WorldWideScience

Sample records for broad emission lines

  1. MICROLENSING OF QUASAR BROAD EMISSION LINES: CONSTRAINTS ON BROAD LINE REGION SIZE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guerras, E.; Mediavilla, E. [Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias, Via Lactea S/N, La Laguna E-38200, Tenerife (Spain); Jimenez-Vicente, J. [Departamento de Fisica Teorica y del Cosmos, Universidad de Granada, Campus de Fuentenueva, E-18071 Granada (Spain); Kochanek, C. S. [Department of Astronomy and the Center for Cosmology and Astroparticle Physics, The Ohio State University, 4055 McPherson Lab, 140 West 18th Avenue, Columbus, OH 43221 (United States); Munoz, J. A. [Departamento de Astronomia y Astrofisica, Universidad de Valencia, E-46100 Burjassot, Valencia (Spain); Falco, E. [Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Motta, V. [Departamento de Fisica y Astronomia, Universidad de Valparaiso, Avda. Gran Bretana 1111, Valparaiso (Chile)

    2013-02-20

    We measure the differential microlensing of the broad emission lines between 18 quasar image pairs in 16 gravitational lenses. We find that the broad emission lines are in general weakly microlensed. The results show, at a modest level of confidence (1.8{sigma}), that high ionization lines such as C IV are more strongly microlensed than low ionization lines such as H{beta}, indicating that the high ionization line emission regions are more compact. If we statistically model the distribution of microlensing magnifications, we obtain estimates for the broad line region size of r{sub s} = 24{sup +22} {sub -15} and r{sub s} = 55{sup +150} {sub -35} lt-day (90% confidence) for the high and low ionization lines, respectively. When the samples are divided into higher and lower luminosity quasars, we find that the line emission regions of more luminous quasars are larger, with a slope consistent with the expected scaling from photoionization models. Our estimates also agree well with the results from local reveberation mapping studies.

  2. New constraints on quasar broad absorption and emission line regions from gravitational microlensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutsemékers, Damien; Braibant, Lorraine; Sluse, Dominique; Anguita, Timo; Goosmann, René

    2017-09-01

    Gravitational microlensing is a powerful tool allowing one to probe the structure of quasars on sub-parsec scale. We report recent results, focusing on the broad absorption and emission line regions. In particular microlensing reveals the intrinsic absorption hidden in the P Cygni-type line profiles observed in the broad absorption line quasar H1413+117, as well as the existence of an extended continuum source. In addition, polarization microlensing provides constraints on the scattering region. In the quasar Q2237+030, microlensing differently distorts the Hα and CIV broad emission line profiles, indicating that the low- and high-ionization broad emission lines must originate from regions with distinct kinematical properties. We also present simulations of the effect of microlensing on line profiles considering simple but representative models of the broad emission line region. Comparison of observations to simulations allows us to conclude that the Hα emitting region in Q2237+030 is best represented by a Keplerian disk.

  3. New Constraints on Quasar Broad Absorption and Emission Line Regions from Gravitational Microlensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damien Hutsemékers

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Gravitational microlensing is a powerful tool allowing one to probe the structure of quasars on sub-parsec scale. We report recent results, focusing on the broad absorption and emission line regions. In particular microlensing reveals the intrinsic absorption hidden in the P Cygni-type line profiles observed in the broad absorption line quasar H1413+117, as well as the existence of an extended continuum source. In addition, polarization microlensing provides constraints on the scattering region. In the quasar Q2237+030, microlensing differently distorts the Hα and CIV broad emission line profiles, indicating that the low- and high-ionization broad emission lines must originate from regions with distinct kinematical properties. We also present simulations of the effect of microlensing on line profiles considering simple but representative models of the broad emission line region. Comparison of observations to simulations allows us to conclude that the Hα emitting region in Q2237+030 is best represented by a Keplerian disk.

  4. The Sloan Digital Sky Survey Reverberation Mapping Project: Ensemble Spectroscopic Variability of Quasar Broad Emission Lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Mouyuan; Trump, Jonathan R.; Shen, Yue; Brandt, W. N.; Dawson, Kyle; Denney, Kelly D.; Hall, Patrick B.; Ho, Luis C.; Horne, Keith; Jiang, Linhua; Richards, Gordon T.; Schneider, Donald P.; Bizyaev, Dmitry; Kinemuchi, Karen; Oravetz, Daniel; Pan, Kaike; Simmons, Audrey

    2015-09-01

    We explore the variability of quasars in the Mg ii and {{H}}β broad emission lines and ultraviolet/optical continuum emission using the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Reverberation Mapping project (SDSS-RM). This is the largest spectroscopic study of quasar variability to date: our study includes 29 spectroscopic epochs from SDSS-RM over 6 months, containing 357 quasars with Mg ii and 41 quasars with {{H}}β . On longer timescales, the study is also supplemented with two-epoch data from SDSS-I/II. The SDSS-I/II data include an additional 2854 quasars with Mg ii and 572 quasars with {{H}}β . The Mg ii emission line is significantly variable ({{Δ }}f/f∼ 10% on ∼100-day timescales), a necessary prerequisite for its use for reverberation mapping studies. The data also confirm that continuum variability increases with timescale and decreases with luminosity, and the continuum light curves are consistent with a damped random-walk model on rest-frame timescales of ≳ 5 days. We compare the emission-line and continuum variability to investigate the structure of the broad-line region. Broad-line variability shows a shallower increase with timescale compared to the continuum emission, demonstrating that the broad-line transfer function is not a δ-function. {{H}}β is more variable than Mg ii (roughly by a factor of ∼1.5), suggesting different excitation mechanisms, optical depths and/or geometrical configuration for each emission line. The ensemble spectroscopic variability measurements enabled by the SDSS-RM project have important consequences for future studies of reverberation mapping and black hole mass estimation of 1\\lt z\\lt 2 quasars.

  5. TIME VARIABLE BROAD-LINE EMISSION IN NGC 4203: EVIDENCE FOR STELLAR CONTRAILS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Devereux, Nick, E-mail: devereux@erau.edu [Department of Physics, Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University, Prescott, AZ 86301 (United States)

    2011-12-10

    Dual epoch spectroscopy of the lenticular galaxy, NGC 4203, obtained with the Hubble Space Telescope has revealed that the double-peaked component of the broad H{alpha} emission line is time variable, increasing by a factor of 2.2 in brightness between 1999 and 2010. Modeling the gas distribution responsible for the double-peaked profiles indicates that a ring is a more appropriate description than a disk and most likely represents the contrail of a red supergiant star that is being tidally disrupted at a distance of {approx}1500 AU from the central black hole. There is also a bright core of broad H{alpha} line emission that is not time variable and identified with a large-scale inflow from an outer radius of {approx}1 pc. If the gas number density is {>=}10{sup 6} cm{sup -3}, as suggested by the absence of similarly broad [O I] and [O III] emission lines, then the steady state inflow rate is {approx} 2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -2} M{sub Sun} yr{sup -1}, which exceeds the inflow requirement to explain the X-ray luminosity in terms of radiatively inefficient accretion by a factor of {approx}6. The central active galactic nucleus (AGN) is unable to sustain ionization of the broad-line region; the discrepancy is particularly acute in 2010 when the broad H{alpha} emission line is dominated by the contrail of the infalling supergiant star. However, ram pressure shock ionization produced by the interaction of the infalling supergiant with the ambient interstellar medium may help alleviate the ionizing deficit by generating a mechanical source of ionization supplementing the photoionization provided by the AGN.

  6. BROADEMISSION-LINE VARIABILITY IN A SAMPLE OF 102 LOCAL ACTIVE GALAXIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Runco, Jordan N.; Cosens, Maren; Bennert, Vardha N.; Scott, Bryan [Physics Department, California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo CA 93407 (United States); Komossa, S. [Max-Planck-Institut für Radioastronomie, Auf dem Hügel 69, D-53121, Bonn (Germany); Malkan, Matthew A.; Treu, Tommaso [Department of Physics, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Lazarova, Mariana S. [Department of Physics and Physical Science, University of Nebraska Kearney, Kearney, NE 68849 (United States); Auger, Matthew W. [Institute of Astronomy, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HA (United Kingdom); Park, Daeseong, E-mail: jrunco@calpoly.edu, E-mail: mcosens@calpoly.edu, E-mail: vbennert@calpoly.edu, E-mail: malkan@astro.ucla.edu, E-mail: tt@physics.ucsb.edu, E-mail: lazarovam2@unk.edu, E-mail: mauger@ast.cam.ac.uk, E-mail: daeseongpark@kasi.re.kr [Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute, Daejeon, 34055 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-04-10

    A sample of 102 local (0.02 ≤ z ≤ 0.1) Seyfert galaxies with black hole masses M{sub BH} > 10{sup 7}M{sub ⊙} was selected from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) and observed using the Keck 10 m telescope to study the scaling relations between M{sub BH} and host galaxy properties. We study profile changes of the broademission line within the three to nine year time frame between the two sets of spectra. The variability of the broademission line is of particular interest, not only because it is used to estimate M{sub BH}, but also because its strength and width are used to classify Seyfert galaxies into different types. At least some form of broad-line variability (in either width or flux) is observed in the majority (∼66%) of the objects, resulting in a Seyfert-type change for ∼38% of the objects, likely driven by variable accretion and/or obscuration. The broadline virtually disappears in 3/102 (∼3%) extreme cases. We discuss potential causes for these changing look active galactic nuclei. While similar dramatic transitions have previously been reported in the literature, either on a case-by-case basis or in larger samples focusing on quasars at higher redshifts, our study provides statistical information on the frequency of Hβ line variability in a sample of low-redshift Seyfert galaxies.

  7. Emission Signatures from Sub-parsec Binary Supermassive Black Holes. I. Diagnostic Power of Broad Emission Lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Khai; Bogdanović, Tamara

    2016-09-01

    Motivated by advances in observational searches for sub-parsec supermassive black hole binaries (SBHBs) made in the past few years, we develop a semi-analytic model to describe spectral emission-line signatures of these systems. The goal of this study is to aid the interpretation of spectroscopic searches for binaries and to help test one of the leading models of binary accretion flows in the literature: SBHB in a circumbinary disk. In this work, we present the methodology and a comparison of the preliminary model with the data. We model SBHB accretion flows as a set of three accretion disks: two mini-disks that are gravitationally bound to the individual black holes and a circumbinary disk. Given a physically motivated parameter space occupied by sub-parsec SBHBs, we calculate a synthetic database of nearly 15 million broad optical emission-line profiles and explore the dependence of the profile shapes on characteristic properties of SBHBs. We find that the modeled profiles show distinct statistical properties as a function of the semimajor axis, mass ratio, eccentricity of the binary, and the degree of alignment of the triple disk system. This suggests that the broad emission-line profiles from SBHB systems can in principle be used to infer the distribution of these parameters and as such merit further investigation. Calculated profiles are more morphologically heterogeneous than the broad emission lines in observed SBHB candidates and we discuss improved treatment of radiative transfer effects, which will allow a direct statistical comparison of the two groups.

  8. Elemental Abundances in the Broad Emission Line Region of Quasars at Redshifts larger than 4

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dietrich, M.; Appenzeller, I.; Hamann, F.

    2003-01-01

    We present observations of 11 high redshift quasars ($3.9 \\la z \\la 5.0$) observed with low spectral resolution in the restframe ultraviolet using FORS 1 at the VLT UT 1. The emission-line fluxes of strong permitted and intercombination ultraviolet emission lines are measured to estimate the chem...

  9. Kilohertz quasi-periodic oscillations and broad iron emission lines as a probe of strong-field gravity.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sanna, Andrea; Mendez, Mariano; Altamirano, Diego; Belloni, Tomaso

    2010-01-01

    Kilohertz quasi-periodic oscillations (kHz QPOs) and broad iron emission lines are thought to be produced at the inner edge of an accretion disk around neutron stars in low mass X-ray binary systems (LMXBs). The frequency of kHz QPOs and the width of iron lines strongly suggest that these phenomena

  10. Quasar Rain: The Broad Emission Line Region as Condensations in the Warm Accretion Disk Wind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elvis, Martin

    2017-09-01

    The origin of the broad emission line region (BELR) in quasars and active galactic nuclei is still unclear. I propose that condensations form in the warm, radiation-pressure-driven, accretion disk wind of quasars creating the BEL clouds and uniting them with the other two manifestations of cool (˜104 K) gas in quasars, the low ionization phase of the warm absorbers (WAs) and the clouds causing X-ray eclipses. The cool clouds will condense quickly (days to years), before the WA outflows reach escape velocity (which takes months to centuries). Cool clouds form in equilibrium with the warm phase of the wind because the rapidly varying X-ray quasar continuum changes the force multiplier, causing pressure waves to move gas into stable locations in pressure-temperature space. The narrow range of two-phase equilibrium densities may explain the (luminosity){}1/2 scaling of the BELR size, while the scaling of cloud formation timescales could produce the Baldwin effect. These dense clouds have force multipliers of order unity and so cannot be accelerated to escape velocity. They fall back on a dynamical timescale (months to centuries), producing an inflow that rains down toward the central black hole. As they soon move at Mach ˜10-100 with respect to the WA outflow, these “raindrops” will be rapidly destroyed within months. This rain of clouds may produce the elliptical BELR orbits implied by velocity-resolved reverberation mapping in some objects and can explain the opening angle and destruction timescale of the narrow “cometary” tails of the clouds seen in X-ray eclipse observations. Some consequences and challenges of this “quasar rain” model are presented, along with several avenues for theoretical investigation.

  11. Diagnostic Power of Broad Emission Line Profiles in Searches for Binary Supermassive Black Holes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Khai; Bogdanovic, Tamara

    2015-01-01

    Motivated by advances in observational searches for sub-parsec supermassive black hole binaries (SBHBs) made in the past few years we develop a semi-analytic model to describe the spectral emission line signatures of these systems. The goal of this work is to test one of the leading models of binary accretion flows in the literature: SBHB in a circumbinary disk. In this context, we model SBHB accretion flows as a set of three accretion disks: two mini-disks that are gravitationally bound to the individual black holes and a circumbinary disk that forms a common envelope about a gravitationally bound binary. We find that emission line profiles tend to have different statistical properties depending on the semi-major axis, mass ratio, eccentricity of the binary, and the alignment of the triple-disk system, and can in principle be used to infer the statistical distribution of these parameters.

  12. A First-Principles Spectral Model for Blazar Jet Acceleration and Emission with Klein-Nishina Scattering of Multiple Broad Line Region Emission Lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Tiffany R.; Finke, Justin; Becker, Peter A.

    2017-08-01

    Blazars are a sub-class of active galactic nuclei, with a polar jet aligned along our line of sight. Emission from blazar jets is observed across the electromagnetic spectrum. In our model we assume that the emission emanates from one homogeneous zone in the jet, which is in the process of passing through the Broad Line Region (BLR). We start from first-principles to build up a particle transport model, whose solution is the electron distribution, rather than assuming a convenient functional form. Our transport model considers shock acceleration, adiabatic expansion, stochastic acceleration, Bohm diffusion, synchrotron radiation, and Klein-Nishina radiation pulling seed photons from the BLR and dusty torus. We obtain the steady-state electron distribution computationally, and calculate individual spectral contributions due to synchrotron with self-absorption, disk, synchrotron self-Compton, and external-Compton emission, using numerical integration. We compare the resulting radiation spectrum with multi-wavelength data for 3C 279, during quiescence and two flares. Our preliminary results suggest that the jet emission is produced in a region with a sub-equipartition magnetic field, and that the magnetic field in the jet decreases during flaring events, implying that reconnection may play a role in blazar flares.

  13. Constraining the geometry and kinematics of the quasar broad emission line region using gravitational microlensing. I. Models and simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braibant, L.; Hutsemékers, D.; Sluse, D.; Goosmann, R.

    2017-11-01

    Recent studies have shown that line profile distortions are commonly observed in gravitationally lensed quasar spectra. Often attributed to microlensing differential magnification, line profile distortions can provide information on the geometry and kinematics of the broad emission line region (BLR) in quasars. We investigate the effect of gravitational microlensing on quasar broad emission line profiles and their underlying continuum, combining the emission from simple representative BLR models with generic microlensing magnification maps. Specifically, we considered Keplerian disk, polar, and equatorial wind BLR models of various sizes. The effect of microlensing has been quantified with four observables: μBLR, the total magnification of the broad emission line; μcont, the magnification of the underlying continuum; as well as red/blue, RBI and wings/core, WCI, indices that characterize the line profile distortions. The simulations showed that distortions of line profiles, such as those recently observed in lensed quasars, can indeed be reproduced and attributed to the differential effect of microlensing on spatially separated regions of the BLR. While the magnification of the emission line μBLR sets an upper limit on the BLR size and, similarly, the magnification of the continuum μcont sets an upper limit on the size of the continuum source, the line profile distortions mainly depend on the BLR geometry and kinematics. We thus built (WCI,RBI) diagrams that can serve as diagnostic diagrams to discriminate between the various BLR models on the basis of quantitative measurements. It appears that a strong microlensing effect puts important constraints on the size of the BLR and on its distance to the high-magnification caustic. In that case, BLR models with different geometries and kinematics are more prone to produce distinctive line profile distortions for a limited number of caustic configurations, which facilitates their discrimination. When the microlensing

  14. Diagnostic Power of Broad Emission Line Profiles in Searches for Binary Supermassive Black Holes: Comparison of Models with Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Khai; Bogdanovic, Tamara; Eracleous, Michael; Runnoe, Jessie C.; Sigurdsson, Steinn

    2017-01-01

    Motivated by observational searches for sub-parsec supermassive black hole binaries (SBHBs) we develop a semi-analytic model to describe the spectral emission line signatures of these systems. We are particularly interested in modeling the profiles of the broad emission lines, which have been used as a tool to search for SBHBs. The goal of this work is to test one of the leading models of binary accretion flows in the literature: SBHB in a circumbinary disk. In this context, we model SBHB accretion flows as a set of three accretion disks: two mini-disks that are gravitationally bound to the individual black holes and a circumbinary disk that forms a common envelope about a gravitationally bound binary. Our first generation model shows that emission line profiles tend to have different statistical properties depending on the semi-major axis, mass ratio, eccentricity of the binary, and the alignment of the triple-disk system, and can in principle be used to constrain the statistical distribution of these parameters. We present the results of a second generation model, which improves upon the treatment of radiative transfer by taking into account the effect of line-driven winds on the properties of the model emission line profiles. This improvement allows a preliminary comparison of the model profiles with the observed SBHB candidates and AGN population in general.

  15. DETECTION OF THE INTERMEDIATE-WIDTH EMISSION LINE REGION IN QUASAR OI 287 WITH THE BROAD EMISSION LINE REGION OBSCURED BY THE DUSTY TORUS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Zhenzhen; Zhou, Hongyan; Wang, Huiyuan; Liu, Bo; Liu, Wen-Juan; Pan, Xiang; Jiang, Peng [Department of Astronomy, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Hao, Lei [Key Laboratory for Research in Galaxies and Cosmology, Shanghai Astronomical Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 80 Nandan Road, Shanghai 200030 (China); Ji, Tuo; Shi, Xiheng; Zhang, Shaohua, E-mail: lizz08@mail.ustc.edu.cn, E-mail: zhouhongyan@pric.org.cn, E-mail: haol@shao.ac.cn [Polar Research Institute of China, Jinqiao Rd. 451, Shanghai, 200136 (China)

    2015-10-20

    The existence of intermediate-width emission line regions (IELRs) in active galactic nuclei has been discussed for over two decades. A consensus, however, is yet to be arrived at due to the lack of convincing evidence for their detection. We present a detailed analysis of the broadband spectrophotometry of the partially obscured quasar OI 287. The ultraviolet intermediate-width emission lines (IELs) are very prominent, in high contrast to the corresponding broad emission lines (BELs) which are heavily suppressed by dust reddening. Assuming that the IELR is virialized, we estimated its distance to the central black hole to be ∼2.9 pc, similar to the dust sublimation radius of ∼1.3 pc. Photo-ionization calculations suggest that the IELR has a hydrogen density of ∼10{sup 8.8}–10{sup 9.4} cm{sup −3}, within the range of values quoted for the dusty torus near the sublimation radius. Both its inferred location and physical conditions suggest that the IELR originates from the inner surface of the dusty torus. In the spectrum of this quasar, we identified only one narrow absorption-line system associated with the dusty material. With the aid of photo-ionization model calculations, we found that the obscuring material might originate from an outer region of the dusty torus. We speculate that the dusty torus, which is exposed to the central ionizing source, may produce IELs through photo-ionization processes, as well as obscure BELs as a natural “coronagraph.” Such a “coronagraph” could be found in a large number of partially obscured quasars and may be a useful tool to study IELRs.

  16. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Broademission line in 102 Seyfert galaxies (Runco+, 2016)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runco, J. N.; Cosens, M.; Bennert, V. N.; Scott, B.; Komossa, S.; Malkan, M. A.; Lazarova, M. S.; Auger, M. W.; Treu, T.; Park, D.

    2018-02-01

    A sample of 102 local (0.02=type-1 Seyfert galaxies was selected from the SDSS data release six (DR6) (Adelman-McCarthy et al. 2008, Cat. II/282). SDSS spectra are obtained from a 2.5 m ground-based telescope with a 3" diameter circular optical fiber and an exposure time of 54 s. SDSS spectra cover a wavelength range of 3800-9200 Å with an instrumental resolution of 170 km/s. The 102 objects selected from SDSS were observed again between 2009 January and 2010 March with the Low Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (LRIS) at the Keck 10 m telescope using a 1"x2" wide rectangular longslit aligned with the major axis of the host galaxy (given by SDSS). For eight objects with significantly weaker or apparently absent broademission in the Keck spectra, follow-up observations were conducted in 2013 January and March with the 3 m Shane telescope of Lick observatory using the Kast spectrograph and 60 minutes total exposure time per object. The slit was aligned either along the major axis or perpendicular to it. 1D spectra were extracted using a 4 pixel (~3") width centered on the peak flux to mimic the 3" diameter circular fiber of SDSS. (2 data files).

  17. BAT AGN Spectroscopic Survey - IV: Near-Infrared Coronal Lines, Hidden Broad Lines, and Correlation with Hard X-ray Emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamperti, Isabella; Koss, Michael; Trakhtenbrot, Benny; Schawinski, Kevin; Ricci, Claudio; Oh, Kyuseok; Landt, Hermine; Riffel, Rogério; Rodríguez-Ardila, Alberto; Gehrels, Neil; Harrison, Fiona; Masetti, Nicola; Mushotzky, Richard; Treister, Ezequiel; Ueda, Yoshihiro; Veilleux, Sylvain

    2017-05-01

    We provide a comprehensive census of the near-infrared (NIR, 0.8-2.4 μm) spectroscopic properties of 102 nearby (z X-ray band (14-195 keV) from the Swift-Burst Alert Telescope survey. With the launch of the James Webb Space Telescope, this regime is of increasing importance for dusty and obscured AGN surveys. We measure black hole masses in 68 per cent (69/102) of the sample using broad emission lines (34/102) and/or the velocity dispersion of the Ca II triplet or the CO band-heads (46/102). We find that emission-line diagnostics in the NIR are ineffective at identifying bright, nearby AGN galaxies because [Fe II] 1.257 μm/Paβ and H2 2.12 μm/Brγ identify only 25 per cent (25/102) as AGN with significant overlap with star-forming galaxies and only 20 per cent of Seyfert 2 have detected coronal lines (6/30). We measure the coronal line emission in Seyfert 2 to be weaker than in Seyfert 1 of the same bolometric luminosity suggesting obscuration by the nuclear torus. We find that the correlation between the hard X-ray and the [Si VI] coronal line luminosity is significantly better than with the [O III] λ5007 luminosity. Finally, we find 3/29 galaxies (10 per cent) that are optically classified as Seyfert 2 show broad emission lines in the NIR. These AGN have the lowest levels of obscuration among the Seyfert 2s in our sample (log NH < 22.43 cm-2), and all show signs of galaxy-scale interactions or mergers suggesting that the optical broad emission lines are obscured by host galaxy dust.

  18. Extreme Emission Line Galaxies in CANDELS: Broad-Band Selected, Star-Bursting Dwarf Galaxies at Z greater than 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    vanderWel, A.; Straughn, A. N.; Rix, H.-W.; Finkelstein, S. L.; Koekemoer, A. M.; Weiner, B. J.; Wuyts, S.; Bell, E. F.; Faber, S. M.; Trump, J. R.; hide

    2012-01-01

    We identify an abundant population of extreme emission line galaxies (EELGs) at redshift z approx. 1.7 in the Cosmic Assembly Near-IR Deep Extragalactic Legacy Survey (CANDELS) imaging from Hubble Space Telescope/Wide Field Camera 3 (HST/WFC3). 69 EELG candidates are selected by the large contribution of exceptionally bright emission lines to their near-infrared broad-band magnitudes. Supported by spectroscopic confirmation of strong [OIII] emission lines . with rest-frame equivalent widths approx. 1000A in the four candidates that have HST/WFC3 grism observations, we conclude that these objects are galaxies with approx.10(exp 8) Solar Mass in stellar mass, undergoing an enormous starburst phase with M*/M* of only approx. 15 Myr. These bursts may cause outflows that are strong enough to produce cored dark matter profiles in low-mass galaxies. The individual star formation rates and the co-moving number density (3.7x10(exp -4) Mpc(sup -3) can produce in approx.4 Gyr much of the stellar mass density that is presently contained in 10(exp 8) - 10(exp 9) Solar Mass dwarf galaxies. Therefore, our observations provide a strong indication that many or even most of the stars in present-day dwarf galaxies formed in strong, short-lived bursts, mostly at z > 1.

  19. Broad Line Radio Galaxies Observed with Fermi-LAT: The Origin of the GeV Gamma-Ray Emission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kataoka, J.; /Waseda U., RISE; Stawarz, L.; /JAXA, Sagamihara /Jagiellonian U., Astron. Observ.; Takahashi, Y.; /Waseda U., RISE; Cheung, C.C.; /Natl. Acad. Sci. /Naval Research Lab, Wash., D.C.; Hayashida, M.; /SLAC /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park; Grandi, P.; /Bologna Observ.; Burnett, T.H.; /Washington U., Seattle; Celotti, A.; /SISSA, Trieste; Fegan, S.J.; Fortin, P.; /Ecole Polytechnique; Maeda, K.; Nakamori, T.; /Waseda U., RISE; Taylor, G.B.; /New Mexico U.; Tosti, G.; /INFN, Perugia /Perugia U.; Digel, S.W.; /SLAC /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park; McConville, W.; /NASA, Goddard /Maryland U.; Finke, J.; /Naval Research Lab, Wash., D.C.; D' Ammando, F.; /IASF, Palermo /INAF, Rome

    2012-06-07

    We report on a detailed investigation of the {gamma}-ray emission from 18 broad line radio galaxies (BLRGs) based on two years of Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) data. We confirm the previously reported detections of 3C 120 and 3C 111 in the GeV photon energy range; a detailed look at the temporal characteristics of the observed {gamma}-ray emission reveals in addition possible flux variability in both sources. No statistically significant {gamma}-ray detection of the other BLRGs was however found in the considered dataset. Though the sample size studied is small, what appears to differentiate 3C 111 and 3C 120 from the BLRGs not yet detected in {gamma}-rays is the particularly strong nuclear radio flux. This finding, together with the indications of the {gamma}-ray flux variability and a number of other arguments presented, indicate that the GeV emission of BLRGs is most likely dominated by the beamed radiation of relativistic jets observed at intermediate viewing angles. In this paper we also analyzed a comparison sample of high accretion-rate Seyfert 1 galaxies, which can be considered radio-quiet counterparts of BLRGs, and found none were detected in {gamma}-rays. A simple phenomenological hybrid model applied for the broad-band emission of the discussed radio-loud and radio-quiet type 1 active galaxies suggests that the relative contribution of the nuclear jets to the accreting matter is {ge} 1% on average for BLRGs, while {le} 0.1% for Seyfert 1 galaxies.

  20. Weak Hard X-Ray Emission from Broad Absorption Line Quasars: Evidence for Intrinsic X-Ray Weakness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luo, B.; Brandt, W. N.; Alexander, D. M.

    2014-01-01

    We report NuSTAR observations of a sample of six X-ray weak broad absorption line (BAL) quasars. These targets, at z = 0.148-1.223, are among the optically brightest and most luminous BAL quasars known at z 330 times weaker than...... expected for typical quasars. Our results from a pilot NuSTAR study of two low-redshift BAL quasars, a Chandra stacking analysis of a sample of high-redshift BAL quasars, and a NuSTAR spectral analysis of the local BAL quasar Mrk 231 have already suggested the existence of intrinsically X-ray weak BAL...... quasars, i.e., quasars not emitting X-rays at the level expected from their optical/UV emission. The aim of the current program is to extend the search for such extraordinary objects. Three of the six new targets are weakly detected by NuSTAR with ≲ 45 counts in the 3-24 keV band, and the other three...

  1. The Effects of S/N on Measuring CIV Broad Emission Line Widths in Quasars - An Early Science Result from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Reverberation Mapping Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denney, Kelly; SDSS-RM Team

    2015-01-01

    The Sloan Digital Sky Survey Reverberation Mapping (SDSS-RM) Project spectroscopically monitored ~850 quasars over a seven square degree field for approximately six months with the BOSS spectrograph. While the time series analysis of the quasar continuum and emission-line variability, and thereby the potential to measure reverberation time delays from this sample, is still underway, we have used the subset (roughly half) of this sample containing the CIV 1549A broad emission line to investigate the effects of S/N on measuring this broad emission line width. Line width measurements are necessary for inferring the broad line region gas velocities used to determine the quasar black hole mass. However, literature studies have suggested line width measurements, and therefore black hole mass estimates, may be biased by the use of relatively low S/N, typical survey-quality, data, compared to the high S/N data that calibrate single-epoch black hole mass scaling relations. The SDSS-RM data set provides a unique opportunity to search for any systematic uncertainties in CIV line width measurements through a comparison of line widths measured from the single-epoch spectra, which are roughly equivalent to other SDSS/BOSS quasar spectra (though still twice the exposure time) to those measured from the high-S/N, campaign co-added spectra, which contain more than 30 epochs of each source. Here we present results from this investigation, which have implications for estimating CIV single-epoch black hole masses from the SDSS/BOSS and other surveys.

  2. SHORT-TIMESCALE MONITORING OF THE X-RAY, UV, AND BROAD DOUBLE-PEAK EMISSION LINE OF THE NUCLEUS OF NGC 1097

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schimoia, Jaderson S.; Storchi-Bergmann, Thaisa [Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Campus do Vale, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Grupe, Dirk [Space Science Center, Morehead State University, 235 Martindale Drive, Morehead, KY 40351 (United States); Eracleous, Michael [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics and Institute for Gravitation and the Cosmos, Pennsylvania State University, 525 Davey Lab, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Peterson, Bradley M. [Department of Astronomy, The Ohio State University, 140 West 18th Avenue, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Baldwin, Jack A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48864 (United States); Nemmen, Rodrigo S. [Instituto de Astronomia, Geofísica e Ciências Atmosféricas, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP 05508-090 (Brazil); Winge, Cláudia, E-mail: silva.schimoia@ufrgs.br [Gemini South Observatory, c/o AURA Inc., Casilla 603, La Serena (Chile)

    2015-02-10

    Recent studies have suggested that the short-timescale (≲ 7 days) variability of the broad (∼10,000 km s{sup –1}) double-peaked Hα profile of the LINER nucleus of NGC 1097 could be driven by a variable X-ray emission from a central radiatively inefficient accretion flow. To test this scenario, we have monitored the NGC 1097 nucleus in X-ray and UV continuum with Swift and the Hα flux and profile in the optical spectrum using SOAR and Gemini-South from 2012 August to 2013 February. During the monitoring campaign, the Hα flux remained at a very low level—three times lower than the maximum flux observed in previous campaigns and showing only limited (∼20%) variability. The X-ray variations were small, only ∼13% throughout the campaign, while the UV did not show significant variations. We concluded that the timescale of the Hα profile variation is close to the sampling interval of the optical observations, which results in only a marginal correlation between the X-ray and Hα fluxes. We have caught the active galaxy nucleus in NGC 1097 in a very low activity state, in which the ionizing source was very weak and capable of ionizing just the innermost part of the gas in the disk. Nonetheless, the data presented here still support the picture in which the gas that emits the broad double-peaked Balmer lines is illuminated/ionized by a source of high-energy photons which is located interior to the inner radius of the line-emitting part of the disk.

  3. The broad line region of AGN: Kinematics and physics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popović L.Č.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a discussion of kinematics and physics of the Broad Line Region (BLR is given. The possible physical conditions in the BLR and problems in determination of the physical parameters (electron temperature and density are considered. Moreover, one analyses the geometry of the BLR and the probability that (at least a fraction of the radiation in the Broad Emission Lines (BELs originates from a relativistic accretion disk.

  4. The Broad Line Region of AGN: Kinematics and Physics

    OpenAIRE

    Popović L.Č.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper a discussion of kinematics and physics of the Broad Line Region (BLR) is given. The possible physical conditions in the BLR and problems in determination of the physical parameters (electron temperature and density) are considered. Moreover, one analyses the geometry of the BLR and the probability that (at least) a fraction of the radiation in the Broad Emission Lines (BELs) originates from a relativistic accretion disk.

  5. The Astrophysics of Emission-Line Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Kogure, Tomokazu

    2007-01-01

    Many types of stars show conspicuous emission lines in their optical spectra. These stars are broadly referred to as emission line stars. Emission line stars are attractive to many people because of their spectacular phenomena and their variability. The Astrophysics of Emission Line Stars offers general information on emission line stars, starting from a brief introduction to stellar astrophysics, and then moving toward a broad overview of emission line stars including early and late type stars as well as pre-main sequence stars. Detailed references have been prepared along with an index for further reading.

  6. Giant Broad Line Regions in Dwarf Seyferts

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    High angular resolution spectroscopy obtained with the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) has revealed a remarkable population of galaxies hosting dwarf Seyfert nuclei with an unusually large broad-line region (BLR). These objects are remarkable for two reasons. Firstly, the size of the BLR can, in some cases, rival those ...

  7. Emission-Line Region Variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Bradley M.

    We propose to obtain simultaneous optical and ultraviolet observations of the rapidly varying active galaxies Akn 120 and 3C 120. Both these sources are distinguished by short-time scale variations in their continuum and broadline fluxes, and we intend to exploit this property to determine fundamental characteristics of the emission-line gas. Akn 120 has been studied extensively by the Ohio State group, and is one of the few active galaxies for which a reliable upper limit for the separation between the continuum source and the emission-line clouds has been established from reverberation measurements. The important goals of the proposed project are (1) to provide a suitable database of optical and ultraviolet broad-line flux measurements obtained during different continuum states and (2) to compare the temporal behavior of optical and ultraviolet emission lines. In particular, we wish to determine whether or not C III] A1909 varies on the same time scale as the Balmer lines and how much of the flux in this feature can actually be ascribed to broad-line emission from C^+2. These data will enable us to make a differential comparison with predictions of photoionization models, since the emission-line spectrum will change in response to the variable ionizing continuum flux. Such a differential comparison between observation and theory should be more reliable than attempts to match absolute intensities because errors in the atomic data base should tend to cancel out.

  8. The X-ray side of the Broad Line Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costantini, E.

    2017-10-01

    The broad line region (BLR) is very different from an idealised spherical region of gas in motion around the central black hole. Using traditional optical/UV data, different geometries, sometimes contrasting with each other, have been recently explored. The broad line emitting clouds however, do also emit in the X-rays. This emitting gas constitute the energetic portion of the same clouds emitting the UV (Costantini et al. 2007, 2010). Here we present a unique study, using broad line region data of the bright Seyfert1 Mrk509 (Kaastra et al. 2011), taken simultaneously by XMM-Newton RGS, HST-COS and XMM-Newton OM-Grism (Costantini et al. 2016). We use a synthetic, physically motivated, model to fit the multi-wavelength data. The results point to part of the emission (possibly disk-like) coming near the black hole, highlighted by highly-ionized lines. In addition, a larger scale height component, clearly confined by the dust sublimation radius, is characterised by lower ionization ions emission (a bowl-like geometry; Goad et al. 2012). It is the first time that the X-rays provide crucial constraints in the geometrical description of the broad line region.

  9. Database of emission lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binette, L.; Ortiz, P.; Joguet, B.; Rola, C.

    1998-11-01

    A widely accessible data bank (available through Netscape) and consiting of all (or most) of the emission lines reported in the litterature is being built. It will comprise objects as diverse as HII regions, PN, AGN, HHO. One of its use will be to define/refine existing diagnostic emission line diagrams.

  10. Broad-line active galactic nuclei rotate faster than narrow-line ones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kollatschny, Wolfram; Zetzl, Matthias

    2011-02-17

    The super-massive black holes of 10(6)M(⊙) to 10(9)M(⊙) that reside in the nuclei of active galaxies (AGN) are surrounded by a region emitting broad lines, probably associated with an accretion disk. The diameters of the broad-line regions range from a few light-days to more than a hundred light-days, and cannot be resolved spatially. The relative significance of inflow, outflow, rotational or turbulent motions in the broad-line regions as well as their structure (spherical, thin or thick accretion disk) are unknown despite intensive studies over more than thirty years. Here we report a fundamental relation between the observed emission linewidth full-width at half-maximum (FWHM) and the emission line shape FWHM/σ(line) in AGN spectra. From this relation we infer that the predominant motion in the broad-line regions is Keplerian rotation in combination with turbulence. The geometry of the inner region varies systematically with the rotation velocity: it is flattest for the fast-rotating broad-line objects, whereas slow-rotating narrow-line AGN have a more spherical structure. Superimposed is the trend that the line-emitting region becomes geometrically thicker towards the centre within individual galaxies. Knowing the rotational velocities, we can derive the central black-hole masses more accurately; they are two to ten times smaller than has been estimated previously.

  11. Probing AGN Broad Line Regions With LAT Observations of FSRQs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carson, Jennifer E.; Chiang, James; /SLAC; Bottcher, Markus; /Ohio U.

    2007-10-11

    The GLAST Large Area Telescope (LAT) is expected to detect gamma-ray emission from over a thousand active galaxies, many of which will be flat spectrum radio quasars (FSRQs). A commonly assumed ingredient of leptonic models of FRSQs is the contribution to the gamma-ray flux from external inverse-Compton (EIC) scattering of photons from the broad line region (BLR) material by relativistic electrons and positrons in the jet. Here we explore the effect of the BLR geometry on the high-energy emission from FSRQs.

  12. Self-Consistent Dynamical Model of the Broad Line Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bozena Czerny

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available We develop a self-consistent description of the Broad Line Region based on the concept of a failed wind powered by radiation pressure acting on a dusty accretion disk atmosphere in Keplerian motion. The material raised high above the disk is illuminated, dust evaporates, and the matter falls back toward the disk. This material is the source of emission lines. The model predicts the inner and outer radius of the region, the cloud dynamics under the dust radiation pressure and, subsequently, the gravitational field of the central black hole, which results in asymmetry between the rise and fall. Knowledge of the dynamics allows us to predict the shapes of the emission lines as functions of the basic parameters of an active nucleus: black hole mass, accretion rate, black hole spin (or accretion efficiency and the viewing angle with respect to the symmetry axis. Here we show preliminary results based on analytical approximations to the cloud motion.

  13. Self-consistent dynamical model of the Broad Line Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czerny, Bozena; Li, Yan-Rong; Sredzinska, Justyna; Hryniewicz, Krzysztof; Panda, Swayam; Wildy, Conor; Karas, Vladimir

    2017-06-01

    We develope a self-consistent description of the Broad Line Region based on the concept of the failed wind powered by the radiation pressure acting on dusty accretion disk atmosphere in Keplerian motion. The material raised high above the disk is illuminated, dust evaportes, and the matter falls back towards the disk. This material is the source of emission lines. The model predicts the inner and outer radius of the region, the cloud dynamics under the dust radiation pressure and, subsequently, just the gravitational field of the central black hole, which results in assymetry between the rise and fall. Knowledge of the dynamics allows to predict the shapes of the emission lines as functions of the basic parameters of an active nucleus: black hole mass, accretion rate, black hole spin (or accretion efficiency) and the viewing angle with respect to the symmetry axis. Here we show preliminary results based on analytical approximations to the cloud motion.

  14. Weak hard X-ray emission from two broad absorption line quasars observed with NuSTAR: Compton-thick absorption or intrinsic X-ray weakness?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luo, B.; Brandt, W. N.; Alexander, D. M.

    2013-01-01

    We present Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR) hard X-ray observations of two X-ray weak broad absorption line (BAL) quasars, PG 1004+130 (radio loud) and PG 1700+518 (radio quiet). Many BAL quasars appear X-ray weak, probably due to absorption by the shielding gas between the nucleus...... and the accretion-disk wind. The two targets are among the optically brightest BAL quasars, yet they are known to be significantly X-ray weak at rest-frame 2-10 keV (16-120 times fainter than typical quasars). We would expect to obtain ≈ 400-600 hard X-ray (≳ 10 keV) photons with NuSTAR, provided that these photons...... are not significantly absorbed (NH ≲ 1024 cm-2). However, both BAL quasars are only detected in the softer NuSTAR bands (e.g., 4-20 keV) but not in its harder bands (e.g., 20-30 keV), suggesting that either the shielding gas is highly Compton-thick or the two targets are intrinsically X-ray weak. We constrain...

  15. EVIDENCE FOR PHOTOIONIZATION-DRIVEN BROAD ABSORPTION LINE VARIABILITY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Tinggui; Yang, Chenwei; Wang, Huiyuan [CAS Key Laboratory for Research in Galaxies and Cosmology, Department of Astronomy, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Ferland, Gary, E-mail: twang@ustc.edu.cn [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40506 (United States)

    2015-12-01

    We present a qualitative analysis of the variability of quasar broad absorption lines using the large multi-epoch spectroscopic data set of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 10. We confirm that variations of absorption lines are highly coordinated among different components of the same ion or the same absorption component of different ions for C iv, Si iv, and N v. Furthermore, we show that the equivalent widths (EWs) of the lines decrease or increase statistically when the continuum brightens or dims. This is further supported by the synchronized variations of emission and absorption-line EWs when the well-established intrinsic Baldwin effect for emission lines is taken into account. We find that the emergence of an absorption component is usually accompanied by the dimming of the continuum while the disappearance of an absorption-line component is accompanied by the brightening of the continuum. This suggests that the emergence or disappearance of a C iv absorption component is only the extreme case, when the ionic column density is very sensitive to continuum variations or the continuum variability the amplitude is larger. These results support the idea that absorption-line variability is driven mainly by changes in the gas ionization in response to continuum variations, that the line-absorbing gas is highly ionized, and in some extreme cases, too highly ionized to be detected in UV absorption lines. Due to uncertainties in the spectroscopic flux calibration, we cannot quantify the fraction of quasars with asynchronized continuum and absorption-line variations.

  16. Feedback from Broad Absorption Line Quasars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chartas, George; Saez, C.

    2008-03-01

    The fraction of the total bolometric energy released over an AGN's lifetime into the ISM and IGM in the form kinetic energy injection scales as the outflow velocity to the third power so we expect that powerful broad absorption line (BAL) quasars may have mass outflow rates that are large enough to influence significantly the formation of the host galaxy and to regulate the growth of the central black hole. One of the most promising radio quiet quasars for studying the properties of the outflow is the lensed BAL quasar APM 08279+5255. The large flux magnification by a factor of about 100 provided by the gravitational lens effect combined with the large redshift (z = 3.91) of the quasar have provided the highest S/N X-ray spectra of a quasar containing X-ray BALs. We present results from recent monitoring observations of APM 08279+5255. performed with the Suzaku, XMM-Newton and Chandra observatories. Significant variability of the X-ray BALs is detected on timescales as short as 4 days (proper time) implying launching radii of about 6 times the Schwarzschild radius. The fitted width of the X-ray absorption troughs imply a large gradient in the outflow velocity of the X-ray absorbers with projected outflow velocities of up to 0.5c. The notch-like shape of the detected X-ray BALs are similar to those produced in recent numerical simulations (i.e. Schurch & Done 2007) that include radiative transfer calculations through highly ionized X-ray absorbers outflowing at near relativistic velocities. We provide preliminary constraints of the outflows properties.

  17. Photoionization modelling of the giant broad-line region in NGC 3998

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devereux, Nick

    2018-01-01

    Prior high angular resolution spectroscopic observations of the Low-ionization nuclear emission-line region (Liner) in NGC 3998 obtained with the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS) aboard the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) revealed a rich UV-visible spectrum consisting of broad permitted and broad forbidden emission lines. The photoionization code XSTAR is employed together with reddening-insensitive emission line diagnostics to constrain a dynamical model for the broad-line region (BLR) in NGC 3998. The BLR is modelled as a large H+ region ∼ 7 pc in radius consisting of dust-free, low-density ∼ 104 cm-3, low-metallicity ∼ 0.01 Z/Z⊙ gas. Modelling the shape of the broad H α emission line significantly discriminates between two independent measures of the black hole (BH) mass, favouring the estimate of de Francesco, Capetti & Marconi (2006). Interpreting the broad H α emission line in terms of a steady-state spherically symmetric inflow leads to a mass inflow rate of 1.4 × 10-2 M⊙ yr-1, well within the present uncertainty of calculations that attempt to explain the observed X-ray emission in terms of an advection-dominated accretion flow (ADAF). Collectively, the model provides an explanation for the shape of the H α emission line, the relative intensities and luminosities for the H Balmer, [O III], and potentially several of the broad UV emission lines, as well as refining the initial conditions needed for future modelling of the ADAF.

  18. The Emission Line Objects At 0PEARS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirzkal, Norbert; Malhotra, S.; Rhoads, J. J. E.; Ly, C.; Rothberg, B.; Dahlen, T.

    2012-05-01

    Emission line galaxies are a powerful tracer of star formation in the Universe. By computing and examining the shape of the line luminosity function (the number density per logarithmic interval in line luminosity) we can study how star formation occurred in star forming galaxies. We can also look for variation in the line luminosity function of these objects as a function of redshift to look for evidence of evolution in the way star formation took place over the last few billion years. We present emission line luminosity functions obtained using the slitless grism survey data of the PEARS projects. We applied the PEARS-2D technique to pinpoint the location of line emission in field galaxies and hence were able to extract spectra of individual line emission regions in the PEARS fields, which covers a large fraction of the GOODS-N and GOODS-S fields. We detected lines with fluxes as low as 5. 10^-18 erg/s/cm^2 and identified Ha, OIII, OII, Hg and Lya lines, over a redshift range of 0lines we identified are Ha (213 lines, 0lines, 0.2lines, 0.6line emission regions, multiple line emissions regions as well as several cases of multiple star forming regions in single galaxies. We present the luminosity functions for Ha, OII, and OIII computed across these relatively broad redshift ranges using both the Vmax and STY methods and investigate the redshift dependence of these luminosity functions, and the physical distribution of the emission line regions we detect.

  19. Clues to quasar broad-line region geometry and kinematics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vestergaard, M; Wilkes, BJ; Barthel, PD

    2000-01-01

    We present evidence that the high-velocity C IV lambda 1549 emission-line gas of radio-loud quasars may originate in a disklike configuration, in close proximity to the accretion disk often assumed to emit the low-ionization lines. For a sample of 36 radio-loud z approximate to 2 quasars, we find

  20. Observing broad-absorption line quasars with Spectrum-Rontgen-Gamma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singh, K.P.; Schnopper, H.W.; Westergaard, Niels Jørgen Stenfeldt

    1998-01-01

    Broad-absorption line quasars are found to have extremely weak soft X-ray emission when compared with other optically selected quasars. In the only example of PHL 5200 for which a detailed X-ray spectrum has been obtained with ASCA, strong absorption in the source appears to be responsible...

  1. Evidence for Broad-Line Region Outflows and Their Impact on Black Hole Mass Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Denney, K. D.; Assef, R. J.; Horne, K.

    2012-01-01

    could not be fully and accurately interpreted from the 1D velocity-resolved reverberation signal. From the VDM, an outflow component to the emission remains possible but appears to be in addition to an underlying, disk-like BLR structure consistent in size with the measured reverberation lag. The black...... hole (BH) mass derived from this data is therefore secure from any uncertainties possibly derived from gravitationally unbound gas contributing to the emission. Additionally, we demonstrate that BLR emission from the C IV ¿1549 broad emission line can reliably be used as a virial BH mass estimator...

  2. Clues to Quasar Broad Line Region Geometry and Kinematics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Marianne; Wilkes, B. J.; Barthel, P. D.

    2000-01-01

    We present evidence that the high-velocity CIV lambda 1549 emission line gas of radio-loud quasars may originate in a disk-like configuration, in close proximity to the accretion disk often assumed to emit the low-ionization lines. For a sample of 36 radio-loud z~2 quasars we find the 20--30% peak...... width to show significant inverse correlations with the fractional radio core-flux density, R, the radio axis inclination indicator. Highly inclined systems have broader line wings, consistent with a high-velocity field perpendicular to the radio axis. By contrast, the narrow line-core shows...

  3. Extreme Variability in a Broad Absorption Line Quasar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stern, Daniel; Jun, Hyunsung D. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Mail Stop 169-221, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Graham, Matthew J.; Djorgovski, S. G.; Donalek, Ciro; Drake, Andrew J.; Mahabal, Ashish A.; Steidel, Charles C. [California Institute of Technology, 1200 E. California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Arav, Nahum; Chamberlain, Carter [Department of Physics, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA 24061 (United States); Barth, Aaron J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, 4129 Frederick Reines Hall, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697 (United States); Glikman, Eilat, E-mail: daniel.k.stern@jpl.nasa.gov [Department of Physics, Middlebury College, Middlebury, VT 05753 (United States)

    2017-04-20

    CRTS J084133.15+200525.8 is an optically bright quasar at z = 2.345 that has shown extreme spectral variability over the past decade. Photometrically, the source had a visual magnitude of V ∼ 17.3 between 2002 and 2008. Then, over the following five years, the source slowly brightened by approximately one magnitude, to V ∼ 16.2. Only ∼1 in 10,000 quasars show such extreme variability, as quantified by the extreme parameters derived for this quasar assuming a damped random walk model. A combination of archival and newly acquired spectra reveal the source to be an iron low-ionization broad absorption line quasar with extreme changes in its absorption spectrum. Some absorption features completely disappear over the 9 years of optical spectra, while other features remain essentially unchanged. We report the first definitive redshift for this source, based on the detection of broad H α in a Keck/MOSFIRE spectrum. Absorption systems separated by several 1000 km s{sup −1} in velocity show coordinated weakening in the depths of their troughs as the continuum flux increases. We interpret the broad absorption line variability to be due to changes in photoionization, rather than due to motion of material along our line of sight. This source highlights one sort of rare transition object that astronomy will now be finding through dedicated time-domain surveys.

  4. The Carbon and Nitrogen Abundance Ratio in the Broad Line Region of Tidal Disruption Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chenwei; Wang, Tinggui; Ferland, Gary J.; Dou, Liming; Zhou, Hongyan; Jiang, Ning; Sheng, Zhenfeng

    2017-09-01

    The rest-frame UV spectra of three recent tidal disruption events (TDEs), ASASSN-14li, PTF15af, and iPTF16fnl, display strong nitrogen emission lines but weak or undetectable carbon lines. In these three objects, the upper limits of the C III] λ 1908/N III] λ 1750 ratio are about two orders of magnitude lower than those of quasars, suggesting a high abundance ratio of [N/C]. With detailed photoionization simulations, we demonstrate that {{{C}}}2+ and {{{N}}}2+ are formed in the same zone, so the Ciii]/N III] ratio depends only moderately on the physical conditions in the gas and weakly on the shape of the ionizing continuum. There are smaller than 0.5 dex variations in the line ratio over wide ranges of gas densities and ionization parameters at a given metallicity. This allows a robust estimate of the relative abundance ratio of nitrogen to carbon. We derive a relative abundance ratio of [N/C] > 1.5 for ASASSN-14li, and an even higher one for PTF15af and iPTF16fnl. This suggests that the broad line region in those TDE sources is made of nitrogen-enhanced core material that falls back at later times. Based on stellar evolution models, the lower limit of the disrupted star should be larger than 0.6 {M}⊙ . The chemical abundance of the line-emitting gas provides convincing evidence that the flares originate from stellar tidal disruptions. The coincidence of the weakness of the X-ray emission with the strong broad absorption lines in PTF15af and iPTF16fnl, and the strong X-ray emission without such lines in ASASSN-li14, are analogous to quasars with and without broad absorption lines.

  5. Broad-lined Supernova 2016coi with a Helium Envelope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamanaka, Masayuki [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science and Engineering, Konan University, Okamoto, Kobe, Hyogo 658-8501 (Japan); Nakaoka, Tatsuya; Kawabata, Miho [Department of Physical Science, Hiroshima University, Kagamiyama 1-3-1, Higashi-Hiroshima 739-8526 (Japan); Tanaka, Masaomi [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, National Institutes of Natural Sciences, Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Maeda, Keiichi [Department of Astronomy, Graduate School of Science, Kyoto University, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Honda, Satoshi; Hosoya, Kensuke; Karita, Mayu; Morihana, Kumiko [Nishi-Harima Astronomical Observatory, Center for Astronomy, University of Hyogo, 407-2 Nishigaichi, Sayo-cho, Sayo, Hyogo 679-5313 (Japan); Hanayama, Hidekazu [Ishigakijima Astronomical Observatory, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, National Institutes of Natural Sciences, 1024-1 Arakawa, Ishigaki, Okinawa 907-0024 (Japan); Morokuma, Tomoki [Institute of Astronomy, Graduate School of Science, The University of Tokyo, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-0015 (Japan); Imai, Masataka [Department of Cosmosciences, Graduate School of Science, Hokkaido University, Kita 10 Nishi8, Kita-ku, Sapporo 060-0810 (Japan); Kinugasa, Kenzo [Nobeyama Radio Observatory, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, National Institutes of Natural Sciences, 462-2 Nobeyama, Minamimaki, Minamisaku, Nagano 384-1305 (Japan); Murata, Katsuhiro L. [Department of Astrophysics, Nagoya University, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan); Nishimori, Takefumi; Gima, Hirotaka; Ito, Ayano; Morikawa, Yuto; Murakami, Kotone [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Kagoshima University, 1-21-35 Korimoto, Kagoshima 890-0065 (Japan); Hashimoto, Osamu, E-mail: yamanaka@center.konan-u.ac.jp [Gunma Astronomical Observatory, Takayama, Gunma 377-0702 (Japan); and others

    2017-03-01

    We present the early-phase spectra and the light curves of the broad-lined (BL) supernova (SN) 2016coi from t = 7 to 67 days after the estimated explosion date. This SN was initially reported as a BL Type SN Ic (SN Ic-BL). However, we found that spectra up to t = 12 days exhibited the He i λ 5876, λ 6678, and λ 7065 absorption lines. We show that the smoothed and blueshifted spectra of normal SNe Ib are remarkably similar to the observed spectrum of SN 2016coi. The line velocities of SN 2016coi were similar to those of SNe Ic-BL and significantly faster than those of SNe Ib. Analyses of the line velocity and light curve suggest that the kinetic energy and the total ejecta mass of SN 2016coi are similar to those of SNe Ic-BL. Together with BL SNe 2009bb and 2012ap, for which the detection of He i was also reported, these SNe could be transitional objects between SNe Ic-BL and SNe Ib, and be classified as BL Type “Ib” SNe (SNe “Ib”-BL). Our work demonstrates the diversity of the outermost layer in BL SNe, which should be related to the variety of the evolutionary paths.

  6. The Size of the Broad Line Region in M84 (NGC 4374)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devereux, Nicholas A.; Eracleous, M.

    2010-01-01

    M84 is a giant elliptical galaxy located in the Virgo cluster. Prior imaging with the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) revealed a small, highly inclined, nuclear ionized gas disk, the kinematics of which indicate the presence of a 1.5 billion solar mass black hole. Two prominent radio jets emerge perpendicular to the nuclear ionized gas disk terminating in large radio lobes that extend beyond the visible galaxy. Plausible kinematic models are used to constrain the size of the broad line region (BLR) in M84 by modeling the shape of the broademission line profile. The analysis indicates that the emitting volume is large with an outer radius between 6 and 10 pc, depending on whether the kinematic model is represented by a spherically symmetric free-fall or a Keplerian disk. The inferred size makes the BLR in M84 the largest yet to be measured. The BLR contains less than 2754 M⊙ of dense, ≥ 103 cm-3, ionized gas, leading to a very low filling factor of ≤ 3 x 10-2. The fact that the BLR in M84 is so large may explain why the AGN is unable to sustain the ionization seen there. Thus, the AGN in M84 is not simply a scaled down quasar. The gas density is pivotal in deciding between an accretion disk and a spherically symmetric infall as the origin for the broademission line seen in M84.

  7. Evidence for a Broad Relativistic Iron Line from the Neutron Star LMXB Ser X-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharyya, Sudip; Strohmayer, Tod E.

    2007-01-01

    We report on an analysis of XMM-Newton data from the neutron star low mass X-ray binary (LMXB) Serpens X-1 (Ser X-1). Spectral analysis of EPIC PN data indicates that the previously known broad iron Ka emission line in this source has a significantly skewed structure with a moderately extended red wing. The asymmetric shape of the line is well described with the laor and diskline models in XSPEC, which strongly supports an inner accretion disk origin of the line. To our knowledge this is the first strong evidence for a relativistic line in a neutron star LMXB. This finding suggests that the broad lines seen in other neutron star LMXBs likely originate from the inner disk as well. Detailed study of such lines opens up a new way to probe neutron star parameters and their strong gravitational fields. The laor model describes the line from Ser X-1 somewhat better than diskline, and suggests that the inner accretion disk radius is less than 6GM/c(exp 2). This is consistent with the weak magnetic fields of LMXBs, and may point towards a high compactness and rapid spin of the neutron star. Finally, the inferred source inclination angle in the approximate range 50-60 deg is consistent with the lack of dipping from Ser X-1.

  8. Clustering Measurements of broad-line AGNs: Review and Future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirko Krumpe

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Despite substantial effort, the precise physical processes that lead to the growth of super-massive black holes in the centers of galaxies are still not well understood. These phases of black hole growth are thought to be of key importance in understanding galaxy evolution. Forthcoming missions such as eROSITA, HETDEX, eBOSS, BigBOSS, LSST, and Pan-STARRS will compile by far the largest ever Active Galactic Nuclei (AGNs catalogs which will allow us to measure the spatial distribution of AGNs in the universe with unprecedented accuracy. For the first time, AGN clustering measurements will reach a level of precision that will not only allow for an alternative approach to answering open questions in AGN and galaxy co-evolution but will open a new frontier, allowing us to precisely determine cosmological parameters. This paper reviews large-scale clustering measurements of broad line AGNs. We summarize how clustering is measured and which constraints can be derived from AGN clustering measurements, we discuss recent developments, and we briefly describe future projects that will deliver extremely large AGN samples which will enable AGN clustering measurements of unprecedented accuracy. In order to maximize the scientific return on the research fields of AGN and galaxy evolution and cosmology, we advise that the community develops a full understanding of the systematic uncertainties which will, in contrast to today’s measurement, be the dominant source of uncertainty.

  9. X-Ray Continua of Broad Absorption Line Quasars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathur, S.

    1999-01-01

    The targets for this program, PG1416-129 and LBQS 2212-1759 were known to be Broad Absorption Line Quasars (BALQSOs). BALQSOs are highly absorbed in soft X-rays. Good high energy response of Rossi-XTE made them ideal targets for observation. We observed LBQS 2212-1759 with PCA. We have now analyzed the data and found that the source was not detected. Since our target was expected to be faint, reliable estimate of background was very important. With the release of new FTOOLS (version 4.1) we were able to do so. We also analyzed a well known bright object and verified our results with the published data. This gave us confidence in the non-detection of our target LBQS 2212-1759. We are currently investigating the implications of this non-detection. Due to some scheduling problems, our second target PG1416-129 was not observed in A01. It was observed on 06/26/98. This target was detected with RXTE. We are now working on the spectral analysis with XSPEC.

  10. Long-Term Monitoring of the Broad-Line Region Properties in a Selected Sample of AGN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragana Ilić

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available We present the results of the long-term optical monitoring campaign of active galactic nuclei (AGN coordinated by the Special Astrophysical Observatory of the Russian Academy of Science. This campaign has produced a remarkable set of optical spectra, since we have monitored for several decades different types of broad-line (type 1 AGN, from a Seyfert 1, double-peaked line, radio loud and radio quiet AGN, to a supermassive binary black hole candidate. Our analysis of the properties of the broad line region (BLR of these objects is based on the variability of the broad emission lines. We hereby give a comparative review of the variability properties of the broad emission lines and the BLR of seven different type 1 AGNs, emphasizing some important results, such as the variability rate, the BLR geometry, and the presence of the intrinsic Baldwin effect. We are discussing the difference and similarity in the continuum and emission line variability, focusing on what is the impact of our results to the supermassive black hole mass determination from the BLR properties.

  11. Study of transmission line attenuation in broad band millimeter wave frequency range

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pandya, Hitesh Kumar B. [ITER-India, IPR, Gandhinagar, Gujarat (India); Austin, M. E. [Institute for Fusion Studies, the University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas (United States); Ellis, R. F. [Laboratory for Plasma and Fusion Energy Studies, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742 (United States)

    2013-10-15

    Broad band millimeter wave transmission lines are used in fusion plasma diagnostics such as electron cyclotron emission (ECE), electron cyclotron absorption, reflectometry and interferometry systems. In particular, the ECE diagnostic for ITER will require efficient transmission over an ultra wide band, 100 to 1000 GHz. A circular corrugated waveguide transmission line is a prospective candidate to transmit such wide band with low attenuation. To evaluate this system, experiments of transmission line attenuation were performed and compared with theoretical loss calculations. A millimeter wave Michelson interferometer and a liquid nitrogen black body source are used to perform all the experiments. Atmospheric water vapor lines and continuum absorption within this band are reported. Ohmic attenuation in corrugated waveguide is very low; however, there is Bragg scattering and higher order mode conversion that can cause significant attenuation in this transmission line. The attenuation due to miter bends, gaps, joints, and curvature are estimated. The measured attenuation of 15 m length with seven miter bends and eighteen joints is 1 dB at low frequency (300 GHz) and 10 dB at high frequency (900 GHz), respectively.

  12. Study of transmission line attenuation in broad band millimeter wave frequency range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandya, Hitesh Kumar B; Austin, M E; Ellis, R F

    2013-10-01

    Broad band millimeter wave transmission lines are used in fusion plasma diagnostics such as electron cyclotron emission (ECE), electron cyclotron absorption, reflectometry and interferometry systems. In particular, the ECE diagnostic for ITER will require efficient transmission over an ultra wide band, 100 to 1000 GHz. A circular corrugated waveguide transmission line is a prospective candidate to transmit such wide band with low attenuation. To evaluate this system, experiments of transmission line attenuation were performed and compared with theoretical loss calculations. A millimeter wave Michelson interferometer and a liquid nitrogen black body source are used to perform all the experiments. Atmospheric water vapor lines and continuum absorption within this band are reported. Ohmic attenuation in corrugated waveguide is very low; however, there is Bragg scattering and higher order mode conversion that can cause significant attenuation in this transmission line. The attenuation due to miter bends, gaps, joints, and curvature are estimated. The measured attenuation of 15 m length with seven miter bends and eighteen joints is 1 dB at low frequency (300 GHz) and 10 dB at high frequency (900 GHz), respectively.

  13. A CENSUS OF BROAD-LINE ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI IN NEARBY GALAXIES: COEVAL STAR FORMATION AND RAPID BLACK HOLE GROWTH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trump, Jonathan R.; Fang, Jerome J.; Faber, S. M.; Koo, David C.; Kocevski, Dale D. [University of California Observatories/Lick Observatory and Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Hsu, Alexander D. [The Harker School, 500 Saratoga Avenue, San Jose, CA 95129 (United States)

    2013-02-15

    We present the first quantified, statistical map of broad-line active galactic nucleus (AGN) frequency with host galaxy color and stellar mass in nearby (0.01 < z < 0.11) galaxies. Aperture photometry and z-band concentration measurements from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey are used to disentangle AGN and galaxy emission, resulting in estimates of uncontaminated galaxy rest-frame color, luminosity, and stellar mass. Broad-line AGNs are distributed throughout the blue cloud and green valley at a given stellar mass, and are much rarer in quiescent (red sequence) galaxies. This is in contrast to the published host galaxy properties of weaker narrow-line AGNs, indicating that broad-line AGNs occur during a different phase in galaxy evolution. More luminous broad-line AGNs have bluer host galaxies, even at fixed mass, suggesting that the same processes that fuel nuclear activity also efficiently form stars. The data favor processes that simultaneously fuel both star formation activity and rapid supermassive black hole accretion. If AGNs cause feedback on their host galaxies in the nearby universe, the evidence of galaxy-wide quenching must be delayed until after the broad-line AGN phase.

  14. Constraining the geometry, size scale and physical conditions of outflowing broad absorption line regions in quasars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Sui Chi

    Quasars are known for generating luminosities of up to 1047 erg s--1 in volumes of scales smaller than 2 x 10 15 cm. The optical/UV continuum emission is generally believed to arise from a rotating accretion disk (AD) surrounding a supermassive black hole (SMBH) of ˜ 108 M⊙ . Such emission can be calculated by treating the AD as a multi-temperature blackbody. While the continuum emitting region is well defined, the properties, location and kinematics of the broad emission line regions (BELRs) and broad absorption line regions (BALRs) remain unclear. On one hand, the reverberation mapping technique can give constraints on the location of the BELRs, but not the kinematics. On the other hand, the line-of-sight kinematics of the BALRs is directly observable, but their locations are not well constrained, resulting in a large range of inferred distances, from 0.01 pc to tens of kpc. Therefore, I combined observational results to investigate the geometry, size, and physical conditions of the BELRs and BALRs. I verified that the Lyalpha and CIV BELRs are located at a similar distance. Using these findings, I was able to constrain the size of the Lyalpha BELR and place a lower limit on the size of the N V BALR. I built an empirical model with the optical/UV continuum emission from the AD, the BELR from the chromosphere of the AD, and the outflowing BALR. In the continuum region, I found that over 95 percent of the total flux comes from the region at ~ 125rg, where rg is the gravitational radius of the SMBH. For the BELRs, I computed a disk-wind model with relativistic effects to explain the often-observed single-peaked BEL profiles. However, I show that such a model cannot explain the observed blue asymmetries in the high-ionization BELs or their blueshifted peaks relative to low-ionization BELs. Using results on time variability of BALR gas, and assuming the variability is caused by the gas moving perpendicular across the line-of-sight over a time scale of about a year

  15. Emission Lines of Northern Planetary Nebulae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aksaker, Nazim; Yerli, Sinan K.; Kızıloǧlu, Ümit; Atalay, Betül

    2017-10-01

    In this work, we present results of long slit spectrophotometric emission line flux observations of selected planetary nebulae (PNe). We have measured absolute fluxes and equivalent widths (EW) of all observable emission lines. In addition to these observations, electron temperatures (Te), densities (Ne), and chemical abundances were also calculated. The main purpose of this work is to fill the gaps in emission line flux standards for the northern hemisphere. It is expected that the measured fluxes would be used as standard data set for further photometric and spectrometric measurements of HII regions, supernova remnants etc.

  16. Hidden Broad-line Regions in Seyfert 2 Galaxies: From the Spectropolarimetric Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Pu; Wang, Jian-Min; Zhang, Zhi-Xiang

    2017-05-01

    The hidden broad-line regions (BLRs) in Seyfert 2 galaxies, which display broad emission lines (BELs) in their polarized spectra, are a key piece of evidence in support of the unified model for active galactic nuclei (AGNs). However, the detailed kinematics and geometry of hidden BLRs are still not fully understood. The virial factor obtained from reverberation mapping of type 1 AGNs may be a useful diagnostic of the nature of hidden BLRs in type 2 objects. In order to understand the hidden BLRs, we compile six type 2 objects from the literature with polarized BELs and dynamical measurements of black hole masses. All of them contain pseudobulges. We estimate their virial factors, and find the average value is 0.60 and the standard deviation is 0.69, which agree well with the value of type 1 AGNs with pseudobulges. This study demonstrates that (1) the geometry and kinematics of BLR are similar in type 1 and type 2 AGNs of the same bulge type (pseudobulges), and (2) the small values of virial factors in Seyfert 2 galaxies suggest that, similar to type 1 AGNs, BLRs tend to be very thick disks in type 2 objects.

  17. The Relationship Between Luminosity and Broad-Line Region Size in Active Galactic Nuclei

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaspi, Shai; Maoz, Dan; Netzer, Hagai

    2005-01-01

    We reinvestigate the relationship between the characteristic broad-line region size (R_blr) and the Balmer emission-line, X-ray, UV, and optical continuum luminosities. Our study makes use of the best available determinations of R_blr for a large number of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) from...... Peterson et al. Using their determinations of R_blr for a large sample of AGNs and two different regression methods, we investigate the robustness of our correlation results as a function of data sub-sample and regression technique. Though small systematic differences were found depending on the method...... of analysis, our results are generally consistent. Assuming a power-law relation R_blr \\propto L^\\alpha, we find the mean best-fitting \\alpha is about 0.67+/-0.05 for the optical continuum and the broad H\\beta luminosity, about 0.56+/-0.05 for the UV continuum luminosity, and about 0.70+/-0.14 for the X...

  18. REVERBERATION AND PHOTOIONIZATION ESTIMATES OF THE BROAD-LINE REGION RADIUS IN LOW-z QUASARS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Negrete, C. Alenka [Instituto Nacional de Astrofisica, Optica y Electronica (Mexico); Dultzin, Deborah [Instituto de Astronomia, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (Mexico); Marziani, Paola [INAF, Astronomical Observatory of Padova, I-35122 Padova (Italy); Sulentic, Jack W., E-mail: cnegrete@inaoep.mx, E-mail: deborah@astro.unam.mx, E-mail: paola.marziani@oapd.inaf.it, E-mail: sulentic@iaa.es [Instituto de Astrofisica de Andalucia, E-18008 Granada (Spain)

    2013-07-01

    Black hole mass estimation in quasars, especially at high redshift, involves the use of single-epoch spectra with signal-to-noise ratio and resolution that permit accurate measurement of the width of a broad line assumed to be a reliable virial estimator. Coupled with an estimate of the radius of the broad-line region (BLR) this yields the black hole mass M{sub BH}. The radius of the BLR may be inferred from an extrapolation of the correlation between source luminosity and reverberation-derived r{sub BLR} measures (the so-called Kaspi relation involving about 60 low-z sources). We are exploring a different method for estimating r{sub BLR} directly from inferred physical conditions in the BLR of each source. We report here on a comparison of r{sub BLR} estimates that come from our method and from reverberation mapping. Our ''photoionization'' method employs diagnostic line intensity ratios in the rest-frame range 1400-2000 A (Al III {lambda}1860/Si III] {lambda}1892, C IV {lambda}1549/Al III {lambda}1860) that enable derivation of the product of density and ionization parameter with the BLR distance derived from the definition of the ionization parameter. We find good agreement between our estimates of the density, ionization parameter, and r{sub BLR} and those from reverberation mapping. We suggest empirical corrections to improve the agreement between individual photoionization-derived r{sub BLR} values and those obtained from reverberation mapping. The results in this paper can be exploited to estimate M{sub BH} for large samples of high-z quasars using an appropriate virial broadening estimator. We show that the width of the UV intermediate emission lines are consistent with the width of H{beta}, thereby providing a reliable virial broadening estimator that can be measured in large samples of high-z quasars.

  19. VARIABLE REDDENING AND BROAD ABSORPTION LINES IN THE NARROW-LINE SEYFERT 1 GALAXY WPVS 007: AN ORIGIN IN THE TORUS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leighly, Karen M.; Cooper, Erin [Homer L. Dodge Department of Physics and Astronomy, The University of Oklahoma, 440 W. Brooks Street, Norman, OK 73019 (United States); Grupe, Dirk [Department of Earth and Space Science, Morehead State University, 235 Martindale Drive, Morehead, KY 40351 (United States); Terndrup, Donald M. [Department of Astronomy, The Ohio State University, 140 W. 18th Avenue, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Komossa, S. [Max-Planck Institut für Radioastronmie, Auf dem Hügel 69, D-53121 Bonn (Germany)

    2015-08-10

    We report the discovery of an occultation event in the low-luminosity narrow-line Seyfert 1 galaxy WPVS 007 in 2015 February and March. In concert with longer timescale variability, these observations place strong constraints on the nature and location of the absorbing material. Swift monitoring has revealed a secular decrease since ∼2010 accompanied by flattening of the optical and UV photometry that suggests variable reddening. Analysis of four Hubble Space Telescope COS observations since 2010, including a Director’s Discretionary time observation during the occultation, shows that the broad-absorption-line velocity offset and the C iv emission-line width both decrease as the reddening increases. The occultation dynamical timescale, the BAL variability dynamical timescale, and the density of the BAL gas show that both the reddening material and the broad-absorption-line gas are consistent with an origin in the torus. These observations can be explained by a scenario in which the torus is clumpy with variable scale height, and the BAL gas is blown from the torus material like spray from the crest of a wave. As the obscuring material passes into our line of sight, we alternately see high-velocity broad absorption lines and a clear view to the central engine, or low-velocity broad absorption lines and strong reddening. WPVS 007 has a small black hole mass, and correspondingly short timescales, and so we may be observing behavior that is common in BALQSOs, but is not typically observable.

  20. The Relationship between Mg ii Broad Emission and Quasar Inclination Angle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Conor Wildy

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Several observed spectral properties of quasars are believed to be influenced by quasar orientation. In this investigation we examine the effect of orientation on the Mg ii line located at 2,798 Å in a sample of 36 radio-loud quasars, with orientation angles having been obtained in a previous study using radio observations. We find no significant relationship between orientation angle and either Mg ii line full-width at half-maximum or equivalent width. The lack of correlation with inclination angle contradicts previous studies which also use radio data as a proxy for inclination angle and suggests the Mg ii emission region does not occupy a disk-like geometry. The lack of correlation with Mg ii equivalent width, however, is reported in at least one previous study. Although the significance is not very strong (86%, there is a possible negative relationship between inclination angle and Fe ii strength which, if true, could explain the Fe ii anti-correlation with [O iii] strength associated with Eigenvector 1. Interestingly, there are objects having almost edge-on inclinations while still exhibiting broad lines. This could be explained by a torus which is either clumpy (allowing sight lines to the central engine or mis-aligned with the accretion disk.

  1. Central Masses and Broad-Line Region Sizes of Active Galactic Nuclei. II. A Homogeneous Analysis of a Large Reverberation-Mapping Database

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peterson, B. M.; Ferrarese, L.; Gilbert, K. M.

    2004-01-01

    We present improved black hole masses for 35 active galactic nuclei (AGNs) based on a complete and consistent reanalysis of broad emission-line reverberation-mapping data. From objects with multiple line measurements, we find that the highest precision measure of the virial product is obtained by...

  2. A new method to obtain the broad line region size of high redshift quasars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Negrete, C. Alenka [Instituto Nacional de Astrofísica, Óptica y Electrónica (Mexico); Dultzin, Deborah [Instituto de Astronomía, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México (Mexico); Marziani, Paola [INAF, Astronomical Observatory of Padova (Italy); Sulentic, Jack W., E-mail: cnegrete@inaoep.mx, E-mail: deborah@astro.unam.mx, E-mail: paola.marziani@oapd.inaf.it, E-mail: sulentic@iaa.es [Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía (Spain)

    2014-10-10

    We present high signal-to-noise ratio UV spectra for eight quasars at z ∼ 3 obtained with Very Large Telescope/FORS. The spectra enable us to analyze in detail the strong and weak emission features in the rest frame range 1300-2000 Å of each source (C III] λ1909, Si III] λ1892, Al III λ1860, Si II λ1814, C IV λ1549 and blended Si IV λ1397+O IV] λ1402). The flux ratios Al III λ1860/Si III] λ1892, C IV λ1549/Al III λ1860, Si IV λ1397+O IV] λ1402/Si III] λ1892 and Si IV λ1397+O IV] λ1402/C IV λ1549 strongly constrain ionizing photon flux and metallicity through the use of diagnostic maps built from CLOUDY simulations. The radius of the broad line region is then derived from the ionizing photon flux applying the definition of the ionization parameter. The r {sub BLR} estimate and the width of a virial component isolated in prominent UV lines yields an estimate of black hole mass. We compare our results with previous estimates obtained from the r {sub BLR}-luminosity correlation customarily employed to estimate the black hole masses of high redshift quasars.

  3. DISCOVERY OF POLARIZED LINE EMISSION IN SN 1006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sparks, W. B.; Pringle, J. E.; Long, K. S.; Cracraft, M. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Carswell, R. F., E-mail: sparks@stsci.edu [Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge, CB3 0HA (United Kingdom)

    2015-12-10

    Laming predicted that the narrow Balmer line core of the ∼3000 km s{sup −1} shock in the SN 1006 remnant would be significantly polarized due to electron and proton impact polarization. Here, based on deep spectrally resolved polarimetry obtained with the European Southern Observatory (ESO)’s Very Large Telescope (VLT), we report the discovery of polarized line emission with a polarization degree of 1.3% and position angle orthogonal to the SNR filament. Correcting for an unpolarized broad line component, the implied narrow line polarization is ≈2.0%, close to the predictions of Laming. The predicted polarization is primarily sensitive to shock velocity and post-shock temperature equilibration. By measuring polarization for the SN 1006 remnant, we validate and enable a new diagnostic that has important applications in a wide variety of astrophysical situations, such as shocks, intense radiation fields, high energy particle streams, and conductive interfaces.

  4. Variable Reddening and Broad Absorption Lines in the Narrow-line Seyfert 1 Galaxy WPVS 007: An Origin in the Torus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leighly, Karen M.; Cooper, Erin; Grupe, Dirk; Terndrup, Donald M.; Komossa, S.

    2015-08-01

    We report the discovery of an occultation event in the low-luminosity narrow-line Seyfert 1 galaxy WPVS 007 in 2015 February and March. In concert with longer timescale variability, these observations place strong constraints on the nature and location of the absorbing material. Swift monitoring has revealed a secular decrease since ∼2010 accompanied by flattening of the optical and UV photometry that suggests variable reddening. Analysis of four Hubble Space Telescope COS observations since 2010, including a Director’s Discretionary time observation during the occultation, shows that the broad-absorption-line velocity offset and the C iv emission-line width both decrease as the reddening increases. The occultation dynamical timescale, the BAL variability dynamical timescale, and the density of the BAL gas show that both the reddening material and the broad-absorption-line gas are consistent with an origin in the torus. These observations can be explained by a scenario in which the torus is clumpy with variable scale height, and the BAL gas is blown from the torus material like spray from the crest of a wave. As the obscuring material passes into our line of sight, we alternately see high-velocity broad absorption lines and a clear view to the central engine, or low-velocity broad absorption lines and strong reddening. WPVS 007 has a small black hole mass, and correspondingly short timescales, and so we may be observing behavior that is common in BALQSOs, but is not typically observable. Based on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS 5-26555. These observations are associated with programs 11733, 13015, and 14058.

  5. On the relationship between X-ray, MIR and bolometric luminosities of broad line QSOs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrera, F.; Fernandez-Manteca, P.; Mateos, S.

    2017-10-01

    We have studied a sample of ˜3800 broad-line QSO from SDSS DR12 (0.2≤ z≤ 3.7), cross-correlating it with 3XMM DR6 to get X-ray fluxes and luminosities (using FLIX to get upper limits) and using the results from unWISE to get MIR fluxes and luminosities (and upper limits). As in previous works, we find a flattening of the 2-10keV vs. 6μm luminosity relationship for the most luminous objects (43≤ log(L_{X}/cgs)≤ 47, 43≤ log(ν L_{ν,6μm}/cgs)≤ 47) with respect to that found for Sy1, which we show that continues within our luminous sample. Using the bolometric luminosities (44≤ log(L_{bol}/cgs)≤47) from the optical continuum, there is no trend of the MIR-L_{bol} ratio with L_{bol}. On the contrary, the L_{X}-L_{bol} ratio clearly decreases with increasing L_{bol}, even slightly faster than the Marconi+04 relationship and similarly to Lusso&Risaliti'17. We also briefly discuss the implication of these results on models for the X-ray and MIR emission of QSOs and on their implication for studies of AGN-galaxy coevolution.

  6. Reverberation Mapping of Optical Emission Lines in Five Active Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fausnaugh, M. M.; Grier, C. J.; Bentz, M. C.; Denney, K. D.; De Rosa, G.; Peterson, B. M.; Kochanek, C. S.; Pogge, R. W.; Adams, S. M.; Barth, A. J.; Beatty, Thomas G.; Bhattacharjee, A.; Borman, G. A.; Boroson, T. A.; Bottorff, M. C.; Brown, Jacob E.; Brown, Jonathan S.; Brotherton, M. S.; Coker, C. T.; Crawford, S. M.; Croxall, K. V.; Eftekharzadeh, Sarah; Eracleous, Michael; Joner, M. D.; Henderson, C. B.; Holoien, T. W.-S.; Horne, Keith; Hutchison, T.; Kaspi, Shai; Kim, S.; King, Anthea L.; Li, Miao; Lochhaas, Cassandra; Ma, Zhiyuan; MacInnis, F.; Manne-Nicholas, E. R.; Mason, M.; Montuori, Carmen; Mosquera, Ana; Mudd, Dale; Musso, R.; Nazarov, S. V.; Nguyen, M. L.; Okhmat, D. N.; Onken, Christopher A.; Ou-Yang, B.; Pancoast, A.; Pei, L.; Penny, Matthew T.; Poleski, Radosław; Rafter, Stephen; Romero-Colmenero, E.; Runnoe, Jessie; Sand, David J.; Schimoia, Jaderson S.; Sergeev, S. G.; Shappee, B. J.; Simonian, Gregory V.; Somers, Garrett; Spencer, M.; Starkey, D. A.; Stevens, Daniel J.; Tayar, Jamie; Treu, T.; Valenti, Stefano; Van Saders, J.; Villanueva, S., Jr.; Villforth, C.; Weiss, Yaniv; Winkler, H.; Zhu, W.

    2017-05-01

    We present the first results from an optical reverberation mapping campaign executed in 2014 targeting the active galactic nuclei (AGNs) MCG+08-11-011, NGC 2617, NGC 4051, 3C 382, and Mrk 374. Our targets have diverse and interesting observational properties, including a “changing look” AGN and a broad-line radio galaxy. Based on continuum-Hβ lags, we measure black hole masses for all five targets. We also obtain Hγ and He II λ4686 lags for all objects except 3C 382. The He II λ4686 lags indicate radial stratification of the BLR, and the masses derived from different emission lines are in general agreement. The relative responsivities of these lines are also in qualitative agreement with photoionization models. These spectra have extremely high signal-to-noise ratios (100-300 per pixel) and there are excellent prospects for obtaining velocity-resolved reverberation signatures.

  7. Reverberation Mapping of Optical Emission Lines in Five Active Galaxies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fausnaugh, M. M.; Denney, K. D.; Peterson, B. M.; Kochanek, C. S.; Pogge, R. W.; Brown, Jonathan S.; Coker, C. T. [Department of Astronomy, The Ohio State University, 140 W. 18th Avenue, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Grier, C. J.; Beatty, Thomas G. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The Pennsylvania State University, 525 Davey Laboratory, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Bentz, M. C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Georgia State University, Atlanta, GA 30303 (United States); Rosa, G. De [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Adams, S. M. [Cahill Center for Astrophysics, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Barth, A. J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, 4129 Frederick Reines Hall, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697 (United States); Bhattacharjee, A.; Brotherton, M. S. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Wyoming, 1000 E. University Avenue, Laramie, WY (United States); Borman, G. A. [Crimean Astrophysical Observatory, P/O Nauchny, Crimea 298409 (Russian Federation); Boroson, T. A. [Las Cumbres Global Telescope Network, 6740 Cortona Drive, Suite 102, Santa Barbara, CA 93117 (United States); Bottorff, M. C. [Fountainwood Observatory, Department of Physics FJS 149, Southwestern University, 1011 E. University Avenue, Georgetown, TX 78626 (United States); Brown, Jacob E. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Missouri, Columbia (United States); Crawford, S. M. [South African Astronomical Observatory, P.O. Box 9, Observatory 7935, Cape Town (South Africa); and others

    2017-05-10

    We present the first results from an optical reverberation mapping campaign executed in 2014 targeting the active galactic nuclei (AGNs) MCG+08-11-011, NGC 2617, NGC 4051, 3C 382, and Mrk 374. Our targets have diverse and interesting observational properties, including a “changing look” AGN and a broad-line radio galaxy. Based on continuum-H β lags, we measure black hole masses for all five targets. We also obtain H γ and He ii λ 4686 lags for all objects except 3C 382. The He ii λ 4686 lags indicate radial stratification of the BLR, and the masses derived from different emission lines are in general agreement. The relative responsivities of these lines are also in qualitative agreement with photoionization models. These spectra have extremely high signal-to-noise ratios (100–300 per pixel) and there are excellent prospects for obtaining velocity-resolved reverberation signatures.

  8. Emission line imaging of 3CR quasars and radio galaxies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hes, R; Barthel, PD; Fosbury, RAE

    Optical emission line images and spectra of sixteen 3CR powerful radio galaxies and quasars are presented. Extended line emission is detected in both radio galaxies and quasars. We show that line luminosities, derived from the spatially integrated [OII]lambda 3727 narrow emission line, are on

  9. Accurate Emission Line Diagnostics at High Redshift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Tucker

    2017-08-01

    How do the physical conditions of high redshift galaxies differ from those seen locally? Spectroscopic surveys have invested hundreds of nights of 8- and 10-meter telescope time as well as hundreds of Hubble orbits to study evolution in the galaxy population at redshifts z 0.5-4 using rest-frame optical strong emission line diagnostics. These surveys reveal evolution in the gas excitation with redshift but the physical cause is not yet understood. Consequently there are large systematic errors in derived quantities such as metallicity.We have used direct measurements of gas density, temperature, and metallicity in a unique sample at z=0.8 to determine reliable diagnostics for high redshift galaxies. Our measurements suggest that offsets in emission line ratios at high redshift are primarily caused by high N/O abundance ratios. However, our ground-based data cannot rule out other interpretations. Spatially resolved Hubble grism spectra are needed to distinguish between the remaining plausible causes such as active nuclei, shocks, diffuse ionized gas emission, and HII regions with escaping ionizing flux. Identifying the physical origin of evolving excitation will allow us to build the necessary foundation for accurate measurements of metallicity and other properties of high redshift galaxies. Only then can we expoit the wealth of data from current surveys and near-future JWST spectroscopy to understand how galaxies evolve over time.

  10. A Revised Broad-line Region Radius and Black Hole Mass for the Narrow-line Seyfert 1 NGC 4051

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Denney, K. D.; Watson, L. C.; Peterson, B. M.

    2009-01-01

    ) radius and the optical continuum luminosity—the R BLR-L relationship. Our new measurements of the lag time between variations in the continuum and Hß emission line made from spectroscopic monitoring of NGC 4051 lead to a measured BLR radius of R BLR = 1.87+0.54 -0.50 light days and black hole mass of M...

  11. Detection of Rest-frame Optical Lines from X-shooter Spectroscopy of Weak Emission Line Quasars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plotkin, Richard M.; Shemmer, Ohad; Trakhtenbrot, Benny; Anderson, Scott F.; Brandt, W. N.; Fan, Xiaohui; Gallo, Elena; Lira, Paulina; Luo, Bin; Richards, Gordon T.; Schneider, Donald P.; Strauss, Michael A.; Wu, Jianfeng

    2015-06-01

    Over the past 15 yr, examples of exotic radio-quiet quasars with intrinsically weak or absent broad emission line regions (BELRs) have emerged from large-scale spectroscopic sky surveys. Here, we present spectroscopy of seven such weak emission line quasars (WLQs) at moderate redshifts (z = 1.4-1.7) using the X-shooter spectrograph, which provides simultaneous optical and near-infrared spectroscopy covering the rest-frame ultraviolet (UV) through optical. These new observations effectively double the number of WLQs with spectroscopy in the optical rest-frame, and they allow us to compare the strengths of (weak) high-ionization emission lines (e.g., C iv) to low-ionization lines (e.g., Mg ii, Hβ, Hα) in individual objects. We detect broad Hβ and Hα emission in all objects, and these lines are generally toward the weaker end of the distribution expected for typical quasars (e.g., Hβ has rest-frame equivalent widths ranging from 15-40 Å). However, these low-ionization lines are not exceptionally weak, as is the case for high-ionization lines in WLQs. The X-shooter spectra also display relatively strong optical Fe ii emission, Hβ FWHM ≲ 4000 km s-1, and significant C iv blueshifts (≈1000-5500 km s-1) relative to the systemic redshift; two spectra also show elevated UV Fe ii emission, and an outflowing component to their (weak) Mg ii emission lines. These properties suggest that WLQs are exotic versions of “wind-dominated” quasars. Their BELRs either have unusual high-ionization components, or their BELRs are in an atypical photoionization state because of an unusually soft continuum. Based on observations made with ESO Telescopes at the La Silla Paranal Observatory under program IDs 088.B-0355 and 090.B-0438.

  12. REVERBERATION MAPPING WITH INTERMEDIATE-BAND PHOTOMETRY: DETECTION OF BROAD-LINE Hα TIME LAGS FOR QUASARS AT 0.2 < z < 0.4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Linhua [Kavli Institute for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Shen, Yue [Department of Astronomy, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); McGreer, Ian D.; Fan, Xiaohui [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Morganson, Eric [National Center for Supercomputing Applications, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Windhorst, Rogier A., E-mail: jiangKIAA@pku.edu.cn [School of Earth and Space Exploration, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287 (United States)

    2016-02-20

    We present a reverberation mapping (RM) experiment that combines broad- and intermediate-band photometry; it is the first such attempt targeting 13 quasars at 0.2 < z < 0.9. The quasars were selected to have strong Hα or Hβ emission lines that are located in one of three intermediate bands (with FWHM around 200 Å) centered at 8045, 8505, and 9171 Å. The imaging observations were carried out in the intermediate bands and the broad i and z bands using the prime-focus imager 90Prime on the 2.3 m Bok telescope. Because of the large (∼1 deg{sup 2}) field of view (FOV) of 90Prime, we included the 13 quasars within only five telescope pointings or fields. The five fields were repeatedly observed over 20–30 epochs that were unevenly distributed over a duration of 5–6 months. The combination of the broad- and intermediate-band photometry allows us to derive accurate light curves for both optical continuum emission (from the accretion disk) and line emission (from the broad-line region, or BLR). We detect Hα time lags between the continuum and line emission in six quasars. These quasars are at relatively low redshifts 0.2 < z < 0.4. The measured lags are consistent with the current BLR size–luminosity relation for Hβ at z < 0.3. While this experiment appears successful in detecting lags of the bright Hα line, further investigation is required to see if it can also be applied to the fainter Hβ line for quasars at higher redshifts. Finally we demonstrate that, by using a small telescope with a large FOV, intermediate-band photometric RM can be efficiently executed for a large sample of quasars at z > 0.2.

  13. THE SLOAN DIGITAL SKY SURVEY REVERBERATION MAPPING PROJECT: RAPID C iv BROAD ABSORPTION LINE VARIABILITY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grier, C. J.; Brandt, W. N.; Trump, J. R.; Schneider, D. P. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics and Institute for Gravitation and the Cosmos, The Pennsylvania State University, 525 Davey Laboratory, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Hall, P. B. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, York University, Toronto, ON M3J 1P3 (Canada); Shen, Yue [Carnegie Observatories, 813 Santa Barbara Street, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); Vivek, M.; Dawson, K. S. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT 84112 (United States); Ak, N. Filiz [Faculty of Sciences, Department of Astronomy and Space Sciences, Erciyes University, 38039 Kayseri (Turkey); Chen, Yuguang [Department of Astronomy, School of Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Denney, K. D.; Kochanek, C. S.; Peterson, B. M. [Department of Astronomy, The Ohio State University, 140 West 18th Avenue, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Green, Paul J. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Jiang, Linhua [Kavli Institute for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); McGreer, Ian D. [Steward Observatory, The University of Arizona, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721-0065 (United States); Pâris, I. [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Trieste, Via G. B. Tiepolo 11, I-34131 Trieste (Italy); Tao, Charling [Centre de Physique des Particules de Marseille, Aix-Marseille Universite, CNRS /IN2P3, 163, avenue de Luminy, Case 902, F-13288 Marseille Cedex 09 (France); Wood-Vasey, W. M. [PITT PACC, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Pittsburgh, 3941 O’Hara Street, Pittsburgh, PA 15260 (United States); Bizyaev, Dmitry, E-mail: grier@psu.edu [Apache Point Observatory and New Mexico State University, P.O. Box 59, Sunspot, NM, 88349-0059 (United States); and others

    2015-06-10

    We report the discovery of rapid variations of a high-velocity C iv broad absorption line trough in the quasar SDSS J141007.74+541203.3. This object was intensively observed in 2014 as a part of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Reverberation Mapping Project, during which 32 epochs of spectroscopy were obtained with the Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey spectrograph. We observe significant (>4σ) variability in the equivalent width (EW) of the broad (∼4000 km s{sup −1} wide) C iv trough on rest-frame timescales as short as 1.20 days (∼29 hr), the shortest broad absorption line variability timescale yet reported. The EW varied by ∼10% on these short timescales, and by about a factor of two over the duration of the campaign. We evaluate several potential causes of the variability, concluding that the most likely cause is a rapid response to changes in the incident ionizing continuum. If the outflow is at a radius where the recombination rate is higher than the ionization rate, the timescale of variability places a lower limit on the density of the absorbing gas of n{sub e} ≳ 3.9 × 10{sup 5} cm{sup −3}. The broad absorption line variability characteristics of this quasar are consistent with those observed in previous studies of quasars, indicating that such short-term variability may in fact be common and thus can be used to learn about outflow characteristics and contributions to quasar/host-galaxy feedback scenarios.

  14. The Emission Line Luminosity Functions Of hα, OII, And OIII At 0PEARS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirzkal, Norbert; Malhotra, S.; Rhoads, J. E.; Ly, C.; Rothberg, B.; Straughn, A.; Meurer, G.

    2012-01-01

    Emission line galaxies are a powerful tracer of star formation in the Universe. By computing and examining the shape of the line luminosity function (the number density per logarithmic interval in line luminosity) we can study how star formation occurred in star forming galaxies. We can also look for variation in the line luminosity function of these objects as a function of redshift to look for evidence of evolution in the way star formation took place over the last few billion years. We present emission line luminosity functions obtained using the slitless grism survey data of the PEARS projects. We applied the PEARS-2D technique to pinpoint the location of line emission in field galaxies and hence were able to extract spectra of individual line emission regions in the PEARS fields, which covers a large fraction of the GOODS-N and GOODS-S fields. We detected lines with fluxes as low as 5. 10-18 erg/s/cm2 and identified Hα, OIII, OII, Hg and Lyα lines, over a redshift range of 0lines we identified are Hα (213 lines, 0lines, 0.2lines, 0.6line emission regions, multiple line emissions regions as well as several cases of multiple star forming regions in single galaxies. We present the luminosity functions for Hα, OII, and OIII computed across these relatively broad redshift ranges and conclude by examining the evolution of the Hα luminosity function from z=0.5 to z=0, the OII luminosity function from z=1.7 to z=0.6, and the OIII luminosity function from z=1.0 to z=0.2.

  15. The link between quasar broad-line region and galaxy-scale outflows and accurate CIV-based black hole masses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coatman, Liam; Hewett, Paul C.; Banerji, Manda; Richards, Gordon T.; Hennawi, Joseph F.; Prochaska, Jason X.

    2017-01-01

    Accurate black-hole (BH) mass estimates for high-redshift (z>2) quasars are essential for better understanding the relationship between super-massive BH accretion and star formation. Progress is currently limited by the large systematic errors in virial BH-masses derived from the CIV broad emission line, which is often significantly blueshifted relative to systemic, most likely due to outflowing gas in the quasar broad-line region. We have assembled Balmer-line based BH masses for a large sample of 230 high-luminosity (1045.5-1048 ergs-1), redshift 1.5CIV blueshifts seen in the quasar population. We find the CIV-based BH-masses to be larger than the corresponding Balmer line-based masses by almost an order of magnitude at the most extreme blueshifts (˜5000 kms-1). An empirical correction to the CIV BH-masses is derived, which depends only on the properties of the CIV line itself (i.e. blueshift and FWHM). We show that this new correction now enables the derivation of un-biased CIV-based virial BH masses for the majority of high-luminosity, high-redshift quasars.In the same high-luminosity quasar sample, we find the narrow [OIII] emission to be weaker and more asymmetric than is generally found in lower-luminosity AGN and that a significant fraction of our quasars have exceptionally broad (FWHM > 3000 kms-1), blueshifted [OIII] emission. We find a strong correlation between the CIV and [OIII] blueshifts. This correlation holds even for quasars at fixed luminosity and suggests that broad line region outflows in quasars are connected to galaxy-scale winds.

  16. SimBAL: A Spectral Synthesis Approach to Analyzing Broad Absorption Line Quasar Spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terndrup, Donald M.; Leighly, Karen; Gallagher, Sarah; Richards, Gordon T.

    2017-01-01

    Broad Absorption Line quasars (BALQSOs) show blueshifted absorption lines in their rest-UV spectra, indicating powerful winds emerging from the central engine. These winds are essential part of quasars: they can carry away angular momentum and thus facilitate accretion through a disk, they can distribute chemically-enriched gas through the intergalactic medium, and they may inject kinetic energy to the host galaxy, influencing its evolution. The traditional method of analyzing BALQSO spectra involves measuring myriad absorption lines, computing the inferred ionic column densities in each feature, and comparing with the output of photonionization models. This method is inefficient and does not handle line blending well. We introduce SimBAL, a spectral synthesis fitting method for BALQSOs, which compares synthetic spectra created from photoionization model results with continuum-normalized observed spectra using Bayesian model calibration. We find that we can obtain an excellent fit to the UV to near-IR spectrum of the low-redshift BALQSO SDSS J0850+4451, including lines from diverse ionization states such as PV, CIII*, SIII, Lyalpha, NV, SiIV, CIV, MgII, and HeI*.

  17. THE LICK AGN MONITORING PROJECT 2011: SPECTROSCOPIC CAMPAIGN AND EMISSION-LINE LIGHT CURVES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barth, Aaron J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, 4129 Frederick Reines Hall, University of California, Irvine, CA, 92697-4575 (United States); Bennert, Vardha N. [Physics Department, California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo, CA 93407 (United States); Canalizo, Gabriela [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Riverside, CA 92521 (United States); Filippenko, Alexei V.; Li, Weidong [Department of Astronomy, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720-3411 (United States); Gates, Elinor L. [Lick Observatory, P.O. Box 85, Mount Hamilton, CA 95140 (United States); Greene, Jenny E. [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Malkan, Matthew A.; Treu, Tommaso [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1547 (United States); Pancoast, Anna [Department of Physics, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 (United States); Sand, David J. [Texas Tech University, Physics Department, Box 41051, Lubbock, TX 79409-1051 (United States); Stern, Daniel [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Woo, Jong-Hak [Astronomy Program, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Assef, Roberto J. [Núcleo de Astronomía de la Facultad de Ingeniería, Universidad Diego Portales, Av. Ejército Libertador 441, Santiago (Chile); Bae, Hyun-Jin [Department of Astronomy and Center for Galaxy Evolution Research, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Brewer, Brendon J. [Department of Statistics, The University of Auckland, Private Bag 92019, Auckland 1142 (New Zealand); Cenko, S. Bradley [Astrophysics Science Division, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, MC 661, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); and others

    2015-04-15

    In the Spring of 2011 we carried out a 2.5 month reverberation mapping campaign using the 3 m Shane telescope at Lick Observatory, monitoring 15 low-redshift Seyfert 1 galaxies. This paper describes the observations, reductions and measurements, and data products from the spectroscopic campaign. The reduced spectra were fitted with a multicomponent model in order to isolate the contributions of various continuum and emission-line components. We present light curves of broad emission lines and the active galactic nucleus (AGN) continuum, and measurements of the broadline widths in mean and rms spectra. For the most highly variable AGNs we also measured broadline widths and velocity centroids from the nightly spectra. In four AGNs exhibiting the highest variability amplitudes, we detect anticorrelations between broad Hβ width and luminosity, demonstrating that the broad-line region “breathes” on short timescales of days to weeks in response to continuum variations. We also find that broad Hβ velocity centroids can undergo substantial changes in response to continuum variations; in NGC 4593, the broad Hβ velocity shifted by ∼250 km s{sup −1} over a 1 month period. This reverberation-induced velocity shift effect is likely to contribute a significant source of confusion noise to binary black hole searches that use multi-epoch quasar spectroscopy to detect binary orbital motion. We also present results from simulations that examine biases that can occur in measurement of broad-line widths from rms spectra due to the contributions of continuum variations and photon-counting noise.

  18. Hidden Broad Line Seyfert 2 Galaxies in the CfA and 12micron Samples

    OpenAIRE

    Tran, Hien D.

    2001-01-01

    We report the results of a spectropolarimetric survey of the CfA and 12micron samples of Seyfert 2 galaxies (S2s). Polarized (hidden) broad line regions (HBLRs) are confirmed in a number of galaxies, and several new cases (F02581-1136, MCG -3-58-7, NGC 5995, NGC 6552, NGC 7682) are reported. The 12micron S2 sample shows a significantly higher incidence of HBLR (50%) than its CfA counterpart (30%), suggesting that the latter may be incomplete in hidden AGNs. Compared to the non-HBLR S2s, the H...

  19. Evolution from modal to spatially incoherent emission of a broad-area VCSEL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandre, Shyam K; Elsässer, Wolfgang; Fischer, Ingo; Peeters, Michael; Verschaffelt, Guy

    2008-03-31

    Broad-area vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (BA-VCSELs) can exhibit a state of spatially incoherent emission, as we recently reported in [M. Peeters et al., Opt. Express, 13, 9337 (2005)]. Here, we experimentally study the evolution of a BA-VCSEL under pulsed operation from well-defined modal emission with a multitude of transverse cavity modes to such spatially incoherent emission. The transition is studied using a high-speed intensified CCD camera and differential image analysis with which single-shot measurements of the imaged nearfield, farfield, spatial coherence, and spectral emission properties are acquired. This combination of experimental characterization tools allows for a detailed description of the BA-VCSEL's emission behavior, which is necessary for an in-depth understanding of the processes involved. We find the interplay between the thermal chirp and the build-up of a spatially distributed thermal lens to be decisive for the break-up of the global cavity modes.

  20. UV spectral diagnostics for low redshift quasars: estimating physical conditions and radius of the broad line region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marziani, P.; Sulentic, J. W.; Negrete, C. A.; Dultzin, D.; Del Olmo, A.; Martínez Carballo, M. A.; Zwitter, T.; Bachev, R.

    2015-04-01

    The UV spectral range (1100-3000 Å) contains the strongest resonance lines observed in active galactic nuclei (AGN). Analysis of UV line intensity ratios and profile shapes in quasar spectra provide diagnostics of physical and dynamical conditions in the broad line emitting region. This paper discusses properties of UV lines in type-1 AGN spectra, and how they lead an estimate of ionizing photon flux, chemical abundances, radius of the broad line emitting region and central black hole mass. These estimates are meaningfully contextualised through the 4D "eigenvector-1" (4DE1) formalism.

  1. Spatially Resolving the Kinematics of the ≲ 100 μas Quasar Broad-line Region Using Spectroastrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, Jonathan; Hennawi, Joseph F.; Pott, Jörg-Uwe

    2015-05-01

    The broad-line region (BLR) of luminous active galactic nuclei (AGNs) is a prominent observational signature of the accretion flow around supermassive black holes, which can be used to measure their masses ({{M}BH}) over cosmic history. Due to the ≲ 100 μ as angular size of the BLR, current direct constraints on BLR kinematics are limited to those provided by reverberation mapping studies, which are most efficiently carried out on low-luminosity (L) and low-redshift (z) AGNs. We analyze the possibility of measuring the BLR size and study its kinematic structure using spectroastrometry, whereby one measures the spatial position centroid of emission-line photons as a function of velocity. We calculate the expected spectroastrometric signal of a rotation-dominated BLR for various assumptions about the ratio of random to rotational motions and the radial distribution of the BLR gas. We show that for hyper-luminous quasars at z\\lt 2.5, the size of the low-ionization BLR can already be constrained with existing telescopes and adaptive optics systems, thus providing a novel method to spatially resolve the kinematics of the accretion flow at 103-104 gravitational radii and measure {{M}BH} at the high-L end of the AGN family. With a 30 m class telescope, BLR spectroastrometry should be routinely detectable for much fainter quasars out to z˜ 6, and for various emission lines. This will enable kinematic {{M}BH} measurements as a function of luminosity and redshift, providing a compelling science case for next-generation telescopes.

  2. DISCOVERY OF BROAD MOLECULAR LINES AND OF SHOCKED MOLECULAR HYDROGEN FROM THE SUPERNOVA REMNANT G357.7+0.3: HHSMT, APEX, SPITZER , AND SOFIA OBSERVATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rho, J. [SETI Institute, 189 N. Bernardo Ave., Mountain View, CA 94043 (United States); Hewitt, J. W. [CRESST/University of Maryland, Baltimore County, Baltimore, MD 21250 and NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Bieging, J. [Steward Observatory, The University of Arizona, Tucson AZ 85721 (United States); Reach, W. T. [Universities Space Research Association, SOFIA Science Center, NASA Ames Research Center, MS 232, Moffett Field, CA 94034 (United States); Andersen, M. [Gemini Observatory, Casilla 603, La Serena (Chile); Güsten, R., E-mail: jrho@seti.org, E-mail: john.w.hewitt@unf.edu, E-mail: jbieging@as.arizona.edu, E-mail: wreach@sofia.usra.edu, E-mail: manderse@gemini.edu, E-mail: guesten@mpifr-bonn.mpg.de [Max Planck Institut für Radioastronomie, Auf dem Hugel 69, D-53121 Bonn (Germany)

    2017-01-01

    We report a discovery of shocked gas from the supernova remnant (SNR) G357.7+0.3. Our millimeter and submillimeter observations reveal broad molecular lines of CO(2-1), CO(3-2), CO(4-3), {sup 13}CO (2-1), and {sup 13}CO (3-2), HCO{sup +}, and HCN using the Heinrich Hertz Submillimeter Telescope, the Arizona 12 m Telescope, APEX, and the MOPRA Telescope. The widths of the broad lines are 15–30 km s{sup −1}, and the detection of such broad lines is unambiguous, dynamic evidence showing that the SNR G357.7+0.3 is interacting with molecular clouds. The broad lines appear in extended regions (>4.′5 × 5′). We also present the detection of shocked H{sub 2} emission in the mid-infrared but lacking ionic lines using Spitzer /IRS observations to map a few-arcminute area. The H{sub 2} excitation diagram shows a best fit with a two-temperature local thermal equilibrium model with the temperatures of ∼200 and 660 K. We observed [C ii] at 158 μ m and high- J CO(11-10) with the German Receiver for Astronomy at Terahertz Frequencies (GREAT) on the Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy. The GREAT spectrum of [C ii], a 3 σ detection, shows a broad line profile with a width of 15.7 km{sup −1} that is similar to those of broad CO molecular lines. The line width of [C ii] implies that ionic lines can come from a low-velocity C-shock. Comparison of H{sub 2} emission with shock models shows that a combination of two C-shock models is favored over a combination of C- and J-shocks or a single shock. We estimate the CO density, column density, and temperature using a RADEX model. The best-fit model with n (H{sub 2}) = 1.7 × 10{sup 4} cm{sup −3}, N(CO) = 5.6 × 10{sup 16} cm{sup −2}, and T  = 75 K can reproduce the observed millimeter CO brightnesses.

  3. Gain optimization method of a DQW superluminescent diode with broad multi-state emission

    KAUST Repository

    Dimas, Clara E.

    2010-01-01

    Optimizing gain through systematic methods of varying current injection schemes analytically is significant to maximize experimentally device yield and evaluation. Various techniques are used to calculate the amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) gain for light emitting devices consisting of single-section and multiple-sections of even length. Recently double quantum well (DQW) superluminescent diodes (SLD) have shown a broad multi-state emission due to mutlielectrodes of non-equal lengths and at high non-equal current densities. In this study, we adopt an improved method utilizing an ASE intensity ratio to calibrate a gain curve based on the sum of the measured ASE spectra to efficiently estimate the gain. Although the laser gain for GaAs/AlGaAs material is well studied, the ASE gain of SLD devices has not been systematically studied particular to further explain the multiple-state emission observed in fabricated devices. In addition a unique gain estimate was achieved where the excited state gain clamps prior to the ground state due to approaching saturation levels. In our results, high current densities in long sectioned active regions achieved sufficient un-truncated gain that show evidence of excited state emission has been observed.

  4. Constraints on Black Hole Spin in a Sample of Broad Iron Line AGN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenneman, Laura W.; Reynolds, Christopher S.

    2008-01-01

    We present a uniform X-ray spectral analysis of nine type-1 active galactic nuclei (AGN) that have been previously found to harbor relativistically broadened iron emission lines. We show that the need for relativistic effects in the spectrum is robust even when one includes continuum "reflection" from the accretion disk. We then proceed to model these relativistic effects in order to constrain the spin of the supermassive black holes in these AGN. Our principal assumption, supported by recent simulations of geometrically-thin accretion disks, is that no iron line emission (or any associated Xray reflection features) can originate from the disk within the innermost stable circular orbit. Under this assumption, which tends to lead to constraints in the form of lower limits on the spin parameter, we obtain non-trivial spin constraints on five AGN. The spin parameters of these sources range from moderate (a approximates 0.6) to high (a > 0.96). Our results allow, for the first time, an observational constraint on the spin distribution function of local supermassive black holes. Parameterizing this as a power-law in dimensionless spin parameter (f(a) varies as absolute value of (a) exp zeta), we present the probability distribution for zeta implied by our results. Our results suggest 90% and 95% confidence limits of zeta > -0.09 and zeta > -0.3 respectively.

  5. Isoprene Emission from Quercus Serrata in the deciduous broad-leaved forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okumura, M.; Tani, A.; Kominami, Y.; Takanashi, S.; Kosugi, Y.; Tohno, S.

    2006-12-01

    1. INTRODUCTION Isoprene is a biogenic volatile organic compound (BVOC) emitted by many plant species. Isoprene emission contributes to the reactive carbon budget entering the troposphere. In Japan efforts to measure and understand the mechanism controlling BVOC emissions and to establish their emission inventories for the country have not been extensive, despite the fact that Japan has a large area of forests composed of coniferous and/or deciduous tree species (about 70% of total land area) and that forestry statistics across Japan are available (Tani et al. 2002). 2. METHODS The measurements were taken in the deciduous broad-leaved forest, Yamashiro, Kyoto. The isoprene emission, net assimilation rate, stomatal conductance, photosynthetically active radiation (PAR), air and leaf temperature, relative humidity was measured on June, July, August 2006 using a LI-6400 portable photosynthesis system (Li-Cor Inc., Lincoln, NE, USA). Isoprene samples from the LI-6400 cuvette was trapped by adsorbents (Tenax 200mg and Carbotrap 100mg) packed into stainless steel tubes (Perkin Elmer). Samples were analyzed using GC-MS system (Shimadzu QP5050A). Samples underwent two stage thermal desorption (Perkin-Elmer ATD). 3. RESULTS The obvious effect of PAR on isoprene emissions and photosynthesis rates were investigated. Temporal variations of isoprene emissions and photosynthesis rates for sun leaves and a shade leaves were investigated. Isoprene sampling term is 7:00-9:00, 9:00-11:00, 11:00-13:00, 13:00-15:00, 15:00-17:00, and 17:00-18:30. Number of samples is 4-6 leaves. Both sun leaves and shade leaves, isoprene emissions reached their peak around noon, while for sun leaves the largest photosynthesis rates during morning and the subsequent decrease were observed as shown. Carbon ratio (carbon of isoprene emission /carbon of photosynthesis by mass unit) were about 1-3%. REFERENCES Tani, A., Nozoe, S., Aoki, M., Hewiit, C. N., 2002. Monoterpene fluxes measured above a Japanese

  6. FR-II Broad Absorption Line Quasars and the Life Cycle of Quasars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gregg, M D; Becker, R H; de Vries, W

    2006-01-05

    By combining the Sloan Digitized Sky Survey Third Data Release quasar list with the VLA FIRST survey, we have identified five objects having both broad absorption lines in their optical spectra and FR-II radio morphologies. We identify an additional example of this class from the FIRST Bright Quasar Survey, J1408+3054. Including the original FR-II-BAL object, J1016+5209, brings the number of such objects to eight. These quasars are relatively rare; finding this small handful has required the 45,000-large quasar sample of SDSS. The FR-II-BAL quasars exhibit a significant anti-correlation between radio-loudness and the strength of the BAL features. This is easily accounted for by the evolutionary picture in which quasars emerge from cocoons of BAL-producing material which stifle the development of radio jets and lobes. There is no such simple explanation for the observed properties of FR-II-BALs in the unification-by-orientation model of quasars. The rarity of the FR-II-BAL class implies that the two phases do not coexist for very long in a single quasar, perhaps less than 10{sup 5} years, with the combined FR-II, high ionization broad absorption phase being even shorter by another factor of 10 or more.

  7. Quasar cartography: From black hole to broad-line region scales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chelouche, Doron [Department of Physics, Faculty of Natural Sciences, University of Haifa, Haifa 31905 (Israel); Zucker, Shay, E-mail: doron@sci.haifa.ac.il, E-mail: shayz@post.tau.ac.il [Department of Geophysical, Atmospheric, and Planetary Sciences, Raymond and Beverly Sackler Faculty of Exact Sciences, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv 69978 (Israel)

    2013-06-01

    A generalized approach to reverberation mapping (RM) is presented, which is applicable to broad- and narrowband photometric data, as well as to spectroscopic observations. It is based on multivariate correlation analysis techniques and, in its present implementation, is able to identify reverberating signals across the accretion disk and the broad-line region (BLR) of active galactic nuclei (AGNs). Statistical tests are defined to assess the significance of time-delay measurements using this approach, and the limitations of the adopted formalism are discussed. It is shown how additional constraints on some of the parameters of the problem may be incorporated into the analysis thereby leading to improved results. When applied to a sample of 14 Seyfert 1 galaxies having good-quality high-cadence photometric data, accretion disk scales and BLR sizes are simultaneously determined, on a case-by-case basis, in most objects. The BLR scales deduced here are in good agreement with the findings of independent spectroscopic RM campaigns. Implications for the photometric RM of AGN interiors in the era of large surveys are discussed.

  8. Evidence for a Circum-Nuclear and Ionised Absorber in the X-ray Obscured Broad Line Radio Galaxy 3C 445

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braito, V.; Reeves, J. N.; Sambruna, R. M.; Gofford, J.

    2012-01-01

    Here we present the results of a Suzaku observation of the Broad Line Radio Galaxy 3C 445. We confirm the results obtained with the previous X-ray observations which unveiled the presence of several soft X-ray emission lines and an overall X-ray emission which strongly resembles a typical Seyfert 2 despite of the optical classification as an unobscured AGN. The broad band spectrum allowed us to measure for the first time the amount of reflection (R approximately 0.9) which together with the relatively strong neutral Fe Ka emission line (EW approximately 100 eV) strongly supports a scenario where a Compton-thick mirror is present. The primary X ray continuum is strongly obscured by an absorber with a column density of NH = 2 - 3 x 10(exp 23) per square centimeter. Two possible scenarios are proposed for the absorber: a neutral partial covering or a mildly ionised absorber with an ionisation parameter log xi approximately 1.0 erg centimeter per second. A comparison with the past and more recent X-ray observations of 3C 445 performed with XMM-Newton and Chandra is presented, which provided tentative evidence that the ionised and outflowing absorber varied. We argue that the absorber is probably associated with an equatorial diskwind located within the parsec scale molecular torus.

  9. A new, sophisticated test of the Binary Black Hole Hypothesis for Quasars with Double-peaked Broad Balmer Lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen Duy Doan, Anh; Eracleous, Michael; Runnoe, Jessie; Halpern, Jules P.; Liu, Jia; Mathes, Gavin; Flohic, Helene M. L. G.

    2018-01-01

    Displaced peaks in the Balmer lines of quasars could serve as indirect evidence for the existence of close, bound supermassive black hole binaries (SBHBs) at sub-parsec separations. In this work, we test the SBHB hypothesis for 14 quasars with double-peaked emission lines using their long-term radial velocity curves. We make use of a Markov Chain Monte Carlo method to explore the parameter space efficiently. Compared to previous works, we have relaxed the assumption of circular orbits, adding two parameters (eccentricity and argument of periapsis) to the parameter space. We also account for jitter, i.e., short-term fluctuations in the radial velocity curves due to processes that are intrinsic to an individual broad-line region. We have found that the distribution of jitter about a smooth radial velocity curve resembles a Gaussian. Thus, jitter is equivalent to increasing measurement uncertainty in individual measurements. The resulting posterior distributions show the lower mass limit of the SBHBs to be in the range of 10^8 - 10^11 solar masses. For several objects, the mass limit drops by a few orders of magnitude compared to previous results by Liu et. al. However, we note that solutions corresponding to minimum masses often require very high orbital eccentricity ( > 0.9). We also calculate the orbital decay timescale of the binaries due to gravitational radiation, finding values in the range 10^6 - 10^11 years; these values correspond to the minimum-mass solutions. For one third of our targets, we can confidently disfavor the SBHB hypothesis on the basis that the minimum mass exceeds even the most massive black holes measured so far (2 x 10^10 solar masses). For the remaining objects, we must take into account the plausibility of a variety of parameters (e.g. eccentricity, lifetime, etc.) in our evaluation.

  10. SN 2010ay IS A LUMINOUS AND BROAD-LINED TYPE Ic SUPERNOVA WITHIN A LOW-METALLICITY HOST GALAXY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanders, N. E.; Soderberg, A. M.; Foley, R. J.; Chornock, R.; Chomiuk, L.; Berger, E. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Valenti, S.; Smartt, S.; Botticella, M. T. [Astrophysics Research Centre, School of Maths and Physics, Queen' s University, Belfast BT7 1NN (United Kingdom); Hurley, K. [Space Sciences Laboratory, University of California Berkeley, 7 Gauss Way, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Barthelmy, S. D.; Gehrels, N.; Cline, T. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Code 661, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Levesque, E. M. [CASA, Department of Astrophysical and Planetary Sciences, University of Colorado, 389-UCB, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States); Narayan, G. [Department of Physics, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Briggs, M. S.; Connaughton, V. [CSPAR, University of Alabama in Huntsville, Huntsville, AL (United States); Terada, Y. [Department of Physics, Saitama University, Shimo-Okubo, Sakura-ku, Saitama-shi, Saitama 338-8570 (Japan); Golenetskii, S.; Mazets, E., E-mail: nsanders@cfa.harvard.edu [Ioffe Physico-Technical Institute, Laboratory for Experimental Astrophysics, 26 Polytekhnicheskaya, St. Petersburg 194021 (Russian Federation); and others

    2012-09-10

    We report on our serendipitous pre-discovery detection and follow-up observations of the broad-lined Type Ic supernova (SN Ic) 2010ay at z = 0.067 imaged by the Pan-STARRS1 3{pi} survey just {approx}4 days after explosion. The supernova (SN) had a peak luminosity, M{sub R} Almost-Equal-To -20.2 mag, significantly more luminous than known GRB-SNe and one of the most luminous SNe Ib/c ever discovered. The absorption velocity of SN 2010ay is v{sub Si} Almost-Equal-To 19 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 3} km s{sup -1} at {approx}40 days after explosion, 2-5 times higher than other broad-lined SNe and similar to the GRB-SN 2010bh at comparable epochs. Moreover, the velocity declines {approx}2 times slower than other SNe Ic-BL and GRB-SNe. Assuming that the optical emission is powered by radioactive decay, the peak magnitude implies the synthesis of an unusually large mass of {sup 56}Ni, M{sub Ni} = 0.9 M{sub Sun }. Applying scaling relations to the light curve, we estimate a total ejecta mass, M{sub ej} Almost-Equal-To 4.7 M{sub Sun }, and total kinetic energy, E{sub K} Almost-Equal-To 11 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 51} erg. The ratio of M{sub Ni} to M{sub ej} is {approx}2 times as large for SN 2010ay as typical GRB-SNe and may suggest an additional energy reservoir. The metallicity (log (O/H){sub PP04} + 12 = 8.19) of the explosion site within the host galaxy places SN 2010ay in the low-metallicity regime populated by GRB-SNe, and {approx}0.5(0.2) dex lower than that typically measured for the host environments of normal (broad-lined) SNe Ic. We constrain any gamma-ray emission with E{sub {gamma}} {approx}< 6 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 48} erg (25-150 keV), and our deep radio follow-up observations with the Expanded Very Large Array rule out relativistic ejecta with energy E {approx}> 10{sup 48} erg. We therefore rule out the association of a relativistic outflow like those that accompanied SN 1998bw and traditional long-duration gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), but we place less

  11. Dust inflated accretion disc as the origin of the broad line region in active galactic nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baskin, Alexei; Laor, Ari

    2018-02-01

    The broad line region (BLR) in active galactic nuclei (AGNs) is composed of dense gas (˜1011 cm-3) on sub-pc scale, which absorbs about 30 per cent of the ionizing continuum. The outer size of the BLR is likely set by dust sublimation, and its density by the incident radiation pressure compression (RPC). But, what is the origin of this gas, and what sets its covering factor (CF)? Czerny & Hryniewicz (2011) suggested that the BLR is a failed dusty wind from the outer accretion disc. We explore the expected dust properties, and the implied BLR structure. We find that graphite grains sublimate only at T ≃ 2000 K at the predicted density of ˜1011 cm-3, and therefore large graphite grains (≥0.3 μm) survive down to the observed size of the BLR, RBLR. The dust opacity in the accretion disc atmosphere is ˜50 times larger than previously assumed, and leads to an inflated torus-like structure, with a predicted peak height at RBLR. The illuminated surface of this torus-like structure is a natural place for the BLR. The BLR CF is mostly set by the gas metallicity, the radiative accretion efficiency, a dynamic configuration and ablation by the incident optical-UV continuum. This model predicts that the BLR should extend inwards of RBLR to the disc radius where the surface temperature is ≃2000 K, which occurs at Rin ≃ 0.18RBLR. The value of Rin can be tested by reverberation mapping of the higher ionization lines, predicted by RPC to peak well inside RBLR. The dust inflated disc scenario can also be tested based on the predicted response of RBLR and the CF to changes in the AGN luminosity and accretion rate.

  12. VLBI Detections of Parsec-Scale Nonthermal Jets in Radio-Loud Broad Absorption Line Quasars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doi, Akihiro; Kawaguchi, Noriyuki; Kono, Yusuke; Oyama, Tomoaki; Fujisawa, Kenta; Takaba, Hiroshi; Sudou, Hiroshi; Wakamatsu, Ken-Ichi; Yamauchi, Aya; Murata, Yasuhiro; Mochizuki, Nanako; Wajima, Kiyoaki; Omodaka, Toshihiro; Nagayama, Takumi; Nakai, Naomasa; Sorai, Kazuo; Kawai, Eiji; Sekido, Mamoru; Koyama, Yasuhiro; VLBI Group At Geographical Survey Institute,; Asano, Shoichiro; Uose, Hisao

    2009-12-01

    We conducted radio detection observations at 8.4 GHz for 22 radio-loud broad absorption line (BAL) quasars, selected from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Third Data Release, by a very-long-baseline interferometry (VLBI) technique. The VLBI instrument we used was developed by the Optically ConnecTed Array for VLBI Exploration project (OCTAVE), which is operated as a subarray of the Japanese VLBI Network. We aimed to select BAL quasars with nonthermal jets suitable for measuring their orientation angles and ages by subsequent detailed VLBI imaging studies to evaluate two controversial issues of whether BAL quasars are viewed nearly edge-on, and of whether BAL quasars are in a short-lived evolutionary phase of the quasar population. We detected 20 out of 22 sources using the OCTAVE baselines, implying brightness temperatures greater than 105K, which presumably come from nonthermal jets. Hence, BAL outflows and nonthermal jets can be generated simultaneously in these central engines. We also found four inverted-spectrum sources, which are interpreted as Doppler-beamed, pole-on-viewed relativistic jet sources, or young radio sources: single edge-on geometry cannot describe all BAL quasars. We discuss the implications of the OCTAVE observations for investigations for the orientation and evolutionary stage of BAL quasars.

  13. Testing Accretion Disk Wind Models of Broad Absorption Line Quasars with SDSS Spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindgren, Sean; Gabel, Jack

    2017-06-01

    We present an investigation of a large sample of broad absorption line (BAL) quasars (QSO) from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Data Release 5 (DR5). Properties of the BALs, such as absorption equivalent width, outflow velocities, and depth of BAL, are obtained from analysis by Gibson et al. We perform correlation analysis on these data to test the predictions made by the radiation driven, accretion disk streamline model of Murray and Chiang. We find the CIV BAL maximum velocity and the continuum luminosity are correlated, consistent with radiation driven models. The mean minimum velocity of CIV is lower in low ionization BALs (LoBALs), than highly ionized BALs (HiBALS), suggesting an orientation effect consistent with the Murray and Chiang model. Finally, we find that HiBALs greatly outnumber LoBALs in the general BAL population, supporting prediction of the Murray and Chiang model that HiBALs have a greater global covering factor than LoBALs.

  14. Evidence for Magnetar Formation in Broad-lined Type Ic Supernovae 1998bw and 2002ap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, L. J.; Yu, H.; Liu, L. D.; Wang, S. Q.; Han, Y. H.; Xu, D.; Dai, Z. G.; Qiu, Y. L.; Wei, J. Y.

    2017-03-01

    Broad-lined type Ic supernovae (SNe Ic-BL) are peculiar stellar explosions that are distinct from ordinary SNe. Some SNe Ic-BL are associated with long-duration (≳ 2 {{s}}) gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). Black holes and magnetars are two types of compact objects that are hypothesized to be central engines of GRBs. In spite of decades of investigations, no direct evidence for the formation of black holes or magnetars has yet been found for GRBs. Here we report the finding that the early peak (t≲ 50 {days}) and late-time (t≳ 300 {days}) slow decay displayed in the light curves of SNe 1998bw (associated with GRB 980425) and 2002ap (not GRB-associated) can be attributed to magnetar spin-down with an initial rotation period {P}0˜ 20 {ms}, while the intermediate-time (50≲ t≲ 300 {days}) exponential decline is caused by the radioactive decay of 56Ni. The connection between the early peak and late-time slow decline in the light curves is unexpected in alternative models. We thus suggest that GRB 980425 and SN 2002ap were powered by magnetars.

  15. XMM-Newton Spectroscopy of the X-ray Detected Broad Absorption Line QSO CSO 755

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Niel

    2005-01-01

    We present the results from XMM-Newton observations of the highly optically polarized broad absorption line quasar (BALQSO) CSO 755. By analyzing its X-ray spectrum with a total of approximately 3000 photons we find that this source has an X-ray continuum of "typical" radio-quiet quasars, with a photon index of Gamma=1.83, and a rather flat (X-ray bright) intrinsic optical-to-X-ray spectral slope of alpha_ox=- 1.51. The source shows evidence for intrinsic absorption, and fitting the spectrum with a neutral-absorption model gives a column density of N_H approximately 1.2x10^22 cm^{-2}; this is among the lowest X-ray columns measured for BALQSOs. We do not detect, with high significance, any other absorption features in the X-ray spectrum. Upper limits we place on the rest-frame equivalent width of a neutral (ionized) Fe K-alpha line, less than =180 eV (less than =120 eV), and on the Compton-reflection component parameter, R less than =0.2, suggest that most of the X-rays from the source are directly observed rather than being scattered or reflected; this is also supported by the relatively flat intrinsic alpha ox we measure. The possibility that most of the X-ray flux is scattered due to the high level of UV-optical polarization is ruled out. Considering data for 46 BALQSOs from the literature, including CSO 755, we have found that the UV-optical continuum polarization level of BALQSOs is not correlated with any of their X-ray properties. A lack of significant short-term and long-term X-ray flux variations in the source may be attributed to a large black-hole mass in CSO 755. We note that another luminous BALQSO, PG 2112+059, has both similar shallow C IV BALs and moderate X-ray absorption.

  16. X-ray-selected broad absorption line quasi-stellar objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, M. J.; Carrera, F. J.; Ceballos, M.; Corral, A.; Ebrero, J.; Esquej, P.; Krumpe, M.; Mateos, S.; Rosen, S.; Schwope, A.; Streblyanska, A.; Symeonidis, M.; Tedds, J. A.; Watson, M. G.

    2017-02-01

    We study a sample of six X-ray-selected broad absorption line (BAL) quasi-stellar objects (QSOs) from the XMM-Newton Wide Angle Survey. All six objects are classified as BALQSOs using the classic balnicity index, and together they form the largest sample of X-ray-selected BALQSOs. We find evidence for absorption in the X-ray spectra of all six objects. An ionized absorption model applied to an X-ray spectral shape that would be typical for non-BAL QSOs (a power law with energy index α = 0.98) provides acceptable fits to the X-ray spectra of all six objects. The optical to X-ray spectral indices, αOX, of the X-ray-selected BALQSOs, have a mean value of = 1.69 ± 0.05, which is similar to that found for X-ray-selected and optically selected non-BAL QSOs of a similar ultraviolet luminosity. In contrast, optically selected BALQSOs typically have much larger αOX and so are characterized as being X-ray weak. The results imply that X-ray selection yields intrinsically X-ray bright BALQSOs, but their X-ray spectra are absorbed by a similar degree to that seen in optically selected BALQSO samples; X-ray absorption appears to be ubiquitous in BALQSOs, but X-ray weakness is not. We argue that BALQSOs sit at one end of a spectrum of X-ray absorption properties in QSOs related to the degree of ultraviolet absorption in C IV 1550 Å.

  17. Double-peaked Emission Lines Due to a Radio Outflow in KISSR 1219

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharb, P.; Subramanian, S.; Vaddi, S.; Das, M.; Paragi, Z.

    2017-09-01

    We present the results from 1.5 and 5 GHz phase-referenced VLBA and 1.5 GHz Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array (VLA) observations of the Seyfert 2 galaxy KISSR 1219, which exhibits double-peaked emission lines in its optical spectrum. The VLA and VLBA data reveal a one-sided core-jet structure at roughly the same position angles, providing evidence of an active galactic nucleus outflow. The absence of dual parsec-scale radio cores puts the binary black-hole picture in doubt for the case of KISSR 1219. The high brightness temperatures of the parsec-scale core and jet components (>106 K) are consistent with this interpretation. Doppler boosting with jet speeds of ≳0.55c to ≳0.25c, going from parsec to kiloparsec scales, at a jet inclination ≳50° can explain the jet one-sidedness in this Seyfert 2 galaxy. A blueshifted broad emission line component in [O III] is also indicative of an outflow in the emission line gas at a velocity of ˜350 km s-1, while the [O I] doublet lines suggest the presence of shock-heated gas. A detailed line ratio study using the MAPPINGS III code further suggests that a shock+precursor model can explain the line ionization data well. Overall, our data suggest that the radio outflow in KISSR 1219 is pushing the emission line clouds, both ahead of the jet and in a lateral direction, giving rise to the double peak emission line spectra.

  18. Community-LINE Source Model (C-LINE) to estimate roadway emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    C-LINE is a web-based model that estimates emissions and dispersion of toxic air pollutants for roadways in the U.S. This reduced-form air quality model examines what-if scenarios for changes in emissions such as traffic volume fleet mix and vehicle speed.

  19. Perfect Thermal Emission by Nanoscale Transmission Line Resonators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Baoan; Gong, Wei; Yu, Bowen; Li, Pengfei; Shen, Sheng

    2017-02-08

    Thermal radiation with a narrow-band emission spectrum is of great importance in a variety of applications such as infrared sensing, thermophotovoltaics, radiation cooling, and thermal circuits. Although resonant nanophotonic structures such as metamaterials and nanocavities have been demonstrated to achieve the narrow-band thermal emission, maximizing their radiation power toward perfect emission still remains challenging. Here, based on the recently developed quasi-normal mode theory, we prove that thermal emission from a nanoscale transmission line resonator can always be maximized by tuning the waveguiding loss of the resonator or bending the structure. By use of nanoscale transmission line resonators as basic building blocks, we experimentally demonstrate a new type of macroscopic perfect and tunable thermal emitters. Our experimental demonstration in conjunction with the general theoretical framework from the quasi-normal mode theory lays the foundation for designing tunable narrow-band thermal emitters with applications in thermal infrared light sources, thermal management, and infrared sensing and imaging.

  20. THE CONNECTIONS BETWEEN THE UV AND OPTICAL Fe ii EMISSION LINES IN TYPE 1 AGNs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kovacević-Dojcinović, Jelena; Popović, Luka Č., E-mail: jkovacevic@aob.bg.ac.rs, E-mail: lpopovic@aob.bg.ac.rs [Astronomical Observatory, Volgina 7, 11060 Belgrade (Serbia)

    2015-12-15

    We investigate the spectral properties of the UV (λλ2650–3050 Å) and optical (λλ4000–5500 Å) Fe ii emission features in a sample of 293 Type 1 active galactic nuclei (AGNs) from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey database. We explore different correlations between their emission line properties, as well as the correlations with other emission lines from the spectral range. We find several interesting correlations and outline the most interesting results as follows. (i) There is a kinematical connection between the UV and optical Fe ii lines, indicating that the UV and optical Fe ii lines originate from the outer part of the broad line region, the so-called intermediate line region. (ii) The unexplained anticorrelations of the optical Fe ii equivalent width (EW Fe ii{sub opt}) versus EW [O iii] 5007 Å and EW Fe ii{sub opt} versus FWHM Hβ have not been detected for the UV Fe ii lines. (iii) The significant averaged redshift in the UV Fe ii lines, which is not present in optical Fe ii, indicates an inflow in the UV Fe ii emitting clouds, and probably their asymmetric distribution. (iv) Also, we confirm the anticorrelation between the intensity ratio of the optical and UV Fe ii lines and the FWHM of Hβ, and we find the anticorrelations of this ratio with the widths of Mg ii 2800 Å, optical Fe ii, and UV Fe ii. This indicates a very important role for the column density and microturbulence in the emitting gas. We discuss the starburst activity in high-density regions of young AGNs as a possible explanation of the detected optical Fe ii correlations and intensity line ratios of the UV and optical Fe ii lines.

  1. Discovery of the Broad-lined Type Ic SN 2013cq Associated with the Very Energetic GRB 130427A

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xu, D.; de Ugarte Postigo, A.; Leloudas, G.; Krühler, T.; Cano, Z.; Hjorth, J.; Malesani, D.; Fynbo, J.P.U.; Thöne, C.C.; Sánchez-Ramírez, R.; Schulze, S.; Jakobsson, P.; Kaper, L.; Sollerman, J.; Watson, D.J.; Cabrera-Lavers, A.; Cao, C.; Covino, S.; Flores, H.; Geier, S.; Gorosabel, J.; Hu, S.M.; Milvang-Jensen, B.; Sparre, M.; Xin, L.P.; Zhang, T.M.; Zheng, W.K.; Zou, Y.C.

    2013-01-01

    Long-duration gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) at z < 1 are found in most cases to be accompanied by bright, broad-lined Type Ic supernovae (SNe Ic-BL). The highest-energy GRBs are mostly located at higher redshifts, where the associated SNe are hard to detect observationally. Here, we present early and late

  2. High-redshift SDSS Quasars with Weak Emission Lines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diamond-Stanic, Aleksandar M.; Fan, Xiaohui; Brandt, W. N.

    2009-01-01

    We identify a sample of 74 high-redshift quasars (z > 3) with weak emission lines from the Fifth Data Release of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey and present infrared, optical, and radio observations of a subsample of four objects at z > 4. These weak emission-line quasars (WLQs) constitute a prominent...... rest-frame 0.1-5 µm spectral energy distributions that are quite similar to those of normal quasars. The variability, polarization, and radio properties of WLQs are also different from those of BL Lacs, making continuum boosting by a relativistic jet an unlikely physical interpretation. The most...

  3. WISE J233237.05-505643.5: A Double-Peaked Broad-Lined AGN with Spiral-Shaped Radio Morphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Chao Wei; Jarrett, Thomas H.; Stern, Daniel; Emonts, Bjorn; Barrows, R. Scott; Assef, Roberto J.; Norris, Ray P.; Eisenhardt, Peter R. M.; Lonsdale, Carol; Blain, Andrew W.; hide

    2013-01-01

    We present radio continuum mapping, optical imaging and spectroscopy of the newly discovered double-peaked broad-lined AGN WISE J233237.05-505643.5 at redshift z = 0.3447. This source exhibits an FR-I and FR-II hybrid-morphology, characterized by bright core, jet, and Doppler-boosted lobe structures in ATCA continuum maps at 1.5, 5.6, and 9 GHz. Unlike most FR-II objects, W2332-5056 is hosted by a disk-like galaxy. The core has a projected 5" linear radio feature that is perpendicular to the curved primary jet, hinting at unusual and complex activity within the inner 25 kpc. The multi-epoch optical-near-IR photometric measurements indicate significant variability over a 3-20 year baseline from the AGN component. Gemini-South optical data shows an unusual double-peaked emission-line features: the centroids of the broad-lined components of H-alpha and H-beta are blueshifted with respect to the narrow lines and host galaxy by approximately 3800 km/s. We examine possible cases which involve single or double supermassive black holes in the system, and discuss required future investigations to disentangle the mystery nature of this system.

  4. Cross-correlation Diagnostics for Contamination in Emission Line Surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebhardt, Henry; Jeong, Donghui

    2018-01-01

    Galaxy catalogues generated from emission line surveys with low-resolution spectrographs generally contain contaminants due to errors in line identification. Measuring the contamination fraction, in this case, is essential for the cosmological analysis from the catalogue. Here we present a novel method of contamination diagnostics by using the shape of the auto- and cross-correlations. As an example, we study a case for the HETDEX (Hobby-Eberly Telescope Dark Energy eXperiment) survey where low-redshift Oxygen line (3727 Å) emitters contaminate high-redshift Lyman-α (1216 Å) emitters. We include redshift-space distortion and lensing magnification. This technique is also useful for future emission line surveys such as eBOSS, WFIRST, SPHEREx, and Euclid.

  5. Search for an emission line of a gravitational wave background

    CERN Document Server

    Nishizawa, Atsushi

    2015-01-01

    In the light of the history of researches on electromagnetic wave spectrum, a sharp emission line of gravitational-wave background (GWB) would be an interesting observational target. Here we study an efficient method to detect a line GWB by correlating data of multiple ground-based detectors. We find that the width of frequency bin for coarse graining is a critical parameter, and the commonly-used value 0.25 Hz is far from optimal, decreasing the signal-to-noise ratio by up to a factor of seven. By reanalyzing the existing data with a smaller bin width, we might detect a precious line signal from the early universe.

  6. Typing supernova remnants using X-ray line emission morphologies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lopez, L.A.; Ramirez-Ruiz, E.; Badenes, C.; Huppenkothen, D.; Jeltema, T.E.; Pooley, D.A.

    2009-01-01

    We present a new observational method to type the explosions of young supernova remnants (SNRs). By measuring the morphology of the Chandra X-ray line emission in 17 Galactic and Large Magellanic Cloud SNRs with a multipole expansion analysis (using power ratios), we find that the core-collapse SNRs

  7. NuSTAR reveals an intrinsically x-ray weak broad absorption line quasar in the ultraluminous infrared galaxy Markarian 231

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Teng, Stacy H.; Brandt, W. N.; Harrison, F. A.

    2014-01-01

    We present high-energy (3-30 keV) NuSTAR observations of the nearest quasar, the ultraluminous infrared galaxy (ULIRG) Markarian 231 (Mrk 231), supplemented with new and simultaneous low-energy (0.5-8 keV) data from Chandra. The source was detected, though at much fainter levels than previously......-ionization broad absorption line quasar that is intrinsically X-ray weak. The weak ionizing continuum may explain the lack of mid-infrared [O IV], [Ne V], and [Ne VI] fine-structure emission lines which are present in sources with otherwise similar AGN properties. We argue that the intrinsic X-ray weakness may...

  8. 1 W tunable near diffraction limited light from a broad area laser diode in an external cavity with a line width of 1.7 MHz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jechow, Andreas; Raab, Volker; Menzel, Ralf; Cenkier, Michael; Stry, Sandra; Sacher, Joachim

    2007-09-01

    A novel unstable external cavity for a broad area laser diode is presented. The cavity is based on a V-shaped setup that improves the slow axis beam quality by coupling the internal modes of a gain guided laser diode. The novelty here is the compact unstable resonator design without lenses in direction of the slow axis. For frequency stabilisation and to narrow the line width of the laser diode emission a diffraction grating in a Littrow configuration is used. With this setup up to 1 W of near diffraction limited light with a beam quality of M2 ⩽ 1.3 and a line width of 1.7 MHz could be achieved. The external cavity laser was tunable over a range of 35 nm (FWHM) around the center wavelength of 976 nm.

  9. Control of the spatial emission structure of broad-area vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers by feedback

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schulz-Ruhtenberg, M [Institut fuer Angewandte Physik, Westfaelische Wilhelms-Universitaet Muenster, Corrensstrasse 2/4, 48149 Muenster (Germany); Tanguy, Y; Ackemann, T [SUPA and Department of Physics, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow G4 0NG (United Kingdom); Huang, K F [Department of Electrophysics, National Chiao Tung University, Hsinchu, Taiwan (China); Jaeger, R, E-mail: thorsten.ackemann@strath.ac.u [Philips Technologie GmbH, U-L-M Photonics, Lise-Meitner-Str. 13, 89081 Ulm (Germany)

    2009-03-07

    The wave number of transverse spatial structures in broad-area vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) is controlled via frequency-selective feedback from an external self-imaging cavity in a broad range of wave numbers and emission frequencies. The selected states follow the dispersion curves of the free-running laser. A control range of about 2.5 {mu}m{sup -1} in spatial frequency space and 2.5 nm in emission wavelength was obtained for square VCSELs and of about 3 {mu}m{sup -1} and 8 nm for circular VCSELs having a different dispersion curve. By spatial filtering in Fourier space, the shape of the structures can also be controlled to some extent. It is argued that the feedback techniques are useful to 'probe' emission states of the free-running laser.

  10. FLARE-LIKE VARIABILITY OF THE Mg II {lambda}2800 EMISSION LINE IN THE {gamma}-RAY BLAZAR 3C 454.3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leon-Tavares, J. [Finnish Centre for Astronomy with ESO (FINCA), University of Turku, Vaeisaelaentie 20, FI-21500 Piikkioe (Finland); Chavushyan, V.; Patino-Alvarez, V.; Carraminana, A.; Carrasco, L. [Instituto Nacional de Astrofisica Optica y Electronica (INAOE), Apartado Postal 51 y 216, 72000 Puebla (Mexico); Valtaoja, E. [Tuorla Observatory, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Turku, FI-20100 Turku (Finland); Arshakian, T. G. [I. Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet zu Koeln, Zuelpicher Str. 77, D-50937 Koeln (Germany); Popovic, L. C. [Astronomical Observatory, Volgina 7, 11160 Belgrade 74 (Serbia); Tornikoski, M.; Laehteenmaeki, A. [Aalto University Metsaehovi Radio Observatory, Metsaehovintie 114, FI-02540 Kylmaelae (Finland); Lobanov, A. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Radioastronomie, Auf dem Huegel 69, D-53121 Bonn (Germany)

    2013-02-01

    We report the detection of a statistically significant flare-like event in the Mg II {lambda}2800 emission line of 3C 454.3 during the outburst of autumn 2010. The highest levels of emission line flux recorded over the monitoring period (2008-2011) coincide with a superluminal jet component traversing through the radio core. This finding crucially links the broad emission line fluctuations to the non-thermal continuum emission produced by relativistically moving material in the jet and hence to the presence of broad-line region clouds surrounding the radio core. If the radio core were located at several parsecs from the central black hole, then our results would suggest the presence of broad-line region material outside the inner parsec where the canonical broad-line region is envisaged to be located. We briefly discuss the implications of broad emission line material ionized by non-thermal continuum in the context of virial black hole mass estimates and gamma-ray production mechanisms.

  11. Spectrophotometry of emission-line stars in the magellanic clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohannan, Bruce

    1990-01-01

    The strong emission lines in the most luminous stars in the Magellanic Clouds indicate that these stars have such strong stellar winds that their photospheres are so masked that optical absorption lines do not provide an accurate measure of photospheric conditions. In the research funded by this grant, temperatures and gravities of emission-line stars both in the Large (LMC) and Small Magellanic Clouds (SMC) have been measured by fitting of continuum ultraviolet-optical fluxes observed with IUE with theoretical model atmospheres. Preliminary results from this work formed a major part of an invited review 'The Distribution of Types of Luminous Blue Variables'. Interpretation of the IUE observations obtained in this grant and archive data were also included in a talk at the First Boulder-Munich Hot Stars Workshop. Final results of these studies are now being completed for publication in refereed journals.

  12. UNSHIFTED METASTABLE He I* MINI-BROAD ABSORPTION LINE SYSTEM IN THE NARROW-LINE TYPE 1 QUASAR SDSS J080248.18+551328.9

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ji, Tuo; Zhou, Hongyan; Jiang, Peng; Wang, Tinggui; Wang, Huiyuan; Liu, Wenjuan; Yang, Chenwei [Polar Research Institute of China, 451 Jinqiao Road, Pudong, Shanghai 200136 (China); Ge, Jian; Hamann, Fred [Department of Astronomy, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States); Komossa, S.; Yuan, Weimin [National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 20A Datun Road, Beijing 100012 (China); Zuther, Jens [Physikalisches Institut, Universität zu Köln, Zülpicher Strasse 77, D-50937 Köln (Germany); Lu, Honglin [Key Laboratory for Research in Galaxies and Cosmology, The University of Science and Technology of China, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, Anhui, 230026 (China); Zuo, Wenwen, E-mail: jituo@pric.gov.cn [Shanghai Astronomical Observatory, Nandan Road 80, Shanghai 200030 (China)

    2015-02-10

    We report the identification of an unusual absorption-line system in the quasar SDSS J080248.18+551328.9 and present a detailed study of the system, incorporating follow-up optical and near-IR spectroscopy. A few tens of absorption lines are detected, including He I*, Fe II*, and Ni II*, which arise from metastable or excited levels, as well as resonant lines in Mg I, Mg II, Fe II, Mn II, and Ca II. All of the isolated absorption lines show the same profile of width Δv ∼ 1500 km s{sup –1} centered at a common redshift as that of the quasar emission lines, such as [O II], [S II], and hydrogen Paschen and Balmer series. With narrow Balmer lines, strong optical Fe II multiplets, and weak [O III] doublets, its emission-line spectrum is typical for that of a narrow-line Seyfert 1 galaxy (NLS1). We have derived reliable measurements of the gas-phase column densities of the absorbing ions/levels. Photoionization modeling indicates that the absorber has a density of n {sub H} ∼ (1.0-2.5) × 10{sup 5} cm{sup –3} and a column density of N {sub H} ∼ (1.0-3.2) × 10{sup 21} cm{sup –2} and is located at R ∼100-250 pc from the central supermassive black hole. The location of the absorber, the symmetric profile of the absorption lines, and the coincidence of the absorption- and emission-line centroid jointly suggest that the absorption gas originates from the host galaxy and is plausibly accelerated by stellar processes, such as stellar winds and/or supernova explosions. The implications for the detection of such a peculiar absorption-line system in an NLS1 are discussed in the context of coevolution between supermassive black hole growth and host galaxy buildup.

  13. Extreme Ultraviolet Emission Lines of Iron Fe XI-XIII

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepson, Jaan; Beiersdorfer, P.; Brown, G. V.; Liedahl, D. A.; Brickhouse, N. S.; Dupree, A. K.

    2013-04-01

    The extreme ultraviolet (EUV) spectral region (ca. 20--300 Å) is rich in emission lines from low- to mid-Z ions, particularly from the middle charge states of iron. Many of these emission lines are important diagnostics for astrophysical plasmas, providing information on properties such as elemental abundance, temperature, density, and even magnetic field strength. In recent years, strides have been made to understand the complexity of the atomic levels of the ions that emit the lines that contribute to the richness of the EUV region. Laboratory measurements have been made to verify and benchmark the lines. Here, we present laboratory measurements of Fe XI, Fe XII, and Fe XIII between 40-140 Å. The measurements were made at the Lawrence Livermore electron beam ion trap (EBIT) facility, which has been optimized for laboratory astrophysics, and which allows us to select specific charge states of iron to help line identification. We also present new calculations by the Hebrew University - Lawrence Livermore Atomic Code (HULLAC), which we also utilized for line identification. We found that HULLAC does a creditable job of reproducing the forest of lines we observed in the EBIT spectra, although line positions are in need of adjustment, and line intensities often differed from those observed. We identify or confirm a number of new lines for these charge states. This work was supported by the NASA Solar and Heliospheric Program under Contract NNH10AN31I and the DOE General Plasma Science program. Work was performed in part under the auspices of the Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DEAC52-07NA27344.

  14. Microlensing of the broad-line region in the quadruply imaged quasar HE0435-1223

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braibant, L.; Hutsemékers, D.; Sluse, D.; Anguita, T.; García-Vergara, C. J.

    2014-05-01

    Using infrared spectra of the z = 1.693 quadruply lensed quasar HE0435-1223 acquired in 2009 with the spectrograph SINFONI at the ESO Very Large Telescope, we have detected a clear microlensing effect in images A and D. While microlensing affects the blue and red wings of the Hα line profile in image D very differently, it de-magnifies the line core in image A. The combination of these different effects sets constraints on the line-emitting region; these constraints suggest that a rotating ring is at the origin of the Hα line. Visible spectra obtained in 2004 and 2012 indicate that the MgII line profile is microlensed in the same way as the Hα line. Our results therefore favour flattened geometries for the low-ionization line-emitting region, for example, a Keplerian disk. Biconical models cannot be ruled out but require more fine-tuning. Flux ratios between the different images are also derived and confirm flux anomalies with respect to estimates from lens models with smooth mass distributions. Based on observations made with the ESO-VLT, Paranal, Chile; Proposal 084.B-0013 (PI: Rix).Tables 2, 3 and Appendix A are available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  15. profit: a new alternative for emission-line profile fitting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riffel, Rogemar A.

    2010-06-01

    I briefly describe a simple routine for emission-line profile fitting by Gaussian curves or Gauss-Hermite series. The profit (line- profile fitting) routine represent a new alternative for use in fits data cubes, as the ones from Integral Field Spectroscopy or Fabry-Pérot Interferometry, and may be useful to better study the emission-line flux distributions and gas kinematics in distinct astrophysical objects, such as the central regions of galaxies and star forming regions. The profit routine is written in IDL language and is available at http://www.ufsm.br/rogemar/software.html . The profit routine was used to fit the [Fe ii] λ=1.257 μm emission-line profiles for about 1800 spectra of the inner 350 pc of the Seyfert galaxy Mrk 1066 obtained with Gemini NIFS and shows that the line profiles are better reproduced by Gauss-Hermite series than by the commonly used Gaussian curves. The two-dimensional map of the h 3 Gauss-Hermite moment shows its highest absolute values to be in regions close to the edge of the radio structure. These high values may be originating with an biconical outflowing gas associated with the radio jet—previously observed in the optical [O iii] emission. The analysis of this kinematic component indicates that the radio jet leaves the center of the galaxy with the north-west side slightly oriented towards us and the south-east side away from us, being partially hidden by the disc of the galaxy.

  16. Polarized Balmer line emission from supernova remnant shock waves efficiently accelerating cosmic rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimoda, Jiro; Ohira, Yutaka; Yamazaki, Ryo; Laming, J. Martin; Katsuda, Satoru

    2018-01-01

    Linearly polarized Balmer line emissions from supernova remnant shocks are studied taking into account the energy loss of the shock owing to the production of non-thermal particles. The polarization degree depends on the downstream temperature and the velocity difference between upstream and downstream regions. The former is derived once the line width of the broad component of the H α emission is observed. Then, the observation of the polarization degree tells us the latter. At the same time, the estimated value of the velocity difference independently predicts adiabatic downstream temperature that is derived from Rankine Hugoniot relations for adiabatic shocks. If the actually observed downstream temperature is lower than the adiabatic temperature, there is a missing thermal energy which is consumed for particle acceleration. It is shown that a larger energy-loss rate leads to more highly polarized H α emission. Furthermore, we find that polarized intensity ratio of H β to H α also depends on the energy-loss rate and that it is independent of uncertain quantities such as electron temperature, the effect of Lyman line trapping and our line of sight.

  17. The corona of the broad-line radio galaxy 3C 390.3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lohfink, A. M.; Ogle, P.; Tombesi, F.

    2015-01-01

    -UVOT data, we find indications that the compactness of the corona allows only a small fraction of the total UV/optical flux to be Comptonized. Our analysis of the reprocessed emission show that 3C 390.3 only has a small amount of reflection (R ~ 0.3), and of that the vast majority is from distant neutral...

  18. The Structure of the Broad-line Region in Active Galactic Nuclei. II. Dynamical Modeling of Data From the AGN10 Reverberation Mapping Campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grier, C. J.; Pancoast, A.; Barth, A. J.; Fausnaugh, M. M.; Brewer, B. J.; Treu, T.; Peterson, B. M.

    2017-11-01

    We present inferences on the geometry and kinematics of the broad-Hβ line-emitting region in four active galactic nuclei monitored as part of the fall 2010 reverberation mapping campaign at MDM Observatory led by the Ohio State University. From modeling the continuum variability and response in emission-line profile changes as a function of time, we infer the geometry of the Hβ-emitting broad-line regions (BLRs) to be thick disks that are close to face-on to the observer with kinematics that are well-described by either elliptical orbits or inflowing gas. We measure the black hole mass to be {{log}}10({M}{BH})={7.25}-0.10+0.10 for Mrk 335, {7.86}-0.17+0.20 for Mrk 1501, {7.84}-0.19+0.14 for 3C 120, and {6.92}-0.23+0.24 for PG 2130+099. These black hole mass measurements are not based on a particular assumed value of the virial scale factor f, allowing us to compute individual f factors for each target. Our results nearly double the number of targets that have been modeled in this manner, and we investigate the properties of a more diverse sample by including previously modeled objects. We measure an average scale factor \\bar{f} in the entire sample of {{log}}10\\bar{f}=0.54+/- 0.17 when the line dispersion is used to characterize the line width, which is consistent with the values derived using the normalization of the {M}{BH}-σ relation. We find that the scale factor f for individual targets is likely correlated with the black hole mass, inclination angle, and opening angle of the BLR, but we do not find any correlation with the luminosity.

  19. Spatially Resolved Emission Line Ratios for Nuclear AGN Selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridge, Joanna

    2017-08-01

    Differentiating between AGN activity and star formation in z 2 galaxies is difficult because traditional methods such as line ratio diagnostics change with redshift, while multiwavelength methods (X-ray, radio, IR) are sensitive to only the brightest AGN. We have developed a new method for spatially resolving emission lines in HST/WFC3 G141 grism spectra, quantifying AGN activity through the spatial gradient of the [O III]/HBeta line ratio. Through detailed simulations, we have shown that our novel line-ratio gradient approach identifies low-mass and obscured AGN well beyond the limits of classic methods. In the course of this archival program, we will extend the current simulations beyond stellar mass, star formation rate, and AGN accretion, additionally modeling the effects of different galaxy sizes and morphologies. We will then use the two-orbit 3D-HST G141 grism observations and 12- and 40-orbit G102 grism observations from FIGS and CLEAR in the CANDELS fields of several thousand 0.6 grism is the ideal tool for this work because its unique spatial abilities applied to such a large dataset are unparalleled. Our simulations of spatially resolved AGN+galaxy emission lines will inform many related studies of resolved galaxy properties, such dust, star formation rate, metallicity.

  20. THE STRUCTURE OF THE BROAD-LINE REGION IN ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI. I. RECONSTRUCTED VELOCITY-DELAY MAPS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grier, C. J.; Peterson, B. M.; Pogge, R. W.; De Rosa, G.; Martini, Paul; Kochanek, C. S.; Zu, Y.; Shappee, B.; Beatty, T. G.; Salvo, C. Araya; Bird, J. C. [Department of Astronomy, The Ohio State University, 140 W 18th Ave, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Horne, Keith [SUPA Physics and Astronomy, University of St. Andrews, Fife, KY16 9SS Scotland (United Kingdom); Bentz, M. C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Georgia State University, Astronomy Offices, One Park Place South SE, Suite 700, Atlanta, GA 30303 (United States); Denney, K. D. [Marie Curie Fellow at the Dark Cosmology Centre, Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, Juliane Maries Vej 30, DK-2100 Copenhagen (Denmark); Siverd, R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Vanderbilt University, 5301 Stevenson Center, Nashville, TN 37235 (United States); Sergeev, S. G.; Borman, G. A. [Crimean Astrophysical Observatory, P/O Nauchny Crimea 98409 (Ukraine); Kaspi, S. [School of Physics and Astronomy, Raymond and Beverly Sackler Faculty of Exact Sciences, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv 69978 (Israel); Bord, D. J. [Department of Natural Sciences, The University of Michigan - Dearborn, 4901 Evergreen Rd, Dearborn, MI 48128 (United States); Che, X. [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, 500 Church Street, Ann Arbor, MI 41809 (United States); and others

    2013-02-10

    We present velocity-resolved reverberation results for five active galactic nuclei. We recovered velocity-delay maps using the maximum entropy method for four objects: Mrk 335, Mrk 1501, 3C 120, and PG 2130+099. For the fifth, Mrk 6, we were only able to measure mean time delays in different velocity bins of the H{beta} emission line. The four velocity-delay maps show unique dynamical signatures for each object. For 3C 120, the Balmer lines show kinematic signatures consistent with both an inclined disk and infalling gas, but the He II {lambda}4686 emission line is suggestive only of inflow. The Balmer lines in Mrk 335, Mrk 1501, and PG 2130+099 show signs of infalling gas, but the He II emission in Mrk 335 is consistent with an inclined disk. We also see tentative evidence of combined virial motion and infalling gas from the velocity-binned analysis of Mrk 6. The maps for 3C 120 and Mrk 335 are two of the most clearly defined velocity-delay maps to date. These maps constitute a large increase in the number of objects for which we have resolved velocity-delay maps and provide evidence supporting the reliability of reverberation-based black hole mass measurements.

  1. Polarization diagnostics for cool core cluster emission lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sparks, W. B.; Pringle, J. E.; Cracraft, M.; Meyer, E. T. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Carswell, R. F. [Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HA (United Kingdom); Voit, G. M.; Donahue, M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824-2320 (United States); Hough, J. H. [University of Hertfordshire, College Lane, Hatfield AL10 9AB (United Kingdom); Manset, N., E-mail: sparks@stsci.edu [CFHT, 65-1238 Mamalahoa Hwy, Kamuela, HI 96743 (United States)

    2014-01-01

    The nature of the interaction between low-excitation gas filaments at ∼10{sup 4} K, seen in optical line emission, and diffuse X-ray emitting coronal gas at ∼10{sup 7} K in the centers of galaxy clusters remains a puzzle. The presence of a strong, empirical correlation between the two gas phases is indicative of a fundamental relationship between them, though as yet of undetermined cause. The cooler filaments, originally thought to have condensed from the hot gas, could also arise from a merger or the disturbance of cool circumnuclear gas by nuclear activity. Here, we have searched for intrinsic line emission polarization in cool core galaxy clusters as a diagnostic of fundamental transport processes. Drawing on developments in solar astrophysics, direct energetic particle impact induced polarization holds the promise to definitively determine the role of collisional processes such as thermal conduction in the ISM physics of galaxy clusters, while providing insight into other highly anisotropic excitation mechanisms such as shocks, intense radiation fields, and suprathermal particles. Under certain physical conditions, theoretical calculations predict of the order of 10% polarization. Our observations of the filaments in four nearby cool core clusters place stringent upper limits (≲ 0.1%) on the presence of emission line polarization, requiring that if thermal conduction is operative, the thermal gradients are not in the saturated regime. This limit is consistent with theoretical models of the thermal structure of filament interfaces.

  2. FIRST DETECTION OF NEAR-INFRARED LINE EMISSION FROM ORGANICS IN YOUNG CIRCUMSTELLAR DISKS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mandell, Avi M.; Mumma, Michael J.; Villanueva, Geronimo [Solar System Exploration Division, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Bast, Jeanette; Van Dishoeck, Ewine F. [Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, P.O. Box 9513, 2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands); Blake, Geoffrey A. [California Institute of Technology, Division of Geological and Planetary Sciences, MS 150-21, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Salyk, Colette, E-mail: Avi.Mandell@nasa.gov [Department of Astronomy, University of Texas, Austin, TX 78712 (United States)

    2012-03-10

    We present an analysis of high-resolution spectroscopy of several bright T Tauri stars using the CRIRES spectrograph on the Very Large Telescope and NIRSPEC spectrograph on the Keck Telescope, revealing the first detections of emission from HCN and C{sub 2}H{sub 2} in circumstellar disks at near-infrared wavelengths. Using advanced data reduction techniques, we achieve a dynamic range with respect to the disk continuum of {approx}500 at 3 {mu}m, revealing multiple emission features of H{sub 2}O, OH, HCN, and C{sub 2}H{sub 2}. We also present stringent upper limits for two other molecules thought to be abundant in the inner disk, CH{sub 4} and NH{sub 3}. Line profiles for the different detected molecules are broad but centrally peaked in most cases, even for disks with previously determined inclinations of greater than 20 Degree-Sign , suggesting that the emission has both a Keplerian and non-Keplerian component as observed previously for CO emission. We apply two different modeling strategies to constrain the molecular abundances and temperatures: we use a simplified single-temperature local thermal equilibrium (LTE) slab model with a Gaussian line profile to make line identifications and determine a best-fit temperature and initial abundance ratios, and we compare these values with constraints derived from a detailed disk radiative transfer model assuming LTE excitation but utilizing a realistic temperature and density structure. Abundance ratios from both sets of models are consistent with each other and consistent with expected values from theoretical chemical models, and analysis of the line shapes suggests that the molecular emission originates from within a narrow region in the inner disk (R < 1 AU).

  3. Emission Line Properties of Seyfert Galaxies in the 12 μm Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malkan, Matthew A.; Jensen, Lisbeth D.; Rodriguez, David R.; Spinoglio, Luigi; Rush, Brian

    2017-09-01

    We present optical and ultraviolet spectroscopic measurements of the emission lines of 81 Seyfert 1 and 104 Seyfert 2 galaxies that comprise nearly all of the IRAS 12 μm AGN sample. We have analyzed the emission-line luminosity functions, reddening, and other diagnostics. For example, the narrow-line regions (NLR) of Seyfert 1 and 2 galaxies do not significantly differ from each other in most of these diagnostics. Combining the Hα/Hβ ratio with a new reddening indicator—the [S II]6720/[O II]3727 ratio—we find the average E(B-V) is 0.49 ± 0.35 for type 1 and 0.52 ± 0.26 for type 2 Seyferts. The NLR of Sy 1s has an ionization level insignificantly higher than that of Sy 2s. For the broad-line region (BLR), we find that the C IV equivalent width correlates more strongly with [O III]/Hβ than with UV luminosity. Our bright sample of local active galaxies includes 22 Seyfert nuclei with extremely weak broad wings in Hα, known as Seyfert 1.9s and 1.8s, depending on whether or not broad Hβ wings are detected. Aside from these weak broad lines, our low-luminosity Seyferts are more similar to the Sy 2s than to Sy 1s. In a BPT diagram, we find that Sy 1.8s and 1.9s overlap the region occupied by Sy 2s. We compare our results on optical emission lines with those obtained by previous investigators, using AGN subsamples from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. The luminosity functions of forbidden emission lines [O II]λ3727 Å, [O III]λ5007 Å, and [S II]λ6720 Å in Sy 1s and Sy 2s are indistinguishable. They all show strong downward curvature. Unlike the LFs of Seyfert galaxies measured by the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, ours are nearly flat at low luminosities. The larger number of faint Sloan “AGN” is attributable to their inclusion of weakly emitting LINERs and H II+AGN “composite” nuclei, which do not meet our spectral classification criteria for Seyferts. In an Appendix, we have investigated which emission line luminosities can provide the most reliable

  4. Broad-wing molecular lines without internal energy sources. [in interstellar clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blitz, Leo; Magnani, Loris; Wandel, Amri

    1988-01-01

    The discovery of broad CO wings in four high-latitude molecular clouds which do not have associated internal energy sources is reported. The velocity width of the wings is as much as five times greater than the width of the cloud cores. Neither visible stars brighter than the background population, optical nebulosity, nor IRAS point sources are found at the position of the wings, except for one case with an IRAS source 3 arcmin from the peak position of the wings. The possibility that the wings are the result of conductive interfaces resulting from cold molecular clouds in a hotter ambient medium is examined, and it is concluded that the expected column density of such gas is more than three orders of magnitude smaller than that observed.

  5. Comparison of MGII and CIV emission lines in NGC5548

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ptak, R.; Stoner, R. E.

    1992-01-01

    Results are presented of a cross-correlation analysis in which the Seyfert galaxy NGC 5548 was monitored in the UV portion of its spectrum every 4 d for an 8-mo period by an international collaborative effort using the IUE satellite. The analysis shows that the CIV 1550-A line correlates with the underlying continuum with a time delay of about 10 d. A similar analysis for the MgII 2798-A line yields a much broader peak and a delay of about 50 +/- 20 d. Thus the MgII line emitting gas appears to be about 5 times more distant from the central source. The MgII and CIV profiles in this series of spectra are compared on the same velocity scale. The two lines are quite similar on the red side of the profile, with the CIV more extended on the blue side. The overall width of the CIV is as much as 40 percent larger, but it is definitely not larger by a factor or two or more. It is concluded that the motion of the broad line emitting gas is not dominated by the gravitational influence of a central massive object.

  6. Emission Line Astronomy - Coronagraphic Tunable Narrow Band Imaging and Integral Field Spectroscopy. Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose to continue our program of emission line astronomy featuring three areas of emphasis: 1) The distribution and nature of high redshift emission line...

  7. Variable X-ray absorption in the mini-broad absorption line quasar PG 1126-041

    OpenAIRE

    Giustini, Margherita; Cappi, Massimo; Chartas, George; Dadina, Mauro; Eracleous, Mike; Ponti, Gabriele; Proga, Daniel; Tombesi, Francesco; Vignali, Cristian; Palumbo, Giorgio G. C.

    2011-01-01

    We present the results of a multi-epoch observational campaign on the mini-broad absorption line quasar (mini-BAL QSO) PG 1126-041 performed with XMM-Newton from 2004 to 2009. Time-resolved X-ray spectroscopy and simultaneous UV and X-ray photometry were performed on the most complete set of observations and on the deepest X-ray exposure of a mini-BAL QSO to date. Complex X-ray spectral variability, found on time scales of both months and hours, is best reproduced by means of variable and mas...

  8. Emission Line Metallicities from the Faint Infrared Grism Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pharo, John; Christensen, Lise; Malhotra, Sangeeta; Rhoads, James; Smith, Mark; Harish, Santosh; yang, huan; FIGS Collaboration

    2018-01-01

    We present the redshifts and line identifications for 71 emission-line galaxies (ELGs) with z ~ 0.3 - 3 in the HUDF as part of the Faint Infrared Grism Survey (FIGS). We have calculated gas-phase metallicity for 39 ELGs using the R23 method, and for 14 ELGs for which we have [OIII]4363 measurements at S/N > 3, which enables the direct measurement of metallicity from the [OIII] electron temperature. The ELGs were selected by an automatic search of one-dimensional slitless spectroscopy from the WFC3 G102 grism on the Hubble Space Telescope. We matched the ELG candidate spectra with high-resolution optical spectra from MUSE, which allowed confirmation and identification of single-line FIGS detections and provided lower-wavelength line measurements. Once individual line fluxes were measured, we produced metallicities via the [OIII]4363 and R23 methods and analyzed the metallicity in relation to mass, star formation rate, and other properties.

  9. DISSECTING THE POWER SOURCES OF LOW-LUMINOSITY EMISSION-LINE GALAXY NUCLEI VIA COMPARISON OF HST-STIS AND GROUND-BASED SPECTRA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Constantin, Anca; Castillo, Christopher A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, James Madison University, Harrisonburg, VA 22807 (United States); Shields, Joseph C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Ohio University, Athens, OH 45701 (United States); Ho, Luis C. [Kavli Institute for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Barth, Aaron J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697-4575 (United States); Filippenko, Alexei V. [Department of Astronomy, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720-3411 (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Using a sample of ∼100 nearby line-emitting galaxy nuclei, we have built the currently definitive atlas of spectroscopic measurements of Hα and neighboring emission lines at subarcsecond scales. We employ these data in a quantitative comparison of the nebular emission in Hubble Space Telescope (HST) and ground-based apertures, which offer an order-of-magnitude difference in contrast, and provide new statistical constraints on the degree to which transition objects and low-ionization nuclear emission-line regions (LINERs) are powered by an accreting black hole at ≲10 pc. We show that while the small-aperture observations clearly resolve the nebular emission, the aperture dependence in the line ratios is generally weak, and this can be explained by gradients in the density of the line-emitting gas: the higher densities in the more nuclear regions potentially flatten the excitation gradients, suppressing the forbidden emission. The transition objects show a threefold increase in the incidence of broademission in the high-resolution data, as well as the strongest density gradients, supporting the composite model for these systems as accreting sources surrounded by star-forming activity. The narrow-line LINERs appear to be the weaker counterparts of the Type 1 LINERs, where the low accretion rates cause the disappearance of the broad-line component. The enhanced sensitivity of the HST observations reveals a 30% increase in the incidence of accretion-powered systems at z ≈ 0. A comparison of the strength of the broad-line emission detected at different epochs implies potential broad-line variability on a decade-long timescale, with at least a factor of three in amplitude.

  10. X-ray line emission from the Cygnus Loop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahn, S. M.; Charles, P. A.; Bowyer, S.; Blissett, R. J.

    1980-01-01

    The HEAO 1 satellite has observed the X-ray spectrum of the Cygnus Loop in the 0.1-2.0 keV band. The observed count-rate spectrum is deconvolved by the Kahn and Blissett technique to demonstrate conclusively the presence of oxygen- and iron-line emission between 0.6 and 0.9 keV. The spectrum has been fitted with single- and two-component Raymond-Smith plasma emission models. The best-fit dominant X-ray temperature is approximately 3,200,000 K, and the best-fit interstellar column density is approximately a few times 10 to the 20th/sq cm.

  11. Failed Radiatively Accelerated Dusty Outflow Model of the Broad Line Region in Active Galactic Nuclei. I. Analytical Solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czerny, B.; Li, Yan-Rong; Hryniewicz, K.; Panda, S.; Wildy, C.; Sniegowska, M.; Wang, J.-M.; Sredzinska, J.; Karas, V.

    2017-09-01

    The physical origin of the broad line region in active galactic nuclei is still unclear despite many years of observational studies. The reason is that the region is unresolved, and the reverberation mapping results imply a complex velocity field. We adopt a theory-motivated approach to identify the principal mechanism responsible for this complex phenomenon. We consider the possibility that the role of dust is essential. We assume that the local radiation pressure acting on the dust in the accretion disk atmosphere launches the outflow of material, but higher above the disk the irradiation from the central parts causes dust evaporation and a subsequent fallback. This failed radiatively accelerated dusty outflow is expected to represent the material forming low ionization lines. In this paper we formulate simple analytical equations to describe the cloud motion, including the evaporation phase. The model is fully described just by the basic parameters of black hole mass, accretion rate, black hole spin, and viewing angle. We study how the spectral line generic profiles correspond to this dynamic. We show that the virial factor calculated from our model strongly depends on the black hole mass in the case of enhanced dust opacity, and thus it then correlates with the line width. This could explain why the virial factor measured in galaxies with pseudobulges differs from that obtained from objects with classical bulges, although the trend predicted by the current version of the model is opposite to the observed trend.

  12. THE DIFFERENCES IN THE TORUS GEOMETRY BETWEEN HIDDEN AND NON-HIDDEN BROAD LINE ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ichikawa, Kohei; Ueda, Yoshihiro [Department of Astronomy, Kyoto University, Kitashirakawa-Oiwake-cho, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Packham, Christopher; Lopez-Rodriguez, Enrique; Alsip, Crystal D. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Texas at San Antonio, One UTSA Circle, San Antonio, TX 78249 (United States); Almeida, Cristina Ramos; Ramos, Andrés Asensio; González-Martín, Omaira [Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, C/Vía Láctea, s/n, E-38205 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Alonso-Herrero, Almudena [Instituto de Física de Cantabria, CSIC-Universidad de Cantabria, E-39005 Santander (Spain); Díaz-Santos, Tanio [Spitzer Science Center, California Institute of Technology, MS 220-6, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Elitzur, Moshe [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40506-0055 (United States); Hönig, Sebastian F. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Southampton, Southampton SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom); Imanishi, Masatoshi [Subaru Telescope, 650 North A’ohoku Place, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States); Levenson, Nancy A. [Gemini Observatory, Southern Operations Center, c/o AURA, Casilla 603, La Serena (Chile); Mason, Rachel E. [Gemini Observatory, Northern Operations Center, 670 N. A’ohoku Place, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States); Perlman, Eric S., E-mail: ichikawa@kusastro.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Department of Physics and Space Sciences, 150 W. University Blvd., Florida Institute of Technology, Melbourne, FL 32901 (United States)

    2015-04-20

    We present results from the fitting of infrared (IR) spectral energy distributions of 21 active galactic nuclei (AGNs) with clumpy torus models. We compiled high spatial resolution (∼0.3–0.7 arcsec) mid-IR (MIR) N-band spectroscopy, Q-band imaging, and nuclear near- and MIR photometry from the literature. Combining these nuclear near- and MIR observations, far-IR photometry, and clumpy torus models enables us to put constraints on the torus properties and geometry. We divide the sample into three types according to the broad line region (BLR) properties: type-1s, type-2s with scattered or hidden broad line region (HBLR) previously observed, and type-2s without any published HBLR signature (NHBLR). Comparing the torus model parameters gives us the first quantitative torus geometrical view for each subgroup. We find that NHBLR AGNs have smaller torus opening angles and larger covering factors than HBLR AGNs. This suggests that the chance to observe scattered (polarized) flux from the BLR in NHBLR could be reduced by the dual effects of (a) less scattering medium due to the reduced scattering volume given the small torus opening angle and (b) the increased torus obscuration between the observer and the scattering region. These effects give a reasonable explanation for the lack of observed HBLR in some type-2 AGNs.

  13. EDDINGTON RATIO DISTRIBUTION OF X-RAY-SELECTED BROAD-LINE AGNs AT 1.0 < z < 2.2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suh, Hyewon; Hasinger, Günther [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Steinhardt, Charles [California Institute of Technology, 1200 East California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Silverman, John D.; Schramm, Malte [Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe, Todai Institutes for Advanced Study, the University of Tokyo, Kashiwa, 277-8583 (Kavli IPMU, WPI) (Japan)

    2015-12-20

    We investigate the Eddington ratio distribution of X-ray-selected broad-line active galactic nuclei (AGNs) in the redshift range 1.0 < z < 2.2, where the number density of AGNs peaks. Combining the optical and Subaru/Fiber Multi Object Spectrograph near-infrared spectroscopy, we estimate black hole masses for broad-line AGNs in the Chandra Deep Field South (CDF-S), Extended Chandra Deep Field South (E-CDF-S), and the XMM-Newton Lockman Hole (XMM-LH) surveys. AGNs with similar black hole masses show a broad range of AGN bolometric luminosities, which are calculated from X-ray luminosities, indicating that the accretion rate of black holes is widely distributed. We find a substantial fraction of massive black holes accreting significantly below the Eddington limit at z ≲ 2, in contrast to what is generally found for luminous AGNs at high redshift. Our analysis of observational selection biases indicates that the “AGN cosmic downsizing” phenomenon can be simply explained by the strong evolution of the comoving number density at the bright end of the AGN luminosity function, together with the corresponding selection effects. However, one might need to consider a correlation between the AGN luminosity and the accretion rate of black holes, in which luminous AGNs have higher Eddington ratios than low-luminosity AGNs, in order to understand the relatively small fraction of low-luminosity AGNs with high accretion rates in this epoch. Therefore, the observed downsizing trend could be interpreted as massive black holes with low accretion rates, which are relatively fainter than less-massive black holes with efficient accretion.

  14. SOLAR FLARE CHROMOSPHERIC LINE EMISSION: COMPARISON BETWEEN IBIS HIGH-RESOLUTION OBSERVATIONS AND RADIATIVE HYDRODYNAMIC SIMULATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Fatima Rubio da; Petrosian, Vahé [Department of Physics, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Kleint, Lucia [University of Applied Sciences and Arts Northwestern Switzerland, 5210 Windisch (Switzerland); Dalda, Alberto Sainz [Stanford-Lockheed Institute for Space Research, Stanford University, HEPL, 466 Via Ortega, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Liu, Wei, E-mail: frubio@stanford.edu [Lockheed Martin Solar and Astrophysics Laboratory, 3251 Hanover Street, Palo Alto, CA 94304 (United States)

    2015-05-01

    Solar flares involve impulsive energy release, which results in enhanced radiation over a broad spectral range and a wide range of heights. In particular, line emission from the chromosphere can provide critical diagnostics of plasma heating processes. Thus, a direct comparison between high-resolution spectroscopic observations and advanced numerical modeling results could be extremely valuable, but has not yet been attempted. In this paper, we present such a self-consistent investigation of an M3.0 flare observed by the Dunn Solar Telescope’s Interferometric Bi-dimensional Spectrometer (IBIS) on 2011 September 24 which we have modeled using the radiative hydrodynamic code RADYN. We obtained images and spectra of the flaring region with IBIS in Hα 6563 Å and Ca ii 8542 Å, and with RHESSI in X-rays. The latter observations were used to infer the non-thermal electron population, which was passed to RADYN to simulate the atmospheric response to electron collisional heating. We then synthesized spectral lines and compared their shapes and intensities to those observed by IBIS and found a general agreement. In particular, the synthetic Ca ii 8542 Å profile fits well to the observed profile, while the synthetic Hα profile is fainter in the core than for the observation. This indicates that Hα emission is more responsive to the non-thermal electron flux than the Ca ii 8542 Å emission. We suggest that it is necessary to refine the energy input and other processes to resolve this discrepancy.

  15. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Emission lines for SDSS Coronal-Line Forest AGNs (Rose+, 2015)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, M.; Elvis, M.; Tadhunter, C. N.

    2017-11-01

    In this paper, we make use of SDSS spectra. The basic properties of the CLiF AGN sample studied in this paper are given in Table 1. Note that the outputs of the SDSS pipeline are used only for the sample selection. Detailed measurements of emission line parameters such as the flux and velocity widths are measured using our own methods (Section 4). The redshifts were determined using single Gaussian fits to the [O III] λ5007 emission line. This line was chosen because it is the most prominent emission line in the optical spectra of these and most other AGN. (5 data files).

  16. Surface structures for enhancement of quantum yield in broad spectrum emission nanocrystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreuder, Michael A.; McBride, James R.; Rosenthal, Sandra J.

    2014-07-22

    Disclosed are inorganic nanoparticles comprising a body comprising cadmium and/or zinc crystallized with selenium, sulfur, and/or tellurium; a multiplicity of phosphonic acid ligands comprising at least about 20% of the total surface ligand coverage; wherein the nanocrystal is capable of absorbing energy from a first electromagnetic region and capable of emitting light in a second electromagnetic region, wherein the maximum absorbance wavelength of the first electromagnetic region is different from the maximum emission wavelength of the second electromagnetic region, thereby providing a Stokes shift of at least about 20 nm, wherein the second electromagnetic region comprises an at least about 100 nm wide band of wavelengths, and wherein the nanoparticle exhibits has a quantum yield of at least about 10%. This abstract is intended as a scanning tool for purposes of searching in the particular art and is not intended to be limiting of the present invention.

  17. Space Telescope and Optical Reverberation Mapping Project. V. Optical Spectroscopic Campaign and Emission-line Analysis for NGC 5548

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pei, L.; Fausnaugh, M. M.; Barth, A. J.; Peterson, B. M.; Bentz, M. C.; De Rosa, G.; Denney, K. D.; Goad, M. R.; Kochanek, C. S.; Korista, K. T.; Kriss, G. A.; Pogge, R. W.; Bennert, V. N.; Brotherton, M.; Clubb, K. I.; Dalla Bontà, E.; Filippenko, A. V.; Greene, J. E.; Grier, C. J.; Vestergaard, M.; Zheng, W.; Adams, Scott M.; Beatty, Thomas G.; Bigley, A.; Brown, Jacob E.; Brown, Jonathan S.; Canalizo, G.; Comerford, J. M.; Coker, Carl T.; Corsini, E. M.; Croft, S.; Croxall, K. V.; Deason, A. J.; Eracleous, Michael; Fox, O. D.; Gates, E. L.; Henderson, C. B.; Holmbeck, E.; Holoien, T. W.-S.; Jensen, J. J.; Johnson, C. A.; Kelly, P. L.; Kim, S.; King, A.; Lau, M. W.; Li, Miao; Lochhaas, Cassandra; Ma, Zhiyuan; Manne-Nicholas, E. R.; Mauerhan, J. C.; Malkan, M. A.; McGurk, R.; Morelli, L.; Mosquera, Ana; Mudd, Dale; Muller Sanchez, F.; Nguyen, M. L.; Ochner, P.; Ou-Yang, B.; Pancoast, A.; Penny, Matthew T.; Pizzella, A.; Poleski, Radosław; Runnoe, Jessie; Scott, B.; Schimoia, Jaderson S.; Shappee, B. J.; Shivvers, I.; Simonian, Gregory V.; Siviero, A.; Somers, Garrett; Stevens, Daniel J.; Strauss, M. A.; Tayar, Jamie; Tejos, N.; Treu, T.; Van Saders, J.; Vican, L.; Villanueva, S., Jr.; Yuk, H.; Zakamska, N. L.; Zhu, W.; Anderson, M. D.; Arévalo, P.; Bazhaw, C.; Bisogni, S.; Borman, G. A.; Bottorff, M. C.; Brandt, W. N.; Breeveld, A. A.; Cackett, E. M.; Carini, M. T.; Crenshaw, D. M.; De Lorenzo-Cáceres, A.; Dietrich, M.; Edelson, R.; Efimova, N. V.; Ely, J.; Evans, P. A.; Ferland, G. J.; Flatland, K.; Gehrels, N.; Geier, S.; Gelbord, J. M.; Grupe, D.; Gupta, A.; Hall, P. B.; Hicks, S.; Horenstein, D.; Horne, Keith; Hutchison, T.; Im, M.; Joner, M. D.; Jones, J.; Kaastra, J.; Kaspi, S.; Kelly, B. C.; Kennea, J. A.; Kim, M.; Kim, S. C.; Klimanov, S. A.; Lee, J. C.; Leonard, D. C.; Lira, P.; MacInnis, F.; Mathur, S.; McHardy, I. M.; Montouri, C.; Musso, R.; Nazarov, S. V.; Netzer, H.; Norris, R. P.; Nousek, J. A.; Okhmat, D. N.; Papadakis, I.; Parks, J. R.; Pott, J.-U.; Rafter, S. E.; Rix, H.-W.; Saylor, D. A.; Schnülle, K.; Sergeev, S. G.; Siegel, M.; Skielboe, A.; Spencer, M.; Starkey, D.; Sung, H.-I.; Teems, K. G.; Turner, C. S.; Uttley, P.; Villforth, C.; Weiss, Y.; Woo, J.-H.; Yan, H.; Young, S.; Zu, Y.

    2017-03-01

    We present the results of an optical spectroscopic monitoring program targeting NGC 5548 as part of a larger multiwavelength reverberation mapping campaign. The campaign spanned 6 months and achieved an almost daily cadence with observations from five ground-based telescopes. The Hβ and He II λ4686 broad emission-line light curves lag that of the 5100 Å optical continuum by {4.17}-0.36+0.36 {days} and {0.79}-0.34+0.35 {days}, respectively. The Hβ lag relative to the 1158 Å ultraviolet continuum light curve measured by the Hubble Space Telescope is ˜50% longer than that measured against the optical continuum, and the lag difference is consistent with the observed lag between the optical and ultraviolet continua. This suggests that the characteristic radius of the broad-line region is ˜50% larger than the value inferred from optical data alone. We also measured velocity-resolved emission-line lags for Hβ and found a complex velocity-lag structure with shorter lags in the line wings, indicative of a broad-line region dominated by Keplerian motion. The responses of both the Hβ and He II emission lines to the driving continuum changed significantly halfway through the campaign, a phenomenon also observed for C IV, Lyα, He II(+O III]), and Si IV(+O IV]) during the same monitoring period. Finally, given the optical luminosity of NGC 5548 during our campaign, the measured Hβ lag is a factor of five shorter than the expected value implied by the R BLR-L AGN relation based on the past behavior of NGC 5548.

  18. Extent and structure of intervening absorbers from absorption lines redshifted on quasar emission lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergeron, J.; Boissé, P.

    2017-07-01

    Aims: We wish to study the extent and sub-parsec spatial structure of intervening quasar absorbers, mainly those involving cold neutral and molecular gas. Methods: We have selected quasar absorption systems with high spectral resolution and a good signal-to-noise ratio data, with some of their lines falling on quasar emission features. By investigating the consistency of absorption profiles seen for lines formed either against the quasar continuum source or on the much more extended (Lyα-N v, C iv or Lyβ-O vi) emission line region (ELR), we can probe the extent and structure of the foreground absorber over the extent of the ELR ( 0.3-1 pc). The spatial covering analysis provides constraints on the transverse size of the absorber and thus is complementary to variability or photoionisation modelling studies, which yield information on the absorber size along the line of sight. The methods we used to identify spatial covering or structure effects involve line profile fitting and curve-of-growth analysis. Results: We have detected three absorbers with unambiguous non-uniformity effects in neutral gas. For the extreme case of the Fe I absorber at zabs = 0.45206 towards HE 0001-2340, we derive a coverage factor of the ELR of at most 0.10 and possibly very close to zero; this implies an overall absorber size no larger than 0.06 pc. For the zabs = 2.41837 C I absorber towards QSO J1439+1117, absorption is significantly stronger towards the ELR than towards the continuum source in several C I and C I⋆ velocity components, pointing to spatial variations of their column densities of about a factor of two and to structures at the 100 au-0.1 pc scale. The other systems with firm or possible effects can be described in terms of a partial covering of the ELR, with coverage factors in the range 0.7-1. The overall results for cold neutral absorbers imply a transverse extent of about five times the ELR size or smaller, which is consistent with other known constraints. Although

  19. A versatile apparatus for on-line emission channeling experiments

    CERN Document Server

    da Silva, Manuel Ribeiro; Correia, João Guilherme; Amorim, Lígia Marina; Pereira, Lino Miguel da Costa

    2013-01-01

    The concept and functionality of an apparatus dedicated to emission channeling experiments using short-lived isotopes on-line at ISOLDE/CERN is described. The setup is assembled in two functional blocks - (a) base stand including beam collimation, implantation and measurement chamber, cryogenic extension, and vacuum control system and - (b) Panmure goniometer extension including maneuvering cradle and sample heating furnace. This setup allows for in situ implantation and sample analysis in the as-implanted state and upon cooling down to 50 K and during annealing up to 1200 K. The functionality of the setup will be illustrated with the example of establishing the lattice location of $^{56}$Mn probes implanted into GaAs.

  20. A probabilistic approach to emission-line galaxy classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, R. S.; Dantas, M. L. L.; Costa-Duarte, M. V.; Feigelson, E. D.; Killedar, M.; Lablanche, P.-Y.; Vilalta, R.; Krone-Martins, A.; Beck, R.; Gieseke, F.

    2017-12-01

    We invoke a Gaussian mixture model (GMM) to jointly analyse two traditional emission-line classification schemes of galaxy ionization sources: the Baldwin-Phillips-Terlevich (BPT) and WH α versus [N II]/H α (WHAN) diagrams, using spectroscopic data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 7 and SEAGal/STARLIGHT data sets. We apply a GMM to empirically define classes of galaxies in a three-dimensional space spanned by the log [O III]/H β, log [N II]/H α and log EW(H α) optical parameters. The best-fitting GMM based on several statistical criteria suggests a solution around four Gaussian components (GCs), which are capable to explain up to 97 per cent of the data variance. Using elements of information theory, we compare each GC to their respective astronomical counterpart. GC1 and GC4 are associated with star-forming galaxies, suggesting the need to define a new starburst subgroup. GC2 is associated with BPT's active galactic nuclei (AGN) class and WHAN's weak AGN class. GC3 is associated with BPT's composite class and WHAN's strong AGN class. Conversely, there is no statistical evidence - based on four GCs - for the existence of a Seyfert/low-ionization nuclear emission-line region (LINER) dichotomy in our sample. Notwithstanding, the inclusion of an additional GC5 unravels it. The GC5 appears associated with the LINER and passive galaxies on the BPT and WHAN diagrams, respectively. This indicates that if the Seyfert/LINER dichotomy is there, it does not account significantly to the global data variance and may be overlooked by standard metrics of goodness of fit. Subtleties aside, we demonstrate the potential of our methodology to recover/unravel different objects inside the wilderness of astronomical data sets, without lacking the ability to convey physically interpretable results. The probabilistic classifications from the GMM analysis are publicly available within the COINtoolbox at https://cointoolbox.github.io/GMM_Catalogue/.

  1. Massive Emission-Line Stars in Nearby Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, P. L.; Holtzman, J. A.; Walterbos, R. A. M.

    2003-12-01

    The evolution of massive stars is still poorly understood because of critical effects of mass loss during the post-main sequence phase. Of particular relevance is the Luminous Blue Variable phase, during which high mass loss may occur over a brief period. It would be useful to know the mass range of stars that enter this phase, and the life time of the phase. For that, better estimates of the numbers of LBVs in different environments is crucial. In a study of M31, we detected candidate LBVs as luminous stars with strong Hα emission-lines and no nebular [SII] emission. (King, N.L., Walterbos, R.A.M., & Braun, R., 1998, ApJ, 507:210-220). HST's sensitivity offers the capability to identify these candidate LBVs in galaxies beyond the Local Group. We identify massive Hα emmision-line stars in nearby spiral galaxies within 10 Mpc, using data from the HST WFPC2 archive. We obtained stellar photometry in Hα (F656N) and various broadband filters, with methods developed for the HST Local Group Stellar Photometry archive (Holtzman, J., Afonso, C., & Dolphin, A., 2003, ApJS, submitted). We identify candidates based on the amount of Hα excess in two-color plots. We also require an absolute magnitude MV ≤ -5, and photometry fit parameters consistent with point source characteristics. Candidates are inspected visually on the images for verification purpose. We find promising candidates in several nearby galaxies. We will present a catalog of the objects, and discuss their properties and the environments in which they are found. Support for this work was provided by NASA through grant numbers AR-08372.01-97A and HST-AR-08749.01-A from the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by AURA, Inc. under NASA contract NAS5-26555.

  2. Broad-Band-Emissive Organic-Inorganic Hybrid Semiconducting Nanowires Based on an ABX3-Type Chain Compound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zhenyue; Li, Lina; Ji, Chengmin; Lin, Guoming; Wang, Sasa; Shen, Yaoguo; Sun, Zhihua; Zhao, Sangen; Luo, Junhua

    2017-08-07

    Organic-inorganic hybrid lead halide (e.g., CH3NH3PbX3, where X = CI, Br, and I) nanowires (NWs) with remarkable electric and optical properties have recently garnered increasing attention, owing to their structural flexibility and tunability compared to inorganic semiconducting NWs. While most recently reported NWs are limited to methylammonium/formamidinium three-dimensional lead halide perovskites, it is urgent to develop new organic-inorganic hybrid semiconducting NWs. Here, broad-band-emissive single-crystal semiconductive NWs based on a new ABX3-type organic-inorganic chain hybrid, (2-methylpiperidine)lead tribromide, are reported. It is believed that this work will enrich the organic-inorganic hybrid semiconducting NWs and may provide potential applications for LED displaying.

  3. DISCOVERY OF THE BROAD-LINED TYPE Ic SN 2013cq ASSOCIATED WITH THE VERY ENERGETIC GRB 130427A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, D.; Krühler, T.; Hjorth, J.; Malesani, D.; Fynbo, J. P. U.; Watson, D. J.; Geier, S. [Dark Cosmology Centre, Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, Juliane Maries Vej 30, DK-2100 København Ø (Denmark); De Ugarte Postigo, A.; Thöne, C. C.; Sánchez-Ramírez, R. [Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía, CSIC, Glorieta de la Astronomía s/n, E-18008 Granada (Spain); Leloudas, G. [The Oskar Klein Centre, Department of Physics, Stockholm University, AlbaNova, SE-10691 Stockholm (Sweden); Cano, Z.; Jakobsson, P. [Centre for Astrophysics and Cosmology, Science Institute, University of Iceland, Dunhagi 5, IS-107 Reykjavik (Iceland); Schulze, S. [Departamento de Astronomía y Astrofísica, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Casilla 306, Santiago 22 (Chile); Kaper, L. [Astronomical Institute Anton Pannekoek, University of Amsterdam, Science Park 904, NL-1098 XH Amsterdam (Netherlands); Sollerman, J. [The Oskar Klein Centre, Department of Astronomy, Stockholm University, AlbaNova, SE-10691 Stockholm (Sweden); Cabrera-Lavers, A. [Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, E-38205 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Cao, C. [Department of Space Science and Physics, Shandong University at Weihai, Weihai, Shandong 264209 (China); Covino, S. [INAF/Brera Astronomical Observatory, via Bianchi 46, I-23807 Merate (Italy); Flores, H., E-mail: dong@dark-cosmology.dk [Laboratoire Galaxies Etoiles Physique et Instrumentation, Observatoire de Paris, 5 place Jules Janssen, F-92195 Meudon (France); and others

    2013-10-20

    Long-duration gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) at z < 1 are found in most cases to be accompanied by bright, broad-lined Type Ic supernovae (SNe Ic-BL). The highest-energy GRBs are mostly located at higher redshifts, where the associated SNe are hard to detect observationally. Here, we present early and late observations of the optical counterpart of the very energetic GRB 130427A. Despite its moderate redshift, z = 0.3399 ± 0.0002, GRB 130427A is at the high end of the GRB energy distribution, with an isotropic-equivalent energy release of E{sub iso} ∼ 9.6 × 10{sup 53} erg, more than an order of magnitude more energetic than other GRBs with spectroscopically confirmed SNe. In our dense photometric monitoring, we detect excess flux in the host-subtracted r-band light curve, consistent with that expected from an emerging SN, ∼0.2 mag fainter than the prototypical SN 1998bw. A spectrum obtained around the time of the SN peak (16.7 days after the GRB) reveals broad undulations typical of SNe Ic-BL, confirming the presence of an SN, designated SN 2013cq. The spectral shape and early peak time are similar to those of the high expansion velocity SN 2010bh associated with GRB 100316D. Our findings demonstrate that high-energy, long-duration GRBs, commonly detected at high redshift, can also be associated with SNe Ic-BL, pointing to a common progenitor mechanism.

  4. Spectral modification of the laser emission of a terahertz quantum cascade laser induced by broad-band double pulse injection seeding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Markmann, Sergej, E-mail: sergej.markmann@ruhr-uni-bochum.de; Nong, Hanond, E-mail: nong.hanond@ruhr-uni-bochum.de; Hekmat, Negar; Jukam, Nathan [AG Terahertz Spektroskopie und Technologie, Ruhr-Universität Bochum, D-44780 Bochum (Germany); Pal, Shovon [AG Terahertz Spektroskopie und Technologie, Ruhr-Universität Bochum, D-44780 Bochum (Germany); Lehrstuhl für Angewandte Festkörperphysik, Ruhr-Universität Bochum, D-44780 Bochum (Germany); Scholz, Sven; Kukharchyk, Nadezhda; Ludwig, Arne; Wieck, Andreas D. [Lehrstuhl für Angewandte Festkörperphysik, Ruhr-Universität Bochum, D-44780 Bochum (Germany); Dhillon, Sukhdeep; Tignon, Jérôme [Laboratoire Pierre Aigrain, Ecole Normale Supérieure, UMR 8551 CNRS, UPMC, Univ. Paris 6, 75005 Paris (France); Marcadet, Xavier [Alcatel-Thales III-V Lab, Route Départementale 128, 91767 Palaiseau Cedex (France); Bock, Claudia; Kunze, Ulrich [Lehrstuhl für Werkstoffe und Nanoelektronik, Ruhr-Universität Bochum, D-44780 Bochum (Germany)

    2015-09-14

    We demonstrate by injection seeding that the spectral emission of a terahertz (THz) quantum cascade laser (QCL) can be modified with broad-band THz pulses whose bandwidths are greater than the QCL bandwidth. Two broad-band THz pulses delayed in time imprint a modulation on the single THz pulse spectrum. The resulting spectrum is used to injection seed the THz QCL. By varying the time delay between the THz pulses, the amplitude distribution of the QCL longitudinal modes is modified. By applying this approach, the QCL emission is reversibly switched from multi-mode to single mode emission.

  5. DOUBLE-PEAKED NARROW EMISSION-LINE GALAXIES FROM THE SLOAN DIGITAL SKY SURVEY. I. SAMPLE AND BASIC PROPERTIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ge Junqiang; Hu Chen; Wang Jianmin; Zhang Shu [Key Laboratory for Particle Astrophysics, Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 19B Yuquan Road, Beijing 100049 (China); Bai Jinming, E-mail: wangjm@mail.ihep.ac.cn [Yunnan Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming 650011 (China)

    2012-08-01

    Recently, much attention has been paid to double-peaked narrow emission-line (NEL) galaxies, some of which are suggested to be related to merging galaxies. We make a systematic search to build the largest sample of these sources from Data Release 7 of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). With reasonable criteria for fluxes, FWHMs of the emission lines, and separations of the peaks, we select 3030 double-peaked NEL galaxies. In light of the existence of broad Balmer lines and the locations of the two components of double-peaked NELs distinguished by the Kauffmann et al. criteria in the Baldwin-Phillips-Terlevich diagram, we find that there are 81 Type I active galactic nuclei (AGNs), 837 double Type II AGNs (2-Type II), 708 galaxies with double star-forming components (2-SF), 400 with mixed star-forming and Type II AGN components (Type II + SF), and 1004 unknown-type objects. As a by-product, a sample of galaxies (12,582) with asymmetric or top-flat profiles of emission lines is established. After visually inspecting the SDSS images of the two samples, we find 54 galaxies with dual cores. The present samples can be used to study the dynamics of merging galaxies, the triggering mechanism of black hole activity, the hierarchical growth of galaxies, and the dynamics of narrow line regions driven by outflows and a rotating disk.

  6. Crowdsourcing Broad Absorption Line Properties and Other Features of Quasar Outflow Using Zooniverse Citizen Science Project Platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowe, Cassie; Lundgren, Britt; Grier, Catherine

    2018-01-01

    The Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) regularly publishes vast catalogs of quasars and other astronomical objects. Previously, the SDSS collaboration has used visual inspection to check quasar redshift validity and flag instances of broad absorption lines (BALs). This information helps researchers to easily single out the quasars with BAL properties and study their outflows and other intervening gas clouds. Due to the ever-growing number of new SDSS quasar observations, visual inspections are no longer possible using previous methods. Currently, BAL information is being determined entirely computationally, and the accuracy of that information is not precisely known. This project uses the Zooniverse citizen science platform to visually inspect quasar spectra for BAL properties, to check the accuracy of the current autonomous methods, and to flag multi-phase outflows and find candidates for in-falling gas into the quasar central engine. The layout and format of a Zooniverse project provides an easier way to inspect and record data on each spectrum and share the workload via crowdsourcing. Work done by the SDSS collaboration members is serving as a beta test for a public project upon the official release of the DR14 quasar catalog by SDSS.

  7. Interaction Between the Broad-Lined Type Ic Supernova 2012ap and Carriers of Diffuse Interstellar Bands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milisavljevic, Dan; Margutti, Raffaella; Crabtree, Kyle N.; Foster, Jonathan B.; Soderberg, Alicia M.; Fesen, Robert A.; Parrent, Jerod T.; Sanders, Nathan E.; Drout, Maria R.; Kamble, Atish; hide

    2014-01-01

    The diffuse interstellar bands (DIBs) are absorption features observed in optical and near-infrared spectra that are thought to be associated with carbon-rich polyatomic molecules in interstellar gas. However, because the central wavelengths of these bands do not correspond with electronic transitions of any known atomic or molecular species, their nature has remained uncertain since their discovery almost a century ago. Here we report on unusually strong DIBs in optical spectra of the broad- lined Type Ic supernova SN2012ap that exhibit changes in equivalent width over short (. 30 days) timescales. The 4428 A and 6283 A DIB features get weaker with time, whereas the 5780 A feature shows a marginal increase. These nonuniform changes suggest that the supernova is interacting with a nearby source of the DIBs and that the DIB carriers possess high ionization potentials, such as small cations or charged fullerenes. We conclude that moderate-resolution spectra of supernovae with DIB absorptions obtained within weeks of outburst could reveal unique information about the mass-loss environment of their progenitor systems and provide new constraints on the properties of DIB carriers.

  8. Optical frequency locked loop for long-term stabilization of broad-line DFB laser frequency difference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipka, Michał; Parniak, Michał; Wasilewski, Wojciech

    2017-09-01

    We present an experimental realization of the optical frequency locked loop applied to long-term frequency difference stabilization of broad-line DFB lasers along with a new independent method to characterize relative phase fluctuations of two lasers. The presented design is based on a fast photodiode matched with an integrated phase-frequency detector chip. The locking setup is digitally tunable in real time, insensitive to environmental perturbations and compatible with commercially available laser current control modules. We present a simple model and a quick method to optimize the loop for a given hardware relying exclusively on simple measurements in time domain. Step response of the system as well as phase characteristics closely agree with the theoretical model. Finally, frequency stabilization for offsets within 4-15 GHz working range achieving <0.1 Hz long-term stability of the beat note frequency for 500 s averaging time period is demonstrated. For these measurements we employ an I/Q mixer that allows us to precisely and independently measure the full phase trace of the beat note signal.

  9. Predicted Fe II Spectra plus UV through sub-mm Emission Line Fluxes for Other Species Arising in Narrow Line Regions of AGNs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verner, Ekaterina; Bruhweiler, F. C.; Wills, B. J.

    2009-01-01

    Optical and UV spectra indicate pronounced Fe II emission from multitudinous lines superposed on the underlying UV and optical continua of Seyferts and QSOs. Although the intrinsic UV of the these objects exhibit strong Fe II emission arising in higher density Broad Line Region (BLR) gas, observations at visual wavelengths indicate Fe II originating in both BLR and lower density Narrow Line Region (NLR) gas. Our modeling of observed intrinsic UV Fe II emission produces better fits with both BLR and NLR components. We have calculated a grid of photoionization models appropriate for NLR, spanning a range of number density [log (n/cm-3) = 1.0 to 8.0], photoionizing flux [log (Φ/cm-2 s-1) = 10.0-18.0], microturbulence (ξ = 0, 2, 10, and 20 km s-1), and abundance (0.1, 0.5, 1.0 and 5 times solar). These models include the effects of cooling from Fe II. The effects of Fe II cooling and the use of a 371 versus an 830-level atom for Fe II in producing the Fe II emission spectra are explored. We present predicted Fe II spectra from the UV through the IR, plus fluxes of important lines of other species from the UV through the sub-mm wavelength range. These predictions, besides being relevant for studies of Fe II in AGNs, provide predicted fluxes for important lines for upcoming missions such as Herschel and SOPHIA. These results will be made available to researchers via the World Wide Web. We acknowledge the support of the National Science Foundation through grant AST-0607465 to CUA.

  10. On the sodium D line emission in the terrestrial nightglow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plane, John; Oetjen, Hilke; de Miranda, Marcelo; Saiz-Lopez, Alfonso; Gausa, Michael; Williams, Bifford

    2012-01-01

    Emission from atomic Na, consisting of a doublet of lines at 589.0 and 589.6 nm, is a prominent feature of the earth’s nightglow. A large data-base of measurements of the relative intensities of the D lines (RD) was gathered at three locations: the ALOMAR observatory, Andenes (Norway, 69°N), Kuujjuarapik (Canada, 55°N) and the Danum Valley (Borneo, 8°N). RD varies between 1.5 and 2.0, with an average value of 1.67. These results were interpreted using a theoretical model of the Na nightglow which involves initial production of electronically excited NaO(A2Σ) from the reaction between Na and O3, followed either by reaction with O to generate Na(2PJ) with a branching ratio of 1/6 and a J=3/2 to 1/2 propensity of 2.0, or quenching of NaO(A) to NaO(X2Π) by O2. The resulting NaO(X) then reacts with O to generate Na(2PJ) with a branching ratio of 1/6 and a J=3/2 to 1/2 propensity of 1.5. These branching ratios and spin-orbit propensities are derived from statistical correlation of the electronic potential energy surfaces connecting the reactants NaO(A)+O and NaO(X)+O with the products Na+O2, through the Na+O2- ion-pair intermediate. A fit of this statistical model to the results of an earlier laboratory study (Slanger et al., 2005), where RD was measured as a function of the ratio [O]/[O2], indicates that the rate coefficient for the quenching of NaO(A) by O2 is around 1×10-11 cm3 molecule-1 s-1. The statistical model is also in good accord with recent high resolution observations of the Na D line widths (Harrell et al., 2010). An atmospheric model is then used to show that gravity wave-driven perturbations to the Na layer can account for the observed variability of RD.

  11. From quantum cascade to super cascade laser a new laser design paradigm for broad spectral emission & a re-examination of current spreading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Loan T.

    Over the span of more than 20 years of development, the Quantum Cascade (QC) laser has positioned itself as the most viable mid-infrared (mid-IR) light source. Today's QC lasers emit watts of continuous wave power at room temperature. Despite significant progress, the mid-IR region remains vastly under-utilized. State-of-the-art QC lasers are found in high power defense applications and detection of trace gases with narrow absorption lines. A large number of applications, however, do not require so much power, but rather, a broadly tunable laser source to detect molecules with broad absorption features. As such, a QC laser that is broadly tunable over the entire biochemical fingerprinting region remains the missing link to markets such as non- invasive biomedical diagnostics, food safety, and stand-off detection in turbid media. In this thesis, we detail how we utilized the inherent flexibility of the QC design space to conceive a new type of laser with the potential to bridge that missing link of the QC laser to large commercial markets. Our design concept, the Super Cascade (SC) laser, works contrary to conventional laser design principle by supporting multiple independent optical transitions, each contributing to broadening the gain spectrum. We have demonstrated a room temperature laser gain medium with electroluminescence spanning 3.3-12.5 ?m and laser emission from 6.2-12.5 ?m, the record spectral width for any solid state laser gain medium. This gain bandwidth covers the entire biochemical fingerprinting region. The achievement of such a spectrally broad gain medium presents engineering challenges of how to optimally utilize the bandwidth. As of this work, a monolithi- cally integrated array of Distributed Feedback QC (DFB-QC) lasers is one of the most promising ways to fully utilize the SC gain bandwidth. Therefore, in this thesis, we explore ways of improving the yield and ease of fabrication of DFB-QC lasers, including a re-examination of the role of

  12. A Sample of Quasars with Strong Nitrogen Emission Lines from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiang, Linhua; Fan, Xiaohui; Vestergaard, Marianne

    2008-01-01

    We report on 293 quasars with strong NIV] lambda 1486 or NIII] lambda 1750 emission lines (rest-frame equivalent width > 3 \\AA) at 1.7......We report on 293 quasars with strong NIV] lambda 1486 or NIII] lambda 1750 emission lines (rest-frame equivalent width > 3 \\AA) at 1.7...

  13. BROAD N{sub 2}H{sup +} EMISSION TOWARD THE PROTOSTELLAR SHOCK L1157-B1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Codella, C.; Fontani, F.; Gómez-Ruiz, A.; Vasta, M. [INAF, Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri, Largo Enrico Fermi 5, I-50125 Firenze (Italy); Viti, S. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University College London, London (United Kingdom); Ceccarelli, C.; Lefloch, B.; Podio, L. [UJF-Grenoble 1/CNRS-INSU, Institut de Planétologie et d' Astrophysique de Grenoble (IPAG) UMR 5274, Grenoble, F-38041 (France); Benedettini, M.; Busquet, G. [INAF, Istituto di Astrofisica e Planetologia Spaziali, via Fosso del Cavaliere 100, 00133 Roma (Italy); Caselli, P., E-mail: codella@rcetri.astro.it [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT (United Kingdom)

    2013-10-10

    We present the first detection of N{sub 2}H{sup +} toward a low-mass protostellar outflow, namely, the L1157-B1 shock, at ∼0.1 pc from the protostellar cocoon. The detection was obtained with the IRAM 30 m antenna. We observed emission at 93 GHz due to the J = 1-0 hyperfine lines. Analysis of this emission coupled with HIFI CHESS multiline CO observations leads to the conclusion that the observed N{sub 2}H{sup +}(1-0) line originated from the dense (≥10{sup 5} cm{sup –3}) gas associated with the large (20''-25'') cavities opened by the protostellar wind. We find an N{sub 2}H{sup +} column density of a few 10{sup 12} cm{sup –2} corresponding to an abundance of (2-8) × 10{sup –9}. The N{sub 2}H{sup +} abundance can be matched by a model of quiescent gas evolved for more than 10{sup 4} yr, i.e., for more than the shock kinematical age (≅2000 yr). Modeling of C-shocks confirms that the abundance of N{sub 2}H{sup +} is not increased by the passage of the shock. In summary, N{sub 2}H{sup +} is a fossil record of the pre-shock gas, formed when the density of the gas was around 10{sup 4} cm{sup –3}, and then further compressed and accelerated by the shock.

  14. Broad-band Fourier transform spectroradiometer for the characterisation of atmospheric emission in the far infrared spectral range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palchetti, L.; Bianchini, G.; Esposito, F.

    A spectroradiometer has been developed for the characterisation of the atmospheric emission in the 100-1100 cm-1 spectral range with a resolution of 0.5 cm-1 and a signal-to-noise ratio of 100. This instrument has been studied in the framework of the REFIR (Radiation Explorer in the Far InfraRed) space project, which addresses the need for new data in a range not yet covered by any current or planned space mission for improving our knowledge of the distribution of the atmospheric components that modulate the Earh's emission, such as mid and upper tropospheric water vapour and clouds. The spectroradiometer is a based on a Fourier transform polarising interferometer with a new optical scheme that makes use of four polarising beam splitters and room-temperature pyroelectric detectors. It provides all the desired features including broad spectral coverage, two separated input ports and two output ports, optical compensation for tilt errors in the moving mirror unit, measurement of the overall input signal (both planes of polarization) on the same detector. This optical configuration maximizes the reliability of the spectrometer in particular for long lifetime space operations or for field campaigns and optimizes its performances with room temperature operations. The spectroradiometer is a compact instrument designed both for laboratory applications and for field campaings. In particular it has been designed for operations in high-altitude ground-based campaigns and on a stratospheric balloon platform. This work describes the design and fabrication of this instrument, the results of the spectroscopic characterisation performed in laboratory conditions and under vacuum, and possibly the first tests on atmospheric measurements scheduled for the beginning of 2004 in the South of Italy.

  15. Broad absorption line disappearance and emergence using multiple-epoch spectroscopy from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGraw, S. M.; Brandt, W. N.; Grier, C. J.; Filiz Ak, N.; Hall, P. B.; Schneider, D. P.; Anderson, S. F.; Green, P. J.; Hutchinson, T. A.; Macleod, C. L.; Vivek, M.

    2017-08-01

    We investigate broad absorption line (BAL) disappearance and emergence using a 470 BAL-quasar sample over ≤0.10-5.25 rest-frame years with at least three spectroscopic epochs for each quasar from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. We identify 14 disappearing BALs over ≤1.73-4.62 rest-frame years and 18 emerging BALs over ≤1.46-3.66 rest-frame years associated with the C iv λλ1548,1550 and/or Si iv λλ1393,1402 doublets, and report on their variability behaviour. BAL quasars in our data set exhibit disappearing/emerging C iv BALs at a rate of 2.3^{+0.9}_{-0.7} and 3.0^{+1.0}_{-0.8} per cent, respectively, and the frequency for BAL to non-BAL quasar transitions is 1.7^{+0.8}_{-0.6} per cent. We detect four re-emerging BALs over ≤3.88 rest-frame years on average and three re-disappearing BALs over ≤4.15 rest-frame years on average, the first reported cases of these types. We infer BAL lifetimes along the line of sight to be nominally ≲ 100-1000 yr using disappearing C iv BALs in our sample. Interpretations of (re-)emerging and (re-)disappearing BALs reveal evidence that collectively supports both transverse-motion and ionization-change scenarios to explain BAL variations. We constrain a nominal C iv/Si iv BAL-outflow location of ≲ 100 pc from the central source and a radial size of ≳ 1× 10-7 pc (0.02 au) using the ionization-change scenario, and constrain a nominal outflow location of ≲ 0.5 pc and a transverse size of ∼0.01 pc using the transverse-motion scenario. Our findings are consistent with previous work, and provide evidence in support of BALs tracing compact flow geometries with small filling factors.

  16. Superluminous Transients at AGN Centers from Interaction between Black Hole Disk Winds and Broad-line Region Clouds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moriya, Takashi J.; Tanaka, Masaomi; Ohsuga, Ken [Division of Theoretical Astronomy, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, National Institutes of Natural Sciences, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Morokuma, Tomoki, E-mail: takashi.moriya@nao.ac.jp [Institute of Astronomy, Graduate School of Science, The University of Tokyo, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-0015 (Japan)

    2017-07-10

    We propose that superluminous transients that appear at central regions of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) such as CSS100217:102913+404220 (CSS100217) and PS16dtm, which reach near- or super-Eddington luminosities of the central black holes, are powered by the interaction between accretion-disk winds and clouds in broad-line regions (BLRs) surrounding them. If the disk luminosity temporarily increases by, e.g., limit–cycle oscillations, leading to a powerful radiatively driven wind, strong shock waves propagate in the BLR. Because the dense clouds in the AGN BLRs typically have similar densities to those found in SNe IIn, strong radiative shocks emerge and efficiently convert the ejecta kinetic energy to radiation. As a result, transients similar to SNe IIn can be observed at AGN central regions. Since a typical black hole disk-wind velocity is ≃0.1 c , where c is the speed of light, the ejecta kinetic energy is expected to be ≃10{sup 52} erg when ≃1 M {sub ⊙} is ejected. This kinetic energy is transformed to radiation energy in a timescale for the wind to sweep up a similar mass to itself in the BLR, which is a few hundred days. Therefore, both luminosities (∼10{sup 44} erg s{sup −1}) and timescales (∼100 days) of the superluminous transients from AGN central regions match those expected in our interaction model. If CSS100217 and PS16dtm are related to the AGN activities triggered by limit–cycle oscillations, they become bright again in coming years or decades.

  17. VizieR Online Data Catalog: MUSE-Wide survey: 831 emission line galaxies (Herenz+, 2017)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herenz, E. C.; Urrutia, T.; Wisotzki, L.; Kerutt, J.; Saust, R.; Werhahn, M.; Schmidt, K. B.; Caruana, J.; Diener, C.; Bacon, R.; Brinchman, J.; Schaye, J.; Maseda, M.; Weilbacher, P. M.

    2017-05-01

    This data release consists of an emission line galaxy catalogue containing 831 emission line galaxies detected in the first period of observations of the MUSE-Wide survey. We also release 1D PSF-weighted extracted spectra and 3D datacubes for each of those 831 sources. The emission line galaxy catalogue consists of two tables: A catalogue of all 831 detected emission line objects and a table of all 1652 detected emission lines in those objects. These tables are described in detail in Sect. 4.1 and 4.2 of the paper. Both tables are in the FITS binary table format, adhering to the FITS standard described in Pence et al. (2010A&A...524A..42P). (8 data files).

  18. Neon and [CII] 158 μm Emission Line Profiles in Dusty Starbursts and Active Galactic Nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samsonyan, A.; Weedman, D.; Lebouteiller, V.; Barry, D.; Sargsyan, L.

    2017-07-01

    Identifying and understanding the initial formation of massive galaxies and quasars in the early universe is a fundamental goal of observational cosmology. A rapidly developing capability for tracing luminosity sources to high redshifts is the observation of the [CII] 158 μm emission line at redshifts z > 4 using ground based submillimeter interferometers, with detections now having been made to z = 7. This has long been known as the strongest far-infrared line in most sources, often carrying about 1% of the total source luminosity, and is thought to be associated with star formation because it should arise within the photodissociation region (PDR) surrounding starbursts. The sample of 382 extragalactic sources has been analysed that have mid-infrared,high resolution spectroscopy with the Spitzer Infrared Spectrograph (IRS) and also spectroscopy of the [CII] 158 μm line with the Herschel Photodetector Array Camera and Spectrometer (PACS). The emission line profiles of [NeII] 12.81μm , [NeIII] 15.55 μm , and [CII] 158 μm are studied, and intrinsic line widths are determined. All line profiles together with overlays comparing positions of PACS and IRS observations are made available in the Cornell Atlas of Spitzer IRS Sources (CASSIS). Sources are classified from AGN to starburst based on equivalent widths of the 6.2 μm polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon feature. It is found that intrinsic line widths do not change among classification for [CII], with median widths of 207 km s-1 for AGN, 248 km s-1 for composites, and 233 km s-1 for starbursts. The [NeII] line widths also do not change with classification, but [NeIII] lines are progressively broader from starburst to AGN. A small number of objects with unusually broad lines or unusual redshift differences in any feature are identified.

  19. The Broad-Lined Type Ic SN 2012ap and the Nature of Relativistic Supernovae Lacking a Gamma-Ray Burst Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milisavljevic, D.; Margutti, R.; Parrent, J. T.; Soderberg, A. M.; Fesen, R. A.; Mazzali, P.; Maeda, K.; Sanders, N. E.; Cenko, S. B.; Silverman, J. M.

    2014-01-01

    We present ultraviolet, optical, and near-infrared observations of SN2012ap, a broad-lined Type Ic supernova in the galaxy NGC 1729 that produced a relativistic and rapidly decelerating outflow without a gamma-ray burst signature. Photometry and spectroscopy follow the flux evolution from -13 to +272 days past the B-band maximum of -17.4 +/- 0.5 mag. The spectra are dominated by Fe II, O I, and Ca II absorption lines at ejecta velocities of v approx. 20,000 km s(exp. -1) that change slowly over time. Other spectral absorption lines are consistent with contributions from photospheric He I, and hydrogen may also be present at higher velocities (v approx. greater than 27,000 km s(exp. -1)). We use these observations to estimate explosion properties and derive a total ejecta mass of 2.7 Solar mass, a kinetic energy of 1.0×1052 erg, and a (56)Ni mass of 0.1-0.2 Solar mass. Nebular spectra (t > 200 d) exhibit an asymmetric double-peaked [O I] lambda lambda 6300, 6364 emission profile that we associate with absorption in the supernova interior, although toroidal ejecta geometry is an alternative explanation. SN2012ap joins SN2009bb as another exceptional supernova that shows evidence for a central engine (e.g., black-hole accretion or magnetar) capable of launching a non-negligible portion of ejecta to relativistic velocities without a coincident gamma-ray burst detection. Defining attributes of their progenitor systems may be related to notable properties including above-average environmental metallicities of Z approx. greater than Solar Z, moderate to high levels of host-galaxy extinction (E(B -V ) > 0.4 mag), detection of high-velocity helium at early epochs, and a high relative flux ratio of [Ca II]/[O I] > 1 at nebular epochs. These events support the notion that jet activity at various energy scales may be present in a wide range of supernovae.

  20. THE BROAD-LINED Type Ic SN 2012ap AND THE NATURE OF RELATIVISTIC SUPERNOVAE LACKING A GAMMA-RAY BURST DETECTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milisavljevic, D.; Margutti, R.; Parrent, J. T.; Soderberg, A. M.; Sanders, N. E.; Kamble, A.; Chakraborti, S.; Drout, M. R.; Kirshner, R. P. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Fesen, R. A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Dartmouth College, 6127 Wilder Laboratory, Hanover, NH 03755 (United States); Mazzali, P. [Astrophysics Research Institute, Liverpool John Moores University, Liverpool L3 5RF (United Kingdom); Maeda, K. [Department of Astronomy, Kyoto University, Kitashirakawa-Oiwake-cho, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Cenko, S. B. [Astrophysics Science Division, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Mail Code 661, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Silverman, J. M. [University of Texas at Austin, 1 University Station C1400, Austin, TX 78712-0259 (United States); Filippenko, A. V. [Department of Astronomy, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720-3411 (United States); Pickering, T. E. [Southern African Large Telescope, P.O. Box 9, Observatory 7935, Cape Town (South Africa); Kawabata, K. [Hiroshima Astrophysical Science Center, Hiroshima University, Higashi-Hiroshima, Hiroshima 739-8526 (Japan); Hattori, T. [Subaru Telescope, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States); Hsiao, E. Y. [Carnegie Observatories, Las Campanas Observatory, Colina El Pino, Casilla 601 (Chile); Stritzinger, M. D., E-mail: dmilisav@cfa.harvard.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Aarhus University, Ny Munkegade, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark); and others

    2015-01-20

    We present ultraviolet, optical, and near-infrared observations of SN 2012ap, a broad-lined Type Ic supernova in the galaxy NGC 1729 that produced a relativistic and rapidly decelerating outflow without a gamma-ray burst signature. Photometry and spectroscopy follow the flux evolution from –13 to +272 days past the B-band maximum of –17.4 ± 0.5 mag. The spectra are dominated by Fe II, O I, and Ca II absorption lines at ejecta velocities of v ≈ 20,000 km s{sup –1} that change slowly over time. Other spectral absorption lines are consistent with contributions from photospheric He I, and hydrogen may also be present at higher velocities (v ≳ 27,000 km s{sup –1}). We use these observations to estimate explosion properties and derive a total ejecta mass of ∼2.7 M {sub ☉}, a kinetic energy of ∼1.0 × 10{sup 52} erg, and a {sup 56}Ni mass of 0.1-0.2 M {sub ☉}. Nebular spectra (t > 200 days) exhibit an asymmetric double-peaked [O I] λλ6300, 6364 emission profile that we associate with absorption in the supernova interior, although toroidal ejecta geometry is an alternative explanation. SN 2012ap joins SN 2009bb as another exceptional supernova that shows evidence for a central engine (e.g., black hole accretion or magnetar) capable of launching a non-negligible portion of ejecta to relativistic velocities without a coincident gamma-ray burst detection. Defining attributes of their progenitor systems may be related to notable observed properties including environmental metallicities of Z ≳ Z {sub ☉}, moderate to high levels of host galaxy extinction (E(B – V) > 0.4 mag), detection of high-velocity helium at early epochs, and a high relative flux ratio of [Ca II]/[O I] >1 at nebular epochs. These events support the notion that jet activity at various energy scales may be present in a wide range of supernovae.

  1. THE SMARTS MULTI-EPOCH OPTICAL SPECTROSCOPY ATLAS (SaMOSA): AN ANALYSIS OF EMISSION LINE VARIABILITY IN SOUTHERN HEMISPHERE FERMI BLAZARS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isler, Jedidah C. [Chancellor’s Faculty Fellow, Syracuse University, Department of Physics, Syracuse, NY 13244 (United States); Urry, C. M.; Bailyn, C.; Coppi, P.; Brady, M.; MacPherson, E.; Hasan, I.; Buxton, M. [Department of Astronomy, Yale University, P.O. Box 208101, New Haven, CT 06520-8101 (United States); Smith, P. S., E-mail: jcisler@syr.edu [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 N. Cherry Avenue, Tuscon, AZ 85721 (United States)

    2015-05-01

    We present multi-epoch optical spectroscopy of seven southern Fermi-monitored blazars from 2008 to 2013 using the Small and Medium Aperture Research Telescope System (SMARTS), with supplemental spectroscopy and polarization data from the Steward Observatory. We find that the emission lines are much less variable than the continuum; four of seven blazars had no detectable emission line variability over the 5 yr observation period. This is consistent with photoionization primarily by an accretion disk, allowing us to use the lines as a probe of disk activity. Comparing optical emission line flux with Fermi γ-ray flux and optical polarized flux, we investigate whether relativistic jet variability is related to the accretion flow. In general, we see no such dependence, suggesting that the jet variability is likely caused by internal processes like turbulence or shock acceleration rather than a variable accretion rate. However, three sources showed statistically significant emission line flares in close temporal proximity to very large Fermi γ-ray flares. While we do not have sufficient emission line data to quantitatively assess their correlation with the γ-ray flux, it appears that in some cases the jet might provide additional photoionizing flux to the broad-line region (BLR), which implies that some γ-rays are produced within the BLR, at least for these large flares.

  2. A Survey of Recombination Line Emission from the Galactic Plane at ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    tribpo

    Carbon recombination lines are identified in 12 of the directions. The hydrogen line intensities are found to correlate well with the total continuum intensity (which includes the nonthermal galactic background) indicating that most of the lines arise due to stimulated emission by the background radiation. A preliminary ...

  3. Probing the Broad-Line Region and the Accretion Disk in the Lensed Quasars HE 0435-1223, WFI 2033-4723, and HE 2149-2745 Using Gravitational Microlensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motta, V.; Mediavilla, E.; Rojas, K.; Falco, E. E.; Jiménez-Vicente, J.; Muñoz, J. A.

    2017-02-01

    We use single-epoch spectroscopy of three gravitationally lensed quasars, HE 0435-1223, WFI 2033-4723, and HE 2149-2745, to study their inner structure (broad-line region [BLR] and continuum source). We detect microlensing-induced magnification in the wings of the broad emission lines of two of the systems (HE 0435-1223 and WFI 2033-4723). In the case of WFI 2033-4723, microlensing affects two “bumps” in the spectra that are almost symmetrically arranged on the blue (coincident with an Al III emission line) and red wings of C III]. These match the typical double-peaked profile that follows from disk kinematics. The presence of microlensing in the wings of the emission lines indicates the existence of two different regions in the BLR: a relatively small one with kinematics possibly related to an accretion disk, and another one that is substantially more extended and insensitive to microlensing. There is good agreement between the estimated size of the region affected by microlensing in the emission lines, {r}s={10}-7+15\\sqrt{M/{M}⊙ } lt-day (red wing of C IV in HE 0435-1223) and {r}s={11}-7+28\\sqrt{M/{M}⊙ } lt-day (C III] bumps in WFI 2033-4723), and the sizes inferred from the continuum emission, {r}s={13}-4+5\\sqrt{M/{M}⊙ } lt-day (HE 0435-1223) and {r}s={10}-2+3\\sqrt{M/{M}⊙ } lt-day (WFI 2033-4723). For HE 2149-2745 we measure an accretion disk size {r}s={8}-5+11\\sqrt{M/{M}⊙ } lt-day. The estimates of p, the exponent of the size versus wavelength ({r}s\\propto {λ }p), are 1.2 ± 0.6, 0.8 ± 0.2, and 0.4 ± 0.3 for HE 0435-1223, WFI 2033-4723, and HE 2149-2745, respectively. In conclusion, the continuum microlensing amplitude in the three quasars and chromaticity in WFI 2033-4723 and HE 2149-2745 are below expectations for the thin-disk model. The disks are larger and their temperature gradients are flatter than predicted by this model.

  4. Enhanced photoluminescence property and broad color emission of ZnGa2O4 phosphor due to the synergistic role of Eu3+ and carbon dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huo, Qiuyue; Tu, Weixia; Guo, Lin

    2017-10-01

    ZnGa2O4 phosphors co-composited with nanoscale carbon dots (CDs) and Eu3+ were presented for the tunable color emission. Novel single phase CDs or/and Eu3+ composited ZnGa2O4 phosphors were synthesized by microwave hydrothermal method and their optical properties were investigated. The ZnGa2O4 phosphors composited with CDs exhibited an intense broad blue light emission at 421 nm and a more enhanced photoluminescence intensity than those without CDs. The Eu3+ composited ZnGa2O4 phosphors gave an ideal red color emission. The CDs/Eu3+ co-composited ZnGa2O4 phosphors exhibited a wide emission band peak at 450 nm and narrow emission peak at 618 nm. Furthermore, the tunable color emissions of CDs/Eu3+ co-composited ZnGa2O4 phosphors from blue to the white light region, and then to red were obtained with the increasing Eu3+ concentration, which can be a promising single phased phosphor candidate in light emitting diodes. Broadly tunable emission single phased phosphor is tuned firstly through the synergistic role of the non-metal element and the rare earth metal ions.

  5. A three-line lateral flow assay strip for the measurement of C-reactive protein covering a broad physiological concentration range in human sera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Young Kyoung; Joung, Hyou-Arm; Han, Hyung Soo; Suk, Ho-Jun; Kim, Min-Gon

    2014-11-15

    The lateral flow assay (LFA) strip sensor possesses many advantages as a diagnostic device, including the capabilities of rapid, one-step assay performance, and high throughput production. A major limitation of the sensor, however, is its difficulty in measuring a broad concentration range of target proteins, including C-reactive protein (CRP), due to the "hook effect." In this study, we report the use of a three-line LFA strip sensor, adding an antigen line to the conventional two-line LFA sensor, for detecting CRP within a broad concentration range in human sera. We introduced an antigen line between test and control lines in the LFA sensor. The antigen line was formed by dispensing a CRP antibody solution followed by a CRP solution in nitrocellulose membrane. All other conditions were identical to those applied to the conventional LFA strip sensor. The CRP level in test samples was generated by data processing from the intensities of three lines. The strip sensor measured a linear detection range of CRP concentration from 1 ng/mL to 500 μg/mL within 10 min, with a calculated detection range of 0.69 ng/mL-1.02 mg/mL. Using the developed three-line LFA sensor, 50 clinical samples were measured at a detection range of 0.4-84.7 μg/mL. This novel and easy-to-use CRP sensor can be a useful tool for rapid, sensitive, and cost-effective detection of a broad physiological concentration range of CRP capabilities that are vital for various diagnostic applications. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Line Emission from an Accretion Disk Around a Rotating Black Hole: Toward a Measurement of Frame Dragging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bromley, Benjamin C.; Chen, Kaiyou; Miller, Warner A.

    1997-01-01

    Line emission from an accretion disk and a corotating hot spot about a rotating black hole are considered for possible signatures of the frame-dragging effect. We explicitly compare integrated line profiles from a geometrically thin disk about a Schwarzschild and an extreme Kerr black hole, and show that the line profile differences are small if the inner radius of the disk is near or above the Schwarzschild stable-orbit limit of radius 6GM/sq c. However, if the inner disk radius extends below this limit, as is Possible in the extreme Kerr spacetime, then differences can become significant, especially if the disk emissivity is stronger near the inner regions. We demonstrate that the first three moments of a line profile define a three-dimensional space in which the presence of material at small radii becomes quantitatively evident in broad classes of disk models. In the context of the simple, thin disk paradigm, this moment-mapping scheme suggests formally that the iron line detected by the Advanced Satellite,for Cosmology and Astrophysics mission from MCG --6-30-15 (Tanaka et al.) is approximately 3 times more likely to originate from a disk about a rotating black hole than from a Schwarzschild system. A statistically significant detection of black hole rotation in this way may be achieved after only modest improvements in the quality of data. We also consider light curves and frequency shifts in line emission as a function of time for corotating hot spots in extreme Kerr and Schwarzschild geometries. The frequency-shift profile is a valuable measure of orbital parameters and might possibly be used to detect frame dragging even at radii approaching 6GM/sq c if the inclination angle of the orbital plane is large. The light curve from a hot spot shows differences as well, although these too are pronounced only at large inclination angles.

  7. Metal-line emission from the warm-hot intergalactic medium - I. Soft X-rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertone, Serena; Schaye, Joop; Dalla Vecchia, Claudio; Booth, C. M.; Theuns, Tom; Wiersma, Robert P. C.

    2010-09-01

    Emission lines from metals offer one of the most promising ways to detect the elusive warm-hot intergalactic medium (WHIM; 105 rsim 106 K). We find that the OVIII 18.97 Å is the strongest emission line, with a predicted maximum surface brightness of ~102photon s-1 cm-2 sr-1, but a number of other lines are only slightly weaker. All lines show a strong correlation between the intensity of the observed flux and the density and metallicity of the gas responsible for the emission. On the other hand, the potentially detectable emission consistently corresponds to the temperature at which the emissivity of the electronic transition peaks. The emission traces neither the baryonic nor the metal mass. In particular, the emission that is potentially detectable with proposed missions traces overdense (ρ > rsim 102ρmean) and metal-rich (Z > rsim 10-1 Zsolar) gas in and around galaxies and groups. While soft X-ray line emission is therefore not a promising route to close the baryon budget, it does offer the exciting possibility to image the gas accreting on to and flowing out of galaxies.

  8. The [CII] 158 μm line emission in high-redshift galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagache, G.; Cousin, M.; Chatzikos, M.

    2018-02-01

    Gas is a crucial component of galaxies, providing the fuel to form stars, and it is impossible to understand the evolution of galaxies without knowing their gas properties. The [CII] fine structure transition at 158 μm is the dominant cooling line of cool interstellar gas, and is the brightest of emission lines from star forming galaxies from FIR through metre wavelengths, almost unaffected by attenuation. With the advent of ALMA and NOEMA, capable of detecting [CII]-line emission in high-redshift galaxies, there has been a growing interest in using the [CII] line as a probe of the physical conditions of the gas in galaxies, and as a star formation rate (SFR) indicator at z ≥ 4. In this paper, we have used a semi-analytical model of galaxy evolution (G.A.S.) combined with the photoionisation code CLOUDY to predict the [CII] luminosity of a large number of galaxies (25 000 at z ≃ 5) at 4 ≤ z ≤ 8. We assumed that the [CII]-line emission originates from photo-dominated regions. At such high redshift, the CMB represents a strong background and we discuss its effects on the luminosity of the [CII] line. We studied the L[CII ]-SFR and L[ CII ]-Zg relations and show that they do not strongly evolve with redshift from z = 4 and to z = 8. Galaxies with higher [CII] luminosities tend to have higher metallicities and higher SFRs but the correlations are very broad, with a scatter of about 0.5 and 0.8 dex for L[ CII ]-SFR and L[ CII ]-Zg, respectively. Our model reproduces the L[ CII ]-SFR relations observed in high-redshift star-forming galaxies, with [CII] luminosities lower than expected from local L[ CII ]-SFR relations. Accordingly, the local observed L[ CII ]-SFR relation does not apply at high-z (z ≳ 5), even when CMB effects are ignored. Our model naturally produces the [CII] deficit (i.e. the decrease of L[ CII ]/LIR with LIR), which appears to be strongly correlated with the intensity of the radiation field in our simulated galaxies. We then predict the

  9. Consistency of spherical, gravity-dominated dynamics with quasar high-ionization emission-line profiles

    OpenAIRE

    Kallman, T. R.; Wilkes, Belinda Jane; Krolik, J. H.; Green, Richard

    1993-01-01

    Line profile data are used to test a simple kinematic model - spherically symmetric gravitational free fall - in which the number of free parameters is limited by requiring physical self-consistency. The predictions of this model are fitted to high-resolution spectra of the stronger rest-frame UV emission lines in 12 quasars with z of about 2. It is found that if all the lines are radiated predominantly from the illuminated faces of the emission-line clouds, the profiles of Ly-alpha, N V 1240...

  10. First detection of line emission from the hot interstellar medium with solid state detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnopper, H. W.; Delvaille, J. P.; Rocchia, R.; Blondel, C.; Cheron, C.; Christy, J. C.; Ducros, R.; Koch, L.; Rothenflug, R.

    1981-01-01

    Previously reported enhanced soft X-ray emission from the North-Galactic Polar region supports the theory of a hot interstellar component. This paper reports the first detection of line emission from the hot interstellar component in the North-Galactic-Polar region. Measurements were made with solid state Si(Li) detectors aboard a spin-stabilized rocket launched from the White Sands Missile Range on March 22, 1980. Two features are clearly present in the low energy portion of the spectrum derived from the data. They correspond to emission lines from C V (300 eV) and C VI (360 eV), and from O VII (560 eV) and O VIII (650 eV). The detection of emission lines coming from these highly stripped ions is direct evidence for the thermal origin of the emission and confirms the presence of a hot (1-million K) component in the interstellar medium.

  11. The Influence of Opacity on Hydrogen Line Emission and Ionisation Balance in High Density Divertor Plasmas

    OpenAIRE

    Behringer, K.

    1997-01-01

    The influence of opacity on hydrogen line emission and ionisation balance in high density divertor plasmas. - Garching bei München : Max-Planck-Inst. für Plasmaphysik, 1997. - 21 S. - (IPP-Report ; 10/5)

  12. Theoretical quasar emission-line ratios. VII - Energy-balance models for finite hydrogen slabs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbard, E. N.; Puetter, R. C.

    1985-01-01

    The present energy balance calculations for finite, isobaric, hydrogen-slab quasar emission line clouds incorporate probabilistic radiative transfer (RT) in all lines and bound-free continua of a five-level continuum model hydrogen atom. Attention is given to the line ratios, line formation regions, level populations and model applicability results obtained. H lines and a variety of other considerations suggest the possibility of emission line cloud densities in excess of 10 to the 10th/cu cm. Lyman-beta/Lyman-alpha line ratios that are in agreement with observed values are obtained by the models. The observed Lyman/Balmer ratios can be achieved with clouds whose column depths are about 10 to the 22nd/sq cm.

  13. Emission Line Morphologies in Markarian Starburst Galaxies A ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging Solutions)

    tribution of hot, young stars in star forming regions of normal and starburst galaxies. Extensive Hα surveys of samples of normal galaxies were carried out by Kennicutt &. Kent (1983). They found that the integrated emission of a galaxy is strongly correlated with its Hubble type and colour. They also inferred that the variation ...

  14. Emission Line Imaging and Spectroscopy of Distant Galaxies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zabl, Johannes Florian

    for the gas surrounding a galaxy. Around some objects the extended Ly αemission is so strong that it can be detected for individual objects. In this thesis extremely deep VLT/XSHOOTER rest-frame far-UV spectroscopy is presented for Himiko, a gigantic Ly α emitter at redshift z = 6.6 or a time when...

  15. Tracing the origins of permitted emission lines in RU Lupi down to AU scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podio, L.; Garcia, P. J. V.; Bacciotti, F.; Antoniucci, S.; Nisini, B.; Dougados, C.; Takami, M.

    2008-03-01

    Context: Most of the observed emission lines and continuum excess from young accreting low mass stars (Classical T Tauri stars - CTTSs) take place in the star-disk or inner disk region. These regions have a complex emission topology that is still largely unknown. Aims: In this paper the magnetospheric accretion and inner wind contributions to the observed permitted He and H near infrared (NIR) lines of the bright southern CTTS RU Lupi are investigated for the first time. Methods: Previous optical observations of RU Lupi have shown a strong Hα profile, due to the emission from a wind in the line wings, and a micro-jet detected in forbidden lines. We extend this analysis to NIR lines through the seeing-limited, high spectral-resolution spectra taken with VLT/ISAAC, and narrow-band imaging and low spectral-resolution spectroscopy acquired with the adaptive optics (AO) aided telescope VLT/NACO. Using spectro-astrometric analysis we investigate the presence of extended emission down to very low spatial scales (a few AU). Results: The HeI λ10830 line presents a P Cygni profile whose absorption feature indicates the presence of an inner stellar wind. Moreover, the spectro-astrometric analysis proves the presence of an extended emission superimposed on the absorption feature and likely coming from the micro-jet detected in the optical. In contrast, the origin of the hydrogen Paschen and Brackett lines is difficult to address. We tried to explain the observed line profiles and flux ratios with both accretion and wind models showing the limits of both approaches. The lack of a spectro-astrometric signal indicates that the HI emission is either compact or symmetric. Our analysis confirms the sensitivity of the HeI line to the faint extended emission regions in the close proximity of the star. Based on observations collected at the European Southern Observatory, Chile (ESO Programme 71.C-0703).

  16. Evidence for moving features in the corona from emission line profiles observed during eclipses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delone, A. B.; Makarova, E. A.; Iakunina, G. V.

    1988-03-01

    Using the line profiles of forbidden Fe x 6374 A and Fe XIV 5303 A emission lines observed during five total solar eclipses, the problem whether the solar corona is static or contains moving features is addressed. Many of the profiles of both emission lines have complicated shapes, which is interpreted as an evidence for the existence of many, small, moving features in the corona. The line-of-sight velocities observed by other investigators such as Desai et al., 1982 also supported this view. On the other hand, about 15 recent interferometric and multislit investigations of coronal emission lines have not shown evidence of moving elements. It is suggested that this is due to insufficient spatial resolution.

  17. Status and Needs Research for On-line Monitoring of VOCs Emissions from Stationary Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Gang; Wang, Qiang; Zhong, Qi; Zhao, Jinbao; Yang, Kai

    2018-01-01

    Based on atmospheric volatile organic compounds (VOCs) pollution control requirements during the twelfth-five year plan and the current status of monitoring and management at home and abroad, instrumental architecture and technical characteristics of continuous emission monitoring systems (CEMS) for VOCs emission from stationary sources are investigated and researched. Technological development needs of VOCs emission on-line monitoring techniques for stationary sources in china are proposed from the system sampling pretreatment technology and analytical measurement techniques.

  18. Evidence of broad emission band in the system MgGa2O4-Ga2O3 doped with Cr3+ ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, M. A. F. M.; Carvalho, I. C. S.; Cella, N.; Bordallo, H. N.; Sosman, L. P.

    2013-01-01

    We present the photoluminescence, excitation and photoacoustic spectra at room temperature of the system MgGa2O4-Ga2O3 doped with Cr3+. The samples were prepared by solid state reaction and their formation was verified by X-ray diffraction. The emission spectra exhibit broad bands in the red and infrared regions associated to Cr3+ with octahedral coordination. The excitation as well as the photoacoustic spectra show broad and intense bands in the visible region, all associated to Cr3+ ions in octahedral sites, making this material interesting for future practical applications.

  19. ROTATIONAL LINE EMISSION FROM WATER IN PROTOPLANETARY DISKS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijerink, R.; Poelman, D. R.; Spaans, M.; Tielens, A. G. G. M.; Glassgold, A. E.

    2008-01-01

    Circumstellar disks provide the material reservoir for the growth of young stars and for planet formation. We combine a high-level radiative transfer program with a thermal-chemical model of a typical T Tauri star disk to investigate the diagnostic potential of the far-infrared lines of water for

  20. Thermal Balance in Dense Molecular Clouds: Radiative Cooling Rates and Emission-Line Luminosities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neufeld, David A.; Lepp, Stephen; Melnick, Gary J.

    1995-01-01

    We consider the radiative cooling of fully shielded molecular astrophysical gas over a wide range of temperatures ( 10 K line strengths that contribute to the total radiative cooling rate, and we have obtained example spectra for the submillimeter emission expected from molecular cloud cores. Many of the important cooling lines will be detectable using the Infrared Space Observatory and the Submillimeter Wave Astronomy Satellite.

  1. The ultraviolet-to-mid-infrared spectral energy distribution of weak emission line quasars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lane, R.A.; Shemmer, O.; Diamond-Stanic, A.M.; Fan, X.; Anderson, S.F.; Brandt, W.N.; Plotkin, R.M.; Richards, G.T.; Schneider, D.P.; Strauss, M.A.

    2011-01-01

    We present Spitzer Space Telescope photometry of 18 Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) quasars at 2.7 ≤ z ≤ 5.9 which have weak or undetectable high-ionization emission lines in their rest-frame ultraviolet (UV) spectra (hereafter weak-lined quasars, or WLQs). The Spitzer data are combined with SDSS

  2. The spatial distribution of ultraviolet line and continuum emission in Herbig-Haro objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, M. G.; Boehm, K. H.; Temple, S. D.; Raga, A. C.; Mateo, M. L.

    1988-01-01

    Archival IUE data and monochromatic CCD images in the optical range are used to compare the spatial distribution of UV and optical emission in HH 1, HH 2, HH 24, HH 32, HH 43, and HH 47. For all six objects, the observed UV radiation is shown to originate in the objects themselves. The results indicate that the C IV and semiforbidden emission-line regions are small. Although the continuum in the IUE short-wavelength range displays a distribution that is broader than that of any measured line emission in the UV or optical range, the continuum distribution in the IUE long-wavelength range is quite narrow.

  3. Emission-line Diagnostics of Nearby HII Regions Including Supernova Hosts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Lin; Eldridge, J. J.; Stanway, Elizabeth; Galbany, L.

    2017-11-01

    We present a new model of the optical nebular emission from HII regions by combining the results of the Binary Population and Spectral Synthesis (bpass) code with the photoionization code cloudy (Ferland et al. 1998). We explore a variety of emission-line diagnostics of these star-forming HII regions and examine the effects of metallicity and interacting binary evolution on the nebula emission-line production. We compare the line emission properties of HII regions with model stellar populations, and provide new constraints on their stellar populations and supernova progenitors. We find that models including massive binary stars can successfully match all the observational constraints and provide reasonable age and mass estimation of the HII regions and supernova progenitors.

  4. Emission Lines in the Near-infrared Spectra of the Infrared Quintuplet Stars in the Galactic Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Najarro, F. [Departamento de Astrofísica, Centro de Astrobiología (CSIC-INTA), Ctra. Torrejón a Ajalvir km 4, E-28850 Torrejón de Ardoz (Spain); Geballe, T. R. [Gemini Observatory, 670 North A’ohoku Place, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States); Figer, D. F. [Center for Detectors, Rochester Institute of Technology, 74 Lomb Memorial Drive, Rochester, NY 14623 (United States); Fuente, D. de la [Instituto de Astronomía, Unidad Académica en Ensenada, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Ensenada 22860, México (Mexico)

    2017-08-20

    We report the detection of a number of emission lines in the 1.0–2.4 μ m spectra of four of the five bright-infrared dust-embedded stars at the center of the Galactic center’s (GC) Quintuplet Cluster. Spectroscopy of the central stars of these objects is hampered not only by the large interstellar extinction that obscures all of the objects in the GC, but also by the large amounts of warm circumstellar dust surrounding each of the five stars. The pinwheel morphologies of the dust observed previously around two of them are indicative of Wolf–Rayet colliding wind binaries; however, infrared spectra of each of the five have until now revealed only dust continua steeply rising to long wavelengths and absorption lines and bands from interstellar gas and dust. The emission lines detected, from ionized carbon and from helium, are broad and confirm that the objects are dusty late-type carbon Wolf–Rayet stars.

  5. Study of Opacity Effects on Emission Lines at EXTRAP T2R RFP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stancalie, Viorica; Rachlew, Elisabeth

    We have investigated the influence of opacity on hydrogen (H-α and Ly-β) and Li-like oxygen emission lines from the EXTRAP T2R reversed field pinch. We used the Atomic Data Analysis System (AzDAS) based on the escape factor approximation for radiative transfer to calculate metastable and excited population densities via a collisional-radiative model. Population escape factor, emergent escape factor and modified line profiles are plotted vs. optical depth. The simulated emission line ratios in the density/temperature plane are in good agreement with experimental data for electron density and temperature measurements.

  6. Detection of laser-produced tin plasma emission lines in atmospheric environment by optical emission spectroscopy technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aadim, Kadhim A.

    2017-12-01

    A spectroscopic study on laser-produced tin plasma utilizing the optical emission spectroscopy (OES) technique is presented. Plasma is produced from a solid tin target irradiated with pulsed laser in room environment. Electron temperature is determined at different laser peak powers from the ratio of line intensities, while electron density is deduced from Saha-Boltzmann equation. A limited number of suitable tin lines are detected, and the effect of the laser peak power on the intensity of emission lines is discussed. Electron temperatures are measured in the range of 0.36 eV-0.44 eV with electron densities of the order 1017 cm-3 as the laser peak power is varied from 11 MW to 22 MW.

  7. [Fe III] EMISSION LINES IN THE PLANETARY NEBULA NGC 2392

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Y.; Chau, W.; Hsia, C.-H.; Kwok, S. [Department of Physics, University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam Road (Hong Kong); Fang, X.; Liu, X.-W. [Department of Astronomy, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Koning, N., E-mail: zhangy96@hku.hk [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Calgary, Calgary T2N 1N4 (Canada)

    2012-07-20

    NGC 2392 is a young double-shell planetary nebula (PN). Its intrinsic structure and shaping mechanism are still not fully understood. In this paper we present new spectroscopic observations of NGC 2392. The slits were placed at two different locations to obtain the spectra of the inner and outer regions. Several [Fe III] lines are clearly detected in the inner region. We infer that NGC 2392 might have an intrinsic structure similar to the bipolar nebula Mz 3, which also exhibits a number of [Fe III] lines arising from the central regions. In this scenario, the inner and outer regions of NGC 2392 correspond to the inner lobes and the outer outflows of Mz 3, respectively. We construct a three-dimensional morpho-kinematic model to examine our hypothesis. We also compare the physical conditions and chemical composition of the inner and outer regions, and discuss the implications on the formation of this type of PN.

  8. The extended narrow line region of NGC 4151. : I. Emission line ratios and their implications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Penston, M. V.; Robinson, A.; Alloin, D.; Appenzeller, I.; Aretxaga, I.; Axon, D. J.; Baribaud, T.; Barthel, P.; Baum, S. A.; Boisson, C.; de Bruyn, A. G.; Clavel, J.; Colina, L.; Dennefeld, M.; Diaz, A.; Dietrich, M.; Durret, F.; Dyson, J. E.; Gondhalekar, P.; van Groningen, E.; Jablonka, P.; Jackson, N.; Kollatschny, W.; Laurikainen, E.; Lawrence, A.; Masegosa, J.; McHardy, I.; Meurs, E. J. A.; Miley, G.; Moles, M.; O'Brien, P.; O'Dea, C.; del Olmo, A.; Pedlar, A.; Perea, J.; Perez, E.; Perez-Fournon, I.; Perry, J.; Pilbratt, G.; Rees, M.; Robson, I.; Rodriguez-Pascual, P.; Rodriguez Espinosa, J. M.; Santos-Lleo, M.; Schilizzi, R.; Stasińska, G.; Stirpe, G. M.; Tadhunter, C.; Terlevich, E.; Terlevich, R.; Unger, S.; Vila-Vilaro, V.; Vilchez, J.; Wagner, S. J.; Ward, M. J.; Yates, G. J.

    1990-01-01

    The paper presents the first results from long-slit spectra of the Seyfert galaxy NGC 4151 which give average diagnostic ratios of weak lines in the Extended Narrow Line Region (ENLR) of the galaxy and the first direct density measurement in an ENLR. These data confirm that the ENLR is kinematically

  9. Failed Radiatively Accelerated Dusty Outflow Model of the Broad Line Region in Active Galactic Nuclei. I. Analytical Solution

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Czerny, B.; Li, Y.-R.; Hryniewicz, K.; Panda, S.; Wildy, C.; Sniegowska, M.; Wang, J.-M.; Sredzinska, J.; Karas, Vladimír

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 846, č. 2 (2017), 154/1-154/13 ISSN 0004-637X R&D Projects: GA MŠk LD15061 Institutional support: RVO:67985815 Keywords : accretion disks * active galaxies * line formation Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 5.533, year: 2016

  10. X-ray narrow emission lines from the nuclear region of NGC 1365

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whewell, M.; Branduardi-Raymont, G.; Page, M. J.

    2016-11-01

    Context. NGC 1365 is a Seyfert 2 galaxy with a starburst ring in its nuclear region. In this work we look at the XMM-Newton Reflection Grating Spectrometer (RGS) data from four 2012-13, three 2007 and two 2004 observations of NGC 1365, in order to analyse and characterise in a uniform way the soft X-ray narrow-line emitting gas in the nucleus. Aims: We characterise the narrow-line emitting gas visible by XMM-Newton RGS and make comparisons between the 2012-13 spectra and those from 2004-07, already published. Methods: This source is usually absorbed within the soft X-ray band, with a typical neutral column density of >1.5 × 1023 cm-2, and only one observation of the nine we investigate shows low enough absorption for the continuum to emerge in the soft X-rays. We stack all observations from 2004-07, and separately three of the four observations from 2012-13, analysing the less absorbed observation separately. We first model the spectra using Gaussian profiles representing the narrow line emission. We fit physically motivated models to the 2012-13 stacked spectra, with collisionally ionised components representing the starburst emission and photoionised line emission models representing the AGN line emission. The collisional and photoionised emission line models are fitted together (rather than holding either one constant), on top of a physical continuum and absorption model. Results: The X-ray narrow emission line spectrum of NGC 1365 is well represented by a combination of two collisionally ionised (kT of 220 ± 10 and 570 ± 15 eV) and three photoionised (log ξ of 1.5 ± 0.2, 2.5 ± 0.2, 1.1 ± 0.2) phases of emitting gas, all with higher than solar nitrogen abundances. This physical model was fitted to the 2012-13 stacked spectrum, and yet also fits well to the 2004-07 stacked spectrum, without changing any characteristics of the emitting gas phases. Our 2004-07 results are consistent with previous emission line work using these data, with five additional

  11. Bayesian Redshift Classification of Emission-line Galaxies with Photometric Equivalent Widths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Andrew S.; Acquaviva, Viviana; Gawiser, Eric; Ciardullo, Robin; Komatsu, Eiichiro; Malz, A. I.; Zeimann, Gregory R.; Bridge, Joanna S.; Drory, Niv; Feldmeier, John J.; Finkelstein, Steven L.; Gebhardt, Karl; Gronwall, Caryl; Hagen, Alex; Hill, Gary J.; Schneider, Donald P.

    2017-07-01

    We present a Bayesian approach to the redshift classification of emission-line galaxies when only a single emission line is detected spectroscopically. We consider the case of surveys for high-redshift Lyα-emitting galaxies (LAEs), which have traditionally been classified via an inferred rest-frame equivalent width (EW {W}{Lyα }) greater than 20 Å. Our Bayesian method relies on known prior probabilities in measured emission-line luminosity functions and EW distributions for the galaxy populations, and returns the probability that an object in question is an LAE given the characteristics observed. This approach will be directly relevant for the Hobby-Eberly Telescope Dark Energy Experiment (HETDEX), which seeks to classify ˜106 emission-line galaxies into LAEs and low-redshift [{{O}} {{II}}] emitters. For a simulated HETDEX catalog with realistic measurement noise, our Bayesian method recovers 86% of LAEs missed by the traditional {W}{Lyα } > 20 Å cutoff over 2 types of binary classification error by adjusting the stringency of the probability requirement for classifying an observed object as an LAE. In our simulations of HETDEX, this method reduces the uncertainty in cosmological distance measurements by 14% with respect to the EW cut, equivalent to recovering 29% more cosmological information. Rather than using binary object labels, this method enables the use of classification probabilities in large-scale structure analyses. It can be applied to narrowband emission-line surveys as well as upcoming large spectroscopic surveys including Euclid and WFIRST.

  12. Long-term profile variability of double-peaked emission lines in active galactic nuclei, and, Follow-up observations of candidate tidal disruption events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gezari, Suvi T. K.

    2005-11-01

    We present the results of over 15 years of spectroscopic monitoring of the broad, double-peaked Ha lines in a sample of seven broad-line radio galaxies with extremely broad, double-peaked line profiles that are well modeled by emission from photoionized gas in a relativistic Keplerian accretion disk around a central black hole. We use the long-term profile variability of the broad Ha lines to rule out alternative "non-accretion disk" scenarios for the source of the broad double peaked line emission, test models for dynamical processes in the accretion disk, and measure physical parameters of the accretion disk and its central black hole. Luminous UV/X-ray flares are predicted to occur in the nuclei of inactive galaxies when a star is tidally disrupted by the galaxy's central supermassive black hole, and the bound fraction of the tidal debris is accreted. The ROSAT All-Sky Survey detected several large amplitude, soft X-ray flares from galaxies with no previous evidence for AGN activity, which were best explained as tidal disruption events. We obtained follow-up optical spectroscopy of three of the flaring galaxies a decade later with the STIS and a narrow slit to search for or place stringent limits on the presence of any persistent Seyfert- like emission in their nuclei. Two of the galaxies, RX J1624.9+7554 and RX J1242.6-1119, show no evidence for emission lines or a non-stellar continuum in their HST nuclear spectra, consistent with their ground-based classification as inactive galaxies. They remain the most convincing examples of tidal disruption events to date. The GALEX Ultra-Deep Imaging Survey (UDIS) has the ideal depth, wavelength coverage, and temporal sampling for detecting flares from tidal disruption events in the nuclei of galaxies over a large range of redshifts. We describe an analysis of the capability of GALEX to detect tidal disruption events, and describe our Chandra target-of-opportunity rapid follow-up X-ray imaging program to catch the early

  13. Anomalous broadening and shift of emission lines in a femtosecond laser plasma filament in air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilyin, A. A.; Golik, S. S.; Shmirko, K. A.; Mayor, A. Yu.; Proschenko, D. Yu.

    2017-12-01

    The temporal evolution of the width and shift of N I 746.8 and O I 777.4 nm lines is investigated in a filament plasma produced by a tightly focused femtosecond laser pulse (0.9 mJ, 48 fs). The nitrogen line shift and width are determined by the joint action of electron impact shift and the far-off resonance AC Stark effect. The intensive (I = 1.2·1010 W/cm2) electric field of ASE (amplified spontaneous emission) and post-pulses result in a possible LS coupling break for the O I 3p 5P level and the generation of Rabi sidebands. The blueshifted main femtosecond pulse and Rabi sideband cause the stimulated emission of the N2 1+ system. The maximal widths of emission lines are approximately 6.7 times larger than the calculated Stark widths.

  14. Chirped InAs/InP quantum-dash laser with enhanced broad spectrum of stimulated emission

    KAUST Repository

    Khan, Mohammed Zahed Mustafa

    2013-03-01

    We report on the demonstration of 50 nm (full-width at half-maximum) broadband stimulated emission from a chirped AlGaInAs barrier thickness multi-stack InAs/InP quantum dash (Qdash) laser. The 2 ?m wide uncoated Fabry-Perot (FP) ridge-waveguide laser exhibits a total power of 0.18 W, corresponding to an average spectral power density of 3.5 mW/nm, under pulsed current conditions. Intentional extended inhomogeneity across the Qdash stacks have been attributed to the enhancement of broadband emission. © 2013 American Institute of Physics.

  15. Dark matter line emission constraints from NuSTAR observations of the Bullet Cluster

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riemer-Sørensen, S.; Wik, D.; Madejski, G.

    2015-01-01

    Some dark matter candidates, e.g., sterile neutrinos, provide observable signatures in the form of mono-energetic line emission. We present the first search for dark matter line emission in the range in a pointed observation of the Bullet Cluster with NuSTAR. We do not detect any significant line...

  16. NuSTAR Reveals the Comptonizing Corona of the Broad-Line Radio Galaxy 3C 382

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ballantyne, D. R.; Bollenbacher, J. M.; Brenneman, L. W.

    2014-01-01

    an excellent fit to both spectra and show that the coronal plasma cooled from $kT_e=330\\pm 30$ keV in the low flux data to $231^{+50}_{-88}$ keV in the high flux observation. This cooling behavior is typical of Comptonizing corona in Seyfert galaxies and is distinct from the variations observed in jet......-dominated sources. In the high flux observation, simultaneous Swift data are leveraged to obtain a broadband spectral energy distribution and indicates that the corona intercepts $\\sim 10$% of the optical and ultraviolet emitting accretion disk. 3C 382 exhibits very weak reflection features, with no detectable...... relativistic Fe K$\\alpha$ line, that may be best explained by an outflowing corona combined with an ionized inner accretion disk....

  17. Spectroscopic Study of the HST/ACS PEARS Emission-line Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Lifang; Malhotra, Sangeeta; Rhoads, James; Pirzkal, Norbert; Zheng, Zhenya; Meurer, Gerhardt; Straughn, Amber; Grogin, Norman; Floyd, David

    2011-02-01

    We present spectroscopy of 76 emission-line galaxies (ELGs) in Chandra Deep Field South taken with the LDSS3 spectrograph on the Magellan Telescope. These galaxies are selected because they have emission lines with the Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) grism data in the Hubble Space Telescope Probing Evolution and Reionization Spectroscopically (PEARS) grism Survey. The ACS grism spectra cover the wavelength range 6000-9700 Å and most PEARS grism redshifts are based on a single emission line + photometric redshifts from broadband colors; the Magellan spectra cover a wavelength range from 4000 Å to 9000 Å and provide a check on redshifts derived from PEARS data. We find an accuracy of σ z = 0.006 for the ACS grism redshifts with only one catastrophic outlier. We probe for active galactic nuclei (AGNs) in our sample via several different methods. In total, we find 7 AGNs and AGN candidates out of 76 galaxies. Two AGNs are identified from the X-ray full-band luminosity, L X-ray,FB > 1043 erg s-1, the line widths, and the power-law continuum spectra. Two unobscured faint AGN candidates are identified from the X-ray full-band luminosity L X-ray,FB ~ 1041 erg s-1, the hardness ratio and the column density, and the emission-line and X-ray derived SFRs. Two candidates are classified based on the line ratio of [N II]λ6584/Hα versus [O III]λ5007/Hβ(BPT diagram), which are between the empirical and theoretical demarcation curves, i.e., the transition region from star-forming galaxies to AGNs. One AGN candidate is identified from the high-ionization emission line He IIÅ4686.

  18. [A new automated method to identify emission line star from massive spectra].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Jing-Chang; Zhang, Cai-Ming; Wei, Peng; Luo, A-Li; Zhao, Yong-Heng

    2012-06-01

    Stellar spectra are characterized by obvious absorption lines or absorption bands, while those with emission lines are usually special stars such as cataclysmic variable stars (CVs), HerbigAe/Be etc. The further study of this kind of spectra is meaningful. The present paper proposed a new method to identify emission line stars (ELS) spectra automatically. After the continuum normalization is done for the original spectral flux, line detection is made by comparing the normalized flux with the mean and standard deviation of the flux in its neighbor region The results of the experiment on massive spectra from SDSS DR8 indicate that the method can identify ELS spectra completely and accurately. Since no complex transformation and computation are involved in this method, the identifying process is fast and it is ideal for the ELS detection in large sky survey projects like LAMOST and SDSS.

  19. The Dust Sublimation Radius as an Outer Envelope to the Bulk of the Narrow Fe Kalpha Line Emission in Type 1 AGNs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandhi, Poshak; Hönig, Sebastian F.; Kishimoto, Makoto

    2015-10-01

    The Fe Kα emission line is the most ubiquitous feature in the X-ray spectra of active galactic nuclei (AGNs), but the origin of its narrow core remains uncertain. Here, we investigate the connection between the sizes of the Fe Kα core emission regions and the measured sizes of the dusty tori in 13 local Type 1 AGNs. The observed Fe Kα emission radii (RFe) are determined from spectrally resolved line widths in X-ray grating spectra, and the dust sublimation radii (Rdust) are measured either from optical/near-infrared (NIR) reverberation time lags or from resolved NIR interferometric data. This direct comparison shows, on an object-by-object basis, that the dust sublimation radius forms an outer envelope to the bulk of the Fe Kα emission. RFe matches Rdust well in the AGNs, with the best constrained line widths currently. In a significant fraction of objects without a clear narrow line core, RFe is similar to, or smaller than, the radius of the optical broad line region. These facts place important constraints on the torus geometries for our sample. Extended tori in which the solid angle of fluorescing gas peaks at well beyond the dust sublimation radius can be ruled out. We also test for luminosity scalings of RFe, finding that the Eddington ratio is not a prime driver in determining the line location in our sample. We also discuss in detail potential caveats of data analysis and instrumental limitations, simplistic line modeling, uncertain black hole masses, and sample selection, showing that none of these is likely to bias our core result. The calorimeter on board Astro-H will soon vastly increase the parameter space over which line measurements can be made, overcoming many of these limitations.

  20. THE DUST SUBLIMATION RADIUS AS AN OUTER ENVELOPE TO THE BULK OF THE NARROW Fe Kα LINE EMISSION IN TYPE 1 AGNs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gandhi, Poshak; Hönig, Sebastian F. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Southampton, Highfield, Southampton, SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom); Kishimoto, Makoto [Kyoto Sangyo University, Motoyama, Kamigamo, Kita-ku, Kyoto 603-8555 (Japan)

    2015-10-20

    The Fe Kα emission line is the most ubiquitous feature in the X-ray spectra of active galactic nuclei (AGNs), but the origin of its narrow core remains uncertain. Here, we investigate the connection between the sizes of the Fe Kα core emission regions and the measured sizes of the dusty tori in 13 local Type 1 AGNs. The observed Fe Kα emission radii (R{sub Fe}) are determined from spectrally resolved line widths in X-ray grating spectra, and the dust sublimation radii (R{sub dust}) are measured either from optical/near-infrared (NIR) reverberation time lags or from resolved NIR interferometric data. This direct comparison shows, on an object-by-object basis, that the dust sublimation radius forms an outer envelope to the bulk of the Fe Kα emission. R{sub Fe} matches R{sub dust} well in the AGNs, with the best constrained line widths currently. In a significant fraction of objects without a clear narrow line core, R{sub Fe} is similar to, or smaller than, the radius of the optical broad line region. These facts place important constraints on the torus geometries for our sample. Extended tori in which the solid angle of fluorescing gas peaks at well beyond the dust sublimation radius can be ruled out. We also test for luminosity scalings of R{sub Fe}, finding that the Eddington ratio is not a prime driver in determining the line location in our sample. We also discuss in detail potential caveats of data analysis and instrumental limitations, simplistic line modeling, uncertain black hole masses, and sample selection, showing that none of these is likely to bias our core result. The calorimeter on board Astro-H will soon vastly increase the parameter space over which line measurements can be made, overcoming many of these limitations.

  1. Solar Flare Termination Shock and Synthetic Emission Line Profiles of the Fe xxi 1354.08 Å Line

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Lijia [Lockheed Martin Solar and Astrophysics Laboratory, Palo Alto, CA (United States); Li, Gang [Department of Space Science and CSPAR, University of Alabama in Huntsville, Huntsville, AL (United States); Reeves, Kathy; Raymond, John, E-mail: gang.li@uah.edu [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Boston, MA (United States)

    2017-09-01

    Solar flares are among the most energetic phenomena that occur in the solar system. In the standard solar flare model, a fast mode shock, often referred to as the flare termination shock (TS), can exist above the loop-top source of hard X-ray emissions. The existence of the TS has been recently related to spectral hardening of a flare’s hard X-ray spectra at energies >300 keV. Observations of the Fe xxi 1354.08 Å line during solar flares by the Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph ( IRIS ) spacecraft have found significant redshifts with >100 km s{sup −1}, which is consistent with a reconnection downflow. The ability to detect such a redshift with IRIS suggests that one may be able to use IRIS observations to identify flare TSs. Using a magnetohydrodynamic simulation to model magnetic reconnection of a solar flare and assuming the existence of a TS in the downflow of the reconnection plasma, we model the synthetic emission of the Fe xxi 1354.08 line in this work. We show that the existence of the TS in the solar flare may manifest itself in the Fe xxi 1354.08 Å line.

  2. The emission-line regions in the nucleus of NGC 1313 probed with GMOS-IFU: a supergiant/hypergiant candidate and a kinematically cold nucleus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menezes, R. B.; Steiner, J. E.

    2017-04-01

    NGC 1313 is a bulgeless nearby galaxy, classified as SB(s)d. Its proximity allows high spatial resolution observations. We performed the first detailed analysis of the emission-line properties in the nuclear region of NGC 1313, using an optical data cube obtained with the Gemini Multi-object Spectrograph. We detected four main emitting areas, three of them (regions 1, 2 and 3) having spectra typical of H II regions. Region 1 is located very close to the stellar nucleus and shows broad spectral features characteristic of Wolf-Rayet stars. Our analysis revealed the presence of one or two WC4-5 stars in this region, which is compatible with results obtained by previous studies. Region 4 shows spectral features (as a strong Hα emission line, with a broad component) typical of a massive emission-line star, such as a luminous blue variable, a B[e] supergiant or a B hypergiant. The radial velocity map of the ionized gas shows a pattern consistent with rotation. A significant drop in the values of the gas velocity dispersion was detected very close to region 1, which suggests that the young stars there were formed from this cold gas, possibly keeping low values of velocity dispersion. Therefore, although detailed measurements of the stellar kinematics were not possible (due to the weak stellar absorption spectrum of this galaxy), we predict that NGC 1313 may also show a drop in the values of the stellar velocity dispersion in its nuclear region.

  3. Low-speckle laser projection with a broad-area vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser in the nonmodal emission regime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riechert, Falko; Craggs, Gordon; Meuret, Youri; Van Giel, Bart; Thienpont, Hugo; Lemmer, Uli; Verschaffelt, Guy

    2009-02-01

    We demonstrate low-speckle laser projection using a broad-area vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) emitting at 840 nm wavelength as the illumination source. By driving the source in a nonmodal emission regime, we were able to achieve speckle contrast values as low as 3.5% in a realistic projection setup. This was done by driving the VCSEL with specific current pulses without using any additional or mechanically moving components to destroy the coherence of the laser beam. We quantitatively model the speckle contrast reduction based on polarization scrambling and the reduced temporal and spatial coherence of the VCSEL.

  4. Detection of emission in the Si I 1082.7 nm line core in sunspot umbrae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orozco Suárez, D.; Quintero Noda, C.; Ruiz Cobo, B.; Collados Vera, M.; Felipe, T.

    2017-11-01

    Context. Determining empirical atmospheric models for the solar chromosphere is difficult since it requires the observation and analysis of spectral lines that are affected by non-local thermodynamic equilibrium (NLTE) effects. This task is especially difficult in sunspot umbrae because of lower continuum intensity values in these regions with respect to the surrounding brighter granulation. Umbral data is therefore more strongly affected by the noise and by the so-called scattered light, among other effects. Aims: The purpose of this study is to analyze spectropolarimetric sunspot umbra observations taken in the near-infrared Si I 1082.7 nm line taking NLTE effects into account. Interestingly, we detected emission features at the line core of the Si I 1082.7 nm line in the sunspot umbra. Here we analyze the data in detail and offer a possible explanation for the Si I 1082.7 nm line emission. Methods: Full Stokes measurements of a sunspot near disk center in the near-infrared spectral range were obtained with the GRIS instrument installed at the German GREGOR telescope. A point spread function (PSF) including the effects of the telescope, the Earth's atmospheric seeing, and the scattered light was constructed using prior Mercury observations with GRIS and the information provided by the adaptive optics system of the GREGOR telescope during the observations. The data were then deconvolved from the PSF using a principal component analysis deconvolution method and were analyzed via the NICOLE inversion code, which accounts for NLTE effects in the Si I 1082.7 nm line. The information of the vector magnetic field was included in the inversion process. Results: The Si I 1082.7 nm line seems to be in emission in the umbra of the observed sunspot after the effects of scattered light (stray light coming from wide angles) are removed. We show how the spectral line shape of umbral profiles changes dramatically with the amount of scattered light. Indeed, the continuum levels

  5. Information Properties of Boundary Line Models for N2O Emissions from Agricultural Soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gareth Hughes

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Boundary line models for N2O emissions from agricultural soils provide a means of estimating emissions within defined ranges. Boundary line models partition a two-dimensional region of parameter space into sub-regions by means of thresholds based on relationships between N2O emissions and explanatory variables, typically using soil data available from laboratory or field studies. Such models are intermediate in complexity between the use of IPCC emission factors and complex process-based models. Model calibration involves characterizing the extent to which observed data are correctly forecast. Writing the numerical results from graphical two-threshold boundary line models as 3×3 prediction-realization tables facilitates calculation of expected mutual information, a measure of the amount of information about the observations contained in the forecasts. Whereas mutual information characterizes the performance of a forecaster averaged over all forecast categories, specific information and relative entropy both characterize aspects of the amount of information contained in particular forecasts. We calculate and interpret these information quantities for experimental N2O emissions data.

  6. Searching for Dwarf H Alpha Emission-line Galaxies within Voids III: First Spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moody, J. Ward; Draper, Christian; McNeil, Stephen; Joner, Michael D.

    2017-02-01

    The presence or absence of dwarf galaxies with {M}r\\prime > -14 in low-density voids is determined by the nature of dark matter halos. To better understand what this nature is, we are conducting an imaging survey through redshifted Hα filters to look for emission-line dwarf galaxies in the centers of two nearby galaxy voids called FN2 and FN8. Either finding such dwarfs or establishing that they are not present is a significant result. As an important step in establishing the robustness of the search technique, we have observed six candidates from the survey of FN8 with the Gillett Gemini telescope and GMOS spectrometer. All of these candidates had emission, although none was Hα. The emission in two objects was the [O iii]λ4959, 5007 doublet plus Hβ, and the emission in the remaining four was the [O ii]λ3727 doublet, all from objects beyond the void. While no objects were within the void, these spectra show that the survey is capable of finding emission-line dwarfs in the void centers that are as faint as {M}r\\prime ˜ -12.4, should they be present. These spectra also show that redshifts estimated from our filtered images are accurate to several hundred km s-1 if the line is identified correctly, encouraging further work in finding ways to conduct redshift surveys through imaging alone.

  7. Shift and broadening of emission lines in Nd :YAG laser crystal ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    the 4F3/2 →4I11/2 transition lines remained constant by increasing the pumping energy. This is attributed to the thermal population as well as one-phonon and multiphonon emission processes in the ground state. This phenomenon degrades the output performance of the lasers. Keywords. Nd3+:YAG crystal; heat ...

  8. FeII/MgII Emission Line Ratio in High Redshift Quasars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dietrich, M.; Hamann, F.; Appenzeller, I.

    2003-01-01

    We present results of the analysis of near infrared spectroscopic observations of 6 high-redshift quasars (z > 4), emphasizing the measurement of the ultraviolet FeII/MgII emission line strength in order to estimate the beginning of intense star formation in the early universe. To investigate the...

  9. Cross section calculations of astrophysical interest. [for theories of absorption and emission lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerjuoy, E.

    1974-01-01

    Cross sections are discussed for rotational excitation associated with theories of absorption and emission lines from molecules in space with emphasis on H2CO, CO, and OH by collisions with neutral particles such H, H2, and He. The sensitivity of the Thaddeus equation for the H2CO calculation is examined.

  10. Peculiar Emission Line Generation from Ultra-Rapid Quasi-Periodic ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The purpose of this article is to alert astronomers, particularly those using spectroscopic surveys, to the fact that exotic astronomical objects (e.g. quasars or active galactic nuclei) that send ultra-rapid quasi periodic pulses of optical light would generate spectroscopic features that look like emission lines. This gives a simple ...

  11. Human coronavirus EMC does not require the SARS-coronavirus receptor and maintains broad replicative capability in mammalian cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Marcel A; Raj, V Stalin; Muth, Doreen; Meyer, Benjamin; Kallies, Stephan; Smits, Saskia L; Wollny, Robert; Bestebroer, Theo M; Specht, Sabine; Suliman, Tasnim; Zimmermann, Katrin; Binger, Tabea; Eckerle, Isabella; Tschapka, Marco; Zaki, Ali M; Osterhaus, Albert D M E; Fouchier, Ron A M; Haagmans, Bart L; Drosten, Christian

    2012-12-11

    A new human coronavirus (hCoV-EMC) has emerged very recently in the Middle East. The clinical presentation resembled that of the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) as encountered during the epidemic in 2002/2003. In both cases, acute renal failure was observed in humans. HCoV-EMC is a member of the same virus genus as SARS-CoV but constitutes a sister species. Here we investigated whether it might utilize angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), the SARS-CoV receptor. Knowledge of the receptor is highly critical because the restriction of the SARS receptor to deep compartments of the human respiratory tract limited the spread of SARS. In baby hamster kidney (BHK) cells, lentiviral transduction of human ACE2 (hACE2) conferred permissiveness and replication for SARS-CoV but not for hCoV-EMC. Monkey and human kidney cells (LLC-MK2, Vero, and 769-P) and swine kidney cells were permissive for both viruses, but only SARS-CoV infection could be blocked by anti-hACE2 antibody and could be neutralized by preincubation of virus with soluble ACE2. Our data show that ACE2 is neither necessary nor sufficient for hCoV-EMC replication. Moreover, hCoV-EMC, but not SARS-CoV, replicated in cell lines from Rousettus, Rhinolophus, Pipistrellus, Myotis, and Carollia bats, representing four major chiropteran families from both suborders. As human CoV normally cannot replicate in bat cells from different families, this suggests that hCoV-EMC might use a receptor molecule that is conserved in bats, pigs, and humans, implicating a low barrier against cross-host transmission. IMPORTANCE A new human coronavirus (hCoV) emerged recently in the Middle East. The disease resembled SARS (severe acute respiratory syndrome), causing a fatal epidemic in 2002/2003. Coronaviruses have a reservoir in bats and because this novel virus is related to SARS-CoV, we investigated whether it might replicate in bat cells and use the same receptor (angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 [ACE2]). This knowledge is

  12. Synthetic nebular emission from massive galaxies - I: origin of the cosmic evolution of optical emission-line ratios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirschmann, Michaela; Charlot, Stephane; Feltre, Anna; Naab, Thorsten; Choi, Ena; Ostriker, Jeremiah P.; Somerville, Rachel S.

    2017-12-01

    Galaxies occupy different regions of the [O III]λ5007/H β-versus-[N II]λ6584/H α emission-line ratio diagram in the distant and local Universe. We investigate the origin of this intriguing result by modelling self-consistently, for the first time, nebular emission from young stars, accreting black holes (BHs) and older, post-asymptotic giant branch (post-AGB) stellar populations in galaxy formation simulations in a full cosmological context. In post-processing, we couple new-generation nebular-emission models with high-resolution, cosmological zoom-in simulations of massive galaxies to explore which galaxy physical properties drive the redshift evolution of the optical-line ratios [O III]λ5007/H β, [N II]λ6584/H α, [S II]λλ6717, 6731/H α and [O I]λ6300/H α. The line ratios of simulated galaxies agree well with observations of both star-forming and active local Sloan Digital Sky Survey galaxies. Towards higher redshifts, at fixed galaxy stellar mass, the average [O III]/H β is predicted to increase and [N II]/H α, [S II]/H α and [O I]/H α to decrease - widely consistent with observations. At fixed stellar mass, we identify star formation history, which controls nebular emission from young stars via the ionization parameter, as the primary driver of the cosmic evolution of [O III]/H β and [N II]/H α. For [S II]/H α and [O I]/H α, this applies only to redshifts greater than z = 1.5, the evolution at lower redshift being driven in roughly equal parts by nebular emission from active galactic nuclei and post-AGB stellar populations. Instead, changes in the hardness of ionizing radiation, ionized-gas density, the prevalence of BH accretion relative to star formation and the dust-to-metal mass ratio (whose impact on the gas-phase N/O ratio we model at fixed O/H) play at most a minor role in the cosmic evolution of simulated galaxy line ratios.

  13. Hot surface ionic line emission and cold K-inner shell emission from petawatt-laser irradiated Cu foil targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Theobald, W; Akli, K; Clarke, R; Delettrez, J A; Freeman, R R; Glenzer, S; Green, J; Gregori, G; Heathcote, R; Izumi, N; King, J A; Koch, J A; Kuba, J; Lancaster, K; MacKinnon, A J; Key, M; Mileham, C; Myatt, J; Neely, D; Norreys, P A; Park, H; Pasely, J; Patel, P; Regan, S P; Sawada, H; Shepherd, R; Snavely, R; Stephens, R B; Stoeckl, C; Storm, M; Zhang, B; Sangster, T C

    2005-12-13

    A hot, T{sub e} {approx} 2- to 3-keV surface plasma was observed in the interaction of a 0.7-ps petawatt laser beam with solid copper-foil targets at intensities >10{sup 20} W/cm{sup 2}. Copper K-shell spectra were measured in the range of 8 to 9 keV using a single-photon-counting x-ray CCD camera. In addition to K{sub {alpha}} and K{sub {beta}} inner-shell lines, the emission contained the Cu He{sub {alpha}} and Ly{sub {alpha}} lines, allowing the temperature to be inferred. These lines have not been observed previously with ultrafast laser pulses. For intensities less than 3 x 10{sup 18} W/cm{sup 2}, only the K{sub {alpha}} and K{sub {beta}} inner-shell emissions are detected. Measurements of the absolute K{sub {alpha}} yield as a function of the laser intensity are in agreement with a model that includes refluxing and confinement of the suprathermal electrons in the target volume.

  14. HST WFC3 Early Release Science: Emission-Line Galaxies from IR Grism Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straughn, A. N.; Kuntschner, H.; Kuemmel, M.; Walsh, J. R.; Cohen, S. H.; Gardner, J. P.; Windhorst, R. A.; O'Connell, R. W.; Pirzkal, N.; Meurer, G.; hide

    2010-01-01

    We present grism spectra of emission line galaxies (ELGs) from 0.6-1.6 microns from the Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). These new infrared grism data augment previous optical Advanced Camera for Surveys G800L (0.6-0.95 micron) grism data in GOODS South, extending the wavelength coverage well past the G800L red cutoff. The ERS grism field was observed at a depth of 2 orbits per grism, yielding spectra of hundreds of faint objects, a subset of which are presented here. ELGs are studied via the Ha, [O III ], and [OII] emission lines detected in the redshift ranges 0.2 less than or equal to z less than or equal to 1.6, 1.2 less than or equal to z less than or equal to 2.4 and 2.0 less than or equal to z less than or equal to 3.6 respectively in the G102 (0.8-1.1 microns; R approximately 210) and C141 (1.1-1.6 microns; R approximately 130) grisms. The higher spectral resolution afforded by the WFC3 grisms also reveals emission lines not detectable with the G800L grism (e.g., [S II] and [S III] lines). From these relatively shallow observations, line luminosities, star formation rates, and grism spectroscopic redshifts are determined for a total of 25 ELGs to M(sub AB)(F098M) approximately 25 mag. The faintest source in our sample with a strong but unidentified emission line--is MAB(F098M)=26.9 mag. We also detect the expected trend of lower specific star formation rates for the highest mass galaxies in the sample, indicative of downsizing and discovered previously from large surveys. These results demonstrate the remarkable efficiency and capability of the WFC3 NIR grisms for measuring galaxy properties to faint magnitudes.

  15. The dependence of C IV broad absorption line properties on accompanying Si IV and Al III absorption: relating quasar-wind ionization levels, kinematics, and column densities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Filiz Ak, N.; Brandt, W. N.; Schneider, D. P.; Trump, J. R. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Hall, P. B. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, York University, 4700 Keele Street, Toronto, Ontario M3J 1P3 (Canada); Anderson, S. F. [Astronomy Department, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Hamann, F. [Department of Astronomy, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611-2055 (United States); Myers, Adam D. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Wyoming, Laramie, WY 82071 (United States); Pâris, I. [Departamento de Astronomía, Universidad de Chile, Casilla 36-D, Santiago (Chile); Petitjean, P. [Institut d' Astrophysique de Paris, Universite Paris 6, F-75014 Paris (France); Ross, Nicholas P. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Shen, Yue [Carnegie Observatories, 813 Santa Barbara Street, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); York, Don, E-mail: nfilizak@astro.psu.edu [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States)

    2014-08-20

    We consider how the profile and multi-year variability properties of a large sample of C IV Broad Absorption Line (BAL) troughs change when BALs from Si IV and/or Al III are present at corresponding velocities, indicating that the line of sight intercepts at least some lower ionization gas. We derive a number of observational results for C IV BALs separated according to the presence or absence of accompanying lower ionization transitions, including measurements of composite profile shapes, equivalent width (EW), characteristic velocities, composite variation profiles, and EW variability. We also measure the correlations between EW and fractional-EW variability for C IV, Si IV, and Al III. Our measurements reveal the basic correlated changes between ionization level, kinematics, and column density expected in accretion-disk wind models; e.g., lines of sight including lower ionization material generally show deeper and broader C IV troughs that have smaller minimum velocities and that are less variable. Many C IV BALs with no accompanying Si IV or Al III BALs may have only mild or no saturation.

  16. Estimating Black Hole Masses in Active Galactic Nuclei Using the Mg II λ2800 Emission Line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jian-Guo; Dong, Xiao-Bo; Wang, Ting-Gui; Ho, Luis C.; Yuan, Weimin; Wang, Huiyuan; Zhang, Kai; Zhang, Shaohua; Zhou, Hongyan

    2009-12-01

    We investigate the relationship between the linewidths of broad Mg II λ2800 and Hβ in active galactic nuclei (AGNs) to refine them as tools to estimate black hole (BH) masses. We perform a detailed spectral analysis of a large sample of AGNs at intermediate redshifts selected from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, along with a smaller sample of archival ultraviolet spectra for nearby sources monitored with reverberation mapping (RM). Careful attention is devoted to accurate spectral decomposition, especially in the treatment of narrow-line blending and Fe II contamination. We show that, contrary to popular belief, the velocity width of Mg II tends to be smaller than that of Hβ, suggesting that the two species are not cospatial in the broad-line region. Using these findings and recently updated BH mass measurements from RM, we present a new calibration of the empirical prescriptions for estimating virial BH masses for AGNs using the broad Mg II and Hβ lines. We show that the BH masses derived from our new formalisms show subtle but important differences compared to some of the mass estimators currently used in the literature.

  17. Mechanism of the tonal emission from ac high voltage overhead transmission lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straumann, Ueli

    2011-02-01

    Foul weather conditions can lead to corona discharges on high voltage overhead transmission lines which are perceivable as an audible broadband crackling and hissing noise. In such situations this noise is often accompanied by a humming noise at twice the mains frequency (2f). While the crackling and hissing noise component was widely investigated in the past, the 2f-component went largely uncommented. Only a scant amount of literature suggests mechanisms explaining the occurrence of this emission, but these suggestions are either vague or controversial. In this paper a mechanism analogous to that of ion loudspeakers is presented, which describes the sound levels of audible 2f-emissions from high voltage model lines quantitatively in a satisfactory manner. While the broadband component of corona noise emissions has its immediate origin in the discharges themselves, the 2f-emissions arise from the drift of ions left behind by the discharges. Due to collisions with gas molecules, these ions cause in the sum a rise of heat in and a force applying on the neutral gas, thus producing the 2f-emissions. Depending on the situation, both can give rise to contributions of similar magnitude.

  18. Combining carbon footprinting, monitoring, feedback, and rewards for a broad spectrum reduction of household induced greenhouse gas emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perrels, Adriaan (Government Institute for Economic Research VATT (Finland)); Hongisto, Mikko; Kallio, Arto (VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland (Finland)); Hyvoenen, Kaarina (National Consumer Research Centre KTK (Finland)); Katajajuuri, Juha-Matti (MTT Agrifood Research Finland (Finland)); Nissinen, Ari (Finnish Environment Institute SYKE (Finland))

    2009-07-01

    The study reported in this article (named CLIMATE BONUS) concerns the combined use of verified carbon footprints (possibly visualised through labels), personalised monitoring and feedback services to households regarding the greenhouse gas intensities of their purchases, and a reward system (bonuses) for consumers who manage to reduce the embodied emissions. The study assesses the accuracy and verification requirements and the harmonisation needs for the various information systems and their interfaces. This should culminate in a data strategy, in which a data acquisition, generation and co-ordination strategy and a data quality assurance strategy will be developed. Equally important, the study also assesses, via an own pilot, what the response of households (as consumers) can amount to and how the responsiveness to various incentives can be rated. The paper provides an outline of the intended system, including its rationale. Subsequently, the paper focuses on the consumer pilot and the feedback from the participants. It also provides a brief impression of the expected overall economic effectiveness of the system.

  19. HST/ACS Emission Line Snapshots of nearby 3CR Radio Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tremblay, Grant; Sparks, W. B.; Chiaberge, M.; Baum, S. A.; Allen, M. G.; Axon, D. J.; Capetti, A.; Floyd, D. J. E.; Macchetto, F. D.; Miley, G. K.; O'Dea, C. P.; Perlman, E. S.; Quillen, A. C.

    2008-03-01

    We present the results of a new HST/ACS snapshot program in which we have obtained emission line images of nearby (z successfully for 20 such objects, a sample consisting of both low-power FR I and classical high-power FR II radio galaxies. While only a subset of our initially proposed sample was observed, the newly reduced data we do have are excellent and will serve as an enhancement to an already superb dataset. In future papers, we will use these data to probe fundamental relationships between warm optical line-emitting gas, radio source structure (jets and lobes) and X-ray coronal halos. We will combine our existing UV images with new emission line images to establish quantitative star formation characteristics and their relation to dust and merger scenarios. Through the use of emission-line excitation maps, we will test theories on ionization beam patterns and luminosities from active nuclei, as well as seek areas of jet induced star formation. The resulting database will be an invaluable resource to the astronomical community for years to come.

  20. Emission-Line Galaxies from the HST PEARS Grism Survey Southern Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straughn, Amber; Pirzkal, N.; Meurer, G.; Cohen, S.; Windhorst, R.; Malhotra, S.; Gardner, J.; Rhoads, J.; Hathi, N.; Xu, C.

    2009-01-01

    We have detected a sample of emission-line galaxies (ELGs) from the PEARS (Probing Evolution And Reionization Spectroscopically) HST/ACS grism survey Southern Fields. The PEARS Southern Fields consist of five ACS pointings (including the Hubble Ultra Deep Field) with the G800L grism for a total of 120 orbits, revealing thousands of faint object spectra in the GOODS-South region of the sky. Using a 2-dimensional detection and extraction procedure, we find 320 emission lines orginating from 230 galaxy ``knots'' within 203 individual galaxies. Line identification results in 118 new grism-spectroscopic redshifts for galaxies in the GOODS-South Field. Our detection method has allowed us to observe emission lines from distinct giant star-forming regions across individual galaxies at redshifts z 0.5. We find that the radial distances of these HII regions generally reside near the galaxies' optical continuum half-light radii, similar to those of giant HII regions in local galaxies.

  1. Emission line gas in early-type galaxies: Kinematics and physical conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deustua, S. E.; Koratkar, A. P.; Macalpine, G.

    1993-01-01

    Recent studies have found line emission gas in nearby early-type galaxies, but the properties of the emission-line gas in these 'normal' galaxies remain enigmatic. In terms of activity in the nucleus, these LINER-like galaxies form an important link between giant H 2 region galaxies and low-luminosity Seyferts. Despite their large numbers and evolutionary significance, we do not know whether these galaxies form a homogeneous class of objects; nor do we know how the distribution and kinematics of the line emission gas are affected by the host galaxy's environment or by the properties of the central engine, if present. To address these issues we are conducting a magnitude and volume limited survey of nearby early-type galaxies at Lick Observatory and the Michigan-Dartmouth-MIT Observatory. We have selected approximately 100 galaxies from radio catalogs. A large sample is necessary because while studies of individual 'LINERS' have led to a certain understanding of the phenomenon, these studies have not provided a global framework. Here we present results from our first run of medium resolution (approximately 5 A FWHM) spectroscopy. Kinematic data and line ratios determined along the major and minor axes of 6 galaxies are discussed. The information gleaned from spectroscopic data, when combined with data at other wavelengths, will enable a thorough investigation into the nature of low luminosity nuclear activity.

  2. Predicting the Presence of Companions for Stripped-envelope Supernovae: The Case of the Broad-lined Type Ic SN 2002ap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zapartas, E.; de Mink, S. E.; Van Dyk, S. D.; Fox, O. D.; Smith, N.; Bostroem, K. A.; de Koter, A.; Filippenko, A. V.; Izzard, R. G.; Kelly, P. L.; Neijssel, C. J.; Renzo, M.; Ryder, S.

    2017-06-01

    Many young, massive stars are found in close binaries. Using population synthesis simulations we predict the likelihood of a companion star being present when these massive stars end their lives as core-collapse supernovae (SNe). We focus on stripped-envelope SNe, whose progenitors have lost their outer hydrogen and possibly helium layers before explosion. We use these results to interpret new Hubble Space Telescope observations of the site of the broad-lined Type Ic SN 2002ap, 14 years post-explosion. For a subsolar metallicity consistent with SN 2002ap, we expect a main-sequence (MS) companion present in about two thirds of all stripped-envelope SNe and a compact companion (likely a stripped helium star or a white dwarf/neutron star/black hole) in about 5% of cases. About a quarter of progenitors are single at explosion (originating from initially single stars, mergers, or disrupted systems). All of the latter scenarios require a massive progenitor, inconsistent with earlier studies of SN 2002ap. Our new, deeper upper limits exclude the presence of an MS companion star >8-10 {M}⊙ , ruling out about 40% of all stripped-envelope SN channels. The most likely scenario for SN 2002ap includes nonconservative binary interaction of a primary star initially ≲ 23 {M}⊙ . Although unlikely (<1% of the scenarios), we also discuss the possibility of an exotic reverse merger channel for broad-lined Type Ic events. Finally, we explore how our results depend on the metallicity and the model assumptions and discuss how additional searches for companions can constrain the physics that govern the evolution of SN progenitors.

  3. Overluminous HNC line emission in Arp 220, NGC 4418 and Mrk 231. Global IR pumping or XDRs?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aalto, S.; Spaans, M.; Wiedner, M. C.; Huettemeister, S.

    Context. In recent studies of 3 mm J = 1 - 0 HNC emission from galaxies it is found that the emission is often bright which is unexpected in warm, star forming clouds. We propose that the main cause for the luminous HNC line emission is the extreme radiative and kinematical environment in starburst

  4. Excitation wavelength dependence of water-window line emissions from boron-nitride laser-produced plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crank, M.; Harilal, S. S.; Hassan, S. M.; Hassanein, A. [Center for Materials Under Extreme Environment, School of Nuclear Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 (United States)

    2012-02-01

    We investigated the effects of laser excitation wavelength on water-window emission lines of laser-produced boron-nitride plasmas. Plasmas are produced by focusing 1064 nm and harmonically generated 532 and 266 nm radiation from a Nd:YAG laser on BN target in vacuum. Soft x-ray emission lines in the water-window region are recorded using a grazing-incidence spectrograph. Filtered photodiodes are used to obtain complementary data for water-window emission intensity and angular dependence. Spectral emission intensity changes in nitrogen Ly-{alpha} and He-{alpha} are used to show how laser wavelength affects emission. Our results show that the relative intensity of spectral lines is laser wavelength dependent, with the ratio of Ly-{alpha} to He-{alpha} emission intensity decreasing as laser wavelength is shortened. Filtered photodiode measurements of angular dependence showed that 266 and 532 nm laser wavelengths produce uniform emission.

  5. Excitation wavelength dependence of water-window line emissions from boron-nitride laser-produced plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crank, M.; Harilal, S. S.; Hassan, S. M.; Hassanein, A.

    2012-02-01

    We investigated the effects of laser excitation wavelength on water-window emission lines of laser-produced boron-nitride plasmas. Plasmas are produced by focusing 1064 nm and harmonically generated 532 and 266 nm radiation from a Nd:YAG laser on BN target in vacuum. Soft x-ray emission lines in the water-window region are recorded using a grazing-incidence spectrograph. Filtered photodiodes are used to obtain complementary data for water-window emission intensity and angular dependence. Spectral emission intensity changes in nitrogen Ly-α and He-α are used to show how laser wavelength affects emission. Our results show that the relative intensity of spectral lines is laser wavelength dependent, with the ratio of Ly-α to He-α emission intensity decreasing as laser wavelength is shortened. Filtered photodiode measurements of angular dependence showed that 266 and 532 nm laser wavelengths produce uniform emission.

  6. The MUSE-Wide survey: A first catalogue of 831 emission line galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herenz, Edmund Christian; Urrutia, Tanya; Wisotzki, Lutz; Kerutt, Josephine; Saust, Rikke; Werhahn, Maria; Schmidt, Kasper Borello; Caruana, Joseph; Diener, Catrina; Bacon, Roland; Brinchmann, Jarle; Schaye, Joop; Maseda, Michael; Weilbacher, Peter M.

    2017-09-01

    We present a first instalment of the MUSE-Wide survey, covering an area of 22.2 arcmin2 (corresponding to 20% of the final survey) in the CANDELS/Deep area of the Chandra Deep Field South. We use the MUSE integral field spectrograph at the ESO VLT to conduct a full-area spectroscopic mapping at a depth of 1 h exposure time per 1 arcmin2 pointing. We searched for compact emission line objects using our newly developed LSDCat software based on a 3D matched filtering approach, followed by interactive classification and redshift measurement of the sources. Our catalogue contains 831 distinct emission line galaxies with redshifts ranging from 0.04 to 6. Roughly one third (237) of the emission line sources are Lyman α emitting galaxies with 3 line (0.3 ≲ z ≲ 1.5), 189 by their [O III] line (0.21 ≲ z ≲ 0.85), and 46 by their Hα line (0.04 ≲ z ≲ 0.42). Comparing our spectroscopic redshifts to photometric redshift estimates from the literature, we find excellent agreement for z 3. Together with the catalogue we also release 1D PSF-weighted extracted spectra and small 3D datacubes centred on each of the 831 sources. Based on observations collected at the European Organisation for Astronomical Research in the Southern Hemisphere under ESO programme 094.A-0205.Data products are available via http://muse-vlt.eu/science/ and at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (http://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/606/A12 .

  7. ORIGIN OF THE GALACTIC DIFFUSE X-RAY EMISSION: IRON K-SHELL LINE DIAGNOSTICS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nobukawa, Masayoshi [Department of Teacher Training and School Education, Nara University of Education, Takabatake-cho, Nara, 630-8528 (Japan); Uchiyama, Hideki [Faculty of Education, Shizuoka University, 836 Ohya, Suruga-ku, Shizuoka, 422-8529 (Japan); Nobukawa, Kumiko K.; Koyama, Katsuji [Department of Physics, Graduate School of Science, Kyoto University, Kitashirakawa-oiwake-cho, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto, 606-8502 (Japan); Yamauchi, Shigeo, E-mail: nobukawa@nara-edu.ac.jp [Department of Physics, Nara Women’s University, Kitauoyanishimachi, Nara, 630-8506 (Japan)

    2016-12-20

    This paper reports detailed K-shell line profiles of iron (Fe) and nickel (Ni) of the Galactic Center X-ray Emission (GCXE), Galactic Bulge X-ray Emission (GBXE), Galactic Ridge X-ray Emission (GRXE), magnetic Cataclysmic Variables (mCVs), non-magnetic Cataclysmic Variables (non-mCVs), and coronally Active Binaries (ABs). For the study of the origin of the GCXE, GBXE, and GRXE, the spectral analysis is focused on equivalent widths of the Fe i-K α , Fe xxv-He α , and Fe xxvi-Ly α  lines. The global spectrum of the GBXE is reproduced by a combination of the mCVs, non-mCVs, and ABs spectra. On the other hand, the GRXE spectrum shows significant data excesses at the Fe i-K α and Fe xxv-He α  line energies. This means that additional components other than mCVs, non-mCVs, and ABs are required, which have symbiotic phenomena of cold gas and very high-temperature plasma. The GCXE spectrum shows larger excesses than those found in the GRXE spectrum at all the K-shell lines of iron and nickel. Among them the largest ones are the Fe i-K α , Fe xxv-He α , Fe xxvi-Ly α , and Fe xxvi-Ly β  lines. Together with the fact that the scale heights of the Fe i-K α , Fe xxv-He α , and Fe xxvi-Ly α lines are similar to that of the central molecular zone (CMZ), the excess components would be related to high-energy activity in the extreme envelopment of the CMZ.

  8. 44Ti gamma-ray emission lines from SN1987A reveal an asymmetric explosion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boggs, S. E.; Harrison, F. A.; Miyasaka, H.

    2015-01-01

    In core-collapse supernovae, titanium-44 (44Ti) is produced in the innermost ejecta, in the layer of material directly on top of the newly formed compact object. As such, it provides a direct probe of the supernova engine. Observations of supernova 1987A (SN1987A) have resolved the 67.87- and 78........32–kilo–electron volt emission lines from decay of 44Ti produced in the supernova explosion. These lines are narrow and redshifted with a Doppler velocity of ~700 kilometers per second, direct evidence of large-scale asymmetry in the explosion....

  9. Ti-44 Gamma-Ray Emission Lines from SN1987A Reveal an Asymmetric Explosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boggs, S. E.; Harrison, F. A.; Miyasaka, H.; Grefenstette, B. W.; Zoglauer, A.; Fryer, C. L.; Reynolds, S. P.; Alexander, D. M.; An, H.; Barret, D.; hide

    2015-01-01

    In core-collapse supernovae, titanium-44 (Ti-44) is produced in the innermost ejecta, in the layer of material directly on top of the newly formed compact object. As such, it provides a direct probe of the supernova engine. Observations of supernova 1987A (SN1987A) have resolved the 67.87- and 78.32-kilo-electron volt emission lines from decay of Ti-44 produced in the supernova explosion. These lines are narrow and redshifted with a Doppler velocity of 700 kilometers per second, direct evidence of large-scale asymmetry in the explosion.

  10. A LINK BETWEEN X-RAY EMISSION LINES AND RADIO JETS IN 4U 1630-47?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neilsen, Joseph [Department of Astronomy, Boston University, Boston, MA 02215 (United States); Coriat, Mickaël [Department of Astronomy, University of Cape Town, Private Bag X3, Rondebosch 7701 (South Africa); Fender, Rob; Broderick, Jess W. [Department of Physics, Oxford University, Oxford OX1 3RH (United Kingdom); Lee, Julia C. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Ponti, Gabriele [Max Planck Institute fur Extraterrestriche Physik, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Tzioumis, Anastasios K.; Edwards, Philip G., E-mail: neilsenj@bu.edu [CSIRO Astronomy and Space Science, Australia Telescope National Facility, P.O. Box 76, Epping, NSW 1710 (Australia)

    2014-03-20

    Recently, Díaz Trigo et al. reported an XMM-Newton detection of relativistically Doppler-shifted emission lines associated with steep-spectrum radio emission in the stellar-mass black hole candidate 4U 1630-47 during its 2012 outburst. They interpreted these lines as indicative of a baryonic jet launched by the accretion disk. Here we present a search for the same lines earlier in the same outburst using high-resolution X-ray spectra from the Chandra HETGS. While our observations (eight months prior to the XMM-Newton campaign) also coincide with detections of steep spectrum radio emission by the Australia Telescope Compact Array, we find no evidence for any relativistic X-ray emission lines. Indeed, despite ∼5 × brighter radio emission, our Chandra spectra allow us to place an upper limit on the flux in the blueshifted Fe XXVI line that is ≳ 20 × weaker than the line observed by Díaz Trigo et al. We explore several scenarios that could explain our differing results, including variations in the geometry of the jet or a mass-loading process or jet baryon content that evolves with the accretion state of the black hole. We also consider the possibility that the radio emission arises in an interaction between a jet and the nearby interstellar medium, in which case the X-ray emission lines might be unrelated to the radio emission.

  11. Emission line galaxy pairs up to z=1.5 from the WISP survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teplitz, Harry I.; Dai, Yu Sophia; Malkan, Matthew Arnold; Scarlata, Claudia; Colbert, James W.; Atek, Hakim; Bagley, Micaela B.; Baronchelli, Ivano; Bedregal, Alejandro; Beck, Melanie; Bunker, Andrew; Dominguez, Alberto; Hathi, Nimish P.; Henry, Alaina L.; Mehta, Vihang; Pahl, Anthony; Rafelski, Marc; Ross, Nathaniel; Rutkowski, Michael J.; Siana, Brian D.; WISPs Team

    2016-01-01

    We present a sample of spectroscopically identified emission line galaxy pairs up to z=1.5 from WISPs (WFC3 Infrared Spectroscopic Parallel survey) using high resolution direct and grism images from HST. We searched ~150 fields with a covered area of ~600 arcmin^2, and a comoving volume of > 400 Gpc^3 at z=1-2, and found ~80 very close physical pairs (projected separation Dp < 50 h^{-1}kpc, relative velocity d_v < 500 kms^{-1}), and ~100 close physical pairs (50 < Dp < 100 h^{-1}kpc, d_v < 1000 kms^{-1}) of emission line galaxies, including two dozen triplets and quadruples. In this poster we present the multi-wavelength data, star formation rate (SFR), mass ratio, and study the merger rate evolution with this special galaxy pair sample.

  12. Emission line galaxies at z~2 from the 3D-HST sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, William P.; Zeimann, Greg; Ciardullo, Robin; Gronwall, Caryl; McCarron, Adam

    2018-01-01

    Emission-line surveys probe a much wider range of the high-z galaxy mass function than is possible with continuum selection methods, and upcoming projects such as EUCLID, WFIRST, and HETDEX will identify many millions of such galaxies. However, it is yet to be understood how properties such as the mass function, bias, and reddening distribution of galaxies selected via their Ly-alpha and rest-frame optical emission lines relate to those of systems identified via continuum-selection techniques. As a first step towards understanding the systematics of different selection techniques in the redshift range 1.9 grism frames. We give the distribution of stellar masses, sizes, star-formation rates, and stellar reddening of these objects, along with their rough estimates of their [O III] 5007 and H-beta luminosity functions. These data will be used as a control sample in analyses of Lyman-alpha emitters from the HETDEX survey.

  13. The early-type strong emission-line supergiants of the Magellanic Clouds - A spectroscopic zoology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shore, S. N.; Sanduleak, N.

    1984-01-01

    The results of a spectroscopic survey of 21 early-type extreme emission line supergiants of the Large and Small Magellanic Clouds using IUE and optical spectra are presented. The combined observations are discussed and the literature on each star in the sample is summarized. The classification procedures and the methods by which effective temperatures, bolometric magnitudes, and reddenings were assigned are discussed. The derived reddening values are given along with some results concerning anomalous reddening among the sample stars. The derived mass, luminosity, and radius for each star are presented, and the ultraviolet emission lines are described. Mass-loss rates are derived and discussed, and the implications of these observations for the evolution of the most massive stars in the Local Group are addressed.

  14. Laboratory Measurements of Fe xxiv Line Emission: 3[r arrow]2 Transitions near Excitation Threshold

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gu, M.F.; Kahn, S.M.; Savin, D.W. (Department of Physics and Columbia Astrophysics Laboratory, Columbia University, New York, NY 10027 (United States)); Beiersdorfer, P.; Brown, G.V.; Liedahl, D.A.; Reed, K.J. (Department of Physics and Space Technology, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore CA 94550 (United States)); Bhalla, C.P.; Grabbe, S.R. (Department of Physics, Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS 66506 (United States))

    1999-06-01

    Using the Electron Beam Ion Trap facility at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, we have measured relative cross sections for Fe xxiv line emission at electron energies between 0.7 and 3.0 keV. The measurements include line formation by direct electron impact excitation (DE), radiative cascades, resonant excitation (RE), and dielectronic recombination (DR) satellites with captured electrons in n[ge]5 levels. Good agreement with [ital R]-matrix and distorted wave calculations is found. In collisionally ionized plasmas, at temperatures near where the ion abundance peaks (kT[sub e] [approximately]1.7 keV), the RE contributions arefound to be [approx lt]5[percent] of the line emission, while the DR satellites contribute [approx lt]10[percent]. While good agreement with state-of-the-art atomic physics calculations is found, there is less good agreement with existingspectral synthesis codes in common astrophysical use. For the Fe xxiv 3p[sub 3/2] [r arrow]2s[sub 1/2], 3p[sub 1/2] [r arrow]2s[sub 1/2], and 3d[sub 5/2] [r arrow]2p[sub 3/2] transitions, the synthesis code MEKAL underestimates the emissivity in coronal equilibrium by [approximately]20[percent] at temperatures near where the ion abundance peaks. In situations where the ionization balance is not solely determined by the electron temperature, RE and DR satellites may contribute a considerable fraction of the line emission. [copyright] [ital [copyright] 1999.] [ital The American Astronomical Society

  15. THE SPECTRAL SN-GRB CONNECTION: SYSTEMATIC SPECTRAL COMPARISONS BETWEEN TYPE Ic SUPERNOVAE AND BROAD-LINED TYPE Ic SUPERNOVAE WITH AND WITHOUT GAMMA-RAY BURSTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Modjaz, Maryam; Liu, Yuqian Q.; Bianco, Federica B.; Graur, Or, E-mail: mmodjaz@nyu.edu [Center for Cosmology and Particle Physics, New York University, 4 Washington Place, New York, NY 10003 (United States)

    2016-12-01

    We present the first systematic investigation of spectral properties of 17 Type Ic Supernovae (SNe Ic), 10 broad-lined SNe Ic (SNe Ic-bl) without observed gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), and 11 SNe Ic-bl with GRBs (SN-GRBs) as a function of time in order to probe their explosion conditions and progenitors. Using a number of novel methods, we analyze a total of 407 spectra, which were drawn from published spectra of individual SNe as well as from the densely time-sampled spectra of Modjaz et al (2014). In order to quantify the diversity of the SN spectra as a function of SN subtype, we construct average spectra of SNe Ic, SNe Ic-bl without GRBs, and SNe Ic-bl with GRBs. We find that SN 1994I is not a typical SN Ic, contrasting the general view, while the spectra of SN 1998bw/GRB 980425 are representative of mean spectra of SNe Ic-bl. We measure the ejecta absorption and width velocities using a new method described here and find that SNe Ic-bl with GRBs, on average, have quantifiably higher absorption velocities, as well as broader line widths than SNe without observed GRBs. In addition, we search for correlations between SN-GRB spectral properties and the energies of their accompanying GRBs. Finally, we show that the absence of clear He lines in optical spectra of SNe Ic-bl, and in particular of SN-GRBs, is not due to them being too smeared-out due to the high velocities present in the ejecta. This implies that the progenitor stars of SN-GRBs are probably free of the He-layer, in addition to being H-free, which puts strong constraints on the stellar evolutionary paths needed to produce such SN-GRB progenitors at the observed low metallicities.

  16. Study on Emission Spectral Lines of Iron, Fe in Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) on Soil Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idris, Nasrullah; Lahna, Kurnia; Fadhli; Ramli, Muliadi

    2017-05-01

    In this work, LIBS technique has been used for detection of heavy metal especially iron, Fe in soil sample. As there are a large number of emission spectral lines due to Fe and other constituents in soil, this study is intended to identify emission spectral lines of Fe and finally to find best fit emission spectral lines for carrying out a qualitative and quantitative analysis. LIBS apparatus used in this work consists of a laser system (Neodymium Yttrium Aluminum Garnet, Nd-YAG: Quanta Ray; LAB SERIES; 1,064 nm; 500 mJ; 8 ns) and an optical multichannel analyzer (OMA) system consisting of a spectrograph (McPherson model 2061; 1,000 mm focal length; f/8.6 Czerny- Turner) and an intensified charge coupled device (ICCD) 1024x256 pixels (Andor I*Star). The soil sample was collected from Banda Aceh city, Aceh, Indonesia. For spectral data acquisition, the soil sample has been prepared by a pressing machine in the form of pellet. The laser beam was focused using a high density lens (f=+150 mm) and irradiated on the surface of the pellet for generating luminous plasma under 1 atmosphere of air surrounding. The plasma emission was collected by an optical fiber and then sent to the optical multichannel analyzer (OMA) system for acquisition of the emission spectra. It was found that there are many Fe emission lines both atomic lines (Fe I) and ionic lines (Fe II) appeared in all detection windows in the wavelength regions, ranging from 200 nm to 1000 nm. The emission lines of Fe with strong intensities occurs together with emission lines due to other atoms such as Mg, Ca, and Si. Thus, the identification of emission lines from Fe is complicated by presence of many other lines due to other major and minor elements in soil. Considering the features of the detected emission lines, several emission spectral lines of Fe I (atomic emission line), especially Fe I 404.58 nm occurring at visible range are potential to be good candidate of analytical lines in relation to detection

  17. First light - II. Emission line extinction, population III stars, and X-ray binaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrow, Kirk S. S.; Wise, John H.; Aykutalp, Aycin; O'Shea, Brian W.; Norman, Michael L.; Xu, Hao

    2018-02-01

    We produce synthetic spectra and observations for metal-free stellar populations and high-mass X-ray binaries in the Renaissance Simulations at a redshift of 15. We extend our methodology from the first paper in the series by modelling the production and extinction of emission lines throughout a dusty and metal-enriched interstellar and circum-galactic media extracted from the simulation, using a Monte Carlo calculation. To capture the impact of high-energy photons, we include all frequencies from hard X-ray to far-infrared with enough frequency resolution to discern line emission and absorption profiles. The most common lines in our sample in order of their rate of occurrence are Ly α, the C IV λλ1548, 1551 doublet, H α, and the Ca II λλλ8498, 8542, 8662 triplet. The best scenario for a direct observation of a metal-free stellar population is a merger between two Population III Galaxies. In mergers between metal-enriched and metal-free stellar populations, some characteristics may be inferred indirectly. Single Population III galaxies are too dim to be observed photometrically at z = 15. Ly α emission is discernible by JWST as an increase in J200w - J277w colour off the intrinsic stellar tracks. Observations of metal-free stars will be difficult, though not impossible, with the next generation of space telescopes.

  18. EXTREME EMISSION-LINE GALAXIES IN CANDELS: BROADBAND-SELECTED, STARBURSTING DWARF GALAXIES AT z > 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van der Wel, A.; Rix, H.-W.; Jahnke, K. [Max-Planck Institut fuer Astronomie, Koenigstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Straughn, A. N. [Astrophysics Science Division, Goddard Space Flight Center, Code 665, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Finkelstein, S. L.; Salmon, B. W. [George P. and Cynthia Woods Mitchell Institute for Fundamental Physics and Astronomy, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77843 (United States); Koekemoer, A. M.; Ferguson, H. C. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Weiner, B. J. [Steward Observatory, 933 N. Cherry St., University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Wuyts, S. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Extraterrestrische Physik, Giessenbachstrasse, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Bell, E. F. [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, 500 Church Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Faber, S. M.; Trump, J. R.; Koo, D. C. [UCO/Lick Observatory, Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Scarlata, C. [Minnesota Institute for Astrophysics, University of Minnesota, 116 Church St. S.E. Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Hathi, N. P. [Observatories of the Carnegie Institution of Washington, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); Dunlop, J. S. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Edinburgh, Royal Observatory, Edinburgh EH9 3HJ (United Kingdom); Newman, J. A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Pittsburgh, 3941 O' Hara Street, Pittsburgh, PA 15260 (United States); Dickinson, M. [National Optical Astronomy Observatory, 950 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States); De Mello, D. F., E-mail: vdwel@mpia.de [Department of Physics, The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC 20064 (United States); and others

    2011-12-01

    We identify an abundant population of extreme emission-line galaxies (EELGs) at redshift z {approx} 1.7 in the Cosmic Assembly Near-IR Deep Extragalactic Legacy Survey imaging from Hubble Space Telescope/Wide Field Camera 3 (HST/WFC3). Sixty-nine EELG candidates are selected by the large contribution of exceptionally bright emission lines to their near-infrared broadband magnitudes. Supported by spectroscopic confirmation of strong [O III] emission lines-with rest-frame equivalent widths {approx}1000 A-in the four candidates that have HST/WFC3 grism observations, we conclude that these objects are galaxies with {approx}10{sup 8} M{sub Sun} in stellar mass, undergoing an enormous starburst phase with M{sub *}/ M-dot{sub *} of only {approx}15 Myr. These bursts may cause outflows that are strong enough to produce cored dark matter profiles in low-mass galaxies. The individual star formation rates and the comoving number density (3.7 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -4} Mpc{sup -3}) can produce in {approx}4 Gyr much of the stellar mass density that is presently contained in 10{sup 8}-10{sup 9} M{sub Sun} dwarf galaxies. Therefore, our observations provide a strong indication that many or even most of the stars in present-day dwarf galaxies formed in strong, short-lived bursts, mostly at z > 1.

  19. A First Comparison of Millimeter Continuum and Mg ii Ultraviolet Line Emission from the Solar Chromosphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bastian, T. S. [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, 520 Edgemont Road, Charlottesville, VA 22903 (United States); Chintzoglou, G.; De Pontieu, B.; Schmit, D. [Lockheed Martin Solar and Astrophysics Lab, Org. A021S, Building 252, 3251 Hanover Street, Palo Alto, CA 94304 (United States); Shimojo, M. [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 2-21-1, Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Leenaarts, J. [Institute for Solar Physics, Department of Astronomy, Stockholm University, AlbaNova University Centre, SE-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden); Loukitcheva, M., E-mail: tbastian@nrao.edu [Center For Solar-Terrestrial Research, New Jersey Institute of Technology, 323 Martin Luther King Boulevard, Newark, NJ 07102 (United States)

    2017-08-20

    We present joint observations of the Sun by the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) and the Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph ( IRIS ). Both millimeter/submillimeter- λ continuum emission and ultraviolet (UV) line emission originate from the solar chromosphere and both have the potential to serve as powerful and complementary diagnostics of physical conditions in this enigmatic region of the solar atmosphere. The observations were made of a solar active region on 2015 December 18 as part of the ALMA science verification effort. A map of the Sun’s continuum emission was obtained by ALMA at a wavelength of 1.25 mm (239 GHz). A contemporaneous map was obtained by IRIS in the Mg ii h doublet line at 2803.5 Å. While a clear correlation between the 1.25 mm brightness temperature T{sub B} and the Mg ii h line radiation temperature T {sub rad} is observed, the slope is <1, perhaps as a result of the fact that these diagnostics are sensitive to different parts of the chromosphere and that the Mg ii h line source function includes a scattering component. There is a significant difference (35%) between the mean T{sub B} (1.25 mm) and mean T {sub rad} (Mg ii). Partitioning the maps into “sunspot,” “quiet areas,” and “plage regions” we find the relation between the IRIS Mg ii h line T {sub rad} and the ALMA T {sub B} region-dependent. We suggest this may be the result of regional dependences of the formation heights of the IRIS and ALMA diagnostics and/or the increased degree of coupling between the UV source function and the local gas temperature in the hotter, denser gas in plage regions.

  20. A First Comparison of Millimeter Continuum and Mg II Ultraviolet Line Emission from the Solar Chromosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastian, T. S.; Chintzoglou, G.; De Pontieu, B.; Shimojo, M.; Schmit, D.; Leenaarts, J.; Loukitcheva, M.

    2017-08-01

    We present joint observations of the Sun by the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) and the Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS). Both millimeter/submillimeter-λ continuum emission and ultraviolet (UV) line emission originate from the solar chromosphere and both have the potential to serve as powerful and complementary diagnostics of physical conditions in this enigmatic region of the solar atmosphere. The observations were made of a solar active region on 2015 December 18 as part of the ALMA science verification effort. A map of the Sun’s continuum emission was obtained by ALMA at a wavelength of 1.25 mm (239 GHz). A contemporaneous map was obtained by IRIS in the Mg II h doublet line at 2803.5 Å. While a clear correlation between the 1.25 mm brightness temperature T B and the Mg II h line radiation temperature T rad is observed, the slope is <1, perhaps as a result of the fact that these diagnostics are sensitive to different parts of the chromosphere and that the Mg II h line source function includes a scattering component. There is a significant difference (35%) between the mean T B (1.25 mm) and mean T rad (Mg II). Partitioning the maps into “sunspot,” “quiet areas,” and “plage regions” we find the relation between the IRIS Mg II h line T rad and the ALMA T B region-dependent. We suggest this may be the result of regional dependences of the formation heights of the IRIS and ALMA diagnostics and/or the increased degree of coupling between the UV source function and the local gas temperature in the hotter, denser gas in plage regions.

  1. Inner Warm Disk of ESO Hα 279a Revealed by NA I and CO Overtone Emission Lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyo, A.-Ran; Kim, Jongsoo; Lee, Jae-Joon; Kim, Kyoung-Hee; Kang, Jihyun; Byun, Do-Young; Mace, Gregory; Sokal, Kimberly R.; Park, Chan; Chun, Moo-Young; Oh, Heeyoung; Yu, Young Sam; Sok Oh, Jae; Jeong, Ueejeong; Kim, Hwihyun; Pak, Soojong; Hwang, Narae; Park, Byeong-Gon; Lee, Sungho; Kaplan, Kyle; Lee, Hye-In; Nguyen Le, Huynh Anh; Jaffe, Daniel; Friends of AASTeX Collaboration

    2017-07-01

    We present an analysis of near-infrared, high-resolution spectroscopy toward the flat-spectrum young stellar object (YSO) ESO Hα 279a (˜1.5M ⊙) in the Serpens star-forming region at a distance of 429 pc. Using the Immersion GRating INfrared Spectrometer (IGRINS; R ≈ 45,000), we detect emission lines originating from the accretion channel flow, jet, and inner disk. Specifically, we identify hydrogen Brackett series recombination, [Fe II], [Fe III], [Fe IV], Ca I, Na I, H2, H2O, and CO overtone emission lines. By modeling five bands of CO overtone emission lines and the symmetric double-peaked line profile for Na I emission lines, we find that ESO Hα 279a has an actively accreting Keplerian disk. From our Keplerian disk model, we find that Na I emission lines originate between 0.04 and 1.00 au, while the CO overtone emission lines are from the outer part of the disk, in the range between 0.22 and 3.00 au. The model reveals that the neutral atomic Na gas is a good tracer of the innermost region of the actively accreting disk. We derive a mass accretion rate of 2-10× 10-7 M ⊙ yr-1 from the measured Brγ emission luminosity of 1.78(±0.31) × 1031 erg s-1.

  2. Hubble space telescope emission line galaxies at z ∼ 2: the Lyα escape fraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ciardullo, Robin; Zeimann, Gregory R.; Gronwall, Caryl; Gebhardt, Henry; Schneider, Donald P.; Hagen, Alex; Malz, A. I., E-mail: rbc@astro.psu.edu, E-mail: grzeimann@psu.edu, E-mail: caryl@astro.psu.edu, E-mail: gebhardt@psu.edu, E-mail: dps@astro.psu.edu, E-mail: hagen@psu.edu, E-mail: malz@psu.edu [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); and others

    2014-11-20

    We compare the Hβ line strengths of 1.90 < z < 2.35 star-forming galaxies observed with the near-IR grism of the Hubble Space Telescope with ground-based measurements of Lyα from the HETDEX Pilot Survey and narrow-band imaging. By examining the line ratios of 73 galaxies, we show that most star-forming systems at this epoch have a Lyα escape fraction below ∼6%. We confirm this result by using stellar reddening to estimate the effective logarithmic extinction of the Hβ emission line (c {sub Hβ} = 0.5) and measuring both the Hβ and Lyα luminosity functions in a ∼100, 000 Mpc{sup 3} volume of space. We show that in our redshift window, the volumetric Lyα escape fraction is at most 4.4{sub −1.2}{sup +2.1}%, with an additional systematic ∼25% uncertainty associated with our estimate of extinction. Finally, we demonstrate that the bulk of the epoch's star-forming galaxies have Lyα emission line optical depths that are significantly greater than that for the underlying UV continuum. In our predominantly [O III] λ5007-selected sample of galaxies, resonant scattering must be important for the escape of Lyα photons.

  3. A Link Between X-ray Emission Lines and Radio Jets in 4U 1630-47?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neilsen, Joseph; Coriat, Mickaël; Fender, Rob; Lee, Julia C.; Ponti, Gabriele; Tzioumis, A.; Edwards, Phillip; Broderick, Jess

    2014-06-01

    Recently, Díaz Trigo et al. reported an XMM-Newton detection of relativistically Doppler-shifted emission lines associated with steep-spectrum radio emission in the stellar-mass black hole candidate 4U 1630-47 during its 2012 outburst. They interpreted these lines as indicative of a baryonic jet launched by the accretion disk. We present a search for the same lines earlier in the same outburst using high-resolution X-ray spectra from the Chandra HETGS. While our observations (eight months prior to the XMM-Newton campaign) also coincide with detections of steep spectrum radio emission by the Australia Telescope Compact Array, we find a strong disk wind but no evidence for any relativistic X-ray emission lines. Indeed, despite ˜5× brighter radio emission, our Chandra spectra allow us to place an upper limit on the flux in the blueshifted Fe XXVI line that is ˜20× weaker than the line observed by Díaz Trigo et al. Thus we can conclusively say that radio emission is not universally associated with relativistically Doppler-shifted emission lines in 4U 1630-47. We explore several scenarios that could explain our differing results, including variations in the geometry of the jet or a mass-loading process or jet baryon content that evolves with the accretion state of the black hole. We also consider the possibility that the radio emission arises in an interaction between a jet and the nearby ISM, in which case the X-ray emission lines might be unrelated to the radio emission.

  4. A suborbital experiment to study Circumgalactic Lines in Ultraviolet Emission (CLUE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Timothy; Wakker, Bart P.; Finn, Susanna; Martel, Jason F.

    2016-06-01

    We present the design and expected performance of CLUE, a new suborbital mission designed to image OVI emission from the circumgalactic medium of nearby galaxies. CLUE will act as a scientific pathfinder for future far ultraviolet emission missions. It will establish, on three nearby galaxies, the brightness, extent, and morphology of the OVI emission from the circumgalactic medium. These results will be essential in planning and evaluating any future FUV emission mission.The experiment will demonstrate an instrument design, called the monochromatic imager, which provides an all-reflective solution to the "narrow band imaging problem". Narrowband imaging is a staple astronomical technique. It allows observers to map the spatial distribution of ionic, atomic, and molecular features, and to determine the temperature, density, etc. of the emitting gas. Unfortunately, this technique cannot be applied in the far-ultraviolet band where transmissive materials are unavailable and ionic features are closely spaced, requiring a quickly varying spectral response.The monochromatic imager uses a conventional telescope with a grating monochromator to select the wavelength of interest. After passing through the monochromator an image of the target (now monochromatic) is focused on the detector. Unlike a push broom imaging system, CLUE produces a full image in a single emission line. CLUE is able to efficiently devote its observing time and detector area to collecting photons of interest while NOT devoting time and collecting area to recording uninteresting spectral regions.

  5. A NEW Hα EMISSION-LINE SURVEY IN THE ORION NEBULA CLUSTER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szegedi-Elek, E.; Kun, M.; Pál, A.; Balázs, L. G. [Konkoly Observatory, H-1121 Budapest, Konkoly Thege út 15-17 (Hungary); Reipurth, B.; Willman, M., E-mail: eelza@konkoly.hu [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii at Manoa, 640 N. Aohoku Place, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States)

    2013-10-01

    We present results from an Hα emission line survey in a 1 deg{sup 2} area centered on the Orion Nebula Cluster, obtained with the Wide Field Grism Spectrograph 2 on the 2.2 m telescope of the University of Hawaii. We identified 587 stars with Hα emission, 99 of which, located mainly in the outer regions of the observed area, have not appeared in previous Hα surveys. We determined the equivalent width (EW) of the line and, based on this, classified 372 stars as classical T Tauri stars (CTTSs) and 187 as weak-line T Tauri stars (WTTSs). Simultaneous r', i' photometry indicates a limiting magnitude of r' ∼ 20 mag, but the sample is incomplete at r' > 17 mag. The surface distribution of the Hα emission stars reveals a clustered population and a dispersed population, the former consisting of younger and more massive young stars than the latter. Comparison of the derived EWs with those found in the literature indicates variability of the Hα line. We found that the typical amplitudes of the variability are not greater than a factor of two to three in most cases. We identified a subgroup of low-EW stars with infrared signatures indicative of optically thick accretion disks. We studied the correlations between the EW and other properties of the stars. Based on literature data, we examined several properties of our CTTS and WTTS subsamples and found significant differences in mid-infrared color indices, average rotational periods, and spectral energy distribution characteristics of the subsamples.

  6. Survey of emission-line galaxies: Universidad Complutense de Madrid list

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamorano, J.; Rego, Gallego, J.; Gallego, J. G.; Vitores, A. G.RA, R.; Gonzalez-Riestra, R..; Rodriguez-Caderot, G.

    1994-01-01

    A low-dispersion objective-prism survey for low-redshift emission-line galaxies (ELGs) is being carried out by the University Complutense de Madrid with the Schmidt telescope at the German-Spanish Observatory of Calar Alto (Almeria, Spain). A 4 deg full aperture prism, which provides a dispersion of 1950 A/mm, and IIIaF emulsion combination has been used to search for ELGs selected by the presence of H-alpha emission in their spectra. Our survey has proved to be able to recover objects already found by similar surveys with different techniques and, what is more important, to discover new objects not previously cataloged. A compilation of descriptions and positions, along with finding charts when necessary, is presented for 160 extragalactic emission-line objects. This is the first list, which contains objects located in a region of the sky covering 270 sq deg in 10 fields near alpha = 0(sup h) and delta = 20 deg.

  7. Starbursts in cooling flows: blue continua and emission-line nebulae in central cluster galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, S. W.

    1995-10-01

    Optical spectroscopy of X-ray-luminous clusters of galaxies detected in the ROSAT All-Sky Survey provides new evidence for ongoing star formation in the central cluster galaxies (CCGs) of clusters with cooling flows. The CCG spectra, corrected for intrinsic reddening of 0.1~10^6 O stars to be present in the most luminous systems. Large B, A and F star populations are also inferred. Photoionization models show that the observed O stars may be responsible for much of the strong, nebular line emission seen in the galaxies. This is supported by a linear correlation between the number of O stars and the Hα luminosities of the CCGs. No correlation between the emission-line luminosity and radio power is observed. The data presented here are amongst the most compelling yet for massive star formation in cooling flows and suggest that the dominant source of the spatially extended excess UV/blue continua, frequently observed in CCGs, is young stars rather than scattered non-thermal emission from hidden active nuclei.

  8. Optical Follow-Up Observations of PTF10qts, a Luminous Broad-Lined Type Ic Supernova Found by the Palomar Transient Factory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, E. S.; Mazzali, P. A.; Pian, E.; Hurley, K.; Arcavi, I.; Cenko, S. B.; Gal-Yam, A.; Horesh, A.; Kasliwal, M.; Poznanski, D.; hide

    2014-01-01

    We present optical photometry and spectroscopy of the broad-lined Type Ic supernova (SN Ic-BL) PTF10qts, which was discovered as part of the Palomar Transient Factory. The supernova was located in a dwarf galaxy of magnitude r = 21.1 at a redshift z = 0.0907.We find that the R-band light curve is a poor proxy for bolometric data and use photometric and spectroscopic data to construct and constrain the bolometric light curve. The derived bolometric magnitude at maximum light is Mbol = -18.51 +/- 0.2 mag, comparable to that of SN1998bw (Mbol = -18.7 mag) which was associated with a gamma-ray burst (GRB). PTF10qts is one of the most luminous SN Ic-BL observed without an accompanying GRB. We estimate the physical parameters of the explosion using data from our programme of follow-up observations, finding that it produced a larger mass of radioactive nickel compared to other SNeIc-BL with similar inferred ejecta masses and kinetic energies. The progenitor of the event was likely a approximately 20 solar mass star.

  9. Excitation Mechanisms of Near-Infrared Emission Lines in LINER Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehle, Anna

    2017-01-01

    I will present high spatial resolution, integral field spectroscopic observations of the nearby LINER (low ionization nuclear emission line region) galaxy NGC 404. LINERs are found at the centers of ~1/3 of galaxies within 40 Mpc, but their physical nature is not well understood. Although NGC 404 is thought to host a intermediate mass black hole at its center, it is unclear whether accretion onto the black hole or another mechanism such as shock excitation drives its LINER emission. We use the OSIRIS near-infrared integral field spectrograph at Keck Observatory behind laser guide star adaptive optics to map the strength and kinematics of [FeII], H2, and hydrogen recombination lines in the nucleus of NGC 404. These observations have a spatial pixel sampling of 0.5 pc and span the central 30 pc of the galaxy. We find that the ionized and molecular gas show differences in their morphology and kinematics on parsec scales. In particular, there are regions with line ratios of [FeII]/Pa-β that are much higher than previously seen in spatially integrated spectra, significantly restricting the possible excitation mechanisms of the near-infrared emission lines in this source. We are also applying these analysis techniques to 10 additional nearby LINERs, a part of a larger sample of 14 sources, to understand what drives the emission lines in these active galaxies. As a part of this program, I worked on the upgrade of the detector in the OSIRIS spectrograph, which has allowed observations for this survey obtained since January 2016 to be taken with increased instrument sensitivity of a factor of ~2 at J-band wavelengths (1.2 - 1.4 microns) and ~1.6 at H- and K-band wavelengths (1.5 - 2.4 microns). I will present results from the LINER survey, the OSIRIS detector upgrade, and also touch on related work using stellar orbits around the Milky Way supermassive black hole Sgr A* to constrain the mass and distance to our own Galactic Center.

  10. SPATIALLY RESOLVED HST GRISM SPECTROSCOPY OF A LENSED EMISSION LINE GALAXY AT z {approx} 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frye, Brenda L. [Steward Observatory, Department of Astronomy, University of Arizona, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Hurley, Mairead [School of Physical Sciences, Dublin City University, Glasnevin, Dublin 9 (Ireland); Bowen, David V. [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Peyton Hall, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08540 (United States); Meurer, Gerhardt [International Centre for Radio Astronomy Research, The University of Western Australia M468, 35 Stirling Highway, Crawley, WA 6009 (Australia); Sharon, Keren [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Straughn, Amber [Astrophysics Science Division, Goddard Space Flight Center, Code 665, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Coe, Dan [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Broadhurst, Tom [Ikerbasque, Basque Foundation for Science, E-48011 Bilbao (Spain); Guhathakurta, Puragra, E-mail: bfrye@as.arizona.edu [UCO/Lick Observatory, Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States)

    2012-07-20

    We take advantage of gravitational lensing amplification by A1689 (z 0.187) to undertake the first space-based census of emission line galaxies (ELGs) in the field of a massive lensing cluster. Forty-three ELGs are identified to a flux of i{sub 775} = 27.3 via slitless grism spectroscopy. One ELG (at z = 0.7895) is very bright owing to lensing magnification by a factor of Almost-Equal-To 4.5. Several Balmer emission lines (ELs) detected from ground-based follow-up spectroscopy signal the onset of a major starburst for this low-mass galaxy (M{sub *} Almost-Equal-To 2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 9} M{sub Sun }) with a high specific star formation rate ( Almost-Equal-To 20 Gyr{sup -1}). From the blue ELs we measure a gas-phase oxygen abundance consistent with solar (12+log(O/H) = 8.8 {+-} 0.2). We break the continuous line-emitting region of this giant arc into seven {approx}1 kpc bins (intrinsic size) and measure a variety of metallicity-dependent line ratios. A weak trend of increasing metal fraction is seen toward the dynamical center of the galaxy. Interestingly, the metal line ratios in a region offset from the center by {approx}1 kpc have a placement on the blue H II region excitation diagram with f ([O III])/f (H{beta}) and f ([Ne III])/f (H{beta}) that can be fitted by an active galactic nucleus (AGN). This asymmetrical AGN-like behavior is interpreted as a product of shocks in the direction of the galaxy's extended tail, possibly instigated by a recent galaxy interaction.

  11. LSDCat: Detection and cataloguing of emission-line sources in integral-field spectroscopy datacubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herenz, Edmund Christian; Wisotzki, Lutz

    2017-06-01

    We present a robust, efficient, and user-friendly algorithm for detecting faint emission-line sources in large integral-field spectroscopic datacubes together with the public release of the software package Line Source Detection and Cataloguing (LSDCat). LSDCat uses a three-dimensional matched filter approach, combined with thresholding in signal-to-noise, to build a catalogue of individual line detections. In a second pass, the detected lines are grouped into distinct objects, and positions, spatial extents, and fluxes of the detected lines are determined. LSDCat requires only a small number of input parameters, and we provide guidelines for choosing appropriate values. The software is coded in Python and capable of processing very large datacubes in a short time. We verify the implementation with a source insertion and recovery experiment utilising a real datacube taken with the MUSE instrument at the ESO Very Large Telescope. The LSDCat software is available for download at http://muse-vlt.eu/science/tools and via the Astrophysics Source Code Library at http://ascl.net/1612.002

  12. The SAMI Galaxy Survey: Data Release One with emission-line physics value-added products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Andrew W.; Croom, Scott M.; Scott, Nicholas; Cortese, Luca; Medling, Anne M.; D'Eugenio, Francesco; Bryant, Julia J.; Bland-Hawthorn, Joss; Allen, J. T.; Sharp, Rob; Ho, I.-Ting; Groves, Brent; Drinkwater, Michael J.; Mannering, Elizabeth; Harischandra, Lloyd; van de Sande, Jesse; Thomas, Adam D.; O'Toole, Simon; McDermid, Richard M.; Vuong, Minh; Sealey, Katrina; Bauer, Amanda E.; Brough, S.; Catinella, Barbara; Cecil, Gerald; Colless, Matthew; Couch, Warrick J.; Driver, Simon P.; Federrath, Christoph; Foster, Caroline; Goodwin, Michael; Hampton, Elise J.; Hopkins, A. M.; Jones, D. Heath; Konstantopoulos, Iraklis S.; Lawrence, J. S.; Leon-Saval, Sergio G.; Liske, Jochen; López-Sánchez, Ángel R.; Lorente, Nuria P. F.; Mould, Jeremy; Obreschkow, Danail; Owers, Matt S.; Richards, Samuel N.; Robotham, Aaron S. G.; Schaefer, Adam L.; Sweet, Sarah M.; Taranu, Dan S.; Tescari, Edoardo; Tonini, Chiara; Zafar, T.

    2018-03-01

    We present the first major release of data from the SAMI Galaxy Survey. This data release focuses on the emission-line physics of galaxies. Data Release One includes data for 772 galaxies, about 20 per cent of the full survey. Galaxies included have the redshift range 0.004 < z < 0.092, a large mass range (7.6 < log M*/ M⊙ < 11.6), and star formation rates of ˜10-4 to ˜101M⊙ yr-1. For each galaxy, we include two spectral cubes and a set of spatially resolved 2D maps: single- and multi-component emission-line fits (with dust-extinction corrections for strong lines), local dust extinction, and star formation rate. Calibration of the fibre throughputs, fluxes, and differential atmospheric refraction has been improved over the Early Data Release. The data have average spatial resolution of 2.16 arcsec (full width at half-maximum) over the 15 arcsec diameter field of view and spectral (kinematic) resolution of R = 4263 (σ = 30 km s-1) around H α. The relative flux calibration is better than 5 per cent, and absolute flux calibration has an rms of 10 per cent. The data are presented online through the Australian Astronomical Observatory's Data Central.

  13. MASTER OT J132104.04+560957.8: A Polar with Absorption–Emission Line Reversals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littlefield, Colin; Garnavich, Peter; Hoyt, Taylor J.; Kennedy, Mark

    2018-01-01

    We present time-resolved photometry and spectroscopy of the recently classified polar MASTER OT J132104.04+560957.8. The spectrum shows a smooth, nonthermal continuum at the time of maximum light, without any individually discernible cyclotron harmonics. Using homogenous cyclotron modeling, we interpret this as cyclotron radiation whose individual harmonics have blended together, and on this basis, we loosely constrain the magnetic-field strength to be less than ∼30 MG. In addition, for about one-tenth of the orbital period, the Balmer and He I emission lines transition into absorption features, with He II developing an absorption core. We use our observations of this phenomenon to test theoretical models of the accretion curtain and conclude that the H and He I lines are produced throughout the curtain, in contravention of theoretical predictions of separate H and He I line-forming regions. Moreover, a significant amount of He II emission originates within the accretion curtain, implying that the curtain is significantly hotter than expected from theory. Finally, we comment on the object’s long-term photometry, including evidence that it recently transitioned into a prolonged, exceptionally stable high state following a potentially decades-long low state.

  14. Modeling particle emission and power flow in pulsed-power driven, nonuniform transmission lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nichelle Bruner

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Pulsed-power driven x-ray radiographic systems are being developed to operate at higher power in an effort to increase source brightness and penetration power. Essential to the design of these systems is a thorough understanding of electron power flow in the transmission line that couples the pulsed-power driver to the load. In this paper, analytic theory and fully relativistic particle-in-cell simulations are used to model power flow in several experimental transmission-line geometries fielded on Sandia National Laboratories’ upgraded Radiographic Integrated Test Stand [IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 28, 1653 (2000ITPSBD0093-381310.1109/27.901250]. Good agreement with measured electrical currents is demonstrated on a shot-by-shot basis for simulations which include detailed models accounting for space-charge-limited electron emission, surface heating, and stimulated particle emission. Resonant cavity modes related to the transmission-line impedance transitions are also shown to be excited by electron power flow. These modes can drive oscillations in the output power of the system, degrading radiographic resolution.

  15. Emission Lines from the Gas Disk Around TW Hydra and the Origin of the Inner Hole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorti, U.; Hollenbach, D.; Najita, J.; Pascucci, I.

    2011-01-01

    We compare line emission calculated from theoretical disk models with optical to submillimeter wavelength observational data of the gas disk surrounding TW Hya and infer the spatial distribution of mass in the gas disk. The model disk that best matches observations has a gas mass ranging from approx.10(exp -4) to 10(exp -5) M for 0.06AU 13.6 eV) flux from TW Hya. H2 pure rotational line emission comes primarily from r approx. 1 to 30 AU. [Oi] 63microns, HCO+, and CO pure rotational lines all arise from the outer disk at r approx. 30-120 AU. We discuss planet formation and photoevaporation as causes for the decrease in surface density of gas and dust inside 4 AU. If a planet is present, our results suggest a planet mass approx. 4-7MJ situated at 3 AU. Using our photoevaporation models and the best surface density profile match to observations, we estimate a current photoevaporative mass loss rate of 4x10(exp -9M)/yr and a remaining disk lifetime of approx.5 million years.

  16. Serendipitous Discovery of an Optical Emission-line Jet in NGC 232

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Cobá, C.; Sánchez, S. F.; Cruz-González, I.; Binette, L.; Galbany, L.; Krühler, T.; Rodríguez, L. F.; Barrera-Ballesteros, J. K.; Sánchez-Menguiano, L.; Walcher, C. J.; Aquino-Ortíz, E.; Anderson, J. P.

    2017-11-01

    We report the detection of a highly collimated linear emission-line structure in the spiral galaxy NGC 232 through the use of integral field spectroscopy data from the All-weather MUse Supernova Integral field Nearby Galaxies survey. This jet-like feature extends radially from the nucleus and is primarily detected in [O III]λ5007 without clear evidence of an optical continuum counterpart. The length of the radial structure projected on sky reaches ˜3 kpc, which makes NGC 232 the second-longest emission-line jet reported. The ionized gas presents extreme [O III]/Hβ and [N II]/Hα line ratios, increasing along the jet-like structure. We discuss three possible scenarios to explain the observed structure: (I) direct ionization of infalling material from the intergalactic medium by the AGN, (II) photoionization by an undetected optical counterpart of the radio jet, and (III) fast shock ionization due to the lateral expansion of the radio jet across the interstellar medium. Our analysis favors in situ ionization.

  17. Investigations on burning efficiency and exhaust emission of in-line type emulsified fuel system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tseng, Y.K. [National Chinyi University of Technology (Taiwan). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering; Cheng, H.C. [Point Environmental Protection Technology Company Limited (Taiwan)

    2011-07-28

    In this research, the burning efficiency as well as exhaust emission of a new water-in-oil emulsified fuel system was studied. This emulsified system contains two core processes, the first one is to mix 97% water with 3% emulsifier by volume, and get the milk-like emulsified liquid, while the second one is to compound the milk-like emulsified liquid with heavy oil then obtain the emulsified fuel. In order to overcome the used demulsification problem during in reserve or in transport, this system was designed as a made and use in-line type. From the results of a series of burning tests, the fuel saving can be 8--15%. Also, from the comparison of decline for the heat value and total energy output of emulsified fuel, one can find that the water as the dispersed phase in the combustion process will lead to a micro-explosion as well as the water gas effect, both can raise the combustion temperature and burning efficiency. By comparing the waste gas emission of different types of emulsified fuel, one can know that, the CO2 emission reduces approximately 14%, and NOx emission reduces above 46%, meaning the reduction of the exhaust gas is truly effective. From the exhaust temperature of tail pipe, the waste heat discharge also may reduce 27%, it is quite advantageous to the global warming as well as earth environmental protection.

  18. Kossel interferences of proton-induced X-ray emission lines in periodic multilayers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Meiyi; Le Guen, Karine; André, Jean-Michel [Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Univ Paris 06, Laboratoire de Chimie Physique-Matière et Rayonnement, 11 rue Pierre et Marie Curie, F-75231 Paris cedex 05 (France); CNRS UMR 7614, Laboratoire de Chimie Physique-Matière et Rayonnement, 11 rue Pierre et Marie Curie, F-75231 Paris cedex 05 (France); Ilakovac, Vita [Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Univ Paris 06, Laboratoire de Chimie Physique-Matière et Rayonnement, 11 rue Pierre et Marie Curie, F-75231 Paris cedex 05 (France); CNRS UMR 7614, Laboratoire de Chimie Physique-Matière et Rayonnement, 11 rue Pierre et Marie Curie, F-75231 Paris cedex 05 (France); Université de Cergy-Pontoise, F-95031 Cergy-Pontoise (France); Vickridge, Ian [Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Univ Paris 06, Institut des NanoSciences de Paris, 4 place Jussieu, boîte courrier 840, F-75252 Paris cedex 05 (France); CNRS UMR 7588, Institut des NanoSciences de Paris, 4 place Jussieu, boîte courrier 840, F-75252 Paris cedex 05 (France); Schmaus, Didier [Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Univ Paris 06, Institut des NanoSciences de Paris, 4 place Jussieu, boîte courrier 840, F-75252 Paris cedex 05 (France); CNRS UMR 7588, Institut des NanoSciences de Paris, 4 place Jussieu, boîte courrier 840, F-75252 Paris cedex 05 (France); Université Paris Diderot-P7, F-75205 Paris cedex 13 (France); and others

    2016-11-01

    The Kossel interferences generated by characteristic X-ray lines produced inside a periodic multilayer have been observed upon proton irradiation, by submitting a Cr/B{sub 4}C/Sc multilayer stack to 2 MeV protons and observing the intensity of the Sc and Cr Kα characteristic emissions as a function of the detection angle. When this angle is close to the Bragg angle corresponding to the emission wavelength and period of the multilayer, an oscillation of the measured intensity is detected. The results are in good agreement with a model based on the reciprocity theorem. The combination of the Kossel measurements and their simulation, will be a useful tool to obtain a good description of the multilayer stack and thus to study nanometer-thick layers and their interfaces.

  19. On the Calculation of the Fe K-alpha Line Emissivity of Black Hole Accretion Disks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krawczynski, H.; Beheshtipour, B.

    2017-11-01

    Observations of the fluorescent Fe Kα emission line from the inner accretion flows of stellar mass black holes in X-ray binaries and supermassive black holes in active galactic nuclei have become an important tool to study the magnitude and inclination of the black hole spin, and the structure of the accretion flow close to the event horizon of the black hole. Modeling spectral, timing, and soon also X-ray polarimetric observations of the Fe Kα emission requires the calculation of the specific intensity in the rest frame of the emitting plasma. We revisit the derivation of the equation used for calculating the illumination of the accretion disk by the corona. We present an alternative derivation leading to a simpler equation, and discuss the relation to previously published results.

  20. Impurity line emission due to thermal charge exchange in JET edge plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maggi, C.F.; Horton, L.D.; Koenig, R.; Stamp, M. [Commission of the European Communities, Abingdon (United Kingdom). JET Joint Undertaking; Summers, H.P. [Strathclyde Univ., Glasgow (United Kingdom)

    1994-07-01

    High n-shell emission from hydrogen-like carbon (C VI, n=8-7) has been routinely observed from the plasma edge of JET. By comparing the measured spectral line intensities with the signals predicted by advanced atomic physics modelling of carbon and hydrogen radiation, integrated with modelling of the divertor and edge plasma, it is concluded that charge transfer from excited state hydrogen donors into fully stripped carbon ions can account for the observed spectral emission, but that the hydrogen distribution and to a lesser extent the carbon distribution away from the strike zone predicted by the transport model are too low. Data presented are those of three upper X-point discharges, where the target material was carbon. 5 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  1. On-chip plasmonic cavity-enhanced spontaneous emission rate at the zero-phonon line

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siampour, Hamidreza; Kumar, Shailesh; Bozhevolnyi, Sergey I.

    Highly confined surface plasmon polariton (SPP) modes can be utilized to enhance light-matter interaction at the single emitter level of quantum optical systems [1-4]. Dielectric-loaded SPP waveguides (DLSPPWs) confine SPPs laterally with relatively low propagation loss, enabling to benefit both ...... and an up to 42-fold spontaneous emission rate enhancement at the zero-phonon line (a ∼7-fold resonance enhancement in addition to a ∼6-fold broadband enhancement) is achieved, revealing the potential of our approach for on-chip realization of quantum-optical networks....

  2. Metal-line emission from the warm-hot intergalactic medium - II. Ultraviolet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertone, Serena; Schaye, Joop; Booth, C. M.; Dalla Vecchia, Claudio; Theuns, Tom; Wiersma, Robert P. C.

    2010-10-01

    Approximately half the baryons in the local Universe are thought to reside in the warm-hot intergalactic medium (WHIM), i.e. diffuse gas with temperatures in the range 105 ~103photons-1cm-2sr-1) comes from relatively dense (ρ > 102ρmean) and metal rich (Z >~ 0.1Zsolar) gas. As such, emission lines are highly biased tracers of the missing baryons and are not an optimal tool to close the baryon budget. However, they do provide a powerful means to detect the gas cooling on to or flowing out of galaxies and groups.

  3. Hubble Space Telescope WFC3 Early Release Science: Emission-Line Galaxies from Infrared Grism Observations

    OpenAIRE

    Straughn, A. N.; Kuntschner, H.; Kuemmel, M.; Walsh, J. R.; Cohen, S H; Gardner, J P; Windhorst, R. A.; O'Connell, R. W.; Pirzkal, N.; Meurer, G.; McCarthy, P. J.; Hathi, N. P.; Malhotra, S; Rhoads, J.; Balick, B.

    2010-01-01

    We present grism spectra of emission-line galaxies (ELGs) from 0.6-1.6 microns from the Wide Field Camera 3 on the Hubble Space Telescope. These new infrared grism data augment previous optical Advanced Camera for Surveys G800L 0.6-0.95 micron grism data in GOODS-South from the PEARS program, extending the wavelength covereage well past the G800L red cutoff. The ERS grism field was observed at a depth of 2 orbits per grism, yielding spectra of hundreds of faint objects, a subset of which are ...

  4. Reprocessing of Soft X-ray Emission Lines in Black Hole Accretion Disks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mauche, C W; Liedahl, D A; Mathiesen, B F; Jimenez-Garate, M A; Raymond, J C

    2003-10-17

    By means of a Monte Carlo code that accounts for Compton scattering and photoabsorption followed by recombination, we have investigated the radiation transfer of Ly{alpha}, He{alpha}, and recombination continua photons of H- and He-like C, N, O, and Ne produced in the photoionized atmosphere of a relativistic black hole accretion disk. We find that photoelectric opacity causes significant attenuation of photons with energies above the O VIII K-edge; that the conversion efficiencies of these photons into lower-energy lines and recombination continua are high; and that accounting for this reprocessing significantly (by factors of 21% to 105%) increases the flux of the Ly{alpha} and He{alpha} emission lines of H- and He-like C and O escaping the disk atmosphere.

  5. Quark nugget dark matter: no contradiction with 511 keV line emission from dwarf galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, Kyle; Zhitnitsky, Ariel

    2017-02-01

    The observed galactic 511 keV line has been interpreted in a number of papers as a possible signal of dark matter annihilation within the galactic bulge. If this is the case then it is possible that a similar spectral feature may be observed in association with nearby dwarf galaxies. These objects are believed to be strongly dark matter dominated and present a relatively clean observational target. Recently INTEGRAL observations have provided new constraints on the 511 keV flux from nearby dwarf galaxies [1] motivating further investigation into the mechanism by which this radiation may arise. In the model presented here dark matter in the form of heavy quark nuggets produces the galactic 511 keV emission line through interactions with the visible matter. It is argued that this type of interaction is not strongly constrained by the flux limits reported in [2].

  6. Relating Line Width and Optical Depth for CO Emission in the Large Mgellanic Cloud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojciechowski, Evan; Wong, Tony; Bandurski, Jeffrey; MC3 (Mapping CO in Molecular Clouds in the Magellanic Clouds) Team

    2018-01-01

    We investigate data produced from ALMA observations of giant molecular clouds (GMCs) located in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC), using 12CO(2–1) and 13CO(2–1) emission. The spectral line width is generally interpreted as tracing turbulent rather than thermal motions in the cloud, but could also be affected by optical depth, especially for the 12CO line (Hacar et al. 2016). We compare the spectral line widths of both lines with their optical depths, estimated from an LTE analysis, to evaluate the importance of optical depth effects. Our cloud sample includes two regions recently published by Wong et al. (2017, submitted): the Tarantula Nebula or 30 Dor, an HII region rife with turbulence, and the Planck cold cloud (PCC), located in a much calmer environment near the fringes of the LMC. We also include four additional LMC clouds, which span intermediate levels of star formation relative to these two clouds, and for which we have recently obtained ALMA data in Cycle 4.

  7. Design of a portable optical emission tomography system for microwave induced compact plasma for visible to near-infrared emission lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rathore, Kavita, E-mail: kavira@iitk.ac.in, E-mail: pmunshi@iitk.ac.in, E-mail: sudeepb@iitk.ac.in; Munshi, Prabhat, E-mail: kavira@iitk.ac.in, E-mail: pmunshi@iitk.ac.in, E-mail: sudeepb@iitk.ac.in [Nuclear Engineering and Technology Programme, Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur, Kanpur (India); Bhattacharjee, Sudeep, E-mail: kavira@iitk.ac.in, E-mail: pmunshi@iitk.ac.in, E-mail: sudeepb@iitk.ac.in [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur, Kanpur 208016 (India)

    2016-03-15

    A new non-invasive diagnostic system is developed for Microwave Induced Plasma (MIP) to reconstruct tomographic images of a 2D emission profile. A compact MIP system has wide application in industry as well as research application such as thrusters for space propulsion, high current ion beams, and creation of negative ions for heating of fusion plasma. Emission profile depends on two crucial parameters, namely, the electron temperature and density (over the entire spatial extent) of the plasma system. Emission tomography provides basic understanding of plasmas and it is very useful to monitor internal structure of plasma phenomena without disturbing its actual processes. This paper presents development of a compact, modular, and versatile Optical Emission Tomography (OET) tool for a cylindrical, magnetically confined MIP system. It has eight slit-hole cameras and each consisting of a complementary metal–oxide–semiconductor linear image sensor for light detection. The optical noise is reduced by using aspheric lens and interference band-pass filters in each camera. The entire cylindrical plasma can be scanned with automated sliding ring mechanism arranged in fan-beam data collection geometry. The design of the camera includes a unique possibility to incorporate different filters to get the particular wavelength light from the plasma. This OET system includes selected band-pass filters for particular argon emission 750 nm, 772 nm, and 811 nm lines and hydrogen emission H{sub α} (656 nm) and H{sub β} (486 nm) lines. Convolution back projection algorithm is used to obtain the tomographic images of plasma emission line. The paper mainly focuses on (a) design of OET system in detail and (b) study of emission profile for 750 nm argon emission lines to validate the system design.

  8. Exploring Photometric Methods for Identifying Emission-Line B-Type Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glazier, Amy; Whelan, David

    2017-06-01

    Emission-line B-type stars, or Be stars, are a mysterious class of stars defined by their unique behavior: These stars eject material from their surfaces, forming a disc of gas that surrounds them. Furthermore, the gaseous disc is not necessarily a permanent feature of its host star. Some Be stars’ discs vary in structure over time, and may even disappear only to be regenerated later. Other Be stars may never show appreciable changes in the natures of their discs once they have been formed. The disc’s existence causes the appearance of characteristic emission lines in Be stars’ spectra, making spectroscopy the traditional method for identifying Be stars. However, spectroscopy is an inefficient and time-consuming method of finding Be stars, because it allows for only a single star to be observed in each exposure, and each star may require multiple exposures for durations of many minutes. Photometry, on the other hand, can be used to observe many stars simultaneously, but at the cost of the greater detail afforded by spectroscopy. While photometry has been used to identify Be stars, its success has been limited. In this work, we present a novel photometric technique that enables efficient identification of Be stars.

  9. CONFIRMATION OF SMALL DYNAMICAL AND STELLAR MASSES FOR EXTREME EMISSION LINE GALAXIES AT z ∼ 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maseda, Michael V.; Van der Wel, Arjen; Da Cunha, Elisabete; Rix, Hans-Walter [Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie, Königstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Pacifici, Camilla [Yonsei University Observatory, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Momcheva, Ivelina; Van Dokkum, Pieter; Nelson, Erica J. [Department of Astronomy, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06520 (United States); Brammer, Gabriel B.; Grogin, Norman A.; Koekemoer, Anton M. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Franx, Marijn; Fumagalli, Mattia; Patel, Shannon G. [Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, Leiden (Netherlands); Bell, Eric F. [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, 500 Church Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Kocevski, Dale D. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40506 (United States); Lundgren, Britt F. [Department of Astronomy, University of Wisconsin, 475 N Charter Street, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Marchesini, Danilo [Physics and Astronomy Department, Tufts University, Robinson Hall, Room 257, Medford, MA 02155 (United States); Skelton, Rosalind E. [South African Astronomical Observatory, P.O. Box 9, Observatory 7935 (South Africa); Straughn, Amber N., E-mail: maseda@mpia.de [Astrophysics Science Division, Goddard Space Flight Center, Code 665, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); and others

    2013-11-20

    Spectroscopic observations from the Large Binocular Telescope and the Very Large Telescope reveal kinematically narrow lines (∼50 km s{sup –1}) for a sample of 14 extreme emission line galaxies at redshifts 1.4 < z < 2.3. These measurements imply that the total dynamical masses of these systems are low (≲ 3 × 10{sup 9} M {sub ☉}). Their large [O III] λ5007 equivalent widths (500-1100 Å) and faint blue continuum emission imply young ages of 10-100 Myr and stellar masses of 10{sup 8}-10{sup 9} M {sub ☉}, confirming the presence of a violent starburst. The dynamical masses represent the first such determinations for low-mass galaxies at z > 1. The stellar mass formed in this vigorous starburst phase represents a large fraction of the total (dynamical) mass, without a significantly massive underlying population of older stars. The occurrence of such intense events in shallow potentials strongly suggests that supernova-driven winds must be of critical importance in the subsequent evolution of these systems.

  10. Galaxy clustering dependence on the [O II] emission line luminosity in the local Universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favole, Ginevra; Rodríguez-Torres, Sergio A.; Comparat, Johan; Prada, Francisco; Guo, Hong; Klypin, Anatoly; Montero-Dorta, Antonio D.

    2017-11-01

    We study the galaxy clustering dependence on the [O II] emission line luminosity in the SDSS DR7 Main galaxy sample at mean redshift z ˜ 0.1. We select volume-limited samples of galaxies with different [O II] luminosity thresholds and measure their projected, monopole and quadrupole two-point correlation functions. We model these observations using the 1 h-1 Gpc MultiDark-Planck cosmological simulation and generate light cones with the SUrvey GenerAtoR algorithm. To interpret our results, we adopt a modified (Sub)Halo Abundance Matching scheme, accounting for the stellar mass incompleteness of the emission line galaxies. The satellite fraction constitutes an extra parameter in this model and allows to optimize the clustering fit on both small and intermediate scales (I.e. rp ≲ 30 h-1 Mpc), with no need of any velocity bias correction. We find that, in the local Universe, the [O II] luminosity correlates with all the clustering statistics explored and with the galaxy bias. This latter quantity correlates more strongly with the SDSS r-band magnitude than [O II] luminosity. In conclusion, we propose a straightforward method to produce reliable clustering models, entirely built on the simulation products, which provides robust predictions of the typical ELG host halo masses and satellite fraction values. The SDSS galaxy data, MultiDark mock catalogues and clustering results are made publicly available.

  11. Unreported Emission Lines of Rb, Ce, La, Sr, Y, Zr, Pb and Se Detected Using Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepore, K. H.; Mackie, J.; Dyar, M. D.; Fassett, C. I.

    2017-01-01

    Information on emission lines for major and minor elements is readily available from the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) as part of the Atomic Spectra Database. However, tabulated emission lines are scarce for some minor elements and the wavelength ranges presented on the NIST database are limited to those included in existing studies. Previous work concerning minor element calibration curves measured using laser-induced break-down spectroscopy found evidence of Zn emission lines that were not documented on the NIST database. In this study, rock powders were doped with Rb, Ce, La, Sr, Y, Zr, Pb and Se in concentrations ranging from 10 percent to 10 parts per million. The difference between normalized spectra collected on samples containing 10 percent dopant and those containing only 10 parts per million were used to identify all emission lines that can be detected using LIBS (Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy) in a ChemCam-like configuration at the Mount Holyoke College LIBS facility. These emission spectra provide evidence of many previously undocumented emission lines for the elements measured here.

  12. Spatial distribution of far-infrared rotationally excited CH+ and OH emission lines in the Orion Bar photodissociation region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parikka, A.; Habart, E.; Bernard-Salas, J.; Goicoechea, J. R.; Abergel, A.; Pilleri, P.; Dartois, E.; Joblin, C.; Gerin, M.; Godard, B.

    2017-03-01

    Context. The methylidyne cation (CH+) and hydroxyl (OH) are key molecules in the warm interstellar chemistry, but their formation and excitation mechanisms are not well understood. Their abundance and excitation are predicted to be enhanced by the presence of vibrationally excited H2 or hot gas ( 500-1000 K) in photodissociation regions (PDRs) with high incident far-ultraviolet (FUV) radiation field. The excitation may also originate in dense gas (>105 cm-3) followed by nonreactive collisions with H2, H, and electrons. Previous observations of the Orion Bar suggest that the rotationally excited CH+ and OH correlate with the excited CO, which is a tracer of dense and warm gas, and that formation pumping contributes to CH+ excitation. Aims: Our goal is to examine the spatial distribution of the rotationally excited CH+ and OH emission lines in the Orion Bar to establish their physical origin and main formation and excitation mechanisms. Methods: We present spatially sampled maps of the CH+J = 3-2 transition at 119.8 μm and the OH Λ doublet at 84 μm in the Orion Bar over an area of 110″× 110″ with Herschel/PACS. We compare the spatial distribution of these molecules with those of their chemical precursors, C+, O and H2, and tracers of warm and dense gas (high-J CO). We assess the spatial variation of the CH+J = 2-1 velocity-resolved line profile at 1669 GHz with Herschel/HIFI spectrometer observations. Results: The OH and especially CH+ lines correlate well with the high-J CO emission and delineate the warm and dense molecular region at the edge of the Bar. While notably similar, the differences in the CH+ and OH morphologies indicate that CH+ formation and excitation are strongly related to the observed vibrationally excited H2. This, together with the observed broad CH+ line widths, indicates that formation pumping contributes to the excitation of this reactive molecular ion. Interestingly, the peak of the rotationally excited OH 84 μm emission coincides

  13. THE LOCAL [C ii] 158 μ m EMISSION LINE LUMINOSITY FUNCTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hemmati, Shoubaneh; Yan, Lin; Capak, Peter; Faisst, Andreas; Masters, Daniel [Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, Department of Astronomy, California Institute of Technology, 1200 E. California Blvd., Pasadena CA 91125 (United States); Diaz-Santos, Tanio [Nucleo de Astronomia de la Facultad de Ingenieria, Universidad Diego Portales, Av. Ejercito Libertador 441, Santiago (Chile); Armus, Lee, E-mail: shemmati@ipac.caltech.edu [Spitzer Science Center, Department of Astronomy, California Institute of Technology, 1200 E. California Blvd., Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)

    2017-01-01

    We present, for the first time, the local [C ii] 158 μ m emission line luminosity function measured using a sample of more than 500 galaxies from the Revised Bright Galaxy Sample. [C ii] luminosities are measured from the Herschel PACS observations of the Luminous Infrared Galaxies (LIRGs) in the Great Observatories All-sky LIRG Survey and estimated for the rest of the sample based on the far-infrared (far-IR) luminosity and color. The sample covers 91.3% of the sky and is complete at S{sub 60μm} > 5.24 Jy. We calculate the completeness as a function of [C ii] line luminosity and distance, based on the far-IR color and flux densities. The [C ii] luminosity function is constrained in the range ∼10{sup 7–9} L{sub ⊙} from both the 1/ V{sub max} and a maximum likelihood methods. The shape of our derived [C ii] emission line luminosity function agrees well with the IR luminosity function. For the CO(1-0) and [C ii] luminosity functions to agree, we propose a varying ratio of [C ii]/CO(1-0) as a function of CO luminosity, with larger ratios for fainter CO luminosities. Limited [C ii] high-redshift observations as well as estimates based on the IR and UV luminosity functions are suggestive of an evolution in the [C ii] luminosity function similar to the evolution trend of the cosmic star formation rate density. Deep surveys using the Atacama Large Millimeter Array with full capability will be able to confirm this prediction.

  14. The Number Density Evolution of Extreme Emission Line Galaxies in 3D-HST: Results from a Novel Automated Line Search Technique for Slitless Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maseda, Michael V.; van der Wel, Arjen; Rix, Hans-Walter; Momcheva, Ivelina; Brammer, Gabriel B.; Franx, Marijn; Lundgren, Britt F.; Skelton, Rosalind E.; Whitaker, Katherine E.

    2018-02-01

    The multiplexing capability of slitless spectroscopy is a powerful asset in creating large spectroscopic data sets, but issues such as spectral confusion make the interpretation of the data challenging. Here we present a new method to search for emission lines in the slitless spectroscopic data from the 3D-HST survey utilizing the Wide-Field Camera 3 on board the Hubble Space Telescope. Using a novel statistical technique, we can detect compact (extended) emission lines at 90% completeness down to fluxes of 1.5(3.0)× {10}-17 {erg} {{{s}}}-1 {{cm}}-2, close to the noise level of the grism exposures, for objects detected in the deep ancillary photometric data. Unlike previous methods, the Bayesian nature allows for probabilistic line identifications, namely redshift estimates, based on secondary emission line detections and/or photometric redshift priors. As a first application, we measure the comoving number density of Extreme Emission Line Galaxies (restframe [O III] λ5007 equivalent widths in excess of 500 Å). We find that these galaxies are nearly 10× more common above z ∼ 1.5 than at z ≲ 0.5. With upcoming large grism surveys such as Euclid and WFIRST, as well as grisms featured prominently on the NIRISS and NIRCam instruments on the James Webb Space Telescope, methods like the one presented here will be crucial for constructing emission line redshift catalogs in an automated and well-understood manner. This work is based on observations taken by the 3D-HST Treasury Program and the CANDELS Multi-Cycle Treasury Program with the NASA/ESA HST, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS5-26555.

  15. Herschel GASPS spectral observations of T Tauri stars in Taurus. Unraveling far-infrared line emission from jets and discs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso-Martínez, M.; Riviere-Marichalar, P.; Meeus, G.; Kamp, I.; Fang, M.; Podio, L.; Dent, W. R. F.; Eiroa, C.

    2017-07-01

    Context. At early stages of stellar evolution young stars show powerful jets and/or outflows that interact with protoplanetary discs and their surroundings. Despite the scarce knowledge about the interaction of jets and/or outflows with discs, spectroscopic studies based on Herschel and ISO data suggests that gas shocked by jets and/or outflows can be traced by far-IR (FIR) emission in certain sources. Aims: We want to provide a consistent catalogue of selected atomic ([OI] and [CII]) and molecular (CO, H2O, and OH) line fluxes observed in the FIR, separate and characterize the contribution from the jet and the disc to the observed line emission, and place the observations in an evolutionary picture. Methods: The atomic and molecular FIR (60-190 μm) line emission of protoplanetary discs around 76 T Tauri stars located in Taurus are analysed. The observations were carried out within the Herschel key programme Gas in Protoplanetary Systems (GASPS). The spectra were obtained with the Photodetector Array Camera and Spectrometer (PACS). The sample is first divided in outflow and non-outflow sources according to literature tabulations. With the aid of archival stellar/disc and jet/outflow tracers and model predictions (PDRs and shocks), correlations are explored to constrain the physical mechanisms behind the observed line emission. Results: Outflow sources exhibit brighter atomic and molecular emission lines and higher detection rates than non-outflow sources. The line detection fractions decrease with SED evolutionary status (from Class I to Class III). We find correlations between [OI] 63.18 μm and [OI] 6300 Å, o-H2O 78.74 μm, CO 144.78 μm, OH 79.12+79.18 μm, and the continuum flux at 24 μm. The atomic line ratios can be explain either by fast (Vshock > 50 km s-1) dissociative J-shocks at low densities (n 103 cm-3) occurring along the jet and/or PDR emission (G0 > 102, n 103-106 cm-3). To account for the [CII] absolute fluxes, PDR emission or UV irradiation of

  16. Computer expert system for spectral line simulation and selection in inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Pengyuan; Ying, Hai; Wang, Xiaoru; Huang, Benli

    1996-07-01

    This paper is an electronic publication in Spectrochimica Acta Electronica (SAE), the electronic section of Spectrochimica Acta, Part B (SAB). This hardcopy text, comprising the main body and an appendix, is accompanied by a disk with programs, data files and a brief manual. The main body discusses purpose, design principle and usage of the computer software for the inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES) expert system. The appendix provides a brief instruction on the manipulation of the demonstration program and relevant information on accessing the diskette. The computer software of the expert system has been developed in C++ language to simulate spectra and to select analytical lines in ICP-AES. This expert system is based on a comprehensive model of non-LTE ICP-AES, which includes expertise in plasma discharges, analyte ionization and excitation, and spectral-line shapes. The system also provides several databases in which essential elemental and spectral data are stored. A logic reasoning engine is utilized for selection of the best analytical line with a main criterion of minimizing the true detection limit. The system is user-friendly with pop-up menus, an editor for database operation, and a graphic interface for the display of simulated spectra. The system can simulate spectra and predict spectral interferences with good accuracy.

  17. The clouds which form the extended emission line region of NGC 4388

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colina, L.

    1987-09-01

    Observations of the NGC 4388 galaxy (which is classified as Seifert 2 galaxy), performed at the Cassegrain focus of the La Silla 2.2-m telescope, are discussed. Long-slit spectroscopy was obtained at position angles 23 and 152 deg, with the O III line emission observed over a total extension of 24 arcsec symmetric to the nucleus. Contrary to the general behavior observed in the O III line profile of Seyfert galaxies, the NGC 4388 galaxy shows a peculiar red asymmetry. The overall O III line 5007-A profile is composed, both at position angles of 23 and 152 deg, of five clearly distinguishable components, separated by up to 600 km/s: the main component C2, which extends over the central region from 3 arcsec NE to 6 arcsec SE; two other major components, C3 and C4, extending over a region of +/- 6 arcsec symmetrically with respect to the nucleus; and two smaller components, C1 and C5, concentrated at the center. It is suggested that these components could be associated with a system of giant clouds confined to the inner six arcsecs from the nucleus.

  18. The luminous infrared composite Seyfert 2 galaxy NGC 7679 through the [O III] λ 5007 emission line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yankulova, I. M.; Golev, V. K.; Jockers, K.

    2007-07-01

    Context: NGC 7679 (Mrk 534) is a nearby (z = 0.0177) nearly face-on SB0 luminous infrared Sy2 galaxy in which starburst and AGN activities co-exist. The ionization structure is maintained by both the AGN power-law continuum and starburst. The galaxy is a bright X-ray source possessing a low X-ray column density NH Ukraine National Astronomical Observatory at peak Terskol, Caucasus, Russia. The observations were carried out in October 1996 with the Focal Reducer of the Max-Planck-Institut für Sonnensystemforschung, Germany. All observations were taken with tunable Fabry-Perot narrow-band imaging with spectral FWHM of the Airy profile δλ between 3 and 4 Å depending on the used wavelength. Results: The [O III]λ5007 emission-line image of the circumnuclear region of NGC 7679 shows elliptical isophotes extended along the PA ≈ 80° in the direction of the counterpart galaxy NGC 7682. There is a maximum of this emission which is shifted ~4 arcsec from the center as defined by the continuum emission. The maximum of ionization by the AGN power-law continuum traced by [O III]λ5007/Hα ratio is displaced by ~13 arcsec eastward from the nucleus. The direction where high ionization is observed at PA ≈ 80° ± 10° coincides with the direction to the companion galaxy NGC 7682 (PA ≈ 72°). On the contrary, at PA ~ 0° the ionization in the circumnuclear region is entirely due to hot stars. Conclusions: Both the ratio (N_ph/N_ion)hν > 55 eV ≈ 0.2-20 of the number N_ph of photons traced by [O III] to the number N_ion of high-energy ionizing photons and the presence of weak and elusive Hα broad wings indicate a hidden AGN. We conclude that the dust and gas in the high ionization direction PA ≈ 80° has a direct view to the central AGN engine. This possibly results in dust/star-formation decay. A large fraction of the unabsorbed Compton-thin Sy2s with [O III] luminosity ⪆1041 erg s-1 possesses a hidden AGN source. Based on observations obtained at the Peak Terskol

  19. SN 2007bg: the complex circumstellar medium around one of the most radio-luminous broad-lined Type Ic supernovae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salas, P.; Bauer, F. E.; Stockdale, C.; Prieto, J. L.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we present the results of the radio light curve and X-ray observations of broad-lined Type Ic (Ic-BL) SN 2007bg. The light curve shows three distinct phases of spectral and temporal evolution, implying that the supernova (SN) shock likely encountered at least three different circumstellar medium regimes. We interpret this as the progenitor of SN 2007bg having at least two distinct mass-loss episodes (i.e. phases 1 and 3) during its final stages of evolution, yielding a highly stratified circumstellar medium. Modelling the phase 1 light curve as a freely expanding, synchrotron-emitting shell, self-absorbed by its own radiating electrons, requires a progenitor mass-loss rate of skew4dot{M}≈ 1.9× 10^{-6}(v_w/1000 km s^{-1}) M⊙ yr-1 for the last t ˜ 20(vw/1000 km s-1) yr before explosion and a total energy of the radio-emitting ejecta of E ≈ 1 × 1048 erg 10 d after explosion. This places SN 2007bg among the most energetic Type Ib/c events. We interpret the second phase as a sparser `gap' region between the two winds stages. Phase 3 shows a second absorption turn-on before rising to a peak luminosity 2.6 times higher than in phase 1. Assuming this luminosity jump is due to a circumstellar medium density enhancement from a faster previous mass-loss episode, we estimate that the phase 3 mass-loss rate could be as high as skew4dot{M}lesssim 4.3× 10^{-4}(v_w/1000 km s^{-1}) M⊙ yr-1. The phase 3 wind would have transitioned directly into the phase 1 wind for a wind speed difference of ≈2. In summary, the radio light curve provides robust evidence for dramatic global changes in at least some Ic-BL progenitors just prior (˜10-1000 yr) to explosion. The observed luminosity of this SN is the highest observed for a non-gamma-ray-burst Ic-BL SN, reaching L8.46 GHz ≈ 1 × 1029 erg Hz-1 s-1, ˜567 d after explosion.

  20. Radial scanning diagnostics of bremsstrahlung and line emission in T-10 plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nemets, A. R., E-mail: Nemets-AR@nrcki.ru; Krupin, V. A.; Klyuchnikov, L. A., E-mail: lklyuchnikov@list.ru; Korobov, K. V.; Nurgaliev, M. R. [National Research Centre Kurchatov Institute, Institute of Tokamak Physics (Russian Federation)

    2016-12-15

    The paper describes the scanning spectroscopic diagnostics designed for measurement of line integrated plasma radiation in two visible spectral ranges. This diagnostic system is aimed at measuring the bremsstrahlung absolute values and profile with high spatial resolution. The bremsstrahlung absolute values are used to determine the value and radial distribution of effective plasma ion charge Z{sub eff}(r) in T-10 discharges. The importance of Z{sub eff} measurement is due to its strong influence on plasma heating, confinement, and stability. The spatial distribution of emission for one of the chosen spectral lines is measured simultaneously with bremsstrahlung. The spatial resolution of measurements is ~1 cm, and the temporal resolution is up to 10 ms. The spectral equipment and methods for its calibration are described. Examples of line integrated brightness distribution in a “continuum window” of 5236 ± 6 Å and brightness of the lines C{sup 5+} (5291 Å), He{sup 1+} (4686 Å), and D{sub β} (4861 Å) are given. Flattening of the bremsstrahlung brightness profile in the central region of the plasma column in some discharges with sawtooth oscillations in the T-10 is observed. The measured effective ion charge profiles in ohmic discharges with high plasma density and low discharge currents demonstrate accumulation of light impurities at the column axis; as a consequence, quenching of sawtooth oscillations in some discharges is observed. The developed diagnostics provides necessary data for investigation of heat, particle, and current transport in the plasma of the T-10. Successful application of the obtained data on Z{sub eff}(r) for investigation of geodesic acoustic modes of plasma oscillations in the T-10 should be specially noted.

  1. Ground-based observations of the [SII] 6731 Å emission lines of the Io plasma torus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magalhães Fabíola, P.; Gonzalez, Walter; Echer, Ezequiel; Souza-Echer, Mariza P.; Lopes, Rosaly; Morgenthaler, Jeffrey P.; Rathbun, Julie

    2017-10-01

    The Io Plasma Torus (IPT) is a doughnut-shaped structure of charged particles, composed mainly of sulfur and oxygen ions. The main source of the IPT is the moon Io, the most volcanically active object in the Solar System. Io is the innermost of the Galilean moons of Jupiter, the main source of the magnetospheric plasma and responsible for injecting nearly 1 ton/s of ions into Jupiter's magnetosphere. In this work ground-based observations of the [SII] 6731 Å emission lines are observed, obtained at the MacMath-Pierce Solar Telescope. The results shown here were obtained in late 1997 and occurred shortly after a period of important eruptions observed by the Galileo mission (1996-2003). Several outbursts were observed and periods of intense volcanic activity are important to correlate with periods of brightness enhancements observed at the IPT. The time of response between an eruption and enhancement at IPT is still not well understood.

  2. Insights from WISP, an Unbiased Search for Distant Emission-line Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malkan, M.; WISP Team

    2013-10-01

    The search for true physical pairs of galaxies at high redshifts has been greatly hindered by the difficulty of obtaining good spectroscopic redshifts. Multi-object near-infrared spectroscopy is especially effective, since it reaches the strongest rest-frame spectral features, especially emission lines. From ground-based telescopes, this is still very difficult to obtain for faint galaxies. However, the near-IR grism spectrographs on Hubble Space Telescope are ideal for a large, unbiased survey for galaxy groups and pairs. Without any pre-selection based on continuum properties, slitless spectroscopic surveys are extremely effective at uncovering large numbers of extreme dwarf galaxies, with very high specific star formation rates, and very low metallicities. We discuss preliminary results on pairs and other properties of galaxies found in the most ambitious of these surveys, the WFC-3 Infrared Spectroscopic Parallels (WISP).

  3. Investigating Quasar Diversity using UV, X-ray, and Emission-line Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briana Rivera, Angelica; Richards, Gordon; Shemmer, Ohad; Gallagher, Sarah

    2018-01-01

    We investigate the diversity of quasars through the analysis of their UV (Sheldon et al, these proceedings), X-ray, and emission-line properties. We concentrate on a sample of 25 radio-quiet SDSS quasars with HST observations that all have similar optical luminosities and redshifts (z~0.5). These objects fill gaps in the sample of “reverberation mapped (RM)” quasars in terms of their CIV parameter space (CIV EQW vs. CIV blueshift). In addition to exploring their UV properties, we use Chandra observations to analyze their X-ray properties (Γ, αox, Δαox), in order to determine how accretion disk winds (which are regulated by αox) contribute to the diversity of UV emission-line properties in quasars. We compare optical and X-ray derived values of L/LEdd , as Γ has been shown to be an indicator of the accretion rate. We are able to determine Γ for 7 quasars from the Chandra sample with over 100 counts. Preliminary data reduction demonstrates that all of the quasars observed with over 100 counts have similar values of αox and Δαox (averaging ~ -1.56 and ~0.42, respectively), while those below 100 counts lie within a wider, weaker range (average αox ~ -1.78, and average Δαox ~0.2). With the combined UV and X-ray data, we explore the differences between quasars and attempt to understand how/when quasars can have high L/LEdd, but show little evidence for strong winds.

  4. Sequentially emission line addressing by microwave driven mercury free low pressure lamps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ögün, C. M.; Kaiser, Ch.; Kling, R.; Light; Plasma Technologies Team

    2011-10-01

    As the use of mercury vapor lamps for lighting purposes will be banned in the European Union after 2015, finding a replacement for mercury in fluorescent lamps has become a challenge. Several low pressure gas discharge systems containing metal halides have been reported in the last decade. Examples are halides of indium and thallium with argon as auxiliary gas, which generate ultraviolet and visible emission lines. The peak emission intensities are adjustable by variation of plasma parameters, which allows addressing the color temperature of the lamp. In this contribution, we report on the effects of auxiliary gas pressure, cold spot temperatures and power densities for low pressure metal halide lamps filled with indium and thallium with regard to its spectral output. Since the guided surface wave discharge is the only method to increase the lamps power without changing the amplitude of the maintenance electrical field; the lamp discharges are sustained by microwave excited guided surface waves. A surfatron is used as coupling device of microwave energy.

  5. Effects of excitation laser wavelength on Ly-{alpha} and He-{alpha} line emission from nitrogen plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harilal, S. S.; Miloshevsky, G. V.; Sizyuk, T.; Hassanein, A. [Center for Materials Under Extreme Environment, School of Nuclear Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 (United States)

    2013-01-15

    Laser-produced nitrogen plasmas emitting radiation at 2.48 nm (Ly-{alpha}) and 2.88 nm (He-{alpha}) are considered potential efficient sources for water-window (WW) microscopy. The atomic and optical properties of nitrogen plasma and influence of the laser wavelength on the line emission in the WW range are investigated. It is found that the optimal temperatures for maximum emission from Ly-{alpha} and He-{alpha} spectral lines are 40-60 eV and 80-100 eV, respectively. The WW line emission and the conversion efficiency (CE) are estimated for three distinct Nd:YAG laser wavelengths (1064 nm, 532 nm, and 266 nm). The calculated CEs are compared with experimentally observed CE values. It is found that 1064 nm wavelength provides the highest CE from laser to Ly-{alpha} and He-{alpha} radiation.

  6. Effects of excitation laser wavelength on Ly-α and He-α line emission from nitrogen plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harilal, S. S.; Miloshevsky, G. V.; Sizyuk, T.; Hassanein, A.

    2013-01-01

    Laser-produced nitrogen plasmas emitting radiation at 2.48 nm (Ly-α) and 2.88 nm (He-α) are considered potential efficient sources for water-window (WW) microscopy. The atomic and optical properties of nitrogen plasma and influence of the laser wavelength on the line emission in the WW range are investigated. It is found that the optimal temperatures for maximum emission from Ly-α and He-α spectral lines are 40-60 eV and 80-100 eV, respectively. The WW line emission and the conversion efficiency (CE) are estimated for three distinct Nd:YAG laser wavelengths (1064 nm, 532 nm, and 266 nm). The calculated CEs are compared with experimentally observed CE values. It is found that 1064 nm wavelength provides the highest CE from laser to Ly-α and He-α radiation.

  7. OMEGA - OSIRIS Mapping of Emission-line Galaxies in A901/2 - II. Environmental influence on integrated star formation properties and AGN activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez del Pino, Bruno; Aragón-Salamanca, Alfonso; Chies-Santos, Ana L.; Weinzirl, Tim; Bamford, Steven P.; Gray, Meghan E.; Böhm, Asmus; Wolf, Christian; Maltby, David T.

    2017-06-01

    We present a study of the star formation and AGN activity for galaxies in CP 15051 the Abell 901/2 multicluster system at z ˜ 0.167 as part of the OSIRIS Mapping of Emission-line Galaxies in A901/2 (OMEGA) survey. Using Tuneable Filter data obtained with the OSIRIS instrument at the Gran Telescopio Canarias, we produce spectra covering the Hα and [N II] spectral lines for more than 400 galaxies. Using optical emission-line diagnostics, we identify a significant number of galaxies hosting AGN, which tend to have high masses and a broad range of morphologies. Moreover, within the environmental densities probed by our study, we find no environmental dependence on the fraction of galaxies hosting AGN. The analysis of the integrated Hα emission shows that the specific star formation rates of a majority of the cluster galaxies are below the field values for a given stellar mass. We interpret this result as evidence for a slow decrease in the star formation activity of star-forming galaxies as they fall into higher density regions, contrary to some previous studies that suggested a rapid truncation of star formation. We find that most of the intermediate- and high-mass spiral galaxies go through a phase in which their star formation is suppressed but still retain significant star formation activity. During this phase, these galaxies tend to retain their spiral morphology while their colours become redder. The presence of this type of galaxies in high-density regions indicates that the physical mechanism responsible for suppressing star formation affects mainly the gas component of the galaxies, suggesting that ram-pressure stripping or starvation is potentially responsible.

  8. Emission Lines of O III in The Optical and Ultraviolet Spectra of Planetary Nebulae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, F. L.; Keenan, F. P.; Aggarwal, K. M.; Aller, L. H.; Feibelman, W. A.; Fisher, Richard R. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Recent R-matrix calculations of electron impact excitation rates in 0 III are used to calculate electron temperature and density-dependent emission line ratios R (sub 1) = I(4363 Angstroms)/ I(4960 Angstroms + 5007 Angstroms), R (sub 2) = I(1661 Angstroms + 1667 Angstroms)/ I(4960 Angstroms + 5007 Angstroms) and R (sub 3)= I(2322 Angstroms)/ I(1661 Angstroms + 1667 Angstroms), for a range of electron temperatures (7500 less than or equal to Te less than or equal to 30 000 K) and densities (10 (exp 4) less than or equal to N (sub e) less than or equal to 10 (exp 7) per cubic centimeters) applicable to gaseous nebulae. The ratio-ratio diagrams (R (sub 1), R (sub 2)) and (R (sub 1), R (sub 3)) should, in principle, allow the simultaneous determination of T (sub e) and N (sub e) from measurements of the 0 III features in a spectrum. Plasma parameters derived for a sample of high-excitation planetary nebulae from (R (sub 1), R (sub 2)) and (R (sub 1), R (sub 3)) measurements, produced using a combination of ultraviolet spectra obtained with the International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE) and optical data from a number of observing runs, are found to show excellent internal consistency. They also show, in general, good agreement with the values of Te and Ne estimated from other line ratios in the nebulae, therefore providing observational support for the accuracy of the theoretical ratios and hence the atomic data adopted in their derivation.

  9. High resolution measurements and modeling of auroral hydrogen emission line profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. S. Lanchester

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Measurements in the visible wavelength range at high spectral resolution (1.3 Å have been made at Longyearbyen, Svalbard (15.8 E,78.2 N during an interval of intense proton precipitation. The shape and Doppler shift of hydrogen Balmer beta line profiles have been compared with model line profiles, using as input ion energy spectra from almost coincident passes of the FAST and DMSP spacecraft. The comparison shows that the simulation contains the important physical processes that produce the profiles, and confirms that measured changes in the shape and peak wave-length of the hydrogen profiles are the result of changing energy input. This combination of high resolution measurements with modeling provides a method of estimating the incoming energy and changes in flux of precipitating protons over Svalbard, for given energy and pitch-angle distributions. Whereas for electron precipitation, information on the incident particles is derived from brightness and brightness ratios which require at least two spectral windows, for proton precipitation the Doppler profile of resulting hydrogen emission is directly related to the energy and energy flux of the incident energetic protons and can be used to gather information about the source region. As well as the expected Doppler shift to shorter wavelengths, the measured profiles have a significant red-shifted component, the result of upward flowing emitting hydrogen atoms.Key words. Ionosphere (auroral ionosphere; particle precipitation – Magnetospheric physics (auroral phenomena

  10. The Lyman Continuum Escape Fraction of Emission Line-selected z ∼ 2.5 Galaxies Is Less Than 15%

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rutkowski, Michael J.; Hayes, Matthew [Department of Astronomy, AlbaNova University Centre, Stockholm University, SE-10691 Stockholm (Sweden); Scarlata, Claudia; Mehta, Vihang [Minnesota Institute for Astrophysics, University of Minnesota, 116 Church Street SE, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Henry, Alaina; Hathi, Nimish; Koekemoer, Anton M. [Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Cohen, Seth; Windhorst, Rogier [School of Earth and Space Exploration, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85281 (United States); Teplitz, Harry I. [Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Haardt, Francesco [DiSAT, Università dellInsubria, via Valleggio 11, I-22100 Como (Italy); Siana, Brian [Department of Physics, University of California, Riverside, CA 92521 (United States)

    2017-06-01

    Recent work suggests that strong emission line, star-forming galaxies (SFGs) may be significant Lyman continuum leakers. We combine archival Hubble Space Telescope broadband ultraviolet and optical imaging (F275W and F606W, respectively) with emission line catalogs derived from WFC3 IR G141 grism spectroscopy to search for escaping Lyman continuum (LyC) emission from homogeneously selected z ∼ 2.5 SFGs. We detect no escaping Lyman continuum from SFGs selected on [O ii] nebular emission ( N = 208) and, within a narrow redshift range, on [O iii]/[O ii]. We measure 1 σ upper limits to the LyC escape fraction relative to the non-ionizing UV continuum from [O ii] emitters, f {sub esc} ≲ 5.6%, and strong [O iii]/[O ii] > 5 ELGs, f {sub esc} ≲ 14.0%. Our observations are not deep enough to detect f {sub esc} ∼ 10% typical of low-redshift Lyman continuum emitters. However, we find that this population represents a small fraction of the star-forming galaxy population at z ∼ 2. Thus, unless the number of extreme emission line galaxies grows substantially to z ≳ 6, such galaxies may be insufficient for reionization. Deeper survey data in the rest-frame ionizing UV will be necessary to determine whether strong line ratios could be useful for pre-selecting LyC leakers at high redshift.

  11. The Lyman Continuum Escape Fraction of Emission Line-selected z ˜ 2.5 Galaxies Is Less Than 15%

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutkowski, Michael J.; Scarlata, Claudia; Henry, Alaina; Hayes, Matthew; Mehta, Vihang; Hathi, Nimish; Cohen, Seth; Windhorst, Rogier; Koekemoer, Anton M.; Teplitz, Harry I.; Haardt, Francesco; Siana, Brian

    2017-06-01

    Recent work suggests that strong emission line, star-forming galaxies (SFGs) may be significant Lyman continuum leakers. We combine archival Hubble Space Telescope broadband ultraviolet and optical imaging (F275W and F606W, respectively) with emission line catalogs derived from WFC3 IR G141 grism spectroscopy to search for escaping Lyman continuum (LyC) emission from homogeneously selected z ˜ 2.5 SFGs. We detect no escaping Lyman continuum from SFGs selected on [O II] nebular emission (N = 208) and, within a narrow redshift range, on [O III]/[O II]. We measure 1σ upper limits to the LyC escape fraction relative to the non-ionizing UV continuum from [O II] emitters, f esc ≲ 5.6%, and strong [O III]/[O II] > 5 ELGs, f esc ≲ 14.0%. Our observations are not deep enough to detect f esc ˜ 10% typical of low-redshift Lyman continuum emitters. However, we find that this population represents a small fraction of the star-forming galaxy population at z ˜ 2. Thus, unless the number of extreme emission line galaxies grows substantially to z ≳ 6, such galaxies may be insufficient for reionization. Deeper survey data in the rest-frame ionizing UV will be necessary to determine whether strong line ratios could be useful for pre-selecting LyC leakers at high redshift.

  12. The broad-spectrum metalloproteinase inhibitor BB-94 inhibits growth, HER3 and Erk activation in fulvestrant-resistant breast cancer cell lines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard, Tove; Yde, Christina Westmose; Kveiborg, Marie

    2014-01-01

    cells. This was prevented by treatment of resistant cells with the metalloproteinase inhibitor TAPI-2. Only the broad-spectrum metalloproteinase inhibitor BB-94, and not the more selective inhibitors GM6001 or TAPI-2, which inhibited shedding of the HER ligands produced by the fulvestrant...... of ligands. Only the broad-spectrum metalloproteinase inhibitor BB-94 could abrogate HER3 and Erk activation in the resistant cells, which stresses the complexity of the resistance mechanisms and the requirement of targeting signaling from HER receptors by multiple strategies....

  13. Absorption and emission line shapes in the O(2) atmospheric bands: Theoretical model and limb viewing simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abreu, V J; Bucholtz, A; Hays, P B; Ortland, D; Skinner, W R; Yee, J H

    1989-06-01

    A multiple scattering radiative transfer model has been developed to carry out a line by line calculation of the absorption and emission limb measurements that will be made by the High Resolution Doppler Imager to be flown on the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite. The multiple scattering model uses the doubling and adding methods to solve the radiative transfer equation, modified to take into account a spherical inhomogeneous atmosphere. Representative absorption and emission line shapes in the O(2)((1)Sigma(+)(g)-(3)Sigma(-)(g)) atmospheric bands (A, B, and gamma) and their variation with altitude are presented. The effects of solar zenith angle, aerosol loading, surface albedo, and cloud height on the line shapes are also discussed.

  14. OPTICAL SPECTROSCOPY OF SDSS J004054.65-0915268: THREE POSSIBLE SCENARIOS FOR THE CLASSIFICATION. A z ∼ 5 BL LACERTAE, A BLUE FSRQ, OR A WEAK EMISSION LINE QUASAR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Landoni, M.; Zanutta, A.; Bianco, A.; Tavecchio, F.; Bonnoli, G.; Ghisellini, G. [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Brera, Via Emilio Bianchi 46, I-23807 Merate (Italy)

    2016-02-15

    The haunt of high-redshift BL Lacerate objects is day by day more compelling to firmly understand their intrinsic nature and evolution. SDSS J004054.65-0915268 is, at the moment, one of the most distant BL Lac candidates, at z ∼ 5. We present a new optical-near-IR spectrum obtained with ALFOSC-NOT with a new, custom designed dispersive grating aimed to detect broad emission lines that could disprove this classification. In the obtained spectra, we do not detect any emission features and we provide an upper limit to the luminosity of the C iv broad emission line. Therefore, the nature of the object is then discussed, building the overall spectral energy distribution (SED) and fitting it with three different models. Our fits, based on SED modeling with different possible scenarios, cannot rule out the possibility that this source is indeed a BL Lac object, though the absence of optical variability and the lack of strong radio flux seem to suggest that the observed optical emission originates from a thermalized accretion disk.

  15. GRB 060714: No Clear Dividing Line Between Prompt Emission and X-Ray Flares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krimm, Hans A.; /NASA, Goddard /Universities Space Research Assoc.; Granot, J.; /KIPAC, Menlo Park; Marshal, F.; /NASA, Goddard; Perri, M.; /ASDC, Frascati; Barthelmy, S.D.; /NASA, Goddard; Burrows, D.N.; /Penn State U., Astron. Astrophys.; Gehrels, N.; /NASA, Goddard; Meszaros, P.; Morris, D.; /Penn State U., Astron. Astrophys.

    2007-02-26

    The long gamma-ray burst GRB 060714 was observed to exhibit a series of five X-ray flares beginning {approx} 70 s after the burst trigger T{sub 0} and continuing until {approx} T{sub 0} + 200 s. The first two flares were detected by the Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) on the Swift satellite, before Swift had slewed to the burst location, while the last three flares were strongly detected by the X-Ray Telescope (XRT) but only weakly detected by the BAT. This burst provides an unusual opportunity to track a complete sequence of flares over a wide energy range. The flares were very similar in their light curve morphology, showing power-law rise and fall components, and in most cases significant sub-structure. The flares also showed strong evolution with time, both spectrally and temporally. The small time scale and large amplitude variability observed are incompatible with an external shock origin for the flares, and support instead late time sporadic activity either of the central source or of localized dissipation events within the outflow. We show that the flares in GRB 060714 cannot be the result of internal shocks in which the contrast in the Lorentz factor of the colliding shells is very small, and that this mechanism faces serious difficulties in most Swift GRBs. The morphological similarity of the flares and the prompt emission and the gradual and continual evolution of the flares with time makes it difficult and arbitrary to draw a dividing line between the prompt emission and the flares.

  16. The SDSS-IV extended Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey: final emission line galaxy target selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raichoor, A.; Comparat, J.; Delubac, T.; Kneib, J.-P.; Yèche, Ch; Dawson, K. S.; Percival, W. J.; Dey, A.; Lang, D.; Schlegel, D. J.; Gorgoni, C.; Bautista, J.; Brownstein, J. R.; Mariappan, V.; Seo, H.-J.; Tinker, J. L.; Ross, A. J.; Wang, Y.; Zhao, G.-B.; Moustakas, J.; Palanque-Delabrouille, N.; Jullo, E.; Newmann, J. A.; Prada, F.; Zhu, G. B.

    2017-11-01

    We describe the algorithm used to select the emission line galaxy (ELG) sample at z ˜ 0.85 for the extended Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey IV, using photometric data from the DECam Legacy Survey. Our selection is based on a selection box in the g - r versus r - z colour-colour space and a cut on the g-band magnitude, to favour galaxies in the desired redshift range with strong [O II] emission. It provides a target density of 200 deg-2 on the North Galactic Cap and of 240 deg-2 on the South Galactic Cap (SGC), where we use a larger selection box because of deeper imaging. We demonstrate that this selection passes the extended Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey requirements in terms of homogeneity. About 50 000 ELGs have been observed since the observations have started in 2016, September. These roughly match the expected redshift distribution, though the measured efficiency is slightly lower than expected. The efficiency can be increased by enlarging the redshift range and with incoming pipeline improvement. The cosmological forecast based on these first data predict σ _{D_V}/D_V = 0.023, in agreement with previous forecasts. Lastly, we present the stellar population properties of the ELG SGC sample. Once observations are completed, this sample will be suited to provide a cosmological analysis at z ˜ 0.85, and will pave the way for the next decade of massive spectroscopic cosmological surveys, which heavily rely on ELGs. The target catalogue over the SGC will be released along with DR14.

  17. A Herschel/PACS Far-infrared Line Emission Survey of Local Luminous Infrared Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Santos, T.; Armus, L.; Charmandaris, V.; Lu, N.; Stierwalt, S.; Stacey, G.; Malhotra, S.; van der Werf, P. P.; Howell, J. H.; Privon, G. C.; Mazzarella, J. M.; Goldsmith, P. F.; Murphy, E. J.; Barcos-Muñoz, L.; Linden, S. T.; Inami, H.; Larson, K. L.; Evans, A. S.; Appleton, P.; Iwasawa, K.; Lord, S.; Sanders, D. B.; Surace, J. A.

    2017-09-01

    We present an analysis of {[{{O}}{{I}}]}63, [O III]88, [N II]122, and {[{{C}}{{II}}]}158 far-infrared (FIR) fine-structure line observations obtained with Herschel/PACS, for ˜240 local luminous infrared galaxies (LIRGs) in the Great Observatories All-sky LIRG Survey. We find pronounced declines (“deficits”) of line-to-FIR continuum emission for [N II]122, {[{{O}}{{I}}]}63, and {[{{C}}{{II}}]}158 as a function of FIR color and infrared luminosity surface density, {{{Σ }}}{IR}. The median electron density of the ionized gas in LIRGs, based on the [N II]122/[N II]205 ratio, is {n}{{e}} = 41 cm-3. We find that the dispersion in the {[{{C}}{{II}}]}158 deficit of LIRGs is attributed to a varying fractional contribution of photodissociation regions (PDRs) to the observed {[{{C}}{{II}}]}158 emission, f([{{C}} {{II}}{]}158{PDR}) = [{{C}} {{II}}{]}158{PDR}/{[{{C}}{{II}}]}158, which increases from ˜60% to ˜95% in the warmest LIRGs. The {[{{O}}{{I}}]}63/[{{C}} {{II}}{]}158{PDR} ratio is tightly correlated with the PDR gas kinetic temperature in sources where {[{{O}}{{I}}]}63 is not optically thick or self-absorbed. For each galaxy, we derive the average PDR hydrogen density, {n}{{H}}, and intensity of the interstellar radiation field, G, in units of {G}0 and find G/{n}{{H}} ratios of ˜0.1-50 {G}0 cm3, with ULIRGs populating the upper end of the distribution. There is a relation between G/{n}{{H}} and {{{Σ }}}{IR}, showing a critical break at {{{Σ }}}{IR}* ≃ 5 × 1010 L ⊙ kpc-2. Below {{{Σ }}}{IR}* , G/{n}{{H}} remains constant, ≃0.32 {G}0 cm3, and variations in {{{Σ }}}{IR} are driven by the number density of star-forming regions within a galaxy, with no change in their PDR properties. Above {{{Σ }}}{IR}* , G/{n}{{H}} increases rapidly with {{{Σ }}}{IR}, signaling a departure from the typical PDR conditions found in normal star-forming galaxies toward more intense/harder radiation fields and compact geometries typical of starbursting sources.

  18. Measurements and Models for Complete and Accurate Line Emission Determinations in the Six EUV Channels of the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly on the Solar Dynamics Observatory Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The understanding of the line emission from heavy ions is still incomplete and often inaccurate, resulting in missing or incorrect line assignments and missing or...

  19. A new beam emission polarimetry diagnostic for measuring the magnetic field line angle at the plasma edge of ASDEX Upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viezzer, E., E-mail: eleonora.viezzer@ipp.mpg.de, E-mail: eviezzer@us.es [Max-Planck-Institute for Plasma Physics, Boltzmannstr. 2, 85748 Garching (Germany); Department of Atomic, Molecular, and Nuclear Physics, University of Seville, Avda. Reina Mercedes, 41012 Seville (Spain); Dux, R.; Dunne, M. G. [Max-Planck-Institute for Plasma Physics, Boltzmannstr. 2, 85748 Garching (Germany)

    2016-11-15

    A new edge beam emission polarimetry diagnostic dedicated to the measurement of the magnetic field line angle has been installed on the ASDEX Upgrade tokamak. The new diagnostic relies on the motional Stark effect and is based on the simultaneous measurement of the polarization direction of the linearly polarized π (parallel to the electric field) and σ (perpendicular to the electric field) lines of the Balmer line D{sub α}. The technical properties of the system are described. The calibration procedures are discussed and first measurements are presented.

  20. A new beam emission polarimetry diagnostic for measuring the magnetic field line angle at the plasma edge of ASDEX Upgrade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viezzer, E; Dux, R; Dunne, M G

    2016-11-01

    A new edge beam emission polarimetry diagnostic dedicated to the measurement of the magnetic field line angle has been installed on the ASDEX Upgrade tokamak. The new diagnostic relies on the motional Stark effect and is based on the simultaneous measurement of the polarization direction of the linearly polarized π (parallel to the electric field) and σ (perpendicular to the electric field) lines of the Balmer line Dα. The technical properties of the system are described. The calibration procedures are discussed and first measurements are presented.

  1. A line-of-sight electron cyclotron emission receiver for electron cyclotron resonance heating feedback control of tearing modes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oosterbeek, J.W.; Bürger, A.; Westerhof, E.

    2008-01-01

    An electron cyclotron emission (ECE) receiver inside the electron cyclotron resonance heating (ECRH) transmission line has been brought into operation. The ECE is extracted by placing a quartz plate acting as a Fabry-Perot interferometer under an angle inside the electron cyclotron wave (ECW) beam...

  2. c2d Spitzer IRS spectra of embedded low-mass young stars : gas-phase emission lines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lahuis, F.; van Dishoeck, E. F.; Jorgensen, J. K.; Blake, G. A.; Evans, N. J.

    Context. A survey of mid-infrared gas-phase emission lines of H(2), H(2)O and various atoms toward a sample of 43 embedded low-mass young stars in nearby star-forming regions is presented. The sources are selected from the Spitzer "Cores to Disks" (c2d) legacy program. Aims. The environment of

  3. Observation and analysis of self-amplified spontaneous emission at the APS low-energy undulator test line

    CERN Document Server

    Arnold, N D; Banks, G; Bechtold, R; Beczek, K; Benson, C; Berg, S; Berg, W; Biedron, S G; Biggs, J A; Boerste, K; Borland, M; Bosek, M; Brzowski, W R; Budz, J; Carwardine, J A; Castro, P; Chae, Y C; Christensen, S; Clark, C; Conde, M; Crosbie, E A; Decker, G A; Dejus, Roger J; Deleon, H; Den Hartog, P K; Deriy, B N; Dohan, D; Dombrowski, P; Donkers, D; Doose, C L; Dortwegt, R J; Edwards, G A; Eidelman, Y; Erdmann, M J; Error, J J; Ferry, R; Flood, R; Forrestal, J; Freund, H; Friedsam, H; Gagliano, J; Gai, W; Galayda, J N; Gerig, R; Gilmore, R L; Gluskin, E; Goeppner, G A; Goetzen, J; Gold, C; Grelick, A E; Hahne, M W; Hanuska, S; Harkay, K C; Harris, G; Hillman, A L; Hogrefe, R; Hoyt, J; Huang, Z; Jagger, J M; Jansma, W G; Jaski, M; Jones, S J; Keane, R T; Kelly, A L; Keyser, C; Kim, K J; Kim, S H; Kirshenbaum, M; Klick, J H; Knoerzer, K; Knott, M; Koldenhoven, R J; Labuda, S; Laird, R; Lang, J; Lenkszus, F R; Lessner, E S; Lewellen, J W; Li, Y; Lill, R M; Lumpkin, Alex H; Makarov, O A; Markovich, G M; McDowell, M; McDowell, W P; McNamara, P E; Meier, T; Meyer, D; Michalek, W; Milton, S V; Moe, H; Moog, E; Morrison, L; Nassiri, A; Noonan, J R; Otto, R; Pace, J; Pasky, S J; Penicka, J M; Pietryla, A F; Pile, G; Pitts, C; Power, J; Powers, T; Putnam, C C; Puttkammer, A J; Reigle, D; Reigle, L; Ronzhin, D; Rotela, E R; Russell, E F; Sajaev, Vadim; Sarkar, S; Scapino, J C; Schröder, K; Seglem, R A; Sereno, N S; Sharma, S K; Sidarous, J F; Singh, O; Smith, T L; Soliday, R; Sprau, G A; Stein, S J; Stejskal, B; Svirtun, V; Teng, L C; Theres, E; Thompson, K; Tieman, B J; Torres, J A; Trakhtenberg, E; Travish, G; Trento, G F; Vacca, J; Vasserman, I B; Vinokurov, N A; Walters, D R; Wang, J; Wang, X J; Warren, J; Wesling, S; Weyer, D L; Wiemerslage, G; Wilhelmi, K; Wright, R; Wyncott, D; Xu, S; Yang, B X; Yoder, W; Zabel, R B

    2001-01-01

    Exponential growth of self-amplified spontaneous emission at 530 nm was first experimentally observed at the Advanced Photon Source low-energy undulator test line in December 1999. Since then, further detailed measurements and analysis of the results have been made. Here, we present the measurements and compare these with calculations based on measured electron beam properties and theoretical expectations.

  4. Simulating the emission line radial velocity modulation in discless intermediate polars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garlick, M. A.

    1996-04-01

    A code has been developed which simulates the emission line radial velocity modulation expected in a discless intermediate polar, where the bulk of the accretion flow flips from one magnetic pole to the other twice every beat cycle. The situation is found to produce a radial velocity curve which exhibits a modulation at the beat period, although this is not strictly periodic in that it is modified by an intrinsic underlying orbital modulation; i.e., the morphology of the beat modulation over one beat cycle depends on the orbital phase. Interestingly, it is found that, when the resultant velocity curve over one orbital cycle is folded on the beat period and binned coarsely, a quasisinusoidal velocity profile can be reproduced, depending on the values chosen for the various free parameters. An important implication of this result is that the spin period of BG Canis Minoris could indeed be 847 s, and is not necessarily 913 s as the author had previously concluded. The model is also capable of reproducing the modulation seen in the newly discovered system RX J1712.6-2414.

  5. HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE EMISSION-LINE GALAXIES AT z ∼ 2: THE MYSTERY OF NEON

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeimann, Gregory R.; Ciardullo, Robin; Gebhardt, Henry; Gronwall, Caryl; Hagen, Alex; Trump, Jonathan R.; Bridge, Joanna S.; Luo, Bin; Schneider, Donald P., E-mail: grzeimann@psu.edu [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States)

    2015-01-01

    We use near-infrared grism spectroscopy from the Hubble Space Telescope to examine the strength of [Ne III] λ3869 relative to Hβ, [O II] λ3727, and [O III] λ5007 in 236 low-mass (7.5 ≲ log (M {sub *}/M {sub ☉}) ≲ 10.5) star-forming galaxies in the redshift range 1.90 < z < 2.35. By stacking the data by stellar mass, we show that the [Ne III]/[O II] ratios of the z ∼ 2 universe are marginally higher than those seen in a comparable set of local Sloan Digital Sky Survey galaxies, and that [Ne III]/[O III] is enhanced by ∼0.2 dex. We consider the possible explanations for this ∼4σ result, including higher oxygen depletion out of the gas phase, denser H II regions, higher production of {sup 22}Ne via Wolf-Rayet stars, and the existence of a larger population of X-ray obscured active galactic nuclei at z ∼ 2 compared to z ∼ 0. None of these simple scenarios, alone, are favored to explain the observed line ratios. We conclude by suggesting several avenues of future observations to further explore the mystery of enhanced [Ne III] emission.

  6. THE BOSS EMISSION-LINE LENS SURVEY. IV. SMOOTH LENS MODELS FOR THE BELLS GALLERY SAMPLE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shu, Yiping [National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 20A Datun Road, Chaoyang District, Beijing 100012 (China); Bolton, Adam S.; Montero-Dorta, Antonio D.; Cornachione, Matthew A.; Zheng, Zheng; Brownstein, Joel R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Utah, 115 South 1400 East, Salt Lake City, UT 84112 (United States); Mao, Shude [Physics Department and Tsinghua Centre for Astrophysics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Kochanek, Christopher S. [Department of Astronomy and Center for Cosmology and Astroparticle Physics, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Pérez-Fournon, Ismael; Marques-Chaves, Rui [Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, C/Vía Láctea, s/n, E-38205 San Cristóbal de La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Oguri, Masamune [Research Center for the Early Universe, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Ménard, Brice, E-mail: yiping.shu@nao.cas.cn [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States)

    2016-12-20

    We present Hubble Space Telescope F606W-band imaging observations of 21 galaxy-Ly α emitter lens candidates in the Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey Emission-Line Lens Survey (BELLS) for the GALaxy-Ly α EmitteR sYstems (BELLS GALLERY) survey. Seventeen systems are confirmed to be definite lenses with unambiguous evidence of multiple imaging. The lenses are primarily massive early-type galaxies (ETGs) at redshifts of approximately 0.55, while the lensed sources are Ly α emitters (LAEs) at redshifts from two to three. Although most of the lens systems are well fit by smooth lens models consisting of singular isothermal ellipsoids in an external shear field, a thorough exploration of dark substructures in the lens galaxies is required. The Einstein radii of the BELLS GALLERY lenses are, on average, 60% larger than those of the BELLS lenses because of the much higher source redshifts. This will allow for a detailed investigation of the radius evolution of the mass profile in ETGs. With the aid of the average ∼13× lensing magnification, the LAEs are frequently resolved into individual star-forming knots with a wide range of properties. They have characteristic sizes from less than 100 pc to several kiloparsecs, rest-frame far-UV apparent AB magnitudes from 29.6 to 24.2, and typical projected separations of 500 pc to 2 kpc.

  7. DIRECT OBSERVATION OF SOLAR CORONAL MAGNETIC FIELDS BY VECTOR TOMOGRAPHY OF THE CORONAL EMISSION LINE POLARIZATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kramar, M. [Physics Department, The Catholic University of America, 620 Michigan Avenue NE, Washington, DC 20064 (United States); Lin, H. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii at Manoa, 34 Ohia Ku Street, Pukalani, Maui, HI 96768 (United States); Tomczyk, S., E-mail: kramar@cua.edu, E-mail: lin@ifa.hawaii.edu, E-mail: tomczyk@ucar.edu [High Altitude Observatory, 3080 Center Green Drive, Boulder, CO 80301 (United States)

    2016-03-10

    We present the first direct “observation” of the global-scale, 3D coronal magnetic fields of Carrington Rotation (CR) Cycle 2112 using vector tomographic inversion techniques. The vector tomographic inversion uses measurements of the Fe xiii 10747 Å Hanle effect polarization signals by the Coronal Multichannel Polarimeter (CoMP) and 3D coronal density and temperature derived from scalar tomographic inversion of Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory (STEREO)/Extreme Ultraviolet Imager (EUVI) coronal emission lines (CELs) intensity images as inputs to derive a coronal magnetic field model that best reproduces the observed polarization signals. While independent verifications of the vector tomography results cannot be performed, we compared the tomography inverted coronal magnetic fields with those constructed by magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations based on observed photospheric magnetic fields of CR 2112 and 2113. We found that the MHD model for CR 2112 is qualitatively consistent with the tomography inverted result for most of the reconstruction domain except for several regions. Particularly, for one of the most noticeable regions, we found that the MHD simulation for CR 2113 predicted a model that more closely resembles the vector tomography inverted magnetic fields. In another case, our tomographic reconstruction predicted an open magnetic field at a region where a coronal hole can be seen directly from a STEREO-B/EUVI image. We discuss the utilities and limitations of the tomographic inversion technique, and present ideas for future developments.

  8. The ultraviolet continuous and emission-line spectra of the Herbig-Haro objects HH 2 and HH 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehm-Vitense, E.; Cardelli, J. A.; Nemec, J. M.; Boehm, K. H.

    1982-01-01

    Recent studies of the continuous spectrum of Herbig-Haro (HH) objects at optical and near-infrared wavelengths and the observation of continuous radiation in the ultraviolet have shown an unexpectedly steep increase of the flux toward shorter wavelengths. The present investigation provides the results of ultraviolet observations of HH 2. The obtained data are compared with the HH 1 data. It is found that HH 2 has an ultraviolet continuous and emission-line spectrum which is similar to that of HH 1. The UV line spectrum of HH 2H indicates an even somewhat larger ionization than does the HH 1 spectrum. As in HH1, the UV emission-line spectrum shows a much higher degree of ionization than that derived from the optical spectrum. Consequently, the same difficulty arises as in the case of HH 1. The complete UV plus optical spectrum cannot be explained by a single plane-parallel shock-wave model.

  9. Emission-Line Galaxies from the Pears Hubble Ultra Deep Field: a 2d Detection Method and First Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straughn, Amber N.; Meurer, Gerhardt R.; Pirzkal, Norbert; Cohen, Seth H.; Malhotra, Sangeeta; Rhoads, James; Windhorst, Rogier A.; Gardner, Jonathan P.; Hathi, Nimish P.; Xu, Chun; Gronwall, Caryl; Koekemoer, Anton M.; Walsh, Jeremy; di Serego Alighieri, Sperello

    2008-04-01

    The Hubble Space Telescope Advanced Camera for Surveys grism Probing Evolution And Reionization Spectroscopically (PEARS) survey provides a large dataset of low-resolution spectra from thousands of galaxies in the GOODS north and south fields. One important subset of objects in these data is emission-line galaxies (ELGs), and we have investigated several different methods aimed at systematically selecting these galaxies. Here, we present a new methodology and results of a search for these ELGs in the PEARS observations of the Hubble Ultra Deep Field (HUDF) using a 2D detection method that utilizes the observation that many emission lines originate from clumpy knots within galaxies. This 2D line-finding method proves to be useful in detecting emission lines from compact knots within galaxies that might not otherwise be detected using more traditional 1D line-finding techniques. We find in total 96 emission lines in the HUDF, originating from 81 distinct "knots" within 63 individual galaxies. We find in general that [O III] emitters are the most common, comprising 44% of the sample, and on average have high equivalent widths (70% of [O III] emitters having rest-frame EW>100 Å). There are 12 galaxies with multiple emitting knots—with different knots exhibiting varying flux values, suggesting that the differing star-formation properties across a single galaxy can in general be probed at redshifts gsim0.2-0.4. The most prevalent morphologies are large face-on spirals and clumpy interacting systems, many being unique detections owing to the 2D method described here, thus highlighting the strength of this technique.

  10. Identification of MgII Absorption Line Systems from SDSS Quasar ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ranges as pseudo-continua, which are not affected by prominent emission lines and broad absorption lines, and then decompose the spectra into the following two components. 2.1 A power-law continuum to describe the emission from the active nucleus. The 11 line-free spectral regions are firstly selected from SDSS ...

  11. Solid state NMR, MRI and Sir Peter Mansfield: (1) from broad lines to narrow and back again; and (2) a highly tenuous link to landmine detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garroway, A N

    1999-12-01

    The contributions of Sir Peter Mansfield to MRI are rooted in solid state NMR. I summarize some of the important contributions of Sir Peter to that field, provide a glimpse of the state of the art in multiple-pulse line-narrowing in the early 1970s, and indicate how the earliest MRI efforts at Nottingham flowed from solid state NMR. These line-narrowing methods, providing control over the Hamiltonian governing the dynamics of nuclear spins, continue to evolve and to find new uses. I indicate how some methods and ideas from solid state NMR of the 1970s are at present applied to the detection of explosives in landmines by nuclear quadrupole resonance (NQR).

  12. A New Model for Iron Emission Lines and Re-Burst in GRB X-Ray Afterglows

    OpenAIRE

    Gao, W. H.; Wei, D. M.

    2005-01-01

    Recently iron emission features have been observed in several X-ray afterglows of GRBs. It is found that the energy obtained from the illuminating continuum which produces the emission lines is much higher than that of the main burst.The observation of SN-GRB association indicates a fallback disk should be formed after the supernovae explosion. The disk is optically thick and advection-dominated and dense. We suggest that the delayed injection energy after the initial main burst, much higher ...

  13. Evidence for the Importance of Resonance Scattering in X-Ray Emission Line Profiles of the O Star Zeta Puppis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leutenegger, M.A.; /Columbia U.; Owocki, S.P.; /Bartol Research Inst.; Kahn, S.M.; /KIPAC, Menlo Park; Paerels, F.B.S.; /Columbia U.

    2006-10-10

    We fit the Doppler profiles of the He-like triplet complexes of O VII and N VI in the X-ray spectrum of the O star {zeta} Pup, using XMM-Newton RGS data collected over {approx} 400 ks of exposure. We find that they cannot be well fit if the resonance and intercombination lines are constrained to have the same profile shape. However, a significantly better fit is achieved with a model incorporating the effects of resonance scattering, which causes the resonance line to become more symmetric than the intercombination line for a given characteristic continuum optical depth {tau}{sub *}. We discuss the plausibility of this hypothesis, as well as its significance for our understanding of Doppler profiles of X-ray emission lines in O stars.

  14. Exploring the influence of boundary shapes on emission angular distributions and polarization states of broad-area vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Y T; Tuan, P H; Huang, K F; Chen, Y F

    2014-11-03

    We design the stadium-shaped and rectangular vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) to investigate the influence of boundary shapes on the emission angular distributions and polarization states. For the stadium-shaped VCSELs, the emission angular distribution prefers to be almost omnidirectional because the lasing mode with purely scarred structure is seldom to be excited. On the contrary, the rectangular VCSELs usually generate dominant lasing modes with the morphology of quasi-periodic linear ridges, which can make emission angular distribution to be concentrated on the certain direction. From the polarization-resolved light-current curves, the stadium-shaped VCSEL is quite prone to exhibit numerous abrupt changes (kinks) associated with polarization switching with increasing current, whereas for rectangular VCSEL there is no conspicuous kink to be seen during a wide range of current changing from near to far above lasing threshold.

  15. Impacts of fragmented accretion streams onto classical T Tauri stars: UV and X-ray emission lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombo, S.; Orlando, S.; Peres, G.; Argiroffi, C.; Reale, F.

    2016-10-01

    Context. The accretion process in classical T Tauri stars (CTTSs) can be studied through the analysis of some UV and X-ray emission lines which trace hot gas flows and act as diagnostics of the post-shock downfalling plasma. In the UV-band, where higher spectral resolution is available, these lines are characterized by rather complex profiles whose origin is still not clear. Aims: We investigate the origin of UV and X-ray emission at impact regions of density structured (fragmented) accretion streams. We study if and how the stream fragmentation and the resulting structure of the post-shock region determine the observed profiles of UV and X-ray emission lines. Methods: We modeled the impact of an accretion stream consisting of a series of dense blobs onto the chromosphere of a CTTS through two-dimensional (2D) magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations. We explored different levels of stream fragmentation and accretion rates. From the model results, we synthesize C IV (1550 Å) and O VIII (18.97 Å) line profiles. Results: The impacts of accreting blobs onto the stellar chromosphere produce reverse shocks propagating through the blobs and shocked upflows. These upflows, in turn, hit and shock the subsequent downfalling fragments. As a result, several plasma components differing for the downfalling velocity, density, and temperature are present altoghether. The profiles of C IV doublet are characterized by two main components: one narrow and redshifted to speed ≈ 50 km s-1 and the other broader and consisting of subcomponents with redshift to speed in the range 200-400 km s-1. The profiles of O VIII lines appear more symmetric than C IV and are redshifted to speed ≈ 150 km s-1. Conclusions: Our model predicts profiles of C IV line remarkably similar to those observed and explains their origin in a natural way as due to stream fragmentation. Movies are available at http://www.aanda.org

  16. Differential Performance and Parasitism of Caterpillars on Maize Inbred Lines with Distinctly Different Herbivore-Induced Volatile Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degen, Thomas; Bakalovic, Nenad; Bergvinson, David; Turlings, Ted C. J.

    2012-01-01

    Plant volatiles induced by insect feeding are known to attract natural enemies of the herbivores. Six maize inbred lines that showed distinctly different patterns of volatile emission in laboratory assays were planted in randomized plots in the Central Mexican Highlands to test their ability to recruit parasitic wasps under field conditions. The plants were artificially infested with neonate larvae of the fall armyworm Spodoptera frugiperda, and two of its main endoparasitoids, Campoletis sonorensis and Cotesia marginiventris, were released in the plots. Volatiles were collected from equally treated reference plants in the neighbourhood of the experimental field. The cumulative amount of 36 quantified volatile compounds determined for each line was in good accordance with findings from the laboratory; there was an almost 15-fold difference in total emission between the two extreme lines. We found significant differences among the lines with respect to the numbers of armyworms recovered from the plants, their average weight gain and parasitism rates. Average weight of the caterpillars was negatively correlated with the average total amount of volatiles released by the six inbred lines. However, neither total volatile emission nor any specific single compound within the blend could explain the differential parasitism rates among the lines, with the possible exception of (E)-2-hexenal for Campoletis sonorensis and methyl salicylate for Cotesia marginiventris. Herbivore-induced plant volatiles and/or correlates thereof contribute to reducing insect damage of maize plants through direct plant defence and enhanced attraction of parasitoids, alleged indirect defence. The potential to exploit these volatiles for pest control deserves to be further evaluated. PMID:23112820

  17. Spatially-Resolved HST GRISM Spectroscopy of a Lensed Emission Line Galaxy at Z to approximately 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frye, Brenda L.; Hurley, Mairead; Bowen, David V.; Meurer, Gerhardt; Sharon, Keren; Straughn, Amber; Coe, Dan; Broadhurst, Tom; Guhathakurta, Puragra

    2012-01-01

    We take advantage of gravitational lensing amplification by Abell 1689 (z=0.187) to undertake the first space-based census of emission line galaxies (ELGs) in the field of a massive lensing cluster. Forty-three ELGs are identified to a flux of i(sub 775)=27.3 via slitless grism spectroscopy. One ELG (at z=0.7895) is very bright owing to lensing magnification by a factor of approx = 4.5. Several Balmer emission lines detected from ground-based follow-up spectroscopy signal the onset of a major starburst for this low-mass galaxy (M(sub star) approx = 2 x 10(exp 9)Solar Mass) with a high specific star formation rate (approx = 20/ Gyr). From the blue emission lines we measure a gas-phase oxygen abundance consistent with solar (12+log(O /H)=8.8 +/- O.2). We break the continuous line-emitting region of this giant arc into seven approx 1 kpc bins (intrinsic size) and measure a variety of metallicity dependent line ratios. A weak trend of increasing metal fraction is seen toward the dynamical center of the galaxy. Interestingly, the metal line ratios in a region offset from the center by -lkpc have a placement on the blue HI! region excitation diagram with f([OIII]/ f(H-Beta) and f([NeIII/ f(H-Beta) that can be fit by an AGN. This asymmetrical AGN-like behavior is interpreted as a product of shocks in the direction of the galaxy's extended tail, possibly instigated by a recent galaxy interaction.

  18. Differential performance and parasitism of caterpillars on maize inbred lines with distinctly different herbivore-induced volatile emissions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Degen

    Full Text Available Plant volatiles induced by insect feeding are known to attract natural enemies of the herbivores. Six maize inbred lines that showed distinctly different patterns of volatile emission in laboratory assays were planted in randomized plots in the Central Mexican Highlands to test their ability to recruit parasitic wasps under field conditions. The plants were artificially infested with neonate larvae of the fall armyworm Spodoptera frugiperda, and two of its main endoparasitoids, Campoletis sonorensis and Cotesia marginiventris, were released in the plots. Volatiles were collected from equally treated reference plants in the neighbourhood of the experimental field. The cumulative amount of 36 quantified volatile compounds determined for each line was in good accordance with findings from the laboratory; there was an almost 15-fold difference in total emission between the two extreme lines. We found significant differences among the lines with respect to the numbers of armyworms recovered from the plants, their average weight gain and parasitism rates. Average weight of the caterpillars was negatively correlated with the average total amount of volatiles released by the six inbred lines. However, neither total volatile emission nor any specific single compound within the blend could explain the differential parasitism rates among the lines, with the possible exception of (E-2-hexenal for Campoletis sonorensis and methyl salicylate for Cotesia marginiventris. Herbivore-induced plant volatiles and/or correlates thereof contribute to reducing insect damage of maize plants through direct plant defence and enhanced attraction of parasitoids, alleged indirect defence. The potential to exploit these volatiles for pest control deserves to be further evaluated.

  19. The soft-X-ray emission of Ark 120. XMM-Newton, NuSTAR, and the importance of taking the broad view

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matt, G.; Marinucci, A.; Guainazzi, M.

    2014-01-01

    , a cutoff power law best explains the soft-X-ray emission. This model likely corresponds to Comptonization of the accretion disc seed UV photons by a population of warm electrons: using Comptonization models, a temperature of similar to 0.3 keV and an optical depth of similar to 13 are found. If the UV......We present simultaneous XMM-Newton and NuSTAR observations of the 'bare' Seyfert 1 galaxy, Ark 120, a system in which ionized absorption is absent. The NuSTAR hard-X-ray spectral coverage allows us to constrain different models for the excess soft-X-ray emission. Among phenomenological models...

  20. Application of prominent spectral lines in the 125-180 nm range for inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schulz, O.; Heitland, P. [Spectro Analytical Instruments GmbH, Kleve (Germany)

    2001-12-01

    A new axially viewed ICP optical emission spectrometer featuring an argon-filled optic and CCD detectors was evaluated for the application of prominent spectral lines in the 125-180 nm range. This wavelength range was investigated for several analytical applications of inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). There are different advantages for the application of spectral lines below 180 nm. A number of elements, such as Al, Br, Cl, Ga, Ge, I, In, N, P, Pb, Pt, S and Te, were found to have the most intense spectral lines in the wavelength range from 125-180 nm. Compared with lines above 180 nm higher signal-to-background ratios were found. Low limits of detection using pneumatic nebulization of aqueous solutions for sample introduction were calculated for Al II 167.080 nm (0.04 {mu}g L{sup -1}), Br I 154.065 nm (9 {mu}g L{sup -1}), Cl I 134.724 nm (19 {mu}g L{sup -1}), Ga II 141.444 nm (0.8 {mu}g L{sup -1}), Ge II 164.919 nm (1.3 {mu}g L{sup -1}), I I 142.549 nm (13 {mu}g L{sup -1}), In II 158.583 nm (0.2 {mu}g L{sup -1}), P I 177.500 nm (0.9 {mu}g L{sup -1}), Pb II 168.215 nm (1.5 {mu}g L{sup -1}), Pt II 177.709 nm (2.6 {mu}g L{sup -1}), S I 180.731 nm (1.9 {mu}g L{sup -1}) and Te I 170.00 nm (4.6 {mu}g L{sup -1}). Numerous application examples for the use of those lines and other important spectral lines below 180 nm are given. Because of fewer emission lines from transition elements, such as Fe, Co, Cr, lines below 180 nm often offer freedom from spectral interferences. Additional lines of lower intensity for the determination of higher elemental concentrations are also available in the vacuum ultraviolet spectral range. This is specially useful when the concentrations are not in the linear range of calibration curves obtained with commonly used lines. (orig.)

  1. Glycerol-bonded 3C-SiC nanocrystal solid films exhibiting broad and stable violet to blue-green emission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J; Xiong, S J; Wu, X L; Li, T H; Chu, Paul K

    2010-04-14

    We have produced glycerol-bonded 3C-SiC nanocrystal (NC) films, which when excited by photons of different wavelengths, produce strong and tunable violet to blue-green (360-540 nm) emission as a result of the quantum confinement effects rendered by the 3C-SiC NCs. The emission is so intense that the emission spots are visible to the naked eyes. The light emission is very stable and even after storing in air for more than six months, no intensity degradation can be observed. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and absorption fine structure measurements indicate that the Si-terminated NC surfaces are completely bonded to glycerol molecules. Calculations of geometry optimization and electron structures based on the density functional theory for 3C-SiC NCs with attached glycerol molecules show that these molecules are bonded on the NCs causing strong surface structural change, while the isolated levels in the conduction band of the bare 3C-SiC NCs are replaced with quasi-continuous bands that provide continuous tunability of the emitted light by changing the frequencies of exciting laser. As an application, we demonstrate the potential of using 3C-SiC NCs to fabricate full-color emitting solid films by incorporating porous silicon.

  2. Using an artificial neural network to classify multicomponent emission lines with integral field spectroscopy from SAMI and S7

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampton, E. J.; Medling, A. M.; Groves, B.; Kewley, L.; Dopita, M.; Davies, R.; Ho, I.-T.; Kaasinen, M.; Leslie, S.; Sharp, R.; Sweet, S. M.; Thomas, A. D.; Allen, J.; Bland-Hawthorn, J.; Brough, S.; Bryant, J. J.; Croom, S.; Goodwin, M.; Green, A.; Konstantantopoulos, I. S.; Lawrence, J.; López-Sánchez, Á. R.; Lorente, N. P. F.; McElroy, R.; Owers, M. S.; Richards, S. N.; Shastri, P.

    2017-09-01

    Integral field spectroscopy (IFS) surveys are changing how we study galaxies and are creating vastly more spectroscopic data available than before. The large number of resulting spectra makes visual inspection of emission line fits an infeasible option. Here, we present a demonstration of an artificial neural network (ANN) that determines the number of Gaussian components needed to describe the complex emission line velocity structures observed in galaxies after being fit with lzifu. We apply our ANN to IFS data for the S7 survey, conducted using the Wide Field Spectrograph on the ANU 2.3 m Telescope, and the SAMI Galaxy Survey, conducted using the SAMI instrument on the 4 m Anglo-Australian Telescope. We use the spectral fitting code lzifu (Ho et al. 2016a) to fit the emission line spectra of individual spaxels from S7 and SAMI data cubes with 1-, 2- and 3-Gaussian components. We demonstrate that using an ANN is comparable to astronomers performing the same visual inspection task of determining the best number of Gaussian components to describe the physical processes in galaxies. The advantage of our ANN is that it is capable of processing the spectra for thousands of galaxies in minutes, as compared to the years this task would take individual astronomers to complete by visual inspection.

  3. Acoustic emission and magnification of atomic lines resolution for laser breakdown of salt water in ultrasound field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bulanov, Alexey V., E-mail: a-bulanov@me.com [Far Eastern Federal University, Vladivostok, Russia 690950 (Russian Federation); V.I. Il’ichev Pacific Oceanological Institute, Vladivostok, Russia 690041 (Russian Federation); Nagorny, Ivan G., E-mail: ngrn@mail.ru [Far Eastern Federal University, Vladivostok, Russia 690950 (Russian Federation); Institute for automation and control processes, Vladivostok, Russia 690041 (Russian Federation)

    2015-10-28

    Researches of the acoustic effects accompanying optical breakdown in a water, generated by the focused laser radiation with power ultrasound have been carried out. Experiments were performed by using 532 nm pulses from Brilliant B Nd:YAG laser. Acoustic radiation was produced by acoustic focusing systems in the form hemisphere and ring by various resonance frequencies of 10.7 kHz and 60 kHz. The experimental results are obtained, that show the sharply strengthens effects of acoustic emission from a breakdown zone by the joint influence of a laser and ultrasonic irradiation. Essentially various thresholds of breakdown and character of acoustic emission in fresh and sea water are found out. The experimental result is established, testifying that acoustic emission of optical breakdown of sea water at presence and at absence of ultrasound essentially exceeds acoustic emission in fresh water. Atomic lines of some chemical elements like a Sodium, Magnesium and so on were investigated for laser breakdown of water with ultrasound field. The effect of magnification of this lines resolution for salt water in ultrasound field was obtained.

  4. On-line measurements of emissions and atmospheric fate of compounds from agricultural waste management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agricultural emissions impact air quality on a local and regional basis. Research on the emissions and reduction of greenhouse gases from agriculture has become commonplace due to concerns about climate but other chemical compounds also impact air quality. These include compounds that are photochemi...

  5. The nature of extreme emission line galaxies at z = 1-2: kinematics and metallicities from near-infrared spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maseda, Michael V.; Van der Wel, Arjen; Rix, Hans-Walter; Da Cunha, Elisabete; Meidt, Sharon E. [Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie, Königstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Pacifici, Camilla [Yonsei University Observatory, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Momcheva, Ivelina; Van Dokkum, Pieter; Nelson, Erica J. [Department of Astronomy, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06520 (United States); Brammer, Gabriel B.; Ferguson, Henry C.; Koekemoer, Anton M. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Franx, Marijn; Fumagalli, Mattia [Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, Leiden (Netherlands); Bell, Eric F. [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, 500 Church Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Förster-Schreiber, Natascha M. [Max-Planck-Institut für extraterrestrische Physik, Giessenbachstrasse 1, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Koo, David C. [UCO/Lick Observatory and Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California Santa Cruz, 1156 High Street, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Lundgren, Britt F. [Department of Astronomy, University of Wisconsin, 475 North Charter Street, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Marchesini, Danilo [Physics and Astronomy Department, Tufts University, Robinson Hall, Room 257, Medford, MA 02155 (United States); Patel, Shannon G., E-mail: maseda@mpia.de [Carnegie Observatories, 813 Santa Barbara Street, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); and others

    2014-08-10

    We present near-infrared spectroscopy of a sample of 22 Extreme Emission Line Galaxies at redshifts 1.3 < z < 2.3, confirming that these are low-mass (M{sub *} = 10{sup 8}-10{sup 9} M{sub ☉}) galaxies undergoing intense starburst episodes (M{sub *}/SFR ∼ 10-100 Myr). The sample is selected by [O III] or Hα emission line flux and equivalent width using near-infrared grism spectroscopy from the 3D-HST survey. High-resolution NIR spectroscopy is obtained with LBT/LUCI and VLT/X-SHOOTER. The [O III]/Hβ line ratio is high (≳ 5) and [N II]/Hα is always significantly below unity, which suggests a low gas-phase metallicity. We are able to determine gas-phase metallicities for seven of our objects using various strong-line methods, with values in the range 0.05-0.30 Z{sub ☉} and with a median of 0.15 Z{sub ☉}; for three of these objects we detect [O III] λ4363, which allows for a direct constraint on the metallicity. The velocity dispersion, as measured from the nebular emission lines, is typically ∼50 km s{sup –1}. Combined with the observed star-forming activity, the Jeans and Toomre stability criteria imply that the gas fraction must be large (f{sub gas} ≳ 2/3), consistent with the difference between our dynamical and stellar mass estimates. The implied gas depletion timescale (several hundred Myr) is substantially longer than the inferred mass-weighted ages (∼50 Myr), which further supports the emerging picture that most stars in low-mass galaxies form in short, intense bursts of star formation.

  6. Enhanced 2 μm broad-band emission and NIR to visible frequency up-conversion from Ho3+/Yb3+ co-doped Bi2O3-GeO2-ZnO glasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Kaushik; Sontakke, Atul D; Sen, R; Annapurna, K

    2013-08-01

    In this work, a new and non-conventional oxide glass composition based on Bi2O3-GeO2-ZnO system has been formulated with an aim to realize low phonon oxide glass and elucidate its performance when co-doped with Ho(3+)/Yb(3+) for the energy transfer based NIR emission at 2 μm from Ho(3+) ions under Yb(3+) excitation. The glass with 1.0 mol% Ho2O3 and 0.5 mol% Yb2O3 has exhibited maximum energy transfer rate (3602 s(-1)) and energy transfer efficiency (65.92%). Important radiative properties have been predicted for emission transitions of Ho(3+) ions using intensity parameters derived from measured absorption spectra using standard Judd-Ofelt theory. At lower acceptor ion concentration (0.1 mol%), an efficient NIR to visible up-conversion emission has been observed based on two photon absorption process which has found to be reduced significantly at higher Ho(3+) concentrations with simultaneous enhancement in 2 μm emission. Hence, this newly developed glass codoped with Yb(3+)/Ho(3+) is promising glass for sensitized 2 μm emission applications as broad band tunable lasers because of the combination of low phonon energy (707 cm(-1)), high energy transfer efficiency, moderately high emission cross-section (5.33×10(-21) cm(2)) and larger effective half-width of the emission band value of 169 nm. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. The Soft-X-Ray Emission of Ark 120. XMM-Newton, NuSTAR, and the Importance of Taking the Broad View

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matt, G.; Marinucci, A.; Guainazzi, M.; Brenneman, L. W.; Elvis, M.; Lohfink, A.; Arevalo, P.; Boggs, S. E.; Cappi, M.; Stern, D.; hide

    2014-01-01

    We present simultaneous XMM-Newton and NuSTAR observations of the 'bare' Seyfert 1 galaxy, Ark 120, a system in which ionized absorption is absent. The NuSTAR hard-X-ray spectral coverage allows us to constrain different models for the excess soft-X-ray emission. Among phenomenological models, a cutoff power law best explains the soft-X-ray emission. This model likely corresponds to Comptonization of the accretion disc seed UV photons by a population of warm electrons: using Comptonization models, a temperature of approximately 0.3 kiloelectronvolts and an optical depth of approximately 13 are found. If the UV-to-X-ray OPTXAGNF model is applied, the UV fluxes from the XMM-Newton Optical Monitor suggest an intermediate black hole spin. Contrary to several other sources observed by NuSTAR, no high-energy cutoff is detected with a lower limit of 190 kiloelectronvolts.

  8. Measuring galaxy [O ii] emission line doublet with future ground-based wide-field spectroscopic surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comparat, Johan; Kneib, Jean-Paul; Bacon, Roland; Mostek, Nick J.; Newman, Jeffrey A.; Schlegel, David J.; Yèche, Christophe

    2013-11-01

    The next generation of wide-field spectroscopic redshift surveys will map the large-scale galaxy distribution in the redshift range 0.7 ≤ z ≤ 2 to measure baryonic acoustic oscillations (BAO). The primary optical signature used in this redshift range comes from the [Oii] emission line doublet, which provides a unique redshift identification that can minimize confusion with other single emission lines. To derive the required spectrograph resolution for these redshift surveys, we simulate observations of the [Oii] (λλ 3727, 3729) doublet for various instrument resolutions, and line velocities. We foresee two strategies for the choice of the resolution for future spectrographs for BAO surveys. For bright [Oii] emitter surveys ([Oii] flux ~30 × 10-17 erg cm-2 s-1 like SDSS-IV/eBOSS), a resolution of R ~ 3300 allows the separation of 90 percent of the doublets. The impact of the sky lines on the completeness in redshift is less than 6 percent. For faint [Oii] emitter surveys ([Oii] flux ~10 × 10-17 erg cm-2 s-1 like DESi), the detection improves continuously with resolution, so we recommend the highest possible resolution, the limit being given by the number of pixels (4k by 4k) on the detector and the number of spectroscopic channels (2 or 3).

  9. Marker-Assisted Development and Evaluation of Near-Isogenic Lines for Broad-Spectrum Powdery Mildew Resistance Gene Pm2b Introgressed into Different Genetic Backgrounds of Wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongxing Xu

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available At present, most of released wheat cultivars or breeding lines in China are susceptible to powdery mildew (Pm (caused by Blumeria graminis f. sp. tritici, Bgt, so there is an urgent need to rapidly transfer effective and broad-spectrum Pm resistance genes into elite cultivars/lines. Near-isogenic lines (NILs with short target gene region are very important in molecular breeding and map-based cloning and can be developed by combining marker-assisted selection and conventional phenotypic identification. However, no Pm gene NILs were reported by using this method in the previous studies. A new broad-spectrum dominant resistance gene Pm2b, derived from the Chinese wheat breeding line KM2939, conferred high resistance to Pm at both the seedling and adult stages. In this study, with the aid of forward and background selection (FS and BS using molecular markers, the Pm2b gene was introgressed into three elite susceptible commercial cultivars Shimai 15, Shixin 828, and Kenong 199 through the back-crossing procedure. With the appropriate backcrossing generations, selected population sizes and marker number for BS, the homozygous resistant BC3F2:3 NILs of Pm2b gene in the three genetic backgrounds with the highest recipient genome composition of about 99%, confirmed by simple sequence repeat markers and 660K single nucleotide polymorphic array, were developed and evaluated for the powdery mildew resistance and agronomic traits. The different resistance and similar or improved agronomic performance between Pm2b NILs and their corresponding recurrent parents indicated their potential value in the marker-assisted breeding of the Pm2b gene. Moreover, the development of four flanked diagnostic markers (CFD81, BWM25, BWM20, and BWM21 of the Pm2 gene can effectively assist the forward selection and accelerate the transfer and use of this resistance gene.

  10. CONSTRAINING THE MILKY WAY'S HOT GAS HALO WITH O VII AND O VIII EMISSION LINES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Matthew J.; Bregman, Joel N., E-mail: mjmil@umich.edu, E-mail: jbregman@umich.edu [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48104 (United States)

    2015-02-10

    The Milky Way hosts a hot (≈2 × 10{sup 6} K), diffuse, gaseous halo based on detections of z = 0 O VII and O VIII absorption lines in quasar spectra and emission lines in blank-sky spectra. Here we improve constraints on the structure of the hot gas halo by fitting a radial model to a much larger sample of O VII and O VIII emission line measurements from XMM-Newton/EPIC-MOS spectra compared to previous studies (≈650 sightlines). We assume a modified β-model for the halo density distribution and a constant-density Local Bubble from which we calculate emission to compare with the observations. We find an acceptable fit to the O VIII emission line observations with χ{sub red}{sup 2} (dof) = 1.08 (644) for best-fit parameters of n{sub o}r{sub c}{sup 3β}=1.35±0.24 cm{sup –3} kpc{sup 3β} and β = 0.50 ± 0.03 for the hot gas halo and negligible Local Bubble contribution. The O VII observations yield an unacceptable χ{sub red}{sup 2} (dof) = 4.69 (645) for similar best-fit parameters, which is likely due to temperature or density variations in the Local Bubble. The O VIII fitting results imply hot gas masses of M(<50 kpc) = 3.8{sub −0.3}{sup +0.3}×10{sup 9} M{sub ⊙} and M(<250 kpc) = 4.3{sub −0.8}{sup +0.9}×10{sup 10} M{sub ⊙}, accounting for ≲50% of the Milky Way's missing baryons. We also explore our results in the context of optical depth effects in the halo gas, the halo gas cooling properties, temperature and entropy gradients in the halo gas, and the gas metallicity distribution. The combination of absorption and emission line analyses implies a sub-solar gas metallicity that decreases with radius, but that also must be ≥0.3 Z {sub ☉} to be consistent with the pulsar dispersion measure toward the Large Magellanic Cloud.

  11. The Broad Iron K-alpha line of Cygnus X-1 as Seen by XMM-Newton in the EPIC-pn Modified Timing Mode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duro, Refiz; Dauser, Thomas; Wilms, Jorn; Pottschmidt, Katja; Nowak, Michael A.; Fritz, Sonja; Kendziorra, Eckhard; Kirsch, Marcus G. F.; Reynolds, Christopher S.; Staubert, Rudiger

    2011-01-01

    We present the analysis of the broadened, flourescent iron K(alpha) line in simultaneous XMM-Newton and RXTE data from the black hole Cygnus X-I. The XMM-Newton data were taken in a modified version of the Timing Mode of the EPIC-pn camera. In this mode the lower energy threshold of the instrument is increased to 2.8 keV to avoid telemetry drop outs due to the brightness of the source, while at the same time preserving the signal to noise ratio in the Fe K(alpha) band. We find that the best-fit spectrum consists of the sum of an exponentially cut-off power-law and relativistically smeared, ionized reflection. The shape of the broadened Fe K(alpha) feature is due to strong Compton broadening combined with relativistic broadening. Assuming a standard, thin accretion disk, the black hole is close to maximally rotating. Key words. X-rays: binaries - black hole physics - gravitation

  12. Excitation Cross Section Measurement for n=3 to n=2 Line Emission in Fe17+ to Fe23+

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, H; Gu, M F; Beiersdorfer, P; Boyce, K R; Brown, G V; Kahn, S M; Kelley, R L; Kilbourne, C A; Porter, F S; Scofield, J H

    2006-02-08

    The authors report the measurement of electron impact excitation cross sections for the strong iron L-shell 3 {yields} 2 lines of Fe XVIII through Fe XXIV at the EBIT-I electron beam ion trap using a crystal spectrometer and a 6 x 6 pixel array microcalorimeter. The cross sections were determined by direct normalization to the well established cross section of radiative electron capture through a sophisticated model analysis which results in the excitation cross section for 48 lines at multiple electron energies. They also studied the electron density dependent nature of the emission lines, which is demonstrated by the effective excitation cross section of the 3d {yields} 2p transition in Fe XXI.

  13. SALT long-slit spectroscopy of quasar HE 0435-4312: fast displacement of the Mg II emission line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Średzińska, J.; Czerny, B.; Hryniewicz, K.; Krupa, M.; Kurcz, A.; Marziani, P.; Adhikari, T. P.; Basak, R.; You, B.; Wang, J.-M.; Hu, C.; Pych, W.; Bilicki, M.

    2017-05-01

    Context. The Mg II emission line is visible in the optical band for intermediate redshift quasars (0.4 frame. The Mg II line shape is clearly non-Gaussian but single-component, and the increase in line equivalent width and line shift is not accompanied with significant evolution of the line shape. We analyse the conditions in the Mg II and Fe II formation region and we note that the very large difference in the covering factor and the turbulent velocity also support the conclusion that the two regions are spatially separated. Conclusions: The measured acceleration of the line systematic shift is too large to connect it with the orbital motion at a distance of the BLR in this source. It may imply a precessing inner disk illuminating the BLR. Further monitoring is still needed to better constrain the variability mechanism. Based on observations made with the Southern African Large Telescope (SALT) under program 2012-2-POL-003 and 2013-1-POL-RSA-002 (PI: B. Czerny).Spectra shown in Figs. 3 and 4 are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (http://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/601/A32

  14. LINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minas Bakalchev

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The perception of elements in a system often creates their interdependence, interconditionality, and suppression. The lines from a basic geometrical element have become the model of a reductive world based on isolation according to certain criteria such as function, structure, and social organization. Their traces are experienced in the contemporary world as fragments or ruins of a system of domination of an assumed hierarchical unity. How can one release oneself from such dependence or determinism? How can the lines become less “systematic” and forms more autonomous, and less reductive? How is a form released from modernistic determinism on the new controversial ground? How can these elements or forms of representation become forms of action in the present complex world? In this paper, the meaning of lines through the ideas of Le Corbusier, Leonidov, Picasso, and Hitchcock is presented. Spatial research was made through a series of examples arising from the projects of the architectural studio “Residential Transformations”, which was a backbone for mapping the possibilities ranging from playfulness to exactness, as tactics of transformation in the different contexts of the contemporary world.

  15. Modeling the water line emission from the high-mass star-forming region AFGL 2591

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poelman, D. R.; van der Tak, F. F. S.

    2007-01-01

    Context. Observations of water lines are a sensitive probe of the geometry, dynamics and chemical structure of dense molecular gas. The launch of Herschel with on board HIFI and PACS allows to probe the behaviour of multiple water lines with unprecedented sensitivity and resolution. Aims. We

  16. Signal enhancement of neutral He emission lines by fast electron bombardment of laser-induced He plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suyanto, Hery [Department of Physics, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Udayana University, Kampus Bukit Jimbaran, Denpasar 80361, Bali (Indonesia); Pardede, Marincan [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Pelita Harapan, 1100 M.H. Thamrin Boulevard, Lippo Village, Tangerang 15811 (Indonesia); Hedwig, Rinda [Department of Computer Engineering, Bina Nusantara University, 9 K.H. Syahdan, Jakarta 14810 (Indonesia); Marpaung, Alion Mangasi [Department of Physics, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Jakarta State University, Rawamangun, Jakarta 12440 (Indonesia); Ramli, Muliadi [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Syiah Kuala University, Darussalam, Banda Aceh 23111, NAD (Indonesia); Lie, Tjung Jie; Kurniawan, Koo Hendrik, E-mail: kurnia18@cbn.net.id [Research Center of Maju Makmur Mandiri Foundation, 40 Srengseng Raya, Kembangan, Jakarta Barat 11630 (Indonesia); Abdulmadjid, Syahrun Nur [Department of Physics, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Syiah Kuala University, Darussalam, Banda Aceh 23111, NAD (Indonesia); Tjia, May On [Research Center of Maju Makmur Mandiri Foundation, 40 Srengseng Raya, Kembangan, Jakarta Barat 11630 (Indonesia); Physics of Magnetism and Photonics Group, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Bandung Institute of Technology, 10 Ganesha,Bandung 40132 (Indonesia); Kagawa, Kiichiro [Research Center of Maju Makmur Mandiri Foundation, 40 Srengseng Raya, Kembangan, Jakarta Barat 11630 (Indonesia); Fukui Science Education Academy, Takagi Chuo 2 chome, Fukui 910-0804 (Japan)

    2016-08-15

    A time-resolved spectroscopic study is performed on the enhancement signals of He gas plasma emission using nanosecond (ns) and picosecond (ps) lasers in an orthogonal configuration. The ns laser is used for the He gas plasma generation and the ps laser is employed for the ejection of fast electrons from a metal target, which serves to excite subsequently the He atoms in the plasma. The study is focused on the most dominant He I 587.6 nm and He I 667.8 nm emission lines suggested to be responsible for the He-assisted excitation (HAE) mechanism. The time-dependent intensity enhancements induced by the fast electrons generated with a series of delayed ps laser ablations are deduced from the intensity time profiles of both He emission lines. The results clearly lead to the conclusion that the metastable excited triplet He atoms are actually the species overwhelmingly produced during the recombination process in the ns laser-induced He gas plasma. These metastable He atoms are believed to serve as the major energy source for the delayed excitation of analyte atoms in ns laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) using He ambient gas.

  17. CO J = 2-1 LINE EMISSION IN CLUSTER GALAXIES AT z {approx} 1: FUELING STAR FORMATION IN DENSE ENVIRONMENTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagg, Jeff [European Southern Observatory, Casilla 19001, Santiago (Chile); Pope, Alexandra; Alberts, Stacey [Department of Astronomy, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States); Armus, Lee; Desai, Vandana [Spitzer Science Center, California Institute of Technology, MS 220-6, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Brodwin, Mark [Department of Physics, University of Missouri, 5110 Rockhill Road, Kansas City, MO 64110 (United States); Bussmann, Robert S. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Dey, Arjun; Jannuzi, Buell [National Optical Astronomy Observatory, Tucson, AZ 85726-6732 (United States); Le Floc' h, Emeric [AIM, CNRS, Universite Paris Diderot, Bat. 709, CEA-Saclay, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Melbourne, Jason [California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Stern, Daniel, E-mail: jwagg@eso.org [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States)

    2012-06-20

    We present observations of CO J = 2-1 line emission in infrared-luminous cluster galaxies at z {approx} 1 using the IRAM Plateau de Bure Interferometer. Our two primary targets are optically faint, dust-obscured galaxies (DOGs) found to lie within 2 Mpc of the centers of two massive (>10{sup 14} M{sub Sun }) galaxy clusters. CO line emission is not detected in either DOG. We calculate 3{sigma} upper limits to the CO J = 2-1 line luminosities, L'{sub CO} < 6.08 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 9} and <6.63 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 9} K km s{sup -1} pc{sup 2}. Assuming a CO-to-H{sub 2} conversion factor derived for ultraluminous infrared galaxies in the local universe, this translates to limits on the cold molecular gas mass of M{sub H{sub 2}}< 4.86 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 9} M{sub Sun} and M{sub H{sub 2}}< 5.30 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 9} M{sub Sun }. Both DOGs exhibit mid-infrared continuum emission that follows a power law, suggesting that an active galactic nucleus (AGN) contributes to the dust heating. As such, estimates of the star formation efficiencies in these DOGs are uncertain. A third cluster member with an infrared luminosity, L{sub IR} < 7.4 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 11} L{sub Sun }, is serendipitously detected in CO J = 2-1 line emission in the field of one of the DOGs located roughly two virial radii away from the cluster center. The optical spectrum of this object suggests that it is likely an obscured AGN, and the measured CO line luminosity is L'{sub CO} = (1.94 {+-} 0.35) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 10} K km s{sup -1} pc{sup 2}, which leads to an estimated cold molecular gas mass M{sub H{sub 2}}= (1.55{+-}0.28) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 10} M{sub Sun }. A significant reservoir of molecular gas in a z {approx} 1 galaxy located away from the cluster center demonstrates that the fuel can exist to drive an increase in star formation and AGN activity at the outskirts of high-redshift clusters.

  18. On-line CO, CO2 emissions evaluation and (benzene, toluene, xylene) determination from experimental burn of tropical biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tawfiq, Mohammed F; Aroua, Mohamed Kheireddine; Sulaiman, Nik Meriam Nik

    2015-07-01

    Atmospheric pollution and global warming issues are increasingly becoming major environmental concerns. Fire is one of the significant sources of pollutant gases released into the atmosphere; and tropical biomass fires, which are of particular interest in this study, contribute greatly to the global budget of CO and CO2. This pioneer research simulates the natural biomass burning strategy in Malaysia using an experimental burning facility. The investigation was conducted on the emissions (CO2, CO, and Benzene, Toluene, Ethylbenzene, Xylenes (BTEX)) from ten tropical biomass species. The selected species represent the major tropical forests that are frequently subjected to dry forest fire incidents. An experimental burning facility equipped with an on-line gas analyzer was employed to determine the burning emissions. The major emission factors were found to vary among the species, and the specific results were as follows. The moisture content of a particular biomass greatly influenced its emission pattern. The smoke analysis results revealed the existence of BTEX, which were sampled from a combustion chamber by enrichment traps aided with a universal gas sampler. The BTEX were determined by organic solvent extraction followed by GC/MS quantification, the results of which suggested that the biomass burning emission factor contributed significant amounts of benzene, toluene, and m,p-xylene. The modified combustion efficiency (MCE) changed in response to changes in the sample moisture content. Therefore, this study concluded that the emission of some pollutants mainly depends on the burning phase and sample moisture content of the biomass. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. Modelling the Pan-Spectral Energy Distribution of Starburst Galaxies: III. Emission Line Diagnostics of Ensembles of H II Regions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dopita, M A; Fischera, J; Sutherland, R S; Kewley, L J; Leitherer, C; Tuffs, R J; Popescu, C C; van Breugel, W; Groves, B A

    2006-05-10

    We have built, as far as possible, fully self-consistent models of H II regions around aging clusters of stars. These produce strong emission line diagnostics applicable to either individual H II regions in galaxies, or to the integrated emission line spectra of disk or starburst galaxies. The models assume that the expansion and internal pressure of individual H II regions is driven by the net input of mechanical energy from the central cluster, be it through winds or supernova events. This eliminates the ionization parameter as a free variable, replacing it with a parameter which depends on the ratio of the cluster mass to the pressure in the surrounding interstellar medium. These models explain why H II regions with low abundances have high excitation, and demonstrate that at least part of the warm ionized medium is the result of overlapping faint, old, large, and low pressure H II regions. We present a number of line ratios (at both optical and IR wavelengths) that provide reliable abundance diagnostics for either single H II regions or for integrated galaxy spectra, and others that are sensitive to the age of the cluster stars exciting individual H II regions.

  20. The absorption effect of the Lα-line Supplement to the paper 'On the Correlation Between the Hα-line emission rate and the ablation rate of a hydrogen pellet in tokamak discharges' – Nuclear Fusion 24 (1984) 697

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chang, C. T.; Thomsen, Kenneth

    1985-01-01

    Several assumptions made in a previous study of the correlation between the Hα-line emission rate and the ablation rate of a hydrogen pellet injected into a tokamak discharge showed that the emission layer of the ablatant as optically thin with respect to all levels of the principal quantum numbe...

  1. On-Line analysis of gas-phase composition in the combustion chamber and particle emission characteristics during combustion of wood and waste in a small batch reactor

    OpenAIRE

    Ferge, Thomas

    2005-01-01

    On-Line analysis of gas-phase composition in the combustion chamber and particle emission characteristics during combustion of wood and waste in a small batch reactor / R. Zimmermann ... - In: Environmental science & technology. 39. 2005. S. 1393-1402

  2. The ALMA Spectroscopic Survey in the Hubble Ultra Deep Field: Search for [CII] Line and Dust Emission in 6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aravena, M.; Decarli, R.; Walter, F.; Bouwens, R.; Oesch, P. A.; Carilli, C. L.; Bauer, F. E.; Da Cunha, E.; Daddi, E.; Gónzalez-López, J.; Ivison, R. J.; Riechers, D. A.; Smail, I.; Swinbank, A. M.; Weiss, A.; Anguita, T.; Bacon, R.; Bell, E.; Bertoldi, F.; Cortes, P.; Cox, P.; Hodge, J.; Ibar, E.; Inami, H.; Infante, L.; Karim, A.; Magnelli, B.; Ota, K.; Popping, G.; van der Werf, P.; Wagg, J.; Fudamoto, Y.

    2016-12-01

    We present a search for [C II] line and dust continuum emission from optical dropout galaxies at z > 6 using ASPECS, our Atacama Large Millimeter submillimeter Array Spectroscopic Survey in the Hubble Ultra-deep Field (UDF). Our observations, which cover the frequency range of 212-272 GHz, encompass approximately the range of 6 4.5σ, two of which correspond to blind detections with no optical counterparts. At this significance level, our statistical analysis shows that about 60% of our candidates are expected to be spurious. For one of our blindly selected [C II] line candidates, we tentatively detect the CO(6-5) line in our parallel 3 mm line scan. None of the line candidates are individually detected in the 1.2 mm continuum. A stack of all [C II] candidates results in a tentative detection with S 1.2 mm = 14 ± 5 μJy. This implies a dust-obscured star-formation rate (SFR) of (3 ± 1) M ⊙ yr-1. We find that the two highest-SFR objects have candidate [C II] lines with luminosities that are consistent with the low-redshift L [C II] versus SFR relation. The other candidates have significantly higher [C II] luminosities than expected from their UV-based SFR. At the current sensitivity, it is unclear whether the majority of these sources are intrinsically bright [C II] emitters, or spurious sources. If only one of our line candidates was real (a scenario greatly favored by our statistical analysis), we find a source density for [C II] emitters at 6 < z < 8 that is significantly higher than predicted by current models and some extrapolations from galaxies in the local universe.

  3. Low-energy X-ray line emission from IC 443

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles, P. A.; Kahn, S. M.; Mason, K. O.; Tuohy, I. R.

    1981-01-01

    HEAO 1 observations of the spectrum of the supernova remnant IC 443 in the energy range of 0.4-3 keV reveal the presence of a complex structure suggestive of emission from Fe XVIII-XX, S XV-XVI, and Si XIII-XIV ions. The best electron temperature in the band for simple model fits is about (6-11) x 10 to the 6th K. Raymond and Smith collisional equilibrium emission models do not adequately fit the data. These results are discussed in terms of possible nonequilibrium effects in the remnant.

  4. High-resolution emission-line imaging of Seyfert galaxies. I - Observations. II - Evidence for anisotropic ionizing radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haniff, Christopher A.; Wilson, Andrew S.; Ward, Martin J.

    1988-01-01

    A CCD direct imaging survey of 11 Seyfert galaxies with a mean seeing of 1.3 arcsec FWHM is presented. It is found that the major axes and spatial scales of the circumnuclear emission-line gas are very similar to those of the radio continuum sources. In the second part, this close connection between thermal and relativistic gases is examined. A scenario is proposed in which the radio jets and plasmoids shock, accelerate, and compress ambient and entrained gas, with the dominant source of ionization being the nonstellar nuclear UV continuum.

  5. Temporal evolution of the spectral lines emission and temperatures in laser induced plasmas through characteristic parameters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bredice, F., E-mail: faustob@ciop.unlp.edu.ar [Centro de Investigaciones Ópticas, P.O. Box 3 C. P.1897 Gonnet, La Plata (Argentina); Pacheco Martinez, P. [Grupo de Espectroscopía Óptica de Emisión y Láser, Universidad del Atlántico, Barranquilla (Colombia); Sánchez-Aké, C.; Villagrán-Muniz, M. [Laboratorio de Fotofísica, Centro de Ciencias Aplicadas y Desarrollo Tecnológico, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Apartado Postal 70-186, México D.F. 04510 (Mexico)

    2015-05-01

    In this work, we propose an extended Boltzmann plot method to determine the usefulness of spectral lines for plasma parameter calculations. Based on the assumption that transient plasmas are under ideal conditions during an specific interval of time Δt, (i.e. thin, homogeneous and in local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE)), the associated Boltzmann plots describe a surface in the space defined by the coordinates X = Energy, Y = Time and Z = ln (λ{sub jl}I{sub j}/g{sub j}A{sub jl}), where I{sub j} is the integrated intensity of the spectral line, g{sub j} is the statistical weight of the level j, λ{sub jl} is the wavelength of the considered line and A{sub jl} is its transition rate. In order to express the Boltzmann plot surface in terms of a reduced set of constants B{sub i}, and δ{sub i}, we developed as a power series of time, the logarithm of I{sub n}(t)/I{sub n}(t{sub 0}), where I{sub n}(t) is the integrated intensity of any spectral line at time t, and I{sub n}(t{sub 0}) at initial time. Moreover, the temporal evolution of the intensity of any spectral line and consequently the temperature of the plasma can be also expressed with these constants. The comparison of the temporal evolution of the line intensity calculated using these constants with their experimental values, can be used as a criterion for selecting useful lines in plasma analysis. Furthermore, this method can also be applied to determine self-absorption or enhancement of the spectral lines, to evaluate a possible departure of LTE, and to check or estimate the upper level energy value of any spectral line. An advantage of this method is that the value of these constants does not depend on the spectral response of the detection system, the uncertainty of the transition rates belonging to the analyzed spectral lines or any other time-independent parameters. In order to prove our method, we determined the constants B{sub i} and δ{sub i} and therefore the Boltzmann plot surface from the temporal

  6. Commendable Eu2+-Doped Oxide-Matrix-Based LiBa12(BO3)7F4Red Broad Emission Phosphor Excited by NUV Light: Electronic and Crystal Structures, Luminescence Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Xin; Wang, Yuhua

    2017-07-19

    In this work, we synthesized a new Eu 2+ -doped oxide-matrix-based LiBa 12 (BO 3 ) 7 F 4 broad red emission phosphor. It can emit red light peaking at ∼644 nm under NUV excitation with the coordinate at (0.6350, 0.3586) and a sensitive color gamut for eyes. This phosphor with a special kind of tunnel crystal structure and layered distribution of Ba 2+ is contributed to longer wavelength emission. By theoretical calculation and analysis using local state density energy band structure simulation of Eu 2+ doped in different site, the origin of the observed emission center was distinguished. Furthermore, decay curves analysis also indicated there are three possible Ba 2+ sites for Eu 2+ to occupy. Temperature-dependent PL spectra appeared anomalous phenomena that the intensity increases first and then decreases, which is due to the traps energy level's contribution of electron's transition. The phosphor also has cathodoluminescence (CL) property which the spectra take on typical current saturation phenomenon. The CL curves indicated that this phosphor has a very good stability under much electron beam bombardment time. After fabricated combining with BAM, (Sr, Ba) 2 SiO 4 and our red phosphor excited under 405-nm NUV chips, warm light LED was obtained. Its CIE coordinate is (0.3475, 0.3416) and the CCT, Ra, and luminous efficiency are 4856 K, 84.1, and 72.6 lm/W, respectively.

  7. ASPIICS: a giant, white light and emission line coronagraph for the ESA proba-3 formation flight mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamy, P. L.; Vivès, S.; Curdt, W.; Damé, L.; Davila, J.; Defise, J.-M.; Fineschi, S.; Heinzel, P.; Howard, Russel; Kuzin, S.; Schmutz, W.; Tsinganos, K.; Zhukov, A.

    2017-11-01

    Classical externally-occulted coronagraphs are presently limited in their performances by the distance between the external occulter and the front objective. The diffraction fringe from the occulter and the vignetted pupil which degrades the spatial resolution prevent useful observations of the white light corona inside typically 2-2.5 solar radii (Rsun). Formation flying offers and elegant solution to these limitations and allows conceiving giant, externally-occulted coronagraphs using a two-component space system with the external occulter on one spacecraft and the optical instrument on the other spacecraft at a distance of hundred meters [1, 2]. Such an instrument ASPIICS (Association de Satellites Pour l'Imagerie et l'Interférométrie de la Couronne Solaire) has been selected by the European Space Agency (ESA) to fly on its PROBA-3 mission of formation flying demonstration which is presently in phase B (Fig. 1). The classical design of an externally-occulted coronagraph is adapted to the formation flying configuration allowing the detection of the very inner corona as close as 0.04 solar radii from the solar limb. By tuning the position of the occulter spacecraft, it may even be possible to reach the chromosphere and the upper part of the spicules [3]. ASPIICS will perform (i) high spatial resolution imaging of the continuum K+F corona in photometric and polarimetric modes, (ii) high spatial resolution imaging of the E-corona in two coronal emission lines (CEL): Fe XIV and He I D3, and (iii) two-dimensional spectrophotometry of the Fe XIV emission line. ASPIICS will address the question of the coronal heating and the role of waves by characterizing propagating fluctuations (waves and turbulence) in the solar wind acceleration region and by looking for oscillations in the intensity and Doppler shift of spectral lines. The combined imaging and spectral diagnostics capabilities available with ASPIICS will allow mapping the velocity field of the corona both in the

  8. A radial-velocity study of 18 emission-line B stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarad, M. M.; Hilditch, R. W.; Skillen, Ian

    1989-06-01

    A total of 647 radial velocities of 18 northern-hemisphere Be stars obtained over two observing seasons (1983-1985) are presented. These velocities have been determined by the cross-correlation technique applied to selected spectral regions avoiding the hydrogen lines and including the He I lines. Analyses of these data via Fourier techniques suggest that three new spectroscopic binaries are discovered and that seven stars show variability in radial velocity which may be attributable to radial or nonradial pulsation. Four known binary orbits are confirmed. Only four stars in the sample are found to have constant radial velocity. These results strengthen and extend the evidence that the Be phenomenon can result from pulsational instability and that the proportion of binary systems among Be stars is about the same as the normal stellar population. Very-high-resolution spectroscopy of those stars found to be variable in velocity should reveal changes in line-profile shape due to nonradial pulsation.

  9. Solar off-limb emission of the O I 7772 Å line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pazira, H.; Kiselman, D.; Leenaarts, J.

    2017-08-01

    Aims: The aim of this paper is to understand the formation of the O I line at 7772 Å in the solar chromosphere. Methods: We used SST/CRISP observations to observe O I 7772 Å in several places around the solar limb. We compared the observations with synthetic spectra calculated with the RH code in the one-dimension spherical geometry mode. New accurate hydrogen collisional rates were included for the RH calculations. Results: The observations reveal a dark gap in the lower chromosphere, which is caused by variations in the line opacity as shown by our models. The lower level of the 7772 Å transition is populated by a downward cascade from the continuum. We study the effect of Lyman-β pumping and hydrogen collisions between the triplet and quintet system in O i. Both have a small but non-negligible influence on the line intensity.

  10. On-chip plasmonic cavity-enhanced spontaneous emission rate at the zero-phonon line

    OpenAIRE

    Siampour, Hamidreza; Kumar, Shailesh; Bozhevolnyi, Sergey I.

    2018-01-01

    Highly confined surface plasmon polariton (SPP) modes can be utilized to enhance light-matter interaction at the single emitter level of quantum optical systems [1-4]. Dielectric-loaded SPP waveguides (DLSPPWs) confine SPPs laterally with relatively low propagation loss, enabling to benefit both from a large Purcell factor and from a large radiative efficiency (low quenching rates) [1, 2]. In this work, we present a DLSPPW-based Bragg cavity resonator to direct emission from a single diamond ...

  11. Shift and broadening of emission lines in Nd 3: YAG laser crystal ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Spectroscopic properties of the flashlamp-pumped Nd 3 + :YAG laser as a function of input energy were studied over the range of 18–75 J. The spectral widths and shifts of quasi-three-level and four-level inter-Stark emissions within the respective intermanifold transitions of 4 F 3 / 2 → 4 I 9 / 2 and 4 F 3 / 2 → 4 I 11 / 2 were ...

  12. Strong CH+ J=1-0 emission and absorption in DR21

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Falgarone, E.; Ossenkopf, V.; Gerin, M.; Lesaffre, P.; Godard, B.; Pearson, J.; Cabrit, S.; Joblin, Ch; Benz, A. O.; Boulanger, F.; Fuente, A.; Güsten, R.; Harris, A.; Klein, T.; Kramer, C.; Lord, S.; Martin, P.; Martin-Pintado, J.; Neufeld, D.; Phillips, T. G.; Röllig, M.; Simon, R.; Stutzki, J.; van der Tak, F.; Teyssier, D.; Yorke, H.; Erickson, N.; Fich, M.; Jellema, W.; Marston, A.; Risacher, C.; Salez, M.; Schmülling, F.

    We report the first detection of the ground-state rotational transition of the methylidyne cation CH+ towards the massive star-forming region DR 21 with the HIFI instrument onboard the Herschel satellite. The line profile exhibits a broad emission line, in addition to two deep and broad absorption

  13. LBT observations of compact star-forming galaxies with extremely high [O III]/[O II] flux ratios: He I emission-line ratios as diagnostics of Lyman continuum leakage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izotov, Y. I.; Thuan, T. X.; Guseva, N. G.

    2017-10-01

    We present Large Binocular Telescope spectrophotometric observations of five low-redshift (z logO/H = 7.46-7.79 and low masses M⋆ ˜ 106-107 M⊙, much lower than the M⋆ for known low-redshift LyC leaking galaxies, but probably more typical of the hypothetical population of low-luminosity dwarf LyC leakers at high redshifts. A broad H α emission line is detected in the spectra of all CSFGs, possibly related to expansion motions of supernova remnants. Such rapid ionized gas motions would facilitate the escape of the resonant Ly α emission from the galaxy. We show that a high O32 may not be a sufficient condition for LyC leakage and propose new diagnostics based on the He I λ3889/λ6678 and λ7065/λ6678 emission-line flux ratios. Using these diagnostics, we find that three CSFGs in our sample are likely to have density-bounded H II regions and are thus leaking large amounts of LyC radiation. The amount of leaking LyC radiation is probably much lower in the other two CSFGs.

  14. Optimization of soft x-ray line emission from laser-produced carbon ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Since this line lies in the water window spectral region, it has potential application in x-ray microscopic imaging of biological sample in wet condition. ... Laser Plasma Division, Centre for Advanced Technology, Indore 452 013, India; Laser and Plasma Technology Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400 085 ...

  15. Radial-velocity study of 18 emission-line B stars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jarad, M.M.; Hilditch, R.W.; Skillen, Ian (Saint Andrews Univ. (UK). Observatory)

    1989-06-01

    A total of 647 radial velocities of 18 northern-hemisphere Be stars obtained over two observing seasons (1983-1985) are presented. These velocities have been determined by the cross-correlation technique applied to selected spectral regions avoiding the hydrogen lines and including the He I lines. Analyses of these data via Fourier techniques suggest that three new spectroscopic binaries are discovered and that seven stars show variability in radial velocity which may be attributable to radial or non-radial pulsation. Four known binary orbits are confirmed. Only four stars in the sample are found to have constant radial velocity. These results strengthen and extend the evidence that the Be phenomenon can result from pulsational instability and that the proportion of binary systems amongst Be stars is about the same as the normal stellar populations. (author).

  16. Propagation and localization of quantum dot emission along a gap-plasmonic transmission line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro-Lopez, M; Manjavacas, A; García de Abajo, J; van Hulst, N F

    2015-11-16

    Plasmonic transmission lines have great potential to serve as direct interconnects between nanoscale light spots. The guiding of gap plasmons in the slot between adjacent nanowire pairs provides improved propagation of surface plasmon polaritons while keeping strong light confinement. Yet propagation is fundamentally limited by losses in the metal. Here we show a workaround operation of the gap-plasmon transmission line, exploiting both gap and external modes present in the structure. Interference between these modes allows us to take advantage of the larger propagation distance of the external mode while preserving the high confinement of the gap mode, resulting in nanoscale confinement of the optical field over a longer distance. The performance of the gap-plasmon transmission line is probed experimentally by recording the propagation of quantum dots luminescence over distances of more than 4 μm. We observe a 35% increase in the effective propagation length of this multimode system compared to the theoretical limit for a pure gap mode. The applicability of this simple method to nanofabricated structures is theoretically confirmed and offers a realistic way to combine longer propagation distances with lateral plasmon confinement for far field nanoscale interconnects.

  17. A CANDELS WFC3 Grism Study of Emission-Line Galaxies at Z approximates 2: A mix of Nuclear Activity and Low-Metallicity Star Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trump, Jonathan R.; Weiner, Benjamin J.; Scarlata, Claudia; Kocevski, Dale D.; Bell, Eric F.; McGrath, Elizabeth J.; Koo, David C.; Faber, S. M.; Laird, Elise S.; Mozena, Mark; hide

    2011-01-01

    We present Hubble Space Telescope Wide Field Camera 3 slitless grism spectroscopy of 28 emission-line galaxies at z approximates 2, in the GOODS-S region of the Cosmic Assembly Near-infrared Deep Extragalactic Legacy Survey (CANDELS). The high sensitivity of these grism observations, with > 5-sigma detections of emission lines to f > 2.5 X 10(exp -18( erg/s/ square cm, means that the galaxies in the sample are typically approximately 7 times less massive (median M(star). = 10(exp 9.5)M(solar)) than previously studied z approximates 2 emission-line galaxies. Despite their lower mass, the galaxies have [O-III]/H-Beta ratios which are very similar to previously studied z approximates 2 galaxies and much higher than the typical emission-line ratios of local galaxies. The WFC3 grism allows for unique studies of spatial gradients in emission lines, and we stack the two-dimensional spectra of the galaxies for this purpose. In the stacked data the [O-III] emission line is more spatially concentrated than the H-Beta emission line with 98.1% confidence. We additionally stack the X-ray data (all sources are individually undetected), and find that the average L(sub [O-III])/L(sub 0.5.10keV) ratio is intermediate between typical z approximates 0 obscured active galaxies and star-forming galaxies. Together the compactness of the stacked [O-III] spatial profile and the stacked X-ray data suggest that at least some of these low-mass, low-metallicity galaxies harbor weak active galactic nuclei.

  18. A CANDELS WFC3 GRISM STUDY OF EMISSION-LINE GALAXIES AT z {approx} 2: A MIX OF NUCLEAR ACTIVITY AND LOW-METALLICITY STAR FORMATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trump, Jonathan R.; Kocevski, Dale D.; McGrath, Elizabeth J.; Koo, David C.; Faber, S. M.; Mozena, Mark; Yesuf, Hassen [University of California Observatories/Lick Observatory, Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Weiner, Benjamin J. [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Scarlata, Claudia [Astronomy Department, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Bell, Eric F. [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, 500 Church St., Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Laird, Elise S.; Rangel, Cyprian [Astrophysics Group, Imperial College London, Blackett Laboratory, Prince Consort Road, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Yan Renbin [Department of Physics, Center for Cosmology and Particle Physics, New York University, New York, NY 10003 (United States); Atek, Hakim [Spitzer Science Center, Caltech, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Dickinson, Mark [National Optical Astronomical Observatories, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States); Donley, Jennifer L.; Ferguson, Henry C.; Grogin, Norman A. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Dunlop, James S. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Edinburgh, Royal Observatory, Edinburgh, EH9 3HJ (United Kingdom); Finkelstein, Steven L. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Texas A and M University, 4242 TAMU, College Station, TX 77843 (United States); and others

    2011-12-20

    We present Hubble Space Telescope Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) slitless grism spectroscopy of 28 emission-line galaxies at z {approx} 2, in the GOODS-S region of the Cosmic Assembly Near-infrared Deep Extragalactic Legacy Survey. The high sensitivity of these grism observations, with >1{sigma} detections of emission lines to f > 2.5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -18} erg s{sup -1} cm{sup -2}, means that the galaxies in the sample are typically {approx}7 times less massive (median M{sub *} = 10{sup 9.5} M{sub Sun }) than previously studied z {approx} 2 emission-line galaxies. Despite their lower mass, the galaxies have [O III]/H{beta} ratios which are very similar to previously studied z {approx} 2 galaxies and much higher than the typical emission-line ratios of local galaxies. The WFC3 grism allows for unique studies of spatial gradients in emission lines, and we stack the two-dimensional spectra of the galaxies for this purpose. In the stacked data the [O III] emission line is more spatially concentrated than the H{beta} emission line with 98.1% confidence. We additionally stack the X-ray data (all sources are individually undetected), and find that the average L{sub [OIII]}/L{sub 0.5-10keV} ratio is intermediate between typical z {approx} 0 obscured active galaxies and star-forming galaxies. Together the compactness of the stacked [O III] spatial profile and the stacked X-ray data suggest that at least some of these low-mass, low-metallicity galaxies harbor weak active galactic nuclei.

  19. Fluorescence lifetime of emitters with broad homogeneous linewidths modified in opal photonic crystals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nikolaev, Ivan S.; Lodahl, Peter; Vos, Willem L.

    2008-01-01

    We have investigated the dynamics of spontaneous emission from dye molecules embedded in opal photonic crystals. Fluorescence lifetimes of Rhodamine 6G (R6G) dye were measured as a function of both optical frequency and crystal lattice parameter of the polystyrene opals. Due to the broad homogene......We have investigated the dynamics of spontaneous emission from dye molecules embedded in opal photonic crystals. Fluorescence lifetimes of Rhodamine 6G (R6G) dye were measured as a function of both optical frequency and crystal lattice parameter of the polystyrene opals. Due to the broad...... states (LDOS) in the three-dimensional photonic crystals. The experiments and theory taken together reveal that the emission lifetime is modified over frequency ranges that are broader than the homogeneous emission line width of R6G dye....

  20. No “Maunder Minimum” Candidates in M67: Mitigating Interstellar Contamination of Chromospheric Emission Lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, Jason Lee

    2017-06-01

    The solar analogs of M67 let us glimpse the probable behavior of the Sun on timescales surpassing the duration of human civilization. M67 can serve as a solar proxy because its stars share a similar age and composition with the Sun. Previous surveys of M67 observed that 15% of its Sun-like stars exhibited chromospheric activity levels below solar minimum, which suggest that these stars might be in activity-minimum states analogous to the Maunder Minimum. The activity diagnostic used, the HK index (relative intensities of the Ca II H & K lines integrated over 1 Å bandpasses), was measured from low-resolution spectra (R ≈ 5000), as is traditional and suitable for nearby, bright stars. However, for stars beyond the Local Bubble, the interstellar medium (ISM) imprints absorption lines in spectra at Ca II H & K, which negatively bias activity measurements when these lines fall within the HK index bandpass. I model the ISM clouds in the M67 foreground with high-resolution spectra of blue stragglers and solar analogs. I demonstrate that ISM absorption varies across the cluster and must be accounted for on a star-by-star basis. I then apply the ISM model to a solar spectrum and broaden it to the lower spectral resolution employed by prior surveys. Comparing HK indices measured from ISM-free and ISM-contaminated spectra, I find that all stars observed below solar minimum can be explained by this ISM bias. I conclude that there is no compelling evidence for Maunder Minimum candidates in M67 at this time.

  1. Predicting emission line fluxes and number counts of distant galaxies for cosmological surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentino, F.; Daddi, E.; Silverman, J. D.; Puglisi, A.; Kashino, D.; Renzini, A.; Cimatti, A.; Pozzetti, L.; Rodighiero, G.; Pannella, M.; Gobat, R.; Zamorani, G.

    2017-12-01

    We estimate the number counts of line emitters at high redshift and their evolution with cosmic time based on a combination of photometry and spectroscopy. We predict the H α, H β, [O II], and [O III] line fluxes for more than 35 000 galaxies down to stellar masses of ∼109 M⊙ in the COSMOS and GOODS-S fields, applying standard conversions and exploiting the spectroscopic coverage of the FMOS-COSMOS survey at z ∼ 1.55 to calibrate the predictions. We calculate the number counts of H α, [O II], and [O III] emitters down to fluxes of 1 × 10-17 erg cm-2 s-1 in the range 1.4 differential and cumulative H α counts, steeply declining at the brightest fluxes. We expect ∼9300-9700 and ∼2300-2900 galaxies deg-2 for fluxes ≥1 × 10-16 and ≥2 × 10-16 erg cm-2 s-1 over the range of 0.9 < z < 1.8. We show that the observed evolution of the main sequence of galaxies with redshift is enough to reproduce the observed counts variation at 0.2 < z < 2.5. We characterize the physical properties of the H α emitters with fluxes ≥2 × 10-16 erg cm-2 s-1 including their stellar masses, UV sizes, [N II]/H α ratios and H α equivalent widths. An aperture of R ∼ Re ∼ 0.5 arcsec maximizes the signal-to-noise ratio for a detection, whilst causing a factor of ∼2 × flux losses, influencing the recoverable number counts, if neglected. Our approach, based on deep and large photometric data sets, reduces the uncertainties on the number counts due to the selection and spectroscopic samplings whilst exploring low fluxes. We publicly release the line flux predictions for the explored photometric samples.

  2. Predicting the Redshift 2 H-Alpha Luminosity Function Using [OIII] Emission Line Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Vihang; Scarlata, Claudia; Colbert, James W.; Dai, Y. S.; Dressler, Alan; Henry, Alaina; Malkan, Matt; Rafelski, Marc; Siana, Brian; Teplitz, Harry I.; hide

    2015-01-01

    Upcoming space-based surveys such as Euclid and WFIRST-AFTA plan to measure Baryonic Acoustic Oscillations (BAOs) in order to study dark energy. These surveys will use IR slitless grism spectroscopy to measure redshifts of a large number of galaxies over a significant redshift range. In this paper, we use the WFC3 Infrared Spectroscopic Parallel Survey (WISP) to estimate the expected number of H-alpha emitters observable by these future surveys. WISP is an ongoing Hubble Space Telescope slitless spectroscopic survey, covering the 0.8 - 1.65 micrometers wavelength range and allowing the detection of H-alpha emitters up to z approximately equal to 1.5 and [OIII] emitters to z approximately equal to 2.3. We derive the H-alpha-[OIII] bivariate line luminosity function for WISP galaxies at z approximately equal to 1 using a maximum likelihood estimator that properly accounts for uncertainties in line luminosity measurement, and demonstrate how it can be used to derive the H-alpha luminosity function from exclusively fitting [OIII] data. Using the z approximately equal to 2 [OIII] line luminosity function, and assuming that the relation between H-alpha and [OIII] luminosity does not change significantly over the redshift range, we predict the H-alpha number counts at z approximately equal to 2 - the upper end of the redshift range of interest for the future surveys. For the redshift range 0.7 less than z less than 2, we expect approximately 3000 galaxies per sq deg for a flux limit of 3 x 10(exp -16) ergs per sec per sq cm (the proposed depth of Euclid galaxy redshift survey) and approximately 20,000 galaxies per sq deg for a flux limit of approximately 10(exp -16) ergs per sec per sq cm (the baseline depth of WFIRST galaxy redshift survey).

  3. Ultraviolet Line-Continuum properties of Seyfert 1 galaxies and quasars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doddamani, Vijayakumar H.; Vedavathi, P.

    2014-07-01

    Active galaxies are most luminous objects in the universe whose spectra are characterized by both permitted and forbidden emission line features. The spectra of Seyfert 1 galaxies and quasars contain strong and broad emission lines of wide ranging ionization potentials. The velocity widths of the lines range from a minimum of ~ 500 km/s for narrow lines to a maximum of 20,000 km/sec for broad lines. The UV spectra of the active galaxies contain strong and broad emission lines such as Lyα, NV, SiIV, OIV], CIV, CIII] and MgII lines. The widths of the broad lines are attributed to the differential doppler shifts of the emission lines due to the bulk motions of individual clumpy gas clouds in the BLR region. We have anlysed UV spectra of Seyfert 1 galaxies and quasars from IUE satellite archival database to understand the nature of dependence of the emission line properties with the underlying UV continuum. We have undertaken line luminosity correlation studies for Lyα and CIV lines with their underlying UV continuum luminosity at 1125Å, 1425Å & 1625Å. The IUE archival spectra have been reduced for galactic reddening using the E(B-V) and NHI values published continuum luminosity has been observed at 1125Å, 1425Å & 1625Å. The Lyα line line has exhibited strongest linear correlation wavelengths while CIV line has shown at 1425Å and 2625Å wavelengths. These results are empirically consistent with the predictions of the general multi-component photo-ionization models suggesting that the central strong UV continuum has been reprocessed by the clumpy gas clouds of the broad emission region (BLR). A detailed account of the data reduction, UV flux measurement and the significance of line-luminosity correlations are discussed in this paper.

  4. Water emission towards the chemical rich outflow L1157: the WISH spectral line survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasta, M.; Codella, C.; Lorenzani, A.; Santangelo, G.; Nisini, B.; Giannini, T.; Tafalla, M.; Liseau, R.; Kristensen, L.; van Dischoeck, E. F.

    2011-05-01

    We present the results of the Herschel-HIFI water line survey performed in two bow shock regions (B2 and R) towards L1157, the prototype of chemically rich outflows. Observations, obtained as part of the WISH key project, cover several H2O ortho and para transitions in the frequency range from 500 to 1700 GHz. We will show the interestingly distinct behaviour of water profiles in the two positions, B2 and R, and how the R clump shows a clear dependence of excitation with velocity. We also compare H_2O line profiles with other molecules that trace different physical conditions (such as CH_3OH, CS, C18O, NH_3). Differently from other species such as ammonia, formaldehyde, and methanol that trace only the lower outflow velocities, water also traces higher velocities suggesting different formation routes. We will exhibit a comparison of H_2O with a standard jet-tracer, SiO, where it is clear that, although both species are tracing the same velocity range, the two profiles display a clear discrepancy challenging present theoretical models. A water LVG analysis, where we constrain the multi component physical conditions, is also provided.

  5. Flash Spectroscopy: Emission Lines From the Ionized Circumstellar Material Around 10-Day-Old Type II Supernovae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khazov, D.; Yaron, O.; Gal-Yam, A.; Manulis, I.; Rubin, A.; Kulkarni, S. R.; Arcavi, I.; Kasliwal, M. M.; Ofek, E. O.; Cao, Y.; hide

    2016-01-01

    Supernovae (SNe) embedded in dense circumstellar material (CSM) may show prominent emission lines in their early-time spectra (can measure various physical properties of the CSM, as well as the mass-loss rate of the progenitor during the year prior to its explosion. Searching through the Palomar Transient Factory (PTF and iPTF) SN spectroscopy databases from 2009 through 2014, we found 12 SNe II showing flash-ionized (FI) signatures in their first spectra. All are younger than 10 days. These events constitute 14% of all 84 SNe in our sample having a spectrum within 10 days from explosion, and 18% of SNe II observed at ages FI events. We classified as "blue/featureless" (BF) those events having a first spectrum that is similar to that of a blackbody, without any emission or absorption signatures. It is possible that some BF events had FI signatures at an earlier phase than observed, or that they lack dense CSM around the progenitor. Within 2 days after explosion, 8 out of 11 SNe in our sample are either BF events or show FI signatures. Interestingly, we found that 19 out of 21 SNe brighter than an absolute magnitude M(sub R) = -18.2 belong to the FI or BF groups, and that all FI events peaked above M(sub R) = -17.6 mag, significantly brighter than average SNe II.

  6. In situ probing of temperature in radio frequency thermal plasma using Yttrium ion emission lines during synthesis of yttria nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhamale, G. D.; Tiwari, N.; Mathe, V. L.; Bhoraskar, S. V.; Ghorui, S.

    2017-07-01

    Particle feeding is used in the most important applications of radio frequency (r.f.) thermal plasmas like synthesis of nanoparticles and particle spheroidization. The study reports an in-situ investigation of radial distribution of temperature in such devices using yttrium ion emission lines under different rates of particle loading during synthesis of yttria nanoparticles. A number of interesting facts about the response of r.f. plasma to the rate of particle loading, hitherto unknown, are revealed. Observed phenomena are supported with experimental data from fast photographic experiments and actual synthesis results. The use of the Abel inversion technique together with simultaneous multi-track acquisition of emission spectra from different spatial locations using a CCD based spectrometer allowed us to extract accurate distribution of temperature inside the plasma in the presence of inherent instabilities. The temperature profiles of this type of plasma have been measured possibly for the first time while particles are being fed into the plasma. Observed changes in the temperature profiles as the particle feed rate increases are very significant. Reaction forces resulting from particle evaporation, and increased skin depth owing to the decrease in electrical conductivity in the edge region are proposed as the two different mechanisms to account for the observed changes in the temperature profile as the powder feed rate is increased. Quantitative analyses supporting the proposed mechanisms are presented.

  7. MID-INFRARED ATOMIC FINE-STRUCTURE EMISSION-LINE SPECTRA OF LUMINOUS INFRARED GALAXIES: SPITZER/IRS SPECTRA OF THE GOALS SAMPLE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inami, H. [National Optical Astronomy Observatory, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States); Armus, L.; Stierwalt, S.; Díaz-Santos, T.; Surace, J.; Howell, J.; Marshall, J. [Spitzer Science Center, California Institute of Technology, CA 91125 (United States); Charmandaris, V. [Department of Physics and Institute of Theoretical and Computational Physics, University of Crete, GR-71003 Heraklion (Greece); Groves, B. [Max Planck Institute for Astronomy, Königstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Kewley, L. [Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The Australian National University, Cotter Road, Weston Creek, ACT 2611 (Australia); Petric, A. [Department of Astronomy, California Institute of Technology, MS 320-47, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Rich, J. [The Observatories, Carnegie Institute of Washington, 813 Santa Barbara Street, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); Haan, S. [CSIRO Astronomy and Space Science, Marsfield, NSW 2122 (Australia); Evans, A. S. [Department of Astronomy, University of Virginia, P.O. Box 400325, Charlottesville, VA 22904 (United States); Mazzarella, J.; Lord, S. [Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, MS 100-22, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Appleton, P. [NASA Herschel Science Center, 770 South Wilson Avenue, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Spoon, H. [Astronomy Department, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Frayer, D. [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, P.O. Box 2, Green Bank, WV 24944 (United States); Matsuhara, H., E-mail: inami@noao.edu [Institute of Space and Astronautical Science, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (Japan); and others

    2013-11-10

    We present the data and our analysis of mid-infrared atomic fine-structure emission lines detected in Spitzer/Infrared Spectrograph high-resolution spectra of 202 local Luminous Infrared Galaxies (LIRGs) observed as part of the Great Observatories All-sky LIRG Survey (GOALS). We readily detect emission lines of [S IV], [Ne II], [Ne V], [Ne III], [S III]{sub 18.7{sub μm}}, [O IV], [Fe II], [S III]{sub 33.5{sub μm}}, and [Si II]. More than 75% of these galaxies are classified as starburst-dominated sources in the mid-infrared, based on the [Ne V]/[Ne II] line flux ratios and equivalent width of the 6.2 μm polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon feature. We compare ratios of the emission-line fluxes to those predicted from stellar photo-ionization and shock-ionization models to constrain the physical and chemical properties of the gas in the starburst LIRG nuclei. Comparing the [S IV]/[Ne II] and [Ne III]/[Ne II] line ratios to the Starburst99-Mappings III models with an instantaneous burst history, the emission-line ratios suggest that the nuclear starbursts in our LIRGs have ages of 1-4.5 Myr, metallicities of 1-2 Z{sub ☉}, and ionization parameters of 2-8 × 10{sup 7} cm s{sup –1}. Based on the [S III]{sub 33.5{sub μm}}/[S III]{sub 18.7{sub μm}} ratios, the electron density in LIRG nuclei is typically one to a few hundred cm{sup –3}, with a median electron density of ∼300 cm{sup –3}, for those sources above the low density limit for these lines. We also find that strong shocks are likely present in 10 starburst-dominated sources of our sample. A significant fraction of the GOALS sources (80) have resolved neon emission-line profiles (FWHM ≥600 km s{sup –1}) and five show clear differences in the velocities of the [Ne III] or [Ne V] emission lines, relative to [Ne II], of more than 200 km s{sup –1}. Furthermore, six starburst and five active galactic nucleus dominated LIRGs show a clear trend of increasing line width with ionization potential

  8. Continuum and Line Emission Simulation of Star-Forming Galaxies and Development of a New Sub-mm Inte

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagache, Guilaine

    2018-01-01

    Nowadays, most of the constraints on the dusty star formation at high z comes from deep continuum surveys. We developed a new simulation of the dusty extragalactic sky with a realistic clustering. The comparison between single-dish and interferometric data showed that the clustering inside the beam of a single-dish instrument can seriously bias their measurements. Fortunately, these simulations also show that the beam of a >30-meter dish in the mm should not be affected by serious multiplicity effects. We will give predictions for important characteristics of future AtLAST surveys (as confusion limit, number of detections, properties of detected galaxies). These simulations can also include line emission to prepare a future sub-mm low-resolution spectroscopic survey at high z with AtLAST. Such a survey could be built on the legacy of the CONCERTO survey, that will map the fluctuations of the CII line intensity in the reionisation and post-reionisation epoch. A "super-CONCERTO" instrument on AtLAST would be a perfect first-light instrument to unveil the gigantic potential of this telescope.

  9. Power line emission 50/60 Hz and Schumann resonances observed by microsatellite Chibis-M in the Earth's ionosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudkin, Denys; Pilipenko, Vyacheslav; Dudkin, Fedir; Pronenko, Vira; Klimov, Stanislav

    2015-04-01

    The overhead power lines are the sources of intense wideband electromagnetic (EM) emission, especially in ELF-VLF range, because of significant length (up to a few thousand kilometers) and strong 50/60 Hz currents with noticeable distortion. The radiation efficiency of the power line emission (PLE) increases with the harmonic order, so they are well observed by ground-based EM sensors. However their observations by low orbiting satellites (LEO) are very rare, particularly at basic harmonic 50/60 Hz, because of the ionospheric plasma opacity in ELF band. The Schumann resonance (SR) is the narrow-band EM noise that occurs due to the global thunderstorm activity in the Earth-ionosphere cavity. The first five eigenmodes of the SR are 7.8, 14.3, 20.8, 27.3 and 33.8 Hz and, thus, SR harmonics are also strongly absorbed by the Earth ionosphere. The published numerical simulations show that the penetration depth of such an ELF emission into the Earth's ionosphere is limited to 50-70 km for electric field and 120-240 km for magnetic field. From this follows, that PLE and SR can hardly ever be detected by LEO satellites, i.e. above the F-layer of ionosphere. In spite of this fact, these emissions were recently observed with use of the electric field antennas placed on the satellites C/NOFS (USA) and Chibis-M (Russia). Microsatellite Chibis-M was launched on January 24, 2012, at 23:18:30 UTC from the cargo ship "Progress M-13M" to circular orbit with altitude ~500 km and inclination ~52° . Chibis-M mass is about 40 kg where one third is a scientific instrumentation. The dimensions of the microsatellite case are 0.26x0.26x0.54 m with the outside mounted solar panels, service and scientific instrumentation. The main scientific objective of Chibis-M is the theoretical model verification for the atmospheric gamma-ray bursts. It requires the study of the accompanying EM processes such as the plasma waves produced by the lightning discharges in the VLF band. Chibis-M decayed on 15

  10. Redshift of the Heα emission line of He-like ions under a plasma environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, T. K.; Wu, C. S.; Gao, X.; Chang, T. N.

    2017-11-01

    By carefully following the spatial and temporal criteria of the Debye-Hückel (DH) approximation, we present a detailed theoretical study on the redshifts of the spectroscopically isolated Heα lines corresponding to the 1 s 2 p 1P →1 s21S emission from two-electron ions embedded in external dense plasma. We first focus our study on the ratio R =Δ ωα/ωo between the redshift Δ ωα due to the external plasma environment and the energy ωo of the Heα line in the absence of the plasma. Interestingly, the result of our calculation shows that this ratio R turns out to vary as a nearly universal function of a reduced Debye length λD(Z ) =(Z -1 ) D . Since the ratio R dictates the necessary energy resolution for a quantitative measurement of the redshifts and, at the same time, the Debye length D is linked directly to the plasma density and temperature, the dependence of R on D should help to facilitate the potential experimental efforts for a quantitative measurement of the redshifts for the Heα line of the two-electron ions. In addition, our study has led to a nearly constant redshift Δ ωα at a given D for all He-like ions with Z between 5 and 18 based on our recent critical assessment of the applicability of the DH approximation to atomic transitions. These two general features, if confirmed by observation, would offer a viable and easy alternative in the diagnostic efforts of the dense plasma.

  11. DUST ATTENUATION OF THE NEBULAR REGIONS OF z ∼ 2 STAR-FORMING GALAXIES: INSIGHT FROM UV, IR, AND EMISSION LINES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Barros, S.; Reddy, N.; Shivaei, I., E-mail: stephane.debarros@oabo.inaf.it [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Riverside, CA 92507 (United States)

    2016-04-01

    We use a sample of 149 spectroscopically confirmed UV-selected galaxies at z ∼ 2 to investigate the relative dust attenuation of the stellar continuum and the nebular emission lines. For each galaxy in the sample, at least one rest-frame optical emission line (Hα/[N ii] λ6583 or [O iii] λ5007) measurement has been taken from the litterature, and 41 galaxies have additional Spitzer/MIPS 24 μm observations that are used to infer infrared luminosities. We use a spectral energy distribution (SED) fitting code that predicts nebular line strengths when fitting the stellar populations of galaxies in our sample, and we perform comparisons between the predictions of our models and the observed/derived physical quantities. We find that on average our code is able to reproduce all the physical quantities (e.g., UV β slopes, infrared luminosities, emission line fluxes), but we need to apply a higher dust correction to the nebular emission compared to the stellar emission for the largest star formation rate (SFR) (log SFR/M{sub ⊙} yr{sup −1} > 1.82, Salpeter initial mass function). We find a correlation between SFR and the difference in nebular and stellar color excesses, which could resolve the discrepant results regarding nebular dust correction at z ∼ 2 from previous studies.

  12. DETERMINATION OF THE SPONTANEOUS EMISSION PROBABILITIES AND THE COLLISION SELF-BROADENING COEFFICIENTS OF THE СО2 SPECTRAL LINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. I. Arshinov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The technique of simultaneous determination of the spontaneous emission probabilities Аmn and the collision self-broadening coefficients γmn of the СО2 spectral lines is presented. The dependence of the absorption coefficient on the gas pressure, obtained for the СО210R22 line at temperature 300 K was measured. Using the data, the spontaneous emission probability Аmn and the collision self-broadening coefficient γmn were calculated.

  13. Identification of S VIII through S XIV emission lines between 17.5 and 50 nm in a magnetically confined plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, K. J.; Tamura, N.; Combs, S. K.; García, R.; Hernández Sánchez, J.; Navarro, M.; Panadero, N.; Pastor, I.; Soleto, A.; the TJ-II Team

    2018-03-01

    43 spectral emission lines from F-like to Li-like sulphur ions have been identified in the wavelength range from 17.5 to 50 nm in spectra obtained following tracer injection into plasmas created in a magnetically confined plasma device, the stellarator TJ-II. Plasmas created and maintained in this heliac device with electron cyclotron resonance heating achieve central electron temperatures and densities up to 1.5 keV and 8 × 1018 m‑3, respectively. Tracer injections were performed with ≤6 × 1016 atoms of sulphur contained within ∼300 μm diameter polystyrene capsules, termed tracer encapsulated solid pellets, using a gas propulsion system to achieve velocities between 250 and 450 m s‑1. Once ablation of the exterior polystyrene shell by plasma particles is completed, the sulphur is deposited in the plasma core where it is ionized up to S+13 and transported about the plasma. In order to aid line identification, which is made using a number of atomic line emission databases, spectra are collected before and after injection using a 1 m focal length normal incidence spectrometer equipped with a CCD camera. This work is motivated by the need to clearly identify sulphur emission lines in the vacuum ultraviolet range of magnetically confined plasmas, as sulphur x-ray emission lines are regularly observed in both tokamak and stellarator plasmas.

  14. Development of a non-delay line constant fraction discriminator based on the Padé approximant for time-of-flight positron emission tomography scanners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, S. Y.; Ko, G. B.; Kwon, S. I.; Lee, J. S.

    2015-01-01

    In positron emission tomography, the constant fraction discriminator (CFD) circuit is used to acquire accurate arrival times for the annihilation photons with minimum sensitivity to time walk. As the number of readout channels increases, it becomes difficult to use conventional CFDs because of the large amount of space required for the delay line part of the circuit. To make the CFD compact, flexible, and easily controllable, a non-delay-line CFD based on the Padé approximant is proposed. The non-delay-line CFD developed in this study is shown to have timing performance that is similar to that of a conventional delay-line-based CFD in terms of the coincidence resolving time of a fast photomultiplier tube detector. This CFD can easily be applied to various positron emission tomography system designs that contain high-density detectors with multi-channel structures.

  15. A fast-time-response extreme ultraviolet spectrometer for measurement of impurity line emissions in the Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ling; Morita, Shigeru; Xu, Zong; Wu, Zhenwei; Zhang, Pengfei; Wu, Chengrui; Gao, Wei; Ohishi, Tetsutarou; Goto, Motoshi; Shen, Junsong; Chen, Yingjie; Liu, Xiang; Wang, Yumin; Dong, Chunfeng; Zhang, Hongmin; Huang, Xianli; Gong, Xianzu; Hu, Liqun; Chen, Junlin; Zhang, Xiaodong; Wan, Baonian; Li, Jiangang

    2015-12-01

    A flat-field extreme ultraviolet (EUV) spectrometer working in the 20-500 Å wavelength range with fast time response has been newly developed to measure line emissions from highly ionized tungsten in the Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak (EAST) with a tungsten divertor, while the monitoring of light and medium impurities is also an aim in the present development. A flat-field focal plane for spectral image detection is made by a laminar-type varied-line-spacing concave holographic grating with an angle of incidence of 87°. A back-illuminated charge-coupled device (CCD) with a total size of 26.6 × 6.6 mm(2) and pixel numbers of 1024 × 255 (26 × 26 μm(2)/pixel) is used for recording the focal image of spectral lines. An excellent spectral resolution of Δλ0 = 3-4 pixels, where Δλ0 is defined as full width at the foot position of a spectral line, is obtained at the 80-400 Å wavelength range after careful adjustment of the grating and CCD positions. The high signal readout rate of the CCD can improve the temporal resolution of time-resolved spectra when the CCD is operated in the full vertical binning mode. It is usually operated at 5 ms per frame. If the vertical size of the CCD is reduced with a narrow slit, the time response becomes faster. The high-time response in the spectral measurement therefore makes possible a variety of spectroscopic studies, e.g., impurity behavior in long pulse discharges with edge-localized mode bursts. An absolute intensity calibration of the EUV spectrometer is also carried out with a technique using the EUV bremsstrahlung continuum at 20-150 Å for quantitative data analysis. Thus, the high-time resolution tungsten spectra have been successfully observed with good spectral resolution using the present EUV spectrometer system. Typical tungsten spectra in the EUV wavelength range observed from EAST discharges are presented with absolute intensity and spectral identification.

  16. The 2010 Broad Prize

    Science.gov (United States)

    Education Digest: Essential Readings Condensed for Quick Review, 2011

    2011-01-01

    A new data analysis, based on data collected as part of The Broad Prize process, provides insights into which large urban school districts in the United States are doing the best job of educating traditionally disadvantaged groups: African-American, Hispanics, and low-income students. Since 2002, The Eli and Edythe Broad Foundation has awarded The…

  17. Broad ligament ectopic pregnancy

    OpenAIRE

    Rama C; Lepakshi G; Raju SN

    2015-01-01

    Pregnancy in the broad ligament is a rare form of ectopic pregnancy with a high risk of maternal mortality. Ultrasonography may help in the early diagnosis but mostly the diagnosis is established during surgery. We report the case of a patient with broad ligament ectopic pregnancy diagnosed intraoperatively. The patient had uneventful postoperative recovery.

  18. Physical properties of emission-line galaxies at z ∼ 2 from near-infrared spectroscopy with Magellan fire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masters, Daniel; Siana, Brian; Mobasher, Bahram; Domínguez, Alberto [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Riverside, CA 92521 (United States); McCarthy, Patrick; Blanc, Guillermo; Dressler, Alan [Carnegie Observatories, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); Malkan, Mathew; Ross, Nathaniel R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, UCLA, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Atek, Hakim [Laboratoire d' Astrophysique Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale, CH-1290 Sauverny (Switzerland); Henry, Alaina [Astrophysics Science Division, Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Martin, Crystal L. [Department of Physics, Universitey of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 (United States); Rafelski, Marc; Colbert, James [Spitzer Science Center, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Hathi, Nimish P. [Aix Marseille Université, CNRS, LAM (Laboratoire d' Astrophysique de Marseille) UMR 7326, F-13388 Marseille (France); Scarlata, Claudia [Minnesota Institute for Astrophysics, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Bunker, Andrew J. [Department of Physics, University of Oxford (United Kingdom); Bedregal, Alejandro G. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Tufts University, Medford, MA 02155 (United States); Teplitz, Harry [Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, Caltech, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)

    2014-04-20

    We present results from near-infrared spectroscopy of 26 emission-line galaxies at z ∼ 2.2 and z ∼ 1.5 obtained with the Folded-port InfraRed Echellette (FIRE) spectrometer on the 6.5 m Magellan Baade telescope. The sample was selected from the WFC3 Infrared Spectroscopic Parallels survey, which uses the near-infrared grism of the Hubble Space Telescope Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) to detect emission-line galaxies over 0.3 ≲ z ≲ 2.3. Our FIRE follow-up spectroscopy (R ∼ 5000) over 1.0-2.5 μm permits detailed measurements of the physical properties of the z ∼ 2 emission-line galaxies. Dust-corrected star formation rates for the sample range from ∼5-100 M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1} with a mean of 29 M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1}. We derive a median metallicity for the sample of 12 + log(O/H) = 8.34 or ∼0.45 Z {sub ☉}. The estimated stellar masses range from ∼10{sup 8.5}-10{sup 9.5} M {sub ☉}, and a clear positive correlation between metallicity and stellar mass is observed. The average ionization parameter measured for the sample, log U ≈ –2.5, is significantly higher than what is found for most star-forming galaxies in the local universe, but similar to the values found for other star-forming galaxies at high redshift. We derive composite spectra from the FIRE sample, from which we measure typical nebular electron densities of ∼100-400 cm{sup –3}. Based on the location of the galaxies and composite spectra on diagnostic diagrams, we do not find evidence for significant active galactic nucleus activity in the sample. Most of the galaxies, as well as the composites, are offset diagram toward higher [O III]/Hβ at a given [N II]/Hα, in agreement with other observations of z ≳ 1 star-forming galaxies, but composite spectra derived from the sample do not show an appreciable offset from the local star-forming sequence on the [O III]/Hβ versus [S II]/Hα diagram. We infer a high nitrogen-to-oxygen abundance ratio from the composite spectrum, which

  19. FLASH SPECTROSCOPY: EMISSION LINES FROM THE IONIZED CIRCUMSTELLAR MATERIAL AROUND <10-DAY-OLD TYPE II SUPERNOVAE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khazov, D.; Yaron, O.; Gal-Yam, A.; Manulis, I.; Rubin, A.; Ofek, E. O.; Horesh, A. [Benoziyo Center for Astrophysics, Faculty of Physics, The Weizmann Institute for Science, Rehovot 76100 (Israel); Kulkarni, S. R.; Kasliwal, M. M.; Cao, Y.; Perley, D. [Astronomy Department, California Institute of Technology, 1200 E. California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Arcavi, I.; Howell, D. A. [Las Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope Network, 6740 Cortona Drive, Suite 102, Goleta, CA 93111 (United States); Sollerman, J. [The Oskar Klein Centre, Department of Astronomy, Stockholm University, AlbaNova, SE-10691 Stockholm (Sweden); Sullivan, M. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Southampton, Southampton, SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom); Filippenko, A. V.; Nugent, P. E. [Department of Astronomy, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720-3411 (United States); Cenko, S. B. [Astrophysics Science Division, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Mail Code 661, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Silverman, J. M. [Department of Astronomy, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Ebeling, H. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); and others

    2016-02-10

    Supernovae (SNe) embedded in dense circumstellar material (CSM) may show prominent emission lines in their early-time spectra (≤10 days after the explosion), owing to recombination of the CSM ionized by the shock-breakout flash. From such spectra (“flash spectroscopy”), we can measure various physical properties of the CSM, as well as the mass-loss rate of the progenitor during the year prior to its explosion. Searching through the Palomar Transient Factory (PTF and iPTF) SN spectroscopy databases from 2009 through 2014, we found 12 SNe II showing flash-ionized (FI) signatures in their first spectra. All are younger than 10 days. These events constitute 14% of all 84 SNe in our sample having a spectrum within 10 days from explosion, and 18% of SNe II observed at ages <5 days, thereby setting lower limits on the fraction of FI events. We classified as “blue/featureless” (BF) those events having a first spectrum that is similar to that of a blackbody, without any emission or absorption signatures. It is possible that some BF events had FI signatures at an earlier phase than observed, or that they lack dense CSM around the progenitor. Within 2 days after explosion, 8 out of 11 SNe in our sample are either BF events or show FI signatures. Interestingly, we found that 19 out of 21 SNe brighter than an absolute magnitude M{sub R} = −18.2 belong to the FI or BF groups, and that all FI events peaked above M{sub R} = −17.6 mag, significantly brighter than average SNe II.

  20. SDSS-IV MaNGA: the impact of diffuse ionized gas on emission-line ratios, interpretation of diagnostic diagrams and gas metallicity measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kai; Yan, Renbin; Bundy, Kevin; Bershady, Matthew; Haffner, L. Matthew; Walterbos, René; Maiolino, Roberto; Tremonti, Christy; Thomas, Daniel; Drory, Niv; Jones, Amy; Belfiore, Francesco; Sánchez, Sebastian F.; Diamond-Stanic, Aleksandar M.; Bizyaev, Dmitry; Nitschelm, Christian; Andrews, Brett; Brinkmann, Jon; Brownstein, Joel R.; Cheung, Edmond; Li, Cheng; Law, David R.; Roman Lopes, Alexandre; Oravetz, Daniel; Pan, Kaike; Storchi Bergmann, Thaisa; Simmons, Audrey

    2017-04-01

    Diffuse ionized gas (DIG) is prevalent in star-forming galaxies. Using a sample of 365 nearly face-on star-forming galaxies observed by Mapping Nearby Galaxies at APO, we demonstrate how DIG in star-forming galaxies impacts the measurements of emission-line ratios, hence the interpretation of diagnostic diagrams and gas-phase metallicity measurements. At fixed metallicity, DIG-dominated low ΣHα regions display enhanced [S II]/Hα, [N II]/Hα, [O II]/Hβ and [O I]/Hα. The gradients in these line ratios are determined by metallicity gradients and ΣHα. In line ratio diagnostic diagrams, contamination by DIG moves H II regions towards composite or low-ionization nuclear emission-line region (LI(N)ER)-like regions. A harder ionizing spectrum is needed to explain DIG line ratios. Leaky H II region models can only shift line ratios slightly relative to H II region models, and thus fail to explain the composite/LI(N)ER line ratios displayed by DIG. Our result favours ionization by evolved stars as a major ionization source for DIG with LI(N)ER-like emission. DIG can significantly bias the measurement of gas metallicity and metallicity gradients derived using strong-line methods. Metallicities derived using N2O2 are optimal because they exhibit the smallest bias and error. Using O3N2, R23, N2 = [N II]/Hα and N2S2Hα to derive metallicities introduces bias in the derived metallicity gradients as large as the gradient itself. The strong-line method of Blanc et al. (IZI hereafter) cannot be applied to DIG to get an accurate metallicity because it currently contains only H II region models that fail to describe the DIG.

  1. Investigating the Threshold and Strength of Emission Lines Generated by Magnetized Stimulated Brillouin Scatter (MSBS) using HAARP facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoudian, A.; Scales, W.; Bernhardt, P. A.

    2011-12-01

    The High-Frequency Active Auroral Research Program (HAARP) in Gakona, Alaska provides effective radiated powers in the megawatt range that have allowed researchers to study many non-linear effects of wave-plasma interactions. Stimulated Electromagnetic Emission (SEE) is of interest to the ionospheric community for its diagnostic purposes. In recent HAARP heating experiments, it has been shown that during the Magnetized Stimulated Brillouin Scattering MSBS instability, the pumped electromagnetic wave may decay into an electromagnetic wave and a low frequency electrostatic wave (either ion acoustic IA wave or electrostatic ion cyclotron EIC wave). According to the matching conditions, the O-mode electromagnetic wave can excite either an ion-acoustic wave with a frequency less than the ion cyclotron frequency that propagates along the magnetic field or an electrostatic ion cyclotron (EIC) wave with frequency just above the ion cyclotron frequency that propagates at an angle with respect to the magnetic field. Using Stimulated Electromagnetic Emission (SEE) spectral features, side bands which extend above and below the pump frequency can yield significant diagnostics for the modified ionosphere. It has been shown that the IA wave frequency offsets can be used to measure electron temperature in the heated ionosphere and EIC wave offsets can be used as a sensitive method to determine the ion species by measuring ion mass using the ion gyro-frequency offset. In this presentation the results of SEE experiment at 2010 PARS summer school and 2011 SSRC will be discussed. The experiment was performed at the 3rd electron gyro harmonic with frequency sweeping, power stepping and beam angle variation. Three diagnostics were implemented to study the SEE. There were 1) A 4 channel spectrum analyzer SEE receiver, 2) the University of Alaska SuperDARN radar facility and, 3) the MUIR incoherent scatter radar. The experimental results aimed to show the threshold for transmitter power

  2. Black hole mass estimates and emission-line properties of a sample of redshift z > 6.5 quasars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Rosa, Gisella; Peterson, Bradley M.; Frank, Stephan [Department of Astronomy, The Ohio State University, 140 West 18th Avenue, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Venemans, Bram P.; Decarli, Roberto; Walter, Fabian [Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie, Königstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Gennaro, Mario [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Simcoe, Robert A. [MIT-Kavli Center for Astrophysics and Space Research, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Dietrich, Matthias [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Ohio University, Clippinger Lab 251B, Athens, OH 45701 (United States); McMahon, Richard G.; Hewett, Paul C. [Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HA (United Kingdom); Mortlock, Daniel J. [Astrophysics Group, Imperial College London, Blackett Laboratory, Prince Consort Road, London, SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Simpson, Chris [Astrophysics Research Institute, Liverpool John Moores University, Liverpool Science Park, 146 Brownlow Hill, Liverpool L3 5RF (United Kingdom)

    2014-08-01

    We present the analysis of optical and near-infrared spectra of the only four z > 6.5 quasars known to date, discovered in the UKIDSS-LAS and VISTA-VIKING surveys. Our data set consists of new Very Large Telescope/X-Shooter and Magellan/FIRE observations. These are the best optical/NIR spectroscopic data that are likely to be obtained for the z > 6.5 sample using current 6-10 m facilities. We estimate the black hole (BH) mass, the Eddington ratio, and the Si IV/C IV, C III]/C IV, and Fe II/Mg II emission-line flux ratios. We perform spectral modeling using a procedure that allows us to derive a probability distribution for the continuum components and to obtain the quasar properties weighted upon the underlying distribution of continuum models. The z > 6.5 quasars show the same emission properties as their counterparts at lower redshifts. The z > 6.5 quasars host BHs with masses of ∼10{sup 9} M{sub ☉} that are accreting close to the Eddington luminosity ((log(L{sub Bol}/L{sub Edd})) = –0.4 ± 0.2), in agreement with what has been observed for a sample of 4.0 < z < 6.5 quasars. By comparing the Si IV/C IV and C III]/C IV flux ratios with the results obtained from luminosity-matched samples at z ∼ 6 and 2 ≤ z ≤ 4.5, we find no evidence of evolution of the line ratios with cosmic time. We compare the measured Fe II/Mg II flux ratios with those obtained for a sample of 4.0 < z < 6.4 sources. The two samples are analyzed using a consistent procedure. There is no evidence that the Fe II/Mg II flux ratio evolves between z = 7 and z = 4. Under the assumption that the Fe II/Mg II traces the Fe/Mg abundance ratio, this implies the presence of major episodes of chemical enrichment in the quasar hosts in the first ∼0.8 Gyr after the Big Bang.

  3. Active galactic nuclei emission line diagnostics and the mass-metallicity relation up to redshift z ∼ 2: The impact of selection effects and evolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juneau, Stéphanie; Bournaud, Frédéric; Daddi, Emanuele; Elbaz, David; Duc, Pierre-Alain; Gobat, Raphael; Jean-Baptiste, Ingrid; Le Floc' h, Émeric; Pannella, Maurilio; Schreiber, Corentin [CEA-Saclay, DSM/IRFU/SAp, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Charlot, Stéphane; Lehnert, M. D.; Pacifici, Camilla [UPMC-CNRS, UMR 7095, Institut d' Astrophysique de Paris, F-75014 Paris (France); Trump, Jonathan R. [University of California Observatories/Lick Observatory, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Brinchmann, Jarle [Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, P.O. Box 9513, 2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands); Dickinson, Mark, E-mail: stephanie.juneau@cea.fr [National Optical Astronomy Observatory, 950 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States)

    2014-06-10

    Emission line diagnostic diagrams probing the ionization sources in galaxies, such as the Baldwin-Phillips-Terlevich (BPT) diagram, have been used extensively to distinguish active galactic nuclei (AGN) from purely star-forming galaxies. However, they remain poorly understood at higher redshifts. We shed light on this issue with an empirical approach based on a z ∼ 0 reference sample built from ∼300,000 Sloan Digital Sky Survey galaxies, from which we mimic selection effects due to typical emission line detection limits at higher redshift. We combine this low-redshift reference sample with a simple prescription for luminosity evolution of the global galaxy population to predict the loci of high-redshift galaxies on the BPT and Mass-Excitation (MEx) diagnostic diagrams. The predicted bivariate distributions agree remarkably well with direct observations of galaxies out to z ∼ 1.5, including the observed stellar mass-metallicity (MZ) relation evolution. As a result, we infer that high-redshift star-forming galaxies are consistent with having normal interstellar medium (ISM) properties out to z ∼ 1.5, after accounting for selection effects and line luminosity evolution. Namely, their optical line ratios and gas-phase metallicities are comparable to that of low-redshift galaxies with equivalent emission-line luminosities. In contrast, AGN narrow-line regions may show a shift toward lower metallicities at higher redshift. While a physical evolution of the ISM conditions is not ruled out for purely star-forming galaxies and may be more important starting at z ≳ 2, we find that reliably quantifying this evolution is hindered by selections effects. The recipes provided here may serve as a basis for future studies toward this goal. Code to predict the loci of galaxies on the BPT and MEx diagnostic diagrams and the MZ relation as a function of emission line luminosity limits is made publicly available.

  4. LINE EMISSION AND ANISOTROPY EFFECTS IN C6+ ELECTRON-CAPTURE FROM LI(2S), LI-ASTERISK(2P) AND H-ASTERISK(N=2)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    OLSON, RE; HOEKSTRA, R

    Line emission cross sections for visible transitions after electron capture collisions of C6+ With Li(2s), Li-*(2p), and H-*(n = 2) are calculated for energies up to 50 keV/u; the values agree with available Li(2s) data. Anisotropy parameters are also given for aligned Li-*(2p). The results were

  5. Data correlation in on-line solid-phase extraction-gas chromatography-atomic emission/mass spectrometric detection of unknown microcontaminants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hankemeier, Th.; Rozenbrand, J.; Abhadur, M.; Vreuls, J.J.; Brinkman, U.A.Th.

    1998-01-01

    A procedure is described for the (non-target) screening of hetero-atom-containing compounds in tap and waste water by correlating data obtained by gas chromatography (GC) using atomic emission (AED) and mass selective (MS) detection. Solid-phase extraction (SPE) was coupled on-line to both GC

  6. Qualitative tissue differentiation by analysing the intensity ratios of atomic emission lines using laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS): prospects for a feedback mechanism for surgical laser systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanawade, Rajesh; Mahari, Fanuel; Klämpfl, Florian; Rohde, Maximilian; Knipfer, Christian; Tangermann-Gerk, Katja; Adler, Werner; Schmidt, Michael; Stelzle, Florian

    2015-01-01

    The research work presented in this paper focuses on qualitative tissue differentiation by monitoring the intensity ratios of atomic emissions using 'Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy' (LIBS) on the plasma plume created during laser tissue ablation. The background of this study is to establish a real time feedback control mechanism for clinical laser surgery systems during the laser ablation process. Ex-vivo domestic pig tissue samples (muscle, fat, nerve and skin) were used in this experiment. Atomic emission intensity ratios were analyzed to find a characteristic spectral line for each tissue. The results showed characteristic elemental emission intensity ratios for the respective tissues. The spectral lines and intensity ratios of these specific elements varied among the different tissue types. The main goal of this study is to qualitatively and precisely identify different tissue types for tissue specific laser surgery. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Biophotonics published by WILEY-VCH Verlag.

  7. Searching for the influence radius of AGN in nearby narrow emission-line galaxies using the CALIFA survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robleto-Orús, A. C.; Torres-Papaqui, J. P.; Coziol, R.; Morales-Vargas, A.; Romero-Cruz, F. J.; Ortega-Minakata, R. A.; Chow-Martinez, M.; Trejo-Alonso, J. J.

    2017-07-01

    In narrow emission-line galaxies, one important problem consists in discriminating gas ionization due to an AGN and gas ionization due to OB stars in active star-forming regions. This problem becomes more acute in case of AGNs classified as transition-type objects (TO), where star formation is relatively intense, and for LINERs, where the AGN is very weak. Thanks to the integral field spectroscopy, we have a new way to attack this problem. By definition, OB stars ionize a definite portion of space, the Strömgren's sphere, which size depends on the total luminosity of the star, its temperature, and the density of the surrounding gas. Therefore one expects gas ionized by OB stars to cover limited areas in a galaxy. On the other hand, due to the huge amount of ionizing photons emitted by an AGN, its "influence radius" is expected do be much more extended, in the order of kpc. Using a sample of galaxies from included in the CALIFA survey DR3, we will test a new way to measure the characteristic "influence radius" of AGN with different intensities.

  8. Using a New Infrared Si X Coronal Emission Line for Discriminating between Magnetohydrodynamic Models of the Solar Corona During the 2006 Solar Eclipse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dima, Gabriel I.; Kuhn, Jeffrey R.; Mickey, Don; Downs, Cooper

    2018-01-01

    During the 2006 March 29 total solar eclipse, coronal spectropolarimetric measurements were obtained over a 6 × 6 R ⊙ field of view with a 1–2 μm spectral range. The data yielded linearly polarized measurements of the Fe XIII 1.075 μm, He I 1.083 μm, and for the first time, of the Si X 1.430 μm emission lines. To interpret the measurements, we used forward-integrated synthetic emission from two magnetohydrodynamic models for the same Carrington rotation with different heating functions and magnetic boundary conditions. Observations of the Fe XIII 1.075/Si X 1.430 line ratio allowed us to discriminate between two models of the corona, with the observations strongly favoring the warmer model. The observed polarized amplitudes for the Si X 1.430 μm line are around 7%, which is three times higher than the predicted values from available atomic models for the line. This discrepancy indicates a need for a closer look at some of the model assumptions for the collisional coefficients, as well as new polarized observations of the line to rule out any unknown systematic effect in the present data. All but two near-limb fibers show correlated bright He I 1.083 μm and H I 1.282 μm emission, which likely indicates cool prominence emission that is non-localized by the strongly defocused optics. One of the distant fibers located at 1.5 R ⊙ detected a weak He I 1.083 μm intensity signal consistent with previous eclipse measurements around 3 × 10‑7 {B}ȯ . However, given the limitations of these observations, it is not possible to completely remove contamination that is due to emission from prominence material that is not obscured by the lunar limb.

  9. Application of an on-line measurement system for HF emission control (1. part); Application d'un systeme de mesure en ligne pour la controle des emissions de fluor (1. partie)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monfort, E.; Celades, I.; Gomart, S.; Gazulla, F. [Instituto de Tecnologia Ceramica (ITC), Asociacion de Investigacion de las Industrias Ceramicas, Universitat Jaume 1, Castellon (Spain); Adams, H. [Boreal Laser Limited, Alberta (Canada); Tulip, J. [Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada). Dept. of Electrical Engineering

    2004-12-01

    The present study describes the adaptation of an on-line HF analyser in real time, based on laser technology, for control of emissions from ceramic tile manufacturing kilns. The operation of the equipment was verified in several industrial facilities. The verification method consisted of comparing the on-line measuring system data with the results obtained in batch gas samplings (chemical method). For the batch determination of the fluorine concentration, an internal method developed by the Instituto de Tecnologia Ceramica (hereafter ITC), based on standard methods, has been used. ITC is accredited by the Spanish National Accreditation Body (ENAC) for the performance of this type of sampling. The on-line HF measurement system has been used to study the behaviour of HF emissions in standard ceramic tile firing kiln operating conditions and on implementing different actions in these kilns. (authors)

  10. Herschel/PACS Survey of protoplanetary disks in Taurus/ Auriga- Investigating the source of [OI] 63 μm line emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Christian D.; Sandell, G.{ö.}ran; Vacca, William

    2012-03-01

    GASPS is a large Herschel Open time Key project studying the evolution of gas in protoplanetary disks. We target about 240 nearby objects in Taurus and young associations covering stellar ages between 0.3 - 30 Myr. We use the PACS instrument to observe continuum and selected gas tracers, like [{O}{I}] at 63 and 145 μm, [{C}{II}] at 158 μm as well as several molecular lines like OH, H_2O and CO. The strongest line we see is the [{O}{I}] at 63 μm. However, although it is clear that [{O}{I}] 63 μm traces gas in the disk, it is also strong in jets and outflows. Using the sources observed so far (42 sources detected in both line and continuum of 75 sources observed in spectroscopy and 92 in photometry) in Taurus/Auriga we explore how the [{O}{I}] 63 μm line strength correlates with 63 μm continuum, disk mass, accretion rate, stellar luminosity, and strength of the [{O}{I}] 6300 Å emission for both outflow and non-outflow sources. We find a clear, tight correlation between the strength of the [{O}{I}] 63 μm line emission and 63 μm continuum for non-outflow sources and a weaker correlation for outflow sources. In outflow sources the line can be up to 20 times stronger than in non-outflow sources, indicating that the [{O}{I}] 63 μm emission from the outflow will dominate over the disk emission. For the few sources where we also detect the [{O}{I}] 145 μm line, we find line ratios of 145 to 63 μm of 0.04 - 0.05, suggesting optically thin lines originating from gas with a temperature of a few 100 K, which suggests that the emission comes from the inner part/surface layers of the disk or from the shock regions in the outflow.

  11. PEARS Emission Line Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirzkal, Nor; Rothberg, Barry; Ly, Chun; Rhoads, James E.; Malhotra, Sangeeta; Grogin, Norman A.; Dahlen, Tomas; Meurer, Gerhardt R.; Walsh, Jeremy; Hathi, Nimish P.; hide

    2012-01-01

    We present a full analysis of the Probing Evolution And Reionization Spectroscopically (PEARS) slitless grism spectroscopic data obtained vl'ith the Advanced Camera for Surveys on HST. PEARS covers fields within both the Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey (GOODS) North and South fields, making it ideal as a random surveY of galaxies, as well as the availability of a wide variety of ancillary observations to support the spectroscopic results. Using the PEARS data we are able to identify star forming galaxies within the redshift volume 0 = 10(exp 9) Solar M decreases by an order of magnitude at z<=0.5 relative to the number at 0.5 < z < 0.9 in support of the argument for galaxy downsizing.

  12. Runs 800, 813, 842 and physics runs from 18.1.77 to 21.5.77, Development of a new set-up for working line measurements including a Fast Fourier Transform Spectrum Analyser and using weak beam excitiation with broad-band noise

    CERN Document Server

    Borer, J

    1977-01-01

    Runs 800, 813, 842 and physics runs from 18.1.77 to 21.5.77, Development of a new set-up for working line measurements including a Fast Fourier Transform Spectrum Analyser and using weak beam excitiation with broad-band noise

  13. Emission-Line Galaxies from the Hubble Space Telescope Probing Evolution and Reionization Spectroscopically (PEARS) Grism Survey. I. The South Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straughn, Amber N.; Pirzkal, Norbert; Meurer, Gerhardt R.; Cohen, Seth H.; Windhorst, Rogier A.; Malhotra, Sangeeta; Rhoads, James; Gardner, Jonathan P.; Hathi, Nimish P.; Jansen, Rolf A.; Grogin, Norman; Panagia, Nino; di Serego Alighieri, Sperello; Gronwall, Caryl; Walsh, Jeremy; Pasquali, Anna; Xu, Chun

    2009-10-01

    We present results of a search for emission-line galaxies (ELGs) in the southern fields of the Hubble Space Telescope Probing Evolution And Reionization Spectroscopically (PEARS) grism survey. The PEARS South Fields consist of five Advanced Camera for Surveys pointings (including the Hubble Ultra Deep Field) with the G800L grism for a total of 120 orbits, revealing thousands of faint object spectra in the GOODS-South region of the sky. ELGs are one subset of objects that are prevalent among the grism spectra. Using a two-dimensional detection and extraction procedure, we find 320 emission lines originating from 226 galaxy "knots" within 192 individual galaxies. Line identification results in 118 new grism-spectroscopic redshifts for galaxies in the GOODS-South Field. We measure emission-line fluxes using standard Gaussian fitting techniques. At the resolution of the grism data, the Hβ and [O III] doublet are blended. However, by fitting two Gaussian components to the Hβ and [O III] features, we find that many of the PEARS ELGs have high [O III]/Hβ ratios compared to other galaxy samples of comparable luminosities. The star formation rates of the ELGs are presented, as well as a sample of distinct giant star-forming regions at z ~ 0.1-0.5 across individual galaxies. We find that the radial distances of these H II regions in general reside near the galaxies' optical continuum half-light radii, similar to those of giant H II regions in local galaxies.

  14. Metallicities of Emission-line Galaxies from HST ACS PEARS and HST WFC3 ERS Grism Spectroscopy at 0.6 < z < 2.4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Lifang; Malhotra, Sangeeta; Rhoads, James; Pirzkal, Nor; Straughn, Amber; Finkelstein, Steven; Cohen, Seth; Kuntschner, Harald; Kümmel, Martin; Walsh, Jeremy; Windhorst, Rogier A.; O'Connell, Robert

    2012-07-01

    Galaxies selected on the basis of their emission-line strength show low metallicities, regardless of their redshifts. We conclude this from a sample of faint galaxies at redshifts between 0.6 < z < 2.4, selected by their prominent emission lines in low-resolution grism spectra in the optical with the Advanced Camera for Surveys on the Hubble Space Telescope and in the near-infrared using Wide-Field Camera 3. Using a sample of 11 emission-line galaxies at 0.6 < z < 2.4 with luminosities of -22 <~ MB <~ -19 which have [O II], Hβ, and [O III] line flux measurements from the combination of two grism spectral surveys, we use the R23 method to derive the gas-phase oxygen abundances: 7.5 < 12 + log (O/H) < 8.5. The galaxy stellar masses are derived using Bayesian-based Markov Chain Monte Carlo (πMC2) fitting of their spectral energy distribution, and span the mass range 8.1 < log (M */M ⊙) < 10.1. These galaxies show mass-metallicity (M-Z) and luminosity-metallicity (L-Z) relations, which are offset by -0.6 dex in metallicity at given absolute magnitude and stellar mass relative to the local Sloan Digital Sky Survey galaxies, as well as continuum-selected DEEP2 samples at similar redshifts. The emission-line-selected galaxies most resemble the local "green peas" galaxies and Lyα galaxies at z ~= 0.3 and z ~= 2.3 in the M-Z and L-Z relations and their morphologies. The G - M 20 morphology analysis shows that 10 out of 11 show disturbed morphology, even as the star-forming regions are compact. These galaxies may be intrinsically metal poor, being at early stages of formation, or the low metallicities may be due to gas infall and accretion due to mergers.

  15. Aperture corrections for disk galaxy properties derived from the CALIFA survey. Balmer emission lines in spiral galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iglesias-Páramo, J.; Vílchez, J. M.; Galbany, L.; Sánchez, S. F.; Rosales-Ortega, F. F.; Mast, D.; García-Benito, R.; Husemann, B.; Aguerri, J. A. L.; Alves, J.; Bekeraité, S.; Bland-Hawthorn, J.; Catalán-Torrecilla, C.; de Amorim, A. L.; de Lorenzo-Cáceres, A.; Ellis, S.; Falcón-Barroso, J.; Flores, H.; Florido, E.; Gallazzi, A.; Gomes, J. M.; González Delgado, R. M.; Haines, T.; Hernández-Fernández, J. D.; Kehrig, C.; López-Sánchez, A. R.; Lyubenova, M.; Marino, R. A.; Mollá, M.; Monreal-Ibero, A.; Mourão, A.; Papaderos, P.; Rodrigues, M.; Sánchez-Blázquez, P.; Spekkens, K.; Stanishev, V.; van de Ven, G.; Walcher, C. J.; Wisotzki, L.; Zibetti, S.; Ziegler, B.

    2013-05-01

    This work investigates the effect of the aperture size on derived galaxy properties for which we have spatially-resolved optical spectra. We focus on some indicators of star formation activity and dust attenuation for spiral galaxies that have been widely used in previous work on galaxy evolution. We investigated 104 spiral galaxies from the CALIFA survey for which 2D spectroscopy with complete spatial coverage is available. From the 3D cubes we derived growth curves of the most conspicuous Balmer emission lines (Hα, Hβ) for circular apertures of different radii centered at the galaxy's nucleus after removing the underlying stellar continuum. We find that the Hα flux (f(Hα)) growth curve follows a well-defined sequence with aperture radius that shows a low dispersion around the median value. From this analysis, we derived aperture corrections for galaxies in different magnitude and redshift intervals. Once stellar absorption is properly accounted for, the f(Hα)/f(Hβ) ratio growth curve shows a smooth decline, pointing toward the absence of differential dust attenuation as a function of radius. Aperture corrections as a function of the radius are provided in the interval [0.3, 2.5]R50. Finally, the Hα equivalent-width (EW(Hα)) growth curve increases with the size of the aperture and shows a very high dispersion for small apertures. This prevents us from using reliable aperture corrections for this quantity. In addition, this result suggests that separating star-forming and quiescent galaxies based on observed EW(Hα) through small apertures will probably result in low EW(Hα) star-forming galaxies begin classified as quiescent.

  16. VERY STRONG EMISSION-LINE GALAXIES IN THE WFC3 INFRARED SPECTROSCOPIC PARALLEL SURVEY AND IMPLICATIONS FOR HIGH-REDSHIFT GALAXIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atek, H.; Colbert, J.; Shim, H. [Spitzer Science Center, Caltech, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Siana, B.; Bridge, C. [Department of Astronomy, Caltech, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Scarlata, C. [Department of Astronomy, University of Minnesota-Twin Cities, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Malkan, M.; Ross, N. R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); McCarthy, P.; Dressler, A.; Hathi, N. P. [Observatories of the Carnegie Institution for Science, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); Teplitz, H. [Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, Caltech, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Henry, A.; Martin, C. [Department of Physics, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 (United States); Bunker, A. J. [Department of Physics, University of Oxford, Denys Wilkinson Building, Keble Road, Oxford OX1 3RH (United Kingdom); Fosbury, R. A. E. [Space Telescope-European Coordinating Facility, Garching bei Muenchen (Germany)

    2011-12-20

    The WFC3 Infrared Spectroscopic Parallel Survey uses the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) infrared grism capabilities to obtain slitless spectra of thousands of galaxies over a wide redshift range including the peak of star formation history of the universe. We select a population of very strong emission-line galaxies with rest-frame equivalent widths (EWs) higher than 200 A. A total of 176 objects are found over the redshift range 0.35 < z < 2.3 in the 180 arcmin{sup 2} area that we have analyzed so far. This population consists of young and low-mass starbursts with high specific star formation rates (sSFR). After spectroscopic follow-up of one of these galaxies with Keck/Low Resolution Imaging Spectrometer, we report the detection at z = 0.7 of an extremely metal-poor galaxy with 12 + log(O/H) =7.47 {+-} 0.11. After estimating the active galactic nucleus fraction in the sample, we show that the high-EW galaxies have higher sSFR than normal star-forming galaxies at any redshift. We find that the nebular emission lines can substantially affect the total broadband flux density with a median brightening of 0.3 mag, with some examples of line contamination producing brightening of up to 1 mag. We show that the presence of strong emission lines in low-z galaxies can mimic the color-selection criteria used in the z {approx} 8 dropout surveys. In order to effectively remove low-redshift interlopers, deep optical imaging is needed, at least 1 mag deeper than the bands in which the objects are detected. Without deep optical data, most of the interlopers cannot be ruled out in the wide shallow HST imaging surveys. Finally, we empirically demonstrate that strong nebular lines can lead to an overestimation of the mass and the age of galaxies derived from fitting of their spectral energy distribution (SED). Without removing emission lines, the age and the stellar mass estimates are overestimated by a factor of 2 on average and up to a factor of 10 for the high-EW galaxies

  17. Infrared Space Observatory Observations of Far-Infrared Rotational Emission Lines of Water Vapor Toward the Supergiant Star VY Canis Majoris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neufeld, David A.; Feuchtgruber, Helmut; Harwit, Martin; Melnick, Gary J.

    1999-01-01

    We report the detection of numerous far-infrared emission lines of water vapor toward the supergiant star VY Canis Majoris. A 29.5-45 micron grating scan of VY CMa, obtained using the Short-Wavelength Spectrometer (SWS) of the Infrared Space Observatory at a spectral resolving power lambda/delat.lambda of approximately 2000, reveals at least 41 spectral features due to water vapor that together radiate a total luminosity of approximately 25 solar luminosity . In addition to pure rotational transitions within the ground vibrational state, these features include rotational transitions within the (010) excited vibrational state. The spectrum also shows the (sup 2)product(sub 1/2) (J = 5/2) left arrow (sup 2)product(sub 3/2) (J = 3/2) OH feature near 34.6 micron in absorption. Additional SWS observations of VY CMa were carried out in the instrument's Fabry-Perot mode for three water transitions: the 7(sub 25)-6(sub 16) line at 29.8367 micron, the 4(sub 41)-3(sub 12) line at 31.7721 micron, and the 4(sub 32)-3(sub 03) line at 40.6909 micron. The higher spectral resolving power lambda/delta.lambda of approximately 30,000 thereby obtained permits the line profiles to be resolved spectrally for the first time and reveals the "P Cygni" profiles that are characteristic of emission from an outflowing envelope.

  18. Study of Unwanted Emissions in the CENELEC-A Band Generated by Distributed Energy Resources and Their Influence over Narrow Band Power Line Communications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noelia Uribe-Pérez

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Distributed Energy Resources might have a severe influence on Power Line Communications, as they can generate interfering signals and high frequency emissions or supraharmonics that may cause loss of metering and control data. In this paper, the influence of various energy resources on Narrowband Power Line Communications is described and analyzed through several test measurements performed in a real microgrid. Accordingly, the paper describes the effects on smart metering communications through the Medium Access Control (MAC layer analysis. Results show that the switching frequency of inverters and the presence of battery chargers are remarkable sources of disturbance in low voltage distribution networks. In this sense, the results presented can contribute to efforts towards standardization and normative of emissions at higher frequencies higher, such as CENELEC EN 50160 and IEC/TS 62749.

  19. Intracavity frequency converted Raman laser producing 10 deep blue to cyan emission lines with up to 0.94  W output power.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geskus, Dimitri; Jakutis-Neto, Jonas; Pask, Helen M; Wetter, Niklaus U

    2014-12-15

    Here we report 10 laser emission lines in the attractive deep blue to cyan spectral region from an intracavity frequency doubled Raman laser. The fundamental laser field that drives the Raman laser is based on the three-level transition of Nd:YLF. A maximum extracted quasi-continuous wave (qcw) output power of 0.94 W is achieved in the deep blue to cyan spectral regime.

  20. The HST/ACS Grism Parallel Survey: II. First Results and a Catalog of Faint Emission-Line Galaxies at z < 1.6

    OpenAIRE

    Drozdovsky, Igor; Yan, Lin; Chen, Hsiao-Wen; Stern, Daniel; Kennicutt Jr., Robert; Spinrad, Hyron; Dawson, Steve

    2005-01-01

    We present the first results from the HST/ACS Grism Parallel Survey, a large program obtaining deep, slitless ACS grism spectroscopy of high-latitude HST parallel fields. We report on 11 high Galactic latitude fields here, each with grism integration times >12 ks. We identify 601 compact emission line galaxies at z 5 E-18 ergs/cm^2/s (3 sigma). We determine redshifts by cross correlation of the target spectra with template spectra, followed ...

  1. The ALMA Frontier Fields Survey. III. 1.1 mm emission line identifications in Abell 2744, MACSJ 0416.1-2403, MACSJ 1149.5+2223, Abell 370, and Abell S1063

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-López, J.; Bauer, F. E.; Aravena, M.; Laporte, N.; Bradley, L.; Carrasco, M.; Carvajal, R.; Demarco, R.; Infante, L.; Kneissl, R.; Koekemoer, A. M.; Muñoz Arancibia, A. M.; Troncoso, P.; Villard, E.; Zitrin, A.

    2017-12-01

    Context. Most sub-mm emission line studies of galaxies to date have targeted sources with known redshifts where the frequencies of the lines are well constrained. Recent blind line scans circumvent the spectroscopic redshift requirement, which could represent a selection bias. Aims: Our aim is to detect emission lines present in continuum oriented observations. The detection of these lines provides spectroscopic redshift information and yields important properties of the galaxies. Methods: We perform a search for emission lines in the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array observations of five clusters which are part of the Frontier Fields and assess the reliability of our detection. We additionally investigate plausibility by associating line candidates with detected galaxies in deep near-infrared imaging. Results: We find 26 significant emission lines candidates, with observed line fluxes between 0.2-4.6 Jy kms-1and velocity dispersions (FWHM) of 25-600kms-1. Nine of these candidates lie in close proximity to near-infrared sources, boosting their reliability; in six cases the observed line frequency and strength are consistent with expectations given the photometric redshift and properties of the galaxy counterparts. We present redshift identifications, magnifications, and molecular gas estimates for the galaxies with identified lines. We show that two of these candidates likely originate from starburst galaxies, one of which is a so-called jellyfish galaxy that is strongly affected by ram pressure stripping, while another two are consistent with being main sequence galaxies based in their depletion times. Conclusions: This work highlights the degree to which serendipitous emission lines can be discovered in large mosaic continuum observations when deep ancillary data are available. The low number of high-significance line detections, however, confirms that such surveys are not as optimal as blind line scans. We stress that Monte Carlo simulations should be

  2. Changes in the pulse phase dependence of X-ray emission lines in 4U 1626-67 with a torque reversal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beri, Aru; Paul, Biswajit; Dewangan, Gulab C.

    2018-03-01

    We report results from an observation with the XMM-Newton observatory of a unique X-ray pulsar 4U 1626-67. European Photon Imaging Camera-pn data during the current spin-up phase of 4U 1626-67 have been used to study pulse phase dependence of low-energy emission lines. We found strong variability of low-energy emission line at 0.915 keV with the pulse phase, varying by a factor of 2, much stronger than the continuum variability. Another interesting observation is that behaviour of one of the low-energy emission lines across the pulse phase is quite different from that observed during the spin-down phase. This indicates that the structures in the accretion disc that produce pulse phase dependence of emission features have changed from spin-down to spin-up phase. This is well supported by the differences in the timing characteristics (like pulse profiles, quasi periodic oscillations, etc.) between spin-down and spin-up phases. We have also found that during the current spin-up phase of 4U 1626-67, the X-ray pulse profile below 2 keV is different compared to the spin-down phase. The X-ray light curve also shows flares which produce a feature around 3 mHz in power density spectrum of 4U 1626-67. Since flares are dominant at lower energies, the feature around 3 mHz is prominent at low energies.

  3. Suzaku Observation of Strong Fluorescent Iron Line Emission from the Young Stellar Object V1647 Ori during Its New X-ray Outburst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamaguchi, Kenji; Grosso, Nicolas; Kastner, Joel H.; Weintraub, David A.; Richmond, Michael

    2009-01-01

    The Suzaku X-ray satellite observed the young stellar object V1647 Ori on 2008 October 8 during the new mass accretion outburst reported in August 2008. During the 87 ksec observation with a net exposure of 40 ks, V1647 Ori showed a. high level of X-ray emission with a gradual decrease in flux by a factor of 5 and then displayed an abrupt flux increase by an order of magnitude. Such enhanced X-ray variability was also seen in XMM-Newton observations in 2004 and 2005 during the 2003-2005 outburst, but has rarely been observed for other young stellar objects. The spectrum clearly displays emission from Helium-like iron, which is a signature of hot plasma (kT approx.5 keV). It also shows a fluorescent iron Ka line with a remarkably large equivalent width of approx. 600 eV. Such a, large equivalent width indicates that a part of the incident X-ray emission that irradiates the circumstellar material and/or the stellar surface is hidden from our line of sight. XMM-Newton spectra during the 2003-2005 outburst did not show a strong fluorescent iron Ka line ; so that the structure of the circumstellar gas very close to the stellar core that absorbs and re-emits X-ray emission from the central object may have changed in between 2005 and 2008. This phenomenon may be related to changes in the infrared morphology of McNeil's nebula between 2004 and 2008.

  4. Broad-band properties of the CfA Seyfert galaxies. III - Ultraviolet variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edelson, R. A.; Pike, G. F.; Krolik, J. H.

    1990-01-01

    A total of 657 archived IUE spectra are used to study the UV variability properties of six members of the CfA Seyfert I galaxy sample. All show strong evidence for continuum and line variations and a tendency for less luminous objects to be more strongly variable. Most objects show a clear correlation at zero lag between UV spectral index and luminosity, evidence that the variable component is an accretion disk around a black hole which is systematically smaller in less luminous sources. No correlation is seen between the continuum luminosity and equivalent width of the C IV, Mg II, and semiforbidden C III emission lines when the entire sample is examined, but a clear anticorrelation is present when only repeated observations of individual objects are considered. This is due to a combination of light-travel time effects in the broad-line region and the nonlinear responses of lines to continuum fluctuations.

  5. Characterization of LIBS emission lines for the identification of chlorides, carbonates, and sulfates in salt/basalt mixtures for the application to MSL ChemCam data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, D. E.; Ehlmann, B. L.; Forni, O.; Clegg, S. M.; Cousin, A.; Thomas, N. H.; Lasue, J.; Delapp, D. M.; McInroy, R. E.; Gasnault, O.; Dyar, M. D.; Schröder, S.; Maurice, S.; Wiens, R. C.

    2017-04-01

    Ancient environmental conditions on Mars can be probed through the identification of minerals on its surface, including water-deposited salts and cements dispersed in the pore space of sedimentary rocks. Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) analyses by the Martian rover Curiosity's ChemCam instrument can indicate salts, and ChemCam surveys aid in identifying and selecting sites for further, detailed in situ analyses. We performed laboratory LIBS experiments under simulated Mars conditions with a ChemCam-like instrument on a series of mixtures containing increasing concentrations of salt in a basaltic background to investigate the potential for identifying and quantifying chloride, carbonate, and sulfate salts found only in small amounts, dispersed in bulk rock with ChemCam, rather than concentrated in veins. Data indicate that the presence of emission lines from the basalt matrix limited the number of Cl, C, and S emission lines found to be useful for quantitative analysis; nevertheless, several lines with intensities sensitive to salt concentration were identified. Detection limits for the elements based on individual emission lines ranged from 20 wt % carbonate (2 wt % C), 5-30 wt % sulfate (1-8 wt % S), and 5-10 wt % chloride (3-6 wt % Cl) depending on the basaltic matrix and/or salt cation. Absolute quantification of Cl, C, and S in the samples via univariate analysis depends on the cation-anion pairing in the salt but appears relatively independent of matrices tested, following normalization. These results are promising for tracking relative changes in the salt content of bulk rock on the Martian surface with ChemCam.

  6. Charge Exchange X-Ray Emission due to Highly Charged Ion Collisions with H, He, and H2: Line Ratios for Heliospheric and Interstellar Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cumbee, R. S.; Mullen, P. D.; Lyons, D.; Shelton, R. L.; Fogle, M.; Schultz, D. R.; Stancil, P. C.

    2018-01-01

    The fundamental collisional process of charge exchange (CX) has been established as a primary source of X-ray emission from the heliosphere, planetary exospheres, and supernova remnants. In this process, X-ray emission results from the capture of an electron by a highly charged ion from a neutral atom or molecule, to form a highly excited, high-charge state ion. As the captured electron cascades down to the lowest energy level, photons are emitted, including X-rays. To provide reliable CX-induced X-ray spectral models to realistically simulate these environments, line ratios and spectra are computed using theoretical CX cross sections obtained with the multi-channel Landau-Zener, atomic-orbital close-coupling, molecular-orbital close-coupling, and classical trajectory Monte Carlo methods for various collisional velocities relevant to astrophysics. X-ray spectra were computed for collisions of bare and H-like C to Al ions with H, He, and H2 with results compared to available experimental data. Using these line ratios, XSPEC models of CX emission in the northeast rim of the Cygnus Loop supernova remnant and the heliosphere are shown as examples with ion velocity dependence.

  7. METALLICITIES OF EMISSION-LINE GALAXIES FROM HST ACS PEARS AND HST WFC3 ERS GRISM SPECTROSCOPY AT 0.6 < z < 2.4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xia Lifang; Malhotra, Sangeeta; Rhoads, James; Cohen, Seth; Windhorst, Rogier A. [School of Earth and Space Exploration, Arizona State University, AZ 85287-1404 (United States); Pirzkal, Nor [Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Straughn, Amber [Astrophysics Science Division, Goddard Space Flight Center, Code 665, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Finkelstein, Steven [George P. and Cynthia Woods Mitchell Institute for Fundamental Physics and Astronomy, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77843 (United States); Kuntschner, Harald; Kuemmel, Martin; Walsh, Jeremy [European Southern Observatory, Karl Schwarzschild Str. 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany); O' Connell, Robert, E-mail: lifang.xia@asu.edu [Department of Astronomy, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22904-4325 (United States)

    2012-07-15

    Galaxies selected on the basis of their emission-line strength show low metallicities, regardless of their redshifts. We conclude this from a sample of faint galaxies at redshifts between 0.6 < z < 2.4, selected by their prominent emission lines in low-resolution grism spectra in the optical with the Advanced Camera for Surveys on the Hubble Space Telescope and in the near-infrared using Wide-Field Camera 3. Using a sample of 11 emission-line galaxies at 0.6 < z < 2.4 with luminosities of -22 {approx}< M{sub B} {approx}< -19 which have [O II], H{beta}, and [O III] line flux measurements from the combination of two grism spectral surveys, we use the R23 method to derive the gas-phase oxygen abundances: 7.5 < 12 + log (O/H) < 8.5. The galaxy stellar masses are derived using Bayesian-based Markov Chain Monte Carlo ({pi}MC{sup 2}) fitting of their spectral energy distribution, and span the mass range 8.1 < log (M{sub *}/M{sub Sun} ) < 10.1. These galaxies show mass-metallicity (M-Z) and luminosity-metallicity (L-Z) relations, which are offset by -0.6 dex in metallicity at given absolute magnitude and stellar mass relative to the local Sloan Digital Sky Survey galaxies, as well as continuum-selected DEEP2 samples at similar redshifts. The emission-line-selected galaxies most resemble the local 'green peas' galaxies and Ly{alpha} galaxies at z {approx_equal} 0.3 and z {approx_equal} 2.3 in the M-Z and L-Z relations and their morphologies. The G - M{sub 20} morphology analysis shows that 10 out of 11 show disturbed morphology, even as the star-forming regions are compact. These galaxies may be intrinsically metal poor, being at early stages of formation, or the low metallicities may be due to gas infall and accretion due to mergers.

  8. A 16 deg2 survey of emission-line galaxies at z < 1.5 in HSC-SSP Public Data Release 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Masao; Tanaka, Masayuki; Shimakawa, Rhythm; Furusawa, Hisanori; Momose, Rieko; Koyama, Yusei; Silverman, John D.; Kodama, Tadayuki; Komiyama, Yutaka; Leauthaud, Alexie; Lin, Yen-Ting; Miyazaki, Satoshi; Nagao, Tohru; Nishizawa, Atsushi J.; Ouchi, Masami; Shibuya, Takatoshi; Tadaki, Ken-ichi; Yabe, Kiyoto

    2018-01-01

    We present initial results from the Subaru Strategic Program (SSP) with Hyper Suprime-Cam (HSC) on a comprehensive survey of emission-line galaxies at z Deep layer, 4.3 deg2) for NB816, and 25.1 mag (UltraDeep, 2.9 deg2) and 24.6-24.8 mag (Deep, 13.3 deg2) for NB921. The wide-field imaging allows us to construct unprecedentedly large samples of 8054 H α emitters at z ≈ 0.25 and 0.40, 8656 [O III] emitters at z ≈ 0.63 and 0.84, and 16877 [O II] emitters at z ≈ 1.19 and 1.47. We map the cosmic web on scales out to about 50 comoving Mpc that includes galaxy clusters, identified by red sequence galaxies, located at the intersection of filamentary structures of star-forming galaxies. The luminosity functions of emission-line galaxies are measured with precision and are consistent with published studies. The wide field coverage of the data enables us to measure the luminosity functions up to brighter luminosities than previous studies. The comparison of the luminosity functions between the different HSC-SSP fields suggests that a survey volume of >5 × 105 Mpc3 is essential to overcome cosmic variance. Since the current data have not reached the full depth expected for the HSC-SSP, the color cut in i - NB816 or z - NB921 induces a bias towards star-forming galaxies with large equivalent widths, primarily seen in the stellar mass functions for the H α emitters at z ≈ 0.25-0.40. Even so, the emission-line galaxies clearly cover a wide range of luminosity, stellar mass, and environment, thus demonstrating the usefulness of the narrowband data from the HSC-SSP for investigating star-forming galaxies at z < 1.5.

  9. Optical alignment techniques for line-imaging velocity interferometry and line-imaging self-emission of targets at the National Ignition Facility (NIF)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malone, Robert; Celeste, John; Celliers, Peter; Frogget, Brent; Robert Guyton,,; Kaufman, Morris; Lee, Tony; MacGowan, Brian; Ng, Edmend; Reinbachs, Imants; Robinson, Ronald; Tunnell, Thomas; Watts, Phillip

    2007-08-01

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF) requires optical diagnostics for measuring shock velocities in shock physics experiments. The nature of the NIF facility requires the alignment of complex three-dimensional optical systems of very long distances. Access to the alignment mechanisms can be limited, and any alignment system must be operator friendly. The Velocity Interferometer System for Any Reflector (VISAR) measures shock velocities, shock breakout times, and emission of 1- to 5-mm targets at a location remote to the NIF target chamber. Three optical systems using the same vacuum chamber port each have a total track of 21 m. All optical lenses are on kinematic mounts or sliding rails, enabling pointing accuracy of the optical axis to be checked. Counter-propagating laser beams (orange and red) align these diagnostics to a listing of tolerances. Movable aperture cards, placed before and after lens groups, show the spread of alignment spots created by the orange and red alignment lasers. Optical elements include 1-in. to 15-in. diameter mirrors, lenses with up to 10.5-in. diameters, beamsplitters, etalons, dove prisms, filters, and pellicles. Alignment of more than 75 optical elements must be verified before each target shot. Archived images from eight alignment cameras prove proper alignment before each shot.

  10. Optical Alignment Techniques for Line-Imaging Velocity Interferometry and Line-Imaging Self-Emission of Targets at the National Ignition Facility (NIF)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malone, R M; Celeste, J R; Celliers, P M; Frogget, B .; Guyton, R L; Kaufman, M I; Lee, T L; MacGowan, B J; Ng, E W; Reinbachs, I P; Robinson, R B; Tunnell, T W; Watts, P W

    2007-07-31

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF) requires optical diagnostics for measuring shock velocities in shock physics experiments. The nature of the NIF facility requires the alignment of complex three-dimensional optical systems of very long distances. Access to the alignment mechanisms can be limited, and any alignment system must be operator friendly. The Velocity Interferometer System for Any Reflector measures shock velocities, shock breakout times, and emission of 1- to 5-mm targets at a location remote to the NIF target chamber. Three optical systems using the same vacuum chamber port each have a total track of 21 meters. All optical lenses are on kinematic mounts or sliding rails, enabling pointing accuracy of the optical axis to be checked. Counter-propagating laser beams (orange and red) align these diagnostics to a listing of tolerances. Movable aperture cards, placed before and after lens groups, show the spread of alignment spots created by the orange and red alignment lasers. Optical elements include 1-in. to 15-in. diameter mirrors, lenses with up to 10.5-in. diameters, beamsplitters, etalons, dove prisms, filters, and pellicles. Alignment of more than 75 optical elements must be verified before each target shot. Archived images from eight alignment cameras prove proper alignment before each shot.

  11. Emission control of InGaN nanocolumns grown by molecular-beam epitaxy on Si(111) substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albert, S.; Bengoechea-Encabo, A.; Sanchez-Garcia, M. A.; Calleja, E. [ISOM and Departamento de Ingenieria Electronica, ETSI Telecomunicacion, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, Ciudad Universitaria s/n, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Lefebvre, P. [ISOM and Departamento de Ingenieria Electronica, ETSI Telecomunicacion, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, Ciudad Universitaria s/n, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Universite Montpellier 2, F-34095 Montpellier, Cedex 5 (France); Jahn, U.; Trampert, A. [Paul-Drude-Institut fuer Festkoeperelektronik, Hausvogteiplatz 5-7, 10117 Berlin (Germany)

    2011-09-26

    This work studies the effect of the growth temperature on the morphology and emission characteristics of self-assembled InGaN nanocolumns grown by plasma assisted molecular beam epitaxy. Morphology changes are assessed by scanning electron microscopy, while emission is measured by photoluminescence. Within the growth temperature range of 750 to 650 deg. C, an increase in In incorporation for decreasing temperature is observed. This effect allows tailoring the InGaN nanocolumns emission line shape by using temperature gradients during growth. Depending on the gradient rate, span, and sign, broad emission line shapes are obtained, covering the yellow to green range, even yielding white emission.

  12. Seyfert Galaxies: Radio Continuum Emission Properties and the ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Seyfert galaxies are classified mainly into type 1 and type 2 depending on the presence and absence of broad permitted emission lines in their optical spectra, respectively. Unification scheme hypothesizes that the observed similarities and differences between the two Seyfert subtypes can be understood as due to the ...

  13. Seyfert Galaxies: Radio Continuum Emission Properties and the ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Seyfert galaxies are classified mainly into type 1 and type 2 depending on the presence and absence of broad permitted emission lines in their optical spectra, respectively. Unification scheme hypothesizes that the observed similarities and differences between the two Seyfert sub- types can be understood as due to the ...

  14. Star formation rates from [C II] 158 μm and mid-infrared emission lines for starbursts and active galactic nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sargsyan, L.; Lebouteiller, V.; Weedman, D.; Barry, D.; Spoon, H. [Center for Radiophysics and Space Research, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Samsonyan, A. [Byurakan Astrophysical Observatory, Byurakan 0213 (Armenia); Bernard-Salas, J. [Department of Physical Sciences, Open University, Milton Keynes MK7 6AA (United Kingdom); Houck, J., E-mail: sargsyan@isc.astro.cornell.edu, E-mail: dweedman@isc.astro.cornell.edu [Astronomy Department, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States)

    2014-07-20

    A summary is presented for 130 galaxies observed with the Herschel Photodetector Array Camera and Spectrometer instrument to measure fluxes for the [C II] 158 μm emission line. Sources cover a wide range of active galactic nucleus to starburst classifications, as derived from polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon strength measured with the Spitzer Infrared Spectrograph. Redshifts from [C II] and line to continuum strengths (equivalent width (EW) of [C II]) are given for the full sample, which includes 18 new [C II] flux measures. Calibration of L([C II)]) as a star formation rate (SFR) indicator is determined by comparing [C II] luminosities with mid-infrared [Ne II] and [Ne III] emission line luminosities; this gives the same result as determining SFR using bolometric luminosities of reradiating dust from starbursts: log SFR = log L([C II)]) – 7.0, for SFR in M{sub ☉} yr{sup –1} and L([C II]) in L{sub ☉}. We conclude that L([C II]) can be used to measure SFR in any source to a precision of ∼50%, even if total source luminosities are dominated by an active galactic nucleus (AGN) component. The line to continuum ratio at 158 μm, EW([C II]), is not significantly greater for starbursts (median EW([C II]) = 1.0 μm) compared to composites and AGNs (median EW([C II]) = 0.7 μm), showing that the far-infrared continuum at 158 μm scales with [C II] regardless of classification. This indicates that the continuum at 158 μm also arises primarily from the starburst component within any source, giving log SFR = log νL{sub ν}(158 μm) – 42.8 for SFR in M{sub ☉} yr{sup –1} and νL{sub ν}(158 μm) in erg s{sup –1}.

  15. A TENTATIVE DETECTION OF AN EMISSION LINE AT 1.6 {mu}m FOR THE z {approx} 12 CANDIDATE UDFj-39546284

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brammer, Gabriel B. [European Southern Observatory, Alonso de Cordova 3107, Casilla 19001, Vitacura, Santiago (Chile); Van Dokkum, Pieter G.; Momcheva, Ivelina [Department of Astronomy, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06520 (United States); Illingworth, Garth D.; Oesch, Pascal A. [UCO/Lick Observatory, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Bouwens, Rychard J.; Labbe, Ivo; Franx, Marijn, E-mail: gbrammer@eso.org [Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, NL-2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands)

    2013-03-01

    We present deep WFC3 grism observations of the candidate z {approx} 12 galaxy UDFj-39546284 in the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Ultra Deep Field (UDF), by combining spectroscopic data from the 3D-HST and CANDELS surveys. The total exposure time is 40.5 ks and the spectrum covers 1.10 < {lambda} < 1.65 {mu}m. We search for faint emission lines by cross-correlating the two-dimensional G141 spectrum with the observed H{sub 160} morphology, a technique that is unique to slitless spectroscopy at HST resolution. We find a 2.7{sigma} detection of an emission line at 1.599 {mu}m-just redward of the JH{sub 140} filter-with flux 3.5 {+-} 1.3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -18} erg s{sup -1} cm{sup -2}. Assuming that the line is real, it contributes 110% {+-} 40% of the observed H{sub 160} flux and has an observed equivalent width >7300 A. If the line is confirmed, it could be Ly{alpha} at z = 12.12. However, a more plausible interpretation, given current results, could be a lower redshift feature such as [O III]{lambda}4959,5007 at z = 2.19. We find two other 3D-HST [O III] emitters within 1000 km s{sup -1} of that redshift in the GOODS-South field. Additional support for this interpretation comes from the discovery of a bright ''[O III] blob'' with a secure G141 grism redshift of z = 1.605. This object has a strikingly large observed equivalent width of nearly 9000 A that results in similar ''dropout''colors as UDFj-39546284.

  16. Constraints on Porosity and Mass Loss in O-star Winds from the Modeling of X-ray Emission Line Profile Shapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leutenegger, Maurice A.; Cohen, David H.; Sundqvist, Jon O.; Owocki, Stanley P.

    2013-01-01

    We fit X-ray emission line profiles in high resolution XMM-Newton and Chandra grating spectra of the early O supergiant Zeta Pup with models that include the effects of porosity in the stellar wind. We explore the effects of porosity due to both spherical and flattened clumps. We find that porosity models with flattened clumps oriented parallel to the photosphere provide poor fits to observed line shapes. However, porosity models with isotropic clumps can provide acceptable fits to observed line shapes, but only if the porosity effect is moderate. We quantify the degeneracy between porosity effects from isotropic clumps and the mass-loss rate inferred from the X-ray line shapes, and we show that only modest increases in the mass-loss rate (40%) are allowed if moderate porosity effects (h(sub infinity) less than approximately R(sub *)) are assumed to be important. Large porosity lengths, and thus strong porosity effects, are ruled out regardless of assumptions about clump shape. Thus, X-ray mass-loss rate estimates are relatively insensitive to both optically thin and optically thick clumping. This supports the use of X-ray spectroscopy as a mass-loss rate calibration for bright, nearby O stars

  17. Lyman α emission from the first galaxies: signatures of accretion and infall in the presence of line trapping

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Latif, M. A.; Schleicher, Dominik R. G.; Spaans, M.; Zaroubi, S.

    The formation of the first galaxies is accompanied by large accretion flows and virialization shocks, during which the gas is shock heated to temperatures of similar to 10(4) K, leading to potentially strong fluxes in the Lyman alpha line. Indeed, a number of Lyman alpha blobs have been detected at

  18. Multidimensional Models of Type Ia Supernova Nebular Spectra: Strong Emission Lines from Stripped Companion Gas Rule Out Classic Single-degenerate Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botyánszki, János; Kasen, Daniel; Plewa, Tomasz

    2018-01-01

    The classic single-degenerate model for the progenitors of Type Ia supernova (SN Ia) predicts that the supernova ejecta should be enriched with solar-like abundance material stripped from the companion star. Spectroscopic observations of normal SNe Ia at late times, however, have not resulted in definite detection of hydrogen. In this Letter, we study line formation in SNe Ia at nebular times using non-LTE spectral modeling. We present, for the first time, multidimensional radiative transfer calculations of SNe Ia with stripped material mixed in the ejecta core, based on hydrodynamical simulations of ejecta–companion interaction. We find that interaction models with main-sequence companions produce significant Hα emission at late times, ruling out these types of binaries being viable progenitors of SNe Ia. We also predict significant He I line emission at optical and near-infrared wavelengths for both hydrogen-rich or helium-rich material, providing an additional observational probe of stripped ejecta. We produce models with reduced stripped masses and find a more stringent mass limit of M st ≲ 1 × 10‑4 M ⊙ of stripped companion material for SN 2011fe.

  19. Evaluation of Optical Depths and Self-Absorption of Strontium and Aluminum Emission Lines in Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfarraj, Bader A; Bhatt, Chet R; Yueh, Fang Yu; Singh, Jagdish P

    2017-04-01

    Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) is a widely used laser spectroscopic technique in various fields, such as material science, forensic science, biological science, and the chemical and pharmaceutical industries. In most LIBS work, the analysis is performed using radiative transitions from atomic emissions. In this study, the plasma temperature and the product [Formula: see text] (the number density N and the absorption path length [Formula: see text]) were determined to evaluate the optical depths and the self-absorption of Sr and Al lines. A binary mixture of strontium nitrate and aluminum oxide was used as a sample, consisting of variety of different concentrations in powder form. Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy spectra were collected by varying various parameters, such as laser energy, gate delay time, and gate width time to optimize the LIBS signals. Atomic emission from Sr and Al lines, as observed in the LIBS spectra of different sample compositions, was used to characterize the laser induced plasma and evaluate the optical depths and self-absorption of LIBS.

  20. On-line monitoring of pine needles combustion emissions in the presence of fire retardant using a "thermogravimetry (TG)-bridge/mass spectrometry method".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzamtzis, N; Karma, S; Pappa, A; Statheropoulos, M

    2006-07-28

    In this work a new method called TG-bridge/mass spectrometry is presented, for the on-line monitoring of the pine needles combustion emissions in a common lab furnace. The TG-bridge (thermogravimetry-bridge) system has been developed in-house as a TG-MS (thermogravimetry-mass spectrometry) interface, for TG-MS analysis. In this work, TG-bridge was used for directly sampling of the combustion emissions from the inside of the furnace and transferring them into the mass spectrometer (MS), without disturbing the sub-pressure conditions inside the MS ion source. The effect of Fire-Trol 931 (a long-term fire retardant) on the emissions, produced during the combustion of pine needles, is tested in the lab for future application in the field. It was shown that in treated samples, increased evolution of ammonia and aromatic compounds took place, compared to untreated samples. Maximum concentrations of specific compounds, such as benzene and toluene, evolved during the combustion experiments in the furnace, were determined.

  1. Effect of line-mixing on the emissions in the infrared CO2 bands in the middle and upper atmosphere of Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogibalov, Vladimir

    Radiative transfer in the infrared (IR) ro-vibrational bands of CO2 molecules under non-local thermodynamic equilibrium (NLTE) conditions is an important factor in establishing the global heat balance, structure, and dynamical properties of the mesosphere and lower thermosphere (MLT) of Earth. Moreover, the emissions in the IR bands of CO2 are used for remote sensing of the kinetic temperature and the CO2 abundance in the MLT altitude interval. These reasons require developing both more sophisticated models for estimating the values of non-equilibrium populations of the excited vibrational states of CO2 in the MLT and more detailed radiative transfer schemes. The validity of estimating the cooling rate in the 15 µm CO2 band depends on various input data used. In particular, spectroscopic parameters and a shape of absorption coefficient adopted for lines of the IR CO2 bands are of great importance. Till present time in the NLTE models developed to calculate IR emissions in the CO2 bands, it has been supposed that the absorption coefficient in the band is a simple sum of absorption coefficients of lines included at the given frequency and that the spectral shape of the absorption coefficient in every line is described by the Voigt function. However, it is known, when lines overlap in frequency (especially, in Q-branches of CO2 bands), the spectral band shape calculated according to this approximation could deviate to a large extent from the experimental one due to the effect of line-mixing (LM). This makes the LM-effect be potentially important for solving the NLTE problem of the CO2 bands. In the present study, the current version of computer code realizing the NLTE model for the IR emissions of CO2 in the MLT [1-2] has been further improved to incorporate the LMeffect. The Adjusted Branch Coupling method has been applied to simulate the experimental shape of the absorption coefficient within the spectral interval of the 15 µm band [3]. For a set of atmospheric

  2. EMISSION-LINE GALAXIES FROM THE HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE PROBING EVOLUTION AND REIONIZATION SPECTROSCOPICALLY (PEARS) GRISM SURVEY. II. THE COMPLETE SAMPLE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pirzkal, Nor; Rothberg, Barry; Ly, Chun; Grogin, Norman A.; Dahlen, Tomas; Noeske, Kai G.; Bellini, Andrea [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21210 (United States); Malhotra, Sangeeta; Rhoads, James E.; Cohen, Seth H.; Mechtley, Matthew; Windhorst, Rogier A. [School of Earth And Space Exploration, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287-1404 (United States); Meurer, Gerhardt R. [International Centre for Radio Astronomy Research, The University of Western Australia, 35 Stirling Highway, Crawley, WA 6009 (Australia); Walsh, Jeremy R. [European Southern Observatory, Karl-Schwarzschild-Strasse 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Hathi, Nimish P. [Carnegie Observatories, 813 Santa Barbara Street, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); Holwerda, Benne W. [ESA-ESTEC, Keplerlaan 1, 2200 AG, Noordwijk (Netherlands); Straughn, Amber N. [Astrophysics Science Division, Goddard Space Flight Center, Code 665, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)

    2013-07-20

    We present a full analysis of the Probing Evolution And Reionization Spectroscopically (PEARS) slitess grism spectroscopic data obtained with the Advanced Camera for Surveys on board Hubble Space Telescope. PEARS covers fields within both the Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey (GOODS) North and South fields, making it ideal as a random survey of galaxies, as well as the availability of a wide variety of ancillary observations complemented by the spectroscopic results. Using the PEARS data, we are able to identify star-forming galaxies (SFGs) within the redshift volume 0 < z < 1.5. Star-forming regions in the PEARS survey are pinpointed independently of the host galaxy. This method allows us to detect the presence of multiple emission-line regions (ELRs) within a single galaxy. We identified a total of 1162 H{alpha}, [O III], and/or [O II] emission lines in the PEARS sample of 906 galaxies to a limiting flux of {approx}10{sup -18} erg s{sup -1} cm{sup -2}. The ELRs have also been compared to the properties of the host galaxy, including morphology, luminosity, and mass. From this analysis, we find three key results: (1) the computed line luminosities show evidence of a flattening in the luminosity function with increasing redshift; (2) the star-forming systems show evidence of complex morphologies with star formation occurring predominantly within one effective (half-light) radius. However, the morphologies show no correlation with host stellar mass. (3) Also, the number density of SFGs with M{sub *} {>=} 10{sup 9} M{sub Sun} decreases by an order of magnitude at z {<=} 0.5 relative to the number at 0.5 < z < 0.9, supporting the argument of galaxy downsizing.

  3. Emission line diagnostics for accretion and outflows in young very low-mass stars and brown dwarfs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stelzer, B.; Alcalá, J. M.; Whelan, E.; Scholz, A.

    2014-01-01

    We discuss accretion and outflow properties of three very low-mass young stellar objects based on broad-band mid-resolution X-Shooter/VLT spectra. Our targets (FU Tau A, 2M1207-39, and Par-Lup3-4) have spectral types between M5 and M8, ages between 1Myr and ~ 10Myr, and are known to be accreting from previous studies. The final objective of our project is the determination of mass outflow to accretion rate for objects near or within the substellar regime as a probe for the T Tauri phase of brown dwarfs and the investigation of variability in the accretion and outflow processes.

  4. Emission line diagnostics for accretion and outflows in young very low-mass stars and brown dwarfs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stelzer B.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We discuss accretion and outflow properties of three very low-mass young stellar objects based on broad-band mid-resolution X-Shooter/VLT spectra. Our targets (FU Tau A, 2M1207-39, and Par-Lup3-4 have spectral types between M5 and M8, ages between 1Myr and ~ 10Myr, and are known to be accreting from previous studies. The final objective of our project is the determination of mass outflow to accretion rate for objects near or within the substellar regime as a probe for the T Tauri phase of brown dwarfs and the investigation of variability in the accretion and outflow processes.

  5. Tests of star formation metrics in the low-metallicity galaxy NGC 5253 using ALMA observations of H30α line emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bendo, G. J.; Miura, R. E.; Espada, D.; Nakanishi, K.; Beswick, R. J.; D'Cruze, M. J.; Dickinson, C.; Fuller, G. A.

    2017-11-01

    We use Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) observations of H30α (231.90 GHz) emission from the low-metallicity dwarf galaxy NGC 5253 to measure the star formation rate (SFR) within the galaxy and to test the reliability of SFRs derived from other commonly used metrics. The H30α emission, which originates mainly from the central starburst, yields a photoionizing photon production rate of (1.9 ± 0.3) × 1052 s-1 and an SFR of 0.087 ± 0.013 M⊙ yr-1 based on conversions that account for the low metallicity of the galaxy and for stellar rotation. Among the other star formation metrics we examined, the SFR calculated from the total infrared flux was statistically equivalent to the values from the H30α data. The SFR based on a previously published version of the H α flux that was extinction corrected using Paα and Paβ lines was lower than but also statistically similar to the H30α value. The mid-infrared (22 μm) flux density and the composite star formation tracer based on H α and mid-infrared emission give SFRs that were significantly higher because the dust emission appears unusually hot compared to typical spiral galaxies. Conversely, the 70 and 160 μm flux densities yielded SFRs lower than the H30α value, although the SFRs from the 70 μm and H30α data were within 1σ-2σ of each other. While further analysis on a broader range of galaxies is needed, these results are instructive of the best and worst methods to use when measuring SFR in low-metallicity dwarf galaxies like NGC 5253.

  6. Solar spectral irradiance variability of some chromospheric emission lines through the solar activity cycles 21-23

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Göker Ü.D.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A study of variations of solar spectral irradiance (SSI in the wave-length ranges 121.5 nm-300.5 nm for the period 1981-2009 is presented. We used various data for ultraviolet (UV spectral lines and international sunspot number (ISSN from interactive data centers such as SME (NSSDC, UARS (GDAAC, SORCE (LISIRD and SIDC, respectively. We reduced these data by using the MATLsoftware package. In this respect, we revealed negative correlations of intensities of UV (289.5 nm-300.5 nm spectral lines originating in the solar chromosphere with the ISSN index during the unusually prolonged minimum between the solar activity cycles (SACs 23 and 24. We also compared our results with the variations of solar activity indices obtained by the ground-based telescopes. Therefore, we found that plage regions decrease while facular areas are increasing in SAC 23. However, the decrease in plage regions is seen in small sunspot groups (SGs, contrary to this, these regions in large SGs are comparable to previous SACs or even larger as is also seen in facular areas. Nevertheless, negative correlations between ISSN and SSI data indicate that these variations are in close connection with the classes of sunspots/SGs, faculae and plage regions. Finally, we applied the time series analysis of spectral lines corresponding to the wavelengths 121.5 nm-300.5 nm and made comparisons with the ISSN data. We found an unexpected increase in the 298.5 nm line for the Fe II ion. The variability of Fe II ion 298.5 nm line is in close connection with the facular areas and plage regions, and the sizes of these solar surface indices play an important role for the SSI variability, as well. So, we compared the connection between the sizes of faculae and plage regions, sunspots/SGs, chemical elements and SSI variability. Our future work will be the theoretical study of this connection and developing of a corresponding model.

  7. Accurate Theoretical Methane Line Lists in the Infrared up to 3000 K and Quasi-continuum Absorption/Emission Modeling for Astrophysical Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rey, Michael; Nikitin, Andrei V.; Tyuterev, Vladimir G.

    2017-10-01

    Modeling atmospheres of hot exoplanets and brown dwarfs requires high-T databases that include methane as the major hydrocarbon. We report a complete theoretical line list of 12CH4 in the infrared range 0-13,400 cm-1 up to T max = 3000 K computed via a full quantum-mechanical method from ab initio potential energy and dipole moment surfaces. Over 150 billion transitions were generated with the lower rovibrational energy cutoff 33,000 cm-1 and intensity cutoff down to 10-33 cm/molecule to ensure convergent opacity predictions. Empirical corrections for 3.7 million of the strongest transitions permitted line position accuracies of 0.001-0.01 cm-1. Full data are partitioned into two sets. “Light lists” contain strong and medium transitions necessary for an accurate description of sharp features in absorption/emission spectra. For a fast and efficient modeling of quasi-continuum cross sections, billions of tiny lines are compressed in “super-line” libraries according to Rey et al. These combined data will be freely accessible via the TheoReTS information system (http://theorets.univ-reims.fr, http://theorets.tsu.ru), which provides a user-friendly interface for simulations of absorption coefficients, cross-sectional transmittance, and radiance. Comparisons with cold, room, and high-T experimental data show that the data reported here represent the first global theoretical methane lists suitable for high-resolution astrophysical applications.

  8. Emission line models for the lowest mass core-collapse supernovae - I. Case study of a 9 M⊙ one-dimensional neutrino-driven explosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerkstrand, A.; Ertl, T.; Janka, H.-T.; Müller, E.; Sukhbold, T.; Woosley, S. E.

    2018-03-01

    A large fraction of core-collapse supernovae (CCSNe), 30-50 per cent, are expected to originate from the low-mass end of progenitors with MZAMS = 8-12 M⊙. However, degeneracy effects make stellar evolution modelling of such stars challenging, and few predictions for their supernova light curves and spectra have been presented. Here, we calculate synthetic nebular spectra of a 9 M⊙ Fe CCSN model exploded with the neutrino mechanism. The model predicts emission lines with FWHM ˜ 1000 km s-1, including signatures from each deep layer in the metal core. We compare this model to the observations of the three subluminous IIP SNe with published nebular spectra; SN 1997D, SN 2005cs and SN 2008bk. The predictions of both line profiles and luminosities are in good agreement with SN 1997D and SN 2008bk. The close fit of a model with no tuning parameters provides strong evidence for an association of these objects with low-mass Fe CCSNe. For SN 2005cs, the interpretation is less clear, as the observational coverage ended before key diagnostic lines from the core had emerged. We perform a parametrized study of the amount of explosively made stable nickel, and find that none of these three SNe show the high 58Ni/56Ni ratio predicted by current models of electron capture SNe (ECSNe) and ECSN-like explosions. Combined with clear detection of lines from O and He shell material, these SNe rather originate from Fe core progenitors. We argue that the outcome of self-consistent explosion simulations of low-mass stars, which gives fits to many key observables, strongly suggests that the class of subluminous Type IIP SNe is the observational counterpart of the lowest mass CCSNe.

  9. The Effects of Protostellar Disk Turbulence on CO Emission Lines: A Comparison Study of Disks with Constant CO Abundance versus Chemically Evolving Disks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Mo; Evans, Neal J., II; Dodson-Robinson, Sarah E.; Willacy, Karen; Turner, Neal J.

    2017-12-01

    Turbulence is the leading candidate for angular momentum transport in protoplanetary disks and therefore influences disk lifetimes and planet formation timescales. However, the turbulent properties of protoplanetary disks are poorly constrained observationally. Recent studies have found turbulent speeds smaller than what fully-developed MRI would produce (Flaherty et al.). However, existing studies assumed a constant CO/H2 ratio of 10-4 in locations where CO is not frozen-out or photo-dissociated. Our previous studies of evolving disk chemistry indicate that CO is depleted by incorporation into complex organic molecules well inside the freeze-out radius of CO. We consider the effects of this chemical depletion on measurements of turbulence. Simon et al. suggested that the ratio of the peak line flux to the flux at line center of the CO J = 3-2 transition is a reasonable diagnostic of turbulence, so we focus on that metric, while adding some analysis of the more complex effects on spatial distribution. We simulate the emission lines of CO based on chemical evolution models presented in Yu et al., and find that the peak-to-trough ratio changes as a function of time as CO is destroyed. Specifically, a CO-depleted disk with high turbulent velocity mimics the peak-to-trough ratios of a non-CO-depleted disk with lower turbulent velocity. We suggest that disk observers and modelers take into account the possibility of CO depletion when using line profiles or peak-to-trough ratios to constrain the degree of turbulence in disks. Assuming that {CO}/{{{H}}}2={10}-4 at all disk radii can lead to underestimates of turbulent speeds in the disk by at least 0.2 km s-1.

  10. Origin of warm and hot gas emission from low-mass protostars: Herschel-HIFI observations of CO J = 16-15. I. Line profiles, physical conditions, and H2O abundance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristensen, L. E.; van Dishoeck, E. F.; Mottram, J. C.; Karska, A.; Yıldız, U. A.; Bergin, E. A.; Bjerkeli, P.; Cabrit, S.; Doty, S.; Evans, N. J.; Gusdorf, A.; Harsono, D.; Herczeg, G. J.; Johnstone, D.; Jørgensen, J. K.; van Kempen, T. A.; Lee, J.-E.; Maret, S.; Tafalla, M.; Visser, R.; Wampfler, S. F.

    2017-09-01

    Context. Through spectrally unresolved observations of high-J CO transitions, Herschel Photodetector Array Camera and Spectrometer (PACS) has revealed large reservoirs of warm (300 K) and hot (700 K) molecular gas around low-mass protostars. The excitation and physical origin of this gas is still not understood. Aims: We aim to shed light on the excitation and origin of the CO ladder observed toward protostars, and on the water abundance in different physical components within protostellar systems using spectrally resolved Herschel-HIFI data. Methods: Observations are presented of the highly excited CO line J = 16-15 (Eup/kB = 750 K) with the Herschel Heterodyne Instrument for the Far Infrared (HIFI) toward a sample of 24 low-mass protostellar objects. The sources were selected from the Herschel "Water in Star-forming regions with Herschel" (WISH) and "Dust, Ice, and Gas in Time" (DIGIT) key programs. Results: The spectrally resolved line profiles typically show two distinct velocity components: a broad Gaussian component with an average FWHM of 20 km s-1 containing the bulk of the flux, and a narrower Gaussian component with a FWHM of 5 km s-1 that is often offset from the source velocity. Some sources show other velocity components such as extremely-high-velocity features or "bullets". All these velocity components were first detected in H2O line profiles. The average rotational temperature over the entire profile, as measured from comparison between CO J = 16-15 and 10-9 emission, is 300 K. A radiative-transfer analysis shows that the average H2O/CO column-density ratio is 0.02, suggesting a total H2O abundance of 2 × 10-6, independent of velocity. Conclusions: Two distinct velocity profiles observed in the HIFI line profiles suggest that the high-J CO ladder observed with PACS consists of two excitation components. The warm PACS component (300 K) is associated with the broad HIFI component, and the hot PACS component (700 K) is associated with the offset HIFI

  11. 3D-HST emission line galaxies at z ∼ 2: discrepancies in the optical/UV star formation rates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeimann, Gregory R.; Ciardullo, Robin; Gebhardt, Henry; Gronwall, Caryl; Schneider, Donald P.; Hagen, Alex; Bridge, Joanna S.; Trump, Jonathan R. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Feldmeier, John [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Youngstown State University, Youngstown, OH 44555 (United States)

    2014-08-01

    We use Hubble Space Telescope near-IR grism spectroscopy to examine the Hβ line strengths of 260 star-forming galaxies in the redshift range 1.90 < z < 2.35. We show that at these epochs, the Hβ star formation rate (SFR) is a factor of ∼1.8 higher than what would be expected from the systems' rest-frame UV flux density, suggesting a shift in the standard conversion between these quantities and SFR. We demonstrate that at least part of this shift can be attributed to metallicity, as Hβ is more enhanced in systems with lower oxygen abundance. This offset must be considered when measuring the SFR history of the universe. We also show that the relation between stellar and nebular extinction in our z ∼ 2 sample is consistent with that observed in the local universe.

  12. ALMA Observations of Dust Polarization and Molecular Line Emission from the Class 0 Protostellar Source Serpens SMM1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hull, Charles L. H.; Girart, Josep M.; Tychoniec, Łukasz; Rao, Ramprasad; Cortés, Paulo C.; Pokhrel, Riwaj; Zhang, Qizhou; Houde, Martin; Dunham, Michael M.; Kristensen, Lars E.; Lai, Shih-Ping; Li, Zhi-Yun; Plambeck, Richard L.

    2017-10-01

    We present high angular resolution dust polarization and molecular line observations carried out with the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) toward the Class 0 protostar Serpens SMM1. By complementing these observations with new polarization observations from the Submillimeter Array (SMA) and archival data from the Combined Array for Research in Millimeter-wave Astronomy (CARMA) and the James Clerk Maxwell Telescopes (JCMT), we can compare the magnetic field orientations at different spatial scales. We find major changes in the magnetic field orientation between large (˜0.1 pc) scales—where the magnetic field is oriented E-W, perpendicular to the major axis of the dusty filament where SMM1 is embedded—and the intermediate and small scales probed by CARMA (˜1000 au resolution), the SMA (˜350 au resolution), and ALMA (˜140 au resolution). The ALMA maps reveal that the redshifted lobe of the bipolar outflow is shaping the magnetic field in SMM1 on the southeast side of the source; however, on the northwestern side and elsewhere in the source, low-velocity shocks may be causing the observed chaotic magnetic field pattern. High-spatial-resolution continuum and spectral-line observations also reveal a tight (˜130 au) protobinary system in SMM1-b, the eastern component of which is launching an extremely high-velocity, one-sided jet visible in both {CO}(J=2\\to 1) and {SiO}(J=5\\to 4); however, that jet does not appear to be shaping the magnetic field. These observations show that with the sensitivity and resolution of ALMA, we can now begin to understand the role that feedback (e.g., from protostellar outflows) plays in shaping the magnetic field in very young, star-forming sources like SMM1.

  13. Plasma-wall interactions in the presence of plasma fluctuations—interpretation of line emission from sputtered tungsten in PSI-2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiser, D.; Borodin, D.; Brezinsek, S.; Eksaeva, A. A.; Kirschner, A.; Kreter, A.; Romazanov, J.; Schlummer, T.

    2017-12-01

    The analysis in this work essentially addresses the general question to what extent the temporal average of a particular quantity which is a highly nonlinear function of fluctuating quantities can be approximated by using the averages of the fluctuating quantities for its evaluation. The concrete case considered is the line emission intensity from sputtered impurities being a function of fluctuating electron density and temperature in a plasma beam of the PSI-2 device. A three-dimensional fluid model is employed to study the impact of plasma fluctuations on the distribution of particles and line emission in PSI-2 discharges and its interpretation in long-term measurements. In the model presented the solution of a vorticity equation to obtain a self-consistent electric field is avoided and a synthetic turbulent velocity field is included instead. This approach is based on a Langevin model including advection and allows numerically efficient parameter scans by controlling amplitude, correlation length and correlation time of plasma fluctuations known from extended 3D simulations and/or experiment. The synthetic turbulence model considered is an extension of established stochastic models used for studies of passive scalar advection and therefore, it is described in detail in a general framework. Numerical examples of PSI-2 applications show that a double log-normal probability density function for the electrons and impurity ions is likely to occur and that this supports the conclusion that very high levels of intermittency are required to find a significant impact on the experimental evaluation method which is based on temporal averages only. Consequently, for typical PSI-2 experiments the method of evaluation based on averaged plasma parameters is justified.

  14. Herschel/HIFI observations of high-J CO lines in the NGC 1333 low-mass star-forming region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yildiz, U. A.; van Dishoeck, E. F.; Kristensen, L. E.

    2010-01-01

    -resolved HIFI data are complemented by ground-based observations of lower-J CO and isotopologue lines. The 12CO 10-9 profiles are dominated by broad (FWHM 25-30 km s-1) emission. Radiative transfer models are used to constrain the temperature of this shocked gas to 100-200 K. Several CO and 13CO line profiles...

  15. On-line analysis of gas-phase composition in the combustion chamber and particle emission characteristics during combustion of wood and waste in a small batch reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferge, T; Maguhn, J; Hafner, K; Mühlberger, F; Davidovic, M; Warnecke, R; Zimmermann, R

    2005-03-15

    The emission of particulate matter and gaseous compounds during combustion of wood and refuse-derived fuel in a small batch reactor is investigated by laser mass-spectrometric on-line measurement techniques for gas-phase analysis and simultaneous registration of physical aerosol properties (number size distribution). The gas-phase composition is addressed by a laser-based mass spectrometric method, namely, vacuum-UV single-photon ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (VUV-SPI-TOFMS). Particle-size distributions are measured with a scanning mobility particle sizer. Furthermore, a photoelectric aerosol sensor is applied for detection of particle-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. The different phases of wood combustion are distinguishable by both the chemical profiles of gas-phase components (e.g., polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, PAH) and the particle-size distribution. Furthermore, short disturbances of the combustion process due to air supply shortages are investigated regarding their effect on particle-size distribution and gas-phase composition, respectively. It is shown that the combustion conditions strongly influence the particle-size distribution as well as on the emission of particle-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

  16. Effects of low frequency electric fields on synaptic integration in hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons: implications for power line emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco eCavarretta

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The possible cognitive effects of low frequency external electric fields, such as those generated by power lines, are poorly understood. Their functional consequences for mechanisms at the single neuron level are very difficult to study and identify experimentally, especially in vivo. The major open problem is that experimental investigations on humans have given inconsistent or contradictory results, making it difficult to estimate the possible effects of external low frequency electric fields on cognitive functions. Here we investigate this issue with a realistic model of hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons. The model suggests how and why external electric fields, with environmentally observed frequencies and intensities far lower than what is required for direct neural activation, can perturb dendritic signal processing and somatic firing of neurons that are crucially involved in cognitive tasks such as learning and memory. These results show that individual neuronal morphology, ion channel dendritic distribution, and alignment with the electric field are major determinants of overall effects, and provide a physiologically plausible explanation of why experimental findings can appear to be small and difficult to reproduce, yet deserve serious consideration.

  17. Measuring 20-100 T B-fields using Zeeman splitting of sodium emission lines on a 500 kA pulsed power machine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banasek, J T; Engelbrecht, J T; Pikuz, S A; Shelkovenko, T A; Hammer, D A

    2016-11-01

    We have shown that Zeeman splitting of the sodium (Na) D-lines at 5890 and 5896 Å can be used to measure the magnetic field (B-field) produced in high current pulsed power experiments. We have measured the B-field next to a return current conductor in a hybrid X-pinch experiment near a peak current of about 500 kA. Na is deposited on the conductor and then is desorbed and excited by radiation from the hybrid X-pinch. The D-line emission spectrum implies B-fields of about 20 T with a return current post of 4 mm diameter or up to 120 T with a return current wire of 0.455 mm diameter. These measurements were consistent or lower than the expected B-field, thereby showing that basic Zeeman splitting can be used to measure the B-field in a pulsed-power-driven high-energy-density (HED) plasma experiment. We hope to extend these measurement techniques using suitable ionized species to measurements within HED plasmas.

  18. Measuring 20-100 T B-fields using Zeeman splitting of sodium emission lines on a 500 kA pulsed power machine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banasek, J. T., E-mail: jtb254@cornell.edu; Engelbrecht, J. T.; Pikuz, S. A.; Shelkovenko, T. A.; Hammer, D. A. [Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14850 (United States)

    2016-11-15

    We have shown that Zeeman splitting of the sodium (Na) D-lines at 5890 and 5896 Å can be used to measure the magnetic field (B-field) produced in high current pulsed power experiments. We have measured the B-field next to a return current conductor in a hybrid X-pinch experiment near a peak current of about 500 kA. Na is deposited on the conductor and then is desorbed and excited by radiation from the hybrid X-pinch. The D-line emission spectrum implies B-fields of about 20 T with a return current post of 4 mm diameter or up to 120 T with a return current wire of 0.455 mm diameter. These measurements were consistent or lower than the expected B-field, thereby showing that basic Zeeman splitting can be used to measure the B-field in a pulsed-power-driven high-energy-density (HED) plasma experiment. We hope to extend these measurement techniques using suitable ionized species to measurements within HED plasmas.

  19. Measuring 20-100 T B-fields using Zeeman splitting of sodium emission lines on a 500 kA pulsed power machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banasek, J. T.; Engelbrecht, J. T.; Pikuz, S. A.; Shelkovenko, T. A.; Hammer, D. A.

    2016-11-01

    We have shown that Zeeman splitting of the sodium (Na) D-lines at 5890 and 5896 Å can be used to measure the magnetic field (B-field) produced in high current pulsed power experiments. We have measured the B-field next to a return current conductor in a hybrid X-pinch experiment near a peak current of about 500 kA. Na is deposited on the conductor and then is desorbed and excited by radiation from the hybrid X-pinch. The D-line emission spectrum implies B-fields of about 20 T with a return current post of 4 mm diameter or up to 120 T with a return current wire of 0.455 mm diameter. These measurements were consistent or lower than the expected B-field, thereby showing that basic Zeeman splitting can be used to measure the B-field in a pulsed-power-driven high-energy-density (HED) plasma experiment. We hope to extend these measurement techniques using suitable ionized species to measurements within HED plasmas.

  20. Models of Emission-Line Profiles and Spectral Energy Distributions to Characterize the Multi-Frequency Properties of Active Galactic Nuclei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni La Mura

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The spectra of active galactic nuclei (AGNs are often characterized by a wealth of emission lines with different profiles and intensity ratios that lead to a complicated classification. Their electromagnetic radiation spans more than 10 orders of magnitude in frequency. In spite of the differences between various classes, the origin of their activity is attributed to a combination of emitting components, surrounding an accreting supermassive black hole (SMBH, in the unified model. Currently, the execution of sky surveys, with instruments operating at various frequencies, provides the possibility to detect and to investigate the properties of AGNs on very large statistical samples. As a result of the spectroscopic surveys that allow the investigation of many objects, we have the opportunity to place new constraints on the nature and evolution of AGNs. In this contribution, we present the results obtained by working on multi-frequency data, and we discuss their relations with the available optical spectra. We compare our findings with the AGN unified model predictions, and we present a revised technique to select AGNs of different types from other line-emitting objects. We discuss the multi-frequency properties in terms of the innermost structures of the sources.

  1. Broad-band semiconductor optical amplifiers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ding Ying [Institute of Semiconductors, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100083 (China)]. E-mail: yingding@red.semi.ac.cn; Kan Qiang [Institute of Semiconductors, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100083 (China); Wang Junling [Institute of Optoelectronic Technology, Beijing Jiaotong University, Beijing 100044 (China); Pan Jiaoqing [Institute of Semiconductors, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100083 (China); Zhou Fan [Institute of Semiconductors, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100083 (China); Chen Weixi [School of Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Wang Wei [Institute of Semiconductors, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100083 (China)

    2007-01-15

    Broad-band semiconductor optical amplifiers (SOAs) with different thicknesses and thin bulk tensile-strained active layers were fabricated and studied. Amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) spectra and gain spectra of SOAs were measured and analyzed at different CW biases. A maximal 3 dB ASE bandwidth of 136 nm ranging from 1480 to 1616 nm, and a 3 dB optical amplifier gain bandwidth of about 90 nm ranging from 1510 to 1600 nm, were obtained for the very thin bulk active SOA. Other SOAs characteristics such as saturation output power and polarization sensitivity were measured and compared.

  2. Photon-dominated region modeling of the [C I], [C II], and CO Line Emission From A Boundary In The Taurus molecular cloud

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orr, Matthew E. [Physics and Astronomy Department, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA 90089 (United States); Pineda, Jorge L.; Goldsmith, Paul F. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, CA 91109-8099 (United States)

    2014-11-01

    We present [C I] and [C II] observations of a linear edge region in the Taurus molecular cloud, and model this region as a cylindrically symmetric photon-dominated region (PDR) exposed to a low-intensity UV radiation field. The sharp, long profile of the linear edge makes it an ideal case to test PDR models and determine cloud parameters. We compare observations of the [C I], {sup 3} P {sub 1} → {sup 3} P {sub 0} (492 GHz), [C I] {sup 3} P {sub 2} → {sup 3} P {sub 1} (809 GHz), and [C II] {sup 2} P {sub 3/2} → {sup 2} P {sub 1/2} (1900 GHz) transitions, as well as the lowest rotational transitions of {sup 12}CO and {sup 13}CO, with line intensities produced by the RATRAN radiative transfer code from the results of the Meudon PDR code. We constrain the density structure of the cloud by fitting a cylindrical density function to visual extinction data. We study the effects of variation of the FUV field, {sup 12}C/{sup 13}C isotopic abundance ratio, sulfur depletion, cosmic ray ionization rate, and inclination of the filament relative to the sky-plane on the chemical network of the PDR model and resulting line emission. We also consider the role of suprathermal chemistry and density inhomogeneities. We find good agreement between the model and observations, and that the integrated line intensities can be explained by a PDR model with an external FUV field of 0.05 G {sub 0}, a low ratio of {sup 12}C to {sup 13}C ∼43, a highly depleted sulfur abundance (by a factor of at least 50), a cosmic ray ionization rate (3-6) × 10{sup –17} s{sup –1}, and without significant effects from inclination, clumping or suprathermal chemistry.

  3. Determination of Hg{sup 2+} by on-line separation and pre-concentration with atmospheric-pressure solution-cathode glow discharge atomic emission spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Qing [Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Science, Shanghai 200050 (China); Zhang, Zhen [Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Science, Shanghai 200050 (China); School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200072 (China); Wang, Zheng, E-mail: wangzheng@mail.sic.ac.cn [Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Science, Shanghai 200050 (China)

    2014-10-03

    Highlights: • A modified SBA-15 mesoporous silica (SH-SBA-15) was synthesized as a sorbent. • On-line SPE combined with SCGD-AES based on FIA was used to detect Hg{sup 2+} firstly. • A simple, low-cost Hg{sup 2+} analysis in a complex matrix was established. • The sensitive detection of Hg{sup 2+} was achieved with a detection limit of 0.75 μg L{sup −1}. - Abstract: A simple and sensitive method to determine Hg{sup 2+} was developed by combining solution-cathode glow discharge atomic emission spectrometry (SCGD-AES) with flow injection (FI) based on on-line solid-phase extraction (SPE). We synthesized L-cysteine-modified mesoporous silica and packed it in an SPE microcolumn, which was experimentally determined to possess a good mercury adsorption capacity. An enrichment factor of 42 was achieved under optimized Hg{sup 2+} elution conditions, namely, an FI flow rate of 2.0 mL min{sup −1} and an eluent comprised of 10% thiourea in 0.2 mol L{sup −1} HNO{sub 3}. The detection limit of FI–SCGD-AES was determined to be 0.75 μg L{sup −1}, and the precision of the 11 replicate Hg{sup 2+} measurements was 0.86% at a concentration of 100 μg L{sup −1}. The proposed method was validated by determining Hg{sup 2+} in certified reference materials such as human hair (GBW09101b) and stream sediment (GBW07310)

  4. Enhanced methanol production in plants provides broad spectrum insect resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixit, Sameer; Upadhyay, Santosh Kumar; Singh, Harpal; Sidhu, Om Prakash; Verma, Praveen Chandra; K, Chandrashekar

    2013-01-01

    Plants naturally emit methanol as volatile organic compound. Methanol is toxic to insect pests; but the quantity produced by most of the plants is not enough to protect them against invading insect pests. In the present study, we demonstrated that the over-expression of pectin methylesterase, derived from Arabidopsis thaliana and Aspergillus niger, in transgenic tobacco plants enhances methanol production and resistance to polyphagous insect pests. Methanol content in the leaves of transgenic plants was measured using proton nuclear spectroscopy (1H NMR) and spectra showed up to 16 fold higher methanol as compared to control wild type (WT) plants. A maximum of 100 and 85% mortality in chewing insects Helicoverpa armigera and Spodoptera litura larvae was observed, respectively when fed on transgenic plants leaves. The surviving larvae showed less feeding, severe growth retardation and could not develop into pupae. In-planta bioassay on transgenic lines showed up to 99 and 75% reduction in the population multiplication of plant sap sucking pests Myzus persicae (aphid) and Bemisia tabaci (whitefly), respectively. Most of the phenotypic characters of transgenic plants were similar to WT plants. Confocal microscopy showed no deformities in cellular integrity, structure and density of stomata and trichomes of transgenic plants compared to WT. Pollen germination and tube formation was also not affected in transgenic plants. Cell wall enzyme transcript levels were comparable with WT. This study demonstrated for the first time that methanol emission can be utilized for imparting broad range insect resistance in plants.

  5. Enhanced Methanol Production in Plants Provides Broad Spectrum Insect Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixit, Sameer; Upadhyay, Santosh Kumar; Singh, Harpal; Sidhu, Om Prakash; Verma, Praveen Chandra; K, Chandrashekar

    2013-01-01

    Plants naturally emit methanol as volatile organic compound. Methanol is toxic to insect pests; but the quantity produced by most of the plants is not enough to protect them against invading insect pests. In the present study, we demonstrated that the over-expression of pectin methylesterase, derived from Arabidopsis thaliana and Aspergillus niger, in transgenic tobacco plants enhances methanol production and resistance to polyphagous insect pests. Methanol content in the leaves of transgenic plants was measured using proton nuclear spectroscopy (1H NMR) and spectra showed up to 16 fold higher methanol as compared to control wild type (WT) plants. A maximum of 100 and 85% mortality in chewing insects Helicoverpa armigera and Spodoptera litura larvae was observed, respectively when fed on transgenic plants leaves. The surviving larvae showed less feeding, severe growth retardation and could not develop into pupae. In-planta bioassay on transgenic lines showed up to 99 and 75% reduction in the population multiplication of plant sap sucking pests Myzus persicae (aphid) and Bemisia tabaci (whitefly), respectively. Most of the phenotypic characters of transgenic plants were similar to WT plants. Confocal microscopy showed no deformities in cellular integrity, structure and density of stomata and trichomes of transgenic plants compared to WT. Pollen germination and tube formation was also not affected in transgenic plants. Cell wall enzyme transcript levels were comparable with WT. This study demonstrated for the first time that methanol emission can be utilized for imparting broad range insect resistance in plants. PMID:24223989

  6. Enhanced methanol production in plants provides broad spectrum insect resistance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sameer Dixit

    Full Text Available Plants naturally emit methanol as volatile organic compound. Methanol is toxic to insect pests; but the quantity produced by most of the plants is not enough to protect them against invading insect pests. In the present study, we demonstrated that the over-expression of pectin methylesterase, derived from Arabidopsis thaliana and Aspergillus niger, in transgenic tobacco plants enhances methanol production and resistance to polyphagous insect pests. Methanol content in the leaves of transgenic plants was measured using proton nuclear spectroscopy (1H NMR and spectra showed up to 16 fold higher methanol as compared to control wild type (WT plants. A maximum of 100 and 85% mortality in chewing insects Helicoverpa armigera and Spodoptera litura larvae was observed, respectively when fed on transgenic plants leaves. The surviving larvae showed less feeding, severe growth retardation and could not develop into pupae. In-planta bioassay on transgenic lines showed up to 99 and 75% reduction in the population multiplication of plant sap sucking pests Myzus persicae (aphid and Bemisia tabaci (whitefly, respectively. Most of the phenotypic characters of transgenic plants were similar to WT plants. Confocal microscopy showed no deformities in cellular integrity, structure and density of stomata and trichomes of transgenic plants compared to WT. Pollen germination and tube formation was also not affected in transgenic plants. Cell wall enzyme transcript levels were comparable with WT. This study demonstrated for the first time that methanol emission can be utilized for imparting broad range insect resistance in plants.

  7. SHAPEMOL: a 3D code for calculating CO line emission in planetary and protoplanetary nebulae. Detailed model-fitting of the complex nebula NGC 6302

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santander-García, M.; Bujarrabal, V.; Koning, N.; Steffen, W.

    2015-01-01

    Context. Modern instrumentation in radioastronomy constitutes a valuable tool for studying the Universe: ALMA has reached unprecedented sensitivities and spatial resolution, while Herschel/HIFI has opened a new window (most of the sub-mm and far-infrared ranges are only accessible from space) for probing molecular warm gas (~50-1000 K). On the other hand, the software SHAPE has emerged in the past few years as a standard tool for determining the morphology and velocity field of different kinds of gaseous emission nebulae via spatio-kinematical modelling. Standard SHAPE implements radiative transfer solving, but it is only available for atomic species and not for molecules. Aims: Being aware of the growing importance of the development of tools for simplifying the analyses of molecular data from new-era observatories, we introduce the computer code shapemol, a complement to SHAPE, with which we intend to fill the so-far under-developed molecular niche. Methods: shapemol enables user-friendly, spatio-kinematic modelling with accurate non-LTE calculations of excitation and radiative transfer in CO lines. Currently, it allows radiative transfer solving in the 12CO and 13CO J = 1-0 to J = 17-16 lines, but its implementation permits easily extending the code to different transitions and other molecular species, either by the code developers or by the user. Used along SHAPE, shapemol allows easily generating synthetic maps to test against interferometric observations, as well as synthetic line profiles to match single-dish observations. Results: We give a full description of how shapemol works, and we discuss its limitations and the sources of uncertainty to be expected in the final synthetic profiles or maps. As an example of the power and versatility of shapemol, we build a model of the molecular envelope of the planetary nebula NGC 6302 and compare it with 12CO and 13CO J = 2-1 interferometric maps from SMA and high-J transitions from Herschel/HIFI. We find the

  8. A methodology to address mixed AGN and starlight contributions in emission line galaxies found in the RESOLVE survey and ECO catalog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Chris T.; Kannappan, Sheila; Bittner, Ashley; Isaac, Rohan; RESOLVE

    2017-01-01

    We present a novel methodology for modeling emission line galaxy samples that span the entire BPT diagram. Our methodology has several advantages over current modeling schemes: the free variables in the model are identical for both AGN and SF galaxies; these free variables are more closely linked to observable galaxy properties; and the ionizing spectra including an AGN and starlight are handled self-consistently rather than empirically. We show that our methodology is capable of fitting the vast majority of SDSS galaxies that fall within the traditional regions of galaxy classification on the BPT diagram. We also present current results for relaxing classification boundaries and extending our galaxies into the dwarf regime, using the REsolved Spectroscopy of a Local VolumE (RESOLVE) survey and the Environmental COntext (ECO) catalog, with special attention to compact blue E/S0s. We compare this methodology to PCA decomposition of the spectra. This work is supported by National Science Foundation awards AST-0955368 and CISE/ACI-1156614.

  9. Experimental Study on the Sensitive Emission Lines Intensities of Metal Samples Using Laser Ablation Technique and Its Comparison to Arc Discharge Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eko Susilowati

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available An experimental study has been carried out to measure the sensitive emission lines intensities of several metal samples (copper, zinc, silver, gold, gallium, nickel, silicone and iron using laser ablation technique conducted in low pressure surrounding gas by means of Laser Induced Shock Wave Plasma Spectroscopy (LISPS and in atmospheric pressure region using Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS. In both cases the Nd-YAG laser was operated at its fundamental wavelength of 1,064 nm with pulse duration of 8 ns and its intensity tightly focused on the metal samples in helium or air as an ambient gas. The laser energy was fixed at approximately 100 mJ using a set of neutral density filters placed tilted in front of the laser output window. The result of the intensity measurements showed a good agreement which those obtained using arc discharge technique as shown in Massachusetts Institute of Technology Wavelength Table. Further evaluation of these results on the basis of standard deviation leads to the conclusion that LISPS is more favorable for quantitative analysis compared to LIBS. It was further shown that replacing air by helium gas at low pressure improve to some extent the LISPS reproducibility and sensitivity.

  10. The origin and emission mechanism of VHE (>100GeV emission from FSRQs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behera Bagmeet

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Flat Spectrum Radio Quasars, unlike BL Lac objects, are blazars that show prominent line-emission and strong thermal components associated with the accretion disk, the broad-line region (BLR, and/or the dusty torus. The low energy peak in the continuum is from synchrotron emission (of electrons, and the high energy peak is well explained by external-Compton emission. In these models the relativistic electrons in the jet up-scatter photons from the thermal photon fields up to GeV energies. Beyond a few tens of GeV such models predict cutoffs due to Klein-Nishina effect and internal absorption via pair production. While more than 300 FSRQs have been seen with Fermi-LAT (between 100MeV−30GeV, only three have been detected at VHE (Very High Energy, E > 100 GeV with Cherenkov telescopes. The detection of VHE emission constrains the location of the blazar zone based on internal absorption estimates, but challenges the emission models that predict cutoffs. While a number of GeV flaring states (in various FSRQs have been observed with Cherenkov telescopes only few have resulted in detection of a VHE signal. The broadband emission characteristics of VHE FSRQs (including the VHE-detected FSRQs are studied and put in context to better understand their location and emission mechanism.

  11. The Broad Superintendents Academy, 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broad Foundation, 2007

    2007-01-01

    The Broad Superintendents Academy is an executive training program that identifies and prepares prominent leaders--executives with experience successfully leading large organizations and a passion for public service--then places them in urban school districts to dramatically improve the quality of education for America's students. This brochure…

  12. Calibration of the WFC3 Emission-Line Filters and Application of the Results to the Greatest Source of Uncertainties in Determining Abundances in Gase