Derya; Brooks, Steven C.; Morrison, Laurie J.; Chan, Timothy C.Y.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Out-of-hospital cardiac arrests (OHCAs) occur at all times of the day and night. Immediate access to an AED increases survival. However, most public-location AEDs are placed in buildings without 24 hour access. Objective: To measure fixed-location public AED coverage of OHCAs by time

  12. 5 CFR 890.102 - Coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL... appointment established under § 772.102 of this chapter. (e) The Office of Personnel Management makes the... his/her coverage or the determination of when 365 days in nonpay status ends....

  13. 5 CFR 734.401 - Coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... United States Customs Service; (12) The Office of Law Enforcement of the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, and... Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) POLITICAL ACTIVITIES OF FEDERAL EMPLOYEES Employees in Certain Agencies and Positions § 734.401 Coverage....

  14. SPECTROSCOPY OF BROAD-LINE BLAZARS FROM 1LAC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaw, Michael S.; Romani, Roger W.; Healey, Stephen E.; Michelson, Peter F. [Department of Physics/KIPAC, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Cotter, Garret; Potter, William J. [Department of Astrophysics, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3RH (United Kingdom); Readhead, Anthony C. S.; Richards, Joseph L.; Max-Moerbeck, Walter; King, Oliver G. [Department of Astronomy, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)

    2012-03-20

    We report on optical spectroscopy of 165 flat spectrum radio quasars (FSRQs) in the Fermi 1LAC sample, which have helped allow a nearly complete study of this population. Fermi FSRQs show significant evidence for non-thermal emission even in the optical; the degree depends on the {gamma}-ray hardness. They also have smaller virial estimates of hole mass than the optical quasar sample. This appears to be largely due to a preferred (axial) view of the {gamma}-ray FSRQ and non-isotropic (H/R {approx} 0.4) distribution of broad-line velocities. Even after correction for this bias, the Fermi FSRQs show higher mean Eddington ratios than the optical population. A comparison of optical spectral properties with Owens Valley Radio Observatory radio flare activity shows no strong correlation.

  15. Determinants of vaccination coverage in rural Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meurice Francois P

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Childhood immunization is a cost effective public health strategy. Expanded Programme on Immunisation (EPI services have been provided in a rural Nigerian community (Sabongidda-Ora, Edo State at no cost to the community since 1998 through a privately financed vaccination project (private public partnership. The objective of this survey was to assess vaccination coverage and its determinants in this rural community in Nigeria Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted in September 2006, which included the use of interviewer-administered questionnaire to assess knowledge of mothers of children aged 12–23 months and vaccination coverage. Survey participants were selected following the World Health Organization's (WHO immunization coverage cluster survey design. Vaccination coverage was assessed by vaccination card and maternal history. A child was said to be fully immunized if he or she had received all of the following vaccines: a dose of Bacille Calmette Guerin (BCG, three doses of oral polio (OPV, three doses of diphtheria, pertussis and tetanus (DPT, three doses of hepatitis B (HB and one dose of measles by the time he or she was enrolled in the survey, i.e. between the ages of 12–23 months. Knowledge of the mothers was graded as satisfactory if mothers had at least a score of 3 out of a maximum of 5 points. Logistic regression was performed to identify determinants of full immunization status. Results Three hundred and thirty-nine mothers and 339 children (each mother had one eligible child were included in the survey. Most of the mothers (99.1% had very positive attitudes to immunization and > 55% were generally knowledgeable about symptoms of vaccine preventable diseases except for difficulty in breathing (as symptom of diphtheria. Two hundred and ninety-five mothers (87.0% had a satisfactory level of knowledge. Vaccination coverage against all the seven childhood vaccine preventable diseases was 61.9% although it

  16. Teaching the Broad, Interdisciplinary Impact of Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, David; Atlas, Pierre; Haberski, Raymond; Higgs, Jamie; Kiley, Patrick; Maxwell, Michael, Jr.; Mirola, William; Norton, Jamey

    2009-01-01

    As perhaps the most encompassing idea in biology, evolution has impacted not only science, but other academic disciplines as well. The broad, interdisciplinary impact of evolution was the theme of a course taught at Marian College, Indianapolis, Indiana in 2002, 2004, and 2006. Using a strategy that could be readily adopted at other institutions,…

  17. The GREGOR Broad-Band Imager

    Science.gov (United States)

    von der Lühe, O.; Volkmer, R.; Kentischer, T. J.; Geißler, R.

    2012-11-01

    The design and characteristics of the Broad-Band Imager (BBI) of GREGOR are described. BBI covers the visible spectral range with two cameras simultaneously for a large field and with critical sampling at 390 nm, and it includes a mode for observing the pupil in a Foucault configuration. Samples of first-light observations are shown.

  18. International measles incidence and immunization coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Robert; Jolley, Damien

    2011-07-01

    Measles is exquisitely sensitive to immunization programs. We investigated the decline in measles incidence after immunization with 1 or 2 doses of measles-containing vaccine (MCV), with or without supplementary immunization activities (SIAs). Using data from the World Health Organization, we modeled the impact of measles immunization using a negative binomial regression model. All countries offer measles immunization, and 192 of 193 countries offer a second dose of MCV (MCV2), using either a routine second dose, SIAs, or both. The incidence of measles fell from a median of 70.9 cases/100,000/year when coverage with a first dose of MCV (MCV1) was in the range of 0%-39% to a median of .9 cases/100,000/year when MCV1 coverage was 90%-100%, in both cases with no MCV2. Further reductions followed the introduction of MCV2 and SIAs. Modeling showed that each 1% increase in MCV1 coverage was followed by a 2.0% decrease in incidence in the same and following years (95% confidence interval [CI], 2.0%-1.9%, and 2.1%-1.9%, respectively). For a second dose, a rise of 1% in MCV2 coverage was followed by a decrease in measles incidence by .4% (95% CI, .3%-.5%) in the same year and .3% (95% CI, .2%-.5%) in the following year. SIAs were followed by decreases of measles incidence by 40.3% (95% CI, 46.3%-33.8%) in the same year and 45.2% (95% CI, 51.1%-48.7%) in the following year. A herd immunity effect was demonstrated with MCV1 coverage of >80%, and SIAs are an extraordinarily effective strategy for measles control.

  19. Determinants of Vaccination Coverage and Consequences for Rabies Control in Bali, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arief, Riana A.; Hampson, Katie; Jatikusumah, Andri; Widyastuti, Maria D. W.; Sunandar; Basri, Chaerul; Putra, Anak A. G.; Willyanto, Iwan; Estoepangestie, Agnes T. S.; Mardiana, I. W.; Kesuma, I. K. G. N.; Sumantra, I. P.; Doherty, Paul F.; Salman, M. D.; Gilbert, Jeff; Unger, Fred

    2017-01-01

    Maintaining high vaccination coverage is key to successful rabies control, but mass dog vaccination can be challenging and population turnover erodes coverage. Declines in rabies incidence following successive island-wide vaccination campaigns in Bali suggest that prospects for controlling and ultimately eliminating rabies are good. Rabies, however, has continued to circulate at low levels. In the push to eliminate rabies from Bali, high coverage needs to be maintained across all areas of the island. We carried out door-to-door (DTD) questionnaire surveys (n = 10,352 dog-owning households) and photographic mark–recapture surveys (536 line transects, 2,597 observations of free-roaming dogs) in 2011–2012 to estimate dog population sizes and assess rabies vaccination coverage and dog demographic characteristics in Bali, Indonesia. The median number of dogs per subvillage unit (banjar) was 43 (range 0–307) for owned dogs estimated from the DTD survey and 17 (range 0–83) for unconfined dogs (including both owned and unowned) from transects. Vaccination coverage of owned dogs was significantly higher in adults (91.4%) compared to juveniles (advertising to ensure that owners vaccinate pups. Long-lasting, cheap, and quick methods are needed to mark vaccinated animals and reassure communities of the reach of vaccination campaigns. PMID:28119919

  20. Indonesia's road to universal health coverage: a political journey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisani, Elizabeth; Olivier Kok, Maarten; Nugroho, Kharisma

    2016-09-06

    In 2013 Indonesia, the world's fourth most populous country, declared that it would provide affordable health care for all its citizens within seven years. This crystallised an ambition first enshrined in law over five decades earlier, but never previously realised. This paper explores Indonesia's journey towards universal health coverage (UHC) from independence to the launch of a comprehensive health insurance scheme in January 2014. We find that Indonesia's path has been determined largely by domestic political concerns - different groups obtained access to healthcare as their socio-political importance grew.A major inflection point occurred following the Asian financial crisis of 1997. To stave off social unrest, the government provided health coverage for the poor for the first time, creating a path dependency that influenced later policy choices. The end of this programme coincided with decentralisation, leading to experimentation with several different models of health provision at the local level. When direct elections for local leaders were introduced in 2005, popular health schemes led to success at the polls. UHC became an electoral asset, moving up the political agenda. It also became contested, with national policy-makers appropriating health insurance programmes that were first developed locally, and taking credit for them.The Indonesian experience underlines the value of policy experimentation, and of a close understanding of the contextual and political factors that drive successful UHC models at the local level. Specific drivers of success and failure should be taken into account when scaling UHC to the national level. In the Indonesian example, UHC became possible when the interests of politically and economically influential groups were either satisfied or neutralised. While technical considerations took a back seat to political priorities in developing the structures for health coverage nationally, they will have to be addressed going forward to

  1. Information recovery from low coverage whole-genome bisulfite sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libertini, Emanuele; Heath, Simon C; Hamoudi, Rifat A; Gut, Marta; Ziller, Michael J; Czyz, Agata; Ruotti, Victor; Stunnenberg, Hendrik G; Frontini, Mattia; Ouwehand, Willem H; Meissner, Alexander; Gut, Ivo G; Beck, Stephan

    2016-06-27

    The cost of whole-genome bisulfite sequencing (WGBS) remains a bottleneck for many studies and it is therefore imperative to extract as much information as possible from a given dataset. This is particularly important because even at the recommend 30X coverage for reference methylomes, up to 50% of high-resolution features such as differentially methylated positions (DMPs) cannot be called with current methods as determined by saturation analysis. To address this limitation, we have developed a tool that dynamically segments WGBS methylomes into blocks of comethylation (COMETs) from which lost information can be recovered in the form of differentially methylated COMETs (DMCs). Using this tool, we demonstrate recovery of ∼30% of the lost DMP information content as DMCs even at very low (5X) coverage. This constitutes twice the amount that can be recovered using an existing method based on differentially methylated regions (DMRs). In addition, we explored the relationship between COMETs and haplotypes in lymphoblastoid cell lines of African and European origin. Using best fit analysis, we show COMETs to be correlated in a population-specific manner, suggesting that this type of dynamic segmentation may be useful for integrated (epi)genome-wide association studies in the future.

  2. Broadly Neutralizing Antibodies for HIV Eradication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, Kathryn E; Barouch, Dan H

    2016-02-01

    Passive transfer of antibodies has long been considered a potential treatment modality for infectious diseases, including HIV. Early efforts to use antibodies to suppress HIV replication, however, were largely unsuccessful, as the antibodies that were studied neutralized only a relatively narrow spectrum of viral strains and were not very potent. Recent advances have led to the discovery of a large portfolio of human monoclonal antibodies that are broadly neutralizing across many HIV-1 subtypes and are also substantially more potent. These antibodies target multiple different epitopes on the HIV envelope, thus allowing for the development of antibody combinations. In this review, we discuss the application of broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs) for HIV treatment and HIV eradication strategies. We highlight bNAbs that target key epitopes, such as the CD4 binding site and the V2/V3-glycan-dependent sites, and we discuss several bNAbs that are currently in the clinical development pipeline.

  3. Global coverage of cetacean line-transect surveys: status quo, data gaps and future challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaschner, Kristin; Quick, Nicola J; Jewell, Rebecca; Williams, Rob; Harris, Catriona M

    2012-01-01

    Knowledge of abundance, trends and distribution of cetacean populations is needed to inform marine conservation efforts, ecosystem models and spatial planning. We compiled a geo-spatial database of published data on cetacean abundance from dedicated visual line-transect surveys and encoded >1100 abundance estimates for 47 species from 430 surveys conducted worldwide from 1975-2005. Our subsequent analyses revealed large spatial, temporal and taxonomic variability and gaps in survey coverage. With the exception of Antarctic waters, survey coverage was biased toward the northern hemisphere, especially US and northern European waters. Overall, cetacean conservation efforts.

  4. Particle Physics could do with much more serious coverage in serious newspaper

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    Editorial "Particle Physics could do with much more serious coverage in serious newspaper. So we welcome the feature on the Large Hadron Collider and the computing grid that appeared in the Irish Times on 30 April. So serious is this coverage that it manages to avoid any tacky populism in its announcement of a truly earth-shattering discovery. Not blazoned across the front page, not even headlined, but tucked away in the tenth paragraph, is the news that the LHC will operate at 'minus 3000°C in temperature'. (That's minus 2727 kelvin, for thermodynamic purists -0 kelvin being absolute zero, of course.)" (fulltext)

  5. Multiple and broad frequency response Gunn diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilgrim, N. J.; Macpherson, R. F.; Khalid, A.; Dunn, G. M.; Cumming, D. R. S.

    2009-10-01

    Gunn diodes, operating in transit time mode, are usually thought of as incapable of generating power at multiple frequencies or over a broad frequency range. In this paper, we report experimental results showing that these diodes can generate power at several frequencies and, using Monte Carlo simulations of both planar and vertical devices, we offer an explanation of how this unusual behaviour may come into being and suggest possible applications for this novel device.

  6. Potential Uses of Administrative Records for Triple System Modeling for Estimation of Census Coverage Error in 2020

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Griffin Richard A.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Heterogeneity in capture probabilities is known to produce bias in the dual system estimates that have been used to estimate census coverage in U.S. Censuses since 1980. Triple system estimation using an administrative records list as a third source along with the census and coverage measurement survey has the potential to produce estimates with less bias. This is particularly important for hard-to-reach populations.

  7. Wide coverage by volume CT: benefits for cardiac imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sablayrolles, Jean-Louis; Cesmeli, Erdogan; Mintandjian, Laura; Adda, Olivier; Dessalles-Martin, Diane

    2005-04-01

    With the development of new technologies, computed tomography (CT) is becoming a strong candidate for non-invasive imaging based tool for cardiac disease assessment. One of the challenges of cardiac CT is that a typical scan involves a breath hold period consisting of several heartbeats, about 20 sec with scanners having a longitudinal coverage of 2 cm, and causing the image quality (IQ) to be negatively impacted since beat to beat variation is high likely to occur without any medication, e.g. beta blockers. Because of this and the preference for shorter breath hold durations, a CT scanner with a wide coverage without the compromise in the spatial and temporal resolution of great clinical value. In this study, we aimed at determining the optimum scan duration and the delay relative to beginning of breath hold, to achieve high IQ. We acquired EKG data from 91 consecutive patients (77 M, 14 F; Age: 57 +/- 14) undergoing cardiac CT exams with contrast, performed on LightSpeed 16 and LightSpeed Pro16. As an IQ metric, we adopted the standard deviation of "beat-to-beat variation" (stdBBV) within a virtual scan period. Two radiologists evaluated images by assigning a score of 1 (worst) to 4 best). We validated stdBBV with the radiologist scores, which resulted in a population distribution of 9.5, 9.5, 31, and 50% for the score groups 1, 2, 3, and 4, respectively. Based on the scores, we defined a threshold for stdBBV and identified an optimum combination of virtual scan period and a delay. With the assumption that the relationship between the stdBBV and diagnosable scan IQ holds, our analysis suggested that the success rate can be improved to 100% with scan durations equal or less than 5 sec with a delay of 1 - 2 sec. We confirmed the suggested conclusion with LightSpeed VCT (GE Healthcare Technologies, Waukesha, WI), which has a wide longitudinal coverage, fine isotropic spatial resolution, and high temporal resolution, e.g. 40 mm coverage per rotation of 0.35 sec

  8. Immunization Coverage in Migrant School Children Along the Thailand-Myanmar Border.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaji, Aiko; Parker, Daniel M; Chu, Cindy S; Thayatkawin, Wipa; Suelaor, Jiraporn; Charatrueangrongkun, Rachai; Salathibuppha, Kloloi; Nosten, Francois H; McGready, Rose

    2016-10-01

    The objective of this project was to document and increase vaccine coverage in migrant school children on the Thailand-Myanmar border. Migrant school children (n = 12,277) were enrolled in a school-based immunization program in four Thai border districts. The children were evaluated for vaccination completion and timing, for six different vaccines: Bacille Calmette-Guerin (BCG); Oral Polio vaccine (OPV); Hepatitis B vaccine (HepB); Diphtheria, Pertussis and Tetanus vaccine (DTP); Measles Containing Vaccine or Measles, Mumps and Rubella vaccine (MMR); Tetanus and Diphtheria containing vaccine (Td). Vaccine coverage proportions for BCG, OPV3, DTP3, HepB3 and measles containing vaccine were 92.3, 85.3, 63.8, 72.2, and 90.9 % respectively. Most children were able to receive vaccines in a time appropriate manner. School-based immunization programs offer a suitable vaccine delivery mechanism for hard-to-reach populations. However, these data suggest overall low vaccine coverage in migrant populations. Further efforts toward improving appropriate vaccine coverage and methods of retaining documentation of vaccination in mobile migrant populations are necessary for improved health.

  9. Immunization coverage levels among 19- to 35-month-old children in 4 diverse, medically underserved areas of the United States

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rosenthal, J; Rodewald, L; McCauley, M; Berman, S; Irigoyen, M; Sawyer, M; Yusuf, H; Davis, R; Kalton, G

    2004-01-01

    Background. The National Immunization Survey demonstrates that national immunization coverage in 2002 remained near the all-time highs achieved in 2000. However, that survey cannot detect whether coverage is uniformly high within relatively small areas or populations. The measles resurgence in the e

  10. Global Moon Coverage via Hyperbolic Flybys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buffington, Brent; Strange, Nathan; Campagnola, Stefano

    2012-01-01

    The scientific desire for global coverage of moons such as Jupiter's Galilean moons or Saturn's Titan has invariably led to the design of orbiter missions. These orbiter missions require a large amount of propellant needed to insert into orbit around such small bodies, and for a given launch vehicle, the additional propellant mass takes away from mass that could otherwise be used for scientific instrumentation on a multiple flyby-only mission. This paper will present methods--expanding upon techniques developed for the design of the Cassini prime and extended missions--to obtain near global moon coverage through multiple flybys. Furthermore we will show with proper instrument suite selection, a flyby-only mission can provide science return similar (and in some cases greater) to that of an orbiter mission.

  11. Perplexity Analysis of Obesity News Coverage

    OpenAIRE

    McFarlane, Delano J.; Elhadad, Noémie; Kukafka, Rita

    2009-01-01

    An important task performed during the analysis of health news coverage is the identification of news articles that are related to a specific health topic (e.g. obesity). This is often done using a combination of keyword searching and manual encoding of news content. Statistical language models and their evaluation metric, perplexity, may help to automate this task. A perplexity study of obesity news was performed to evaluate perplexity as a measure of the similarity of news corpora to obesit...

  12. Analyst Coverage and Tax Reporting Aggressiveness

    OpenAIRE

    McInerney, Megan Michelle

    2010-01-01

    The role of analysts in corporate governance has been examined extensively in the accounting literature. Two conflicting representations of the influence of analysts have emerged. Analysts are either viewed as external monitors of corporate behavior, thereby reducing agency costs; or they are viewed as exerting additional pressure on management to meet earnings forecasts, which may contribute to aggressive corporate behavior. Studies exist that examine the impact of analyst coverage in a f...

  13. Measuring Progress towards Universal Health Coverage

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    The last few years have seen a growing commitment worldwide to universal health coverage (UHC). Yet there is a lack of clarity on how to measure progress towards UHC. This paper proposes a ‘mashup’ index that captures both aspects of UHC: that everyone—irrespective of their ability-to-pay—gets the health services they need; and that nobody suffers undue financial hardship as a result of re...

  14. Double Barrier Coverage in Dense Sensor Networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cheng-Dong Jiang; Guo-Liang Chen

    2008-01-01

    When a sensor network is deployed to detect objects penetrating a protected region, it is not necessary to have every point in the deployment region covered by a sensor. It is enough if the penetrating objects are detected at some point in their trajectory. If a sensor network guarantees that every penetrating object will be detected by two distinct sensors at the same time somewhere in this area, we say that the network provides double barrier coverage (DBC). In this paper, we propose a new planar structure of Sparse Delaunay Triangulation (SparseDT), and prove some elaborate attributes of it. We develop theoretical foundations for double barrier coverage, and propose efficient algorithms with NS2 simulator using which one can activate the necessary sensors to guarantee double barrier coverage while the other sensors go to sleep. The upper and lower bounds of number of active nodes are determined, and we show that high-speed target will be detected efficiently with this configuration.

  15. Emergency room coverage: an evolving crisis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davison, Steven P

    2004-08-01

    Historically, a newly graduated plastic surgeon in the United States could build a practice from his or her emergency room coverage. The historical cliche was for the surgeon to be affable, able, and available, and from that basis one's practice would grow. Emergency room exposure was an avenue for starting a practice, developing recognition, and, after that, building a referral pattern. Recently, the cross-shifting influence of management care, rising malpractice insurance costs, and risk ratio are changing this cliche to a crisis. An evaluation of a 2 1/2-year exposure to emergency room coverage has revealed a completely different profile. A total of 300 patient visits resulting in 69 surgical operations were evaluated for insurance and remuneration history. The findings indicated a significant remuneration dilemma for emergency room coverage. Interestingly, a remuneration problem exists in a market different from what one would expect. In this study, a sample from a suburban hospital, rather than an inner-city university hospital, is the greater problem.

  16. To Broad-Match or Not to Broad-Match : An Auctioneer's Dilemma ?

    CERN Document Server

    Singh, Sudhir Kumar

    2008-01-01

    We initiate the study of an interesting aspect of sponsored search advertising, namely the consequences of broad match-a feature where an ad of an advertiser can be mapped to a broader range of relevant queries, and not necessarily to the particular keyword(s) that ad is associated with. Starting with a very natural setting for strategies available to the advertisers, and via a careful look through algorithmic and complexity theoretic glasses, we first propose a solution concept called broad match equilibrium(BME) for the game originating from the strategic behavior of advertisers as they try to optimize their budget allocation across various keywords. Next, we consider two broad match scenarios based on factors such as information asymmetry between advertisers and the auctioneer, and the extent of auctioneer's control on the budget splitting. In the first scenario, the advertisers have the full information about broad match and relevant parameters, and can reapportion their own budgets to utilize the extra i...

  17. Niches and interspecific associations of dominant tree populations at different restoration stages of monsoonal broad-leaved evergreen forest%季风常绿阔叶林不同恢复阶段乔木优势种群生态位和种间联结

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李帅锋; 刘万德; 苏建荣; 张志钧

    2011-01-01

    Niche and interspecific association are one of the important contents in community dynamics research. Interspecific interaction affects the restoration and succession of community. In this paper, field investigation was made on the community structure of monsoonal broad-leaved evergreen forest at its different restoration stages ( primary forest, PF; 15 years restoration, 15R; and 30 years restoration, 30R) in Pu ’ er City of Yunnan Province, and the niche breadth, niche overlap, and variance ratio ( VR) as well as the chi-square test and association coefficient (AC) based on 2×2 contingency table were used to analyze the change trend of the dominant tree populations at different restoration stages. In the three communities at different restoration stages, there was a significant positive correlation (P<0. 001 ) between the importance value and corresponding niche breadth. 78. 22% of species pairs at 15R had a niche overlap 0. 4-0. 8, suggesting a strong resource utilization competition in dominant species; while the community structure at PF and 30R was rather stable , and the species with higher niche breadth had a higher niche overlap than those with lower niche breadth , reflecting that the dominant species had stronger competitiveness. At 15R and 30R. there was a positive interspecific association; while at PF, there was a negative association. In the three communities, most species pairs had no significant association, showed stronger independency, and the proportions of positive and negative associations decreased with the process of restoration. There was a significant positive correlation between the association coefficient and niches overlap at different restoration stages, i. e. , the high the niche overlap, the greater the association coefficient.%生态位和种间联结是群落动态研究的重要内容之一,物种间相互作用影响着群落的恢复和演替.本文在对云南普洱地区不同恢复阶段(恢复15年、恢复30年和

  18. Strategies for Coordination of a Serosurvey in Parallel with an Immunization Coverage Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Travassos, Mark A; Beyene, Berhane; Adam, Zenaw; Campbell, James D; Mulholland, Nigisti; Diarra, Seydou S; Kassa, Tassew; Oot, Lisa; Sequeira, Jenny; Reymann, Mardi; Blackwelder, William C; Pasetti, Marcela F; Sow, Samba O; Steinglass, Robert; Kebede, Amha; Levine, Myron M

    2015-08-01

    A community-based immunization coverage survey is the standard way to estimate effective vaccination delivery to a target population in a region. Accompanying serosurveys can provide objective measures of protective immunity against vaccine-preventable diseases but pose considerable challenges with respect to specimen collection and preservation and community compliance. We performed serosurveys coupled to immunization coverage surveys in three administrative districts (woredas) in rural Ethiopia. Critical to the success of this effort were serosurvey equipment and supplies, team composition, and tight coordination with the coverage survey. Application of these techniques to future studies may foster more widespread use of serosurveys to derive more objective assessments of vaccine-derived seroprotection and monitor and compare the performance of immunization services in different districts of a country.

  19. 28 CFR 55.7 - Termination of coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... VOTING RIGHTS ACT REGARDING LANGUAGE MINORITY GROUPS Nature of Coverage § 55.7 Termination of coverage... the applicable language minority group is equal to or less than the national illiteracy rate....

  20. Media coverage of direct-to-consumer genetic testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, John; Parrott, Ashley; Hopkin, Robert J; Myers, Melanie

    2011-10-01

    Media coverage of Direct-to-Consumer (DTC) genetic testing shapes public perception of such testing. The purpose of this study was to determine and assess the themes presented by U.S. news media regarding DTC genetic testing. We performed a Lexis-Nexis search with the keywords "Direct-to-Consumer" and "genetic test" for news stories published from 2006-2009. The sample was coded on themes of genetic determinism, privacy, discrimination, validity, regulation, the Genetic Information Nondiscrimination Act (GINA), utility, and cost. Ninety-two news stories were included. Stories displayed moderate genetic determinism and were neutral about validity and utility. Stories indicated that insurance and employers were the most likely sources of discrimination, yet identified the physicians and DTC companies as groups most likely to violate privacy. Stories claimed lack of regulation would harm consumers, but most post-GINA stories did not discuss the law. The costs of tests were frequently included. The results of this study show a broad range of views toward DTC genetic testing and its potential impacts. The genetics community should be aware that the public has been exposed to multiple views of DTC genetic testing when discussing these tests.

  1. Varicella vaccination coverage of children under two years of age in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reuss Annicka M

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since July 2004, routine varicella vaccination is recommended by the German Standing Vaccination Committee in Germany. Health Insurance Funds started to cover vaccination costs at different time points between 2004 and 2006 in the Federal States. Nationwide representative data on vaccination coverage against varicella of children under two years of age are not available. We aimed to determine varicella vaccination coverage in statutory health insured children under two years of age in twelve German Federal States using data from associations of statutory health insurance physicians (ASHIPs, in order to investigate the acceptance of the recommended routine varicella vaccination programme. Methods We analysed data on varicella vaccination from 13 of 17 ASHIPs of the years 2004 to 2007. The study population consisted of all statutory health insured children under two years of age born in 2004 (cohort 2004 or 2005 (cohort 2005 in one of the studied regions. Vaccination coverage was determined by the number of children vaccinated under 2 years of age within the study population. Results Varicella vaccination coverage of children under two years of age with either one dose of the monovalent varicella vaccine or two doses of the measles, mumps, rubella, and varicella vaccine increased from 34% (cohort 2004 to 51% (cohort 2005 in the studied regions (p Conclusions Our study shows increasing varicella vaccination coverage of young children, indicating a growing acceptance of the routine varicella vaccination programme by the parents and physicians. We recommend further monitoring of vaccination coverage using data from ASHIPs to investigate acceptance of the routine vaccination programmes over time.

  2. Crx broadly modulates the pineal transcriptome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rovsing, Louise; Clokie, Samuel; Bustos, Diego M;

    2011-01-01

    Cone-rod homeobox (Crx) encodes Crx, a transcription factor expressed selectively in retinal photoreceptors and pinealocytes, the major cell type of the pineal gland. In this study, the influence of Crx on the mammalian pineal gland was studied by light and electron microscopy and by use......-regulation of 745 genes (p pineal glands of wild......-type animals; only eight of these were also day/night expressed in the Crx-/- pineal gland. However, in the Crx-/- pineal gland 41 genes exhibited differential night/day expression that was not seen in wild-type animals. These findings indicate that Crx broadly modulates the pineal transcriptome and also...

  3. Broad spectrum antibiotic compounds and use thereof

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koglin, Alexander; Strieker, Matthias

    2016-07-05

    The discovery of a non-ribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS) gene cluster in the genome of Clostridium thermocellum that produces a secondary metabolite that is assembled outside of the host membrane is described. Also described is the identification of homologous NRPS gene clusters from several additional microorganisms. The secondary metabolites produced by the NRPS gene clusters exhibit broad spectrum antibiotic activity. Thus, antibiotic compounds produced by the NRPS gene clusters, and analogs thereof, their use for inhibiting bacterial growth, and methods of making the antibiotic compounds are described.

  4. Universal hepatitis B vaccination coverage in children and adolescents with intellectual disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jin-Ding; Lin, Pei-Ying; Lin, Lan-Ping

    2010-01-01

    There is little information of hepatitis B vaccination coverage for people with intellectual disabilities (ID). The present paper aims to examine the completed hepatitis B vaccination coverage rate and its determinants of children and adolescents with ID in Taiwan. A cross-sectional questionnaire survey, with the entire response participants was composed of 495 primary caregivers of children and adolescents with ID (age 3-24 years) who studying in 3 special education schools in Taiwan. The results showed that coverage rate of completed hepatitis B vaccination was 74.34% in children and adolescents with ID. Although hepatitis B vaccination is a universal health policy in Taiwan, the uncompleted coverage rate of our study subjects was 2 times of the Taiwan general population at the same age. In the logistic regression analysis of hepatitis B vaccination coverage, we found that the factors of household income and ID individual's age were variables that can significantly predict they did not accept a completed vaccination. The present study suggests that parents and providers should routinely review immunizations of children and adolescents with ID.

  5. Moving toward Universal Coverage of Health Insurance in Vietnam: Barriers, Facilitating Factors, and Lessons from Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Vietnam has pursued universal health insurance coverage for two decades but has yet to fully achieve this goal. This paper investigates the barriers to achieve universal coverage and examines the validity of facilitating factors to shorten the transitional period in Vietnam. A comparative study of facilitating factors toward universal coverage of Vietnam and Korea reveals significant internal forces for Vietnam to further develop the National Health Insurance Program. Korea in 1977 and Vietnam in 2009 have common characteristics to be favorable of achieving universal coverage with similarities of level of income, highly qualified administrative ability, tradition of solidarity, and strong political leadership although there are differences in distribution of population and structure of the economy. From a comparative perspective, Vietnam can consider the experience of Korea in implementing the mandatory enrollment approach, household unit of eligibility, design of contribution and benefit scheme, and resource allocation to health insurance for sustainable government subsidy to achieve and sustain the universal coverage of health insurance. Graphical Abstract PMID:25045223

  6. [Between evidence and negligence: coverage and invisibilityof health topics in the Portuguese printed media].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavaca, Aline Guio; Vasconcellos-Silva, Paulo Roberto; Ferreira, Patrícia; Nunes, João Arriscado

    2015-11-01

    The scope of this study is to conduct an assessment of the media coverage and dissemination of health issues in Portugal in order to problematize the aspects of coverage and invisibility of health topics and establish the themes neglected in media coverage. To achieve this, the coverage on health issues in the Portuguese daily newspaper Público was compared with the epidemiological context regarding health priorities and the perceptions of key players on media dissemination and the themes that are relevant to the Portuguese population. The results showed that the recurrent health-associated themes do not deal with diseases per se, but with the politics and economics of health and medication. The themes neglected in media coverage identified in the Portuguese context include: communicable diseases, such as hepatitis and tuberculosis; issues related to mental health and suicide; and ailments and social consequences associated with the economic crisis that has beset Portugal recently. From the standpoint of the people interviewed, other neglected diseases include hemochromatosis and other rare diseases. In tandem with this, the study highlights the well covered media themes that revolve around the lives and activities of celebrities, which are exhaustively aired in the communication media in the country.

  7. 42 CFR 457.420 - Benchmark health benefits coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Benchmark health benefits coverage. 457.420 Section 457.420 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... State Plan Requirements: Coverage and Benefits § 457.420 Benchmark health benefits coverage....

  8. 29 CFR 2.12 - Audiovisual coverage permitted.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Audiovisual coverage permitted. 2.12 Section 2.12 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor GENERAL REGULATIONS Audiovisual Coverage of Administrative Hearings § 2.12 Audiovisual coverage permitted. The following are the types of hearings where the...

  9. 42 CFR 435.350 - Coverage for certain aliens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Coverage for certain aliens. 435.350 Section 435... ISLANDS, AND AMERICAN SAMOA Optional Coverage of the Medically Needy § 435.350 Coverage for certain aliens... treatment of an emergency medical condition, as defined in § 440.255(c) of this chapter, to those...

  10. 42 CFR 436.330 - Coverage for certain aliens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Coverage for certain aliens. 436.330 Section 436... Coverage of the Medically Needy § 436.330 Coverage for certain aliens. If an agency provides Medicaid to... condition, as defined in § 440.255(c) of this chapter to those aliens described in § 436.406(c) of...

  11. 42 CFR 436.128 - Coverage for certain qualified aliens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Coverage for certain qualified aliens. 436.128... Mandatory Coverage of the Categorically Needy § 436.128 Coverage for certain qualified aliens. The agency... § 440.255(c) of this chapter to those aliens described in § 436.406(c) of this subpart....

  12. 42 CFR 457.475 - Limitations on coverage: Abortions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Limitations on coverage: Abortions. 457.475 Section... State Plan Requirements: Coverage and Benefits § 457.475 Limitations on coverage: Abortions. (a) General rule. FFP under title XXI is not available in expenditures for an abortion, or in expenditures for...

  13. Evidence for AGN Feedback in the Broad Absorption Lines and Reddening of Mrk 231

    CERN Document Server

    Leighly, Karen M; Baron, Eddie; Lucy, Adrian B; Dietrich, Matthias; Gallagher, Sarah C

    2014-01-01

    We present the first J-band spectrum of Mrk 231, which reveals a large \\ion{He}{1}*$\\lambda 10830$ broad absorption line with a profile similar to that of the well-known \\ion{Na}{1} broad absorption line. Combining this spectrum with optical and UV spectra from the literature, we show that the unusual reddening noted by \\citet{veilleux13} is explained by a reddening curve like those previously used to explain low values of total-to-selective extinction in SNe Ia. The nuclear starburst may be the origin and location of the dust. Spatially-resolved emission in the broad absorption line trough suggests nearly full coverage of the continuum emission region. The broad absorption lines reveal higher velocities in the \\ion{He}{1}* lines (produced in the quasar-photoionized \\ion{H}{2} region) compared with the \\ion{Na}{1} and \\ion{Ca}{2} lines (produced in the corresponding partially-ionized zone). {\\it Cloudy} simulations show that a density increase is required between the \\ion{H}{2} and partially-ionized zones to ...

  14. Molecular evolution of broadly neutralizing Llama antibodies to the CD4-binding site of HIV-1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura E McCoy

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available To date, no immunization of humans or animals has elicited broadly neutralizing sera able to prevent HIV-1 transmission; however, elicitation of broad and potent heavy chain only antibodies (HCAb has previously been reported in llamas. In this study, the anti-HIV immune responses in immunized llamas were studied via deep sequencing analysis using broadly neutralizing monoclonal HCAbs as a guides. Distinct neutralizing antibody lineages were identified in each animal, including two defined by novel antibodies (as variable regions called VHH identified by robotic screening of over 6000 clones. The combined application of five VHH against viruses from clades A, B, C and CRF_AG resulted in neutralization as potent as any of the VHH individually and a predicted 100% coverage with a median IC50 of 0.17 µg/ml for the panel of 60 viruses tested. Molecular analysis of the VHH repertoires of two sets of immunized animals showed that each neutralizing lineage was only observed following immunization, demonstrating that they were elicited de novo. Our results show that immunization can induce potent and broadly neutralizing antibodies in llamas with features similar to human antibodies and provide a framework to analyze the effectiveness of immunization protocols.

  15. Molecular Evolution of Broadly Neutralizing Llama Antibodies to the CD4-Binding Site of HIV-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCoy, Laura E.; Rutten, Lucy; Frampton, Dan; Anderson, Ian; Granger, Luke; Bashford-Rogers, Rachael; Dekkers, Gillian; Strokappe, Nika M.; Seaman, Michael S.; Koh, Willie; Grippo, Vanina; Kliche, Alexander; Verrips, Theo; Kellam, Paul; Fassati, Ariberto; Weiss, Robin A.

    2014-01-01

    To date, no immunization of humans or animals has elicited broadly neutralizing sera able to prevent HIV-1 transmission; however, elicitation of broad and potent heavy chain only antibodies (HCAb) has previously been reported in llamas. In this study, the anti-HIV immune responses in immunized llamas were studied via deep sequencing analysis using broadly neutralizing monoclonal HCAbs as a guides. Distinct neutralizing antibody lineages were identified in each animal, including two defined by novel antibodies (as variable regions called VHH) identified by robotic screening of over 6000 clones. The combined application of five VHH against viruses from clades A, B, C and CRF_AG resulted in neutralization as potent as any of the VHH individually and a predicted 100% coverage with a median IC50 of 0.17 µg/ml for the panel of 60 viruses tested. Molecular analysis of the VHH repertoires of two sets of immunized animals showed that each neutralizing lineage was only observed following immunization, demonstrating that they were elicited de novo. Our results show that immunization can induce potent and broadly neutralizing antibodies in llamas with features similar to human antibodies and provide a framework to analyze the effectiveness of immunization protocols. PMID:25522326

  16. Molecular evolution of broadly neutralizing Llama antibodies to the CD4-binding site of HIV-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCoy, Laura E; Rutten, Lucy; Frampton, Dan; Anderson, Ian; Granger, Luke; Bashford-Rogers, Rachael; Dekkers, Gillian; Strokappe, Nika M; Seaman, Michael S; Koh, Willie; Grippo, Vanina; Kliche, Alexander; Verrips, Theo; Kellam, Paul; Fassati, Ariberto; Weiss, Robin A

    2014-12-01

    To date, no immunization of humans or animals has elicited broadly neutralizing sera able to prevent HIV-1 transmission; however, elicitation of broad and potent heavy chain only antibodies (HCAb) has previously been reported in llamas. In this study, the anti-HIV immune responses in immunized llamas were studied via deep sequencing analysis using broadly neutralizing monoclonal HCAbs as a guides. Distinct neutralizing antibody lineages were identified in each animal, including two defined by novel antibodies (as variable regions called VHH) identified by robotic screening of over 6000 clones. The combined application of five VHH against viruses from clades A, B, C and CRF_AG resulted in neutralization as potent as any of the VHH individually and a predicted 100% coverage with a median IC50 of 0.17 µg/ml for the panel of 60 viruses tested. Molecular analysis of the VHH repertoires of two sets of immunized animals showed that each neutralizing lineage was only observed following immunization, demonstrating that they were elicited de novo. Our results show that immunization can induce potent and broadly neutralizing antibodies in llamas with features similar to human antibodies and provide a framework to analyze the effectiveness of immunization protocols.

  17. XMM-Newton and Broad Iron Lines

    CERN Document Server

    Fabian, A C

    2007-01-01

    Iron line emission is common in the X-ray spectra of accreting black holes. When the line emission is broad or variable then it is likely to originate from close to the black hole. X-ray irradiation of the accretion flow by the power-law X-ray continuum produces the X-ray 'reflection' spectrum which includes the iron line. The shape and variability of the iron lines and reflection can be used as a diagnostic of the radius, velocity and nature of the flow. The inner radius of the dense flow corresponds to the innermost stable circular orbit and thus can be used to determine the spin of the black hole. Studies of broad iron lines and reflection spectra offer much promise for understanding how the inner parts of accretion flows (and outflows) around black holes operate. There remains great potential for XMM-Newton to continue to make significant progress in this work. The need for high quality spectra and thus for long exposure times is paramount.

  18. Chemical information science coverage in Chemical Abstracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiggins, G

    1987-02-01

    For many years Chemical Abstracts has included in its coverage publications on chemical documentation or chemical information science. Although the bulk of those publications can be found in section 20 of Chemical Abstracts, many relevant articles were found scattered among 39 other sections of CA in 1984-1985. In addition to the scattering of references in CA, the comprehensiveness of Chemical Abstracts as a secondary source for chemical information science is called into question. Data are provided on the journals that contributed the most references on chemical information science and on the languages of publication of relevant articles.

  19. The environment in the headlines. Newspaper coverage of climate change and euthropication in Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyytimaeki, J.

    2009-07-01

    most important factors contributing to the increase in coverage since 2006 include international policy negotiations and mild and snowless winters. Between 2006 and 2008, other factors included the releases of major scientific reviews, expressions of concern by key actors, and the related debate on energy policy. Changes in the anthropogenic driving forces of the environmental changes, namely nutrient discharges and greenhouse gas emissions, had only a marginal impact on the level of coverage. Based on the results, it is suggested that wide-ranging climate reporting has caused what has been called a piercing effect. This means that after the phase of intense and widespread media coverage, climate issues will not disappear but will shift from highly visible environmental headlines to less visible but more pervasive background information presented in various contexts. Such a piercing effect was not identified for eutrophication. This thesis highlights the importance of taking media coverage into account as a key factor in the formulation and implementation of environmental policies aimed at broad-based actions. (orig.)

  20. Development of trip coverage analysis methodology - CATHENA trip coverage analysis model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Jong Ho; Ohn, M. Y.; Cho, C. H.; Huh, J. Y.; Na, Y. H.; Lee, S. Y.; Kim, B. G.; Kim, H. H.; Kim, S. W.; Bae, C. J.; Kim, T. M.; Kim, S. R.; Han, B. S.; Moon, B. J.; Oh, M. T. [Korea Power Engineering Co., Yongin (Korea)

    2001-05-01

    This report describes the CATHENA model for trip coverage analysis. This model is prepared based on the Wolsong 2 design data and consist of primary heat transport system, shutdown system, steam and feedwater system, reactor regulating system, heat transport pressure and inventory control system, and steam generator level and pressure control system. The new features and modified parts from the Wolsong 2 CATHENA LOCA Model required for trip coverage analysis is described. this model is tested by simulation of steady state at 100 % FP and at several low powers. Also, the cases of power rundown and power runup are tested. 17 refs., 124 figs., 19 tabs. (Author)

  1. Variant profiling of evolving prokaryotic populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zojer, Markus; Schuster, Lisa N.; Schulz, Frederik; Pfundner, Alexander; Horn, Matthias

    2017-01-01

    Genomic heterogeneity of bacterial species is observed and studied in experimental evolution experiments and clinical diagnostics, and occurs as micro-diversity of natural habitats. The challenge for genome research is to accurately capture this heterogeneity with the currently used short sequencing reads. Recent advances in NGS technologies improved the speed and coverage and thus allowed for deep sequencing of bacterial populations. This facilitates the quantitative assessment of genomic heterogeneity, including low frequency alleles or haplotypes. However, false positive variant predictions due to sequencing errors and mapping artifacts of short reads need to be prevented. We therefore created VarCap, a workflow for the reliable prediction of different types of variants even at low frequencies. In order to predict SNPs, InDels and structural variations, we evaluated the sensitivity and accuracy of different software tools using synthetic read data. The results suggested that the best sensitivity could be reached by a union of different tools, however at the price of increased false positives. We identified possible reasons for false predictions and used this knowledge to improve the accuracy by post-filtering the predicted variants according to properties such as frequency, coverage, genomic environment/localization and co-localization with other variants. We observed that best precision was achieved by using an intersection of at least two tools per variant. This resulted in the reliable prediction of variants above a minimum relative abundance of 2%. VarCap is designed for being routinely used within experimental evolution experiments or for clinical diagnostics. The detected variants are reported as frequencies within a VCF file and as a graphical overview of the distribution of the different variant/allele/haplotype frequencies. The source code of VarCap is available at https://github.com/ma2o/VarCap. In order to provide this workflow to a broad community

  2. Achieving Universal Coverage; Lessons From The Experience of Other Countries for National Health Insurance Implementation in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Misnaniarti Misnaniarti

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Indonesia is not the only country that will lead to universal coverage. Several countries took an initiative to develop social security, through Universal Health Coverage (UHC to achieve health insurance and welfare for all residents. Even, some countries have already reached universal health coverage since a few years ago. The purpose of this paper is to assess the achievement of universal coverage of the health insurance implementation in several countries. In general, some countries require considerable time to achieve universal coverage. Mechanisms and stages that need attention is on the univeral registration aspects that cover the entire population, progressive and continuous funding sources, comprehensive benefits package, the expansion of gradual coverage for diseases that can cause catastrophic expenditure, increasing capacity and mobilizing supporting resource. National Health Insurance policy in some countries can improve access to care, utilization and quality of quality health services to all citizens. Indonesia is expected to learn from the experience of other countries to achieve UHC, so that the projection of the entire population of Indonesia to have health insurance in 2019 will be reached soon.

  3. Armenian media coverage of science topics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mkhitaryan, Marie

    2016-12-01

    The article discusses features and issues of Armenian media coverage on scientific topics and provides recommendations on how to promote scientific topics in media. The media is more interested in social or public reaction rather than in scientific information itself. Medical science has a large share of the global media coverage. It is followed by articles about environment, space, technology, physics and other areas. Armenian media mainly tends to focus on a scientific topic if at first sight it contains something revolutionary. Media primarily reviews whether that scientific study can affect the Armenian economy and only then decides to refer to it. Unfortunately, nowadays the perception of science is a little distorted in media. We can often see headlines of news where is mentioned that the scientist has made "an invention". Nowadays it is hard to see the border between a scientist and an inventor. In fact, the technological term "invention" attracts the media by making illusionary sensation and ensuring large audience. The report also addresses the "Gitamard" ("A science-man") special project started in 2016 in Mediamax that tells about scientists and their motivations.

  4. Broad-band acoustic hyperbolic metamaterial

    CERN Document Server

    Shen, Chen; Sui, Ni; Wang, Wenqi; Cummer, Steven A; Jing, Yun

    2015-01-01

    Acoustic metamaterials (AMMs) are engineered materials, made from subwavelength structures, that exhibit useful or unusual constitutive properties. There has been intense research interest in AMMs since its first realization in 2000 by Liu et al. A number of functionalities and applications have been proposed and achieved using AMMs. Hyperbolic metamaterials are one of the most important types of metamaterials due to their extreme anisotropy and numerous possible applications, including negative refraction, backward waves, spatial filtering, and subwavelength imaging. Although the importance of acoustic hyperbolic metamaterials (AHMMs) as a tool for achieving full control of acoustic waves is substantial, the realization of a broad-band and truly hyperbolic AMM has not been reported so far. Here, we demonstrate the design and experimental characterization of a broadband AHMM that operates between 1.0 kHz and 2.5 kHz.

  5. Magnetohydrodynamic stability of broad line region clouds

    CERN Document Server

    Krause, Martin; Burkert, Andreas

    2012-01-01

    Hydrodynamic stability has been a longstanding issue for the cloud model of the broad line region in active galactic nuclei. We argue that the clouds may be gravitationally bound to the supermassive black hole. If true, stabilisation by thermal pressure alone becomes even more difficult. We further argue that if magnetic fields should be present in such clouds at a level that could affect the stability properties, they need to be strong enough to compete with the radiation pressure on the cloud. This would imply magnetic field values of a few Gauss for a sample of Active Galactic Nuclei we draw from the literature. We then investigate the effect of several magnetic configurations on cloud stability in axi-symmetric magnetohydrodynamic simulations. For a purely azimuthal magnetic field which provides the dominant pressure support, the cloud first gets compressed by the opposing radiative and gravitational forces. The pressure inside the cloud then increases, and it expands vertically. Kelvin-Helmholtz and colu...

  6. Spectrophotometry of six broad absorption line QSOs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junkkarinen, Vesa T.; Burbidge, E. Margaret; Smith, Harding E.

    1987-01-01

    Spectrophotometric observations of six broad absorption-line QSOs (BALQSOs) are presented. The continua and emission lines are compared with those in the spectra of QSOs without BALs. A statistically significant difference is found in the emission-line intensity ratio for (N V 1240-A)/(C IV 1549-A). The median value of (N V)/(C IV) for the BALQSOs is two to three times the median for QSOs without BALs. The absorption features of the BALQSOs are described, and the column densities and limits on the ionization structure of the BAL region are discussed. If the dominant ionization mechanism is photoionization, then it is likely that either the ionizing spectrum is steep or the abundances are considerably different from solar. Collisional ionization may be a significant factor, but it cannot totally dominate the ionization rate.

  7. A Sweep Coverage Scheme Based on Vehicle Routing Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Shu

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available As an emerging coverage problem in wireless sensor networks, sweep coverage which introducing mobile sensors to cover points of interest within certain time interval can satisfy monitoring request in some particular application scenarios with less number of nodes than the conventional static coverage approach. In this work, aiming to support dynamical POI coverage and data delivery simultaneously, a novel sweep coverage scheme, named VRPSC(Vehicle Routing Problem based Sweep Coverage, is proposed by modeling the minimum number of required sensors problem in sweep coverage as a Vehicle Routing Problem (VRP. In VRPSC, an insertion algorithm is first introduced to create the initial scanning routes for POIs, and then the Simulated Annealing is employed to optimize these routes. The simulation results show that the VRPSC scheme achieves better performance than existing schemes. 

  8. Monitoring of vegetation coverage based on high-resolution images

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Li; Li Li-juan; Liang Li-qiao; Li Jiu-yi

    2007-01-01

    Measurement of vegetation coverage on a small scale is the foundation for the monitoring of changes in vegetation coverage and of the inversion model of monitoring vegetation coverage on a large scale by remote sensing. Using the object-oriented analytical software,Definiens Professional 5,a new method for calculating vegetation coverage based on high-resolution images(aerial photographs or near-surface photography)is proposed. Our research supplies references to remote sensing measurements of vegetation coverage on a small scale and accurate fundamental data for the inversion model of vegetation coverage on a large and intermediatc scale to improve the accuracy of remote sensing monitoring of changes in vegetation coverage.

  9. Review on dog rabies vaccination coverage in Africa: a question of dog accessibility or cost recovery?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tariku Jibat

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Rabies still poses a significant human health problem throughout most of Africa, where the majority of the human cases results from dog bites. Mass dog vaccination is considered to be the most effective method to prevent rabies in humans. Our objective was to systematically review research articles on dog rabies parenteral vaccination coverage in Africa in relation to dog accessibility and vaccination cost recovery arrangement (i.e.free of charge or owner charged.A systematic literature search was made in the databases of CAB abstracts (EBSCOhost and OvidSP, Scopus, Web of Science, PubMed, Medline (EBSCOhost and OvidSP and AJOL (African Journal Online for peer reviewed articles on 1 rabies control, 2 dog rabies vaccination coverage and 3 dog demography in Africa. Identified articles were subsequently screened and selected using predefined selection criteria like year of publication (viz. ≥ 1990, type of study (cross sectional, objective(s of the study (i.e. vaccination coverage rates, dog demographics and financial arrangements of vaccination costs, language of publication (English and geographical focus (Africa. The selection process resulted in sixteen peer reviewed articles which were used to review dog demography and dog ownership status, and dog rabies vaccination coverage throughout Africa. The main review findings indicate that 1 the majority (up to 98.1% of dogs in African countries are owned (and as such accessible, 2 puppies younger than 3 months of age constitute a considerable proportion (up to 30% of the dog population and 3 male dogs are dominating in numbers (up to 3.6 times the female dog population. Dog rabies parenteral vaccination coverage was compared between "free of charge" and "owner charged" vaccination schemes by the technique of Meta-analysis. Results indicate that the rabies vaccination coverage following a free of charge vaccination scheme (68% is closer to the World Health Organization recommended coverage rate (70

  10. Health Care as Commons: An Indigenous Approach to Universal Health Coverage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young Soon Wong

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Modern health care systems of today are predominantly derived from Western models and are either state owned or under private ownership. Government, through their health policies, generally aim to facilitate access for the majority of the population through the design of their health systems. However, there are communities, such as Indigenous peoples, who do not necessarily fall under the formal protection of state systems. Throughout history, these societies have developed different ways to provide health care to its population. These health care systems are held and managed under different property regimes with their attendant advantages and disadvantages. This article investigates the gaps in health coverage among Indigenous peoples using the Malaysian Indigenous peoples as a case study. It conceptually examines a commons approach to health care systems through a study of the traditional health care system of indigenous peoples and suggests how such an approach can help close this gap in the remaining gaps of universal health coverage.

  11. Universal Health Coverage through Community Nursing Services: China vs. Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Wai Yee; Fung, Ita M; Chan, Eric

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: this article looks at how the development of community nursing services in China and Hong Kong can enhance universal health coverage. Methods: literature and data review have been utilized in this study. Results: nursing services have evolved much since the beginning of the nursing profession. The development of community nursing services has expanded the scope of nursing services to those in need of, not just hospital-level nursing care, but more holistic care to improve health and quality of life. Conclusion: despite the one-country-two-systems governance and the difference in population and geography, Hong Kong and China both face the aging population and its complications. Community nursing services help to pave the road to Universal Health Coverage. PMID:28146178

  12. Seven broad absorption line quasars with excess broad band absorption near 2250

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Shaohua; Jiang, Peng; Zhou, Hongyan; Ma, Jingzhe; Brandt, W N; York, Donald G; Noterdaeme, P; Schneider, Donald P

    2014-01-01

    We report the discovery of excess broad band absorption near 2250 A (EBBA) in the spectra of seven broad absorption line (BAL) quasars. By comparing with the statistical results from the control quasar sample, the significance for the detections are all above the > 4{\\sigma} level, with five above > 5{\\sigma}. The detections have also been verified by several other independent methods. The EBBAs present broader and weaker bumps at smaller wavenumbers than the Milky Way, and similar to the Large Magellanic Cloud. The EBBA bump may be related to the 2175 A bump seen in the Local Group and may be a counterpart of the 2175 A bump under different conditions in the early Universe. Furthermore, five objects in this sample show low-ionization broad absorption lines (LoBALs), such as Mg II and Al III, in addition to the high-ionization broad absorption lines (HiBALs) of C IV and Si IV. The fraction of LoBALs in our sample, ~70%, is surprisingly high compared to that of general BAL quasars, ~10%. Although the origin of...

  13. Accuracy of Coverage Survey Recall following an Integrated Mass Drug Administration for Lymphatic Filariasis, Schistosomiasis, and Soil-Transmitted Helminthiasis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip J Budge

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Achieving target coverage levels for mass drug administration (MDA is essential to elimination and control efforts for several neglected tropical diseases (NTD. To ensure program goals are met, coverage reported by drug distributors may be validated through household coverage surveys that rely on respondent recall. This is the first study to assess accuracy in such surveys.Recall accuracy was tested in a series of coverage surveys conducted at 1, 6, and 12 months after an integrated MDA in Togo during which three drugs (albendazole, ivermectin, and praziquantel were distributed. Drug distribution was observed during the MDA to ensure accurate recording of persons treated during the MDA. Information was obtained for 506, 1131, and 947 persons surveyed at 1, 6, and 12 months, respectively. Coverage (defined as the percentage of persons taking at least one of the MDA medications within these groups was respectively 88.3%, 87.4%, and 80.0%, according to the treatment registers; it was 87.9%, 91.4% and 89.4%, according to survey responses. Concordance between respondents and registers on swallowing at least one pill was >95% at 1 month and >86% at 12 months; the lower concordance at 12 months was more likely due to difficulty matching survey respondents with the year-old treatment register rather than inaccurate responses. Respondents generally distinguished between pills similar in appearance; concordance for recall of which pills were taken was over 80% in each survey.In this population, coverage surveys provided remarkably consistent coverage estimates for up to one year following an integrated MDA. It is not clear if similar consistency will be seen in other settings, however, these data suggest that in some settings coverage surveys might be conducted as much as one year following an MDA without compromising results. This might enable integration of post-MDA coverage measurement into large, multipurpose, periodic surveys, thereby conserving

  14. Urban health insurance reform and coverage in China using data from National Health Services Surveys in 1998 and 2003

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Collins Charles D

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In 1997 there was a major reform of the government run urban health insurance system in China. The principal aims of the reform were to widen coverage of health insurance for the urban employed and contain medical costs. Following this reform there has been a transition from the dual system of the Government Insurance Scheme (GIS and Labour Insurance Scheme (LIS to the new Urban Employee Basic Health Insurance Scheme (BHIS. Methods This paper uses data from the National Health Services Surveys of 1998 and 2003 to examine the impact of the reform on population coverage. Particular attention is paid to coverage in terms of gender, age, employment status, and income levels. Following a description of the data between the two years, the paper will discuss the relationship between the insurance reform and the growing inequities in population coverage. Results An examination of the data reveals a number of key points: a The overall coverage of the newly established scheme has decreased from 1998 to 2003. b The proportion of the urban population without any type of health insurance arrangement remained almost the same between 1998 and 2003 in spite of the aim of the 1997 reform to increase the population coverage. c Higher levels of participation in mainstream insurance schemes (i.e. GIS-LIS and BHIS were identified among older age groups, males and high income groups. In some cases, the inequities in the system are increasing. d There has been an increase in coverage of the urban population by non-mainstream health insurance schemes, including non-commercial and commercial ones. The paper discusses three important issues in relation to urban insurance coverage: institutional diversity in the forms of insurance, labour force policy and the non-mainstream forms of commercial and non-commercial forms of insurance. Conclusion The paper concludes that the huge economic development and expansion has not resulted in a reduced disparity in

  15. Mobile Geometric Graphs: Detection, Coverage and Percolation

    CERN Document Server

    Peres, Yuval; Sousi, Perla; Stauffer, Alexandre

    2010-01-01

    We consider the following dynamic Boolean model introduced by van den Berg, Meester and White (1997). At time 0, let the nodes of the graph be a Poisson point process in R^d with constant intensity and let each node move independently according to Brownian motion. At any time t, we put an edge between every pair of nodes if their distance is at most r. We study three features in this model: detection (the time until a target point---fixed or moving---is within distance r from some node of the graph), coverage (the time until all points inside a finite box are detected by the graph), and percolation (the time until a given node belongs to the infinite connected component of the graph). We obtain precise asymptotics for these features by combining ideas from stochastic geometry, coupling and multi-scale analysis.

  16. The adequacy of college health insurance coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McManus, M; Brauer, M; Weader, R; Newacheck, P

    1991-01-01

    This analysis of private health insurance plans offered in 100 four-year colleges and universities in 1988 indicates a tremendous diversity in plan options, benefits covered, cost-sharing requirements, and catastrophic protections. Consistent with relatively low premium prices, most student health insurance plans offer limited benefits and expose students to significant out-of-pocket medical cost liabilities. Only a minority of schools use financial incentives, such as preferred provider arrangements, to integrate their health insurance plans with their university health service system. We conclude that universities should carefully reexamine the adequacy of their health insurance plans and their relationship to student health centers. As more students rely on student health insurance as their only source of coverage, the quality of these plans assumes an even greater importance.

  17. [Pilot study on compulsory vaccination coverage].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grandolfo, M E; Lauria, L; Medda, E; Bucciarelli, M; Andreozzi, S; Salinetti, S; Sitzia, G; Bernacchia, R

    1999-01-01

    The disappearance of diphtheria and poliomyelitis is the best evidence of the efficacy of the vaccination strategies adopted in Italy. The active offer of the prophylaxis, reinforced by law, has characterised the operational aspects of the strategy. The active surveillance system is the main tool to take under control the effectiveness of health services responsible for vaccination. This system could be more easily implemented if the health services will be given a specific software aiming to handle and evaluate vaccination registers. The present pilot study, performed in the regions Marche and Sardegna, is an example of active surveillance and it is based on the ARVA software produced by the Istituto Superiore di Sanità. The results show a good level of coverage (> 95%) within the second year of life. Unsatisfactory results were obtained on the timing of vaccinations, as recommended by the vaccination schedule, mostly for the third doses.

  18. Spatial Coverage Planning for a Planetary Rover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaines, Daniel M.; Estlin, Tara; Chouinard, Caroline

    2008-01-01

    We are developing onboard planning and execution technologies to support the exploration and characterization of geological features by autonomous rovers. In order to generate high quality mission plans, an autonomous rover must reason about the relative importance of the observations it can perform. In this paper we look at the scientific criteria of selecting observations that improve the quality of the area covered by samples. Our approach makes use of a priori information, if available, and allows scientists to mark sub-regions of the area with relative priorities for exploration. We use an efficient algorithm for prioritizing observations based on spatial coverage that allows the system to update observation rankings as new information is gained during execution.

  19. Deflection analysis of rectangular spatial coverage truss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.N. Kirsanov

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available An elastic spatial statically determinate truss of regular type, simulating the rectangular in plan coverage was considered. In the plane of the base the truss has two axes of symmetry. Four support structures (spherical hinge, cylindrical hinge and two vertical rods are located at its corners. An analytic solution was found for forces in the rods of the truss. Using the Maxwell-Mohr’s formula, the dependence of the deflection of the center was discovered in the truss under the influence of the concentrated force. There are five parameters of the problem in this formula: three linear dimensions, and the numbers of hinges on its lateral sides. To determine the desired patterns by means of the computer mathematics system Maple the recursion task by two parameters was solved. It was shown that dependence of the deflection on the number of panels and height of the truss detects a minimum, allowing optimizing the size of the structure.

  20. Universal health coverage: The way forward

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashok Kumar Jindal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Universal health coverage (UHC is the means to provide accessible and appropriate health services to all citizens without financial hardships. India, an emerging economy with demographic window of opportunity has been facing dual burden of diseases in midst of multiple transitions. Health situation in the country despite quantum improvements in recent past has enormous challenges with urban-rural and interstate differentials. Successful national programs exists, but lack ability to provide and sustain UHC. Achieving UHC require sustained mechanisms for health financing and to provide financial protection through national health packages. There is a need to ensure universal access to medicines, vaccines and emerging technologies along with development of Human Resources for Health (HRH. Health service, management, and institutional reforms are required along with enhanced focus on social determinants of health and citizen engagement. UHC is the way for providing health assurance and enlarging scope of primary health care to nook and corners of the country.

  1. Recent resurgence of measles in a community with high vaccination coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Jin Dong; Xiong, Yong Zhen; Li, Tao; Yu, Xiu Nian; Qian, Bang Qun

    2015-03-01

    Even though 2-dose measles vaccination coverage rate was maintained at more than 95%, the largest measles outbreaks since 1996 still occurred in Wuhu city, P R China. A total of 916 cases were reported during 2005-2010. The annual incidence was 6.7 cases per 100,000 population with the peak incidence of 17.6 cases per 100,000 population in 2008. The highest age-specific incidence rate was 222.1 per 100,000 population and occurred in infants aged between 8 and 12 months; the second was 151.9 per 100,000 population in infants aged incidence being 12.8 per 100,000 population. The characteristics related to age distribution have changed in recent measles outbreaks. It underlines the need for vaccination of susceptible young adults and timely administration of the first dose of the measles vaccine.

  2. Determinants of immunization coverage in Lucknow district

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pratibha Gupta

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Immunization remains one of the most important public health interventions and a cost-effective strategy to reduce both the morbidity and mortality associated with infectious diseases. Over two million deaths are delayed through immunization each year worldwide. Aims: This study sought to identify specific factors associated with immunization coverage in order to advance improved intervention, policies/strategies therefore raising overall immunization coverage. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among a total of 198 children aged 12-23 months at Urban Health and Training Centre (UHTC, Era′s Lucknow Medical College, Lucknow, over a period of 6 months i.e., from July 2012-December 2012. Data were collected, compiled and tabulated using Microsoft Excel and analyzed using SPSS 17.0 version. Results: A total of 198 children of age 12-23 months were included in this study, of which 74.7% of children were fully immunized, 11.1% were partially immunized and 14.1% were not immunized at all. The most common reason for partial or non-immunization was family problems (24% of the respondents followed by lack of knowledge of immunization (20%, and fear of side effects (16%. The odds of risk of partial/non-immunization in illiterate women is 5.78 more than the graduate women (P = 0.039. Conclusions: Although in the present study, majority of the children were immunized, it is still not up to the mark. We have to make it 100%, so that we can reduce mortality due to vaccine-preventable diseases. Increasing awareness and reducing fear of side effects of immunization among parents through health education, counseling, etc. can increase the percentage of immunized children.

  3. Ecosystem Evapotranspiration as a Response to Climate and Vegetation Coverage Changes in Northwest Yunnan, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Yang

    Full Text Available Climate and human-driven changes play an important role in regional droughts. Northwest Yunnan Province is a key region for biodiversity conservation in China, and it has experienced severe droughts since the beginning of this century; however, the extent of the contributions from climate and human-driven changes remains unclear. We calculated the ecosystem evapotranspiration (ET and water yield (WY of northwest Yunnan Province, China from 2001 to 2013 using meteorological and remote sensing observation data and a Surface Energy Balance System (SEBS model. Multivariate regression analyses were used to differentiate the contribution of climate and vegetation coverage to ET. The results showed that the annual average vegetation coverage significantly increased over time with a mean of 0.69 in spite of the precipitation fluctuation. Afforestation/reforestation and other management efforts attributed to vegetation coverage increase in NW Yunnan. Both ET and WY considerably fluctuated with the climate factors, which ranged from 623.29 mm to 893.8 mm and -51.88 mm to 384.40 mm over the time period. Spatially, ET in the southeast of NW Yunnan (mainly in Lijiang increased significantly, which was in line with the spatial trend of vegetation coverage. Multivariate linear regression analysis indicated that climatic factors accounted for 85.18% of the ET variation, while vegetation coverage explained 14.82%. On the other hand, precipitation accounted for 67.5% of the WY. We conclude that the continuous droughts in northwest Yunnan were primarily climatically driven; however, man-made land cover and vegetation changes also increased the vulnerability of local populations to drought. Because of the high proportion of the water yield consumed for subsistence and poor infrastructure for water management, local populations have been highly vulnerable to climate drought conditions. We suggest that conservation of native vegetation and development of water

  4. Cobertura e fatores associados à realização do exame de detecção do câncer de colo de útero em área urbana no Sul do Brasil: estudo de base populacional Cervical cancer screening coverage and associated factors in a city in southern Brazil: a population-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Iara Gasperin

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available A cobertura do teste de Papanicolaou e fatores associados foram investigados entre mulheres de 20 a 59 anos de idade, residentes na área urbana de Florianópolis, Santa Catarina, Brasil. Foi realizado estudo transversal de base populacional com amostra aleatória por conglomerados. Examinaram-se dois desfechos: realização do Papanicolaou em algum momento na vida e exames em atraso (período maior que três anos desde o último teste ou nunca realizado. Entre 952 mulheres entrevistadas, 93% (IC95%: 91,5-94,7 realizaram o teste pelo menos uma vez na vida e 14% (IC95%: 11,8-16,2 estavam com o procedimento em atraso. Por meio da regressão de Poisson, constatou-se que estado civil, escolaridade, doenças crônicas autorreferidas e consulta médica foram fatores significativamente associados com ambos os desfechos. Idade, renda e internação hospitalar no último ano estiveram associadas somente com a realização do Papanicolaou na vida. A cobertura do teste de Papanicolaou foi elevada, porém existem disparidades socioeconômicas e demográficas, além do predomínio do rastreamento oportunístico.This study focused on coverage of screening for cervical cancer and associated factors in women 20 to 59 years of age in Florianópolis, Santa Catarina State, Brazil, in 2009. This was a cross-sectional study using cluster random sampling. Two outcomes were examined: a history of at least one Papanicolaou test and delaying the test (never performed or performed more than three years previously. Among 952 women, 93% (95%CI: 91.5-94.7 had ever had a Pap smear, whereas 14% (95%CI: 11.8-16.2 had delayed the test. According to Poisson regression, both outcomes were associated with marital status, schooling, presence of chronic disease, and consulting a physician for other reasons. Age, income, and hospitalization in the previous year were only associated with ever having a Pap smear. Although test coverage was high, much of the screening was opportunistic

  5. Photoionisation modelling of the broad line region

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Anthea

    2016-08-01

    Two of the most fundamental questions regarding the broad line region (BLR) are "what is its structure?" and "how is it moving?" Baldwin et al. (1995) showed that by summing over an ensemble of clouds at differing densities and distances from the ionising source we can easily and naturally produce a spectrum similar to what is observed for AGN. This approach is called the `locally optimally emitting clouds' (LOC) model. This approach can also explain the well-observed stratification of emission lines in the BLR (e.g. Clavel et al. 1991, Peterson et al. 1991, Kollatschny et al. 2001) and `breathing' of BLR with changes in the continuum luminosity (Netzer & Mor 1990, Peterson et al. 2014) and is therefore a generally accepted model of the BLR. However, LOC predictions require some assumptions to be made about the distribution of the clouds within the BLR. By comparing photoionization predictions, for a distribution of cloud properties, with observed spectra we can infer something about the structure of the BLR and distribution of clouds. I use existing reverberation mapping data to constrain the structure of the BLR by observing how individual line strengths and ratios of different lines change in high and low luminosity states. I will present my initial constraints and discuss the challenges associated with the method.

  6. Understanding the Neutron Star Population with the SKA

    CERN Document Server

    Tauris, Thomas M; Breton, Rene P; Deller, Adam T; Keane, Evan F; Kramer, Michael; Lorimer, Duncan R; McLaughlin, Maura A; Possenti, Andrea; Ray, Paul S; Stappers, Ben W; Weltevrede, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    Since their discovery in the late 1960's the population of known neutron stars (NSs) has grown to ~2500. The last five decades of observations have yielded many surprises and demonstrated that the observational properties of NSs are remarkably diverse. The surveys that will be performed with SKA (the Square Kilometre Array) will produce a further tenfold increase in the number of Galactic NSs known. Moreover, the SKA's broad spectral coverage, sub-arraying and multi-beaming capabilities will allow us to characterise these sources with unprecedented efficiency, in turn enabling a giant leap in the understanding of their properties. Here we review the NS population and outline our strategies for studying each of the growing number of diverse classes that are populating the "NS zoo". Some of the main scientific questions that will be addressed by the much larger statistical samples and vastly improved timing efficiency provided by SKA include: (i) the spin period and spin-down rate distributions (and thus magnet...

  7. Angular dependence of the facular-sunspot coverage relation as derived by MDI magnetograms

    CERN Document Server

    Criscuoli, Serena

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that the variation over the solar magnetic activity cycle of the area of facular/network features identified on broad band and narrow band imagery is positively correlated with the sunspot area and number, the relation between the area coverages being described as either linear or quadratic. On the other hand, the temporal variation of the spatial distributions of faculae, network and sunspots follows patterns that are less obviously correlated, so that we expect the relation that describes variation of the area coverage of different types of magnetic features to vary with the position over the disk. In this work we employ MDI full-disk magnetograms acquired during Cycle 23 and at the beginning of Cycle 24 to investigate the relation between the coverage of magnetic elements characterized by different amounts of magnetic flux and located at different angular distances from disk center with the sunspot number. In agreement with some previous studies we find that daily data are best ...

  8. A vaccine encoding conserved promiscuous HIV CD4 epitopes induces broad T cell responses in mice transgenic to multiple common HLA class II molecules.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan Pereira Ribeiro

    Full Text Available Current HIV vaccine approaches are focused on immunogens encoding whole HIV antigenic proteins that mainly elicit cytotoxic CD8+ responses. Mounting evidence points toward a critical role for CD4+ T cells in the control of immunodeficiency virus replication, probably due to cognate help. Vaccine-induced CD4+ T cell responses might, therefore, have a protective effect in HIV replication. In addition, successful vaccines may have to elicit responses to multiple epitopes in a high proportion of vaccinees, to match the highly variable circulating strains of HIV. Using rational vaccine design, we developed a DNA vaccine encoding 18 algorithm-selected conserved, "promiscuous" (multiple HLA-DR-binding B-subtype HIV CD4 epitopes - previously found to be frequently recognized by HIV-infected patients. We assessed the ability of the vaccine to induce broad T cell responses in the context of multiple HLA class II molecules using different strains of HLA class II- transgenic mice (-DR2, -DR4, -DQ6 and -DQ8. Mice displayed CD4+ and CD8+ T cell responses of significant breadth and magnitude, and 16 out of the 18 encoded epitopes were recognized. By virtue of inducing broad responses against conserved CD4+ T cell epitopes that can be recognized in the context of widely diverse, common HLA class II alleles, this vaccine concept may cope both with HIV genetic variability and increased population coverage. The vaccine may thus be a source of cognate help for HIV-specific CD8+ T cells elicited by conventional immunogens, in a wide proportion of vaccinees.

  9. The Web Application Test Based on Page Coverage Criteria

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAI Li-zhi; TONG Wei-qin; YANG Gen-xing

    2008-01-01

    Software testing coverage criteria play an important role in the whole testing process. The current coverage criteria for web applications are based on program or URL. They are not suitable for black-box test or intuitional to use. This paper defines a kind of test criteria based on page coverage sequences only navigated by web application, including Page_Single, Page_Post, Page_Pre,Page_Seq2, Page_SeqK. The test criteria based on page coverage sequences made by interactions between web application and browser are being under consideration after that. In order to avoid ambiguity of natural language, these coverage criteria are depicted using Z formal language. The empirical result shows that the criteria complement traditional coverage and fault detection capability criteria.

  10. Target Coverage in Wireless Sensor Networks with Probabilistic Sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, Anxing; Xu, Xianghua; Cheng, Zongmao

    2016-08-27

    Sensing coverage is a fundamental problem in wireless sensor networks (WSNs), which has attracted considerable attention. Conventional research on this topic focuses on the 0/1 coverage model, which is only a coarse approximation to the practical sensing model. In this paper, we study the target coverage problem, where the objective is to find the least number of sensor nodes in randomly-deployed WSNs based on the probabilistic sensing model. We analyze the joint detection probability of target with multiple sensors. Based on the theoretical analysis of the detection probability, we formulate the minimum ϵ-detection coverage problem. We prove that the minimum ϵ-detection coverage problem is NP-hard and present an approximation algorithm called the Probabilistic Sensor Coverage Algorithm (PSCA) with provable approximation ratios. To evaluate our design, we analyze the performance of PSCA theoretically and also perform extensive simulations to demonstrate the effectiveness of our proposed algorithm.

  11. AccessMod 3.0: computing geographic coverage and accessibility to health care services using anisotropic movement of patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebener Steeve

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Access to health care can be described along four dimensions: geographic accessibility, availability, financial accessibility and acceptability. Geographic accessibility measures how physically accessible resources are for the population, while availability reflects what resources are available and in what amount. Combining these two types of measure into a single index provides a measure of geographic (or spatial coverage, which is an important measure for assessing the degree of accessibility of a health care network. Results This paper describes the latest version of AccessMod, an extension to the Geographical Information System ArcView 3.×, and provides an example of application of this tool. AccessMod 3 allows one to compute geographic coverage to health care using terrain information and population distribution. Four major types of analysis are available in AccessMod: (1 modeling the coverage of catchment areas linked to an existing health facility network based on travel time, to provide a measure of physical accessibility to health care; (2 modeling geographic coverage according to the availability of services; (3 projecting the coverage of a scaling-up of an existing network; (4 providing information for cost effectiveness analysis when little information about the existing network is available. In addition to integrating travelling time, population distribution and the population coverage capacity specific to each health facility in the network, AccessMod can incorporate the influence of landscape components (e.g. topography, river and road networks, vegetation that impact travelling time to and from facilities. Topographical constraints can be taken into account through an anisotropic analysis that considers the direction of movement. We provide an example of the application of AccessMod in the southern part of Malawi that shows the influences of the landscape constraints and of the modes of transportation on

  12. MEASURING C PROGRAM COVERAGE BASED ON BINARY DECISION DIAGRAMS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shi Liang; Xu Baowen; Chen Lin

    2005-01-01

    Test coverage analysis is a structural testing technique, which helps to evaluate the sufficiency of software testing. This letter presents two test generation algorithms based on binary decision diagrams to produce tests for the Multiple-Condition Criterion(M-CC) and the Modified Condition/Decision Criterion(MC/DC), and describes the design of the C program Coverage Measurement Tool (CCMT), which can record dynamic behaviors of C programs and quantify test coverage.

  13. 5 CFR 894.603 - Is there an extension of coverage and right to convert when my coverage stops or when a covered...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... right to convert when my coverage stops or when a covered family member loses eligibility? 894.603... Coverage § 894.603 Is there an extension of coverage and right to convert when my coverage stops or when a covered family member loses eligibility? No. There is no extension of coverage or right to convert to...

  14. Validation, automatic generation and use of broad phonetic transcriptions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bael, Cristophe Patrick Jan Van

    2007-01-01

    Broad phonetic transcriptions represent the pronunciation of words as strings of characters from specifically designed symbol sets. In everyday life, broad phonetic transcriptions are often used as aids to pronounce (foreign) words. In addition, broad phonetic transcriptions are often used for lingu

  15. Broad spectrum anthelmintic potential of Cassia plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Suman Kundu; Saptarshi Roy; Larisha Mawkhleing Lyndem

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To study the in vitro anthelmintic efficacy of Cassia alata (C. alata), Cassia(C. angustifolia) and Cassia occidentalis (C. occidentalis). angustifolia Methods: Crude ethanol extract from leaves of the three plants were prepared in rotary evaporator and different concentrations (10, 20 and 40 mg/mL) of leaf extracts were used for treatment on different representatives of helminthes (Heterakis gallinarum, Raillietina tetragona and Catatropis sp.) from domestic fowl (Gallus gallus domesticus). Loss of motility and death were monitored frequently.Results: C. alata showed early paralysis in all worms treated followed by C. angustifolia. C. occidentalis in combination with C. alata together caused early paralysis in all treated worms than the combination of C. alata with C. angustfolia. While Heterakis gallinarum in control survived for (81.33±2.07) h, treated worms lost their motility at (5.71±0.10) h, (6.60±0.86) h and (13.95±0.43) h with C. angustifolia, C. alata and C. occidentalis respectively at a concentration of 40 mg/mL which showed better efficacy than albendazole. Catatropis sp. survival period was (26.49±1.38) h in control, but with plant treatment, it lost its motility in just (0.57±0.08) h, (1.00±0.12) h and (1.47±0.40) h at 40 mg/mL concentration of C. alata, C. angustifolia and C. occidentalis respectively.Raillietina tetragona on the other hand became paralysed at (1.68±0.27) h, (2.95±0.29) h and (4.13±0.31) h with above concentrations treated with three plants respectively, however in control it survived up to (81.93±4.71) h.Conclusions:This present study indicated broad spectrum vermifugal activity of all plants tested.

  16. Arctic Change Information for a Broad Audience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soreide, N. N.; Overland, J. E.; Calder, J.

    2002-12-01

    Demonstrable environmental changes have occurred in the Arctic over the past three decades. NOAA's Arctic Theme Page is a rich resource web site focused on high latitude studies and the Arctic, with links to widely distributed data and information focused on the Arctic. Included is a collection of essays on relevant topics by experts in Arctic research. The website has proven useful to a wide audience, including scientists, students, teachers, decision makers and the general public, as indicated through recognition by USA Today, Science magazine, etc. (http://www.arctic.noaa.gov) Working jointly with NSF and the University of Washington's Polar Science Center as part of the Study of Environmental Arctic Change (SEARCH) program, NOAA has developed a website for access to pan-Arctic time series spanning diverse data types including climate indices, atmospheric, oceanic, sea ice, terrestrial, biological and fisheries. Modest analysis functions and more detailed analysis results are provided. (http://www.unaami.noaa.gov/). This paper will describe development of an Artic Change Detection status website to provide a direct and comprehensive view of previous and ongoing change in the Arctic for a broad climate community. For example, composite metrics are developed using principal component analysis based on 86 multivariate pan-Arctic time series for seven data types. Two of these metrics can be interpreted as a regime change/trend component and an interdecadal component. Changes can also be visually observed through tracking of 28 separate biophysical indicators. Results will be presented in the form of a web site with relevant, easily understood, value-added knowledge backed by peer review from Arctic scientists and scientific journals.

  17. Temporal trend of green space coverage in China and its relationship with urbanization over the last two decades

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Juanjuan, E-mail: jjzhao@iue.ac.cn [Key Lab of Urban Environment and Health, Institute of Urban Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 1799 Jimei Road, Xiamen 361021 (China); Xiamen Key Lab of Urban Metabolism, 1799 Jimei Road, Xiamen 361021 (China); Chen, Shengbin, E-mail: chainpin@yahoo.com.cn [Nanjing Institute of Environmental Sciences, Ministry of Environmental Protection, 8 Jiangwangmiao Street, Nanjing 210042 (China); Jiang, Bo, E-mail: jbshuibao415@126.com [State Key Laboratory of Urban and Regional Ecology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 2871, Beijing 100085 (China); Ren, Yin, E-mail: yren@iue.ac.cn [Key Lab of Urban Environment and Health, Institute of Urban Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 1799 Jimei Road, Xiamen 361021 (China); Xiamen Key Lab of Urban Metabolism, 1799 Jimei Road, Xiamen 361021 (China); Wang, Hua, E-mail: wanghuaphd@gmail.com [Institute of Forestry and Pomology, Beijing Academy of Agriculture and Forestry Sciences, Ruiwangfen Jia 12 Xiangshan, Beijing 100093 (China); Vause, Jonathan, E-mail: jonathanvause@hotmail.com [Key Lab of Urban Environment and Health, Institute of Urban Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 1799 Jimei Road, Xiamen 361021 (China); Xiamen Key Lab of Urban Metabolism, 1799 Jimei Road, Xiamen 361021 (China); Yu, Haidong, E-mail: hoste@163.com [Xiamen Huaxia Vocational College, Wenjiaoqu Jimei District, Xiamen 361024 (China)

    2013-01-01

    2009. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cities in the same region exhibited long-term similar trends of development. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Population, land area and GDP significantly affected green space coverage. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Per capita GDP had the highest independent contribution to green space coverage. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A linear model to predict variance in green space was constructed.

  18. Estimation and Comparison of Immunization Coverage under Different Sampling Methods for Health Surveys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. C. Nath

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Immunization currently averts an estimated 2-3 million deaths every year in all age groups. Hepatitis B is a major public health problem worldwide. In this study, the estimates of hepatitis B vaccine coverage are compared among three sampling plans namely, 30×30 sampling and 30×7 sampling method under cluster sampling and systematic random sampling schemes. The data has been taken from the survey “Comparison of Two Survey Methodologies to Estimate Total Vaccination Coverage” sponsored by Indian Council of Medical Research, New Delhi. It is observed that the estimations of proportions of this vaccination coverage are significantly not different at 5% level of probability. Both 30×30 sampling and 30×7 sampling will be preferred to systematic sampling in estimation of hepatitis B vaccine coverage for this study population because of quick estimation and lesser cost. The 30×7 cluster sampling is the most recommended method for such immunization coverage especially in a developing country.

  19. Periosteal Pedicle Flap Harvested during Vestibular Extension for Root Coverage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shubham Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Root exposure along with inadequate vestibular depth is a common clinical finding. Treatment option includes many techniques to treat such defects for obtaining predictable root coverage. Normally, the vestibular depth is increased first followed by a second surgery for root coverage. The present case report describes a single-stage technique for vestibular extension and root coverage in a single tooth by using the Periosteal Pedicle Flap (PPF. This technique involves no donor site morbidity and allows for reflection of sufficient amount of periosteal flap tissue with its own blood supply at the surgical site, thus increasing the chances of success of root coverage with simultaneous increase in vestibular depth.

  20. Premium subsidies for health insurance: excessive coverage vs. adverse selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selden, T M

    1999-12-01

    The tax subsidy for employment-related health insurance can lead to excessive coverage and excessive spending on medical care. Yet, the potential also exists for adverse selection to result in the opposite problem-insufficient coverage and underconsumption of medical care. This paper uses the model of Rothschild and Stiglitz (R-S) to show that a simple linear premium subsidy can correct market failure due to adverse selection. The optimal linear subsidy balances welfare losses from excessive coverage against welfare gains from reduced adverse selection. Indeed, a capped premium subsidy may mitigate adverse selection without creating incentives for excessive coverage.

  1. Controlling cost escalation of healthcare: making universal health coverage sustainable in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Shenglan; Tao, Jingjing; Bekedam, Henk

    2012-01-01

    An increasingly number of low- and middle-income countries have developed and implemented a national policy towards universal coverage of healthcare for their citizens over the past decade. Among them is China which has expanded its population coverage by health insurance from around 29.7% in 2003 to over 90% at the end of 2010. While both central and local governments in China have significantly increased financial inputs into the two newly established health insurance schemes: new cooperative medical scheme (NCMS) for the rural population, and urban resident basic health insurance (URBMI), the cost of healthcare in China has also been rising rapidly at the annual rate of 17.0%% over the period of the past two decades years. The total health expenditure increased from 74.7 billion Chinese yuan in 1990 to 1998 billion Chinese yuan in 2010, while average health expenditure per capital reached the level of 1490.1 Chinese yuan per person in 2010, rising from 65.4 Chinese yuan per person in 1990. The repaid increased population coverage by government supported health insurance schemes has stimulated a rising use of healthcare, and thus given rise to more pressure on cost control in China.There are many effective measures of supply-side and demand-side cost control in healthcare available. Over the past three decades China had introduced many measures to control demand for health care, via a series of co-payment mechanisms. The paper introduces and discusses new initiatives and measures employed to control cost escalation of healthcare in China, including alternative provider payment methods, reforming drug procurement systems, and strengthening the application of standard clinical paths in treating patients at hospitals, and analyses the impacts of these initiatives and measures. The paper finally proposes ways forward to make universal health coverage in China more sustainable.

  2. An assessment of progress towards universal health coverage in Brazil, Russia, India, China, and South Africa (BRICS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marten, Robert; McIntyre, Diane; Travassos, Claudia; Shishkin, Sergey; Longde, Wang; Reddy, Srinath; Vega, Jeanette

    2014-12-13

    Brazil, Russia, India, China, and South Africa (BRICS) represent almost half the world's population, and all five national governments recently committed to work nationally, regionally, and globally to ensure that universal health coverage (UHC) is achieved. This analysis reviews national efforts to achieve UHC. With a broad range of health indicators, life expectancy (ranging from 53 years to 73 years), and mortality rate in children younger than 5 years (ranging from 10·3 to 44·6 deaths per 1000 livebirths), a review of progress in each of the BRICS countries shows that each has some way to go before achieving UHC. The BRICS countries show substantial, and often similar, challenges in moving towards UHC. On the basis of a review of each country, the most pressing problems are: raising insufficient public spending; stewarding mixed private and public health systems; ensuring equity; meeting the demands for more human resources; managing changing demographics and disease burdens; and addressing the social determinants of health. Increases in public funding can be used to show how BRICS health ministries could accelerate progress to achieve UHC. Although all the BRICS countries have devoted increased resources to health, the biggest increase has been in China, which was probably facilitated by China's rapid economic growth. However, the BRICS country with the second highest economic growth, India, has had the least improvement in public funding for health. Future research to understand such different levels of prioritisation of the health sector in these countries could be useful. Similarly, the role of strategic purchasing in working with powerful private sectors, the effect of federal structures, and the implications of investment in primary health care as a foundation for UHC could be explored. These issues could serve as the basis on which BRICS countries focus their efforts to share ideas and strategies.

  3. Estimating the coverage of a targeted mobile tuberculosis screening programme among illicit drug users and homeless persons with truncated models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N.A.H. van Hest; G. de Vries (Gerard); F. Smit (Filip); A.D. Grant; J.H. Richardus (Jan Hendrik)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractTruncated models are indirect methods to estimate the size of a hidden population which, in contrast to the capture–recapture method, can be used on a single information source. We estimated the coverage of a tuberculosis screening programme among illicit drug users and homeless persons

  4. 广州市20~59岁人群乙型肝炎疫苗接种状况及其疫苗保护效果分析%Study on the immunization coverage and effects of hepatitis B vaccine in the 20-59 years-old population in Guangzhou city

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁建华; 王鸣; 刘建华; 蔡衍珊; 许建雄

    2010-01-01

    Objective To study the immunization coverage and immune effects of hepatitis B vaccine (HepB) among people who were immunized later than at birth in Guangzhou city. Methods A multistage randomized cluster sampling was used and the subjects were at age 20 to 59 years old,from the families of twelve districts in Guangzhou. Cross sectional analysis was carried out. Every study subject' s HepB immunization history and main risk were investigated through questionnaire.Venous blood samples were collected and then tested for HBsAg and anti-HBs by means of ELISA.The immunization coverage rate of HepB, prevalence rates of HBsAg and anti-HBs among every age group were valuated by sampling weights. The protective efficacy of the people with immunization of HepB was assessed by case-control study. Results The overall immunization rate of HepB was 24.71% (95%CI: 20.86%-28.56%)in the 20-59 age group. HBsAg prevalence rate was 14.91% (95% CI: 12.73%-17.08% ), and 8.52% in vaccinated group while 18.15% in the non-vaccinated group. Results from case-control study showed that HepB had good protective efficacy to HBV in people of 20-59 years old. The protective rate of HepB against HBV was 62.6%. Conclusion Vaccinating HepB on people after the neonatal period also non-nowbom could provide good immune effect to HBV.%目的 了解广州市非新生儿人群乙型肝炎(乙肝)疫苗(HepB)接种状况并评价其保护效果.方法 在广州市12个区、县级市按照多阶段分层整群抽样法,以家庭为单位对20~59岁人群进行横断面调查,并检测HBsAg、抗-HBs;对HepB接种史及主要乙肝感染危险因素进行问卷调查,采用抽样权重评估20~59岁人群HepB接种率,HBsAg、抗-HBs流行率.通过病例对照研究,评价疫苗保护效果.结果 广州市20~59岁人群有HepB接种史为24.71%(95%CI:20.86%~28.56%),HBsAg流行率14.91%(95%CI:12.73%~17.08%),其中有HepB接种史人群HBsAg流行率为8.52%,无接种史人群HBsAg流行率为18

  5. Broad-Spectrum Solution-Processed Photovoltaics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ip, Alexander Halley

    High global demand for energy coupled with dwindling fossil fuel supply has driven the development of sustainable energy sources such as solar photovoltaics. Emerging solar technologies aim for low-cost, solution-processable materials which would allow wide deployment. Colloidal quantum dots (CQDs) are such a materials system which exhibits the ability to absorb across the entire solar spectrum, including in the infrared where many technologies cannot harvest photons. However, due to their nanocrystalline nature, CQDs are susceptible to surface-associated electronic traps which greatly inhibit performance. In this thesis, surface engineering of CQDs is presented through a combined ligand approach which improves the passivation of surface trap states. A metal halide treatment is found to passivate quantum dot surfaces in solution, while bifunctional organic ligands produce a dense film in solid state. This approach reduced midgap trap states fivefold compared with conventional passivation strategies and led to solar cells with a record certified 7.0% power conversion efficiency. The effect of this process on the electronic structure is studied through photoelectron spectroscopy. It is found that while the halide provides deep trap passivation, the nature of the metal cation on the CQD surface affects the density of band tail states. This effect is explored further through a wide survey of materials, and it is found that the coordination ability of the metal cation is responsible for the suppression of shallow traps. With this understanding of CQD surface passivation, broad spectral usage is then explored through a study of visible-absorbing organolead halide perovskite materials as well as narrow-bandgap CQD solar cells. Control over growth conditions and modification of electrode interfaces resulted in efficient perovskite devices with effective usages of visible photons. For infrared-absorbing CQDs, it is found that, in addition to providing surface trap

  6. Salvia officinalis L. coverage on plants development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.T.A. CRUZ-SILVA

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Medicinal plants with essential oils in their composition havetypicallybeen shown to be promising in plant control. Sage (Salvia officinalis L. is cited for its allelopathic effects. This study evaluated the allelopathic potential of dried sage leaves in vegetation, soil and the development of Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. (tomato, Panicum maximum Jacq. (guinea grass and Salvia hispanica L. (chia plants. Three seedlings were transplanted seven days after germination in 1 kg plastic containers with soil, in a greenhouse. The grinded dry mass of sage was placed at rates of 3.75; 7.5 15 t ha-1, and a control (no mass. After 30 days, the chlorophyll index of tomato and guinea grass plants were inhibited with 7.5 and 15 t ha-1 sage cover crops. Tomato shoot length was inhibited in all tested rates, and guinea grass plants showed some reduction in growth when using the highest rate of sage mass (15 t ha-1. The dry mass of tomato and guinea grass plants was reduced when using the15 t ha-1, and 7.5 and 15 t ha-1 of sage cover crops, respectively. It can be concluded that there was some effect of sage coverage on the soil in tomato and guinea grass, but no effect was observed on chia plants.

  7. Approximating Low-Dimensional Coverage Problems

    CERN Document Server

    Badanidiyuru, Ashwinkumar; Lee, Hooyeon

    2011-01-01

    We study the complexity of the maximum coverage problem, restricted to set systems of bounded VC-dimension. Our main result is a fixed-parameter tractable approximation scheme: an algorithm that outputs a $(1-\\eps)$-approximation to the maximum-cardinality union of $k$ sets, in running time $O(f(\\eps,k,d)\\cdot poly(n))$ where $n$ is the problem size, $d$ is the VC-dimension of the set system, and $f(\\eps,k,d)$ is exponential in $(kd/\\eps)^c$ for some constant $c$. We complement this positive result by showing that the function $f(\\eps,k,d)$ in the running-time bound cannot be replaced by a function depending only on $(\\eps,d)$ or on $(k,d)$, under standard complexity assumptions. We also present an improved upper bound on the approximation ratio of the greedy algorithm in special cases of the problem, including when the sets have bounded cardinality and when they are two-dimensional halfspaces. Complementing these positive results, we show that when the sets are four-dimensional halfspaces neither the greedy ...

  8. Percent area coverage through image analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Chung M.; Hong, Sung M.; Liu, De-Ling

    2016-09-01

    The notion of percent area coverage (PAC) has been used to characterize surface cleanliness levels in the spacecraft contamination control community. Due to the lack of detailed particle data, PAC has been conventionally calculated by multiplying the particle surface density in predetermined particle size bins by a set of coefficients per MIL-STD-1246C. In deriving the set of coefficients, the surface particle size distribution is assumed to follow a log-normal relation between particle density and particle size, while the cross-sectional area function is given as a combination of regular geometric shapes. For particles with irregular shapes, the cross-sectional area function cannot describe the true particle area and, therefore, may introduce error in the PAC calculation. Other errors may also be introduced by using the lognormal surface particle size distribution function that highly depends on the environmental cleanliness and cleaning process. In this paper, we present PAC measurements from silicon witness wafers that collected fallouts from a fabric material after vibration testing. PAC calculations were performed through analysis of microscope images and compare them to values derived through the MIL-STD-1246C method. Our results showed that the MIL-STD-1246C method does provide a reasonable upper bound to the PAC values determined through image analysis, in particular for PAC values below 0.1.

  9. AGE Percent Persons by Broad Age Groups NMSD 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  10. AGE Percent Persons by Broad Age Groups NMHD 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  11. AGE Percent Males by Broad Age Groups NMSD 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  12. AGE Percent Females by Broad Age Groups NMHD 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  13. AGE Percent Males by Broad Age Groups NMHD 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  14. Genome-based polymorphic microsatellite development and validation in the mosquito Aedes aegypti and application to population genetics in Haiti

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Streit Thomas G

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Microsatellite markers have proven useful in genetic studies in many organisms, yet microsatellite-based studies of the dengue and yellow fever vector mosquito Aedes aegypti have been limited by the number of assayable and polymorphic loci available, despite multiple independent efforts to identify them. Here we present strategies for efficient identification and development of useful microsatellites with broad coverage across the Aedes aegypti genome, development of multiplex-ready PCR groups of microsatellite loci, and validation of their utility for population analysis with field collections from Haiti. Results From 79 putative microsatellite loci representing 31 motifs identified in 42 whole genome sequence supercontig assemblies in the Aedes aegypti genome, 33 microsatellites providing genome-wide coverage amplified as single copy sequences in four lab strains, with a range of 2-6 alleles per locus. The tri-nucleotide motifs represented the majority (51% of the polymorphic single copy loci, and none of these was located within a putative open reading frame. Seven groups of 4-5 microsatellite loci each were developed for multiplex-ready PCR. Four multiplex-ready groups were used to investigate population genetics of Aedes aegypti populations sampled in Haiti. Of the 23 loci represented in these groups, 20 were polymorphic with a range of 3-24 alleles per locus (mean = 8.75. Allelic polymorphic information content varied from 0.171 to 0.867 (mean = 0.545. Most loci met Hardy-Weinberg expectations across populations and pairwise FST comparisons identified significant genetic differentiation between some populations. No evidence for genetic isolation by distance was observed. Conclusion Despite limited success in previous reports, we demonstrate that the Aedes aegypti genome is well-populated with single copy, polymorphic microsatellite loci that can be uncovered using the strategy developed here for rapid and efficient

  15. Press Releases vs. Newspaper Coverage of California Supreme Court Decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hale, F. Dennis

    1978-01-01

    A study comparing the coverage in newspapers and press releases regarding one year's decisions of the California Supreme Court revealed that the press releases influenced the kinds of decisions that were reported but not the quantity of coverage by the newspapers. (GT)

  16. 28 CFR 55.6 - Coverage under section 203(c).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... THE VOTING RIGHTS ACT REGARDING LANGUAGE MINORITY GROUPS Nature of Coverage § 55.6 Coverage under... citizens are members of a single language minority group and are limited-English proficient; and (ii) The illiteracy rate of such language minority citizens in the political subdivision is higher than the...

  17. 7 CFR 457.172 - Coverage Enhancement Option.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... must: (a) Have an MPCI policy in force for the insured crop (or for citrus fruit, citrus trees, and stone fruit or other crops, as applicable, the insured type) and comply with all terms and conditions of... Federal Crop Insurance Corporation as published at 7 CFR part 457. MPCI coverage level—The coverage...

  18. Coverage Accuracy of Confidence Intervals in Nonparametric Regression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Song-xi Chen; Yong-song Qin

    2003-01-01

    Point-wise confidence intervals for a nonparametric regression function with random design points are considered. The confidence intervals are those based on the traditional normal approximation and the empirical likelihood. Their coverage accuracy is assessed by developing the Edgeworth expansions for the coverage probabilities. It is shown that the empirical likelihood confidence intervals are Bartlett correctable.

  19. Higher Education Students' Perceptions of Environmental Issues and Media Coverage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keinonen, Tuula; Palmberg, Irmeli; Kukkonen, Jari; Yli-Panula, Eija; Persson, Christel; Vilkonis, Rytis

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to find higher education students' perceptions about environmental issues and how the perceptions are related to perceptions of media coverage. This study investigates higher education students' perceptions of the seriousness of environmental issues and their relation to perceptions of media coverage. Higher education students…

  20. Coverage of Islamic Literature in Selected Indexing Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sattar, A.; Rehman, S. ur

    1985-01-01

    This study evaluates bibliographical coverage of Islamic literature provided by four Western indexing services ("Social Sciences Citation Index,""Social Sciences Index,""Humanities Index,""Index Islamicus") by using bibliographical checking method. Highlights include characteristics of literature and bibliographic coverage of literature by type of…

  1. Coverage of the Stanford Prison Experiment in Introductory Psychology Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartels, Jared M.; Milovich, Marilyn M.; Moussier, Sabrina

    2016-01-01

    The present study examined the coverage of Stanford prison experiment (SPE), including criticisms of the study, in introductory psychology courses through an online survey of introductory psychology instructors (N = 117). Results largely paralleled those of the recently published textbook analyses with ethical issues garnering the most coverage,…

  2. Contraceptive Coverage in Doubt Under the Trump Administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Jan

    2017-02-01

    Women's health advocates are concerned about health coverage guarantees that could disappear as Republicans in Congress and the White House go about dismantling Obamacare. These include everything from contraceptive coverage to breast cancer screenings to equity in the premiums women pay for insurance.

  3. 29 CFR 1975.3 - Extent of coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) COVERAGE OF EMPLOYERS UNDER THE WILLIAMS-STEIGER OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ACT OF 1970 § 1975.3 Extent of coverage. (a) Section 2(b) of the Williams-Steiger Occupational Safety and Health Act (Public Law... exercise of its powers to regulate commerce among the several States and with foreign nations and...

  4. 42 CFR 435.139 - Coverage for certain aliens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Coverage for certain aliens. 435.139 Section 435... Aliens § 435.139 Coverage for certain aliens. The agency must provide services necessary for the treatment of an emergency medical condition, as defined in § 440.255(c) of this chapter, to those...

  5. New Civil Rights Act Coverages - Progress or Racism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Galen

    1975-01-01

    The growing list of added coverages in state and local civil rights laws is diluting the fight against racial discrimination by weakening enforcement through loading civil rights agencies with many new areas of coverage which are diverting them from their original purpose of ending discrimination against racial and religious minorities. (EH)

  6. 14 CFR 198.5 - Types of insurance coverage available.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... (CONTINUED) WAR RISK INSURANCE AVIATION INSURANCE § 198.5 Types of insurance coverage available. Application may be made for insurance against loss or damage to the following persons, property, or interests: (a... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Types of insurance coverage available....

  7. 14 CFR 198.7 - Amount of insurance coverage available.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... (CONTINUED) WAR RISK INSURANCE AVIATION INSURANCE § 198.7 Amount of insurance coverage available. (a) For... arising from any risk. In the case of hull insurance, the amount insured may not exceed the reasonable... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Amount of insurance coverage available....

  8. 47 CFR 73.684 - Prediction of coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Television Broadcast Stations § 73.684 Prediction of coverage. (a) All predictions of coverage made pursuant... the depression angle between the transmitting antenna center of radiation and the radio horizon as... difference in elevation of the antenna center of radiation above the average terrain and the radio...

  9. Explaining socio-economic inequalities in immunization coverage in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ataguba, John E; Ojo, Kenneth O; Ichoku, Hyacinth E

    2016-11-01

    Globally, in 2013 over 6 million children younger than 5 years died from either an infectious cause or during the neonatal period. A large proportion of these deaths occurred in developing countries, especially in sub-Saharan Africa. Immunization is one way to reduce childhood morbidity and deaths. In Nigeria, however, although immunization is provided without a charge at public facilities, coverage remains low and deaths from vaccine preventable diseases are high. This article seeks to assess inequalities in full and partial immunization coverage in Nigeria. It also assesses inequality in the 'intensity' of immunization coverage and it explains the factors that account for disparities in child immunization coverage in the country. Using nationally representative data, this article shows that disparities exist in the coverage of immunization to the advantage of the rich. Also, factors such as mother's literacy, region and location of the child, and socio-economic status explain the disparities in immunization coverage in Nigeria. Apart from addressing these issues, the article notes the importance of addressing other social determinants of health to reduce the disparities in immunization coverage in the country. These should be in line with the social values of communities so as to ensure acceptability and compliance. We argue that any policy that addresses these issues will likely reduce disparities in immunization coverage and put Nigeria on the road to sustainable development.

  10. 47 CFR 22.951 - Minimum coverage requirement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... MOBILE SERVICES Cellular Radiotelephone Service § 22.951 Minimum coverage requirement. Applications for... toward the minimum coverage requirement. Applications for authority to operate a new cellular system in... reefs only), except for unserved areas in the Gulf of Mexico MSA....

  11. 12 CFR 334.20 - Coverage and definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... FAIR CREDIT REPORTING Affiliate Marketing § 334.20 Coverage and definitions. (a) Coverage. Subpart C of... account numbers, names, or addresses. (4) Pre-existing business relationship. (i) In general. The term “pre-existing business relationship” means a relationship between a person, or a person's...

  12. African-American Press Coverage of Clarence Thomas Nomination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fearn-Banks, Kathleen

    1994-01-01

    Examines pressures facing the African American press by focusing on its coverage of the 1991 nomination of Clarence Thomas to the United States Supreme Court. Discusses the dilemma these newspapers faced in choosing between supporting African Americans and supporting civil rights, with their mixed coverage of the story reflecting this dilemma. (SR)

  13. Biodiversity inhibits parasites: Broad evidence for the dilution effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Civitello, David J; Cohen, Jeremy; Fatima, Hiba; Halstead, Neal T; Liriano, Josue; McMahon, Taegan A; Ortega, C Nicole; Sauer, Erin Louise; Sehgal, Tanya; Young, Suzanne; Rohr, Jason R

    2015-07-14

    Infectious diseases of humans, wildlife, and domesticated species are increasing worldwide, driving the need to understand the mechanisms that shape outbreaks. Simultaneously, human activities are drastically reducing biodiversity. These concurrent patterns have prompted repeated suggestions that biodiversity and disease are linked. For example, the dilution effect hypothesis posits that these patterns are causally related; diverse host communities inhibit the spread of parasites via several mechanisms, such as by regulating populations of susceptible hosts or interfering with parasite transmission. However, the generality of the dilution effect hypothesis remains controversial, especially for zoonotic diseases of humans. Here we provide broad evidence that host diversity inhibits parasite abundance using a meta-analysis of 202 effect sizes on 61 parasite species. The magnitude of these effects was independent of host density, study design, and type and specialization of parasites, indicating that dilution was robust across all ecological contexts examined. However, the magnitude of dilution was more closely related to the frequency, rather than density, of focal host species. Importantly, observational studies overwhelmingly documented dilution effects, and there was also significant evidence for dilution effects of zoonotic parasites of humans. Thus, dilution effects occur commonly in nature, and they may modulate human disease risk. A second analysis identified similar effects of diversity in plant-herbivore systems. Thus, although there can be exceptions, our results indicate that biodiversity generally decreases parasitism and herbivory. Consequently, anthropogenic declines in biodiversity could increase human and wildlife diseases and decrease crop and forest production.

  14. Defining Key Features of the Broad Autism Phenotype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Losh, Molly; Childress, Debra; Lam, Kristen; Piven, Joseph

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the frequency of personality, language, and social-behavioral characteristics believed to comprise the broad autism phenotype (BAP), across families differing in genetic liability to autism. We hypothesized that within this unique sample comprised of multiple-incidence autism families (MIAF), single-incidence autism families (SIAF), and control Down syndrome families (DWNS), a graded expression would be observed for the principal characteristics conferring genetic susceptibility to autism, in which such features would express most profoundly among parents from MIAFs, less strongly among SIAFs, and least of all among comparison parents from DWNS families, who should display population base rates. Analyses detected linear expression of traits in line with hypotheses, and further suggested differential intrafamilial expression across family types. In the vast majority of MIAFs both parents displayed BAP characteristics, whereas within SIAFs, it was equally likely that one, both, or neither parent show BAP features. The significance of these findings is discussed in relation to etiologic mechanisms in autism and relevance to molecular genetic studies. PMID:17948871

  15. Enhanced methanol production in plants provides broad spectrum insect resistance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sameer Dixit

    Full Text Available Plants naturally emit methanol as volatile organic compound. Methanol is toxic to insect pests; but the quantity produced by most of the plants is not enough to protect them against invading insect pests. In the present study, we demonstrated that the over-expression of pectin methylesterase, derived from Arabidopsis thaliana and Aspergillus niger, in transgenic tobacco plants enhances methanol production and resistance to polyphagous insect pests. Methanol content in the leaves of transgenic plants was measured using proton nuclear spectroscopy (1H NMR and spectra showed up to 16 fold higher methanol as compared to control wild type (WT plants. A maximum of 100 and 85% mortality in chewing insects Helicoverpa armigera and Spodoptera litura larvae was observed, respectively when fed on transgenic plants leaves. The surviving larvae showed less feeding, severe growth retardation and could not develop into pupae. In-planta bioassay on transgenic lines showed up to 99 and 75% reduction in the population multiplication of plant sap sucking pests Myzus persicae (aphid and Bemisia tabaci (whitefly, respectively. Most of the phenotypic characters of transgenic plants were similar to WT plants. Confocal microscopy showed no deformities in cellular integrity, structure and density of stomata and trichomes of transgenic plants compared to WT. Pollen germination and tube formation was also not affected in transgenic plants. Cell wall enzyme transcript levels were comparable with WT. This study demonstrated for the first time that methanol emission can be utilized for imparting broad range insect resistance in plants.

  16. LOCALITY COVERAGE, METACOMMUNITIES AND CHRONOFAUNA: CONCEPTS THAT CONNECT PALEOBIOLOGY TO MODERN POPULATION BIOLOGY%地点覆盖度、集合群落、地质时期动物群:联接古生物学和现代种群生物学的概念

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jussi T.ERONEN

    2007-01-01

    在古生物群落中新近出现的地点覆盖度或发生率的概念,以及对生物集合种群的空间动态学的深入了解,使古生物学和现代生物学的联系更加紧密.集合群落的概念以及地质时期动物群的古生物学认识显示,将古生物学和生态学结合在一起是大有希望的.评述了目前对这些概念的理解,并以欧亚大陆大型食草动物群落的发育作为范例,介绍了运用这些理论来研究化石记录的方法.研究结果表明,化石记录中种群覆盖度的研究可以在以化石为基础的进化研究和以现生有机体为基础的进化研究之间架起一座桥梁.地点覆盖度最大的类群,像现代生态学中发生率最大的类群一样,往往是地理分布最广泛、在当地最丰富的类群.%The emerging idea of locality coverage, or incidence, in the paleontological community and progress in the understanding of the spatial dynamics of metapopulations biology are bringing the paleobiology and present-day biology closer together. The concept of metacommunities and the paleontological notion of chronofauna show much promise for synthesis of paleontology and ecology. Here I review the present understanding of these concepts. I show how these can be used to investigate the paleontological record, using the development of Eurasian large herbivorous mammal communities as a case study.

  17. POPULATION Total Population NMHD 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  18. POPULATION Total Population NMSD 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  19. Vaccination coverage in children can be estimated from health insurance data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tauscher Martin

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The introduction of new vaccines for young children requires instruments for a rapid and timely assessment of the progressively increasing vaccination coverage. We assessed whether routine data generated by statutory health insurances (SHI might be used to monitor vaccination coverage in young children. Methods For 90% of the population Germany's healthcare system is premium-funded through SHI. Specific medical codes on childhood vaccination are used for billing. These were used to analyse vaccine uptake up to 24 months in children born in Bavaria between 2001–10–01 and 2002–12–31. For children insured in the biggest SHI, vaccination coverage estimates based on billing data were compared to estimates considering only continuously insured children since birth, based on additional data provided by this SHI. Results Definition of an appropriate denominator from the billing data was a major challenge: defining the denominator by any consultation by children with different ID numbers yielded 196,732 children, exceeding the number of births in Bavaria by a factor of 1.4. The main causes for this inflated denominator were migration and change of health insurance number. A reduced dataset based on at least one physician's visit in the first six months and 2nd year of life yielded 111,977 children. Vaccination coverage estimates for children in the biggest SHI were at maximum 1.7% higher than in the data set based on continuously insured children. Conclusion With appropriate adjustments to define the denominator physician's billing data provide a promising tool to estimate immunisation coverage. A slight overestimation based on these data was explained by children never seeing a physician.

  20. Repeat retail clinic visits: impact of insurance coverage and age of patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angstman, Kurt B; Bernard, Matthew E; Rohrer, James E; Garrison, Gregory M; Maclaughlin, Kathy L

    2012-12-01

    As retail clinics provide a less costly alternative for health care, it would be reasonable to expect an increase in multiple (repeat) retail visits by those patients who may have expenses for receiving primary care. If costs were not a significant factor, then repeat visits should not be significantly different between these patients and those with coverage for primary care visits. The hypothesis for this study was that patients with the potential for out-of-pocket expenses would have a higher frequency of repeat retail clinic visits within 180 days compared to those with primary care coverage. A retrospective chart review was conducted of 5703 patients utilizing a retail clinic in Rochester, Minnesota from January 1, 2009 through June 30, 2009. The first visit to the retail clinic was considered the index visit and the chart was reviewed for repeat retail clinic visits within the next 180 days. Using a multiple logistic regression model, the odds of a pediatric patient (N=2344) having a repeat retail visit within 180 days of the index visit were not significantly impacted by insurance coverage (P=0.4209). Of the 3359 adult patients, those with unknown coverage had a 25.6% higher odds ratio of repeat retail clinic visits than those with insurance coverage (odds ratio 1.2557, confidence interval 1.0421-1.5131). This study suggested that when cost is an issue, the adult patient may favor retail clinics for episodic, low-acuity health care. In contrast, the pediatric population did not, suggesting that other factors, such as convenience, may play more of a role in the choice of episodic health care for this age group.

  1. Distributed Multitarget Probabilistic Coverage Control Algorithm for Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Tian

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is concerned with the problem of multitarget coverage based on probabilistic detection model. Coverage configuration is an effective method to alleviate the energy-limitation problem of sensors. Firstly, considering the attenuation of node’s sensing ability, the target probabilistic coverage problem is defined and formalized, which is based on Neyman-Peason probabilistic detection model. Secondly, in order to turn off redundant sensors, a simplified judging rule is derived, which makes the probabilistic coverage judgment execute on each node locally. Thirdly, a distributed node schedule scheme is proposed for implementing the distributed algorithm. Simulation results show that this algorithm is robust to the change of network size, and when compared with the physical coverage algorithm, it can effectively minimize the number of active sensors, which guarantees all the targets γ-covered.

  2. Actual immunization coverage throughout Europe: are existing data sufficient?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopalco, P L; Carrillo Santisteve, P

    2014-05-01

    Assessing vaccine coverage is an essential component of vaccine programme monitoring and evaluation. Vaccine coverage data are available in EU/EEA countries at both national and subnational levels and are used for programmatic purposes at any level. European-wide data collection is performed by WHO through the Centralized Information System for Infectious Diseases, as part of the global data collection jointly conducted with UNICEF. Data quality and comparability are still challenging at an international level. According to available information, vaccination registries are available in 11 countries in the EU/EEA, but only in five countries do they have national coverage. In 2012 ECDC, through the VENICE II network, started the European Vaccination Coverage Collection System (EVACO project), with the final aim of improving the quality of vaccine coverage data at EU level, by defining and implementing standards.

  3. Chinese newspaper coverage of genetically modified organisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Du Li

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Debates persist around the world over the development and use of genetically modified organisms (GMO. News media has been shown to both reflect and influence public perceptions of health and science related debates, as well as policy development. To better understand the news coverage of GMOs in China, we analyzed the content of articles in two Chinese newspapers that relate to the development and promotion of genetically modified technologies and GMOs. Methods Searching in the Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure Core Newspaper Database (CNKI-CND, we collected 77 articles, including news reports, comments and notes, published between January 2002 and August 2011 in two of the major Chinese newspapers: People’s Daily and Guangming Daily. We examined articles for perspectives that were discussed and/or mentioned regarding GMOs, the risks and benefits of GMOs, and the tone of news articles. Results The newspaper articles reported on 29 different kinds of GMOs. Compared with the possible risks, the benefits of GMOs were much more frequently discussed in the articles. 48.1% of articles were largely supportive of the GM technology research and development programs and the adoption of GM cottons, while 51.9% of articles were neutral on the subject of GMOs. Risks associated with GMOs were mentioned in the newspaper articles, but none of the articles expressed negative tones in regards to GMOs. Conclusion This study demonstrates that the Chinese print media is largely supportive of GMOs. It also indicates that the print media describes the Chinese government as actively pursuing national GMO research and development programs and the promotion of GM cotton usage. So far, discussion of the risks associated with GMOs is minimal in the news reports. The media, scientists, and the government should work together to ensure that science communication is accurate and balanced.

  4. An evaluation of coverage and compliance of mass drug administration 2006 for elimination of lymphatic filariasis in endemic areas of Gujarat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar Pradeep

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Mass drug administration (MDA means once-in-a-year administration of diethyl carbamazine (DEC tablet to all people (excluding children under 2 years, pregnant women and severely ill persons in identified endemic areas. It aims at cessation of transmission of lymphatic filariasis. Objective: What has been the coverage and compliance of MDA in Gujarat during the campaign in December 2006? Study Design: Cross-sectional population based house-to-house visit. Setting: Urban and rural areas in Gujarat identified as endemic for filariasis where MDA 2006 was undertaken. Study Variables: Exploratory - Rural and urban districts; Outcome - coverage, compliance, actual coverage, side effects. Analysis: Percentage and proportions. Results: Twenty-six clusters, each comprising 32 households from six endemic districts, yielded an eligible population of 4164. The coverage rate was 85.2% with variation across different areas. The compliance with drug ingestion was 89% with a gap of 11% to be targeted by intensive IEC. The effective coverage (75.8% was much below the target (85%. Side effects of DEC were minimum, transient and drug-specific. Overall coverage was marginally better in rural areas. The causes of poor coverage and compliance have been discussed and relevant suggestions have been made.

  5. Measuring coverage in MNCH: challenges and opportunities in the selection of coverage indicators for global monitoring.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Harris Requejo

    Full Text Available Global monitoring of intervention coverage is a cornerstone of international efforts to improve reproductive, maternal, newborn, and child health. In this review, we examine the process and implications of selecting a core set of coverage indicators for global monitoring, using as examples the processes used by the Countdown to 2015 for Maternal, Newborn and Child Survival and the Commission on Accountability for Women's and Children's Health. We describe how the generation of data for global monitoring involves five iterative steps: development of standard indicator definitions and measurement approaches to ensure comparability across countries; collection of high-quality data at the country level; compilation of country data at the global level; organization of global databases; and rounds of data quality checking. Regular and rigorous technical review processes that involve high-level decision makers and experts familiar with indicator measurement are needed to maximize uptake and to ensure that indicators used for global monitoring are selected on the basis of available evidence of intervention effectiveness, feasibility of measurement, and data availability as well as programmatic relevance. Experience from recent initiatives illustrates the challenges of striking this balance as well as strategies for reducing the tensions inherent in the indicator selection process. We conclude that more attention and continued investment need to be directed to global monitoring, to support both the process of global database development and the selection of sets of coverage indicators to promote accountability. The stakes are high, because these indicators can drive policy and program development at the country and global level, and ultimately impact the health of women and children and the communities where they live.

  6. Access to Medicines by Seguro Popular Beneficiaries: Pending Tasks towards Universal Health Coverage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edson Servan-Mori

    Full Text Available In the context of aiming to achieve universal health coverage in Mexico, this study compares access to prescribed medicines (ATPM between Seguro Popular (SP and non-SP affiliated outpatient health service users.ATPM by 6,123 users of outpatient services was analyzed using the National Health and Nutrition Survey 2012. Adjusted bi-probit models were performed incorporating instrumental variables.17.3% of SP and 10.1% of the non-SP population lacked ATPM. Two-thirds of all outpatient SP and 18.5% of all outpatient non-SP received health services at Ministry of Health facilities, among whom, 64.6 and 53.6% of the SP and non-SP population respectively reported ATPM at these facilities. Lack of medicines in health units, chronic health problems (compared to acute conditions and prescription ≥3 medicines were risk factors for non-ATPM. Adjusted models suggest that when using Ministry of Health services, the SP population has a higher probability of ATMP compared to the non-SP population.Given the aspirations of achieving universal health coverage in Mexico, it is important to increase ATPM in Ministry of Health facilities thereby ensuring basic rights to health care are met.

  7. Psychological Distress and Health Insurance Coverage among Formerly Incarcerated Young Adults in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larrell L. Wilkinson

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The United States incarcerates more people per capita than any other nation. Studies have consistently demonstrated higher prevalence of serious mental illness among the incarcerated. Although health care may be available to individuals while incarcerated, research is needed to understand the context of health care coverage and mental health after incarceration. The purpose of this study is to estimate the point prevalence of psychological distress (PD among young adults with incarceration experience, while comparing the prevalence to that of young adults in the general population. Additionally, this study characterizes the relationship between incarceration experience and PD, while also examining this association given an individual's health insurance coverage status among young adults. Lastly, we examine if other individual, contextual, and behavioral factors influences the relationship between incarceration experience and PD, in addition to their health insurance coverage status. This study utilizes data from the 2008 panel of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 97, a population based survey dataset from the U.S. Department of Labor. Andersen's Behavioral Model of Health Services Use provided the conceptual framework for the study. The Mental Health Index 5 (MHI-5 was used to determine PD or normal mental health. Chi-square testing and multivariate logistic regression were performed to examine incarceration experience in association to PD. The sample with incarceration experience reported almost double the proportion of PD (21% compared to those without an incarceration experience (11%. Young adults who have been incarcerated reported greater odds of PD than those with no incarceration experience (COR 2.18; 95% CI, 1.68-2.83 and the association was diminished in the presence of health insurance status and model covariates. Future health prevention and health management efforts should consider the impact of health insurance coverage

  8. Characterization of Heterogeneity in Childhood Immunization Coverage in Central Florida Using Immunization Registry Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Kimberly M; Logan, Grace E

    2016-07-01

    Despite high vaccine coverage in the United States in general, and in the State of Florida specifically, some children miss scheduled vaccines due to health system failures or vaccine refusal by their parents. Recent experiences with outbreaks in the United States suggest that geographic clustering of un(der)vaccinated populations represent a threat to the elimination status of some vaccine-preventable diseases. Immunization registries continue to expand and play an important role in efforts to track vaccine coverage and use. Using nearly 700,000 de-identified immunization records from the Florida Department of Health immunization information system (Florida SHOTS™) for children born during 2003-2014, we explored heterogeneity and potential clustering of un(der)vaccinated children in six counties in central Florida-Brevard, Lake, Orange, Oseola, Polk, and Seminole-that represent a high-risk area for importation due to family tourist attractions in the area. By zip code, we mapped the population density, the percent of children with religious exemptions, the percent of children on track or overdue for each vaccine series without and with exemptions, and the numbers of children with no recorded dose of each vaccine. Overall, we found some heterogeneity in coverage among the counties and zip codes, but relatively consistent and high coverage. We found that some children with an exemption in the system received the vaccines we analyzed, but exemption represents a clear risk factor for un(der)immunization. We identified many challenges associated with using immunization registry data for spatial analysis and potential opportunities to improve registries to better support future analyses.

  9. Estimating vaccination coverage in the absence of immunisation registers--the German experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siedler, A; Rieck, T; Reuss, A; Walter, D; Poggensee, G; Poethko-Muller, C; Reiter, S

    2012-04-26

    Immunisation registers are regarded as an appropriate solution to measure vaccination coverage on a population level. In Germany, a decentralised healthcare system and data protection regulations constrain such an approach. Moreover, shared responsibilities in the process of immunisation and multiple providers form the framework for public health interventions on vaccination issues. On the national level, those interventions consist mainly of conceptualising immunisation strategies, establishing vaccination programmes, and issuing recommendations. This paper provides an overview on sources and methods for collecting appropriate coverage data at national level and their public health relevance in Germany. Methods of data collection and available information on immunisations are described for three approaches: school entrance health examination, population surveys and insurance refund claim data. School entrance health examinations allow regional comparisons and estimation of trends for a specific cohort of children and for all recommended childhood vaccinations. Surveys deliver population based data on completeness and timeliness of selected vaccinations in populations defined by age or socio-demographic parameters and on knowledge and attitudes towards vaccination. Insurance refund claim data inform continuously on immunisation status (e.g. of children aged two years) or on vaccination incidence promptly after new or modified recommendations. In a complex healthcare system, the German National Public Health Institute (Robert Koch Institute, RKI) successfully compiles coverage data from different sources, which complement and validate one another. With the German approach of combining different data sources in the absence of immunisation registers, it is possible to gain solid and reliable data on the acceptance of vaccination programmes and target groups for immunisation. This approach might be of value for other countries with decentralised healthcare systems.

  10. On the Operational Meaning of Broad-Spectrum Philosophy Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miao Yi

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This study analyze the Broad-spectrum Philosophy Methodology on the operational meaning, and discusses three relatively primary methods of Broad-spectrum Philosophy Methodologies. The methodology of Broad-spectrum philosophy cannot pursuit of accuracy of numerical sense, but it pursuits of the exact nature of the research questions, the accuracy of the sense of set theory and sums up the experience which we solve problems in real life and make it up to the generalized quantization and procedural level and thus the methodology of Broad-spectrum philosophy has a general guide and it is a broad operations research. We gets the results that along with deep exploration and development of Broad-spectrum Philosophy Methodology, its function as generalized operation research can be more powerful.

  11. Endorsement of compulsory HIV vaccination policy among populations at high risk of HIV exposure (LA VOICES).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Peter A; Lee, Sung-Jae; Rudy, Ellen T; Diamant, Allison; Duan, Naihua; Nakazono, Terry; Nakazano, Terry; Cunningham, William E

    2014-06-01

    Compulsory vaccination is a frequently implemented policy option for ensuring comprehensive vaccine coverage. Ongoing controversies around human papillomavirus vaccine dissemination, and suboptimal coverage, suggest the value of assessing acceptability of compulsory vaccinations-particularly among likely target populations-in advance of their public availability to support evidence-informed interventions. With the first HIV vaccine to demonstrate partial efficacy in a large-scale clinical trial, we examined individual characteristics and attitudes associated with support for compulsory HIV vaccination policy among a diverse, representative sample of adults attending probable HIV vaccine dissemination venues in a large urban county. Participants were recruited using three-stage probability sampling from likely venues for future HIV vaccine dissemination. We used Audio-CASI to administer a 60-min structured questionnaire. Items included endorsement of compulsory HIV vaccination policy, sociodemographic characteristics, injecting drug use, vaccine attitudes and perceived HIV risk. Among 1,225 participants (mean age = 36.8 years; 55.6 % males, 37.6 % non-English speaking Hispanic, 78.8 % heterosexual, 25.7 % injection drug users), almost half (48.2 %) endorsed a compulsory HIV vaccination policy. Non-English speaking Hispanics compared to whites, participants with less than high school education, higher positive vaccine attitude scores and higher perceived HIV risk were significantly more likely, and people who inject drugs significantly less likely to endorse compulsory HIV vaccination. Public health interventions to promote positive vaccine attitudes and accurate perceptions of HIV risk among vulnerable populations, and strategies tailored for people who inject drugs, may build support for compulsory HIV vaccination policy and promote broad HIV vaccine coverage.

  12. Cross-reactive broadly neutralizing antibodies: timing is everything

    OpenAIRE

    Euler, Zelda; Schuitemaker, Hanneke

    2012-01-01

    The recent surge of research into new broadly neutralizing antibodies in HIV-1 infection has recharged the field of HIV-1 vaccinology. In this review we discuss the currently known broadly neutralizing antibodies and focus on factors that may shape these antibodies in natural infection. We further discuss the role of these antibodies in the clinical course of the infection and consider immunological obstacles in inducing broadly neutralizing antibodies with a vaccine.

  13. Cross-reactive broadly neutralizing antibodies: timing is everything.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Euler, Zelda; Schuitemaker, Hanneke

    2012-01-01

    The recent surge of research into new broadly neutralizing antibodies in HIV-1 infection has recharged the field of HIV-1 vaccinology. In this review we discuss the currently known broadly neutralizing antibodies and focus on factors that may shape these antibodies in natural infection. We further discuss the role of these antibodies in the clinical course of the infection and consider immunological obstacles in inducing broadly neutralizing antibodies with a vaccine.

  14. Broad support evident for the emerging specialty of orofacial pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talley, R L; Fricton, J R; Okeson, J P

    2000-01-01

    The emerging field of Orofacial Pain is being considered by the American Dental Association for full status as a new dental specialty. Many recent advances in the neuroscience of orofacial pain have lead to treatments by orofacial pain dentists that provide significant relief for patients with chronic orofacial pain disorders. However, access to this care has been limited leaving many patients to continue to suffer. Subsequently, recent efforts to improve this by developing the field into a specialty have shown broad support among dentists and increased awareness of the benefits this field can provide for dentists and their patients. A recent survey of 805 individuals in the general population who reported having a persistent pain disorder revealed that more than four out of 10 people have yet to find adequate relief, saying their pain is out of control-despite having the pain for more than 5 years and switching doctors at least once. "This survey suggests that there are millions of people living with severe uncontrolled pain," says Russell Portenoy, MD, President of the American Pain Society. "This is a great tragedy. Although not everyone can be helped, it is very likely that most of these patients could benefit if provided with state-of-the-art therapies and improved access to pain specialists when needed." (1). Development of the field of Orofacial Pain into a dental specialty has been motivated primarily by this issue; patients with complex chronic orofacial pain disorders have not been historically treated well by any discipline of health care. Recent studies of chronic orofacial pain patients have found that these patients have a high number of previous clinicians and have endured many years with pain prior to seeing an orofacial pain dentist (2) (Fig. 1). Complex pain patients and the clinicians who see them are often confused about whom they should consult for relief of the painful disorder. Treatment for these patients within the existing structure of

  15. Estimating the Broad-Sense Heritability of Early Growth of Cowpea

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Nicole W.; Xu, Shizhong; Ehlers, Jeff

    2009-01-01

    Cowpea is an important tropical crop. It provides a large proportion of the food resource for the African human population and their livestock. The yield and quality of cowpea have been dramatically improved through traditional breeding strategies for the past few decades. However, reports of heritability estimates for early growth of cowpea are rare. We designed a simple experiment to estimate the broad-sense heritability of early growth. We randomly selected 15 cowpea varieties among a tota...

  16. Automatic magnetometer calibration with small space coverage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahdan, Ahmed

    The use of a standalone Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) has proved to be insufficient when navigating indoors or in urban canyons due to multipath or obstruction. Recent technological advances in low cost micro-electro-mechanical system (MEMS) -- based sensors (like accelerometers, gyroscopes and magnetometers) enabled the development of sensor-based navigation systems. Although MEMS sensors are low-cost, lightweight, small size, and have low-power consumption, they have complex error characteristics. Accurate computation of the heading angle (azimuth) is one of the most important aspects of any navigation system. It can be computed either by gyroscopes or magnetometers. Gyroscopes are inertial sensors that can provide the angular rate from which the heading can be calculated, however, their outputs drift with time. Moreover, the accumulated errors due to mathematical integration, performed to obtain the heading angle, lead to large heading errors. On the other hand, magnetometers do not suffer from drift and the calculation of heading does not suffer from error accumulation. They can provide an absolute heading from the magnetic north by sensing the earth's magnetic field. However, magnetometer readings are usually affected by magnetic fields, other than the earth magnetic field, and by other error sources; therefore magnetometer calibration is required to use magnetometer as a reliable source of heading in navigation applications. In this thesis, a framework for fast magnetometer calibration is proposed. This framework requires little space coverage with no user involvement in the calibration process, and does not need specific movements to be performed. The proposed techniques are capable of performing both 2-dimensional (2D) and 3-dimensional (3D) calibration for magnetometers. They are developed to consider different scenarios suitable for different applications, and can benefit from natural device movements. Some applications involve tethering the

  17. Periodic Sweep Coverage Scheme Based on Periodic Vehicle Routing Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Shu

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available We provide a sweep coverage algorithm for routing mobile sensors that communicate with a central data sink. This algorithm improves on its predecessors by reducing the number of unnecessary scans when different points of interest (POIs have different requirements for the time interval within which they must be scanned (sweep period. Most sweep coverage algorithms seek to minimize the number of sensors required to cover a given collection of POIs. When POIs have different sweep period requirements, existing algorithms will produce solutions in which sensors visit some POIs much more frequently than is necessary. We define this as the POI Over-Coverage problem. In order to address this problem we develop a Periodic Sweep Coverage (PSC scheme based on a well-known solution to the Periodic Vehicle Routing Problem (PVRP. Our algorithm seeks a route for the mobile sensors that minimizes the number of unnecessary visits to each POI. To verify and test the proposed scheme we implemented a C++ simulation and ran scenarios with a variety of POI topologies (number and distribution of the POIs and the speed at which sensors could travel. The simulation results show that the PSC algorithm outperforms other sweep coverage algorithms such as CSweep and Vehicle Routing Problem Sweep Coverage (VRPSC on both the average number of sensors in a solution and in the computational time required to find a solution. Our results also demonstrate that the PSC scheme is more suitable for the sweep coverage scenarios in which higher speed mobile sensors are used.

  18. A Localized Coverage Preserving Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuheng Liu

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In a randomly deployed and large scale wireless sensor network, coverage-redundant nodes consume much unnecessary energy. As a result, turning off these redundant nodes can prolong the network lifetime, while maintaining the degree of sensing coverage with a limited number of on-duty nodes. None of the off-duty eligibility rules in the literature, however, are sufficient and necessary conditions for eligible nodes. Hence redundancy or blind points might be incurred. In this paper we propose a complete Eligibility Rule based on Perimeter Coverage (ERPC for a node to determine its eligibility for sleeping. ERPC has a computational complexity of O(N2log(N, lower than the eligibility rule in the Coverage Control Protocol (CCP, O(N3, where N is the number of neighboring nodes. We then present a Coverage Preserving Protocol (CPP to schedule the work state of eligible nodes. The main advantage of CPP over the Ottawa protocol lies in its ability to configure the network to any specific coverage degree, while the Ottawa protocol does not support different coverage configuration. Moreover, as a localized protocol, CPP has better adaptability to dynamic topologies than centralized protocols. Simulation results indicate that CPP can preserve network coverage with fewer active nodes than the Ottawa protocol. In addition, CPP is capable of identifying all the eligible nodes exactly while the CCP protocol might result in blind points due to error decisions. Quantitative analysis and experiments demonstrate that CPP can extend the network lifetime significantly while maintaining a given coverage degree.

  19. Inclination of Broad Line Region in Narrow Line and Broad Line Seyfert 1 Galaxies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The sizes of the Broad Line Region (BLR) of some Seyfert 1 galax-ies and nearby quasars can be determined by the reverberation mapping method.Combining with the observed FWHM of Hβ emission line and assuming that themotion of BLR clouds is virialized, the black hole masses of these objects have beenestimated. However, this method strongly depends on the poorly-understood geom-etry and inclination of the BLR. On the other hand, a tight correlation between theblack hole mass and the bulge velocity dispersion was recently found for both activeand nearby inactive galaxies. This may provide another method, independent of theBLR geometry, for estimating the black hole mass. Using this method for estimatingthe black hole mass and combining with the measured BLR size and FWHM of Hβemission line, we derived the BLR inclination angles for 20 Seyfert I galaxies underthe assumption that the BLR is disk-like. The derived inclination angles agree wellwith those derived previously by fitting the UV continuum and Hβ emission lineprofiles. Adopting a relation between the FWHMs of [OⅢ]λ5007 forbidden line andthe stellar velocity dispersion, we also estimated the BLR inclinations for 50 nar-row line Seyfert 1 galaxies (NLSls). We found that the inclinations of broad LineSeyfert 1 galaxies (BLS1s) are systematically greater than those of NLS1s, whichseldom exceed 30. This may be an important factor that leads to the differencesbetween NLS1s and BLS1s if the BLR of NLS1s is really disk-like.

  20. Distributed coverage games for mobile visual sensor networks

    CERN Document Server

    Zhu, Minghui

    2010-01-01

    Motivated by current challenges in data-intensive sensor networks, we formulate a coverage optimization problem for mobile visual sensors as a (constrained) repeated multi-player game. Each visual sensor tries to optimize its own coverage while minimizing the processing cost. We present two distributed learning algorithms where each sensor only remembers its own utility values and actions played during the last plays. These algorithms are proven to be convergent in probability to the set of (constrained) Nash equilibria and global optima of certain coverage performance metric, respectively.

  1. The Coverage-Capacity Analysis of CDMA Wireless Network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG Xufeng; LI Chengshu

    2001-01-01

    The coverage and capacity tradeoff is one of the important characters of CDMA cellular system. In this paper, we investigate the relationship of coverage and capacity of CDMA wireless network. By analyzing the outage probability under softhandoff and providing the soft-handoff probability, we extend the outage probability analysis to the multi-cell environment with soft-handoff. Furthermore, a spatial Poisson process is introduced and both uniform and non-uniform subscriber distribution cases are analyzed. Based on these we make a derivation of the relation between coverage and capacity in single and multi-cell environments.

  2. Expanded managed care liability: what impact on employer coverage?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studdert, D M; Sage, W M; Gresenz, C R; Hensler, D R

    1999-01-01

    Policymakers are considering legislative changes that would increase managed care organizations' exposure to civil liability for withholding coverage or failing to deliver needed care. Using a combination of empirical information and theoretical analysis, we assess the likely responses of health plans and Employee Retirement Income Security Act (ERISA) plan sponsors to an expansion of liability, and we evaluate the policy impact of those moves. We conclude that the direct costs of liability are uncertain but that the prospect of litigation may have other important effects on coverage decision making, information exchange, risk contracting, and the extent of employers' involvement in health coverage.

  3. Dorsal hand coverage with free serratus fascia flap

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fotopoulos, Peter; Holmer, Per; Leicht, Pernille

    2003-01-01

    serratus fascia flap, the connective tissue over the serratus muscle, for dorsal hand coverage. The flap consists of thin and well-vascularized pliable tissue, with gliding properties excellent for covering exposed tendons. It is based on the branches of the thoracodorsal artery, which are raised...... in the flap, leaving the long thoracic nerve intact on the serratus muscle. Coverage of the flap with split-thickness skin graft is done immediately. The free serratus fascia flap is an ideal flap for dorsal hand coverage when the extensor tendons are exposed, especially because of low donor-site morbidity....

  4. Coverage Options for a Low cost, High Resolution Optical Constellation

    OpenAIRE

    Price, M E; Levett, W.; Graham, K.

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents the range of coverage options available to TopSat like small satellites, both singly and in a small constellation. TopSat is a low-cost, high resolution and image quality, optical small satellite, due for launch in October 2004. In particular, the paper considers the use of tuned, repeat ground track orbits to improve coverage for selected ground targets, at the expense of global coverage. TopSat is designed to demonstrate the capabilities of small satellites for high valu...

  5. Immunization coverage and infant mortality rate in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimouchi, A; Ozasa, K; Hayashi, K

    1994-01-01

    We examined whether immunization coverage (IMC) is one of the predictors of infant mortality rate (IMR), as a single indicator representing the availability of primary health care (PHC) services in developing countries. Multiple regression analysis showed that partial correlation coefficients for IMR with immunization coverage (-0.224), logarithm of per capita GNP (-0.294), total fertility rate (0.269), and adult literacy rate (-0.325) were all statistically significant (p immunization coverage is one of the main predictors of the infant mortality rate. It represents one of the health intervention components which can be used as a proxy indicator of the availability of PHC service in developing countries.

  6. Physics-Aware Informative Coverage Planning for Autonomous Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    ICPS MDP (τ, φ) algorithm to smooth the informative coverage path. 6: Run ELIMINATEWAYPOINTS(τ, φ) to remove redundant or uninteresting waypoints. 7: Run...ICPS MDP (τ, φ) algorithm to smooth the informative coverage path. 8: return τ . Algorithm 2 ICPS MDP (τ, φ) Require: An informative coverage path τ and...pi to get to the next waypoint pi+1 must be considered. Given the MDP and its solution, we define a Markov Chain MC = (Xd, T ) on Xd with transition

  7. Location Refinement and Power Coverage Analysis Based on Distributed Antenna

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵晓楠; 侯春萍; 汪清; 陈华; 浦亮洲

    2016-01-01

    To establish wireless channel suitable for the cabin environment, the power coverage was investigated with distributed antenna system and centralized antenna system based on the actual measurement of channel im-pulse response. The results indicated that the distributed antenna system has more uniform power coverage than the centralized antenna system. The average relative errors of receiving power of both antennas were calculated. The optimal position of the centralized antenna was obtained by Gaussian function refinement, making the system achieve a better transmission power with the same coverage effect, and providing a reference for antenna location in the future real communication in the cabin.

  8. A novel mathematical model for coverage in wireless sensor network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN Zhen-ya; ZHENG Bao-yu

    2006-01-01

    Coverage problem is one of the fundamental issues in the design of wireless sensor network, which has a great impact on the performance of sensor network. In this article,coverage problem was investigated using a mathematical model named Birth-death process. In this model, sensor nodes joining into networks at every period of time is considered as the rebirth of network and the quitting of sensor nodes from the networks is considered as the death of the network. In the end, an analytical solution is used to investigate the appropriate rate to meet the coverage requirement.

  9. Dead-end hollow-fiber ultrafiltration for concentration and enumeration of Escherichia coli and broad-host-range plasmid DNA from wastewater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asfahl, Kyle L.; Savin, Mary C.

    2012-01-01

    Broad-host-range plasmids can facilitate dissemination of antibiotic resistance determinants among diverse bacterial populations. We evaluated hollow-fiber ultrafiltration for increases in detection efficiency of broad-host-range plasmids and Escherichia coli DNA in wastewater. Ultrafiltration followed by PCR showed limited increases in DNA detection and quantification in effluent compared with membrane filtration alone. PMID:22251424

  10. 42 CFR 457.430 - Benchmark-equivalent health benefits coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Benchmark-equivalent health benefits coverage. 457... STATES State Plan Requirements: Coverage and Benefits § 457.430 Benchmark-equivalent health benefits coverage. (a) Aggregate actuarial value. Benchmark-equivalent coverage is health benefits coverage that...

  11. 20 CFR 404.145 - When you acquire a quarter of coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false When you acquire a quarter of coverage. 404... DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Insured Status and Quarters of Coverage Quarters of Coverage § 404.145 When you acquire a quarter of coverage. If we credit you with a quarter of coverage (QC) for a calendar...

  12. 20 CFR 404.140 - What is a quarter of coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What is a quarter of coverage. 404.140... DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Insured Status and Quarters of Coverage Quarters of Coverage § 404.140 What is a quarter of coverage. (a) General. A quarter of coverage (QC) is the basic unit of social...

  13. Assessing Eli Broad's Assault on Public School System Leadership

    Science.gov (United States)

    English, Fenwick W.; Crowder, Zan

    2012-01-01

    Eli Broad's approach to reforming urban public education does not recognize his own self-interest in promoting changes within such educational systems, a classic problem of misrecognition. The Broad agenda is an assault on the notion of the mission of public education as a service instead of a for-profit enterprise concerned with making money for…

  14. Social Cognition, Social Skill, and the Broad Autism Phenotype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasson, Noah J.; Nowlin, Rachel B.; Pinkham, Amy E.

    2013-01-01

    Social-cognitive deficits differentiate parents with the "broad autism phenotype" from non-broad autism phenotype parents more robustly than other neuropsychological features of autism, suggesting that this domain may be particularly informative for identifying genetic and brain processes associated with the phenotype. The current study…

  15. Boot Camp for Education CEOs: The Broad Foundation Superintendents Academy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jehlen, Alain

    2012-01-01

    The Broad Foundation Superintendents Academy is the most prominent and most controversial training institute for school chiefs. The Academy is the flagship program of the Eli and Edythe Broad Foundation, the smallest of a triumvirate of corporate foundations that are at the heart of the billionaire campaign to remake public education in the image…

  16. Spatiotemporal exploratory models for broad-scale survey data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fink, Daniel; Hochachka, Wesley M; Zuckerberg, Benjamin; Winkler, David W; Shaby, Ben; Munson, M Arthur; Hooker, Giles; Riedewald, Mirek; Sheldon, Daniel; Kelling, Steve

    2010-12-01

    The distributions of animal populations change and evolve through time. Migratory species exploit different habitats at different times of the year. Biotic and abiotic features that determine where a species lives vary due to natural and anthropogenic factors. This spatiotemporal variation needs to be accounted for in any modeling of species' distributions. In this paper we introduce a semiparametric model that provides a flexible framework for analyzing dynamic patterns of species occurrence and abundance from broad-scale survey data. The spatiotemporal exploratory model (STEM) adds essential spatiotemporal structure to existing techniques for developing species distribution models through a simple parametric structure without requiring a detailed understanding of the underlying dynamic processes. STEMs use a multi-scale strategy to differentiate between local and global-scale spatiotemporal structure. A user-specified species distribution model accounts for spatial and temporal patterning at the local level. These local patterns are then allowed to "scale up" via ensemble averaging to larger scales. This makes STEMs especially well suited for exploring distributional dynamics arising from a variety of processes. Using data from eBird, an online citizen science bird-monitoring project, we demonstrate that monthly changes in distribution of a migratory species, the Tree Swallow (Tachycineta bicolor), can be more accurately described with a STEM than a conventional bagged decision tree model in which spatiotemporal structure has not been imposed. We also demonstrate that there is no loss of model predictive power when a STEM is used to describe a spatiotemporal distribution with very little spatiotemporal variation; the distribution of a nonmigratory species, the Northern Cardinal (Cardinalis cardinalis).

  17. The Rise of Web Supremacy in Newspaper Coverage of Science

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergård, Gunver Lystbæk

    Quantitative study of science news in Danish national Newspapers 1999 and 2012. This paper demonstrates how the Internet media has altered newspaper coverage of science in terms of quantity, origin and distribution. Although an overall rise in science coverage is observed, content analysis...... week in 2012 is currently underway which will broaden the perspective of this paper’s conclusions. Previous longitudinal studies of science news coverage have not included Internet media even though the literature speaks of a recent “medialization” of science. Within this debate scholars have perceived......Alert!) have become an increasing origin of science news on print and online, especially in tabloid newspapers. It is concluded that the availability of lucid science material online has made up for the cutback in science coverage on print and exposed science to social groups predominantly reading Internet...

  18. Medicaid Coverage Of Cessation Treatments And Barriers To Treatments

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 2008-2016. American Lung Association. Cessation Coverage. Medicaid data compiled by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s Office on Smoking and Health...

  19. Relationships between length and coverage of decision rules

    KAUST Repository

    Amin, Talha

    2014-02-14

    The paper describes a new tool for study relationships between length and coverage of exact decision rules. This tool is based on dynamic programming approach. We also present results of experiments with decision tables from UCI Machine Learning Repository.

  20. Socio-economic inequality of immunization coverage in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauridsen, Jørgen; Pradhan, Jalandhar

    2011-08-05

    To our knowledge, the present study provides a first time assessment of the contributions of socioeconomic determinants of immunization coverage in India using the recent National Family Health Survey data. Measurement of socioeconomic inequalities in health and health care, and understanding the determinants of such inequalities in terms of their contributions, are critical for health intervention strategies and for achieving equity in health care. A decomposition approach is applied to quantify the contributions from socio-demographic factors to inequality in immunization coverage. The results reveal that poor household economic status, mother's illiteracy, per capita state domestic product and proportion of illiterate at the state level is systematically related to 97% of predictable socioeconomic inequalities in full immunization coverage at the national level. These patterns of evidence suggest the need for immunization strategies targeted at different states and towards certain socioeconomic determinants as pointed out above in order to reduce socioeconomic inequalities in immunization coverage.JEL Classification: I10, I12.

  1. Insurance Coverage and Whither Thou Goest for Health Info

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Authors of Insurance Coverage and Whither Thou Goest for Health Information in 2012, recently published in Volume 4, Issue 4 of the Medicare and Medicaid Research...

  2. Coverage and Connectivity Issue in Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachit Trivedi

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Wireless sensor networks (WSNs are an emerging area of interest in research and development. It finds use in military surveillance, health care, environmental monitoring, forest fire detection and smart environments. An important research issue in WSNs is the coverage since cost, area and lifetime are directly validated to it.In this paper we present an overview of WSNs and try to refine the coverage and connectivity issues in wireless sensor networks.

  3. Monitoring progress towards universal health coverage at country and global levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boerma, Ties; Eozenou, Patrick; Evans, David; Evans, Tim; Kieny, Marie-Paule; Wagstaff, Adam

    2014-09-01

    Universal health coverage (UHC) has been defined as the desired outcome of health system performance whereby all people who need health services (promotion, prevention, treatment, rehabilitation, and palliation) receive them, without undue financial hardship. UHC has two interrelated components: the full spectrum of good-quality, essential health services according to need, and protection from financial hardship, including possible impoverishment, due to out-of-pocket payments for health services. Both components should benefit the entire population. This paper summarizes the findings from 13 country case studies and five technical reviews, which were conducted as part of the development of a global framework for monitoring progress towards UHC. The case studies show the relevance and feasibility of focusing UHC monitoring on two discrete components of health system performance: levels of coverage with health services and financial protection, with a focus on equity. These components link directly to the definition of UHC and measure the direct results of strategies and policies for UHC. The studies also show how UHC monitoring can be fully embedded in often existing, regular overall monitoring of health sector progress and performance. Several methodological and practical issues related to the monitoring of coverage of essential health services, financial protection, and equity, are highlighted. Addressing the gaps in the availability and quality of data required for monitoring progress towards UHC is critical in most countries.

  4. Oral Cholera Vaccine Coverage during an Outbreak and Humanitarian Crisis, Iraq, 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Tamimi, Wasan; Russell, Steven Paul; Butt, Muhammad Obaid-ul Islam; Blanton, Curtis; Musani, Altaf Sadrudin; Date, Kashmira

    2017-01-01

    During November–December 2015, as part of the 2015 cholera outbreak response in Iraq, the Iraqi Ministry of Health targeted ≈255,000 displaced persons >1 year of age with 2 doses of oral cholera vaccine (OCV). All persons who received vaccines were living in selected refugee camps, internally displaced persons camps, and collective centers. We conducted a multistage cluster survey to obtain OCV coverage estimates in 10 governorates that were targeted during the campaign. In total, 1,226 household and 5,007 individual interviews were conducted. Overall, 2-dose OCV coverage in the targeted camps was 87% (95% CI 85%–89%). Two-dose OCV coverage in the 3 northern governorates (91%; 95% CI 87%–94%) was higher than that in the 7 southern and central governorates (80%; 95% CI 77%–82%). The experience in Iraq demonstrates that OCV campaigns can be successfully implemented as part of a comprehensive response to cholera outbreaks among high-risk populations in conflict settings. PMID:27983502

  5. From Coverage to Care: Strengthening and Facilitating Consumer Connections to the Health System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Laurie T; Luoto, Jill E

    2015-11-30

    To date, most Affordable Care Act implementation efforts have focused on getting individuals enrolled in health insurance coverage; indeed, millions of Americans, many of whom had never been insured, have since obtained health coverage, either through the health insurance marketplaces or through expanded Medicaid eligibility, if available in their state. Yet reducing the number of uninsured is only part of the law's goal. It also aims to improve population health and lower health care costs. Less attention has been paid to confirming that the newly insured obtain appropriate health care and maintain long-term relationships with their health care providers, which are critical steps to help achieve these latter goals. This article describes lessons learned from conversations with a variety of stakeholders in the health care industry. These conversations covered the gamut of steps consumers must undergo to become fully engaged with their health care, from applying for coverage and selecting a plan to finding a provider, accessing care, and engaging in care over time. In each phase of the process, consumers must take specific actions and overcome new challenges. Stakeholder efforts to help consumers often focus on just one of these phases, at the expense of the bigger picture, and often occur in isolation, with little coordination across stakeholder groups. Thinking more strategically and holistically can help provide the "connective tissue" that can help prevent consumers from becoming disengaged and falling through the system's cracks.

  6. Influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 vaccination policies and coverage in Europe.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Mereckiene, J

    2012-06-01

    In August 2010 the Vaccine European New Integrated Collaboration Effort (VENICE) project conducted a survey to collect information on influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 vaccination policies and vaccination coverage in the European Union (EU), Norway and Iceland. Of 29 responding countries, 26 organised national pandemic influenza vaccination and one country had recommendations for vaccination but did not have a specific programme. Of the 27 countries with vaccine recommendations, all recommended it for healthcare workers and pregnant women. Twelve countries recommended vaccine for all ages. Six and three countries had recommendations for specific age groups in children and in adults, countries for specific adult age groups. Most countries recommended vaccine for those in new risk groups identified early in the pandemic such as morbid obese and people with neurologic diseases. Two thirds of countries started their vaccination campaigns within a four week period after week 40\\/2009. The reported vaccination coverage varied between countries from 0.4% to 59% for the entire population (22 countries); 3% to 68% for healthcare workers (13 countries); 0% to 58% for pregnant women (12 countries); 0.2% to 74% for children (12 countries). Most countries identified similar target groups for pandemic vaccine, but substantial variability in vaccination coverage was seen. The recommendations were in accordance with policy advice from the EU Health Security Committee and the World Health Organization.

  7. Evaluation of Primary Immunization Coverage in an Industrial City of Uttar Pradesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaturvedi R

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: There is gradual albeit a slow progress in the performance of routine immunization in India over last few years. Six states with high population contribute to 80% of 8.1 million unimmunized children in the country out of which 52% of the total unimmunized reside in Uttar Pradesh and Bihar alone. Objectives :1. To study the primary immunization coverage of children aged 12-23 months in the slums of Kanpur Nagar 2.To calculate drop out rate for various vaccines. Methodology: 30 cluster sampling technique. Results: 52.38% study subjects were fully immunized, 29.52% were partially immunized and 18.10% were not immunized at all. Coverage was highest for BCG vaccine (81.90% and lowest for Hepatitis B3(41.90%. Drop out rate for DPT / OPV (I-III, DPTI – Measles and BCG – Measles was 25.88%, 34.70% and 35.46% respectively. Conclusion: Sustained efforts are required to achieve the target of universal coverage of immunization in children.

  8. Ethnic disparities in routine immunization coverage: a reason for persistent poliovirus circulation in Karachi, Pakistan?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqui, Nida Tariq; Owais, Aatekah; Agha, Ajmal; Karim, Mehtab S; Zaidi, Anita K M

    2014-01-01

    Karachi is the only mega city in the world with persistent poliovirus transmission. We determined routine childhood immunization rates in Karachi and identified predictors of vaccine completion. A population-based cross-sectional survey was conducted in Karachi between August and September 2008. Data on demographics, socioeconomic, and DTP3 vaccination status in children 12 to 23 months old were collected. Logistic regression was used to identify predictors of vaccination completion. Overall, 1401 participants were approached; 1391 consented to participate. Of these, 1038 (75%) were completely vaccinated. Punjabi families had the highest DTP3 coverage (82%), followed by Urdu-speaking families (79%). Pashtun (67%) and Bengali (48%) families had the lowest vaccine coverage. Children of mothers with ≥ 12 years of schooling (OR = 25.4; 95% CI = 5.7-113.1) were most likely to be vaccinated. A quarter of study participants were unvaccinated. Targeted strategies for boosting DTP3 rates in communities with low immunization coverage are essential for polio eradication in Karachi.

  9. Pulse Polio Immunization Coverage Evaluation In A Rural Area Of Agra District

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nandan Deoki

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Research Question: What is the extent of PPI Coverage and what is the source of information and motivation to the community. Objective: To assess the extent of coverage of immunization carried out during pulse polio Immunization (1995-96 in rural areas of Agra District. Study Design: Cross-sectional Setting: Selected Villages of PHC Bichpuri, covered by ICDS, in Agra District Participants: Persons who took the <3 children for immunization Sample Size: 581 Persons from 987 households Study Variables: Doses of OPV received, source of information, location of immunization site, distance traveled and mode of transport. Results: The reported achievement for the first dose was 86.6% and for the second it was 87.6%. It was found that most important sources of knowledge were Anganwadi Worker (43.54% followed by ANM (26.88%. Majority of the immunization booths (67.29% were working in sunshine. More than 90% villagers reached the site walking on foot. Recommendations: Efforts should be made by the worker (HW and AWW to motivate the population for 100% coverage under the coming PPI programme. Information should be given to the worker regarding correct location of immunization site.

  10. Advanced Practice Nursing: A Strategy for Achieving Universal Health Coverage and Universal Access to Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant-Lukosius, Denise; Valaitis, Ruta; Martin-Misener, Ruth; Donald, Faith; Peña, Laura Morán; Brousseau, Linda

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: to examine advanced practice nursing (APN) roles internationally to inform role development in Latin America and the Caribbean to support universal health coverage and universal access to health. Method: we examined literature related to APN roles, their global deployment, and APN effectiveness in relation to universal health coverage and access to health. Results: given evidence of their effectiveness in many countries, APN roles are ideally suited as part of a primary health care workforce strategy in Latin America to enhance universal health coverage and access to health. Brazil, Chile, Colombia, and Mexico are well positioned to build this workforce. Role implementation barriers include lack of role clarity, legislation/regulation, education, funding, and physician resistance. Strong nursing leadership to align APN roles with policy priorities, and to work in partnership with primary care providers and policy makers is needed for successful role implementation. Conclusions: given the diversity of contexts across nations, it is important to systematically assess country and population health needs to introduce the most appropriate complement and mix of APN roles and inform implementation. Successful APN role introduction in Latin America and the Caribbean could provide a roadmap for similar roles in other low/middle income countries. PMID:28146177

  11. Oral Cholera Vaccine Coverage during an Outbreak and Humanitarian Crisis, Iraq, 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Eugene; Al-Tamimi, Wasan; Russell, Steven Paul; Butt, Muhammad Obaid-Ul Islam; Blanton, Curtis; Musani, Altaf Sadrudin; Date, Kashmira

    2017-01-01

    During November-December 2015, as part of the 2015 cholera outbreak response in Iraq, the Iraqi Ministry of Health targeted ≈255,000 displaced persons >1 year of age with 2 doses of oral cholera vaccine (OCV). All persons who received vaccines were living in selected refugee camps, internally displaced persons camps, and collective centers. We conducted a multistage cluster survey to obtain OCV coverage estimates in 10 governorates that were targeted during the campaign. In total, 1,226 household and 5,007 individual interviews were conducted. Overall, 2-dose OCV coverage in the targeted camps was 87% (95% CI 85%-89%). Two-dose OCV coverage in the 3 northern governorates (91%; 95% CI 87%-94%) was higher than that in the 7 southern and central governorates (80%; 95% CI 77%-82%). The experience in Iraq demonstrates that OCV campaigns can be successfully implemented as part of a comprehensive response to cholera outbreaks among high-risk populations in conflict settings.

  12. Advanced Practice Nursing: A Strategy for Achieving Universal Health Coverage and Universal Access to Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Bryant-Lukosius

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: to examine advanced practice nursing (APN roles internationally to inform role development in Latin America and the Caribbean to support universal health coverage and universal access to health. Method: we examined literature related to APN roles, their global deployment, and APN effectiveness in relation to universal health coverage and access to health. Results: given evidence of their effectiveness in many countries, APN roles are ideally suited as part of a primary health care workforce strategy in Latin America to enhance universal health coverage and access to health. Brazil, Chile, Colombia, and Mexico are well positioned to build this workforce. Role implementation barriers include lack of role clarity, legislation/regulation, education, funding, and physician resistance. Strong nursing leadership to align APN roles with policy priorities, and to work in partnership with primary care providers and policy makers is needed for successful role implementation. Conclusions: given the diversity of contexts across nations, it is important to systematically assess country and population health needs to introduce the most appropriate complement and mix of APN roles and inform implementation. Successful APN role introduction in Latin America and the Caribbean could provide a roadmap for similar roles in other low/middle income countries.

  13. Monitoring progress towards universal health coverage at country and global levels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ties Boerma

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Universal health coverage (UHC has been defined as the desired outcome of health system performance whereby all people who need health services (promotion, prevention, treatment, rehabilitation, and palliation receive them, without undue financial hardship. UHC has two interrelated components: the full spectrum of good-quality, essential health services according to need, and protection from financial hardship, including possible impoverishment, due to out-of-pocket payments for health services. Both components should benefit the entire population. This paper summarizes the findings from 13 country case studies and five technical reviews, which were conducted as part of the development of a global framework for monitoring progress towards UHC. The case studies show the relevance and feasibility of focusing UHC monitoring on two discrete components of health system performance: levels of coverage with health services and financial protection, with a focus on equity. These components link directly to the definition of UHC and measure the direct results of strategies and policies for UHC. The studies also show how UHC monitoring can be fully embedded in often existing, regular overall monitoring of health sector progress and performance. Several methodological and practical issues related to the monitoring of coverage of essential health services, financial protection, and equity, are highlighted. Addressing the gaps in the availability and quality of data required for monitoring progress towards UHC is critical in most countries.

  14. The temporoparietal fascia flap for coverage of cochlear reimplantation following extrusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimnejad, Kaveh; Akhter, Asad Shahab; Walen, Scott Gregory; Mikulec, Anthony Alan

    2017-03-01

    The management of cochlear implant extrusion (CIE) can be challenging, particularly in the pediatric population in whom reconstructive options are limited. We describe the use of the temporoparietal fascia flap (TPFF) for this purpose due to its ease of use and limited morbidity. We present a case series of two pediatric patients who underwent explantation of their devices, followed by reimplantation with TPFF coverage. Our experience provides evidence that the TPFF can be used to prevent further CIE through a postauricular incision following cochlear reimplantation with successful long-term results.

  15. Angular Dependence of the Facular-Sunspot Coverage Relation as Derived by MDI Magnetograms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Criscuoli, S.

    2016-08-01

    Previous studies have shown that the variation over the solar magnetic activity cycle of the area of facular/network features identified from broad-band and narrow-band imagery is positively correlated with the sunspot area and number, the relation being described as either linear or quadratic. On the other hand, the temporal variation of the spatial distributions of faculae, network and sunspots follows patterns that are less obviously correlated, so that we expect the relation that describes variation of the area coverage of different types of magnetic features to vary with the position over the disk. In this work we employ Michelson Doppler Interferometer (MDI) full-disk magnetograms acquired during solar cycle 23 and at the beginning of cycle 24 to investigate the relation between the coverage of magnetic elements characterized by different amounts of magnetic flux and located at different angular distances from disk center with the sunspot number. In agreement with some previous studies we find that daily data are best described by a quadratic function while data averaged over six months are best described by a linear function. In both cases the coefficients of the fits show large dependence on the position over the disk and the magnetic flux. We also find that toward disk center six-month averaged data show asymmetries between the ascending and the descending phases. The implications for solar irradiance modeling are discussed.

  16. Global contrail coverage simulated by CAM5 with the inventory of 2006 global aircraft emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheryl Craig

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper documents the incorporation of an inventory of the AEDT (Aviation Environmental Design Tool global commercial aircraft emissions for the year of 2006 into the National Center for Atmospheric Research Community Earth System Model (CESM version 1. The original dataset reports aircraft emission mass of ten specieson an hourly basis which is converted to monthly emission mixing ratio tendencies as the released version of the dataset. We also describe how the released aircraft emission dataset is incorporated into CESM.A contrail parameterization is implemented in the CESM in which it isassumed that persistent contrails initially form when aircraft water vapor emissions experience a favorable atmospheric environment. Both aircraft emissions and ambient humidity are attributed to the formation of contrails. The ice water content of contrails is assumed to follow an empirical function of atmospheric temperature which determines the cloud fraction associated with contrails.Our modeling study indicates that the simulated global contrail coverage is sensitive to the vertical resolution of the GCMsin the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere because of modelassumptions about the vertical overlap structure of clouds.Futhermore, the extent of global contrail coverage simulated by CESM exhibits a seasonal cycle which is in broad agreement with observations.

  17. Health worker densities and immunization coverage in Turkey: a panel data analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yip Winnie

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Increased immunization coverage is an important step towards fulfilling the Millennium Development Goal of reducing childhood mortality. Recent cross-sectional and cross-national research has indicated that physician, nurse and midwife densities may positively influence immunization coverage. However, little is known about relationships between densities of human resources for health (HRH and vaccination coverage within developing countries and over time. The present study examines HRH densities and coverage of the Expanded Programme on Immunization (EPI in Turkey during the period 2000 to 2006. Methods The study is based on provincial-level data on HRH densities, vaccination coverage and provincial socioeconomic and demographic characteristics published by the Turkish government. Panel data regression methodologies (random and fixed effects models are used to analyse the data. Results Three main findings emerge: (1 combined physician, nurse/midwife and health officer density is significantly associated with vaccination rates – independent of provincial female illiteracy, GDP per capita and land area – although the association was initially positive and turned negative over time; (2 HRH-vaccination rate relationships differ by cadre of health worker, with physician and health officers exhibiting significant relationships that mirror those for aggregate density, while nurse/midwife densities are not consistently significant; (3 HRH densities bear stronger relationships with vaccination coverage among more rural provinces, compared to those with higher population densities. Conclusion We find evidence of relationships between HRH densities and vaccination rates even at Turkey's relatively elevated levels of each. At the same time, variations in results between different empirical models suggest that this relationship is complex, affected by other factors that occurred during the study period, and warrants further

  18. Building high-coverage monolayers of covalently bound magnetic nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Mackenzie G.; Teplyakov, Andrew V.

    2016-12-01

    This work presents an approach for producing a high-coverage single monolayer of magnetic nanoparticles using "click chemistry" between complementarily functionalized nanoparticles and a flat substrate. This method highlights essential aspects of the functionalization scheme for substrate surface and nanoparticles to produce exceptionally high surface coverage without sacrificing selectivity or control over the layer produced. The deposition of one single layer of magnetic particles without agglomeration, over a large area, with a nearly 100% coverage is confirmed by electron microscopy. Spectroscopic techniques, supplemented by computational predictions, are used to interrogate the chemistry of the attachment and to confirm covalent binding, rather than attachment through self-assembly or weak van der Waals bonding. Density functional theory calculations for the surface intermediate of this copper-catalyzed process provide mechanistic insight into the effects of the functionalization scheme on surface coverage. Based on this analysis, it appears that steric limitations of the intermediate structure affect nanoparticle coverage on a flat solid substrate; however, this can be overcome by designing a functionalization scheme in such a way that the copper-based intermediate is formed on the spherical nanoparticles instead. This observation can be carried over to other approaches for creating highly controlled single- or multilayered nanostructures of a wide range of materials to result in high coverage and possibly, conformal filling.

  19. Pakistan's expanded programme on immunization: an overview in the context of polio eradication and strategies for improving coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owais, Aatekah; Khowaja, Asif Raza; Ali, Syed Asad; Zaidi, Anita K M

    2013-07-18

    Since its inception in 1978, Pakistan's Expanded Programme on Immunization (EPI) has contributed significantly towards child health and survival in Pakistan. However, the WHO-estimated immunization coverage of 88% for 3 doses of Diptheria-Tetanus-Pertussis vaccine in Pakistan is likely an over-estimate. Many goals, such as polio, measles and neonatal tetanus elimination have not been met. Pakistan reported more cases of poliomyelits in 2011 than any other country globally, threatening the Global Polio Eradication Initiative. Although the number of polio cases decreased to 58 in 2012 through better organized supplementary immunization campaigns, country-wide measles outbreaks with over 15,000 cases and several hundred deaths in 2012-13 underscore sub-optimal EPI performance in delivering routine immunizations. There are striking inequities in immunization coverage between different parts of the country. Barriers to universal immunization coverage include programmatic dysfunction at lower tiers of the program, socioeconomic inequities in access to services, low population demand, poor security, and social resistance to vaccines among population sub-groups. Recent conflicts and large-scale natural disasters have severely stressed the already constrained resources of the national EPI. Immunization programs remain low priority for provincial and many district governments in the country. The recent decision to devolve the national health ministry to the provinces has had immediate adverse consequences. Mitigation strategies aimed at rapidly improving routine immunization coverage should include improving the infrastructure and management capacity for vaccine delivery at district levels and increasing the demand for vaccines at the population level. Accurate vaccine coverage estimates at district/sub-district level and local accountability of district government officials are critical to improving performance and eradicating polio in Pakistan.

  20. Increasing Cervical Cancer Screening Coverage: A Randomised, Community-Based Clinical Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acera, Amelia; Manresa, Josep Maria; Rodriguez, Diego; Rodriguez, Ana; Bonet, Josep Maria; Trapero-Bertran, Marta; Hidalgo, Pablo; Sànchez, Norman

    2017-01-01

    Background Opportunistic cervical cancer screening can lead to suboptimal screening coverage. Coverage could be increased after a personalised invitation to the target population. We present a community randomized intervention study with three strategies aiming to increase screening coverage. Methods The CRICERVA study is a community-based clinical trial to improve coverage of population-based screening in the Cerdanyola SAP area in Barcelona.A total of 32,858 women residing in the study area, aged 30 to 70 years were evaluated. A total of 15,965 women were identified as having no registration of a cervical cytology in the last 3.5 years within the Public Health data base system. Eligible women were assigned to one of four community randomized intervention groups (IGs): (1) (IG1 N = 4197) personalised invitation letter, (2) (IG2 N = 3601) personalised invitation letter + informative leaflet, (3) (IG3 N = 6088) personalised invitation letter + informative leaflet + personalised phone call and (4) (Control N = 2079) based on spontaneous demand of cervical cancer screening as officially recommended. To evaluate screening coverage, we used heterogeneity tests to compare impact of the interventions and mixed logistic regression models to assess the age effect. We refer a “rescue” visit as the screening visit resulting from the study invitation. Results Among the 13,886 women in the IGs, 2,862 were evaluated as having an adequate screening history after the initial contact; 4,263 were lost to follow-up and 5,341 were identified as having insufficient screening and thus being eligible for a rescue visit. All intervention strategies significantly increased participation to screening compared to the control group. Coverage after the intervention reached 84.1% while the control group reached 64.8%. The final impact of our study was an increase of 20% in the three IGs and of 9% in the control group (p<0.001). Within the intervention arms, age was an important determinant

  1. A new role for primary care teams in the United States after “Obamacare:” Track and improve health insurance coverage rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer DeVoe

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Maintaining continuous health insurance coverage is important. With recent expansions in access to coverage in the United States after “Obamacare,” primary care teams have a new role in helping to track and improve coverage rates and to provide outreach to patients. We describe efforts to longitudinally track health insurance rates using data from the electronic health record (EHR of a primary care network and to use these data to support practice-based insurance outreach and assistance. Although we highlight a few examples from one network, we believe there is great potential for doing this type of work in a broad range of family medicine and community health clinics that provide continuity of care. By partnering with researchers through practice-based research networks and other similar collaboratives, primary care practices can greatly expand the use of EHR data and EHR-based tools targeting improvements in health insurance and quality health care.

  2. A GIS-Based Evaluation of the Effectiveness and Spatial Coverage of Public Transport Networks in Tourist Destinations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoni Domènech

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This article develops a methodology for evaluating the effectiveness and spatial coverage of public transport in tourist cities. The proposed methodology is applied and validated in Cambrils municipality, in the central part of the Costa Daurada in Catalonia, a coastal destination characterised by the concentration of tourism flows during summer. The application of GIS spatial analysis tools allows for the development of a system of territorial indicators that spatially correlate the public transport network and the distribution of the population. The main novelty of our work is that this analysis not only includes the registered resident population, but also incorporates the population that temporarily inhabits the municipality (tourists. The results of the study firstly permit the detection of unequal spatial accessibility and coverage in terms of public transport in the municipality, with significant differences between central neighbourhoods and peripheral urban areas of lower population density. Secondly, they allow observation of how the degree of public transport coverage differs significantly in areas with a higher concentration of tourist accommodation establishments.

  3. Remote Sensing of Aquatic Vegetation Coverage in the Kafue River, Zambia and Comparison to Climatic Variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mischler, J. A.; Abdalati, W.; Hussein, K.; Townsend, A. R.

    2013-12-01

    The Kafue River is the longest river in Zambia and is a major tributary of the Zambezi River. It is a vital source of fish, transportation, drinking water, and hydropower for much of Zambia's population, over half of whom live in the Kafue River basin. Like many important water bodies in developing countries the Kafue and its ecosystems face pollution from industrial, mining, agricultural, and domestic/sewage discharge. The Kafue River forms a wide and shallow wetland (the Kafue Flats) during the rainy season (Nov. - Apr.) which serves as habitat for diverse groups of birds and mammals. In recent years the unprecedented emergence of invasive aquatic vegetation such as the water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) and Salvinia molesta have choked the river, degrading its ability to provide adequate habitat to promote biodiversity, ecosystem services, and hydropower. In addition, these plants provide additional habitat for mosquitoes (vectors for malaria) and aquatic snails (vectors of schistosomiasis). Nutrient-rich effluents are widely believed to contribute to the proliferation and explosive growth of this floating aquatic vegetation. The general methods for managing these aquatic weeds have included mechanical and physical removal, herbicides, and bio-control agents which have had very little impact. However, as in neighboring Lake Victoria, total weed coverage has fluctuated dramatically from year to year making evaluation of the efficacy of management programs difficult. The objectives of this study were to (1) generate the first record of aquatic plant coverage for a section of the Kafue River which is immediately downstream of a sugar plantation (a major source of nitrogen and phosphorus to the river) and (2) determine if plant coverage is correlated with any major climatic (ENSO, temperature, rainfall) or management (introduction of bio-control agents) indices. We utilized remote sensing techniques in conjunction with Landsat 4-5 TM and Landsat 7 ETM imagery for

  4. Modelling photometric reverberation data -- a disk-like broad line region and larger black hole mass for 3C120

    CERN Document Server

    Nuñez, F Pozo; Ramolla, M; Westhues, C; Haas, M; Chini, R; Steenbrugge, K; Lemke, R; Murphy, M

    2013-01-01

    We consider photometric reverberation mapping, where the nuclear continuum variations are monitored via a broad band filter and the echo of emission line clouds of the broad line region (BLR) is measured with a suitable narrow band (NB) filter. We investigate how an incomplete emission line coverage by the NB filter influences the BLR size determination. This includes two basic cases: 1) a symmetric cut of the blue and red part of the line wings, and 2) the filter positioned asymmetrically to the line center so that essentially a complete half of the emission line is contained in the NB filter. We find that symmetric cutting of line wings may lead to an overestimate of the BLR size which is less than 5%. The case of asymmetric line coverage, as for our data of the Seyfert-1 galaxy 3C120, yields the BLR size with less than 1% bias. Our results suggest that any BLR size bias due to narrow-band line cut in photometric reverberation mapping is small and in most cases negligible. We use well sampled photometric re...

  5. Does media coverage influence public attitudes towards welfare recipients? The impact of the 2011 English riots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeves, Aaron; de Vries, Robert

    2016-06-01

    Following the shooting of Mark Duggan by police on 4 August 2011, there were riots in many large cities in the UK. As the rioting was widely perceived to be perpetrated by the urban poor, links were quickly made with Britain's welfare policies. In this paper, we examine whether the riots, and the subsequent media coverage, influenced attitudes toward welfare recipients. Using the British Social Attitudes survey, we use multivariate difference-in-differences regression models to compare attitudes toward welfare recipients among those interviewed before (pre-intervention: i.e. prior to 6 August) and after (post-intervention: 10 August-10 September) the riots occurred (N = 3,311). We use variation in exposure to the media coverage to test theories of media persuasion in the context of attitudes toward welfare recipients. Before the riots, there were no significant differences between newspaper readers and non-readers in their attitudes towards welfare recipients. However, after the riots, attitudes diverged. Newspaper readers became more likely than non-readers to believe that those on welfare did not really deserve help, that the unemployed could find a job if they wanted to and that those on the dole were being dishonest in claiming benefits. Although the divergence was clearest between right-leaning newspaper and non-newspaper readers, we do not a find statistically significant difference between right- and left-leaning newspapers. These results suggest that media coverage of the riots influenced attitudes towards welfare recipients; specifically, newspaper coverage of the riots increased the likelihood that readers of the print media expressed negative attitudes towards welfare recipients when compared with the rest of the population.

  6. 77 FR 665 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Listing Two Distinct Population Segments of Broad...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-05

    ... agencies, the scientific community, and the reptile product industry. We received scientific literature... (IUCN) Crocodile Specialist Group (CSG), and researchers in South America, particularly in Argentina... America are comparable to state jurisdictions in the United States) of Bolivia, which is at...

  7. Variant profiling of evolving prokaryotic populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Zojer

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Genomic heterogeneity of bacterial species is observed and studied in experimental evolution experiments and clinical diagnostics, and occurs as micro-diversity of natural habitats. The challenge for genome research is to accurately capture this heterogeneity with the currently used short sequencing reads. Recent advances in NGS technologies improved the speed and coverage and thus allowed for deep sequencing of bacterial populations. This facilitates the quantitative assessment of genomic heterogeneity, including low frequency alleles or haplotypes. However, false positive variant predictions due to sequencing errors and mapping artifacts of short reads need to be prevented. We therefore created VarCap, a workflow for the reliable prediction of different types of variants even at low frequencies. In order to predict SNPs, InDels and structural variations, we evaluated the sensitivity and accuracy of different software tools using synthetic read data. The results suggested that the best sensitivity could be reached by a union of different tools, however at the price of increased false positives. We identified possible reasons for false predictions and used this knowledge to improve the accuracy by post-filtering the predicted variants according to properties such as frequency, coverage, genomic environment/localization and co-localization with other variants. We observed that best precision was achieved by using an intersection of at least two tools per variant. This resulted in the reliable prediction of variants above a minimum relative abundance of 2%. VarCap is designed for being routinely used within experimental evolution experiments or for clinical diagnostics. The detected variants are reported as frequencies within a VCF file and as a graphical overview of the distribution of the different variant/allele/haplotype frequencies. The source code of VarCap is available at https://github.com/ma2o/VarCap. In order to provide this workflow to

  8. Ultra-broad bandwidth parametric amplification at degeneracy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limpert, J; Aguergaray, C; Montant, S; Manek-Hönninger, I; Petit, S; Descamps, D; Cormier, E; Salin, F

    2005-09-19

    We report on a novel approach of ultra-broad bandwidth parametric amplification around degeneracy. A bandwidth of up to 400 nm centered around 800 nm is amplified in a BBO crystal by using chirped pump pulses with a bandwitdth as broad as 10 nm. A supercontinuum signal is generated in a microstructured fiber, having to first order a quadratic chirp, which is necessary to ensure temporal overlap of the interacting waves over this broad bandwidth. Furthermore, we discuss the potential of this approach for an octave-spanning parametric amplification.

  9. Limited potential for adaptation to climate change in a broadly distributed marine crustacean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Morgan W; Sanford, Eric; Grosberg, Richard K

    2012-01-22

    The extent to which acclimation and genetic adaptation might buffer natural populations against climate change is largely unknown. Most models predicting biological responses to environmental change assume that species' climatic envelopes are homogeneous both in space and time. Although recent discussions have questioned this assumption, few empirical studies have characterized intraspecific patterns of genetic variation in traits directly related to environmental tolerance limits. We test the extent of such variation in the broadly distributed tidepool copepod Tigriopus californicus using laboratory rearing and selection experiments to quantify thermal tolerance and scope for adaptation in eight populations spanning more than 17° of latitude. Tigriopus californicus exhibit striking local adaptation to temperature, with less than 1 per cent of the total quantitative variance for thermal tolerance partitioned within populations. Moreover, heat-tolerant phenotypes observed in low-latitude populations cannot be achieved in high-latitude populations, either through acclimation or 10 generations of strong selection. Finally, in four populations there was no increase in thermal tolerance between generations 5 and 10 of selection, suggesting that standing variation had already been depleted. Thus, plasticity and adaptation appear to have limited capacity to buffer these isolated populations against further increases in temperature. Our results suggest that models assuming a uniform climatic envelope may greatly underestimate extinction risk in species with strong local adaptation.

  10. Defining Pathways and Trade-offs Toward Universal Health Coverage Comment on “Ethical Perspective: Five Unacceptable Trade-offs on the Path to Universal Health Coverage”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stéphane Verguet

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The World Health Organization’s (WHO’s World Health Report 2010, “Health systems financing, the path to universal coverage,” promoted universal health coverage (UHC as an aspirational objective for country health systems. Yet, in addition to the dimensions of services and coverage, distribution of coverage in the population, and financial risk protection highlighted by the report, the consideration of the budget constraint should be further strengthened in the ensuing debate on resource allocation toward UHC. Beyond the substantial financial constraints faced by low- and middle-income countries, additional considerations, such as the geographical context, the underlying country infrastructure, and the architecture of health systems, determine the feasibility, effectiveness, quality and cost of healthcare delivery. Therefore, increased production and use of local evidence tied to the criteria of health benefits, equity, financial risk protection, and costs accompanying health delivery are needed so that to highlight pathways and acceptable trade-offs toward UHC.

  11. AUTOMATED CONSTRUCTION OF COVERAGE CATALOGUES OF ASTER SATELLITE IMAGE FOR URBAN AREAS OF THE WORLD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Miyazaki

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available We developed an algorithm to determine a combination of satellite images according to observation extent and image quality. The algorithm was for testing necessity for completing coverage of the search extent. The tests excluded unnecessary images with low quality and preserve necessary images with good quality. The search conditions of the satellite images could be extended, indicating the catalogue could be constructed with specified periods required for time series analysis. We applied the method to a database of metadata of ASTER satellite images archived in GEO Grid of National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST, Japan. As indexes of populated places with geographical coordinates, we used a database of 3372 populated place of more than 0.1 million populations retrieved from GRUMP Settlement Points, a global gazetteer of cities, which has geographical names of populated places associated with geographical coordinates and population data. From the coordinates of populated places, 3372 extents were generated with radiuses of 30 km, a half of swath of ASTER satellite images. By merging extents overlapping each other, they were assembled into 2214 extents. As a result, we acquired combinations of good quality for 1244 extents, those of low quality for 96 extents, incomplete combinations for 611 extents. Further improvements would be expected by introducing pixel-based cloud assessment and pixel value correction over seasonal variations.

  12. Policy Choices for Progressive Realization of Universal Health Coverage; Comment on “Ethical Perspective: Five Unacceptable Trade-offs on the Path to Universal Health Coverage”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viroj Tangcharoensathien

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In responses to Norheim’s editorial, this commentary offers reflections from Thailand, how the five unacceptable trade-offs were applied to the universal health coverage (UHC reforms between 1975 and 2002 when the whole 64 million people were covered by one of the three public health insurance systems. This commentary aims to generate global discussions on how best UHC can be gradually achieved. Not only the proposed five discrete tradeoffs within each dimension, there are also trade-offs between the three dimensions of UHC such as population coverage, service coverage and cost coverage. Findings from Thai UHC show that equity is applied for the population coverage extension, when the low income households and the informal sector were the priority population groups for coverage extension by different prepayment schemes in 1975 and 1984, respectively. With an exception of public sector employees who were historically covered as part of fringe benefits were covered well before the poor. The private sector employees were covered last in 1990. Historically, Thailand applied a comprehensive benefit package where a few items are excluded using the negative list; until there was improved capacities on technology assessment that cost-effectiveness are used for the inclusion of new interventions into the benefit package. Not only costeffectiveness, but long term budget impact, equity and ethical considerations are taken into account. Cost coverage is mostly determined by the fiscal capacities. Close ended budget with mix of provider payment methods are used as a tool for trade-off service coverage and financial risk protection. Introducing copayment in the context of feefor-service can be harmful to beneficiaries due to supplier induced demands, inefficiency and unpredictable out of pocket payment by households. UHC achieves favorable outcomes as it was implemented when there was a full geographical coverage of primary healthcare coverage in all

  13. Fragmentation and Coverage Variation in Viral Metagenome Assemblies, and Their Effect in Diversity Calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-López, Rodrigo; Vázquez-Castellanos, Jorge Francisco; Moya, Andrés

    2015-01-01

    Metagenomic libraries consist of DNA fragments from diverse species, with varying genome size and abundance. High-throughput sequencing platforms produce large volumes of reads from these libraries, which may be assembled into contigs, ideally resembling the original larger genomic sequences. The uneven species distribution, along with the stochasticity in sample processing and sequencing bias, impacts the success of accurate sequence assembly. Several assemblers enable the processing of viral metagenomic data de novo, generally using overlap layout consensus or de Bruijn graph approaches for contig assembly. The success of viral genomic reconstruction in these datasets is limited by the degree of fragmentation of each genome in the sample, which is dependent on the sequencing effort and the genome length. Depending on ecological, biological, or procedural biases, some fragments have a higher prevalence, or coverage, in the assembly. However, assemblers must face challenges, such as the formation of chimerical structures and intra-species variability. Diversity calculation relies on the classification of the sequences that comprise a metagenomic dataset. Whenever the corresponding genomic and taxonomic information is available, contigs matching the same species can be classified accordingly and the coverage of its genome can be calculated for that species. This may be used to compare populations by estimating abundance and assessing species distribution from this data. Nevertheless, the coverage does not take into account the degree of fragmentation, or else genome completeness, and is not necessarily representative of actual species distribution in the samples. Furthermore, undetermined sequences are abundant in viral metagenomic datasets, resulting in several independent contigs that cannot be assigned by homology or genomic information. These may only be classified as different operational taxonomic units (OTUs), sometimes remaining inadvisably unrelated. Thus

  14. Phenotypic plasticity of invasive Spartina densiflora (Poaceae) along a broad latitudinal gradient on the Pacific Coast of North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    We examined morphological and physiological leaf traits of Spartina densiflora plants in populations from invaded estuarine sites across broad latitudinal and climate gradients along the Pacific west coast of North America, and in favourable conditions in a common garden experiment. We hypothesized ...

  15. AGN Broad Line Regions Scale with Bolometric Luminosity

    CERN Document Server

    Trippe, Sascha

    2015-01-01

    The masses of supermassive black holes in active galactic nuclei (AGN) can be derived spectroscopically via virial mass estimators based on selected broad optical/ultraviolet emission lines. These estimates commonly use the line width as a proxy for the gas speed and the monochromatic continuum luminosity as a proxy for the radius of the broad line region. However, if the size of the broad line region scales with bolometric rather than monochromatic AGN luminosity, mass estimates based on different emission lines will show a systematic discrepancy which is a function of the color of the AGN continuum. This has actually been observed in mass estimates based on H-alpha / H-beta and C IV lines, indicating that AGN broad line regions indeed scale with bolometric luminosity. Given that this effect seems to have been overlooked as yet, currently used single-epoch mass estimates are likely to be biased.

  16. Broad Spectrum Sanitizing Wipes with Food Additives Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Microcide proposes to develop novel multipurpose non-toxic sanitizing wipes that are aqueous based, have shelf life of 3-5 years, have broad spectrum microbicidal...

  17. Clues to Quasar Broad Line Region Geometry and Kinematics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Marianne; Wilkes, B. J.; Barthel, P. D.

    2000-01-01

    width to show significant inverse correlations with the fractional radio core-flux density, R, the radio axis inclination indicator. Highly inclined systems have broader line wings, consistent with a high-velocity field perpendicular to the radio axis. By contrast, the narrow line-core shows...... and with an accretion disk-wind emitting the broad lines. A spherical distribution of randomly orbiting broad-line clouds and a polar high-ionization outflow are ruled out....

  18. Identification and specificity of broadly neutralizing antibodies against HIV

    OpenAIRE

    McCoy, Laura E.; Burton, Dennis R.

    2017-01-01

    Summary Beginning in 2009, studies of the humoral responses of HIV‐positive individuals have led to the identification of scores, if not hundreds, of antibodies that are both broadly reactive and potently neutralizing. This development has provided renewed impetus toward an HIV vaccine and led directly to the development of novel immunogens. Advances in identification of donors with the most potent and broad anti‐HIV serum neutralizing responses were crucial in this effort. Equally, developme...

  19. Comparative Estimates of Crude and Effective Coverage of Measles Immunization in Low-Resource Settings: Findings from Salud Mesoamérica 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colson, K Ellicott; Zúñiga-Brenes, Paola; Ríos-Zertuche, Diego; Conde-Glez, Carlos J; Gagnier, Marielle C; Palmisano, Erin; Ranganathan, Dharani; Usmanova, Gulnoza; Salvatierra, Benito; Nazar, Austreberta; Tristao, Ignez; Sanchez Monin, Emmanuelle; Anderson, Brent W; Haakenstad, Annie; Murphy, Tasha; Lim, Stephen; Hernandez, Bernardo; Lozano, Rafael; Iriarte, Emma; Mokdad, Ali H

    2015-01-01

    Timely and accurate measurement of population protection against measles is critical for decision-making and prevention of outbreaks. However, little is known about how survey-based estimates of immunization (crude coverage) compare to the seroprevalence of antibodies (effective coverage), particularly in low-resource settings. In poor areas of Mexico and Nicaragua, we used household surveys to gather information on measles immunization from child health cards and caregiver recall. We also collected dried blood spots (DBS) from children aged 12 to 23 months to compare crude and effective coverage of measles immunization. We used survey-weighted logistic regression to identify individual, maternal, household, community, and health facility characteristics that predict gaps between crude coverage and effective coverage. We found that crude coverage was significantly higher than effective coverage (83% versus 68% in Mexico; 85% versus 50% in Nicaragua). A large proportion of children (19% in Mexico; 43% in Nicaragua) had health card documentation of measles immunization but lacked antibodies. These discrepancies varied from 0% to 100% across municipalities in each country. In multivariate analyses, card-positive children in Mexico were more likely to lack antibodies if they resided in urban areas or the jurisdiction of De Los Llanos. In contrast, card-positive children in Nicaragua were more likely to lack antibodies if they resided in rural areas or the North Atlantic region, had low weight-for-age, or attended health facilities with a greater number of refrigerators. Findings highlight that reliance on child health cards to measure population protection against measles is unwise. We call for the evaluation of immunization programs using serological methods, especially in poor areas where the cold chain is likely to be compromised. Identification of within-country variation in effective coverage of measles immunization will allow researchers and public health

  20. Human rights, ideology and population policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombo, B

    1977-01-01

    Only too often ideology means fanaticism, intolerance, even violence, but the term can be used also to denote sets of preconceptions and presuppositions which act as a stimulus and a guide to scientific innovation, particularly in the field of social science. This sort of insight into the realities of life and the world is a contribution to knowledge and the search for truth, also in the field of human rights. These are taken in the paper as those rights whose infringement constitutes a "vulnus" of the essential characteristics of human beings and those which assume the role of a basic safeguard of them. The meaning of the insistence on the human rights theme in the United Nations system is briefly touched upon, but the main effort is spent in trying to find a firm base for both fundamental rights and duties, shown as strictly and simmetrically linked. Various examples of population policies - broadly defined as governmental interventions influencing demographic variables - are then examined in the light of the basic principles laid down in the said effort. The fields taken up in succession for consideration are international and internal migration, mortality, marriage, fertility in countries at different stages of demographic transition, and growth. Rather than trying an extensive coverage of the whole horizon, a line of critical and deep thought about typical problematic themes is preferred. One of the main conclusions which may be quoted is a statement according to which the problem remains wide open of discovering acceptable ways aiming at a modification of fertility patterns which combine a reduction of the average family size with the maintenance of its variability in order to respect free and responsible individual choices. How important and urgent this task is, is underscored by the observations advanced in the final section of the paper including a meditation on the limits that human sexuality appears to have imposed on itself.

  1. Key Facts about the Uninsured Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... adults in 2015 (20%) went without needed medical care due to cost. Studies repeatedly demonstrate that the uninsured are less likely ... that gaining health coverage improves the affordability of care and financial ... population. Multiple studies of the ACA have found larger declines in ...

  2. Factors affecting immunization coverage in urban slums of Odisha, India: implications on urban health policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santosh K. Prusty

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Infectious diseases are major causes of morbidity and mortality among children. One of the most cost-effective interventions for improved child survival is immunization, which has significant urban-rural divides. Slum dwellers constitute about one-third of Indian population, and most children still remain incompletely immunized. The main purpose of this study was to understand the factors behind partial or non-immunization of children aged 12-23 months in slum areas of Cuttack district, India. Session-based audit and a population-based survey were conducted in the urban slums of Cuttack city, April-June 2012. Total 79 children were assessed and their mothers were interviewed about the nature and quality of immunization services provided. Children fully immunized were 64.6%. Antigen-wise immunization coverage was highest for Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG (96.2% and lowest for Measles (65.8%, which indicates high instances of late drop-out. Frequent illnesses of the child, lack of information about the scheduled date of immunization, frequent displacement of the family and lack of knowledge regarding the benefits of immunization were cited as the main factors behind coverage of immunization services. The study showed that there is an urgent need to revise the immunization strategy, especially for urban slums. District and sub-district officials should reduce instances of early and late dropouts and, in turn, improve complete immunization coverage. Community participation, intersectoral co-ordination and local decision making along with supportive supervision could be critical in addressing issues of drop-outs, supply logistics and community mobilization.

  3. Packaging and Performance of 980nm Broad Area Semiconductor Lasers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    High power broad area semiconductor lasers have found increasing applications in pumping of solid state laser systems and fiber amplifiers, frequency doubling, medical systems and material processing.Packaging including the assembly design, process and thermal management, has a significant impact on the optical performance and reliability of a high power broad area laser. In this paper, we introduce the package structures and assembling process of 980nm broad area lasers and report the performances including output power, thermal behavior and far fields.We will report two types of high power broad area laser assemblies.One is a microchannel liquid cooled assembly and the other is a conduction cooled CT-mount assembly. Optical powers of 15W and 10W were achieved from a 980nm broad area laser with a 120 μ m stripe width in a microchannel liquid cooled assembly and conduction cooled CT-mount assembly, respectively.Furthermore,a high power of 6.5W out of fiber was demonstrated from a pigtailed, fully packaged butterfly-type module without TEC (Thermoelectric cooler).The measurement results showed that thermal management is the key in not only improving output power, but also significantly improving beam divergence and far field distribution.The results also showed that the die attach solder can significant impact the reliability of high power broad area lasers and that indium solder is not suitable for high power laser applications due to electromigration at high current densities and high temperatures.

  4. Amplifying modeling for broad bandwidth pulse in Nd:glass based on hybrid-broaden mechanism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sujingqin; Lanqin, L; Wenyi, W; Feng, J; Xiaofeng, W; Xiaomin, Z [Research Center of Laser Fusion, China Academy of Engineering Physics, P. O. Box 919-988, Mianyang, China, 621900 (China); Bin, L [School of Computer and Communication Engineering, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu. China, 610031 (China)], E-mail: sujingqin@tom.com

    2008-05-15

    In this paper, the cross relaxation time is proposed to combine the homogeneous and inhomogeneous broaden mechanism for broad bandwidth pulse amplification model. The corresponding velocity equation, which can describe the response of inverse population on upper and low energy level of gain media to different frequency of pulse, is also put forward. The gain saturation and energy relaxation effect are also included in the velocity equation. Code named CPAP has been developed to simulate the amplifying process of broad bandwidth pulse in multi-pass laser system. The amplifying capability of multi-pass laser system is evaluated and gain narrowing and temporal shape distortion are also investigated when bandwidth of pulse and cross relaxation time of gain media are different. Results can benefit the design of high-energy PW laser system in LFRC, CAEP.

  5. 立体绿化增绿方法%Methods of Increasing Green Coverage of Modern Residential Buildings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱双营; 吴云霄

    2009-01-01

    Three-dimensional greening of building is undoubtedly an effective way to increase green coverage and green biomass for cities with crowded buildings, concentrated population and limited land for landscaping. The paper is aimed to study selection of plant species,models of greening and overall patterns of greening of buildings for four major types of three-dimensional greening. The paper also proposes some measures for the development of the three-dimensional greening in the future.

  6. Market Liquidity, Analysts Coverage, and Ownership Concentration: Evidence From ASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majd Iskandrani

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This research investigates the association between analyst coverage, ownership concentration and market liquidity in Amman Stock Exchange (ASE. Using a unique dataset about information asymmetry, several proxies related to the information asymmetry are used to clarify certain aspects of market liquidity. In a sample of 131 companies with comprehensive data collected from company guides and Datastream, information asymmetry measured by analysts’ coverage is found to be an important determinant of market liquidity. In particular, market liquidity is lower where firms have larger analysts coverage and where firms are denoted with high degree of ownership concentration. The effect of analysts coverage is, however, found to be more marked in firms with high levels of ownership concentration. The study provides theoretical and empirical improvement of market liquidity literature towards an understanding of the information asymmetry proxies in ASE. Policymakers, after the 2007-2009 scandal have formed governance codes that highlight the importance of disclosure requirements as key responsibility of financial analysts. The link between analysts coverage and market liquidity established in this research provides evidence for insider investors on the roles and potential effectiveness of analysts in carrying this responsibility.

  7. Analysis of k-Coverage in Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasmi Ranjan Patra

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Recently, a concept of wireless sensor networks has attracted much attention due to its wide-range of potential applications. Wireless sensor networks also pose a number of challenging optimization problems. One of the fundamental problems in sensor networks is the coverage problem, which reflects the quality of service that can be provided by a particular sensor network. The coverage concept is depending from several points of view due to a variety of sensors and a wide-range of their applications. One fundamental issue in sensor networks is the coverage problem, which reflects how well a sensor network is monitored or tracked by sensors. In this paper, we formulate this problem as a decision problem, whose goal is to determine the degree of coverage of a sensor network, which is covered by at least k sensors, where k is a predefined value. The sensing ranges of sensors can be same or different. Performance evaluation of our protocol indicates that degree of coverage of wireless sensor networks can be determined within small period of time. Therefore energy consumption of the sensor networks can be minimized.

  8. Health care coverage among long-distance truckers in India: an evaluation based on the Tanahashi model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharma V

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Varun Sharma,1 Niranjan Saggurti,2 Shalini Bharat11School of Health Systems Studies, Tata Institute of Social Sciences, Mumbai, India; 2HIV AIDS Program, Population Council, New Delhi, IndiaAbstract: Long-distance truckers (LDTDs are vulnerable to human immunodeficiency virus infection and other sexually transmitted infections due to the nature of their work, working environment, and frequent mobility. This paper examines and comments on the health care coverage provisioned under “Kavach” Project. Data from the Integrated Behavioural and Biological Survey, National Highway gathered from 2,066 LDTDs in Round 1 and 2,085 LDTDs in Round 2, who traveled in four extreme road corridors travelled by LDTDs in India, were used for analysis. Analysis reveals that service capacity in terms of socially marketed condoms per thousand LDTDs has increased from Round 1 to Round 2 (4,430 to 6,876, respectively. Accessibility coverage in terms of knowledge about the Khushi clinic has significantly decreased between Rounds 1 and 2 (60.9% to 54.6%; P<0.001. Acceptability coverage has increased between the two rounds (13.8% to 50.6%; P<0.001. Contact coverage has also increased between the rounds (12.7% to 22.3%; P<0.001. Effectiveness coverage for preventive and curative care has also increased significantly. This paper comments on the gaps in accessibility and acceptability of health care coverage and emphasizes the need for further studies to assess the contextual factors that influence the effectiveness and efficiency of interventions designed to address access barriers and to identify what combination of interventions may generate the best possible outcome.Keywords: HIV, long-distance truck drivers, mobility, national highways, Tanahashi framework, India

  9. High coverage of mass drug administration for lymphatic filariasis in rural and non-rural settings in the Western Area, Sierra Leone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonnie Mustapha

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lymphatic filariasis elimination programs are based upon preventative chemotherapy annually in populations with prevalence more than or equal to 1%. The goal is to treat 80% of the eligible, at risk population yearly, for at least 5 years, in order to interrupt transmission and prevent children from becoming infected. This level of coverage has been a challenge in urban settings. Assessing the coverage in a rapidly growing urban/non-rural setting with inadequate population data is also problematic. In Sierra Leone, a 5-day preventative chemotherapy campaign was carried out in the Western Area including the capital: Freetown. An intensive, social mobilization strategy combined traditional and modern communication channels. To aid dissemination of appropriate information Frequently Asked Questions were developed and widely circulated. The population of the Western Area has grown faster than projected by the 2004 National Census due to the post-war settlement of internally displaced persons. As a reliable denominator was not available, independent monitoring was adapted and performed "in process" to aid program performance and "end process" to assess final coverage. Results In 5 days 1,104,407 eligible persons were treated. Using the projected population from the 2004 census this figure represented coverage of 116% in the Urban Western Area and 129% in the Rural Western Area. Independent monitors interviewed a total of 9,253 persons during the 2 End Process days representing 1% of the projected population. Of these, 85.8% recalled taking both ivermectin and albendazole (Urban: 85.2%, Rural: 87.1%. No serious adverse drug reactions were reported. Conclusion The paper presents the key elements of success of the social mobilization and implementation strategy and describes the independent monitoring used to estimate final coverage in this urban/non-rural setting where the current population size is uncertain. This implementation

  10. Estimating DNA coverage and abundance in metagenomes using a gamma approximation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hooper, Sean D; Dalevi, Daniel; Pati, Amrita; Mavromatis, Konstantinos; Ivanova, Natalia N; Kyrpides, Nikos C

    2010-01-01

    Shotgun sequencing generates large numbers of short DNA reads from either an isolated organism or, in the case of metagenomics projects, from the aggregate genome of a microbial community. These reads are then assembled based on overlapping sequences into larger, contiguous sequences (contigs). The feasibility of assembly and the coverage achieved (reads per nucleotide or distinct sequence of nucleotides) depend on several factors: the number of reads sequenced, the read length and the relative abundances of their source genomes in the microbial community. A low coverage suggests that most of the genomic DNA in the sample has not been sequenced, but it is often difficult to estimate either the extent of the uncaptured diversity or the amount of additional sequencing that would be most efficacious. In this work, we regard a metagenome as a population of DNA fragments (bins), each of which may be covered by one or more reads. We employ a gamma distribution to model this bin population due to its flexibility and ease of use. When a gamma approximation can be found that adequately fits the data, we may estimate the number of bins that were not sequenced and that could potentially be revealed by additional sequencing. We evaluated the performance of this model using simulated metagenomes and demonstrate its applicability on three recent metagenomic datasets.

  11. [Estimated coverage of death counts and adult mortality in Mozambique based on census data].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberto, Serafim Adriano; Queiroz, Bernardo Lanza

    2015-10-01

    In 1997 and 2007, the questionnaire used in the Population Census in Mozambique included a question on deaths at home in the previous 12 months. This study aimed to evaluate the quality of mortality data for the country as a whole and its three major geographic regions. More specifically, based on formal demographic methods, the authors sought to evaluate the quality of information in terms of degree of coverage of death counts and mortality structure, summarized by the probability of death between 15 and 60 years of age. The 2007 census enumerated between 65% and 90% of deaths in Mozambique, suggesting that mortality estimates using direct methods underestimate mortality in the country. The study showed that there has been progress in the quality of death counts in the census, and that in the absence of high-quality vital statistics, population censuses can be a good source of mortality data in developing countries.

  12. Estimation of Pap-test coverage in an area with an organised screening program: challenges for survey methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raggi Patrizio

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The cytological screening programme of Viterbo has completed the second round of invitations to the entire target population (age 25–64. From a public health perspective, it is important to know the Pap-test coverage rate and the use of opportunistic screening. The most commonly used study design is the survey, but the validity of self-reports and the assumptions made about non respondents are often questioned. Methods From the target population, 940 women were sampled, and responded to a telephone interview about Pap-test utilisation. The answers were compared with the screening program registry; comparing the dates of Pap-tests reported by both sources. Sensitivity analyses were performed for coverage over a 36-month period, according to various assumptions regarding non respondents. Results The response rate was 68%. The coverage over 36 months was 86.4% if we assume that non respondents had the same coverage as respondents, 66% if we assume they were not covered at all, and 74.6% if we adjust for screening compliance in the non respondents. The sensitivity and specificity of the question, "have you ever had a Pap test with the screening programme" were 84.5% and 82.2% respectively. The test dates reported in the interview tended to be more recent than those reported in the registry, but 68% were within 12 months of each other. Conclusion Surveys are useful tools to understand the effectiveness of a screening programme and women's self-report was sufficiently reliable in our setting, but the coverage estimates were strongly influenced by the assumptions we made regarding non respondents.

  13. Root coverage with free gingival autografts--a clinical study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepalakshmi D

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To assess the percentage of root coverage with autogenous free gingival grafts. MATERIALS & METHODS: Ten non-smoking patients with Miller′s class I or class II recessions were included in the study. The clinical parameters such as recession depth, recession width, probing pocket depth, clinical attachment level and width of the keratinized gingiva were recorded at the baseline, at the end of 1 month, 3 months, and 6 months after the surgical procedure. Autogenous free gingival grafts harvested from the palatal mucosa were used to cover the denuded roots. RESULTS: Four out of ten sites showed 100% root coverage. A mean percentage of 80.3% of root coverage was achieved.

  14. Coverage Dependent Assembly of Anthraquinone on Au(111)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conrad, Brad; Deloach, Andrew; Einstein, Theodore; Dougherty, Daniel

    A study of adsorbate-adsorbate and surface state mediated interactions of anthraquinone (AnQ) on Au(111) is presented. We utilize scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) to characterize the coverage dependence of AnQ structure formation. Ordered structures are observed up to a single monolayer (ML) and are found to be strongly dependent on molecular surface density. While the complete ML forms a well-ordered close-packed layer, for a narrow range of sub-ML coverages irregular close-packed islands are observed to coexist with a disordered pore network linking neighboring islands. This network displays a characteristic pore size and at lower coverages, the soliton walls of the herringbone reconstruction are shown to promote formation of distinct pore nanostructures. We will discuss these nanostructure formations in the context of surface mediated and more direct adsorbate interactions.

  15. Coverage and Exposure Paths in Wireless Sensor Networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu-Sheng Huang; Hong-Li Xu; Yang Wang; Jun-Min Wu; Hong Li

    2006-01-01

    Wireless sensor networks have posed a number of challenging problems such as localization, deployment and tracking, etc. One of the interesting problems is the calculation of the coverage and exposure paths for the sensor networks.This paper presents a fully localized algorithm to solve the worst coverage problem first introduced by Meguerdichian et al.The nodes of the sensor network cooperate to construct the worst coverage path only by the one-hop neighbor's information,thus avoiding the massive communication and conserving the energy. The correctness of the proposed algorithm is proved formally under the sensing diminishing model. Moreover, this algorithm can be easily extended to solve the minimal exposure problem with local information as well.

  16. Root coverage using epithelial embossed connective tissue graft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T Ramakrishnan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In periodontal practice, root coverage after marginal soft tissue recession requires daily clinical decisions. Numerous longitudinal human studies have been presented to support the efficacy and predictability of different mucogingival surgical techniques for root coverage. Over the years, root coverage procedure using the subepithelial connective tissue graft with variations has emerged as the favorite surgical technique. In the case presented in this report, subepithelial connective tissue graft with embossed epithelium was used to cover Miller′s class II gingival recession in the upper right canine. The design is such that embossed epithelium exactly fits the recession site and the connective tissue portion is tucked below the gingival margin of the recipient site. In this technique, coronal advancement of flap is not needed. Wider zone of attached gingiva at the recipient site was achieved by this technique.

  17. Coverage in Multi-Antenna Two-Tier Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Chandrasekhar, Vikram; Andrews, Jeffrey G

    2009-01-01

    In two-tier networks -- comprising a conventional cellular network overlaid with shorter range hotspots (e.g. femtocells, distributed antennas, or wired relays) -- with universal frequency reuse, the near-far effect from cross-tier interference creates dead spots where reliable coverage cannot be guaranteed to users in either tier. Equipping the macrocell and femtocells with multiple antennas enhances robustness against the near-far problem. This work derives the maximum number of simultaneously transmitting multiple antenna femtocells meeting a per-tier outage probability constraint. Coverage dead zones are presented wherein cross-tier interference bottlenecks cellular and hotspot coverage. Two operating regimes are shown namely 1) a cellular-limited regime in which femtocell users experience unacceptable cross-tier interference and 2) a hotspot-limited regime wherein both femtocell users and cellular users are limited by hotspot interference. Our analysis accounts for the per-tier transmit powers, the numbe...

  18. Evidence for active galactic nucleus feedback in the broad absorption lines and reddening of MRK 231 {sup ,}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leighly, Karen M.; Baron, Eddie; Lucy, Adrian B. [Homer L. Dodge Department of Physics and Astronomy, The University of Oklahoma, 440 West Brooks Street, Norman, OK 73019 (United States); Terndrup, Donald M. [Department of Astronomy, The Ohio State University, 140 West 18th Avenue, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Dietrich, Matthias [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Ohio University, Clippinger Labs 251B, Athens, OH 45701 (United States); Gallagher, Sarah C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, The University of Western Ontario, London, ON, N6A 3K7 (Canada)

    2014-06-20

    We present the first J-band spectrum of Mrk 231, which reveals a large He I* λ10830 broad absorption line with a profile similar to that of the well-known Na I broad absorption line. Combining this spectrum with optical and UV spectra from the literature, we show that the unusual reddening noted by Veilleux et al. is explained by a reddening curve like those previously used to explain low values of total-to-selective extinction in Type Ia supernovae. The nuclear starburst may be the origin and location of the dust. Spatially resolved emission in the broad absorption line trough suggests nearly full coverage of the continuum emission region. The broad absorption lines reveal higher velocities in the He I* lines (produced in the quasar-photoionized H II region) compared with the Na I and Ca II lines (produced in the corresponding partially ionized zone). Cloudy simulations show that a density increase is required between the H II and partially ionized zones to produce ionic column densities consistent with the optical and IR absorption line measurements and limits, and that the absorber lies ∼100 pc from the central engine. These results suggest that the He I* lines are produced in an ordinary quasar BAL wind that impacts upon, compresses, and accelerates the nuclear starburst's dusty effluent (feedback in action), and the Ca II and Na I lines are produced in this dusty accelerated gas. This unusual circumstance explains the rarity of Na I absorption lines; without the compression along our line of sight, Mrk 231 would appear as an ordinary iron low-ionization, broad absorption line quasar.

  19. Clinical coverage of an archetype repository over SNOMED-CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Sheng; Berry, Damon; Bisbal, Jesus

    2012-06-01

    Clinical archetypes provide a means for health professionals to design what should be communicated as part of an Electronic Health Record (EHR). An ever-growing number of archetype definitions follow this health information modelling approach, and this international archetype resource will eventually cover a large number of clinical concepts. On the other hand, clinical terminology systems that can be referenced by archetypes also have a wide coverage over many types of health-care information. No existing work measures the clinical content coverage of archetypes using terminology systems as a metric. Archetype authors require guidance to identify under-covered clinical areas that may need to be the focus of further modelling effort according to this paradigm. This paper develops a first map of SNOMED-CT concepts covered by archetypes in a repository by creating a so-called terminological Shadow. This is achieved by mapping appropriate SNOMED-CT concepts from all nodes that contain archetype terms, finding the top two category levels of the mapped concepts in the SNOMED-CT hierarchy, and calculating the coverage of each category. A quantitative study of the results compares the coverage of different categories to identify relatively under-covered as well as well-covered areas. The results show that the coverage of the well-known National Health Service (NHS) Connecting for Health (CfH) archetype repository on all categories of SNOMED-CT is not equally balanced. Categories worth investigating emerged at different points on the coverage spectrum, including well-covered categories such as Attributes, Qualifier value, under-covered categories such as Microorganism, Kingdom animalia, and categories that are not covered at all such as Cardiovascular drug (product).

  20. Interpopulational variation in the cold tolerance of a broadly distributed marine copepod.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Gemma T; Kim, Tiffany L; Neufeld, Christopher J

    2014-01-01

    Latitudinal trends in cold tolerance have been observed in many terrestrial ectotherms, but few studies have investigated interpopulational variation in the cold physiology of marine invertebrates. Here, the intertidal copepod Tigriopus californicus was used as a model system to study how local adaptation influences the cold tolerance of a broadly distributed marine crustacean. Among five populations spanning 18° in latitude, the following three metrics were used to compare cold tolerance: the temperature of chill-coma onset, the chill-coma recovery time and post-freezing recovery. In comparison to copepods from warmer southern latitudes, animals from northern populations exhibited lower chill-coma onset temperatures, shorter chill-coma recovery times and faster post-freezing recovery rates. Importantly, all three metrics showed a consistent latitudinal trend, suggesting that any single metric could be used equivalently in future studies investigating latitudinal variation in cold tolerance. Our results agree with previous studies showing that populations within a single species can display strong local adaptation to spatially varying climatic conditions. Thus, accounting for local adaptation in bioclimate models will be useful for understanding how broadly distributed species like T. californicus will respond to anthropogenic climate change.

  1. Malaria indicator survey 2007, Ethiopia: coverage and use of major malaria prevention and control interventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graves Patricia M

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In 2005, a nationwide survey estimated that 6.5% of households in Ethiopia owned an insecticide-treated net (ITN, 17% of households had been sprayed with insecticide, and 4% of children under five years of age with a fever were taking an anti-malarial drug. Similar to other sub-Saharan African countries scaling-up malaria interventions, the Government of Ethiopia set an ambitious national goal in 2005 to (i provide 100% ITN coverage in malarious areas, with a mean of two ITNs per household; (ii to scale-up indoor residual spraying of households with insecticide (IRS to cover 30% of households targeted for IRS; and (iii scale-up the provision of case management with rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs and artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT, particularly at the peripheral level. Methods A nationally representative malaria indicator survey (MIS was conducted in Ethiopia between September and December 2007 to determine parasite and anaemia prevalence in the population at risk and to assess coverage, use and access to scaled-up malaria prevention and control interventions. The survey used a two-stage random cluster sample of 7,621 households in 319 census enumeration areas. A total of 32,380 people participated in the survey. Data was collected using standardized Roll Back Malaria Monitoring and Evaluation Reference Group MIS household and women's questionnaires, which were adapted to the local context. Results Data presented is for households in malarious areas, which according to the Ethiopian Federal Ministry of Health are defined as being located Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax, respectively. Moderate-severe anaemia (haemoglobin Conclusions Since mid-2005, the Ethiopian National Malaria Control Programme has considerably scaled-up its malaria prevention and control interventions, demonstrating the impact of strong political will and a committed partnership. The MIS showed, however, that besides sustaining and

  2. Viewing the Kenyan health system through an equity lens: implications for universal coverage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuma Jane

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Equity and universal coverage currently dominate policy debates worldwide. Health financing approaches are central to universal coverage. The way funds are collected, pooled, and used to purchase or provide services should be carefully considered to ensure that population needs are addressed under a universal health system. The aim of this paper is to assess the extent to which the Kenyan health financing system meets the key requirements for universal coverage, including income and risk cross-subsidisation. Recommendations on how to address existing equity challenges and progress towards universal coverage are made. Methods An extensive review of published and gray literature was conducted to identify the sources of health care funds in Kenya. Documents were mainly sourced from the Ministry of Medical Services and the Ministry of Public Health and Sanitation. Country level documents were the main sources of data. In cases where data were not available at the country level, they were sought from the World Health Organisation website. Each financing mechanism was analysed in respect to key functions namely, revenue generation, pooling and purchasing. Results The Kenyan health sector relies heavily on out-of-pocket payments. Government funds are mainly allocated through historical incremental approach. The sector is largely underfunded and health care contributions are regressive (i.e. the poor contribute a larger proportion of their income to health care than the rich. Health financing in Kenya is fragmented and there is very limited risk and income cross-subsidisation. The country has made little progress towards achieving international benchmarks including the Abuja target of allocating 15% of government's budget to the health sector. Conclusions The Kenyan health system is highly inequitable and policies aimed at promoting equity and addressing the needs of the poor and vulnerable have not been successful. Some progress

  3. Variability of surface ozone with cloud coverage over Kolkata, India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    D Ghosh; S K Midya; U Sarkar; T Mukherjee

    2015-03-01

    Critical analysis of experimental surface ozone data and cloud coverage is reported over Kolkata during the period January 2011 to December 2011. Significant relationship between these two parameters is observed. Analysis shows that the trend of surface ozone concentration and cloud coverage follow opposite tendency. Some exceptional observations are also reported. Apart from this, seasonal variation of surface ozone with columnar ozone concentration, NO2 and temperature is also examined in relation with cloud cover to obtain a possible explanation of this type of variation.

  4. Synthesis of Volumetric Ring Antenna Array for Terrestrial Coverage Pattern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Reyna

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a synthesis of a volumetric ring antenna array for a terrestrial coverage pattern. This synthesis regards the spacing among the rings on the planes X-Y, the positions of the rings on the plane X-Z, and uniform and concentric excitations. The optimization is carried out by implementing the particle swarm optimization. The synthesis is compared with previous designs by resulting with proper performance of this geometry to provide an accurate coverage to be applied in satellite applications with a maximum reduction of the antenna hardware as well as the side lobe level reduction.

  5. Synthesis of Volumetric Ring Antenna Array for Terrestrial Coverage Pattern

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyna, Alberto; Panduro, Marco A.; Del Rio Bocio, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a synthesis of a volumetric ring antenna array for a terrestrial coverage pattern. This synthesis regards the spacing among the rings on the planes X-Y, the positions of the rings on the plane X-Z, and uniform and concentric excitations. The optimization is carried out by implementing the particle swarm optimization. The synthesis is compared with previous designs by resulting with proper performance of this geometry to provide an accurate coverage to be applied in satellite applications with a maximum reduction of the antenna hardware as well as the side lobe level reduction. PMID:24701150

  6. Quad-Tree Visual-Calculus Analysis of Satellite Coverage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Martin W.; Hockney, George; Kwan, Bruce

    2003-01-01

    An improved method of analysis of coverage of areas of the Earth by a constellation of radio-communication or scientific-observation satellites has been developed. This method is intended to supplant an older method in which the global-coverage-analysis problem is solved from a ground-to-satellite perspective. The present method provides for rapid and efficient analysis. This method is derived from a satellite-to-ground perspective and involves a unique combination of two techniques for multiresolution representation of map features on the surface of a sphere.

  7. Feedback-Based Coverage Directed Test Generation: An Industrial Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ioannides, Charalambos; Barrett, Geoff; Eder, Kerstin

    Although there are quite a few approaches to Coverage Directed test Generation aided by Machine Learning which have been applied successfully to small and medium size digital designs, it is not clear how they would scale on more elaborate industrial-level designs. This paper evaluates one of these techniques, called MicroGP, on a fully fledged industrial design. The results indicate relative success evidenced by a good level of code coverage achieved with reasonably compact tests when compared to traditional test generation approaches. However, there is scope for improvement especially with respect to the diversity of the tests evolved.

  8. Change of mobile network coverage in France from 29 August

    CERN Multimedia

    IT Department

    2016-01-01

    The change of mobile network coverage on the French part of the CERN site will take effect on 29 August and not on 11 July as previously announced.    From 29 August, the Swisscom transmitters in France will be deactivated and Orange France will thenceforth provide coverage on the French part of the CERN site.  This switch will result in changes to billing. You should also ensure that you can still be contacted by your colleagues when you are on the French part of the CERN site. Please consult the information and instructions in this official communication.

  9. Multi-Service Coverage Analysis for CDMA Planning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Peng; LIU Zhi-ping; QIU Hong; YANG Da-cheng

    2004-01-01

    In CDMA network planning, it's important to understand the characteristics of multi-services. A novel method for analyzing the coverage of mixed voice and packet data traffics is presented in this paper. Based upon GIS and Monte-Carlo simulation method, this method can provide more precise but less time-consuming analysis result than before.A practical analysis case using real geographic information and network parameters is applied to verify its performance and find some useful solutions. Simulation results show that this coverage analysis method can provide helpful solution for the radio networks planning.

  10. Television coverage of mental illness in Canada: 2013-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitley, Rob; Wang, JiaWei

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this study is to assess television news coverage of mental illness in Canadian media, including change over time. Data consist of news clips mentioning terms including 'mental illness' (N = 579). These were systematically collected and coded over 3 years (2013-2015) using a media retrieval software. Trend analysis indicated a significant linear increase for positively oriented coverage. In 2013, less than 10% of clips had a positive overall tone, whereas in 2015, this figure reached over 40%. Articles linking mental illness to violence significantly decreased, though these remain over 50%. Improvement may be due to educational initiatives targeted at journalists.

  11. [The registration of deaths in Venezuela: an evaluation of coverage].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidegain, G; Lopez, D

    1987-08-01

    "This paper presents six indirect techniques for estimating the degree of death coverage as applied to vital statistics information in Venezuela between 1960 and 1982, collected by two public institutions, namely, the 'Oficina Central de Estadistica e Informatica' (OCEI) and the Ministry of Health and Social Assistance (MSAS).... The results show remarkable improvements in the death registry coverage for both institutions, that amount to 97 or 98 per cent at the beginning of the 80's. Nevertheless, great differences can be observed between them regarding both structure and volume of deaths by sex and age." Among the problems discussed are the impact of immigration and errors in age reporting. (SUMMARY IN ENG)

  12. Review of the Cervical Cancer Burden and Population-Based Cervical Cancer Screening in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di, Jiangli; Rutherford, Shannon; Chu, Cordia

    2015-01-01

    Cervical cancer continues to be a serious public health problem in the developing world, including China. Because of its large population with geographical and socioeconomic inequities, China has a high burden of cervical cancer and important disparities among different regions. In this review, we first present an overview of the cervical cancer incidence and mortality over time, and focus on diversity and disparity in access to care for various subpopulations across geographical regions and socioeconomic strata in China. Then, we describe population-based cervical cancer screening in China, and in particular implementation of the National Cervical Cancer Screening Program in Rural Areas (NACCSPRA) and the challenges that this program faces. These include low screening coverage, shortage of qualified health care personnel and limited funds. To improve prevention of cervical cancer and obtain better cancer outcomes, the Chinese government needs to urgently consider the following key factors: reducing disparities in health care access, collecting accurate and broadly representative data in cancer registries, expanding target population size and increasing allocation of government funding for training of personnel, improving health education for women, enhancing quality control of screening services and improving a system to increase follow up for women with positive results.

  13. 42 CFR 440.325 - State plan requirements: Coverage and benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS SERVICES: GENERAL PROVISIONS Benchmark Benefit and Benchmark-Equivalent Coverage § 440.325 State plan requirements: Coverage and benefits. Subject to... benefits coverage: (a) Benchmark coverage in accordance with § 440.330. (b) Benchmark-equivalent...

  14. Bid Optimization in Broad-Match Ad auctions

    CERN Document Server

    Even-dar, Eyal; Mirrokni, Vahab; Muthukrishnan, S; Nadav, Uri

    2009-01-01

    Ad auctions in sponsored search support ``broad match'' that allows an advertiser to target a large number of queries while bidding only on a limited number. While giving more expressiveness to advertisers, this feature makes it challenging to optimize bids to maximize their returns: choosing to bid on a query as a broad match because it provides high profit results in one bidding for related queries which may yield low or even negative profits. We abstract and study the complexity of the {\\em bid optimization problem} which is to determine an advertiser's bids on a subset of keywords (possibly using broad match) so that her profit is maximized. In the query language model when the advertiser is allowed to bid on all queries as broad match, we present an linear programming (LP)-based polynomial-time algorithm that gets the optimal profit. In the model in which an advertiser can only bid on keywords, ie., a subset of keywords as an exact or broad match, we show that this problem is not approximable within any ...

  15. Antiviral Therapy by HIV-1 Broadly Neutralizing and Inhibitory Antibodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiqing Zhang

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1 infection causes acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS, a global epidemic for more than three decades. HIV-1 replication is primarily controlled through antiretroviral therapy (ART but this treatment does not cure HIV-1 infection. Furthermore, there is increasing viral resistance to ART, and side effects associated with long-term therapy. Consequently, there is a need of alternative candidates for HIV-1 prevention and therapy. Recent advances have discovered multiple broadly neutralizing antibodies against HIV-1. In this review, we describe the key epitopes on the HIV-1 Env protein and the reciprocal broadly neutralizing antibodies, and discuss the ongoing clinical trials of broadly neutralizing and inhibitory antibody therapy as well as antibody combinations, bispecific antibodies, and methods that improve therapeutic efficacy by combining broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs with latency reversing agents. Compared with ART, HIV-1 therapeutics that incorporate these broadly neutralizing and inhibitory antibodies offer the advantage of decreasing virus load and clearing infected cells, which is a promising prospect in HIV-1 prevention and treatment.

  16. Antiviral Therapy by HIV-1 Broadly Neutralizing and Inhibitory Antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhiqing; Li, Shaowei; Gu, Ying; Xia, Ningshao

    2016-11-18

    Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection causes acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS), a global epidemic for more than three decades. HIV-1 replication is primarily controlled through antiretroviral therapy (ART) but this treatment does not cure HIV-1 infection. Furthermore, there is increasing viral resistance to ART, and side effects associated with long-term therapy. Consequently, there is a need of alternative candidates for HIV-1 prevention and therapy. Recent advances have discovered multiple broadly neutralizing antibodies against HIV-1. In this review, we describe the key epitopes on the HIV-1 Env protein and the reciprocal broadly neutralizing antibodies, and discuss the ongoing clinical trials of broadly neutralizing and inhibitory antibody therapy as well as antibody combinations, bispecific antibodies, and methods that improve therapeutic efficacy by combining broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs) with latency reversing agents. Compared with ART, HIV-1 therapeutics that incorporate these broadly neutralizing and inhibitory antibodies offer the advantage of decreasing virus load and clearing infected cells, which is a promising prospect in HIV-1 prevention and treatment.

  17. Optimizing full-brain coverage in human brain MRI through population distributions of brain size

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mennes, M.; Jenkinson, M.; Valabregue, R.; Buitelaar, J.; Beckmann, C.; Smith, S.

    2014-01-01

    When defining an MRI protocol, brain researchers need to set multiple interdependent parameters that define repetition time (TR), voxel size, field-of-view (FOV), etc. Typically, researchers aim to image the full brain, making the expected FOV an important parameter to consider. Especially in 2D-EPI

  18. Clinical and epidemiological findings during a measles outbreak occurring in a population with high vaccination coverage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solange Artimos de Oliveira

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available From March 1991 to April 1992, 250 measles suspected cases were studied in the Municipality of Niterói, State of Rio de Janeiro. The median age found was 11 years and 76.0% of the cases were in school age children. Exposure histories were present in 149 patients and schools were the most frequent sites of transmission (45.0%. Vaccination status was known for 127 studied cases and 76.4% of them had received measles vaccine before their first birthday. One or more complications were reported for 68 cases aitd in 8.9% of the studied cases hospitalization was required. Frequency of complications varied according to each age group studied and were more commonly encountered among children No período de março de 1991 a abril de 1992, 250 casos de um total de 293 notificados como sarampo em Niterói, RJ foram estudados. Em 75,9% dos casos o sarampo ocorreu em pessoas de idade escolar (mediana: 11. História de exposição estava presmte em 149 pacientes. O local de transmissão variou de acordo com a idade sendo a escola o mais freqüentemente encoiitrado (45%. Em 127 casos o estado vacinai era conhecido e 76,4% deles tinham sido vacinados antes do primeiro aniversário. Em 68 casos uma ou mais complicações estavam presentes e em 8,9% deles a hospitalização foi necessária. Complicações foram mais freqüentes em menores de um ano de idade (55,6%. História de vacinação prévia não diminuiu o número de complicações dos casos estudados. Os resultados deste trabalho mostram mudanças na epidemiologia do sarampo, com alterações na distribuição etária dos casos da doença, leimido ã ocoiTência de importantes surtos da virose entre adolecentes e adultos jovens.

  19. Clinical and epidemiological findings during a measles outbreak occurring in a population with high vaccination coverage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solange Artimos de Oliveira

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available From March 1991 to April 1992, 250 measles suspected cases were studied in the Municipality of Niterói, State of Rio de Janeiro. The median age found was 11 years and 76.0% of the cases were in school age children. Exposure histories were present in 149 patients and schools were the most frequent sites of transmission (45.0%. Vaccination status was known for 127 studied cases and 76.4% of them had received measles vaccine before their first birthday. One or more complications were reported for 68 cases aitd in 8.9% of the studied cases hospitalization was required. Frequency of complications varied according to each age group studied and were more commonly encountered among children < 1 year of age (55.6%. The history of previous vaccination did not diminish the number of complications of the cases studied. The results of this work show changes in age distribution of measles leading to sizeable outbreaks among teenagers and young adults.

  20. Building a model: developing genomic resources for common milkweed (Asclepias syriaca with low coverage genome sequencing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weitemier Kevin

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Milkweeds (Asclepias L. have been extensively investigated in diverse areas of evolutionary biology and ecology; however, there are few genetic resources available to facilitate and compliment these studies. This study explored how low coverage genome sequencing of the common milkweed (Asclepias syriaca L. could be useful in characterizing the genome of a plant without prior genomic information and for development of genomic resources as a step toward further developing A. syriaca as a model in ecology and evolution. Results A 0.5× genome of A. syriaca was produced using Illumina sequencing. A virtually complete chloroplast genome of 158,598 bp was assembled, revealing few repeats and loss of three genes: accD, clpP, and ycf1. A nearly complete rDNA cistron (18S-5.8S-26S; 7,541 bp and 5S rDNA (120 bp sequence were obtained. Assessment of polymorphism revealed that the rDNA cistron and 5S rDNA had 0.3% and 26.7% polymorphic sites, respectively. A partial mitochondrial genome sequence (130,764 bp, with identical gene content to tobacco, was also assembled. An initial characterization of repeat content indicated that Ty1/copia-like retroelements are the most common repeat type in the milkweed genome. At least one A. syriaca microread hit 88% of Catharanthus roseus (Apocynaceae unigenes (median coverage of 0.29× and 66% of single copy orthologs (COSII in asterids (median coverage of 0.14×. From this partial characterization of the A. syriaca genome, markers for population genetics (microsatellites and phylogenetics (low-copy nuclear genes studies were developed. Conclusions The results highlight the promise of next generation sequencing for development of genomic resources for any organism. Low coverage genome sequencing allows characterization of the high copy fraction of the genome and exploration of the low copy fraction of the genome, which facilitate the development of molecular tools for further study of a target species

  1. Coverage of cervical cancer screening in Catalonia for the period 2008-2011 among immigrants and Spanish-born women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanesa eRodriguez-Sales

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The Public Health system in Catalonia, Spain provides a free of charge opportunistic cervical cancer screening. In June 2006 a revised recommendations for cervical cancer screening was introduced to increase coverage and to promote a three-year interval between screening tests. Aim: This study examines cervical cancer screening coverage and prevalence of cytology abnormalities in Catalonia by immigration status.Methods: The study analyses the cytologies registered among women aged 25-65 that have been attended at the Primary Health Centers (PHC for any reason (n=1,242,105 during 2008-11. Coverage was estimated from Governmental data base Information System Primary Care (SISAP that includes 77% of PHC. The database is anonymous, and includes information on age, country of birth, diagnostic center and cytology results Results: During the period 2008-2011, 758,690 smears were performed in a total of 595,868 women over 14 years, of whom 18.3% were immigrants. Cytology coverage was higher among immigrant women compared to Spanish born (51.2% and 39% respectively. Immigrant women also had a higher prevalence of abnormal Paps compared to the Spanish population, 4.9% and 3.3% respectively.Conclusion: Immigrant women in Catalonia have a good access to the Public Health Services and to cervical cancer screening facilities. The higher prevalence of abnormal cytologies in immigrant women compared to native women indicates the relevance to prioritize cervical cancer screening activities on a regular base in new comers.

  2. PG 1411 + 442 - The nearest broad absorption line quasar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malkan, Matthew A.; Green, Richard F.; Hutchings, John B.

    1987-01-01

    IUE observations reveal strong, moderately broad absorption troughs in the blue wings of the C IV and N V emission lines of the quasar PG 1411 + 442. No absorption from weakly ionized gas is detected. The emission-line strengths and overall shape of the ultraviolet/optical/near-infrared/far-infrared continuum of the new broad absorption line quasar are within the range normally measured in quasars. Its redshift is low enough to allow the morphology of the host galaxy to be studied in deep broad-band and intermediate-band CCD images. The galaxy appears to be a large spiral with a very long arm or tail. The inclination angle is 57 deg, which rules out the possibility that the line of sight to the nucleus intersects a large path length in a galactic disk.

  3. Folded cavity angled-grating broad-area lasers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yunsong; Zhu, Lin

    2013-10-01

    The angled-grating broad-area laser is a promising candidate for high power, high brightness diode laser source. The key point in the design is the angled gratings which can simultaneously support the unique snake-like zigzag lasing mode and eliminate the direct Fabry-Perot (FP) feedback. Unlike a conventional laser waveguide mode, the phase front of the zigzag mode periodically changes along the propagation direction. By use of the mirror symmetry of the zigzag mode, we propose and demonstrate the folded cavity angled-grating broad-area lasers. One benefit of this design is to reduce the required wafer space compared to a regular angled-grating broad-area laser, especially in a long cavity laser for high power operation. Experimental results show that the folded cavity laser exhibits good beam quality in far field with a slightly larger threshold and smaller slope efficiency due to the additional interface loss.

  4. Surface Roughness Effects on Discharge Coefficient of Broad Crested Weir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaker A. Jalil

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of surface roughness sizes on the discharge coefficient for a broad crested weirs. For this purpose, three models having different lengths of broad crested weirs were tested in a horizontal flume. In each model, the surface was roughed four times. Experimental results of all models showed that the logical negative effect of roughness increased on the discharge (Q for different values of length. The performance of broad crested weir improved with decrease ratio of roughness to the weir height (Ks/P and with the increase of the total Head to the Length (H/L. An empirical equation was obtained to estimate the variation of discharge coefficient Cd in terms total head to length ratio, with total head to roughness ratio.

  5. Broad ligament pregnancy a diagnostic dilemma: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Gupta

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Broad ligament pregnancy is one of the rarest forms of ectopic pregnancy with high risk of maternal mortality. Although ultrasonography is usually helpful in making the diagnosis but it is mostly established during laparotomy. 34 year old G2P1 with previous caesarean section reported at 8th month of pregnancy with inability to perceive foetal movements. Ultrasonography confirmed intrauterine fetal demise. Patient was taken for caesarean section after failed induction. Intraoperative diagnosis of broad ligament pregnancy was made and broad ligament along with fetus, sac, fallopian tube and ovary was excised. Post-operative period was uneventful. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2016; 5(7.000: 2478-2480

  6. The Effect of Increased Coverage of Participatory Women’s Groups on Neonatal Mortality in Bangladesh: A Cluster Randomized Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fottrell, Edward; Azad, Kishwar; Kuddus, Abdul; Younes, Layla; Shaha, Sanjit; Nahar, Tasmin; Aumon, Bedowra Haq; Hossen, Munir; Beard, James; Hossain, Tanvir; Pulkki-Brannstrom, Anni-Maria; Skordis-Worrall, Jolene; Prost, Audrey; Costello, Anthony; Houweling, Tanja A. J.

    2016-01-01

    Importance Community-based interventions can reduce neonatal mortality when health systems are weak. Population coverage of target groups may be an important determinant of their effect on behavior and mortality. A women’s group trial at coverage of 1 group per 1414 population in rural Bangladesh showed no effect on neonatal mortality, despite a similar intervention having a significant effect on neonatal and maternal death in comparable settings. Objective To assess the effect of a participatory women’s group intervention with higher population coverage on neonatal mortality in Bangladesh. Design A cluster randomized controlled trial in 9 intervention and 9 control clusters. Setting Rural Bangladesh. Participants Women permanently residing in 18 unions in 3 districts and accounting for 19 301 births during the final 24 months of the intervention. Interventions Women’s groups at a coverage of 1 per 309 population that proceed through a participatory learning and action cycle in which they prioritize issues that affected maternal and neonatal health and design and implement strategies to address these issues. Main Outcomes and Measures Neonatal mortality rate. Results Analysis included 19 301 births during the final 24 months of the intervention. More than one-third of newly pregnant women joined the groups. The neonatal mortality rate was significantly lower in the intervention arm (21.3 neonatal deaths per 1000 live births vs 30.1 per 1000 in control areas), a reduction in neonatal mortality of 38% (risk ratio, 0.62 [95% CI, 0.43-0.89]) when adjusted for socioeconomic factors. The cost-effectiveness was US $220 to $393 per year of life lost averted. Cause-specific mortality rates suggest reduced deaths due to infections and those associated with prematurity/low birth weight. Improvements were seen in hygienic home delivery practices, newborn thermal care, and breastfeeding practices. Conclusions and Relevance Women’s group community mobilization, delivered

  7. Influenza Vaccination Coverage Rate according to the Pulmonary Function of Korean Adults Aged 40 Years and Over: Analysis of the Fifth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Seung-Hyun; Paik, Jeong-Hun; Lee, Mi-Ra; Yang, Huiho; Park, Seung-Guk; Jeon, Young-Jee; Yoo, Sunmi

    2016-05-01

    Influenza vaccination is an effective strategy to reduce morbidity and mortality, particularly for those who have decreased lung functions. This study was to identify the factors that affect vaccination coverage according to the results of pulmonary function tests depending on the age. In this cross-sectional study, data were obtained from 3,224 adults over the age of 40 who participated in the fifth National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey and underwent pulmonary function testing in 2012. To identify the factors that affect vaccination rate, logistic regression analysis was conducted after dividing the subjects into two groups based on the age of 65. Influenza vaccination coverage of the entire subjects was 45.2%, and 76.8% for those aged 65 and over. The group with abnormal pulmonary function had a higher vaccination rate than the normal group, but any pulmonary dysfunction or history of COPD did not affect the vaccination coverage in the multivariate analysis. The subjects who were 40-64 years-old had higher vaccination coverage when they were less educated or with restricted activity level, received health screenings, and had chronic diseases. Those aged 65 and over had significantly higher vaccination coverage only when they received regular health screenings. Any pulmonary dysfunction or having COPD showed no significant correlation with the vaccination coverage in the Korean adult population.

  8. 5 CFR 250.201 - Coverage and purpose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ....201 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT IN AGENCIES Strategic Human Capital Management § 250.201 Coverage and purpose. The Chief Human... the strategic management of the Federal civil service, and pursuant to 5 U.S.C. 1103, OPM...

  9. Coverage of the Stanford Prison Experiment in Introductory Psychology Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griggs, Richard A.

    2014-01-01

    Zimbardo's 1971 Stanford Prison Experiment (SPE), one of the most famous studies in psychology, is discussed in most introductory textbooks. The present study is concerned with the nature of this coverage, given that there have been myriad criticisms, especially recently, of the SPE. These criticisms concern both Zimbardo's situationist…

  10. Mathematics Content Coverage and Student Learning in Kindergarten

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, Mimi; Claessens, Amy; Watts, Tyler; Farkas, George

    2016-01-01

    Analyzing data from two nationally representative kindergarten cohorts, we examine the mathematics content teachers cover in kindergarten. We expand upon prior research, finding that kindergarten teachers report emphasizing basic mathematics content. Although teachers reported increased coverage of advanced content between the 1998-1999 and…

  11. 42 CFR 418.204 - Special coverage requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... periods of crisis as necessary to maintain an individual at home. Either homemaker or home health aide... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Special coverage requirements. 418.204 Section 418.204 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN...

  12. Estimating IBD tracts from low coverage NGS data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garrett Vieira, Filipe Jorge; Albrechtsen, Anders; Nielsen, Rasmus

    2016-01-01

    that the new method provides a marked increase in accuracy even at low coverage. AVAILABILITY AND IMPLEMENTATION: The methods presented in this work were implemented in C/C ++ and are freely available for non-commercial use from https://github.com/fgvieira/ngsF-HMM CONTACT: fgvieira@snm.ku.dk SUPPLEMENTARY...

  13. Influence of surface coverage on the chemical desorption process

    CERN Document Server

    Marco, Minissale

    2014-01-01

    In cold astrophysical environments, some molecules are observed in the gas phase whereas they should have been depleted, frozen on dust grains. In order to solve this problem, astrochemists have proposed that a fraction of molecules synthesized on the surface of dust grains could desorb just after their formation. Recently the chemical desorption process has been demonstrated experimentally, but the key parameters at play have not yet been fully understood. In this article we propose a new procedure to analyze the ratio of di-oxygen and ozone synthesized after O atoms adsorption on oxidized graphite. We demonstrate that the chemical desorption efficiency of the two reaction paths (O+O and O+O$_2$) is different by one order of magnitude. We show the importance of the surface coverage: for the O+O reaction, the chemical desorption efficiency is close to 80 $\\%$ at zero coverage and tends to zero at one monolayer coverage. The coverage dependence of O+O chemical desorption is proved by varying the amount of pre-...

  14. A Coverage Dominance Approach for Sensor Deployment Optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-01

    Wireless Networks, 2003. [19] S. Kumar, T. H. Lai, and J. Balogh, On k-coverage in a mostly sleeping sensor network. Wireless Network, no. 14, pp. 277 – 294...Polyhedral Terrain in Polynomial Time. Image and Vision Computing, vol. 18, pp. 773 – 780, 2000. [22] S. Meguerdichian, F. Koushanfar, M. Potkonjak, and M

  15. Handover Incentives for Self-Interested WLANs with Overlapping Coverage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fafoutis, Xenofon; Siris, Vasilios A.

    2012-01-01

    We consider an environment where self-interested IEEE 802.11 Wireless Local Area Networks (WLANs) have overlapping coverage, and investigate the incentives that can trigger handovers between the WLANs. Our focus is on the incentives for supporting handovers due solely to the improved performance ...

  16. Vaccination Coverage among Kindergarten Children in Phoenix, Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frimpong, Jemima A.; Rivers, Patrick A.; Bae, Sejong

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate school immunization records and document the immunization coverage and compliance level of children enrolled in kindergarten in Phoenix during the 2001-2002 school year. The purpose was to obtain information on: 1) immunization status by age two; 2) under-immunization in kindergarten; 3) administration error; and 4)…

  17. CT following US for possible appendicitis: anatomic coverage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Malley, Martin E. [University of Toronto, Princess Margaret Hospital, 3-920, Joint Department of Medical Imaging, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Alharbi, Fawaz [University of Toronto, Toronto General Hospital, NCSB 1C572, Joint Department of Medical Imaging, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Qassim University, Department of Medical Imaging, Buraydah, Qassim (Saudi Arabia); Chawla, Tanya P. [University of Toronto, Mount Sinai Hospital, Room 567, Joint Department of Medical Imaging, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Moshonov, Hadas [University of Toronto, Joint Department of Medical Imaging, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

    2016-02-15

    To determine superior-inferior anatomic borders for CT following inconclusive/nondiagnostic US for possible appendicitis. Ninety-nine patients with possible appendicitis and inconclusive/nondiagnostic US followed by CT were included in this retrospective study. Two radiologists reviewed CT images and determined superior-inferior anatomic borders required to diagnose or exclude appendicitis and diagnose alternative causes. This ''targeted'' coverage was used to estimate potential reduction in anatomic coverage compared to standard abdominal/pelvic CT. The study group included 83 women and 16 men; mean age 32 (median, 29; range 18-73) years. Final diagnoses were: nonspecific abdominal pain 50/99 (51 %), appendicitis 26/99 (26 %), gynaecological 12/99 (12 %), gastrointestinal 9/99 (10 %), and musculoskeletal 2/99 (2 %). Median dose-length product for standard CT was 890.0 (range, 306.3 - 2493.9) mGy.cm. To confidently diagnose/exclude appendicitis or identify alternative diagnoses, maximum superior-inferior anatomic CT coverage was the superior border of L2-superior border of pubic symphysis, for both reviewers. Targeted CT would reduce anatomic coverage by 30-55 % (mean 39 %, median 40 %) compared to standard CT. When CT is performed for appendicitis following inconclusive/nondiagnostic US, targeted CT from the superior border of L2-superior border of pubic symphysis can be used resulting in significant reduction in exposure to ionizing radiation compared to standard CT. (orig.)

  18. Transforming Coverage of Primary Prevention in Abnormal Psychology Courses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalton, James H.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Maintains that a comprehensive understanding of abnormal psychology requires coverage of recent advances in primary prevention. Describes a conceptual scheme and recommends resources and teaching methods for instructors. Asserts that clinical and community psychology are conceptually distinct but complementary fields. (CFR)

  19. On models for continuous facility location with partial coverage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brimberg, Jack; Juel, Henrik; Körner, Mark-Christoph

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a new concept of partial coverage distance, where demand points within a given threshold distance of a new facility are covered in the traditional sense, while non-covered demand points are penalized an amount proportional to their distance to the covered region. Two single fa...

  20. 24 CFR 3500.5 - Coverage of RESPA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Coverage of RESPA. 3500.5 Section 3500.5 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR HOUSING-FEDERAL HOUSING COMMISSIONER, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND...

  1. Media disaster coverage over time: Methodological issues and results

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuttschreuter, M.; Gutteling, J.M.; Martorell, Sebastian; Soares, C. Guedes; Barnett, Julie

    2008-01-01

    In 2000 disaster struck Enschede in The Netherlands. Due to explosions at a fireworks factory, 22 people were killed. This study aims to describe the developments in the media coverage of this disaster. Content analysis was performed on 4928 articles, derived from four distinct newspapers. After a p

  2. 32 CFR 232.1 - Authority, purpose, and coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... provide additional consumer disclosures for such transactions. (c) Coverage. This part defines the types... amount of all charges, and the types of charges, that may be associated with a covered extension of... provided to consumers under the Federal Truth in Lending Act; (3) Provides for the method creditors...

  3. Health Care Coverage among Child Support-Eligible Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aron, Laudan Y.

    Using data from the National Survey of America's Families (a nationally representative survey of the economic, social, and health characteristics of children, adults, and their families), this paper discusses health care coverage among child support eligible children. It begins with a detailed profile of child support eligible children living with…

  4. Nursing challenges for universal health coverage: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Cabral Schveitzer

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives to identify nursing challenges for universal health coverage, based on the findings of a systematic review focused on the health workforce' understanding of the role of humanization practices in Primary Health Care. Method systematic review and meta-synthesis, from the following information sources: PubMed, CINAHL, Scielo, Web of Science, PsycInfo, SCOPUS, DEDALUS and Proquest, using the keyword Primary Health Care associated, separately, with the following keywords: humanization of assistance, holistic care/health, patient centred care, user embracement, personal autonomy, holism, attitude of health personnel. Results thirty studies between 1999-2011. Primary Health Care work processes are complex and present difficulties for conducting integrative care, especially for nursing, but humanizing practices have showed an important role towards the development of positive work environments, quality of care and people-centered care by promoting access and universal health coverage. Conclusions nursing challenges for universal health coverage are related to education and training, to better working conditions and clear definition of nursing role in primary health care. It is necessary to overcome difficulties such as fragmented concepts of health and care and invest in multidisciplinary teamwork, community empowerment, professional-patient bond, user embracement, soft technologies, to promote quality of life, holistic care and universal health coverage.

  5. Magazine Coverage of Child Sexual Abuse, 1992-2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheit, Ross E.; Shavit, Yael; Reiss-Davis, Zachary

    2010-01-01

    This article analyzes trends in the coverage of child sexual abuse in popular magazines since the early 1990s. The article employs systematic analysis to identify and analyze articles in four popular magazines. Articles are analyzed by subject, length, and publication. The results affirm established theories of newsworthiness related to the…

  6. 26 CFR 54.4980B-5 - COBRA continuation coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., or to add or eliminate coverage of family members. (d) The rules of this Q&A-4 are illustrated by the... not occurred. The specific application of this rule depends on the type of deductible, as set forth in paragraphs (b) through (d) of this Q&A-2. Special rules are set forth in paragraph (e) of this Q&A-2,...

  7. 78 FR 217 - Shared Responsibility for Employers Regarding Health Coverage

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-02

    ...)(ii) refers, and that interpret the Migrant and Seasonal Agricultural Workers Protection Act, provide... if the employee's required contribution for that coverage was no more than 9.5 percent of the... affordable if the employee's required contribution (within the meaning of section 5000A(e)(1)(B)) for...

  8. 42 CFR 416.44 - Condition for coverage-Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Condition for coverage-Environment. 416.44 Section... for coverage—Environment. The ASC must have a safe and sanitary environment, properly constructed, equipped, and maintained to protect the health and safety of patients. (a) Standard: Physical...

  9. 76 FR 17577 - Increased Scope of Coverage for Electric Motors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-30

    ... Part 431 RIN 1904-AC28 Increased Scope of Coverage for Electric Motors AGENCY: Office of Energy... rulemaking to set energy conservation standards for electric motors. Specifically, DOE seeks information to... motors that are currently unregulated by any standards. Should DOE receive sufficient...

  10. 26 CFR 54.9801-5 - Evidence of creditable coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... certificate to identify the individual, such as the individual's identification number under the plan and the... demonstrate that a child was covered under any creditable coverage within 30 days after birth, adoption, or... information that the requesting entity reasonably needs in order to determine the individual's...

  11. 29 CFR 2590.701-5 - Evidence of creditable coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... certificate to identify the individual, such as the individual's identification number under the plan and the... demonstrate that a child was covered under any creditable coverage within 30 days after birth, adoption, or... requesting entity may identify specific information that the requesting entity reasonably needs in order...

  12. The Role of Practical Advice in Bioterrorism News Coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swain, Kristen Alley

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the role of crisis advice appearing in US news coverage of the 2001 anthrax attacks. Coverage of any crisis can spark public outrage, including fear, speculation, and contradictory or confusing evidence, especially when the stories do not contain practical advice. Five coders analyzed 833 news stories from 272 major US newspapers, the Associated Press, National Public Radio, and 4 major US television networks. Practical advice appeared in only a quarter of the stories, even though practical advice for self-protection was mentioned 3 times more often than the vague advice that simply advised people not to panic. Public health officials provided the most practical advice, while scientists provided the least practical advice. Stories containing practical advice also provided more elucidating information, explaining why the threat was low, reducible, treatable, and detectable. Over the 3 phases of the anthrax crisis, an inverse relationship appeared between the amount of news coverage containing practical advice compared to "outrage rhetoric." Stories mentioned practical advice more often during the post-impact phase than earlier in the crisis. Elucidating, explanatory advice emphasized actions, risk comparisons, and tradeoffs. The findings indicate that when journalists use credible sources to provide practical advice and avoid speculation, their coverage can prevent the spread of misinformation and confusion during a bioterror attack. Also, journalists should provide context and sourcing when discussing advice during the outbreak and impact phases of the crisis, because these explanations could counteract outrage and threat distortion.

  13. Chiropractic Use by Urban and Rural Residents with Insurance Coverage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lind, Bonnie K.; Diehr, Paula K.; Grembowski, David E.; Lafferty, William E.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To describe the use of chiropractic care by urban and rural residents in Washington state with musculoskeletal diagnoses, all of whom have insurance coverage for this care. The analyses investigate whether restricting the analyses to insured individuals attenuates previously reported differences in the prevalence of chiropractic use…

  14. 9 CFR 303.2 - Experimentation: Intensity of inspection coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Experimentation: Intensity of inspection coverage. 303.2 Section 303.2 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE... AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION EXEMPTIONS § 303.2 Experimentation: Intensity of...

  15. Print News Coverage of School-Based HPV Vaccine Mandate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casciotti, Dana; Smith, Katherine C.; Andon, Lindsay; Vernick, Jon; Tsui, Amy; Klassen, Ann C.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND In 2007, legislation was proposed in 24 states and the District of Columbia for school-based HPV vaccine mandates, and mandates were enacted in Texas, Virginia, and the District of Columbia. Media coverage of these events was extensive, and media messages both reflected and contributed to controversy surrounding these legislative activities. Messages communicated through the media are an important influence on adolescent and parent understanding of school-based vaccine mandates. METHODS We conducted structured text analysis of newspaper coverage, including quantitative analysis of 169 articles published in mandate jurisdictions from 2005-2009, and qualitative analysis of 63 articles from 2007. Our structured analysis identified topics, key stakeholders and sources, tone, and the presence of conflict. Qualitative thematic analysis identified key messages and issues. RESULTS Media coverage was often incomplete, providing little context about cervical cancer or screening. Skepticism and autonomy concerns were common. Messages reflected conflict and distrust of government activities, which could negatively impact this and other youth-focused public health initiatives. CONCLUSIONS If school health professionals are aware of the potential issues raised in media coverage of school-based health mandates, they will be more able to convey appropriate health education messages, and promote informed decision-making by parents and students. PMID:25099421

  16. Reporting on Radiation: A Content Analysis of Chernobyl Coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Sharon M.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Evaluates how well the media guided readers and viewers through the Chernobyl disaster. Concludes that the press and television did not provide enough radiation and risk information in their coverage of the Chernobyl accident, but what was provided was appropriate, even-handed, and conservative. (NKA)

  17. Coverage of Milgram's Obedience Experiments in Social Psychology Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griggs, Richard A.; Whitehead, George I., III

    2015-01-01

    Past studies of the treatment of Milgram's obedience experiments in social psychology textbooks from the 1960s to the 1990s discovered an evolving "Milgram-friendly" coverage style (dealing with criticisms of his experiments either summarily, in a pro-Milgram manner, or not at all). We examined 10 current social textbooks to determine…

  18. Determinants of the demand for health insurance coverage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K.P.M. Winssen van (Kayleigh)

    2017-01-01

    markdownabstractThe health insurance density in the Netherlands is among the highest in the world. This is shown by the fact that, in 2016, only 12 per cent of the Dutch insured opted for a reduction of health insurance coverage in the form of a voluntary deductible, while, at the same time, 84 per

  19. Media Coverage of a Blizzard: Is the Message Helplessness?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkins, Lee

    To determine the media's role in hazard awareness, a study analyzed the content of media coverage of the 1982 Denver, Colorado blizzard, the worst storm in that region in 70 years. Data were collected from the two major daily newspapers and from four television stations. The study period began on December 21, about 48 hours before the first real…

  20. 5 CFR 870.1003 - Coverage and amount of insurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL EMPLOYEES' GROUP LIFE INSURANCE PROGRAM Benefits for United States Hostages in... of Basic life insurance for these individuals is the amount specified in § 870.202, subject to the... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Coverage and amount of insurance....

  1. Google Scholar's Coverage of the Engineering Literature: An Empirical Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, John J.; Conkling, Thomas W.

    2008-01-01

    Google Scholar's coverage of the engineering literature is analyzed by comparing its contents with those of Compendex, the premier engineering database. Records retrieved from Compendex were searched in Google Scholar, and a decade by decade comparison was done from the 1950s through 2007. The results show that the percentage of records appearing…

  2. Coverage of soft tissue defect in palm with prefabricated flap

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Gong-lin; CAI Guo-rong; ZHANG Ming; ZHENG Liang-jun; ZHANG Yan

    2008-01-01

    @@ The coverage of large soft tissue defects in palm remains a challenge in the plastic recon-structive surgery. There are many local tissue transfers described for small-sized defects of hand, whereas large defect require regional flaps such as the radial forearm flap or free tissue transfer.1-5

  3. Suicide Coverage Continues to Be a Dilemma for the Media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tate, Dow

    1999-01-01

    Discusses how the adviser of the Hillcrest High School (Dallas, Texas) and the student staff covered the suicide of a fellow student. Notes that the adviser, who is committed to student decision making, made sure the student staff raised the appropriate ethical questions when deciding on the type, amount, and duration of coverage of the suicide.…

  4. Counting Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damonte, Kathleen

    2004-01-01

    Scientists use sampling to get an estimate of things they cannot easily count. A population is made up of all the organisms of one species living together in one place at the same time. All of the people living together in one town are considered a population. All of the grasshoppers living in a field are a population. Scientists keep track of the…

  5. Structural basis of hepatitis C virus neutralization by broadly neutralizing antibody HCV1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kong, Leopold; Giang, Erick; Robbins, Justin B.; Stanfield, Robyn L.; Burton, Dennis R.; Wilson, Ian A.; Law, Mansun (Scripps)

    2012-10-29

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infects more than 2% of the global population and is a leading cause of liver cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma, and end-stage liver diseases. Circulating HCV is genetically diverse, and therefore a broadly effective vaccine must target conserved T- and B-cell epitopes of the virus. Human mAb HCV1 has broad neutralizing activity against HCV isolates from at least four major genotypes and protects in the chimpanzee model from primary HCV challenge. The antibody targets a conserved antigenic site (residues 412-423) on the virus E2 envelope glycoprotein. Two crystal structures of HCV1 Fab in complex with an epitope peptide at 1.8-{angstrom} resolution reveal that the epitope is a {beta}-hairpin displaying a hydrophilic face and a hydrophobic face on opposing sides of the hairpin. The antibody predominantly interacts with E2 residues Leu{sup 413} and Trp{sup 420} on the hydrophobic face of the epitope, thus providing an explanation for how HCV isolates bearing mutations at Asn{sup 415} on the same binding face escape neutralization by this antibody. The results provide structural information for a neutralizing epitope on the HCV E2 glycoprotein and should help guide rational design of HCV immunogens to elicit similar broadly neutralizing antibodies through vaccination.

  6. Matrix population models from 20 studies of perennial plant populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Martha M.; Williams, Jennifer L.; Lesica, Peter; Bell, Timothy J.; Bierzychudek, Paulette; Bowles, Marlin; Crone, Elizabeth E.; Doak, Daniel F.; Ehrlen, Johan; Ellis-Adam, Albertine; McEachern, Kathryn; Ganesan, Rengaian; Latham, Penelope; Luijten, Sheila; Kaye, Thomas N.; Knight, Tiffany M.; Menges, Eric S.; Morris, William F.; den Nijs, Hans; Oostermeijer, Gerard; Quintana-Ascencio, Pedro F.; Shelly, J. Stephen; Stanley, Amanda; Thorpe, Andrea; Tamara, Ticktin; Valverde, Teresa; Weekley, Carl W.

    2012-01-01

    Demographic transition matrices are one of the most commonly applied population models for both basic and applied ecological research. The relatively simple framework of these models and simple, easily interpretable summary statistics they produce have prompted the wide use of these models across an exceptionally broad range of taxa. Here, we provide annual transition matrices and observed stage structures/population sizes for 20 perennial plant species which have been the focal species for long-term demographic monitoring. These data were assembled as part of the 'Testing Matrix Models' working group through the National Center for Ecological Analysis and Synthesis (NCEAS). In sum, these data represent 82 populations with >460 total population-years of data. It is our hope that making these data available will help promote and improve our ability to monitor and understand plant population dynamics.

  7. AIDS in black and white: the influence of newspaper coverage of HIV/AIDS on HIV/AIDS testing among African Americans and White Americans, 1993-2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Robin; Hornik, Robert C

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the effect of newspaper coverage of HIV/AIDS on HIV testing behavior in a U.S. population. HIV testing data were taken from the Center for Disease Control and Prevention's National Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System from 1993 to 2007 (N = 265,557). The authors content-analyzed news stories from 24 daily newspapers and 1 wire service during the same time period. The authors used distributed lagged regression models to estimate how well HIV/AIDS newspaper coverage predicted later HIV testing behavior. Increases in HIV/AIDS newspaper coverage were associated with declines in population-level HIV testing. Each additional 100 HIV/AIDS-related newspaper stories published each month was associated with a 1.7% decline in HIV testing levels in the subsequent month. This effect differed by race, with African Americans exhibiting greater declines in HIV testing subsequent to increased news coverage than did Whites. These results suggest that mainstream newspaper coverage of HIV/AIDS may have a particularly deleterious effect on African Americans, one of the groups most affected by the disease. The mechanisms driving the negative effect deserve further investigation to improve reporting on HIV/AIDS in the media.

  8. Impact of Indian Total Sanitation Campaign on latrine coverage and use: a cross-sectional study in Orissa three years following programme implementation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharmani Barnard

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Faced with a massive shortfall in meeting sanitation targets, some governments have implemented campaigns that use subsidies focused on latrine construction to overcome income constraints and rapidly expand coverage. In settings like rural India where open defecation is common, this may result in sub-optimal compliance (use, thereby continuing to leave the population exposed to human excreta. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study to investigate latrine coverage and use among 20 villages (447 households, 1933 individuals in Orissa, India where the Government of India's Total Sanitation Campaign had been implemented at least three years previously. We defined coverage as the proportion of households that had a latrine; for use we identified the proportion of households with at least one reported user and among those, the extent of reported use by each member of the household. RESULTS: Mean latrine coverage among the villages was 72% (compared to <10% in comparable villages in the same district where the Total Sanitation Campaign had not yet been implemented, though three of the villages had less than 50% coverage. Among these households with latrines, more than a third (39% were not being used by any member of the household. Well over a third (37% of the members of households with latrines reported never defecating in their latrines. Less than half (47% of the members of such households reported using their latrines at all times for defecation. Combined with the 28% of households that did not have latrines, it appears that most defecation events in these communities are still practiced in the open. CONCLUSION: A large-scale campaign to implement sanitation has achieved substantial gains in latrine coverage in this population. Nevertheless, gaps in coverage and widespread continuation of open defecation will result in continued exposure to human excreta, reducing the potential for health gains.

  9. Población con cobertura pública o doble cobertura de aseguramiento sanitario: ¿Cuál es la diferencia? Public healthcare coverage versus double healthcare coverage: what are the differences?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josep Fusté

    2005-02-01

    ' utilization, and satisfaction with health services between the population with public healthcare coverage only and the population with double healthcare coverage through additional affiliation to mutual or private health insurance companies. Methods: Data from the 2002 Catalan Health Interview Survey with interviews to 8,400 individuals were used. Individuals with public healthcare insurance were differentiated from those who also had private health insurance. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used. Results: A total of 99.2% of the population reported public healthcare coverage and 24.7% also had voluntary mutual or private insurance. Individuals with double coverage were younger, had a high level of education, belonged to advantaged classes, and reported better self-perceived health and fewer chronic diseases and disabilities. No significant differences in the percentage of individuals who reported visiting a health professional in the previous 15 days were observed. Significant differences in the type of professional visited were observed: 65% of individuals with public healthcare coverage only visited primary care settings but 51.1% of those with double coverage visited specialists. The proportion of persons reporting that they were satisfied or very satisfied with professional attitudes, waiting times and administrative procedures was higher in the double coverage group. Conclusions: Distinct sociodemographic and health profiles were found between persons with public coverage only and those with double coverage. Health services' utilization also differed between the two groups.

  10. Vaccination Coverage Disparities Between Foreign-Born and U.S.-Born Children Aged 19-35 Months, United States, 2010-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varan, Aiden K; Rodriguez-Lainz, Alfonso; Hill, Holly A; Elam-Evans, Laurie D; Yankey, David; Li, Qian

    2016-08-01

    Healthy People 2020 targets high vaccination coverage among children. Although reductions in coverage disparities by race/ethnicity have been described, data by nativity are limited. The National Immunization Survey is a random-digit-dialed telephone survey that estimates vaccination coverage among U.S. children aged 19-35 months. We assessed coverage among 52,441 children from pooled 2010-2012 data for individual vaccines and the combined 4:3:1:3*:3:1:4 series (which includes ≥4 doses of diphtheria, tetanus, and acellular pertussis vaccine/diphtheria and tetanus toxoids vaccine/diphtheria, tetanus toxoids, and pertussis vaccine, ≥3 doses of poliovirus vaccine, ≥1 dose of measles-containing vaccine, ≥3 or ≥4 doses of Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccine (depending on product type of vaccine; denoted as 3* in the series name), ≥3 doses of hepatitis B vaccine, ≥1 dose of varicella vaccine, and ≥4 doses of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine). Coverage estimates controlling for sociodemographic factors and multivariable logistic regression modeling for 4:3:1:3*:3:1:4 series completion are presented. Significantly lower coverage among foreign-born children was detected for DTaP, hepatitis A, hepatitis B, Hib, pneumococcal conjugate, and rotavirus vaccines, and for the combined series. Series completion disparities persisted after control for demographic, access-to-care, poverty, and language effects. Substantial and potentially widening disparities in vaccination coverage exist among foreign-born children. Improved immunization strategies targeting this population and continued vaccination coverage monitoring by nativity are needed.

  11. Towards Semantic Web Services on Large, Multi-Dimensional Coverages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumann, P.

    2009-04-01

    Observed and simulated data in the Earth Sciences often come as coverages, the general term for space-time varying phenomena as set forth by standardization bodies like the Open GeoSpatial Consortium (OGC) and ISO. Among such data are 1-d time series, 2-D surface data, 3-D surface data time series as well as x/y/z geophysical and oceanographic data, and 4-D metocean simulation results. With increasing dimensionality the data sizes grow exponentially, up to Petabyte object sizes. Open standards for exploiting coverage archives over the Web are available to a varying extent. The OGC Web Coverage Service (WCS) standard defines basic extraction operations: spatio-temporal and band subsetting, scaling, reprojection, and data format encoding of the result - a simple interoperable interface for coverage access. More processing functionality is available with products like Matlab, Grid-type interfaces, and the OGC Web Processing Service (WPS). However, these often lack properties known as advantageous from databases: declarativeness (describe results rather than the algorithms), safe in evaluation (no request can keep a server busy infinitely), and optimizable (enable the server to rearrange the request so as to produce the same result faster). WPS defines a geo-enabled SOAP interface for remote procedure calls. This allows to webify any program, but does not allow for semantic interoperability: a function is identified only by its function name and parameters while the semantics is encoded in the (only human readable) title and abstract. Hence, another desirable property is missing, namely an explicit semantics which allows for machine-machine communication and reasoning a la Semantic Web. The OGC Web Coverage Processing Service (WCPS) language, which has been adopted as an international standard by OGC in December 2008, defines a flexible interface for the navigation, extraction, and ad-hoc analysis of large, multi-dimensional raster coverages. It is abstract in that it

  12. A low-temperature external cavity diode laser for broad wavelength tuning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobias, William G.; Rosenberg, Jason S.; Hutzler, Nicholas R.; Ni, Kang-Kuen

    2016-11-01

    We report on the design and characterization of a low-temperature external cavity diode laser (ECDL) system for broad wavelength tuning. The performance achieved with multiple diode models addresses the scarcity of commercial red laser diodes below 633 nm, which is a wavelength range relevant to the spectroscopy of many molecules and ions. Using a combination of multiple-stage thermoelectric cooling and water cooling, the operating temperature of a laser diode is lowered to -64 °C, more than 85 °C below the ambient temperature. The laser system integrates temperature and diffraction grating feedback tunability for coarse and fine wavelength adjustments, respectively. For two different diode models, single-mode operation is achieved with 38 mW output power at 616.8 nm and 69 mW at 622.6 nm, more than 15 nm below their ambient temperature free-running wavelengths. The ECDL design can be used for diodes of any available wavelength, allowing individual diodes to be tuned continuously over tens of nanometers and extending the wavelength coverage of commercial laser diodes.

  13. Microlensing of the Broad Emission Line Region in the Quadruple Lens SDSS J1004+4112

    CERN Document Server

    Richards, G T; Pindor, B; Hennawi, J F; Hall, P B; Turner, E L; Inada, N; Oguri, M; Ichikawa, S I; Becker, R H; Gregg, M D; White, R L; Wyithe, J S B; Schneider, D P; Johnston, D E; Frieman, J A; Brinkmann, J; Richards, Gordon T.; Keeton, Charles R.; Pindor, Bartosz; Hennawi, Joseph F.; Hall, Patrick B.; Turner, Edwin L.; Inada, Naohisa; Oguri, Masamune; Ichikawa, Shin-Ichi; Becker, Robert H.; Gregg, Michael D.; White, Richard L.; Schneider, Donald P.; Johnston, David E.; Frieman, Joshua A.

    2004-01-01

    We present seven epochs of spectroscopy on the quadruply imaged quasar SDSS J1004+4112, spanning observed-frame time delays from 1 to 322 days. The spectra reveal differences in the emission lines between the lensed images. Specifically, component A showed a strong enhancement in the blue wings of several high-ionization lines relative to component B, which lasted at least 28 days (observed frame) then faded. Since the predicted time delay between A and B is <30 days, our time coverage suggests that the event was not intrinsic to the quasar. We attribute these variations to microlensing of part of the broad emission line region of the quasar, apparently resolving structure in the source plane on a scale of ~10^{16} cm at z=1.734. In addition, we observed smaller differences in the emission line profiles between components A and B that persisted throughout the time span, which may also be due to microlensing or millilensing. Further spectroscopic monitoring of this system holds considerable promise for reso...

  14. Cataract blindness, surgical coverage, outcome, and barriers to uptake of cataract services in Plateau State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ojo P Odugbo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose was to estimate the prevalence of blindness due to cataract, assess visual outcomes of cataract surgery, and determine the cataract surgical coverage rate and barriers to uptake of services among individuals aged 50 years or older in Plateau State, Nigeria. Materials and Methods: A population-based, cross-sectional survey of 4200 adults 50 years or older was performed. Multistage stratified random sampling, with probability proportional to size was used to select a representative sample. The Rapid Assessment of Cataract Surgical Services protocol was used. Statistical significance was indicated by (P 0.05. The prevalence of monocular blindness due to cataract was 5.9% (95% CI: 5.2-6.6%. The cataract surgical coverage for subjects with visual acuity (VA less 3/60 was 53.8% in the entire cohort; 60.5% for males and 48% for females (χ2 = 2.49, P > 0.05. The couching coverage for subjects who were blind was 12%. A total of 180 eyes underwent surgical intervention (surgery or couching for cataract, of which, 48 (26.7% eyes underwent couching. The prevalence of bilateral (pseudo aphakia was 1.5%, (95% CI: 1.2-1.9% and 2.7% (95% CI: 2.2-3.2% for unilateral (pseudo aphakia. Visual outcomes of the 180 eyes that underwent surgical intervention were good (VA ≥ 6/18 in 46 (25.6% eyes and poor (VA < 6/60 in 105 (58.3% eyes. Uncorrected aphakia was the most common cause of poor outcome (65.1%. Most subjects who underwent cataract surgery were not using spectacles 74 (71.2%. Cost and lack of awareness were the main barriers to uptake of cataract surgery services. Conclusion: Couching remains a significant challenge in Nigeria. The outcomes of cataract surgery are poor with the lack of aphakic correction being the main cause of the poor outcomes.

  15. Effective coverage and systems effectiveness for malaria case management in sub-Saharan African countries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katya Galactionova

    Full Text Available Scale-up of malaria preventive and control interventions over the last decade resulted in substantial declines in mortality and morbidity from the disease in sub-Saharan Africa and many other parts of the world. Sustaining these gains will depend on the health system performance. Treatment provides individual benefits by curing infection and preventing progression to severe disease as well as community-level benefits by reducing the infectious reservoir and averting emergence and spread of drug resistance. However many patients with malaria do not access care, providers do not comply with treatment guidelines, and hence, patients do not necessarily receive the correct regimen. Even when the correct regimen is administered some patients will not adhere and others will be treated with counterfeit or substandard medication leading to treatment failures and spread of drug resistance. We apply systems effectiveness concepts that explicitly consider implications of health system factors such as treatment seeking, provider compliance, adherence, and quality of medication to estimate treatment outcomes for malaria case management. We compile data for these indicators to derive estimates of effective coverage for 43 high-burden Sub-Saharan African countries. Parameters are populated from the Demographic and Health Surveys and other published sources. We assess the relative importance of these factors on the level of effective coverage and consider variation in these health systems indicators across countries. Our findings suggest that effective coverage for malaria case management ranges from 8% to 72% in the region. Different factors account for health system inefficiencies in different countries. Significant losses in effectiveness of treatment are estimated in all countries. The patterns of inter-country variation suggest that these are system failures that are amenable to change. Identifying the reasons for the poor health system performance and

  16. The Population Characteristics of Herbs Under Quecus mongolica Forest in Different Management%经营方式对蒙古栎次生林林下草本种群特征的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴国忠; 崔崧

    2012-01-01

    The population characteristics of herbs under Quecus rnongolica in the same age, same situation in different management are studied in this paper. Conclusions: the herbs species quantities of needle broad-leaved mixed mongolian oak forest is bigger than pure forest. The hight, coverage, frequency, quan- tities of needle broad-leaved mixed Quecus mongolica forest is bigger than pure forest. The growth and multiply of herbs under needle broad-leaved mixed Quecus mongolica forest is better than pure forest, and they can occupy more environmental factors resources. The herbs under needle broad-leaved mixed mon- golian oak forest can keep plant humidity better than pure forest.%对不同经营方式下蒙古栎次生林林下草本种群特征进行了研究。结果表明:混交模式下草本植物种类要略多于纯林模式下;大多数草本在针阔混交模式下,高度、盖度、数量、频度等指标要大于纯林模式下,即混交模式更适于林下草本的生长繁衍及对资源的占有利用;混交林下草本在保持水分方面与纯林相比更具优势。

  17. The relationship of extended radio power and broad emission line luminosity in blazars

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The relationship between broad line luminosity LBLR and extended radio power PE is investigated.In the log PE-log LBLR diagram,FSRQs populate the region of higher luminosity relative to BL Lacs,and FR II BL Lacs are between FSRQs and FR I BL Lacs.For these blazars,there is a significant correlation between LBLR and PE.The regression line scales as PE ∝ L0B.L87R ± 0.15.The slope of this scaling relation is consistent with that derived from the simple theoretical formulae.Thus,the unification of BL Lacs and FRSQs into a single population finds a statistical basis,and a disk-jet symbiosis in blazars is confirmed.FR II BL Lacs are probably at an intermediate stage in the sequence from FSRQs to BL Lacs with FR I BL Lacs at the end of this sequence.

  18. Silver Nanoparticles with Broad Multiband Linear Optical Absorption

    KAUST Repository

    Bakr, Osman M.

    2009-07-06

    A simple one-pot method produces silver nanoparticles coated with aryl thiols that show intense, broad nonplasmonic optical properties. The synthesis works with many aryl-thiol capping ligands, including water-soluble 4-mercaptobenzoic acid. The nanoparticles produced show linear absorption that is broader, stronger, and more structured than most conventional organic and inorganic dyes.

  19. Broad Band Photometric Reverberation Mapping of NGC 4395

    CERN Document Server

    Edri, Haim; Chelouche, Doron; Kaspi, Shai; Behar, Ehud

    2012-01-01

    We present results of broad band photometric reverberation mapping (RM) to measure the radius of the broad line region, and subsequently the black hole mass (M$_{\\rm BH}$), in the nearby, low luminosity active galactic nuclei (AGN) NGC 4395. Using the Wise Observatory's 1m telescope equipped with the SDSS g$'$, r$'$ and i$'$ broad band filters, we monitored NGC 4395 for 9 consecutive nights and obtained 3 light curves each with over 250 data points. The g$'$ and r$'$ bands include time variable contributions from H$\\beta$ and H$\\alpha$ (respectively) plus continuum. The i$'$ band is free of broad lines and covers exclusively continuum. We show that by looking for a peak in the difference between the cross-correlation and the auto-correlation functions for all combinations of filters, we can get a reliable estimate of the time lag necessary to compute M$_{\\rm BH}$. We measure the time lag for H$\\alpha$ to be $3.6 \\pm 0.8 $ hours, comparable to previous studies using the line resolved spectroscopic RM method. W...

  20. Mathematical Development: The Role of Broad Cognitive Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderón-Tena, Carlos O.

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the role of broad cognitive processes in the development of mathematics skills among children and adolescents. Four hundred and forty-seven students (age mean [M] = 10.23 years, 73% boys and 27% girls) from an elementary school district in the US southwest participated. Structural equation modelling tests indicated that…